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Sample records for facultative photosynthetic bacteria

  1. Photosynthetic reaction centers in bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, J.R. Univ. of Chicago, IL ); Schiffer, M. )

    1990-07-30

    The photochemistry of photosynthesis begins in complexes called reaction centers. These have become model systems to study the fundamental process by which plants and bacteria convert and store solar energy as chemical free energy. In green plants, photosynthesis occurs in two systems, each of which contains a different reaction center, working in series. In one, known as photosystem 1, oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP[sup +]) is reduced to NADPH for use in a series of dark reactions called the Calvin cycle, named for Nobel Laureate Melvin Calvin, by which carbon dioxide is converted into useful fuels such as carbohydrates and sugars. In the other half of the photosynthetic machinery of green plants, called photosystem 2, water is oxidized to produce molecular oxygen. A different form of photosynthesis occurs in photosynthetic bacteria, which typically live at the bottom of ponds and feed on organic debris. Two main types of photosynthetic bacteria exist: purple and green. Neither type liberates oxygen from water. Instead, the bacteria feed on organic media or inorganic materials, such as sulfides, which are easier to reduce or oxidize than carbon dioxide or water. Perhaps in consequence, their photosynthetic machinery is simpler than that of green, oxygen-evolving plants and their primary photochemistry is better understood.

  2. Phosphatase activity of aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Pácová, Z; Kocur, M

    1978-10-01

    1115 strains of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria were tested for phosphatase activity by a conventional plate method and a microtest. The microtest was devised to allow results to be read after 4 h cultivation. Phosphatase activity was found in wide range of species and strains. Besides staphylococci, where the test for phosphatase is successfully used, it may be applied as one of the valuable tests for the differentiation of the following species: Bacillus cereus, B. licheniformis, Aeromonas spp., Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Actinobacillus spp., Pasteurella spp., Xanthomonas spp., Flavobacterium spp., Alteromonas putrefaciens, Pseudomonas maltophilia, Ps. cepacia, and some other species of Pseudomonas. The species which gave uniformly negative phosphatase reaction were as follows: Staph. saprophyticus, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Alcaligenes faecalis, and Bordetella bronchiseptica. PMID:216188

  3. Hydrogen metabolism of photosynthetic bacteria and algae

    SciTech Connect

    Kumazawa, S.; Mitsui, A.

    1982-01-01

    The metabolism, metabolic pathways and biochemistry of hydrogen in photosynthetic bacteria and algae are reviewed. Detailed information on the occurrence and measurement of hydrogenase activity is presented. Hydrogen production rates for different species of algae and bacteria are presented. 173 references, 1 figure, 7 tables.

  4. Recovery of anaerobic, facultative, and aerobic bacteria from clinical specimens in three anaerobic transport systems.

    PubMed Central

    Helstad, A G; Kimball, J L; Maki, D G

    1977-01-01

    With aspirated specimens from clinical infections, we evaluated the recovery of anaerobic, aerobic, and facultative bacteria in three widely used transport systems: (i) aspirated fluid in a gassed-out tube (FGT), (ii) swab in modified Cary and Blair transport medium (SCB), and (iii) swab in a gassed-out tube (SGT). Transport tubes were held at 25 degrees C and semiquantitatively sampled at 0, 2, 24, and 48 h. Twenty-five clinical specimens yielded 75 anaerobic strains and 43 isolates of facultative and 3 of aerobic bacteria. Only one anaerobic isolate was not recovered in the first 24 h, and then, only in the SGT. At 48 h, 73 anaerobic strains (97%) were recovered in the FGT, 69 (92%) in the SCB, and 64 (85%) in the SGT. Two problems hindered the recovery of anaerobes in the SCB and SGT systems: first die-off of organisms, as evidenced by a decrease in colony-forming units of 20 strains (27%) in the SCB and 25 strains (33%) in the SGT, as compared with 7 strains (9%) in the FGT, over 48 h; and second, overgrowth of facultative bacteria, more frequent with SCB and SGT. The FGT method was clearly superior at 48 h to the SCB and SGT systems in this study and is recommended as the preferred method for transporting specimens for anaerobic culture. PMID:328525

  5. Microbial oxidative stress response: Novel insights from environmental facultative anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Fu, Huihui; Yuan, Jie; Gao, Haichun

    2015-10-15

    Facultative bacteria can grow under either oxic or anoxic conditions. While oxygen provides substantial advantages in energy yield by respiration, it can become life-threatening because of reactive oxygen species that derive from the molecule naturally. Thus, to survive and thrive in a given niche, these bacteria have to constantly regulate physiological processes to make maximum benefits from oxygen respiration while restraining oxidative stress. Molecular mechanisms and physiological consequences of oxidative stress have been under extensive investigation for decades, mostly on research model Escherichia coli, from which our understanding of bacterial oxidative stress response is largely derived. Nevertheless, given that bacteria live in enormously diverse environments, to cope with oxidative stress different strategies are conceivably developed. PMID:26319291

  6. D/H fractionation in lipids of facultative and obligate denitrifying and sulfate reducing bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osburn, M. R.; Sessions, A. L.

    2012-12-01

    The hydrogen isotopic composition of lipids has been shown to vary broadly in both cultured bacteria and in environmental samples. Culturing studies have indicated that this variability may primarily reflect metabolism; however, the limited number of organisms studied thus far prevents application of these trends to interpretation of environmental samples. Here we report D/H fractionations in anaerobic bacteria, including both facultative and obligate anaerobic organisms with a range of electron donors, acceptors, and metabolic pathways. Experiments using the metabolically flexible alphaproteobacterium Paracoccus denitrificans probe particular central metabolic pathways using a range of terminal electron acceptors. While a large range of δD values has been observed during aerobic metabolism, denitrifying cultures produce a more limited range in δD values that are more similar to each other than the corresponding aerobic culture. Data from the sulfate reducing bacteria Desulfobacterium autotrophicum and Desulfobacter hydrogenophilus indicate that chemolithoautotrophy and anaerobic heterotrophy can produce similar δD values, and are similar between bacteria despite differing metabolic pathways. These results suggest that the fractionation of D/H depends both on the specific metabolic pathway and the electron acceptor. While this is not inconsistent with previous studies, it suggests the simple correspondence between δD and metabolism previously understood from aerobic bacteria is not universally applicable.

  7. Fuel from Bacteria: Bioconversion of Carbon Dioxide to Biofuels by Facultatively Autotrophic Hydrogen Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    Electrofuels Project: Ohio State is genetically modifying bacteria to efficiently convert carbon dioxide directly into butanol, an alcohol that can be used directly as a fuel blend or converted to a hydrocarbon, which closely resembles a gasoline. Bacteria are typically capable of producing a certain amount of butanol before it becomes too toxic for the bacteria to survive. Ohio State is engineering a new strain of the bacteria that could produce up to 50% more butanol before it becomes too toxic for the bacteria to survive. Finding a way to produce more butanol more efficiently would significantly cut down on biofuel production costs and help make butanol cost competitive with gasoline. Ohio State is also engineering large tanks, or bioreactors, to grow the biofuel-producing bacteria in, and they are developing ways to efficiently recover biofuel from the tanks.

  8. Nitrogen fixation by photosynthetic bacteria in lowland rice culture.

    PubMed

    Habte, M; Alexander, M

    1980-02-01

    Propanil (3',4'-dichloropropionanilide) was a potent inhibitor of the nitrogenase activity of blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) in flooded soil, but the herbicide at comparable concentrations was not toxic to rice, protozoa, and nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Ethanol-amended flooded soils treated with propanil exhibited higher rates of nitrogenase activity than those not treated with the herbicide. The enhanced nitrogenase activity in propanil-treated soils was associated with a rise in the population of purple sulfur bacteria, especially of cells resembling Chromatium and Thiospirillum. By employing propanil and a means of excluding light from the floodwater to prevent the development of phototrophs during rice growth under lowland conditions, the relative activities of blue-green algae, photosynthetic bacteria, and the rhizosphere microflora were determined. The results suggest that the potential contribution of photosynthetic bacteria may be quite high. PMID:16345507

  9. Nitrogen Fixation by Photosynthetic Bacteria in Lowland Rice Culture

    PubMed Central

    Habte, M.; Alexander, M.

    1980-01-01

    Propanil (3′,4′-dichloropropionanilide) was a potent inhibitor of the nitrogenase activity of blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) in flooded soil, but the herbicide at comparable concentrations was not toxic to rice, protozoa, and nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Ethanol-amended flooded soils treated with propanil exhibited higher rates of nitrogenase activity than those not treated with the herbicide. The enhanced nitrogenase activity in propanil-treated soils was associated with a rise in the population of purple sulfur bacteria, especially of cells resembling Chromatium and Thiospirillum. By employing propanil and a means of excluding light from the floodwater to prevent the development of phototrophs during rice growth under lowland conditions, the relative activities of blue-green algae, photosynthetic bacteria, and the rhizosphere microflora were determined. The results suggest that the potential contribution of photosynthetic bacteria may be quite high. PMID:16345507

  10. Culturing photosynthetic bacteria through surface plasmon resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Ooms, Matthew D.; Bajin, Lauren; Sinton, David

    2012-12-17

    In this work, cultivation of photosynthetic microbes in surface plasmon enhanced evanescent fields is demonstrated. Proliferation of Synechococcus elongatus was obtained on gold surfaces excited with surface plasmons. Excitation over three days resulted in 10 {mu}m thick biofilms with maximum cell volume density of 20% vol/vol (2% more total accumulation than control experiments with direct light). Collectively, these results indicate the ability to (1) excite surface-bound cells using plasmonic light fields, and (2) subsequently grow thick biofilms by coupling light from the surface. Plasmonic light delivery presents opportunities for high-density optofluidic photobioreactors for microalgal analysis and solar fuel production.

  11. Characterization of the biochemical-pathway of uranium (VI) reduction in facultative anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mtimunye, Phalazane J; Chirwa, Evans M N

    2014-10-01

    Cultures of U(VI) reducing bacteria sourced from abandoned uranium mine tailing dam were evaluated for their ability to reduce U(VI) to U(IV). The species in the cultures reduced U(VI) in solutions with initial U(VI) concentration up to 400mgL(-)(1) under a near neutral pH of 6.5. The electron flow pathway and fate of reduced species was also analysed in the individual species in order to evaluate the potential for control and optimisation of the reduction potential at the biochemical level. The results showed that U(VI) reduction in live cells was completely blocked by the NADH-dehydrogenase inhibitor, rotenone (C23H22O6), and thioredoxin inhibitor, cadmium chloride (CdCl2), showing that U(VI) reduction involves the electron flow through NADH-dehydrogenase, a primary electron donor to the electron transport respiratory (ETR) system. Mass balance analysis of uranium species aided by visual and electron microscopy suggest that most U(VI) reduction occurred on the cell surface of the isolated species. This finding indicates the possibility of easy uranium recovery for beneficial use through biological remediation. Should the U(VI) be reduced inside the cell, recovery would require complete disruption of the cells and therefore would be difficult. The study contributes new knowledge on the underlying mechanisms in the U(VI) reduction in facultative anaerobes. PMID:25065785

  12. Nutrient conversions by photosynthetic bacteria in a concentrated animal feeding operation lagoon system.

    PubMed

    Sund, J L; Evenson, C J; Strevett, K A; Nairn, R W; Athay, D; Trawinski, E

    2001-01-01

    A diurnal examination was conducted to determine the effect of photosynthetic bacteria on nutrient conversions in a two-stage concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) lagoon system in west-central Oklahoma. Changes in nutrients, microbial populations, and physical parameters were examined at three depths (0, 1.5, and 3.0 m) every 3 h over a 36-h period. The south lagoon (SL) was anaerobic (dissolved oxygen [DO] = 0.09 +/- 0.12 mg/L) while the north lagoon (NL) was facultative (DO ranged from 4.0-0.1 mg/L over 36-h period). Negative sulfide-sulfate (-0.85) and bacteriochlorophyll a (bchl a)-sulfate (-0.83) correlations, as well as positive bchl a-sulfide (0.87) and light intensity (I)-bchl a (0.89) correlations revealed that the SL was dominated by sulfur conversions driven by the photosynthetic purple sulfur bacteria (PSB). The correlation data was supported by diurnal trends for sulfate, sulfide, and bchl a. Both nitrogen and sulfur conversions played a role in the NL; however, nitrogen conversions appeared to dominate this system because of the activity of cyanobacteria. This was shown by positive chlorophyll a (chl a)-I (0.91) and chl a-nitrate (0.98) correlations and the negative correlation between ammonium and nitrite (-0.88). Correlation data was further supported by diurnal trends observed for chl a, DO, and ammonium. For both lagoons, the dominant photosynthetic microbial species determined which nutrient conversion processes were most important. PMID:11285928

  13. Engineering aspects of hydrogen production from photosynthetic bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Herlevich, A.; Karpuk, M.

    1982-02-01

    Certain photosynthetic bacteria (PSB), for example, Rhodopseudomonas capsulata, evolve hydrogen when placed in an anaerobic environment with light and a suitable organic substrate. An engineering effort to use such bacteria for large-scale hydrogen production from sunlight is described. A system to produce 28,000 m/sup 3//day (1 x 10/sup 6/ ft/sup 3//day) of hydrogen has been designed on a conceptual level and includes hydrogen cleanup, substrate storage, and waste disposal. The most critical component in the design is the solar bacterial reactor. Several designs were developed and analyzed. A large covered pond concept appears most attractive. Cost estimates for the designs show favorable economics.

  14. Purple non-sulfur photosynthetic bacteria monitor environmental stresses.

    PubMed

    Kis, Mariann; Sipka, Gábor; Asztalos, Emese; Rázga, Zsolt; Maróti, Péter

    2015-10-01

    Heavy metal ion pollution and oxygen deficiency are major environmental risks for microorganisms in aqueous habitat. The potential of purple non-sulfur photosynthetic bacteria for biomonitoring and bioremediation was assessed by investigating the photosynthetic capacity in heavy metal contaminated environments. Cultures of bacterial strains Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Rhodospirillum rubrum and Rubrivivax gelatinosus were treated with heavy metal ions in micromolar (Hg(2+)), submillimolar (Cr(6+)) and millimolar (Pb(2+)) concentration ranges. Functional assays (flash-induced absorption changes and bacteriochlorophyll fluorescence induction) and electron micrographs were taken to specify the harmful effects of pollution and to correlate to morphological changes of the membrane. The bacterial strains and functional tests showed differentiated responses to environmental stresses, revealing that diverse mechanisms of tolerance and/or resistance are involved. The microorganisms were vulnerable to the prompt effect of Pb(2+), showed weak tolerance to Hg(2+) and proved to be tolerant to Cr(6+). The reaction center controlled electron transfer in Rvx. gelatinosus demonstrated the highest degree of resistance against heavy metal exposure. PMID:26232748

  15. Evaluation of pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic bacteria for phosphate solubilization.

    PubMed

    Jayashree, Shanmugam; Vadivukkarasi, Ponnusamy; Anand, Kirupanithi; Kato, Yuko; Seshadri, Sundaram

    2011-08-01

    Thirteen pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic (PPFM) strains isolated from Adyar and Cooum rivers in Chennai and forest soil samples in Tamil Nadu, India, along with Methylobacterium extorquens, M. organophilum, M. gregans, and M. komagatae were screened for phosphate solubilization in plates. P-solubilization index of the PPFMs grown on NBRIP-BPB plates for 7 days ranged from 1.1 to 2.7. The growth of PPFMs in tricalcium phosphate amended media was found directly proportional to the glucose concentration. Higher phosphate solubilization was observed in four strains MSF 32 (415 mg l(-l)), MDW 80 (301 mg l(-l)), M. komagatae (279 mg l(-l)), and MSF 34 (202 mg l(-l)), after 7 days of incubation. A drop in the media pH from 6.6 to 3.4 was associated with an increase in titratable acidity. Acid phosphatase activity was more pronounced in the culture filtrate than alkaline phosphatase activity. Adherence of phosphate to densely grown bacterial surface was observed under scanning electron microscope after 7-day-old cultures. Biochemical characterization and screening for methanol dehydrogenase gene (mxaF) confirmed the strains as methylotrophs. The mxaF gene sequence from MSF 32 clustered towards M. lusitanum sp. with 99% similarity. This study forms the first detailed report on phosphate solubilization by the PPFMs. PMID:21445558

  16. Massilia eurypsychrophila sp. nov. a facultatively psychrophilic bacteria isolated from ice core.

    PubMed

    Shen, Liang; Liu, Yongqin; Gu, Zhengquan; Xu, Baiqing; Wang, Ninglian; Jiao, Nianzhi; Liu, Hongcan; Zhou, Yuguang

    2015-07-01

    Strain B528-3(T), a Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, aerobic, facultatively psychrophilic bacterium with polar flagella, was isolated from an ice core drilled from Muztagh Glacier, Xinjiang, China. The novel isolate was classified into the genus Massilia. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of the novel isolate shares a pairwise similarity of less than 97% with those of all the type strains of the genus Massilia. The major fatty acids of strain B528-3(T) were summed feature 3 (C16:1ω7c and/or iso-C15:0 2-OH) (57.31%), C16:0 (11.46%) and C18:1ω7c (14.72%). The predominant isoprenoid quinone was Q-8. The DNA G + C content was 62.2 mol% (Tm). The major polar lipids of this bacterium were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol. From the genotypic and phenotypic data, it is evident that strain B528-3(T) represents a novel species of the genus Massilia, for which the name Massilia eurypsychrophila sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is B528-3(T) ( = JCM 30074(T) = CGMCC 1.12828(T)). PMID:25851590

  17. Isolation of halotolerant, thermotolerant, facultative polymer-producing bacteria and characterization of the exopolymer

    SciTech Connect

    Pfiffner, S.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Jenneman, G.E.; Knapp, R.M.

    1986-06-01

    Over 200 bacterial strains were selected for anaerobic growth at 50/sup 0/C and extracellular polysaccharide production in a sucrose-mineral salts medium with NaNO/sub 3/ and up to 10% NaCl. The predominant cell type was an encapsulated gram-positive, motile, facultative spore-forming rod similar to Bacillus species. Strain SP018 grew and produced the polysaccharide on a variety of substrates at salinities up to 12% NaCl. Good polymer production only occurred anaerobically and was optimal between 4 and 10% NaCl. The ethanol-precipitated SP018 polymer was a charged heteropolysaccharide that contained glucose, mannose, arabinose, ribose, and low levels of allose and glucosamine. The SP018 polymer showed pseudoplastic behavior, was resistant to shearing, and had a higher viscosity at dilute concentrations and at elevated temperatures than xanthan gum. High-ionic-strength solutions reversibly decreased the viscosity of SP018 polymer solutions. The bacterium and the associated polymer have many properties that make them potentially useful for in situ microbially enhanced oil recovery processes.

  18. Isolation of Halotolerant, Thermotolerant, Facultative Polymer-Producing Bacteria and Characterization of the Exopolymer

    PubMed Central

    Pfiffner, S. M.; McInerney, Michael J.; Jenneman, Gary E.; Knapp, Roy M.

    1986-01-01

    Over 200 bacterial strains were selected for anaerobic growth at 50°C and extracellular polysaccharide production in a sucrose-mineral salts medium with NaNO3 and up to 10% NaCl. The predominant cell type was an encapsulated gram-positive, motile, facultative sporeforming rod similar to Bacillus species. Strain SP018 grew and produced the polysaccharide on a variety of substrates at salinities up to 12% NaCl. Good polymer production only occurred anaerobically and was optimal between 4 and 10% NaCl. The ethanol-precipitated SP018 polymer was a charged heteropolysaccharide that contained glucose, mannose, arabinose, ribose, and low levels of allose and glucosamine. The SP018 polymer showed pseudoplastic behavior, was resistant to shearing, and had a higher viscosity at dilute concentrations and at elevated temperatures than xanthan gum. High-ionic-strength solutions reversibly decreased the viscosity of SP018 polymer solutions. The bacterium and the associated polymer have many properties that make them potentially useful for in situ microbially enhanced oil recovery processes. PMID:16347080

  19. Synthesis of High-Molecular-Weight Polyhydroxyalkanoates by Marine Photosynthetic Purple Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi-Takeuchi, Mieko; Morisaki, Kumiko; Toyooka, Kiminori; Numata, Keiji

    2016-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a biopolyester/bioplastic that is produced by a variety of microorganisms to store carbon and increase reducing redox potential. Photosynthetic bacteria convert carbon dioxide into organic compounds using light energy and are known to accumulate PHA. We analyzed PHAs synthesized by 3 purple sulfur bacteria and 9 purple non-sulfur bacteria strains. These 12 purple bacteria were cultured in nitrogen-limited medium containing acetate and/or sodium bicarbonate as carbon sources. PHA production in the purple sulfur bacteria was induced by nitrogen-limited conditions. Purple non-sulfur bacteria accumulated PHA even under normal growth conditions, and PHA production in 3 strains was enhanced by nitrogen-limited conditions. Gel permeation chromatography analysis revealed that 5 photosynthetic purple bacteria synthesized high-molecular-weight PHAs, which are useful for industrial applications. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that mRNA levels of phaC and PhaZ genes were low under nitrogen-limited conditions, resulting in production of high-molecular-weight PHAs. We conclude that all 12 tested strains are able to synthesize PHA to some degree, and we identify 5 photosynthetic purple bacteria that accumulate high-molecular-weight PHA molecules. Furthermore, the photosynthetic purple bacteria synthesized PHA when they were cultured in seawater supplemented with acetate. The photosynthetic purple bacteria strains characterized in this study should be useful as host microorganisms for large-scale PHA production utilizing abundant marine resources and carbon dioxide. PMID:27513570

  20. Synthesis of High-Molecular-Weight Polyhydroxyalkanoates by Marine Photosynthetic Purple Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Higuchi-Takeuchi, Mieko; Morisaki, Kumiko; Toyooka, Kiminori; Numata, Keiji

    2016-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a biopolyester/bioplastic that is produced by a variety of microorganisms to store carbon and increase reducing redox potential. Photosynthetic bacteria convert carbon dioxide into organic compounds using light energy and are known to accumulate PHA. We analyzed PHAs synthesized by 3 purple sulfur bacteria and 9 purple non-sulfur bacteria strains. These 12 purple bacteria were cultured in nitrogen-limited medium containing acetate and/or sodium bicarbonate as carbon sources. PHA production in the purple sulfur bacteria was induced by nitrogen-limited conditions. Purple non-sulfur bacteria accumulated PHA even under normal growth conditions, and PHA production in 3 strains was enhanced by nitrogen-limited conditions. Gel permeation chromatography analysis revealed that 5 photosynthetic purple bacteria synthesized high-molecular-weight PHAs, which are useful for industrial applications. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that mRNA levels of phaC and PhaZ genes were low under nitrogen-limited conditions, resulting in production of high-molecular-weight PHAs. We conclude that all 12 tested strains are able to synthesize PHA to some degree, and we identify 5 photosynthetic purple bacteria that accumulate high-molecular-weight PHA molecules. Furthermore, the photosynthetic purple bacteria synthesized PHA when they were cultured in seawater supplemented with acetate. The photosynthetic purple bacteria strains characterized in this study should be useful as host microorganisms for large-scale PHA production utilizing abundant marine resources and carbon dioxide. PMID:27513570

  1. Photosynthetic formation of inorganic pyrophosphate in phototrophic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Nore, B F; Nyrén, P; Salih, G F; Strid, A

    1990-04-01

    In this paper we report studies on photosynthetic formation of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) in three phototrophic bacteria. Formation of PPi was found in chromatophores from Rhodopseudomonas viridis but not in chromatophores from Rhodopseudomonas blastica and Rhodobacter capsulatus. The maximal rate of PPi synthesis in Rps. viridis was 0.15 μmol PPi formed/(min*μmol Bacteriochlorophyll) at 23°C. The synthesis of PPi was inhibited by electron transport inhibitors, uncouplers and fluoride, but was insensitive to oligomycin and venturicidin. The steady state rate of PPi synthesis under continuous illumination was about 15% of the steady-state rate of ATP synthesis. The synthesis of PPi after short light flashes was also studied. The yield of PPi after a single 1 ms flash was equivalent to approximately 1 μmol PPi/500 μmol Bacteriochlorophyll. In Rps. viridis chromatophores, PPi was also found to induce a membrane potential, which was sensitive to carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone and NaF. PMID:24419767

  2. Diverse Gene Cassettes in Class 1 Integrons of Facultative Oligotrophic Bacteria of River Mahananda, West Bengal, India

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Ranadhir; Kumar, Arvind; Bhowal, Suparna Saha; Mandal, Amit Kumar; Tiwary, Bipransh Kumar; Mukherjee, Shriparna

    2013-01-01

    Background In this study a large random collection (n = 2188) of facultative oligotrophic bacteria, from 90 water samples gathered in three consecutive years (2007–2009) from three different sampling sites of River Mahananda in Siliguri, West Bengal, India, were investigated for the presence of class 1 integrons and sequences of the amplification products. Methodology/Principal Findings Replica plating method was employed for determining the antibiotic resistance profile of the randomly assorted facultative oligotrophic isolates. Genomic DNA from each isolate was analyzed by PCR for the presence of class 1 integron. Amplicons were cloned and sequenced. Numerical taxonomy and 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses were done to ascertain putative genera of the class 1 integron bearing isolates. Out of 2188 isolates, 1667 (76.19%) were antibiotic-resistant comprising of both single-antibiotic resistance (SAR) and multiple-antibiotic resistant (MAR), and 521 (23.81%) were sensitive to all twelve different antibiotics used in this study. Ninety out of 2188 isolates produced amplicon(s) of varying sizes from 0.15 to 3.45 KB. Chi-square (χ2) test revealed that the possession of class 1 integron in sensitive, SAR and MAR is not equally probable at the 1% level of significance. Diverse antibiotic-resistance gene cassettes, aadA1, aadA2, aadA4, aadA5, dfrA1, dfrA5, dfrA7, dfrA12, dfrA16, dfrA17, dfrA28, dfrA30, dfr-IIe, blaIMP-9, aacA4, Ac-6′-Ib, oxa1, oxa10 and arr2 were detected in 64 isolates. The novel cassettes encoding proteins unrelated to any known antibiotic resistance gene function were identified in 26 isolates. Antibiotic-sensitive isolates have a greater propensity to carry gene cassettes unrelated to known antibiotic-resistance genes. The integron-positive isolates under the class Betaproteobacteria comprised of only two genera, Comamonas and Acidovorax of family Comamonadaceae, while isolates under class Gammaproteobacteria fell under the families

  3. Photosynthetic reaction center of green sulfur bacteria studied by EPR

    SciTech Connect

    Nitschke, W.; Rutherford, A.W. ); Fieler, U. )

    1990-04-24

    Membrane preparations of two species of the green sulfur bacteria Chlorobium have been studied be EPR. Three signals were detected which were attributed to iron-sulfur centers acting as electron acceptors in the photosynthetic reaction center. (1) A signal from a center designated F{sub B}, was photoinduced at 4K. (2) A similar signal, F{sub A}, was photoinduced in addition to the F{sub B} signal upon a short period of illumination at 200 K. (3) Further illumination at 200 K resulted in the appearance of a broad feature at g=1.78. This is attributed to the g{sub x} component of an iron-sulfur center designated F{sub X}. The designations of these signals as F{sub B}, F{sub A}, and F{sub X} are based on their spectroscopic similarities to signals in photosystem I (PS I). The orientation dependence of these EPR signals in ordered Chlorobium membrane multilayers is remarkably similar to that of their PS I homologues. A magnetic interaction between the reduced forms of F{sub B} and F{sub A} occurs, which is also very similar to that seen in PS I. The triplet state of P{sub 840}, the primary electron donor, could be photoinduced at 4 K in samples which had been preincubated with sodium dithionite and methyl viologen and then preilluminated at 200 K. The preillumination reduces the iron-sulfur centers while the preincubation is thought to result in the inactivation of an earlier electron acceptor. Orientation studies of the triplet signal in ordered multilayers indicate that the bacteriochlorophylls which act as the primary electron donor in Chlorobium are arranged with a structural geometry almost identical with that of the special pair in purple bacteria. The Chlorobium reaction center appears to be similar in some respects to both PS I and to the purple bacterial reaction center. This is discussed with regard to the evolution of the different types of reaction centers from a common ancestor.

  4. Photosynthetic bacteria production from food processing wastewater in sequencing batch and membrane photo-bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Chitapornpan, S; Chiemchaisri, C; Chiemchaisri, W; Honda, R; Yamamoto, K

    2012-01-01

    Application of photosynthetic process could be highly efficient and surpass anaerobic treatment in releasing less greenhouse gas and odor while the biomass produced can be utilized. The combination of photosynthetic process with membrane separation is possibly effective for water reclamation and biomass production. In this study, cultivation of mixed culture photosynthetic bacteria from food processing wastewater was investigated in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and a membrane bioreactor (MBR) supplied with infrared light. Both photo-bioreactors were operated at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 10 days. Higher MLSS concentration achieved in the MBR through complete retention of biomass resulted in a slightly improved performance. When the system was operated with MLSS controlled by occasional sludge withdrawal, total biomass production of MBR and SBR photo-bioreactor was almost equal. However, 64.5% of total biomass production was washed out with the effluent in SBR system. Consequently, the higher biomass could be recovered for utilization in MBR. PMID:22258682

  5. Forster energy transfer in chlorosomes of green photosynthetic bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Causgrove, T. P.; Brune, D. C.; Blankenship, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    Energy transfer properties of whole cells and chlorosome antenna complexes isolated from the green sulfur bacteria Chlorobium limicola (containing bacteriochlorophyll c), Chlorobium vibrioforme (containing bacteriochlorophyll d) and Pelodictyon phaeoclathratiforme (containing bacteriochlorophyll e) were measured. The spectral overlap of the major chlorosome pigment (bacteriochlorophyll c, d or, e) with the bacteriochlorophyll a B795 chlorosome baseplate pigment is greatest for bacteriochlorophyll c and smallest for bacteriochlorophyll e. The absorbance and fluorescence spectra of isolated chlorosomes were measured, fitted to gaussian curves and the overlap factors with B795 calculated. Energy transfer times from the bacteriochlorophyll c, d or e to B795 were measured in whole cells and the results interpreted in terms of the Forster theory of energy transfer.

  6. Rapid redox signal transmission by "Cable Bacteria" beneath a photosynthetic biofilm.

    PubMed

    Malkin, S Y; Meysman, F J R

    2015-02-01

    Recently, long filamentous bacteria, belonging to the family Desulfobulbaceae, were shown to induce electrical currents over long distances in the surface layer of marine sediments. These "cable bacteria" are capable of harvesting electrons from free sulfide in deeper sediment horizons and transferring these electrons along their longitudinal axes to oxygen present near the sediment-water interface. In the present work, we investigated the relationship between cable bacteria and a photosynthetic algal biofilm. In a first experiment, we investigated sediment that hosted both cable bacteria and a photosynthetic biofilm and tested the effect of an imposed diel light-dark cycle by continuously monitoring sulfide at depth. Changes in photosynthesis at the sediment surface had an immediate and repeatable effect on sulfide concentrations at depth, indicating that cable bacteria can rapidly transmit a geochemical effect to centimeters of depth in response to changing conditions at the sediment surface. We also observed a secondary response of the free sulfide at depth manifest on the time scale of hours, suggesting that cable bacteria adjust to a moving oxygen front with a regulatory or a behavioral response, such as motility. Finally, we show that on the time scale of days, the presence of an oxygenic biofilm results in a deeper and more acidic suboxic zone, indicating that a greater oxygen supply can enable cable bacteria to harvest a greater quantity of electrons from marine sediments. Rapid acclimation strategies and highly efficient electron harvesting are likely key advantages of cable bacteria, enabling their success in high sulfide generating coastal sediments. PMID:25416774

  7. Structure, Function and Reconstitution of Antenna Complexes of Green Photosynthetic Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenship, Robert E.

    2005-06-10

    Most chlorophyll-type pigments in a photosynthetic organism function as an antenna, absorbing light and transferring excitations to a photochemical reaction center where energy storage takes place by a series of chemical reactions. The green photosynthetic bacteria are characterized by large antenna complexes known as chlorosomes, in which pigment-pigment interactions are of dominant importance. The overall objective of this project is to determine the mechanisms of excitation transfer and regulation of this unique antenna system, including how it is integrated into the rest of the photosynthetic energy transduction apparatus. Techniques that are being used in this research include biochemical analysis, spectroscopy, microscopy, X-ray structural studies, and reconstitution from purified components. Our recent results indicate that the chlorosome baseplate structure, which is the membrane attachment site for the chlorosome to the membrane, is a unique pigment-protein that contains large amounts of carotenoids and small amounts of bacteriochlorophyll a. Reconstitution of directed energy transfer in chlorosomes will be carried out using purified baseplates and oligomeric pigments. The integral membrane B808-866 antenna complex from Chloroflexus aurantiacus and the Fenna-Matthews-Olson protein-reaction center complex from green sulfur bacteria will be characterized by spectroscopic and structural techniques.

  8. Structure, Function, and Regulation of Antenna Complexes of Green Photosynthetic Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Robert E. Blankenship

    2001-04-27

    This project is concerned with the structure and function of the chlorosome antennas found in green photosynthetic bacteria. Chlorosomes are ellipsoidal structures attached to the cytoplasmic side of the inner cell membrane. These antenna complexes provide a very large absorption cross section for light capture. Evidence is overwhelming that the chlorosome represents a very different type of antenna from that found in any other photosynthetic system yet studied. It is now clear that chlorosomes do not contain traditional pigment-proteins, in which the pigments bind to specific sites on proteins. Instead, the chlorosome pigments are organized in vivo into pigment oligomers in which direct pigment-pigment interactions are of dominant importance. Our group has used a multidisciplinary approach to investigate this unique system, including model systems, ultrafast spectroscopy, molecular biology, protein chemistry and X-ray crystallography.

  9. Removal of micropollutants, facultative pathogenic and antibiotic resistant bacteria in a full-scale retention soil filter receiving combined sewer overflow.

    PubMed

    Scheurer, Marco; Heß, Stefanie; Lüddeke, Frauke; Sacher, Frank; Güde, Hans; Löffler, Herbert; Gallert, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Combined sewer systems collect surface runoff as well as wastewater of industrial and domestic origin. During periods of heavy rainfall the capacity of the sewer system is exceeded and the overflow is discharged into receiving waters without any treatment. Consequently, combined sewer overflow (CSO) is considered as a major source of water pollution. This study investigates the effectiveness of a retention soil filter (RSF) for the removal of micropollutants as well as facultative pathogenic and antibiotic resistant bacteria from CSO. The removal of organic group parameters like total organic carbon was excellent and the removal efficiency for micropollutants of the RSF and the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), which treats wastewater of the same origin during dry and normal weather conditions, was comparable. Compounds of high environmental concern like estrogens or certain pharmaceuticals, e.g. diclofenac, were completely eliminated or removed to a high degree during RSF passage. RSF treatment also reduced the number of E. coli, enterococci and staphylococci by 2.7, 2.2 and 2.4 log-units (median values), respectively. Obviously, some Staphylococcus species can better adapt to the conditions of the RSF than others as a shift of the abundance of the different species was observed when comparing the diversity of staphylococci obtained from the RSF influent and effluent. RSF treatment also decreased the absolute number of antibiotic resistant bacteria. The percentage of antibiotic resistant E. coli and staphylococci isolates also decreased during passage of the RSF, whereas the percentage of resistant enterococci did not change. For E. coli ampicillin and for enterococci and staphylococci erythromycin determined the antibiotic resistance level. The results demonstrate that RSFs can be considered as an adequate treatment option for CSO. The performance for the removal of micropollutants is comparable with a medium sized WWTP with conventional activated sludge

  10. Molecular Regulation of Photosynthetic Carbon Dioxide Fixation in Nonsulfur Purple Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Tabita, Fred Robert

    2015-12-01

    The overall objective of this project is to determine the mechanism by which a transcriptional activator protein affects CO2 fixation (cbb) gene expression in nonsulfur purple photosynthetic bacteria, with special emphasis to Rhodobacter sphaeroides and with comparison to Rhodopseudomonas palustris. These studies culminated in several publications which indicated that additional regulators interact with the master regulator CbbR in both R. sphaeroides and R. palustris. In addition, the interactive control of the carbon and nitrogen assimilatory pathways was studied and unique regulatory signals were discovered.

  11. Diverse Arrangement of Photosynthetic Gene Clusters in Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Qiang; Zhang, Rui; Koblížek, Michal; Boldareva, Ekaterina N.; Yurkov, Vladimir; Yan, Shi; Jiao, Nianzhi

    2011-01-01

    Background Aerobic anoxygenic photototrophic (AAP) bacteria represent an important group of marine microorganisms inhabiting the euphotic zone of the ocean. They harvest light using bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) a and are thought to be important players in carbon cycling in the ocean. Methodology/Principal Findings Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria represent an important part of marine microbial communities. Their photosynthetic apparatus is encoded by a number of genes organized in a so-called photosynthetic gene cluster (PGC). In this study, the organization of PGCs was analyzed in ten AAP species belonging to the orders Rhodobacterales, Sphingomonadales and the NOR5/OM60 clade. Sphingomonadales contained comparatively smaller PGCs with an approximately size of 39 kb whereas the average size of PGCs in Rhodobacterales and NOR5/OM60 clade was about 45 kb. The distribution of four arrangements, based on the permutation and combination of the two conserved regions bchFNBHLM-LhaA-puhABC and crtF-bchCXYZ, does not correspond to the phylogenetic affiliation of individual AAP bacterial species. While PGCs of all analyzed species contained the same set of genes for bacteriochlorophyll synthesis and assembly of photosynthetic centers, they differed largely in the carotenoid biosynthetic genes. Spheroidenone, spirilloxanthin, and zeaxanthin biosynthetic pathways were found in each clade respectively. All of the carotenoid biosynthetic genes were found in the PGCs of Rhodobacterales, however Sphingomonadales and NOR5/OM60 strains contained some of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway genes outside of the PGC. Conclusions/Significance Our investigations shed light on the evolution and functional implications in PGCs of marine aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs, and support the notion that AAP are a heterogenous physiological group phylogenetically scattered among Proteobacteria. PMID:21949847

  12. Metabolic Engineering and Modeling of Metabolic Pathways to Improve Hydrogen Production by Photosynthetic Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Jiao, Y.; Navid, A.

    2014-12-19

    Rising energy demands and the imperative to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are driving research on biofuels development. Hydrogen gas (H2) is one of the most promising biofuels and is seen as a future energy carrier by virtue of the fact that 1) it is renewable, 2) does not evolve the “greenhouse gas” CO2 in combustion, 3) liberates large amounts of energy per unit weight in combustion (having about 3 times the energy content of gasoline), and 4) is easily converted to electricity by fuel cells. Among the various bioenergy strategies, environmental groups and others say that the concept of the direct manufacture of alternative fuels, such as H2, by photosynthetic organisms is the only biofuel alternative without significant negative criticism [1]. Biological H2 production by photosynthetic microorganisms requires the use of a simple solar reactor such as a transparent closed box, with low energy requirements, and is considered as an attractive system to develop as a biocatalyst for H2 production [2]. Various purple bacteria including Rhodopseudomonas palustris, can utilize organic substrates as electron donors to produce H2 at the expense of solar energy. Because of the elimination of energy cost used for H2O oxidation and the prevention of the production of O2 that inhibits the H2-producing enzymes, the efficiency of light energy conversion to H2 by anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria is in principle much higher than that by green algae or cyanobacteria, and is regarded as one of the most promising cultures for biological H2 production [3]. Here implemented a simple and relatively straightforward strategy for hydrogen production by photosynthetic microorganisms using sunlight, sulfur- or iron-based inorganic substrates, and CO2 as the feedstock. Carefully selected microorganisms with bioengineered beneficial

  13. Photosynthetic aeration in biological wastewater treatment using immobilized microalgae-bacteria symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Praveen, Prashant; Loh, Kai-Chee

    2015-12-01

    Chlorella vulgaris encapsulated in alginate beads were added into a bioreactor treating synthetic wastewater using Pseudomonas putida. A symbiotic CO2/O2 gas exchange was established between the two microorganisms for photosynthetic aeration of wastewater. During batch operation, glucose removal efficiency in the bioreactor improved from 50% in 12 h without aeration to 100% in 6 h, when the bioreactor was aerated photosynthetically. During continuous operation, the bioreactor was operated at a low hydraulic retention time of 3.3 h at feed concentrations of 250 and 500 mg/L glucose. The removal efficiency at 500 mg/L increased from 73% without aeration to 100% in the presence of immobilized microalgae. The initial microalgae concentration was critical to achieve adequate aeration, and the removal rate increased with increasing microalgae concentration. The highest removal rate of 142 mg/L-h glucose was achieved at an initial microalgae concentration of 190 mg/L. Quantification of microalgae growth in the alginate beads indicated an exponential growth during symbiosis, indicating that the bioreactor performance was limited by oxygen production rates. Under symbiotic conditions, the chlorophyll content of the immobilized microalgae increased by more than 30%. These results indicate that immobilized microalgae in symbiosis with heterotrophic bacteria are promising in wastewater aeration. PMID:26266755

  14. Lamellar Organization of Pigments in Chlorosomes, the Light Harvesting Complexes of Green Photosynthetic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Pšenčík, J.; Ikonen, T. P.; Laurinmäki, P.; Merckel, M. C.; Butcher, S. J.; Serimaa, R. E.; Tuma, R.

    2004-01-01

    Chlorosomes of green photosynthetic bacteria constitute the most efficient light harvesting complexes found in nature. In addition, the chlorosome is the only known photosynthetic system where the majority of pigments (BChl) is not organized in pigment-protein complexes but instead is assembled into aggregates. Because of the unusual organization, the chlorosome structure has not been resolved and only models, in which BChl pigments were organized into large rods, were proposed on the basis of freeze-fracture electron microscopy and spectroscopic constraints. We have obtained the first high-resolution images of chlorosomes from the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum by cryoelectron microscopy. Cryoelectron microscopy images revealed dense striations ∼20 Å apart. X-ray scattering from chlorosomes exhibited a feature with the same ∼20 Å spacing. No evidence for the rod models was obtained. The observed spacing and tilt-series cryoelectron microscopy projections are compatible with a lamellar model, in which BChl molecules aggregate into semicrystalline lateral arrays. The diffraction data further indicate that arrays are built from BChl dimers. The arrays form undulating lamellae, which, in turn, are held together by interdigitated esterifying alcohol tails, carotenoids, and lipids. The lamellar model is consistent with earlier spectroscopic data and provides insight into chlorosome self-assembly. PMID:15298919

  15. Lamellar organization of pigments in chlorosomes, the light harvesting complexes of green photosynthetic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Psencík, J; Ikonen, T P; Laurinmäki, P; Merckel, M C; Butcher, S J; Serimaa, R E; Tuma, R

    2004-08-01

    Chlorosomes of green photosynthetic bacteria constitute the most efficient light harvesting complexes found in nature. In addition, the chlorosome is the only known photosynthetic system where the majority of pigments (BChl) is not organized in pigment-protein complexes but instead is assembled into aggregates. Because of the unusual organization, the chlorosome structure has not been resolved and only models, in which BChl pigments were organized into large rods, were proposed on the basis of freeze-fracture electron microscopy and spectroscopic constraints. We have obtained the first high-resolution images of chlorosomes from the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum by cryoelectron microscopy. Cryoelectron microscopy images revealed dense striations approximately 20 A apart. X-ray scattering from chlorosomes exhibited a feature with the same approximately 20 A spacing. No evidence for the rod models was obtained. The observed spacing and tilt-series cryoelectron microscopy projections are compatible with a lamellar model, in which BChl molecules aggregate into semicrystalline lateral arrays. The diffraction data further indicate that arrays are built from BChl dimers. The arrays form undulating lamellae, which, in turn, are held together by interdigitated esterifying alcohol tails, carotenoids, and lipids. The lamellar model is consistent with earlier spectroscopic data and provides insight into chlorosome self-assembly. PMID:15298919

  16. Structure, Function and Reconstitution of Antenna Complexes from Green Photosynthetic Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Robert E. Blankenship

    2005-08-10

    This project is concerned with the structure and function of the chlorosome antennas found in green photosynthetic bacteria. Chlorosomes are ellipsoidal structures attached to the cytoplasmic side of the inner cell membrane. These antenna complexes provide a very large absorption cross section for light capture. Evidence is overwhelming that the chlorosome represents a very different type of antenna from that found in any other photosynthetic system yet studied. It is now clear that chlorosomes do not contain traditional pigment-proteins, in which the pigments bind to specific sites on proteins. Instead, the chlorosome pigments are organized in vivo into pigment oligomers in which direct pigment-pigment interactions are of dominant importance. Our group has used a multidisciplinary approach to investigate this unique system, as well as the complexes that they directly interact with. Our work has included using model systems, numerous types of both steady-state and ultrafast spectroscopy, molecular biology, protein chemistry and X-ray crystallography. Details of our recent results using these approaches are given below and in the references. Numbers cited in the sections refer to DOE-sponsored publications that are listed below. Only publications dated 2001-2004 or later are included in this report. In addition to the primary literature reports, a comprehensive review of this area of research has been written as well as a commentary.

  17. Effects of light sources on growth and carotenoid content of photosynthetic bacteria Rhodopseudomonas palustris.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Fu-Shiu; Chien, Yew-Hu; Chen, Chang-Jiang

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of eight light sources on photosynthetic bacteria (Rhodopseudomonas palustris) growth and carotenoid content (CD), cultured for 144 h. Light sources were incandescent lamp (IL), halogen lamp (HL), fluorescence lamp (FL), and light-emitting diodes (LEDs) of white (LW), yellow (LY), red (LR), blue (LB), and green (LG). Dark condition served as the control. Under around 2000 lux, light sources ranked greatest to least bacterial growth effect were (LB=IL) > FL > LW ≥ HL ≥ LR ≥ (LG=LY=DK). Ranking effect on CD content was LB > IL ≥ LY ≥ (HL=LR=LG) ≥ LW ≥ DK ≥ FL. Energy efficiency for bacterial growth was LB > LW > LY > IL > LG > HL > FL > LR. CD productivity ranking was LB > LY > LW > LG > IL > HL > LR > FL. Results revealed that LB saved 75% energy and increased CD productivity by 348% compared with IL. PMID:22330604

  18. Biomass and pigments production in photosynthetic bacteria wastewater treatment: Effects of photoperiod.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qin; Zhang, Panyue; Zhang, Guangming; Peng, Meng

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed at enhancing the bacterial biomass and pigments production in together with pollution removal in photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) wastewater treatment via using different photoperiods. Different light/dark cycles and light/dark cycle frequencies were examined. Results showed that PSB had the highest biomass production, COD removal and biomass yield, and light energy efficiency with light/dark cycle of 2h/1h. The corresponding biomass, COD removal and biomass yield reached 2068mg/L, 90.3%, and 0.38mg-biomass/mg-COD-removal, respectively. PSB showed higher biomass production and biomass yield with higher light/dark cycle frequency. Mechanism analysis showed within a light/dark cycle from 1h/2h to 2h/1h, the carotenoid and bacteriochlorophyll production increased with an increase in light/dark cycle. Moreover, the pigment contents were much higher with lower frequency of 2-4 times/d. PMID:25958142

  19. Biomass and carotenoid production in photosynthetic bacteria wastewater treatment: effects of light intensity.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qin; Zhang, Panyue; Zhang, Guangming

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of using photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) to produce biomass and carotenoid while treating wastewater. The effects of light intensity on the biomass, carotenoid and bacteriochlorophyll accumulation in together with pollutant removal were studied. Results showed that it was feasible to use PSB to treat wastewater as well as to produce biomass or carotenoid. 2000 lux was an optimal intensity for biomass production and COD removal, and the corresponding values were 2645 mg/L and 94.7%. 8000 lux was an optimal light intensity for carotenoid production (1.455 mg/L). Mechanism analysis displayed that the greater the bacteriochlorophyll and carotenoid were secreted, the lower the light conversion efficiency turned out to be. The highest light conversion efficiency was achieved at 500 lux; the ATP production, biomass production, and COD removal were the highest at 2000 lux, but the bacteriochlorophyll and carotenoid content were the lowest at 2000 lux. PMID:25218205

  20. Chemosensory and photosensory perception in purple photosynthetic bacteria utilize common signal transduction components.

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Z Y; Gest, H; Bauer, C E

    1997-01-01

    The chemotaxis gene cluster from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum centenum contains five open reading frames (ORFs) that have significant sequence homology to chemotaxis genes from other bacteria. To elucidate the functions of each ORF, we have made various mutations in the gene cluster and analyzed their phenotypic defects. Deletion of the entire che operon (delta che), as well as nonpolar disruptions of cheAY, cheW, and cheR, resulted in a smooth-swimming phenotype, whereas disruption of cheB resulted in a locked tumbly phenotype. Each of these mutants was defective in chemotactic response. Interestingly, disruption of cheY resulted in a slight increase in the frequency of tumbling/reversal with no obvious defects in chemotactic response. In contrast to observations with Escherichia coli and several other bacteria, we found that all of the che mutant cells were capable of differentiating into hyperflagellated swarmer cells when plated on a solid agar surface. When viewed microscopically, the smooth-swimming che mutants exhibited active surface motility but were unable to respond to a step-down in light intensity. Both positive and negative phototactic responses were abolished in all che mutants, including the cheY mutant. These results indicate that eubacterial photosensory perception is mediated by light-generated signals that are transmitted through the chemotaxis signal transduction cascade. PMID:9294427

  1. Physicochemical studies of demetalation of light-harvesting bacteriochlorophyll isomers purified from green sulfur photosynthetic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Yuki; Tamiaki, Hitoshi; Kashimura, Shigenori; Saga, Yoshitaka

    2009-01-01

    Demetalation kinetics of bacteriochlorophylls (BChls) c, d and e from green sulfur photosynthetic bacteria were studied under weakly acidic conditions. Demetalation rate constants of BChl e possessing a formyl group at the 7-position were significantly smaller than those of BChls c and d, which had a methyl group at this position. The activation energy of demetalation of 3(1)R-8,12-diethyl([E,E])-BChl e was 1.5-times larger than that of 3(1)R-[E,E]-BChl c. 15N-labeled 3(1)R-[E,E]-BChls c and e were purified from cells of green sulfur bacteria grown in a medium containing 15NH4Cl, and their 15N NMR spectra were measured. The chemical shifts of N21, N22 and N23 atoms of 3(1)R-[E,E]-BChl e were lower-field shifted than those of 3(1)R-[E,E]-BChl c, respectively, and especially the difference in chemical shifts of N22 was significantly large. These results suggest that the electron-withdrawing formyl group at the 7-position of BChl e affected an electronic state of the chlorin macrocycle and caused BChl e to be more tolerant for removal of the central magnesium compared with BChls c and d. PMID:19558420

  2. Functional Relationship Between Phytoplankton and Aerobic Anoxygenic Photosynthetic Bacteria: Modes of Coexistence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolber, Z. S.; Haffa, A.; Klimov, D.

    2006-12-01

    Aerobic Anoxygenic Photosynthetic Bacteria (AAPs) are ubiquitously distributed in the upper ocean. Although they contain bacteriochlorophyll a (BChla), the main absorption bands in the near UV (370 nm) and infrared (800-850 nm) make this pigment impractical in light harvesting below the first few meters of the water column. Instead, they utilize carotenoids as major light harvesting pigments. Since these carotenoids absorb in the 430-550 nm range, phytoplankton and AAPs utilize a similar portion of the available light spectrum. As AAPs cannot utilize water as the electron donor, they transfer electrons between a range of organic/inorganic electron donors and electron acceptors, thus significantly participating in the redox cycle in the upper ocean. We have measured the vertical distribution and photosynthetic properties of both phytoplankton and AAPs in a highly oligotrophic region 800 km SW of Monterey Bay (34N, 129W), and we have consistently observed the presence of a BChla maximum about 30 to 40 meters above the chlorophyll maximum, indicating that phytoplankton and AAPs occupy different ecological niches in the water column. However, the abundance of AAPs generally displayed a maximum at dawn and a minimum at the dusk, indicating a high level of mortality. This diel cycle was observed in 5 micron and 3 micron size fractions, indicating active grazing by small protists. Incubation experiments with natural, mixed population of AAPs and phytoplankton results in an unusually high accumulation of AAPs in DCMU-treated samples, indicating that pigmented protists do contribute significantly to AAP grazing in a tightly-controlled microbial loop. On the other hand, AAP incubations in pure cultures indicate that they biomineralize sulfur, thus affecting the sulfur cycle. All of these observations indicate that the role of AAPs in the upper ocean ecology is defined by their relationship with phototrophic and heterotrophic communities, rather than by their relative

  3. Studies on Hydrogen Production by Photosynthetic Bacteria after Anaerobic Fermentation of Starch by a Hyperthermophile, Pyrococcus furiosus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugitate, Toshihiro; Fukatsu, Makoto; Ishimi, Katsuhiro; Kohno, Hideki; Wakayama, Tatsuki; Nakamura, Yoshihiro; Miyake, Jun; Asada, Yasuo

    In order to establish the sequential hydrogen production from waste starch using a hyperthermophile, Pyrococcus furiosus, and a photosynthetic bacterium, basic studies were done. P. furiosus produced hydrogen and acetate by anaerobic fermentation at 90°C. A photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter sphaeroides RV, was able to produce hydrogen from acetate under anaerobic and light conditions at 30°C. However, Rb. sphaeroides RV was not able to produce hydrogen from acetate in the presence of sodium chloride that was essential for the growth and hydrogen production of P. furiosus although it produced hydrogen from lactate at a reduced rate with 1% sodium chloride. A newly isolated strain, CST-8, from natural environment was, however, able to produce hydrogen from acetate, especially with 3 mM L-alanine and in the presence of 1% sodium chloride. The sequential hydrogen production with P. furiosus and salt-tolerant photosynthetic bacteria could be probable at least in the laboratory experiment scale.

  4. Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Yurkov, Vladimir V.; Beatty, J. Thomas

    1998-01-01

    The aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are a relatively recently discovered bacterial group. Although taxonomically and phylogenetically heterogeneous, these bacteria share the following distinguishing features: the presence of bacteriochlorophyll a incorporated into reaction center and light-harvesting complexes, low levels of the photosynthetic unit in cells, an abundance of carotenoids, a strong inhibition by light of bacteriochlorophyll synthesis, and the inability to grow photosynthetically under anaerobic conditions. Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are classified in two marine (Erythrobacter and Roseobacter) and six freshwater (Acidiphilium, Erythromicrobium, Erythromonas, Porphyrobacter, Roseococcus, and Sandaracinobacter) genera, which phylogenetically belong to the α-1, α-3, and α-4 subclasses of the class Proteobacteria. Despite this phylogenetic information, the evolution and ancestry of their photosynthetic properties are unclear. We discuss several current proposals for the evolutionary origin of aerobic phototrophic bacteria. The closest phylogenetic relatives of aerobic phototrophic bacteria include facultatively anaerobic purple nonsulfur phototrophic bacteria. Since these two bacterial groups share many properties, yet have significant differences, we compare and contrast their physiology, with an emphasis on morphology and photosynthetic and other metabolic processes. PMID:9729607

  5. Asymmetrically acting lycopene beta-cyclases (CrtLm) from non-photosynthetic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Tao, L; Picataggio, S; Rouvière, P E; Cheng, Q

    2004-03-01

    Carotenoids have important functions in photosynthesis, nutrition, and protection against oxidative damage. Some natural carotenoids are asymmetrical molecules that are difficult to produce chemically. Biological production of carotenoids using specific enzymes is a potential alternative to extraction from natural sources. Here we report the isolation of lycopene beta-cyclases that selectively cyclize only one end of lycopene or neurosporene. The crtLm genes encoding the asymmetrically acting lycopene beta-cyclases were isolated from non-photosynthetic bacteria that produced monocyclic carotenoids. Co-expression of these crtLm genes with the crtEIB genes from Pantoea stewartii (responsible for lycopene synthesis) resulted in the production of monocyclic gamma-carotene in Escherichia coli. The asymmetric cyclization activity of CrtLm could be inhibited by the lycopene beta-cyclase inhibitor 2-(4-chlorophenylthio)-triethylamine (CPTA). Phylogenetic analysis suggested that bacterial CrtL-type lycopene beta-cyclases might represent an evolutionary link between the common bacterial CrtY-type of lycopene beta-cyclases and plant lycopene beta- and epsilon-cyclases. These lycopene beta-cyclases may be used for efficient production of high-value asymmetrically cyclized carotenoids. PMID:14740205

  6. Exciton dynamics in circular aggregates: application to antenna of photosynthetic purple bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Novoderezhkin, V I; Razjivin, A P

    1995-01-01

    A theoretical model of exciton dynamics in circular molecular aggregates of light-harvesting bacteriochlorophyll of photosynthetic bacteria is proposed. The spectra and anisotropy of photoinduced absorption changes in the femto- and picosecond time domain are under its scope. The excited state of aggregate was treated due to the standard exciton theory, taking into account a pigment inhomogeneity. Dephasing processes via the exciton-phonon interactions were described by means of the Haken-Strobl equation. It was shown that only two exciton levels are dipole-allowed in the case of homogeneous circular aggregate. The pigment inhomogeneity results in the appearance of several weak transitions to higher exciton levels. It was proposed that the minor band (B896) in an absorption spectrum of the B875 complex as well as the similar minor band in spectra of B800-850 complex correspond to electron transition from the ground to the lowest exciton level, whereas the major band corresponds to transition to the higher exciton level. The proposed model shows the subpicosecond decay of anisotropy at the short-wavelength side of absorption band and a high degree of anisotropy at the long-wavelength side, even at high temperatures. PMID:7756528

  7. Biomass and pigments production in photosynthetic bacteria wastewater treatment: effects of light sources.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qin; Zhang, Panyue; Zhang, Guangming

    2015-03-01

    This study is aimed at enhancing biomass and pigments production together with pollution removal in photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) wastewater treatment via different light sources. Red, yellow, blue, white LED and incandescent lamp were used. Results showed different light sources had great effects on the PSB. PSB had the highest biomass production, COD removal and biomass yield with red LED. The corresponding biomass, COD removal and biomass yield reached 2580 mg/L, 88.6% and 0.49 mg-biomass/mg-COD-removal, respectively. The hydraulic retention time of wastewater treatment could be shortened to 72 h with red LED. Mechanism analysis showed higher ATP was produced with red LED than others. Light sources could significantly affect the pigments production. The pigments productions were greatly higher with LED than incandescent lamp. Yellow LED had the highest pigments production while red LED produced the highest carotenoid/bacteriochlorophyll ratio. Considering both efficiency and energy cost, red LED was the optimal light source. PMID:25575211

  8. Effect of Azospirillum brasilense and Burkholderia unamae Bacteria on Maize Photosynthetic Activity Evaluated Using the Photoacoustic Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordillo-Delgado, F.; Marín, E.; Calderón, A.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, the photosynthetic process of maize plants ( Zea mays), which were grown using seeds inoculated with plant growth promoting bacteria Azospirillum brasilense and Burkholderia unamae, was monitored. Photothermal and photobaric signals obtained by a time-resolved photoacoustic measurement configuration were used for measuring the oxygen evolution rate in situ. A frequency-resolved configuration of the method was utilized to determine the oxygen diffusion coefficient and the thermal diffusivity of the maize leaves. The latter parameters, which can be used as indicators of the photosynthetic activity of maize, are found to vary according to the plant-microbe interaction. Treatment with plant growth promoting bacteria induced a decrease in the oxygen diffusion coefficient of about 20 %.

  9. Development and dynamics of the photosynthetic apparatus in purple phototrophic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Niederman, Robert A

    2016-03-01

    The purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides provides a useful model system for studies of the assembly and dynamics of bacterial photosynthetic membranes. For the nascent developing membrane, proteomic analyses showed an ~2-fold enrichment in general membrane assembly factors, compared to chromatophores. When the protonophore carbonyl-cyanide m-chlorophenyl-hydrazone (CCCP) was added to an ICM inducing culture, an ~2-fold elevation in spectral counts vs. the control was seen for the SecA translocation ATPase, the preprotein translocase SecY, SecD and SecF insertion components, and chaperonins DnaJ and DnaK, which act early in the assembly process. It is suggested that these factors accumulated with their nascent polypeptides, as putative assembly intermediates in a functionally arrested state. Since in Synechocystis PCC 6803, a link has been established between Chl delivery involving the high-light HilD protein and the SecY/YidC-requiring cotranslational insertion of nascent polypeptides, such a connection between BChl biosynthesis and insertion and folding of nascent Rba. sphaeroides BChl binding proteins is likely to also occur. AFM imaging studies of the formation of the reaction center (RC)-light harvesting 1 (LH1) complex suggested a cooperative assembly mechanism in which, following the association between the RC template and the initial LH1 unit, addition of successive LH1 units to the RC drives the assembly process to completion. Alterations in membrane dynamics as the developing membrane becomes filled with LH2-rings were assessed by fluorescence induction/relaxation kinetics, which showed a slowing in RC electron transfer rate thought to mainly reflect alterations in donor side electron transfer. This was attributed to an increased distance for electron flow in cytochrome c2 between the RC and cytochrome bc1 complexes, as suggested in the current structural models. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Organization and dynamics of bioenergetic

  10. In vitro assessment of gastrointestinal viability of two photosynthetic bacteria, Rhodopseudomonas palustris and Rhodobacter sphaeroides *

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xu-xia; Pan, Yuan-jiang; Wang, Yan-bo; Li, Wei-fen

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the potential of two photosynthetic bacteria (PSB), Rhodopseudomonas palustris HZ0301 and Rhodobacter sphaeroides HZ0302, as probiotics in aquaculture. The viability of HZ0301 and HZ0302 in simulated gastric transit conditions (pH 2.0, pH 3.0 and pH 4.0 gastric juices) and in simulated small intestinal transit conditions (pH 8.0, with or without 0.3% bile salts) was tested. The effects of HZ0301 and HZ0302 on the viability and permeability of intestinal epithelial cell in primary culture of tilapias, Oreochromis nilotica, were also detected. All the treatments were determined with three replicates. The simulated gastric transit tolerance of HZ0301 and HZ0302 strains was pH-dependent and correspondingly showed lower viability at pH 2.0 after 180 min compared with pH 3.0 and pH 4.0. Both HZ0301 and HZ0302 were tolerant to simulated small intestine transit with or without bile salts in our research. Moreover, there was no significant difference (P>0.05) among three treatments including the control and the groups treated with HZ0301 or HZ0302 both in intestinal epithelial cell viability and membrane permeability, showing no cell damage. In summary, this study demonstrated that HZ0301 and HZ0302 had high capacity of upper gastrointestinal transit tolerance and were relatively safe for intestinal epithelial cells of tilapias. PMID:17726751

  11. Organic carbon recovery and photosynthetic bacteria population in an anaerobic membrane photo-bioreactor treating food processing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chitapornpan, S; Chiemchaisri, C; Chiemchaisri, W; Honda, R; Yamamoto, K

    2013-08-01

    Purple non-sulfur bacteria (PNSB) were cultivated by food industry wastewater in the anaerobic membrane photo-bioreactor. Organic removal and biomass production and characteristics were accomplished via an explicit examination of the long term performance of the photo-bioreactor fed with real wastewater. With the support of infra-red light transmitting filter, PNSB could survive and maintain in the system even under the continual fluctuations of influent wastewater characteristics. The average BOD and COD removal efficiencies were found at the moderate range of 51% and 58%, respectively. Observed photosynthetic biomass yield was 0.6g dried solid/g BOD with crude protein content of 0.41 g/g dried solid. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoretic analysis (DGGE) and 16S rDNA sequencing revealed the presence of Rhodopseudomonas palustris and significant changes in the photosynthetic bacterial community within the system. PMID:23489563

  12. Communication: Coherences observed in vivo in photosynthetic bacteria using two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Dahlberg, Peter D.; Norris, Graham J.; Wang, Cheng; Viswanathan, Subha; Singh, Ved P.; Engel, Gregory S.

    2015-01-01

    Energy transfer through large disordered antenna networks in photosynthetic organisms can occur with a quantum efficiency of nearly 100%. This energy transfer is facilitated by the electronic structure of the photosynthetic antennae as well as interactions between electronic states and the surrounding environment. Coherences in time-domain spectroscopy provide a fine probe of how a system interacts with its surroundings. In two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy, coherences can appear on both the ground and excited state surfaces revealing detailed information regarding electronic structure, system-bath coupling, energy transfer, and energetic coupling in complex chemical systems. Numerous studies have revealed coherences in isolated photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes, but these coherences have not been observed in vivo due to the small amplitude of these signals and the intense scatter from whole cells. Here, we present data acquired using ultrafast video-acquisition gradient-assisted photon echo spectroscopy to observe quantum beating signals from coherences in vivo. Experiments were conducted on isolated light harvesting complex II (LH2) from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, whole cells of R. sphaeroides, and whole cells of R. sphaeroides grown in 30% deuterated media. A vibronic coherence was observed following laser excitation at ambient temperature between the B850 and the B850∗ states of LH2 in each of the 3 samples with a lifetime of ∼40-60 fs. PMID:26373989

  13. Communication: Coherences observed in vivo in photosynthetic bacteria using two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlberg, Peter D.; Norris, Graham J.; Wang, Cheng; Viswanathan, Subha; Singh, Ved P.; Engel, Gregory S.

    2015-09-01

    Energy transfer through large disordered antenna networks in photosynthetic organisms can occur with a quantum efficiency of nearly 100%. This energy transfer is facilitated by the electronic structure of the photosynthetic antennae as well as interactions between electronic states and the surrounding environment. Coherences in time-domain spectroscopy provide a fine probe of how a system interacts with its surroundings. In two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy, coherences can appear on both the ground and excited state surfaces revealing detailed information regarding electronic structure, system-bath coupling, energy transfer, and energetic coupling in complex chemical systems. Numerous studies have revealed coherences in isolated photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes, but these coherences have not been observed in vivo due to the small amplitude of these signals and the intense scatter from whole cells. Here, we present data acquired using ultrafast video-acquisition gradient-assisted photon echo spectroscopy to observe quantum beating signals from coherences in vivo. Experiments were conducted on isolated light harvesting complex II (LH2) from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, whole cells of R. sphaeroides, and whole cells of R. sphaeroides grown in 30% deuterated media. A vibronic coherence was observed following laser excitation at ambient temperature between the B850 and the B850∗ states of LH2 in each of the 3 samples with a lifetime of ˜40-60 fs.

  14. Communication: Coherences observed in vivo in photosynthetic bacteria using two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlberg, Peter D.; Norris, Graham J.; Wang, Cheng; Viswanathan, Subha; Singh, Ved P.; Engel, Gregory S.

    2015-09-14

    Energy transfer through large disordered antenna networks in photosynthetic organisms can occur with a quantum efficiency of nearly 100%. This energy transfer is facilitated by the electronic structure of the photosynthetic antennae as well as interactions between electronic states and the surrounding environment. Coherences in time-domain spectroscopy provide a fine probe of how a system interacts with its surroundings. In two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy, coherences can appear on both the ground and excited state surfaces revealing detailed information regarding electronic structure, system-bath coupling, energy transfer, and energetic coupling in complex chemical systems. Numerous studies have revealed coherences in isolated photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes, but these coherences have not been observed in vivo due to the small amplitude of these signals and the intense scatter from whole cells. Here, we present data acquired using ultrafast video-acquisition gradient-assisted photon echo spectroscopy to observe quantum beating signals from coherences in vivo. Experiments were conducted on isolated light harvesting complex II (LH2) from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, whole cells of R. sphaeroides, and whole cells of R. sphaeroides grown in 30% deuterated media. A vibronic coherence was observed following laser excitation at ambient temperature between the B850 and the B850{sup ∗} states of LH2 in each of the 3 samples with a lifetime of ∼40-60 fs.

  15. Kinetic development and evaluation of membrane sequencing batch reactor (MSBR) with mixed cultures photosynthetic bacteria for dairy wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Kaewsuk, Jutamas; Thorasampan, Worachat; Thanuttamavong, Monthon; Seo, Gyu Tae

    2010-05-01

    This experimental study was conducted to evaluate a membrane sequencing batch reactor (MSBR) with mixed culture photosynthetic bacteria for dairy wastewater treatment. The study was undertaken in two steps: laboratory and pilot scale experiments. In the first step, kinetics analysis of the MSBR was carried out in a laboratory scale experiment with influent COD concentration of 2500 mg/L. The pilot scale experiment was conducted to investigate the performance of the MSBR and checked the suitability of the kinetics for an engineering design. The kinetic coefficients K(s), k, k(d), Y and mu(m) were found to be 174-mg-COD/L, 7.42/d, 0.1383/d, 0.2281/d and 1.69/d, respectively. There were some deviations of COD removal efficiency between the design value and the actual value. From the kinetics estimation, COD effluent from the design was 27 mg/L while the average actual COD effluent from the experiment was 149 mg/L. Due to the different light source condition, the factors relating to light energy (i.e. L(f) and IR(%)) must be incorporated into engineering design and performance prediction with these kinetic coefficients of the photosynthetic MSBR. PMID:20149520

  16. Isolation of Aerobic Anoxygenic Photosynthetic Bacteria from Black Smoker Plume Waters of the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the Pacific Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Yurkov, Vladimir; Beatty, J. Thomas

    1998-01-01

    A strain of the aerobic anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria was isolated from a deep-ocean hydrothermal vent plume environment. The in vivo absorption spectra of cells indicate the presence of bacteriochlorophyll a incorporated into light-harvesting complex I and a reaction center. The general morphological and physiological characteristics of this new isolate are described. PMID:16349490

  17. Separation of bacteriochlorophyll homologues from green photosynthetic sulfur bacteria by reversed-phase HPLC.

    PubMed

    Borrego, C M; Garcia-Gil, L J

    1994-07-01

    A reversed-phase High Performance Liquid Cromatography (HPLC) method has been developed to accurately separate bacteriochlorophyllsc, d ande homologues in a reasonably short run time of 60 minutes. By using this method, two well-defined groups of bacteriochlorophyll homologue peaks can be discriminated. The first one consists of 4 peaks (min 24 to 30), which corresponds to the four main farnesyl homologues. The second peak subset is formed by a cluster of up to 10 minor peaks (min 33 to 40). These peaks can be related with series of several alcohol esters of the different chlorosome chlorophylls. The number of homologues was, however, quite variable depending on both, the bacteriochlorophyll and the bacterial species. The method hereby described, also provides a good separation of other photosynthetic pigments, either bacterial (Bacteriochlorophylla, chlorobactene, isorenieratene and okenone) or algal ones (Chlorophylla, Pheophytina and β-carotene). A preliminary screening of the homologue composition of several green photosynthetic bacterial species and isolates, has revealed different relative quantitative patterns. These differences seem to be related to physiological aspects rather than to taxonomic ones. The application of the method to the study of natural populations avoids the typical drawbacks on the pigment identification of overlapping eukaryotic and prokaryotic phototrophic microorganisms, giving further information about their physiological status. PMID:24310022

  18. Lasers-an effective artificial source of radiation for the cultivation of anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bertling, K; Hurse, T J; Kappler, U; Rakić, A D

    2006-06-01

    The laser diode (LD) is a unique light source that can efficiently produce all radiant energy within the narrow wavelength range used most effectively by a photosynthetic microorganism. We have investigated the use of a single type of LD for the cultivation of the well-studied anoxygenic photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter capsulatus (Rb. capsulatus). An array of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) was driven with a current of 25 mA, and delivered radiation at 860 nm with 0.4 nm linewidth. The emitted light was found to be a suitable source of radiant energy for the cultivation of Rb. capsulatus. The dependence of growth rate on incident irradiance was quantified. Despite the unusual nearly monochromatic light source used in these experiments, no significant changes in the pigment composition and in the distribution of bacteriochlorophyll between LHII and LHI-RC were detected in bacterial cells transferred from incandescent light to laser light. We were also able to show that to achieve a given growth rate in a light-limited culture, the VCSEL required only 30% of the electricity needed by an incandescent bulb, which is of great significance for the potential use of laser-devices in biotechnological applications and photobioreactor construction. PMID:16514675

  19. Inter-and intraspecific variation in excited-state triplet energy transfer rates in reaction centers of photosynthetic bacteria.

    SciTech Connect

    Laible, P. D.; Morris, Z. S.; Thurnauer, M. C.; Schiffer, M.; Hanson, D. K.

    2003-08-01

    In protein-cofactor reaction center (RC) complexes of purple photosynthetic bacteria, the major role of the bound carotenoid (C) is to quench the triplet state formed on the primary electron donor (P) before its sensitization of the excited singlet state of molecular oxygen from its ground triplet state. This triplet energy is transferred from P to C via the bacteriochlorophyll monomer B{sub B}. Using time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance (TREPR), we have examined the temperature dependence of the rates of this triplet energy transfer reaction in the RC of three wild-type species of purple nonsulfur bacteria. Species-specific differences in the rate of transfer were observed. Wild-type Rhodobacter capsulatus RCs were less efficient at the triplet transfer reaction than Rhodobacter sphaeroides RCs, but were more efficient than Rhodospirillum rubrum RCs. In addition, RCs from three mutant strains of R. capsulatus carrying substitutions of amino acids near P and B{sub B} were examined. Two of the mutant RCs showed decreased triplet transfer rates compared with wild-type RCs, whereas one of the mutant RCs demonstrated a slight increase in triplet transfer rate at low temperatures. The results show that site-specific changes within the RC of R. capsulatus can mimic interspecies differences in the rates of triplet energy transfer. This application of TREPR was instrumental in defining critical energetic and coupling factors that dictate the efficiency of this photoprotective process.

  20. Simple and Versatile Turbidimetric Monitoring of Bacterial Growth in Liquid Cultures Using a Customized 3D Printed Culture Tube Holder and a Miniaturized Spectrophotometer: Application to Facultative and Strictly Anaerobic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Maia, Margarida R. G.; Marques, Sara; Cabrita, Ana R. J.; Wallace, R. John; Thompson, Gertrude; Fonseca, António J. M.; Oliveira, Hugo M.

    2016-01-01

    Here we introduce a novel strategy for turbidimetric monitoring of bacterial growth in liquid culture. The instrumentation comprises a light source, a customized 3D printed culture tube holder and a miniaturized spectrophotometer, connected through optical cables. Due to its small footprint and the possibility to operate with external light, bacterial growth was directly monitored from culture tubes in a simple and versatile fashion. This new portable measurement technique was used to monitor the growth of facultative (Escherichia coli ATCC/25922, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC/29213) and strictly (Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens JW11, Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus P18, and Propionibacterium acnes DSMZ 1897) anaerobic bacteria. For E. coli and S. aureus, the growth rates calculated from normalized optical density values were compared with those ones obtained using a benchtop spectrophotometer without significant differences (P = 0.256). For the strictly anaerobic species, a high precision (relative standard deviation < 3.5%) was observed between replicates up to 48 h. Regarding its potential for customization, this manifold could accommodate further developments for customized turbidimetric monitoring, such as the use of light-emitting diodes as a light source or flow cells.

  1. Biodesalination: a case study for applications of photosynthetic bacteria in water treatment.

    PubMed

    Amezaga, Jaime M; Amtmann, Anna; Biggs, Catherine A; Bond, Tom; Gandy, Catherine J; Honsbein, Annegret; Karunakaran, Esther; Lawton, Linda; Madsen, Mary Ann; Minas, Konstantinos; Templeton, Michael R

    2014-04-01

    Shortage of freshwater is a serious problem in many regions worldwide, and is expected to become even more urgent over the next decades as a result of increased demand for food production and adverse effects of climate change. Vast water resources in the oceans can only be tapped into if sustainable, energy-efficient technologies for desalination are developed. Energization of desalination by sunlight through photosynthetic organisms offers a potential opportunity to exploit biological processes for this purpose. Cyanobacterial cultures in particular can generate a large biomass in brackish and seawater, thereby forming a low-salt reservoir within the saline water. The latter could be used as an ion exchanger through manipulation of transport proteins in the cell membrane. In this article, we use the example of biodesalination as a vehicle to review the availability of tools and methods for the exploitation of cyanobacteria in water biotechnology. Issues discussed relate to strain selection, environmental factors, genetic manipulation, ion transport, cell-water separation, process design, safety, and public acceptance. PMID:24610748

  2. Biodesalination: A Case Study for Applications of Photosynthetic Bacteria in Water Treatment1[C

    PubMed Central

    Amezaga, Jaime M.; Amtmann, Anna; Biggs, Catherine A.; Bond, Tom; Gandy, Catherine J.; Honsbein, Annegret; Karunakaran, Esther; Lawton, Linda; Madsen, Mary Ann; Minas, Konstantinos; Templeton, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Shortage of freshwater is a serious problem in many regions worldwide, and is expected to become even more urgent over the next decades as a result of increased demand for food production and adverse effects of climate change. Vast water resources in the oceans can only be tapped into if sustainable, energy-efficient technologies for desalination are developed. Energization of desalination by sunlight through photosynthetic organisms offers a potential opportunity to exploit biological processes for this purpose. Cyanobacterial cultures in particular can generate a large biomass in brackish and seawater, thereby forming a low-salt reservoir within the saline water. The latter could be used as an ion exchanger through manipulation of transport proteins in the cell membrane. In this article, we use the example of biodesalination as a vehicle to review the availability of tools and methods for the exploitation of cyanobacteria in water biotechnology. Issues discussed relate to strain selection, environmental factors, genetic manipulation, ion transport, cell-water separation, process design, safety, and public acceptance. PMID:24610748

  3. Effect of soil salinity and nutrient levels on the community structure of the root-associated bacteria of the facultative halophyte, Tamarix ramosissima, in southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Takeshi; Imada, Shogo; Acharya, Kumud; Iwanaga, Fumiko; Yamanaka, Norikazu

    2015-01-01

    Tamarix ramosissima is a tree species that is highly resistant to salt and drought. The Tamarix species survives in a broad range of environmental salt levels, and invades major river systems in southwestern United States. It may affect root-associated bacteria (RB) by increasing soil salts and nutrients. The effects of RB on host plants may vary even under saline conditions, and the relationship may be important for T. ramosissima. However, to the best of our knowledge, there have been no reports relating to T. ramosissima RB and its association with salinity and nutrient levels. In this study, we have examined this association and the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of T. ramosissima on RB because a previous study has reported that colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi affected the rhizobacterial community (Marschner et al., 2001). T. ramosissima roots were collected from five locations with varying soil salinity and nutrient levels. RB community structures were examined by terminal restriction fragment (T-RF) length polymorphism, cloning, and sequencing analyses. The results suggest that RB richness, or the diversity of T. ramosissima, have significant negative relationships with electrical conductivity (EC), sodium concentration (Na), and the colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, but have a significant positive relationship with phosphorus in the soil. However, at each T-RF level, positive correlations between the emergence of some T-RFs and EC or Na were observed. These results indicate that high salinity decreased the total number of RB species, but some saline-tolerant RB species multiplied with increasing salinity levels. The ordination scores of nonmetric multidimensional scale analysis of RB community composition show significant relationships with water content, calcium concentration, available phosphorus, and total nitrogen. These results indicate that the RB diversity and community composition of T. ramosissima are affected

  4. Effects of oxidants and reductants on the efficiency of excitation transfer in green photosynthetic bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J.; Brune, D. C.; Blankenship, R. E.

    1990-01-01

    The efficiency of energy transfer in chlorosome antennas in the green sulfur bacteria Chlorobium vibrioforme and Chlorobium limicola was found to be highly sensitive to the redox potential of the suspension. Energy transfer efficiencies were measured by comparing the absorption spectrum of the bacteriochlorophyll c or d pigments in the chlorosome to the excitation spectrum for fluorescence arising from the chlorosome baseplate and membrane-bound antenna complexes. The efficiency of energy transfer approaches 100% at low redox potentials induced by addition of sodium dithionite or other strong reductants, and is lowered to 10-20% under aerobic conditions or after addition of a variety of membrane-permeable oxidizing agents. The redox effect on energy transfer is observed in whole cells, isolated membranes and purified chlorosomes, indicating that the modulation of energy transfer efficiency arises within the antenna complexes and is not directly mediated by the redox state of the reaction center. It is proposed that chlorosomes contain a component that acts as a highly quenching center in its oxidized state, but is an inefficient quencher when reduced by endogenous or exogenous reductants. This effect may be a control mechanism that prevents cellular damage resulting from reaction of oxygen with reduced low-potential electron acceptors found in the green sulfur bacteria. The redox modulation effect is not observed in the green gliding bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus, which contains chlorosomes but does not contain low-potential electron acceptors.

  5. The two last overviews by Colin Allen Wraight (1945-2014) on energy conversion in photosynthetic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Maróti, Péter; Govindjee

    2016-02-01

    Colin Allen Wraight (1945-2014) was a well-known biophysicist and biochemist of our times-formerly Professor of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Plant Biology, and Head of the Department of Biochemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA. (See a detailed Tribute to him by Govindjee et al., Photosynth Res, 2015.) During the latter part of his life, Colin had (1) given an excellent lecture in 2008 on the overall topic of the molecular mechanisms in biological energy conversion, focusing on how an ubiquinone is reduced to ubiquinol at the so-called "two electron gate", and (2) presented a review poster on the design features of long distance proton transport in biological systems, with focus on photosynthetic bacteria (a pdf file of the original is available from one of us, Govindjee). We present here for historical purpose, a complete transcript of his 2008 lecture and his 2013 poster, which have been annotated and expanded by the authors of this paper. The major theme is: electron and proton transfer in biological systems, with emphasis on bacterial reaction centers. The figures, some of which were prepared by us, are presented in sequence for both the lecture and the poster. A common bibliography is provided at the end of the paper, which is divided into two parts: (I) The Lecture; and (II) The Poster. PMID:26216496

  6. Redox regulation of energy transfer efficiency in antennas of green photosynthetic bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blankenship, R. E.; Cheng, P.; Causgrove, T. P.; Brune, D. C.; Wang, J.

    1993-01-01

    The efficiency of energy transfer from the peripheral chlorosome antenna structure to the membrane-bound antenna in green sulfur bacteria depends strongly on the redox potential of the medium. The fluorescence spectra and lifetimes indicate that efficient quenching pathways are induced in the chlorosome at high redox potential. The midpoint redox potential for the induction of this effect in isolated chlorosomes from Chlorobium vibrioforme is -146 mV at pH 7 (vs the normal hydrogen electrode), and the observed midpoint potential (n = 1) decreases by 60 mV per pH unit over the pH range 7-10. Extraction of isolated chlorosomes with hexane has little effect on the redox-induced quenching, indicating that the component(s) responsible for this effect are bound and not readily extractable. We have purified and partially characterized the trimeric water-soluble bacteriochlorophyll a-containing protein from the thermophilic green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum. This protein is located between the chlorosome and the membrane. Fluorescence spectra of the purified protein indicate that it also contains groups that quench excitations at high redox potential. The results indicate that the energy transfer pathway in green sulfur bacteria is regulated by redox potential. This regulation appears to operate in at least two distinct places in the energy transfer pathway, the oligomeric pigments in the interior of the chlorosome and in the bacteriochlorophyll a protein. The regulatory effect may serve to protect the cell against superoxide-induced damage when oxygen is present. By quenching excitations before they reach the reaction center, reduction and subsequent autooxidation of the low potential electron acceptors found in these organisms is avoided.

  7. Growth of Facultatively Heterofermentative Lactobacilli on Starter Cell Suspensions

    PubMed Central

    Rapposch, S.; Eliskases-Lechner, F.; Ginzinger, W.

    1999-01-01

    The growth of facultatively heterofermentative lactobacilli (FHL) on cell suspensions of the homofermentative Lactobacillus helveticus was investigated. Osmotic lysis of L. helveticus led to a significant increase of ribose. It decreased steadily in parallel with the growth of FHL, strongly suggesting that the bacteria used ribose as a growth substrate. PMID:10584024

  8. Facultative crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants: powerful tools for unravelling the functional elements of CAM photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Winter, Klaus; Holtum, Joseph A M

    2014-07-01

    Facultative crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) describes the optional use of CAM photosynthesis, typically under conditions of drought stress, in plants that otherwise employ C3 or C4 photosynthesis. In its cleanest form, the upregulation of CAM is fully reversible upon removal of stress. Reversibility distinguishes facultative CAM from ontogenetically programmed unidirectional C3-to-CAM shifts inherent in constitutive CAM plants. Using mainly measurements of 24h CO2 exchange, defining features of facultative CAM are highlighted in five terrestrial species, Clusia pratensis, Calandrinia polyandra, Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, Portulaca oleracea and Talinum triangulare. For these, we provide detailed chronologies of the shifts between photosynthetic modes and comment on their usefulness as experimental systems. Photosynthetic flexibility is also reviewed in an aquatic CAM plant, Isoetes howellii. Through comparisons of C3 and CAM states in facultative CAM species, many fundamental biochemical principles of the CAM pathway have been uncovered. Facultative CAM species will be of even greater relevance now that new sequencing technologies facilitate the mapping of genomes and tracking of the expression patterns of multiple genes. These technologies and facultative CAM systems, when joined, are expected to contribute in a major way towards our goal of understanding the essence of CAM. PMID:24642847

  9. Chirality-Based Signatures of Local Protein Environments in Two-Dimensional Optical Spectroscopy of Two Species Photosynthetic Complexes of Green Sulfur Bacteria: Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Voronine, Dmitri V.; Abramavicius, Darius; Mukamel, Shaul

    2008-01-01

    Two-dimensional electronic chirality-induced signals of excitons in the photosynthetic Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex from two species of green sulfur bacteria (Chlorobium tepidum and Prosthecochloris aestuarii) are compared. The spectra are predicted to provide sensitive probes of local protein environment of the constituent bacteriochlorophyll a chromophores and reflect electronic structure variations (site energies and couplings) of the two complexes. Pulse polarization configurations are designed that can separate the coherent and incoherent exciton dynamics contributions to the two-dimensional spectra. PMID:18676650

  10. Structure and Excitation Transfer Pathways in the Chlorophyll-Carotenoid Aggregate of the Photosynthetic Unit of Purple Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulten, Klaus

    1998-03-01

    The absorption of light by light harvesting complexes and transfer of electronic excitation to the photosynthetic reaction center (RC) has been investigated on the basis of an atomic level model of the so-called photosynthetic unit of the photosynthetic bacterium Rb. sphaeroides. The photosynthetic unit combines in the intracytoplasmic membrane a nanometric (20-100 nm) assembly of three protein complexes: (i) the photosynthetic reaction center, (ii) a ring-shaped light harvesting complex LH-I, and (iii) multiple copies of a similar complex, LH-II. The unit has been modeled using the known structure of LH-II of Rs. molischianum. The lecture describes in detail the organization of chromophores involved in primary light absorption and excitation transfer: a hierarchy of ring-shaped chlorophyl aggregates with attached carotenoids. A quantum-mechanical description of the entire light harvesting process is developed employing electron structure calculations of individual and aggregated chlorophylls and carotenoids and associated effective Hamiltonian descriptions. The transfer times calculated, ranging between 100 fs and 100 ps for various processes, are found in close agreement with measured transfer rates. The results suggest that excitons are the key carriers of the excitation transfered. The photoprotection of chlorophylls by chlorophylls through triplet excitation transfer is also described.

  11. Self-assembly of natural light-harvesting bacteriochlorophylls of green sulfur photosynthetic bacteria in silicate capsules as stable models of chlorosomes.

    PubMed

    Saga, Yoshitaka; Akai, Sho; Miyatake, Tomohiro; Tamiaki, Hitoshi

    2006-01-01

    Naturally occurring bacteriochlorophyll(BChl)s-c, -d, and -e from green sulfur photosynthetic bacteria were self-assembled in an aqueous solution in the presence of octadecyltriethoxysilane and tetraethoxysilane, followed by polycondensation of the alkoxysilanes by incubation for 50 h at 25 degrees C. The resulting BChl self-assemblies in silicate capsules exhibited visible absorption and circular dichroism spectra similar to the corresponding natural light-harvesting systems (chlorosomes) of green sulfur bacteria. Dynamic light scattering measurements indicated that the silicate capsules had an average hydrodynamic diameter of several hundred nanometers. BChl self-aggregates in silicate capsules were significantly stable to a nonionic surfactant Triton X-100, which was apt to decompose the BChl aggregates to their monomeric form, compared with conventional micelle systems. BChls in silicate capsules were more tolerant to demetalation of the central magnesium under acidic conditions than the natural systems. PMID:16848406

  12. Effects of mass transfer and light intensity on substrate biological degradation by immobilized photosynthetic bacteria within an annular fiber-illuminating biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuan; Zhang, Huan; Zhang, Zhiping; Jiao, Youzhou; Zhang, Quanguo

    2014-02-01

    In this work, effects of mass transfer and light intensity on performance of substrate biodegradation by cell-immobilized photosynthetic bacteria were investigated within an annular fiber-illuminating bioreactor (AFIBR). In AFIBR, stable biofilm of photosynthetic bacteria was generated on the surface of side-glowing optical fiber to provide sufficient light supply and uniform light distribution in cell-immobilized zone for continuous substrate biodegradation during hydrogen production process. To optimize operation parameters for substrate degradation, a two-dimensional mass transfer model based on experimental data to describe coupled processes of substrate transfer and biodegradation in biofilm with substrate diffusion and convection in bulk flow region was proposed. Investigations on influences of substrate concentration, flow rate and light intensity were carried out. It was showed that the optimum operational parameters for the substrate degradation in the AFIBR are: 10g/l substrate concentration, 100ml/h flow rate and 3.1W/m(2) light intensity. PMID:24531266

  13. Oxygen dynamics in photosynthetic membranes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savikhin, Sergei; Kihara, Shigeharu

    2008-03-01

    Production of oxygen by oxygenic photosynthetic organisms is expected to raise oxygen concentration within their photosynthetic membranes above normal aerobic values. These raised levels of oxygen may affect function of many proteins within photosynthetic cells. However, experiments on proteins in vitro are usually performed in aerobic (or anaerobic) conditions since the oxygen content of a membrane is not known. Using theory of diffusion and measured oxygen production rates we estimated the excess levels of oxygen in functioning photosynthetic cells. We show that for an individual photosynthetic cell suspended in water oxygen level is essentially the same as that for a non-photosynthetic sell. These data suggest that oxygen protection mechanisms may have evolved after the development of oxygenic photosynthesis in primitive bacteria and was driven by the overall rise of oxygen concentration in the atmosphere. Substantially higher levels of oxygen are estimated to occur in closely packed colonies of photosynthetic bacteria and in green leafs.

  14. Bio-nanocomposite Photoelectrode Composed of the Bacteria Photosynthetic Reaction Center Entrapped on a Nanocrystalline TiO2 Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yidong; Liu, Yuan; Xu, Jingjing; Xu, Chunhe; Liu, Baohong; Kong, Jilie

    2005-01-01

    A new kind of bio-nanocomposite photoelectrode was fabricated through direct immobilization of the bacterial photosynthetic reaction center (RC) proteins on a nanocrystalline TiO2 matrix prepared by anodic electrodeposition. The near-infrared (NIR)-visible absorption and fluorescence emission spectra displayed that structure and activity of the RC remained unaltered on the nano-TiO2 film surface. High efficient light-harvesting of the NIR light energy by RC contributed to the distinct enhancement of the photoelectric conversion on such nanoporous matrix, which would provide a new strategy to develop versatile biomimic energy convertors or photoelectric sensors.

  15. B800-B850 coherence correlates with energy transfer rates in the LH2 complex of photosynthetic purple bacteria.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Cathal; Oblinsky, Daniel G; Scholes, Gregory D

    2015-12-14

    Until recently, no analytical measure of many-body delocalization in open systems had been developed, yet such a measure enables characterization of how molecular excitons delocalize in photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes, and in turn helps us understand quantum coherent aspects of electronic energy transfer. In this paper we apply these measures to a model peripheral light-harvesting complex, LH2 from Rhodopseudomonas acidophila. We find how many chromophores collectively contribute to the "delocalization length" of an excitation within LH2 and how the coherent delocalization is distributed spatially. We also investigate to what extent this delocalization length is effective, by examining the impact of bipartite and multipartite entanglement in inter-ring energy transfer in LH2. PMID:25797525

  16. The human gut and groundwater harbor non-photosynthetic bacteria belonging to a new candidate phylum sibling to Cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Di Rienzi, Sara C; Sharon, Itai; Wrighton, Kelly C; Koren, Omry; Hug, Laura A; Thomas, Brian C; Goodrich, Julia K; Bell, Jordana T; Spector, Timothy D; Banfield, Jillian F; Ley, Ruth E

    2013-01-01

    Cyanobacteria were responsible for the oxygenation of the ancient atmosphere; however, the evolution of this phylum is enigmatic, as relatives have not been characterized. Here we use whole genome reconstruction of human fecal and subsurface aquifer metagenomic samples to obtain complete genomes for members of a new candidate phylum sibling to Cyanobacteria, for which we propose the designation ‘Melainabacteria’. Metabolic analysis suggests that the ancestors to both lineages were non-photosynthetic, anaerobic, motile, and obligately fermentative. Cyanobacterial light sensing may have been facilitated by regulators present in the ancestor of these lineages. The subsurface organism has the capacity for nitrogen fixation using a nitrogenase distinct from that in Cyanobacteria, suggesting nitrogen fixation evolved separately in the two lineages. We hypothesize that Cyanobacteria split from Melainabacteria prior or due to the acquisition of oxygenic photosynthesis. Melainabacteria remained in anoxic zones and differentiated by niche adaptation, including for symbiosis in the mammalian gut. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01102.001 PMID:24137540

  17. Genomic Analysis of Melioribacter roseus, Facultatively Anaerobic Organotrophic Bacterium Representing a Novel Deep Lineage within Bacteriodetes/Chlorobi Group

    PubMed Central

    Kadnikov, Vitaly V.; Mardanov, Andrey V.; Podosokorskaya, Olga A.; Gavrilov, Sergey N.; Kublanov, Ilya V.; Beletsky, Alexey V.; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta A.; Ravin, Nikolai V.

    2013-01-01

    Melioribacter roseus is a moderately thermophilic facultatively anaerobic organotrophic bacterium representing a novel deep branch within Bacteriodetes/Chlorobi group. To better understand the metabolic capabilities and possible ecological functions of M. roseus and get insights into the evolutionary history of this bacterial lineage, we sequenced the genome of the type strain P3M-2T. A total of 2838 open reading frames was predicted from its 3.30 Mb genome. The whole proteome analysis supported phylum-level classification of M. roseus since most of the predicted proteins had closest matches in Bacteriodetes, Proteobacteria, Chlorobi, Firmicutes and deeply-branching bacterium Caldithrix abyssi, rather than in one particular phylum. Consistent with the ability of the bacterium to grow on complex carbohydrates, the genome analysis revealed more than one hundred glycoside hydrolases, glycoside transferases, polysaccharide lyases and carbohydrate esterases. The reconstructed central metabolism revealed pathways enabling the fermentation of complex organic substrates, as well as their complete oxidation through aerobic and anaerobic respiration. Genes encoding the photosynthetic and nitrogen-fixation machinery of green sulfur bacteria, as well as key enzymes of autotrophic carbon fixation pathways, were not identified. The M. roseus genome supports its affiliation to a novel phylum Ignavibateriae, representing the first step on the evolutionary pathway from heterotrophic ancestors of Bacteriodetes/Chlorobi group towards anaerobic photoautotrophic Chlorobi. PMID:23301019

  18. Facultative cheating supports the coexistence of diverse quorum-sensing alleles

    PubMed Central

    Pollak, Shaul; Omer-Bendori, Shira; Even-Tov, Eran; Lipsman, Valeria; Bareia, Tasneem; Ben-Zion, Ishay; Eldar, Avigdor

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial quorum sensing enables bacteria to cooperate in a density-dependent manner via the group-wide secretion and detection of specific autoinducer molecules. Many bacterial species show high intraspecific diversity of autoinducer–receptor alleles, called pherotypes. The autoinducer produced by one pherotype activates its coencoded receptor, but not the receptor of another pherotype. It is unclear what selection forces drive the maintenance of pherotype diversity. Here, we use the ComQXPA system of Bacillus subtilis as a model system, to show that pherotype diversity can be maintained by facultative cheating—a minority pherotype exploits the majority, but resumes cooperation when its frequency increases. We find that the maintenance of multiple pherotypes by facultative cheating can persist under kin-selection conditions that select against “obligate cheaters” quorum-sensing response null mutants. Our results therefore support a role for facultative cheating and kin selection in the evolution of quorum-sensing diversity. PMID:26787913

  19. Crassulacean acid metabolism and fitness under water deficit stress: if not for carbon gain, what is facultative CAM good for?

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Ana

    2009-01-01

    Background In obligate Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), up to 99 % of CO2 assimilation occurs during the night, therefore supporting the hypothesis that CAM is adaptive because it allows CO2 fixation during the part of the day with lower evaporative demand, making life in water-limited environments possible. By comparison, in facultative CAM (inducible CAM, C3-CAM) and CAM-cycling plants drought-induced dark CO2 fixation may only be, with few exceptions, a small proportion of C3 CO2 assimilation in watered plants and occur during a few days. From the viewpoint of survival the adaptive advantages, i.e. increased fitness, of facultative CAM and CAM-cycling are not obvious. Therefore, it is hypothesized that, if it is to increase fitness, CAM must aid in reproduction. Scope An examination of published reports of 23 facultative CAM and CAM-cycling species finds that, in 19 species, drought-induced dark CO2 fixation represents on average 11 % of C3 CO2 assimilation of watered plants. Evidence is discussed on the impact of the operation of CAM in facultative and CAM-cycling plants on their survival – carbon balance, water conservation, water absorption, photo-protection of the photosynthetic apparatus – and reproductive effort. It is concluded that in some species, but not all, facultative and cycling CAM contribute, rather than to increase carbon balance, to increase water-use efficiency, water absorption, prevention of photoinhibition and reproductive output. PMID:18708641

  20. 46 CFR 308.544 - Facultative binder, Form MA-315.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Facultative binder, Form MA-315. 308.544 Section 308.544 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Facultative War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.544 Facultative binder, Form...

  1. 46 CFR 308.544 - Facultative binder, Form MA-315.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Facultative binder, Form MA-315. 308.544 Section 308.544 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Iii-Facultative War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.544 Facultative binder, Form...

  2. 46 CFR 308.544 - Facultative binder, Form MA-315.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facultative binder, Form MA-315. 308.544 Section 308.544 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Iii-Facultative War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.544 Facultative binder, Form...

  3. 46 CFR 308.544 - Facultative binder, Form MA-315.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Facultative binder, Form MA-315. 308.544 Section 308.544 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Iii-Facultative War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.544 Facultative binder, Form...

  4. 46 CFR 308.544 - Facultative binder, Form MA-315.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Facultative binder, Form MA-315. 308.544 Section 308.544 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Iii-Facultative War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.544 Facultative binder, Form...

  5. Protein structure, electron transfer and evolution of prokaryotic photosynthetic reaction centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blankenship, R. E.

    1994-01-01

    Photosynthetic reaction centers from a variety of organisms have been isolated and characterized. The groups of prokaryotic photosynthetic organisms include the purple bacteria, the filamentous green bacteria, the green sulfur bacteria and the heliobacteria as anoxygenic representatives as well as the cyanobacteria and prochlorophytes as oxygenic representatives. This review focuses on structural and functional comparisons of the various groups of photosynthetic reaction centers and considers possible evolutionary scenarios to explain the diversity of existing photosynthetic organisms.

  6. Hydrogen production by photosynthetic microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Akano, T.; Fukatsu, K.; Miyasaka, H. |

    1996-12-31

    Hydrogen is a clean energy alternative to the fossil fuels, the main source of greenhouse gas emissions. We developed a stable system for the conversion of solar energy into hydrogen using photosynthetic microorganisms. Our system consists of the following three stages: (1) Photosynthetic starch accumulation in green microalgae (400 L x2); (2) Dark anaerobic fermentation of the algal starch biomass to produce hydrogen and organic compounds (155 L x2); and (3) Further conversion of the organic compounds to produce hydrogen using photosynthetic bacteria (three types of reactors, parallel plate, raceway, and tubular). We constructed a test plant of this process at Nankoh power plant of Kansai Electric Power Company in Osaka, Japan, and carried out a series of tests using CO{sub 2} obtained from a chemical absorption pilot-plant. The photobiological hydrogen production process used a combination of a marine alga, Chlamydomonas sp. MGA 161 and marine photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodopseudomonas sp. W-1S. The dark anaerobic fermentation of algal starch biomass was also investigated. Sustained and stable starch accumulation, starch degradation in the algal cell, and hydrogen production from algal fermentation and photosynthetic bacteria in the light were demonstrated during several experiments. 3 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Iron, Sulfur, Arsenic and Water: Geochemical Implications of Facultative Anoxygenic Photosynthesis in Cyanobacteria and the Slow Rise of Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe-Simon, F.; Johnston, D. T.; Girguis, P. R.; Pearson, A.; Knoll, A. H.

    2008-12-01

    Over geologic time, the global rise in atmospheric oxygen (O2) is attributed to the evolution and wide spread proliferation of oxygenic photosynthesis in cyanobacteria. However, cyanobacteria maintain a metabolic flexibility that may not always result in O2 release. Specifically, cyanobacteria can use a variety of alternative electron donors, rather than water, that are also readily oxidized. These may include sulfur, iron, and arsenic. Cyanobacteria are thus not uniquely constrained towards O2 production. Changes in the bioavailability of these key elements may have had dramatic consequences for and resulted in the slow accumulation of O2 in the atmosphere. In particular, by using facultative anoxygenic photosynthesis the cells maintain advantageous anaerobic conditions for N2-fixation. Although other types of bacteria are capable of N2-fixation, cyanobacteria singularly possess the dynamic capability of generating and surviving O2. These two processes "pull" the cells in opposite directions, metabolically speaking, around an aerobic-anaerobic continuum. Such a strategy also confers a distinct competitive advantage for cyanobacteria over photosynthetic eukaryotes, as they can endure widespread euxinia and maintain their cellular N quota. In an anoxic and/or sulfidic ocean, cyanobacteria would be expected to dominate over eukaryotic algae. Here we present Bayesian constructed phylogenetic distribution of specific genes and the metabolic role of key enzymes that form the basis of this hypothesis. We further suggest that the consequences of this proposed ecosystem structure altered the redox balance of the fluid Earth (atmosphere and oceans) and can help explain the observed long-term geochemical stasis and slow rates of eukaryotic diversification. We suggest that the underlying control for global oxygenation was a synergistic interplay between the evolution and elastic physiology of cyanobacteria as they impacted the redox state of early Earth.

  8. High Efficiency Light Harvesting by Carotenoids in the LH2 Complex from Photosynthetic Bacteria: Unique Adaptation to Growth under Low-Light Conditions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Rhodopin, rhodopinal, and their glucoside derivatives are carotenoids that accumulate in different amounts in the photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodoblastus (Rbl.) acidophilus strain 7050, depending on the intensity of the light under which the organism is grown. The different growth conditions also have a profound effect on the spectra of the bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) pigments that assemble in the major LH2 light-harvesting pigment–protein complex. Under high-light conditions the well-characterized B800-850 LH2 complex is formed and accumulates rhodopin and rhodopin glucoside as the primary carotenoids. Under low-light conditions, a variant LH2, denoted B800-820, is formed, and rhodopinal and rhodopinal glucoside are the most abundant carotenoids. The present investigation compares and contrasts the spectral properties and dynamics of the excited states of rhodopin and rhodopinal in solution. In addition, the systematic differences in pigment composition and structure of the chromophores in the LH2 complexes provide an opportunity to explore the effect of these factors on the rate and efficiency of carotenoid-to-BChl energy transfer. It is found that the enzymatic conversion of rhodopin to rhodopinal by Rbl. acidophilus 7050 grown under low-light conditions results in nearly 100% carotenoid-to-BChl energy transfer efficiency in the LH2 complex. This comparative analysis provides insight into how photosynthetic systems are able to adapt and survive under challenging environmental conditions. PMID:25171303

  9. On the biphoton excitation of the fluorescence of the bacteriochlorophyll molecules of purple photosynthetic bacteria by powerful near IR femto-picosecond pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, A. Yu.

    2011-11-01

    The authors of a number of experimental works detected nonresonance biphoton excitation of bacteriochlorophyll molecules, which represent the main pigment in the light-absorbing natural "antenna" complexes of photosynthesizing purple bacteria, by femtosecond IR pulses (1250-1500 nm). They believe that IR quanta excite hypothetic forbidden levels of the pigments of these bacteria in the double frequency range 625-750 nm. We propose and ground an alternative triplet mechanism to describe this phenomenon. According to our hypothesis, the mechanism of biphoton excitation of molecules by IR quanta can manifest itself specifically, through high triplet levels of molecules in the high fields induced by femtosecond-picosecond laser pulses.

  10. On the biphoton excitation of the fluorescence of the bacteriochlorophyll molecules of purple photosynthetic bacteria by powerful near IR femto-picosecond pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Borisov, A. Yu.

    2011-11-15

    The authors of a number of experimental works detected nonresonance biphoton excitation of bacteriochlorophyll molecules, which represent the main pigment in the light-absorbing natural 'antenna' complexes of photosynthesizing purple bacteria, by femtosecond IR pulses (1250-1500 nm). They believe that IR quanta excite hypothetic forbidden levels of the pigments of these bacteria in the double frequency range 625-750 nm. We propose and ground an alternative triplet mechanism to describe this phenomenon. According to our hypothesis, the mechanism of biphoton excitation of molecules by IR quanta can manifest itself specifically, through high triplet levels of molecules in the high fields induced by femtosecond-picosecond laser pulses.

  11. Worldwide populations of APHIS CRACCIVORA have diverse facultative bacterial symbionts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Facultative bacterial endosymbionts can play an important role in the evolutionary trajectory of their hosts. Aphids are infected with a wide variety of facultative endosymbionts that can confer ecologically relevant traits, which in turn may drive microevolution in a dynamic selective environment....

  12. Endozoicomonas Are Specific, Facultative Symbionts of Sea Squirts.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Lars; Kjeldsen, Kasper U; Funch, Peter; Jensen, Jeppe; Obst, Matthias; López-Legentil, Susanna; Schramm, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Ascidians are marine filter feeders and harbor diverse microbiota that can exhibit a high degree of host-specificity. Pharyngeal samples of Scandinavian and Mediterranean ascidians were screened for consistently associated bacteria by culture-dependent and -independent approaches. Representatives of the Endozoicomonas (Gammaproteobacteria, Hahellaceae) clade were detected in the ascidian species Ascidiella aspersa, Ascidiella scabra, Botryllus schlosseri, Ciona intestinalis, Styela clava, and multiple Ascidia/Ascidiella spp. In total, Endozoicomonas was detected in more than half of all specimens screened, and in 25-100% of the specimens for each species. The retrieved Endozoicomonas 16S rRNA gene sequences formed an ascidian-specific subclade, whose members were detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) as extracellular microcolonies in the pharynx. Two strains of the ascidian-specific Endozoicomonas subclade were isolated in pure culture and characterized. Both strains are chemoorganoheterotrophs and grow on mucin (a mucus glycoprotein). The strains tested negative for cytotoxic or antibacterial activity. Based on these observations, we propose ascidian-associated Endozoicomonas to be commensals, living off the mucus continuously secreted into the pharynx. Members of the ascidian-specific Endozoicomonas subclade were also detected in seawater from the Scandinavian sampling site, which suggests acquisition of the symbionts by horizontal transmission. The combined results indicate a host-specific, yet facultative symbiosis between ascidians and Endozoicomonas. PMID:27462299

  13. Endozoicomonas Are Specific, Facultative Symbionts of Sea Squirts

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Lars; Kjeldsen, Kasper U.; Funch, Peter; Jensen, Jeppe; Obst, Matthias; López-Legentil, Susanna; Schramm, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Ascidians are marine filter feeders and harbor diverse microbiota that can exhibit a high degree of host-specificity. Pharyngeal samples of Scandinavian and Mediterranean ascidians were screened for consistently associated bacteria by culture-dependent and -independent approaches. Representatives of the Endozoicomonas (Gammaproteobacteria, Hahellaceae) clade were detected in the ascidian species Ascidiella aspersa, Ascidiella scabra, Botryllus schlosseri, Ciona intestinalis, Styela clava, and multiple Ascidia/Ascidiella spp. In total, Endozoicomonas was detected in more than half of all specimens screened, and in 25–100% of the specimens for each species. The retrieved Endozoicomonas 16S rRNA gene sequences formed an ascidian-specific subclade, whose members were detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) as extracellular microcolonies in the pharynx. Two strains of the ascidian-specific Endozoicomonas subclade were isolated in pure culture and characterized. Both strains are chemoorganoheterotrophs and grow on mucin (a mucus glycoprotein). The strains tested negative for cytotoxic or antibacterial activity. Based on these observations, we propose ascidian-associated Endozoicomonas to be commensals, living off the mucus continuously secreted into the pharynx. Members of the ascidian-specific Endozoicomonas subclade were also detected in seawater from the Scandinavian sampling site, which suggests acquisition of the symbionts by horizontal transmission. The combined results indicate a host-specific, yet facultative symbiosis between ascidians and Endozoicomonas. PMID:27462299

  14. Evolution and Diversity of Facultative Symbionts from the Aphid Subfamily Lachninae▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Gaelen R.; Normark, Benjamin B.; Favret, Colin; Moran, Nancy A.

    2009-01-01

    Many aphids harbor a variety of endosymbiotic bacteria. The functions of these symbionts can range from an obligate nutritional role to a facultative role in protecting their hosts against environmental stresses. One such symbiont is “Candidatus Serratia symbiotica,” which is involved in defense against heat and potentially also in aphid nutrition. Lachnid aphids have been the focus of several recent studies investigating the transition of this symbiont from a facultative symbiont to an obligate symbiont. In a phylogenetic analysis of Serratia symbionts from 51 lachnid hosts, we found that diversity in symbiont morphology, distribution, and function is due to multiple independent origins of symbiosis from ancestors belonging to Serratia and possibly also to evolution within distinct symbiont clades. Our results do not support cocladogenesis of “Ca. Serratia symbiotica” with Cinara subgenus Cinara species and weigh against an obligate nutritional role. Finally, we show that species belonging to the subfamily Lachninae have a high incidence of facultative symbiont infection. PMID:19542349

  15. Genome characteristics of facultatively symbiotic Frankia sp. strains reflect host range and host plant biogeography.

    PubMed

    Normand, Philippe; Lapierre, Pascal; Tisa, Louis S; Gogarten, Johann Peter; Alloisio, Nicole; Bagnarol, Emilie; Bassi, Carla A; Berry, Alison M; Bickhart, Derek M; Choisne, Nathalie; Couloux, Arnaud; Cournoyer, Benoit; Cruveiller, Stephane; Daubin, Vincent; Demange, Nadia; Francino, Maria Pilar; Goltsman, Eugene; Huang, Ying; Kopp, Olga R; Labarre, Laurent; Lapidus, Alla; Lavire, Celine; Marechal, Joelle; Martinez, Michele; Mastronunzio, Juliana E; Mullin, Beth C; Niemann, James; Pujic, Pierre; Rawnsley, Tania; Rouy, Zoe; Schenowitz, Chantal; Sellstedt, Anita; Tavares, Fernando; Tomkins, Jeffrey P; Vallenet, David; Valverde, Claudio; Wall, Luis G; Wang, Ying; Medigue, Claudine; Benson, David R

    2007-01-01

    Soil bacteria that also form mutualistic symbioses in plants encounter two major levels of selection. One occurs during adaptation to and survival in soil, and the other occurs in concert with host plant speciation and adaptation. Actinobacteria from the genus Frankia are facultative symbionts that form N(2)-fixing root nodules on diverse and globally distributed angiosperms in the "actinorhizal" symbioses. Three closely related clades of Frankia sp. strains are recognized; members of each clade infect a subset of plants from among eight angiosperm families. We sequenced the genomes from three strains; their sizes varied from 5.43 Mbp for a narrow host range strain (Frankia sp. strain HFPCcI3) to 7.50 Mbp for a medium host range strain (Frankia alni strain ACN14a) to 9.04 Mbp for a broad host range strain (Frankia sp. strain EAN1pec.) This size divergence is the largest yet reported for such closely related soil bacteria (97.8%-98.9% identity of 16S rRNA genes). The extent of gene deletion, duplication, and acquisition is in concert with the biogeographic history of the symbioses and host plant speciation. Host plant isolation favored genome contraction, whereas host plant diversification favored genome expansion. The results support the idea that major genome expansions as well as reductions can occur in facultative symbiotic soil bacteria as they respond to new environments in the context of their symbioses. PMID:17151343

  16. Facultative parthenogenesis discovered in wild vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Warren; Smith, Charles F.; Eskridge, Pamela H.; Hoss, Shannon K.; Mendelson, Joseph R.; Schuett, Gordon W.

    2012-01-01

    Facultative parthenogenesis (FP)—asexual reproduction by bisexual species—has been documented in a variety of multi-cellular organisms but only recently in snakes, varanid lizards, birds and sharks. Unlike the approximately 80 taxa of unisexual reptiles, amphibians and fishes that exist in nature, FP has yet to be documented in the wild. Based on captive documentation, it appears that FP is widespread in squamate reptiles (snakes, lizards and amphisbaenians), and its occurrence in nature seems inevitable, yet the task of detecting FP in wild individuals has been deemed formidable. Here we show, using microsatellite DNA genotyping and litter characteristics, the first cases of FP in wild-collected pregnant females and their offspring of two closely related species of North American pitviper snakes—the copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus). Our findings support the view that non-hybrid origins of parthenogenesis, such as FP, are more common in squamates than previously thought. With this confirmation, FP can no longer be viewed as a rare curiosity outside the mainstream of vertebrate evolution. Future research on FP in squamate reptiles related to proximate control of induction, reproductive competence of parthenogens and population genetics modelling is warranted. PMID:22977071

  17. Antibacterial susceptibility of plaque bacteria.

    PubMed

    Newman, M G; Hulem, C; Colgate, J; Anselmo, C

    1979-07-01

    Selected anaerobic, capnophilic and facultative bacteria isolated from patients with various forms of periodontal health and disease were tested for their susceptibility to antibiotics and antimicrobial agents. Specific bactericidal and minimum inhibitory concentrations were compared to disc zone diameters, thereby generating new standards for the potential selection of antimicrobial agents. PMID:286720

  18. A method for estimation of permittivity in photosynthetic membranes and the effect of permittivity on the photosynthetic quantum yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, A. Yu.

    2013-02-01

    A new method for estimation of the internal permittivity of photosynthetic membranes is based on joint analysis of the optical data with high spectral resolution and precise X-ray data. The permittivity of the bacteriochlorophyll-containing membranes of purple bacteria ranges from 1.62 to 1.75. The relatively low permittivity of photosynthetic organisms provides a significant increase in the efficiency of energy migration from multiple antenna chlorophylls to reaction centers and photosynthetic efficiency in general.

  19. Compartmental model for organic matter digestion in facultative ponds.

    PubMed

    Giraldo, E; Garzón, A

    2002-01-01

    A model has been developed for the digestion of organic matter in facultative ponds in tropical regions. Complete mixing has been assumed for the aerobic and anaerobic compartments. Settling, aerobic layer oxidation, and anaerobic layer methanogenesis are the main processes for organic matter removal in the water column. Exchange processes between layers are dispersive or soluble exchange, solubilization and transport of organic matter from sediments to water column are also taken into account. Degradation of organic matter in the sediments produces gaseous emissions to the water column. The exchange between bubbles ascending and the water column was measured. The model was calibrated with data obtained from a pilot facultative pond built in Muña Reservoir in Bogotá. The pond was sampled during 4 months to compare data between its water hyacinth covered section and uncovered section. The results clearly show the relative importance of different BOD removal processes in facultative ponds and suggest modifications to further improve performance. The results from the model suggest that internal loadings to facultative ponds due to solubilization and return of organic matter from the sediments to the aerobic layer greatly influence the soluble BOD effluent concentration. Aerobic degradation activity in the facultative pond does not affect significantly the effluent concentration. Anaerobic degradation activity in the facultative pond can more easily achieve increases in the removal efficiencies of BOD. PMID:11833730

  20. Photosynthetic reaction center complexes from heliobacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trost, J. T.; Vermaas, W. F. J.; Blankenship, R. E.

    1991-01-01

    Photosynthetic reaction centers are pigment-protein complexes that are responsible for the transduction of light energy into chemical energy. Considerable evidence indicates that photosynthetic organisms were present very early in the evolution of life on Earth. The goal of this project is to understand the early evolutionary development of photosynthesis by examining the properties of reaction centers isolated from certain contemporary organisms that appear to contain the simplest photosynthetic reaction centers. The major focus is on the family of newly discovered strictly anaerobic photosynthetic organisms that are grouped with the gram-positive phylum of bacteria. The properties of these reactions centers suggest that they may be the descendants of an ancestor that also gave rise to Photosystem 1 found in oxygen-evolving photosynthetic organisms. Photoactive reaction center-core antenna complexes were isolated from the photosynthetic bacteria, Heliobacillus mobilis and Heliobacterium gestii, by extraction of membranes with Deriphat 160C followed by differential centrifugation and sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Other aspects of this investigation are briefly discussed.

  1. A Rapid Method for the Extraction and Analysis of Carotenoids and Other Hydrophobic Substances Suitable for Systems Biology Studies with Photosynthetic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Bóna-Lovász, Judit; Bóna, Aron; Ederer, Michael; Sawodny, Oliver; Ghosh, Robin

    2013-01-01

    A simple, rapid, and inexpensive extraction method for carotenoids and other non-polar compounds present in phototrophic bacteria has been developed. The method, which has been extensively tested on the phototrophic purple non-sulphur bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum, is suitable for extracting large numbers of samples, which is common in systems biology studies, and yields material suitable for subsequent analysis using HPLC and mass spectroscopy. The procedure is particularly suitable for carotenoids and other terpenoids, including quinones, bacteriochlorophyll a and bacteriopheophytin a, and is also useful for the analysis of polar phospholipids. The extraction procedure requires only a single step extraction with a hexane/methanol/water mixture, followed by HPLC using a Spherisorb C18 column, with a mobile phase consisting of acetone-water and a non-linear gradient of 50%–100% acetone. The method was employed for examining the carotenoid composition observed during microaerophilic growth of R. rubrum strains, and was able to determine 18 carotenoids, 4 isoprenoid-quinones, bacteriochlorophyll a and bacteriopheophytin a as well as four different phosphatidylglycerol species of different acyl chain compositions. The analytical procedure was used to examine the dynamics of carotenoid biosynthesis in the major and minor pathways operating simultaneously in a carotenoid biosynthesis mutant of R. rubrum. PMID:24958257

  2. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Enteric Gram Negative Facultative Anaerobe Bacilli in Aerobic versus Anaerobic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Amachawadi, Raghavendra G.; Renter, David G.; Volkova, Victoriya V.

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial treatments result in the host’s enteric bacteria being exposed to the antimicrobials. Pharmacodynamic models can describe how this exposure affects the enteric bacteria and their antimicrobial resistance. The models utilize measurements of bacterial antimicrobial susceptibility traditionally obtained in vitro in aerobic conditions. However, in vivo enteric bacteria are exposed to antimicrobials in anaerobic conditions of the lower intestine. Some of enteric bacteria of food animals are potential foodborne pathogens, e.g., Gram-negative bacilli Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. These are facultative anaerobes; their physiology and growth rates change in anaerobic conditions. We hypothesized that their antimicrobial susceptibility also changes, and evaluated differences in the susceptibility in aerobic vs. anaerobic conditions of generic E. coli and Salmonella enterica of diverse serovars isolated from cattle feces. Susceptibility of an isolate was evaluated as its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) measured by E-Test® following 24 hours of adaptation to the conditions on Mueller-Hinton agar, and on a more complex tryptic soy agar with 5% sheep blood (BAP) media. We considered all major antimicrobial drug classes used in the U.S. to treat cattle: β-lactams (specifically, ampicillin and ceftriaxone E-Test®), aminoglycosides (gentamicin and kanamycin), fluoroquinolones (enrofloxacin), classical macrolides (erythromycin), azalides (azithromycin), sulfanomides (sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim), and tetracyclines (tetracycline). Statistical analyses were conducted for the isolates (n≥30) interpreted as susceptible to the antimicrobials based on the clinical breakpoint interpretation for human infection. Bacterial susceptibility to every antimicrobial tested was statistically significantly different in anaerobic vs. aerobic conditions on both media, except for no difference in susceptibility to ceftriaxone on BAP agar. A satellite experiment

  3. Conditional Reduction of Predation Risk Associated with a Facultative Symbiont in an Insect.

    PubMed

    Polin, Sarah; Le Gallic, Jean-François; Simon, Jean-Christophe; Tsuchida, Tsutomu; Outreman, Yannick

    2015-01-01

    Symbionts are widespread among eukaryotes and their impacts on the ecology and evolution of their hosts are meaningful. Most insects harbour obligate and facultative symbiotic bacteria that can influence their phenotype. In the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, an astounding symbiotic-mediated phenotype has been recently observed: when infected with the symbiotic bacteria Rickettsiella viridis, young red aphid larvae become greener at adulthood and even darker green when co-infected with Rickettsiella viridis and Hamiltonella defensa. As body colour affects the susceptibility towards natural enemies in aphids, the influence of the colour change due to these facultative symbionts on the host survival in presence of predators was tested. Our results suggested that the Rickettsiella viridis infection may impact positively host survival by reducing predation risk. Due to results from uninfected aphids (i.e., more green ones attacked), the main assumption is that this symbiotic infection would deter the predatory ladybird feeding by reducing the profitability of their hosts rather than decreasing host detection through body colour change. Aphids co-infected with Rickettsiella viridis and Hamiltonella defensa were, however, more exposed to predation suggesting an ecological cost associated with multiple infections. The underlying mechanisms and ecological consequences of these symbiotic effects are discussed. PMID:26618776

  4. Conditional Reduction of Predation Risk Associated with a Facultative Symbiont in an Insect

    PubMed Central

    Polin, Sarah; Le Gallic, Jean-François; Simon, Jean-Christophe; Tsuchida, Tsutomu; Outreman, Yannick

    2015-01-01

    Symbionts are widespread among eukaryotes and their impacts on the ecology and evolution of their hosts are meaningful. Most insects harbour obligate and facultative symbiotic bacteria that can influence their phenotype. In the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, an astounding symbiotic-mediated phenotype has been recently observed: when infected with the symbiotic bacteria Rickettsiella viridis, young red aphid larvae become greener at adulthood and even darker green when co-infected with Rickettsiella viridis and Hamiltonella defensa. As body colour affects the susceptibility towards natural enemies in aphids, the influence of the colour change due to these facultative symbionts on the host survival in presence of predators was tested. Our results suggested that the Rickettsiella viridis infection may impact positively host survival by reducing predation risk. Due to results from uninfected aphids (i.e., more green ones attacked), the main assumption is that this symbiotic infection would deter the predatory ladybird feeding by reducing the profitability of their hosts rather than decreasing host detection through body colour change. Aphids co-infected with Rickettsiella viridis and Hamiltonella defensa were, however, more exposed to predation suggesting an ecological cost associated with multiple infections. The underlying mechanisms and ecological consequences of these symbiotic effects are discussed. PMID:26618776

  5. Diapause and maintenance of facultative sexual reproductive strategies.

    PubMed

    Stelzer, Claus-Peter; Lehtonen, Jussi

    2016-10-19

    Facultative sex combines sexual and asexual reproduction in the same individual (or clone) and allows for a large diversity of life-history patterns regarding the timing, frequency and intensity of sexual episodes. In addition, other life-history traits such as a diapause stage may become linked to sex. Here, we develop a matrix modelling framework for addressing the cost of sex in facultative sexuals, in constant, periodic and stochastically fluctuating environments. The model is parametrized using life-history data from Brachionus calyciflorus, a facultative sexual rotifer in which sex and diapause are linked. Sexual propensity was an important driver of costs in constant environments, in which high costs (always > onefold, and sometimes > twofold) indicated that asexuals should outcompete facultative sexuals. By contrast, stochastic environments with high temporal autocorrelation favoured facultative sex over obligate asex, in particular, if the penalty to fecundity in 'bad' environments was large. In such environments, obligate asexuals were constrained by their life cycle length (i.e. time from birth to last reproductive adult age class), which determined an upper limit to the number of consecutive bad periods they could tolerate. Nevertheless, when facultative asexuals with different sexual propensities competed simultaneously against each other and asex, the lowest sex propensity was the most successful in stochastic environments with positive autocorrelation. Our results suggest that a highly specific mechanism (i.e. diapause linked to sex) can alone stabilize facultative sex in these animals, and protect it from invasion of both asexual and pure sexual strategies.This article is part of the themed issue 'Weird sex: the underappreciated diversity of sexual reproduction'. PMID:27619700

  6. Sulfate-reducing bacteria and their activities in cyanobacterial mats of solar lake (Sinai, Egypt).

    PubMed

    Teske, A; Ramsing, N B; Habicht, K; Fukui, M; Küver, J; Jørgensen, B B; Cohen, Y

    1998-08-01

    The sulfate-reducing bacteria within the surface layer of the hypersaline cyanobacterial mat of Solar Lake (Sinai, Egypt) were investigated with combined microbiological, molecular, and biogeochemical approaches. The diurnally oxic surface layer contained between 10(6) and 10(7) cultivable sulfate-reducing bacteria ml-1 and showed sulfate reduction rates between 1,000 and 2, 200 nmol ml-1 day-1, both in the same range as and sometimes higher than those in anaerobic deeper mat layers. In the oxic surface layer and in the mat layers below, filamentous sulfate-reducing Desulfonema bacteria were found in variable densities of 10(4) to 10(6) cells ml-1. A Desulfonema-related, diurnally migrating bacterium was detected with PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis within and below the oxic surface layer. Facultative aerobic respiration, filamentous morphology, motility, diurnal migration, and aggregate formation were the most conspicuous adaptations of Solar Lake sulfate-reducing bacteria to the mat matrix and to diurnal oxygen stress. A comparison of sulfate reduction rates within the mat and previously published photosynthesis rates showed that CO2 from sulfate reduction in the upper 5 mm accounted for 7 to 8% of the total photosynthetic CO2 demand of the mat. PMID:9687455

  7. Facultative thermogenesis during brooding is not the norm among pythons.

    PubMed

    Brashears, Jake; DeNardo, Dale F

    2015-08-01

    Facultative thermogenesis is often attributed to pythons in general despite limited comparative data available for the family. While all species within Pythonidae brood their eggs, only two species are known to produce heat to enhance embryonic thermal regulation. By contrast, a few python species have been reported to have insignificant thermogenic capabilities. To provide insight into potential phylogenetic, morphological, and ecological factors influencing thermogenic capability among pythons, we measured metabolic rates and clutch-environment temperature differentials at two environmental temperatures-python preferred brooding temperature (31.5 °C) and a sub-optimal temperature (25.5 °C)-in six species of pythons, including members of two major phylogenetic branches currently devoid of data on the subject. We found no evidence of facultative thermogenesis in five species: Aspidites melanocephalus, A. ramsayi, Morelia viridis, M. spilota cheynei, and Python regius. However, we found that Bothrochilus boa had a thermal metabolic sensitivity indicative of facultative thermogenesis (i.e., a higher metabolic rate at the lower temperature). However, its metabolic rate was quite low and technical challenges prevented us from measuring temperature differential to make conclusions about facultative endothermy in this species. Regardless, our data combined with existing literature demonstrate that facultative thermogenesis is not as widespread among pythons as previously thought. PMID:26113382

  8. Two host clades, two bacterial arsenals: evolution through gene losses in facultative endosymbionts.

    PubMed

    Rollat-Farnier, Pierre-Antoine; Santos-Garcia, Diego; Rao, Qiong; Sagot, Marie-France; Silva, Francisco J; Henri, Hélène; Zchori-Fein, Einat; Latorre, Amparo; Moya, Andrés; Barbe, Valérie; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Vavre, Fabrice; Mouton, Laurence

    2015-03-01

    Bacterial endosymbiosis is an important evolutionary process in insects, which can harbor both obligate and facultative symbionts. The evolution of these symbionts is driven by evolutionary convergence, and they exhibit among the tiniest genomes in prokaryotes. The large host spectrum of facultative symbionts and the high diversity of strategies they use to infect new hosts probably impact the evolution of their genome and explain why they undergo less severe genomic erosion than obligate symbionts. Candidatus Hamiltonella defensa is suitable for the investigation of the genomic evolution of facultative symbionts because the bacteria are engaged in specific relationships in two clades of insects. In aphids, H. defensa is found in several species with an intermediate prevalence and confers protection against parasitoids. In whiteflies, H. defensa is almost fixed in some species of Bemisia tabaci, which suggests an important role of and a transition toward obligate symbiosis. In this study, comparisons of the genome of H. defensa present in two B. tabaci species (Middle East Asia Minor 1 and Mediterranean) and in the aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum revealed that they belong to two distinct clades and underwent specific gene losses. In aphids, it contains highly virulent factors that could allow protection and horizontal transfers. In whiteflies, the genome lost these factors and seems to have a limited ability to acquire genes. However it contains genes that could be involved in the production of essential nutrients, which is consistent with a primordial role for this symbiont. In conclusion, although both lineages of H. defensa have mutualistic interactions with their hosts, their genomes follow distinct evolutionary trajectories that reflect their phenotype and could have important consequences on their evolvability. PMID:25714744

  9. Parotitis due to anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Matlow, A; Korentager, R; Keystone, E; Bohnen, J

    1988-01-01

    Although Staphylococcus aureus remains the pathogen most commonly implicated in acute suppurative parotitis, the pathogenic role of gram-negative facultative anaerobic bacteria and strict anaerobic organisms in this disease is becoming increasingly recognized. This report describes a case of parotitis due to Bacteroides disiens in an elderly woman with Sjögren's syndrome. Literature reports on seven additional cases of suppurative parotitis due to anaerobic bacteria are reviewed. Initial therapy of acute suppurative parotitis should include coverage for S. aureus and, in a very ill patient, coverage of gram-negative facultative organisms with antibiotics such as cloxacillin and an aminoglycoside. A failure to respond clinically to such a regimen or isolation of anaerobic bacteria should lead to the consideration of the addition of clindamycin or penicillin. PMID:3287567

  10. (Carbon monoxide metabolism by photosynthetic bacteria)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    Research continued on the metabolism of carbon monoxide by Rhodospirillum rubrum. This report discusses progress on the activity, induction, inhibition, and spectroscopic analysis of the enzyme Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase. (CBS)

  11. The Facultative Symbiont Rickettsia Protects an Invasive Whitefly against Entomopathogenic Pseudomonas syringae Strains

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Martha S.; Baltrus, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Facultative endosymbionts can benefit insect hosts in a variety of ways, including context-dependent roles, such as providing defense against pathogens. The role of some symbionts in defense may be overlooked, however, when pathogen infection is transient, sporadic, or asymptomatic. The facultative endosymbiont Rickettsia increases the fitness of the sweet potato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) in some populations through mechanisms that are not yet understood. In this study, we investigated the role of Rickettsia in mediating the interaction between the sweet potato whitefly and Pseudomonas syringae, a common environmental bacterium, some strains of which are pathogenic to aphids. Our results show that P. syringae multiplies within whiteflies, leading to host death, and that whiteflies infected with Rickettsia show a decreased rate of death due to P. syringae. Experiments using plants coated with P. syringae confirmed that whiteflies can acquire the bacteria at a low rate while feeding, leading to increased mortality, particularly when the whiteflies are not infected with Rickettsia. These results suggest that P. syringae may affect whitefly populations in nature and that Rickettsia can ameliorate this effect. This study highlights the possible importance of interactions among opportunistic environmental pathogens and endosymbionts of insects. PMID:25217020

  12. Facultative Lagoons. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Lorri

    The textual material for a unit on facultative lagoons is presented in this student manual. Topic areas discussed include: (1) loading; (2) microbial theory; (3) structure and design; (4) process control; (5) lagoon start-up; (6) data handling and analysis; (7) lagoon maintenance (considering visual observations, pond structure, safety, odor,…

  13. Facultative Lagoons. Instructor's Guide. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Lorri

    This instructor's guide contains materials needed to teach a two-lesson unit on the structure and components of facultative lagoons, the biological theory of their operation, and factors affecting their operation. Control testing recommendations, maintenance guidelines, and troubleshooting hints are also provided. These materials include: (1) an…

  14. Photosynthetic water splitting

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, E.

    1981-01-01

    The photosynthetic unit of hydrogen evolution, the turnover time of photosynthetic hydrogen production, and hydrogenic photosynthesis are discussed in the section on previous work. Recent results are given on simultaneous photoproduction of hydrogen and oxygen, kinetic studies, microscopic marine algae-seaweeds, and oxygen profiles.

  15. Culturable Aerobic and Facultative Anaerobic Intestinal Bacterial Flora of Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) in Southern Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Junaid; Sagheer, Mehwish; Tabassum, Nazneen; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Using morphological analysis and biochemical testing, here for the first time, we determined the culturable gut bacterial flora (aerobes and facultative anaerobes) in the venomous Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) from South Asia. The findings revealed that these snakes inhabit potentially pathogenic bacteria including Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shewanella putrefaciens, Aeromonas hydrophila, Salmonella sp., Moraxella sp., Bacillus sp., Ochrobactrum anthropi, and Providencia rettgeri. These findings are of concern, as injury from snake bite can result in wound infections and tissue necrosis leading to sepsis/necrotizing fasciitis and/or expose consumers of snake meat/medicine in the community to infections. PMID:25002979

  16. Culturable Aerobic and Facultative Anaerobic Intestinal Bacterial Flora of Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) in Southern Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Junaid; Sagheer, Mehwish; Tabassum, Nazneen; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Using morphological analysis and biochemical testing, here for the first time, we determined the culturable gut bacterial flora (aerobes and facultative anaerobes) in the venomous Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) from South Asia. The findings revealed that these snakes inhabit potentially pathogenic bacteria including Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shewanella putrefaciens, Aeromonas hydrophila, Salmonella sp., Moraxella sp., Bacillus sp., Ochrobactrum anthropi, and Providencia rettgeri. These findings are of concern, as injury from snake bite can result in wound infections and tissue necrosis leading to sepsis/necrotizing fasciitis and/or expose consumers of snake meat/medicine in the community to infections. PMID:25002979

  17. Oxygen concentration inside a functioning photosynthetic cell.

    PubMed

    Kihara, Shigeharu; Hartzler, Daniel A; Savikhin, Sergei

    2014-05-01

    The excess oxygen concentration in the photosynthetic membranes of functioning oxygenic photosynthetic cells was estimated using classical diffusion theory combined with experimental data on oxygen production rates of cyanobacterial cells. The excess oxygen concentration within the plesiomorphic cyanobacterium Gloeobactor violaceus is only 0.025 μM, or four orders of magnitude lower than the oxygen concentration in air-saturated water. Such a low concentration suggests that the first oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria in solitary form could have evolved ∼2.8 billion years ago without special mechanisms to protect them against reactive oxygen species. These mechanisms instead could have been developed during the following ∼500 million years while the oxygen level in the Earth's atmosphere was slowly rising. Excess oxygen concentrations within individual cells of the apomorphic cyanobacteria Synechocystis and Synechococcus are 0.064 and 0.25 μM, respectively. These numbers suggest that intramembrane and intracellular proteins in isolated oxygenic photosynthetic cells are not subjected to excessively high oxygen levels. The situation is different for closely packed colonies of photosynthetic cells. Calculations show that the excess concentration within colonies that are ∼40 μm or larger in diameter can be comparable to the oxygen concentration in air-saturated water, suggesting that species forming colonies require protection against reactive oxygen species even in the absence of oxygen in the surrounding atmosphere. PMID:24806920

  18. Diverse Bacteria Inhabit Living Hyphae of Phylogenetically Diverse Fungal Endophytes▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Michele T.; Arnold, A. Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Both the establishment and outcomes of plant-fungus symbioses can be influenced by abiotic factors, the interplay of fungal and plant genotypes, and additional microbes associated with fungal mycelia. Recently bacterial endosymbionts were documented in soilborne Glomeromycota and Mucoromycotina and in at least one species each of mycorrhizal Basidiomycota and Ascomycota. Here we show for the first time that phylogenetically diverse endohyphal bacteria occur in living hyphae of diverse foliar endophytes, including representatives of four classes of Ascomycota. We examined 414 isolates of endophytic fungi, isolated from photosynthetic tissues of six species of cupressaceous trees in five biogeographic provinces, for endohyphal bacteria using microscopy and molecular techniques. Viable bacteria were observed within living hyphae of endophytic Pezizomycetes, Dothideomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, and Sordariomycetes from all tree species and biotic regions surveyed. A focus on 29 fungus/bacterium associations revealed that bacterial and fungal phylogenies were incongruent with each other and with taxonomic relationships of host plants. Overall, eight families and 15 distinct genotypes of endohyphal bacteria were recovered; most were members of the Proteobacteria, but a small number of Bacillaceae also were found, including one that appears to occur as an endophyte of plants. Frequent loss of bacteria following subculturing suggests a facultative association. Our study recovered distinct lineages of endohyphal bacteria relative to previous studies, is the first to document their occurrence in foliar endophytes representing four of the most species-rich classes of fungi, and highlights for the first time their diversity and phylogenetic relationships with regard both to the endophytes they inhabit and the plants in which these endophyte-bacterium symbiota occur. PMID:20435775

  19. Production of Value-added Products by Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a group of facultative anaerobic, catalase negative, nonmotile and nonsporeforming–Gram positive bacteria. Most LAB utilize high energy C sources including monomer sugars to produce energy to maintain cellular structure and function. This anaerobic fermentation proce...

  20. Facultative to strict anaerobes ratio in the preterm infant microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Arboleya, Silvia; Solís, Gonzalo; Fernández, Nuria; de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G.; Gueimonde, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    During recent years there has been an increasing interest on the development of strategies for modulating the process of microbiota establishment in preterm infants. For successfully developing of such strategies, a detailed knowledge of the microbiota establishment process in these infants is needed. In a previous study we evidenced clear alterations in the process of microbiota establishment in preterm newborns when compared with a control group of full-term breast-fed infants. Here we have analyzed these data more in depth, corroborating a reduced proportion of strict anaerobes with respect to facultatives in the fecal microbiota of preterm infants. The potential benefits, as well as the side effects, of strategies aimed at counterbalancing this alteration in the facultative to strict anaerobes ratio are discussed in this addendum. PMID:22922559

  1. Parasitoids as vectors of facultative bacterial endosymbionts in aphids.

    PubMed

    Gehrer, Lukas; Vorburger, Christoph

    2012-08-23

    Heritable bacterial endosymbionts play an important role in aphid ecology. Sequence-based evidence suggests that facultative symbionts such as Hamiltonella defensa or Regiella insecticola also undergo horizontal transmission. Other than through male-to-female transfer during the sexual generation in autumn, the routes by which this occurs remain largely unknown. Here, we tested if parasitoids or ectoparasitic mites can act as vectors for horizontal transfer of facultative symbionts. Using symbiont-specific primers for diagnostic PCR, we demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, that parasitoids can indeed transfer H. defensa and R. insecticola by sequentially stabbing infected and uninfected individuals of their host, Aphis fabae, establishing new, heritable infections. Thus, a natural route of horizontal symbiont transmission is also available during the many clonal generations of the aphid life cycle. No transmissions by ectoparasitic mites were observed, nor did parasitoids that emerged from symbiont-infected aphids transfer any symbionts in our experiments. PMID:22417790

  2. Evolutionary genetic consequences of facultative sex and outcrossing.

    PubMed

    Hartfield, M

    2016-01-01

    Explaining the selective forces that underlie different reproductive modes forms a major part of evolution research. Many organisms are facultative sexuals, with the ability to reproduce both sexually and asexually. Reduced sequencing costs means it is now possible to start investigating genome sequences of a wider number of these organisms in depth, but teasing apart the genetic forces underlying the maintenance of facultative sexual reproduction remains a challenge. An analogous problem exists when determining the genetic consequences of a degree of outcrossing (and recombination) in otherwise self-fertilizing organisms. Here, I provide an overview of existing research on the evolutionary basis behind different reproductive modes, with a focus on explaining the population genetic effects favouring low outcrossing rates in either partially selfing or asexual species. I review the outcomes that both self-fertilization and asexuality have on either purging deleterious mutations or fixing beneficial alleles, and what empirical data exist to support these theories. In particular, a greater application of mathematical models to genomic data has provided insight into the numerous effects that transitions to self-fertilization from outcrossing have on genetic architecture. Similar modelling approaches could be used to determine the forces shaping genetic diversity of facultative sexual species. Hence, a further unification of mathematical models with next-generation sequence data will prove important in exploring the genetic influences on reproductive system evolution. PMID:26431643

  3. Enhanced start-up of anaerobic facultatively autotrophic biocathodes in bioelectrochemical systems.

    PubMed

    Zaybak, Zehra; Pisciotta, John M; Tokash, Justin C; Logan, Bruce E

    2013-12-01

    Biocathodes in bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) can be used to convert CO2 into diverse organic compounds through a process called microbial electrosynthesis. Unfortunately, start-up of anaerobic biocathodes in BESs is a difficult and time consuming process. Here, a pre-enrichment method was developed to improve start-up of anaerobic facultatively autotrophic biocathodes capable of using cathodes as the electron donor (electrotrophs) and CO2 as the electron acceptor. Anaerobic enrichment of bacteria from freshwater bog sediment samples was first performed in batch cultures fed with glucose and then used to inoculate BES cathode chambers set at -0.4V (versus a standard hydrogen electrode; SHE). After two weeks of heterotrophic operation of BESs, CO2 was provided as the sole electron acceptor and carbon source. Consumption of electrons from cathodes increased gradually and was sustained for about two months in concert with a significant decrease in cathode chamber headspace CO2. The maximum current density consumed was -34 ± 4 mA/m(2). Biosynthesis resulted in organic compounds that included butanol, ethanol, acetate, propionate, butyrate, and hydrogen gas. Bacterial community analyses based on 16S rRNA gene clone libraries revealed Trichococcus palustris DSM 9172 (99% sequence identity) as the prevailing species in biocathode communities, followed by Oscillibacter sp. and Clostridium sp. Isolates from autotrophic cultivation were most closely related to Clostridium propionicum (99% sequence identity; ZZ16), Clostridium celerecrescens (98-99%; ZZ22, ZZ23), Desulfotomaculum sp. (97%; ZZ21), and Tissierella sp. (98%; ZZ25). This pre-enrichment procedure enables simplified start-up of anaerobic biocathodes for applications such as electrofuel production by facultatively autotrophic electrotrophs. PMID:24126154

  4. Rapid isolation of a facultative anaerobic electrochemically active bacterium capable of oxidizing acetate for electrogenesis and azo dyes reduction.

    PubMed

    Shen, Nan; Yuan, Shi-Jie; Wu, Chao; Cheng, Yuan-Yuan; Song, Xiang-Ning; Li, Wen-Wei; Tong, Zhong-Hua; Yu, Han-Qing

    2014-05-01

    In this study, 27 strains of electrochemically active bacteria (EAB) were rapidly isolated and their capabilities of extracellular electron transfer were identified using a photometric method based on WO3 nanoclusters. These strains caused color change of WO3 from white to blue in a 24-well agar plate within 40 h. Most of the isolated EAB strains belonged to the genera of Aeromonas and Shewanella. One isolate, Pantoea agglomerans S5-44, was identified as an EAB that can utilize acetate as the carbon source to produce electricity and reduce azo dyes under anaerobic conditions. The results confirmed the capability of P. agglomerans S5-44 for extracellular electron transfer. The isolation of this acetate-utilizing, facultative EBA reveals the metabolic diversity of environmental bacteria. Such strains have great potential for environmental applications, especially at interfaces of aerobic and anaerobic environments, where acetate is the main available carbon source. PMID:24648142

  5. Genomes of three facultatively symbiotic Frankia sp. strainsreflect host plant biogeography

    SciTech Connect

    Normand, Philippe; Lapierre, Pascal; Tisa, Louis S.; Gogarten, J.Peter; Alloisio, Nicole; Bagnarol, Emilie; Bassi, Carla A.; Berry,Alison; Bickhart, Derek M.; Choisne, Nathalie; Couloux, Arnaud; Cournoyer, Benoit; Cruveiller, Stephane; Daubin, Vincent; Demange, Nadia; Francino, M. Pilar; Ggoltsman, Eugene; Huang, Ying; Kopp, Olga; Labarre,Laurent; Lapidus, Alla; Lavire, Celine; Marechal, Joelle; Martinez,Michele; Mastronunzio, Juliana E.; Mullin, Beth; Niemann, James; Pujic,Pierre; Rawnsley, Tania; Rouy, Zoe; Schenowitz, Chantal; Sellstedt,Anita; Tavares, Fernando; Tomkins, Jeffrey P.; Vallenet, David; Valverde,Claudio; Wall, Luis; Wang, Ying; Medigue, Claudine; Benson, David R.

    2006-02-01

    Filamentous actinobacteria from the genus Frankia anddiverse woody trees and shrubs together form N2-fixing actinorhizal rootnodule symbioses that are a major source of new soil nitrogen in widelydiverse biomes 1. Three major clades of Frankia sp. strains are defined;each clade is associated with a defined subset of plants from among theeight actinorhizal plant families 2,3. The evolution arytrajectoriesfollowed by the ancestors of both symbionts leading to current patternsof symbiont compatibility are unknown. Here we show that the competingprocesses of genome expansion and contraction have operated in differentgroups of Frankia strains in a manner that can be related to thespeciation of the plant hosts and their geographic distribution. Wesequenced and compared the genomes from three Frankia sp. strains havingdifferent host plant specificities. The sizes of their genomes variedfrom 5.38 Mbp for a narrow host range strain (HFPCcI3) to 7.50Mbp for amedium host range strain (ACN14a) to 9.08 Mbp for a broad host rangestrain (EAN1pec.) This size divergence is the largest yet reported forsuch closely related bacteria. Since the order of divergence of thestrains is known, the extent of gene deletion, duplication andacquisition could be estimated and was found to be inconcert with thebiogeographic history of the symbioses. Host plant isolation favoredgenome contraction, whereas host plant diversification favored genomeexpansion. The results support the idea that major genome reductions aswell as expansions can occur in facultatively symbiotic soil bacteria asthey respond to new environments in the context of theirsymbioses.

  6. [ENTRY OF FACULTATIVE PATHOGEN SERRATIA GRIMESII INTO HELA CELLS. ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC ANALYSIS].

    PubMed

    Bozhokina, E S; Kever, L V; Komissarchik, Ya Yu; Khaitlina, S Yu; Efremova, T N

    2015-01-01

    Facultative pathogens Serratia grimesii are able to invade eukaryotic cells where they have been found in vacuoles and free in the cytoplasm (Efremova et al., 2001; Bozhokina et al., 2011). However, efficiency of this invasion is low, and the mechanisms of the invasion related to the initial steps of the process are not known. In the present study, we have increased the invasion efficiency by incubation of HeLa cells with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) preceding the infection. In the NAC-pretreated cells, two modes of S. grimesii to enter HeLa cells were observed. In the most cases, the penetration of S. grimesii into the cell was consistent with the "zipper mechanism", involving specific interaction of bacterial invasin with a host cell surface receptor. However, in some cases, bacteria were trapped by membrane ruffling probably produced by injected bacterial proteins that trigger the bacterial uptake process, as described in the "trigger mechanism". Further elucidation of bacterial and cellular factors involved in the bacteria-host cell interaction should clarify whether two different mechanisms or a predominant one operate during S. grimesii invasion. PMID:26863770

  7. Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} fixation and energy production - microalgae as a main subject

    SciTech Connect

    Asada, Yasuo

    1993-12-31

    Research activities for application of microalgal photosynthesis to CO{sub 2} fixation in Japan are overviewed. Presenter`s studies on energy (hydrogen gas) production by cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) and photosynthetic bacteria are also introduced.

  8. Facultative parthenogenesis in a critically endangered wild vertebrate.

    PubMed

    Fields, Andrew T; Feldheim, Kevin A; Poulakis, Gregg R; Chapman, Demian D

    2015-06-01

    Facultative parthenogenesis - the ability of sexually reproducing species to sometimes produce offspring asexually - is known from a wide range of ordinarily sexually reproducing vertebrates in captivity, including some birds, reptiles and sharks [1-3]. Despite this, free-living parthenogens have never been observed in any of these taxa in the wild, although two free-living snakes were recently discovered each gestating a single parthenogen - one copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and one cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus) [1]. Vertebrate parthenogens are characterized as being of the homogametic sex (e.g., females in sharks, males in birds) and by having elevated homozygosity compared to their mother [1-3], which may reduce their viability [4]. Although it is unknown if either of the parthenogenetic snakes would have been carried to term or survived in the wild, facultative parthenogenesis might have adaptive significance [1]. If this is true, it is reasonable to hypothesize that parthenogenesis would be found most often at low population density, when females risk reproductive failure because finding mates is difficult [5]. Here, we document the first examples of viable parthenogens living in a normally sexually reproducing wild vertebrate, the smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata). We also provide a simple approach to screen any microsatellite DNA database for parthenogens, which will enable hypothesis-driven research on the significance of vertebrate parthenogenesis in the wild. PMID:26035783

  9. Mafia behaviour and the evolution of facultative virulence.

    PubMed

    Soler, J J; Møller, A P; Soler, M

    1998-04-01

    Some organisms enforce "maladaptive" behaviours on others of the same or different species by imposing costs in the absence of compliance. Such enforcement is used by the enforcer to obtain benefits in the possession of the enforced individual. This mechanism is known as mafia behaviour in humans, but may be widespread in parasite-host relationships in nature, from the cellular level to societies. In this paper we describe the evolution of such mafia mechanisms, and we propose a fuzzy logic model where the mafia mechanism is based on enforcement of hosts by exponentially increasing the cost of resistance to the parasite. The benefits of host resistance can be counteracted by parasite virulence, or even a decrease in response to an increment in its resistance. This parasite response to the host defence increment can be used for the parasite to teach the host that it is better to pay part of its benefits than increase its extremely costly defence. This model differs from others because it takes into account the evolution of host defence related to the evolution of parasite virulence (host-parasite coevolution) and points out an optimum in host defence related to the facultative virulence of the parasite. We provide several potential examples of facultative virulence depending on the antiparasite responses of hosts, and we suggest that this kind of mafia behaviour may be a widespread mechanism in biological processes at a number of different levels. PMID:9631567

  10. Enhanced biohydrogen production from beverage industrial wastewater using external nitrogen sources and bioaugmentation with facultative anaerobic strains.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Bakonyi, Péter; Sivagurunathan, Periyasamy; Kim, Sang-Hyoun; Nemestóthy, Nándor; Bélafi-Bakó, Katalin; Lin, Chiu-Yue

    2015-08-01

    In this work biohydrogen generation and its improvement possibilities from beverage industrial wastewater were sought. Firstly, mesophilic hydrogen fermentations were conducted in batch vials by applying heat-treated (80°C, 30 min) sludge and liquid (LB-grown) cultures of Escherichia coli XL1-Blue/Enterobacter cloacae DSM 16657 strains for bioaugmentation purposes. The results showed that there was a remarkable increase in hydrogen production capacities when facultative anaerobes were added in the form of inoculum. Furthermore, experiments were carried out in order to reveal whether the increment occurred either due to the efficient contribution of the facultative anaerobic microorganisms or the culture ingredients (in particular yeast extract and tryptone) supplied when the bacterial suspensions (LB media-based inocula) were mixed with the sludge. The outcome of these tests was that both the applied nitrogen sources and the bacteria (E. coli) could individually enhance hydrogen formation. Nevertheless, the highest increase took place when they were used together. Finally, the optimal initial wastewater concentration was determined as 5 g/L. PMID:25661265

  11. 46 CFR 308.545 - Facultative cargo policy, Form MA-316.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Facultative cargo policy, Form MA-316. 308.545 Section 308.545 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK... policy, Form MA-316. The standard form of War Risk Facultative Cargo Policy, Form MA-316, may be...

  12. 46 CFR 308.545 - Facultative cargo policy, Form MA-316.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Facultative cargo policy, Form MA-316. 308.545 Section 308.545 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK..., Form MA-316. The standard form of War Risk Facultative Cargo Policy, Form MA-316, may be obtained...

  13. 46 CFR 308.545 - Facultative cargo policy, Form MA-316.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facultative cargo policy, Form MA-316. 308.545 Section 308.545 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK... policy, Form MA-316. The standard form of War Risk Facultative Cargo Policy, Form MA-316, may be...

  14. 46 CFR 308.545 - Facultative cargo policy, Form MA-316.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Facultative cargo policy, Form MA-316. 308.545 Section 308.545 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK... policy, Form MA-316. The standard form of War Risk Facultative Cargo Policy, Form MA-316, may be...

  15. 46 CFR 308.545 - Facultative cargo policy, Form MA-316.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Facultative cargo policy, Form MA-316. 308.545 Section 308.545 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK... policy, Form MA-316. The standard form of War Risk Facultative Cargo Policy, Form MA-316, may be...

  16. Occurrence of facultative anoxygenic photosynthesis among filamentous and unicellular cyanobacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Garlick, S; Oren, A; Padan, E

    1977-01-01

    Eleven of 21 cyanobacteria strains examined are capable of facultative anoxygenic photosynthesis, as shown by their ability to photoassimilate CO2 in the presence of Na2S, 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea and 703-nm light. These include different cyanobacterial types (filamentous and unicellular) of different growth histories (aerobic, anaerobic, and marine and freshwater). Oscillatoria limnetica, Aphanothece halophytica (7418), and Lyngbya (7104) have different optimal concentrations of Na2S permitting CO2 photoassimilation, above which the rate decreases: 3.5, 0.7, and 0.1 mM, respectively. In A. halophytica, for each CO2 molecule photoassimilated two sulfide molecules are oxidized to elemental sulfur, which is excreted from the cells.The ecological and evolutionary significance of anoxygenic photosynthesis in the cyanobacteria is discussed. PMID:402355

  17. Fermentation of polysaccharides by Klebsiella and other facultative bacilli

    SciTech Connect

    Ochuba, G.U.; Von Riesen, V.L.

    1980-05-01

    Fermentations of 10 polysaccharides by species of the family Enterobacteriaceae were examined. Algin, guar, karaya, xanthan, and xylan were not fermented by any of the strains tested. Most of the activity was found in the tribe Klebsielleae. Klebseilla oxytoca fermented amylopectin (97% of the strains studied), carrageenan (100%), inulin (68%), polypectate (100%), and tragacanth (100%). Klebsiella pneumoniae fermented amylopectin (91%), carrageenan (100%), and tragacanth (86%). Carraggeenan was also fermented by Enterobacter aerogenes (100%), Enterobacter agglomerans (63%), Enterobacter cloacae (95%), and pectobacterium (38%). pectobacterium shared polypectate fermentation (100%) with K. oxytoca. With one exception, Serratia strains were negative on all polysaccharides. These results, along with other evidence, indicate that (i) the genus Klebsiella is biochemically the most versatile genus of the tribe, (ii) because of its distinct characteristics, K. oxytoca warrants species designation separate from K. pneumoniae, and (iii) some food additives generally considered indigestible can be metabolized by a few species of facultative bacilli, whereas others appear to be resistant.

  18. Occurrence of facultative anoxygenic photosynthesis among filamentous and unicellular cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Garlick, S; Oren, A; Padan, E

    1977-02-01

    Eleven of 21 cyanobacteria strains examined are capable of facultative anoxygenic photosynthesis, as shown by their ability to photoassimilate CO2 in the presence of Na2S, 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea and 703-nm light. These include different cyanobacterial types (filamentous and unicellular) of different growth histories (aerobic, anaerobic, and marine and freshwater). Oscillatoria limnetica, Aphanothece halophytica (7418), and Lyngbya (7104) have different optimal concentrations of Na2S permitting CO2 photoassimilation, above which the rate decreases: 3.5, 0.7, and 0.1 mM, respectively. In A. halophytica, for each CO2 molecule photoassimilated two sulfide molecules are oxidized to elemental sulfur, which is excreted from the cells. The ecological and evolutionary significance of anoxygenic photosynthesis in the cyanobacteria is discussed. PMID:402355

  19. Thiobacillus cuprinus sp. nov., a Novel Facultatively Organotrophic Metal-Mobilizing Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Harald; Stetter, Karl O.

    1990-01-01

    Five strains of mesophilic, facultatively organotrophic, ore-leaching eubacteria were isolated from solfatara fields in Iceland and a uranium mine in the Federal Republic of Germany. The new organisms are aerobic gram-negative rods. They can use sulfidic ores or elemental sulfur as sole energy source, indicating that they belong to the genus Thiobacillus. Alternatively, they grow on organic substrates such as yeast extract, peptone, and pyruvate. In contrast to the other leaching bacteria known so far, the new isolates are unable to oxidize ferrous iron. They consist of extreme and moderate acidophiles growing optimally at pH 3 and 4, respectively. The extreme acidophiles showed leaching characteristics similar to those shown by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, while the moderate acidophiles exhibited a pronounced preference for copper leaching on some chalcopyrite ores. The G+C content of the DNA is between 66 and 69 mol%, depending on the isolate. In DNA-DNA hybridization experiments, the new strains showed homologies among each other of >70%, indicating that they belong to the same species. No significant DNA homology to Thiobacillus reference strains was detectable. Therefore, the new isolates represent a new species of Thiobacillus, which we name Thiobacillus cuprinus. Isolate Hö5 is designated as the type strain (DSM 5495). Images PMID:16348110

  20. Thiobacillus cuprinus sp. nov. , a novel facultatively organotrophic metal-mobilizing bacterium

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, H.; Stetter, K.O. )

    1990-02-01

    Five strains of mesophilic, facultatively organotrophic, ore-leaching eubacteria were isolated from solfatara fields in Iceland and a uranium mine in the Federal Republic of Germany. The new organisms are aerobic gram-negative rods. They can use sulfidic ores or elemental sulfur as sole energy source, indicating that they belong to the genus Thiobacillus. Alternatively, they grow on organic substrates such as yeast extract, peptone, and pyruvate. In contrast to the other leaching bacteria known so far, the new isolates are unable to oxidize ferrous iron. They consist of extreme and moderate acidophiles growing optimally at pH 3 and 4, respectively. The extreme acidophiles showed leaching characteristics similar to those shown by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, while the moderate acidophiles exhibited a pronounced preference for copper leaching on some chalcopyrite ores. The G+C content of the DNA is between 66 and 69 mol%, depending on the isolate. In DNA-DNA hybridization experiments, the new strains showed homologies among each other of >70%, indicating that they belong to the same species. No significant DNA homology to Thiobacillus reference strains was detectable. Therefore, the new isolates represent a new species of Thiobacillus, which the authors named Thiobacillus cuprinus. Isolate Hoe5 is designated as the type strain (DSM 5495).

  1. Characteristics of the draft genome of "Candidatus Arsenophonus nilaparvatae", a facultative endosymbiont of Nilaparvata lugens.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hai-Wei; Lu, Jia-Bao; Ye, Yu-Xuan; Yu, Xiao-Ping; Zhang, Chuan-Xi

    2016-06-01

    There exists a kind of symbiotic bacterium named "Candidatus Arsenophonus nilaparvatae" in the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens. After being filtered and assembled from the BPH genome sequencing project, the genome sequence of this bacterial symbiont was obtained. After initial analysis based on the genome, we have found its potential role to synthesize B vitamins for the host. In order to better understand the lifestyle and the genomic changes of this symbiotic bacterium after the symbiotic relationship was established, we further report the characteristics of this draft genome. Compared with several other related bacteria, "Candidatus Arsenophonus nilaparvatae" has proven to be a facultative endosymbiont at the genomic level. Concurrently, the presence of fimbriae and flagella formation related genes indicates this maternally transmitted endosymbiont is most likely to retain the capacity to invade new hosts. Through further analysis of annotated gene sets, we also find evidence of genome reduction in its secretion system and metabolic pathways. These findings reflect its evolutionary trend to be an obligate one and enable a deeper study of microbe-insect interactions. PMID:26792263

  2. [Recovery of facultatives and anaerobes from frozen specimens with a polymicrobial nature].

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Chizuko; Nakamura, Toshihiko; Kaimori, Mitsuomi; Watanabe, Kunitomo

    2003-01-01

    Microbiological examination of frozen specimens is sometimes carried out in clinical microbiology and the result is used as an aid of diagnosis and/or treatment of polymicrobial infections. The study was carried out to reevaluate the merit of freezing specimens in clinical microbiology. A total of 10 specimens with a polymicrobial nature were included in this study. Before and after freezing specimens, we isolated facultative and anaerobic bacteria using a set of primary isolation media, consisting of three aerobic agar plates (MacConkey agar, blood agar and chocolate agar) and four pre-reduced anaerobic agar plates (HK Blood agar, HK blood agar with paromomycin (PM) and vancomycin (VM), phenyl ethyl-alcohol (PEA) agar and Bacteroides bile esculin (BBE) agar). All the procedures were done in a properly controlled anaerobic chamber. The number of isolates before and after freezing was 79 and 70, respectively. Among the strains isolated before freezing, 33 strains were recovered on the same kin of media artery freezing, without a remarkable decrease in the quantity. But 26 strains were not recovered and 2 strains were recovered with a remarkable decrease. Among 26 strains, 15 strains could be successfully backed up on the different kind of media. In conclusion, an anaerobic technique with an anaerobic chamber and a set of isolatin plates including blood agar, chocolate agar, HK blood agar, PEA blood agar, HK blood agar with PM and VM enable us to estimate the bacteriology before freezing from frozen specimens. PMID:14984303

  3. Evolution of heliobacteria: implications for photosynthetic reaction center complexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vermaas, W. F.; Blankenship, R. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    The evolutionary position of the heliobacteria, a group of green photosynthetic bacteria with a photosynthetic apparatus functionally resembling Photosystem I of plants and cyanobacteria, has been investigated with respect to the evolutionary relationship to Gram-positive bacteria and cyanobacteria. On the basis of 16S rRNA sequence analysis, the heliobacteria appear to be most closely related to Gram-positive bacteria, but also an evolutionary link to cyanobacteria is evident. Interestingly, a 46-residue domain including the putative sixth membrane-spanning region of the heliobacterial reaction center protein show rather strong similarity (33% identity and 72% similarity) to a region including the sixth membrane-spanning region of the CP47 protein, a chlorophyll-binding core antenna polypeptide of Photosystem II. The N-terminal half of the heliobacterial reaction center polypeptide shows a moderate sequence similarity (22% identity over 232 residues) with the CP47 protein, which is significantly more than the similarity with the Photosystem I core polypeptides in this region. An evolutionary model for photosynthetic reaction center complexes is discussed, in which an ancestral homodimeric reaction center protein (possibly resembling the heliobacterial reaction center protein) with 11 membrane-spanning regions per polypeptide has diverged to give rise to the core of Photosystem I, Photosystem II, and of the photosynthetic apparatus in green, purple, and heliobacteria.

  4. Aphid facultative symbionts reduce survival of the predatory lady beetle Hippodamia convergens

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-essential facultative endosymbionts can provide their hosts with protection from parasites, pathogens, and predators. For example, two facultative bacterial symbionts of the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum), Serratia symbiotica and Hamiltonella defensa, protect their hosts from parasitism by two species of parasitoid wasp. Previous studies have not explored whether facultative symbionts also play a defensive role against predation in this system. We tested whether feeding on aphids harboring different facultative symbionts affected the fitness of an aphid predator, the lady beetle Hippodamia convergens. Results While these aphid faculative symbionts did not deter lady beetle feeding, they did decrease survival of lady beetle larvae. Lady beetle larvae fed a diet of aphids with facultative symbionts had significantly reduced survival from egg hatching to pupation and therefore had reduced survival to adult emergence. Additionally, lady beetle adults fed aphids with facultative symbionts were significantly heavier than those fed facultative symbiont-free aphids, though development time was not significantly different. Conclusions Aphids reproduce clonally and are often found in large groups. Thus, aphid symbionts, by reducing the fitness of the aphid predator H. convergens, may indirectly defend their hosts’ clonal descendants against predation. These findings highlight the often far-reaching effects that symbionts can have in ecological systems. PMID:24555501

  5. Spin-lattice relaxation of coupled metal-radical spin-dimers in proteins: application to Fe(2+)-cofactor (Q(A)(-.), Q(B)(-.), phi(-.)) dimers in reaction centers from photosynthetic bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, Rafael; Isaacson, Roger A; Abresch, Edward C; Okamura, Melvin Y; Feher, George

    2002-01-01

    The spin-lattice relaxation times (T(1)) for the reduced quinone acceptors Q(A)(-.) and Q(B)(-.), and the intermediate pheophytin acceptor phi(-.), were measured in native photosynthetic reaction centers (RC) containing a high spin Fe(2+) (S = 2) and in RCs in which Fe(2+) was replaced by diamagnetic Zn(2+). From these data, the contribution of the Fe(2+) to the spin-lattice relaxation of the cofactors was determined. To relate the spin-lattice relaxation rate to the spin-spin interaction between the Fe(2+) and the cofactors, we developed a spin-dimer model that takes into account the zero field splitting and the rhombicity of the Fe(2+) ion. The relaxation mechanism of the spin-dimer involves a two-phonon process that couples the fast relaxing Fe(2+) spin to the cofactor spin. The process is analogous to the one proposed by R. Orbach (Proc. R. Soc. A. (Lond.). 264:458-484) for rare earth ions. The spin-spin interactions are, in general, composed of exchange and dipolar contributions. For the spin dimers studied in this work the exchange interaction, J(o), is predominant. The values of J(o) for Q(A)(-.)Fe(2+), Q(B)(-.)Fe(2+), and phi(-.)Fe(2+) were determined to be (in kelvin) -0.58, -0.92, and -1.3 x 10(-3), respectively. The |J(o)| of the various cofactors (obtained in this work and those of others) could be fitted with the relation exp(-beta(J)d), where d is the distance between cofactor spins and beta(J) had a value of (0.66-0.86) A(-1). The relation between J(o) and the matrix element |V(ij)|(2) involved in electron transfer rates is discussed. PMID:12414679

  6. Spin-lattice relaxation of coupled metal-radical spin-dimers in proteins: application to Fe(2+)-cofactor (Q(A)(-.), Q(B)(-.), phi(-.)) dimers in reaction centers from photosynthetic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Rafael; Isaacson, Roger A; Abresch, Edward C; Okamura, Melvin Y; Feher, George

    2002-11-01

    The spin-lattice relaxation times (T(1)) for the reduced quinone acceptors Q(A)(-.) and Q(B)(-.), and the intermediate pheophytin acceptor phi(-.), were measured in native photosynthetic reaction centers (RC) containing a high spin Fe(2+) (S = 2) and in RCs in which Fe(2+) was replaced by diamagnetic Zn(2+). From these data, the contribution of the Fe(2+) to the spin-lattice relaxation of the cofactors was determined. To relate the spin-lattice relaxation rate to the spin-spin interaction between the Fe(2+) and the cofactors, we developed a spin-dimer model that takes into account the zero field splitting and the rhombicity of the Fe(2+) ion. The relaxation mechanism of the spin-dimer involves a two-phonon process that couples the fast relaxing Fe(2+) spin to the cofactor spin. The process is analogous to the one proposed by R. Orbach (Proc. R. Soc. A. (Lond.). 264:458-484) for rare earth ions. The spin-spin interactions are, in general, composed of exchange and dipolar contributions. For the spin dimers studied in this work the exchange interaction, J(o), is predominant. The values of J(o) for Q(A)(-.)Fe(2+), Q(B)(-.)Fe(2+), and phi(-.)Fe(2+) were determined to be (in kelvin) -0.58, -0.92, and -1.3 x 10(-3), respectively. The |J(o)| of the various cofactors (obtained in this work and those of others) could be fitted with the relation exp(-beta(J)d), where d is the distance between cofactor spins and beta(J) had a value of (0.66-0.86) A(-1). The relation between J(o) and the matrix element |V(ij)|(2) involved in electron transfer rates is discussed. PMID:12414679

  7. The Persistence of Facultative Parthenogenesis in Drosophila albomicans

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ching-Ho; Fang, Shu; Chang, Hwei-yu

    2014-01-01

    Parthenogenesis has evolved independently in more than 10 Drosophila species. Most cases are tychoparthenogenesis, which is occasional or accidental parthenogenesis in normally bisexual species with a low hatching rate of eggs produced by virgin females; this form is presumed to be an early stage of parthenogenesis. To address how parthenogenesis and sexual reproduction coexist in Drosophila populations, we investigated several reproductive traits, including the fertility, parthenogenetic capability, diploidization mechanisms, and mating propensity of parthenogenetic D. albomicans. The fertility of mated parthenogenetic females was significantly higher than that of virgin females. The mated females could still produce parthenogenetic offspring but predominantly produced offspring by sexual reproduction. Both mated parthenogenetic females and their parthenogenetic-sexual descendants were capable of parthenogenesis. The alleles responsible for parthenogenesis can be propagated through both parthenogenesis and sexual reproduction. As diploidy is restored predominantly by gamete duplication, heterozygosity would be very low in parthenogenetic individuals. Hence, genetic variation in parthenogenetic genomes would result from sexual reproduction. The mating propensity of females after more than 20 years of isolation from males was decreased. If mutations reducing mating propensities could occur under male-limited conditions in natural populations, decreased mating propensity might accelerate tychoparthenogenesis through a positive feedback mechanism. This process provides an opportunity for the evolution of obligate parthenogenesis. Therefore, the persistence of facultative parthenogenesis may be an adaptive reproductive strategy in Drosophila when a few founders colonize a new niche or when small populations are distributed at the edge of a species' range, consistent with models of geographical parthenogenesis. PMID:25415200

  8. Silencing of DELLA induces facultative parthenocarpy in tomato fruits.

    PubMed

    Martí, Cristina; Orzáez, Diego; Ellul, Philippe; Moreno, Vicente; Carbonell, Juan; Granell, Antonio

    2007-12-01

    DELLA proteins are plant nuclear factors that restrain growth and proliferation in response to hormonal signals. The effects of the manipulation of the DELLA pathway in the making of a berry-like fruit were investigated. The expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana gain-of-function DELLA allele Atgai (del) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) produced partially sterile dwarf plants and compacted influorescences, as expected for a constitutively activated growth repressor. In contrast, antisense silencing of the single endogenous tomato DELLA gene homologue (SlDELLA) produced slender-like plants with elongated flower trusses. Interestingly, the depletion of SlDELLA in tomato was sufficient to overcome the growth arrest normally imposed on the ovary at anthesis, resulting in parthenocarpic fruits in the absence of pollination. Antisense SlDELLA-engineered fruits were smaller in size and elongated in shape compared with wild type. Cell number estimations showed that fruit set, resulting from reduced SlDELLA expression, arose from activated cell elongation at the longitudinal and lateral axes of the fruit pericarp, bypassing phase-II (post-pollination) cell divisions. Parthenocarpy caused by SlDELLA depletion is facultative, as hand pollination restored wild-type fruit phenotype. This indicates that fertilization-associated SlDELLA-independent signals are operational in ovary-fruit transitions. SlDELLA was also found to restrain growth in other reproductive structures, affecting style elongation, stylar hair primordial growth and stigma development. PMID:17883372

  9. Facultative parthenogenesis in the Ryukyu drywood termite Neotermes koshunensis.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kazuya; Miyaguni, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    Parthenogenesis is a relatively rare reproductive mode in nature compared to sex. In social insects, the evolution of parthenogenesis has a notable impact on their life histories. Some termites with parthenogenetic ability produce numerous non-dispersing supplementary queens asexually, whereas other castes are produced via sexual reproduction. This asexual queen succession (AQS) system is adaptive because hundreds of the asexual queens improve the reproductive potential of the colony and maintain the genetic diversity within the colony. However, the evolutionary process of the AQS system remains unclear because parthenogenetic species without this system are unknown. Here, we report facultative parthenogenesis in the drywood termite Neotermes koshunensis. Although the eggs produced by females isolated from males hatched, the hatching rate of those eggs was lower than that of the eggs produced by females kept with males. These parthenogenetic offspring inherited only the maternal alleles and showed high homozygosity, which indicates that the mechanism of ploidy restoration is terminal fusion. A previous study showed that most colonies of this species have a single queen or orphan; thus, the AQS system has not evolved despite their parthenogenetic ability. Further investigations of N. koshunensis will reveal how parthenogenesis evolved and its role in the insect societies. PMID:27464523

  10. Developmental Transcriptome for a Facultatively Eusocial Bee, Megalopta genalis

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Beryl M.; Wcislo, William T.; Robinson, Gene E.

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptomes provide excellent foundational resources for mechanistic and evolutionary analyses of complex traits. We present a developmental transcriptome for the facultatively eusocial bee Megalopta genalis, which represents a potential transition point in the evolution of eusociality. A de novo transcriptome assembly of Megalopta genalis was generated using paired-end Illumina sequencing and the Trinity assembler. Males and females of all life stages were aligned to this transcriptome for analysis of gene expression profiles throughout development. Gene Ontology analysis indicates that stage-specific genes are involved in ion transport, cell–cell signaling, and metabolism. A number of distinct biological processes are upregulated in each life stage, and transitions between life stages involve shifts in dominant functional processes, including shifts from transcriptional regulation in embryos to metabolism in larvae, and increased lipid metabolism in adults. We expect that this transcriptome will provide a useful resource for future analyses to better understand the molecular basis of the evolution of eusociality and, more generally, phenotypic plasticity. PMID:26276382

  11. Facultative parthenogenesis in the Ryukyu drywood termite Neotermes koshunensis

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Kazuya; Miyaguni, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    Parthenogenesis is a relatively rare reproductive mode in nature compared to sex. In social insects, the evolution of parthenogenesis has a notable impact on their life histories. Some termites with parthenogenetic ability produce numerous non-dispersing supplementary queens asexually, whereas other castes are produced via sexual reproduction. This asexual queen succession (AQS) system is adaptive because hundreds of the asexual queens improve the reproductive potential of the colony and maintain the genetic diversity within the colony. However, the evolutionary process of the AQS system remains unclear because parthenogenetic species without this system are unknown. Here, we report facultative parthenogenesis in the drywood termite Neotermes koshunensis. Although the eggs produced by females isolated from males hatched, the hatching rate of those eggs was lower than that of the eggs produced by females kept with males. These parthenogenetic offspring inherited only the maternal alleles and showed high homozygosity, which indicates that the mechanism of ploidy restoration is terminal fusion. A previous study showed that most colonies of this species have a single queen or orphan; thus, the AQS system has not evolved despite their parthenogenetic ability. Further investigations of N. koshunensis will reveal how parthenogenesis evolved and its role in the insect societies. PMID:27464523

  12. Photosynthetic Pigments in Diatoms

    PubMed Central

    Kuczynska, Paulina; Jemiola-Rzeminska, Malgorzata; Strzalka, Kazimierz

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthetic pigments are bioactive compounds of great importance for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. They are not only responsible for capturing solar energy to carry out photosynthesis, but also play a role in photoprotective processes and display antioxidant activity, all of which contribute to effective biomass and oxygen production. Diatoms are organisms of a distinct pigment composition, substantially different from that present in plants. Apart from light-harvesting pigments such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, and fucoxanthin, there is a group of photoprotective carotenoids which includes β-carotene and the xanthophylls, diatoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and zeaxanthin, which are engaged in the xanthophyll cycle. Additionally, some intermediate products of biosynthetic pathways have been identified in diatoms as well as unusual pigments, e.g., marennine. Marine algae have become widely recognized as a source of unique bioactive compounds for potential industrial, pharmaceutical, and medical applications. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on diatom photosynthetic pigments complemented by some new insights regarding their physico-chemical properties, biological role, and biosynthetic pathways, as well as the regulation of pigment level in the cell, methods of purification, and significance in industries. PMID:26389924

  13. Photosynthetic Pigments in Diatoms.

    PubMed

    Kuczynska, Paulina; Jemiola-Rzeminska, Malgorzata; Strzalka, Kazimierz

    2015-09-01

    Photosynthetic pigments are bioactive compounds of great importance for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. They are not only responsible for capturing solar energy to carry out photosynthesis, but also play a role in photoprotective processes and display antioxidant activity, all of which contribute to effective biomass and oxygen production. Diatoms are organisms of a distinct pigment composition, substantially different from that present in plants. Apart from light-harvesting pigments such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, and fucoxanthin, there is a group of photoprotective carotenoids which includes β-carotene and the xanthophylls, diatoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and zeaxanthin, which are engaged in the xanthophyll cycle. Additionally, some intermediate products of biosynthetic pathways have been identified in diatoms as well as unusual pigments, e.g., marennine. Marine algae have become widely recognized as a source of unique bioactive compounds for potential industrial, pharmaceutical, and medical applications. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on diatom photosynthetic pigments complemented by some new insights regarding their physico-chemical properties, biological role, and biosynthetic pathways, as well as the regulation of pigment level in the cell, methods of purification, and significance in industries. PMID:26389924

  14. The Photosynthetic Cycle

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Calvin, Melvin

    1955-03-21

    A cyclic sequence of transformations, including the carboxylation of RuDP (ribulose diphosphate) and its re-formation, has been deduced as the route for the creation of reduced carbon compounds in photosynthetic organisms. With the demonstration of RuDP as substrate for the carboxylation in a cell-free system, each of the reactions has now been carried out independently in vitro. Further purification of this last enzyme system has confirmed the deduction that the carboxylation of RuDP leads directly to the two molecules of PGA (phosphoglyceric acid) involving an internal dismutation and suggesting the name "carboxydismutase" for the enzyme. As a consequence of this knowledge of each of the steps in the photosynthetic CO{sub 2} reduction cycle, it is possible to define the reagent requirements to maintain it. The net requirement for the reduction of one molecule of CO{sub 2} is four equivalents of [H]and three molecules of ATP (adenine triphosphate). These must ultimately be supplied by the photochemical reaction. Some possible ways in which this may be accomplished are discussed.

  15. Facultative methanotrophy: false leads, true results, and suggestions for future research.

    PubMed

    Semrau, Jeremy D; DiSpirito, Alan A; Vuilleumier, Stéphane

    2011-10-01

    Methanotrophs are a group of phylogenetically diverse microorganisms characterized by their ability to utilize methane as their sole source of carbon and energy. Early studies suggested that growth on methane could be stimulated with the addition of some small organic acids, but initial efforts to find facultative methanotrophs, i.e., methanotrophs able to utilize compounds with carbon-carbon bonds as sole growth substrates were inconclusive. Recently, however, facultative methanotrophs in the genera Methylocella, Methylocapsa, and Methylocystis have been reported that can grow on acetate, as well as on larger organic acids or ethanol for some species. All identified facultative methanotrophs group within the Alphaproteobacteria and utilize the serine cycle for carbon assimilation from formaldehyde. It is possible that facultative methanotrophs are able to convert acetate into intermediates of the serine cycle (e.g. malate and glyoxylate), because a variety of acetate assimilation pathways convert acetate into these compounds (e.g. the glyoxylate shunt of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway, the citramalate cycle, and the methylaspartate cycle). In this review, we summarize the history of facultative methanotrophy, describe scenarios for the basis of facultative methanotrophy, and pose several topics for future research in this area. PMID:21599728

  16. Prebiotic photosynthetic reactions.

    PubMed

    Chittenden, G J; Schwartz, A W

    1981-01-01

    Historically, numerous attempts have been made to mimic - by means of inorganic model reactions - the photosynthetic fixation of CO2 by green plants. The literature in this field is strewn with claims and counter-claims. Two factors have led us to reexamine this subject: firstly; doubts concerning the highly reducing model for the atmosphere of the primitive Earth and secondly; recent results which demonstrate that photoreductive fixation is feasable on a suitable catalytic surface, for both CO2 and N2. The latter observation is of particular interest due to the well-known susceptibility of NH3 to photolytic destruction. Our review of the literature leads us to suggest that similar processes would have been plausible for the primitive Earth and could have been prebiotic precursors to an early development of CO2-fixing autotrophs. PMID:6791723

  17. Formation of the light-harvesting complex I (B870) of anoxygenic phototrophic purple bacteria.

    PubMed

    Drews, G

    1996-09-01

    The light-harvesting (LH) complex I (B870) of anoxygenic photosynthetic purple bacteria is the oligomeric form of its subunit B820 consisting of the low-molecular-weight polypeptides alpha, beta, bacteriochlorophyll (BChl), and carotenoids in the stoichiometric ratio [alpha1 beta1 (BChl2) Crt1-2]n. LHI surrounds the photochemical reaction center (RC). The major absorption band of the LHI complex is species-specific and is found at 870-890 nm; those of the subunit and the monomeric BChl a (dissolved in methanol) absorb at 820 and 770 nm, respectively. The isolated LHI complex can be reversibly dissociated to the B820 subunit or to the polypeptides and pigments by addition of detergents. Reconstitution of the B820 or the functional B870 complex is still possible after partial truncation of the N- or C-terminal regions of the alpha- or beta-polypeptide or of the beta-polypeptide only. The minimal structural requirements for reconstitution of a spectrally wild-type form after truncation of the polypeptides and/or modifications of the BChl molecule are described. The insertion of the LHIalpha- and LHIbeta-polypeptides into the membrane and the in vivo assembly of LHI, studied in a cell-free system and in whole cells of Rhodobacter capsulatus, depend on the primary structures of both polypeptides, BChl, the chaperones DnaK and GroEL, membrane-bound proteins, and energized membranes. Exchanges, deletions, or insertions of amino acyl residues, especially in the conserved region of the N-terminus of the LHIalpha-polypeptide, prevent or reduce the efficiency and stability of the LHI assembly. Therefore, reconstitution of LHI in a detergent micelle does not exactly reproduce the formation of the LHI complex in the photosynthetic membrane in vivo. The N-terminal domains play a crucial role in the formation of the oligomeric protein scaffold and of the pigment array. Facultatively phototrophic bacteria such as Rhodospirillum (Rsp.) rubrum or Rhodobacter (Rba.) capsulatus can

  18. Photoinduced Energy Transfer in Artificial Photosynthetic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imahori, H.; Umeyama, T.

    Artificial photosynthesis is a current topic of intensive investigations, both in order to understand the reactions that play a central role in natural photosynthesis as well as to develop highly efficient solar energy conversion systems and molecular optoelectronic devices [1-34]. Artificial photosynthesis is defined as a research field that attempts to mimic the natural process of photosynthesis. Therefore, the outline of natural photosynthesis is described briefly for the better understanding of artificial photosynthesis . Natural photosynthetic system is regarded as one of the most elaborate nanobiological machines [35,36]. It converts solar energy into electrochemical potential or chemical energy, which is prerequisite for the living organisms on the earth. The core function of photosynthesis is a cascade of photoinduced energy and electron transfer between donors and acceptors in the antenna complexes and the reaction center. For instance, in purple photosynthetic bacteria (Rhodopseudomonas acidophila and Rhodopseudomonas palustris) there are two different types of antenna complexes: a core light-harvesting antenna (LH1) and peripheral light-harvesting antenna (LH2) [37-39]. LH1 surrounds the reaction center where charge separation takes place.

  19. Nanoscale Optoelectronic Photosynthetic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenbaum, Elias; Lee, Ida; Guillorn, Michael; Lee, James W.; Simpson, Michael L.

    2001-03-01

    This presentation provides an overview and recent progress in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory research program in molecular electronics and green plant photosynthesis. The photosynthetic reaction center is a nanoscale molecular diode and photovoltaic device. The key thrust of our research program is the construction of molecular electronic devices from these nanoscale structures. Progress in this multidisciplinary research program has been demonstrated by direct electrical contact of emergent electrons with the Photosystem I (PS I) reaction center by nanoparticle precipitation. Demonstration of stable diode properties of isolated reaction centers combined with the ability to orient PS I by self-assembly on a planar surface, makes this structure a good building block for 2-D and potentially 3-D devices. Metallization of isolated PS I does not alter their fundamental photophysical properties and they can be bonded to metal surfaces. We report here the first measurement of photovoltage from single PS I reaction centers. Working at the Cornell University National Nanofabrication Facility, we have constructed sets of dissimilar metal electrodes separated by distances as small as 6 nm. We plan to use these structures to make electrical contact to both ends of oriented PSI reaction centers and thereby realize biomolecular logic circuits. Potential applications of PSI reaction centers for optoelectronic applications as well as molecular logic device construction will be discussed.

  20. Exploration for facultative endosymbionts of glassy-wingedsharpshooter (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Montllor-Curley, C.; Brodie, E.L.; Lechner, M.G.; Purcell, A.H.

    2006-07-01

    Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae),glassy-winged sharpshooter, was collected in California and severalstates in the southeastern United States in 2002 and 2003 and analyzedfor endosymbiotic bacteria. Hemolymph, eggs, and bacteriomes wereexamined for the presence of bacteria by polymerase chain reaction. Asubset of hemolymph and egg samples had their 16S rRNA gene ampliconscloned and sequenced or analyzed by restriction digest patterns ofsamples compared with known bacterial DNA. Baumannia cicadellinicola, oneof the primary symbionts of glassy-winged sharpshooter, was found in themajority of hemolymph samples, although it has been considered until nowto reside primarily inside the specialized host bacteriocytes. Wolbachiasp., a common secondary symbiont in many insect taxa investigated todate, was the second most frequently detected bacterium in hemolymphsamples. In addition, we detected bacteria that were most closely related(by 16S rRNA gene sequence) to Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, andAcinetobacter in hemolymph samples of one and/or two glassy-wingedsharpshooters, but their origin is uncertain.

  1. Anaerobic bacteria

    MedlinePlus

    Anaerobic bacteria are bacteria that do not live or grow when oxygen is present. In humans, these ... Goldstein EJ. Diseases caused by non-spore forming anaerobic bacteria. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's ...

  2. [CURRENT IDEAS ON OBLIGATE AND FACULTATIVE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN MAN AND THE DIROFILARIASIS PATHOGEN DIROFILARIA (N.) REPENS].

    PubMed

    Supryaga, V G; Rakova, V M; Morozov, E N

    2016-01-01

    The ability of D. repens to complete its ontogenesis in man points to their obligate, rather than facultative rela- tionships. The fact that microfilariae are rarely found in human blood or are absent there may be associated with the removal of developing dirofilariae from humans in earlier than they achieve sexual maturity. Facultative ecological relationships to mosquitoes may be one of the reasons for limitation of human invasion cases. However, in long-standing microfilaremia in man (an obligate host), D.repens may take part in the epidemiological chain of dirofilariasis as a source of invasion. PMID:27405206

  3. Arsenic biomethylation by photosynthetic organisms

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Jun; Rensing, Christopher; Rosen, Barry P.; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is a ubiquitous element that is widespread in the environment and causes numerous health problems. Biomethylation of As has implications for its mobility and toxicity. Photosynthetic organisms may play a significant role in As geochemical cycling by methylating it to different As species, but little is known about the mechanisms of methylation. Methylated As species have been found in many photosynthetic organisms, and several arsenite S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) methyltransferases have been characterized in cyanobacteria and algae. However, higher plants may not have the ability to methylate As. Instead, methylated arsenicals in plants probably originate from microorganisms in soils and the rhizosphere. Here, we propose possible approaches for developing ‘smart’ photosynthetic organisms with an enhanced and sensitive biomethylation capacity for bioremediation and safer food. PMID:22257759

  4. Taz1-Shelterin Promotes Facultative Heterochromatin Assembly at Chromosome-Internal Sites Containing Late Replication Origins.

    PubMed

    Zofall, Martin; Smith, Deborah R; Mizuguchi, Takeshi; Dhakshnamoorthy, Jothy; Grewal, Shiv I S

    2016-06-16

    Facultative heterochromatin regulates gene expression, but its assembly is poorly understood. Previously, we identified facultative heterochromatin islands in the fission yeast genome and found that RNA elimination machinery promotes island assembly at meiotic genes. Here, we report that Taz1, a component of the telomere protection complex Shelterin, is required to assemble heterochromatin islands at regions corresponding to late replication origins that are sites of double-strand break formation during meiosis. The loss of Taz1 or other Shelterin subunits, including Ccq1 that interacts with Clr4/Suv39h, abolishes heterochromatin at late origins and causes derepression of associated genes. Moreover, the late-origin regulator Rif1 affects heterochromatin at Taz1-dependent islands and subtelomeric regions. We explore the connection between facultative heterochromatin and replication control and show that heterochromatin machinery affects replication timing. These analyses reveal the role of Shelterin in facultative heterochromatin assembly at late origins, which has important implications for genome stability and gene regulation. PMID:27264871

  5. Methylation site within a facultatively persistent sequence in the macronucleus of Tetrahymena thermophila.

    PubMed Central

    White, T C; McLaren, N C; Allen, S L

    1986-01-01

    DNA methylation occurs at the adenines in the somatic macronucleus of Tetrahymena thermophila. We report on a methylation site within a DNA segment showing facultative persistence in the macronucleus. When the site is present, methylation occurs on both strands, although only 50% of the DNA molecules are methylated. Images PMID:3796615

  6. Intraguild Interactions between Egg Parasitoids: Window of Opportunity and Fitness Costs for a Facultative Hyperparasitoid

    PubMed Central

    Cusumano, Antonino; Peri, Ezio; Amodeo, Valentina; McNeil, Jeremy N.; Colazza, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    We investigated intraguild interactions between two egg parasitoids of Nezara viridula (L.) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), Ooencyrtus telenomicida (Vassiliev) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and Trissolcus basalis (Wollaston) (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae), as the former has the potential to be a facultative hyperparasitoid of the latter. We assessed the suitability of N. viridula eggs for the development of O. telenomicida as a function of egg age when they were unparasitized, or had been attacked by T. basalis at different times prior to exposure to O. telenomicida females. Ooencyrtus telenomicida can exploit healthy N. viridula host eggs up to 5 days of age, just prior to the emergence of N. viridula. This window of opportunity can be extended for an additional 6–7 days through interspecific competition or facultative hyperparasitism. While there are minor fitness costs for O. telenomicida as the result of interspecific larval competition, those costs are greater with facultative hyperparasitism. In choice assays O. telenomicida females discriminated between different quality N. viridula eggs, avoiding those where their progeny would have to develop as facultative hyperparasitoids of T. basalis. Results are discussed with respect to the possible effects that the costs of intraguild parasitism might have on biological control programmes. PMID:23705009

  7. Influence of thermal light correlations on photosynthetic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mendoza, Adriana; Manrique, Pedro; Caycedo-Soler, Felipe; Johnson, Neil F.; Rodríguez, Ferney J.; Quiroga, Luis

    2014-03-01

    The thermal light from the sun is characterized by both classical and quantum mechanical correlations. These correlations have left a fingerprint on the natural harvesting structures developed through five billion years of evolutionary pressure, specially in photosynthetic organisms. In this work, based upon previous extensive studies of spatio-temporal correlations of light fields, we hypothesize that structures involving photosensitive pigments like those present in purple bacteria vesicles emerge as an evolutionary response to the different properties of incident light. By using burstiness and memory as measures that quantify higher moments of the photon arrival statistics, we generate photon-time traces. They are used to simulate absorption on detectors spatially extended over regions comparable to these light fields coherence length. Finally, we provide some insights into the connection between these photo-statistical features with the photosynthetic membrane architecture and the lights' spatial correlation. Facultad de Ciencias Uniandes.

  8. Pigment oligomers as natural and artificial photosynthetic antennas

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenship, R.E.

    1996-12-31

    Green photosynthetic bacteria contain antenna complexes known as chlorosomes. These complexes are appressed to the cytoplasmic side of the inner cell membrane and function to absorb light and transfer the energy to the photochemical reaction center, where photochemical energy storage takes place. Chlorosomes differ from all other known photosynthetic antenna complexes in that the geometrical arrangement of pigments is determined primarily by pigment-pigment interactions instead of pigment-protein interactions. The bacteriochlorophyll c, d or e pigments found in chlorosomes form large oligomers with characteristic spectral properties significantly perturbed from those exhibited by monomeric pigments. Because of their close spatial interaction, the pigments are thought to be strongly coupled electronically, and many of the optical properties result from exciton interactions. This presentation will summarize existing knowledge on the chemical composition and properties of chlorosomes, the evidence for the oligomeric nature of chlorosome pigment organization and proposed structures for the oligomers, and the kinetics and mechanisms of energy transfer in chlorosomes.

  9. [Carbon monoxide metabolism by photosynthetic bacteria]. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-31

    Research continued on the metabolism of carbon monoxide by Rhodospirillum rubrum. This report discusses progress on the activity, induction, inhibition, and spectroscopic analysis of the enzyme Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase. (CBS)

  10. Photoproduction of hydrogen by membranes of green photosynthetic bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, J D; Olson, J M

    1980-01-01

    Photoproduction of H/sub 2/ from ascorbate by unit-membrane vesicles from Chlorobium limicola f. thiosulfatophilum was achieved with a system containing gramicidin D, tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine, methyl viologen, dithioerythritol, Clostridium hydrogenase, and an oxygen-scavenging mixture of glucose, glucose oxidase, ethanol, and catalase. Maximum quantum yield was less than one percent. Half maximum rate of H/sub 2/ production occurred at a white-light intensity of approximately 0.15 cm/sup -2/. The reaction was inhibited completely by 0.3% sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate, 1% Triton X-100, or preheating the vesicles at 100/sup 0/C for 5 minutes. Low concentrations (0.01 and 0.05%) of Triton X-100 about doubled the reaction rate.

  11. PEP Carboxykinase Exchange Reaction in Photosynthetic Bacteria 1

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, T. G.; Benedict, C. R.

    1968-01-01

    This paper describes some new characteristics of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase CO2-oxaloacetate exchange reaction in purified preparations of Rhodospirillum rubrum. The enzymatic activity has been purified 169-fold. Nucleotide diphosphates substitute for nucleotide triphosphates in the exchange reaction. Nucleotide diphosphates will not support the synthesis of phosphoenolpyruvate from oxaloacetate. This reaction differs significantly from the CO2-oxaloacetate exchange reaction in higher plants and animals. PMID:5661493

  12. Photobiological hydrogen production in green algae and photosynthetic bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, E.

    1986-01-01

    We have shown that, under appropriate physiological conditions, certain freshwater and marine green algae are capable of splitting water to molecular hydrogen and oxygen in a sustained steady-state reaction. In these algae, the gaseous-fuel-producing reaction can be driven by light throughout the visible portion of the solar emission spectrum, including the long wavelength (red) 700-nm region. No external energy sources are required.

  13. Classification and distribution of large intestinal bacteria in nonhibernating and hibernating leopard frogs (Rana pipiens).

    PubMed Central

    Banas, J A; Loesche, W J; Nace, G W

    1988-01-01

    The large intestinal flora of the leopard frog, Rana pipiens, was examined to determine whether differences existed between the nonhibernating and hibernating states of the animal and to determine the relative concentrations and proportions of potential frog pathogens. Hibernators had a logarithmic decrease of bacteria per milligram of intestine averaging one, and significantly greater proportions of facultative bacteria and psychrophiles relative to nonhibernators. The predominant anaerobic bacteria were gram-positive Clostridium species and gram-negative Bacteroides and Fusobacterium species. The predominant facultative bacteria were enterobacteria in nonhibernators but Pseudomonas species in hibernators. Many species of Pseudomonas are pathogenic for frogs, and thus the intestinal flora in hibernators may be a potential source of infectious disease. PMID:3263838

  14. Excitation energy transfer in photosynthetic protein-pigment complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Shu-Hao

    Quantum biology is a relatively new research area which investigates the rules that quantum mechanics plays in biology. One of the most intriguing systems in this field is the coherent excitation energy transport (EET) in photosynthesis. In this document I will discuss the theories that are suitable for describing the photosynthetic EET process and the corresponding numerical results on several photosynthetic protein-pigment complexes (PPCs). In some photosynthetic EET processes, because of the electronic coupling between the chromophores within the system is about the same order of magnitude as system-bath coupling (electron-phonon coupling), a non-perturbative method called hierarchy equation of motion (HEOM) is applied to study the EET dynamics. The first part of this thesis includes brief introduction and derivation to the HEOM approach. The second part of this thesis the HEOM method will be applied to investigate the EET process within the B850 ring of the light harvesting complex 2 (LH2) from purple bacteria, Rhodopseudomonas acidophila. The dynamics of the exciton population and coherence will be analyzed under different initial excitation configurations and temperatures. Finally, how HEOM can be implemented to simulate the two-dimensional electronic spectra of photosynthetic PPCs will be discussed. Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy is a crucial experimental technique to probe EET dynamics in multi-chromophoric systems. The system we are interested in is the 7-chromophore Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex from green sulfur bacteria, Prosthecochloris aestuarii. Recent crystallographic studies report the existence of an additional (eighth) chromophore in some of the FMO monomers. By applying HEOM we are able to calculate the two-dimensional electronic spectra of the 7-site and 8-site FMO complexes and investigate the functionality of the eighth chromophore.

  15. Facultative anoxygenic photosynthesis in cyanobacteria driven by arsenite and sulfide with evidence for the support of nitrogen fixation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe-Simon, F.; Hoeft, S. E.; Baesman, S. M.; Oremland, R. S.

    2010-12-01

    The rise in atmospheric oxygen (O2) over geologic time is attributed to the evolution and widespread proliferation of oxygenic photosynthesis in cyanobacteria. However, cyanobacteria maintain a metabolic flexibility that may not always result in O2 release. In the environment, cyanobacteria may use a variety of alternative electron donors rather than water that are known to be used by other anoxygenic phototrophs (eg. purple sulfur bacteria) including reduced forms of sulfur, iron, nitrogen, and arsenic. Recent evidence suggests cyanobacteria actively take advantage of at least a few of these alternatives. We used a classical Winogradsky approach to enrich for cyanobacteria from the high salinity, elevated pH and arsenic-enriched waters of Mono Lake (CA). Experiments, optimized for cyanobacteria, revealed light-dependent, anaerobic arsenite-oxidation in sub-cultured sediment-free enrichments dominated by a filamentous cyanobacteria. We isolated and identified the dominant member of this enrichment to be a member of the Oscillatoriales by 16S rDNA. Addition of 1 mM arsenite induced facultative anoxygenic photosynthesis under continuous and circadian light. This isolate also oxidized sulfide under the same light-based conditions. Aerobic conditions elicited no arsenite oxidation in the light or dark and the isolate grew as a typical cyanobacterium using oxygenic photosynthesis. Under near-infrared light (700 nm) there was a direct correlation of enhanced growth with an increase in the rate arsenite or sulfide oxidation suggesting the use of photosystem I. Additionally, to test the wide-spread nature of this metabolism in the Oscillatoriales, we followed similar arsenite- and sulfide-driven facultative anoxygenic photosynthesis as well as nitrogen fixation (C2H2 reduction) in the axenic isolate Oscillatoria sp. CCMP 1731. Future characterization includes axenic isolation of the Mono Lake Oscillatoria sp. as well as the arsenite oxidase responsible for electron

  16. Spectral measurements of photosynthetic efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The photosynthetic efficiency of plants was examined for plants in two very different canopies, a USDA cornfield having an instrumented flux tower in Beltsville, MD, USA and a coniferous forest in British Columbia, Canada, included in the tower network of the Canadian Carbon Program. Basic field st...

  17. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Study of a Photosynthetic Microbial Mat and Comparison with Archean Cherts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourbin, M.; Derenne, S.; Gourier, D.; Rouzaud, J.-N.; Gautret, P.; Westall, F.

    2012-12-01

    Organic radicals in artificially carbonized biomass dominated by oxygenic and non-oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria, Microcoleus chthonoplastes-like and Chloroflexus-like bacteria respectively, were studied by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The two bacteria species were sampled in mats from a hypersaline lake. They underwent accelerated ageing by cumulative thermal treatments to induce progressive carbonization of the biological material, mimicking the natural maturation of carbonaceous material of Archean age. For thermal treatments at temperatures higher than 620 °C, a drastic increase in the EPR linewidth is observed in the carbonaceous matter from oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria and not anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria. This selective EPR linewidth broadening reflects the presence of a catalytic element inducing formation of radical aggregates, without affecting the molecular structure or the microstructure of the organic matter, as shown by Raman spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy. For comparison, we carried out an EPR study of organic radicals in silicified carbonaceous rocks (cherts) from various localities, of different ages (0.42 to 3.5 Gyr) and having undergone various degrees of metamorphism, i.e. various degrees of natural carbonization. EPR linewidth dispersion for the most primitive samples was quite significant, pointing to a selective dipolar broadening similar to that observed for carbonized bacteria. This surprising result merits further evaluation in the light of its potential use as a marker of past bacterial metabolisms, in particular oxygenic photosynthesis, in Archean cherts.

  18. Electron paramagnetic resonance study of a photosynthetic microbial mat and comparison with Archean cherts.

    PubMed

    Bourbin, M; Derenne, S; Gourier, D; Rouzaud, J-N; Gautret, P; Westall, F

    2012-12-01

    Organic radicals in artificially carbonized biomass dominated by oxygenic and non-oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria, Microcoleus chthonoplastes-like and Chloroflexus-like bacteria respectively, were studied by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The two bacteria species were sampled in mats from a hypersaline lake. They underwent accelerated ageing by cumulative thermal treatments to induce progressive carbonization of the biological material, mimicking the natural maturation of carbonaceous material of Archean age. For thermal treatments at temperatures higher than 620 °C, a drastic increase in the EPR linewidth is observed in the carbonaceous matter from oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria and not anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria. This selective EPR linewidth broadening reflects the presence of a catalytic element inducing formation of radical aggregates, without affecting the molecular structure or the microstructure of the organic matter, as shown by Raman spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy. For comparison, we carried out an EPR study of organic radicals in silicified carbonaceous rocks (cherts) from various localities, of different ages (0.42 to 3.5 Gyr) and having undergone various degrees of metamorphism, i.e. various degrees of natural carbonization. EPR linewidth dispersion for the most primitive samples was quite significant, pointing to a selective dipolar broadening similar to that observed for carbonized bacteria. This surprising result merits further evaluation in the light of its potential use as a marker of past bacterial metabolisms, in particular oxygenic photosynthesis, in Archean cherts. PMID:23254854

  19. SANS Investigation of the Photosynthetic Machinery of Chloroflexus Aurantiacus

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Kuo-Hsiang; Urban, Volker S; Jianzhong, Wen; Yueyong, Xin; Blankenship, Robert E

    2010-01-01

    Green photosynthetic bacteria harvest light and perform photosynthesis in low light environments, and contain specialized antenna complexes to adapt to this condition. In this report, we present studies using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) to elucidate structural information about the photosynthetic apparatus, including the peripheral light harvesting chlorosome complex, the integral membrane light-harvesting B808-866 complex and the reaction center (RC) in the thermophilic green phototrophic bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus. Using contract variation in SANS measurments, our studies suggest that the B808-866 comples is wrapped around the RC in Cfx. aurantiacus, and the overall size and conformation for the B808-866 complex of Cfx. aurantiacus is roughly comparable to the LH1 antenna complex of the purple bacteria. A similar size for the isolated B808-866 complex is also suggested via dynamic light scattering measurements. Alos, a smaller size of the RC of Cfx. aurantiacus that the RC of the purple bacteria is observed. Further, our SANS measurements indicate that the chlorosome is a lipid body with rod-like shape, and that the self-assembly of bacteriochlorophylls, the major component of the chlorosome, is lipid-like. Finally, two populations of chlorosome particles are suggested in our SANS measurements.

  20. SANS Investigation of the Photosynthetic Machinery of Chloroflexus aurantiacus

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Kuo-Hsiang; Urban, Volker S.; Wen, Jianzhong; Xin, Yueyong; Blankenship, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    Green photosynthetic bacteria harvest light and perform photosynthesis in low-light environments, and contain specialized antenna complexes to adapt to this condition. We performed small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) studies to obtain structural information about the photosynthetic apparatus, including the peripheral light-harvesting chlorosome complex, the integral membrane light-harvesting B808-866 complex, and the reaction center (RC) in the thermophilic green phototrophic bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus. Using contrast variation in SANS measurements, we found that the B808-866 complex is wrapped around the RC in Cfx. aurantiacus, and the overall size and conformation of the B808-866 complex of Cfx. aurantiacus is roughly comparable to the LH1 antenna complex of the purple bacteria. A similar size of the isolated B808-866 complex was suggested by dynamic light scattering measurements, and a smaller size of the RC of Cfx. aurantiacus compared to the RC of the purple bacteria was observed. Further, our SANS measurements indicate that the chlorosome is a lipid body with a rod-like shape, and that the self-assembly of bacteriochlorophylls, the major component of the chlorosome, is lipid-like. Finally, two populations of chlorosome particles are suggested in our SANS measurements. PMID:20959079

  1. Structure-function studies of the photosynthetic reaction center using herbicides that compete for the quinone binding site

    SciTech Connect

    Bylina, E.J.

    1995-12-31

    Certain classes of herbicides act as competitive inhibitors of the photosynthetic reaction center. Genetic engineering techniques can be used to generate photosynthetic reaction centers which contain altered quinone binding sites. A genetic system for rapidly screening herbicides developed in the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus has been used to examine the effect of different s-triazine herbicides on the growth of bacteria containing reaction centers with altered quinone binding sites. Structural insights into herbicide binding have been obtained by determining the level of resistance or sensitivity to structurally related herbicides in these modified reaction centers.

  2. Monitoring Ubiquitin-Coated Bacteria via Confocal Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lork, Marie; Delvaeye, Mieke; Gonçalves, Amanda; Van Hamme, Evelien; Beyaert, Rudi

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella is a gram-negative facultative intracellular pathogen that is capable of infecting a variety of hosts. Inside host cells, most Salmonella bacteria reside and replicate within Salmonella-containing vacuoles. They use virulence proteins to manipulate the host cell machinery for their own benefit and hijack the host cytoskeleton to travel toward the perinuclear area. However, a fraction of bacteria escapes into the cytosol where they get decorated with a dense layer of polyubiquitin, which labels the bacteria for clearance by autophagy. More specifically, autophagy receptor proteins recognize the ubiquitinated bacteria and deliver them to autophagosomes, which subsequently fuse to lysosomes. Here, we describe methods used to infect HeLa cells with Salmonella bacteria and to detect their ubiquitination via immunofluorescence and laser scanning confocal microscopy. PMID:27613040

  3. Phytochromes in photosynthetically competent plants

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, L.H.

    1990-07-01

    Plants utilize light as a source of information in photomorphogenesis and of free energy in photosynthesis, two processes that are interrelated in that the former serves to increase the efficiency with which plants can perform the latter. Only one pigment involved in photomorphogenesis has been identified unequivocally, namely phytochrome. The thrust of this proposal is to investigate this pigment and its mode(s) of action in photosynthetically competent plants. Our long term objective is to characterize phytochrome and its functions in photosynthetically competent plants from molecular, biochemical and cellular perspectives. It is anticipated that others will continue to contribute indirectly to these efforts at the physiological level. The ultimate goal will be to develop this information from a comparative perspective in order to learn whether the different phytochromes have significantly different physicochemical properties, whether they fulfill independent functions and if so what these different functions are, and how each of the different phytochromes acts at primary molecular and cellular levels.

  4. Metabolic network modeling of redox balancing and biohydrogen production in purple nonsulfur bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Purple nonsulfur bacteria (PNSB) are facultative photosynthetic bacteria and exhibit an extremely versatile metabolism. A central focus of research on PNSB dealt with the elucidation of mechanisms by which they manage to balance cellular redox under diverse conditions, in particular under photoheterotrophic growth. Results Given the complexity of the central metabolism of PNSB, metabolic modeling becomes crucial for an integrated analysis of the accumulated biological knowledge. We reconstructed a stoichiometric model capturing the central metabolism of three important representatives of PNSB (Rhodospirillum rubrum, Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Rhodopseudomonas palustris). Using flux variability analysis, the model reveals key metabolic constraints related to redox homeostasis in these bacteria. With the help of the model we can (i) give quantitative explanations for non-intuitive, partially species-specific phenomena of photoheterotrophic growth of PNSB, (ii) reproduce various quantitative experimental data, and (iii) formulate several new hypotheses. For example, model analysis of photoheterotrophic growth reveals that - despite a large number of utilizable catabolic pathways - substrate-specific biomass and CO2 yields are fixed constraints, irrespective of the assumption of optimal growth. Furthermore, our model explains quantitatively why a CO2 fixing pathway such as the Calvin cycle is required by PNSB for many substrates (even if CO2 is released). We also analyze the role of other pathways potentially involved in redox metabolism and how they affect quantitatively the required capacity of the Calvin cycle. Our model also enables us to discriminate between different acetate assimilation pathways that were proposed recently for R. sphaeroides and R. rubrum, both lacking the isocitrate lyase. Finally, we demonstrate the value of the metabolic model also for potential biotechnological applications: we examine the theoretical capabilities of PNSB for

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of the Aerobic Facultative Methanotroph Methylocella silvestris BL2▿

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yin; Crombie, Andrew; Rahman, M. Tanvir; Dedysh, Svetlana N.; Liesack, Werner; Stott, Matthew B.; Alam, Maqsudul; Theisen, Andreas R.; Murrell, J. Colin; Dunfield, Peter F.

    2010-01-01

    Methylocella silvestris BL2 is an aerobic methanotroph originally isolated from an acidic forest soil in Germany. It is the first fully authenticated facultative methanotroph. It grows not only on methane and other one-carbon (C1) substrates, but also on some compounds containing carbon-carbon bonds, such as acetate, pyruvate, propane, and succinate. Here we report the full genome sequence of this bacterium. PMID:20472789

  6. Photosynthetic reaction center as a quantum heat engine.

    PubMed

    Dorfman, Konstantin E; Voronine, Dmitri V; Mukamel, Shaul; Scully, Marlan O

    2013-02-19

    Two seemingly unrelated effects attributed to quantum coherence have been reported recently in natural and artificial light-harvesting systems. First, an enhanced solar cell efficiency was predicted and second, population oscillations were measured in photosynthetic antennae excited by sequences of coherent ultrashort laser pulses. Because both systems operate as quantum heat engines (QHEs) that convert the solar photon energy to useful work (electric currents or chemical energy, respectively), the question arises whether coherence could also enhance the photosynthetic yield. Here, we show that both effects arise from the same population-coherence coupling term which is induced by noise, does not require coherent light, and will therefore work for incoherent excitation under natural conditions of solar excitation. Charge separation in light-harvesting complexes occurs in a pair of tightly coupled chlorophylls (the special pair) at the heart of photosynthetic reaction centers of both plants and bacteria. We show the analogy between the energy level schemes of the special pair and of the laser/photocell QHEs, and that both population oscillations and enhanced yield have a common origin and are expected to coexist for typical parameters. We predict an enhanced yield of 27% in a QHE motivated by the reaction center. This suggests nature-mimicking architectures for artificial solar energy devices. PMID:23365138

  7. Substrate preference, uptake kinetics and bioenergetics in a facultatively autotrophic, thermoacidophilic crenarchaeote.

    PubMed

    Urschel, Matthew R; Hamilton, Trinity L; Roden, Eric E; Boyd, Eric S

    2016-05-01

    Facultative autotrophs are abundant components of communities inhabiting geothermal springs. However, the influence of uptake kinetics and energetics on preference for substrates is not well understood in this group of organisms. Here, we report the isolation of a facultatively autotrophic crenarchaeote, strain CP80, from Cinder Pool (CP, 88.7°C, pH 4.0), Yellowstone National Park. The 16S rRNA gene sequence from CP80 is 98.8% identical to that from Thermoproteus uzonensis and is identical to the most abundant sequence identified in CP sediments. Strain CP80 reduces elemental sulfur (S8°) and demonstrates hydrogen (H2)-dependent autotrophic growth. H2-dependent autotrophic activity is suppressed by amendment with formate at a concentration in the range of 20-40 μM, similar to the affinity constant determined for formate utilization. Synthesis of a cell during growth with low concentrations of formate required 0.5 μJ compared to 2.5 μJ during autotrophic growth with H2 These results, coupled to data indicating greater C assimilation efficiency when grown with formate as compared to carbon dioxide, are consistent with preferential use of formate for energetic reasons. Collectively, these results provide new insights into the kinetic and energetic factors that influence the physiology and ecology of facultative autotrophs in high-temperature acidic environments. PMID:27037359

  8. Seasonal variation of morph ratio in facultatively paedomorphic populations of the palmate newt Triturus helveticus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denoël, Mathieu

    2006-03-01

    Facultative paedomorphosis is a polyphenism in which individuals may express one of two alternative ontogenetic pathways (metamorphosis vs. paedomorphosis) depending on environmental cues. Previous laboratory experiments showed that drying can cause morph ratio change, suggesting that the maintenance of facultative paedomorphosis is highly dependent on environmental determinants. The aim of this study was to examine seasonal variation in morph ratios in eight ponds from Larzac (southern France) naturally inhabited by palmate newts and to relate it to pond drying. In some ponds, the relative proportion of paedomorphs (i.e. individuals retaining gills at the adult stage) increased after the breeding period, but it remained stable or decreased in other ponds. This seasonal variation in the abundance of the two morphs most probably reflects (1) the emigration of metamorphs leaving the pond to occupy terrestrial habitats and (2) metamorphosis of paedomorphic adults in response to drying of the ponds. This study shows that facultative paedomorphosis in palmate newts is a dynamic process that allows rapid change (i.e. within a single year) in morph ratio to fit environmental variation (i.e. risk of drying) within the aquatic habitats. Long-term studies are needed to model the evolution of the dimorphism according to environmental change.

  9. Photocurrent of a single photosynthetic protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerster, Daniel; Reichert, Joachim; Bi, Hai; Barth, Johannes V.; Kaniber, Simone M.; Holleitner, Alexander W.; Visoly-Fisher, Iris; Sergani, Shlomi; Carmeli, Itai

    2012-10-01

    Photosynthesis is used by plants, algae and bacteria to convert solar energy into stable chemical energy. The initial stages of this process--where light is absorbed and energy and electrons are transferred--are mediated by reaction centres composed of chlorophyll and carotenoid complexes. It has been previously shown that single small molecules can be used as functional components in electric and optoelectronic circuits, but it has proved difficult to control and probe individual molecules for photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical applications. Here, we show that the photocurrent generated by a single photosynthetic protein--photosystem I--can be measured using a scanning near-field optical microscope set-up. One side of the protein is anchored to a gold surface that acts as an electrode, and the other is contacted by a gold-covered glass tip. The tip functions as both counter electrode and light source. A photocurrent of ~10 pA is recorded from the covalently bound single-protein junctions, which is in agreement with the internal electron transfer times of photosystem I.

  10. Compromised Lactobacillus helveticus starter activity in the presence of facultative heterofermentative Lactobacillus casei DPC6987 results in atypical eye formation in Swiss-type cheese.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Daniel J; McSweeney, Paul L H; Cotter, Paul D; Giblin, Linda; Sheehan, Jeremiah J

    2016-04-01

    Nonstarter lactic acid bacteria are commonly implicated in undesirable gas formation in several varieties, including Cheddar, Dutch-, and Swiss-type cheeses, primarily due to their ability to ferment a wide variety of substrates. This effect can be magnified due to factors that detrimentally affect the composition or activity of starter bacteria, resulting in the presence of greater than normal amounts of fermentable carbohydrates and citrate. The objective of this study was to determine the potential for a facultatively heterofermentative Lactobacillus (Lactobacillus casei DPC6987) isolated from a cheese plant environment to promote gas defects in the event of compromised starter activity. A Swiss-type cheese was manufactured, at pilot scale and in triplicate, containing a typical starter culture (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus helveticus) together with propionic acid bacteria. Lactobacillus helveticus populations were omitted in certain vats to mimic starter failure. Lactobacillus casei DPC6987 was added to each experimental vat at 4 log cfu/g. Cheese compositional analysis and X-ray computed tomography revealed that the failure of starter bacteria, in this case L. helveticus, coupled with the presence of a faculatively heterofermentative Lactobacillus (L. casei) led to excessive eye formation during ripening. The availability of excess amounts of lactose, galactose, and citrate during the initial ripening stages likely provided the heterofermentative L. casei with sufficient substrates for gas formation. The accrual of these fermentable substrates was notable in cheeses lacking the L. helveticus starter population. The results of this study are commercially relevant, as they demonstrate the importance of viability of starter populations and the control of specific nonstarter lactic acid bacteria to ensure appropriate eye formation in Swiss-type cheese. PMID:26805985

  11. Forster Energy Transfer Theory as Reflected in the Structures of Photosynthetic Light-Harvesting Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sener, Melih; Strumpfer, Johan; Hsin, Jen; Chandler, Danielle; Scheuring, Simon; Hunter, C. Neil; Schulten, Klaus

    2011-02-22

    Förster's theory of resonant energy transfer underlies a fundamental process in nature, namely the harvesting of sunlight by photosynthetic life forms. The theoretical framework developed by Förster and others describes how electronic excitation migrates in the photosynthetic apparatus of plants, algae, and bacteria from light absorbing pigments to reaction centers where light energy is utilized for the eventual conversion into chemical energy. The demand for highest possible efficiency of light harvesting appears to have shaped the evolution of photosynthetic species from bacteria to plants which, despite a great variation in architecture, display common structural themes founded on the quantum physics of energy transfer as described first by Förster. Herein, Förster’s theory of excitation transfer is summarized, including recent extensions, and the relevance of the theory to photosynthetic systems as evolved in purple bacteria, cyanobacteria, and plants is demonstrated. Förster's energy transfer formula, as used widely today in many fields of science, is also derived.

  12. Photooxidative Damage in Photosynthetic Activities of Chromatium vinosum 1

    PubMed Central

    Asami, Sumio; Akazawa, Takashi

    1978-01-01

    The capacity of photosynthetic CO2 fixation in the anaerobic purple-sulfur bacterium, Chromatium vinosum is markedly impaired by strong illumination (9 × 104 lux) in the presence of 100% O2. In the absence of HCO3−, decline in activity occurred gradually, with about 40% of the initial activity remaining after a 1-hour incubation. The addition of 50 millimolar HCO3− to the incubation medium resulted in a measurable delay (about 30 minutes) of the inactivation process. Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity and light-dependent O2 uptake (electron flow) or crude extracts prepared after pretreatment of the bacterial cells with O2 and light were not affected but the photophosphorylation capacity of either bacterial cells or chromatophores was drastically reduced. The inhibition of photophos-phorylation in the chromatophore preparations was significantly reduced by the addition of either an O2− scavenger, Tiron, or an 1O2 scavenger, α-tocopherol. These results suggest that the active O2 species, O2− or 1O2, might take part in the observed inactivation. The pretreatment of the bacteria with O2 and light inhibited CO2 assimilation through the Calvin-Benson cycle, while relatively stimulating the formation of aspartate and glutamate. It also inhibited the conversion of glycolate to glycine, resulting in a sustained extracellular excretion of glycolate. The inactivation of photosynthetic CO2 fixation by intact cells was enhanced by low temperature, KCN, or methylviologen addition during the pretreatment with O2 and light. The mechanism(s) of O2-dependent photoinactivation of photosynthetic activities in Chromatium are discussed in relation to the possible role of photorespiration as a means of producing CO2 in the photosynthetic system. PMID:16660651

  13. Quantum Life: How photosynthetic organisms use quantum coherence to enhance the efficiency of energy transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Seth

    2014-03-01

    Femtosecond spectroscopy reveals significant quantum coherence in excitonic transport in photosynthetic organisms. How and why are living systems using quantum mechanics? This talk presents a simple theory of how to optimize energy transport in quantum systems that possess noise and disorder. Too much quantum coherence leads to destructive interference and localization, while too little coherence prevents energy from moving at all, via the watchdog or quantum Zeno effect. With just the right amount of quantum coherence, however, energy can move through photosynthetic complexes with almost 100% efficiency. This talk explains how plants and photosynthetic bacteria attain such high efficiencies for energy transport, and discusses how human-made systems could be designed to attain similar efficiencies.

  14. Taxonomic composition and physiological and biochemical properties of bacteria in the digestive tracts of earthworms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byzov, B. A.; Tikhonov, V. V.; Nechitailo, T. Yu.; Demin, V. V.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

    2015-03-01

    Several hundred bacterial strains belonging to different taxa were isolated and identified from the digestive tracts of soil and compost earthworms. Some physiological and biochemical properties of the bacteria were characterized. The majority of intestinal bacteria in the earthworms were found to be facultative anaerobes. The intestinal isolates as compared to the soil ones had elevated activity of proteases and dehydrogenases. In addition, bacteria associated with earthworms' intestines are capable of growth on humic acids as a sole carbon source. Humic acid stimulated the growth of the intestinal bacteria to a greater extent than those of the soil ones. In the digestive tracts, polyphenol oxidase activity was found. Along with the data on the taxonomic separation of the intestinal bacteria, the features described testified to the presence of a group of bacteria in the earthworms intestines that is functionally characteristic and is different from the soil bacteria.

  15. [Lysogeny and lysogenic conversion in methylotrophic bacteria. II. Lysogenic conversion in facultative methanol-assimilating Acetobacter strains].

    PubMed

    Wünsche, L; Kiesel, B; Fischer, H

    1983-01-01

    The lysogenic state of the methylotrophic strain Acetobacter MB 58/1 is completely demonstrated by curing and lysogenization experiments. During these investigations we found that some phenotypic characteristics are modified by the presence or loss of the prophage MO 1. It could be shown that changes of the serological behaviour, the adsorption of the phages and the sensitivity against oxytetracycline are caused by lysogenic conversion. The phenotypic alterations of the bacterial cells induced by the phage genome are the result of modifications of the lipopolysaccharide structures on the cell surface. In the case of oxytetracycline resistance, interactions between the modified lipopolysaccharide structures and specific transport proteins of the cell membranes must be assumed. PMID:6880251

  16. The Photosynthetic Apparatus and Its Regulation in the Aerobic Gammaproteobacterium Congregibacter litoralis gen. nov., sp. nov

    PubMed Central

    Spring, Stefan; Lünsdorf, Heinrich; Fuchs, Bernhard M.; Tindall, Brian J.

    2009-01-01

    Background There is accumulating evidence that in some marine environments aerobic bacteriochlorophyll a-producing bacteria represent a significant part of the microbial population. The interaction of photosynthesis and carbon metabolism in these interesting bacteria is still largely unknown and requires further investigation in order to estimate their contribution to the marine carbon cycle. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we analyzed the structure, composition and regulation of the photosynthetic apparatus in the obligately aerobic marine gammaproteobacterium KT71T. Photoheterotrophically grown cells were characterized by a poorly developed lamellar intracytoplasmic membrane system, a type 1 light-harvesting antenna complex and a photosynthetic reaction center associated with a tetraheme cytochrome c. The only photosynthetic pigments produced were bacteriochlorophyll a and spirilloxanthin. Under semiaerobic conditions KT71T cells expressing a photosynthetic apparatus showed a light-dependent increase of growth yield in the range of 1.3–2.5 fold. The expression level of the photosynthetic apparatus depended largely on the utilized substrate, the intermediary carbon metabolism and oxygen tension. In addition, pigment synthesis was strongly influenced by light, with blue light exerting the most significant effect, implicating that proteins containing a BLUF domain may be involved in regulation of the photosynthetic apparatus. Several phenotypic traits in KT71T could be identified that correlated with the assumed redox state of growing cells and thus could be used to monitor the cellular redox state under various incubation conditions. Conclusions/Significance In a hypothetical model that explains the regulation of the photosynthetic apparatus in strain KT71T we propose that the expression of photosynthesis genes depends on the cellular redox state and is maximal under conditions that allow a balanced membrane redox state. So far, bacteria capable of an

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome of the facultative entomopathogenic nematode Oscheius chongmingensis (Rhabditida: Rhabditidae).

    PubMed

    Jarošová, Andrea; Půža, Vladimír; Žurovcová, Martina

    2016-09-01

    We determined the complete mitochondrial genome of the facultative entomopathogenic nematode Oscheius chongmingensis. The mitogenome length was 15,413 bp and similar to other Rhabditids contains genes for 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, and 12 proteins (ATPase subunit 8 is missing). Predicted tRNAs indicated the secondary structure typical for chromadorean nematodes. Gene order is similar to that observed in the genus Caenorhabditis. The control AT-rich region is considerably large (2061 bp, 84% of AT), positioned in between tRNA(Ala) and tRNA(Pro) and has several microsatellite-like (AT)n elements. PMID:25758048

  18. Calculation of the radiative properties of photosynthetic microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauchet, Jérémi; Blanco, Stéphane; Cornet, Jean-François; Fournier, Richard

    2015-08-01

    photosynthetic bacteria, cyanobacteria and eukaryotic microalgae. The obtained results are in very good agreement with the experimental measurements when the shape of the microorganisms is well described (in comparison to the standard volume-equivalent sphere approximation). As a main perspective, the consideration of the helical shape of Arthrospira platensis appears to be a key to an accurate estimation of its radiative properties. On the whole, the presented methodological chain also appears of great interest for other scientific communities such as atmospheric science, oceanography, astrophysics and engineering.

  19. Bacteria Provide Cleanup of Oil Spills, Wastewater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Marshall Space Flight Center, Micro-Bac International Inc., of Round Rock, Texas, developed a phototrophic cell for water purification in space. Inside the cell: millions of photosynthetic bacteria. Micro-Bac proceeded to commercialize the bacterial formulation it developed for the SBIR project. The formulation is now used for the remediation of wastewater systems and waste from livestock farms and food manufacturers. Strains of the SBIR-derived bacteria also feature in microbial solutions that treat environmentally damaging oil spills, such as that resulting from the catastrophic 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion in the Gulf of Mexico.

  20. Development of a gene cloning system for the hydrogen-producing marine photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sp.

    PubMed Central

    Matsunaga, T; Matsunaga, N; Tsubaki, K; Tanaka, T

    1986-01-01

    Seventy-six strains of marine photosynthetic bacteria were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis for plasmid DNA content. Among these strains, 12 carried two to four different plasmids with sizes ranging from 3.1 to 11.0 megadaltons. The marine photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sp. NKPB002106 had two plasmids, pRD06S and pRD06L. The smaller plasmid, pRD06S, had a molecular weight of 3.8 megadaltons and was cut at a single site by restriction endonucleases SalI, SmaI, PstI, XhoI, and BglII. Moreover, the marine photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sp. NKPB002106 containing plasmid pRD06 had a satisfactory growth rate (doubling time, 7.5 h), a hydrogen-producing rate of 0.96 mumol/mg (dry weight) of cells per h, and nitrogen fixation capability. Plasmid pRD06S, however, had neither drug resistance nor heavy-metal resistance, and its copy number was less than 10. Therefore, a recombinant plasmid consisting of pRD06S and Escherichia coli cloning vector pUC13 was constructed and cloned in E. coli. The recombinant plasmid was transformed into Rhodopseudomonas sp. NKPB002106. As a result, Rhodopseudomonas sp. NKPB002106 developed ampicillin resistance. Thus, a shuttle vector for gene transfer was constructed for marine photosynthetic bacteria. PMID:3020006

  1. Role of an elliptical structure in photosynthetic energy transfer: Collaboration between quantum entanglement and thermal fluctuation

    PubMed Central

    Oka, Hisaki

    2016-01-01

    Recent experiments have revealed that the light-harvesting complex 1 (LH1) in purple photosynthetic bacteria has an elliptical structure. Generally, symmetry lowering in a structure leads to a decrease in quantum effects (quantum coherence and entanglement), which have recently been considered to play a role in photosynthetic energy transfer, and hence, elliptical structure seems to work against efficient photosynthetic energy transfer. Here we analyse the effect of an elliptical structure on energy transfer in a purple photosynthetic bacterium and reveal that the elliptical distortion rather enhances energy transfer from peripheral LH2 to LH1 at room temperature. Numerical results show that quantum entanglement between LH1 and LH2 is formed over a wider range of high energy levels than would have been the case with circular LH1. Light energy absorbed by LH2 is thermally pumped via thermal fluctuation and is effectively transferred to LH1 through the entangled states at room temperature rather than at low temperature. This result indicates the possibility that photosynthetic systems adopt an elliptical structure to effectively utilise both quantum entanglement and thermal fluctuation at physiological temperature. PMID:27173144

  2. Role of an elliptical structure in photosynthetic energy transfer: Collaboration between quantum entanglement and thermal fluctuation.

    PubMed

    Oka, Hisaki

    2016-01-01

    Recent experiments have revealed that the light-harvesting complex 1 (LH1) in purple photosynthetic bacteria has an elliptical structure. Generally, symmetry lowering in a structure leads to a decrease in quantum effects (quantum coherence and entanglement), which have recently been considered to play a role in photosynthetic energy transfer, and hence, elliptical structure seems to work against efficient photosynthetic energy transfer. Here we analyse the effect of an elliptical structure on energy transfer in a purple photosynthetic bacterium and reveal that the elliptical distortion rather enhances energy transfer from peripheral LH2 to LH1 at room temperature. Numerical results show that quantum entanglement between LH1 and LH2 is formed over a wider range of high energy levels than would have been the case with circular LH1. Light energy absorbed by LH2 is thermally pumped via thermal fluctuation and is effectively transferred to LH1 through the entangled states at room temperature rather than at low temperature. This result indicates the possibility that photosynthetic systems adopt an elliptical structure to effectively utilise both quantum entanglement and thermal fluctuation at physiological temperature. PMID:27173144

  3. Role of an elliptical structure in photosynthetic energy transfer: Collaboration between quantum entanglement and thermal fluctuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, Hisaki

    2016-05-01

    Recent experiments have revealed that the light-harvesting complex 1 (LH1) in purple photosynthetic bacteria has an elliptical structure. Generally, symmetry lowering in a structure leads to a decrease in quantum effects (quantum coherence and entanglement), which have recently been considered to play a role in photosynthetic energy transfer, and hence, elliptical structure seems to work against efficient photosynthetic energy transfer. Here we analyse the effect of an elliptical structure on energy transfer in a purple photosynthetic bacterium and reveal that the elliptical distortion rather enhances energy transfer from peripheral LH2 to LH1 at room temperature. Numerical results show that quantum entanglement between LH1 and LH2 is formed over a wider range of high energy levels than would have been the case with circular LH1. Light energy absorbed by LH2 is thermally pumped via thermal fluctuation and is effectively transferred to LH1 through the entangled states at room temperature rather than at low temperature. This result indicates the possibility that photosynthetic systems adopt an elliptical structure to effectively utilise both quantum entanglement and thermal fluctuation at physiological temperature.

  4. Magnetic Bacteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jane Bray; Nelson, Jim

    1992-01-01

    Describes the history of Richard Blakemore's discovery of magnetotaxic organisms. Discusses possible reasons why the magnetic response in bacteria developed. Proposes research experiments integrating biology and physics in which students investigate problems using cultures of magnetotaxic organisms. (MDH)

  5. Anaerobic bacteria

    MedlinePlus

    Brook I, Goldstein EJ. Diseases caused by non-spore forming anaerobic bacteria. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 297. Stedman's Online ...

  6. The vocal repertoire in a solitary foraging carnivore, Cynictis penicillata, may reflect facultative sociality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Roux, Aliza; Cherry, Michael I.; Manser, Marta B.

    2009-05-01

    We describe the vocal repertoire of a facultatively social carnivore, the yellow mongoose, Cynictis penicillata. Using a combination of close-range observations, recordings and experiments with simulated predators, we were able to obtain clear descriptions of call structure and function for a wide range of calls used by this herpestid. The vocal repertoire of the yellow mongooses comprised ten call types, half of which were used in appeasing or fearful contexts and half in aggressive interactions. Data from this study suggest that the yellow mongoose uses an urgency-based alarm calling system, indicating high and low urgency through two distinct call types. Compared to solitary mongooses, the yellow mongoose has a large proportion of ‘friendly’ vocalisations that enhance group cohesion, but its vocal repertoire is smaller and less context-specific than those of obligate social species. This study of the vocal repertoire of the yellow mongoose is, to our knowledge, the most complete to have been conducted on a facultatively social species in its natural habitat.

  7. No facultative worker policing in the honey bee ( Apis mellifera L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loope, Kevin J.; Seeley, Thomas D.; Mattila, Heather R.

    2013-05-01

    Kin selection theory predicts that in colonies of social Hymenoptera with multiply mated queens, workers should mutually inhibit ("police") worker reproduction, but that in colonies with singly mated queens, workers should favor rearing workers' sons instead of queens' sons. In line with these predictions, Mattila et al. (Curr Biol 22:2027-2031, 2012) documented increased ovary development among workers in colonies of honey bees with singly mated queens, suggesting that workers can detect and respond adaptively to queen mating frequency and raising the possibility that they facultative police. In a follow-up experiment, we test and reject the hypothesis that workers in single-patriline colonies prefer worker-derived males and are able to reproduce directly; we show that their eggs are policed as strongly as those of workers in colonies with multiply mated queens. Evidently, workers do not respond facultatively to a kin structure that favors relaxed policing and increased direct reproduction. These workers may instead be responding to a poor queen or preparing for possible queen loss.

  8. Physiological variation as a mechanism for developmental caste-biasing in a facultatively eusocial sweat bee

    PubMed Central

    Kapheim, Karen M.; Smith, Adam R.; Ihle, Kate E.; Amdam, Gro V.; Nonacs, Peter; Wcislo, William T.

    2012-01-01

    Social castes of eusocial insects may have arisen through an evolutionary modification of an ancestral reproductive ground plan, such that some adults emerge from development physiologically primed to specialize on reproduction (queens) and others on maternal care expressed as allo-maternal behaviour (workers). This hypothesis predicts that variation in reproductive physiology should emerge from ontogeny and underlie division of labour. To test these predictions, we identified physiological links to division of labour in a facultatively eusocial sweat bee, Megalopta genalis. Queens are larger, have larger ovaries and have higher vitellogenin titres than workers. We then compared queens and workers with their solitary counterparts—solitary reproductive females and dispersing nest foundresses—to investigate physiological variation as a factor in caste evolution. Within dyads, body size and ovary development were the best predictors of behavioural class. Queens and dispersers are larger, with larger ovaries than their solitary counterparts. Finally, we raised bees in social isolation to investigate the influence of ontogeny on physiological variation. Body size and ovary development among isolated females were highly variable, and linked to differences in vitellogenin titres. As these are key physiological predictors of social caste, our results provide evidence for developmental caste-biasing in a facultatively eusocial bee. PMID:22048951

  9. Growth of the Facultative Anaerobes from Antarctica, Alaska, and Patagonia at Low Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2004-01-01

    Psychotolerance, as an adaptation for surviving in extreme environments, is widespread among mesophilic microorganisms. Physico-chemical factors such as pressure, red-ox potential, pH and salinity could significantly alter the features of ecosystems by providing liquid water at subzero temperatures. Furthermore, organisms can respond to temperature changes by several known mechanisms, including changing the conformation capacities of constitutional proteins or by the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides around the cell wall and membrane. Such protective mechanisms make it possible for cells to not only passively survive low temperatures in a state of anabiosis, but also to be capable of actively metabolizing substrates and reproducing normally. The physiological and biochemical characteristics of the species, as well as genetics, could be remarkably changed due to adaptation and surviving in extreme environments. The cold shock genes of some of the studied strains of psychotolerant facultative anaerobes were reported previously. In this paper we present experimental data for psychotolerant, non spore-forming, facultative anaerobes isolated from geographically different cold regions of our planet. We show the growth response on changing from anaerobic conditions to aerobic with cultivation at low temperatures.

  10. SUSCEPTIBILITY OF STRICT AND FACULTATIVE ANAEROBES ISOLATED FROM ENDODONTIC INFECTIONS TO METRONIDAZOLE AND β-LACTAMS

    PubMed Central

    Gaetti-Jardim, Elerson; Landucci, Luís Fernando; Lins, Samira Âmbar; Vieira, Evanice Menezes Marçal; de Oliveira, Sérgio Ricardo

    2007-01-01

    Endodontic infections are mixed aerobic-anaerobic infections and several microbial groups associated to these pathologies are also involved in orofacial infections. The goal of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of microorganisms isolated from endodontic infections to β-lactams and metronidazole and verify the production of β-lactamases. Clinical specimens were collected from 58 endodontic infections of 52 patients. The microorganisms were isolated in selective and non-selective culture media, under anaerobiosis and aerobiosis, and identified using biochemical methods. In the susceptibility tests, it was used an agar dilution method, and Wilkins-Chalgren agar enriched with blood, hemin and menadione for the anaerobes, while Mueller- Hinton agar was employed for the facultative anaerobes. The production of β-lactamases was evaluated through the biological and chromogenic cephalosporin methods. All tested isolates were sensitive to imipenem and 99.3% to amoxicillin/clavulanate association, while 16.1% showed resistance to amoxicillin and penicillin G, and 4.89% to cefoxitin. Resistance to metronidazole was just found in facultative anaerobes. Production of β-lactamases was detected in 18.2% of the isolates and presented a correlation with resistance to β-lactams. PMID:19089195

  11. Serratia symbiotica from the aphid Cinara cedri: a missing link from facultative to obligate insect endosymbiont.

    PubMed

    Lamelas, Araceli; Gosalbes, María José; Manzano-Marín, Alejandro; Peretó, Juli; Moya, Andrés; Latorre, Amparo

    2011-11-01

    The genome sequencing of Buchnera aphidicola BCc from the aphid Cinara cedri, which is the smallest known Buchnera genome, revealed that this bacterium had lost its symbiotic role, as it was not able to synthesize tryptophan and riboflavin. Moreover, the biosynthesis of tryptophan is shared with the endosymbiont Serratia symbiotica SCc, which coexists with B. aphidicola in this aphid. The whole-genome sequencing of S. symbiotica SCc reveals an endosymbiont in a stage of genome reduction that is closer to an obligate endosymbiont, such as B. aphidicola from Acyrthosiphon pisum, than to another S. symbiotica, which is a facultative endosymbiont in this aphid, and presents much less gene decay. The comparison between both S. symbiotica enables us to propose an evolutionary scenario of the transition from facultative to obligate endosymbiont. Metabolic inferences of B. aphidicola BCc and S. symbiotica SCc reveal that most of the functions carried out by B. aphidicola in A. pisum are now either conserved in B. aphidicola BCc or taken over by S. symbiotica. In addition, there are several cases of metabolic complementation giving functional stability to the whole consortium and evolutionary preservation of the actors involved. PMID:22102823

  12. Oxygen Effect on the Low Temperature Tolerance of Facultative Anaerobes from Antarctica, Alaska, and Patagonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2004-01-01

    Psychrotolerance as an adaptation to survival in extreme environments is widespread among many of the mesophilic microorganisms. Red-ox potential, pH and salinity could significantly alter the features of ecosystems by providing liquid water at subzero temperatures. Furthermore, organisms can respond to temperature changes by several known mechanisms, including changing the conformation capacities of constitutional proteins or by the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides around the cell wall and membrane. Such protective mechanisms make it possible for cells to not only passively survive low-temperature in a state of anabiosis, but also to be capable of actively metabolizing substrates and reproducing normally. The physiological and biochemical characteristics of species as well as genetics could be remarkably changed due to -on and surviving m extreme environments. The cold shock genes for some of the studied strains of psychrotolerant facultative anaerobes already were published In this paper we present experimental data for psychrotolerant facultative anaerobes isolated from geographically different cold regions of our planet. We show the growth response on the changing of anaerobic conditions to aerobic with cultivation at subzero temperatures.

  13. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of competitive exclusion bacteria applied to newly hatched chickens.

    PubMed

    Wagner, R Doug; Cerniglia, Carl E

    2005-07-25

    Competitive exclusion (CE) products are mixtures of obligate and facultative anaerobic bacteria applied to poultry hatchlings for prevention of Salmonella colonization. These mixtures have the potential to introduce bacteria with undesirable antimicrobial drug resistance traits into the human food supply. Antimicrobial drug susceptibilities of 27 obligate and facultative anaerobes isolated from a commercial CE product were evaluated with a microdilution minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay. Bacteroides distasonis and Bacteroides fragilis isolates were resistant to tetracycline and other antimicrobial drugs. An Escherichia coli isolate was resistant to four antimicrobial drugs: erythromycin, penicillin, vancomycin, and tylosin. Erythromycin-resistant enterococci and vancomycin-resistant Lactococcus lactis isolates in the CE product were detected. These findings suggest that more work needs to be done to assess the potential effects of CE product use in poultry on the food supply. PMID:16014302

  14. Fluorescence enhancement of photosynthetic complexes separated from nanoparticles by a reduced graphene oxide layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twardowska, Magdalena; Kamińska, Izabela; Wiwatowski, Kamil; Ashraf, Khuram U.; Cogdell, Richard J.; Mackowski, Sebastian; Niedziółka-Jönsson, Joanna

    2014-03-01

    We observe that introducing a layer of reduced graphene oxide between electrochemically deposited gold nanoparticles and natural photosynthetic Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex from green sulfur bacteria, results in an increase of the fluorescence emission of the FMO. This increase is not accompanied with any substantial change of the fluorescence dynamics. Our findings indicate that incorporating graphene-based materials in hybrid assemblies yields better performance of such structures, thus holds promise for designing biosensing and optoelectronic devices.

  15. The antimicrobial activity of essential oils and essential oil components towards oral bacteria.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, S; Meier, A; Guggenheim, B

    1994-08-01

    A method for reproducibly determining minimal inhibitory concentrations and minimal bactericidal concentrations of plant extracts towards fastidiously and facultatively anaerobic oral bacteria, predicated upon measurements of optical densities in microtitre plate wells, was devised. The antimicrobial properties of some botanical oils were surveyed; of these, Australian tea tree oil, peppermint oil, and sage oil proved to be the most potent essential oils, whereas thymol and eugenol were potent essential oil components. PMID:7478759

  16. On the Quenching of the Fluorescence Yield in Photosynthetic Systems 12

    PubMed Central

    van Grondelle, Rienk; Duysens, Louis N.

    1980-01-01

    A modified matrix model describing transfer of excitation energy in the photosynthetic pigment system is discussed. In addition to the antenna pigments and reaction centers of the simple matrix model, a coupling complex is postulated mediating energy transfer between antenna and reaction centers. The values of the parameters describing the transfer properties of the coupling complex can be chosen in such a way that a number of recent unexplained measurements of fluorescence properties of various purple bacteria can be described. If such coupling complexes are present in oxygen evolving organisms, some of their properties must be different from those of purple bacteria. PMID:16661272

  17. Genetics of Bacteria That Oxidize On-Carbon Compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, Richard S.

    2001-01-01

    Facultative methanol oxidizing bacteria contain large amounts of methanol dehydrogenase which is expressed only in the presence of methanol. This technical report describes two-two component regulatory systems encoding histidine kinases and response regulators and another response regulator all of which are required for the expression of mxaF, the open reading frame encoding methanol dehydrogenase. The response regulators bind to sequences upstream of the mxaF when phosphoryled in a reaction catalyzed by the histidine kinases. The binding of the response regulators is required for the transcription of mxaF.

  18. Implications of salivary protein binding to commensal and pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Seok-Mo; Ruhl, Stefan; Scannapieco, Frank A.

    2013-01-01

    An important function of salivary proteins is to interact with microorganisms that enter the oral cavity. For some microbes, these interactions promote microbial colonization. For others, these interactions are deleterious and result in the elimination of the microbe from the mouth, This paper reviews recent studies of the interaction of salivary proteins with two model bacteria; the commensal species Streptococcus gordonii, and the facultative pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. These organisms selectively interact with a variety of salivary proteins to influence important functions such as bacterial adhesion to surfaces, evasion of host defense, bacterial nutrition and metabolism and gene expression. PMID:24707190

  19. Primary Photosynthetic Energy Conversion in Bacterial Reaction Centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinth, Wolfgang; Wachtveitl, J.

    The development of human societies is strongly influenced by the available energetic resources. In a period where the limitations of conventional fossil energy carriers become as evident as the often uncontrollable dangers of nuclear energy, one has to reconsider regenerative energy resources. Here photovoltaic or photochemical use of solar energy is an important approach. Since the early days of evolution some two billion years ago, the dominant energetic input into the life system on earth occurs via the conversion of solar energy performed in photosynthetic organisms. The fossil energy carriers that we use and waste today have been produced by photosynthesis over millions of years. In the race for an extended and versatile use of solar energy, semiconductorbased photovoltaic devices have been developed. However, even after decades of intense engineering they cannot serve as a competitive alternative to fossil energy. Under these circumstances new alternatives are required. One line of scientific development may use the operational principles of photosynthesis since photosynthesis is still our main energy source. In this respect, we will present results on the basic concepts of energy conversion in photosynthetic bacteria, which could be used as a guideline to alternative light energy conversion systems.

  20. Synergistic Two-Photon Absorption Enhancement in Photosynthetic Light Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kuo-Mei; Chen, Yu-Wei; Gao, Ting-Fong

    2012-06-01

    The grand scale fixation of solar energies into chemical substances by photosynthetic reactions of light-harvesting organisms provides Earth's other life forms a thriving environment. Scientific explorations in the past decades have unraveled the fundamental photophysical and photochemical processes in photosynthesis. Higher plants, green algae, and light-harvesting bacteria utilize organized pigment-protein complexes to harvest solar power efficiently and the resultant electronic excitations are funneled into a reaction center, where the first charge separation process takes place. Here we show experimental evidences that green algae (Chlorella vulgaris) in vivo display a synergistic two-photon absorption enhancement in their photosynthetic light harvesting. Their absorption coefficients at various wavelengths display dramatic dependence on the photon flux. This newly found phenomenon is attributed to a coherence-electronic-energy-transfer-mediated (CEETRAM) photon absorption process of light-harvesting pigment-protein complexes of green algae. Under the ambient light level, algae and higher plants can utilize this quantum mechanical mechanism to create two entangled electronic excitations adjacently in their light-harvesting networks. Concerted multiple electron transfer reactions in the reaction centers and oxygen evolving complexes can be implemented efficiently by the coherent motion of two entangled excitons from antennae to the charge separation reaction sites. To fabricate nanostructured, synthetic light-harvesting apparatus, the paramount role of the CEETRAM photon absorption mechanism should be seriously considered in the strategic guidelines.

  1. Methanotrophic bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, R S; Hanson, T E

    1996-01-01

    Methane-utilizing bacteria (methanotrophs) are a diverse group of gram-negative bacteria that are related to other members of the Proteobacteria. These bacteria are classified into three groups based on the pathways used for assimilation of formaldehyde, the major source of cell carbon, and other physiological and morphological features. The type I and type X methanotrophs are found within the gamma subdivision of the Proteobacteria and employ the ribulose monophosphate pathway for formaldehyde assimilation, whereas type II methanotrophs, which employ the serine pathway for formaldehyde assimilation, form a coherent cluster within the beta subdivision of the Proteobacteria. Methanotrophic bacteria are ubiquitous. The growth of type II bacteria appears to be favored in environments that contain relatively high levels of methane, low levels of dissolved oxygen, and limiting concentrations of combined nitrogen and/or copper. Type I methanotrophs appear to be dominant in environments in which methane is limiting and combined nitrogen and copper levels are relatively high. These bacteria serve as biofilters for the oxidation of methane produced in anaerobic environments, and when oxygen is present in soils, atmospheric methane is oxidized. Their activities in nature are greatly influenced by agricultural practices and other human activities. Recent evidence indicates that naturally occurring, uncultured methanotrophs represent new genera. Methanotrophs that are capable of oxidizing methane at atmospheric levels exhibit methane oxidation kinetics different from those of methanotrophs available in pure cultures. A limited number of methanotrophs have the genetic capacity to synthesize a soluble methane monooxygenase which catalyzes the rapid oxidation of environmental pollutants including trichloroethylene. PMID:8801441

  2. Hybrid system of semiconductor and photosynthetic protein.

    PubMed

    Kim, Younghye; Shin, Seon Ae; Lee, Jaehun; Yang, Ki Dong; Nam, Ki Tae

    2014-08-29

    Photosynthetic protein has the potential to be a new attractive material for solar energy absorption and conversion. The development of semiconductor/photosynthetic protein hybrids is an example of recent progress toward efficient, clean and nanostructured photoelectric systems. In the review, two biohybrid systems interacting through different communicating methods are addressed: (1) a photosynthetic protein immobilized semiconductor electrode operating via electron transfer and (2) a hybrid of semiconductor quantum dots and photosynthetic protein operating via energy transfer. The proper selection of materials and functional and structural modification of the components and optimal conjugation between them are the main issues discussed in the review. In conclusion, we propose the direction of future biohybrid systems for solar energy conversion systems, optical biosensors and photoelectric devices. PMID:25091409

  3. Regulation of Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Photosynthetic Organs.

    PubMed

    Llorente, Briardo

    2016-01-01

    A substantial proportion of the dazzling diversity of colors displayed by living organisms throughout the tree of life is determined by the presence of carotenoids, which most often provide distinctive yellow, orange and red hues. These metabolites play fundamental roles in nature that extend far beyond their importance as pigments. In photosynthetic lineages, carotenoids are essential to sustain life, since they have been exploited to maximize light harvesting and protect the photosynthetic machinery from photooxidative stress. Consequently, photosynthetic organisms have evolved several mechanisms that adjust the carotenoid metabolism to efficiently cope with constantly fluctuating light environments. This chapter will focus on the current knowledge concerning the regulation of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in leaves, which are the primary photosynthetic organs of most land plants. PMID:27485221

  4. The sulfolipid sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol is not required for photosynthetic electron transport in Rhodobacter sphaeroides but enhances growth under phosphate limitation

    SciTech Connect

    Benning, C.; Somerville, C.R. ); Beatty, J.T. ); Prince, R.C. )

    1993-02-15

    All photosynthetic organisms, with the exception of several species of photosynthetic bacteria, are thought to contain the sulfolipid 6-sulfo-[alpha]-D-quinovosyldiacylglycerol. The association of this lipid with photosynthetic membranes has led to the assumption that it plays some role in photosynthesis. Stable null mutants of the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides completely lacking sulfolipid were obtained by disruption of the sqdB gene. The ratios of the various components of the photosynthetic electron transport chain, as well as the electron transfer rates during cyclic electron transport, were not altered in the mutants, when grown under optimal conditions. Growth rates of wild type and mutants were identical under a variety of growth conditions, with the exception of phosphate limitation, which resulted in reduced growth of the mutants. Phosphate limitation of the wild type a used a significant reduction in the amount of all phospholipids and an increased amount of sulfolipid. By contrast, the sulfolipid-deficient mutant had reduced levels of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine but maintained a normal level of phosphatidylglycerol. In addition, two unidentified lipids lacking phosphorus accumulated in the membranes of both wild-type and mutant strains under phosphate limitation. We conclude that sulfolipid plays no significant unique role in photoheterotrophic growth or photosynthetic electron transport in R. sphaeroides but may function as a surrogate for phospholipids, particularly phosphatidylglycerol, under phosphate-limiting conditions. 34 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Process for photosynthetically splitting water

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, E.

    1982-01-28

    In one form of the invention, hydrogen is produced by providing a reactor containing a body of water. The water contains photolytic material, i.e., photoactive material containing a hydrogen-catalyst. The interior of the reactor is isolated from atmosphere and includes a volume for receiving gases evolved from the body of water. The photolytic material is exposed to light to effect photosynthetic splitting of the water into gaseous hydrogen and oxygen. The gas-receiving volume is continuously evacuated by pumping to promote evolution of gaseous hydrogen and oxygen into that volume and to withdraw them therefrom. In another form of the invention, separation of the hydrogen and oxygen is effected by selectively diffusing the hydrogen through a heated semipermeable membrane in a separation zone while maintaining across the zone a magnetic field gradient biasing the oxygen away from the membrane. In a third form of the invention, the withdrawn gas is contacted with a membrane blocking flow of water vapor to the region for effecting recovery of the hydrogen. In a fourth embodiment, the invention comprises a process for selectively recovering hydrogen from a gas mixture comprising hydrogen and oxygen. The process is conducted in a separation zone and comprises contacting the mixture with a semipermeable membrane effecting selective diffusion of hydrogen while maintaining across the zone a magnetic field gradient effecting movement of oxygen in a direction away from the membrane.

  6. Parameters of photosynthetic energy partitioning.

    PubMed

    Lazár, Dušan

    2015-03-01

    Almost every laboratory dealing with plant physiology, photosynthesis research, remote sensing, and plant phenotyping possesses a fluorometer to measure a kind of chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence induction (FLI). When the slow Chl FLI is measured with addition of saturating pulses and far-red illumination, the so-called quenching analysis followed by the so-called relaxation analysis in darkness can be realized. These measurements then serve for evaluation of the so-called energy partitioning, that is, calculation of quantum yields of photochemical and of different types of non-photochemical processes. Several theories have been suggested for photosynthetic energy partitioning. The current work aims to summarize all the existing theories, namely their equations for the quantum yields, their meaning and their assumptions. In the framework of these theories it is also found here that the well-known NPQ parameter ( [Formula: see text] ; Bilger and Björkman, 1990) equals the ratio of the quantum yield of regulatory light-induced non-photochemical quenching to the quantum yield of constitutive non-regulatory non-photochemical quenching (ΦNPQ/Φf,D). A similar relationship is also found here for the PQ parameter (ΦP/Φf,D). PMID:25569797

  7. Tank bromeliads as natural microcosms: a facultative association with ants influences the aquatic invertebrate community structure.

    PubMed

    Talaga, Stanislas; Dézerald, Olivier; Carteron, Alexis; Petitclerc, Frédéric; Leroy, Céline; Céréghino, Régis; Dejean, Alain

    2015-10-01

    Many tank bromeliads have facultative relationships with ants as is the case in French Guiana between Aechmea aquilega (Salib.) Griseb. and the trap-jaw ant, Odontomachus haematodus Linnaeus. Using a redundancy analysis, we determined that the presence of O. haematodus colonies is accompanied by a greater quantity of fine particulate organic matter in the water likely due to their wastes. This increase in nutrient availability is significantly correlated with an increase in the abundance of some detritivorous taxa, suggesting a positive bottom-up influence on the aquatic macroinvertebrate communities living in the A. aquilega wells. On the other hand, the abundance of top predators is negatively affected by a lower number of available wells due to ant constructions for nesting, releasing a top-down pressure that could also favor lower trophic levels. PMID:26302833

  8. First report on facultative parthenogenetic activation of eggs in sterlet sturgeon, Acipenser ruthenus.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Mohammad Abdul Momin; Butts, Ian Anthony Ernest; Cosson, Jacky; Linhart, Otomar

    2016-05-01

    This study reported facultative parthenogenetic cleavage development of sterlet sturgeon Acipenser ruthenus eggs and quantified the percentage of parthenogenetically developed eggs in relation to the fertilization ability of different females. When eggs were activated in freshwater, 5.1-13.7% of eggs developed parthenogenetically, while among those activated eggs 3.6-9.4% developed to 2 cells, 0.4-4.5% developed to 4 cells, and 0-0.8% developed to 8 cells. The mean percentage of fertilized and parthenogenetically activated eggs among the females was negatively correlated (R(2)=0.71, p=0.036), which indicates that parthenogenetic activation rate of sterlet eggs depends on the quality of eggs in terms of fertilization rate. PMID:26952761

  9. Photoperiod Extension Enhances Sexual Megaspore Formation and Triggers Metabolic Reprogramming in Facultative Apomictic Ranunculus auricomus

    PubMed Central

    Klatt, Simone; Hadacek, Franz; Hodač, Ladislav; Brinkmann, Gina; Eilerts, Marius; Hojsgaard, Diego; Hörandl, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    Meiosis, the key step of sexual reproduction, persists in facultative apomictic plants functional to some extent. However, it still remains unclear how and why proportions of reproductive pathways vary under different environmental stress conditions. We hypothesized that oxidative stress mediates alterations of developmental pathways. In apomictic plants we expected that megasporogenesis, the stage directly after meiosis, would be more affected than later stages of seed development. To simulate moderate stress conditions we subjected clone-mates of facultative apomictic Ranunculus auricomus to 10 h photoperiods, reflecting natural conditions, and extended ones (16.5 h). Reproduction mode was screened directly after megasporogenesis (microscope) and at seed stage (flow cytometric seed screening). Targeted metabolite profiles were performed with HPLC–DAD to explore if and which metabolic reprogramming was caused by the extended photoperiod. Prolonged photoperiods resulted in increased frequencies of sexual vs. aposporous initials directly after meiosis, but did not affect frequencies of sexual vs. asexual seed formation. Changes in secondary metabolite profiles under extended photoperiods affected all classes of compounds, and c. 20% of these changes separated the two treatments. Unexpectedly, the renowned antioxidant phenylpropanoids and flavonoids added more to clone-mate variation than to treatment differentiation. Among others, chlorophyll degradation products, non-assigned phenolic compounds and more lipophilic metabolites also contributed to the dissimilarity of the metabolic profiles of plants that had been exposed to the two different photoperiods. The hypothesis of moderate light stress effects was supported by increased proportions of sexual megaspore development at the expense of aposporous initial formation. The lack of effects at the seed stage confirms the basic assumption that only meiosis and sporogenesis would be sensitive to light stress. The

  10. Photoperiod Extension Enhances Sexual Megaspore Formation and Triggers Metabolic Reprogramming in Facultative Apomictic Ranunculus auricomus.

    PubMed

    Klatt, Simone; Hadacek, Franz; Hodač, Ladislav; Brinkmann, Gina; Eilerts, Marius; Hojsgaard, Diego; Hörandl, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    Meiosis, the key step of sexual reproduction, persists in facultative apomictic plants functional to some extent. However, it still remains unclear how and why proportions of reproductive pathways vary under different environmental stress conditions. We hypothesized that oxidative stress mediates alterations of developmental pathways. In apomictic plants we expected that megasporogenesis, the stage directly after meiosis, would be more affected than later stages of seed development. To simulate moderate stress conditions we subjected clone-mates of facultative apomictic Ranunculus auricomus to 10 h photoperiods, reflecting natural conditions, and extended ones (16.5 h). Reproduction mode was screened directly after megasporogenesis (microscope) and at seed stage (flow cytometric seed screening). Targeted metabolite profiles were performed with HPLC-DAD to explore if and which metabolic reprogramming was caused by the extended photoperiod. Prolonged photoperiods resulted in increased frequencies of sexual vs. aposporous initials directly after meiosis, but did not affect frequencies of sexual vs. asexual seed formation. Changes in secondary metabolite profiles under extended photoperiods affected all classes of compounds, and c. 20% of these changes separated the two treatments. Unexpectedly, the renowned antioxidant phenylpropanoids and flavonoids added more to clone-mate variation than to treatment differentiation. Among others, chlorophyll degradation products, non-assigned phenolic compounds and more lipophilic metabolites also contributed to the dissimilarity of the metabolic profiles of plants that had been exposed to the two different photoperiods. The hypothesis of moderate light stress effects was supported by increased proportions of sexual megaspore development at the expense of aposporous initial formation. The lack of effects at the seed stage confirms the basic assumption that only meiosis and sporogenesis would be sensitive to light stress. The

  11. Uncultivated Methylocystis Species in Paddy Soil Include Facultative Methanotrophs that Utilize Acetate.

    PubMed

    Leng, Lingqin; Chang, Jiali; Geng, Kan; Lu, Yahai; Ma, Ke

    2015-07-01

    Methanotrophs are crucial in regulating methane emission from rice field systems. Type II methanotrophs in particular are often observed in high abundance in paddy soil. Some cultivated species of Methylocystis are able to grow on acetate in the absence of methane. We hypothesize that the dominant type II methanotrophs in paddy soil might facultatively utilize acetate for growth, which we evaluate in the present study. The measurement of methane oxidation rates showed that the methanotrophic activity in paddy soil was inhibited by the addition of acetate compared to the continuous supplementation of methane, but the paddy soil maintained the methane oxidation capacity and recovered following methane supplementation. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (T-RFLP) combined with cloning and sequencing of pmoA genes showed that Methylocystis was enriched after incubation with added acetate, while the type I methanotrophs Methylocaldum/Methylococcus and Methylobacter were enriched by methane supplementation. A comparison of pmoA sequences obtained in this study with those in the public database indicated that they were globally widespread in paddy soils or in associated with rice roots. Furthermore, we performed stable isotope probing (SIP) of pmoA messenger RNA (mRNA) to investigate the assimilation of (13)C-acetate by paddy soil methanotrophs. RNA-SIP revealed that Methylocystis-related methanotrophs which shared the same genotype of the above enriched species were significantly labelled. It indicates that these methanotrophs actively assimilated the labelled acetate in paddy soil. Altogether, these results suggested that uncultivated Methylocystis species are facultative methanotrophs utilizing acetate as a secondary carbon source in paddy soil. PMID:25475784

  12. The Abundance of Pink-Pigmented Facultative Methylotrophs in the Root Zone of Plant Species in Invaded Coastal Sage Scrub Habitat

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, Irina C.; Brigham, Christy A.; Suding, Katharine N.; Martiny, Jennifer B. H.

    2012-01-01

    Pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic bacteria (PPFMs) are associated with the roots, leaves and seeds of most terrestrial plants and utilize volatile C1 compounds such as methanol generated by growing plants during cell division. PPFMs have been well studied in agricultural systems due to their importance in crop seed germination, yield, pathogen resistance and drought stress tolerance. In contrast, little is known about the PPFM abundance and diversity in natural ecosystems, let alone their interactions with non-crop species. Here we surveyed PPFM abundance in the root zone soil of 5 native and 5 invasive plant species along ten invasion gradients in Southern California coastal sage scrub habitat. PPFMs were present in every soil sample and ranged in abundance from 102 to 105 CFU/g dry soil. This abundance varied significantly among plant species. PPFM abundance was 50% higher in the root zones of annual or biennial species (many invasives) than perennial species (all natives). Further, PPFM abundance appears to be influenced by the plant community beyond the root zone; pure stands of either native or invasive species had 50% more PPFMs than mixed species stands. In sum, PPFM abundance in the root zone of coastal sage scrub plants is influenced by both the immediate and surrounding plant communities. The results also suggest that PPFMs are a good target for future work on plant-microorganism feedbacks in natural ecosystems. PMID:22383990

  13. Performance evaluation and spatial sludge distribution at facultative and maturation ponds treating wastewater from an international airport.

    PubMed

    Passos, Ricardo Gomes; von Sperling, Marcos; Ribeiro, Thiago Bressani

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a performance evaluation of facultative and maturation ponds in series treating wastewater from a large and intensively used international airport in Brazil, based on 16 years of regular monitoring. The wastewater from the airport showed similar or slightly lower concentrations compared to typical domestic sewage for most of the quality parameters. The contribution of effluents with possible industrial features (aircraft toilets and hangar effluent) did not seem to have adversely affected the characteristics of the influent in terms of aptitude to biological treatment. Overall, the ponds operated under very underloaded conditions (mean loading rate of 44 kg biochemical oxygen demand/ha.d in the facultative pond) and presented a satisfactory quality in terms of effluent concentrations for most parameters. A bathymetric survey of the ponds was done manually by a low-cost measurer constructed specifically for this purpose. After 27 years of operation, only 25% and 18% of the volumes of the facultative and maturation ponds were occupied by sludge. Specific sludge accumulation rates were 0.0071 m³/passenger.year for the facultative pond and 0.00017 m³/passenger.year for the maturation pond. PMID:25051468

  14. Coalescent Times and Patterns of Genetic Diversity in Species with Facultative Sex: Effects of Gene Conversion, Population Structure, and Heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Hartfield, Matthew; Wright, Stephen I; Agrawal, Aneil F

    2016-01-01

    Many diploid organisms undergo facultative sexual reproduction. However, little is currently known concerning the distribution of neutral genetic variation among facultative sexual organisms except in very simple cases. Understanding this distribution is important when making inferences about rates of sexual reproduction, effective population size, and demographic history. Here we extend coalescent theory in diploids with facultative sex to consider gene conversion, selfing, population subdivision, and temporal and spatial heterogeneity in rates of sex. In addition to analytical results for two-sample coalescent times, we outline a coalescent algorithm that accommodates the complexities arising from partial sex; this algorithm can be used to generate multisample coalescent distributions. A key result is that when sex is rare, gene conversion becomes a significant force in reducing diversity within individuals. This can reduce genomic signatures of infrequent sex (i.e., elevated within-individual allelic sequence divergence) or entirely reverse the predicted patterns. These models offer improved methods for assessing null patterns of molecular variation in facultative sexual organisms. PMID:26584902

  15. PS2013 Satellite Workshop on Photosynthetic Light-Harvesting Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Niederman, Robert A.; Blankenship, Robert E.; Frank, Harry A.

    2015-02-07

    represented a diverse international and multidisciplinary group, with over 160 individuals attending from a total of 17 different countries. Attendees came from a wide range of fields assuring that the widest possible interdisciplinary exchanges. They included prominent biochemists, biophysicists, plant physiologists, chemical physicists, as well as theoretical and computational physical chemists, who presented their research findings or to hear the latest advances in this very dynamic field. In the choice of speakers, a balance was created between established scientists and young, emerging researchers, given this opportunity to showcase their results. Sessions were held on electronic and vibrational coherence including coherent sharing of excitations among donor and acceptor molecules during excitation energy transfer, nonphotochemical quenching, acclimation to light environments, evolution, adaptation and biodiversity of light-harvesting pigment-protein complexes, their structure and membrane organization, spectroscopy and dynamics, as well as artificial antenna systems. A joint session was also held with the participants from the Cyanobacterial Satellite Conference. A special issue of Photosynthesis Research devoted to light harvesting (Volume 121, Issue No. 1, July 2014) has recently appeared which contains peer-reviewed original research contributions arising from talks and posters presented at the PS2013 Satellite Workshop on Photosynthetic Light-Harvesting Systems. Edited by the Organizers of the Workshop, Robert E. Blankenship, Harry A. Frank and Robert A. Niederman, it includes topics ranging from the isolation of new bacteriochlorophyll species from green bacteria, temperature effects on the excited states of the newly discovered chlorophyll (Chl) ƒ, new architectures for enhancing energy capture by biohybrid light-harvesting complexes, forces governing the formation of light-harvesting rings, spectroscopy of carotenoids of algae and diatoms and the supramolecular

  16. [Microbial synthesis of deuterium labelled L-phenylalanine with different levels of isotopic enrichment by facultative methylotrophic bacterium Brevibacterium methylicum with RMP assimilation of carbon].

    PubMed

    Mosin, O V; Shvets, V I; Skladnev, D A; Ignatov, I

    2014-01-01

    The preparative microbial synthesis of amino acids labelled with stable isotopes, including deuterium ( 2 H), suitable for biomedical applications by methylotrophic bacteria was studied using L-phenylalanine as example. This amino acid is secreted by Gram-negative aerobic facultative methylotrophic bacteria Brevibacterium methylicum, assimilating methanol via ribulose-5-monophosphate (RMP) cycle of assimilation of carbon, The data on adaptation of L-phenylalanine secreted by methylotrophic bacterium В. methylicum to the maximal concentration of deuterium in the growth medium with 98% 2 Н 2 O and 2% [ 2 Н]methanol, and biosynthesis of deuterium labelled L-phenylalanine With different levels of enrichment are presented. The strain was adapted by means of plating initial cells on firm (2% agarose) minimal growth media with an increasing gradient of 2 Н 2 O concentration from 0; 24.5; 49.0; 73.5 up to 98% 2 Н 2 O followed by subsequent selection of separate colonies stable to the action of 2 Н 2 O. These colonies were capable to produce L-phenylalanine. L-phenylalanine was extracted from growth medium by extraction with isopropanol with the subsequent crystallization in ethanol (output 0.65 g/l). The developed method of microbial synthesis allows to obtain deuterium labelled L-phenylalanine with different levels of isotopic enrichment, depending on concentration of 2 Н 2 O in growth media, from 17% (on growth medium with 24,5% 2 Н 2 O) up to 75% (on growth medium with 98% 2 Н 2 O) of deuterium in the molecule that is confirmed with the data of the electron impact (EI) mass- spectrometry analysis of methyl ethers of N-dimethylamino(naphthalene)-5-sulfochloride (dansyl) phenylalanine in these experimental conditions. PMID:25249528

  17. Bacteria Counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Science Applications, Inc.'s ATP Photometer makes a rapid and accurate count of the bacteria in a body fluid sample. Instrument provides information on the presence and quantity of bacteria by measuring the amount of light emitted by the reaction between two substances. Substances are ATP adenosine triphosphate and luciferase. The reactants are applied to a human body sample and the ATP Photometer observes the intensity of the light emitted displaying its findings in a numerical output. Total time lapse is usually less than 10 minutes, which represents a significant time savings in comparison of other techniques. Other applications are measuring organisms in fresh and ocean waters, determining bacterial contamination of foodstuffs, biological process control in the beverage industry, and in assay of activated sewage sludge.

  18. Toward understanding as photosynthetic biosignatures: light harvesting and energy transfer calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, Y.; Umemura, M.; Shoji, M.; Shiraishi, K.; Kayanuma, M.; Yabana, K.

    2014-03-01

    Among several proposed biosignatures, red edge is a direct evidence of photosynthetic life if it is detected (Kiang et al 2007). Red edge is a sharp change in reflectance spectra of vegetation in NIR region (about 700-750 nm). The sign of red edge is observed by Earthshine or remote sensing (Wolstencroft & Raven 2002, Woolf et al 2002). But, why around 700-750 nm? The photosynthetic organisms on Earth have evolved to optimize the sunlight condition. However, if we consider about photosynthetic organism on extrasolar planets, they should have developed to utilize the spectra of its principal star. Thus, it is not strange even if it shows different vegetation spectra. In this study, we focused on the light absorption mechanism of photosynthetic organisms on Earth and investigated the fundamental properties of the light harvesting mechanisms, which is the first stage for the light absorption. Light harvesting complexes contain photosynthetic pigments like chlorophylls. Effective light absorption and the energy transfer are accomplished by the electronic excitations of collective photosynthetic pigments. In order to investigate this mechanism, we constructed an energy transfer model by using a dipole-dipole approximation for the interactions between electronic excitations. Transition moments and transition energies of each pigment are calculated at the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) level (Marques & Gross 2004). Quantum dynamics simulation for the excitation energy transfer was calculated by the Liouvelle's equation. We adopted the model to purple bacteria, which has been studied experimentally and known to absorb lower energy. It is meaningful to focus on the mechanism of this bacteria, since in the future mission, M planets will become a important target. We calculated the oscillator strengths in one light harvesting complex and confirmed the validity by comparing to the experimental data. This complex is made of an inner and an outer ring. The

  19. Two Cyanobacterial Photoreceptors Regulate Photosynthetic Light Harvesting by Sensing Teal, Green, Yellow, and Red Light

    PubMed Central

    Wiltbank, Lisa B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The genomes of many photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic bacteria encode numerous phytochrome superfamily photoreceptors whose functions and interactions are largely unknown. Cyanobacterial genomes encode particularly large numbers of phytochrome superfamily members called cyanobacteriochromes. These have diverse light color-sensing abilities, and their functions and interactions are just beginning to be understood. One of the best characterized of these functions is the regulation of photosynthetic light-harvesting antenna composition in the cyanobacterium Fremyella diplosiphon by the cyanobacteriochrome RcaE in response to red and green light, a process known as chromatic acclimation. We have identified a new cyanobacteriochrome named DpxA that maximally senses teal (absorption maximum, 494 nm) and yellow (absorption maximum, 568 nm) light and represses the accumulation of a key light-harvesting protein called phycoerythrin, which is also regulated by RcaE during chromatic acclimation. Like RcaE, DpxA is a two-component system kinase, although these two photoreceptors can influence phycoerythrin expression through different signaling pathways. The peak responsiveness of DpxA to teal and yellow light provides highly refined color discrimination in the green spectral region, which provides important wavelengths for photosynthetic light harvesting in cyanobacteria. These results redefine chromatic acclimation in cyanobacteria and demonstrate that cyanobacteriochromes can coordinately impart sophisticated light color sensing across the visible spectrum to regulate important photosynthetic acclimation processes. PMID:26861023

  20. Rapid Redox Signal Transmission by “Cable Bacteria” beneath a Photosynthetic Biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Meysman, F. J. R.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, long filamentous bacteria, belonging to the family Desulfobulbaceae, were shown to induce electrical currents over long distances in the surface layer of marine sediments. These “cable bacteria” are capable of harvesting electrons from free sulfide in deeper sediment horizons and transferring these electrons along their longitudinal axes to oxygen present near the sediment-water interface. In the present work, we investigated the relationship between cable bacteria and a photosynthetic algal biofilm. In a first experiment, we investigated sediment that hosted both cable bacteria and a photosynthetic biofilm and tested the effect of an imposed diel light-dark cycle by continuously monitoring sulfide at depth. Changes in photosynthesis at the sediment surface had an immediate and repeatable effect on sulfide concentrations at depth, indicating that cable bacteria can rapidly transmit a geochemical effect to centimeters of depth in response to changing conditions at the sediment surface. We also observed a secondary response of the free sulfide at depth manifest on the time scale of hours, suggesting that cable bacteria adjust to a moving oxygen front with a regulatory or a behavioral response, such as motility. Finally, we show that on the time scale of days, the presence of an oxygenic biofilm results in a deeper and more acidic suboxic zone, indicating that a greater oxygen supply can enable cable bacteria to harvest a greater quantity of electrons from marine sediments. Rapid acclimation strategies and highly efficient electron harvesting are likely key advantages of cable bacteria, enabling their success in high sulfide generating coastal sediments. PMID:25416774

  1. The Genome Sequences of Cellulomonas fimi and “Cellvibrio gilvus” Reveal the Cellulolytic Strategies of Two Facultative Anaerobes, Transfer of “Cellvibrio gilvus” to the Genus Cellulomonas, and Proposal of Cellulomonas gilvus sp. nov

    PubMed Central

    Bramhacharya, Shanti; Jewell, Kelsea A.; Aylward, Frank O.; Mead, David; Brumm, Phillip J.

    2013-01-01

    Actinobacteria in the genus Cellulomonas are the only known and reported cellulolytic facultative anaerobes. To better understand the cellulolytic strategy employed by these bacteria, we sequenced the genome of the Cellulomonas fimi ATCC 484T. For comparative purposes, we also sequenced the genome of the aerobic cellulolytic “Cellvibrio gilvus” ATCC 13127T. An initial analysis of these genomes using phylogenetic and whole-genome comparison revealed that “Cellvibrio gilvus” belongs to the genus Cellulomonas. We thus propose to assign “Cellvibrio gilvus” to the genus Cellulomonas. A comparative genomics analysis between these two Cellulomonas genome sequences and the recently completed genome for Cellulomonas flavigena ATCC 482T showed that these cellulomonads do not encode cellulosomes but appear to degrade cellulose by secreting multi-domain glycoside hydrolases. Despite the minimal number of carbohydrate-active enzymes encoded by these genomes, as compared to other known cellulolytic organisms, these bacteria were found to be proficient at degrading and utilizing a diverse set of carbohydrates, including crystalline cellulose. Moreover, they also encode for proteins required for the fermentation of hexose and xylose sugars into products such as ethanol. Finally, we found relatively few significant differences between the predicted carbohydrate-active enzymes encoded by these Cellulomonas genomes, in contrast to previous studies reporting differences in physiological approaches for carbohydrate degradation. Our sequencing and analysis of these genomes sheds light onto the mechanism through which these facultative anaerobes degrade cellulose, suggesting that the sequenced cellulomonads use secreted, multidomain enzymes to degrade cellulose in a way that is distinct from known anaerobic cellulolytic strategies. PMID:23342046

  2. Regulation of Photosynthetic Electron Transport and Photoinhibition

    PubMed Central

    Roach, Thomas; Krieger-Liszkay, Anja Krieger

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthetic organisms and isolated photosystems are of interest for technical applications. In nature, photosynthetic electron transport has to work efficiently in contrasting environments such as shade and full sunlight at noon. Photosynthetic electron transport is regulated on many levels, starting with the energy transfer processes in antenna and ending with how reducing power is ultimately partitioned. This review starts by explaining how light energy can be dissipated or distributed by the various mechanisms of non-photochemical quenching, including thermal dissipation and state transitions, and how these processes influence photoinhibition of photosystem II (PSII). Furthermore, we will highlight the importance of the various alternative electron transport pathways, including the use of oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor and cyclic flow around photosystem I (PSI), the latter which seem particularly relevant to preventing photoinhibition of photosystem I. The control of excitation pressure in combination with the partitioning of reducing power influences the light-dependent formation of reactive oxygen species in PSII and in PSI, which may be a very important consideration to any artificial photosynthetic system or technical device using photosynthetic organisms. PMID:24678670

  3. Feasibility of a photosynthetic artificial lung.

    PubMed

    Basu-Dutt, S; Fandino, M R; Salley, S O; Thompson, I M; Whittlesey, G C; Klein, M D

    1997-01-01

    The success of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for the treatment of acute respiratory failure has led to consideration of the development of a more portable, and perhaps even implantable, artificial lung. The authors suggest a bioregenerative life support system that includes a photo-synthetic organism that can remove CO2 and produce O2 in the presence of an energy source. To build a model of such a photosynthetic artificial lung, the photosynthetic capability of a high temperature strain of the algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa was maximized at a cell density of 25 million cells/ml to serve as the O2 producer and CO2 remover. The "patient" in this model was comprised of 1 L of medium or 350 ml of blood, interfaced with the photosynthetic system across a gas transfer membrane. The experiments demonstrated the ability of the plant cells to supply O2 and remove CO2 from the "patient" with a maximum rate of 0.55 mmoles/L/hr under the most favorable measured operating conditions. The projected rate of 1.0 mmoles/L/hr required for physiologic applications is not totally ab absurd idea, with a slightly modified set-up. Modifications may be in the form of regulating the photosynthetic pathway or genetically engineering a hybrid strain with enhanced O2 producing and suppressed photoinhibition capacity. PMID:9242940

  4. Quorum sensing influences growth and photosynthetic membrane production in high-cell-density cultivations of Rhodospirillum rubrum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The facultative anoxygenic photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum exhibits versatile metabolic activity allowing the adaptation to rapidly changing growth conditions in its natural habitat, the microaerobic and anoxic zones of stagnant waters. The microaerobic growth mode is of special interest as it allows the high-level expression of photosynthetic membranes when grown on succinate and fructose in the dark, which could significantly simplify the industrial production of compounds associated with PM formation. However, recently we showed that PM synthesis is no longer inducible when R. rubrum cultures are grown to high cell densities under aerobic conditions. In addition a reduction of the growth rate and the continued accumulation of precursor molecules for bacteriochlorophyll synthesis were observed under high cell densities conditions. Results In the present work, we demonstrate that the cell density-dependent effects are reversible if the culture supernatant is replaced by fresh medium. We identified six N-acylhomoserine lactones and show that four of them are produced in varying amounts according to the growth phase and the applied growth conditions. Further, we demonstrate that N-acylhomoserine lactones and tetrapyrrole compounds released into the growth medium affect the growth rate and PM expression in high cell density cultures. Conclusions In summary, we provide evidence that R. rubrum possesses a Lux-type quorum sensing system which influences the biosynthesis of PM and the growth rate and is thus likely to be involved in the phenotypes of high cell density cultures and the rapid adaptation to changing environmental conditions. PMID:23927486

  5. Productivity, absorbed photosynthetically active radiation, and light use efficiency in crops: implications for remote sensing of crop primary production.

    PubMed

    Gitelson, Anatoly A; Peng, Yi; Arkebauer, Timothy J; Suyker, Andrew E

    2015-04-01

    Vegetation productivity metrics such as gross primary production (GPP) at the canopy scale are greatly affected by the efficiency of using absorbed radiation for photosynthesis, or light use efficiency (LUE). Thus, close investigation of the relationships between canopy GPP and photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by vegetation is the basis for quantification of LUE. We used multiyear observations over irrigated and rainfed contrasting C3 (soybean) and C4 (maize) crops having different physiology, leaf structure, and canopy architecture to establish the relationships between canopy GPP and radiation absorbed by vegetation and quantify LUE. Although multiple LUE definitions are reported in the literature, we used a definition of efficiency of light use by photosynthetically active "green" vegetation (LUE(green)) based on radiation absorbed by "green" photosynthetically active vegetation on a daily basis. We quantified, irreversible slowly changing seasonal (constitutive) and rapidly day-to-day changing (facultative) LUE(green), as well as sensitivity of LUE(green) to the magnitude of incident radiation and drought events. Large (2-3-fold) variation of daily LUE(green) over the course of a growing season that is governed by crop physiological and phenological status was observed. The day-to-day variations of LUE(green) oscillated with magnitude 10-15% around the seasonal LUE(green) trend and appeared to be closely related to day-to-day variations of magnitude and composition of incident radiation. Our results show the high variability of LUE(green) between C3 and C4 crop species (1.43 g C/MJ vs. 2.24 g C/MJ, respectively), as well as within single crop species (i.e., maize or soybean). This implies that assuming LUE(green) as a constant value in GPP models is not warranted for the crops studied, and brings unpredictable uncertainties of remote GPP estimation, which should be accounted for in LUE models. The uncertainty of GPP estimation due to facultative and

  6. THE C2 OXIDATIVE PHOTOSYNTHETIC CARBON CYCLE.

    PubMed

    Tolbert, N. E.

    1997-06-01

    The C2 oxidative photosynthetic carbon cycle plus the C3 reductive photosynthetic carbon cycle coexist. Both are initiated by Rubisco, use about equal amounts of energy, must regenerate RuBP, and result in exchanges of CO2 and O2 to establish rates of net photosynthesis, CO2 and O2 compensation points, and the ratio of CO2 and O2 in the atmosphere. These concepts evolved from research on O2 inhibition, glycolate metabolism, leaf peroxisomes, photorespiration, 18O2/16O2 exchange, CO2 concentrating processes, and a requirement for the oxygenase activity of Rubisco. Nearly 80 years of research on these topics are unified under the one process of photosynthetic carbon metabolism and its self-regulation. PMID:15012254

  7. BOREAS TE-10 Photosynthetic Response Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor); Middleton, Elizabeth; Sullivan, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) TE-10 (Terrestrial Ecology) team collected several data sets in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret information on the gas exchange, reflectance, transmittance, chlorophyll content, carbon content, hydrogen content, nitrogen content, and photosynthetic response of boreal vegetation. This data set contains measurements of quantitative parameters and leaf photosynthetic response to increases in light conducted in the SSA during the growing seasons of 1994 and 1996 using an oxygen electrode system. Leaf photosynthetic responses were not collected in 1996. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  8. Photosynthetic complex stoichiometry dynamics in higher plants: environmental acclimation and photosynthetic flux control

    PubMed Central

    Schöttler, Mark A.; Tóth, Szilvia Z.

    2014-01-01

    The composition of the photosynthetic apparatus of higher plants is dynamically adjusted to long-term changes in environmental conditions such as growth light intensity and light quality, and to changing metabolic demands for ATP and NADPH imposed by stresses and leaf aging. By changing photosynthetic complex stoichiometry, a long-term imbalance between the photosynthetic production of ATP and NADPH and their metabolic consumption is avoided, and cytotoxic side reactions are minimized. Otherwise, an excess capacity of the light reactions, relative to the demands of primary metabolism, could result in a disturbance of cellular redox homeostasis and an increased production of reactive oxygen species, leading to the destruction of the photosynthetic apparatus and the initiation of cell death programs. In this review, changes of the abundances of the different constituents of the photosynthetic apparatus in response to environmental conditions and during leaf ontogenesis are summarized. The contributions of the different photosynthetic complexes to photosynthetic flux control and the regulation of electron transport are discussed. PMID:24860580

  9. Spectroscopic Studies of Photosynthetic Systems and Their Application in Photovoltaic Devices - Equipment Only: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-06-175

    SciTech Connect

    Seibert, M.

    2014-09-01

    Spectral hole-burning (SHB) and single photosynthetic complex spectroscopy (SPCS) will be used to study the excitonic structure and excitation energy transfer (EET) processes of several photosynthetic protein complexes at low temperatures. The combination of SHB on bulk samples and SPCS is a powerful frequency domain approach for obtaining data that will address a number of issues that are key to understanding excitonic structure and energy transfer dynamics. The long-term goal is to reach a better understanding of the ultrafast solar energy driven primary events of photosynthesis as they occur in higher plants, cyanobacteria, purple bacteria, and green algae. A better understanding of the EET and charge separation (CS) processes taking place in photosynthetic complexes is of great interest, since photosynthetic complexes might offer attractive architectures for a future generation of circuitry in which proteins are crystallized.

  10. Enhanced practical photosynthetic CO2 mitigation

    DOEpatents

    Bayless, David J.; Vis-Chiasson, Morgan L.; Kremer, Gregory G.

    2003-12-23

    This process is unique in photosynthetic carbon sequestration. An on-site biological sequestration system directly decreases the concentration of carbon-containing compounds in the emissions of fossil generation units. In this process, photosynthetic microbes are attached to a growth surface arranged in a containment chamber that is lit by solar photons. A harvesting system ensures maximum organism growth and rate of CO.sub.2 uptake. Soluble carbon and nitrogen concentrations delivered to the cyanobacteria are enhanced, further increasing growth rate and carbon utilization.