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1

Morphological and molecular identification of the ectomycorrhizal association of Lactarius fumosibrunneus and Fagus grandifolia var. mexicana trees in eastern Mexico.  

PubMed

A population of Fagus grandifolia var. mexicana (covering ca. 4.7 ha) is established in a montane cloud forest refuge at Acatlan Volcano in eastern Mexico (Veracruz State), and it represents one of only ten populations of this species known to occur in the country (each stand covers ca. 2-35 ha in extension) and one of the southernmost in the continent. Sporocarps of several ectomycorrhizal macrofungi have been observed in the area, and among them, individuals of the genus Lactarius are common in the forest. However, the morphological and molecular characterization of ectomycorrhizae is still in development. Currently, two species of Lactarius have been previously documented in the area. Through the phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region from basidiomes and ectomycorrhizae, we identified the Lactarius fumosibrunneus ectomycorrhiza. The host, F. grandifolia var. mexicana, was determined comparing the amplified ITS sequence from ectomycorrhizal root tips in the GenBank database with Basic Local Alignment Search Tool. The mycorrhizal system of L. fumosibrunneus is monopodial-pyramidal, characterized by its shiny, white to silver and pruinose surface, secreting a white latex when damaged, composed of three plectenchymatous mantle layers, with diverticulated terminal elements at the outer mantle. It lacks emanating hyphae, rhizomorphs, and sclerotia. A detailed morphological and anatomical description, illustrations, and photographs of the ectomycorrhiza are presented. The comparison of L. fumosibrunneus and other Lactarius belonging to subgenus Plinthogalus is presented. PMID:22402818

Garay-Serrano, Edith; Bandala, Victor Manuel; Montoya, Leticia

2012-11-01

2

Dispersal versus climate: Expansion of Fagus and Tsuga into the Upper Great Lakes region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollen records for American beech (Fagus grandifolia) and eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) compiled from 50 sites in Michigan and Wisconsin, USA, show that both species entered the Upper Great Lakes region about 7000 yr B.P., reaching their western and southwestern boundaries between 2000 and 1000 yr B.P. Fagus advanced northward into lower Michigan as a continuous front, except where Lake

M. B. Davis; K. D. Woods; S. L. Webb; R. P. Futyma

1986-01-01

3

Fagus dominance in Chinese montane forests: natural regeneration of Fagus lucida and Fagus hayatae var. pashanica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fagus species are important components of certain mesic temperate forests in the Northern Hemisphere. Of eleven Fagus species distinguished, five are found in China. Chinese beeches are restricted to the mountains of southern China. In the montane zones of the northern subtropics beeches (Fagus engleriana in the north, and Fagus hayatae var. pashanica in the northwest) often predominate in the

K. F. Cao

1995-01-01

4

Unexpected presence of Fagus orientalis complex in Italy as inferred from 45,000-year-old DNA pollen samples from Venice lagoon  

PubMed Central

Background Phylogeographic analyses on the Western Euroasiatic Fagus taxa (F. orientalis, F. sylvatica, F. taurica and F. moesiaca) is available, however, the subdivision of Fagus spp. is unresolved and there is no consensus on the phylogeny and on the identification (both with morphological than molecular markers) of Fagus Eurasiatic taxa. For the first time molecular analyses of ancient pollen, dated at least 45,000 years ago, were used in combination with the phylogeny analysis on current species, to identify the Fagus spp. present during the Last Interglacial period in Italy. In this work we aim at testing if the trnL-trnF chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) region, that has been previously proved efficient in discriminating different Quercus taxa, can be employed in distinguishing the Fagus species and in identifying the ancient pollen. Results 86 populations from 4 Western Euroasistic taxa were sampled, and sequenced for the trnL-trnF region to verify the efficiency of this cpDNA region in identifying the Fagus spp.. Furthermore, Fagus crenata (2 populations), Fagus grandifolia (2 populations), Fagus japonica, Fagus hayatae, Quercus species and Castanea species were analysed to better resolve the phylogenetic inference. Our results show that this cpDNA region harbour some informative sites that allow to infer relationships among the species within the Fagaceae family. In particular, few specific and fixed mutations were able to discriminate and identify all the different Fagus species. Considering a short fragment of 176 base pairs within the trnL intron, 2 transversions were found able in distinguishing the F. orientalis complex taxa (F. orientalis, F. taurica and F. moesiaca) from the remaining Fagus spp. (F. sylvatica, F. japonica, F. hayataea, F. crenata and F. grandifolia). This permits to analyse this fragment also in ancient samples, where DNA is usually highly degraded. The sequences data indicate that the DNA recovered from ancient pollen belongs to the F. orientalis complex since it displays the informative sites characteristic of this complex. Conclusion The ancient DNA sequences demonstrate for the first time that, in contrast to current knowledge based on palynological and macrofossil data, the F. orientalis complex was already present during the Tyrrhenian period in what is now the Venice lagoon (Italy). This is a new and important insight considering that nowadays West Europe is not the natural area of Fagus orientalis complex, and up to now nobody has hypothesized the presence during the Last Interglacial period of F. orientalis complex in Italy.

Paffetti, Donatella; Vettori, Cristina; Caramelli, David; Vernesi, Cristiano; Lari, Martina; Paganelli, Arturo; Paule, Ladislav; Giannini, Raffaello

2007-01-01

5

Comparisons of protein profiles of beech bark disease resistant and susceptible American beech (Fagus grandifolia)  

PubMed Central

Background Beech bark disease is an insect-fungus complex that damages and often kills American beech trees and has major ecological and economic impacts on forests of the northeastern United States and southeastern Canadian forests. The disease begins when exotic beech scale insects feed on the bark of trees, and is followed by infection of damaged bark tissues by one of the Neonectria species of fungi. Proteomic analysis was conducted of beech bark proteins from diseased trees and healthy trees in areas heavily infested with beech bark disease. All of the diseased trees had signs of Neonectria infection such as cankers or fruiting bodies. In previous tests reported elsewhere, all of the diseased trees were demonstrated to be susceptible to the scale insect and all of the healthy trees were demonstrated to be resistant to the scale insect. Sixteen trees were sampled from eight geographically isolated stands, the sample consisting of 10 healthy (scale-resistant) and 6 diseased/infested (scale-susceptible) trees. Results Proteins were extracted from each tree and analysed in triplicate by isoelectric focusing followed by denaturing gel electrophoresis. Gels were stained and protein spots identified and intensity quantified, then a statistical model was fit to identify significant differences between trees. A subset of BBD differential proteins were analysed by mass spectrometry and matched to known protein sequences for identification. Identified proteins had homology to stress, insect, and pathogen related proteins in other plant systems. Protein spots significantly different in diseased and healthy trees having no stand or disease-by-stand interaction effects were identified. Conclusions Further study of these proteins should help to understand processes critical to resistance to beech bark disease and to develop biomarkers for use in tree breeding programs and for the selection of resistant trees prior to or in early stages of BBD development in stands. Early identification of resistant trees (prior to the full disease development in an area) will allow forest management through the removal of susceptible trees and their root-sprouts prior to the onset of disease, allowing management and mitigation of costs, economic impact, and impacts on ecological systems and services.

2013-01-01

6

Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Pereskia grandifolia Haw. (Cactaceae) extracts.  

PubMed

The leaves of Pereskia grandifolia Haw. (Cactaceae), commonly known as "Jarum Tujuh Bilah" in Malaysia, have been traditionally used as natural remedy in folk medicine by the locals. In the present study, the antioxidant potential of P. grandifolia crude methanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and water) have been investigated, employing three different established testing systems, such as scavenging activity on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, reducing power assay and ?-carotene method. The total phenolic content of the P. grandifolia extracts was also assessed by the Folin-Ciocalteau's method. The ethyl acetate extract showed significantly the highest total phenolic content, DPPH scavenging ability and antioxidant activity in ?-carotene bleaching assay while the hexane extract possessed significantly strongest reducing power. The data obtained in these testing systems clearly establish the antioxidant potency of P. grandifolia. As such, this is the first report on the antioxidant activities of P. grandifolia. PMID:20931088

Sim, K S; Nurestri, A M Sri; Norhanom, A W

2010-07-01

7

Phenacetin isolated from Bursera grandifolia, a herbal remedy with antipyretic properties.  

PubMed

Bursera grandifolia and other related species have been used in traditional herbal medicine in Mexico and other Latin American countries for their analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory properties. From the chloroform extract of leaves of B. grandifolia, a substance was isolated and identified as phenacetin, a well known compound with widely tested analgesic and antipyretic properties. The structural identity of the compound was elucidated on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic evidence and by comparison with an authentic sample. PMID:19967994

Velázquez, Francisco; Manríquez, Ricardo; Maya, Leticia; Barrientos, Lucia; López-Dellamary, Fernando

2009-11-01

8

Misidentification of tansy, Tanacetum macrophyllum, as yarrow, Achillea grandifolia: a health risk or benefit?  

PubMed

Tansy, Tanacetum macrophyllum (Waldst. & Kit.) Sch. Bip., is often misidentified by herb collectors as yarrow, Achillea grandifolia Friv. With the former, cases of poisoning induced by its ingestion are well documented, but the latter is widely used for ethnopharmacological purposes. The aim of this study was to estimate, based on the volatile metabolite profiles of the two species, the potential health risk connected with their misidentification. GC and GC-MS analysis of the essential oils hydrodistilled using a Clevenger-type apparatus from A. grandifolia, T. macrophyllum, and two plant samples (reputedly of A. grandifolia, but in fact mixtures of A. grandifolia and T. macrophyllum) obtained from a local market, resulted in the identification of 215 different compounds. The main constituents of A. grandifolia oil were ascaridole (15.5%), alpha-thujone (7.5%), camphor (15.6%), borneol (5.2%) and (Z)-jasmone (6.4%), and of T. macrophyllum oil, 1,8-cineole (8.6%), camphor (6.4%), borneol (9.1%), isobornyl acetate (9.5%), copaborneol (4.2%) and gamma-eudesmol (6.2%). The compositions of the oils extracted from the samples obtained from the market were intermediate to those of A. grandifolia and T. macrophyllum. Significant differences in the corresponding volatile profiles and the literature data concerning the known activities of the pure constituents of the oils, suggested that the pharmacological action of the investigated species (or their unintentional mixtures) would be notably different. It seems, however, that misidentification of T. macrophyllum as A. grandifolia does not represent a health risk and that the absence of the toxic alpha-thujone from T. macrophyllum oil may in fact be regarded as a benefit. PMID:20184036

Radulovi?, Niko S; Blagojevi?, Polina D; Skropeta, Danielle; Zarubica, Aleksandra R; Zlatkovi?, Bojan K; Pali?, Radosav M

2010-01-01

9

Allelopathic effects of aconitic acid on wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla) and morningglory (Ipomoea grandifolia).  

PubMed

High infestations of alexandergrass (Brachiaria plantaginea) in experimental area have reduced seedbank of some weed species in soil at a greater degree compared to those obtained with the use of an efficient herbicide. Aconitic acid (AA) has been identified in those plants in high concentration. Thus, two experiments were carried out in the laboratory to determine the effects of pure AA on weed seed germination and on endophytic fungi in wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla) and morningglory (Ipomoea grandifolia) weed species. Doses of AA (0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mM) were introduced in agar-water 0.5% medium and weed seeds treated with and without external sterilization by sodium hypochloride. Four replications of fifty seeds of each species by treatment were sown in plastic boxes with cover and maintained in germination chamber for 12 days. Reduction in germination rate, root and stem growth were observed in both species, as well as reduction in root number in morningglory were also observed at 2.0 mM concentration of AA. An increase in number of seeds with presence of endophytic fungi was also observed in both species, independently of seed sterilization, mainly of a green type fungi coloration in wild poinsettia. Aconitic acid presents allelopathic activity and can stimulate endophytic fungi species growth in weed seeds. PMID:15656164

Voll, Elemar; Voll, Cristiano Elemar; Filho, Ricardo Victória

2005-01-01

10

Agroxiphium sandwicense subsp. macrocephalum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Agroxiphium sandwicense subsp. macrocephalum, photographed on the Silversword Loop Trail in Haleakala National Park, Maui, Hawaii. The silverswords in Haleakala National Park grow in the largest number on these cinder cones in the caldera of Haleakala, but since goats have been removed from the National Park, silverswords are colonizing other areas of alpine lava. Photo credit: Sherwin Carlquist (1966).

Carlquist, Sherwin

2004-03-09

11

Xylella fastidiosa subspecies: X. fastidiosa subsp. [correction] fastidiosa [correction] subsp. nov., X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex subsp. nov., and X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca subsp. nov.  

PubMed

Xylella fastidiosa, a fastidious bacterium causing disease in over 100 plant species, is classified as a single species, although genetic studies support multiple taxons. To determine the taxonomic relatedness among strains of X. fastidiosa, we conducted DNA-DNA relatedness assays and sequenced the 16S-23S intergenic spacer (ITS) region using 26 strains from 10 hosts. Under stringent conditions (Tm -15 degrees C), the DNA relatedness for most X. fastidiosa strains was *70%. However, at high stringency (Tm -8 degrees C), three distinct genotypes (A, B, and C) were revealed. Taxon A included strains from cultivated grape, alfalfa, almond (two), and maple, interrelated by 85% (mean); taxon B included strains from peach, elm, plum, pigeon grape, sycamore, and almond (one), interrelated by 84%; and taxon C included only strains from citrus, interrelated by 87%. The mean reciprocal relatedness between taxons A and B, A and C, and B and C, were 58, 41, and 45%, respectively. ITS results also indicated the same grouping; taxons A and B, A and C, and B and C had identities of 98.7, 97.9, and 99.2%, respectively. Previous and present phenotypic data supports the molecular data. Taxon A strains grow faster on Pierce's disease agar medium whereas B and C strains grow more slowly. Taxon B and C strains are susceptible to penicillin and resistant to carbenicillin whereas A strains are opposite. Each taxon can be differentiated serologically as well as by structural proteins. We propose taxons A, B, and C be named X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa [correction] subsp. nov, subsp. multiplex, subsp. nov., and subsp. pauca, subsp. nov., respectively. The type strains of the subspecies are subsp. fastidiosa [correction] ICPB 50025 (= ATTC 35879T and ICMP 15197), subsp. multiplex ICPB 50039 (= ATTC 35871 and ICMP 15199), and subsp. pauca ICPB 50031 (= ICMP 15198). PMID:15214634

Schaad, Norman W; Postnikova, Elena; Lacy, George; Fatmi, M'Barek; Chang, Chung-Jan

2004-05-01

12

Unexpected presence of Fagus orientalis complex in Italy as inferred from 45,000-year-old DNA pollen samples from Venice lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Phylogeographic analyses on the Western Euroasiatic Fagus taxa (F. orientalis, F. sylvatica, F. taurica and F. moesiaca) is available, however, the subdivision of Fagus spp. is unresolved and there is no consensus on the phylogeny and on the identification (both with morphological than molecular markers) of Fagus Eurasiatic taxa. For the first time molecular analyses of ancient pollen, dated

Donatella Paffetti; Cristina Vettori; David Caramelli; Cristiano Vernesi; Martina Lari; Arturo Paganelli; Ladislav Paule; Raffaello Giannini

2007-01-01

13

Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. kleinii subsp. nov. (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae).  

PubMed

Association between bacteria Photorhabdus and their nematode hosts Heterorhabditis represents one of the emerging models in symbiosis studies. In this study, we isolated the bacterial symbionts of the nematode Heterorhabditis georgiana. Using gyrB sequences for phylogenetic analysis, these strains were shown to be part of the species of Photorhbdus luminescens but with clear separation from currently recognized subspecies. Physiological properties and DNA-DNA hybridization profiles also supported the phylogenetic relationship of these strains. Therefore, a new subspecies, Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. kleinii subsp. nov., is proposed with the type strain KMD37(T) (=DSM 23513 =ATCC =NRRL B-59419). PMID:20717672

An, Ruisheng; Grewal, Parwinder S

2011-02-01

14

Optimized nonradioisotopic amplified fragment length polymorphism method for European beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique has increasingly been used for the study of forest tree species.\\u000a A nonradioisotopic AFLP method was optimized for European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and found reproducible. However, type ofTaq DNA polymerase and choice of primers must be considered for a consistent AFLP pattern.

S. D. Veerasenan

2004-01-01

15

Photorhabdus temperata subsp. stackebrandtii subsp. nov. (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae).  

PubMed

The bacterial symbiont of the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora strain GPS11 was characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequence and physiological traits. The phylogenetic tree built upon 16S rRNA gene sequences clustered the GPS11 bacterial isolate with Photorhabdus temperata strains which have been previously isolated from Heterorhabditis species. The phylogenetic tree further identified four subgroups in P. temperata, and the relationships among these subgroups were confirmed by gyrase subunit B (gyrB) gene sequence analysis. The subgroup containing the GPS11 bacterial isolate differs from other subgroups in sequences of 16S rRNA and gyrB gene, physiological traits, nematode host species, and geographic origin. Therefore, the subgroup comprising the GPS11 bacterial isolate is proposed here as a new subspecies: Photorhabdus temperata subsp. stackebrandtii subsp. nov. (type strain GPS11). The type strain has been deposited in ATCC and DSMZ collections. PMID:20852981

An, Ruisheng; Grewal, Parwinder S

2010-10-01

16

Photorhabdus temperata subsp. cinerea subsp. nov., isolated from Heterorhabditis nematodes.  

PubMed

During the characterization of symbiotic bacteria of Hungarian entomopathogenic nematode isolates, a number of bacteria (including strain 3107(T)) isolated from Heterorhabditis downesi and Heterorhabditis megidis showed only moderate 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the type strains of all described Photorhabdus species and subspecies. On the basis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence, the phylogenetic relationships of these isolates were uncertain, because of the low bootstrap values. Using gyrB sequences for phylogenetic analysis, these isolates were shown to be part of the species Photorhabdus temperata, with clear separation from both Palaearctic and American strains (phylogenetic distances are 6.9 and 7.9 %, respectively). Physiological properties and carbon-source utilization profiles supported the phylogenetic position of these strains; therefore, a novel subspecies, Photorhabdus temperata subsp. cinerea subsp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain 3107(T) (=DSM 19724(T) =NCAIM B 02271(T)). PMID:18984696

Tóth, Tímea; Lakatos, Tamás

2008-11-01

17

Latent infections of Fomes fomentarius in the xylem of European beech ( Fagus sylvatica )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungal colonisation originating from endophytic thalli in wood of healthy European beech trees (Fagus sylvatica) was studied. Fungi were isolated from wood immediately after felling and after incubation for 8, 16 and 24 weeks under two\\u000a different drying regimes. Two media were used to isolate fungi: malt extract agar with and without thiabendazol. Thiabendazol\\u000a was added to inhibit non-basidiomycetes. The

Sebastian Baum; Thomas N. Sieber; Francis W. M. R. Schwarze; Siegfried Fink

2003-01-01

18

A dendroecological reconstruction of disturbance in an old-growth Fagus-Abies forest in Slovenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scarcity of large old-growth forests has made it challenging to quantify disturbance regimes in Central Europe. The objective\\u000a of this study was to reconstruct the history of disturbance in an old-growth Fagus-Abies forest reserve in Slovenia using\\u000a a dendroecological approach. We extracted cores from canopy trees blown down during a recent windthrow event and identified\\u000a growth releases in the

Thomas A. Nagel; Tom Levanic; Jurij Diaci

2007-01-01

19

NIR-spectroscopic investigation of foliage of ozone-stressed Fagus sylvatica trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy was tested as a fast method for characterizing the toxic effects of air pollution\\u000a on trees. Fagus sylvatica was exposed to known, different levels of ozone during summer of 2003 in plant chambers. Leaves were taken from the plants\\u000a and NIR spectra were recorded. In order to derive calibration models, reference analyses were carried out

Martina Gäb; Katharina Hoffmann; Melanie Lobe; Rut Metzger; Sven van Ooyen; Gereon Elbers; Barbara Köllner

2006-01-01

20

Proteins and polyamines during dormancy breaking of European beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.) seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The studies were carried out on Fagus sylvatica seeds during stratification and their germination. After imbibition beechnuts were subjected to cold (3 °C — temperature\\u000a which breaks dormancy) or warm (15 °C — temperature unable to break dormancy) stratification and alternatively were treated\\u000a with polyamine synthesis inhibitors: canavanine and DFMO (difluoromethylornithine). After cold stratification in embryo axes\\u000a we found (using

Zofia Szczotka; Tomasz Paw?owski; Kazimierz Krawiarz

2003-01-01

21

Leaf litter decomposition in temperate deciduous forest stands with a decreasing fraction of beech ( Fagus sylvatica )  

Microsoft Academic Search

We hypothesised that the decomposition rates of leaf litter will increase along a gradient of decreasing fraction of the European\\u000a beech (Fagus sylvatica) and increasing tree species diversity in the generally beech-dominated Central European temperate deciduous forests due\\u000a to an increase in litter quality. We studied the decomposition of leaf litter including its lignin fraction in monospecific\\u000a (pure beech) stands

Mascha Jacob; Karin Viedenz; Andrea Polle; Frank M. Thomas

2010-01-01

22

Changes in Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis and Catabolism during Dormancy Breaking in Fagus sylvatica Embryo  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   At harvest, embryos of Fagus sylvatica are dormant. A cold pretreatment without medium at 30% moisture content allowed them to germinate. A comparison of the abscisic\\u000a acid (ABA) content before and after the pretreatment has no significant relevance since dormancy is expressed during the culture\\u000a at 23°C. During this culture, both de novo biosynthesis and conjugate hydrolysis contributed to

M. T. Le Page-Degivry; G. Garello; P. Barthe

1997-01-01

23

Masting behavior of Fagus crenata in northern Japan: spatial synchrony and pre-dispersal seed predation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An 11-year study of total seed and seed production in five natural Japanese beech (Fagus crenata) forests in Hokkaido, northern Japan, estimated the spatial synchrony of masting and examined whether variation in annual total seed production resulted in fluctuations in pre-dispersal seed-predator populations. We found less synchrony in total seed production than in sound seed production among sites. The coefficients

Michiyasu Yasaka; Kazuhiko Terazawa; Hiromasa Koyama; Hirokazu Kon

2003-01-01

24

Phylogeography of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica, Europe.  

PubMed

Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica isolates from Austria, Germany, Hungary, Italy, and Romania were placed into an existing phylogeographic framework. Isolates from Italy were assigned to phylogenetic group B.FTNF002-00; the other isolates, to group B.13. Most F. tularensis subsp. holarctica isolates from Europe belong to these 2 geographically segregated groups. PMID:22305204

Gyuranecz, Miklós; Birdsell, Dawn N; Splettstoesser, Wolf; Seibold, Erik; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Stephen M; Makrai, László; Fodor, László; Fabbi, Massimo; Vicari, Nadia; Johansson, Anders; Busch, Joseph D; Vogler, Amy J; Keim, Paul; Wagner, David M

2012-02-01

25

Phylogeography of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica, Europe  

PubMed Central

Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica isolates from Austria, Germany, Hungary, Italy, and Romania were placed into an existing phylogeographic framework. Isolates from Italy were assigned to phylogenetic group B.FTNF002–00; the other isolates, to group B.13. Most F. tularensis subsp. holarctica isolates from Europe belong to these 2 geographically segregated groups.

Gyuranecz, Miklos; Birdsell, Dawn N.; Splettstoesser, Wolf; Seibold, Erik; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Stephen M.; Makrai, Laszlo; Fodor, Laszlo; Fabbi, Massimo; Vicari, Nadia; Johansson, Anders; Busch, Joseph D.; Vogler, Amy J.; Keim, Paul

2012-01-01

26

Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. phaseoli subsp. nov., pathogenic in bean.  

PubMed

A yellow Gram-reaction-positive bacterium isolated from bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was identified as Clavibacter michiganensis by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Molecular methods were employed in order to identify the subspecies. Such methods included the amplification of specific sequences by PCR, 16S amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA), RFLP and multilocus sequence analysis as well as the analysis of biochemical and phenotypic traits including API 50CH and API ZYM results. The results showed that strain LPPA 982T did not represent any known subspecies of C. michiganensis. Pathogenicity tests revealed that the strain is a bean pathogen causing a newly identified bacterial disease that we name bacterial bean leaf yellowing. On the basis of these results, strain LPPA 982T is regarded as representing a novel subspecies for which the name Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. phaseoli subsp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LPPA 982T (=CECT 8144T=LMG 27667T). PMID:24554636

González, Ana J; Trapiello, Estefanía

2014-05-01

27

Guild Structure of Gall Midges on Fagus crenata in Relation to Snow Gradient: Present Status and Prediction of Future Status as a Result of Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty six species of gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) induce leaf galls onFagus crenata. Because the adult life span of gall midges is very short, they must emerge and oviposit in the short period of a specific stage of budburst.Fagus crenatais mainly distributed in regions with heavy snowfall. Snow cover prevents the emergence of gall midges that overwinter on the ground

Naoto Kamata; Shinsuke Sato; Jiro Kodani

28

Molecular Characterization of Copper Resistance Genes from Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri and Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis?  

PubMed Central

Copper sprays have been widely used for control of endemic citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri in citrus-growing areas for more than 2 decades. Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis populations were also exposed to frequent sprays of copper for several years as a protective measure against citrus bacterial spot (CBS) in Florida citrus nurseries. Long-term use of these bactericides has led to the development of copper-resistant (Cur) strains in both X. citri subsp. citri and X. alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis, resulting in a reduction of disease control. The objectives of this study were to characterize for the first time the genetics of copper resistance in X. citri subsp. citri and X. alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis and to compare these organisms to other Cur bacteria. Copper resistance determinants from X. citri subsp. citri strain A44(pXccCu2) from Argentina and X. alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis strain 1381(pXacCu2) from Florida were cloned and sequenced. Open reading frames (ORFs) related to the genes copL, copA, copB, copM, copG, copC, copD, and copF were identified in X. citri subsp. citri A44. The same ORFs, except copC and copD, were also present in X. alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis 1381. Transposon mutagenesis of the cloned copper resistance determinants in pXccCu2 revealed that copper resistance in X. citri subsp. citri strain A44 is mostly due to copL, copA, and copB, which are the genes in the cloned cluster with the highest nucleotide homology (?92%) among different Cur bacteria.

Behlau, Franklin; Canteros, Blanca I.; Minsavage, Gerald V.; Jones, Jeffrey B.; Graham, James H.

2011-01-01

29

Growth of Fagus in transition zones of forest and soil on the western slope of Mt. Chokai, northern Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wide transition zone for forest structure is expected to distribute on the gentle slope of western side of Mt. Chokai ,Yamagata prefecture, northern Japan (N39° 05'57", E140°02'55"). The annual mean temperature and total precipitation at summit (2,059 m asl.) are 0.5° C and 3,285mm, respectively. The parent materials of the soils are weathered Andesite associated with non-tephric loess deposits transported from continental China. Representative sites were selected in forests of Quercus mongolica and Fagus crenata to examine characteristics of transition zones of vegetation and soil in the western slope of Mt. Chokai with concern on the growth of Fagus in transition zones. Surveys on vegetation profile and projection diagram of canopy for each site (10-10m plots) were carried out in 7 sites selected along altitudinal sequence on the western slope of Mt. Chokai; Ch1-7: 550-1,100m asl.. Growth rate of Fagus was estimated by the measurement of tree rings from increment core samples. Timber volume of Fagus at each point was calculated based on diameter of breast height; DBH as an indicator of tree biomass. Soil profiles were observed at the above 7 sites and soil samples were collected from each horizon. As for soil analyses, soil pH (H2O, KCl, NaF) values were measured by the glass electrode method in the suspension mixture of soil with a 2.5 times volume of H2O or 1N KCl and 50 times volume of 4% NaF. Pyrophosphate, acid oxalate and dithionite-citrate extractable Al (Alp, Alo, Ald), Fe (Feo, Fed) and Si (Sio, Sid) were measured by ICP-AES. The content of exchangeable Al (AlEX) was obtained by titration of extract with 1N KCl. Sclerotia formed by species of Cenococcum, ectomycorrhizal fungi, were collected for grains of diameter larger than 0.5mm from wet samples. Sclerotia content was obtained by weight (mg g-1 soil). Due to intensive base leaching under extremely high precipitation and the mineralogical properties, Ah and Ae horizons of all profiles had low soil pH values (3.4-4.6 in H2O) and a high content of exchangeable Al (0.20-1.09g kg-1 soil), which could restrict nutrient uptake and growth of trees. From observation of forest structures of each site, transition zone was approximately 750m by horizontal distance including Ch3-5 (710-780m asl.). The DBH of Fagus was more than 45cm at Ch3,4, and the timber volume of Fagus was the largest at Ch3, followed by Ch4, and the smallest at Ch7, followed by Ch6. Among the entire 7 sites, the growth rate of Fagus was the largest at Ch3 where soil pH value was above 4.0 and exchangeable Al content was relatively low. The oldest and highest Fagus was observed at Ch4, where content of exchangeable Al was high (1.0 g kg-1) . While, Fagus at Ch3,5 and 7 had almost same age. Sclerotia content in soils was much larger in transition zone (Ch3,4) than in podzolic soils (Ch6,7) beneath the dwarfed Fagus forest. The activity of mycorrhizae was suggested to be one of the important factors for the growth of Fagus in transition zone.

Kato, S.; Watanabe, M.

2012-04-01

30

Frequency of inversions affects senescence phenology of Acer pseudoplatanus and Fagus sylvatica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In mountainous regions, inversion situations with cold-air pools in the valleys occur frequently, especially in fall and winter. With the accumulation of inversion days, trees in lower elevations experience lower temperature sums than those in middle elevations. In a two-year observational study, deciduous trees, such as Acer pseudoplatanus and Fagus sylvatica, on altitudinal transects responded in their fall leaf senescence phenology. Phenological phases were advanced and senescence duration was shortened by the cold temperatures in the valley. This effect was more distinct for late phases than for early phases since they experienced more inversion days. The higher the inversion frequency, the stronger the signal was. Acer pseudoplatanus proved to be more sensitive to cold temperatures compared to Fagus sylvatica. We conclude that cold-air pools have a considerable impact on the vegetation period of deciduous trees. Considering this effect, trees in the mid hillside slopes gain advantages compared to lower elevations. Our findings will help to improve knowledge about ecological drivers and responses in mountainous forest ecosystems.

Schuster, Christina; Kirchner, Manfred; Jakobi, Gert; Menzel, Annette

2014-05-01

31

Fine roots in stands of Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies along a gradient of soil acidification.  

PubMed

Root length of naturally grown young beech trees (Fagus sylvatica L.) was investigated in 26 forest plots of differing base saturation and nitrogen deposition. The relative length of finest roots (<0.25 mm) was found to decrease in soils with low base saturation. A similar reduction of finest roots in plots with high nitrogen deposition was masked by the effect of base saturation. The formation of adventitious roots was enhanced in acidic soils. The analysis of 128 soil profiles for fine roots of all species present in stands of either Fagus sylvatica L., Picea abies [Karst.] L. or both showed a decreased rooting depth in soils with < or =20% base saturation and in hydromorphic soils. For base rich, well drained soils an average rooting depth of 108 cm was found. This decreased by 28 cm on acidic, well drained soils. The results suggest an effect of the current soil acidification in Switzerland and possibly also of nitrogen deposition on the fine root systems of forest trees. PMID:15964116

Braun, Sabine; Cantaluppi, Leonardo; Flückiger, Walter

2005-10-01

32

Long-range transport of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) pollen to Catalonia (north-eastern Spain).  

PubMed

Local and long-range transport of beech (Fagus sylvatica) pollen was analysed by using 23-year data (1983-2007) at six stations in Catalonia, Spain, and numerical simulations. Back trajectories and synoptic meteorology indicated a consistent north European provenance during beech pollen peak days. Specifically, the area from northern Italy to central Germany was the most probable source, as indicated by a source-receptor model based on back trajectories. For the event with the highest pollen levels (17 May 2004), back trajectories indicated a source in the Vosges (NE France) and the Schwarzwald (SW Germany) regions. By applying a mesoscale model (MM5) to this event, pollen transport could be further refined, allowing its entrance to Catalonia through the lower easternmost pass of the Pyrenees (the Alberes pass, 500 m a.s.l.) to be described. Hourly counts of Fagus pollen allowed the timing of pollen arrival during this episode to be matched with the model results regarding the above-mentioned passage. This study may help to interpret some results of modern beech genetic diversity and contribute to the understanding of paleopalynological records by taking long-range transport into consideration. PMID:18496718

Belmonte, J; Alarcón, M; Avila, A; Scialabba, E; Pino, D

2008-09-01

33

Use of sap flow measurements to validate stomatal functions for mature beech ( Fagus sylvatica) in view of ozone uptake calculations  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a quantitative estimate of the ozone effect on vegetation reliable models for ozone uptake through the stomata are needed. Because of the analogy of ozone uptake and transpiration it is possible to utilize measurements of water loss such as sap flow for quantification of ozone uptake. This technique was applied in three beech (Fagus sylvatica) stands in Switzerland. A

Sabine Braun; Christian Schindler; Sebastian Leuzinger

2010-01-01

34

Complete Genome Sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris A76  

PubMed Central

We report the complete genome sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris A76, a dairy strain isolated from a cheese production outfit. Genome analysis detected two contiguous islands fitting to the L. lactis subsp. lactis rather than to the L. lactis subsp. cremoris lineage. This indicates the existence of genetic exchange between the diverse subspecies, presumably related to the technological process.

Quinquis, Benoit; Ehrlich, Stanislas Dusko; Sorokin, Alexei

2012-01-01

35

Complete genome sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris A76.  

PubMed

We report the complete genome sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris A76, a dairy strain isolated from a cheese production outfit. Genome analysis detected two contiguous islands fitting to the L. lactis subsp. lactis rather than to the L. lactis subsp. cremoris lineage. This indicates the existence of genetic exchange between the diverse subspecies, presumably related to the technological process. PMID:22328746

Bolotin, Alexander; Quinquis, Benoit; Ehrlich, Stanislas Dusko; Sorokin, Alexei

2012-03-01

36

Laryngeal Scleroma Associated with Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae  

PubMed Central

Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae was isolated from the pharynx of a woman with laryngeal scleroma. K. pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae is rarely isolated from clinical infections and has never been reported in laryngeal scleroma, which is usually caused by K. pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis.

De Champs, C.; Vellin, J. F.; Diancourt, L.; Brisse, S.; Kemeny, J. L.; Gilain, L.; Mom, T.

2005-01-01

37

Evidence for Positive Regulation by Gibberellins and Ethylene of ACC Oxidase Expression and Activity During Transition From Dormancy to Germination in Fagus sylvatica L. Seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase is a key enzyme in the ethylene biosynthesis pathway. In the present report the changes in ACC content, ACC oxidase activity and ethylene production have been examined in Fagus sylvatica L. dormant seeds after stratification and different treatments that maintain or release dormancy. Additionally, a cDNA encoding an ACC oxidase (ACO) from Fagus sylvatica has been

Angel Pablo Calvo; Carlos Nicolás; Oscar Lorenzo; Gregorio Nicolás; Dolores Rodríguez

2004-01-01

38

Do interactions between plant and soil biota change with elevation? A study on Fagus sylvatica  

PubMed Central

Theoretical models predict weakening of negative biotic interactions and strengthening of positive interactions with increasing abiotic stress. However, most empirical tests have been restricted to plant–plant interactions. No empirical study has examined theoretical predictions of interactions between plants and below-ground micro-organisms, although soil biota strongly regulates plant community composition and dynamics. We examined variability in soil biota effects on tree regeneration across an abiotic gradient. Our candidate tree species was European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), whose regeneration is extremely responsive to soil biota activity. In a greenhouse experiment, we measured tree survival in sterilized and non-sterilized soils collected across an elevation gradient in the French Alps. Negative effects of soil biota on tree survival decreased with elevation, similar to shifts observed in plant–plant interactions. Hence, soil biota effects must be included in theoretical models of plant biotic interactions to accurately represent and predict the effects of abiotic gradient on plant communities.

Defossez, Emmanuel; Courbaud, Benoit; Marcais, Benoit; Thuiller, Wilfried; Granda, Elena; Kunstler, Georges

2011-01-01

39

Shoot growth of mature Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies in relation to ozone.  

PubMed

Epidemiological analysis of sequential growth data may be a tool in assessing ozone sensitivity of mature trees. Annual shoot growth of mature Fagus sylvatica in 83 Swiss permanent forest observation plots and of Picea abies in 61 plots was evaluated for 11 and 8 consecutive years, respectively, using branches harvested every 4 years. The data were assessed as annual deviation from average growth and related to fructification, ozone, meteorological parameters, and modelled soil water content using a mixed linear model. In beech, a significant association between ozone and shoot growth was observed which corresponded to a 7.4% growth reduction between 0 and 10 ppm h AOT40 (accumulated ozone over threshold 40). This is in the same order of magnitude as the response observed in experiments with seedlings. No interaction was found between ozone and drought parameters. In Norway spruce, shoot growth was neither associated with ozone nor with drought. PMID:16793183

Braun, Sabine; Schindler, Christian; Rihm, Beat; Flückiger, Walter

2007-04-01

40

Modeling stomatal conductance and ozone uptake of Fagus crenata grown under different nitrogen loads.  

PubMed

A multiplicative stomatal conductance model was constructed to estimate stomatal O3 uptake of Fagus crenata exposed to O3 under different N loads to the soil. Our stomatal conductance model included environmental functions such as the stomatal responses of F. crenata to diurnal changes, chronic O3 stress (AOT0), acute O3 stress (O3 concentration), and nitrogen load to soil. The model could explain 62% of the variability in stomatal conductance. We suggest therefore that stomatal closure induced by O3 and N load-induced soil acidification must be taken into account in developing a stomatal conductance model for estimating stomatal O3 uptake for future risk assessment of O3 impact on Japanese forest tree species such as F. crenata. PMID:24134917

Azuchi, Fumika; Kinose, Yoshiyuki; Matsumura, Tomoe; Kanomata, Tomoaki; Uehara, Yui; Kobayashi, Ayumi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Izuta, Takeshi

2014-01-01

41

The cough suppressive activity of sulfated glucuronoxylan from Fagus sylvatica L.  

PubMed

Hemicellulose polysaccharides represent a large group of natural renewable polymers, however, their application potency is still low. In our study a hardwood 4-O-methylglucuronoxylan was isolated by alkali peroxide extraction of Fagus sylvatica sawdust and modified into sulfated water soluble derivative (MGXS). Highly sulfated MGXS was characterized by HPLC, FTIR and NMR spectroscopies, and tested in vivo on chemically induced cough reflex and smooth muscles reactivity. Farmacological tests revealed an interesting antitussive activity of MGXS. Comparative tests with drug commonly used in a clinical practice revealed that antitussive activity of MGXS was lower than that of opioid receptor agonist codeine, the strongest antitussive drug. Furthermore, the specific reactivity of airways smooth muscle was not significantly affected by MGXS, indicating thus that the polymer is not involved in the bronchodilation process. PMID:24680903

Nosá?ova, G; Jure?ek, L; Turjan, J; Capek, P; Prisenž?áková, L; Fra?ová, S

2014-06-01

42

Leaf litter decomposition in temperate deciduous forest stands with a decreasing fraction of beech (Fagus sylvatica)  

PubMed Central

We hypothesised that the decomposition rates of leaf litter will increase along a gradient of decreasing fraction of the European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and increasing tree species diversity in the generally beech-dominated Central European temperate deciduous forests due to an increase in litter quality. We studied the decomposition of leaf litter including its lignin fraction in monospecific (pure beech) stands and in stands with up to five tree genera (Acer spp., Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Fraxinus excelsior, Tilia spp.) using a litterbag approach. Litter and lignin decomposition was more rapid in stand-representative litter from multispecific stands than in litter from pure beech stands. Except for beech litter, the decomposition rates of species-specific tree litter did not differ significantly among the stand types, but were most rapid in Fraxinus excelsior and slowest in beech in an interspecific comparison. Pairwise comparisons of the decomposition of beech litter with litter of the other tree species (except for Acerplatanoides) revealed a “home field advantage” of up to 20% (more rapid litter decomposition in stands with a high fraction of its own species than in stands with a different tree species composition). Decomposition of stand-representative litter mixtures displayed additive characteristics, not significantly more rapid than predicted by the decomposition of litter from the individual tree species. Leaf litter decomposition rates were positively correlated with the initial N and Ca concentrations of the litter, and negatively with the initial C:N, C:P and lignin:N ratios. The results support our hypothesis that the overall decomposition rates are mainly influenced by the chemical composition of the individual litter species. Thus, the fraction of individual tree species in the species composition seems to be more important for the litter decomposition rates than tree species diversity itself.

Jacob, Mascha; Viedenz, Karin; Polle, Andrea

2010-01-01

43

Drought-Adaptation Potential in Fagus sylvatica: Linking Moisture Availability with Genetic Diversity and Dendrochronology  

PubMed Central

Background Microevolution is essential for species persistence especially under anticipated climate change scenarios. Species distribution projection models suggested that the dominant tree species of lowland forests in Switzerland, European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), might disappear from most areas due to expected longer dry periods. However, if genotypes at the moisture boundary of the species climatic envelope are adapted to lower moisture availability, they can serve as seed source for the continuation of beech forests under changing climates. Methodology/Principal Findings With an AFLP genome scan approach, we studied neutral and potentially adaptive genetic variation in Fagus sylvatica in three regions containing a dry and a mesic site each (nind.?=?241, nmarkers?=?517). We linked this dataset with dendrochronological growth measures and local moisture availabilities based on precipitation and soil characteristics. Genetic diversity decreased slightly at dry sites. Overall genetic differentiation was low (Fst?=?0.028) and Bayesian cluster analysis grouped all populations together suggesting high (historical) gene flow. The Bayesian outlier analyses indicated 13 markers with three markers differing between all dry and mesic sites and the others between the contrasting sites within individual regions. A total of 41 markers, including seven outlier loci, changed their frequency with local moisture availability. Tree height and median basal growth increments were reduced at dry sites, but marker presence/absence was not related to dendrochronological characteristics. Conclusion and Their Significance The outlier alleles and the makers with changing frequencies in relation to moisture availability indicate microevolutionary processes occurring within short geographic distances. The general genetic similarity among sites suggests that ‘preadaptive’ genes can easily spread across the landscape. Yet, due to the long live span of trees, fostering saplings originating from dry sites and grown within mesic sites might increase resistance of beech forests during the anticipated longer dry periods.

Pluess, Andrea R.; Weber, Pascale

2012-01-01

44

Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis.  

PubMed Central

From Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis, a proteinase-resistant protein was purified which exhibited toxicity to larval mosquitoes and cultured mosquito cells, lysed erythrocytes, and was lethal to mice. To extract the protein, a sporulating culture of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis was treated with alkali, neutralized, and incubated with trypsin and proteinase K. It was then purified by gel filtration and DEAE column chromatography. Up to 240 micrograms of toxic protein was purified from 1 g (wet weight) of culture pellet. Two closely related forms of toxic protein were obtained: the 25a and 25b proteins. The two forms comigrated near 25,000 daltons in a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel, were serologically related, and showed similar partial protease digestion profiles, but were distinguishable by DEAE chromatography and nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Protein sequencing data indicated the 25b protein lacked the two amino acids at the amino terminus of the 25a protein. A Western blot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of alkali-solubilized proteins that were not treated with proteases suggested the toxic 25a and 25b proteins were proteolytically derived from a larger molecule of about 28,000 daltons. Alkali-solubilized proteins from an acrystalliferous strain of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and from B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki failed to cross-react with antibodies to the 25a protein. Images

Armstrong, J L; Rohrmann, G F; Beaudreau, G S

1985-01-01

45

Taxonomy of the Anginosus group of the genus Streptococcus and description of Streptococcus anginosus subsp. whileyi subsp. nov. and Streptococcus constellatus subsp. viborgensis subsp. nov.  

PubMed

The Anginosus group of the genus Streptococcus has been the subject of much taxonomic confusion, which has hampered the full appreciation of its clinical significance. The purpose of this study was to critically re-examine the taxonomy of the Anginosus group, with special attention to ?-haemolytic, Lancefield group C strains, using multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) combined with 16S rRNA gene sequence and phenotypic analyses. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated sequences of seven housekeeping genes previously used for examination of viridans streptococci distinguished seven distinct and coherent clusters in the Anginosus group. Analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences and phenotypic characters supported the MLSA clustering and currently recognized taxa of the Anginosus group. Single gene analyses showed considerable allele sharing between species, thereby invalidating identification based on single-locus sequencing. Two novel clusters of ?-haemolytic, Lancefield group C strains within the Streptococcus constellatus and Streptococcus anginosus species and isolated from patients with sore throat showed sufficient phylogenetic distances from other clusters to warrant status as novel subspecies. The novel cluster within S. anginosus was identified as the previously recognized DNA homology cluster, DNA group 2. The names S. anginosus subsp. whileyi subsp. nov. (type strain CCUG 39159(T) = DSM 25818(T) = SK1267(T)) and S. constellatus subsp. viborgensis subsp. nov. (type strain SK1359(T) = CCUG 62387(T) = DSM 25819(T)) are proposed. PMID:23223817

Jensen, Anders; Hoshino, Tomonori; Kilian, Mogens

2013-07-01

46

Two new subspecies of Photorhabdus luminescens, isolated from Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae): Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. kayaii subsp. nov. and Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. thracensis subsp. nov.  

PubMed

Bacterial isolates from nematodes from Turkish soil samples were initially characterized by molecular methods and seven members of the genus Photorhabdus identified to the species level, using riboprint analyses and metabolic properties. Strain 07-5 (DSM 15195) was highly related to the type strain of Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. laumondii DSM 15139T, and was regarded a strain of this subspecies. Strains 1121T (DSM 15194T), 68-3 (DSM 15198) and 47-10 (DSM 15197) formed one, strain 39-8T (DSM 15199T), 39-7 (DSM 15196) and 01-12 (DSM 15193) formed a second cluster that branched intermediate the three subspecies of Photorhabdus luminescens. Based upon moderate 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities and differences in metabolic properties among themselves and with type strains of the three subspecies we consider the two clusters to represent two new subspecies of Photorhabdus luminescens for which the names Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. kayaii, type strain 1121T (DSM 15194T, NCIMB 13951T), and Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. thracensis subsp. nov., type strain 39-8T (DSM 15199T, NCIMB 13952T) are proposed. PMID:15053319

Hazir, Selçuk; Stackebrandt, Erko; Lang, Elke; Schumann, Peter; Ehlers, Ralf-Udo; Keskin, Nevin

2004-02-01

47

Staphylococcus petrasii sp. nov. including S. petrasii subsp. petrasii subsp. nov. and S. petrasii subsp. croceilyticus subsp. nov., isolated from human clinical specimens and human ear infections.  

PubMed

Thirteen coagulase-negative, oxidase-negative, and novobiocin-susceptible staphylococci were isolated from human clinical specimens. The isolates were differentiated from known staphylococcal species on the basis of 16S rRNA, hsp60, rpoB, dnaJ, tuf, and gap gene sequencing, automated ribotyping, (GTG)5-PCR fingerprinting, and MALDI-TOF MS analysis. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated phylogenetic relatedness of the analyzed strains to Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus devriesei, and Staphylococcus lugdunensis. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments between representative strains CCM 8418(T), CCM 8421(T), and the closest phylogenetic neighbors confirmed that the isolates represent novel Staphylococcus species, for which the name Staphylococcus petrasii sp. nov. is proposed. Genotypic and phenotypic analyses unambiguously split the strains into two closely related subclusters. Based on the results, two novel subspecies S. petrasii subsp. petrasii subsp. nov. and S. petrasii subsp. croceilyticus subsp. nov. are proposed, with type strains CCM 8418(T) (=CCUG 62727(T)) and CCM 8421(T) (=CCUG 62728(T)), respectively. PMID:23318093

Pant??ek, Roman; Švec, Pavel; Dajcs, Joseph J; Machová, Ivana; ?ernohlávková, Jitka; Šedo, Ondrej; Gelbí?ová, Tereza; Mašla?ová, Ivana; Doška?, Ji?í; Zdráhal, Zbyn?k; R?ži?ková, Vladislava; Sedlá?ek, Ivo

2013-03-01

48

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Veterinary Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria of the genus Mycobacterium are gram-positive, acid- fast organisms that include a number of significant human and animal pathogens. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (basonym M. paratuberculosis) is the etiological agent of a severe gastroenteritis in ruminants, known as Johne’s disease. H. A. Johne and L. Frothingham initially reported the disease in Germany in 1894. However, it was not until

N. Beth Harris; Raul G. Barletta

2001-01-01

49

Dynamics of physicochemical properties and occurrence of fungal fruit bodies during decomposition of coarse woody debris of Fagus crenata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pattern of changes in the physicochemical properties of wood, and its relationship with fungal succession during decomposition\\u000a of coarse woody debris (CWD) of beech (Fagus crenata Blume) were investigated. In total, 47 snags and 66 logs were assigned to a system of five decay classes, and were used for\\u000a analysis of the decomposition process. The decomposition process consists of

Yu Fukasawa; Takashi Osono; Hiroshi Takeda

2009-01-01

50

Fine root dynamics in 60-year-old stands of Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies growing on haplic luvisol soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fine root dynamics in mono-specific stands of mature Fagus sylvatica L. and Picea abies Karst. was studied from December 2003 to December 2004 in a stand in Southern Germany. Minirhizotrons were used to draw between\\u000a species comparisons concerning fine root (?1 mm) longevity and temporal patterns of fine root dynamics (growth and mortality)\\u000a as related to seasonal changes in soil water

Raphael Mainiero; Marian Kazda; Iris Schmid

2010-01-01

51

Seasonal and interannual ecophysiological responses of beech ( Fagus sylvatica) at its south-eastern distribution limit in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to its wide European distribution and its drought-susceptibility, beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) received intensive attention recently in the light of global warming. Contrary to central European beech ecosystems, little is known about the ecophysiology of beech at its south-eastern European distribution limit. Here we tested whether climatic fluctuations during a three-year period affected the ecophysiology of a beech site

Mariangela N. Fotelli; Michael Nahm; Kalliopi Radoglou; Heinz Rennenberg; George Halyvopoulos; Andreas Matzarakis

2009-01-01

52

Comparative study of growth and carbon uptake in Fagus sylvatica L. trees growing under different light conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth, carbon uptake and carbon utilization in leaves of various growing phase shoots (GPS) on beech trees(Fagus sylvatica L.) growing under different light conditions were compared. The values of photosynthetic capacity (maximum daily net photosynthetic\\u000a rate, Pn max) were used as comparable parameters.\\u000a \\u000a Daily time and irradiance (I, PhAR), when PN max was attained, were investigated similarly. Statistically significant differences

Elena Masarovi?ovÁ

1988-01-01

53

Genetic diversity and differentiation of Fagus orientalis Lipsky in Hyrcanian forests revealed by nuclear and chloroplast microsatellite markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) is a widespread monoecious and wind-pollinated tree species. It is one of the major components of the Hyrcanian forests\\u000a of Iran and it is of both ecological and economical importance. Twelve beech stands were surveyed at 9 chloroplast (cp) and\\u000a 6 nuclear (n) polymorphic microsatellite loci (simple sequence repeats, SSR) to provide information on distribution

Parvin Salehi Shanjani; G. G. Vendramin; M. Calagari

2010-01-01

54

Desiccation-tolerance of Fagus crenata blume seeds from localities of different snowfall regime in central Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In beech (Fagus crenata Blume) forests on the Pacific Ocean side in Central Japan, snowpack depth is little and xeric conditions may prevail in winter,\\u000a in contrast to heavy snow in beech forests on the Japan Sea side. The effects of such conditions during winter on the viability\\u000a of beech seeds were studied at a beech forest on the Pacific

Emiko Maruta; Tomohiko Kamitani; Midori Okabe; Yuji Ide

1997-01-01

55

Disparate Host Immunity to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Antigens in Calves Inoculated with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, M. avium subsp. avium, M. kansasii, and M. bovis  

PubMed Central

The cross-reactivity of mycobacterial antigens in immune-based diagnostic assays has been a major concern and a criticism of the current tests that are used for the detection of paratuberculosis. In the present study, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis recombinant proteins were evaluated for antigenic specificity compared to a whole-cell sonicate preparation (MPS). Measures of cell-mediated immunity to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis antigens were compared in calves inoculated with live M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, M. avium subsp. avium (M. avium), Mycobacterium kansasii, or Mycobacterium bovis. Gamma interferon (IFN-?) responses to MPS were observed in all calves that were exposed to mycobacteria compared to control calves at 4 months postinfection. Pooled recombinant M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis proteins also elicited nonspecific IFN-? responses in inoculated calves, with the exception of calves infected with M. bovis. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis proteins failed to elicit antigen-specific responses for the majority of immune measures; however, the expression of CD25 and CD26 was upregulated on CD4, CD8, gamma/delta (??) T, and B cells for the calves that were inoculated with either M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis or M. avium after antigen stimulation of the cells. Stimulation with MPS also resulted in the increased expression of CD26 on CD45RO+ CD25+ T cells from calves inoculated with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. avium. Although recombinant proteins failed to elicit specific responses for the calves inoculated with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, the differences in immune responses to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis antigens were dependent upon mycobacterial exposure. The results demonstrated a close alignment in immune responses between calves inoculated with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and those inoculated with M. avium that were somewhat disparate from the responses in calves infected with M. bovis, suggesting that the biology of mycobacterial infection plays an important role in diagnosis.

Waters, W. R.; Bannantine, J. P.; Palmer, M. V.

2013-01-01

56

Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Using Peptide Nucleic Acid Probes for Rapid Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Potable-Water Biofilms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here, we present for the first time a high-affinity peptide nucleic acid (PNA) oligonucleotide sequence for detecting Mycobacterium avium bacteria, including the opportunistically pathogenic subspecies M. avium subsp. avium, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, and M. avium subsp. silvaticum, by the fluorescence in situ hybrid- ization (FISH) method. There is evidence that M. avium subsp. avium especially is able to survive

Markku J. Lehtola; Eila Torvinen; Ilkka T. Miettinen; C. William Keevil

2006-01-01

57

Phylogeny of Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus based on universally conserved protein-coding sequences and implications for the taxonomy of these two genera. Proposal of new taxa: X. vietnamensis sp. nov., P. luminescens subsp. caribbeanensis subsp. nov., P. luminescens subsp. hainanensis subsp. nov., P. temperata subsp. khanii subsp. nov., P. temperata subsp. tasmaniensis subsp. nov., and the reclassification of P. luminescens subsp. thracensis as P. temperata subsp. thracensis comb. nov.  

PubMed

We used the information from a set of concatenated sequences from four genes (recA, gyrB, dnaN and gltX) to investigate the phylogeny of the genera Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus (entomopathogenic bacteria associated with nematodes of the genera Heterorhabditis and Steinernema, respectively). The robustness of the phylogenetic tree obtained by this multigene approach was significantly better than that of the tree obtained by a single gene approach. The comparison of the topologies of single gene phylogenetic trees highlighted discrepancies which have implications for the classification of strains and new isolates; in particular, we propose the transfer of Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. thracensis to Photorhabdus temperata subsp. thracensis comb. nov. (type strain CIP 108426T =DSM 15199T). We found that, within the genus Xenorhabdus, strains or isolates that shared less than 97 % nucleotide identity (NI), calculated on the concatenated sequences of the four gene fragments (recA, gyrB, dnaN and gltX) encompassing 3395 nucleotides, did not belong to the same species. Thus, at the 97% NI cutoff, we confirm the current 20 species of the genus Xenorhabdus and propose the description of a novel species, Xenorhabdus vietnamensis sp. nov. (type strain VN01T =CIP 109945T =DSM 22392T). Within each of the three current species of the genus Photorhabdus, P. asymbiotica, P. luminescens and P. temperata, strains or isolates which shared less than 97% NI did not belong to the same subspecies. Comparisons of the four gene fragments plus the rplB gene fragment analysed separately led us to propose four novel subspecies: Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. caribbeanensis subsp. nov. (type strain HG29T =CIP 109949T =DSM 22391T), P. luminescens subsp. hainanensis subsp. nov. (type strain C8404T = CIP 109946T =DSM 22397T), P. temperata subsp. khanii subsp. nov. (type strain C1T =NC19(T) =CIP 109947T =DSM 3369T), and P. temperata subsp. tasmaniensis subsp. nov. (type strain T327T =CIP 109948T =DSM 22387T). PMID:19783607

Tailliez, Patrick; Laroui, Christine; Ginibre, Nadège; Paule, Armelle; Pagès, Sylvie; Boemare, Noël

2010-08-01

58

Complete genome sequence of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BLC1.  

PubMed

Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BLC1 is a probiotic bacterium that is widely exploited by food industries as the active ingredient of various functional foods. Here we report the complete genome sequence of B. animalis subsp. lactis BLC1, which is expected to provide insights into the biology of this health-promoting microorganism and improve our understanding of its phylogenetic relatedness with other members of the B. animalis subsp. lactis taxon. PMID:22038957

Bottacini, Francesca; Dal Bello, Fabio; Turroni, Francesca; Milani, Christian; Duranti, Sabrina; Foroni, Elena; Viappiani, Alice; Strati, Francesco; Mora, Diego; van Sinderen, Douwe; Ventura, Marco

2011-11-01

59

Complete Genome Sequence of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BLC1  

PubMed Central

Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BLC1 is a probiotic bacterium that is widely exploited by food industries as the active ingredient of various functional foods. Here we report the complete genome sequence of B. animalis subsp. lactis BLC1, which is expected to provide insights into the biology of this health-promoting microorganism and improve our understanding of its phylogenetic relatedness with other members of the B. animalis subsp. lactis taxon.

Bottacini, Francesca; Dal Bello, Fabio; Turroni, Francesca; Milani, Christian; Duranti, Sabrina; Foroni, Elena; Viappiani, Alice; Strati, Francesco; Mora, Diego; van Sinderen, Douwe; Ventura, Marco

2011-01-01

60

Bacteriological and Molecular Detection of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus in Equines of Northern India  

PubMed Central

Present study was undertaken to study the prevalence of ?-haemolytic streptococci in equine of northern temperate region of Jammu and Kashmir, India. One hundred and forty one samples were collected in duplicate from nasopharyngeal tract of diseased (53) and apparently healthy equine (88) for isolation and direct PCR. A total of 77 isolates of streptococci were recovered from 141 samples with an overall prevalence rate of 54.60%. Out of these 77 isolates, 52 were from diseased and 25 from apparently healthy animals. Of the 77 isolates, 4 were identified as Streptococcus equi subsp. equi, 56 as S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus and 17 as S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis. Thus the overall prevalence of S. equi subsp. equi, S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus and S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis was 2.83, 39.71 and 12.05% respectively. The sensitivity of the PCR for the detection of S. equi species was found higher when attempted from direct swab samples.

MIR, Irfan Ahmad; KUMAR, Bablu; TAKU, Anil; FARIDI, Farah; BHAT, Mohd. Altaf; BABA, Naseer Ahmad; MAQBOOL, Tahir

2013-01-01

61

Carbon isotope discrimination during branch photosynthesis of Fagus sylvatica: a Bayesian modelling approach.  

PubMed

Field measurements of photosynthetic carbon isotope discrimination ((13) ?) of Fagus sylvatica, conducted with branch bags and laser spectrometry, revealed a high variability of (13) ?, both on diurnal and day-to-day timescales. We tested the prediction capability of three versions of a commonly used model for (13) ? [called here comprehensive ((13) ?comp ), simplified ((13) ?simple ) and revised ((13) ?revised ) versions]. A Bayesian approach was used to calibrate major model parameters. Constrained estimates were found for the fractionation during CO2 fixation in (13) ?comp , but not in (13) ?simple , and partially for the mesophyll conductance for CO2 (gi ). No constrained estimates were found for fractionations during mitochondrial and photorespiration, and for a diurnally variable apparent fractionation between current assimilates and mitochondrial respiration, specific to (13) ?revised . A quantification of parameter estimation uncertainties and interdependencies further helped explore model structure and behaviour. We found that (13) ?comp usually outperformed (13) ?simple because of the explicit consideration of gi and the photorespiratory fractionation in (13) ?comp that enabled a better description of the large observed diurnal variation (?9‰) of (13) ?. Flux-weighted daily means of (13) ? were also better predicted with (13) ?comp than with (13) ?simple . PMID:24372560

Gentsch, Lydia; Hammerle, Albin; Sturm, Patrick; Ogée, Jérôme; Wingate, Lisa; Siegwolf, Rolf; Plüss, Peter; Baur, Thomas; Buchmann, Nina; Knohl, Alexander

2014-07-01

62

Variation in throughfall deposition across a deciduous beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forest edge in Flanders.  

PubMed

Throughfall deposition and canopy exchange of acidifying and eutrophying compounds and major base cations were studied by means of throughfall analysis in a deciduous beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forest edge in Belgium over a period of 1 year. Throughfall fluxes of Cl(-), NH(4)(+) and Na(+) were significantly elevated at the forest edge compared to the forest interior. As no edge effect on throughfall water volume could be detected, the observed edge enhancement effects were mainly due to dry deposition and canopy exchange patterns. Indeed, there was an elevated dry deposition of Cl(-), Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) up to 50 m from the field/forest border. Within the forest, throughfall and dry deposition of SO(4)(2-) were highly variable and no significant differences were observed between the forest edge and the forest interior. Leaching of K(+) and Ca(2+) was reduced in the forest edge up to a distance of 30 m from the border. The measured nitrogen and acidic depositions far exceeded the current Flemish critical loads with respect to the protection of biodiversity in forests, especially at the forest edge. This points to an urgent need for controlling emissions as well as the need to consider the elevated deposition load in forest edges when calculating the critical loads in forests. PMID:15626394

Devlaeminck, Rebecca; De Schrijver, An; Hermy, Martin

2005-01-20

63

Polyphasic classification of the genus Photorhabdus and proposal of new taxa: P. luminescens subsp. luminescens subsp. nov., P. luminescens subsp. akhurstii subsp. nov., P. luminescens subsp. laumondii subsp. nov., P. temperata sp. nov., P. temperata subsp. temperata subsp. nov. and P. asymbiotica sp. nov.  

PubMed

The taxonomic position of Photorhabdus strains was examined through the results of DNA relatedness (S1 nuclease method) studies associated with the determination of delta Tm, 16S rRNA phylogenetic inferences and phenotypic characterization, including morphological, auxanographic, biochemical and physiological properties. Three genomic species were delineated on a consensus assessment. One of these species corresponded to Photorhabdus luminescens, since strains were at least 50% related to the type strain of this species with delta Tm less than 7 degrees C. The two other species were novel genomic species II and III, which were less than 40% related to each other with delta Tm higher than 9 degrees C. A comparison of the complete 16S rDNA sequences of several representatives of genomic species II and genomic species III revealed that each of them formed a stable lineage independent of the cluster generated by P. luminescens strains. The genomic species differed in their maximum temperatures for growth. A correlation with the ecological origin of the bacterial samples was noticed. The heat-tolerant group I (maximum growth temperature 35-39 degrees C) corresponded to the symbionts of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora groups Brecon and HP88 and Heterorhabditis indica, nematodes living in warm and tropical countries, respectively. Group II (maximum growth temperature 33-35 degrees C) encompassed symbionts from Heterorhabditis megidis, Heterorhabditis zealandica and group NC1 of H. bacteriophora, nematodes isolated in temperate climates. Group III were bacteria isolated from human specimens. Two new species, Photorhabdus temperata sp. nov. (type strain CIP 105563T) and Photorhabdus asymbiotica sp. nov. (type strain ATCC 43950T), are proposed for genomic species II and III, respectively. Species I and II can be separated into sub-groups on the basis of high DNA-DNA relatedness (more than 80% DNA binding with delta Tm < 1.5 degrees C), 16S rDNA branching and phenotypic characters. Therefore, we propose that the two species P. luminescens and P. temperata should be subdivided into subspecies as follows: P. luminescens subsp. luminescens subsp. nov. (type strain ATCC 29999T), P. luminescens subsp. akhurstii subsp. nov. (type strain CIP 105564T), P. luminescens subsp. laumondii subsp. nov. (type strain CIP 105565T) and P. temperata subsp. temperata subsp. nov. PMID:10555346

Fischer-Le Saux, M; Viallard, V; Brunel, B; Normand, P; Boemare, N E

1999-10-01

64

Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Strain Durban  

PubMed Central

We report the genome sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica strain Durban, isolated from a patient with salmonellosis and typhoid fever. The strain is closely related to S. enterica subsp. enterica strain P125109 but differs in loss of the ?SE20 prophage and acquisition of a prophage similar to ELPhiS.

Russell, Daniel A.; Bowman, Charles A.

2014-01-01

65

Draft Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii INCQS 00594  

PubMed Central

An epidemic of surgical-site infections by a single strain of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii affected >1,700 patients in Brazil from 2004 to 2008. The genome of the epidemic prototype strain M. abscessus subsp. bolletii INCQS 00594, deposited in the collection of the National Institute for Health Quality Control (INCQS), was sequenced.

Leao, Sylvia Cardoso; Matsumoto, Cristianne Kayoko; Viana-Niero, Cristina; Ramos, Rommel Thiago Juca; Carneiro, Adriana Ribeiro; Barbosa, Maria Silvanira; Lima, Karla Valeria Batista; Lopes, Maria Luiza; Azevedo, Vasco

2013-01-01

66

Neisseria eZongata subsp. gZycoZytica subsp. nov  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rod-shaped, saccharolytic strain of Neisseria isolated from the throat of a patient with pharyngitis and considered to represent a new subspecies of Neis- seria elongata is described. The strain differs from N. elongata subsp. elongata in producing acid from glucose, in giving a strong catalase reaction, and in the consistency of colonies on agar media. The name N. elongata

S. D. HENRIKSEN; EIRIK HOLTEN; Kaptein W. Wilhelmsen

1976-01-01

67

Genetic divergence in nuclear genomes between populations of Fagus crenata along the Japan Sea and Pacific sides of Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic diversity and structure in Fagus crenata were studied by analyzing 14 nuclear microsatellite loci in 23 populations distributed throughout the species’ range. Although\\u000a population differentiation was very low (F\\u000a ST = 0.027; R\\u000a ST = 0.041), both neighbor-joining tree and Bayesian clustering analyses provided clear evidence of genetic divergence between\\u000a populations along the Japan Sea (Japan Sea lineage) and Pacific (Pacific lineage) sides

Koichi Hiraoka; Nobuhiro Tomaru

2009-01-01

68

Temperature dependency of bark photosynthesis in beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and birch (Betula pendula Roth.) trees.  

PubMed

Temperature dependencies of stem dark respiration (R(d)) and light-driven bark photosynthesis (A(max)) of two temperate tree species (Fagus sylvatica and Betula pendula) were investigated to estimate their probable influence on stem carbon balance. Stem R(d) was found to increase exponentially with increasing temperatures, whereas A(max) levelled off or decreased at the highest temperatures chosen (35-40 degrees C). Accordingly, a linear relationship between respiratory and assimilatory metabolism was only found at moderate temperatures (10-30 degrees C) and the relationship between stem R(d) and A(max) clearly departed from linearity at chilling (5 degrees C) and at high temperatures (35-40 degrees C). As a result, the proportional internal C-refixation rate also decreased non-linearly with increasing temperature. Temperature response of photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry was also assessed. Bark photochemical yield (Delta F/F(m)') followed the same temperature pattern as bark CO(2) assimilation. Maximum quantum yield of PSII (F(v)/F(m)) decreased drastically at freezing temperatures (-5 degrees C), while from 30 to 40 degrees C only a marginal decrease in F(v)/F(m) was found. In in situ measurements during winter months, bark photosynthesis was found to be strongly reduced. Low temperature stress induced an active down-regulation of PSII efficiency as well as damage to PSII due to photoinhibition. All in all, the benefit of bark photosynthesis was negatively affected by low (<5 degrees C) as well as high temperatures (>30 degrees C). As the carbon balance of tree stems is defined by the difference between photosynthetic carbon gain and respiratory carbon loss, this might have important implications for accurate modelling of stem carbon balance. PMID:18182432

Wittmann, Christiane; Pfanz, Hardy

2007-01-01

69

Does mixing of beech (Fagus sylvatica) and spruce (Picea abies) litter hasten decomposition?  

PubMed Central

Background and aims It is of practical relevance to know how much beech must be admixed to pure spruce stands in order to increase litter decomposition and associated nutrient cycling, since the formation of thick organic layers is commonly ascribed to the recalcitrance of spruce needles. We addressed the impact of tree species mixture within forest stands and within litter on mass loss and nutritional release from litter. Methods Litter decomposition was measured in three adjacent stands of pure spruce (Picea abies), mixed beech-spruce and pure beech (Fagus sylvatica) on a nutrient-rich site and a nutrient-poor site over a 2-year period using litterbags which were filled with five different mixtures of beech and spruce litter. Results Mass loss of beech litter was not higher than mass loss of spruce litter. Decay was primarily affected by tree species composition of the incubation stand and was faster in (mixed) beech forests stands than in spruce forests, while the influence of litter species and their mixtures on decay rates was small. Net transfers of nutrients between the two litter species (direct effects) in the mixed bags were minimal, since initial beech and spruce litter did not have different litter quality. However, in a few cases indirect effects (e.g., changing decomposer abundance and activity) caused non-additive patterns for the totals within the mixed bags, hastening decomposition within the first year. Conclusions Greater accumulation of litter in spruce compared to beech stands is not a consequence of the inherent recalcitrance of needles. Adverse environmental conditions in spruce stands retard decomposition. Indirect effects on decomposition caused by stand mixture are not mimicked by litter mixtures within mesh bags.

Berger, Torsten W.; Berger, Petra

2014-01-01

70

Carbon isotope discrimination during branch photosynthesis of Fagus sylvatica: field measurements using laser spectrometry.  

PubMed

On-line measurements of photosynthetic carbon isotope discrimination ((13)?) under field conditions are sparse. Hence, experimental verification of the natural variability of instantaneous (13)? is scarce, although (13)? is, explicitly and implicitly, used from leaf to global scales for inferring photosynthetic characteristics. This work presents the first on-line field measurements of (13)? of Fagus sylvatica branches, at hourly resolution, using three open branch bags and a laser spectrometer for CO? isotopologue measurements (QCLAS-ISO). Data from two August/September field campaigns, in 2009 and 2010, in a temperate forest in Switzerland are shown. Diurnal variability of (13)? was substantial, with mean diurnal amplitudes of ~9‰ and maximum diurnal amplitudes of ~20‰. The highest (13)? were generally observed during early morning and late afternoon, and the lowest (13)? during midday. An assessment of propagated standard deviations of (13)? demonstrated that the observed diurnal variation of (13)? was not a measurement artefact. Day-to-day variations of (13)? were summarized with flux-weighted daily means of (13)?, which ranged from 15‰ to 23‰ in 2009 and from 18‰ to 29‰ in 2010, thus displaying a considerable range of 8-11‰. Generally, (13)? showed the expected negative relationship with intrinsic water use efficiency. Diurnal and day-to-day variability of (13)? was, however, always better predicted by that of net CO? assimilation, especially in 2010 when soil moisture was high and vapour pressure deficit was low. Stomatal control of leaf gas exchange, and consequently (13)?, could only be identified under drier conditions in 2009. PMID:24676031

Gentsch, Lydia; Sturm, Patrick; Hammerle, Albin; Siegwolf, Rolf; Wingate, Lisa; Ogée, Jérôme; Baur, Thomas; Plüss, Peter; Barthel, Matti; Buchmann, Nina; Knohl, Alexander

2014-04-01

71

Clear link between drought stress, photosynthesis and biogenic volatile organic compounds in Fagus sylvatica L.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct plant stress sensing is the key for a quantitative understanding of drought stress effects on biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions. A given level of drought stress might have a fundamentally different effect on the BVOC emissions of different plants. For the first time, we continuously quantified the level of drought stress in a young potted beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.) with a linear variable displacement transducer (LVDT) installed at stem level in combination with simultaneous measurements of BVOC emissions and photosynthesis rates at leaf level. This continuous set of measurements allowed us to examine how beech alters its pattern of photosynthesis and carbon allocation to BVOC emissions (mainly monoterpenes, MTs) and radial stem growth during the development of drought stress. We observed an increasing-decreasing trend in the MT emissions as well as in the fraction of assimilated carbon re-emitted back into the atmosphere (ranging between 0.14 and 0.01%). We were able to link these dynamics to pronounced changes in radial stem growth, which served as a direct plant stress indicator. Interestingly, we detected a sudden burst in emission of a non-identified, non-MT BVOC species when drought stress was acute (i.e. pronounced negative stem growth). This burst might have been caused by a certain stress-related green leaf volatile, which disappeared immediately upon re-watering and thus the alleviation of drought stress. These results highlight that direct plant stress sensing creates opportunities to understand the overall complexity of stress-related BVOC emissions.

Šimpraga, M.; Verbeeck, H.; Demarcke, M.; Joó, É.; Pokorska, O.; Amelynck, C.; Schoon, N.; Dewulf, J.; Van Langenhove, H.; Heinesch, B.; Aubinet, M.; Laffineur, Q.; Müller, J.-F.; Steppe, K.

2011-09-01

72

Composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Achillea nobilis L. subsp. sipylea and subsp. neilreichii  

Microsoft Academic Search

plant materials are not known in some studies. The present study was carried out for the first time to determine the chemical composition of the essential oils of A. nobilis subsp. sipylea and A. nobilis subsp. neilreichii collected from Turkey, and their antimicrobial activities were tested against eight Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria strains and Candida albicans. The percentage

C. Karamenderes; N. U. Karabay Yavasoglu; U. Zeybek

2007-01-01

73

Use of PCR-Based Methods for Rapid Differentiation of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis  

PubMed Central

Two PCR-based methods, specific PCR and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA PCR (RAPD-PCR), were used for rapid and reliable differentiation of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis. PCR with a single combination of primers which targeted the proline iminopeptidase (pepIP) gene of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus allowed amplification of genomic fragments specific for the two subspecies when either DNA from a single colony or cells extracted from dairy products were used. A numerical analysis of the RAPD-PCR patterns obtained with primer M13 gave results that were consistent with the results of specific PCR for all strains except L. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii LMG 6412T, which clustered with L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis strains. In addition, RAPD-PCR performed with primer 1254 provided highly polymorphic profiles and thus was superior for distinguishing individual L. delbrueckii strains.

Torriani, Sandra; Zapparoli, Giacomo; Dellaglio, Franco

1999-01-01

74

Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. noenieputensis subsp. nov., a symbiotic bacterium associated with a novel Heterorhabditis species related to Heterorhabditis indica.  

PubMed

The bacterial symbiont AM7(T), isolated from a novel entomopathogenic nematode species of the genus Heterorhabditis, displays the main phenotypic traits of the genus Photorhabdus and is highly pathogenic to Galleria mellonella. Phylogenetic analysis based on a multigene approach (16S rRNA, recA, gyrB, dnaN, gltX and infB) confirmed the classification of isolate AM7(T) within the species Photorhabdus luminescens and revealed its close relatedness to Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. caribbeanensis, P. luminescens subsp. akhurstii and P. luminescens subsp. hainanensis. The five concatenated protein-encoding sequences (4197 nt) of strain AM7(T) revealed 95.8, 95.4 and 94.9?% nucleotide identity to sequences of P. luminescens subsp. caribbeanensis HG29(T), P. luminescens subsp. akhurstii FRG04(T) and P. luminescens subsp. hainanensis C8404(T), respectively. These identity values are less than the threshold of 97?% proposed for classification within one of the existing subspecies of P. luminescens. Unlike other strains described for P. luminescens, strain AM7(T) produces acid from adonitol, sorbitol and xylitol, assimilates xylitol and has no lipase activity on medium containing Tween 20 or 60. Strain AM7(T) is differentiated from P. luminescens subsp. caribbeanensis by the assimilation of N-acetylglucosamine and the absence of haemolytic activity. Unlike P. luminescens subsp. akhurstii, strain AM7(T) does not assimilate mannitol, and it is distinguished from P. luminescens subsp. hainanensis by the assimilation of trehalose and citrate, the inability to produce indole from tryptophan and the presence of acetoin production and urease activity. Strain AM7(T) (?=?ATCC BAA-2407(T) ?=?DSM 25462(T)) belongs to a novel subspecies, and is proposed as the type strain of Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. noenieputensis sp. nov. PMID:22984141

Ferreira, Tiarin; van Reenen, Carol; Pagès, Sylvie; Tailliez, Patrick; Malan, Antoinette P; Dicks, Leon M T

2013-05-01

75

Genome sequencing identifies Listeria fleischmannii subsp. coloradonensis subsp. nov., isolated from a ranch.  

PubMed

Twenty Listeria-like isolates were obtained from environmental samples collected on a cattle ranch in northern Colorado; all of these isolates were found to share an identical partial sigB sequence, suggesting close relatedness. The isolates were similar to members of the genus Listeria in that they were Gram-stain-positive, short rods, oxidase-negative and catalase-positive; the isolates were similar to Listeria fleischmannii because they were non-motile at 25 °C. 16S rRNA gene sequencing for representative isolates and whole genome sequencing for one isolate was performed. The genome of the type strain of Listeria fleischmannii (strain LU2006-1(T)) was also sequenced. The draft genomes were very similar in size and the average MUMmer nucleotide identity across 91% of the genomes was 95.16%. Genome sequence data were used to design primers for a six-gene multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) scheme. Phylogenies based on (i) the near-complete 16S rRNA gene, (ii) 31 core genes and (iii) six housekeeping genes illustrated the close relationship of these Listeria-like isolates to Listeria fleischmannii LU2006-1(T). Sufficient genetic divergence of the Listeria-like isolates from the type strain of Listeria fleischmannii and differing phenotypic characteristics warrant these isolates to be classified as members of a distinct infraspecific taxon, for which the name Listeria fleischmannii subsp. coloradonensis subsp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TTU M1-001(T) (?=BAA-2414(T)?=DSM 25391(T)). The isolates of Listeria fleischmannii subsp. coloradonensis subsp. nov. differ from the nominate subspecies by the inability to utilize melezitose, turanose and sucrose, and the ability to utilize inositol. The results also demonstrate the utility of whole genome sequencing to facilitate identification of novel taxa within a well-described genus. The genomes of both subspecies of Listeria fleischmannii contained putative enhancin genes; the Listeria fleischmannii subsp. coloradonensis subsp. nov. genome also encoded a putative mosquitocidal toxin. The presence of these genes suggests possible adaptation to an insect host, and further studies are needed to probe niche adaptation of Listeria fleischmannii. PMID:23524352

den Bakker, Henk C; Manuel, Clyde S; Fortes, Esther D; Wiedmann, Martin; Nightingale, Kendra K

2013-09-01

76

Field and laboratory experiments on net uptake of nitrate and ammonium by the roots of spruce (Picea abies) and beech (Fagus sylvatica) trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

summary During the vegetation periods 1994 and 1995, net uptake of nitrate and ammonium by roots of adult spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) and beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) trees was studied at a field site exposed to high loads of N ('Ho$ glwald', Germany). In addition, uptake experiments were carried out under controlled conditions with young spruce and beech trees

ARTHUR G ESSLER; P AUL W EBER; C HRISTIAN H UBER; KARL K REUTZER

77

Variation in fine root biomass of three European tree species: Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.), and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fine roots (<2 mm) are very dynamic and play a key role in forest ecosystem carbon and nutrient cycling and accumulation. We reviewed root biomass data of three main European tree species European beech, (Fagus sylvatica L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), in order to identify the differences between species, and within and between

L. Finér; H.-S. Helmisaari; K. Lõhmus; H. Majdi; I. Brunner; I. Børja; T. Eldhuset; D. Godbold; T. Grebenc; B. Konôpka; H. Kraigher; M.-R. Möttönen; M. Ohashi; J. Oleksyn; I. Ostonen; V. Uri; E. Vanguelova

2007-01-01

78

Seasonal changes in apparent hydraulic conductance and their implications for water use of European beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.) and sessile oak [ Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl] in South Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water status of Fagus sylvatica L. and Quercus petraea (Matt) Liebl. was analysed during a cycle of progressive natural drought in southern Europe. Predawn (?pd) and midday water potential were measured in transpiring (?leaf) and non-transpiring leaves (?xyl). Furthermore, photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance to water vapour (gs) and sap flow (Fd) were recorded on the same dates. Apparent leaf

I. Aranda; L. Gil; J. A. Pardos

2005-01-01

79

Differing growth responses to climatic variations and soil water deficits of Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea and Pinus sylvestris in a temperate forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to global warming, the frequency and the intensity of droughts will probably increase in central and southern Europe. Resulting climate changes and soil water deficits could alter tree growth, according to sensitivity of each species. The aim of this study was to compare the growth response of three European species (Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea and Pinus sylvestris) to

Alice Michelot; Nathalie Bréda; Claire Damesin; Eric Dufrêne

80

A unique Middle Pleistocene beech (Fagus)-rich deciduous broad-leaved forest in the Yangtze Delta Plain, East China: Its climatic and stratigraphic implication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pollen analysis of Middle Pleistocene sediments from the Yangtze Delta Plain provides a paleoecological reconstruction and has implications for stratigraphic correlation in East China. The pollen assemblage is characterized by high values of Fagus (16.8% on average), which is unusual because Fagus is generally present only sporadically in other lowland Quaternary pollen records from the region. In addition to Fagus, the assemblage has a rich diversity of broad-leaved deciduous trees, including Quercus, Ulmus, Carpinus/Ostrya, Juglans, Betula, and Liquidambar, as well as conifers, including Pinus, Picea, Abies, Larix, and Tsuga. Thus, the pollen flora suggests a broad-leaved deciduous forest mixed with abundant conifers, which developed under cooler and more humid conditions than present. The stable pollen sequence throughout the studied section suggests a stable environment. Beech forests also characterize the Middle Pleistocene of Taiwan and Japan, and thus may be a stratigraphic indicator of the Middle Pleistocene in East Asia. The Yangtze Delta Plain may have been an important refugium for the last survival of Fagus in the lowlands.

Shu, Jun-wu; Wang, Wei-ming

2012-08-01

81

Significant light and temperature dependent monoterpene emissions from European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and their potential impact on the European volatile organic compound budget  

Microsoft Academic Search

By using a dynamic branch enclosure system the emission of monoterpenes from European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) was investigated during two consecutive summer vegetation periods in the years of 2002 and 2003 in Germany. All measurements were performed under field conditions within the framework of the ECHO project (Emission and Chemical Transformation of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds, AFO 2000). European

T. Dindorf; U. Kuhn; L. Ganzeveld; G. Schebeske; P. Ciccioli; C. Holzke; R. Köble; G. Seufert; J. Kesselmeier

2006-01-01

82

Characterization of ten EST-based polymorphic SSR  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on ten SSRs for use in population genetic or linkage mapping 13 studies of Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. In 24 trees collected from a single 14 stand near Ludington, Michigan, USA the number of alleles per locus 15

T. KUBISIAK; D. CAREY; C. BURDINE; J. KOCH

83

Mapping beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.) forest structure with airborne hyperspectral imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimating forest structural attributes using multispectral remote sensing is challenging because of the saturation of multispectral indices at high canopy cover. The objective of this study was to assess the utility of hyperspectral data in estimating and mapping forest structural parameters including mean diameter-at-breast height (DBH), mean tree height and tree density of a closed canopy beech forest ( Fagus sylvatica L.). Airborne HyMap images and data on forest structural attributes were collected from the Majella National Park, Italy in July 2004. The predictive performances of vegetation indices (VI) derived from all possible two-band combinations (VI ( i, j) = ( Ri - Rj)/( Ri + Rj), where Ri and Rj = reflectance in any two bands) were evaluated using calibration ( n = 33) and test ( n = 20) data sets. The potential of partial least squares (PLS) regression, a multivariate technique involving several bands was also assessed. New VIs based on the contrast between reflectance in the red-edge shoulder (756-820 nm) and the water absorption feature centred at 1200 nm (1172-1320 nm) were found to show higher correlations with the forest structural parameters than standard VIs derived from NIR and visible reflectance (i.e. the normalised difference vegetation index, NDVI). PLS regression showed a slight improvement in estimating the beech forest structural attributes (prediction errors of 27.6%, 32.6% and 46.4% for mean DBH, height and tree density, respectively) compared to VIs using linear regression models (prediction errors of 27.8%, 35.8% and 48.3% for mean DBH, height and tree density, respectively). Mean DBH was the best predicted variable among the stand parameters (calibration R2 = 0.62 for an exponential model fit and standard error of prediction = 5.12 cm, i.e. 25% of the mean). The predicted map of mean DBH revealed high heterogeneity in the beech forest structure in the study area. The spatial variability of mean DBH occurs at less than 450 m. The DBH map could be useful to forest management in many ways, e.g. thinning of coppice to promote diameter growth, to assess the effects of management on forest structure or to detect changes in the forest structure caused by anthropogenic and natural factors.

Cho, Moses Azong; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Sobhan, Istiak

84

Testing the unifying theory of ozone sensitivity with mature trees of Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies.  

PubMed

The broad range in plant responses to chronic O(3) exposure compels a search for integrative, underlying principles. One such approach is the unifying theory proposed by Reich (1987), which combines the O(3) response of contrasting physiognomic classes of plants on the basis of their intrinsic leaf diffusive conductance and, hence, capacity for O(3) uptake. Physiognomic classes differ in the proportional decline in photosynthesis and growth when compared on the basis of cumulative O(3) exposure per unit time, but converge when compared on the basis of O(3) uptake per unit time or cumulative O(3) uptake over the entire lifetime of the leaf. The theory is based on observations on a large number of contrasting plant species, relying primarily on studies of juvenile trees subjected to short-term O(3) exposure. To test the applicability of the unifying theory to mature trees, broadleaf deciduous European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and the evergreen conifer Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in a mature mixed stand were exposed to either ambient air (control) or air with twice the ambient O(3) concentration delivered into the canopy by means of a free-air fumigation system. We accounted for differences in growing season length, leaf longevity and O(3)-related effects on leaf diffusive conductance in determining total O(3) uptake over the lifetime of the leaf. On this basis, Norway spruce needles required 5 years to take up as much O(3) as did beech leaves in one growing season. The core of the unifying theory on O(3) sensitivity was substantiated in relation to O(3) exposure and uptake. However, contrary to the unifying theory, which was formulated on the basis of results with juvenile trees, the O(3) response of mature trees in a natural stand was more complex. The increased complexity was attributed to additional environmental stressors, stress compensation at the whole-tree level, and differential O(3) sensitivities of leaves according to age class and position within the canopy. Contrary to the theory, photosynthesis was no less sensitive to O(3) in Norway spruce than that of beech, and was reduced in the twice-ambient O(3) regime in the first year of exposure. PMID:16877324

Nunn, Angela J; Weiser, Gerhard; Reiter, Ilja M; Häberle, Karl-Heinz; Grote, Rüdiger; Havranek, Wilhelm M; Matyssek, Rainer

2006-11-01

85

Ribotyping to differentiate Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. necrophorum and F. necrophorum subsp. funduliforme isolated from bovine ruminal contents and liver abscesses.  

PubMed Central

Differences in biological activities (hemagglutination, hemolytic, leukotoxic, and virulence) and ribotypes between the two subspecies of Fusobacterium necrophorum of bovine ruminal and liver abscess origins were investigated. Hemagglutination activity was present in all hepatic, but only some ruminal, strains of Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. necrophorum. Ruminal F. necrophorum subsp. necrophorum had low leukotoxin titers yet was virulent in mice. Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. funduliforme of hepatic or ruminal origin had no hemagglutination activity, had low hemolytic and leukotoxic activities, and was less virulent to mice. For ribotyping, chromosomal DNAs of 10 F. necrophorum subsp. necrophorum and 11 F. necrophorum subsp. funduliforme isolates were digested with restriction endonucleases (EcoRI, EcoRV, SalI, PstI, and HaeIII) and examined by restriction fragment length polymorphisms after hybridizing with a digoxigenin-labeled cDNA probe transcribed from a mixture of 16 and 23S rRNAs from Escherichia coli. The most discriminating restriction endonuclease enzyme for ribotyping was EcoRI. The presence or absence of two distinct bands of 2.6 and 4.3 kb differentiated the two subspecies. Regardless of the origin, only F. necrophorum subsp. necrophorum, a virulent subspecies, had a ca. 2.6-kb band, whereas F. necrophorum subsp. funduliforme, a less virulent subspecies, had a ca. 4.3-kb band. Ribotyping appears to be a useful technique to genetically differentiate the two subspecies of F. necrophorum.

Okwumabua, O; Tan, Z; Staats, J; Oberst, R D; Chengappa, M M; Nagaraja, T G

1996-01-01

86

Ribotyping to differentiate Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. necrophorum and F. necrophorum subsp. funduliforme isolated from bovine ruminal contents and liver abscesses.  

PubMed

Differences in biological activities (hemagglutination, hemolytic, leukotoxic, and virulence) and ribotypes between the two subspecies of Fusobacterium necrophorum of bovine ruminal and liver abscess origins were investigated. Hemagglutination activity was present in all hepatic, but only some ruminal, strains of Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. necrophorum. Ruminal F. necrophorum subsp. necrophorum had low leukotoxin titers yet was virulent in mice. Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. funduliforme of hepatic or ruminal origin had no hemagglutination activity, had low hemolytic and leukotoxic activities, and was less virulent to mice. For ribotyping, chromosomal DNAs of 10 F. necrophorum subsp. necrophorum and 11 F. necrophorum subsp. funduliforme isolates were digested with restriction endonucleases (EcoRI, EcoRV, SalI, PstI, and HaeIII) and examined by restriction fragment length polymorphisms after hybridizing with a digoxigenin-labeled cDNA probe transcribed from a mixture of 16 and 23S rRNAs from Escherichia coli. The most discriminating restriction endonuclease enzyme for ribotyping was EcoRI. The presence or absence of two distinct bands of 2.6 and 4.3 kb differentiated the two subspecies. Regardless of the origin, only F. necrophorum subsp. necrophorum, a virulent subspecies, had a ca. 2.6-kb band, whereas F. necrophorum subsp. funduliforme, a less virulent subspecies, had a ca. 4.3-kb band. Ribotyping appears to be a useful technique to genetically differentiate the two subspecies of F. necrophorum. PMID:8593050

Okwumabua, O; Tan, Z; Staats, J; Oberst, R D; Chengappa, M M; Nagaraja, T G

1996-02-01

87

Genome Sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki Strain HD-1  

PubMed Central

We report here the complete genome sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki strain HD-1, which serves as the primary U.S. reference standard for all commercial insecticidal formulations of B. thuringiensis manufactured around the world.

Day, Michael; Ibrahim, Mohamed; Dyer, David

2014-01-01

88

Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis bacteremia: an emerging infection.  

PubMed

The importance of group C and G Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis) as a significant pathogen has recently been better recognized. S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis disease can range in severity from milder skin and soft-tissue conditions such as wound infection, erysipelas, and cellulitis, to life-threatening necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, thus sharing the clinical picture with S. pyogenes. The most common clinical manifestation of bacteremia is cellulitis. An increase in the incidence of S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis bacteremia has been recognized. Invasive forms of this infection are most commonly found in elderly patients with underlying comorbidities and skin breakdown. The case fatality in bacteremia has been reported to be 15-18 %. In this review, the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and emm types of S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis bacteremia are summarized. PMID:24682845

Rantala, S

2014-08-01

89

Adsorption of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis to Soil Particles ?  

PubMed Central

Attachment of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis to soil particles could increase their availability to farm animals, as well as influence the transportation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis to water sources. To investigate the possibility of such attachment, we passed a known quantity of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis through chromatography columns packed with clay soil, sandy soil, pure silica, clay-silica mixture, or clay-silica complexes and measured the organisms recovered in the eluent using culture or quantitative PCR. Experiments were repeated using buffer at a range of pH levels with pure silica to investigate the effect of pH on M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis attachment. Linear mixed-model analyses were conducted to compare the proportional recovery of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in the eluent between different substrates and pH levels. Of the organisms added to the columns, 83 to 100% were estimated to be retained in the columns after adjustment for those retained in empty control columns. The proportions recovered were significantly different across different substrates, with the retention being significantly greater (P < 0.05) in pure substrates (silica and clay-silica complexes) than in soil substrates (clay soil and sandy soil). However, there were no significant differences in the retention of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis between silica and clay-silica complexes or between clay soil and sandy soil. The proportion retained decreased with increasing pH in one of the experiments, indicating greater adsorption of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis to soil particles at an acidic pH (P < 0.05). The results suggest that under experimental conditions M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis adsorbs to a range of soil particles, and this attachment is influenced by soil pH.

Dhand, Navneet K.; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L. M. L.; Whittington, Richard J.

2009-01-01

90

Use of sap flow measurements to validate stomatal functions for mature beech (Fagus sylvatica) in view of ozone uptake calculations.  

PubMed

For a quantitative estimate of the ozone effect on vegetation reliable models for ozone uptake through the stomata are needed. Because of the analogy of ozone uptake and transpiration it is possible to utilize measurements of water loss such as sap flow for quantification of ozone uptake. This technique was applied in three beech (Fagus sylvatica) stands in Switzerland. A canopy conductance was calculated from sap flow velocity and normalized to values between 0 and 1. It represents mainly stomatal conductance as the boundary layer resistance in forests is usually small. Based on this relative conductance, stomatal functions to describe the dependence on light, temperature, vapour pressure deficit and soil moisture were derived using multivariate nonlinear regression. These functions were validated by comparison with conductance values directly estimated from sap flow. The results corroborate the current flux parameterization for beech used in the DO3SE model. PMID:20580473

Braun, Sabine; Schindler, Christian; Leuzinger, Sebastian

2010-09-01

91

Vertical differences in autumn phenology of Fagus sylvatica L. in a mixed forest, southern Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phenological variation among trees of different heights provides a small scale ecological distinction within the forest allowing the optimization of light interception and consequently net carbon gain. Several studies showed that juveniles and suppressed adult individuals can adopt a "phenological escape" strategy by leafing out earlier during spring or by delaying autumn phenology in relation to adult overstory trees. While spring phenological variations in temperate forests were well studied, for autumn phenology it is still unclear whether ontogenetic or microclimatic factors are more decisive. We regularly observed leaf coloring and leaf fall phenology of 166 European beech individuals (Fagus sylvatica L.; Fagaceae), during autumn 2012 in a mixed forest (Kranzberger Forst) in southern Germany and installed 18 loggers for measuring air temperature and humidity at different sites and heights. Our objectives were: (1) to identify microclimatic differences at our observation sites (2) to determine the extent of phenological variations between trees of different life stages (overstory, mesostory and understory); and (3) to examine whether phenology varies between three different height canopy levels. We found that temperature data did not differ between height levels, but relative humidity was significantly higher in the lowest parts. In addition, overstory individuals were the first to start autumn phases followed by mesostory and understory trees. Leaf colouring and fall for understory trees appeared 31 and 23 days later compared to overstory trees. The transition of autumn phases (from the beginning of leaf colouring until the end of leaf fall) was most and significantly extended for overstory trees (mean of 62 days), followed by mesostory (46 days) and understory (38 days). Understory individuals started leaf colouring even 4 days after the onset of overstory leaf fall evidencing phenological avoidance between life stages. Besides this analysis of life stages we also found that upper canopy parts of individual trees were characterized by the earliest appearance of autumn phases; mean difference in onset of leaf colouring and fall between upper and lower levels was in each case -11 days. Mean peak dates did not differ between the highest canopy levels. Thus, transition of autumn phases was fastest for the lowest canopy level (mean of 19 days) than for the highest levels (35 days). Our results suggest that the observed differences were probably not related to temperature but to microclimatic variations in relative humidity and light availability. Furthermore, autumn phases of lower individuals (mesostory and understory) and lower canopy height parts were associated with a shortened transition of autumn phenological phases, probably also associated with fewer branches and leaves that might facilitate the synchronization of phenology. Since phenological development can considerably differ, generalizations are limited when considering trees of different life stages within a forest. Further studies should focus on autumn light conditions to investigate its influence on phenology and the possible gain of light acquisition during phenological avoidance.

Gressler, Eliana; Jochner, Susanne; Capdevielle-Vargas, Renée; Morellato, Patrícia; Menzel, Annette

2014-05-01

92

Genome sequence of Rickettsia conorii subsp. israelensis, the agent of Israeli spotted fever.  

PubMed

Rickettsia conorii subsp. israelensis is the agent of Israeli spotted fever. The present study reports the draft genome of Rickettsia conorii subsp. israelensis strain ISTT CDC1, isolated from a Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick collected in Israel. PMID:22933760

Sentausa, Erwin; El Karkouri, Khalid; Robert, Catherine; Raoult, Didier; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard

2012-09-01

93

Genome Sequence of Rickettsia conorii subsp. israelensis, the Agent of Israeli Spotted Fever  

PubMed Central

Rickettsia conorii subsp. israelensis is the agent of Israeli spotted fever. The present study reports the draft genome of Rickettsia conorii subsp. israelensis strain ISTT CDC1, isolated from a Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick collected in Israel.

Sentausa, Erwin; El Karkouri, Khalid; Robert, Catherine; Raoult, Didier

2012-01-01

94

Bacteraemia caused by Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. abscessus and M. abscessus subsp. bolletii: Clinical features and susceptibilities of the isolates.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium abscessus complex (M. abscessus subsp. abscessus and M. abscessus subsp. bolletii) is an emerging pathogen causing various human infections. However, few studies have focused on M. abscessus complex bacteraemia with detailed species differentiation. The clinical characteristics of patients with bacteraemia due to M. abscessus complex treated at National Taiwan University Hospital from 2005-2012 were evaluated. Species identification was performed by molecular methods, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined using a Sensititre RAPMYCO Panel Test for preserved M. abscessus complex isolates. During the study period, 15 patients with M. abscessus complex bacteraemia were found but only 14 isolates from 13 patients were preserved for analysis. One patient had two episodes of bacteraemia (one caused by M. abscessus subsp. bolletii and one by M .abscessus subsp. abscessus with a 9-month interval). Of the remaining 12 patients, 9 patients had M. abscessus subsp. bolletii bacteraemia and 3 had M .abscessus subsp. abscessus bacteraemia. Patients were mainly middle-aged adults with various co-morbidities. Steroid usage and malignancy (5/15) were the most common immunocompromised statuses, followed by diabetes mellitus (4/15). Surgical wound infection was the most common infection foci in all patients (5/15), particularly in M. abscessus subsp. bolletii bacteraemia patients. Clarithromycin and tigecycline exhibited good in vitro activities. Overall, the 14-day mortality was 20% (3/15). M. abscessus complex bacteraemia should be considered an emerging opportunistic infection in immunocompromised hosts. Clarithromycin and tigecycline have potent in vitro activities and are promising agents for treating infections due to M. abscessus complex. PMID:24718088

Lee, Meng-Rui; Ko, Jen-Chung; Liang, Sheng-Kai; Lee, Shih-Wei; Yen, David Hung-Tsang; Hsueh, Po-Ren

2014-05-01

95

Long-term variations in leaf area index and light extinction in a Fagus sylvatica stand as estimated from global radiation profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The paper presents a model that estimates leaf area index (LAI) from above- and below-canopy global radiation measurements. The approach is based on a detailed description of radiation regime above and below the canopy. One EuroFlux site, a beech forest ( Fagus sylvatica L.) at Hesse, France was selected for model testing. The time-courses of daily LAI from 1996

Q. Wang; J. Tenhunen; A. Granier; M. Reichstein; O. Bouriaud; D. Nguyen; N. Breda

2004-01-01

96

Inter-annual and seasonal variability of radial growth, wood density and carbon isotope ratios in tree rings of beech ( Fagus sylvatica ) growing in Germany and Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the variability of tree-ring width, wood density and 13C\\/12C in beech tree rings (Fagus sylvatica L.), and analyzed the influence of climatic variables and carbohydrate storage on these parameters. Wood cores were taken from dominant beech trees in three stands in Germany and Italy. We used densitometry to obtain density profiles of tree rings and laser-ablation-combustion-GC-IRMS to estimate

M. V. Skomarkova; E. A. Vaganov; M. Mund; A. Knohl; P. Linke; A. Boerner; E.-D. Schulze

2006-01-01

97

Root distribution of under-planted European beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.) below the canopy of a mature Norway spruce stand as a function of light  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aboveground and belowground biomass of 15-year-old under-planted European beech seedlings (Fagus sylvatica L.) in Norway spruce stand were studied along a light gradient in three plots, in the northern part of Slovenia. Differences\\u000a in soil water content, aboveground and fine root biomass distribution were confirmed between studied plots. Light had significant\\u000a effect on the total biomass, root-shoot ratio (0.388 ± 0.076 under

?ater Matjaž; Simon?i? Primož

2010-01-01

98

Sensitivity of FORGRO to climatic change scenarios: A case study on Betula pubescens, Fagus sylvatica and Quercus robur in The Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impacts of the climate change predictions of four general circulation models (GFDL, GISS, OSU and UKMO) on net primary production (NPP) ofBetula pubescens, Fagus sylvatica and Quercus robur in The Netherlands were analysed using the process-based model FORGRO. FORGRO is a model suitable to simulate growth of managed mono-species stands. For the GCMs mentioned, both transient and equilibrium 2

K. Kramer; G. M. J. Mohren

1996-01-01

99

Early Responses to Acute Ozone Exposure in Two Fagus Sylvatica Clones Differing in Xeromorphic Adaptations: Photosynthetic and Stomatal Processes, Membrane and Epicuticular Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two Fagus sylvatica L. clones were used to investigate the early responses to acute O3 exposure (150 nL L?1, i.e., 1.35× ambient hourly peak in rural Italy) and whether xeromorphic adaptations affect gas exchange, membrane, and epicuticular\\u000a responses. One clone originated in a wet and temperate climate in Central Italy (Tuscany); the other clone originated in a\\u000a warmer and drier climate

Elena Paoletti; Cristina Nali; Giacomo Lorenzini

2007-01-01

100

Natural layering, foliation, fertility and plant species composition of a Fagus sylvatica stand above the alpine timberline in the Giant (Krkonoše) Mts., Czech Republic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Layering, long-term development of foliation, beech nut fertility and plant species composition have never before been studied\\u000a in Fagus sylvatica stands above the alpine timberline in Central Europe. F. sylvatica forms and is present above the timberline (1,260 m a. s. l.) on only one south-facing slope along a 1-km-long stretch of\\u000a the Giant Mts., which represents the northernmost timberline featuring

Stanislav Vacek; Michal Hejcman

101

Age structure of wind-felled canopy trees for Siebold’s beech ( Fagus crenata ) in the northernmost population in Karibayama, Hokkaido  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the lifespan of Siebold’s beech (Fagus crenata), a dominant canopy tree species of the cool temperate forests of Japan, we estimated the age of 33 mature beech trees felled\\u000a by a large typhoon in September 2004 at Karibayama, in southern Hokkaido. The study site lies within one of the northernmost\\u000a distributions of Siebold’s beech populations in Japan. We

Keiko Kitamura; Makoto Kobayashi; Takayuki Kawahara

2007-01-01

102

Within-branch heterogeneity of the light environment and leaf temperature in a Fagus crenata crown and its significance for photosynthesis calculations  

Microsoft Academic Search

On days with clear skies in late August 2002 diurnal changes in the within-branch heterogeneity of photosynthetic photon flux\\u000a density at the leaf surface (PPFDs) and leaf temperature (T\\u000a leaf) were measured at natural leaf orientations in the upper and lower layers of a Fagus crenata crown. The PPFDs and T\\u000a leaf measurements were converted to branch photosynthesis rates (P

Atsuhiro Iio; Hisakazu Fukasawa; Yachiho Nose; Masaaki Naramoto; Hiromi Mizunaga; Yoshitaka Kakubari

2009-01-01

103

Sugar Utilization and Acid Production by Free and Entrapped Cells of Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis in a Whey Permeate Medium  

PubMed Central

Cells of Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis entrapped in k-carrageenan-locust bean gum gel performed similarly to free cells in the conversion of lactose to lactic acid. Bead diameter influenced the fermentation rate. Cells entrapped in smaller beads (0.5 to 1.0 mm) showed higher release rates, higher lactose, glucose, and formic acid utilization, higher galactose accumulation, and higher lactic acid production than did cells entrapped in larger beads (1.0 to 2.0 mm). Values for smaller beads were comparable with those for free cells. Immobilization affected the fermentation rate of lactic acid bacteria, especially Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. Entrapped cells of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus demonstrated a lower lactic acid production than did free cells in batch fermentation. The kinetics of the production of formic and pyruvic acids by L. lactis subsp. lactis and S. salivarius subsp. thermophilus are presented.

Audet, Pascal; Paquin, Celine; Lacroix, Christophe

1989-01-01

104

Simultaneous detection of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis and Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii based on microsphere immunoreaction.  

PubMed

Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis (Cmn) and Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (Pss) are two plant pathogens that can cause tremendous agricultural economic losses. This novel method based on microsphere immunoreaction was developed for the simultaneous detection of Cmn and Pss in maize. This multiplex method was constructed based on microsphere immunodetection with fluorescent labels such as quantum dots (QDs) and R-phycoerythrin (R-PE) for the detection of Cmn and Pss. Captured QDs and R-PE serve as signal reporters for fluorescent readout. The principle of this method is based on a sandwich immunoreaction. Cmn and Pss captured by the microspheres were detected using flow cytometry. The limit of detection of this method was 10 times lower than the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and its analysis time (1 h) was much shorter compared with ELISA (6-8 h). The method, which has been proven to be an effective approach to multiplex detection of plant bacteria (Cmn and Pss as models), not only increased the varieties but also improved the sensitivity. The microsphere immunoreaction provides a universal method for the multiplex determination of microbes because of its high sensitivity, specificity, and speed. In the future, the method will be more fully validated in vivo to detect diversiform bacteria. PMID:23169888

Zhang, Fan; Li, Jinfeng; Zou, Mingqiang; Chen, Yan; Wang, Yanfei; Qi, Xiaohua

2013-04-01

105

Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii has not been detected previously in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). We tested whole blood from 60 white-tailed deer for Bartonella spp. DNA; three (5%) were positive for Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. This is the first detection of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii in white-tailed deer. PMID:23568932

Chitwood, M Colter; Maggi, Ricardo G; Kennedy-Stoskopf, Suzanne; Toliver, Marcée; DePerno, Christopher S

2013-04-01

106

Draft Genome Sequence of Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. funduliforme Bovine Liver Abscess Isolate B35  

PubMed Central

Fusobacterium necrophorum is a Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium that causes foot rot and liver abscesses in cattle. F. necrophorum subsp. necrophorum and the less virulent organism F. necrophorum subsp. funduliforme are recognized. We present here a draft genome sequence of the bovine liver abscess isolate F. necrophorum subsp. funduliforme strain B35, which affords a genomic perspective of virulence and bovine adaptation.

Calcutt, Michael J.; Foecking, Mark F.; Nagaraja, Tiruvoor G.

2014-01-01

107

Staphylococcus equorum subsp. linens, subsp. nov., a starter culture component for surface ripened semi-hard cheeses.  

PubMed

Two staphylococcal strains, RP29T and RP33, were isolated from the main microflora of a surface ripened Swiss mountain cheese made from raw milk. These two strains were differentiated from the most closely related species Staphylococcus equorum on the basis of DNA-DNA hybridisation and phenotypic characteristics and are proposed as Staphylococcus equorum subsp. linens subsp. nov. They could be distinguished phenotypically from S. equorum by their sensitivity to all 14 tested antibiotics, especially to novobiocin, their incapability to ferment alpha-D-lactose, maltose, sucrose, D-trehalose, D-xylose, L-arabinose, salicin, D-ribose, D-raffinose, D-mannitol, and D-alanine. The GenBank accession numbers for the reference sequences of the 16S rDNA and the hsp60 gene used in this study are AF527483 and AF527484, respectively. 30 tons of a semi-hard Swiss cheese were produced with Staphylococcus equorum subsp. linens DSM 15097T as starter culture component in addition to Debaryomyces hansenii, Geotrichum candidum, Brevibacterium linens, Corynebacterium casei for surface ripened cheeses. The products were sensorically and hygienically perfect. Therefore, Staphylococcus equorum subsp. linens DSM 15097T can be proposed as starter culture component for surface ripened cheeses without any detected antibiotic resistances. The type strain of Staphylococcus equorum subsp. linens is DSM 15097T (CIP 107656T). PMID:12747407

Place, Raymond B; Hiestand, Daniel; Gallmann, Hans Rudolf; Teuber, Michael

2003-03-01

108

The origin of the serpentine endemic Minuartia laricifolia subsp. ophiolitica by vicariance and competitive exclusion.  

PubMed

Serpentine soils harbour a unique flora that is rich in endemics. We examined the evolution of serpentine endemism in Minuartia laricifolia, which has two ecologically distinct subspecies with disjunct distributions: subsp. laricifolia on siliceous rocks in the western Alps and eastern Pyrenees and subsp. ophiolitica on serpentine in the northern Apennines. We analysed AFLPs and chloroplast sequences from 30 populations to examine their relationships and how their current distributions and ecologies were influenced by Quaternary climatic changes. Minuartia laricifolia was divided into four groups with a BAPS cluster analysis of the AFLP data, one group consisted only of subsp. ophiolitica, while three groups were found within subsp. laricifolia: Maritime Alps, north-western Alps and central Alps. The same groups were recovered in a neighbour-joining tree, although subsp. ophiolitica was nested within the Maritime Alps group of subsp. laricifolia. Subspecies ophiolitica contained three different chloroplast haplotypes, which were also found in the Maritime Alps group of subsp. laricifolia. Given its high genetic diversity, subsp. ophiolitica appears to have arisen from subsp. laricifolia by vicariance instead of by long-distance dispersal. Genetic and geographic evidence point to the Maritime Alps populations of subsp. laricifolia as the closest relatives of subsp. ophiolitica. We hypothesize that M. laricifolia was also able to grow on nonserpentine rocks in the northern Apennines during glacial periods when the vegetation was more open, but that only the serpentine-adapted populations were able to persist until the present due to their competitive exclusion from more favourable habitats. PMID:23496825

Moore, Abigail J; Merges, Dominik; Kadereit, Joachim W

2013-04-01

109

Geobacillus thermodenitrificans subsp. calidus, subsp. nov., a thermophilic and ?-glucosidase producing bacterium isolated from Kizilcahamam, Turkey.  

PubMed

An ?-glucosidase producing, thermophilic, facultatively anaerobic, and endospore-forming, motile, rod-shaped bacterial strain F84b(T) was isolated from a high temperature well-pipeline sediment sample in Kizilcahamam, Turkey. The growth occurred at temperatures, pH and salinities ranging from 45 to 69ºC (optimum 60ºC), 7.0 to 8.5 (optimum 8.0) and 0 to 5% (w/v) (optimum 3.5%), respectively. Strain F84b(T) was able to grow on a wide range of carbon sources. Starch and tyrosine utilization, amylase, catalase and oxidase activities, nitrate reduction, and gas production from nitrate were all positive. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 49.6 mol%. The menaquinone content was MK-7. The dominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C17:0, iso-C15:0, and C16:0. In phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence, strain F84b(T) showed high sequence similarity to Geobacillus thermodenitrificans (99.8%) and to Geobacillus subterraneus (99.3%) with DNA hybridization values of 74.3% and 29.1%, respectively. In addition, the Rep-PCR and the intergenic 16S-23S rRNA gene fingerprinting profiles differentiated strain F84b(T) from the Geobacillus species studied. The results obtained from the physiological and biochemical characters, the menaquinone contents, the borderline DNA-DNA hybridization homology, and the genomic fingerprinting patterns had allowed phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic differentiation of strain F84b(T) from G. thermodenitrificans. Therefore, strain F84b(T) is assigned to be a new subspecies of G. thermodenitrificans, for which the name Geobacillus thermodenitrificans subsp. calidus, subsp. nov. is proposed (The type strain F84b(T) = DSM 22629(T) = NCIMB 14582(T)). PMID:21606609

Cihan, Arzu Coleri; Ozcan, Birgul; Tekin, Nilgun; Cokmus, Cumhur

2011-01-01

110

Natural selection and climate change: temperature-linked spatial and temporal trends in gene frequency in Fagus sylvatica.  

PubMed

Rapid increases in global temperature are likely to impose strong directional selection on many plant populations, which must therefore adapt if they are to survive. Within populations, microgeographic genetic differentiation of individuals with respect to climate suggests that some populations may adapt to changing temperatures in the short-term through rapid changes in gene frequency. We used a genome scan to identify temperature-related adaptive differentiation of individuals of the tree species Fagus sylvatica. By combining molecular marker and dendrochronological data we assessed spatial and temporal variation in gene frequency at the locus identified as being under selection. We show that gene frequency at this locus varies predictably with temperature. The probability of the presence of the dominant marker allele shows a declining trend over the latter half of the 20th century, in parallel with rising temperatures in the region. Our results show that F. sylvatica populations may show some capacity for an in situ adaptive response to climate change. However as reported ongoing distributional changes demonstrate, this response is not enough to allow all populations of this species to persist in all of their current locations. PMID:16968284

Jump, Alistair S; Hunt, Jenny M; Martínez-Izquierdo, José A; Peñuelas, Josep

2006-10-01

111

The presence of amino acids affects inorganic N uptake in non-mycorrhizal seedlings of European beech (Fagus sylvatica).  

PubMed

To investigate the impact of organic N compounds for inorganic nitrogen uptake in the rhizosphere, we fed ammonium nitrate with or without amino acids (i.e., glutamine or arginine) to the roots of non-mycorrhizal beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) seedlings under controlled conditions at different levels of N availability. Uptake of individual N sources was determined from ¹?N (inorganic N) and ¹?N ¹³C (organic N) accumulation in the roots. In addition, gene fragments encoding proteins involved in N uptake and metabolism were cloned from beech for gene expression analyses by quantitative real-time PCR in the roots. Generally, ammonium was preferred over nitrate as N source. Organic N sources were taken up by beech roots as intact molecules. Uptake of organic N was significantly higher than inorganic N uptake, thus contributing significantly to N nutrition of beech. Depending on the level of N availability, inorganic N uptake was negatively affected by the presence of organic N sources. This result indicates an overestimation of the contribution of inorganic N uptake to N nutrition of beech in previous studies. Apparently, association with mycorrhizal fungi is not essential for organic N uptake by beech roots. Gene expression analyses showed that transcriptional regulation of the amino acid transporters FsCAT3, FsCAT5, FsAAT and FsAAP and the ammonium transporter FsAMT1.2 in the roots is involved in N nutrition of beech. PMID:20595637

Stoelken, Gunda; Simon, Judy; Ehlting, Barbara; Rennenberg, Heinz

2010-09-01

112

Genetic divergence in nuclear genomes between populations of Fagus crenata along the Japan Sea and Pacific sides of Japan.  

PubMed

Genetic diversity and structure in Fagus crenata were studied by analyzing 14 nuclear microsatellite loci in 23 populations distributed throughout the species' range. Although population differentiation was very low (F (ST) = 0.027; R (ST) = 0.041), both neighbor-joining tree and Bayesian clustering analyses provided clear evidence of genetic divergence between populations along the Japan Sea (Japan Sea lineage) and Pacific (Pacific lineage) sides of Japan, indicating that physical barriers to migration and gene flow, notably the mountain ranges separating the populations along the Japan Sea and Pacific sides, have promoted genetic divergence between these populations. The two lineages of the nuclear genome are generally consistent with those of the chloroplast genome detected in a previous study, with several discrepancies between the two genomes. Within-population genetic diversity was generally very high (average H (E) = 0.839), but decreased in a clinal fashion from southwest to northeast, largely among populations of the Japan Sea lineage. This geographical gradient may have resulted from the late-glacial and postglacial recolonization to the northeast, which led to a loss of within-population genetic diversity due to cumulative founder effects. PMID:19238323

Hiraoka, Koichi; Tomaru, Nobuhiro

2009-05-01

113

Phosphite protects Fagus sylvatica seedlings towards Phytophthora plurivora via local toxicity, priming and facilitation of pathogen recognition.  

PubMed

Phytophthora plurivora causes severe damage on Fagus sylvatica and is responsible for the extensive decline of European Beech throughout Europe. Unfortunately, no effective treatment against this disease is available. Phosphite (Phi) is known to protect plants against Phytophthora species; however, its mode of action towards P. plurivora is still unknown. To discover the effect of Phi on root infection, leaves were sprayed with Phi and roots were subsequently inoculated with P. plurivora zoospores. Seedling physiology, defense responses, colonization of root tissue by the pathogen and mortality were monitored. Additionally the Phi concentration in roots was quantified. Finally, the effect of Phi on mycelial growth and zoospore formation was recorded. Phi treatment was remarkably efficient in protecting beech against P. plurivora; all Phi treated plants survived infection. Phi treated and infected seedlings showed a strong up-regulation of several defense genes in jasmonate, salicylic acid and ethylene pathways. Moreover, all physiological parameters measured were comparable to control plants. The local Phi concentration detected in roots was high enough to inhibit pathogen growth. Phi treatment alone did not harm seedling physiology or induce defense responses. The up-regulation of defense genes could be explained either by priming or by facilitation of pathogen recognition of the host. PMID:24489973

Dalio, Ronaldo J D; Fleischmann, Frank; Humez, Martina; Osswald, Wolfgang

2014-01-01

114

Bacteriophages and the control of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourteen bacteriophages of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora, the causal agent of bacterial soft rot, were isolated from samples of fertilizer solutions taken from a greenhouse producing calla lily (Zantedeschia spp.). To avoid a single-host selection bias, a mixture of four bacterial hosts was used to enrich bacteriophages. Molecular characterization of the phages with restriction endonuclease digestions indicated that two distinct

M. Ravensdale; T. J. Blom; J. A. Gracia-Garza; A. M. Svircev; R. J. Smith

2007-01-01

115

Linear plasmid in the genome of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus.  

PubMed

Contour-clamped homogeneous electric field gel analysis of genomic DNA of the plant pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus revealed the presence of a previously unreported extrachromosomal element. This new element was demonstrated to be a linear plasmid. Of 11 strains evaluated, all contained either a 90-kb (pCSL1) or a 140-kb (pCSL2) linear plasmid. PMID:11976316

Brown, Susan E; Knudson, Dennis L; Ishimaru, Carol A

2002-05-01

116

Salmonella choleraesuis subsp. indica serovar bornheim causing urinary tract infection.  

PubMed

An unusual Salmonella species, S. choleraesuis subsp. indica serovar bornheim, was isolated from the urine of a patient with aplastic anemia, diabetes mellitus, and a healed urethral injury. An immune response to this isolate was demonstrated by whole-bacterial-cell agglutination. PMID:1401026

Snehalatha, S; Mathai, E; Jayasheela, M; Chandy, M; Lalitha, M K; John, T J

1992-09-01

117

Salmonella choleraesuis subsp. indica serovar bornheim causing urinary tract infection.  

PubMed Central

An unusual Salmonella species, S. choleraesuis subsp. indica serovar bornheim, was isolated from the urine of a patient with aplastic anemia, diabetes mellitus, and a healed urethral injury. An immune response to this isolate was demonstrated by whole-bacterial-cell agglutination.

Snehalatha, S; Mathai, E; Jayasheela, M; Chandy, M; Lalitha, M K; John, T J

1992-01-01

118

Laminaria japonica Extract, an Inhibitor of Clavibater michiganense Subsp. Sepedonicum  

PubMed Central

Bacterial ring rot of potato is one of the most serious potato plant and tuber diseases. Laminaria japonica extract was investigated for its antimicrobial activity against Clavibater michiganense subsp. sepedonicum (Spieckermann & Kotthoff) Davis et al., the causative agent of bacterial ring rot of potato. The results showed that the optimum extraction conditions of antimicrobial substances from L. japonica were an extraction temperature of 80°C, an extraction time of 12 h, and a solid to liquid ratio of 1?25. Active compounds of L. japonica were isolated by solvent partition, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and column chromatography. All nineteen fractionations had antimicrobial activities against C. michiganense subsp. sepedonicum, while Fractionation three (Fr.3) had the highest (P<0.05) antimicrobial activity. Chemical composition analysis identified a total of 26 components in Fr.3. The main constituents of Fr.3 were alkanes (80.97%), esters (5.24%), acids (4.87%) and alcohols (2.21%). Antimicrobial activity of Fr.3 against C. michiganense subsp. sepedonicum could be attributed to its ability to damage the cell wall and cell membrane, induce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), increase cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, inhibit the glycolytic pathway (EMP) and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, inhibit protein and nucleic acid synthesis, and disrupt the normal cycle of DNA replication. These findings indicate that L. japonica extracts have potential for inhibiting C. michiganense subsp. sepedonicum.

Cai, Jin; Feng, Jia; Xie, Shulian; Wang, Feipeng; Xu, Qiufeng

2014-01-01

119

Complete Genome Sequence of Beijerinckia indica subsp. indica?  

PubMed Central

Beijerinckia indica subsp. indica is an aerobic, acidophilic, exopolysaccharide-producing, N2-fixing soil bacterium. It is a generalist chemoorganotroph that is phylogenetically closely related to facultative and obligate methanotrophs of the genera Methylocella and Methylocapsa. Here we report the full genome sequence of this bacterium.

Tamas, Ivica; Dedysh, Svetlana N.; Liesack, Werner; Stott, Matthew B.; Alam, Maqsudul; Murrell, J. Colin; Dunfield, Peter F.

2010-01-01

120

Flow Cytometric Determination of the Effects of Antibacterial Agents on Mycoplasma agalactiae, Mycoplasma putrefaciens, Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum, and Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides Large Colony Type  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reference strains of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides LC, M. agalactiae, M. putrefaciens, and M. capricolum subsp. capri- colum were obtained from the National Collection of Type Cultures (United Kingdom). Enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were obtained from Sigma (St. Louis, MO); and gentamicin, chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline, and tylosin were obtained from Serva (Heidelberg, Germany). Stock solutions of the an- tibacterial agents were

Patricia Assuncao; Nuno T. Antunes; Ruben S. Rosales; Carlos Poveda; Jose B. Poveda; Hazel M. Davey

2006-01-01

121

Extensive spatial genetic structure revealed by AFLP but not SSR molecular markers in the wind-pollinated tree, Fagus sylvatica.  

PubMed

Studies of fine-scale spatial genetic structure (SGS) in wind-pollinated trees have shown that SGS is generally weak and extends over relatively short distances (less than 30-40 m) from individual trees. However, recent simulations have shown that detection of SGS is heavily dependent on both the choice of molecular markers and the strategy used to sample the studied population. Published studies may not always have used sufficient markers and/or individuals for the accurate estimation of SGS. To assess the extent of SGS within a population of the wind-pollinated tree Fagus sylvatica, we genotyped 200 trees at six microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci and 250 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) and conducted spatial analyses of pairwise kinship coefficients. We re-sampled our data set over individuals and over loci to determine the effect of reducing the sample size and number of loci used for SGS estimation. We found that SGS estimated from AFLP markers extended nearly four times further than has been estimated before using other molecular markers in this species, indicating a persistent effect of restricted gene flow at small spatial scales. However, our SSR-based estimate was in agreement with other published studies. Spatial genetic structure in F. sylvatica and similar wind-pollinated trees may therefore be substantially larger than has been estimated previously. Although 100-150 AFLP loci and 150-200 individuals appear sufficient for adequately estimating SGS in our analysis, 150-200 individuals and six SSR loci may still be too few to provide a good estimation of SGS in this species. PMID:17305851

Jump, Alistair S; Peñuelas, Josep

2007-03-01

122

Comparison of pollen gene flow among four European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) populations characterized by different management regimes  

PubMed Central

The study of the dispersal capability of a species can provide essential information for the management and conservation of its genetic variability. Comparison of gene flow rates among populations characterized by different management and evolutionary histories allows one to decipher the role of factors such as isolation and tree density on gene movements. We used two paternity analysis approaches and different strategies to handle the possible presence of genotyping errors to obtain robust estimates of pollen flow in four European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) populations from Austria and France. In each country one of the two plots is located in an unmanaged forest; the other plots are managed with a shelterwood system and inside a colonization area (in Austria and France, respectively). The two paternity analysis approaches provided almost identical estimates of gene flow. In general, we found high pollen immigration (?75% of pollen from outside), with the exception of the plot from a highly isolated forest remnant (?50%). In the two unmanaged plots, the average within-population pollen dispersal distances (from 80 to 184?m) were higher than previously estimated for beech. From the comparison between the Austrian managed and unmanaged plots, that are only 500?m apart, we found no evidence that either gene flow or reproductive success distributions were significantly altered by forest management. The investigated phenotypic traits (crown area, height, diameter and flowering phenology) were not significantly related with male reproductive success. Shelterwood seems to have an effect on the distribution of within-population pollen dispersal distances. In the managed plot, pollen dispersal distances were shorter, possibly because adult tree density is three-fold (163 versus 57 trees per hectare) with respect to the unmanaged one.

Piotti, A; Leonardi, S; Buiteveld, J; Geburek, T; Gerber, S; Kramer, K; Vettori, C; Vendramin, G G

2012-01-01

123

Leaf traits, shoot growth and seed production in mature Fagus sylvatica trees after 8 years of CO2 enrichment  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Masting, i.e. synchronous but highly variable interannual seed production, is a strong sink for carbon and nutrients. It may, therefore, compete with vegetative growth. It is currently unknown whether increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations will affect the carbon balance (or that of other nutrients) between reproduction and vegetative growth of forest species. In this study, reproduction and vegetative growth of shoots of mature beech (Fagus sylvatica) trees grown at ambient and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations were quantified. It was hypothesized that within a shoot, fruiting has a negative effect on vegetative growth, and that this effect is ameliorated at increased CO2 concentrations. Methods Reproduction and its competition with leaf and shoot production were examined during two masting events (in 2007 and 2009) in F. sylvatica trees that had been exposed to either ambient or elevated CO2 concentrations (530 µmol mol?1) for eight consecutive years, between 2000 and 2008. Key Results The number of leaves per shoot and the length of terminal shoots was smaller or shorter in the two masting years compared with the one non-masting year (2008) investigated, but they were unaffected by elevated CO2 concentrations. The dry mass of terminal shoots was approx. 2-fold lower in the masting year (2007) than in the non-masting year in trees growing at ambient CO2 concentrations, but this decline was not observed in trees exposed to elevated CO2 concentrations. In both the CO2 treatments, fruiting significantly decreased nitrogen concentration by 25 % in leaves and xylem tissue of 1- to 3-year-old branches in 2009. Conclusions Our findings indicate that there is competition for resources between reproduction and shoot growth. Elevated CO2 concentrations reduced this competition, indicating effects on the balance of resource allocation between reproduction and vegetative growth in shoots with rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations.

Han, Qingmin; Kabeya, Daisuke; Hoch, Gunter

2011-01-01

124

Catalase-negative Actinomyces neuii subsp. neuii isolated from an infected mammary prosthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this case report a catalase-negative strain of Actinomyces neuii subsp. neuii is described as the possible causative agent of an infected mammary prosthesis. DNA hybridization studies and 16S rRNA analysis confirmed that the strain belongs to the species Actinomyces neuii subsp. neuii. Since this strain is the first A. neuii subsp. neuii strain reported to be catalase negative, the

Simone Brunner; Susanne Graf; Philippe Riegel; Martin Altwegg

2000-01-01

125

Complete Genome of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicusis Siphophage CN1A.  

PubMed

Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicusis is a Gram-positive actinomycete that is the causative agent of the potato disease ring rot. Here, we announce the complete genome sequence of the Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicusis siphophage CN1A. CN1A is only the second fully sequenced Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicusis phage reported to date. Core and unique features of its genome are described. PMID:24309731

Kongari, Rohit R; Yao, Guichun W; Chamakura, Karthik R; Kuty Everett, Gabriel F

2013-01-01

126

Complete Genome of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicusis Siphophage CN1A  

PubMed Central

Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicusis is a Gram-positive actinomycete that is the causative agent of the potato disease ring rot. Here, we announce the complete genome sequence of the Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicusis siphophage CN1A. CN1A is only the second fully sequenced Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicusis phage reported to date. Core and unique features of its genome are described.

Kongari, Rohit R.; Yao, Guichun W.; Chamakura, Karthik R.

2013-01-01

127

Draft Genome Sequence of Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. funduliforme Bovine Liver Abscess Isolate B35.  

PubMed

Fusobacterium necrophorum is a Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium that causes foot rot and liver abscesses in cattle. F. necrophorum subsp. necrophorum and the less virulent organism F. necrophorum subsp. funduliforme are recognized. We present here a draft genome sequence of the bovine liver abscess isolate F. necrophorum subsp. funduliforme strain B35, which affords a genomic perspective of virulence and bovine adaptation. PMID:24786958

Calcutt, Michael J; Foecking, Mark F; Nagaraja, Tiruvoor G; Stewart, George C

2014-01-01

128

Isolation of Campylobacter fetus subsp jejuni from zoo animals.  

PubMed

Over a 1-year period, 619 fecal specimens from animals at the Denver Zoo were cultured for Campylobacter fetus subsp jejuni. The organism was isolated from 35 animals, including 12 primates, 2 felids, a red panda, 13 hooved animals, 6 birds, and 1 reptile. Of 44 cultured fecal specimens from diarrheal animals, 31.8% were positive for Campylobacter, whereas only 5.6% of 575 specimens from animals without diarrhea were positive (P less than 0.001). Among 25 isolates tested, 12 serotypes were represented; several of these serotypes are commonly associated with Campylobacter enteritis in human beings. Campylobacter fetus subsp jejuni was isolated from 8% of 75 wild pigeons trapped on the zoo premises during winter months and from 26% of 75 trapped during March and April (P less than 0.01). PMID:6799468

Luechtefeld, N W; Cambre, R C; Wang, W L

1981-12-01

129

Isolation by genomic subtraction of DNA probes specific for Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica.  

PubMed Central

Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica is a pathogen of potatoes in Europe because of its ability to induce blackleg symptoms early in the growing season. However, E. carotovora subsp. carotovora is not able to produce such severe symptoms under the same conditions. On the basis of the technique described by Straus and Ausubel (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87:1889-1893, 1990), we isolated DNA sequences of E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica 86.20 that were absent from the genomic DNA of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora CH26. Six DNA fragments ranging from ca. 180 to 400 bp were isolated, cloned, and sequenced. Each fragment was further hybridized with 130 microorganisms including 87 E. carotovora strains. One probe was specific for typical E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica strains, two probes hybridized with all E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica strains and with a few E. carotovora subsp. carotovora strains, and two probes recognized only a subset of E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica strains. The last probe was absent from the genomic DNA of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora CH26 but was present in the genomes of many strains, including those of other species and genera. This probe is homologous to the putP gene of Escherichia coli, which encodes a proline carrier. Further use of the probes is discussed. Images

Darrasse, A; Kotoujansky, A; Bertheau, Y

1994-01-01

130

Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis Group A.I, United States  

PubMed Central

We used whole-genome analysis and subsequent characterization of geographically diverse strains using new genetic signatures to identify distinct subgroups within Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis group A.I: A.I.3, A.I.8, and A.I.12. These subgroups exhibit complex phylogeographic patterns within North America. The widest distribution was observed for A.I.12, which suggests an adaptive advantage.

Birdsell, Dawn N.; Johansson, Anders; Ohrman, Caroline; Kaufman, Emily; Molins, Claudia; Pearson, Talima; Gyuranecz, Miklos; Naumann, Amber; Vogler, Amy J.; Myrtennas, Kerstin; Larsson, Par; Forsman, Mats; Sjodin, Andreas; Gillece, John D.; Schupp, James; Petersen, Jeannine M.; Keim, Paul

2014-01-01

131

Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis Group A.I, United States.  

PubMed

We used whole-genome analysis and subsequent characterization of geographically diverse strains using new genetic signatures to identify distinct subgroups within Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis group A.I: A.I.3, A.I.8, and A.I.12. These subgroups exhibit complex phylogeographic patterns within North America. The widest distribution was observed for A.I.12, which suggests an adaptive advantage. PMID:24755401

Birdsell, Dawn N; Johansson, Anders; Ohrman, Caroline; Kaufman, Emily; Molins, Claudia; Pearson, Talima; Gyuranecz, Miklós; Naumann, Amber; Vogler, Amy J; Myrtennäs, Kerstin; Larsson, Pär; Forsman, Mats; Sjödin, Andreas; Gillece, John D; Schupp, James; Petersen, Jeannine M; Keim, Paul; Wagner, David M

2014-05-01

132

Mixotrophic metabolism in Burkholderia kururiensis subsp. thiooxydans subsp. nov., a facultative chemolithoautotrophic thiosulfate oxidizing bacterium isolated from rhizosphere soil and proposal for classification of the type strain of Burkholderia kururiensis as Burkholderia kururiensis subsp. kururiensis subsp. nov.  

PubMed

A thiosulfate-oxidizing facultative chemolithoautotrophic Burkholderia sp. strain ATSB13(T) was previously isolated from rhizosphere soil of tobacco plant. Strain ATSB13(T) was aerobic, Gram-staining-negative, rod shaped and motile by means of sub-terminal flagellum. Strain ATSB13(T) exhibited mixotrophic growth in a medium containing thiosulfate plus acetate. A phylogenetic study based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain ATSB13(T) was most closely related to Burkholderia kururiensis KP23(T) (98.7%), Burkholderia tuberum STM678(T) (96.5%) and Burkholderia phymatum STM815(T) (96.4%). Chemotaxonomic data [G+C 64.0 mol%, major fatty acids, C(18:1) omega7c (28.22%), C(16:1) omega7c/15 iso 2OH (15.15%), and C(16:0) (14.91%) and Q-8 as predominant respiratory ubiquinone] supported the affiliation of the strain ATSB13(T) within the genus Burkholderia. Though the strain ATSB13(T) shared high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with the type strain of B. kururiensis but considerably distant from the latter in terms of several phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics. DNA-DNA hybridization between strain ATSB13(T) and B. kururiensis KP23(T) was 100%, and hence, it is inferred that strain ATSB13(T) is a member of B. kururiensis. On the basis of data obtained from this study, we propose that B. kururiensis be subdivided into B. kururiensis subsp. kururiensis subsp. nov. (type strain KP23(T) = JCM 10599(T) = DSM 13646(T)) and B. kururiensis subsp. thiooxydans subsp. nov. (type strain ATSB13(T) = KACC 12758(T)). PMID:19841903

Anandham, Rangasamy; Indira Gandhi, Pandiyan; Kwon, Soon Wo; Sa, Tong Min; Kim, Yong Ki; Jee, Hyeong Jin

2009-12-01

133

Characterization of a Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis population in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm) strains, collected during the last decade from different locations in Israel, were analyzed by macrorestriction pulsed-field\\u000a gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Fifty-eight strains from Israel and 18 from other sources were differentiated into 11 haplotypes\\u000a with either VspI or DraI restriction enzymes. The strains from Israel formed four distinct groups among which groups A (16 strains) and

Frida Kleitman; Isaac Barash; Annette Burger; Naim Iraki; Yunis Falah; Guido Sessa; Dan Weinthal; Laura Chalupowicz; Karl-Heinz Gartemann; Rudolf Eichenlaub; Shulamit Manulis-Sasson

2008-01-01

134

A Change in a Single Midgut Receptor in the Diamondback Moth (Plutella xylostella) Is Only in Part Responsible for Field Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki and B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai  

PubMed Central

A population (SERD3) of the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella L.) with field-evolved resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HD-1 (Dipel) and B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai (Florbac) was collected. Laboratory-based selection of two subpopulations of SERD3 with B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (Btk-Sel) or B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai (Bta-Sel) increased resistance to the selecting agent with little apparent cross-resistance. This result suggested the presence of independent resistance mechanisms. Reversal of resistance to B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki and B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai was observed in the unselected SERD3 subpopulation. Binding to midgut brush border membrane vesicles was examined for insecticidal crystal proteins specific to B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (Cry1Ac), B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai (Cry1Ca), or both (Cry1Aa and Cry1Ab). In the unselected SERD3 subpopulation (ca. 50- and 30-fold resistance to B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki and B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai), specific binding of Cry1Aa, Cry1Ac, and Cry1Ca was similar to that for a susceptible population (ROTH), but binding of Cry1Ab was minimal. The Btk-Sel (ca. 600-and 60-fold resistance to B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki and B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai) and Bta-Sel (ca. 80-and 300-fold resistance to B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki and B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai) subpopulations also showed reduced binding to Cry1Ab. Binding of Cry1Ca was not affected in the Bta-Sel subpopulation. The results suggest that reduced binding of Cry1Ab can partly explain resistance to B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki and B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai. However, the binding of Cry1Aa, Cry1Ac, and Cry1Ca and the lack of cross-resistance between the Btk-Sel and Bta-Sel subpopulations also suggest that additional resistance mechanisms are present.

Wright, D. J.; Iqbal, M.; Granero, F.; Ferre, J.

1997-01-01

135

Influence of litter chemistry and stoichiometry on glucan depolymerization during decomposition of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) litter  

PubMed Central

Glucans like cellulose and starch are a major source of carbon for decomposer food webs, especially during early- and intermediate-stages of decomposition. Litter quality has previously been suggested to notably influence decomposition processes as it determines the decomposability of organic material and the nutrient availability to the decomposer community. To study the impact of chemical and elemental composition of resources on glucan decomposition, a laboratory experiment was carried out using beech (Fagus sylvatica, L.) litter from four different locations in Austria, differing in composition (concentration of starch, cellulose and acid unhydrolyzable residue or AUR fraction) and elemental stoichiometry (C:N:P ratio). Leaf litter was incubated in mesocosms for six months in the laboratory under controlled conditions. To investigate the process of glucan decomposition and its controls, we developed an isotope pool dilution (IPD) assay using 13C-glucose to label the pool of free glucose in the litter, and subsequently measured the dilution of label over time. This enabled us to calculate gross rates of glucose production through glucan depolymerization, and glucose consumption by the microbial community. In addition, potential activities of extracellular cellulases and ligninases (peroxidases and phenoloxidases) were measured to identify effects of resource chemistry and stoichiometry on microbial enzyme production. Gross rates of glucan depolymerization and glucose consumption were highly correlated, indicating that both processes are co-regulated and intrinsically linked by the microbial demand for C and energy and thereby to resource allocation to enzymes that depolymerize glucans. At early stages of decomposition, glucan depolymerization rates were correlated with starch content, indicating that starch was the primary source for glucose. With progressing litter decomposition, the correlation with starch diminished and glucan depolymerization rates were highly correlated to cellulase activities, suggesting that cellulose was the primary substrate for glucan depolymerization at this stage of decomposition. Litter stoichiometry did not affect glucan depolymerization or glucose consumption rates early in decomposition. At later stages, however, we found significant negative relationships between glucan depolymerization and litter C:N and AUR:N ratio and a positive relationship between glucan depolymerization and litter N concentration. Litter C:N and C:P ratios were negatively related to cellulase, peroxidase and phenoloxidase activities three and six months after incubation, further corroborating the importance of resource stoichiometry for glucan depolymerization after the initial pulse of starch degradation.

Leitner, Sonja; Wanek, Wolfgang; Wild, Birgit; Haemmerle, Ieda; Kohl, Lukas; Keiblinger, Katharina M.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Richter, Andreas

2012-01-01

136

What are the functional mechanisms underlying forest decline? A case study on a European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) stand.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ongoing climate change is altering the precipitation patterns (abundance and frequency) of most parts of the world. The consequences of these changes on forests are already visible through frequent declines. A lot of them can be linked to the occurrence of long and/or repeated drought periods. Although forest decline could severely impact the nutrient and water cycles, their underlying functional causes are not well understood. Two main hypotheses have been proposed to explain the mechanisms of decline at the tree level: • Carbon reserves deficit ("carbon starvation") • Loss of water transport ( "hydraulic failure") Although hydraulic failure has been observed in a wetland species decline (poplar), our understanding of forest decline is still lacking in many species. Our study concerns a widespread species, European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). A severely declining mature beech plot in the Fontainebleau state forest (France) was followed. This decline can be related to repeated droughts, enhanced by unfavorable soil conditions (sandy soil with very low extractible soil water). For the first time to our knowledge, an integrative in situ functional approach coupling both hydraulic and carbon, but also nitrogen functioning was developed. More precisely, pre-dawn and midday water potentials, "native" embolism, and embolism vulnerability of branches, radial tree growth, carbon and nitrogen reserves concentrations, were measured on healthy and declining trees. Our results showed that under normal climatic conditions (summer 2012), pre-dawn and midday water potentials were the same for healthy and declining trees throughout the season. Their losses of hydraulic conductivity ("native" embolism) were not significantly different, even at the end of the summer. Moreover, the embolism vulnerability curves also showed no significant difference (50% loss of hydraulic conductivity at around - 3MPa). Concerning C and N reserves concentrations, we showed that seasonal variations were the same for healthy and declining trees. However, starch concentration was significantly lower before budburst in 2010 growth units and recent xylem rings in declining trees. These deficits in short distance storage compartments could lead to an altered spring growth. Indeed, radial growth rate and duration were drastically lower for declining trees. Finally, the observed beech decline cannot be attributed to either hydraulic dysfunction or nitrogen starvation. Concerning carbon functioning, the carbon reserves of declining trees were far from being exhausted. Despite a lower net carbon assimilation at the tree level (reduced leaf area index), trees maintain similar carbon and nitrogen reserves content, radial growth being apparently the adjusted variable.

Delaporte, Alice; Bazot, Stéphane; Fresneau, Chantal; Damesin, Claire

2013-04-01

137

Limiting Populations and Spread of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis on Seedling Tomatoes in the Greenhouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Werner, N. A., Fulbright, D. W., Podolsky, R., Bell, J., and Hausbeck, M. K. 2002. Limiting populations and spread of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis on seedling toma- toes in the greenhouse. Plant Dis. 86:535-542. Symptomless greenhouse tomato transplants may harbor high populations of Clavibacter michi- ganensis subsp. michiganensis, the causal agent of bacterial canker, leading to yield loss in the

N. A. Werner; D. W. Fulbright; R. Podolsky; J. Bell; M. K. Hausbeck

2002-01-01

138

Complete Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus Strain ND02?  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strain ND02 is a Chinese commercial dairy starter used for the manufacture of yoghurt. It was isolated from naturally fermented yak milk in Qinghai, China. Here, we report the main genome features of ND02 and several differences with two other published genomes of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains.

Sun, Zhihong; Chen, Xia; Wang, Jicheng; Zhao, Wenjing; Shao, Yuyu; Guo, Zhuang; Zhang, Xingchang; Zhou, Zhemin; Sun, Tiansong; Wang, Lei; Meng, He; Zhang, Heping; Chen, Wei

2011-01-01

139

[Determination of DNA-DNA homology among Pseudomonas cocovenenans subsp. farinofermentans with microdilution plate hybridization method].  

PubMed

The DNA-DNA homologies among Pseudomonas cocovenenans subsp. farinofermentans and 11 species in genus Burkholderia were determined with microdilution plate hybridization method. The results showed: the homologies among P. cocovenenans subsp. farinofermentans, B. gladioli and B. cocovenenans were all over 75%. It was advised that these three species were synonym, and should be renamed as Burkholderia gladioli. PMID:12549192

Jiao, Z; Liu, X; Yang, R; Meng, Z

2001-02-01

140

Optimization of a Rapid Viability Assay for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis by Using alamarBlue?  

PubMed Central

A microtiter alamarBlue assay was adapted and optimized for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Using cell concentrations ranging from 104 to 108 CFU/ml, a minimum incubation time to indicate viability was obtained after 24 h. Rifampin (rifampicin) was used to demonstrate that this method has applications for high-throughput screening against M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

Carroll, James; Douarre, Pierre; Coffey, Aidan; Buckley, Jim; Cashman, Bill; O'Farrell, Kevin; O'Mahony, Jim

2009-01-01

141

Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural identification of Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. necrophorum in bovine fatal necrotizing glossitis.  

PubMed

A 37-day-old male Japanese black calf showing marked salivation and leucocytosis died and was examined the tissues histologically. Histological lesions were characterized by severe focal necrotic glossitis on the ventral side of the root of the tongue. Immunohistochemically, Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. necrophorum antigen was detected in the necrotic tissues and its distribution corresponded to that of the gram-negative, nonsporeforming, long filamentous organisms. Ultrastructural similarities between the organism and F. necrophorum subsp. necrophorum, but not subsp. funduliforme were observed. These findings clearly demonstrated that the fatal necrotic glossitis was caused by F. necrophorum subsp. necrophorum. This is the first report of bovine fatal necrotizing glossitis with leucocytosis caused by F. necrophorum subsp. necrophorum infection, and this organism may be an important fatal pathogen in calves with glossal lesions. PMID:12130839

Shibahara, Tomoyuki; Akiba, Toshifumi; Maeda, Taiji; Ogata, Takaaki; Honda, Ryusuke; Ishikawa, Yoshiharu; Kadota, Koichi

2002-06-01

142

Molecular Organization of the 25S-18S rDNA IGS of Fagus sylvatica and Quercus suber: A Comparative Analysis  

PubMed Central

The 35S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) units, repeated in tandem at one or more chromosomal loci, are separated by an intergenic spacer (IGS) containing functional elements involved in the regulation of transcription of downstream rRNA genes. In the present work, we have compared the IGS molecular organizations in two divergent species of Fagaceae, Fagus sylvatica and Quercus suber, aiming to comprehend the evolution of the IGS sequences within the family. Self- and cross-hybridization FISH was done on representative species of the Fagaceae. The IGS length variability and the methylation level of 18 and 25S rRNA genes were assessed in representatives of three genera of this family: Fagus, Quercus and Castanea. The intergenic spacers in Beech and Cork Oak showed similar overall organizations comprising putative functional elements needed for rRNA gene activity and containing a non-transcribed spacer (NTS), a promoter region, and a 5?-external transcribed spacer. In the NTS: the sub-repeats structure in Beech is more organized than in Cork Oak, sharing some short motifs which results in the lowest sequence similarity of the entire IGS; the AT-rich region differed in both spacers by a GC-rich block inserted in Cork Oak. The 5?-ETS is the region with the higher similarity, having nonetheless different lengths. FISH with the NTS-5?-ETS revealed fainter signals in cross-hybridization in agreement with the divergence between genera. The diversity of IGS lengths revealed variants from ?2 kb in Fagus, and Quercus up to 5.3 kb in Castanea, and a lack of correlation between the number of variants and the number of rDNA loci in several species. Methylation of 25S Bam HI site was confirmed in all species and detected for the first time in the 18S of Q. suber and Q. faginea. These results provide important clues for the evolutionary trends of the rDNA 25S-18S IGS in the Fagaceae family.

Inacio, Vera; Rocheta, Margarida; Morais-Cecilio, Leonor

2014-01-01

143

Migration and population expansion of Abies, Fagus, Picea, and Quercus since 15000 years in and across the Alps, based on pollen-percentage threshold values  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: The aim of this study is to explore the migration (colonization of new areas) and subsequent population expansion (within an area) since 15 ka cal BP of Abies, Fagus, Picea, and Quercus into and through the Alps solely on the basis of high-quality pollen data. Methods: Chronologies of 101 pollen sequences are improved or created. Data from the area delimited by 45.5-48.1°N and 6-14°E are summarized in three ways: (1) in a selection of pollen-percentage threshold maps (thresholds 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 4%, 8%, 16%, and 32% of land pollen); (2) in graphic summaries of 250-year time slices and geographic segments (lengthwise and transverse in relation to the main axis of the Alps) as pollen-percentage curves, pollen-percentage difference curves, and pollen-percentage threshold ages cal BP graphed against both the length and the transverse Alpine axes; and (3) in tables showing statistical relationships of either pollen-percentage threshold ages cal BP or pollen expansion durations (=time lapse between different pollen-percentage threshold ages cal BP) with latitude, longitude, and elevation; to establish these relationships we used both simple linear regression and multiple linear regression after stepwise-forward selection. Results: The statistical results indicate that (a) the use of pollen-percentage thresholds between 0.5% and 8% yield mostly similar directions of tree migration, so the method is fairly robust, (b) Abies migrated northward, Fagus southward, Picea westward, and Quercus northward; more detail does not emerge due to an extreme scarcity of high-quality data especially along the southern foothills of the Alps and in the eastern Alps. This scarcity allows the reconstruction of one immigration route only of Abies into the southern Alps. The speed of population expansion (following arrival) of Abies increased and of Picea decreased during the Holocene, of Fagus it decreased especially during the later Holocene, and of Quercus it increased especially at the start of the Holocene.

van der Knaap, W. O.; van Leeuwen, Jacqueline F. N.; Finsinger, Walter; Gobet, Erika; Pini, Roberta; Schweizer, Astrid; Valsecchi, Verushka; Ammann, Brigitta

2005-03-01

144

Volatile Leaf Oil of the Curry Plant [Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G. Don subsp. italicum] and Dwarf Curry Plant [subsp. microphyllum (Willd.) Nyman] in the North American Herb Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil of the leaves and stems of Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G. Don subsp. italicum, examined by GC\\/MS, is dominated by neryl acetate (16.60±2.01%) and ?-curcumene (15.98±1.44%). The essential oil of the leaves and stems of H. italicum subsp. microphyllum (Willd.) Nyman is dominated by neryl acetate (38.60±15.11%), linalool (17.28±7.75%), nerol (14.55±8.71%), and limonene (10.73±4.56%).

Arthur O. Tucker; Michael J. Maciarello; Denys J. Charles; James E. Simon

1997-01-01

145

Assessing the Inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis during Composting of Livestock Carcasses  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis causes Johne's disease (JD) in ruminants, with substantial economic impacts on the cattle industry. Johne's disease is known for its long latency period, and difficulties in diagnosis are due to insensitivities of current detection methods. Eradication is challenging as M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis can survive for extended periods within the environment, resulting in new infections in naïve animals (W. Xu et al., J. Environ. Qual. 38:437-450, 2009). This study explored the use of a biosecure, static composting structure to inactivate M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Mycobacterium smegmatis was also assessed as a surrogate for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Two structures were constructed to hold three cattle carcasses each. Naturally infected tissues and ground beef inoculated with laboratory-cultured M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. smegmatis were placed in nylon and plastic bags to determine effects of temperature and compost environment on viability over 250 days. After removal, samples were cultured and growth of both organisms was assessed after 12 weeks. After 250 days, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was still detectable by PCR, while M. smegmatis was not detected after 67 days of composting. Furthermore, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis remained viable in both implanted nylon and plastic bags over the composting period. As the compost never reached a homogenous thermophilic (55 to 65°C) state throughout each structure, an in vitro experiment was conducted to examine viability of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis after exposure to 80°C for 90 days. Naturally infected lymph tissues were mixed with and without compost. After 90 days, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis remained viable despite exposure to temperatures typically higher than that achieved in compost. In conclusion, it is unlikely composting can be used as a means of inactivating M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis associated with cattle mortalities.

Tkachuk, Victoria L.; Krause, Denis O.; McAllister, Tim A.; Buckley, Katherine E.; Reuter, Tim; Hendrick, Steve

2013-01-01

146

Sesquiterpenoids from Tanacetum argenteum subsp. canum var. canum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerial parts of Tanacetum argenteum subsp. canum var. canum afforded fourteen sesquiterpene lactones, two of them being new. The new compounds 1?-hydroxy-6?-angeloyloxygermacra-4(5),10(14),11(13)-trien-8,12-olide and 1?,4?-dihydroxy-6?-isobutyloxyeudesm-11(13)-en-8,12-olide, as well as the known ones: parthenolide, peroxyparthenolide, dihyroparthenolide, 1-epi-tatridin B, sivasinolide, flabellin, 1?,4?-dihydroxy-6?-angeloyloxyeudesm-11(13)-en-8,12-olide, 1?-hydroxy-6?-angeloyloxyeudesm-4(15),11(13)-dien-8,12-olide, michelenolide, magnograndiolide, santamarin and douglanin, were identified by spectral methods.

Nezhun Gören; Elif Tahtasakal

1997-01-01

147

Relationship of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens clades associated with strains DSM 7T and FZB42T: a proposal for Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. amyloliquefaciens subsp. nov. and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum subsp. nov. based on complete genome sequence comparisons.  

PubMed

The whole-genome-sequenced rhizobacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42(T) (Chen et al., 2007) and other plant-associated strains of the genus Bacillus described as belonging to the species Bacillus amyloliquefaciens or Bacillus subtilis are used commercially to promote the growth and improve the health of crop plants. Previous investigations revealed that a group of strains represented a distinct ecotype related to B. amyloliquefaciens; however, the exact taxonomic position of this group remains elusive (Reva et al., 2004). In the present study, we demonstrated the ability of a group of Bacillus strains closely related to strain FZB42(T) to colonize Arabidopsis roots. On the basis of their phenotypic traits, the strains were similar to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens DSM 7(T) but differed considerably from this type strain in the DNA sequences of genes encoding 16S rRNA, gyrase subunit A (gyrA) and histidine kinase (cheA). Phylogenetic analysis performed with partial 16S rRNA, gyrA and cheA gene sequences revealed that the plant-associated strains of the genus Bacillus, including strain FZB42(T), formed a lineage, which could be distinguished from the cluster of strains closely related to B. amyloliquefaciens DSM 7(T). DNA-DNA hybridizations (DDH) performed with genomic DNA from strains DSM 7(T) and FZB42(T) yielded relatedness values of 63.7-71.2 %. Several methods of genomic analysis, such as direct whole-genome comparison, digital DDH and microarray-based comparative genomichybridization (M-CGH) were used as complementary tests. The group of plant-associated strains could be distinguished from strain DSM 7(T) and the type strain of B. subtilis by differences in the potential to synthesize non-ribosomal lipopeptides and polyketides. Based on the differences found in the marker gene sequences and the whole genomes of these strains, we propose two novel subspecies, designated B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum subsp. nov., with the type strain FZB42(T) (?= DSM 23117(T)?=?BGSC 10A6(T)), and B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. amyloliquefaciens subsp. nov., with the type strain DSM 7(T)(?=?ATCC 23350(T)?=?Fukumoto Strain F(T)), for plant-associated and non-plant-associated representatives, respecitvely. This is in agreement with results of DDH and M-CGH tests and the MALDI-TOF MS of cellular components, all of which suggested that the ecovars represent two different subspecies. PMID:20817842

Borriss, Rainer; Chen, Xiao-Hua; Rueckert, Christian; Blom, Jochen; Becker, Anke; Baumgarth, Birgit; Fan, Ben; Pukall, Rüdiger; Schumann, Peter; Spröer, Cathrin; Junge, Helmut; Vater, Joachim; Pühler, Alfred; Klenk, Hans-Peter

2011-08-01

148

The Volatile Constituents of Ziziphora taurica subsp. cleonioides.  

PubMed

The volatile constituents of ZIZIPHORA TAURICA subsp. CLEONIOIDES (Boiss.) P. H. Davis (Lamiaceae) were studied for the first time by analysis of the essential oil. 33 compounds, from the 44 consisting the total of the fraction, are identified by means of capillary GC and GC-MS. The identified components represent about 96% of the oil. Major constituents found are pulegone (62%) and isomenthone (8%). In addition the presence of 13% hydrocarbons, 9% alcohols, 73% ketones, and, finally, 1% phenols, oxides, ethers, and one ester, was demonstrated. PMID:17265230

Kokkalou, E

1988-04-01

149

Characterization of transposon insertion out- mutants of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora defective in enzyme export and of a DNA segment that complements out mutations in E. carotovora subsp. carotovora, E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica, and Erwinia chrysanthemi.  

PubMed Central

Soft-rotting Erwinia spp. export degradative enzymes to the cell exterior (Out+), a process contributing to their ability to macerate plant tissues. Transposon (Tn5, Tn10, Tn10-lacZ) insertion Out- mutants were obtained in Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora 71 by using plasmid and bacteriophage lambda delivery systems. In these mutants, pectate lyases, polygalacturonase, and cellulase, which are normally excreted into the growth medium, accumulated in the periplasm. However, localization of the extracellular protease was not affected. The Out- mutants were impaired in their ability to macerate potato tuber tissue. Out+ clones were identified in a cosmid library of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora 71 by their ability to complement mutants. Localization of cyclic phosphodiesterase in the periplasm indicated that the Out+ plasmids did not cause lysis or a nonspecific protein release. The Out+ derivatives of the E. carotovora subsp. carotovora 71 mutants regained the ability to macerate potato tuber tissue. Our data indicate that a cluster of several genes is required for the Out+ phenotype. While one plasmid, pAKC260, restored the Out+ phenotype in each of the 31 mutants of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora, E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica, and Erwinia chrysanthemi, it failed to render Escherichia coli export proficient. Homologs of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora 71 out DNA were detected by Southern hybridizations in subspecies of E. carotovora under high-stringency conditions. In contrast, E. chrysanthemi sequences bearing homology to the E. carotovora subsp. carotovora 71 out DNA were detectable only under low-stringency hybridization. Thus, although the out genes are functional in these two soft-rotting bacterial groups, the genes appear to have diverged. Images

Murata, H; Fons, M; Chatterjee, A; Collmer, A; Chatterjee, A K

1990-01-01

150

Growth losses in Swiss forests caused by ozone: Epidemiological data analysis of stem increment of Fagus sylvatica L. and Picea abies Karst.  

PubMed

The estimate of growth losses by ozone exposure of forest trees is a significant part in current C sequestration calculations and will also be important in future modeling. It is therefore important to know if the relationship between ozone flux and growth reduction of young trees, used to derive a Critical Level for ozone, is also valid for mature trees. Epidemiological analysis of stem increment data from Fagus sylvatica L. and Picea abies Karst. observed in Swiss forest plots was used to test this hypothesis. The results confirm the validity of the flux-response relationship at least for beech and therefore enable estimating forest growth losses by ozone on a country-wide scale. For Switzerland, these estimates amount to 19.5% growth reduction for deciduous forests, 6.6% for coniferous forests and 11.0% for all forested areas based on annual ozone stomatal uptake during the time period 1991-2011. PMID:24911370

Braun, Sabine; Schindler, Christian; Rihm, Beat

2014-09-01

151

Phylogenetic position of Mesorhizobium huakuii subsp. rengei, a symbiont of Astragalus sinicus cv. Japan.  

PubMed

The phylogenetic position of Rhizobium huakuii bv. renge, a symbiont of Astragalus sinicus cv. Japan (renge-sou), was studied. The following phylogenetic approaches were used: restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of a full-length 16S rDNA fragment, 16S rDNA analysis of the first 300-bp sequence, bacteriophage typing, and amplification of the genomic region by random primer. All the data suggest that strains of R. huakuii bv. renge should be classified into subspecies of the new genus Mesorhizobium (Jarvis et al., Inter. J. System. Bacteriol., 47, 895-898, 1997) and renamed M. huakuii subsp. rengei. All the strains fell into a tight cluster which included M. loti and M. huakuii. The strains isolated from root nodules on A. sinicus were divided into three groups as follows: group I, M. huakuii subsp. rengei B3, M. huakuii subsp. rengei My6, M. huakuii subsp. rengei My7, M. huakuii subsp. rengei My3, and M. huakuii subsp. rengei OUT30020; group II, M. huakuii subsp. huakuii CCBAU103(T), M. huakuii subsp. huakuii ACCC13005, M. huakuii subsp. huakuii 7653R, and Mesorhizobium sp. N-1; group III, Mesorhizobium sp. OUT30019. All the strains isolated in Japan except strains N-1 and OUT30019 were classified into group I. Strains in group I were sensitive to bacteriophage H1 which was isolated from rice-paddy soil in Japan. Strains in groups II and III except for M. huakuii subsp. huakuii 7653R were resistant to phage H1. Rhizobium sp. ACMP18, a native symbiont of Astragalus cicer that forms nodules on A. sinicus, showed close similarity to M. huakuii subsp. huakuii CCBAU103(T), and should thus be classified as a Mesorhizobium sp. Taken together, the results of the analyses indicate that M. huakuii subsp. rengei forms a subgroup which is distinct from M. huakuii subsp. huakuii strains isolated in China and that strain B3 is the type strain. PMID:16232424

Nuswantara, S; Fujie, M; Yamada, T; Malek, W; Inaba, M; Kaneko, Y; Murooka, Y

1999-01-01

152

Leaf morphology and phenology of Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) are linked to environmental conditions depending on the altitudinal origin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the principal responses of temperate climate trees to climate warming, besides migration, will be in-situ adaptation/evolution. For both, germination and growth rates can have a strong impact on survival and long-term recruitment and establishment of a species. Leaf morphology traits, together with phenology, are relevant to the study of inherent capacities of plants to adapt to an ever changing climate, especially in alpine regions, where a rapid warming has been observed in the last decades. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in possible adaptive traits (e.g. leaf morphology and phenology) of Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and to asses a decisive component of the survival strategy of this important broadly distributed Central European tree species. We collected beech seeds at six sites along two transects of a south- (900, 1000 and 1100-1400 m.a.s.l.) and a north-facing slope (800, 900 and 1100 m.a.s.l.) in 2011 (mast year) near Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany. All the seeds were stratified before sowing; 150 seeds were selected from each site and sowed (at the beginning of the spring) in square containers in a greenhouse under the same climatic conditions; seven phenological stages were defined following a modified beech germination key and the phenology of every seed was recorded three times a week. Harvesting took place 38/42 days after sowing and the specific leaf area (SLA), biomass, and leaf morphology (lamina length and width) were recorded for each seedling. Seeds from lower sites of the two transects presented a poorer germination rates (e.g. 30% for the south 900 m.a.s.l. site) and (75% for the north 800 m.a.s.l. site) when compared to seeds originating from higher elevations within the same transect. The highest germination percentages (98 and 85%) were observed in seeds originating from the highest elevations (e.g. 1100-1400 m.a.s.l. of the south site and 1100 m.a.s.l. of the north site, respectively). Although no significant differences in SLA were found among the altitudinal levels in any of the transects, significant differences were found in biomass among the two highest sites of the two transects. The length of the lamina differed significantly between 900 to 1100-1400 m.a.s.l. in the south facing transect, while in the north facing transect the lamina width showed significant differences between the highest and the lower sites. A higher percentage of germination of seeds originating from higher altitudinal sites may points to a developed sensitivity to environmental changes and a rapid and more favorable response. Our results suggest, contrary to what has been reported, (leaf size differentiation among altitudinal sites under natural conditions), that the altitude of origin doesn't have an overriding impact on leaf morphological responses when growing under the same conditions, indicating that leaf morphology and phenology may have an adaptive significance linked to climate.

Capdevielle-Vargas, Renee; Schuster, Christina; Estrella, Nicole; Menzel, Annette

2014-05-01

153

The influence of stemflow from an European Beech Tree (Fagus Sylvatica L.) on soil solution and seepage fluxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

European Beech (Fagus sylcatica L.) is particularly prone to produce large amounts of stemflow even during comparatively small precipitation events. This may lead to preferential flow and solute transport to greater depths next to the stem at lower precipitation heights than would be expected without considering water redistribution by the canopy. In this study we investigated the influence of beech stemflow on soil solution and seepage fluxes, based on observed quality of all precipitation components as well as soil water. For estimation of transport, the soil water flow was modeled. We measured concentrations of Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, NH4+-N, NO3--N, Dissolved Organic Nitrogen (DON) and Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) in throughfall, stemflow and soil solution at depths of 10 cm and 30 cm and stem distances of 10 cm, 40 cm and 100 cm during autumn 2012 and spring and summer 2013. Throughfall and stemflow were sampled at 38 precipitation events during summer and autumn 2012 and summer 2013 from 192 (throughfall) and 16 (stemflow) collectors, respectively. Soil solutions were collected on 10 events during autumn 2012 and spring and summer 2013. Element fluxes were calculated from the chemical and hydrological measurements and model results. Water flow through the soil was calculated using the model VS2DTI and was based on Richard's equation and the model of van Genuchten and Mualem for predicting unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. The model also accounted for evapotranspiration, which was estimated using the Penman-Monteith equation with meteorological data from a nearby weather station. Longterm time series of throughfall and stemflow were estimated based on the observed relations and using rainfall data from the same weather station. Since the actual stemflow infiltration area was unknown, two scenarios with assumed infiltration areas of 1 m² and 2.76 m² were calculated. All concentrations and fluxes were within the range of published results. However, stemflow fluxes could not be estimated reliably due to missing information on the actual infiltration area. Our data suggest that the influence of stemflow on soil solution seems to reach to at least up to 40 cm stem distance but not as far as 100 cm distance from the stem. We observed lower element concentrations in soil solution next to the stem, which may be a result of the locally increased water input, therefore diluting element concentrations. Element seepage fluxes calculated from modeled water fluxes were lower than measured fluxes, due to an overestimation of transpiration by the model. With the given setup the model did not indicate a significant importance of stemflow on water or element seepage fluxes. Further development should include enhancing the model to account for preferential flow patterns, recalculating of evapotranspiration and consideration of its spatial distribution and integrating in situ measured soil properties.

Dalla Valle, Nicolas; Michalzik, Beate; Hildebrandt, Anke

2014-05-01

154

Glycosylation of DsbA in Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis?†  

PubMed Central

In Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis, DsbA has been shown to be an essential virulence factor and has been observed to migrate to multiple protein spots on two-dimensional electrophoresis gels. In this work, we show that the protein is modified with a 1,156-Da glycan moiety in O-linkage. The results of mass spectrometry studies suggest that the glycan is a hexasaccharide, comprised of N-acetylhexosamines, hexoses, and an unknown monosaccharide. Disruption of two genes within the FTT0789-FTT0800 putative polysaccharide locus, including a galE homologue (FTT0791) and a putative glycosyltransferase (FTT0798), resulted in loss of glycan modification of DsbA. The F. tularensis subsp. tularensis ?FTT0798 and ?FTT0791::Cm mutants remained virulent in the murine model of subcutaneous tularemia. This indicates that glycosylation of DsbA does not play a major role in virulence under these conditions. This is the first report of the detailed characterization of the DsbA glycan and putative role of the FTT0789-FTT0800 gene cluster in glycan biosynthesis.

Thomas, Rebecca M.; Twine, Susan M.; Fulton, Kelly M.; Tessier, Luc; Kilmury, Sara L. N.; Ding, Wen; Harmer, Nicholas; Michell, Stephen L.; Oyston, Petra C. F.; Titball, Richard W.; Prior, Joann L.

2011-01-01

155

Nested PCR for ultrasensitive detection of the potato ring rot bacterium, Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus.  

PubMed Central

Oligonucleotide primers derived from sequences of the 16S rRNA gene (CMR16F1, CMR16R1, CMR16F2, and CMR16R2) and insertion element IS1121 of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus (CMSIF1, CMSIR1, CMSIF2, and CMISR2) were used in nested PCR to detect the potato ring rot bacterium C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus. Nested PCR with primer pair CMSIF1-CMSIR1 followed by primer pair CMSIF2-CMSIR2 specifically detected C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus, while nested PCR with CMR16F1-CMR16R1 followed by CMR16F2-CMR16R2 detected C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus and the other C. michiganensis subspecies. In the latter case, C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus can be differentiated from the other subspecies by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses of the nested PCR products (16S rDNA sequences). The nested PCR assays developed in this work allow ultrasensitive detection of very low titers of C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus which may be present in symptomiess potato plants or tubers and which cannot be readily detected by direct PCR (single PCR amplification). RFLP analysis of PCR products provides for an unambiguous confirmation of the identify of C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus.

Lee, I M; Bartoszyk, I M; Gundersen, D E; Mogen, B; Davis, R E

1997-01-01

156

Bioluminescence imaging of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis infection of tomato seeds and plants.  

PubMed

Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is a Gram-positive bacterium that causes wilting and cankers, leading to severe economic losses in commercial tomato production worldwide. The disease is transmitted from infected seeds to seedlings and mechanically from plant to plant during seedling production, grafting, pruning, and harvesting. Because of the lack of tools for genetic manipulation, very little is known regarding the mechanisms of seed and seedling infection and movement of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in grafted plants, two focal points for application of bacterial canker control measures in tomato. To facilitate studies on the C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis movement in tomato seed and grafted plants, we isolated a bioluminescent C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis strain using the modified Tn1409 containing a promoterless lux reporter. A total of 19 bioluminescent C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis mutants were obtained. All mutants tested induced a hypersensitive response in Mirabilis jalapa and caused wilting of tomato plants. Real-time colonization studies of germinating seeds using a virulent, stable, constitutively bioluminescent strain, BL-Cmm17, showed that C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis aggregated on hypocotyls and cotyledons at an early stage of germination. In grafted seedlings in which either the rootstock or scion was exposed to BL-Cmm17 via a contaminated grafting knife, bacteria were translocated in both directions from the graft union at higher inoculum doses. These results emphasize the use of bioluminescent C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis to help better elucidate the C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis-tomato plant interactions. Further, we demonstrated the broader applicability of this tool by successful transformation of C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis with Tn1409::lux. Thus, our approach would be highly useful to understand the pathogenesis of diseases caused by other subspecies of the agriculturally important C. michiganensis. PMID:20400561

Xu, Xiulan; Miller, Sally A; Baysal-Gurel, Fulya; Gartemann, Karl-Heinz; Eichenlaub, Rudolf; Rajashekara, Gireesh

2010-06-01

157

Bioluminescence Imaging of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis Infection of Tomato Seeds and Plants ?  

PubMed Central

Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is a Gram-positive bacterium that causes wilting and cankers, leading to severe economic losses in commercial tomato production worldwide. The disease is transmitted from infected seeds to seedlings and mechanically from plant to plant during seedling production, grafting, pruning, and harvesting. Because of the lack of tools for genetic manipulation, very little is known regarding the mechanisms of seed and seedling infection and movement of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in grafted plants, two focal points for application of bacterial canker control measures in tomato. To facilitate studies on the C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis movement in tomato seed and grafted plants, we isolated a bioluminescent C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis strain using the modified Tn1409 containing a promoterless lux reporter. A total of 19 bioluminescent C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis mutants were obtained. All mutants tested induced a hypersensitive response in Mirabilis jalapa and caused wilting of tomato plants. Real-time colonization studies of germinating seeds using a virulent, stable, constitutively bioluminescent strain, BL-Cmm17, showed that C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis aggregated on hypocotyls and cotyledons at an early stage of germination. In grafted seedlings in which either the rootstock or scion was exposed to BL-Cmm17 via a contaminated grafting knife, bacteria were translocated in both directions from the graft union at higher inoculum doses. These results emphasize the use of bioluminescent C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis to help better elucidate the C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis-tomato plant interactions. Further, we demonstrated the broader applicability of this tool by successful transformation of C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis with Tn1409::lux. Thus, our approach would be highly useful to understand the pathogenesis of diseases caused by other subspecies of the agriculturally important C. michiganensis.

Xu, Xiulan; Miller, Sally A.; Baysal-Gurel, Fulya; Gartemann, Karl-Heinz; Eichenlaub, Rudolf; Rajashekara, Gireesh

2010-01-01

158

Genome Sequence of the Ethanol-Producing Zymomonas mobilis subsp. pomaceae Lectotype Strain ATCC 29192?  

PubMed Central

Zymomonas mobilis is an alphaproteobacterium studied for bioethanol production. Different strains of this organism have been hitherto sequenced; they all belong to the Z. mobilis subsp. mobilis taxon. Here we report the finished and annotated genome sequence of strain ATCC 29192, a cider-spoiling agent isolated in the United Kingdom. ATCC 29192 is the lectotype of the second-best-characterized subspecies of Z. mobilis, Z. mobilis subsp. pomaceae. The nucleotide sequence of ATCC 29192 deviates from that of Z. mobilis subsp. mobilis representatives, which justifies its distinct taxonomic positioning and proves particularly useful for comparative and functional genomic analyses.

Kouvelis, Vassili N.; Davenport, Karen W.; Brettin, Thomas S.; Bruce, David; Detter, Chris; Han, Cliff S.; Nolan, Matt; Tapia, Roxanne; Damoulaki, Agni; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Typas, Milton A.; Pappas, Katherine M.

2011-01-01

159

Genome sequence of the ethanol-producing Zymomonas mobilis subsp. pomaceae lectotype strain ATCC 29192.  

PubMed

Zymomonas mobilis is an alphaproteobacterium studied for bioethanol production. Different strains of this organism have been hitherto sequenced; they all belong to the Z. mobilis subsp. mobilis taxon. Here we report the finished and annotated genome sequence of strain ATCC 29192, a cider-spoiling agent isolated in the United Kingdom. ATCC 29192 is the lectotype of the second-best-characterized subspecies of Z. mobilis, Z. mobilis subsp. pomaceae. The nucleotide sequence of ATCC 29192 deviates from that of Z. mobilis subsp. mobilis representatives, which justifies its distinct taxonomic positioning and proves particularly useful for comparative and functional genomic analyses. PMID:21742897

Kouvelis, Vassili N; Davenport, Karen W; Brettin, Thomas S; Bruce, David; Detter, Chris; Han, Cliff S; Nolan, Matt; Tapia, Roxanne; Damoulaki, Agni; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Typas, Milton A; Pappas, Katherine M

2011-09-01

160

Virulence, genomic features, and plasticity of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, the causative agent of fish furunculosis.  

PubMed

The bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is the causative agent of furunculosis, a systemic disease of fish in the salmonid family. Furunculosis is a ubiquitous disease that affects aquaculture operations worldwide and is characterized by high mortality and morbidity. A better understanding of the bacterium is required to find a cure. Thereby, this review centers on A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, its major virulence factors, and its genome. The classification and characteristics of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, the virulence factors, such as the A-layer, extracellular molecules, and type three secretion system as well as the characteristics and plasticity of its genome are described. PMID:23890675

Dallaire-Dufresne, Stéphanie; Tanaka, Katherine H; Trudel, Mélanie V; Lafaille, Andrée; Charette, Steve J

2014-02-21

161

A proposal to unify two subspecies of Staphylococcus equorum: Staphylococcus equorum subsp. equorum and Staphylococcus equorum subsp. linens.  

PubMed

Twelve isolates from jeotgal, a Korean high-salt-fermented seafood, identified as Staphylococcus equorum were compared by phenotypic and genotypic methods to determine their precise taxonomic identities at the subspecies level. Four strains and three strains had complete 16S rRNA gene sequence matches with S. equorum subsp. equorum DSM 20674(T) and S. equorum subsp. linens DSM 15097(T), respectively. Five strains showed 99.9 % identity with the sequences of both type strains. In our DNA-DNA hybridization analyses among two type strains and two isolates, the similarities were over 72 % and were higher than the similarities presented at the subspecies proposal. Physiological characteristics such as sugar utilization, ?-galactosidase activity, novobiocin resistance and salt tolerance, which were adopted for subspecies separation, could not be applied to assign the isolates to a taxonomic unit. Antibiotic susceptibility, hemolytic activity, biofilm formation and protein profiles did not present markers to divide the isolates into either of the subspecies. Multilocus sequence typing of the sequences of the 16S rRNA gene and five housekeeping genes did not produce any coherent relationship among the isolates and type strains. Repetitive element-PCR fingerprinting using ERIC (enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus) primers classified 12 isolates to three genotypes, and the genotypes of both type strains coincided with two isolates expressing different characteristics. Based on these phenotypic and genotypic analyses results, we propose to unify the present two subspecies of S. equorum into one species, S. equorum. PMID:24057981

Jeong, Do-Won; Kim, Hye-Rim; Han, Seulhwa; Jeon, Che Ok; Lee, Jong-Hoon

2013-12-01

162

Identification of hypoglycaemic compounds from berries of Juniperus oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus through bioactivity guided isolation technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnopharmacological relevanceDecoction of Juniperus oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus L. (Cupressaceae) berries is used internally as tea and pounded fruits are consumed to lower blood glucose levels in Turkey.

Nilüfer Orhan; Mustafa Aslan; Mert Pekcan; Didem Deliorman Orhan; Erdal Bedir; Fatma Ergun

163

Effect of Removal of the Cytolytic Factor of 'Bacillus thuringiensis' Subsp. 'Israelensis' on Mosquito Toxicity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Solubilized crystal protein of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis was fractionated by affinity chromotography using a monoclonal antibody directed against the crystal's 28 kDa peptide. The 28 kDa peptide ws found to be relatively nontoxic to mosqui...

G. A. Held Y. S. Huang C. Y. Kawanishi

1986-01-01

164

Interactions between 'Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. 'israelensis' and Fathead Minnows, 'Pimephales promelas' Rafinesque, under Laboratory Conditions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Interactions between Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, were studied in laboratory exposures to two commercial formulations, Vectobac-G and Mosquito Attack. Mortality among fatheads exposed to 2.0 x 10 to t...

V. M. Snarski

1990-01-01

165

Characterization of the Mammalian Toxicity of the Crystal Polypeptides of 'Bacillus thuringiensis' subsp. 'Israelensis'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Solubilized crystal polypeptide preparations of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (BTI) were fractionated by immunoaffinity chromatography using a bound monoclonal antibody formed against the 28K crystal polypeptide. The 28K polypeptide was confir...

M. E. Mayes G. A. Held C. Lau J. C. Seely R. M. Roe

1989-01-01

166

Essential oil composition and antioxidant activity of endemic Ziziphora taurica subsp. cleonioides.  

PubMed

The essential oil of Turkish endemic Ziziphora taurica subsp. cleonioides aerial parts was found to contain (+)-pulegone (81.86%), limonene (4.48%) and piperitenone (2.30%) activity. The essential oil showed relevant antioxidant activity. PMID:12490239

Meral, Gozde Elgin; Konyalioglu, Sibel; Ozturk, Bintug

2002-12-01

167

Essential oil composition and antioxidant activity of endemic Ziziphora taurica subsp. cleonioides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil of Turkish endemic Ziziphora taurica subsp. cleonioides aerial parts was found to contain (+)-pulegone (81.86%), limonene (4.48%) and piperitenone (2.30%) activity. The essential oil showed relevant antioxidant activity.

Gozde Elgin Meral; Sibel Konyalioglu; Bintug Ozturk

2002-01-01

168

Comparative genomics of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis reveals a strict monophyletic bifidobacterial taxon.  

PubMed

Strains of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis are extensively exploited by the food industry as health-promoting bacteria, although the genetic variability of members belonging to this taxon has so far not received much scientific attention. In this article, we describe the complete genetic makeup of the B. animalis subsp. lactis Bl12 genome and discuss the genetic relatedness of this strain with other sequenced strains belonging to this taxon. Moreover, a detailed comparative genomic analysis of B. animalis subsp. lactis genomes was performed, which revealed a closely related and isogenic nature of all currently available B. animalis subsp. lactis strains, thus strongly suggesting a closed pan-genome structure of this bacterial group. PMID:23645200

Milani, Christian; Duranti, Sabrina; Lugli, Gabriele Andrea; Bottacini, Francesca; Strati, Francesco; Arioli, Stefania; Foroni, Elena; Turroni, Francesca; van Sinderen, Douwe; Ventura, Marco

2013-07-01

169

Comparative Genomics of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Reveals a Strict Monophyletic Bifidobacterial Taxon  

PubMed Central

Strains of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis are extensively exploited by the food industry as health-promoting bacteria, although the genetic variability of members belonging to this taxon has so far not received much scientific attention. In this article, we describe the complete genetic makeup of the B. animalis subsp. lactis Bl12 genome and discuss the genetic relatedness of this strain with other sequenced strains belonging to this taxon. Moreover, a detailed comparative genomic analysis of B. animalis subsp. lactis genomes was performed, which revealed a closely related and isogenic nature of all currently available B. animalis subsp. lactis strains, thus strongly suggesting a closed pan-genome structure of this bacterial group.

Milani, Christian; Duranti, Sabrina; Lugli, Gabriele Andrea; Bottacini, Francesca; Strati, Francesco; Arioli, Stefania; Foroni, Elena; Turroni, Francesca; van Sinderen, Douwe

2013-01-01

170

In vitro cellulolytic activity of the plant pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus.  

PubMed

The activity of four Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus strains against various cellulose substrates was investigated. Sixty-seven Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus strains grew well on media amended with carboxymethylcellulose, 64 strains produced zones of hydrolysis. Endoglucanase activity was optimal at 37 degrees C and pH 6.0 against carboxymethylcellulose incorporated in plate assays. Zymogram and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed the presence of a protein band corresponding to the cellulolytic activity in the molecular weight (MW) range of approximately 28,000. Protein bands in the same range were detected in five Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus strains. Studies on crude enzyme extracts of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus strain N-1-1 revealed that p-nitrophenyl beta-D-cellobioside (pNPC) was hydrolyzed, with optimal activity at 37 degrees C and pH 7.0. PMID:8590403

Baer, D; Gudmestad, N C

1995-10-01

171

Antimicrobial phenolics and unusual glycerides from Helichrysum italicum subsp. microphyllum.  

PubMed

During a large-scale isolation campaign for the heterodimeric phloroglucinyl pyrone arzanol (1a) from Helichrysum italicum subsp. microphyllum, several new phenolics as well as an unusual class of lipids named santinols (5a-c, 6-8) have been characterized. Santinols are angeloylated glycerides characterized by the presence of branched acyl- or keto-acyl chains and represent a hitherto unreported class of plant lipids. The antibacterial activity of arzanol and of a selection of Helichrysum phenolics that includes coumarates, benzofurans, pyrones, and heterodimeric phloroglucinols was evaluated, showing that only the heterodimers showed potent antibacterial action against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates. These observations validate the topical use of Helichrysum extracts to prevent wound infections, a practice firmly established in the traditional medicine of the Mediterranean area. PMID:23265253

Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Pollastro, Federica; Chianese, Giuseppina; Minassi, Alberto; Gibbons, Simon; Arunotayanun, Warunya; Mabebie, Blessing; Ballero, Mauro; Appendino, Giovanni

2013-03-22

172

Efficient transformation of Mesorhizobium huakuii subsp. rengei and Rhizobium species.  

PubMed

The transformation of Mesorhizobium huakuii subsp. rengei B3 with either pBBR122 or pKT230 was carried out. We determined the optimal conditions required for transformation by electroporation and obtained up to 10(5) CFU/microg pBBR122. Plasmids prepared from strain B3 yielded higher transformation efficiency than those from various dam or dcm mutant strains of Escherichia coli. This result suggests that a high transformation efficiency is not related to the methylation of plasmid DNA in E. coli. Using the optimal conditions for electroporation, we performed transformation of several species of Rhizobium, Mesorhizobium and Sinorhizobium. All tested strains of these species were transformed with pBBR122. Strains of M. huakuii and R. phaseoli AHU1133 were transformed at high efficiency, whereas transformation efficiencies of Rhizobium sp. NGR234 and S. meliloti strains were less than 2 x 10(3) CFU/microg plasmid DNA. PMID:16232796

Hayashi, M; Maeda, Y; Hashimoto, Y; Murooka, Y

2000-01-01

173

Non-contiguous finished genome sequence and description of Salmonella enterica subsp. houtenae str. RKS3027  

PubMed Central

Salmonella enterica subsp. houtenae serovar 16:z4, z32:-- str. RKS3027 was isolated from a human in Illinois, USA. S. enterica subsp. houtenae is a facultative aerobic rod-shaped Gram-negative bacterium. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the draft genome sequence and annotation. The 4,404,136 bp long genome (97 contigs) contains 4,335 protein-coding gene and 28 RNA genes.

Zhu, Songling; Wang, Hong-Liang; Wang, Chunxiao; Tang, Le; Wang, Xiaoyu; Yu, Kai-Jiang; Liu, Shu-Lin

2013-01-01

174

Unusual Outbreak of Clinical Mastitis in Dairy Sheep Caused by Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus  

PubMed Central

This work describes an outbreak of clinical mastitis affecting 13 of 58 lactating ewes due to Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus. S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus was isolated in pure culture from all milk samples. All the clinical isolates had identical biochemical profiles and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and also exhibited indistinguishable macrorestriction patterns by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, indicating that all cases of mastitis were produced by a single strain.

Las Heras, Alfonso; Vela, Ana I.; Fernandez, Elena; Legaz, Emilio; Dominguez, Lucas; Fernandez-Garayzabal, Jose F.

2002-01-01

175

Starvation-Induced Stress Resistance in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis IL1403.  

PubMed

Carbohydrate-starved cultures of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis IL1403 showed enhanced resistance to heat, ethanol, acid, osmotic, and oxidative stresses. This cross-protection seems to be established progressively during the transitional growth phase, with maximum resistance occurring when cells enter the stationary phase. Chloramphenicol or rifamycin treatment does not abolish the development of a tolerant cell state but, on the contrary, seems to provoke this response in L. lactis subsp. lactis. PMID:16349399

Hartke, A; Bouche, S; Gansel, X; Boutibonnes, P; Auffray, Y

1994-09-01

176

Defining the Stressome of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis In Vitro and in Naturally Infected Cows? †  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis causes an enteric infection in cattle, with a great impact on the dairy industry in the United States and worldwide. Characterizing the gene expression profile of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis exposed to different stress conditions, or shed in cow feces, could improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. In this report, the stress response of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis on a genome-wide level (stressome) was defined for the first time using DNA microarrays. Expression data analysis revealed unique gene groups of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis that were regulated under in vitro stressors while additional groups were regulated in the cow samples. Interestingly, acidic pH induced the regulation of a large number of genes (n = 597), suggesting the high sensitivity of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis to acidic environments. Generally, responses to heat shock, acidity, and oxidative stress were similar in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, suggesting common pathways for mycobacterial defense against stressors. Several sigma factors (e.g., sigH and sigE) were differentially coregulated with a large number of genes depending on the type of each stressor. Subsequently, we analyzed the virulence of six M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis mutants with inactivation of differentially regulated genes using a murine model of paratuberculosis. Both bacterial and histopathological examinations indicated the attenuation of all gene mutants, especially those selected based on their expression in the cow samples (e.g., lipN). Overall, the employed approach profiled mycobacterial genetic networks triggered by variable stressors and identified a novel set of putative virulence genes. A similar approach could be applied to analyze other intracellular pathogens.

Wu, Chia-wei; Schmoller, Shelly K.; Shin, Sung Jae; Talaat, Adel M.

2007-01-01

177

Occurrence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Untreated Water in Northern Ireland  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the known cause of Johne's disease of both domestic and wild ruminants and has been implicated as a possible cause of Crohn's disease in humans. The organism is shed in the feces of infected animals and can survive for protracted periods in the environment and hence could be present in catchment areas receiving agricultural runoff. A limited survey was undertaken in Northern Ireland to test for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in untreated water entering nine water treatment works (WTWs) over a 1-year period. Three detection methods were employed, viz., immunomagnetic separation-PCR and culture on Herrold's egg yolk medium (HEYM) and BACTEC 12B medium, the latter both supplemented with mycobactins. Of the 192 untreated water samples tested, 15 (8%) tested M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis positive by one or more of the three detection methods. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was successfully isolated from eight untreated water samples, three by BACTEC culture and five by culture on HEYM. Although the highest incidence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was found in spring, overall, there was no statistically significant difference between the seasons. No significant correlation was found between numbers of coliforms or fecal coliforms and the presence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. In general, a higher incidence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was found in untreated water entering those WTWs that had a high mean water pH value over the sampling period. This work indicates the need to determine the efficacy of water treatment processes to either kill or remove M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis from untreated water and the possible risks posed by contact with recreational water sources.

Whan, Lynne; Ball, Hywel J.; Grant, Irene R.; Rowe, Michael T.

2005-01-01

178

Tomato Fruit and Seed Colonization by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis through External and Internal Routes  

PubMed Central

The Gram-positive bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, causal agent of bacterial wilt and canker of tomato, is an economically devastating pathogen that inflicts considerable damage throughout all major tomato-producing regions. Annual outbreaks continue to occur in New York, where C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis spreads via infected transplants, trellising stakes, tools, and/or soil. Globally, new outbreaks can be accompanied by the introduction of contaminated seed stock; however, the route of seed infection, especially the role of fruit lesions, remains undefined. In order to investigate the modes of seed infection, New York C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis field strains were stably transformed with a gene encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP). A constitutively eGFP-expressing virulent C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis isolate, GCMM-22, was used to demonstrate that C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis could not only access seeds systemically through the xylem but also externally through tomato fruit lesions, which harbored high intra- and intercellular populations. Active movement and expansion of bacteria into the fruit mesocarp and nearby xylem vessels followed, once the fruits began to ripen. These results highlight the ability of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis to invade tomato fruits and seeds through multiple entry routes.

Tancos, Matthew A.; Chalupowicz, Laura; Barash, Isaac; Manulis-Sasson, Shulamit

2013-01-01

179

Decreased toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis to mosquito larvae after contact with leaf litter.  

PubMed

Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis is a bacterium producing crystals containing Cry and Cyt proteins, which are toxic for mosquito larvae. Nothing is known about the interaction between crystal toxins and decaying leaf litter, which is a major component of several mosquito breeding sites and represents an important food source. In the present work, we investigated the behavior of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis toxic crystals sprayed on leaf litter. In the presence of leaf litter, a 60% decrease in the amount of Cyt toxin detectable by immunology (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays [ELISAs]) was observed, while the respective proportions of Cry toxins were not affected. The toxicity of Cry toxins toward Aedes aegypti larvae was not affected by leaf litter, while the synergistic effect of Cyt toxins on all B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis Cry toxins was decreased by about 20% when mixed with leaf litter. The toxicity of two commercial B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis strains (VectoBac WG and VectoBac 12AS) and a laboratory-produced B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis strain decreased by about 70% when mixed with leaf litter. Taken together, these results suggest that Cyt toxins interact with leaf litter, resulting in a decreased toxicity of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis in litter-rich environments and thereby dramatically reducing the efficiency of mosquitocidal treatments. PMID:22610426

Tetreau, Guillaume; Stalinski, Renaud; Kersusan, Dylann; Veyrenc, Sylvie; David, Jean-Philippe; Reynaud, Stéphane; Després, Laurence

2012-08-01

180

Characterization of Pneumonia Due to Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus in Dogs?  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus has been linked to cases of acute fatal pneumonia in dogs in several countries. Outbreaks can occur in kenneled dog populations and result in significant levels of morbidity and mortality. This highly contagious disease is characterized by the sudden onset of clinical signs, including pyrexia, dyspnea, and hemorrhagic nasal discharge. The pathogenesis of S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus infection in dogs is poorly understood. This study systematically characterized the histopathological changes in the lungs of 39 dogs from a large rehoming shelter in London, United Kingdom; the dogs were infected with S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus. An objective scoring system demonstrated that S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus caused pneumonia in 26/39 (66.7%) dogs, and most of these dogs (17/26 [65.4%]) were classified as severe fibrino-suppurative, necrotizing, and hemorrhagic. Three recently described superantigen genes (szeF, szeN, and szeP) were detected by PCR in 17/47 (36.2%) of the S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus isolates; however, there was no association between the presence of these genes and the histopathological score. The lungs of S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus-infected dogs with severe respiratory signs and lung pathology did however have significantly higher mRNA levels of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and interleukin 8 (IL-8) than in uninfected controls, suggesting a role for an exuberant host immune response in the pathogenesis of this disease.

Priestnall, Simon L.; Erles, Kerstin; Brooks, Harriet W.; Cardwell, Jacqueline M.; Waller, Andrew S.; Paillot, Romain; Robinson, Carl; Darby, Alistair C.; Holden, Matthew T. G.; Schoniger, Sandra

2010-01-01

181

Pork meat as a potential source of Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae infection in humans.  

PubMed

Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae was isolated from 13 of 123 slaughtered pigs in central Greece. The samples cultured were feces, ileum tissue, mesenteric lymph nodes, and gallbladder swabs. A total of 74 isolates from 492 samples were identified as Salmonella spp. by use of standard laboratory culture media and two commercial micromethods and by use of a polyvalent slide agglutination test for the detection of O and H antigens. Among them were 19 (25.68%) suspected to be S. enterica subsp. arizonae according to analysis with standard laboratory culture media. Of those, 14 were identified as S. enterica subsp. arizonae by the API 20E (bioMérieux, France) and the Microgen GnA+B-ID (Microgen Bioproducts, Ltd., United Kingdom) identification systems. All the isolates were tested for resistance to 23 antimicrobials. Strains identified as S. enterica subsp. arizonae were resistant to 17 (70.8%) antibiotics. The highest proportions of resistance were observed for sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (71.4%), tetracycline (71.4%), ampicillin (64.3%), and amoxicillin (57.1%). Two isolates were resistant to aztreonam (7.1%) and tigecycline (7.1%), used only for the treatment of humans. Thus, pork meat may play a role in the transmission of antibiotic-resistant S. enterica subsp. arizonae to human consumers. This is the first report of S. enterica subsp. arizonae isolation from pigs. PMID:24335956

Evangelopoulou, Grammato; Kritas, Spyridon; Govaris, Alexander; Burriel, Angeliki R

2014-03-01

182

Decreased Toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis to Mosquito Larvae after Contact with Leaf Litter  

PubMed Central

Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis is a bacterium producing crystals containing Cry and Cyt proteins, which are toxic for mosquito larvae. Nothing is known about the interaction between crystal toxins and decaying leaf litter, which is a major component of several mosquito breeding sites and represents an important food source. In the present work, we investigated the behavior of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis toxic crystals sprayed on leaf litter. In the presence of leaf litter, a 60% decrease in the amount of Cyt toxin detectable by immunology (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays [ELISAs]) was observed, while the respective proportions of Cry toxins were not affected. The toxicity of Cry toxins toward Aedes aegypti larvae was not affected by leaf litter, while the synergistic effect of Cyt toxins on all B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis Cry toxins was decreased by about 20% when mixed with leaf litter. The toxicity of two commercial B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis strains (VectoBac WG and VectoBac 12AS) and a laboratory-produced B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis strain decreased by about 70% when mixed with leaf litter. Taken together, these results suggest that Cyt toxins interact with leaf litter, resulting in a decreased toxicity of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis in litter-rich environments and thereby dramatically reducing the efficiency of mosquitocidal treatments.

Stalinski, Renaud; Kersusan, Dylann; Veyrenc, Sylvie; David, Jean-Philippe; Reynaud, Stephane; Despres, Laurence

2012-01-01

183

Geobacter sulfurreducens subsp. ethanolicus, subsp. nov., an ethanol-utilizing dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacterium from a lotus field.  

PubMed

An ethanol-utilizing Fe(III)-reducing bacterial strain, OSK2A(T), was isolated from a lotus field in Aichi, Japan. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of OSK2A(T) and related strains placed it within Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA(T). Strain OSK2A(T) was shown to be a Gram-negative, motile, rod-shaped bacterium, strictly anaerobic, 0.76-1.65 µm long and 0.28-0.45 ?m wide. Its growth occurred at 20-40?, pH 6.0-8.1, and it tolerated up to 1% NaCl. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 61.2 mol% and DNA-DNA hybridization value with Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA(T) was 60.7%. The major respiratory quinone was MK-8. The major fatty acids were 16?1 ?7c, 16?0, 14?0, 15?0 iso, 16?1 ?5c, and 18?1 ?7c. Strain OSK2A(T) could utilize H2, ethanol, acetate, lactate, pyruvate, and formate as substrates with Fe(III)-citrate as electron acceptor. Amorphous Fe(III) hydroxide, Fe(III)-NTA, fumarate, malate, and elemental sulfur were utilized as electron acceptors with either acetate or ethanol as substrates. Results obtained from physiological, DNA-DNA hybridization, and chemotaxonomic tests support genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain OSK2A(T) from its closest relative. The isolate is assigned as a novel subspecies with the name Geobacter sulfurreducens subsp. ethanolicus, subsp. nov. (type strain OSK2A(T)=DSMZ 26126(T)=JCM 18752(T)). PMID:24201144

Viulu, Samson; Nakamura, Kohei; Kojima, Akihiro; Yoshiyasu, Yuki; Saitou, Sakiko; Takamizawa, Kazuhiro

2013-01-01

184

Genetic variation in Mediterranean Helichrysum italicum (Asteraceae; Gnaphalieae): do disjunct populations of subsp. microphyllum have a common origin?  

PubMed

The yellow-flowered everlasting daisy Helichrysum italicum (Asteraceae, Gnaphalieae) is widely distributed in the Mediterranean basin, where it grows in continuous and widespread populations in diverse open habitats. Helichrysum italicum subsp. microphyllum has a disjunct distribution in the Balearic Islands (Majorca and Dragonera), Corsica, Sardinia, Crete and Cyprus. Numerous morphological intermediates between subsp. italicum and subsp. microphyllum are known from Corsica, where the two subspecies co-occur. The aims of the study were to investigate if subsp. microphyllum has a common origin, constituting an independent gene pool from subsp. italicum, or if the morphological differences between subsp. microphyllum and subsp. italicum have arisen independently in different locations from a common wider gene pool. Our analyses of AFLP, cpDNA sequences and morphological characters show that there is geographic structure to the genetic variation within H. italicum, with eastern and western Mediterranean groups, which do not correspond with the division into subsp. microphyllum and subsp. italicum as currently circumscribed. Local selection on quantitative trait loci provides sufficient explanation for the morphological divergence observed and is consistent with genetic data. Within the western Mediterranean group of the species we found considerable polymorphism in chloroplast DNA sequences among and within some populations. Comparison with chloroplast DNA sequences from other Helichrysum species showed that some chloroplast haplotypes are shared across species. PMID:21668609

Galbany-Casals, M; Blanco-Moreno, J M; Garcia-Jacas, N; Breitwieser, I; Smissen, R D

2011-07-01

185

Differential foliar responses of northern hardwoods to fertilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 70-year-old thinned northeastern Fagus-Betula-Acer stand in the Adirondack Mountains of northern New York was fertilized with varying combinations of N, P, K, and lime in the spring of 1976.Betula alleghaniensis Brit.,Acer saccharum Marsh.,Acer rubrum L., andFagus grandifolia Ehrh. foliage was collected in the autumn for 1974 through 1977 and analyzed for foliage areas and weights, and levels of ash,

R. Lea; D. H. Bickelhaupt; A. L. Leaf

1980-01-01

186

Wide variation in spatial genetic structure between natural populations of the European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and its implications for SGS comparability.  

PubMed

Identification and quantification of spatial genetic structure (SGS) within populations remains a central element of understanding population structure at the local scale. Understanding such structure can inform on aspects of the species' biology, such as establishment patterns and gene dispersal distance, in addition to sampling design for genetic resource management and conservation. However, recent work has identified that variation in factors such as sampling methodology, population characteristics and marker system can all lead to significant variation in SGS estimates. Consequently, the extent to which estimates of SGS can be relied on to inform on the biology of a species or differentiate between experimental treatments is open to doubt. Following on from a recent report of unusually extensive SGS when assessed using amplified fragment length polymorphisms in the tree Fagus sylvatica, we explored whether this marker system led to similarly high estimates of SGS extent in other apparently similar populations of this species. In the three populations assessed, SGS extent was even stronger than this previously reported maximum, extending up to 360 m, an increase in up to 800% in comparison with the generally accepted maximum of 30-40 m based on the literature. Within this species, wide variation in SGS estimates exists, whether quantified as SGS intensity, extent or the Sp parameter. Consequently, we argue that greater standardization should be applied in sample design and SGS estimation and highlight five steps that can be taken to maximize the comparability between SGS estimates. PMID:22354112

Jump, A S; Rico, L; Coll, M; Peñuelas, J

2012-06-01

187

Ionic charge, radius, and potential control root/soil concentration ratios of fifty cationic elements in the organic horizon of a beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest podzol.  

PubMed

The root/organic soil concentration ratio; R/S) of 50 cationic mineral elements was related to their ionic properties, including ionic radius (r), ionic charge (z), and ionic potential (z/r or z2/r). The materials studied were ectomycorrhizal beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) roots and their almost purely organic soil substrate, the O-horizon (mor; raw humus) of a Podzol in South Sweden, developed in a site which has been untouched by forestry or other mechanical disturbance since at least 50 years and located in an area with no local sources of pollution. Elements determined by ICP-AES were aluminium, barium, calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, sodium and strontium. Determined by ICP-MS were silver, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, cerium, cobalt, chromium, caesium, copper, dysprosium, erbium, europium, gallium, gadolinium, hafnium, mercury, holmium, indium, lanthanum, lithium, lutetium, niobium, neodymium, nickel, lead, praseodymium, rubidium, scandium, samarium, tin, terbium, thorium, titanium, thallium, thulium, uranium, vanadium, yttrium, ytterbium, zinc and zirconium. The R/S ratios were most clearly related to the ionic potential of the cationic elements studied, which accounted for approximately 60% of the variability in R/S among elements. The ionic charge of an element was more important than the ionic radius. Elements with high ionic charge had low R/S ratios and vice versa. No clear differences in R/S between essential and non-essential plant nutrients were observed, especially when ions of similar charge were compared. PMID:15262169

Tyler, Germund

2004-08-15

188

Wide variation in spatial genetic structure between natural populations of the European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and its implications for SGS comparability  

PubMed Central

Identification and quantification of spatial genetic structure (SGS) within populations remains a central element of understanding population structure at the local scale. Understanding such structure can inform on aspects of the species' biology, such as establishment patterns and gene dispersal distance, in addition to sampling design for genetic resource management and conservation. However, recent work has identified that variation in factors such as sampling methodology, population characteristics and marker system can all lead to significant variation in SGS estimates. Consequently, the extent to which estimates of SGS can be relied on to inform on the biology of a species or differentiate between experimental treatments is open to doubt. Following on from a recent report of unusually extensive SGS when assessed using amplified fragment length polymorphisms in the tree Fagus sylvatica, we explored whether this marker system led to similarly high estimates of SGS extent in other apparently similar populations of this species. In the three populations assessed, SGS extent was even stronger than this previously reported maximum, extending up to 360?m, an increase in up to 800% in comparison with the generally accepted maximum of 30–40?m based on the literature. Within this species, wide variation in SGS estimates exists, whether quantified as SGS intensity, extent or the Sp parameter. Consequently, we argue that greater standardization should be applied in sample design and SGS estimation and highlight five steps that can be taken to maximize the comparability between SGS estimates.

Jump, A S; Rico, L; Coll, M; Penuelas, J

2012-01-01

189

Enhanced ozone strongly reduces carbon sink strength of adult beech (Fagus sylvatica)--resume from the free-air fumigation study at Kranzberg Forest.  

PubMed

Ground-level ozone (O(3)) has gained awareness as an agent of climate change. In this respect, key results are comprehended from a unique 8-year free-air O(3)-fumigation experiment, conducted on adult beech (Fagus sylvatica) at Kranzberg Forest (Germany). A novel canopy O(3) exposure methodology was employed that allowed whole-tree assessment in situ under twice-ambient O(3) levels. Elevated O(3) significantly weakened the C sink strength of the tree-soil system as evidenced by lowered photosynthesis and 44% reduction in whole-stem growth, but increased soil respiration. Associated effects in leaves and roots at the gene, cell and organ level varied from year to year, with drought being a crucial determinant of O(3) responsiveness. Regarding adult individuals of a late-successional tree species, empirical proof is provided first time in relation to recent modelling predictions that enhanced ground-level O(3) can substantially mitigate the C sequestration of forests in view of climate change. PMID:20570421

Matyssek, R; Wieser, G; Ceulemans, R; Rennenberg, H; Pretzsch, H; Haberer, K; Löw, M; Nunn, A J; Werner, H; Wipfler, P; Osswald, W; Nikolova, P; Hanke, D E; Kraigher, H; Tausz, M; Bahnweg, G; Kitao, M; Dieler, J; Sandermann, H; Herbinger, K; Grebenc, T; Blumenröther, M; Deckmyn, G; Grams, T E E; Heerdt, C; Leuchner, M; Fabian, P; Häberle, K-H

2010-08-01

190

Influence of the moisture content on the composition of the liquid smoke produced in the pyrolysis process of Fagus sylvatica L. wood.  

PubMed

The pyrolysis of several samples of sawdust of Fagus sylvatica L. wood with different moisture contents was carried out, keeping all other smoke generation parameters constant. However, parameters such as smoke production length and maximum temperature reached were affected by the moisture content of the sample and varied in the different pyrolytic runs. The acidity and the composition of the liquid smokes obtained were determined, this latter by means of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. The acidity and composition of the liquid smoke produced were affected not only by the moisture content of the sawdust sample but also by the smoke generation length and by the temperature of the process. The highest yields in components were produced from samples with low moisture content that underwent a short pyrolytic process. Some compounds, with important properties from an organoleptic and preservative point of view, were not generated from samples with high moisture content. Equations that closely relate yield of the total components or of groups of components or of individual components with parameters such as moisture content, length of the process, and temperature were obtained; these equations predict yield data of liquid smoke components with a satisfactory degree of approximation. PMID:10552778

Guillén, M D; Ibargoitia, M L

1999-10-01

191

Characterization of an ADP-ribosyltransferase toxin (AexT) from Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida.  

PubMed

An ADP-ribosylating toxin named Aeromonas salmonicida exoenzyme T (AexT) in A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, the etiological agent of furunculosis in fish, was characterized. Gene aexT, encoding toxin AexT, was cloned and characterized by sequence analysis. AexT shows significant sequence similarity to the ExoS and ExoT exotoxins of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and to the YopE cytotoxin of different Yersinia species. The aexT gene was detected in all of the 12 A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strains tested but was absent from all other Aeromonas species. Recombinant AexT produced in Escherichia coli possesses enzymatic ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. Monospecific polyclonal antibodies directed against purified recombinant AexT detected the toxin produced by A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida and cross-reacted with ExoS and ExoT of P. aeruginosa. AexT toxin could be detected in a wild type (wt) strain of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida freshly isolated from a fish with furunculosis; however, its expression required contact with RTG-2 rainbow trout gonad cells. Under these conditions, the AexT protein was found to be intracellular or tightly cell associated. No AexT was found when A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida was incubated in cell culture medium in the absence of RTG-2 cells. Upon infection with wt A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, the fish gonad RTG-2 cells rapidly underwent significant morphological changes. These changes were demonstrated to constitute cell rounding, which accompanied induction of production of AexT and which led to cell lysis after extended incubation. An aexT mutant which was constructed from the wt strain with an insertionally inactivated aexT gene by allelic exchange had no toxic effect on RTG-2 cells and was devoid of AexT production. Hence AexT is directly involved in the toxicity of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida for RTG-2 fish cells. PMID:11889090

Braun, Martin; Stuber, Katja; Schlatter, Yvonne; Wahli, Thomas; Kuhnert, Peter; Frey, Joachim

2002-04-01

192

Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis ATCC 27673 Is a Genomically Unique Strain within Its Conserved Subspecies  

PubMed Central

Many strains of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis are considered health-promoting probiotic microorganisms and are commonly formulated into fermented dairy foods. Analyses of previously sequenced genomes of B. animalis subsp. lactis have revealed little genetic diversity, suggesting that it is a monomorphic subspecies. However, during a multilocus sequence typing survey of Bifidobacterium, it was revealed that B. animalis subsp. lactis ATCC 27673 gave a profile distinct from that of the other strains of the subspecies. As part of an ongoing study designed to understand the genetic diversity of this subspecies, the genome of this strain was sequenced and compared to other sequenced genomes of B. animalis subsp. lactis and B. animalis subsp. animalis. The complete genome of ATCC 27673 was 1,963,012 bp, contained 1,616 genes and 4 rRNA operons, and had a G+C content of 61.55%. Comparative analyses revealed that the genome of ATCC 27673 contained six distinct genomic islands encoding 83 open reading frames not found in other strains of the same subspecies. In four islands, either phage or mobile genetic elements were identified. In island 6, a novel clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) locus which contained 81 unique spacers was identified. This type I-E CRISPR-cas system differs from the type I-C systems previously identified in this subspecies, representing the first identification of a different system in B. animalis subsp. lactis. This study revealed that ATCC 27673 is a strain of B. animalis subsp. lactis with novel genetic content and suggests that the lack of genetic variability observed is likely due to the repeated sequencing of a limited number of widely distributed commercial strains.

Loquasto, Joseph R.; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Dudley, Edward G.; Stahl, Buffy; Chen, Chun

2013-01-01

193

Versatile Use of oriC Plasmids for Functional Genomics of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum†  

PubMed Central

Replicative oriC plasmids were recently developed for several mollicutes, including three Mycoplasma species belonging to the mycoides cluster that are responsible for bovine and caprine diseases: Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small-colony type, Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides large-colony type, and Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum. In this study, oriC plasmids were evaluated in M. capricolum subsp. capricolum as genetic tools for (i) expression of heterologous proteins and (ii) gene inactivation by homologous recombination. The reporter gene lacZ, encoding ?-galactosidase, and the gene encoding spiralin, an abundant surface lipoprotein of the related mollicute Spiroplasma citri, were successfully expressed. Functional Escherichia coli ?-galactosidase was detected in transformed Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum cells despite noticeable codon usage differences. The expression of spiralin in M. capricolum subsp. capricolum was assessed by colony and Western blotting. Accessibility of this protein at the cell surface and its partition into the Triton X-114 detergent phase suggest a correct maturation of the spiralin precursor. The expression of a heterologous lipoprotein in a mycoplasma raises potentially interesting applications, e.g., the use of these bacteria as live vaccines. Targeted inactivation of gene lppA encoding lipoprotein A was achieved in M. capricolum subsp. capricolum with plasmids harboring a replication origin derived from S. citri. Our results suggest that the selection of the infrequent events of homologous recombination could be enhanced by the use of oriC plasmids derived from related mollicute species. Mycoplasma gene inactivation opens the way to functional genomics in a group of bacteria for which a large wealth of genome data are already available and steadily growing.

Janis, Carole; Lartigue, Carole; Frey, Joachim; Wroblewski, Henri; Thiaucourt, Francois; Blanchard, Alain; Sirand-Pugnet, Pascal

2005-01-01

194

Characterization of an ADP-Ribosyltransferase Toxin (AexT) from Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida  

PubMed Central

An ADP-ribosylating toxin named Aeromonas salmonicida exoenzyme T (AexT) in A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, the etiological agent of furunculosis in fish, was characterized. Gene aexT, encoding toxin AexT, was cloned and characterized by sequence analysis. AexT shows significant sequence similarity to the ExoS and ExoT exotoxins of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and to the YopE cytotoxin of different Yersinia species. The aexT gene was detected in all of the 12 A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strains tested but was absent from all other Aeromonas species. Recombinant AexT produced in Escherichia coli possesses enzymatic ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. Monospecific polyclonal antibodies directed against purified recombinant AexT detected the toxin produced by A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida and cross-reacted with ExoS and ExoT of P. aeruginosa. AexT toxin could be detected in a wild type (wt) strain of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida freshly isolated from a fish with furunculosis; however, its expression required contact with RTG-2 rainbow trout gonad cells. Under these conditions, the AexT protein was found to be intracellular or tightly cell associated. No AexT was found when A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida was incubated in cell culture medium in the absence of RTG-2 cells. Upon infection with wt A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, the fish gonad RTG-2 cells rapidly underwent significant morphological changes. These changes were demonstrated to constitute cell rounding, which accompanied induction of production of AexT and which led to cell lysis after extended incubation. An aexT mutant which was constructed from the wt strain with an insertionally inactivated aexT gene by allelic exchange had no toxic effect on RTG-2 cells and was devoid of AexT production. Hence AexT is directly involved in the toxicity of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida for RTG-2 fish cells.

Braun, Martin; Stuber, Katja; Schlatter, Yvonne; Wahli, Thomas; Kuhnert, Peter; Frey, Joachim

2002-01-01

195

Proposal to reclassify Paenibacillus larvae subsp. pulvifaciens DSM 3615 (ATCC 49843) as Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae. Results of a comparative biochemical and genetic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bacterial pathogen Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae (P. l. larvae), is the etiological agent of American foulbrood, an extremely contagious and disastrous disease of honeybee brood. In case of American foulbrood the destruction of infected colonies is often considered the only workable control measure. Therefore, the ability to diagnose this disease properly is important to prevent unnecessary economic loss to

Jochen Kilwinski; Martin Peters; Ainura Ashiralieva; Elke Genersch

2004-01-01

196

????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora ??????????????????????????? Efficacy of Medicinal Plant Crude Extracts on Growth Inhibition of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora, the Vegetable Soft Rot Agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficacy test of medicinal plant crude extracts on growth inhibition of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora, the causal agent of vegetable soft rot was conducted. Fourteen kinds of medicinal plant were extracted by 95% ethyl alcohol. Plant crude extracts at the concentration of 100,000 ppm were tested by Paper disc diffusion method on double layer nutrient glucose agar (NGA). It was

Sasitorn Vudhivanich

197

In vitro studies of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) foregut: tissue responses and evidence of protection against Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida epithelial damage.  

PubMed

Probiotic bacteria increase the host health status and protect mucosal tissue against pathogen-caused damage in mammalian models. Using an in vitro (intestinal sac) method this study aimed to address (a) the in vitro ability of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis to remain in the gastrointestinal tract of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and (b) its ability to prevent cellular damage caused by successive incubation with Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida the causative agent of furunculosis. Short in vitro incubation of salmon foregut with (TRITC)-labelled L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis showed that the probiont was able to colonize the enterocyte surface as studied by confocal microscopy. Furthermore, foregut incubated with the probiotic bacteria only, resulted in a healthy intestinal barrier whereas exposure to A. salmonicida disrupted its integrity. However, pre-treatment of salmon intestine with L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis prevented Aeromonas damaging effects. These results are promising in the context of the use of non-autochthonous probiotic bacteria as prophylactic agents against fish bacterial infections in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:18054448

Salinas, Irene; Myklebust, Reidar; Esteban, Maria Angeles; Olsen, Rolf Erik; Meseguer, José; Ringø, Einar

2008-04-01

198

Flow Cytometric Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-Specific Antibodies in Experimentally Infected and Naturally Exposed Calves  

PubMed Central

A desirable test to diagnose infections with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis facilitates identification of infected cattle prior to the state of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis shedding. This study aimed at adjusting a flow cytometry (FC)-based assay, using intact M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis bacteria as the antigen, for diagnosis of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infections in calves. Serum samples were collected from experimentally infected (n = 12) and naturally exposed (n = 32) calves. Samples from five calves from positive dams were analyzed to determine the dynamics of maternal antibodies. Samples from adult cattle with defined infection status served as the standard (18 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis shedders, 22 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis free). After preadsorption with Mycobacterium phlei, sera were incubated with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. avium subsp. avium bacterial suspensions, respectively, followed by the separate detection of bovine IgG, IgG1, IgG2, and IgM attached to the bacterial surface. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific sample/positive (S/P) ratios were compared to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) S/P ratios. In adult cattle, the FC assay for IgG1 had a sensitivity of 78% at a specificity of 100%. Maternally acquired antibodies could be detected in calves up to 121 days of life. While all but two sera taken at day 100 ± 10 postnatum from naturally exposed calves tested negative, elevated S/P ratios (IgG and IgG1) became detectable from 44 and 46 weeks postinoculation onwards in two calves infected experimentally. Even with the optimized FC assay, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific antibodies can only occasionally be detected in infected calves less than 12 months of age. The failure to detect such antibodies apparently reflects the distinct immunobiology of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infections rather than methodological constraints.

Bridger, P. S.; Bulun, H.; Fischer, M.; Akineden, O.; Seeger, T.; Barth, S.; Henrich, M.; Doll, K.; Bulte, M.; Menge, C.; Bauerfeind, R.

2013-01-01

199

Flow cytometric detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific antibodies in experimentally infected and naturally exposed calves.  

PubMed

A desirable test to diagnose infections with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis facilitates identification of infected cattle prior to the state of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis shedding. This study aimed at adjusting a flow cytometry (FC)-based assay, using intact M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis bacteria as the antigen, for diagnosis of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infections in calves. Serum samples were collected from experimentally infected (n = 12) and naturally exposed (n = 32) calves. Samples from five calves from positive dams were analyzed to determine the dynamics of maternal antibodies. Samples from adult cattle with defined infection status served as the standard (18 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis shedders, 22 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis free). After preadsorption with Mycobacterium phlei, sera were incubated with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. avium subsp. avium bacterial suspensions, respectively, followed by the separate detection of bovine IgG, IgG1, IgG2, and IgM attached to the bacterial surface. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific sample/positive (S/P) ratios were compared to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) S/P ratios. In adult cattle, the FC assay for IgG1 had a sensitivity of 78% at a specificity of 100%. Maternally acquired antibodies could be detected in calves up to 121 days of life. While all but two sera taken at day 100 ± 10 postnatum from naturally exposed calves tested negative, elevated S/P ratios (IgG and IgG1) became detectable from 44 and 46 weeks postinoculation onwards in two calves infected experimentally. Even with the optimized FC assay, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific antibodies can only occasionally be detected in infected calves less than 12 months of age. The failure to detect such antibodies apparently reflects the distinct immunobiology of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infections rather than methodological constraints. PMID:23885032

Schillinger, S; Bridger, P S; Bulun, H; Fischer, M; Akineden, O; Seeger, T; Barth, S; Henrich, M; Doll, K; Bülte, M; Menge, C; Bauerfeind, R

2013-09-01

200

Lysobacter enzymogenes subsp. enzymogenes Christensen and Cook 1978, L. enzymogenes subsp. cookii Christensen 1978 and Streptococcus casseliflavus (Mundt and Graham 1968) Vaughan et al. 1978 should have been cited in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Request for an opinion.  

PubMed

Lysobacter enzymogenes subsp. enzymogenes Christensen and Cook 1978, L. enzymogenes subsp. cookii Christensen 1978 and Streptococcus casseliflavus (Mundt and Graham 1968) Vaughan et al. 1978 were inadvertently omitted from the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. According to Rule 24a, Note 1, the authors request that these names be considered as included in these Lists. PMID:17082416

Tindall, B J; Euzéby, J P

2006-11-01

201

Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and its dipteran-specific toxins.  

PubMed

Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) is the first Bacillus thuringiensis to be found and used as an effective biological control agent against larvae of many mosquito and black fly species around the world. Its larvicidal activity resides in four major (of 134, 128, 72 and 27 kDa) and at least two minor (of 78 and 29 kDa) polypeptides encoded respectively by cry4Aa, cry4Ba, cry11Aa, cyt1Aa, cry10Aa and cyt2Ba, all mapped on the 128 kb plasmid known as pBtoxis. These six ?-endotoxins form a complex parasporal crystalline body with remarkably high, specific and different toxicities to Aedes, Culex and Anopheles larvae. Cry toxins are composed of three domains (perforating domain I and receptor binding II and III) and create cation-selective channels, whereas Cyts are composed of one domain that acts as well as a detergent-like membrane perforator. Despite the low toxicities of Cyt1Aa and Cyt2Ba alone against exposed larvae, they are highly synergistic with the Cry toxins and hence their combinations prevent emergence of resistance in the targets. The lack of significant levels of resistance in field mosquito populations treated for decades with Bti-bioinsecticide suggests that this bacterium will be an effective biocontrol agent for years to come. PMID:24686769

Ben-Dov, Eitan

2014-04-01

202

Utilization of galactooligosaccharides by Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis isolates  

PubMed Central

Prebiotics are non-digestible substrates that stimulate the growth of beneficial microbial populations in the intestine, especially Bifidobacterium species. Among them, fructo- and galacto-oligosaccharides are commonly used in the food industry, especially as a supplement for infant formulas. Mechanistic details on the enrichment of bifidobacteria by these prebiotics are important to understand the effects of these dietary interventions. In this study the consumption of galactooligosaccharides was studied for 22 isolates of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis, one of the most representative species in the infant gut microbiota. In general all isolates showed a vigorous growth on these oligosaccharides, but consumption of larger galactooligosaccharides was variable. Bifidobacterium infantis ATCC 15697 has five genes encoding ?-galactosidases, and three of them were induced during bacterial growth on commercial galactooligosaccharides. Recombinant ?-galactosidases from B. infantis ATCC 15697 displayed different preferences for ?-galactosides such as 4? and 6?-galactobiose, and four ?-galactosidases in this strain released monosaccharides from galactooligosaccharides. Finally, we determined the amounts of short chain fatty acids produced by strain ATCC 15697 after growth on different prebiotics. We observed that biomass and product yields of substrate were higher for lactose and galactooligosaccharides, but the amount of acids produced per cell was larger after growth on human milk oligosaccharides. These results provide a molecular basis for galactooligosaccharide consumption in B. infantis, and also represent evidence for physiological differences in the metabolism of prebiotics that might have a differential impact on the host.

Garrido, Daniel; Ruiz-Moyano, Santiago; Jimenez-Espinoza, Rogelio; Eom, Hyun-Ju; Block, David E.; Mills, David A.

2013-01-01

203

Genetic diversity and population structure of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis.  

PubMed

Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis (CMN) is a gram-positive bacterium and an incitant of Goss's bacterial wilt and leaf blight or "leaf freckles" in corn. A population structure of a wide temporal and geographic collection of CMN strains (n = 131), originating between 1969 and 2009, was determined using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis and repetitive DNA sequence-based BOX-PCR. Analysis of the composite data set of AFLP and BOX-PCR fingerprints revealed two groups with a 60% cutoff similarity: a major group A (n = 118 strains) and a minor group B (n = 13 strains). The clustering in both groups was not correlated with strain pathogenicity. Group A contained two clusters, A1 (n = 78) and A2 (n = 40), with a linkage of 75%. Group A strains did not show any correlation with historical, geographical, morphological, or physiological properties of the strains. Group B was very heterogeneous and eight out of nine clusters were represented by a single strain. The mean similarity between clusters in group B varied from 13% to 63%. All strains in group B were isolated after 1999. The percentage of group B strains among all strains isolated after 1999 (n = 69) was 18.8%. Implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:21510777

Agarkova, I V; Lambrecht, P A; Vidaver, A K

2011-05-01

204

Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and Its Dipteran-Specific Toxins  

PubMed Central

Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) is the first Bacillus thuringiensis to be found and used as an effective biological control agent against larvae of many mosquito and black fly species around the world. Its larvicidal activity resides in four major (of 134, 128, 72 and 27 kDa) and at least two minor (of 78 and 29 kDa) polypeptides encoded respectively by cry4Aa, cry4Ba, cry11Aa, cyt1Aa, cry10Aa and cyt2Ba, all mapped on the 128 kb plasmid known as pBtoxis. These six ?-endotoxins form a complex parasporal crystalline body with remarkably high, specific and different toxicities to Aedes, Culex and Anopheles larvae. Cry toxins are composed of three domains (perforating domain I and receptor binding II and III) and create cation-selective channels, whereas Cyts are composed of one domain that acts as well as a detergent-like membrane perforator. Despite the low toxicities of Cyt1Aa and Cyt2Ba alone against exposed larvae, they are highly synergistic with the Cry toxins and hence their combinations prevent emergence of resistance in the targets. The lack of significant levels of resistance in field mosquito populations treated for decades with Bti-bioinsecticide suggests that this bacterium will be an effective biocontrol agent for years to come.

Ben-Dov, Eitan

2014-01-01

205

Histidine biosynthesis genes in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis.  

PubMed

The genes of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis involved in histidine biosynthesis were cloned and characterized by complementation of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis mutants and DNA sequencing. Complementation of E. coli hisA, hisB, hisC, hisD, hisF, hisG, and hisIE genes and the B. subtilis hisH gene (the E. coli hisC equivalent) allowed localization of the corresponding lactococcal genes. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the 11.5-kb lactococcal region revealed 14 open reading frames (ORFs), 12 of which might form an operon. The putative operon includes eight ORFs which encode proteins homologous to enzymes involved in histidine biosynthesis. The operon also contains (i) an ORF encoding a protein homologous to the histidyl-tRNA synthetases but lacking a motif implicated in synthetase activity, which suggests that it has a role different from tRNA aminoacylation, and (ii) an ORF encoding a protein that is homologous to the 3'-aminoglycoside phosphotransferases but does not confer antibiotic resistance. The remaining ORFs specify products which have no homology with proteins in the EMBL and GenBank data bases. PMID:1400209

Delorme, C; Ehrlich, S D; Renault, P

1992-10-01

206

Oleanane type glycosides from Paronychia anatolica subsp. balansae.  

PubMed

Four new oleanane-type triterpene glycosides were isolated from the methanol extract of the roots of Paronychia anatolica subsp. balansae along with three known oleanane-type triterpene glycosides. Structures of the new compounds were established as 3-O-?-D-glucuronopyranosyl-28-O-[?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)-?-D-quinovopyranoside] zahnic acid, 3-O-?-D-glucuronopyranosyl-28-O-[?-D-xylopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)-?-D-quinovopyranoside] zahnic acid, 3-O-?-D-glucuronopyranosyl-28-O-[?-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1?2)-?-D-quinovopyranoside] zahnic acid, 28-O-[?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1?6)-?-D-glucopyranosyl]-medicagenic acid, by using 1D and 2D-NMR techniques and mass spectrometry. The cytotoxic activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated against a small panel of cancer cell lines including human breast cancer (MCF-7), human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) and human leukemia (U937) cell lines. PMID:24321579

Gülcemal, Derya; Masullo, Milena; Alanku?-Çal??kan, Özgen; Piacente, Sonia

2014-01-01

207

Oral Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. polymorphum binds to human salivary ?-amylase.  

PubMed

Fusobacterium nucleatum acts as an intermediate between early and late colonizers in the oral cavity. In this study, we showed that F. nucleatum subsp. polymorphum can bind to a salivary component with a molecular weight of approximately 110 kDa and identified the protein and another major factor of 55 kDa, as salivary ?-amylase by time-of-flight mass spectrometry and immuno-reactions. Salivary ?-amylase is present in both monomeric and dimeric forms and we found that formation of the dimer depends on copper ions. The F. nucleatum adhered to both monomeric and dimeric salivary ?-amylases, but the numbers of bacteria bound to the dimeric form were more than those bound to the monomeric form. The degree of adherence of F. nucleatum to four ?-amylases from different sources was almost the same, however its binding to ?-amylase was considerably decreased. Among four ?-amylase inhibitors tested, acarbose and type 1 and 3 inhibitors derived from wheat flour showed significant activity against the adhesion of F.nucleatum to monomeric and dimeric amylases, however voglibose had little effect. Moreover F. nucleatum cells inhibited the enzymatic activity of salivary ?-amylase in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that F. nucleatum plays more important and positive role as an early colonizer for maturation of oral microbial colonization. PMID:23906425

Zulfiqar, M; Yamaguchi, T; Sato, S; Oho, T

2013-12-01

208

Crohn's disease and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: current issues.  

PubMed

Crohn's disease is a chronic debilitating inflammatory bowel disease of unknown etiology. Proposed causes include bacterial or viral infection, diet or exposure to tobacco smoke, genetic abnormality, and immune dysfunction. The bacterium Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) has received much research attention as a potential cause of the disease. Map causes Johne's disease in ruminants. The pathology of Johne's disease superficially resembles that of Crohn's disease in humans. Some researchers have shown evidence of Map in intestinal tissues of Crohn's disease patients. Studies are in progress to investigate the possibility that Map exists in milk from infected cows and survives pasteurization. This is a controversial subject with the potential for media attention and public outcry. We examined the current literature and concluded that insufficient evidence exists at this time to implicate any one factor, including Map in milk, as the definitive cause of Crohn's disease. The high degree of uncertainty in this issue requires regulators to recognize the need for effective risk communication as ongoing research provides additional information about the disease. PMID:11770646

Harris, J E; Lammerding, A M

2001-12-01

209

Estimation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Growth Parameters: Strain Characterization and Comparison of Methods?  

PubMed Central

The growth rate of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was assessed by different methods in 7H9 medium supplemented with OADC (oleic acid, albumin, dextrose, catalase), Tween 80, and mycobactin J. Generation times and maximum specific growth rates were determined by wet weight, turbidometric measurement, viable count, and quantitative PCR (ParaTB-Kuanti; F57 gene) for 8 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains (K10, 2E, 316F, 81, 445, 764, 22G, and OVICAP 49). Strain-to-strain differences were observed in growth curves and calculated parameters. The quantification methods gave different results for each strain at specific time points. Generation times ranged from an average of 1.4 days for viable count and qPCR to approximately 10 days for wet weight and turbidometry. The wet-weight, turbidometry, and ParaTB-Kuanti qPCR methods correlated best with each other. Generally, viability has been assessed by viable count as a reference method; however, due to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis clumping problems and the presence of noncultivable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells, we conclude that qPCR of a single-copy gene may be used reliably for rapid estimation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis bacterial numbers in a sample.

Elguezabal, Natalia; Bastida, Felix; Sevilla, Iker A.; Gonzalez, Nuria; Molina, Elena; Garrido, Joseba M.; Juste, Ramon A.

2011-01-01

210

Colonization of tomato seedlings by bioluminescent Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis under different humidity regimes.  

PubMed

Tomato bacterial canker, caused by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, is transmitted by infected or infested seed and mechanically from plant to plant. Wounds occurring during seedling production and crop maintenance facilitate the dissemination of the pathogen. However, the effects of environmental factors on C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis translocation and growth as an endophyte have not been fully elucidated. A virulent, stable, constitutively bioluminescent C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis strain BL-Cmm 17 coupled with an in vivo imaging system allowed visualization of the C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis colonization process in tomato seedlings in real time. The dynamics of bacterial infection in seedlings through wounds were compared under low (45%) and high (83%) relative humidity. Bacteria multiplied rapidly in cotyledon petioles remaining after clip inoculation and moved in the stem toward both root and shoot. Luminescent signals were also observed in tomato seedling roots over time, and root development was reduced in inoculated plants maintained under both humidity regimes. Wilting was more severe in seedlings under high-humidity regimes. A strong positive correlation between light intensity and bacterial population in planta suggests that bioluminescent C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis strains will be useful in evaluating the efficacy of bactericides and host resistance. PMID:21936661

Xu, Xiulan; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Paul, Pierce A; Miller, Sally A

2012-02-01

211

Characterization of Neisseria elongata subsp. glycolytica isolates obtained from human wound specimens and blood cultures.  

PubMed Central

Four slightly yellow-pigmented, alpha-hemolytic, gram-negative coccobacilli, three from wound specimens and one from multiple blood cultures of a patient with endocarditis, were identified as Neisseria elongata subsp. glycolytica on the basis of their overall biochemical and genetic similarities to this subspecies. These strains resembled N. elongata in their guanine-plus-cytosine contents (55.6 to 57.1 mol%) and in their overall cellular fatty acid profiles, which are characterized by large amounts of 16:0, 16:1 omega 7c, and 18:1 omega 7c fatty acids. Their identities were confirmed by species-level DNA relatedness (hydroxyapatite method) to the type strains of all three N. elongata subspecies. The biochemical profiles and cultural characteristics of these strains resembled those of the type strain of N. elongata subsp. glycolytica except for the production of a weak yellow growth pigment and alpha-hemolysis on sheep blood agar. They differed from N elongata subsp. elongata by the production of catalase, by the production of alpha-hemolysis on sheep blood agar, and by acid production from D-glucose. They differed from N. elongata subsp. nitroreducens by the production of catalase and an inability to reduce nitrate. These studies suggest a pathogenic potential for N. elongata subsp. glycolytica, usually considered to be a transient colonizer in humans.

Andersen, B M; Weyant, R S; Steigerwalt, A G; Moss, C W; Hollis, D G; Weaver, R E; Ashford, D; Brenner, D J

1995-01-01

212

Infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Results in Rapid Interleukin-1? Release and Macrophage Transepithelial Migration  

PubMed Central

Pathogen processing by the intestinal epithelium involves a dynamic innate immune response initiated by pathogen-epithelial cell cross talk. Interactions between epithelium and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis have not been intensively studied, and it is currently unknown how the bacterium-epithelial cell cross talk contributes to the course of infection. We hypothesized that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis harnesses host responses to recruit macrophages to the site of infection to ensure its survival and dissemination. We investigated macrophage recruitment in response to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis using a MAC-T bovine macrophage coculture system. We show that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection led to phagosome acidification within bovine epithelial (MAC-T) cells as early as 10 min, which resulted in upregulation of interleukin-1? (IL-1?) at transcript and protein levels. Within 10 min of infection, macrophages were recruited to the apical side of MAC-T cells. Inhibition of phagosome acidification or IL-1? abrogated this response, while MCP-1/CCL-2 blocking had no effect. IL-1? processing was dependent upon Ca2+ uptake from the extracellular medium and intracellular Ca2+ oscillations, as determined by EGTA and BAPTA-AM [1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N?,N?-tetraacetic acid tetrakis (acetoxymethyl ester)] treatments. Thus, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis is an opportunist that takes advantage of extracellular Ca2+-dependent phagosome acidification and IL-1? processing in order to efficiently transverse the epithelium and enter its niche—the macrophage.

Lamont, Elise A.; O'Grady, Scott M.; Davis, William C.; Eckstein, Torsten

2012-01-01

213

Optimization of a plasmid electroporation protocol for Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida.  

PubMed

Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is a major fish pathogen. Molecular tools are required to study the virulence and genomic stability of this bacterium. An efficient electroporation-mediated transformation protocol for A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida would make genetic studies faster and easier. In the present study, we designed the 4.1-kb pSDD1 plasmid as a tool for optimizing an electroporation protocol for A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. We systematically tested the electroporation conditions to develop a protocol that generates the maximum number of transformants. Under these optimal conditions (25 kV/cm, 200 ?, 25 ?F), we achieved an electroporation efficiency of up to 1×10(5) CFU/?g DNA. The electroporation protocol was also tested using another plasmid of 10.6-kb and three different strains of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. The strains displayed significant differences in their electro-transformation competencies. Strain 01-B526 was the easiest to electroporate, especially with the pSDD1 plasmid. This plasmid was stably maintained in the 01-B526 transformants, as were the native plasmids, but could be easily cured by removing the selection conditions. This is the first efficient electroporation protocol reported for A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, and offers new possibilities for studying this bacterium. PMID:24389038

Dallaire-Dufresne, Stéphanie; Emond-Rheault, Jean-Guillaume; Attéré, Sabrina A; Tanaka, Katherine H; Trudel, Mélanie V; Frenette, Michel; Charette, Steve J

2014-03-01

214

In Planta - Complementation of Clavibacter Michiganensis Subsp. sepedonicus Strains Deficient in Cellulase Production or HR Induction Restores Virulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus, a Gram positive bacterium that causes bacterial ring rot of potato, was studied in eggplant, an alternate host, using strains that differed in phenotype. Two factors affecting virulence, the ability to induce a hypersensitive response (HR) and cellulase production, were studied. A plasmid-free isolate of C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus that causes HR on tobacco but is

Riitta Nissinen; Shaaban Kassuwi; Riikka Peltola; Mary C. Metzler

2001-01-01

215

Distribution of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis in Soil of a Swiss Wetland Reserve after 22 Years of Mosquito Control?†  

PubMed Central

Recurrent treatments with Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis are required to control the floodwater mosquito Aedes vexans that breeds in large numbers in the wetlands of the Bolle di Magadino Reserve in Canton Ticino, Switzerland. Interventions have been carried out since 1988. In the present study, the spatial distribution of resting B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis spores in the soil was measured. The B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis concentration was determined in soil samples collected along six transects covering different elevations within the periodically flooded zones. A total of 258 samples were processed and analyzed by quantitative PCR that targeted an identical fragment of 159 bp for the B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis cry4Aa and cry4Ba genes. B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis spores were found to persist in soils of the wetland reserve at concentrations of up to 6.8 log per gram of soil. Continuous accumulation due to regular treatments could be excluded, as the decrease in spores amounted to 95.8% (95% confidence interval, 93.9 to 97.7%). The distribution of spores was correlated to the number of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis treatments, the elevation of the sampling point, and the duration of the flooding periods. The number of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis treatments was the major factor influencing the distribution of spores in the different topographic zones (P < 0.0001). These findings indicated that B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis spores are rather immobile after their introduction into the environment.

Guidi, Valeria; Patocchi, Nicola; Luthy, Peter; Tonolla, Mauro

2011-01-01

216

Culture and Serologic Survey for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Infection among Southeastern White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

From July 1998 through October 2002, radiometric culture (ileocecal lymph node, mesenteric lymph node, and feces) and serologic testing by enzyme-linked immunosor- bent assay (ELISA) were used to survey white- tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from the southeastern United States for infection by My- cobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Mptb), the causative agent of paratuberculosis (Johne's disease). Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was

William R. Davidson; Elizabeth J. B. Manning; Victor F. Nettles; D. B. Warnell

217

Draft Genome Sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris HPT, the First Defined-Strain Dairy Starter Culture Bacterium.  

PubMed

Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris HP(T) has been widely used in studies of the metabolism of lactococcal dairy starter cultures. A comparison of the draft HP(T) genome with those from other strains of L. lactis subsp. cremoris will aid our understanding of the domestication and evolution of these important industrial cultures. PMID:24604643

Lambie, Suzanne C; Altermann, Eric; Leahy, Sinead C; Kelly, William J

2014-01-01

218

Purification and characterization of a bacteriocin produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis H-559 isolated from kimchi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from kimchi and screened for bacteriocin production. Strain H-559, identified as Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, exhibited the strongest antibacterial activity among them and was active against pathogenic bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus as well as many lactic acid bacteria. The antimicrobial substance produced by L. lactis subsp. lactis H-559 was inactivated by

Hun-Joo Lee; Yun-Jung Joo; Chan-Sun Park; Seung-Ho Kim; In-Kyeong Hwang; Jong-Seog Ahn; Tae-Ick Mheen

1999-01-01

219

The genome of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida A449: insights into the evolution of a fish pathogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is a Gram-negative bacterium that is the causative agent of furunculosis, a bacterial septicaemia of salmonid fish. While other species of Aeromonas are opportunistic pathogens or are found in commensal or symbiotic relationships with animal hosts, A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida causes disease in healthy fish. The genome sequence of A. salmonicida was determined to provide

Michael E Reith; Rama K Singh; Bruce Curtis; Jessica M Boyd; Anne Bouevitch; Jennifer Kimball; Janet Munholland; Colleen Murphy; Darren Sarty; Jason Williams; John HE Nash; Stewart C Johnson; Laura L Brown

2008-01-01

220

Distribution of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis in Soil of a Swiss Wetland reserve after 22 years of mosquito control.  

PubMed

Recurrent treatments with Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis are required to control the floodwater mosquito Aedes vexans that breeds in large numbers in the wetlands of the Bolle di Magadino Reserve in Canton Ticino, Switzerland. Interventions have been carried out since 1988. In the present study, the spatial distribution of resting B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis spores in the soil was measured. The B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis concentration was determined in soil samples collected along six transects covering different elevations within the periodically flooded zones. A total of 258 samples were processed and analyzed by quantitative PCR that targeted an identical fragment of 159 bp for the B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis cry4Aa and cry4Ba genes. B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis spores were found to persist in soils of the wetland reserve at concentrations of up to 6.8 log per gram of soil. Continuous accumulation due to regular treatments could be excluded, as the decrease in spores amounted to 95.8% (95% confidence interval, 93.9 to 97.7%). The distribution of spores was correlated to the number of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis treatments, the elevation of the sampling point, and the duration of the flooding periods. The number of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis treatments was the major factor influencing the distribution of spores in the different topographic zones (P < 0.0001). These findings indicated that B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis spores are rather immobile after their introduction into the environment. PMID:21498758

Guidi, Valeria; Patocchi, Nicola; Lüthy, Peter; Tonolla, Mauro

2011-06-01

221

Complete Genome Sequence of Leifsonia xyli subsp. cynodontis Strain DSM46306, a Gram-Positive Bacterial Pathogen of Grasses.  

PubMed

We announce the complete genome sequence of Leifsonia xyli subsp. cynodontis, a vascular pathogen of Bermuda grass. The species also comprises Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli, a sugarcane pathogen. Since these two subspecies have genome sequences available, a comparative analysis will contribute to our understanding of the differences in their biology and host specificity. PMID:24201198

Monteiro-Vitorello, Claudia Barros; Zerillo, Marcelo Marques; Van Sluys, Marie-Anne; Camargo, Luis Eduardo Aranha; Kitajima, João Paulo

2013-01-01

222

Complete Genome Sequence of Leifsonia xyli subsp. cynodontis Strain DSM46306, a Gram-Positive Bacterial Pathogen of Grasses  

PubMed Central

We announce the complete genome sequence of Leifsonia xyli subsp. cynodontis, a vascular pathogen of Bermuda grass. The species also comprises Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli, a sugarcane pathogen. Since these two subspecies have genome sequences available, a comparative analysis will contribute to our understanding of the differences in their biology and host specificity.

Zerillo, Marcelo Marques; Van Sluys, Marie-Anne; Camargo, Luis Eduardo Aranha; Kitajima, Joao Paulo

2013-01-01

223

Relationship between Presence of Cows with Milk Positive for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-Specific Antibody by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and Viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Dust in Cattle Barns  

PubMed Central

Paratuberculosis, or Johne's disease, in cattle is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, which has recently been suspected to be transmitted through dust. This longitudinal study on eight commercial M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-positive dairy farms studied the relationship between the number of cows with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis antibody-positive milk and the presence of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in settled-dust samples, including their temporal relationship. Milk and dust samples were collected in parallel monthly for 2 years. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis antibodies in milk were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and used as a proxy for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis shedding. Settled-dust samples were collected by using electrostatic dust collectors (EDCs) at six locations in housing for dairy cattle and young stock. The presence of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was identified by liquid culture and PCR. The results showed a positive relationship (odds ratio [OR], 1.2) between the number of cows with ELISA-positive milk and the odds of having positive EDCs in the same airspace as the adult dairy cattle. Moreover, the total number of lactating cows also showed an OR slightly above 1. This relationship remained the same for settled-dust samples collected up to 2 months before or after the time of milk sampling. The results suggest that removal of adult cows with milk positive for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific antibody by ELISA might result in a decrease in the presence of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in dust and therefore in the environment. However, this decrease is likely delayed by several weeks at least. In addition, the data support the notion that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis exposure of young stock is reduced by separate housing.

Chuchaisangrat, Ruj; Nielen, Mirjam; Koets, Ad P.

2013-01-01

224

A longitudinal case series description of meningitis due to Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus in infants.  

PubMed

Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus, previously known as Streptococcus bovis biotype II.2, is known to cause multiple infectious complications, including bacterial meningitis, in adults. Only sporadic individual case reports have identified this pathogen as a cause of meningitis in infants. This study is the first to longitudinally document S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus as a cause of meningitis in four epidemiologically unrelated infants less than 2 weeks of age. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of all 4 isolates were identical, and further were identical to 3 central nervous system (CNS) strains (two adults and one child) reported in existing literature. S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus is an increasingly recognized cause of meningitis and bacteremia in the newborn period, and it merits further study with respect to etiology of infection. PMID:22075594

Klatte, J Michael; Clarridge, Jill E; Bratcher, Denise; Selvarangan, Rangaraj

2012-01-01

225

Complete genome sequence of phytopathogenic Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum bacteriophage PP1.  

PubMed

Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum is a phytopathogen causing soft rot disease on diverse plant species. To control this plant pathogen, P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum-targeting bacteriophage PP1 was isolated and its genome was completely sequenced to develop a novel biocontrol agent. Interestingly, the 44,400-bp genome sequence does not encode any gene involved in the formation of lysogen, suggesting that this phage may be very useful as a biocontrol agent because it does not make lysogen after host infection. This is the first report on the complete genome sequence of the P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum-targeting bacteriophage, and it will enhance our understanding of the interaction between phytopathogens and their targeting bacteriophages. PMID:22843859

Lee, Ju-Hoon; Shin, Hakdong; Ji, Samnyu; Malhotra, Shweta; Kumar, Mukesh; Ryu, Sangryeol; Heu, Sunggi

2012-08-01

226

Twelve aberrant strains of Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus from clinical specimens.  

PubMed Central

A new biovar of Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus was isolated from human clinical specimens and described on the basis of studies of 12 isolates that were compared with 11 standard reference strains. Both DNA hybridization experiments and numerical taxonomy analysis demonstrated that these strains were strictly related to S. aureus subsp. aureus; however, they were significantly different from the latter. The atypical strains belonging to the new biovar can be distinguished from typical S. aureus subsp. aureus strains by their alpha-chymotrypsin, alpha-glucosidase, beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase, lipase (C-14), and leucine arylamidase enzymatic activities and novobiocin resistance. Thus, the combination of alpha-glucosidase and beta-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase is more useful for distinguishing these S. aureus strains from the other, typical ones.

Fontana, C; Cellini, L; Dainelli, B

1993-01-01

227

Comparative Phenotypic and Molecular Genetic Profiling of Wild Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis Strains of the L. lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris Genotypes, Isolated from Starter-Free Cheeses Made of Raw Milk?  

PubMed Central

Twenty Lactococcus lactis strains with an L. lactis subsp. lactis phenotype isolated from five traditional cheeses made of raw milk with no added starters belonging to the L. lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris genotypes (lactis and cremoris genotypes, respectively; 10 strains each) were subjected to a series of phenotypic and genetic typing methods, with the aims of determining their phylogenetic relationships and suitability as starters. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis of intact genomes digested with SalI and SmaI proved that all strains were different except for three isolates of the cremoris genotype, which showed identical PFGE profiles. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis using internal sequences of seven loci (namely, atpA, rpoA, pheS, pepN, bcaT, pepX, and 16S rRNA gene) revealed considerable intergenotype nucleotide polymorphism, although deduced amino acid changes were scarce. Analysis of the MLST data for the present strains and others from other dairy and nondairy sources showed that all of them clustered into the cremoris or lactis genotype group, by using both independent and combined gene sequences. These two groups of strains also showed distinctive carbohydrate fermentation and enzyme activity profiles, with the strains in the cremoris group showing broader profiles. However, the profiles of resistance/susceptibility to 16 antibiotics were very similar, showing no atypical resistance, except for tetracycline resistance in three identical cremoris genotype isolates. The numbers and concentrations of volatile compounds produced in milk by the strains belonging to these two groups were clearly different, with the cremoris genotype strains producing higher concentrations of more branched-chain, derived compounds. Together, the present results support the idea that the lactis and cremoris genotypes of phenotypic Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis actually represent true subspecies. Some strains of the two subspecies in this study appear to be good starter candidates.

Fernandez, Elena; Alegria, Angel; Delgado, Susana; Martin, M. Cruz; Mayo, Baltasar

2011-01-01

228

Aeromonas hydrophila subsp. dhakensis Isolated from Feces, Water and Fish in Mediterranean Spain  

PubMed Central

Eight Aeromonas hydrophila-like arabinose-negative isolates from diverse sources (i.e., river freshwater, cooling-system water pond, diseased wild European eels, and human stools) sampled in Valencia (Spain) during 2004–2005, were characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and extensive biochemical testing along with reference strains of most Aeromonas species. These isolates and all reference strains of A. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis and A. aquariorum showed a 16S rRNA sequence similarity of 99.8–100%, and they all shared an identical phenotype. This matched exactly with that of A. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis since all strains displayed positive responses to the Voges-Prokauer test and to the use of dl-lactate. This is the first report of A. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis recovered from environmental samples, and further, from its original isolation in India during 1993–1994. This was accurately identified and segregated from other clinical aeromonads (A. hydrophila subsp. hydrophila, A. caviae, A. veronii biovars veronii and sobria, A. trota, A. schubertii and A. jandaei) by using biochemical key tests. The API 20 E profile for all strains included in A. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis was 7047125. The prevalence of this species in Spanish sources was higher for water (9.4%) than for feces (6%) or eels (1.3%). Isolates recovered as pure cultures from diseased eels were moderately virulent (LD50 of 3.3×106 CFU fish?1) to challenged eels in experimental trials. They were all resistant to ticarcillin, amoxicillin-clavuranic acid, cefoxitin, and imipenem, regardless of its source. Our data point to A. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis as an emerging pathogen for humans and fish in temperate countries.

Esteve, Consuelo; Alcaide, Elena; Blasco, Maria Dolores

2012-01-01

229

Aeromonas hydrophila subsp. dhakensis isolated from feces, water and fish in Mediterranean Spain.  

PubMed

Eight Aeromonas hydrophila-like arabinose-negative isolates from diverse sources (i.e., river freshwater, cooling-system water pond, diseased wild European eels, and human stools) sampled in Valencia (Spain) during 2004-2005, were characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and extensive biochemical testing along with reference strains of most Aeromonas species. These isolates and all reference strains of A. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis and A. aquariorum showed a 16S rRNA sequence similarity of 99.8-100%, and they all shared an identical phenotype. This matched exactly with that of A. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis since all strains displayed positive responses to the Voges-Prokauer test and to the use of dl-lactate. This is the first report of A. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis recovered from environmental samples, and further, from its original isolation in India during 1993-1994. This was accurately identified and segregated from other clinical aeromonads (A. hydrophila subsp. hydrophila, A. caviae, A. veronii biovars veronii and sobria, A. trota, A. schubertii and A. jandaei) by using biochemical key tests. The API 20 E profile for all strains included in A. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis was 7047125. The prevalence of this species in Spanish sources was higher for water (9.4%) than for feces (6%) or eels (1.3%). Isolates recovered as pure cultures from diseased eels were moderately virulent (LD(50) of 3.3×10(6) CFU fish(-1)) to challenged eels in experimental trials. They were all resistant to ticarcillin, amoxicillin-clavuranic acid, cefoxitin, and imipenem, regardless of its source. Our data point to A. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis as an emerging pathogen for humans and fish in temperate countries. PMID:22472298

Esteve, Consuelo; Alcaide, Elena; Blasco, María Dolores

2012-01-01

230

Differences in photosynthetic activity, chlorophyll and carotenoid levels, and in chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in green sun and shade leaves of Ginkgo and Fagus.  

PubMed

The differences in pigment levels and photosynthetic activity of green sun and shade leaves of ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L.) and beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) are described. Sun leaves of both tree species possessed higher levels in chlorophylls (Chl) and carotenoids on a leaf area basis, higher values for the ratio Chl a/b and lower values for the ratio Chl/carotenoids (a+b)/(x+c) in comparison to shade leaves. The higher photosynthetic rates P(N) of sun leaves (ginkgo 5.4+/-0.9 and beech 8.5+/-2.1 micromol m(-2)s(-1)) were also reflected by higher values for the Chl fluorescence decrease ratios R(F)(d) 690 and R(F)(d) 735. In contrast, the shade leaves had lower P(N) rates (ginkgo 2.4+/-0.3 and beech 1.8+/-1.2 micromol m(-2)s(-1)). In both tree species the stomatal conductance G(s) was significantly higher in sun (range: 70-19 1 mmol m(-2)s(-1)) as compared to shade leaves (range: 5-55 mmol m(-2)s(-1)). In fact, at saturating light conditions there existed a close correlation between G(s) values and P(N) rates. Differences between sun and shade leaves also existed in several other Chl fluorescence ratios (F(v)/F(m), F(v)/F(o), and the stress adaptation index Ap). The results clearly demonstrate that the fan-shaped gymnosperm ginkgo leaves show the same high and low irradiance adaptation response as the angiosperm beech leaves. PMID:17074414

Sarijeva, Gulmira; Knapp, Martin; Lichtenthaler, Hartmut K

2007-07-01

231

Local adaptations to frost in marginal and central populations of the dominant forest tree Fagus sylvatica L. as affected by temperature and extreme drought in common garden experiments  

PubMed Central

Local adaptations to environmental conditions are of high ecological importance as they determine distribution ranges and likely affect species responses to climate change. Increased environmental stress (warming, extreme drought) due to climate change in combination with decreased genetic mixing due to isolation may lead to stronger local adaptations of geographically marginal than central populations. We experimentally observed local adaptations of three marginal and four central populations of Fagus sylvaticaL., the dominant native forest tree, to frost over winter and in spring (late frost). We determined frost hardiness of buds and roots by the relative electrolyte leakage in two common garden experiments. The experiment at the cold site included a continuous warming treatment; the experiment at the warm site included a preceding summer drought manipulation. In both experiments, we found evidence for local adaptation to frost, with stronger signs of local adaptation in marginal populations. Winter frost killed many of the potted individuals at the cold site, with higher survival in the warming treatment and in those populations originating from colder environments. However, we found no difference in winter frost tolerance of buds among populations, implying that bud survival was not the main cue for mortality. Bud late frost tolerance in April differed between populations at the warm site, mainly because of phenological differences in bud break. Increased spring frost tolerance of plants which had experienced drought stress in the preceding summer could also be explained by shifts in phenology. Stronger local adaptations to climate in geographically marginal than central populations imply the potential for adaptation to climate at range edges. In times of climate change, however, it needs to be tested whether locally adapted populations at range margins can successfully adapt further to changing conditions.

Kreyling, Juergen; Buhk, Constanze; Backhaus, Sabrina; Hallinger, Martin; Huber, Gerhard; Huber, Lukas; Jentsch, Anke; Konnert, Monika; Thiel, Daniel; Wilmking, Martin; Beierkuhnlein, Carl

2014-01-01

232

Ground-level ozone differentially affects nitrogen acquisition and allocation in mature European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) trees.  

PubMed

Impacts of elevated ground-level ozone (O(3)) on nitrogen (N) uptake and allocation were studied on mature European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) in a forest stand, hypothesizing that: (i) chronically elevated O(3) limits nutrient uptake, and (ii) beech responds more sensitively to elevated O(3) than spruce, as previously found for juvenile trees. Tree canopies were exposed to twice-ambient O(3) concentrations (2?×?O(3)) by a free-air fumigation system, with trees under ambient O(3) serving as control. After 5 years of O(3) fumigation, (15)NH(4)(15)NO(3) was applied to soil, and concentrations of newly acquired N (N(labelled)) and total N (N(total)) in plant compartments and soil measured. Under 2?×?O(3), N(labelled) and N(total) were increased in the bulk soil and tended to be lower in fine and coarse roots of both species across the soil horizons, supporting hypothesis (i). N(labelled) was reduced in beech foliage by up to 60%, and by up to 50% in buds under 2?×?O(3). Similarly, N(labelled) in stem bark and phloem was reduced. No such reduction was observed in spruce, reflecting a stronger effect on N acquisition in beech in accordance with hypothesis (ii). In spruce, 2?×?O(3) tended to favour allocation of new N to foliage. N(labelled) in beech foliage correlated with cumulative seasonal transpiration, indicating impaired N acquisition was probably caused by reduced stomatal conductance and, hence, water transport under elevated O(3). Stimulated fine root growth under 2?×?O(3) with a possible increase of below-ground N sink strength may also have accounted for lowered N allocation to above-ground organs. Reduced N uptake and altered allocation may enhance the use of stored N for growth, possibly affecting long-term stand nutrition. PMID:23042769

Weigt, R B; Häberle, K H; Millard, P; Metzger, U; Ritter, W; Blaschke, H; Göttlein, A; Matyssek, R

2012-10-01

233

Within-Population Genetic Structure in Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) Stands Characterized by Different Disturbance Histories: Does Forest Management Simplify Population Substructure?  

PubMed Central

The fine-scale assessment of both spatially and non-spatially distributed genetic variation is crucial to preserve forest genetic resources through appropriate forest management. Cryptic within-population genetic structure may be more common than previously thought in forest tree populations, which has strong implications for the potential of forests to adapt to environmental change. The present study was aimed at comparing within-population genetic structure in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) plots experiencing different disturbance levels. Five plot pairs made up by disturbed and undisturbed plots having the same biogeographic history were sampled throughout Europe. Overall, 1298 individuals were analyzed using four highly polymorphic nuclear microsatellite markers (SSRs). Bayesian clustering within plots identified 3 to 11 genetic clusters (within-plot ?ST ranged from 0.025 to 0.124). The proportion of within-population genetic variation due to genetic substructuring (FCluPlot?=?0.067) was higher than the differentiation among the 10 plots (FPlotTot?=?0.045). Focusing on the comparison between managed and unmanaged plots, disturbance mostly explains differences in the complexity of within-population genetic structure, determining a reduction of the number of genetic clusters present in a standardized area. Our results show that: i) genetic substructuring needs to be investigated when studying the within-population genetic structure in forest tree populations, and ii) indices describing subtle characteristics of the within-population genetic structure are good candidates for providing early signals of the consequences of forest management, and of disturbance events in general.

Piotti, Andrea; Leonardi, Stefano; Heuertz, Myriam; Buiteveld, Joukje; Geburek, Thomas; Gerber, Sophie; Kramer, Koen; Vettori, Cristina; Vendramin, Giovanni Giuseppe

2013-01-01

234

Finished Genome of Zymomonas mobilis subsp. mobilis Strain CP4, an Applied Ethanol Producer.  

PubMed

Zymomonas mobilis subsp. mobilis is one of the most rigorous ethanol-producing organisms known to date, considered by many to be the prokaryotic alternative to yeast. The two most applied Z. mobilis subsp. mobilis strains, ZM4 and CP4, derive from Recife, Brazil, and have been isolated from sugarcane fermentations. Of these, ZM4 was the first Z. mobilis representative strain to be sequenced and analyzed. Here, we report the finishing of the genome sequence of strain CP4, which is highly similar but not identical to that of ZM4. PMID:24407627

Kouvelis, Vassili N; Teshima, Hazuki; Bruce, David; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Tampakopoulou, Vassileia-Olga; Goodwin, Lynne; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Typas, Milton A; Pappas, Katherine M

2014-01-01

235

Adherence of Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. necrophorum to ruminal cells derived from bovine rumenitis.  

PubMed

Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. necrophorum strain VPI 2891 was shown to adhere to the surfaces of ruminal cells derived from bovine rumenitis. The strain also attached to bovine type 1 collagen. Treatment of the bacterium with antiserum to bacterial cells reduced attachment. The bacterial attachment was also markedly reduced when the ruminal cells had been pretreated with anticollagen serum. Fluorescence specific for the collagen was demonstrated on the surface of bovine tissue affected with rumenitis. These findings suggest that F. necrophorum subsp. necrophorum strain VPI 2891 adheres to the ruminal cells derived from rumenitis tissue and that the attachment may be mediated by cellular collagen. PMID:10792652

Takayama, Y; Kanoe, M; Maeda, K; Okada, Y; Kai, K

2000-04-01

236

Actin degradation concomitant with Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. necrophorum adhesion to bovine portal cells.  

PubMed

The effects of Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. necrophorum on cellular actin were investigated using tissue-cultured bovine portal cells. Fluorescence studies revealed the appearance of intense fluorescent spots on the cellular actin and the spots increased in a time dependent manner. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis profiles manifested partial or complete degradation of actin preparation after treatment with the bacterial cells. These findings suggest that the bacterial cell wall may contribute to the degradation of the cellular actin during the initial stage of the infection caused by F. necrophorum subsp. necrophorum. PMID:10624007

Yamaguchi, M; Kanoe, M; Kai, K; Okada, Y

1999-01-01

237

Characterization of Free Exopolysaccharides Secreted by Mycoplasma mycoides Subsp. mycoides  

PubMed Central

Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia is a severe respiratory disease of cattle that is caused by a bacterium of the Mycoplasma genus, namely Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm). In the absence of classical virulence determinants, the pathogenicity of Mmm is thought to rely on intrinsic metabolic functions and specific components of the outer cell surface. One of these latter, the capsular polysaccharide galactan has been notably demonstrated to play a role in Mmm persistence and dissemination. The free exopolysaccharides (EPS), also produced by Mmm and shown to circulate in the blood stream of infected cattle, have received little attention so far. Indeed, their characterization has been hindered by the presence of polysaccharide contaminants in the complex mycoplasma culture medium. In this study, we developed a method to produce large quantities of EPS by transfer of mycoplasma cells from their complex broth to a chemically defined medium and subsequent purification. NMR analyses revealed that the purified, free EPS had an identical ?(1?>6)-galactofuranosyl structure to that of capsular galactan. We then analyzed intraclonal Mmm variants that produce opaque/translucent colonies on agar. First, we demonstrated that colony opacity was related to the production of a capsule, as observed by electron microscopy. We then compared the EPS extracts and showed that the non-capsulated, translucent colony variants produced higher amounts of free EPS than the capsulated, opaque colony variants. This phenotypic variation was associated with an antigenic variation of a specific glucose phosphotransferase permease. Finally, we conducted in silico analyses of candidate polysaccharide biosynthetic pathways in order to decipher the potential link between glucose phosphotransferase permease activity and attachment/release of galactan. The co-existence of variants producing alternative forms of galactan (capsular versus free extracellular galactan) and associated with an antigenic switch constitutes a finely tuned mechanism that may be involved in virulence.

Bertin, Clothilde; Pau-Roblot, Corinne; Courtois, Josiane; Manso-Silvan, Lucia; Thiaucourt, Francois; Tardy, Florence; Le Grand, Dominique; Poumarat, Francois; Gaurivaud, Patrice

2013-01-01

238

USING ROUNDUP AND OUST TO CONTROL INTERFERING UNDERSTORIES IN ALLEGHENY HARDWOOD STANDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allegheny hardwood stands in the Pennsylvania portion of the type frequently contain dense understories of undesirable species such as hayscented fern (Dennstaedtia punctilobula (Michx.) Moore), New York fern (Thelypteris noveboracensis L.), grasses and sedges (Carex spp.), striped maple (Acer pensylvanicum L.) and beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.). Once established, they interfere with the establishment of advance regeneration of desirable species. The

Stephen B. Horsley

239

Cyt1Aa from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis enhances mosquitocidal activity of B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HD-1 against Aedes aegypti but not Culex quinquefasciatus.  

PubMed

The Cyt1Aa protein of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis is known to synergize mosquitocidal proteins of B. thuringiensis and Bacillus sphaericus strains. Cyt1Aa is highly lipophilic, and after binding in vivo to the midgut microvillar membrane serves as a "receptor" for mosquitocidal Cry proteins, which subsequently form cation channels that kill mosquito larvae. Here we report that Cyt1Aa can serve a similar function for lepidopteran-specific Cry proteins of B. thuringiensis in certain mosquito larvae. Engineering Cyt1Aa into the HD-1 isolate of B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki enhanced toxicity against 4th instars of Aedes aegypti, but not against 4th instars of Culex quinquefasciatus. PMID:23314373

Park, Hyun-Woo; Pino, Brent C; Kozervanich-Chong, Switzerlyna; Hafkenscheid, Erika A; Oliverio, Ryan M; Federici, Brian A; Bideshi, Dennis K

2013-01-01

240

Antioxidant Activity of the Essential Oils of Different Parts of Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb. subsp. excelsa and J. excelsa M. Bieb. subsp. polycarpos (K. Koch) Takhtajan (Cupressaceae)  

PubMed Central

The essential oils of branchlets and fruits of Juniperus excelsa subsp. excelsa and Juniperus excelsa subsp. polycarpos were examined for their antioxidant activity. The compositions of the essential oils were studied by GC and GC-MS. To evaluation the antioxidants activity of the volatile oils, pure components and positive controls at different concentrations, thin-layer chromatography (TLC) screening methods, diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, deoxyribose degradation test and modified deoxyribose degradation test were employed. The results of the present study demonstrate some antioxidant activity for the tested essential oils obtained from various parts of both plants. It indicates that the use of these essential oils, in very low concentrations, may be useful as a natural preservative. However before any final conclusion, it is suggested that the antioxidant activity of these oils should also be evaluated by using lipid solvent system methods.

Emami, Sayyed Ahmad; Abedindo, Bibi Fatemeh; Hassanzadeh-Khayyat, Mohammad

2011-01-01

241

Pseudomonas oleovorans subsp. lubricantis subsp. nov., and reclassification of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes ATCC 17440T as later synonym of Pseudomonas oleovorans ATCC 8062 T.  

PubMed

Isolate RS1(T) isolated from used metalworking fluid was found to be a Gram-negative, motile, and non-spore forming rod. Based on phylogenetic analyses with 16S rRNA, isolate RS1(T) was placed into the mendocina sublineage of Pseudomonas. The major whole cell fatty acids were C(18:1)omega7c (32.6%), C(16:0) (25.5%), and C(15:0) ISO 2OH/C(16:1)omega7c (14.4%). The sequence similarities of isolate RS1(T) based on gyrB and rpoD genes were 98.9 and 98.0% with Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes, and 98.5 and 98.1% with Pseudomonas oleovorans, respectively. The ribotyping pattern showed a 0.60 similarity with P. oleovorans ATCC 8062(T) and 0.63 with P. pseudoalcaligenes ATCC17440(T). The DNA G + C content of isolate RS1(T) was 62.2 mol.%. The DNA-DNA relatedness was 73.0% with P. oleovorans ATCC 8062(T) and 79.1% with P. pseudoalcaligenes ATCC 17440(T). On the basis of morphological, biochemical, and molecular studies, isolate RS1(T) is considered to represent a new subspecies of P. oleovorans. Furthermore, based on the DNA-DNA relatedness (>70%), chemotaxonomic, and molecular profile, P. pseudoalcaligenes ATCC 17440(T) and P. oleovorans ATCC 8062(T) should be united under the same name; according to the rules of priority, P. oleovorans, the first described species, is the earlier synonym and P. pseudoalcaligenes is the later synonym. As a consequence, the division of the species P. oleovorans into two novel subspecies is proposed: P. oleovorans subsp. oleovorans subsp. nov. (type strain ATCC 8062(T) = DSM 1045(T) = NCIB 6576(T)), P. oleovorans subsp. lubricantis subsp. nov. (type strain RS1(T) = ATCC BAA-1494(T) = DSM 21016(T)). PMID:19936829

Saha, Ratul; Spröer, Cathrin; Beck, Brian; Bagley, Susan

2010-04-01

242

Mycoplasma leachii sp. nov. as a new species designation for Mycoplasma sp. bovine group 7 of Leach, and reclassification of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides LC as a serovar of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri.  

PubMed

The Mycoplasma mycoides cluster consists of six pathogenic mycoplasmas causing disease in ruminants, which share many genotypic and phenotypic traits. The M. mycoides cluster comprises five recognized taxa: Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides Small Colony (MmmSC), M. mycoides subsp. mycoides Large Colony (MmmLC), M. mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc), Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum (Mcc) and M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (Mccp). The group of strains known as Mycoplasma sp. bovine group 7 of Leach (MBG7) has remained unassigned, due to conflicting data obtained by different classification methods. In the present paper, all available data, including recent phylogenetic analyses, have been reviewed, resulting in a proposal for an emended taxonomy of this cluster: (i) the MBG7 strains, although related phylogenetically to M. capricolum, hold sufficient characteristic traits to be assigned as a separate species, i.e. Mycoplasma leachii sp. nov. (type strain, PG50(T) = N29(T) = NCTC 10133(T) = DSM 21131(T)); (ii) MmmLC and Mmc, which can only be distinguished by serological methods and are related more distantly to MmmSC, should be combined into a single subspecies, i.e. Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri, leaving M. mycoides subsp. mycoides (MmmSC) as the exclusive designation for the agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia. A taxonomic description of M. leachii sp. nov. and emended descriptions of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides and M. mycoides subsp. capri are presented. As a result of these emendments, the M. mycoides cluster will hereafter be composed of five taxa comprising three subclusters, which correspond to the M. mycoides subspecies, the M. capricolum subspecies and the novel species M. leachii. PMID:19502315

Manso-Silván, L; Vilei, E M; Sachse, K; Djordjevic, S P; Thiaucourt, F; Frey, J

2009-06-01

243

Isolation and Identification of novel toxins from a new mosquitocidal isolate from Malaysia, Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan.  

PubMed

A new mosquitocidal Bacillus thuringiensis subsp., jegathesan, has recently been isolated from Malaysia. Parasporal crystal inclusions were purified from this strain and bioassayed against fourth-instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, Aedes togoi, Aedes albopictus, Anopheles maculatus, and Mansonia uniformis. The 50% lethal concentration of crystal inclusions for each species was 0.34, 8.08, 0.34, 17.59, 3.91, and 120 ng/ml, respectively. These values show that parasporal inclusions from this new subspecies have mosquitocidal toxicity comparable to that of inclusions isolated from B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis. Solubilized and chymotrypsin-activated parasporal inclusions possessed low-level hemolytic activity. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that the crystals were composed of polypeptides of 77, 74, 72, 68, 55, 38, 35, 27, and 23 kDa. Analysis by Western blotting (immunoblotting) with polyclonal antisera raised against toxins purified from B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis reveals that proteins in parasporal inclusions of subsp. jegathesan are distinct, because little cross-reactivity was shown. Analysis of the plasmid content of B. thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan indicates that the genes for toxin production may be located on 105- to 120-kb plasmids. Cry- clones that have been cured of these plasmids are nontoxic. Southern blot analysis of plasmid and chromosomal DNA from subsp. jegathesan showed little or low homology to the genes coding for CryIVA, CryIVB, and CryIVD from B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis. PMID:7487029

Kawalek, M D; Benjamin, S; Lee, H L; Gill, S S

1995-08-01

244

Isolation and Identification of novel toxins from a new mosquitocidal isolate from Malaysia, Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan.  

PubMed Central

A new mosquitocidal Bacillus thuringiensis subsp., jegathesan, has recently been isolated from Malaysia. Parasporal crystal inclusions were purified from this strain and bioassayed against fourth-instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, Aedes togoi, Aedes albopictus, Anopheles maculatus, and Mansonia uniformis. The 50% lethal concentration of crystal inclusions for each species was 0.34, 8.08, 0.34, 17.59, 3.91, and 120 ng/ml, respectively. These values show that parasporal inclusions from this new subspecies have mosquitocidal toxicity comparable to that of inclusions isolated from B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis. Solubilized and chymotrypsin-activated parasporal inclusions possessed low-level hemolytic activity. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that the crystals were composed of polypeptides of 77, 74, 72, 68, 55, 38, 35, 27, and 23 kDa. Analysis by Western blotting (immunoblotting) with polyclonal antisera raised against toxins purified from B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis reveals that proteins in parasporal inclusions of subsp. jegathesan are distinct, because little cross-reactivity was shown. Analysis of the plasmid content of B. thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan indicates that the genes for toxin production may be located on 105- to 120-kb plasmids. Cry- clones that have been cured of these plasmids are nontoxic. Southern blot analysis of plasmid and chromosomal DNA from subsp. jegathesan showed little or low homology to the genes coding for CryIVA, CryIVB, and CryIVD from B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis.

Kawalek, M D; Benjamin, S; Lee, H L; Gill, S S

1995-01-01

245

Divergent Immune Responses to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Infection Correlate with Kinome Responses at the Site of Intestinal Infection  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the causative agent of Johne's disease (JD) in cattle. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infects the gastrointestinal tract of calves, localizing and persisting primarily in the distal ileum. A high percentage of cattle exposed to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis do not develop JD, but the mechanisms by which they resist infection are not understood. Here, we merge an established in vivo bovine intestinal segment model for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection with bovine-specific peptide kinome arrays as a first step to understanding how infection influences host kinomic responses at the site of infection. Application of peptide arrays to in vivo tissue samples represents a critical and ambitious step in using this technology to understand host-pathogen interactions. Kinome analysis was performed on intestinal samples from 4 ileal segments subdivided into 10 separate compartments (6 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected compartments and 4 intra-animal controls) using bovine-specific peptide arrays. Kinome data sets clustered into two groups, suggesting unique binary responses to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Similarly, two M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific immune responses, characterized by different antibody, T cell proliferation, and gamma interferon (IFN-?) responses, were also observed. Interestingly, the kinomic groupings segregated with the immune response groupings. Pathway and gene ontology analyses revealed that differences in innate immune and interleukin signaling and particular differences in the Wnt/?-catenin pathway distinguished the kinomic groupings. Collectively, kinome analysis of tissue samples offers insight into the complex cellular responses induced by M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in the ileum and provides a novel method to understand mechanisms that alter the balance between cell-mediated and antibody responses to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection.

Maattanen, Pekka; Trost, Brett; Scruten, Erin; Potter, Andrew; Kusalik, Anthony; Griebel, Philip

2013-01-01

246

Primary transcriptomes of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis reveal proprietary pathways in tissue and macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) persistently infects intestines and mesenteric lymph nodes leading to a prolonged subclinical disease. The MAP genome sequence was published in 2005, yet its transcriptional organization in natural infection is unknown. While prior research analyzed regulated gene sets utilizing defined, in vitro stress related or advanced surgical methods with various animal species, we investigated the

Harish K Janagama; Elise A Lamont; Sajan George; John P Bannantine; Wayne W Xu; Zheng J Tu; Scott J Wells; Jeremy Schefers; Srinand Sreevatsan

2010-01-01

247

Whole-Genome Sequencing of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Cubana Strains Isolated from Agricultural Sources.  

PubMed

We report the draft genomes of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Cubana strain CVM42234, isolated from chick feed in 2012, and S. Cubana strain 76814, isolated from swine in 2004. The genome sizes are 4,975,046 and 4,936,251 bp, respectively. PMID:24459266

Benahmed, Faiza H; Gopinath, Gopal R; Wang, Hua; Jean-Gilles Beaubrun, Junia; Grim, Christopher; Cheng, Chorng-Ming; McClelland, Michael; Ayers, Sherry; Abbott, Jason; Desai, Prerak; Frye, Jonathan G; Weinstock, George; Hammack, Thomas S; Hanes, Darcy E; Rasmussen, Mark A; Davidson, Maureen K

2014-01-01

248

Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida : an integrated view of a bacterial fish pathogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Pasteurellosis, or pseudotuberculosis, is a bacterial septicaemia caused by the halophilic bacterium Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida (formerly Pasteurella piscicida). Although this disease was first described in wild populations of white perch and striped bass, currently the natural hosts\\u000a of the pathogen are a wide variety of marine fish. The disease has great economic impact both in Japan, where it

Jesús L. Romalde

2002-01-01

249

Genome Sequence of the Cheese-Starter Strain Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis CRL 581.  

PubMed

We report the genome sequence of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis CRL 581 (1,911,137 bp, GC 49.7%), a proteolytic strain isolated from a homemade Argentinian hard cheese which has a key role in bacterial nutrition and releases bioactive health-beneficial peptides from milk proteins. PMID:23929489

Hebert, Elvira María; Raya, Raúl R; Brown, Lucía; Font de Valdez, Graciela; Savoy de Giori, Graciela; Taranto, María Pía

2013-01-01

250

Scalp Abscess Due to Streptomyces cacaoi subsp. cacaoi, First Report in a Human Infection  

PubMed Central

Streptomyces cacaoi subsp. cacaoi, a Gram-positive, branching filamentous bacteria, was isolated from a scalp infection in a patient from Pondicherry, India. Phenotypic tests identified the isolate as a Streptomyces species, but 16S rRNA sequence analysis provided the species identification required for tracking of this emerging pathogen.

Pellegrini, Gerald J.; Graziano, James C.; Ragunathan, Latha; Bhat, Malini A.; Hemashettar, Basavaraj M.

2012-01-01

251

Essential oils composition of Periploca laevigata Aiton subsp. angustifolia (Labill.) Markgraf (Apocynaceae – Periplocoideae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil of roots, branches, leaves, flowers and fruits of Periploca laevigata Aiton subsp. angustifolia (Apocynaceae) from Lampedusa Island has been obtained by hydrodistillation and its composition analysed. The analyses allowed the identification and quantification of 86 volatile compounds. Branches showed the higher diversity with 57 compounds followed by fruits with 33, roots with 23, flowers with 16 and

P. Zito; M. Sajeva; M. Bruno; S. Rosselli; A. Maggio; F. Senatore

2012-01-01

252

Ingestion and Adsorption of 'Bacillus thuringiensis' subsp. 'israelensis' by 'Gammarus lacustris' in the Laboratory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several groups of Gammarus lacustris adults were exposed to solutions containing 0.5 and 5.0 mg of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis per liter for 1- or 24-hour periods by using traditional static bioassay exposure procedures. The experiments veri...

J. C. Brazner R. L. Anderson

1986-01-01

253

Vertebrate Toxicology of the Solubilized Parasporal Crystalline Proteins of 'Bacillus thuringiensis' Subsp. 'israelensis'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The review summarizes the studies done with the mammalian toxic Bacillus thuringiensis subsp, israelensis (Bti) 28 kDa cytA protein. The data is relevant to hazard identification studies with bacterial pesticides. The data shows the cytA produces lethal p...

R. M. Roe V. L. Kallapur W. C. Dauterman F. W. Edens M. E. Mayes

1992-01-01

254

Complete Genome Sequence of the Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum Sea81-4 Strain.  

PubMed

Using the rabbit model of syphilis, the Sea81-4 strain of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum has been found to be more likely than other strains to invade the central nervous system (CNS). To identify possible explanations for this important phenotype at the genomic level, we sequenced the Sea81-4 strain genome. PMID:24744342

Giacani, Lorenzo; Iverson-Cabral, Stefanie L; King, Jordon C K; Molini, Barbara J; Lukehart, Sheila A; Centurion-Lara, Arturo

2014-01-01

255

Identification of a tomatinase in the tomato-pathogenic actinomycete Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis NCPPB382.  

PubMed

The insertion site of a transposon mutant of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis NCPPB382 was cloned and found to be located in the gene tomA encoding a member of the glycosyl hydrolase family 10. The intact gene was obtained from a cosmid library of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. The deduced protein TomA (543 amino acids, 58 kDa) contains a predicted signal peptide and two domains, the N-terminal catalytic domain and a C-terminal fibronectin III-like domain. The closest well-characterized relatives of TomA were tomatinases from fungi involved in the detoxification of the tomato saponin alpha-tomatine which acts as a growth inhibitor. Growth inhibition of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis by alpha-tomatine was stronger in the tomA mutants than in the wild type. Tomatinase activity assayed by deglycosylation of alpha-tomatine to tomatidine was demonstrated in concentrated culture supernatants of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. No activity was found with the tomA mutants. However, neither the transposon mutant nor a second mutant constructed by gene disruption was affected in virulence on the tomato cv. Moneymaker. PMID:16255248

Kaup, Olaf; Gräfen, Ines; Zellermann, Eva-Maria; Eichenlaub, Rudolf; Gartemann, Karl-Heinz

2005-10-01

256

Genome Sequence of Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris Strain T26, Isolated from Mesophilic Undefined Cheese Starter.  

PubMed

Leuconostoc is the main group of heterofermentative bacteria found in mesophilic dairy starters. They grow in close symbiosis with the Lactococcus population and are able to degrade citrate. Here we present a draft genome sequence of Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris strain T26. PMID:24903867

Pedersen, T B; Kot, W P; Hansen, L H; Sørensen, S J; Broadbent, J R; Vogensen, F K; Ardö, Y

2014-01-01

257

Environmental contamination with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in endemically infected dairy herds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental contamination with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is thought to be one of the primary sources of infection for dairy cattle. The exact link between fecal shedding of MAP by individual cows and environmental contamination levels at the herd level was explored with a cross-sectional analysis of longitudinally collected samples on 3 dairy farms. Composite samples from multiple environmental

R. L. Smith; Y. H. Schukken; A. K. Pradhan; J. M. Smith; R. H. Whitlock; J. S. Van Kessel; D. R. Wolfgang; Y. T. Grohn

2011-01-01

258

Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Drinking Water and Biofilms Using Quantitative PCR  

EPA Science Inventory

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne?s disease in domestic animals and has been implicated in Crohn?s disease in humans. Cows infected with Johne?s disease shed large quantities of MAP into soil. Further, MAP has been isolated from surface water, is resi...

259

Effects of the collagenolytic cell wall component of Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. necrophorum on bovine hepatocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the collagenolytic cell wall component (CCWC) of Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. necrophorum on bovine hepatic cell and cytoskeletons were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) demonstrated that CCWC damaged the cell surfaces, forming tiny holes on the cell membranes. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) profiles revealed that CCWC degraded bovine cytokeratin and vimentin and by indirect fluorescent

K. Okamoto; M. Kanoe; Y. Yaguchi; T. Watanabe; T. Inoue

2007-01-01

260

Endocarditis caused by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis in a patient with atrial myxoma: a case report.  

PubMed

We report a case of subacute endocarditis in a 55-year-old patient affected by left atrial myxoma and with a severe mitral regurgitation. Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis was isolated from blood cultures and infection was eliminated by treatment with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. PMID:16757143

Zechini, Barbara; Cipriani, Paola; Papadopoulou, Styliani; Di Nucci, Giandomenico; Petrucca, Andrea; Teggi, Antonella

2006-11-01

261

Intraspecific variability of the essential oil of Calamintha nepeta subsp. nepeta from Southern Italy (Apulia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil of 46 spontaneous plants of Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi subsp. nepeta growing wild in Sud, Italy (Salento, Apulia), were investigated by GC\\/MS. Fifty-seven components were identified in the oil representing over the 98% of the total oil composition. Four chemotypes were identified: piperitone oxide, piperitenone oxide, piperitone-menthone and pulegone.

C. Negro; S. Notarnicola; L. De Bellis; A. Miceli

2012-01-01

262

Intraspecific chemical variability of the leaf essential oil of Juniperus phoenicea subsp. turbinata from Corsica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of 50 samples of essential oil of individual plants of Juniperus phoenicea subsp. turbinata from Corsica was investigated by GC, GC–MS and 13C NMR. ?-Pinene, ?-phellandrene, ?-terpinyl acetate, ?-3-carene, myrcene and ?-phellandrene were found to be the main constituents. The results were submitted to cluster analysis and discriminant analysis which allowed two groups of essential oils to be

Serge Rezzi; Carlos Cavaleiro; Ange Bighelli; Ligia Salgueiro; António Proença da Cunha; Joseph Casanova

2001-01-01

263

Molecular Evidence of Perinatal Transmission of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and Bartonella henselae to a Child?  

PubMed Central

Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, Bartonella henselae, or DNA of both organisms was amplified and sequenced from blood, enrichment blood cultures, or autopsy tissues from four family members. Historical and microbiological results support perinatal transmission of Bartonella species in this family. It is of clinical relevance that Bartonella spp. may adversely influence human reproductive performance.

Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Maggi, Ricardo G.; Farmer, Peter; Mascarelli, Patricia E.

2010-01-01

264

Intrauterine infection and post-partum bacteraemia due to Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus.  

PubMed

The case is presented of a woman with intrauterine infection and post-partum bacteraemia due to Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus, who delivered an infant via Caesarean section. Furthermore, we comment on the possibility of vaginal colonization of this organism as a portal of entry in cases of maternal and neonatal infections. PMID:23861295

Binghuai, Lu; Wenjun, Sui; Xinxin, Lu

2013-10-01

265

EFFECT OF REMOVAL OF THE CYTOLYTIC FACTOR OF 'BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS' SUBSP. 'ISRAELENSIS' ON MOSQUITO TOXICITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Solubilized crystal protein of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis was fractionated by affinity chromotography using a monoclonal antibody directed against the crystal's 28 kDa peptide. The 28 kDa peptide ws found to be relatively nontoxic to mosquito larvae although it doe...

266

Molecular Fingerprinting of Mycobacterium bovis subsp. caprae Isolates from Central Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the dissemination of Mycobacterium bovis subsp. caprae, 79 European isolates from cattle, humans, and other hosts were examined by spoligotyping and IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Among a total of 11 different spoligotypes identified, type C1 proved to be predominant (n 62). Five of the spoligotypes are described for the first time. A total of 43

Wilfried Erler; Gerald Martin; Konrad Sachse; Ludmila Naumann; Dagmar Kahlau; Jorg Beer; Milan Bartos; Gyorgy Nagy; Zeljko Cvetnic; Manca Zolnir-Dovc; Ivo Pavlik

2004-01-01

267

Unique genotypes of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains of Type III  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) strains with two new IS900 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) BstEII types intermediate suspected to belong to the MAP Type III group were isolated from migrating sheep in Germany. Such strains have only been sporadically identified in a few studies. For a better understanding of the genomic diversity of MAP with regard to specific host

Petra Möbius; Isabel Fritsch; Gabriele Luyven; Helmut Hotzel; Heike Köhler

2009-01-01

268

Genotyping of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolates from domestic animals in Slovenia by IS901 RFLP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apart from birds, Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (MAA) is often isolated from granulomatous lesions in pigs and occasionally from cattle and other animals. The objectives of this study were the detection of IS901 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) types of MAA isolates from different species of domes - tic animals between the years 1998 and 2004 and the comparison of

M. Pate; M. Moravkova; B. Krt; I. Pavlik; M. Ocepek

2009-01-01

269

Genome Sequence of the Cheese-Starter Strain Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis CRL 581  

PubMed Central

We report the genome sequence of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis CRL 581 (1,911,137 bp, GC 49.7%), a proteolytic strain isolated from a homemade Argentinian hard cheese which has a key role in bacterial nutrition and releases bioactive health-beneficial peptides from milk proteins.

Raya, Raul R.; Brown, Lucia; Font de Valdez, Graciela; Savoy de Giori, Graciela; Taranto, Maria Pia

2013-01-01

270

Genome Sequence of Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris Strain T26, Isolated from Mesophilic Undefined Cheese Starter  

PubMed Central

Leuconostoc is the main group of heterofermentative bacteria found in mesophilic dairy starters. They grow in close symbiosis with the Lactococcus population and are able to degrade citrate. Here we present a draft genome sequence of Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris strain T26.

Kot, W. P.; Hansen, L. H.; S?rensen, S. J.; Broadbent, J. R.; Vogensen, F. K.; Ardo, Y.

2014-01-01

271

Genome of the Actinomycete Plant Pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus Suggests Recent Niche Adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus is a plant-pathogenic bacterium and the causative agent of bacterial ring rot, a devastating agricultural disease under strict quarantine control and zero tolerance in the seed potato industry. This organism appears to be largely restricted to an endophytic lifestyle, proliferating within plant tissues and unable to persist in the absence of plant material. Analysis of the

Stephen D. Bentley; Craig Corton; Susan E. Brown; Andrew Barron; Louise Clark; Jon Doggett; Barbara Harris; Doug Ormond; Michael A. Quail; Georgiana May; David Francis; Dennis Knudson; Julian Parkhill; Carol A. Ishimaru

2008-01-01

272

Development and Application of a Multilocus Sequence Typing Scheme for Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus.  

PubMed

Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus (formerly known as S. bovis biotype I) is a commensal of the gastrointestinal tract in animals and in up to 15% of healthy humans. Furthermore, it is a facultative pathogen that can cause infectious endocarditis, mastitis, and septicemia. The number of infections is increasing, but the transmission routes and zoonotic potential remain unknown. To assess the zoonotic potential and characterize the epidemiological structure of S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus, we established a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme. We amplified and sequenced internal fragments of seven housekeeping genes. The resulting sequences were analyzed with BioNumerics software 6.6 by using the unweighted-pair group method using average linkages algorithm. A total of 101 S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus strains isolated from animals, humans, and environmental samples were analyzed and divided into 50 sequence types. Our first results highlight the importance of this MLST scheme for investigating the epidemiology, transmission patterns, and infection chains of S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus. PMID:24789199

Dumke, J; Hinse, D; Vollmer, T; Knabbe, C; Dreier, J

2014-07-01

273

Draft Genome Sequence of Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. faecalis NCIB 8687 (CCUG 2071)  

PubMed Central

Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. faecalis NCIB 8687, the betaproteobacterium from which arsenite oxidase had its structure solved and the first “arsenate gene island” identified, provided a draft genome of 3.9 Mb in 186 contigs (with the largest 15 comprising 90% of the total) for this opportunistic pathogen species.

Phung, Le T.; Trimble, William L.; Meyer, Folker

2012-01-01

274

Pet Snakes as a Reservoir for Salmonella enterica subsp. diarizonae (Serogroup IIIb): a Prospective Study  

PubMed Central

Reptile-associated Salmonella infections are an increasing problem for humans. We have prospectively screened two breeding groups of 16 pet snakes for colonization with Salmonella species. Various serovars of S. enterica subsp. diarizonae were found in 81% of the snakes. To avoid transmission, strict hygienic precautions should be applied when reptiles are handled.

Schroter, Matthias; Roggentin, Peter; Hofmann, Jorg; Speicher, Angelika; Laufs, Rainer; Mack, Dietrich

2004-01-01

275

Variable Number of Tandem Repeats in Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica for Typing Purposes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genomic sequences of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica strains CT18, Ty2 (serovar Typhi), and LT2 (serovar Typhimurium) were analyzed for potential variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs). A multiple- locus VNTR analysis (MLVA) of 99 strains of S. enterica supsp. enterica based on 10 VNTRs distinguished 52 genotypes and placed them into four groups. All strains tested were independent human isolates

Vincent Ramisse; Perrine Houssu; Eric Hernandez; Valerie Hilaire; Olivier Lisanti; Francoise Ramisse; Jean-Didier Cavallo; Gilles Vergnaud; Saint Mande

2004-01-01

276

Splenic Abscess Caused by Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus as Presentation of a Pancreatic Cancer  

PubMed Central

Splenic abscesses caused by Streptococcus bovis are rarely reported in the literature and are mainly seen in patients with endocarditis and associated colonic neoplasia/carcinoma. We report the first case of splenic abscess caused by Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus (Streptococcus bovis biotype II/2) as presentation of a pancreatic cancer.

Su, Yanli; Miao, Bin; Wang, Hong; Wang, Chao

2013-01-01

277

Comparative evaluation of PCR assays for the robust molecular detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) can cause a very serious, often-fatal disease, namely paratuberculosis, in several animal species, especially ruminants. Recently, it has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of Infectious Bowel Disease of man. The aim of this study was to develop a molecular method for the routine detection and identification of MAP, from tissue samples of animal origin.

John Ikonomopoulos; Maria Gazouli; Ivo Pavlik; Milan Bartos; Panayotis Zacharatos; Eftixia Xylouri; Efstathios Papalambros; Vassilis Gorgoulis

2004-01-01

278

The Essential Oil of Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum of Turkish Origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water distilled essential oils of 23 collections of Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum from the Aegean region of Turkey were analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. Forty-eight compounds which amounted to 95.09–99.49% of the total components detected were identified. Carvacrol content in the oils varied between 23.43–78.73%.

K. H. C. Baser; T. Özek; M. Kürkçüoglu; G. Tümen

1994-01-01

279

Surface Proteome of "Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis" during the Early Stages of Macrophage Infection  

PubMed Central

“Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis” is a robust and pervasive environmental bacterium that can cause opportunistic infections in humans. The bacterium overcomes the host immune response and is capable of surviving and replicating within host macrophages. Little is known about the bacterial mechanisms that facilitate these processes, but it can be expected that surface-exposed proteins play an important role. In this study, the selective biotinylation of surface-exposed proteins, streptavidin affinity purification, and shotgun mass spectrometry were used to characterize the surface-exposed proteome of M. avium subsp. hominissuis. This analysis detected more than 100 proteins exposed at the bacterial surface of M. avium subsp. hominissuis. Comparisons of surface-exposed proteins between conditions simulating early infection identified several groups of proteins whose presence on the bacterial surface was either constitutive or appeared to be unique to specific culture conditions. This proteomic profile facilitates an improved understanding of M. avium subsp. hominissuis and how it establishes infection. Additionally, surface-exposed proteins are excellent targets for the host adaptive immune system, and their identification can inform the development of novel treatments, diagnostic tools, and vaccines for mycobacterial disease.

McNamara, Michael; Tzeng, Shin-Cheng; Maier, Claudia; Zhang, Li

2012-01-01

280

Expression and immunogenicity of six putative variable surface proteins in Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variable surface protein Vmm and five Vmm-type proteins from Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC were analysed to determine whether these proteins are expressed in vivo in animals affected by contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) and in vitro. Recombinant versions of these proteins were constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli after mutation of the TGA Trp codons to TGG. These proteins were

Carl Hamsten; Joakim Westberg; Goran Bolske; Roger Ayling; Mathias Uhlen; Anja Persson

2008-01-01

281

Essential oil composition of Tanacetum vulgare subsp. siculum (Guss.) Raimondo et Spadaro (Asteraceae) from Sicily.  

PubMed

Ninety-four components of the essential oils from aerial parts and capitula of Tanacetum vulgare subsp. siculum (Guss.) Raimondo et Spadaro were detected. Alpha-Thujone, beta-thujone and 1,8-cineole were the main constituents of the oils. The analysis allows the assignment of this Tanacetum species to the thujone chemotype. PMID:19476007

Formisano, Carmen; Senatore, Felice; Bruno, Maurizio; Rosselli, Sergio; Bellone, Gabriella; Spadaro, Vivienne

2009-04-01

282

Iron-sparing Response of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is strain dependent  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Two genotypically and microbiologically distinct strains of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) exist - S and C MAP strains that primarily infect sheep and cattle, respectively. Concentration of iron in the cultivation medium has been suggested as one contributing factor for the observed microbiologic differences. We recently demonstrated that S strains have defective iron storage systems, leading us to

Harish K Janagama; Senthilkumar; John P Bannantine; Abirami Kugadas; Pratik Jagtap; LeeAnn Higgins; Bruce A Witthuhn; Srinand Sreevatsan

2010-01-01

283

Genome Sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetylactis LD61  

PubMed Central

Lactococcus lactis is widely used in the dairy industry. We report the draft genome sequence of L. lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetylactis LD61, an industrial and extensively studied strain. In contrast to the closely related and plasmidless strain IL1403, LD61 contains 6 plasmids, and the genome sequence provides additional information related to adaptation to the dairy environment.

Falentin, Helene; Naquin, Delphine; Loux, Valentin; Barloy-Hubler, Frederique; Loubiere, Pascal; Nouaille, Sebastien; Lavenier, Dominique; Le Bourgeois, Pascal; Francois, Patrice; Schrenzel, Jacques; Hernandez, David; Even, Sergine

2014-01-01

284

High resolution melting PCR to differentiate Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis“cattle type” and “sheep type”  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we describe a novel HRM-PCR assay that clearly differentiates the two main types of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (cattle and sheep) based on the polymorphic variation of a previously described tandem repeat. This modern genotyping technique has several advantages over alternative methods, including cost, ease of use and rapidity.

Pierre E. Douarre; William Cashman; Jim Buckley; Aidan Coffey; Jim O'Mahony

285

Evidence for a Type III Secretion System in Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida  

PubMed Central

Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, the etiological agent of furunculosis, is an important fish pathogen. We have screened this bacterium with a broad-host-range probe directed against yscV, the gene that encodes the archetype of a highly conserved family of inner membrane proteins found in every known type III secretion system. This has led to the identification of seven open reading frames that encode homologues to proteins functioning within the type III secretion systems of Yersinia species. Six of these proteins are encoded by genes comprising a virA operon. The A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida yscV homologue, ascV, was inactivated by marker replacement mutagenesis and used to generate an isogenic ascV mutant. Comparison of the extracellular protein profiles from the ascV mutant and the wild-type strain indicates that A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida secretes proteins via a type III secretion system. The recently identified ADP-ribosylating toxin AexT was identified as one such protein. Finally, we have compared the toxicities of the wild-type A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strain and the ascV mutant against RTG-2 rainbow trout gonad cells. While infection with the wild-type strain results in significant morphological changes, including cell rounding, infection with the ascV mutant has no toxic effect, indicating that the type III secretion system we have identified plays an important role in the virulence of this pathogen.

Burr, Sarah E.; Stuber, Katja; Wahli, Thomas; Frey, Joachim

2002-01-01

286

Fortunella margarita Transcriptional Reprogramming Triggered by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri  

PubMed Central

Background Citrus canker disease caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) has become endemic in areas where high temperature, rain, humidity, and windy conditions provide a favourable environment for the dissemination of the bacterium. Xcc is pathogenic on many commercial citrus varieties but appears to elicit an incompatible reaction on the citrus relative Fortunella margarita Swing (kumquat), in the form of a very distinct delayed necrotic response. We have developed subtractive libraries enriched in sequences expressed in kumquat leaves during both early and late stages of the disease. The isolated differentially expressed transcripts were subsequently sequenced. Our results demonstrate how the use of microarray expression profiling can help assign roles to previously uncharacterized genes and elucidate plant pathogenesis-response related mechanisms. This can be considered to be a case study in a citrus relative where high throughput technologies were utilized to understand defence mechanisms in Fortunella and citrus at the molecular level. Results cDNAs from sequenced kumquat libraries (ESTs) made from subtracted RNA populations, healthy vs. infected, were used to make this microarray. Of 2054 selected genes on a customized array, 317 were differentially expressed (P < 0.05) in Xcc challenged kumquat plants compared to mock-inoculated ones. This study identified components of the incompatible interaction such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and programmed cell death (PCD). Common defence mechanisms and a number of resistance genes were also identified. In addition, there were a considerable number of differentially regulated genes that had no homologues in the databases. This could be an indication of either a specialized set of genes employed by kumquat in response to canker disease or new defence mechanisms in citrus. Conclusion Functional categorization of kumquat Xcc-responsive genes revealed an enhanced defence-related metabolism as well as a number of resistant response-specific genes in the kumquat transcriptome in response to Xcc inoculation. Gene expression profile(s) were analyzed to assemble a comprehensive and inclusive image of the molecular interaction in the kumquat/Xcc system. This was done in order to elucidate molecular mechanisms associated with the development of the hypersensitive response phenotype in kumquat leaves. These data will be used to perform comparisons among citrus species to evaluate means to enhance the host immune responses against bacterial diseases.

2011-01-01

287

Purification of native HBHA from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Background Paratuberculosis remains today a major global problem in animal health, especially for dairy cattle. However, the diagnosis of its etiologic agent, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), still lacks sensitivity because of the lack of available antigens. Little is known about the virulence factors for this pathogen. In this study we have developed a method to produce and purify the heparin-binding hemagglutinin (HBHA), a major adhesin of Mycobacteria, from a culture of Map. Findings For this extremely slow-growing Mycobacterium, a culture was established in a 3-liter bioreactor. Using the bioreactor the amount of the Map biomass was increased 5-fold compared to a classical culture in flasks. The map-HBHA was purified from a Map lysate by heparin-Sepharose chromatography on HiTrap columns. Binding of map-HBHA onto heparin-Sepharose can be reduced in the presence of salt. Consequently, all steps of sample preparation and column equilibration were carried out in 20 mM Tris–HCl (pH 7.2). The map-HBHA was eluted by a linear NaCl gradient. High resolution mass spectrometry analyses revealed that the native form of map-HBHA has posttranslational modifications, including the removal of the initiation methionine, acetylation of the alanine residue at the N-terminal extremity and the presence of methylated lysines in the C-terminal domain of the protein. Conclusions An optimized culture of Map in a bioreactor was established to purify the native map-HBHA from a Map lysate by heparin-Sepharose chromatography. The availability of this antigen offers the possibility to study the structure of the protein and to examine its role in pathogenicity, in particular to better understand the specific interactions of Map with the intestinal tissue. The map-HBHA obtained in its native immunogenic form may also be useful to improve the diagnostic test, especially for the development of a new T-cell-based interferon gamma release assays.

2013-01-01

288

Monoclonal antibody E8-18 identifies an integral membrane surface protein unique to Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae.  

PubMed Central

Monoclonal antibody (MAb) E8-18 reacted with four isolates of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae in Western blots identifying an epitope on a 24 kDa antigen (p24). MAb E8-18 did not react with 11 isolates belonging to four other Mycoplasma species or subspecies closely related to M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae. A combination of trypsin treatment of intact organisms and detergent-phase partitioning revealed p24 to be an integral M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae surface membrane protein.

Rurangirwa, F R; Shompole, P S; Wambugu, A N; Kihara, S M; McGuire, T C

1997-01-01

289

Development and application of oligonucleotide probes for identification of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris.  

PubMed Central

Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris is of considerable interest to the dairy industry, which relies upon the few available strains for the manufacture of cheddar cheese free of fermented and fruity flavors. The subspecies cremoris differs from related subspecies by the lack of a few phenotypic traits. Our purpose was to identify unique rRNA sequences that could be used to discriminate L. lactis subsp. cremoris from related subspecies. The 16S rRNAs from 13 Lactococcus strains were partially sequenced by using reverse transcriptase to identify domains unique to L. lactis subsp. cremoris. All five strains of the subspecies cremoris had a unique base sequence in a hypervariable region located 70 to 100 bases from the 5' terminus. In this region, all L. lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis strains examined had a sequence identical to that of L. lactis subsp. lactis 7962, which was different from other strains of the subspecies lactis by only one nucleotide at position 90 (Escherichia coli 16S rRNA structural model) (J. Brosius, J. L. Palmer, J. P. Kennedy, and H. F. Noller, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75:4801-4805, 1978). Oligonucleotide probes specific for the genus Lactococcus (212RLa) and for the subspecies cremoris (68RCa) were synthesized and evaluated by hybridization to known rRNAs as well as fixed whole cells. Efficient and specific hybridization to the genus-specific probe was observed for the 13 Lactococcus strains tested. No hybridization was seen with the control species. All five strains of the subspecies cremoris hybridized to the subspecies-specific probe. Images

Salama, M; Sandine, W; Giovannoni, S

1991-01-01

290

Mosquitocidal activity of the CryIC delta-endotoxin from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai.  

PubMed Central

The cloned 135-kDa CryIC delta-endotoxin from Bacillus thuringiensis is a lepidopteran-active toxin, displaying high activity in vivo against Spodoptera litoralis and Spodoptera frugiperda larvae and in vitro against the S. frugiperda Sf9 cell line. Here, we report that the CryIC delta-endotoxin cloned from B. thuringienesis subsp. aizawai HD-229 and expressed in an acrystalliferous B. thuringiensis strain is also toxic to Aedes aegypti, Anophles gambiae, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito larvae. Furthermore, when solubilized and proteolytically activated by insect gut extracts, CryIC is cytotoxic to cell lines derived from the first two of these dipteran insects. This activity was not observed for two other lepidopteran-active delta-endotoxins, CryIA(a) and CryIA(c). However, in contrast to the case with a lepidopteran and dipteran delta-endotoxin cloned from B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai IC1 (M.Z. Haider, B. H. Knowles, and D. J. Ellar, Eur. J. Biochem. 156:531-540, 1986), no differences in the in vitro specificity or processing of CryIC were found when it was activated by lepidopteran or dipteran gut extract. The recombinant CryIC delta-endotoxin expressed in Escherichia coli was also toxic to A. aegypti larvae. By contrast, a second cryIC gene cloned from B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai 7.29 (V. Sanchis, D. Lereclus, G. Menou, J. Chaufaux, S. Guo, and M. M. Lecadet, Mol. Microbiol. 3:229-238, 1989) was nontoxic. DNA sequencing showed that the two genes were identical. However, CryIC from B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai 7.29 had been cloned with a truncated C terminus, and when it was compared with the full-length CryIC delta-endotoxin, it was found to be insoluble under alkaline reducing conditions. These results show that CryIC from B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai is a dually active delta-endotoxin.

Smith, G P; Merrick, J D; Bone, E J; Ellar, D J

1996-01-01

291

Exopolysaccharide Expression in Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris Ropy352: Evidence for Novel Gene Organization?  

PubMed Central

Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris Ropy352 produces two distinct heteropolysaccharides, phenotypically described as ropy and mucoid, when cultured in nonfat milk. One exopolysaccharide precipitated with 50% ethanol as a series of elongated threads and was composed of glucose and galactose in a molar ratio of 3:2. The second exopolysaccharide precipitated with 75% ethanol as a fine flocculant and consisted of galactose, glucose, and mannose with a molar ratio of 67:21:12. A mutant strain, L. lactis subsp. cremoris EK240, lacking the ropy phenotype did not produce the exopolysaccharide that precipitated with 50% ethanol; however, it produced the exopolysaccharide that precipitated with 75% ethanol, indicating that the former exopolysaccharide is essential for the ropy phenotype. Cultures of L. lactis subsp. cremoris Ropy352 in 10% nonfat milk reached a viscosity of 25 Pa-s after 24 h, while those of the nonropy L. lactis subsp. cremoris EK240 mutant did not change. A mutation abolishing ropy exopolysaccharide expression mapped to a region on a plasmid containing two open reading frames, epsM and epsN, encoding novel glycosyltransferases bordered by ISS1 elements oriented in the same direction. Sequencing of this plasmid revealed two other regions involved in exopolysaccharide expression, an operon located between partial IS981 and IS982 elements, and an independent gene, epsU. Two and possibly three of these regions are involved in L. lactis subsp. cremoris Ropy352 exopolysaccharide expression and are arranged in a novel fashion different from that of typical lactococcal exopolysaccharide loci, and this provides genetic evidence for exopolysaccharide gene reorganization and evolution in Lactococcus.

Knoshaug, Eric P.; Ahlgren, Jeff A.; Trempy, Janine E.

2007-01-01

292

The nuclear interactor PYL8/RCAR3 of Fagus sylvatica FsPP2C1 is a positive regulator of abscisic acid signaling in seeds and stress.  

PubMed

The functional protein phosphatase type 2C from beechnut (Fagus sylvatica; FsPP2C1) was a negative regulator of abscisic acid (ABA) signaling in seeds. In this report, to get deeper insight on FsPP2C1 function, we aim to identify PP2C-interacting partners. Two closely related members (PYL8/RCAR3 and PYL7/RCAR2) of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) BetV I family were shown to bind FsPP2C1 in a yeast two-hybrid screening and in an ABA-independent manner. By transient expression of FsPP2C1 and PYL8/RCAR3 in epidermal onion (Allium cepa) cells and agroinfiltration in tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) as green fluorescent protein fusion proteins, we obtained evidence supporting the subcellular localization of both proteins mainly in the nucleus and in both the cytosol and the nucleus, respectively. The in planta interaction of both proteins in tobacco cells by bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays resulted in a specific nuclear colocalization of this interaction. Constitutive overexpression of PYL8/RCAR3 confers ABA hypersensitivity in Arabidopsis seeds and, consequently, an enhanced degree of seed dormancy. Additionally, transgenic 35S:PYL8/RCAR3 plants are unable to germinate under low concentrations of mannitol, NaCl, or paclobutrazol, which are not inhibiting conditions to the wild type. In vegetative tissues, Arabidopsis PYL8/RCAR3 transgenic plants show ABA-resistant drought response and a strong inhibition of early root growth. These phenotypes are strengthened at the molecular level with the enhanced induction of several ABA response genes. Both seed and vegetative phenotypes of Arabidopsis 35S:PYL8/RCAR3 plants are opposite those of 35S:FsPP2C1 plants. Finally, double transgenic plants confirm the role of PYL8/RCAR3 by antagonizing FsPP2C1 function and demonstrating that PYL8/RCAR3 positively regulates ABA signaling during germination and abiotic stress responses. PMID:19889877

Saavedra, Xandra; Modrego, Abelardo; Rodríguez, Dolores; González-García, Mary Paz; Sanz, Luis; Nicolás, Gregorio; Lorenzo, Oscar

2010-01-01

293

Impacts of repeated timber skidding on the chemical properties of topsoil, herbaceous cover and forest floor in an eastern beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) stand.  

PubMed

In this study, long-term timber skidding effects on herbaceous understory forest floor and soil were investigated on a skid road in a stand of the eastern beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky). For this purpose, herbaceous understory forest floor and soil samples were collected from the skid road and from an undisturbed area used as a control plot. The mass (kg ha(-1)) of herbaceous and forest floor samples was determined, and soil characteristics were examined at two depths (0-5 cm and 5-10 cm). We quantified sand, silt and clay content, as well as bulk density compaction, pH, and organic carbon content in soil samples. The quantities of N, K, P, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu were determined in all herbaceous cover forest floor and soil samples. The quantities of Na, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn in herbaceous understory samples from the skid road were considerably higher than those in the undisturbed area, while the quantity of Mg was considerably lower. These differences could have been caused by decreased herbaceous cover in addition to variations in the properties of the forest floor and soil after skidding. A lower amount of forest floor on the skid road was the result of skidding and harvesting activities. Mg and Zn contents in forest floor samples were found to be considerably lower for the skid road than for the undisturbed area. No significant differences were found in soil chemical properties (quantities of N, P, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn) at the 0-5 cm soil depth. Important differences exist between soil quantities of Mg at a 5-10 cm depth on the skid road and in undisturbed areas. Both 0-5 cm and 5-10 cm soil depths, the average penetrometer resistance values for the skid road was higher than for the undisturbed area. This result shows that the compaction caused by skidding is maintained to depth of 10 cm. Skid road soil showed higher bulk density values than undisturbed areas because of compaction. PMID:21186723

Demir, Murat; Makineci, Ender; Comez, Aydin; Yilmaz, Ersel

2010-07-01

294

N2 fixation and cycling in Alnus glutinosa, Betula pendula and Fagus sylvatica woodland exposed to free air CO2 enrichment.  

PubMed

We measured the effect of elevated atmospheric CO(2) on atmospheric nitrogen (N(2)) fixation in the tree species Alnus glutinosa growing in monoculture or in mixture with the non-N(2)-fixing tree species Betula pendula and Fagus sylvatica. We addressed the hypotheses that (1) N(2) fixation in A. glutinosa will increase in response to increased atmospheric CO(2) concentrations, when growing in monoculture, (2) the impact of elevated CO(2) on N(2) fixation in A. glutinosa is the same in mixture and in monoculture and (3) the impacts of elevated CO(2) on N cycling will be evident by a decrease in leaf ?(15)N and by the soil-leaf enrichment factor (EF), and that these impacts will not differ between mixed and single species stands. Trees were grown in a forest plantation on former agricultural fields for four growing seasons, after which the trees were on average 3.8 m tall and canopy closure had occurred. Atmospheric CO(2) concentrations were maintained at either ambient or elevated (by 200 ppm) concentrations using a free-air CO(2) enrichment (FACE) system. Leaf ?(15)N was measured and used to estimate the amount (N(dfa)) and proportion (%N(dfa)) of N derived from atmospheric fixation. On average, 62% of the N in A. glutinosa leaves was from fixation. The %N(dfa) and N(dfa) for A. glutinosa trees in monoculture did not increase under elevated CO(2), despite higher growth rates. However, N(2) fixation did increase for trees growing in mixture, despite the absence of significant growth stimulation. There was evidence that fixed N(2) was transferred from A. glutinosa to F. sylvatica and B. pendula, but no evidence that this affected their CO(2) response. The results of this study show that N(2) fixation in A. glutinosa may be higher in a future elevated CO(2) world, but that this effect will only occur where the trees are growing in mixed species stands. PMID:22179329

Millett, Jonathan; Godbold, Douglas; Smith, Andrew R; Grant, Helen

2012-06-01

295

Draft Genome Sequence of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Strain CECT 8145, Able To Improve Metabolic Syndrome In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis strain CECT 8145 is able to reduce body fat content and improve metabolic syndrome biomarkers. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this strain, which may provide insights into its safety status and functional role.

Chenoll, E.; Codoner, F. M.; Silva, A.; Martinez-Blanch, J. F.; Martorell, P.; Ramon, D.

2014-01-01

296

Draft Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serotype Saintpaul Strain S-70, Isolated from an Aquatic Environment  

PubMed Central

Salmonella is a pathogen of worldwide importance, causing disease in a vast range of hosts, including humans. We report the genome sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Saintpaul strain S-70, isolated from an aquatic environment.

Estrada-Acosta, Mitzi; Medrano-Felix, Andres; Jimenez, Maribel; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Leon-Felix, Josefina; Amarillas, Luis

2013-01-01

297

The spiFEG Locus in Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius BAA-102 Confers Protection against Nisin U  

PubMed Central

Nisin U is a member of the extended nisin family of lantibiotics. Here we identify the presence of nisin U immunity gene homologues in Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius BAA-102. Heterologous expression of these genes in Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris HP confers protection to nisin U and other members of the nisin family, thereby establishing that the recently identified phenomenon of resistance through immune mimicry also occurs with respect to nisin.

Draper, Lorraine A.; Tagg, John R.; Ross, R. Paul

2012-01-01

298

Enzymatic Ability of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis To Hydrolyze Milk Proteins: Identification and Characterization of Endopeptidase O  

PubMed Central

The proteolytic system of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis was analyzed, and an intracellular endopeptidase (PepO) was identified and characterized. This work reports the first complete cloning, purification, and characterization of a proteolytic enzyme in Bifidobacterium spp. Aminopeptidase activities (general aminopeptidases, proline iminopeptidase, X-prolyl dipeptidylaminopeptidase) found in cell extracts of B. animalis subsp. lactis were higher for cells that had been grown in a milk-based medium than for those grown in MRS. A high specific proline iminopeptidase activity was observed in B. animalis subsp. lactis. Whole cells and cell wall-bound protein fractions showed no caseinolytic activity; however, the combined action of intracellular proteolytic enzymes could hydrolyze casein fractions rapidly. The endopeptidase activity of B. animalis subsp. lactis was examined in more detail, and the gene encoding an endopeptidase O in B. animalis subsp. lactis was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The deduced amino acid sequence for B. animalis subsp. lactis PepO indicated that it is a member of the M13 peptidase family of zinc metallopeptidases and displays 67.4% sequence homology with the predicted PepO protein from Bifidobacterium longum. The recombinant enzyme was shown to be a 74-kDa monomer. Activity of B. animalis subsp. lactis PepO was found with oligopeptide substrates of at least 5 amino acid residues, such as met-enkephalin, and with larger substrates, such as the 23-amino-acid peptide ?s1-casein(f1-23). The predominant peptide bond cleaved by B. animalis subsp. lactis PepO was on the N-terminal side of phenylalanine residues. The enzyme also showed a post-proline secondary cleavage site.

Janer, C.; Arigoni, F.; Lee, B. H.; Pelaez, C.; Requena, T.

2005-01-01

299

Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of Prunus microcarpa C.A. Mey. subsp. tortusa analyzed by simple sequence repeats (SSRs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prunus microcarpa C.A. Mey. subsp. tortusa is a deciduous shrub well adapted to severe winter and dry-hot summer conditions. As the first step to explore the genetic and horticultural potential of P. microcarpa C.A. Mey. subsp. tortusa, we used SSRs to elucidate the genetic variation within its populations dispersed in upper Mesopotamia. We also investigated its phylogenetic relationship with economically

Mehmet Nuri Nas; Yuksel Bolek; Adem Bardak

2011-01-01

300

Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus equorum subsp. equorum Mu2, Isolated from a French Smear-Ripened Cheese  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus equorum subsp. equorum is a member of the coagulase-negative staphylococcus group and is frequently isolated from fermented food products and from food-processing environments. It contributes to the formation of aroma compounds during the ripening of fermented foods, especially cheeses and sausages. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Staphylococcus equorum subsp. equorum Mu2 to provide insights into its physiology and compare it with other Staphylococcus species.

Loux, Valentin; Bento, Pascal; Gibrat, Jean-Francois; Straub, Cecile; Bonnarme, Pascal; Landaud, Sophie; Monnet, Christophe

2012-01-01

301

Genome sequence of Staphylococcus equorum subsp. equorum Mu2, isolated from a French smear-ripened cheese.  

PubMed

Staphylococcus equorum subsp. equorum is a member of the coagulase-negative staphylococcus group and is frequently isolated from fermented food products and from food-processing environments. It contributes to the formation of aroma compounds during the ripening of fermented foods, especially cheeses and sausages. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Staphylococcus equorum subsp. equorum Mu2 to provide insights into its physiology and compare it with other Staphylococcus species. PMID:22933766

Irlinger, Françoise; Loux, Valentin; Bento, Pascal; Gibrat, Jean-François; Straub, Cécile; Bonnarme, Pascal; Landaud, Sophie; Monnet, Christophe

2012-09-01

302

Loop-mediated amplification of the Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis micA gene is highly specific.  

PubMed

Loop-mediated amplification (LAMP) was used to specifically identify Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, causal agent of bacterial canker of tomato. LAMP primers were developed to detect micA, a chromosomally stable gene that encodes a type II lantibiotic, michiganin A, which inhibits growth of other C. michiganensis subspecies. In all, 409 bacterial strains (351 C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis and 58 non-C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis) from a worldwide collection were tested with LAMP to determine its specificity. LAMP results were compared with genetic profiles established using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of seven genes (dnaA, ppaJ, pat-1, chpC, tomA, ppaA, and ppaC). C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis strains produced eight distinct profiles. The LAMP reaction identified all C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis strains and discriminated them from other C. michiganensis subspecies and non-Clavibacter bacteria. LAMP has advantages over immunodiagnostic and other molecular detection methods because of its specificity and isothermal nature, which allows for easy field application. The LAMP reaction is also not affected by as many inhibitors as PCR. This diagnostic tool has potential to provide an easy, one-step test for rapid identification of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. PMID:23802869

Yasuhara-Bell, Jarred; Kubota, Ryo; Jenkins, Daniel M; Alvarez, Anne M

2013-12-01

303

Comparative polyphasic characterization of Streptococcus phocae strains with different host origin and description of the subspecies Streptococcus phocae subsp. salmonis subsp. nov.  

PubMed

A polyphasic study was undertaken to clarify the taxonomic position of Streptococcus phocae strains isolated from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) cage-farmed in Chile. Four salmon and three seal isolates showed minor differences in the SDS-PAGE protein analysis. Thus, a major protein band present in the salmon isolates, of approximately 22.4 kDa, was absent in the pinniped strains, regardless of the growth media employed. In addition, the pinniped strains showed protein bands with molecular masses of 71.5 and 14.2 kDa, when grown on trypticase soy agar supplemented with 1% NaCl, or 25.6 kDa, when grown on Columbia blood agar, not present in the Atlantic salmon strains. A high similarity in the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS spectra of the strains was observed, although some minor peaks were absent in the fish isolates. Fatty acid methyl esters from isolates with different host origin significantly (P<0.05) differed in the content of C16:0, C17:0, C18:1?9c, C20:4?6,9,12,15c and summed features 3, 5 and 8. The salmon isolates formed a separate cluster in the phylogenetic analysis of housekeeping genes, separately or as concatenated sequences. Sequence divergences among salmon and seal strains were in the range of inter-subspecies differentiation for groEL (2.5%), gyrB (1.8%), recN (2.1%), rpoB (1.7%) and sodA (2.0%) genes. DNA-DNA hybridization results confirmed those of sequencing, showing reassociation values between seal and salmon strains close to the borderline of species definition. Differences in growth at low temperatures and in the haemolytic capacities were also observed between both groups of isolates. On the basis of all these results, the salmon isolates represent a novel subspecies of S. phocae, for which the name Streptococcus phocae subsp. salmonis subsp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is C-4T (=CECT 7921T=DSM 24768T). The subspecies Streptococcus phocae subsp. phocae subsp. nov. is automatically created. An emended description of S. phocae is also provided. PMID:24573159

Avendaño-Herrera, Ruben; Balboa, Sabela; Castro, Nuria; González-Contreras, Alberto; Magariños, Beatriz; Fernández, Jorge; Toranzo, Alicia E; Romalde, Jesús L

2014-05-01

304

Proteomic approach for identification of immunogenic proteins of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri.  

PubMed

In this study, an immunoproteomic approach was used to identify immunodominant proteins from Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri isolates. Membrane proteins, extracted through TX-114 phase partitioning, were separated using mono- and two-dimensional electrophoresis and detected by Western blotting with pooled sera from naturally infected goats. A total of 27 immunoreactive spots, corresponding to 13 different proteins, were identified using nanoLC-ESI-MSMS. Function annotation revealed that most of these proteins were metabolic enzymes involved in carbohydrate and energy metabolism. The immunogenic proteins identified in this study: pyruvate dehydrogenase, dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase, dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase, phosphate acetyltransferase, phosphopyruvate hydratase, adenine phopshoribosyltransferase, transketolase, translation elongation factor G, translation elongation factor Ts, FMN-dependent NADH-azoreductase, peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase, inorganic diphosphatase and trigger factor may be used as biomarkers for the serological diagnosis of contagious agalactia caused by M. mycoides subsp. capri. PMID:24090811

Corona, L; Cillara, G; Tola, S

2013-12-27

305

A highly efficient transposon mutagenesis system for the tomato pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis.  

PubMed

A transposon mutagenesis system for Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis was developed based on antibiotic resistance transposons that were derived from the insertion element IS1409 from Arthrobacter sp. strain TM1 NCIB12013. As a prerequisite, the electroporation efficiency was optimized by using unmethylated DNA and treatment of the cells with glycine such that about 5 x 10(6) transformants per microg of DNA were generally obtained. Electroporation of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis with a suicide vector carrying transposon Tn1409C resulted in approximately 1 x 10(3) transposon mutants per pg of DNA and thus is suitable for saturation mutagenesis. Analysis of Tn1409C insertion sites suggests a random mode of transposition. Transposition of Tn1409C was also demonstrated for other subspecies of C. michiganensis. PMID:11763129

Kirchner, O; Gartemann, K H; Zellermann, E M; Eichenlaub, R; Burger, A

2001-11-01

306

Insertion and amplification of foreign genes in the Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis chromosome.  

PubMed Central

The plasmid pE194 is unable to replicate in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (formerly Streptococcus lactis). When linked to resident bacteriophage sequences, pE194 was able to integrate into the L. lactis subsp. lactis chromosome either by Campbell-like recombination or by double crossing over with deletion. Integration occurred into the DNA of the prophage and prevented its multiplication. When a selective pressure was applied to an integrant in which pE194 was flanked by two direct repeats of prophage fragment, amplification of pE194 and the prophage fragment was observed. The pE194 copy number was assessed at six to nine, and amplification was stable upon growth under nonselective conditions. Images

Chopin, M C; Chopin, A; Rouault, A; Galleron, N

1989-01-01

307

Disseminated Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in two wild Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra L.) from Portugal.  

PubMed

Disseminated Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infections were found in two Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra, L. 1758) killed by vehicular trauma in February and March 2010 in Castelo Branco, Portugal. At postmortem examination, the organs showed no significant gross alterations; however, microscopically, both animals had diffuse lymphadenitis with macrophage infiltration and deposition of hyaline material in the center of the lymphoid follicles. Acid-fast organisms were isolated from gastrointestinal tissue samples via bacteriologic culture. These organisms were identified as M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis by IS900 polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Additionally, direct IS900 PCR-positive results were obtained for multiple organs of both animals. This is the first report of MAP infection of otters in Portugal. PMID:23505727

Matos, Ana Cristina; Figueira, Luis; Martins, Maria Helena; Matos, Manuela; Alvares, Sofia; Pinto, Maria Lurdes; Coelho, Ana Cláudia

2013-03-01

308

Three new flavonoids from the seeds of Hippophae rhamnoides subsp. sinensis.  

PubMed

To study the chemical constituents of the seeds of Hippophae rhamnoides subsp. sinensis, three new flavonoids acylated with one monoterpenic acid, named 3-O-?-D-glucosyl-kaempferol-7-O-{2-O-[2(E)-2,6-dimethyl-6-hydroxy-2,7-octadienoyl]}-?-L-rhamnoside (3), 3-O-?-D-sophorosyl-kaempferol-7-O-{3-O-[2(E)-2,6-dimethyl-6-hydroxy-2,7-octadienoyl]}-?-L-rhamnoside (4), and 3-O-?-D-sophorosyl-kaempferol-7-O-{2-O-[2(E)-2,6-dimethyl-6-hydroxy-2,7-octadienoyl]}-?-L-rhamnoside (5), together with four known compounds, were isolated from the seeds of H. rhamnoides subsp. sinensis. Compounds 1 and 2 are reported for the first time from this genus. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and spectral analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR and HR-MS, and by comparison with literature data. PMID:23088442

Zhang, Jing; Gao, Wen; Cao, Min-Sheng; Kong, De-Yun

2012-01-01

309

Is thermotolerance correlated to heat-shock protein synthesis in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis?  

PubMed

Exposure of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis cells to a heat shock at 40 degrees C for 30 min induces thermotolerance, the increased ability of bacterial cells to survive exposure to lethal temperature (52 degrees C for 25 min). This transient state of thermal resistance is accompanied, as in Escherichia coli, by the synthesis of a new set of specific proteins termed heat-shock proteins (Hsps). Pre-treatment of the bacterial cells by antibiotics (streptomycin, spiramycin, kanamycin and erythromycin) known to act on translation, induces the major Hsps synthesis but no thermal protection; conversely, puromycin and amino acid analogues treatments, known to produce abnormal and incomplete peptides, triggers the thermotolerance state without inducing significant Hsps synthesis. These results demonstrate that heat-shock response and induced thermotolerance are not tightly correlated phenomena in L. lactis subsp. lactis. PMID:1445769

Boutibonnes, P; Tranchard, C; Hartke, A; Thammavongs, B; Auffray, Y

1992-07-01

310

[Sequencing and analysis of 16S rDNA sequences for P. cocovenenans subsp farinofermentans].  

PubMed

In order to fix the phylogenetic taxonomic position of P. cocovenenans subsp. farinofermentans and describe its relationships with other closed species, seven primers were designed to amplify and sequence the 16S rDNA of 4 strains of it by using a clonal sequencing or direct sequencing method. The 16S rDNA sequence of the 4 strains were aligned with the 16S rDNA sequences of other species in genus Burkholderia, and the polygenetic tree was produced by using a Clustal V and treeview software. The results showed that P. cocovenenans subsp. farinofermentans was in a high homology with Burkholderia gladioli and Burkholderia cocovenenans, and they formed an independent phylogenetic clustal of genus Burkholderia. PMID:11938985

Jiao, Z; Liu, X; Yang, R; Meng, Z

1999-07-01

311

Multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus hominis subsp. novobiosepticus causing septicemia in patients with malignancy.  

PubMed

A new subspecies of Staphylococcus hominis described by Kloos et al. in 1998 and named S. hominis subsp. novobiosepticus (SHN) has been implicated in nosocomial outbreaks. Multidrug resistance, including resistance to novobiocin and oxacillin, is a particularly important feature of SHN. In our institute, we encountered 13 cases of S. hominis subsp. hominis in cancer patients with septicemia, of which seven were methicillin resistant. The isolates were identified by VITEK ® 2 compact automated system, using GP REF 21342 identification card and antimicrobial susceptibility testing card P-628. The biochemical reactions and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the seven methicillin-resistant isolates were re-analyzed and patient details were re-checked to finally identify them as SHN. The increasing number of cases reporting isolation of SHN from biological specimens point to potential virulence and clinical importance of this bacterium. PMID:24943764

Roy, Priyamvada; Ahmed, Nishat Hussain; Biswal, Indu; Grover, Rajesh Kumar

2014-01-01

312

Two cDNA clones (FsDhn1 and FsClo1) up-regulated by ABA are involved in drought responses in Fagus sylvatica L. seeds.  

PubMed

Two abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive clones (FsDhn1 and FsClo1) were isolated from a cDNA library of ABA-treated seeds of Fagus sylvatica L. FsDhn1 codes for type-II late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins, also known as dehydrins. The corresponding transcripts were ABA-induced and expressed when seeds were artificially dried. FsClo1 codes for a caleosin, a calcium-binding protein. By expressing FsCLO1 as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli, we obtained biochemical evidence of its ability to bind calcium, a second messenger involved in ABA signaling. This cDNA clone is seed specific, shows a LEA expression pattern and is also induced by ABA and dehydration treatments. The relationship of both genes with seed responses to ABA is discussed. PMID:18343532

Jiménez, Jesús Angel; Alonso-Ramírez, Ana; Nicolás, Carlos

2008-11-28

313

Oligonucleotide Microarray Technology and its Application to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Research: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microarrays represent a modern powerful technology, which have potential applications in many areas of biological research\\u000a and provide new insights into the genomics and transcriptomics of living systems. The aim of this review is to describe the\\u000a application of microarray technology for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) research. The main focus points include a summary of results obtained for MAP

Radka Pribylova; Petr Kralik; Ivo Pavlik

2009-01-01

314

A negative regulator mediates quorum-sensing control of exopolysaccharide production in Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classical quorum-sensing (autoinduction) regulation, as exemplified by the lux system of Vibrio fischeri, requires N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) signals to stimulate cognate transcriptional activators for the cell density-dependent expression of specific target gene systems. For Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, a bacterial pathogen of sweet corn and maize, the extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) stewartan is a major virulence factor, and its production

S. B. von Bodman; D R Majerczak; D L Coplin

1998-01-01

315

Composition, enantiomeric distribution, and antimicrobial activity of Tanacetum argenteum subsp. flabellifolium essential oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tanacetum argenteum (Lam.) Willd. subsp. flabellifolium (Boiss. & Heldr.) Grierson of Asteraceae is an endemic species in Turkey. Hydrodistillation of aerial parts using a Clevenger apparatus yielded an essential oil, which was subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC–MS). ?-Pinene (29%), (E)-sesquilavandulol (16%), and camphor (14%) were found as main constituents. Enantiomeric distribution of the monoterpenes ?-pinene and camphor was

Nurhayat Tabanca; Fatih Demirci; Betül Demirci; David E. Wedge; K. Hüsnü Can Baser

2007-01-01

316

Anaerobic biotransformation of dinitrotoluene isomers by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis strain 27 isolated from earthworm intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dinitrotoluenes are widely used as solvents and are intermediates in the synthesis of dyes, explosives, and pesticides. Environmental concerns regarding DNTs have increased due to their widespread use and their discharge into the environment. In this study, the anaerobic biodegradation of four dinitrotoluene isomers, 2,3-, 2,4-, 2,6- and 3,4-DNT, was investigated using Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis strain 27, which was

Kwang-Hee Shin; Yoongho Lim; Joong-Hoon Ahn; Jinmo Khil; Chang-Joon Cha; Hor-Gil Hur

2005-01-01

317

Antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of Hypericum hircinum L. subsp. majus (Aiton) N. Robson essential oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to assess the antioxidant and antiproliferative potential of the essential oil of Hypericum hircinum L. subsp. majus (Aiton) N. Robson. Analysis of the oil composition revealed that sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (69.3%) dominate, cis-?-guaiene, ?-selinene and (E)-caryophyllene being the most representative. Significant values of antioxidant activity were found using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assays.

Luana Quassinti; Giulio Lupidi; Filippo Maggi; Gianni Sagratini; Fabrizio Papa; Sauro Vittori; Armandodoriano Bianco; Massimo Bramucci

2012-01-01

318

Soil bacteria Pseudomonas putida and Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans inactivate triclosan in liquid and solid substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent that has been incorporated into many household and medical products. Bacteria with high levels of triclosan resistance were isolated from compost, water, and soil samples. Two of these bacteria, Pseudomonas putida TriRY and Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans TR1, were able to use triclosan as a sole carbon source and clear particulate triclosan from agar.

Maura J. Meade; Rebecca L. Waddell; Terrence M. Callahan

2001-01-01

319

Seed germination ecology of the threatened endemic Iberian Delphinium fissum subsp. sordidum (Ranunculaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeds of Delphinium fissum subsp. sordidum are physiologically dormant at maturity, with underdeveloped embryos; thus they have morphophysiological dormancy (MPD).\\u000a The aims of this study were to determine the requirements for embryo growth, dormancy break and germination, to characterise\\u000a the type of seed dormancy and to evaluate the effects of light, seed age, pollination mechanism, and inter-annual and inter-population\\u000a variability

José M. Herranz; Pablo Ferrandis; Esmeralda Martínez-Duro

2010-01-01

320

Experimental Paratuberculosis in Calves following Inoculation with a Rabbit Isolate of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of wildlife species in the epidemiology of paratuberculosis has been the subject of increased research efforts following the discovery of natural paratuberculosis in free-living rabbits from farms in east Scotland. This paper describes the experimental inoculation of young calves with an isolate of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis recovered from a free-living rabbit. After a 6-month incubation period, all

P. M. Beard; K. Stevenson; A. Pirie; K. Rudge; D. Buxton; S. M. Rhind; M. C. Sinclair; L. A. Wildblood; D. G. Jones; J. M. Sharp

2001-01-01

321

Collagenolytic activity of a cell wall preparation from Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. necrophorum.  

PubMed

A collagenolytic preparation of Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. necrophorum was derived from the bacterial cell. It was further treated for gel permeation with Toyopearl HW 50, followed by Sepharose 4B column chromatography. In sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the final preparation exhibited one definite band and at least one faint band. It was inactivated completely by adjusting the pH to 4.0 or by heating at 80 degrees C for 30 min. PMID:11548204

Okamoto, K; Kanoe, M; Watanabe, T

2001-01-01

322

Restoring catalase activity in Staphylococcus aureus subsp. anaerobius leads to loss of pathogenicity for lambs.  

PubMed

Staphylococcus aureus subsp. anaerobius, a microaerophilic and catalase-negative bacterium, is the etiological agent of abscess disease, a specific chronic condition of sheep and goats, which is characterized by formation of necrotic lesions that are located typically in superficial lymph nodes. We constructed an isogenic mutant of S. aureus subsp. anaerobius (RDKA84) that carried a repaired and functional catalase gene from S. aureus ATCC 12600, to investigate whether the lack of catalase in S. aureus subsp. anaerobius plays a role in its physiological and pathogenic characteristics. The catalase activity had no apparent influence on the in vitro growth characteristics of RDKA84, which, like the wild-type, did not grow on aerobically incubated agar plates. Restoration of catalase activity in RDKA84 substantially increased resistance to H2O2 when analyzed in a death assay. The intracellular survival rates of the catalase-positive mutant RDKA84 in polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) isolated from adult sheep were significantly higher than those of the wild-type, while no differences were found with PMN isolated from lambs. RDKA84 showed significantly lower survival rates in murine macrophages (J774A.1 cells) than the wild-type strains did, whereas, in bovine mammary epithelial cells (MAC-T), no differences in intracellular survival were observed. Interestingly, the virulence for lambs, the natural host for abscess disease, of the catalase-positive mutant RDKA84 was reduced dramatically in comparison with wild-type S. aureus subsp. anaerobius in two experimental models of infection. PMID:20167202

de la Fuente, Ricardo; Díez, Rosa M; Domínguez-Bernal, Gustavo; Orden, José A; Martínez-Pulgarín, Susana

2010-01-01

323

Antibacterial activities of naturally occurring compounds against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.  

PubMed

The antibacterial activities of 18 naturally occurring compounds (including essential oils and some of their isolated constituents, apple and green tea polyphenols, and other plant extracts) against three strains of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (a bovine isolate [NCTC 8578], a raw-milk isolate [806R], and a human isolate [ATCC 43015]) were evaluated using a macrobroth susceptibility testing method. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was grown in 4 ml Middlebrook 7H9 broth containing 10% oleic acid-albumin-dextrose-catalase, 0.05% Tween 80 (or 0.2% glycerol), and 2 microg/ml mycobactin J supplemented with five concentrations of each test compound. The changes in the optical densities of the cultures at 600 nm as a measure of CFU were recorded at intervals over an incubation period of 42 days at 37 degrees C. Six of the compounds were found to inhibit the growth of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The most effective compound was trans-cinnamaldehyde, with a MIC of 25.9 microg/ml, followed by cinnamon oil (26.2 microg/ml), oregano oil (68.2 microg/ml), carvacrol (72.2 microg/ml), 2,5-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (74 microg/ml), and 2-hydroxy-5-methoxybenzaldehyde (90.4 microg/ml). With the exception of carvacrol, a phenolic compound, three of the four most active compounds are aldehydes, suggesting that the structure of the phenolic group or the aldehyde group may be important to the antibacterial activity. No difference in compound activity was observed between the three M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains studied. Possible mechanisms of the antimicrobial effects are discussed. PMID:18676709

Wong, Stella Y Y; Grant, Irene R; Friedman, Mendel; Elliott, Christopher T; Situ, Chen

2008-10-01

324

Three new flavonoids, hippophins K-M, from the seed residue of Hippophae rhamnoides subsp. sinensis.  

PubMed

Three new flavonol glycosides (1-3), hippophins K-M, were isolated from the seed residue of Hippophae rhamnoides subsp. sinensis. The chemical structures of these three new compounds were identified by 1D, 2D NMR, mass spectroscopy and high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry spectroscopic data and by comparison with the literature data. This report is a continuous research work on the systematic chemical investigation of plants of the genus Hippophae in our laboratory. PMID:24007530

Chen, Chao; Gao, Wen; Ou-Yang, Dan-Wei; Zhang, Jing; Kong, De-Yun

2014-01-01

325

PepR1, a CcpA-like transcription regulator of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The PepR1 protein from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis DSM 7290 shares extensive homology with catabolite-control proteins from various Gram- positive bacteria. Expression of the subcloned pepR1 gene allowed for partial complementation of a ccpA defect in Staphylococcus xylosus. The influence of PepR1 on transcription of the prolidase gene pepQ, which is located adjacent to pepR1, was examined by use of

Joachim Schick; Beate Weber; R. Klein; Bernhard Henrich; Fachbereich Biologie

326

The Essential Oils of Calamintha nepeta subsp. glandulosa and Ziziphora clinopodioides from Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oils of two wild growing plants used as herbal tea and mintlike spice in Turkey, Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi subsp. glandulosa (Req.) P. W. Ball and Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. were analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. Twenty-three components were identified in both oils with pulegone (42.0%) and piperitenone (40.4%) being the major components in the Calamintha oil, and pulegone

Attila Akgül; Herman L. De Pooter; Laurent F. De Buyck

1991-01-01

327

Application of IS900 PCR for Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Directly from Raw Milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay was developed for detection of insertion sequence 900 (IS900 )o fMycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculo- sis in raw milk. This IS900 PCR assay included DNA extraction and PCR assay using commercially available kits. The DNA extraction and PCR assay were opti- mized to detect the IS900 sequence directly from raw milk. The IS900 PCR assay

S. R. Pillai; B. M. Jayarao

2002-01-01

328

Avian wildlife reservoir of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni, Yersinia spp., and Salmonella spp. in Norway.  

PubMed

Cloacal swabs from 540 wild-living birds were cultured for Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni, Yersinia spp., and Salmonella spp. The carrier rates detected were as follows: C. fetus subsp. jejuni, 28.4%; Yersinia spp., 1.2%; and Salmonella spp., 0.8%. All birds were apparently healthy when captured. C. fetus subsp. jejuni was isolated from 11 of the 40 bird species examined. Among birds inhabiting the city of Oslo, the highest isolation rate was found in crows (Corvus corone cornix) (89.8%), followed by gulls (Larus spp.) (50.0%) and domestic pigeons (Columba livia domesticus) (4.2%). The gulls and crows scavenge on refuse dumps. High carrier rates were also detected among the following birds from nonurban, coastal areas: puffin (Fratercula arctica) (51.3%), common tern (Sterna hirundo) (5.6%), common gull (Larus canus) (18.9%), black-headed gull (Larus ridibundus) (13.2%), and herring gull (Larus argentatus) (4.2%). The list of species harboring C. fetus subsp. jejuni also includes the Ural owl (Strix uralensis), goldeneye (Bucephala clangula), and reed bunting (Emberiza schoeniclus). The following five Yersinia strains were isolated: Y. kristensenii (two strains), Y. intermedia (two strains), and "Yersinia X2" (one strain). Four strains belonging to the genus Salmonella were isolated from three different species of gulls. These isolates were identified as S. typhimurium, S. indiana, and S. djugu. The results indicate that campylobacters are a normal component of the intestinal flora in several bird species, whereas Salmonella and Yersinia carriers are more sporadic. PMID:6338824

Kapperud, G; Rosef, O

1983-02-01

329

Molecular Characterization of Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Typhimurium Isolates from Swine  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a longitudinal study of antimicrobial resistance among salmonellae isolated from swine, we studied 484 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium (including serovar Typhimurium var. Copenhagen) isolates. We found two common pentaresistant phenotypes. The first was resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline (the AmCmStSuTe phenotype; 36.2% of all isolates), mainly of the definitive type 104 (DT104)

Wondwossen Abebe Gebreyes; Craig Altier

330

Molecular Characterization of Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Typhimurium Isolates from Swine  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a longitudinal study of antimicrobial resistance among salmonellae isolated from swine, we studied 484 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium (including serovar Typhimurium var. Copenhagen) isolates. We found two common pentaresistant phenotypes. The first was resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline (the AmCmStSuTe phenotype; 36.2% of all isolates), mainly of the definitive type 104 (DT104)

Wondwossen Abebe Gebreyes; Craig Altier

2002-01-01

331

Cloning and Characterization of a Novel tuf Promoter from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis IL1403  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic engineering of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) requires a reliable gene expression system. Especially, a stable promoter\\u000a is an important genetic element to induce gene expression in such a system. We report on a novel tuf promoter (Ptuf) of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis IL1403 that was screened and selected through analysis of previously published microarray data. Ptuf activity was examined

Eun Bae Kim; Da Chuan Piao; Jee Soo Son; Yun Jaie Choi

2009-01-01

332

Inhibition of polygalacturonase and polygalacturonic acid lyase from Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora by phenolics in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The phenolic acids benzoic, caffeic, chlorogenic, ferulic, p-coumaric, protocatechuic, salicylic, sinapic, syringic and vanillic\\u000a together with vanillin, were tested for their ability to inhibit polygalacturonic acid lyase (PL) and polygalacturonase (PG)\\u000a in culture filtrates ofErwinia carotovora subsp.carotovora. None of the compounds inhibited PL at 200 ?g\\/ml, although syringic and sinapic acids caused a 54% and 43% reduction respectively\\u000a at 400

G. D. Lyon; Fiona M. McGill

1989-01-01

333

Identification of a carbenicillin-hydrolyzing beta-lactamase in Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. xylosoxydans.  

PubMed Central

Eleven strains of Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. xylosoxydans produced a beta-lactamase with a pI of 5.7 with kinetic data characteristic of a PSE-1-type enzyme. A CARB-type enzyme was identified by using an intragenic DNA probe of blaCARB. Hybridization of genomic DNA after XbaI restriction and pulsed-field electrophoresis suggested a chromosomal location for the gene.

Decre, D; Arlet, G; Bergogne-Berezin, E; Philippon, A

1995-01-01

334

Carbon assimilation, translocation and respiration in Fagus sylvatica and Abies alba stands measured by gas exchange and isotopic techniques during two contrasting climatic years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global warming is tremendously influencing the climate of mountain areas through constantly rising temperatures and changes in local hydrological cycle. Increase of precipitation extremes, seasonal shifts of rainfall regime, heat waves are becoming more and more frequent events here. Vulnerability and plasticity of the local individual tree species under changing climate has still to be evaluated under field conditions. Two consecutive years, 2012 and 2013 were quite distinct in the climatic conditions during the plant growing season. Summer 2012 was characterized by a prolonged summer drought with almost no precipitation in central Italy from the end of May up to the end of August. The situation was aggravated by a very dry winter during this year. Mean annual temperatures in 2012 were 2oC higher in respect to the temperatures measured in the last 10 years. Conversely, year 2013 was milder with occasional rain events also during the summer months and temperatures close to the average values. In the Alpine zone the difference between two years were less pronounced with 2012 being slightly warmer than average and 2013 was characterized by unusually abundant spring precipitations. Taking advantage of these two contrasting years, we have monitored a functional response of one deciduous and one coniferous mountain forest stands growing in different mountain climate zones to variations in the local climate. The first, a deciduous European beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest, is located in the Appennine region of Italy at 1700 m height (Collelongo site, AQ) and characterized by a Mountain-Mediterranean climate. The second is a mixed forest dominated by Silver fir (Abies alba) which was chosen as a target species for our study. The site is located at 1350m height in the south-eastern Alps (Lavarone, TN) and is characterized by a mountain temperate climate. Sampling of plant material and point flux measurements were performed in the beginning, middle and the end of the growing season each year. At the beech site the middle samplings corresponded to the peak of the drought season whereas the last samplings of each year - to recovery phase. Leaves were sampled with three replicates at three heights. Assimilation activity was monitored on the leaf level with a portable LiCor 6400 system. Leaf respiration was measured with the same instrument after keeping the leaves for 30 min in darkness. Recently assimilated soluble sugars as well as bulk leaf organic matter were analysed in the laboratory for their ?13C signature and for sugars quantity and composition. Trunk, root and soil respirations together with their ?13C signatures were measured with closed static chambers by the Keeling plot approach. Phloem was sampled with a bark core aiming to analyse the C isotopic signature and composition of assimilates translocate downward with the phloem flow. A sequence of climatically different growing seasons and detailed analyses of plant material allowed us to evaluate climatically-induced variations in different steps of the C cycle at a plant level and to derive some conclusions on the plasticity of European beech and Silver fir in response to changing climate.

Gavrichkova, Olga; Scartazza, Andrea; Zampedri, Roberto; Cavagna, Mauro; Sottocornola, Matteo; Matteucci, Giorgio; Brugnoli, Enrico

2014-05-01

335

Proteolytic action of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 656 reduces antigenic response to bovine ?-lactoglobulin.  

PubMed

The whey protein ?-lactoglobulin (BLG) is highly allergenic. Lactic acid bacteria can degrade milk proteins. The capacity of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 656 to hydrolyse the major BLG epitopes (V41-K60; Y102-R124; L149-I162) and decrease their recognition by IgE of allergic patients was evaluated. The intensity of BLG degradation was analysed by Tricine SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC. Peptides released were identified by LC-MS/MS and the hydrolysates were tested for their capacity to inhibit IgE binding by ELISA test. L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 656 degraded BLG (35%, 8h). The sequence analysis of the released peptides indicated that this strain degraded three main BLG epitopes. BLG-positive sera (3-5year old children) were used for testing IgE binding inhibition of BLG hydrolysates from the Lactobacillus strain. The hydrolysates were less immuno-reactive (32%) than the heated BLG. L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 656 could be used for developing hypoallergenic dairy products. PMID:23140691

Pescuma, Micaela; Hébert, Elvira María; Rabesona, Hanitra; Drouet, Martine; Choiset, Yvan; Haertlé, Thomas; Mozzi, Fernanda; de Valdez, Graciela Font; Chobert, Jean-Marc

2011-07-15

336

Genome of the actinomycete plant pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus suggests recent niche adaptation.  

PubMed

Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus is a plant-pathogenic bacterium and the causative agent of bacterial ring rot, a devastating agricultural disease under strict quarantine control and zero tolerance in the seed potato industry. This organism appears to be largely restricted to an endophytic lifestyle, proliferating within plant tissues and unable to persist in the absence of plant material. Analysis of the genome sequence of C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus and comparison with the genome sequences of related plant pathogens revealed a dramatic recent evolutionary history. The genome contains 106 insertion sequence elements, which appear to have been active in extensive rearrangement of the chromosome compared to that of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. There are 110 pseudogenes with overrepresentation in functions associated with carbohydrate metabolism, transcriptional regulation, and pathogenicity. Genome comparisons also indicated that there is substantial gene content diversity within the species, probably due to differential gene acquisition and loss. These genomic features and evolutionary dating suggest that there was recent adaptation for life in a restricted niche where nutrient diversity and perhaps competition are low, correlated with a reduced ability to exploit previously occupied complex niches outside the plant. Toleration of factors such as multiplication and integration of insertion sequence elements, genome rearrangements, and functional disruption of many genes and operons seems to indicate that there has been general relaxation of selective pressure on a large proportion of the genome. PMID:18192393

Bentley, Stephen D; Corton, Craig; Brown, Susan E; Barron, Andrew; Clark, Louise; Doggett, Jon; Harris, Barbara; Ormond, Doug; Quail, Michael A; May, Georgiana; Francis, David; Knudson, Dennis; Parkhill, Julian; Ishimaru, Carol A

2008-03-01

337

Expression of putative virulence factors in the potato pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus during infection.  

PubMed

The Gram-positive bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus is the causal agent of bacterial wilt and ring rot of potato. So far, only two proteins have been shown to be essential for virulence, namely a plasmid-encoded cellulase CelA and a hypersensitive response-inducing protein. We have examined the relative expression of CelA and eight putative virulence factors during infection of potato and in liquid culture, using quantitative real-time PCR. The examined putative virulence genes were celB, a cellulase-encoding gene and genes encoding a pectate lyase, a xylanase and five homologues of the Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis pathogenicity factor Pat-1 thought to encode a serine protease. Six of the nine assayed genes were up-regulated during infection of potato, including celA, celB, the xylanase gene, and two of the pat genes. The pectate lyase gene showed only slightly elevated expression, whereas three of the five examined pat genes were down-regulated during infection in potato. Interestingly, the two up-regulated pat genes showed a noticeable sequence difference compared to the three down-regulated pat genes. These results reveal several new proteins that are likely to be involved in Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus pathogenicity. PMID:17846750

Holtsmark, Ingrid; Takle, Gunnhild W; Brurberg, May Bente

2008-02-01

338

Detection of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in tomato seeds using immunomagnetic separation.  

PubMed

The use of pathogen-free plant material is the main strategy for controlling bacterial canker of tomato caused by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. However, detection and isolation of this pathogen from seeds before field or greenhouse cultivation is difficult when the bacterium is at low concentration and associated microbiota are present. Immunomagnetic separation (IMS), based on the use of immunomagnetic beads (IMBs) coated with specific antibodies, was used to capture C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis cells, allowing removal of non-target bacteria from samples before plating on non-selective medium. Different concentrations of IMBs and of two antisera were tested, showing that IMS with 10(6)IMBs/ml coated with a polyclonal antiserum at 1/3200 dilution recovered more than 50% of target cells from initial inocula of 10(3) to 10(0)CFU/ml. Threshold detection was lower than 10CFU/ml even in seed extracts containing seed debris and high populations of non-target bacteria. The IMS permitted C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis isolation from naturally infected seeds with higher sensitivity and faster than direct isolation on the semiselective medium currently used and could become a simple viable system for routinely testing tomato seed lots in phytosanitary diagnostic laboratories. PMID:16631265

de León, L; Siverio, F; Rodríguez, A

2006-10-01

339

Survival and Dormancy of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in the Environment  

PubMed Central

The survival of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was studied by culture of fecal material sampled at intervals for up to 117 weeks from soil and grass in pasture plots and boxes. Survival for up to 55 weeks was observed in a dry fully shaded environment, with much shorter survival times in unshaded locations. Moisture and application of lime to soil did not affect survival. UV radiation was an unlikely factor, but infrared wavelengths leading to diurnal temperature flux may be the significant detrimental component that is correlated with lack of shade. The organism survived for up to 24 weeks on grass that germinated through infected fecal material applied to the soil surface in completely shaded boxes and for up to 9 weeks on grass in 70% shade. The observed patterns of recovery in three of four experiments and changes in viable counts were indicative of dormancy, a hitherto unreported property of this taxon. A dps-like genetic element and relA, which are involved in dormancy responses in other mycobacteria, are present in the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis genome sequence, providing indirect evidence for the existence of physiological mechanisms enabling dormancy. However, survival of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in the environment is finite, consistent with its taxonomic description as an obligate parasite of animals.

Whittington, Richard J.; Marshall, D. Jeff; Nicholls, Paul J.; Marsh, Ian B.; Reddacliff, Leslie A.

2004-01-01

340

Genome of the Actinomycete Plant Pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus Suggests Recent Niche Adaptation? †  

PubMed Central

Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus is a plant-pathogenic bacterium and the causative agent of bacterial ring rot, a devastating agricultural disease under strict quarantine control and zero tolerance in the seed potato industry. This organism appears to be largely restricted to an endophytic lifestyle, proliferating within plant tissues and unable to persist in the absence of plant material. Analysis of the genome sequence of C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus and comparison with the genome sequences of related plant pathogens revealed a dramatic recent evolutionary history. The genome contains 106 insertion sequence elements, which appear to have been active in extensive rearrangement of the chromosome compared to that of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. There are 110 pseudogenes with overrepresentation in functions associated with carbohydrate metabolism, transcriptional regulation, and pathogenicity. Genome comparisons also indicated that there is substantial gene content diversity within the species, probably due to differential gene acquisition and loss. These genomic features and evolutionary dating suggest that there was recent adaptation for life in a restricted niche where nutrient diversity and perhaps competition are low, correlated with a reduced ability to exploit previously occupied complex niches outside the plant. Toleration of factors such as multiplication and integration of insertion sequence elements, genome rearrangements, and functional disruption of many genes and operons seems to indicate that there has been general relaxation of selective pressure on a large proportion of the genome.

Bentley, Stephen D.; Corton, Craig; Brown, Susan E.; Barron, Andrew; Clark, Louise; Doggett, Jon; Harris, Barbara; Ormond, Doug; Quail, Michael A.; May, Georgiana; Francis, David; Knudson, Dennis; Parkhill, Julian; Ishimaru, Carol A.

2008-01-01

341

Cloning and expression of daunorubicin biosynthesis genes from Streptomyces peucetius and S. peucetius subsp. caesius.  

PubMed

Genes for the biosynthesis of daunorubicin (daunomycin) and doxorubicin (adriamycin), important antitumor drugs, were cloned from Streptomyces peucetius (the daunorubicin producer) and S. peucetius subsp. caesius (the doxorubicin producer) by use of the actI/tcmIa and actIII polyketide synthase gene probes. Restriction mapping and Southern analysis of the DNA cloned in a cosmid vector established that the DNA represented three nonoverlapping regions of the S. peucetius subsp. caesius genome. These three regions plus an additional one that hybridized to the same probes are present in the S. peucetius genome, as reported previously (K. J. Stutzman-Engwall and C. R. Hutchinson, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86:3135-3139, 1989). Functional analysis of representative clones from some of these regions in S. lividans, S. peucetius ATCC 29050, S. peucetius subsp. caesius ATCC 27952, and two of its blocked mutants (strains H6101 and H6125) showed that many of the antibiotic production genes reside in the region of DNA represented by the group IV clones. This conclusion is based on the production of epsilon-rhodomycinone, a key intermediate of the daunorubicin pathway, in certain S. lividans transformants and on the apparent complementation of mutations that block daunorubicin biosynthesis in strains H6101 and H6125. Some of the transformants of strains 29050, 27952, and H6125 exhibited substantial overproduction of epsilon-rhodomycinone and daunorubicin. PMID:2345153

Otten, S L; Stutzman-Engwall, K J; Hutchinson, C R

1990-06-01

342

New Type of Antimicrobial Protein Produced by the Plant Pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis  

PubMed Central

It has previously been shown that the tomato pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis secretes a 14-kDa protein, C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis AMP-I (CmmAMP-I), that inhibits growth of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus, the causal agent of bacterial ring rot of potato. Using sequences obtained from tryptic fragments, we have identified the gene encoding CmmAMP-I and we have recombinantly produced the protein with an N-terminal intein tag. The gene sequence showed that CmmAMP-I contains a typical N-terminal signal peptide for Sec-dependent secretion. The recombinant protein was highly active, with 50% growth inhibition (IC50) of approximately 10 pmol, but was not toxic to potato leaves or tubers. CmmAMP-I does not resemble any known protein and thus represents a completely new type of bacteriocin. Due to its high antimicrobial activity and its very narrow inhibitory spectrum, CmmAMP-1 may be of interest in combating potato ring rot disease.

Liu, Zhanliang; Ma, Ping; Holtsmark, Ingrid; Skaugen, Morten; Eijsink, Vincent G. H.

2013-01-01

343

Staphylococcus aureus subsp. anaerobius isolates from different countries are clonal in nature.  

PubMed

Staphylococcus aureus subsp. anaerobius, a microaerophilic, catalase-negative bacteria, is the etiological agent of abscess disease, a specific chronic condition of sheep and goats, characterized by the formation of necrotic lesions that are typically located in superficial lymph nodes. In this study, molecular analysis including pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and accessory gene regulator (agr) typing was carried out on 94 S. aureus subsp. anaerobius strains isolated in different countries (79 were isolated from 35 outbreaks of the disease in Spain from 1981 to 2009, 9 were isolated in Italy, 3 in Denmark and 3 in Sudan). All of the 94 S. aureus subsp. anaerobius isolates examined belonged to one PFGE type, within which four minority subtypes were identified. Representative isolates of all PFGE subtypes as well of all countries belonged to the same sequence type (ST), ST1464, which was a singleton, and to the agr type II. Our results support the view that abscess disease is caused by a single bacterial clone worldwide. This bacterium has existed for at least a century and, thus, has undergone long-term small ruminant host restriction. PMID:21236606

de la Fuente, Ricardo; Ballesteros, Carmen; Bautista, Verónica; Medina, Alberto; Orden, José A; Domínguez-Bernal, Gustavo; Vindel, Ana

2011-05-12

344

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Fibronectin Attachment Protein Activates Dendritic Cells and Induces a Th1 Polarization ?  

PubMed Central

Paratuberculosis is a chronic infectious disorder and a major problem in farmed ruminants. This disease is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis is an important pathogen that causes Johne's disease in animals and also has been implicated as a possible cause of Crohn's disease in humans, but little is known about the protective immune responses to this microorganism. Fibronectin attachment protein (FAP) is a member of a family of fibronectin-binding proteins produced by several species of mycobacteria which is important in the pathogenesis of M. avium. Addition of recombinant FAP to human respiratory tract organ cultures inhibits M. avium binding to areas where there is epithelial damage. We characterized the role of FAP in promoting adaptive and innate immune responses. FAP functionally activated dendritic cells by augmenting the expression of CD80, CD86, major histocompatibility complex class I, and major histocompatibility complex class II. Moreover, FAP induced the allogeneic immunostimulatory capacity of dendritic cells by stimulating dendritic cell production of Th1-promoting interleukin-12. FAP also increased the production of gamma interferon by T cells in mixed-lymphocyte reactions, which would be expected to contribute to the Th1 polarization of the immune response. The expression of surface markers and cytokine production in dendritic cells was mediated by both mitogen-activated protein kinases and NF-?B pathways. These results show that FAP modulates the adaptive immune responses to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis by inducing maturation and activation of dendritic cells, which drives Th1 polarization.

Lee, Jun Sik; Shin, Sung Jae; Collins, Michael T.; Jung, In Duk; Jeong, Young-Il; Lee, Chang-Min; Shin, Yong Kyoo; Kim, Daejin; Park, Yeong-Min

2009-01-01

345

Unmarked insertional mutagenesis in the bovine pathogen Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides small colony (SC) is the aetiologic agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), a respiratory disease causing important losses in cattle production. The publication of the genome sequence of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC should facilitate the identification of putative virulence factors. However, real progress in the study of molecular mechanisms of pathogenicity also requires efficient molecular tools for gene inactivation. In the present study, we have developed a transposon-based approach for the random mutagenesis of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC. A PCR-based screening assay enabled the characterization of several mutants with knockouts of genes potentially involved in pathogenicity. The initial transposon was further improved by combining it with the transposon ?? TnpR/res recombination system to allow the production of unmarked mutations. Using this approach, we isolated a mutant free of antibiotic-resistance genes, in which the gene encoding the main lipoprotein LppQ was disrupted. The mutant was found to express only residual amounts of the truncated N-terminal end of LppQ. This approach opens the way to study virulence factors and pathogen-host interactions of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC and to develop new, genetically defined vaccine strains.

Janis, Carole; Bischof, Daniela; Gourgues, Geraldine; Frey, Joachim; Blanchard, Alain; Sirand-Pugnet, Pascal

2009-01-01

346

Lymphoproliferative and Gamma Interferon Responses to Stress-Regulated Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Recombinant Proteins.  

PubMed

Johne's disease in ruminants is a chronic infection of the intestines caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. An important strategy to control disease is early detection, and a potentially efficient method for early detection is measurement of cell-mediated immune responses developed by the host in response to exposure or infection. One method is to measure lymphoproliferation and cytokine release from the host cells when exposed to the organism or parts of the organism. In this study, 10 recombinant M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis proteins known to be upregulated under in vitro stress conditions were evaluated by examining their ability to evoke memory as a result of exposure by vaccination or oral challenge with live Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Out of 10 proteins, MAP2698c was found to induce higher cell-mediated immune responses in vaccinated and challenged sheep in comparison to healthy controls. The findings suggest that not all stress-regulated proteins have the diagnostic potential to detect cell-mediated immune responses in ovine paratuberculosis. PMID:24695774

Gurung, Ratna B; Begg, Douglas J; Purdie, Auriol C; de Silva, Kumudika; Bannantine, John P; Whittington, Richard J

2014-06-01

347

Phospholipase A2 Inhibitors Synthesized by Two Entomopathogenic Bacteria, Xenorhabdus nematophila and Photorhabdus temperata subsp. temperata  

PubMed Central

The entomopathogenic bacteria Xenorhabdus nematophila and Photorhabdus temperata subsp. temperata suppress insect immune responses by inhibiting the catalytic activity of phospholipase A2 (PLA2), which results in preventing biosynthesis of immune-mediating eicosanoids. This study identified PLA2 inhibitors derived from culture broths of these two bacteria. Both X. nematophila and P. temperata subsp. temperata culture broths possessed significant PLA2-inhibitory activities. Fractionation of these bacterial metabolites in the culture broths using organic solvent and subsequent chromatography purified seven potent PLA2 inhibitors, three of which (benzylideneacetone [BZA], proline-tyrosine [PY], and acetylated phenylalanine-glycine-valine [FGV]) were reported in a previous study. Four other compounds (indole, oxindole, cis-cyclo-PY, and p-hydroxyphenyl propionic acid) were identified and shown to significantly inhibit PLA2. X. nematophila culture broth contained these seven compounds, while P. temperata subsp. temperata culture broth contained three compounds (BZA, acetylated FGV, and cis-cyclo-PY). BZA was detected in the largest amount among these PLA2 compounds in both bacterial culture broths. All seven bacterial metabolites also showed significant inhibitory activities against immune responses, such as phenoloxidase activity and hemocytic nodulation; BZA was the most potent. Finally, this study characterized these seven compounds for their insecticidal activities against the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. Even though these compounds showed relatively low toxicities to larvae, they significantly enhanced the pathogenicity of Bacillus thuringiensis. This study reports bacterial-origin PLA2 inhibitors, which would be applicable for developing novel insecticides.

Seo, Samyeol; Lee, Sunghong; Hong, Yongpyo

2012-01-01

348

Variable surface protein Vmm of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony type.  

PubMed

A variable surface protein, Vmm, of the bovine pathogen Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony type (M. mycoides SC) has been identified and characterized. Vmm was specific for the SC biotype and was expressed by 68 of 69 analyzed M. mycoides SC strains. The protein was found to undergo reversible phase variation at a frequency of 9 x 10(-4) to 5 x 10(-5) per cell per generation. The vmm gene was present in all of the 69 tested M. mycoides SC strains and encodes a lipoprotein precursor of 59 amino acids (aa), where the mature protein was predicted to be 36 aa and was anchored to the membrane by only the lipid moiety, as no transmembrane region could be identified. DNA sequencing of the vmm gene region from ON and OFF clones showed that the expression of Vmm was regulated at the transcriptional level by dinucleotide insertions or deletions in a repetitive region of the promoter spacer. Vmm-like genes were also found in four closely related mycoplasmas, Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum, M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, Mycoplasma sp. bovine serogroup 7, and Mycoplasma putrefaciens. However, Vmm could not be detected in whole-cell lysates of these species, suggesting that the proteins encoded by the vmm-like genes lack the binding epitope for the monoclonal antibody used in this study or, alternatively, that the Vmm-like proteins were not expressed. PMID:12057968

Persson, Anja; Jacobsson, Karin; Frykberg, Lars; Johansson, Karl-Erik; Poumarat, François

2002-07-01

349

PCR-Based Identification of Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis, the Agent of Rhinoscleroma  

PubMed Central

Rhinoscleroma is a chronic granulomatous infection of the upper airways caused by the bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis. The disease is endemic in tropical and subtropical areas, but its diagnosis remains difficult. As a consequence, and despite available antibiotherapy, some patients evolve advanced stages that can lead to disfiguration, severe respiratory impairment and death by anoxia. Because identification of the etiologic agent is crucial for the definitive diagnosis of the disease, the aim of this study was to develop two simple PCR assays. We took advantage of the fact that all Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis isolates are (i) of capsular serotype K3; and (ii) belong to a single clone with diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). The complete sequence of the genomic region comprising the capsular polysaccharide synthesis (cps) gene cluster was determined. Putative functions of the 21 genes identified were consistent with the structure of the K3 antigen. The K3-specific sequence of gene Kr11509 (wzy) was exploited to set up a PCR test, which was positive for 40 K3 strains but negative when assayed on the 76 other Klebsiella capsular types. Further, to discriminate Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis from other K3 Klebsiella strains, a specific PCR assay was developed based on diagnostic SNPs in the phosphate porin gene phoE. This work provides rapid and simple molecular tools to confirm the diagnostic of rhinoscleroma, which should improve patient care as well as knowledge on the prevalence and epidemiology of rhinoscleroma.

Fevre, Cindy; Passet, Virginie; Deletoile, Alexis; Barbe, Valerie; Frangeul, Lionel; Almeida, Ana S.; Sansonetti, Philippe; Tournebize, Regis; Brisse, Sylvain

2011-01-01

350

Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and Bartonella henselae as potential causes of proliferative vascular diseases in animals.  

PubMed

Bartonella species are highly fastidious, vector borne, zoonotic bacteria that cause persistent intraerythrocytic bacteremia and endotheliotropic infection in reservoir and incidental hosts. Based upon prior in vitro research, three Bartonella sp., B. bacilliformis, B. henselae, and B. quintana can induce proliferation of endothelial cells, and each species has been associated with in vivo formation of vasoproliferative tumors in human patients. In this study, we report the molecular detection of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, B. henselae, B. koehlerae, or DNA of two of these Bartonella species simultaneously in vasoproliferative hemangiopericytomas from a dog, a horse, and a red wolf and in systemic reactive angioendotheliomatosis lesions from cats and a steer. In addition, we provide documentation that B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii infections induce activation of hypoxia inducible factor-1 and production of vascular endothelial growth factor, thereby providing mechanistic evidence as to how these bacteria could contribute to the development of vasoproliferative lesions. Based upon these results, we suggest that a fourth species, B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, should be added to the list of bartonellae that can induce vasoproliferative lesions and that infection with one or more Bartonella sp. may contribute to the pathogenesis of systemic reactive angioendotheliomatosis and hemangiopericytomas in animals. PMID:22450733

Beerlage, Christiane; Varanat, Mrudula; Linder, Keith; Maggi, Ricardo G; Cooley, Jim; Kempf, Volkhard A J; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

2012-08-01

351

Co-culturing of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei with a Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii mutant to make high cell density for increased lactate productivity from cassava bagasse hydrolysate.  

PubMed

To increase the productivity of lactic acid, a co-culture of lactobacilli was made by mixing 1:1 ratio of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei and a fast growing L. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii mutant. The culture was embedded on to polyurethane foam (PUF) cubes as a biofilm and used for fermentation. In order to prevent the cell leakage, the PUF cubes were further entrapped in calcium cross-linked alginate. The maximum lactic acid production using a high cell density free culture was >38 g l(-1) from ~40 g l(-1) of reducing sugar within 12 h of fermentation. Using PUF biofilms, the same yield of lactic acid attained after 24 h. When the cubes were further coated with alginate it took 36 h for the maximum yield. Even though, the productivity is slightly lesser with the alginate coating, cell leakage was decreased and cubes were reused without much decrease in production in repeated batches. Using a conventional control inoculum (3%, w/v), it took 120 h to yield same amount of lactic acid. PMID:20972788

John, Rojan Pappy; Nampoothiri, K Madhavan

2011-03-01

352

[Comparative susceptibility of Ochrobactrum anthropi, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Alcaligenes faecalis, Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. denitrificans, Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. xylosidans and Bordetella bronchiseptica against 35 antibiotics including 17 beta-lactams].  

PubMed

Ochrobactrum anthropi, formerly known as "Achromobacter sp." or CDC group Vd has been isolated from water, hospital environment (antiseptic solutions, dialysis fluids ... ). O. anthropi is a Gram negative, motile, strictly aerobic, oxydase positive and non-fermentative bacteria with a strong urease activity. The susceptibility of 13 strains of O. anthropi was determined by agar diffusion method and compared to those of type strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Alcaligenes faecalis, Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. denitrificans, Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. xylosoxydans and Bordetella bronchiseptica. The MICs of 20 antimicrobial agents confirmed the distinct phenotype susceptibility of O. anthropi. All the strains of O. anthropi are sensitive to imipenem, amikacin, gentamicin, netilmicin, nalidixic acid, pefloxacin, ciprofloxacin, tetracyclin, colistin, sulphonamides and rifampicin and resistant to ampicillin, amoxycillin + clavulanic acid, ticarcillin, mezlocillin, cefuroxime, cefamandol, cefoxitin, cefotaxime, cefoperazon, ceftazidime, cefsulodin, aztreonam, streptomycin, kanamycin, pipemidic acid, chloramphenicol, erythromicin, pristinamycin, trimethoprim and fosfomycin. O. anthropi is implicated in nosocomial infections. O. anthropi was the species with the greatest resistance to beta-lactamins. PMID:7567111

Bizet, C; Bizet, J

1995-04-01

353

Mannosylated lipoarabinomannans from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis alters the inflammatory response by bovine macrophages and suppresses killing of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium organisms.  

PubMed

Analysis of the mechanisms through which pathogenic mycobacteria interfere with macrophage activation and phagosome maturation have shown that engagement of specific membrane receptors with bacterial ligands is the initiating event. Mannosylated lipoarabinomannan (Man-LAM) has been identified as one of the ligands that modulates macrophage function. We evaluated the effects of Man-LAM derived from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) on bovine macrophages. Man-LAM induced a rapid and prolonged expression of IL-10 message as well as transient expression of TNF-?. Preincubation with Man-LAM for up to 16 h did not suppress expression of IL-12 in response to interferon-?. Evaluation of the effect of Man-LAM on phagosome acidification, phagosome maturation, and killing of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (MAA) showed that preincubation of macrophages with Man-LAM before addition of MAA inhibited phagosome acidification, phagolysosome fusion, and reduced killing. Analysis of signaling pathways provided indirect evidence that inhibition of killing was associated with activation of the MAPK-p38 signaling pathway but not the pathway involved in regulation of expression of IL-10. These results support the hypothesis that MAP Man-LAM is one of the virulence factors facilitating survival of MAP in macrophages. PMID:24098744

Souza, Cleverson; Davis, William C; Eckstein, Torsten M; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Weiss, Douglas J

2013-01-01

354

Juniperus oxycedrus L. subsp. oxycedrus and Juniperus oxycedrus L. subsp. macrocarpa (Sibth. & Sm.) Ball. "berries" from Turkey: comparative evaluation of phenolic profile, antioxidant, cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities.  

PubMed

This work aimed to evaluate and compare the phenolic profile and some biological properties of the ripe "berries" methanol extracts of Juniperus oxycedrus L. subsp. oxycedrus (Joo) and Juniperus oxycedrus L. subsp. macrocarpa (Sibth. & Sm.) Ball. (Jom) from Turkey. The total phenolic content resulted about 3-fold higher in Jom (17.89±0.23 mg GAE/g extract) than in Joo (5.14±0.06 mg GAE/g extract). The HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS analysis revealed a similar flavonoid fingerprint in Joo and Jom, whereas a difference in their quantitative content was found (4632 ?g/g extract and 12644 ?g/g extract). In addition, three phenolic acids were detected in Jom only (5765 ?g/g extract), and protocatechuic acid was the most abundant one. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was evaluated by different in vitro assays: in the DPPH and in the TBA tests a stronger activity in Jom was highlighted, while Joo exhibited higher reducing power and metal chelating activity. Joo and Jom did not affect HepG2 cell viability and both extracts resulted virtually non-toxic against Artemia salina. The extracts were also studied for their antimicrobial potential, displaying efficacy against Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:23603383

Taviano, Maria Fernanda; Marino, Andreana; Trovato, Ada; Bellinghieri, Valentina; Melchini, Antonietta; Dugo, Paola; Cacciola, Francesco; Donato, Paola; Mondello, Luigi; Güvenç, Ay?egül; De Pasquale, Rita; Miceli, Natalizia

2013-08-01

355

New Triplex Real-Time PCR Assay for Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Bovine Feces?  

PubMed Central

In the present study, a robust TaqMan real-time PCR amplifying the F57 and the ISMav2 sequences of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from bovine fecal samples was developed and validated. The validation was based on the recommendations of International Organization for Standardization protocols for PCR and real-time PCR methods. For specificity testing, 205 bacterial strains were selected, including 105 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains of bovine, ovine, and human origin and 100 non-M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains. Diagnostic quality assurance was obtained by use of an internal amplification control. By investigating six TaqMan reagents from different suppliers, the 100% detection probability was assessed to be 0.1 picogram M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis DNA per PCR. The amplification efficiency was 98.2% for the single-copy gene F57 and 97.8% for the three-copy insertion sequence ISMav2. The analytical method was not limited due to instrument specificity. The triplex real-time PCR allowed the reliable detection of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis DNA using the ABI Prism 7000 sequence detection system, and the LightCycler 1.0. TaqManmgb and locked nucleic acid fluorogenic probes were suitable for fluorescent signal detection. To improve the detection of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis from bovine fecal samples, a more efficient DNA extraction method was developed, which offers the potential for automated sample processing. The 70% limit of detection was assessed to be 102 CFU per gram of spiked bovine feces. Comparative analysis of 108 naturally contaminated samples of unknown M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis status resulted in a relative accuracy of 98.9% and a sensitivity of 94.4% for fecal samples containing <10 CFU/g feces compared to the traditional culture method.

Schonenbrucher, H.; Abdulmawjood, A.; Failing, K.; Bulte, M.

2008-01-01

356

Stable transformation of the gram-positive phytopathogenic bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus with several cloning vectors.  

PubMed Central

In this paper we describe transformation of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus, the potato ring rot bacterium, with plasmid vectors. Three of the plasmids used, pDM100, pDM302, and pDM306, contain the origin of replication from pCM1, a native plasmid of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. We constructed two new cloning vectors, pHN205 and pHN216, by using the origin of replication of pCM2, another native plasmid of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. Plasmids pDM302, pHN205, and pHN216 were stably maintained without antibiotic selection in various strains of C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus. We observed that for a single plasmid, different strains of C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus showed significantly different transformation efficiencies. We also found unexplained strain-to-strain differences in stability with various plasmid constructions containing different arrangements of antibiotic resistance genes and origins of replication. We examined the effect of a number of factors on transformation efficiency. The best transformation efficiencies were obtained when C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus cells were grown on DM agar plates, harvested during the early exponential growth phase, and used fresh (without freezing) for electroporation. The maximal transformation efficiency obtained was 4.6 x 10(4) CFU/microgram of pHN216 plasmid DNA. To demonstrate the utility of this transformation system, we cloned a beta-1,4-endoglucanase-encoding gene from C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus into pHN216. When this construction, pHN216:C8, was electroporated into competent cells of a cellulase-deficient mutant, it restored cellulase production to almost wild-type levels.

Laine, M J; Nakhei, H; Dreier, J; Lehtila, K; Meletzus, D; Eichenlaub, R; Metzler, M C

1996-01-01

357

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis antibody response, fecal shedding, and antibody cross-reactivity to Mycobacterium bovis in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected cattle herds vaccinated against Johne's disease.  

PubMed

Vaccination for Johne's disease with killed inactivated vaccine in cattle herds has shown variable success. The vaccine delays the onset of disease but does not afford complete protection. Johne's disease vaccination has also been reported to interfere with measurements of cell-mediated immune responses for the detection of bovine tuberculosis. Temporal antibody responses and fecal shedding of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, the causative agent of Johne's disease, were measured in 2 dairy cattle herds using Johne's disease vaccine (Mycopar) over a period of 7 years. Vaccination against Johne's disease resulted in positive serum M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis antibody responses in both herds, and the responses persisted in vaccinated cattle up to 7 years of age. Some vaccinated animals (29.4% in herd A and 36.2% in herd B) showed no serological reactivity to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific antibody responses were also detected in milk from Johne's disease-vaccinated animals, but fewer animals (39.3% in herd A and 49.4% in herd B) had positive results with milk than with serum samples. With vaccination against M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, fecal shedding in both dairy herds was reduced significantly (P < 0.001). In addition, when selected Johne's disease-vaccinated and -infected animals were investigated for serological cross-reactivity to Mycobacterium bovis, no cross-reactivity was observed. PMID:24623626

Tewari, Deepanker; Hovingh, Ernest; Linscott, Rick; Martel, Edmond; Lawrence, John; Wolfgang, David; Griswold, David

2014-05-01

358

Novel feature of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, highlighted by characterization of the heparin-binding hemagglutinin adhesin.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis comprises two genotypically defined groups, known as the cattle (C) and sheep (S) groups. Recent studies have reported phenotypic differences between M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis groups C and S, including growth rates, infectivity for macrophages, and iron metabolism. In this study, we investigated the genotypes and biological properties of the virulence factor heparin-binding hemagglutinin adhesin (HBHA) for both groups. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, HBHA is a major adhesin involved in mycobacterium-host interactions and extrapulmonary dissemination of infection. To investigate HBHA in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, we studied hbhA polymorphisms by fragment analysis using the GeneMapper technology across a large collection of isolates genotyped by mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) and IS900 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP-IS900) analyses. Furthermore, we analyzed the structure-function relationships of recombinant HBHA proteins of types C and S by heparin-Sepharose chromatography and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analyses. In silico analysis revealed two forms of HBHA, corresponding to the prototype genomes for the C and S types of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. This observation was confirmed using GeneMapper on 85 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains, including 67 strains of type C and 18 strains of type S. We found that HBHAs from all type C strains contain a short C-terminal domain, while those of type S present a long C-terminal domain, similar to that produced by Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium. The purification of recombinant HBHA from M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis of both types by heparin-Sepharose chromatography highlighted a correlation between their affinities for heparin and the lengths of their C-terminal domains, which was confirmed by SPR analysis. Thus, types C and S of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis may be distinguished by the types of HBHA they produce, which differ in size and adherence properties, thereby providing new evidence that strengthens the genotypic differences between the C and S types of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. PMID:23974028

Lefrancois, Louise H; Bodier, Christelle C; Cochard, Thierry; Canepa, Sylvie; Raze, Dominique; Lanotte, Philippe; Sevilla, Iker A; Stevenson, Karen; Behr, Marcel A; Locht, Camille; Biet, Franck

2013-11-01

359

Novel Feature of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Highlighted by Characterization of the Heparin-Binding Hemagglutinin Adhesin  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis comprises two genotypically defined groups, known as the cattle (C) and sheep (S) groups. Recent studies have reported phenotypic differences between M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis groups C and S, including growth rates, infectivity for macrophages, and iron metabolism. In this study, we investigated the genotypes and biological properties of the virulence factor heparin-binding hemagglutinin adhesin (HBHA) for both groups. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, HBHA is a major adhesin involved in mycobacterium-host interactions and extrapulmonary dissemination of infection. To investigate HBHA in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, we studied hbhA polymorphisms by fragment analysis using the GeneMapper technology across a large collection of isolates genotyped by mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit–variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) and IS900 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP-IS900) analyses. Furthermore, we analyzed the structure-function relationships of recombinant HBHA proteins of types C and S by heparin-Sepharose chromatography and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analyses. In silico analysis revealed two forms of HBHA, corresponding to the prototype genomes for the C and S types of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. This observation was confirmed using GeneMapper on 85 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains, including 67 strains of type C and 18 strains of type S. We found that HBHAs from all type C strains contain a short C-terminal domain, while those of type S present a long C-terminal domain, similar to that produced by Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium. The purification of recombinant HBHA from M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis of both types by heparin-Sepharose chromatography highlighted a correlation between their affinities for heparin and the lengths of their C-terminal domains, which was confirmed by SPR analysis. Thus, types C and S of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis may be distinguished by the types of HBHA they produce, which differ in size and adherence properties, thereby providing new evidence that strengthens the genotypic differences between the C and S types of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

Lefrancois, Louise H.; Bodier, Christelle C.; Cochard, Thierry; Canepa, Sylvie; Raze, Dominique; Lanotte, Philippe; Sevilla, Iker A.; Stevenson, Karen; Behr, Marcel A.; Locht, Camille

2013-01-01

360

Organization and nucleotide sequence of the glutamine synthetase (glnA) gene from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus.  

PubMed Central

A 3.3-kb BamHI fragment of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus DNA was cloned and sequenced. It complements an Escherichia coli glnA deletion strain and hybridizes strongly to a DNA containing the Bacillus subtilis glnA gene. DNA sequence analysis of the L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus DNA showed it to contain the glnA gene encoding class I glutamine synthetase, as judged by extensive homology with other prokaryotic glnA genes. The sequence suggests that the enzyme encoded in this gene is not controlled by adenylylation. Based on a comparison of glutamine synthetase sequences, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus is much closer to gram-positive eubacteria, especially Clostridium acetobutylicum, than to gram-negative eubacteria and archaebacteria. The fragment contains another open reading frame encoding a protein of unknown function consisting of 306 amino acids (ORF306), which is also present upstream of glnA of Bacillus cereus. In B. cereus, a repressor gene, glnR, is found between the open reading frame and glnA. Two proteins encoded by the L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus gene were identified by the maxicell method; the sizes of these proteins are consistent with those of the open reading frames of ORF306 and glnA. The lack of a glnR gene in the L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus DNA in this position may indicate a gene rearrangement or a different mechanism of glnA gene expression. Images

Ishino, Y; Morgenthaler, P; Hottinger, H; Soll, D

1992-01-01

361

Silencing of host basal defense response-related gene expression increases susceptibility of Nicotiana benthamiana to Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis.  

PubMed

Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is an actinomycete, causing bacterial wilt and canker disease of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). We used virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) to identify genes playing a role in host basal defense response to C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis infection using Nicotiana benthamiana as a model plant. A preliminary VIGS screen comprising 160 genes from tomato known to be involved in defense-related signaling identified a set of 14 genes whose suppression led to altered host-pathogen interactions. Expression of each of these genes and three additional targets was then suppressed in larger-scale VIGS experiments and the effect of silencing on development of wilt disease symptoms and bacterial growth during an N. benthamiana-C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis compatible interaction was determined. Disease susceptibility and in planta bacterial population size were enhanced by silencing genes encoding N. benthamiana homologs of ubiquitin activating enzyme, snakin-2, extensin-like protein, divinyl ether synthase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase 2, and Pto-like kinase. The identification of genes having a role in the host basal defense-response to C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis advances our understanding of the plant responses activated by C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis and raises possibilities for devising novel and effective molecular strategies to control bacterial canker and wilt in tomato. PMID:21062112

Balaji, Vasudevan; Sessa, Guido; Smart, Christine D

2011-03-01

362

Emulsifying, rheological and physicochemical properties of exopolysaccharide produced by Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis CCUG 52486 and Bifidobacterium infantis NCIMB 702205.  

PubMed

The rheological, emulsification and certain physicochemical properties of purified exopolysaccharides (EPS) of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis CCUG 52486 and Bifidobacterium infantis NCIMB 702205 were studied and compared with those of guar gum and xanthan gum. The two strains were grown in skim milk supplemented with 1.5% (w/v) casein hydrolysate at 37°C for 24h; they both produced heteropolysaccharides with different molecular mass and composition. The carbohydrate content of both polymers was more than 92% and no protein was detected. The EPS of B. longum subsp. infantis CCUG 52486 showed highly branched entangled porous structure under scanning electron microscopy. Higher intrinsic viscosity was observed for the EPS of B. longum subsp. infantis CCUG 52486 compared to the EPS of B. infantis NCIMB 702205 and guar gum. Both polymers showed pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluid behaviour in an aqueous solution. The EPS of B. infantis NCIMB 702205 and B. longum subsp. infantis CCUG 52486 produced more stable emulsions with orange oil, sunflower seed oil, coconut oil and xylene compared to guar and xanthan gum. The EPS of B. longum subsp. infantis CCUG 52486 is the most promising one for applications in the food industry, as it had higher intrinsic viscosity, higher apparent viscosity in aqueous solution, porous dense entangled structure and good emulsification activity. PMID:24751074

Prasanna, P H P; Bell, A; Grandison, A S; Charalampopoulos, D

2012-09-01

363

Humoral immune responses of type 1 diabetes patients to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis lend support to the infectious trigger hypothesis.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is a zoonotic pathogen whose association with Crohn's disease in humans is under scrutiny. The objective of this work was to investigate its association with other chronic diseases such as type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), where the involvement of a persistent pathogen such as M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis could be the trigger. For this purpose, 59 diabetic patients and 59 healthy controls were investigated for the presence of antibodies against two recombinant proteins of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and the whole-cell lysate. Extremely significant humoral immune responses to recombinant heparin binding hemagglutinin and glycosyl transferase proteins and the whole-cell lysates of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis bacilli were observed in T1DM patients and compared to those of healthy controls. Finding evidence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis involvement in T1DM is perhaps a novel finding that might serve as a foundation stone in establishing an infectious etiology for T1DM. PMID:18077612

Sechi, Leonardo A; Rosu, Valentina; Pacifico, Adolfo; Fadda, Giovanni; Ahmed, Niyaz; Zanetti, Stefania

2008-02-01

364

Development of a sensitive nested PCR method for the specific detection of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC.  

PubMed

A specific and sensitive test for the detection of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony type (SC), the aetiological agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) was developed using two nested PCR reactions. The PCR reactions are based on the nucleotide sequence of lipoprotein P72 of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC. The two specific oligonucleotide primer pairs were chosen to match those sequence segments of the P72 gene which differ most from the gene of the closely related lipoprotein P67 of Mycoplasma sp. bovine group 7 (strain PG50). The nested PCR reacted with all of the 34 different strains of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC analysed, and gave no amplification product with any of the closely related mycoplasmas tested, showing its high specificity. In bronchial lavage fluid experimentally contaminated with M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC, the assay was able to detect as few as two viable cells per ml using a simple lysis procedure prior to the amplification step. With clinical samples, the sensitivity of the nested PCR was about 10(4)-10(5) higher than that of single PCR amplifications performed under the same conditions. The assay was also successfully used to detect M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC in bronchial lavage fluid of experimentally infected cattle and proved to be more sensitive than classical culture methods. PMID:9160324

Miserez, R; Pilloud, T; Cheng, X; Nicolet, J; Griot, C; Frey, J

1997-04-01

365

Strain and Genotype-Specific Differences in Virulence of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae, a Bacterial Pathogen Causing American Foulbrood Disease in Honeybees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virulence variations of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae, the causative agent of American foulbrood disease of honeybees, were investigated by analysis of 16 field isolates of this pathogen, belonging to three previously characterized genotypes, as well as the type strain (ATCC 9545) of P. larvae subsp. larvae, with exposure bioassays. We demonstrated that the strain-specific 50% lethal concentrations varied within an

Elke Genersch; Ainura Ashiralieva; Ingemar Fries

2005-01-01

366

Trichomes and photosynthetic pigment composition changes: responses of Quercus ilex subsp. ballota (Desf.) Samp. and Quercus coccifera L. to Mediterranean stress conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sun and shade leaves of two Mediterranean Quercus species, Quercus ilex subsp. ballota (Desf.) Samp. and Quercus coccifera L., were compared by measuring leaf optical properties, photosynthetic pigment composition and photosystem II efficiency. The presence of trichomes in the adaxial (upper) leaf surface of Q. ilex subsp. ballota seems to constitute an important morphological mechanism that allows this species to

F. Morales; A. Abadía; J. Abadía; G. Montserrat; E. Gil-Pelegrín

2002-01-01

367

Highly Specific and Quick Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Feces and Gut Tissue of Cattle and Humans by Multiple Real-Time PCR Assays?  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the causative agent of Johne's disease (JD) in cattle and may be associated with Crohn's disease (CD) in humans. It is the slowest growing of the cultivable mycobacteria, and culture from clinical, veterinary, food, or environmental specimens can take 4 months or even longer. Currently, the insertion element IS900 is used to detect M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis DNA. However, closely related IS900 elements are also present in other mycobacteria, thus limiting its specificity as a target. Here we describe the use of novel primer sets derived from the sequences of two highly specific single copy genes, MAP2765c and MAP0865, for the quantitative detection of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis within 6 h by using real-time PCR. Specificity of the target was established using 40 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates, 67 different bacterial species, and two intestinal parasites. Using the probes and methods described, we detected 27 (2.09%) M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-positive stool specimens from 1,293 individual stool samples by the use of either IS900 or probes deriving from the MAP2765c and MAP0865 genes described here. In general, bacterial load due to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was uniformly low in these samples and we estimated 500 to 5,000 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis bacteria per gram of stool in assay-positive samples. Thus, the methods described here are useful for rapid and specific detection of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in clinical samples.

Imirzalioglu, Can; Dahmen, Heinrich; Hain, Torsten; Billion, Andre; Kuenne, Carsten; Chakraborty, Trinad; Domann, Eugen

2011-01-01

368

Serodiagnosis and monitoring of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) with an indirect ELISA based on the specific lipoprotein LppQ of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC  

Microsoft Academic Search

An indirect ELISA, based on the specific and strongly antigenic recombinant peptide of the N?-terminal half of the lipoprotein LppQ from Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony type (SC) was developed for the detection of antibodies to M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC. It was evaluated for its suitability for serodiagnosis and monitoring of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP). The recombinant peptide

Urs Bruderer; Jose Regalla; El-Mostafa Abdo; Otto J. B. Huebschle; Joachim Frey

2002-01-01

369

Draft Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus saprophyticus subsp. saprophyticus M1-1, Isolated from the Gills of a Korean Rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli Hilgendorf, after High Hydrostatic Pressure Processing  

PubMed Central

A bacterium designated M1-1 was isolated from the gills of a Korean rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli Hilgendorf, after high hydrostatic pressure processing. Studies of 16S rRNA phylogeny and comparative genomics demonstrated that the isolate belongs to Staphylococcus saprophyticus subsp. saprophyticus. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of S. saprophyticus subsp. saprophyticus M1-1 (KACC 16562).

Kim, Bong-Soo; Kim, Chong-Tai; Park, Bang Heon; Kwon, Sujin; Cho, Yong-Jin; Kim, Namsoo; Kim, Chul-Jin; Chun, Jongsik; Kwak, Jangyul

2012-01-01

370

Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies Specific for Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica and Comparison of Serological Methods for Its Sensitive Detection on Potato Tubers  

PubMed Central

Seven monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica have been produced. One, called 4G4, reacted with high specificity for serogroup I of E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica, the most common serogroup on potato tubers in different serological assays. Eighty-six strains belonging to different E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica serogroups were assayed. Some strains of serogroup XXII also reacted positively. No cross-reactions were observed against other species of plant pathogenic bacteria or 162 saprophytic bacteria from potato tubers. Only one strain of E. chrysanthemi from potato cross-reacted. A comparison of several serological techniques to detect E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica on potato tubers was performed with MAb 4G4 or polyclonal antibodies. The organism was extracted directly from potato peels of artificially inoculated tubers by soaking or selective enrichment under anaerobiosis in a medium with polypectate. MAb 4G4 was able to detect specifically 240 E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica cells per ml by indirect immunofluorescence and immunofluorescence colony staining and after soaking by ELISA-DAS (double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) after enrichment. The same amount of cells was detected by using immunolectrotransfer with polyclonal antibodies, and E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica and subsp. carotovora were distinguished by the latter technique. ELISA-DAS using MAb 4G4 with an enrichment step also efficiently detected E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica in naturally infected tubers and plants.

Gorris, Maria Teresa; Alarcon, Benito; Lopez, Maria M.; Cambra, Mariano

1994-01-01

371

Draft Genome Sequence of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes AS03, an Atypical Strain Isolated from Crucian Carp (Carassius carassius) in the Republic of Korea  

PubMed Central

We present the draft genome sequence of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes strain AS03, an atypical A. salmonicida strain that causes erythrodermatitis in crucian carp (Carassius carassius). This is the first genome sequence report of A. salmonicida subsp. achromogenes, one of the four subspecies of atypical A. salmonicida.

Han, Jee Eun; Kim, Ji Hyung; Shin, Sang Phil; Jun, Jin Woo; Chai, Ji Young

2013-01-01

372

Draft Genome Sequence of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes AS03, an Atypical Strain Isolated from Crucian Carp (Carassius carassius) in the Republic of Korea.  

PubMed

We present the draft genome sequence of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes strain AS03, an atypical A. salmonicida strain that causes erythrodermatitis in crucian carp (Carassius carassius). This is the first genome sequence report of A. salmonicida subsp. achromogenes, one of the four subspecies of atypical A. salmonicida. PMID:24092786

Han, Jee Eun; Kim, Ji Hyung; Shin, Sang Phil; Jun, Jin Woo; Chai, Ji Young; Park, Se Chang

2013-01-01

373

Growth characteristics of large- and small-colony types of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides on 5% sheep blood agar.  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides of the large-colony (LC) type was isolated in pure culture on 5% sheep blood agar plates inoculated with lung specimens from a 4-month-old Toggenburg goat. The growth characteristics of this isolate, of four known LC types, and of five known small-colony (SC) types of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides were compared on 5% sheep blood agar at 2, 5, and 7 days. The SC types were not visible at 2 days and did not grow larger than 0.1 mm, whereas the LC types were visible in 2 days and increased in diameter over 7 days to between 0.4 and 0.7 mm. These results indicate that growth on 5% sheep blood agar can be used as an additional marker in differentiating LC and SC types of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides. Images

Thigpen, J E; Cottew, G S; Yeats, F; McGhee, C E; Rose, D L

1983-01-01

374

Further isolation of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. abscessus and subsp. bolletii in different regions of Japan and susceptibility of these isolates to antimicrobial agents.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to genetically analyse Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. abscessus (hereafter M. abscessus) and M. abscessus subsp. bolletii (hereafter M. bolletii) isolates from six different regions of Japan and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of these isolates. Subspeciation of 143 clinical isolates of M. abscessus group was done by comparative sequence analysis of the rpoB and hsp65 genes and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Genetic analysis led to the identification of 90 M. abscessus (62.9%) and 53 M. bolletii (37.1%; comprising 50 'M. massiliense' and 3 'M. bolletii' in the old nomenclature). No significant differences were found between the M. abscessus and M. bolletii isolates in any characteristics. Susceptibility to clarithromycin and linezolid for M. bolletii isolates was significantly higher than that for M. abscessus (P<0.05). Moreover, the results demonstrated that 82 M. abscessus isolates with T28 sequevar were resistant to clarithromycin owing to the expression of erm(41), which was induced by clarithromycin, whilst 8 isolates with C28 sequevar were susceptible. Acquired clarithromycin resistance in 'M. bolletii' isolates was significantly associated with previous Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) treatment compared with that of M. abscessus isolates; however, intrinsic inducible susceptibility of M. abscessus isolates was not associated with MAC treatment. However, acquired resistance to clarithromycin by mutation in the rrl gene encoding 23S rRNA did not occur in 14 of 18 resistant isolates. Strains with acquired resistance to clarithromycin and mutation in rrl consisted of two M. bolletii (one 'M. massiliense' and one 'M. bolletii') and two M. abscessus T28 sequevar. PMID:23850022

Yoshida, Shiomi; Tsuyuguchi, Kazunari; Suzuki, Katsuhiro; Tomita, Motohisa; Okada, Masaji; Hayashi, Seiji; Iwamoto, Tomotada; Saito, Hajime

2013-09-01

375

Oceanobacillus oncorhynchi subsp. incaldanensis subsp. nov., an alkalitolerant halophile isolated from an algal mat collected from a sulfurous spring in Campania (Italy), and emended description of Oceanobacillus oncorhynchi.  

PubMed

A halophilic, alkalitolerant bacterium, strain 20AGT, was isolated from an algal mat collected from a sulfurous spring located in Santa Maria Incaldana (Mondragone, Campania Region, southern Italy). The isolate is Gram-positive, ferments several carbohydrates and has motile, rod-shaped cells that do not sporulate. The isolate grows at pH 6.5-9.5 and in 5-20 % NaCl. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, the strain was shown to belong to the genus Oceanobacillus; strain 20AGT showed 96.6 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the type strain of Oceanobacillus iheyensis, DSM 14371T, and 99.5 % similarity to Oceanobacillus oncorhynchi NCIMB 14022T. Levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain 20AGT and O. iheyensis DSM 14371T and O. oncorhynchi NCIMB 14022T were respectively 29.4 and 59.0 %. The G+C content of the DNA of strain 20AGT was 40.1 mol%. The predominant respiratory quinone was MK-7, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine were the predominant polar lipids and minor phospholipids were also detected. ai-C14 : 0, ai-C15 : 0 and i-C15 : 0 were the major fatty acids. Strain 20AGT accumulated osmolytes and produced exopolysaccharide. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic data and DNA-DNA relatedness data, isolate 20AGT should be designated as the type strain of a subspecies of Oceanobacillus oncorhynchi, for which the name Oceanobacillus oncorhynchi subsp incaldanensis subsp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 20AGT (=DSM 16557T = ATCC BAA-954T). PMID:16585699

Romano, Ida; Lama, Licia; Nicolaus, Barbara; Poli, Annarita; Gambacorta, Agata; Giordano, Assunta

2006-04-01

376

Unique regulation of crystal protein production in Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. yunnanensis is mediated by the cry protein-encoding 103-megadalton plasmid.  

PubMed Central

In sporulating cultures of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. yunnanensis HD977, two cell types are observed: cells forming only spores and cells forming only crystals. Curing analysis suggested that the crystal proteins are plasmid encoded. Through plasmid transfer experiments, it was established that a 103-MDa plasmid is involved in the crystal production. Conjugal transfer of this plasmid to Cry- recipient cells of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HD73-26 conferred the ability to produce crystals exclusively on asporogenous cells of the recipient, indicating that the 103-MDa plasmid mediates the unique regulation of Cry protein production. When the dipteran-specific cryIVB gene was introduced into wild-type (Cry+) and Cry- backgrounds of B. thuringiensis subsp. yunnanensis by phage CP51ts45-mediated transduction, similar to all other B. thuringiensis strains, irregular crystals of CryIVB protein were produced by spore-forming cells in both backgrounds. However, the synthesis of the bipyramidal inclusions of B. thuringiensis subsp. yunnanensis was still limited only to asporogenous cells of the transductant. Thus, it appears that the unique property of exclusive crystal formation in asporogenous cells of B. thuringiensis subsp. yunnanensis is associated with the crystal protein gene(s) per se or its cis acting elements. As the crystals in B. thuringiensis subsp. yunnanensis were formed only in asporogenous cells, attempts were made to find out whether crystal formation had any inhibitory effect on sporulation. It was observed that both Cry+ and Cry- strains of B. thuringiensis subsp. yunnanensis (HD977 and HD977-1, respectively) exhibited comparable sporulation efficiencies. In addition, the Cry- B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki host (HD73-26) and its Cry+ transconjugant (HD73-26-16), expressing the B. thuringiensis subsp. yunnanensis crystal protein, were also comparable in their sporulation efficiencies, indicating that production of the crystal proteins of B. thuringiensis subsp. yunnanensis does not affect the process of sporulation.

Srinivas, G; Vennison, S J; Sudha, S N; Balasubramanian, P; Sekar, V

1997-01-01

377

Persistence and Decontamination of Bacillus atrophaeus subsp. globigii Spores on Corroded Iron in a Model Drinking Water System?  

PubMed Central

Persistence of Bacillus atrophaeus subsp. globigii spores on corroded iron coupons in drinking water was studied using a biofilm annular reactor. Spores were inoculated at 106 CFU/ml in the dechlorinated reactor bulk water. The dechlorination allowed for observation of the effects of hydraulic shear and biofilm sloughing on persistence. Approximately 50% of the spores initially adhered to the corroded iron surface were not detected after 1 month. Addition of a stable 10 mg/liter free chlorine residual after 1 month led to a 2-log10 reduction of adhered B. atrophaeus subsp. globigii, but levels on the coupons quickly stabilized thereafter. Increasing the free chlorine concentration to 25 or 70 mg/liter had no additional effect on inactivation. B. atrophaeus subsp. globigii spores injected in the presence of a typical distribution system chlorine residual (?0.75 mg/liter) resulted in a steady reduction of adhered B. atrophaeus subsp. globigii over 1 month, but levels on the coupons eventually stabilized. Adding elevated chlorine levels (10, 25, and 70 mg/liter) after 1 month had no effect on the rate of inactivation. Decontamination with elevated free chlorine levels immediately after spore injection resulted in a 3-log10 reduction within 2 weeks, but the rate of inactivation leveled off afterward. This indicates that free chlorine did not reach portions of the corroded iron surface where B. atrophaeus subsp. globigii spores had adhered. B. atrophaeus subsp. globigii spores are capable of persisting for an extended time in the presence of high levels of free chlorine.

Szabo, Jeffrey G.; Rice, Eugene W.; Bishop, Paul L.

2007-01-01

378

Transcriptome-based characterization of interactions between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in lactose-grown chemostat cocultures.  

PubMed

Mixed populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts and lactic acid bacteria occur in many dairy, food, and beverage fermentations, but knowledge about their interactions is incomplete. In the present study, interactions between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, two microorganisms that co-occur in kefir fermentations, were studied during anaerobic growth on lactose. By combining physiological and transcriptome analysis of the two strains in the cocultures, five mechanisms of interaction were identified. (i) Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus hydrolyzes lactose, which cannot be metabolized by S. cerevisiae, to galactose and glucose. Subsequently, galactose, which cannot be metabolized by Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, is excreted and provides a carbon source for yeast. (ii) In pure cultures, Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus grows only in the presence of increased CO2 concentrations. In anaerobic mixed cultures, the yeast provides this CO2 via alcoholic fermentation. (iii) Analysis of amino acid consumption from the defined medium indicated that S. cerevisiae supplied alanine to the bacterium. (iv) A mild but significant low-iron response in the yeast transcriptome, identified by DNA microarray analysis, was consistent with the chelation of iron by the lactate produced by Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. (v) Transcriptome analysis of Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in mixed cultures showed an overrepresentation of transcripts involved in lipid metabolism, suggesting either a competition of the two microorganisms for fatty acids or a response to the ethanol produced by S. cerevisiae. This study demonstrates that chemostat-based transcriptome analysis is a powerful tool to investigate microbial interactions in mixed populations. PMID:23872557

Mendes, Filipa; Sieuwerts, Sander; de Hulster, Erik; Almering, Marinka J H; Luttik, Marijke A H; Pronk, Jack T; Smid, Eddy J; Bron, Peter A; Daran-Lapujade, Pascale

2013-10-01

379

Salmonella enterica Suppresses Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum Population and Soft Rot Progression by Acidifying the Microaerophilic Environment  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Although enteric human pathogens are usually studied in the context of their animal hosts, a significant portion of their life cycle occurs on plants. Plant disease alters the phyllosphere, leading to enhanced growth of human pathogens; however, the impact of human pathogens on phytopathogen biology and plant health is largely unknown. To characterize the interaction between human pathogens and phytobacterial pathogens in the phyllosphere, we examined the interactions between Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and Salmonella enterica or Escherichia coli O157:H7 with regard to bacterial populations, soft rot progression, and changes in local pH. The presence of P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum enhanced the growth of both S. enterica and E. coli O157:H7 on leaves. However, in a microaerophilic environment, S. enterica reduced P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum populations and soft rot progression by moderating local environmental pH. Reduced soft rot was not due to S. enterica proteolytic activity. Limitations on P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum growth, disease progression, and pH elevation were not observed on leaves coinoculated with E. coli O157:H7 or when leaves were coinoculated with S. enterica in an aerobic environment. S. enterica also severely undermined the relationship between the phytobacterial population and disease progression of a P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum budB mutant defective in the 2,3-butanediol pathway for acid neutralization. Our results show that S. enterica and E. coli O157:H7 interact differently with the enteric phytobacterial pathogen P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum. S. enterica inhibition of soft rot progression may conceal a rapidly growing human pathogen population. Whereas soft rotted produce can alert consumers to the possibility of food-borne pathogens, healthy-looking produce may entice consumption of contaminated vegetables.

Kwan, Grace; Charkowski, Amy O.; Barak, Jeri D.

2013-01-01

380

Two cases of cardiac device-related endocarditis due to Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (group C or G streptococci)  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiac device-related endocarditis is a very rare clinical manifestation of S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis disease. This pathogen is a common cause of cellulitis. We here report two cases of cardiac device-related endocarditis due to Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis. Blood cultures yielded this pathogen and both patients had recurrent bacteremia. Transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography revealed lead vegetations. This is a new description of this pathogen to cause cardiac device-related endocarditis. Case presentation The first case is a 79-year-old finnish woman who received a dual-chamber pacemaker for intermittent complete heart block in April 2011. She had three episodes of S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis bacteremia. During first episode she had arthritis of glenohumeral joint. Focus was unknown in the second and third bacteremic episodes. During third bacteremic episode transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) revealed lead vegetation. Patient underwent successful complete system removal. She was treated with benzylpenicillin four million IU six times a day for four weeks intravenously. The second case is a 92-year-old finnish man. A dual-chamber pacemaker was implanted on June 2012 due to total heart block. He had recurrent S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis bacteremia with cellulitis. During the second bacteremic episode transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) was performed because of persistent fever. Echocardiography revealed lead vegetation. Abdominal CT revealed also an abscess in the psoas region. This elderly patient was very fragile, and the pacemaker system was not extracted. Therapy was continued with benzylpenicillin four million IU six times a day for six weeks intravenously and thereafter suppressive treatment with amoksisillin 500 mg three times a day was initiated. Conclusion Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (group C and G streptococci) seldom cause cardiac device endocarditis. Both patients had recurrent bacteremia of S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis and echocardiography revealed cardiac device-related endocarditis. These cases emphasize the importance of considering endocarditis in elderly persons having cardiac devices together with the presence of unexplained bacteremia, fever without focus or persistent fever.

2014-01-01

381

A negative regulator mediates quorum-sensing control of exopolysaccharide production in Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii.  

PubMed

Classical quorum-sensing (autoinduction) regulation, as exemplified by the lux system of Vibrio fischeri, requires N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) signals to stimulate cognate transcriptional activators for the cell density-dependent expression of specific target gene systems. For Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, a bacterial pathogen of sweet corn and maize, the extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) stewartan is a major virulence factor, and its production is controlled by quorum sensing in a population density-dependent manner. Two genes, esaI and esaR, encode essential regulatory proteins for quorum sensing. EsaI is the AHL signal synthase, and EsaR is the cognate gene regulator. esaI, DeltaesaR, and DeltaesaI-esaR mutations were constructed to establish the regulatory role of EsaR. We report here that strains containing an esaR mutation produce high levels of EPS independently of cell density and in the absence of the AHL signal. Our data indicate that quorum-sensing regulation in P. s. subsp. stewartii, in contrast to most other described systems, uses EsaR to repress EPS synthesis at low cell density, and that derepression requires micromolar amounts of AHL. In addition, derepressed esaR strains, which synthesize EPS constitutively at low cell densities, were significantly less virulent than the wild-type parent. This finding suggests that quorum sensing in P. s. subsp. stewartii may be a mechanism to delay the expression of EPS during the early stages of infection so that it does not interfere with other mechanisms of pathogenesis. PMID:9636211

von Bodman, S B; Majerczak, D R; Coplin, D L

1998-06-23

382

Characterization of a New Bacteriocin, Carocin D, from Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum Pcc21? †  

PubMed Central

Two different bacteriocins, carotovoricin and carocin S1, had been found in Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, which causes soft-rot disease in diverse plants. Previously, we reported that the particular strain Pcc21, producing only one high-molecular-weight bacteriocin, carried a new antibacterial activity against the indicator strain Pcc3. Here, we report that this new antibacterial activity is due to a new bacteriocin produced by strain Pcc21 and named carocin D. Carocin D is encoded by the caroDK gene located in the genomic DNA together with the caroDI gene, which seems to encode an immunity protein. N-terminal amino acid sequences of purified carocin D were determined by Edman degradation. In comparison with the primary translation product of caroDK, it was found that 8 amino acids are missing at the N terminus. This finding proved that carocin D is synthesized as a precursor peptide and that 8 amino acids are removed from its N terminus during maturation. Carocin D has two putative translocation domains; the N-terminal and C-terminal domains are homologous to those of Escherichia coli colicin E3 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa S-type pyocin, respectively. When caroDK and caroDI genes were transformed into carocin D-sensitive bacteria such as Pcc3, the bacteria became resistant to this bacteriocin. Carocin D has one putative DNase domain at the extreme C terminus and showed DNase activity in vitro. This bacteriocin had slight tolerance to heat but not to proteases. The caroDK gene was present in only 5 of 54 strains of P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum. These results indicate that carocin D is a third bacteriocin found in P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, and this bacteriocin can be readily expressed in carocin D-sensitive nonpathogenic bacteria, which may have high potential as a biological control agent in the field.

Roh, Eunjung; Park, Tae-Ho; Kim, Myung-il; Lee, Seungdon; Ryu, Sangryeol; Oh, Chang-Sik; Rhee, Sangkee; Kim, Doo-Ho; Park, Beom-Seok; Heu, Sunggi

2010-01-01

383

High-throughput direct fecal PCR assay for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in sheep and cattle.  

PubMed

Johne's disease (JD) is a chronic enteric disease caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis that affects ruminants. Transmission occurs by the fecal-oral route. A commonly used antemortem diagnostic test for the detection of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in feces is liquid culture; however, a major constraint is the 2- to 3-month incubation period needed for this method. Rapid methods for the detection of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis based on PCR have been reported, but comprehensive validation data are lacking. We describe here a new test, the high-throughput-Johnes (HT-J), to detect M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in feces. Its diagnostic accuracy was compared with that of liquid radiometric (Bactec) fecal culture using samples from cattle (1,330 samples from 23 herds) and sheep (596 samples from 16 flocks). The multistage protocol involves the recovery of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells from a fecal suspension, cell rupture by bead beating, extraction of DNA using magnetic beads, and IS900 quantitative PCR. The limit of detection of the assay was 0.0005 pg, and the limit of quantification was 0.005 pg M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis genomic DNA. Only M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was detected from a panel of 51 mycobacterial isolates, including 10 with IS900-like sequences. Of the 549 culture-negative fecal samples from unexposed herds and flocks, 99% were negative in the HT-J test, while 60% of the bovine- and 84% of the ovine-culture-positive samples were positive in the HT-J test. As similar total numbers of samples from M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-exposed animals were positive in culture and HT-J tests in both species, and as the results of a McNemar's test were not significant, these methods probably have similar sensitivities, but the true diagnostic sensitivities of these tests are unknown. These validation data meet the consensus-based reporting standards for diagnostic test accuracy studies for paratuberculosis and the Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments (MIQE) guidelines (S. A. Bustin et al., Clin. Chem. 55:611-622, 2009, doi:10.1373/clinchem.2008.112797). The HT-J assay has been approved for use in JD control programs in Australia and New Zealand. PMID:24352996

Plain, Karren M; Marsh, Ian B; Waldron, Anna M; Galea, Francesca; Whittington, Ann-Michele; Saunders, Vanessa F; Begg, Douglas J; de Silva, Kumudika; Purdie, Auriol C; Whittington, Richard J

2014-03-01

384

Cloning of a chromosomal fragment from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis partially complementing Escherichia coli recA functions.  

PubMed

A recA-like gene was isolated from a gene library of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis by intergeneric complementation of an E. coli recA mutant. A plasmid was obtained which fully complemented the RecA response to DNA damaging agents and UV inducibility of prophage, but not P1 plating efficiency in an E. coli recA mutant. The cloned DNA fragment also partially complemented the rec mutation in Lc. lactis MMS36. Hybridization studies showed that there was no detectable sequence homology between the recA gene of E. coli and Lc. lactis subsp. lactis chromosomal DNA. PMID:2150659

Novel, M; Huang, X F; Novel, G

1990-11-01

385

A novel thermo-alkali stable catalase–peroxidase from Oceanobacillus oncorhynchi subsp. incaldaniensis : purification and characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel thermo-alkali-stable catalase–peroxidase from Oceanobacillus oncorhynchi subsp. incaldaniensis subsp. nov., strain 20AG, was purified and characterized. The protein purified from the cells resulted in 110-fold purification\\u000a with a specific activity of 35,000 U\\/mg. The enzyme consisted of four identical subunits of 72 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE\\u000a and the total molecular mass measured by gel filtration was 280 kDa. The heme content

Valeria Calandrelli; Agata Gambacorta; Ida Romano; Vito Carratore; Licia Lama

2008-01-01

386

Complete genome sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. chinensis strain CT-43.  

PubMed

Bacillus thuringiensis has been widely used as an agricultural biopesticide for a long time. As a producing strain, B. thuringiensis subsp. chinensis strain CT-43 is highly toxic to lepidopterous and dipterous insects. It can form various parasporal crystals consisting of Cry1Aa3, Cry1Ba1, Cry1Ia14, Cry2Aa9, and Cry2Ab1. During fermentation, it simultaneously generates vegetative insecticidal protein Vip3Aa10 and the insecticidal nucleotide analogue thuringiensin. Here, we report the finished, annotated genome sequence of B. thuringiensis strain CT-43. PMID:21551307

He, Jin; Wang, Jieping; Yin, Wen; Shao, Xiaohu; Zheng, Huajun; Li, Mingshun; Zhao, Youwen; Sun, Ming; Wang, Shengyue; Yu, Ziniu

2011-07-01

387

Complete genome sequence of the ethanol-producing Zymomonas mobilis subsp. mobilis centrotype ATCC 29191.  

PubMed

Zymomonas mobilis is an ethanologenic bacterium that has been studied for use in biofuel production. Of the sequenced Zymomonas strains, ATCC 29191 has been described as the phenotypic centrotype of Zymomonas mobilis subsp. mobilis, the taxon that harbors the highest ethanol-producing Z. mobilis strains. ATCC 29191 was isolated in Kinshasa, Congo, from palm wine fermentations. This strain is reported to be a robust levan producer, while in recent years it has been employed in studies addressing Z. mobilis respiration. Here we announce the finishing and annotation of the ATCC 29191 genome, which comprises one chromosome and three plasmids. PMID:23045486

Desiniotis, Andreas; Kouvelis, Vassili N; Davenport, Karen; Bruce, David; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Goodwin, Lynne A; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Typas, Milton A; Pappas, Katherine M

2012-11-01

388

Genome sequence of the ethanol-producing Zymomonas mobilis subsp. mobilis lectotype strain ATCC 10988.  

PubMed

Zymomonas mobilis ATCC 10988 is the type strain of the Z. mobilis subsp. mobilis taxon, members of which are some of the most rigorous ethanol-producing bacteria. Isolated from Agave cactus fermentations in Mexico, ATCC 10988 is one of the first Z. mobilis strains to be described and studied. Its robustness in sucrose-substrate fermentations, physiological characteristics, large number of plasmids, and overall genomic plasticity render this strain important to the study of the species. Here we report the finishing and annotation of the ATCC 10988 chromosomal and plasmid genome. PMID:21725006

Pappas, Katherine M; Kouvelis, Vassili N; Saunders, Elizabeth; Brettin, Thomas S; Bruce, David; Detter, Chris; Balakireva, Mariya; Han, Cliff S; Savvakis, Giannis; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Typas, Milton A

2011-09-01

389

Branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis genes in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis.  

PubMed Central

The genes for biosynthesis of the branched-chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis NCDO2118 were characterized by cloning, complementation in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, and nucleotide sequence analysis. Nine structural genes are clustered on a 12-kb DNA fragment in the order leuABCD ilvDBNCA. Upstream of these genes, the nucleotide sequence suggests the existence of regulation by transcriptional attenuation. Between the leuD and ilvD genes is an unexpected gene, encoding a protein which belongs to the ATP-binding cassette protein superfamily.

Godon, J J; Chopin, M C; Ehrlich, S D

1992-01-01

390

Effects of the collagenolytic cell wall component of Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. necrophorum on bovine hepatocytes.  

PubMed

The effects of the collagenolytic cell wall component (CCWC) of Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. necrophorum on bovine hepatic cell and cytoskeletons were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) demonstrated that CCWC damaged the cell surfaces, forming tiny holes on the cell membranes. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) profiles revealed that CCWC degraded bovine cytokeratin and vimentin and by indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) method, it was shown that CCWC caused the deformation of hepatocellular vimentin. This suggested that CCWC contributes to bovine hepatic injury and it may be as important pathogenic factor in the development of bovine hepatic abscesses. PMID:17275045

Okamoto, K; Kanoe, M; Yaguchi, Y; Watanabe, T; Inoue, T

2007-04-01

391

Antiinflammatory activity of coumarins from Ligusticum lucidum Mill. subsp. cuneifolium (Guss.) Tammaro (Apiaceae).  

PubMed

Four coumarin derivatives [selidinin 1, (+)-praeruptorin A 2, visnadin 3 and (R)-(+)-7-(2',3'-epoxy-3'-methylbutoxy)-coumarin 4] were isolated from the aerial parts of Ligusticum lucidum Mill. subsp. cuneifolium (Guss.) Tammaro (Apiaceae). This is the first report on the identification of these compounds in the Ligusticum genus. Their topical antiinflammatory activity was evaluated as the inhibition of croton oil-induced ear dermatitis in mice. Each compound (0.3 ?mol/cm(2) ) induced a significant oedema reduction and compound 4 exerted an effect similar to that of the equimolar dose of the reference drug indomethacin. PMID:21031631

Menghini, Luigi; Epifano, Francesco; Genovese, Salvatore; Marcotullio, Maria C; Sosa, Silvio; Tubaro, Aurelia

2010-11-01

392

Genome Sequence of the Ethanol-Producing Zymomonas mobilis subsp. mobilis Lectotype Strain ATCC 10988 ?  

PubMed Central

Zymomonas mobilis ATCC 10988 is the type strain of the Z. mobilis subsp. mobilis taxon, members of which are some of the most rigorous ethanol-producing bacteria. Isolated from Agave cactus fermentations in Mexico, ATCC 10988 is one of the first Z. mobilis strains to be described and studied. Its robustness in sucrose-substrate fermentations, physiological characteristics, large number of plasmids, and overall genomic plasticity render this strain important to the study of the species. Here we report the finishing and annotation of the ATCC 10988 chromosomal and plasmid genome.

Pappas, Katherine M.; Kouvelis, Vassili N.; Saunders, Elizabeth; Brettin, Thomas S.; Bruce, David; Detter, Chris; Balakireva, Mariya; Han, Cliff S.; Savvakis, Giannis; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Typas, Milton A.

2011-01-01

393

Molecular fingerprinting of Mycobacterium bovis subsp. caprae isolates from central Europe.  

PubMed

To study the dissemination of Mycobacterium bovis subsp. caprae, 79 European isolates from cattle, humans, and other hosts were examined by spoligotyping and IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Among a total of 11 different spoligotypes identified, type C1 proved to be predominant (n = 62). Five of the spoligotypes are described for the first time. A total of 43 different RFLP types were identified, thus allowing further differentiation for epidemiological tracking. Isolates from a series of outbreaks in one village proved to be of the same spoligotype and of identical or closely related RFLP types. PMID:15131199

Erler, Wilfried; Martin, Gerald; Sachse, Konrad; Naumann, Ludmila; Kahlau, Dagmar; Beer, Jörg; Bartos, Milan; Nagy, György; Cvetnic, Zeljko; Zolnir-Dovc, Manca; Pavlik, Ivo

2004-05-01

394

First Report of Cowpea Mild Mottle Carlavirus on Yardlong Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) in Venezuela  

PubMed Central

Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%–74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV) isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean.

Brito, Miriam; Fernandez-Rodriguez, Thaly; Garrido, Mario Jose; Mejias, Alexander; Romano, Mirtha; Marys, Edgloris

2012-01-01

395

Detection of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica in a European brown hare (Lepus europaeus) in Thuringia, Germany.  

PubMed

The isolation of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica biovar II (strain 06T0001) from a European brown hare (Lepus europaeus) from Thuringia, Germany, is described for the first time. Identification of the microorganism was carried out by phenotypic characterisation, partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and specific PCR using the primers TUL4-435/TUL4-863 and FtC1/FtC4. The epidemiology of tularemia in Germany is discussed and a risk assessment for humans is made. PMID:17482385

Müller, W; Bocklisch, H; Schüler, G; Hotzel, H; Neubauer, H; Otto, P

2007-07-20

396

Three new glycosides from the leaves of Hydrangea macrophylla subsp. serrata (THUNB.) MAKINO.  

PubMed

Three new glycosides, 7-deoxyloganic acid beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (1), (3R)-hydrangenol 8,4'-di-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), and (6R,7E,9R)-megastigma-4,7-dien-3-one 9,13-di-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), have been isolated from the leaves of Hydrangea macrophylla subsp. serrata (THUNB.) MAKINO (Saxifragaceae). The structures of 1-3 were elucidated on the basis of spectral data and chemical evidence. PMID:18379120

Kikuchi, Masao; Kakuda, Rie; Kikuchi, Masafumi; Yaoita, Yasunori

2008-04-01

397

Curing of symbiotic plasmid of Mesorhizobium huakuii subsp. rengei isolated from Astragalus sinicus.  

PubMed

Astragalus sinicus (Chinese Milk vetch), a green manure leguminous plant, harbors Mesorhizobium huakuii subsp. rengei strain B3 in the root nodules. The visualization of symbiotic plasmid of strain B3 showed the presence of one sym plasmid of about 425 kbp. Curing of sym plasmid by temperature and acrydine orange was studied. Growing rhizobial cells at high temperature (37 degrees C) or treating the cells with acrydine orange at 50 mg/l eliminated sym plasmid of M. huakuii strain B3, which was confirmed by sym plasmid visualization and plant infection test of cured strains. PMID:15248496

Balachandar, D; Kannaiyan, S; Ono, H; Murooka, Y

2003-08-01

398

In vitro susceptibility of Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. xylosoxidans to 24 antimicrobial agents.  

PubMed Central

The in vitro susceptibilities of 37 clinical isolates of Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. xylosoxidans to 24 antimicrobial agents were determined. Imipenem was the only drug with consistent activity (MIC for 90% of isolates, 2 micrograms/ml). Piperacillin, ticarcillin-clavulanic acid, ceftazidime, and co-trimoxazole were active against most strains. All the isolates were resistant to ampicillin, cefazolin, cefuroxime, cefamandole, cefotetan, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, aztreonam, amdinocillin, and temocillin. Most isolates were resistant to the aminoglycosides tested, including amikacin. Lack of activity was also observed for all new 4-quinolone antimicrobial agents.

Glupczynski, Y; Hansen, W; Freney, J; Yourassowsky, E

1988-01-01

399

Complete Genome Sequence of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12, a Widely Consumed Probiotic Strain?  

PubMed Central

Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 is a commercially available probiotic strain used throughout the world in a variety of functional foods and dietary supplements. The benefits of BB-12 have been documented in a number of independent clinical trials. Determination of the complete genome sequence reveals a single circular chromosome of 1,942,198 bp with 1,642 predicted protein-encoding genes, 4 rRNA operons, and 52 tRNA genes. Knowledge of this sequence will lead to insight into the specific features which give this strain its probiotic properties.

Garrigues, Christel; Johansen, Eric; Pedersen, Martin B.

2010-01-01

400

Bioinformatics analysis of a non-specific nuclease from Yersinia enterocolitica subsp. palearctica.  

PubMed

In this paper, the physical and chemical characteristics, biological structure and function of a non-specific nuclease from Yersinia enterocolitica subsp. palearctica (Y. NSN) found in our group were studied using multiple bioinformatics approaches. The results showed that Y. NSN had 283 amino acids, a weight of 30,692.5 ku and a certain hydrophilic property. Y. NSN had a signal peptide, no transmembrane domains and disulphide bonds. Cleavage site in Y. NSN was between pos. 23 and 24. The prediction result of the secondary structure showed Y. NSN was a coil structure-based protein. The ratio of ?-helix, ?-folded and random coil were 18.73%, 16.96% and 64.31%, respectively. Active sites were pos. 124, 125, 127, 157, 165 and 169. Mg(2+) binding site was pos. 157. Substrate binding sites were pos. 124, 125 and 169. The analysis of multisequencing alignment and phylogenetic tree indicated that Y. NSN shared high similarity with the nuclease from Y. enterocolitica subsp. enterocolitica 8081. The enzyme activity results showed that Y. NSN was a nuclease with good thermostability. PMID:24144888

Li, Zhen-Hua; Tang, Zhen-Xing; Fang, Xiu-Juan; Zhang, Zhi-Liang; Shi, Lu-E

2013-12-01

401

Antifungal activity and local toxicity study of Alangium salviifolium subsp hexapetalum.  

PubMed

Alangium salviifolium subsp hexapetalum is a medicinal plant which has been traditionally used for tonic and treatment of hemorrhoid. This plant showed promising antimicrobial activity in our preliminary experiments, this study was, therefore, conducted to investigate its inhibitory effect against dermatomycotic organisms and its toxicity. The lyophilized powder extract (4.59%) of pulverized wood was tested for its inhibitory effect by agar disc diffusion test. The extract gave inhibitory zone diameters of 25.23 and 14.78 mm against 26 and 14 isolates of dermatophytes and Candida albicans, respectively. Ketoconazole, used as a reference antifungal agent, had inhibitory zone diameters of 33.15 and 27.93 mm against dermatophytes and C. albicans, respectively. There was no significant difference between the extract and ketoconazole in their inhibition against dermatophytes (p > 0.01), but their difference was significant against C. albicans (p < 0.01). Using Buehler' s method, different amounts of extract (3, 6, and 9 mg/inch2 gauze pad) were tested in five male New Zealand white rabbits. All tested amounts of extract did not induce dermatitis among those rabbits within 1 week. The results demonstrated the inhibitory effect of Alangium salviifolium subsp hexapetalum against fungi without any local toxicity; a tendency to further develop a herbal preparation for the treatment of some dermatomycotic infections. PMID:12971498

Wuthi-udomlert, Mansuang; Prathanturarug, Sompop; Wongkrajang, Yuvadee

2002-01-01

402

Organization of the genes encoding [Fe] hydrogenase in Desulfovibrio vulgaris subsp. oxamicus Monticello.  

PubMed Central

The genes encoding the periplasmic [Fe] hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris subsp. oxamicus Monticello were cloned by exploiting their homology with the hydAB genes from D. vulgaris subsp. vulgaris Hildenborough, in which this enzyme is present as a heterologous dimer of alpha and beta subunits. Nucleotide sequencing showed that the enzyme is encoded by an operon in which the gene for the 46-kilodalton (kDa) alpha subunit precedes that of the 13.5-kDa beta subunit, exactly as in the Hildenborough strain. The pairs of hydA and hydB genes are highly homologous; both alpha subunits (420 amino acid residues) share 79% sequence identity, while the unprocessed beta subunits (124 and 123 amino acid residues, respectively) share 71% sequence identity. In contrast, there appears to be no sequence homology outside these coding regions, with the exception of a possible promoter element, which was found approximately 90 base pairs upstream from the translational start of the hydA gene. The recently discovered hydC gene, which may code for a 65.8-kDa fusion protein (gamma) of the alpha and beta subunits and is present immediately downstream from the hydAB genes in the Hildenborough strain, was found to be absent from the Monticello strain. The implication of this result for the possible function of the hydC gene product in Desulfovibrio species is discussed. Images

Voordouw, G; Strang, J D; Wilson, F R

1989-01-01

403

Antioxidant Potential, Lipid Peroxidation Inhibition and Antimicrobial Activities of Satureja montana L. subsp. kitaibelii Extracts  

PubMed Central

The antioxidant activity of different Satureja montana L. subsp. kitaibelii extracts was tested by measuring their ability to scavenge reactive hydroxyl radical during the Fenton reaction, using ESR spectroscopy. Also, the influence of these extracts on lipid peroxyl radicals obtained during lipid peroxidation of: (I) sunflower oil (37 ºC, 3h) induced by 4,4?-azobis(4-cyanovaleric acid) (ACVA) and (II) liposomes induced by 2,2?-azobis(2- amidino-propane)dihydrochloride (AAPH) was studied. n-Butanol extract had the best antioxidant activity (100% at 0.5 mg/mL in Fenton reaction system; 89.21% at 5 mg/mL in system I; 83.38% at 5 mg/mL in system II). The antioxidant activities of the extracts significantly correlated with total phenolic content. The antimicrobial activity of Satureja montana L. subsp. kitaibelii extracts was investigated. Petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts expressed a wide range of inhibiting activity against both grampositive and gram-negative bacteria.

Cetkovic, Gordana S.; Canadanovic-Brunet, Jasna M.; Djilas, Sonja M.; Tumbas, Vesna T.; Markov, Sinisa L.; Cvetkovic, Dragoljub D.

2007-01-01

404

Two different parasporal inclusions are produced by Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. finitimus.  

PubMed Central

Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. finitimus produced at least two parasporal inclusions. One inclusion was formed within the exosporium and remained with the spore after mother cell lysis. A second inclusion formed somewhat later exterior to the exosporium. Each inclusion contained a major polypeptide of about 135,000 daltons with unique antigenic determinants. This subspecies contained only two plasmids, of 98 and 77 megadaltons (MDa). Strains cured of these plasmids produced only the free inclusion. Since the plasmid-cured strains did not contain DNA sequences homologous to plasmid DNA, the gene for the free-inclusion protein must be encoded in the chromosome. In contrast, the enclosed parasporal inclusion was produced only when the plasmid of 98 MDa was present. In addition, transfer of the 98-MDa plasmid to Bacillus cereus resulted in transcipients that produced small inclusions enclosed within the exosporium, and the protein extracted from these inclusions reacted with antibody specific for enclosed inclusion protein of B. thuringiensis subsp. finitimus. Genes in both the chromosome and a plasmid function in the synthesis of distinct parasporal proteins in this subspecies. Images

Debro, L; Fitz-James, P C; Aronson, A

1986-01-01

405

Response of Endophytic Bacterial Communities in Potato Plants to Infection with Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica  

PubMed Central

The term endophyte refers to interior colonization of plants by microorganisms that do not have pathogenic effects on their hosts, and various endophytes have been found to play important roles in plant vitality. In this study, cultivation-independent terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA directly amplified from plant tissue DNA was used in combination with molecular characterization of isolates to examine the influence of plant stress, achieved by infection with the blackleg pathogen Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica, on the endophytic population in two different potato varieties. Community analysis clearly demonstrated increased bacterial diversity in infected plants compared to that in control plants. The results also indicated that the pathogen stress had a greater impact on the bacteria population than the plant genotype had. Partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes of isolated endophytes revealed a broad phylogenetic spectrum of bacteria, including members of the ?, ?, and ? subgroups of the Proteobacteria, high- and low-G+C-content gram-positive organisms, and microbes belonging to the Flexibacter-Cytophaga-Bacteroides group. Screening of the isolates for antagonistic activity against E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica revealed that 38% of the endophytes protected tissue culture plants from blackleg disease.

Reiter, Birgit; Pfeifer, Ulrike; Schwab, Helmut; Sessitsch, Angela

2002-01-01

406

Novel Probiotic Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis CECT 7210 Strain Active against Rotavirus Infections?  

PubMed Central

Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe acute gastroenteritis among children worldwide. It is well known that breast-feeding and vaccination afford infants protection. Since breast-feeding has drastically decreased in developed countries, efforts have been focused on the potential use of probiotics as preventive agents. In this study, a novel Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis strain was isolated from infant feces and selected, based on its capacity to inhibit in vitro rotavirus Wa replication (up to 36.05% infectious foci reduction) and also to protect cells from virus infection (up to 48.50% infectious foci reduction) in both MA-104 and HT-29 cell lines. Furthermore, studies using a BALB/c mouse model have proved that this strain provides preliminary in vivo protection against rotavirus infection. The strain has been deposited in the Spanish Type Culture Collection under the accession number CECT 7210. This novel strain has the main properties required of a probiotic, such as resistance to gastrointestinal juices, biliary salts, NaCl, and low pH, as well as adhesion to intestinal mucus and sensitivity to antibiotics. The food safety status has been confirmed by the absence of undesirable metabolite production and in acute ingestion studies of mice. Overall, these results demonstrate that Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis CECT 7210 can be considered a probiotic able to inhibit rotavirus infection.

Moreno Munoz, Jose Antonio; Chenoll, Empar; Casinos, Beatriz; Bataller, Esther; Ramon, Daniel; Genoves, Salvador; Montava, Rebeca; Ribes, Juan Manuel; Buesa, Javier; Fabrega, Joan; Rivero, Montserrat

2011-01-01

407

Multi-Method Approach for Characterizing the Interaction between Fusarium verticillioides and Bacillus thuringiensis Subsp. Kurstaki  

PubMed Central

Bacterial antagonists used as biocontrol agents represent part of an integrated management program to reduce pesticides in the environment. Bacillus thuringiensis is considered a good alternative as a biocontrol agent for suppressing plant pathogens such as Fusarium. In this study, we used microscopy, flow cytometry, indirect immunofluorescence, and high performance liquid chromatography to determine the interaction between B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki LFB-FIOCRUZ (CCGB) 257 and F. verticillioides MRC 826, an important plant pathogen frequently associated with maize. B. thuringiensis showed a strong in vitro suppressive effect on F. verticillioides growth and inhibited fumonisin production. Flow cytometry analysis was found to be adequate for characterizing the fungal cell oscillations and death during these interactions. Further studies of the antagonistic effect of this isolate against other fungi and in vivo testing are necessary to determine the efficacy of B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki in controlling plant pathogens. This is the first report on the use of flow cytometry for quantifying living and apoptotic F. verticillioides cells and the B. thuringiensis Cry 1Ab toxin.

Rocha, Liliana O.; Tralamazza, Sabina Moser.; Reis, Gabriela M.; Rabinovitch, Leon; Barbosa, Cynara B.; Correa, Benedito

2014-01-01

408

Amino sugars in the glycoprotein toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis.  

PubMed Central

The carbohydrate content of purified Bacillus thuriniensis subsp. israelensis crystal toxin was determined by six biochemical tests, column chromatography on an amino acid analyzer, and the binding of 11 fluorescent lectins. The crystals contained approximately 1.0% neutral sugars and 1.7% amino sugars. The amino sugars consisted of 70% glucosamine and 30% galactosamine. No N-acetylneuraminic acid (sialic acid) was detected. The presence of amino sugars was confirmed by the strong binding of fluorescent wheat germ agglutinin and the weak binding of fluorescent soybean agglutinin. These lectins recognize N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, respectively. The lectin-binding sites appeared evenly distributed among the protein subunits of the crystal. The sugars were covalently attached to the crystal toxin because wheat germ agglutinin still bound alkali-solubilized toxin which had been boiled in sodium dodecyl sulfate, separate by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and transferred to nitrocellulose membranes. This study demonstrates the covalent attachment of amino sugars and indicates that the B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis protein toxins should be viewed as glycoprotein toxins. The crystals used in the present study were purified on sodium bromide density gradients. Studies employing crystals purified on Renografin density gradients can give artificially high values for the anthrone test for neutral sugars. Images

Pfannenstiel, M A; Muthukumar, G; Couche, G A; Nickerson, K W

1987-01-01

409

Cytotoxicity, antimicrobial activity and composition of essential oil from Tanacetum balsamita L. subsp. balsamita.  

PubMed

The aerial parts of Tanacetum balsamita subsp. balsamita were collected at full flowering stage from Tabriz, Iran. The essential oil was isolated by hydrodistillation and analyzed by combination of capillary GC and GC-MS. Twenty seven components were identified, representing 99.2% of the total oil. Carvone (51.0%), beta-thujone (20.8%), 1,8-cineole (4.4%) and alpha-thujone (3.2%) were the main components. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of T. balsamita subsp. balsamita was studied against eight Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, B. pumulis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae) and three fungi (Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus niger). The results of the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil according to the disc diffusion method and MIC values indicated that the oil exhibited moderate to high antimicrobial activity. The in vitro toxicological study based on the MTT cytotoxicity assay on human fetal skin fibroblast (HFSF) and Monkey kidney (Vero) cell lines showed IC50 values of 2500 and 1250 microg/mL, respectively. PMID:19370888

Yousefzadi, Morteza; Ebrahimi, Samad Nejad; Sonboli, Ali; Miraghasi, Farah; Ghiasi, Shahla; Arman, Mitra; Mosaffa, Nariman

2009-01-01

410

Experimental Inoculation of BFDV-Positive Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) with Two Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium Isolates.  

PubMed

Beak and feather disease virus- (BFDV-) positive (naturally infected) but clinically healthy budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) were inoculated with two isolates of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolated from naturally infected golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) and peafowl (Pavo cristatus). During a period of more than two months after inoculation, samples of cloacal and crop swabs, faeces, and blood were obtained for BFDV and Mycobacterium avium testing with PCR. Birds were euthanized nine weeks after inoculation. All infected budgerigars developed signs typical of mycobacteriosis, but more advanced clinical and pathological changes were visible in the group infected with the pheasant isolate. Only a few cloacal and crop swab samples were positive for Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium despite advanced pathological changes in the internal organs. In the groups infected with mycobacterium isolates the frequency of BFDV-positive samples was higher than in the control group. In the infected groups the frequency of BFDV was substantially higher in the cloacal swabs of birds inoculated with the pheasant isolate than in the peafowl-isolate-infected group. PMID:24738057

Ledwo?, Aleksandra; Sapierzy?ski, Rafa?; Augustynowicz-Kope?, Ewa; Szeleszczuk, Piotr; Kozak, Marcin

2014-01-01

411

Susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to essential oil of Dittrichia viscosa subsp. revoluta.  

PubMed

The essential oil of Dittrichia viscosa subsp. revoluta and its fractions were assessed for anti-Helicobacter activity. The essential oil was isolated by hydrodistillation, submitted to flash column chromatography and analysed by gas chromatography, gas-chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and (13)C-nuclear magnetic resonance. The anti-Helicobacter activity was determined by incorporation of the crude essential oil and oxygenated fracti