Sample records for fagus grandifolia subsp

  1. Lluvia de semillas y emergencia de plántulas de Fagus grandifolia subsp. mexicana en La Mojonera, Hidalgo, México Seed rain and seedling emergence of Fagus grandifolia subsp. mexicana at La Mojonera, Hidalgo, Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oliva Godínez-Ibarra; Gregorio Ángeles-Pérez; Lauro López-Mata; Edmundo García-Moya; Juan Ignacio

    2007-01-01

    Fagus grandifolia subsp. mexicana is a species restricted to small populations under high anthropogenic pressure. With the aim to attain information to propose conservation strategies of this species, the seed rain and demography of current-year seedlings were analyzed at La Mojonera, Hidalgo, Mexico. A 4 800 m 2 plot divided into 10 X 10 m quadrants was established. The seed

  2. Exclusive accumulation of Z-isomers of monolignols and their glucosides in bark of Fagus grandifolia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, N. G.; Inciong, E. J.; Ohashi, H.; Towers, G. H.; Yamamoto, E.

    1988-01-01

    In addition to Z-coniferyl and Z-sinapyl alcohols, bark extracts of Fagus grandifolia also contain significant amounts of the glucosides, Z-coniferin, Z-isoconiferin (previously called faguside) and Z-syringin. The corresponding E-isomers of these glucosides do not accumulate to a detectable level. The accumulation of the Z-isomers suggests that either they are not lignin precursors or that they are reservoirs of monolignols for subsequent lignin biosynthesis; it is not possible to distinguish between these alternatives. The co-occurrence of Z-coniferin and Z-isoconiferin demonstrate that glucosylation of monolignols can occur at either the phenolic or the allylic hydroxyl groups.

  3. Do Interspecific Differences in Sapling Growth Traits Contribute to the Co-dominance of Acer saccharum and Fagus grandifolia?

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Koichi; Lechowicz, Martin J.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Acer saccharum and Fagus grandifolia are among the most dominant late-successional tree species in North America. The influence of sapling growth responses to canopy gaps on the co-dominance of the two species in an old-growth forest in southern Quebec, Canada was examined. Two predictions were evaluated: (a) F. grandifolia is more shade tolerant than A. saccharum due to greater sapling leaf area and net production per sapling in closed-canopy conditions; and (b) the height growth rate of A. saccharum in canopy gaps is greater than that of F. grandifolia due to increased net production per sapling. Methods Sapling crown allometry, net production and height growth rates were compared between and within the two species in closed canopy vs. canopy gaps. Standardized major axis regression was used to analyse differences in crown allometry. Key Results F. grandifolia had greater crown projection, sapling leaf area and net production rate per sapling than A. saccharum in closed-canopy conditions. In response to canopy gaps, net production per sapling increased to the same degree in both species. The net production per sapling of F. grandifolia thus was much greater than that of A. saccharum in both canopy gap and closed-canopy conditions. The height growth rate of both species increased in canopy gaps, but the degree of increase was greater in F. grandifolia than in A. saccharum. Conclusions F. grandifolia regenerated more successfully than A. saccharum in both closed-canopy conditions and canopy gaps, which indicates that the co-dominance of the two species cannot be maintained simply by interspecific differences in shade tolerance and growth in gaps. Previous research showed that although Fagus and Acer shared dominance at this site, their relative dominance shifted with edaphic conditions. This suggests that the widespread co-dominance of the two species in eastern North American forests is maintained by the joint influence of canopy disturbance and species-specific responses to the heterogeneity of moisture and fertility regimes within forested landscapes. PMID:17942590

  4. Dispersal versus climate: Expansion of Fagus and Tsuga into the Upper Great Lakes region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. B. Davis; K. D. Woods; S. L. Webb; R. P. Futyma

    1986-01-01

    Pollen records for American beech (Fagus grandifolia) and eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) compiled from 50 sites in Michigan and Wisconsin, USA, show that both species entered the Upper Great Lakes region about 7000 yr B.P., reaching their western and southwestern boundaries between 2000 and 1000 yr B.P. Fagus advanced northward into lower Michigan as a continuous front, except where Lake

  5. Isolation and bioactivity of diterpenoids from the roots of Salvia grandifolia.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jie; Li, Li; Wang, Dingding; Wang, Hongqing; Liu, Chao; Li, Baoming; Yan, Yu; Fang, Lianhua; Du, Guanhua; Chen, Ruoyun

    2015-08-01

    A phytochemical investigation of root extracts of Salvia grandifolia led to isolation of six previously unreported diterpenoids, grandifolias A-F, along with eight known compounds. The structures of grandifolias A-F were primarily established by extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analyses, as well as HRESIMS data. Their absolute configurations were assigned by their calculated and experimental electronic circular dichroism spectra or by X-ray diffraction analysis. All of the diterpenoids were evaluated for their vasorelaxant effects. Grandifolia B and isograndifoliol both exhibited dose-dependent vasorelaxant effects on rat aortic rings, preconstricted by KCl or norepinephrine, with EC50 values of 36.36-74.51?g/mL. PMID:25912026

  6. Late-quaternary shift of fagus distribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matsuo Tsukada

    1982-01-01

    Based on six resolved maps of its pollen frequency (dating 13,000, 10,000, 8,000, 6,000, 3,000 and 500 yr B.P.) at 33 sites\\u000a scattered almost throughout the Japanese Archipelago,Fagus shows principally a, unidirectional late-Quaternary shift in distribution from the southwest to the northeast. The maximum\\u000a areal coverage was from 10,000 to 7,000 years ago, although northeastern populations were not fully developed

  7. Agroxiphium sandwicense subsp. macrocephalum

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sherwin Carlquist

    2004-03-09

    Agroxiphium sandwicense subsp. macrocephalum, photographed on the Silversword Loop Trail in Haleakala National Park, Maui, Hawaii. The silverswords in Haleakala National Park grow in the largest number on these cinder cones in the caldera of Haleakala, but since goats have been removed from the National Park, silverswords are colonizing other areas of alpine lava. Photo credit: Sherwin Carlquist (1966).

  8. Xanthones, biflavanones and triterpenes from Pentadesma grandifolia (Clusiaceae): structural determination and bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Djoufack, Grace Leontine Nwabouloun; Valant-Vetschera, Karin M; Schinnerl, Johann; Brecker, Lothar; Lorbeer, Eberhard; Robien, Wolfgang

    2010-07-01

    Stem bark, roots, leaves and fruits of Pentadesma grandifolia Baker f. (Clusiaceae) have been analyzed for the presence of xanthones, biflavonoids and triterpenoids. Isolated and identified structures include the xanthones cowagarcinone B (1) and alpha-mangostin (2), further the two biflavanones 3,8"-binaringenin (3) and the corresponding 3,6"-binaringenin (4), which is here reported as natural constituent for the first time. Structures were determined by NMR and mass spectrometry, as well as by 13C-NMR CSEARCH and SPECINFO database systems. The triterpenes lupeol (5), beta-amyrin (6) and betulin (7) were also encountered. Compounds 2 - 4 exhibited antifungal activity against Cladosporium sphaerospermum. Results are discussed in context to organ-specific accumulation and to other bioactivities that may relate to the ethnomedicinal uses of this species. PMID:20734939

  9. Predicting tree death for Fagus sylvatica and Abies alba using permanent plot data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Wunder; Björn Reineking; Jean-François Matter; Christof Bigler; Harald Bugmann

    2007-01-01

    Question: How well can mortality probabilities of deciduous trees (Fagus sylvatica) and conifers (Abies alba) be predicted using permanent plot data that describe growth patterns, tree species, tree size and site conditions? Location: Fagus forests in the montane belt of the Jura folds (Switzerland). Method: Permanent plot data were used to develop and validate logistic regression models predicting survival probabilities

  10. Original article Restoring catalase activity in Staphylococcus aureus subsp.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Restoring catalase activity in Staphylococcus aureus subsp. anaerobius leads; accepted 15 February 2010) Abstract ­ Staphylococcus aureus subsp. anaerobius, a microaerophilic / pathogenesis / catalase / abscess disease / sheep 1. INTRODUCTION Staphylococcus aureus subsp. anaerobius

  11. Effects of fertilization on the vascular ground vegetation of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Lieb.) stands

    E-print Network

    Misson, Laurent

    2001-01-01

    pubescens Fagus sylvatica Holcus lanatus Picea abies Poa nemoralis Poa trivialis Quercus sp. Rubuspubescens Fagus sylvatica Holcus lanatus Lapsana communis Picea abies Poa nemoralis Poa trivialis Quercus sp. Rubus

  12. Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. phaseoli subsp. nov., pathogenic in bean.

    PubMed

    González, Ana J; Trapiello, Estefanía

    2014-05-01

    A yellow Gram-reaction-positive bacterium isolated from bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was identified as Clavibacter michiganensis by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Molecular methods were employed in order to identify the subspecies. Such methods included the amplification of specific sequences by PCR, 16S amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA), RFLP and multilocus sequence analysis as well as the analysis of biochemical and phenotypic traits including API 50CH and API ZYM results. The results showed that strain LPPA 982T did not represent any known subspecies of C. michiganensis. Pathogenicity tests revealed that the strain is a bean pathogen causing a newly identified bacterial disease that we name bacterial bean leaf yellowing. On the basis of these results, strain LPPA 982T is regarded as representing a novel subspecies for which the name Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. phaseoli subsp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LPPA 982T (=CECT 8144T=LMG 27667T). PMID:24554636

  13. Biodegradation of Abies bornmülleriana (Mattf.) and Fagus orientalis (L.) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdullah Istek; Huseyin Sivrikaya; Hudaverdi Eroglu; Sezgin K. Gulsoy

    2005-01-01

    The effects of Phanerochaete chrysosporium, a white rot fungus, on the chemical composition of Abies bornmülleriana and Fagus orientalis wood chips were investigated. After the chips were inoculated with the fungus, 20-, 40- and 60-day samples were analysed in order to determine the influence of fungal treatment on the chemical components of the cell walls, and the fibre properties of

  14. Ontogeny partly explains the apparent heterogeneity of published biomass equations for Fagus sylvatica in central Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Genet; H. Wernsdörfer; M. Jonard; H. Pretzsch; M. Rauch; Q. Ponette; C. Nys; A. Legout; J. Ranger; P. Vallet; L. Saint-André

    2011-01-01

    A set of robust biomass equations was developed for European beech (Fagus sylvatica), using a large database made of trees from three different European countries. Models were calibrated on the French control dataset, including a broad range of tree size, age and geographical conditions. Their independent validation on Belgian, German unfertilized, German and French fertilized stands gave very promising unbiased

  15. Pollen dispersal and deposition characteristics of Abies alba , Fagus sylvatica and Pinus sylvestris , Roztocze region (SE Poland)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anneli PoskaIrena; Irena Agnieszka Pidek

    2010-01-01

    Pinus sylvestris L., Abies alba Mill. and Fagus sylvatica L.—the significant forest forming tree species in Europe are important for palaeoecological interpretations based on the\\u000a results of pollen analysis of fossil deposits. The potential pollen loading for Pinus sylvestris, Abies alba and Fagus sylvatica was modelled using simulated and actual vegetation maps, measured fall-speed values and pollen productivity estimates from

  16. Original article Natural black pine (Pinus nigra subsp salzmannii)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Natural black pine (Pinus nigra subsp salzmannii) forests of the Iberian eastern) Summary — A phytoecological study of the Pinus nigra subsp salzmannii forests in the dolomite nigra forests in the eastern Pyrenees. Pinus nigra / numerical analysis / phytosociology / climax

  17. An extensive analysis of R2R3-MYB regulatory genes from Fagus crenata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuichi Matsuda; Naoko Wakamatsu; Hitomi Jouyu; Hajime Makita; Shinji Akada

    2011-01-01

    Using pairs of degenerate primers, we conducted a polymerase chain reaction to amplify the partial R2R3 domains of a majority\\u000a of the R2R3-MYB family genes from Fagus crenata and identified a total of 85 independent gene fragments. By phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences, we\\u000a found that many of the beech genes clustered with members from Arabidopsis, suggesting

  18. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA of an endangered beech species, Fagus hayatae Palibin ex Hayata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sumie Kato; Takayoshi Koike; Thomas T. Lei; Chang-Fu Hsieh; Kunihiko Ueda; Tetsuo Mikami

    2000-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms were used to examine cytoplasmic diversity within a relic-like population of Fagus hayatae, located in northern Taiwan. Fifteen trees were surveyed for three restriction endonucleases (BamHI, EcoRI and HindIII) and five mitochondrial gene probes (atpA, atp6, atp9, coxI and coxII). The analysis failed to reveal any polymorphisms, an observation that suggests cytoplasmic uniformity in

  19. A RAPD, AFLP and SSR linkage map, and QTL analysis in European beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Scalfi; M. Troggio; P. Piovani; S. Leonardi; G. Magnaschi; G. G. Vendramin; P. Menozzi

    2004-01-01

    The genetic linkage map of European beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.) that we report here is the first to our knowledge. Based on a total of 312 markers (28 RAPDs, 274 AFLPs, 10 SSRs) scored in 143 individuals from a F 1 full-sib family. Two maps (one for each parent) were constructed according to a “two-way pseudo-testcross” mapping strategy. In

  20. Are marginal beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.) provenances a source for drought tolerant ecotypes?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Rose; Christoph Leuschner; Benjamin Köckemann; Holger Buschmann

    2009-01-01

    Due to the expected increases of number and intensity of summer droughts in Central Europe the identification of drought tolerant\\u000a ecotypes becomes more important in future forestry. A common garden experiment with seedlings of Fagus sylvatica provenances from the center (Germany) and eastern margin (Poland) of the species’ distribution range was conducted. Responses\\u000a of morphological, physiological, chemical and growth parameters

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris A76

    PubMed Central

    Quinquis, Benoit; Ehrlich, Stanislas Dusko; Sorokin, Alexei

    2012-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris A76, a dairy strain isolated from a cheese production outfit. Genome analysis detected two contiguous islands fitting to the L. lactis subsp. lactis rather than to the L. lactis subsp. cremoris lineage. This indicates the existence of genetic exchange between the diverse subspecies, presumably related to the technological process. PMID:22328746

  2. Complete genome sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris A76.

    PubMed

    Bolotin, Alexander; Quinquis, Benoit; Ehrlich, Stanislas Dusko; Sorokin, Alexei

    2012-03-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris A76, a dairy strain isolated from a cheese production outfit. Genome analysis detected two contiguous islands fitting to the L. lactis subsp. lactis rather than to the L. lactis subsp. cremoris lineage. This indicates the existence of genetic exchange between the diverse subspecies, presumably related to the technological process. PMID:22328746

  3. Genome Sequences of the Listeria ivanovii subsp. ivanovii Type Strain and Two Listeria ivanovii subsp. londoniensis Strains

    PubMed Central

    Hupfeld, Mario; Fouts, Derrick E.; Loessner, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    We present the complete genomes of Listeria ivanovii subsp. ivanovii WSLC 3010 (ATCC 19119T), Listeria ivanovii subsp. londoniensis WSLC 30151 (SLCC 8854), and Listeria ivanovii subsp. londoniensis WSLC 30167 (SLCC 6032), representing the type strain of the species and two strains of the same serovar but different properties, respectively. PMID:25614561

  4. The University of Notre Dame Patterns of Leaf Mass, Area and Nitrogen in Young Northern Hardwood Forests

    E-print Network

    Battles, John

    stands. For the shade intolerant species (Prunus pensylvanica, Betula papyrifera),average canopy., Fagus grandifolia, Betula allegheniensis). The slopes of regressions between N area and PARwere highly

  5. -Predictability, contingency, and convergence in late succession -543 Journal of Vegetation Science 18: 543-554, 2007

    E-print Network

    Woods, Kerry

    saccharum; Betula alleghaniensis; Ecoin- formatics; Fagus grandifolia; Hemlock-northern hardwood forest; Old-growth forest; Permanent plot; Thuja occidentalis; Tsuga canadensis. Nomenclature: Gleason & Cronquist (1991

  6. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Veterinary Medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Beth Harris; Raul G. Barletta

    2001-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Mycobacterium are gram-positive, acid- fast organisms that include a number of significant human and animal pathogens. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (basonym M. paratuberculosis) is the etiological agent of a severe gastroenteritis in ruminants, known as Johne’s disease. H. A. Johne and L. Frothingham initially reported the disease in Germany in 1894. However, it was not until

  7. Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus meningitis in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Guevara, Jose M.; Tilley, Drake H.; Briceno, Jesus A.; Zunt, Joseph R.; Montano, Silvia M.

    2013-01-01

    A 59-year-old man with a history of fever, unsteadiness, hemiparesis, motor aphasia and consciousness disturbance was hospitalized for Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus meningitis. He denied contact with farm animals, but had a practice of consuming unpasteurized goats’ cheese from an uncertain source. PMID:23105024

  8. Deoxyribonucleic Acid Homology Studies of Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei sp. nov., subsp. paracasei and subsp. tolerans, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus sp. nov., comb. nov

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MATTHEW D. COLLINS; BRIAN A. PHILLIPS; PAOLO ZANONI

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-DNA hybridizations were performed on strains of Lactobacillus casei. Our results indicate that this species as presently constituted is genomically very heterogeneous. The majority of strains designated L. casei subsp. casei, together with members of L. casei subsp. alactosus, L. casei subsp. pseudoplantarum, and L. casei subsp. tolerans, exhibited high levels of DNA relatedness with each other but

  9. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Using Peptide Nucleic Acid Probes for Rapid Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Potable-Water Biofilms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markku J. Lehtola; Eila Torvinen; Ilkka T. Miettinen; C. William Keevil

    2006-01-01

    Here, we present for the first time a high-affinity peptide nucleic acid (PNA) oligonucleotide sequence for detecting Mycobacterium avium bacteria, including the opportunistically pathogenic subspecies M. avium subsp. avium, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, and M. avium subsp. silvaticum, by the fluorescence in situ hybrid- ization (FISH) method. There is evidence that M. avium subsp. avium especially is able to survive

  10. Fine roots in stands of Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies along a gradient of soil acidification.

    PubMed

    Braun, Sabine; Cantaluppi, Leonardo; Flückiger, Walter

    2005-10-01

    Root length of naturally grown young beech trees (Fagus sylvatica L.) was investigated in 26 forest plots of differing base saturation and nitrogen deposition. The relative length of finest roots (<0.25 mm) was found to decrease in soils with low base saturation. A similar reduction of finest roots in plots with high nitrogen deposition was masked by the effect of base saturation. The formation of adventitious roots was enhanced in acidic soils. The analysis of 128 soil profiles for fine roots of all species present in stands of either Fagus sylvatica L., Picea abies [Karst.] L. or both showed a decreased rooting depth in soils with < or =20% base saturation and in hydromorphic soils. For base rich, well drained soils an average rooting depth of 108 cm was found. This decreased by 28 cm on acidic, well drained soils. The results suggest an effect of the current soil acidification in Switzerland and possibly also of nitrogen deposition on the fine root systems of forest trees. PMID:15964116

  11. Chitinase from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. pakistani

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Thamthiankul; S. Suan-Ngay; S. Tantimavanich; W. Panbangred

    2001-01-01

    The chitinase gene (chiA71) from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. pakistani consists of an open reading frame of 1,905 nucleotides encoding 635 amino acid residues with an estimated molecular mass of 71 kDa. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of the mature enzyme to other microbial chitinases shows a putative catalytic domain and a region with conserved amino acids similar to

  12. Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis in Humans, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Kosoy, Michael Y.; Diaz, Maureen H.; Winchell, Jonas; Baggett, Henry; Maloney, Susan A.; Boonmar, Sumalee; Bhengsri, Saithip; Sawatwong, Pongpun; Peruski, Leonard F.

    2012-01-01

    We identified Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis in pre-enriched blood of 4 patients from Thailand. Nucleotide sequences for transfer-messenger RNA gene, citrate synthase gene, and the 16S–23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer were identical or closely related to those for the strain that has been considered pathogenic since initially isolated from a human in Wyoming, USA. PMID:22607728

  13. Adenine nucleotides and energy charge during dormancy breaking in embryo axes of Acer platanoides and Fagus sylvatica seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazimierz Krawiarz; Zofia Szczotka

    2005-01-01

    We analysed changes in AMP, ADP, and ATP concentrations and adenylate energy charge in Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) seeds during dormancy breaking (at 3 °C) and in the control variant at 15 °C. Values of the studied indicators in stratified\\u000a beech seeds were generally higher at 15 °C, at least until germination (+3

  14. Analysis of the distribution of epiphytic lichens within homogeneousFagus sylvatica stands along an altitudinal gradient (Mount Olympos, Greece)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Pirintsos; J. Diamantopoulos; G. P. Stamou

    1995-01-01

    Epiphytic lichen vegetation onFagus sylvatica sas studied in 4 sites along an altitudinal gradient from 930 to 1500 m on SE facing slopes of Mount Olympos (Greece). The crucial factor determining the spatial heterogeneity of epiphytic lichens onF. sylvatica is the altitude and not the height on the trunk at which lichen community is established. 17 out of 26 taxa

  15. Fast wood decay in a mountain Mediterranean area having Fagus sylvatica forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fravolini, Giulia; Egli, Markus; Cherubini, Paolo; Tognetti, Roberto; Lombardi, Fabio; Marchetti, Marco

    2015-04-01

    Deadwood and litter act as important linkages between recent productivity and current community, and ecosystem processes. The increasing interest in the quantity and properties of coarse woody debris (CWD) and litter is relevant both to maintaining biodiversity and to global C dynamics. Mountain and Mediterranean areas, furthermore, are considered to be especially sensitive to changing environmental conditions. Consequently, a need exists to understand more in detail the interplay between soils, forests, deadwood and climate in general and in particular in mountain Mediterranean areas such as the Appenine. Due to the fact that linkages between climate, coarse woody decay and soils in mountain Mediterranean areas are only poorly understood, we aimed at investigating the decay mechanism of Fagus silvatica as a function of altitude and exposure. Furthermore, the effects of exposure on the decay dynamics of dead wood and soils were compared along a altitudinal sequence in an Appenine mountain forest (Majella Mountain). Ten sites, five of which having north and the other 5 having south exposure, were investigated, ranging from 1000 m to 1650 m asl. All sites have a Fagus sylvatica forest. In addition to this, experimental plots were installed at each site. In May 2014 standardised wood blocks (5 x 5 x 2 cm) of local Fagus sylvatica were placed at each site inside PVC tubes ('mesocosms') that was filled with undisturbed soil material. The sampling design foresees that three replicates of such mesocosms per site will be sampled after 8 , 16, 52 and 104 weeks. After 8 weeks three tubes were removed from the sites (sampled soil and dead wood blocks) and the wood blocks analysed for cellulose, lignin and density. At each site, three cores were taken to analyse soil properties. The soil cores were subdivided in 0 - 5, 5 - 10 and 10 - 15 cm depth and measured for organic carbon, carbonates and pH. In addition, the humus forms at each site were determined. Already after 8 weeks, the lignin content of the dead wood increased compared to the fresh wood. The cellulose analysis, however, showed a slight decreasing trend (not always statistically significant), both at the north and the south exposure. Especially at the highest altitudes this decreasing trend was best expressed. The highest sites are the coolest and also have enough moisture of during the dry summer months. Together with the relatively warm conditions, decay processes seem to be enhanced there. The humus forms nicely represented the climatic conditions with predominately Mull at higher sites and particularly at north-facing sites and Amphi at lower and warmer sites. Consequently, a fast wood decay also correlates with the humus form Mull.

  16. Dihydrochalcones and coumarins of Esenbeckia grandiflora subsp. brevipetiolata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Trani; A. Carbonetti; G. Delle Monache; F. Delle Monache

    2004-01-01

    Six furoquinolines and five coumarins have been isolated from the roots of Esenbeckia grandiflora subsp. brevipetiolata. The leaves yielded two dihydrochalcones and two flavonol rhamnosides. One of the coumarins (5-senecioyl-xanthotoxin) and the dihydrochalcones are novel compounds and their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. The comparison with the dihydrochalcones previously isolated from another subspecies, E. grandiflora subsp. grandiflora is also

  17. Genotypic variability and phenotypic plasticity of cavitation resistance in Fagus sylvatica L. across Europe.

    PubMed

    Wortemann, Rémi; Herbette, Stéphane; Barigah, Têtè Sévérien; Fumanal, Boris; Alia, Ricardo; Ducousso, Alexis; Gomory, Dusan; Roeckel-Drevet, Patricia; Cochard, Hervé

    2011-11-01

    Xylem cavitation resistance is a key physiological trait correlated with species tolerance to extreme drought stresses. Little is known about the genetic variability and phenotypic plasticity of this trait in natural tree populations. Here we measured the cavitation resistance of 17 Fagus sylvatica populations representative of the full range of the species in Europe. The trees were grown in three field trials under contrasting climatic conditions. Our findings suggest that the genotypic variability of cavitation resistance is high between genotypes of a given population. By contrast, no significant differences were found for this trait across populations, the mean population cavitation resistance being remarkably constant in each trial. We found a significant site effect and a significant site?×?population interaction, suggesting that cavitation resistance has a high phenotypic plasticity and that this plasticity is under genetic control. The implications of our findings for beech forest management in a context of climate change are discussed. PMID:21989814

  18. Leaf litter decomposition in temperate deciduous forest stands with a decreasing fraction of beech (Fagus sylvatica).

    PubMed

    Jacob, Mascha; Viedenz, Karin; Polle, Andrea; Thomas, Frank M

    2010-12-01

    We hypothesised that the decomposition rates of leaf litter will increase along a gradient of decreasing fraction of the European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and increasing tree species diversity in the generally beech-dominated Central European temperate deciduous forests due to an increase in litter quality. We studied the decomposition of leaf litter including its lignin fraction in monospecific (pure beech) stands and in stands with up to five tree genera (Acer spp., Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Fraxinus excelsior, Tilia spp.) using a litterbag approach. Litter and lignin decomposition was more rapid in stand-representative litter from multispecific stands than in litter from pure beech stands. Except for beech litter, the decomposition rates of species-specific tree litter did not differ significantly among the stand types, but were most rapid in Fraxinus excelsior and slowest in beech in an interspecific comparison. Pairwise comparisons of the decomposition of beech litter with litter of the other tree species (except for Acer platanoides) revealed a "home field advantage" of up to 20% (more rapid litter decomposition in stands with a high fraction of its own species than in stands with a different tree species composition). Decomposition of stand-representative litter mixtures displayed additive characteristics, not significantly more rapid than predicted by the decomposition of litter from the individual tree species. Leaf litter decomposition rates were positively correlated with the initial N and Ca concentrations of the litter, and negatively with the initial C:N, C:P and lignin:N ratios. The results support our hypothesis that the overall decomposition rates are mainly influenced by the chemical composition of the individual litter species. Thus, the fraction of individual tree species in the species composition seems to be more important for the litter decomposition rates than tree species diversity itself. PMID:20596729

  19. Composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Achillea nobilis L. subsp. sipylea and subsp. neilreichii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Karamenderes; N. U. Karabay Yavasoglu; U. Zeybek

    2007-01-01

    plant materials are not known in some studies. The present study was carried out for the first time to determine the chemical composition of the essential oils of A. nobilis subsp. sipylea and A. nobilis subsp. neilreichii collected from Turkey, and their antimicrobial activities were tested against eight Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria strains and Candida albicans. The percentage

  20. Relationships between vessel element anatomy and physiological as well as morphological traits of leaves in Fagus crenata seedlings originating from different provenances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vilma Bayramzadeh; Ryo Funada; Takafumi Kubo

    2008-01-01

    We attempted to observe differences in vessel element anatomy, and physiological and morphological traits of leaves in Fagus crenata seedlings originated from seven different provenances grown under the uniform environmental conditions. We also investigated\\u000a the relationships between the anatomical characteristics of the vessel elements and physiological plus morphological traits\\u000a of leaves in Fagus crenata seedlings. To carry out the experiments,

  1. Genetic Diversity of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis Isolated in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Hwan; Kim, Jin-Beom; Lim, Jeong-A; Han, Sang-Wook; Heu, Sunggi

    2014-01-01

    The plant pathogenic bacterial genus Pectobacteirum consists of heterogeneous strains. The P. carotovorum species is a complex strain showing divergent characteristics, and a new subspecies named P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis has been identified recently. In this paper, we re-identified the P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis isolates from those classified under the subspecies carotovorum and newly isolated P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis strains. All isolates were able to produce plant cell-wall degrading enzymes such as pectate lyase, polygalacturonase, cellulase and protease. We used genetic and biochemical methods to examine the diversity of P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis isolates, and found genetic diversity within the brasiliensis subsp. isolates in Korea. The restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis based on the recA gene revealed a unique pattern for the brasiliensis subspecies. The Korean brasiliensis subsp. isolates were divided into four clades based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. However, correlations between clades and isolated hosts or year could not be found, suggesting that diverse brasiliensis subsp. isolates existed. PMID:25288994

  2. Variation in annual pollen accumulation rates of Fagus along a N–S transect in Europe based on pollen traps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irena A. Pidek; Helena Svitavská-Svobodová; Willem O. van der Knaap; Agnieszka M. Nory?kiewicz; Anna Filbrandt-Czaja; Bo?ena Nory?kiewicz; Ma?gorzata Lata?owa; Marcelina Zimny; Joanna ?wi?ta-Musznicka; Elissaveta Bozilova; Spassimir Tonkov; Mariana Filipova-Marinova; Anneli Poska; Thomas Giesecke; Aleksander Gikov

    2010-01-01

    Annual pollen-accumulation rates (PAR) of Fagus (beech) obtained within the framework of the Pollen Monitoring Programme (PMP) were analyzed in pollen traps along a N–S\\u000a transect from the Baltic Sea to the Black Sea in different European vegetation units. The study regions are situated in the\\u000a lowlands of northern Poland, the uplands of SE Poland, the Czech Krkonoše Mts, the

  3. Desiccation-tolerance of Fagus crenata blume seeds from localities of different snowfall regime in central Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emiko Maruta; Tomohiko Kamitani; Midori Okabe; Yuji Ide

    1997-01-01

    In beech (Fagus crenata Blume) forests on the Pacific Ocean side in Central Japan, snowpack depth is little and xeric conditions may prevail in winter,\\u000a in contrast to heavy snow in beech forests on the Japan Sea side. The effects of such conditions during winter on the viability\\u000a of beech seeds were studied at a beech forest on the Pacific

  4. Regeneration dynamics, causal factors, and characteristics of pacific ocean-type beech ( Fagus crenata ) forests in Japan: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koji Shimano

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews the differences in the distribution and regeneration ofFagus crenata between two types of Japanese beech forests, the Japan Sea (JS)-type and the Pacific Ocean (PO)-type, and discusses the causal\\u000a factors and characteristics of these forests, particularly the PO-type.F. crenata in PO-type forests regenerates sporadically rather than constantly, whereas regeneration in the JS-type forests is relatively\\u000a constant with

  5. Nanoscale Similarities in the Substructure of the Exines of FagusPollen Grains and LycopodiumSpores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JESPER WITTBORN; K. V RAO; G EL-GHAZALY; J. R ROWLEY

    1998-01-01

    The exine substructure of an angiosperm,Fagus sylvatica(beech) pollen and a pteridophyte,Lycopodium clavatum(a club moss) spore was investigated by scanning tunnelling microscopy. These pollen and spores, despite their distinct differences in structure and morphology on a micrometre scale, have very similar substructure on a nanometre scale. The substructure appears to consist of a multi-helix, i.e. a helical chain in turn wound

  6. Effects of ozone on nitrogen metabolism in the leaves of Fagus crenata seedlings under different soil nitrogen loads

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masahiro Yamaguchi; Makoto Watanabe; Hideyuki Matsumura; Yoshihisa Kohno; Takeshi Izuta

    2010-01-01

    To clarify the effects of ozone (O3) on nitrogen (N) metabolism in the leaves of Fagus crenata seedlings under different N loads, the combined effects of O3 and N load on N enzyme activity, amino acid profiles and soluble protein concentrations were investigated. The seedlings\\u000a were grown in potted andisol supplied with N at 0 (N0), 20 (N20) and 50 kg ha?1 year?1

  7. Foliar responses to ozone of Fagus sylvatica L. seedlings grown in shaded and in full sunlight conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chiara Cascio; Marcus Schaub; Kristopher Novak; Rosanna Desotgiu; Filippo Bussotti; Reto J. Strasser

    2010-01-01

    Ozone (O3) is well known to affect photosynthesis on tree seedlings under experimental conditions. In natural conditions, young trees grow under a competitive environment that may alter light availability. Such conditions were simulated in an open-top chamber (OTC) experiment carried out in Southern Switzerland (Lattecaldo). The experimental set-up consisted of Fagus sylvatica (beech) seedling plots (planted within the same chamber)

  8. Photosynthetic induction in leaves of co-occurring Fagus lucida and Castanopsis lamontii saplings grown in contrasting light environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kun-dong Bai; De-bao Liao; De-bing Jiang; Kun-fang Cao

    2008-01-01

    Photosynthetic induction times and photoinhibition in relation to simulated sunflecks (sudden increase of irradiance from\\u000a 20 to 1,500 ?mol m?2 s?1) were examined in leaves of co-occurring Fagus lucida (a deciduous tree) and Castanopsis lamontii (an evergreen tree) saplings grown either in a beech forest understory or in an adjacent open site during a late rainy season.\\u000a Two hypotheses were tested: (1) understory

  9. Serogrouping of Bacteroides fragilis subsp. fragilis by the agglutination test.

    PubMed Central

    Lambe, D W; Moroz, D A

    1976-01-01

    The agglutination technique was used to establish a serological classification scheme for 98 strains of Bacteroides fragilis subsp. fragilis isolated from clinical specimens and normal human feces. Absorbed antisera were prepared to seven strains of B. fragilis subsp. fragilis. These seven absorbed antisera were species as well as subspecies specific and provided the basis of the serological classification scheme. This scheme was composed of 21 serogroups; seven of these serogroups contained only one group component. There was a total of 45 serological patterns. This serological scheme may be used for the serological classification of strains of B. fragilis subsp. fragilis and to study the epidemiology of this organism. PMID:950378

  10. A pyrosequencing insight into sprawling bacterial diversity and community dynamics in decaying deadwood logs of Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies

    PubMed Central

    Hoppe, Björn; Krger, Krüger; Kahl, Tiemo; Arnstadt, Tobias; Buscot, François; Bauhus, Jürgen; Wubet, Tesfaye

    2015-01-01

    Deadwood is an important biodiversity hotspot in forest ecosystems. While saproxylic insects and wood-inhabiting fungi have been studied extensively, little is known about deadwood-inhabiting bacteria. The study we present is among the first to compare bacterial diversity and community structure of deadwood under field conditions. We therefore compared deadwood logs of two temperate forest tree species Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies using 16S rDNA pyrosequencing to identify changes in bacterial diversity and community structure at different stages of decay in forest plots under different management regimes. Alphaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria were the dominant taxonomic groups in both tree species. There were no differences in bacterial OTU richness between deadwood of Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies. Bacteria from the order Rhizobiales became more abundant during the intermediate and advanced stages of decay, accounting for up to 25% of the entire bacterial community in such logs. The most dominant OTU was taxonomically assigned to the genus Methylovirgula, which was recently described in a woodblock experiment of Fagus sylvatica. Besides tree species we were able to demonstrate that deadwood physico-chemical properties, in particular remaining mass, relative wood moisture, pH, and C/N ratio serve as drivers of community composition of deadwood-inhabiting bacteria. PMID:25851097

  11. Cd, Cu, Ni, Mn and Zn resistance and bioaccumulation by thermophilic bacteria, Geobacillus toebii subsp. decanicus and Geobacillus thermoleovorans subsp. stromboliensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sadin Özdemir; Ersin Kilinc; Annarita Poli; Barbara Nicolaus; Kemal Güven

    Bioaccumulation and heavy metal resistance of Cd2+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Zn2+ and Mn2+ ions by thermophilic Geobacillus toebii subsp. decanicus and Geobacillus thermoleovorans subsp. stromboliensis were investigated. The metal resistance from the most resistant to the most sensitive was found as Mn > Ni > Cu > Zn > Cd\\u000a for both Geobacillus thermoleovorans subsp. stromboliensis and Geobacillus toebii subsp. decanicus. It was determined that the highest metal bioaccumulation

  12. Comparisons of genetic and morphological distance with heterosis between Medicago sativa subsp. sativa and subsp. falcata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heathcliffe Riday; E. Charles Brummer; T. Austin Campbell; Diane Luth; Patricia M. Cazcarro

    2003-01-01

    Biomass yield heterosis has been shown to exist between Medicago sativasubsp. sativa and Medica gosativa subsp. falcata. The objective of this study was to gain a better understanding of what morphological and genetic factors were most highly\\u000a correlated with total biomass yield heterosis. We calculated genetic distances among nine sativa and five falcate genotypes\\u000a based on amplified fragment length polymorphism

  13. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Veterinary Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Harris, N. Beth; Barletta, Raúl G.

    2001-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (basonym M. paratuberculosis) is the etiologic agent of a severe gastroenteritis in ruminants known as Johne's disease. Economic losses to the cattle industry in the United States are staggering, reaching $1.5 billion annually. A potential pathogenic role in humans in the etiology of Crohn's disease is under investigation. In this article, we review the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnostics, and disease control measures of this important veterinary pathogen. We emphasize molecular genetic aspects including the description of markers used for strain identification, diagnostics, and phylogenetic analysis. Recent important advances in the development of animal models and genetic systems to study M. paratuberculosis virulence determinants are also discussed. We conclude with proposals for the applications of these models and recombinant technology to the development of diagnostic, control, and therapeutic measures. PMID:11432810

  14. Adsorption of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis to Soil Particles ?

    PubMed Central

    Dhand, Navneet K.; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L. M. L.; Whittington, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    Attachment of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis to soil particles could increase their availability to farm animals, as well as influence the transportation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis to water sources. To investigate the possibility of such attachment, we passed a known quantity of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis through chromatography columns packed with clay soil, sandy soil, pure silica, clay-silica mixture, or clay-silica complexes and measured the organisms recovered in the eluent using culture or quantitative PCR. Experiments were repeated using buffer at a range of pH levels with pure silica to investigate the effect of pH on M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis attachment. Linear mixed-model analyses were conducted to compare the proportional recovery of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in the eluent between different substrates and pH levels. Of the organisms added to the columns, 83 to 100% were estimated to be retained in the columns after adjustment for those retained in empty control columns. The proportions recovered were significantly different across different substrates, with the retention being significantly greater (P < 0.05) in pure substrates (silica and clay-silica complexes) than in soil substrates (clay soil and sandy soil). However, there were no significant differences in the retention of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis between silica and clay-silica complexes or between clay soil and sandy soil. The proportion retained decreased with increasing pH in one of the experiments, indicating greater adsorption of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis to soil particles at an acidic pH (P < 0.05). The results suggest that under experimental conditions M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis adsorbs to a range of soil particles, and this attachment is influenced by soil pH. PMID:19561187

  15. Description of Klebsiella quasipneumoniae sp. nov., isolated from human infections, with two subspecies, Klebsiella quasipneumoniae subsp. quasipneumoniae subsp. nov. and Klebsiella quasipneumoniae subsp. similipneumoniae subsp. nov., and demonstration that Klebsiella singaporensis is a junior heterotypic synonym of Klebsiella variicola.

    PubMed

    Brisse, Sylvain; Passet, Virginie; Grimont, Patrick A D

    2014-09-01

    Strains previously classified as members of Klebsiella pneumoniae phylogroups KpI, KpII-A, KpII-B and KpIII were characterized by 16S rRNA (rrs) gene sequencing, multilocus sequence analysis based on rpoB, fusA, gapA, gyrA and leuS genes, average nucleotide identity and biochemical characteristics. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that KpI and KpIII corresponded to K. pneumoniae and Klebsiella variicola, respectively, whereas KpII-A and KpII-B formed two well-demarcated sequence clusters distinct from other members of the genus Klebsiella. Average nucleotide identity between KpII-A and KpII-B was 96.4?%, whereas values lower than 94?% were obtained for both groups when compared with K. pneumoniae and K. variicola. Biochemical properties differentiated KpII-A, KpII-B, K. pneumoniae and K. variicola, with acid production from adonitol and l-sorbose and ability to use 3-phenylproprionate, 5-keto-d-gluconate and tricarballylic acid as sole carbon sources being particularly useful. Based on their genetic and phenotypic characteristics, we propose the names Klebsiella quasipneumoniae subsp. quasipneumoniae subsp. nov. and K. quasipneumoniae subsp. similipneumoniae subsp. nov. for strains of KpII-A and KpII-B, respectively. The type strain of K. quasipneumoniae sp. nov. and of K. quasipneumoniae subsp. quasipneumoniae subsp. nov. is 01A030(T) (?=?SB11(T)?=?CIP 110771(T)?=?DSM 28211(T)). The type strain of K. quasipneumoniae subsp. similipneumoniae subsp. nov. is 07A044(T) (?=?SB30(T)?=?CIP 110770(T)?=?DSM 28212(T)). Both strains were isolated from human blood cultures. This work also showed that Klebsiella singaporensis is a junior heterotypic synonym of K. variicola. PMID:24958762

  16. Variation in biogenic volatile organic compound emission pattern of Fagus sylvatica L. due to aphid infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joó, É.; Van Langenhove, H.; Šimpraga, M.; Steppe, K.; Amelynck, C.; Schoon, N.; Müller, J.-F.; Dewulf, J.

    2010-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been the focus of interest to understand atmospheric processes and their consequences in formation of ozone or aerosol particles; therefore, VOCs contribute to climate change. In this study, biogenic VOCs (BVOCs) emitted from Fagus sylvatica L. trees were measured in a dynamic enclosure system. In total 18 compounds were identified: 11 monoterpenes (MT), an oxygenated MT, a homoterpene (C 14H 18), 3 sesquiterpenes (SQT), isoprene and methyl salicylate. The frequency distribution of the compounds was tested to determine a relation with the presence of the aphid Phyllaphis fagi L. It was found that linalool, (E)-?-ocimene, ?-farnesene and a homoterpene identified as (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT), were present in significantly more samples when infection was present on the trees. The observed emission spectrum from F. sylvatica L. shifted from MT to linalool, ?-farnesene, (E)-?-ocimene and DMNT due to the aphid infection. Sabinene was quantitatively the most prevalent compound in both, non-infected and infected samples. In the presence of aphids ?-farnesene and linalool became the second and third most important BVOC emitted. According to our investigation, the emission fingerprint is expected to be more complex than commonly presumed.

  17. Leaf nitrogen distribution in relation to crown architecture in the tall canopy species, Fagus crenata.

    PubMed

    Osada, Noriyuki; Yasumura, Yuko; Ishida, Atsushi

    2014-08-01

    The theory of optimal leaf N distribution predicts that the C gain of plants is maximized when the N content per unit area (N(area)) scales with light availability, but most previous studies have demonstrated that the N distribution is not proportional to light availability. In tall trees, the leaves are often clustered on twigs (leaf cluster) and not evenly distributed within the crowns. Thus, we hypothesized that the suboptimal N distribution is partly caused by the limited capacity to translocate N between leaf clusters, and consequently, the relationship between light and N(area) differs for leaves in different clusters. We investigated the light availability and N content of all individual leaves within several leaf clusters on tall trees of a deciduous canopy species Fagus crenata in Japan. We observed that the within-cluster leaf N distribution patterns differed from the between-cluster patterns and the slopes of the relationships between light and N(area) were lower within clusters than between clusters. According to the detailed analysis of the N distribution within leaf clusters, N(area) was greater for current-year shoots with greater light availability or a larger total leaf area. The latter pattern was probably caused by the greater sink strength of the current-year shoots with a larger leaf area. These N distribution patterns suggest that leaf clusters are fairly independent with respect to their N use, and the productivity of real F. crenata crowns may be less than optimal. PMID:24844645

  18. Variation of cultivated flax ( Linum usitatissimum L. subsp. usitatissimum ) and its wild progenitor pale flax (subsp. angustifolium (Huds.) Thell.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Diederichsen; K. Hammer

    1995-01-01

    The domestication of cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L. subsp.usitatissimum) is briefly discussed.\\u000a \\u000a Using data documented as a matter of routine in genebank work, 63 accessions of cultivated flax from the flax germplasm collection\\u000a of the Gatersleben Genebank are compared with 73 accessions of its wild progenitor pale flax (subsp.angustifolium (Huds.) Thell.), which have been observed in systematic field trials. Range

  19. Molecular fingerprinting of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Typhimurium and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica derby isolated from tropical seafood in South India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rakesh; Surendran, P K; Thampuran, Nirmala

    2008-09-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Typhimurium and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Derby strains isolated from different seafood were genotyped by PCR-ribotyping and ERIC-PCR assays. This study has ascertained the genetic relatedness among serovars prevalent in tropical seafood. PCR-ribotyping exhibited genetic variation in both Salmonella serovars, and ribotype profile (II) was most predominant, which was observed in 10/18 of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Typhimurium and 7/17 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Derby isolates. Cluster analysis of ERIC-PCR for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Typhimurium strains exhibited nine different banding patterns and four strains showed >95% genetic homology within the cluster pairs. ERIC-PCR produced more genetic variations in Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Typhimurium; nevertheless, both methods were found to be comparable for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Derby isolates. Discrimination index of PCR-ribotyping for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Typhimurium isolates was obtained at 0.674 and index value 0.714 was observed for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Derby strains. Molecular fingerprinting investigation highlighted the hypothesis of diverse routes of Salmonella contamination in seafood as multiple clones of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Typhimurium and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Derby were detected in same or different seafood throughout the study period. PMID:18480975

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae Strain 9231-Abomsa.

    PubMed

    Dupuy, Virginie; Thiaucourt, François

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae is the etiological agent of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia. We report here the complete and annotated genome sequence of M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae strain 9231-Abomsa. PMID:25323727

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae Strain 9231-Abomsa

    PubMed Central

    Thiaucourt, François

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae is the etiological agent of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia. We report here the complete and annotated genome sequence of M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae strain 9231-Abomsa. PMID:25323727

  2. Neonatal Mortality in Puppies Due to Bacteremia by Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae

    PubMed Central

    Vela, Ana I.; Falsen, Enevold; Simarro, Isabel; Rollan, Eduardo; Collins, Matthew D.; Domínguez, Lucas; Fernandez-Garayzabal, Jose F.

    2006-01-01

    We report a case of bacteremia in puppies caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae. Identification was achieved by phenotypic and molecular genetic methods. This is the first report of the recovery of S. dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae from dogs. PMID:16455943

  3. Climate change impacts and vulnerability of the southern populations of Pinus nigra subsp. salzmannii

    E-print Network

    Herrera, Carlos M.

    Climate change impacts and vulnerability of the southern populations of Pinus nigra subsp and precipitation trends and measure the basal area increment (BAI) in Pinus nigra subsp. salzmannii (Dunal) Franco

  4. Changes of photosynthetic traits in beech saplings (Fagus sylvatica) under severe drought stress and during recovery.

    PubMed

    Gallé, Alexander; Feller, Urs

    2007-11-01

    In the context of an increased risk of extreme drought events across Europe during the next decades, the capacity of trees to recover and survive drought periods awaits further attention. In summer 2005, 4-year-old beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) saplings were watered regularly or were kept for 4 weeks without irrigation in the field and then re-watered again. Changes of plant water status, leaf gas exchange and Chl a fluorescence parameters, as well as alterations in leaf pigment composition were followed. During the drought period, stomatal conductance (g(s)) and net photosynthesis (P(n)) decreased in parallel with increased water deficit. After 14 days without irrigation, stomata remained closed and P(n) was almost completely inhibited. Reversible downregulation of PSII photochemistry [the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII (F(v)/F(m))], enhanced thermal dissipation of excess excitation energy and an increased ratio of xanthophyll cycle pigments to chlorophylls (because of a loss of chlorophylls) contributed to an enhanced photo-protection in severely stressed plants. Leaf water potential was restored immediately after re-watering, while g(s), P(n) and F(v)/F(m) recovered only partially during the initial phase, even when high external CO(2) concentrations were applied during the measurements, indicating lasting non-stomatal limitations. Thereafter, P(n) recovered completely within 4 weeks, meanwhile g(s) remained permanently lower in stressed than in control plants, leading to an increased 'intrinsic water use efficiency' (P(n)/g(s)). In conclusion, although severe drought stress adversely affected photosynthetic performance of F. sylvatica (a rather drought-sensitive species), P(n) was completely restored after re-watering, presumably because of physiological and morphological adjustments (e.g. stomatal occlusions). PMID:18251880

  5. Photoinhibition in seedlings of Fraxinus and Fagus under natural light conditions: implications for forest regeneration?

    PubMed

    Einhorn, Katrina S; Rosenqvist, Eva; Leverenz, Jerry W

    2004-07-01

    Ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) and beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) seedlings were grown in the field under three levels of natural light: (1) open, (2) gap and (3) shade. Light acclimation of photosynthesis was characterized by means of modulated chlorophyll a fluorescence of intact leaves and growth parameters were measured at the end of the growing season. Measurements of maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) of dark-adapted leaves at intervals through the day showed that ash had a higher Fv/Fm than beech in open and gap plots but not in shade plots. This indicated a larger build-up of photoinhibition in beech under gap and open conditions. Steady-state light response curves of the operating efficiency of PSII (F'q/F'm), the electron transport rate (ETR) and the photochemical efficiency factor (F'q/F'v) showed greater variability across light treatments in ash than in beech. Both species exhibited similar responses of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) to light. When the data were normalized to the mean maximum irradiance in the growth environment, all photochemical parameters showed a reduction in variation across treatments, indicating that light acclimation in the two species occurred primarily through adjustments in rates of photochemistry. Adjustments in thermal heat dissipation were small in both species. This pattern was stronger in ash, suggesting a greater degree of phenotypic plasticity in photosynthetic capacity in this earlier successional species. Contrary to our expectations, the build-up of photoinhibition in beech did not appear to have a negative effect on total biomass accumulation relative to ash. PMID:15150656

  6. The chromosome morphology of Hesperis matronalis subsp. matronalis and related diploid taxa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    František Dvo?ák; Božena Dadáková

    1976-01-01

    Hesperis matronalis L. subsp.matronalis contains various genoms having the same chromosome number (2n=24), differing, however, by ther-index of some pairs of homologous chromosomes. Diploid sets of the taxaHesperis matronalis L. subsp.matronalis, Hesperis sylvestris\\u000a Crantz subsp.sylvestris, Hesperis sylvestris\\u000a Crantz subsp.velenovskyi\\u000a (Fritsch) Borza andHesperis steveniana DC. are compared.

  7. Disparate host immunity to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis antigens in calves inoculated with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, M. avium subsp. avium, M. kansasii and M. bovis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cross-reactivity of mycobacterial antigens in immune-based diagnostic assays has been a major concern and criticism of current tests for the detection of paratuberculosis. In the present study, host immune responses to antigen preparations of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), consis...

  8. Potential Transmission Pathways of Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus

    PubMed Central

    Dumke, Jessika; Hinse, Dennis; Vollmer, Tanja; Schulz, Jochen; Knabbe, Cornelius; Dreier, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus (S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus), a member of group D streptococci, is an inhabitant of the animal and human gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, it is a facultative pathogen which causes e.g. endocarditis, septicemia and mastitis. S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus may be transmitted either directly or indirectly between animals and humans. However, the transmission routes are an unsolved issue. In this study, we present systematic analyses of an S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus isolate of an infective endocarditis patient in relation to isolates of his laying hen flock. Isolates from pooled droppings of laying hens, pooled dust samples and human blood culture were characterized by using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and DNA fingerprinting. MLST revealed the same allelic profile of isolates from the human blood culture and from the droppings of laying hens. In addition, these isolates showed clonal identity regarding a similar DNA fingerprinting pattern. For the first time, we received a hint that transmission of S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus between poultry and humans may occur. This raises the question about the zoonotic potential of isolates from poultry and should be considered in future studies. PMID:25978355

  9. Sources and distribution of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni in turkeys 

    E-print Network

    Acuff, Gary Royce

    1982-01-01

    SOURCES AND DISTRIBUTION OF CAMPYLOBACTER FETUS SUBSP. JEJUNI IN TURKEYS A Thesis by GARY ROYCE ACUFF Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... August 1982 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology SOURCES AND DISTRIBUTION OF CAMPYLOBACTER FETUS SUBSP. JEJUNI IN TURKEYS A Thesis by GARY ROYCE ACUFF Approved as to sty1e and content by ~'~~sr, '(& i '2 ~?r 'I a rman o $y ttee ( Member...

  10. Isolation of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni from migratory waterfowl.

    PubMed Central

    Luechtefeld, N A; Blaser, M J; Reller, L B; Wang, W L

    1980-01-01

    Since the sources from which humans acquire Campylobacter enteritis are only partially known, we studied the frequency of carriage of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni in migratory waterfowl. Cecal contents of various species of wild ducks were cultured on selective media that contained antibiotics to inhibit normal flora. Thirty-five percent of the 445 ducks cultured harbored C. fetus subsp. jejuni. Migratory waterfowl are yet another reservoir for this enteric pathogen and may be of public health importance for humans in the contamination of water or when used as food. PMID:7217334

  11. Changes in BVOC emission pattern from Fagus sylvatica L. measured by thermal desorber GC-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joó, É.; van Langenhove, H.; Schietse, L.; Pokorska, O.; Šimpraga, M.; Steppe, K.; Demarcke, M.; Amelynck, C.; Schoon, N.; Müller, J.-F.; Samson, R.; Dewulf, J.

    2009-04-01

    Considerable attention has been focused on biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from forest ecosystems because of their contribution to tropospheric oxidation processes and secondary aerosol formation [1, 2]. It became apparent that biogenic emissions show much more variation than previously assumed. In this poster we focus on the change in BVOC emission patterns from a four year old Fagus sylvatica L. during a growth chamber experiment (PAR, temperature controlled) lasting from March to November 2008. A dynamic branch enclosure system was used in our experiments. Ozone and VOC were removed from air entering the cuvette, as ozone level was found to be a critical parameter for degradation of the compounds [3]. Samples were collected on Tenax TA-Carbotrap solid phase adsorbent tubes and analyzed by TD-GC-MS. Measurements started before budburst of the tree and finished at the end of autumn. Over the entire period 33 samples have been analyzed, while 16 compounds were detected, including 10 monoterpenes (MT), 2 oxygenated-MTs, 2 sesquiterpenes (SQT), isoprene and methyl salicylate. Sabinene showed the highest emission, in an agreement with previous studies [4, 5]. Quantifiable emission appeared 21 days after budburst, and reached the highest level at the beginning of summer. MT emissions showed a clear trend in following each other. As an illustration the trend of sabinene and limonene emission is presented. In the middle of autumn phytophaga infection was observed on the tree induced by Two-spotted mite (Tetranychus urticae). New compounds appeared as a result of infection (linalool, methyl salicylate, (E,E)-?-farnesene, unknown oxygenated-MT, unknown SQT) and became dominant over sabinene, explained by the low MT emissions at this time of the year. These observations point at the importance of further investigation of BVOC emissions (especially SQTs and oxygenated-MTs) and the need for a proper quantification system of these compounds. We would like to emphasize our acknowledgement to BELSPO (Belgian Science Policy; IMPECVOC contract # SD/TE/03A) and to FWO (Fonds voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek; contract # B/07659/02) for supporting the research program. [1] Ortega et al. (2008) Chemosphere (72) 365-380 [2] Duhl et al. (2008) Biogeosciences (5) 761-777 [3] Pollmann et al. (2005) Environ. Sci. Technol. (39) 9620-9629 [4] Moukhtar et al. (2005) Atmos. Environ. (39) 3535-3547 [5] Holzke et al. (2006) J. Atmos. Chem. (55) 81-102

  12. Induction of CO 2 -gas exchange and electron transport: comparison of dynamic and steady-state responses in Fagus sylvatica leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Schulte; Christian Offer; Ute Hansen

    2003-01-01

    Photosynthetic induction was followed in a juvenile understorey beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in a shaded habitat which was temporarily exposed to direct sunlight passing through a gap in the canopy. Simultaneous in situ measurements of leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence were carried out and a steady-state light response curve of photosynthesis was recorded. The measured dynamic carbon gain was

  13. The influence of O 3, NO 2 and SO 2 on growth of Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica in the Carpathian Mountains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M Muzika; R. P Guyette; T Zielonka; A. M Liebhold

    2004-01-01

    At 17 long-term pollution monitoring sites throughout the Carpathian Mountains, tree growth patterns and variation in growth rate were examined to determine relationship of tree growth to specific pollutants. Canopy dominant Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica were selected at each site. Basal area increment (BAI) values were calculated from raw ring widths and used as an estimate of tree growth.

  14. Heterogeneity of soil and soil solution chemistry under Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) and European beech (Fagus silvatica L.) as influenced by distance from the stem basis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Koch; E. Matzner

    1993-01-01

    The influence of the distance to the stem on the chemical properties of soil and soil solution were investigated in a mature European beech (Fagus silvatica L.) and a Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) stand by comparing areas close to stems with reference areas between stems. Under beech, significant changes of soil chemistry close to the stem were observed. Distance

  15. Significant light and temperature dependent monoterpene emissions from European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and their potential impact on the European volatile organic compound budget

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Dindorf; U. Kuhn; L. Ganzeveld; G. Schebeske; P. Ciccioli; C. Holzke; R. Köble; G. Seufert; J. Kesselmeier

    2006-01-01

    By using a dynamic branch enclosure system the emission of monoterpenes from European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) was investigated during two consecutive summer vegetation periods in the years of 2002 and 2003 in Germany. All measurements were performed under field conditions within the framework of the ECHO project (Emission and Chemical Transformation of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds, AFO 2000). European

  16. Contribution to the knowledge of the vascular flora of NE Greece: Floristic composition of the beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forests in the Greek Rodopi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    IOANNIS TSIRIPIDIS; NIKOLAOS ATHANASIADIS

    Tsiripidis, I. & Athanasiadis, N.: Contribution to the knowledge of the vascular flora of NE Greece: Floristic composition of the beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forests in the Greek Rodopi. - Willdenowia 33: 273-297. - ISSN 0511-9618; © 2003 BGBM Berlin-Dahlem. The first floristic inventory of the beech forests in the Greek Rodopi is presented. The investigation in- cluded pure beech

  17. Phenology and diameter increment in seedlings of European beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.) as affected by different soil water contents: variation between and within provenances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Nørgård Nielsen; Finn Vanman Jørgensen

    2003-01-01

    The effect of different soil water levels on phenology and growth of 14 provenances of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) was investigated in a glasshouse experiment. The genetic variation within one provenance was further studied by including 10 half-sib families from a Danish stand in the experiment. Flushing and the time for onset of diameter growth were significantly different between

  18. Seasonal changes in apparent hydraulic conductance and their implications for water use of European beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.) and sessile oak [ Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl] in South Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Aranda; L. Gil; J. A. Pardos

    2005-01-01

    The water status of Fagus sylvatica L. and Quercus petraea (Matt) Liebl. was analysed during a cycle of progressive natural drought in southern Europe. Predawn (?pd) and midday water potential were measured in transpiring (?leaf) and non-transpiring leaves (?xyl). Furthermore, photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance to water vapour (gs) and sap flow (Fd) were recorded on the same dates. Apparent leaf

  19. Figure 1. Current species distribution and modern pollen samples available for: a) the silver fir (Abies alba); b) the beech (Fagus sylvatica); c) the spruce (Picea abies). Projection

    E-print Network

    Zimmermann, Niklaus E.

    calibrated with fossil data and projected on current climate for the spruce (Picea abies). Results (Abies alba); b) the beech (Fagus sylvatica); c) the spruce (Picea abies). Projection: Albers equal area conic; datum: European 1950. #12;#12;Figure 2a. SDMs calibrated with fossil data and projected

  20. Geobacillus thermodenitrificans subsp. calidus, subsp. nov., a thermophilic and ?-glucosidase producing bacterium isolated from Kizilcahamam, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cihan, Arzu Coleri; Ozcan, Birgul; Tekin, Nilgun; Cokmus, Cumhur

    2011-01-01

    An ?-glucosidase producing, thermophilic, facultatively anaerobic, and endospore-forming, motile, rod-shaped bacterial strain F84b(T) was isolated from a high temperature well-pipeline sediment sample in Kizilcahamam, Turkey. The growth occurred at temperatures, pH and salinities ranging from 45 to 69ºC (optimum 60ºC), 7.0 to 8.5 (optimum 8.0) and 0 to 5% (w/v) (optimum 3.5%), respectively. Strain F84b(T) was able to grow on a wide range of carbon sources. Starch and tyrosine utilization, amylase, catalase and oxidase activities, nitrate reduction, and gas production from nitrate were all positive. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 49.6 mol%. The menaquinone content was MK-7. The dominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C17:0, iso-C15:0, and C16:0. In phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence, strain F84b(T) showed high sequence similarity to Geobacillus thermodenitrificans (99.8%) and to Geobacillus subterraneus (99.3%) with DNA hybridization values of 74.3% and 29.1%, respectively. In addition, the Rep-PCR and the intergenic 16S-23S rRNA gene fingerprinting profiles differentiated strain F84b(T) from the Geobacillus species studied. The results obtained from the physiological and biochemical characters, the menaquinone contents, the borderline DNA-DNA hybridization homology, and the genomic fingerprinting patterns had allowed phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic differentiation of strain F84b(T) from G. thermodenitrificans. Therefore, strain F84b(T) is assigned to be a new subspecies of G. thermodenitrificans, for which the name Geobacillus thermodenitrificans subsp. calidus, subsp. nov. is proposed (The type strain F84b(T) = DSM 22629(T) = NCIMB 14582(T)). PMID:21606609

  1. Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae Strain M1601

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Yuefeng; Gao, Pengchen; Zhao, Ping; He, Ying; Liao, Nancy; Jackman, Shaun; Zhao, Yongjun; Birol, Inanc; Duan, Xiaobo; Lu, Zhongxin

    2011-01-01

    Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae is the causative agent of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia, a devastating disease of goats listed by the World Organization for Animal Health. Here we report the first complete genome sequence of this organism (strain M1601, a clinically isolated strain from China). PMID:21994928

  2. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection, immunology and pathology of livestock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in ruminants leads to a chronic and progressive enteric disease (Johne’s disease) that results in loss of intestinal function, poor body condition, and eventual death. Transmission is primarily through a fecal-oral route in neonates but con...

  3. DETECTION OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUBSP. PARATUBERCULOSIS (MAP) IN THE ENVIRONMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne’s disease, a chronic, enteric infection that is passed from adults to calves via the fecal-oral route. MAP has become the focus of unwanted attention due to its increased prevalence and the economic impact resulting f...

  4. Pseudomonas cedrina subsp. fulgida subsp. nov., a fluorescent bacterium isolated from the phyllosphere of grasses; emended description of Pseudomonas cedrina and description of Pseudomonas cedrina subsp. cedrina subsp. nov.

    PubMed

    Behrendt, Undine; Schumann, Peter; Meyer, Jean-Marie; Ulrich, Andreas

    2009-06-01

    The taxonomic position of a group of four strains, isolated from the phyllosphere of grasses, within the species Pseudomonas cedrina was investigated. The isolates formed a separate cluster through ribotyping and MALDI-TOF MS, which could be clearly differentiated from the type strain of P. cedrina. The differences found between the patterns of the type strain of P. cedrina and the novel isolates were more distinct than those between the type strain and recognized species of the genus Pseudomonas, which were phylogenetically related by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Physiological characterization also revealed significant differences between the novel grass isolates and the type strain of P. cedrina. Siderotyping of the pyoverdines revealed identical pyoverdine-isoelectrofocusing patterns for the novel isolates and the type strain of P. cedrina. However, pyoverdine-mediated (59)Fe cross uptake studies indicated differences in the siderotype. In contrast, phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization studies (reassociation value 76.4 %) supported the affiliation of the novel isolates to the species P. cedrina. As a consequence of these observations, the splitting of the species P. cedrina into two novel subspecies Pseudomonas cedrina subsp. cedrina subsp. nov. (type strain CFML 96-198(T)=CIP 105541(T)=DSM 17516(T)) and Pseudomonas cedrina subsp. fulgida subsp. nov. (type strain P 515/12(T)=DSM 14938(T)=LMG 21467(T)) is proposed. PMID:19502311

  5. Molecular Subtyping of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum in Lisbon, Portugal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Castro; E. Prieto; M. J. Aguas; M. J. Manata; J. Botas; F. Martins Pereira

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the reproducibility of a molecular method for the subtyping of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum and to discriminate strains of this microorganism from strains from patients with syphilis. We studied 212 specimens from a total of 82 patients with different stages of syphilis (14 primary, 7 secondary and 61 latent syphilis). The specimens

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Anaplasma marginale subsp. centrale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anaplasma marginale subsp. centrale is a naturally attenuated subtype that has been used as a vaccine for a century. We sequenced the genome of this organism and compared it to those of virulent senso stricto A. marginale strains. The comparison markedly narrows the number of outer membrane protein ...

  7. Hidden Gems in the Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    If 4,350 genes annotated in the M. avium subsp paratuberculosis strain K-10 genome wasn’t already enough to study, more genes have recently been uncovered, hidden deep within this genome sequence. Genomic and proteomic studies, both published and unpublished, have revealed a handful of new genes mi...

  8. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Ferulago angulata subsp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mojtaba Taran; Hamid Reza Ghasempour; Ebrahim Shirinpour

    2010-01-01

    Introduction and objective: Ferulago angulata is an important medicinal plant of Iran. The essential oil of seeds aerial parts of this plant contains variety of components with different therapeutical effects. The purpose of this study was to provide the first examination of the antibacterial and antifungal effects of essential oils obtained from aerial parts and seeds of F. angulata subsp.

  9. Laminaria japonica Extract, an Inhibitor of Clavibater michiganense Subsp. Sepedonicum

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Jin; Feng, Jia; Xie, Shulian; Wang, Feipeng; Xu, Qiufeng

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial ring rot of potato is one of the most serious potato plant and tuber diseases. Laminaria japonica extract was investigated for its antimicrobial activity against Clavibater michiganense subsp. sepedonicum (Spieckermann & Kotthoff) Davis et al., the causative agent of bacterial ring rot of potato. The results showed that the optimum extraction conditions of antimicrobial substances from L. japonica were an extraction temperature of 80°C, an extraction time of 12 h, and a solid to liquid ratio of 1?25. Active compounds of L. japonica were isolated by solvent partition, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and column chromatography. All nineteen fractionations had antimicrobial activities against C. michiganense subsp. sepedonicum, while Fractionation three (Fr.3) had the highest (P<0.05) antimicrobial activity. Chemical composition analysis identified a total of 26 components in Fr.3. The main constituents of Fr.3 were alkanes (80.97%), esters (5.24%), acids (4.87%) and alcohols (2.21%). Antimicrobial activity of Fr.3 against C. michiganense subsp. sepedonicum could be attributed to its ability to damage the cell wall and cell membrane, induce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), increase cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, inhibit the glycolytic pathway (EMP) and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, inhibit protein and nucleic acid synthesis, and disrupt the normal cycle of DNA replication. These findings indicate that L. japonica extracts have potential for inhibiting C. michiganense subsp. sepedonicum. PMID:24714388

  10. Alcaligenes faecalis subsp . phenolicus subsp. nov. a phenol-degrading, denitrifying bacterium isolated from a graywater bioprocessor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Rehfuss; James Urban

    2005-01-01

    A Gram (?) coccobacillary bacterium, JT, was isolated from a graywater bioprocessor. 16S rRNA and biochemical analysis has revealed strain JT closely resembles Alcaligenes faecalis ATCC 8750T and A. faecalis subsp. parafaecalis DSM 13975T, but is a distinct, previously uncharacterized isolate. Strain JT, along with the type strain of A. faecalis and its previously described subspecies share the ability to

  11. Nitrogen as a key regulator of flowering in Fagus crenata: understanding the physiological mechanism of masting by gene expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Yuko; Maruyama, Yosuke; Chiba, Yukako; Kobayashi, Masaki J; Joseph, Benesh; Shimizu, Kentaro K; Mochida, Keiichi; Hiura, Tsutom; Kon, Hirokazu; Satake, Akiko

    2014-10-01

    The role of resource availability in determining the incidence of masting has been widely studied, but how floral transition and initiation are regulated by the resource level is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that floral transition is stimulated by high resource availabiltiy in Fagus crenata based on a new technique, the expression analyses of flowering genes. We isolated F. crenata orthologues of FLOWERING LOCUS T, LEAFY and APETALA1, and confirmed their functions using transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana. We monitored the gene expression levels for 5 years and detected a cycle of on and off years, which was correlated with fluctuations of the shoot-nitrogen concentration. Nitrogen fertilisation resulted in the significantly higher expression of flowering genes than the control, where all of the fertilised trees flowered, whereas the control did not. Our findings identified nitrogen as a key regulator of mast flowering, thereby providing new empirical evidence to support the resource budget model. PMID:25103959

  12. Complete Genome of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicusis Siphophage CN1A

    PubMed Central

    Kongari, Rohit R.; Yao, Guichun W.; Chamakura, Karthik R.

    2013-01-01

    Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicusis is a Gram-positive actinomycete that is the causative agent of the potato disease ring rot. Here, we announce the complete genome sequence of the Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicusis siphophage CN1A. CN1A is only the second fully sequenced Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicusis phage reported to date. Core and unique features of its genome are described. PMID:24309731

  13. Draft Genome Sequences for Canadian Isolates of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense with Weak Virulence on Potato

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Kat (Xiaoli); Cullis, Jeff; Lévesque, C. André; Chen, Wen; Lewis, Christopher T.; De Boer, Solke H.

    2015-01-01

    Pectobacterium carotovurum subsp. brasiliense causes soft rot and blackleg diseases on potato. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of three weakly virulent P. carotovurum subsp. brasiliense strains isolated in Canada. Analysis of these genome sequences will help to pinpoint differences in virulence among P. carotovurum subsp. brasiliense strains from tropical/subtropical and temperate regions, such as Canada and United States. A small number of key factors for adaptation to this bacterium's specific environmental niche were also evaluated. PMID:25858837

  14. Historical (1749-1899) vs. Present-Day Sugar Maple

    E-print Network

    for black cherry (Prunus serotina), soft (red) maple (Acer rubrum), and elm (Ulmus americana). The records (Fagus grandifolia), and basswood (Tilia americana), respectively. There were also a few records

  15. Genetic Basis of Tetracycline Resistance in Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis?

    PubMed Central

    Gueimonde, Miguel; Flórez, Ana Belén; van Hoek, Angela H. A. M.; Stuer-Lauridsen, Birgitte; Strøman, Per; de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G.; Margolles, Abelardo

    2010-01-01

    All strains of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis described to date show medium level resistance to tetracycline. Screening of 26 strains from a variety of sources revealed the presence of tet(W) in all isolates. A transposase gene upstream of tet(W) was found in all strains, and both genes were cotranscribed in strain IPLAIC4. Mutants with increased tetracycline resistance as well as tetracycline-sensitive mutants of IPLAIC4 were isolated and genetically characterized. The native tet(W) gene was able to restore the resistance phenotype to a mutant with an alteration in tet(W) by functional complementation, indicating that tet(W) is necessary and sufficient for the tetracycline resistance seen in B. animalis subsp. lactis. PMID:20348299

  16. Isolation by genomic subtraction of DNA probes specific for Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica.

    PubMed Central

    Darrasse, A; Kotoujansky, A; Bertheau, Y

    1994-01-01

    Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica is a pathogen of potatoes in Europe because of its ability to induce blackleg symptoms early in the growing season. However, E. carotovora subsp. carotovora is not able to produce such severe symptoms under the same conditions. On the basis of the technique described by Straus and Ausubel (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87:1889-1893, 1990), we isolated DNA sequences of E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica 86.20 that were absent from the genomic DNA of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora CH26. Six DNA fragments ranging from ca. 180 to 400 bp were isolated, cloned, and sequenced. Each fragment was further hybridized with 130 microorganisms including 87 E. carotovora strains. One probe was specific for typical E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica strains, two probes hybridized with all E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica strains and with a few E. carotovora subsp. carotovora strains, and two probes recognized only a subset of E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica strains. The last probe was absent from the genomic DNA of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora CH26 but was present in the genomes of many strains, including those of other species and genera. This probe is homologous to the putP gene of Escherichia coli, which encodes a proline carrier. Further use of the probes is discussed. Images PMID:8117082

  17. Composition of Achillea distans Willd. subsp. distans root essential oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jelena Lazarevi?; Niko Radulovi?; Bojan Zlatkovi?; Radosav Pali?

    2010-01-01

    Gas chromatography and gas chromatography\\/mass specteometry analyses of root volatiles of Achillea distans Willd. subsp. distans, collected from wild populations in Serbia, enabled the identification of 185 constituents, accounting for 93.6% of the total oil. Main constituents of the oil were ?-cadinol (17.6%), alismol (14.1%), ?-cadinol (9.1%) and caryophyllene oxide (5.0%). The root oil was additionally characterised by the presence

  18. Carbon sources of natural cyanamide in Vicia villosa subsp. varia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsunashi Kamo; Ryohei Kasahara; Shun Abe; Mitsuru Hirota; Mami Sugano; Hiroko Yamaya; Syuntaro Hiradate; Yoshiharu Fujii

    2010-01-01

    The C labels of [C]carbon dioxide and D-[C6]glucose were incorporated into cyanamide (NH2CN) when they were administered to Vicia villosa subsp. varia shoots. In contrast, the administration of sodium [2,3-C2]pyruvate did not affect the relative area of the [M?+?1] ion of cyanamide in the gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis. [2,3-C2]Pyruvate was incorporated into organic acids that are part of the citric

  19. Induction of resistance to Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Griesbach; K. Eisbein; V. Sotirova

    2000-01-01

    Tomato plants pre-inoculated with the avirulent strain NCPPB 3123 of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm) were protected largely against challenge infection by virulent strains of Cmm. Effectiveness of this protective effect\\u000a was mainly dependent on the inoculation sites, the bacterial cell concentration used for pre- and challenge inoculations,\\u000a and the time interval between both inoculations. This defence reaction was systemic

  20. Characterization of a Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis population in Israel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frida Kleitman; Isaac Barash; Annette Burger; Naim Iraki; Yunis Falah; Guido Sessa; Dan Weinthal; Laura Chalupowicz; Karl-Heinz Gartemann; Rudolf Eichenlaub; Shulamit Manulis-Sasson

    2008-01-01

    Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm) strains, collected during the last decade from different locations in Israel, were analyzed by macrorestriction pulsed-field\\u000a gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Fifty-eight strains from Israel and 18 from other sources were differentiated into 11 haplotypes\\u000a with either VspI or DraI restriction enzymes. The strains from Israel formed four distinct groups among which groups A (16 strains) and

  1. Native valve endocarditis caused by Neisseria elongata Subsp. nitroreducens.

    PubMed

    Osuka, Hanako; Ichiki, Akito; Yamamoto, Masae; Kawahata, Daisuke; Saegusa, Yuki; Oishi, Tsuyoshi; Okubo, Shinji; Hitomi, Shigemi

    2015-01-01

    Neisseria elongata, a normal resident in the human oral cavity, rarely causes invasive infections. We herein report a case of endocarditis caused by Neisseria elongata subsp. nitroreducens that occurred in a patient without any apparent cardiac complications. The patient received aortic valve replacement following the administration of intravenous beta-lactam for five weeks. To our knowledge, this is the first published case in Japan of N. elongata infection in a patient without a prosthetic device. PMID:25832956

  2. Flavonoids from the aerial parts of Onobrychis montana subsp. scardica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BORIS PEJIN; VLATKA VAJS; Gordana Zdunic; Katarina Savikin; Danijela Stesevic; Slobodan Milosavljevic

    2008-01-01

    Rutin (1, main constituent) and two flavone C-glycosides, vitexin (2) and vitexin 2''-O-?-rhamnopyranoside (3) were isolated from the aerial parts of Onobrychis montana subsp. scardica. They were identified by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and UV-Vis spectroscopy (procedure with shift reagents), and high resolution ESI-MS. A relatively high content of 1 (5.27 mg\\/g of dry plant material), meas- ured by HPLC, indicated O.

  3. Emended description of the genus Polynucleobacter and the species Polynucleobacter necessarius and proposal of two subspecies, P. necessarius subsp. necessarius subsp. nov. and P. necessarius subsp. asymbioticus subsp. nov.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Martin W; Lang, Elke; Brandt, Ulrike; Wu, Qinglong L; Scheuerl, Thomas

    2009-08-01

    Heckmann and Schmidt described the genus Polynucleobacter for bacterial endosymbionts of freshwater ciliates affiliated with the genus Euplotes, and the species Polynucleobacter necessarius for obligate endosymbionts living in the cytoplasm of Euplotes aediculatus. Pure cultures of the type strain could not be established due to the obligate nature of the symbiotic relationship between the endosymbionts and their hosts. Therefore, Polynucleobacter necessarius is one of a few bacterial species with validly published names that lack a deposited pure culture. Meanwhile, it was demonstrated that the endosymbionts used for the description of the type of Polynucleobacter necessarius are closely related to obligately free-living strains. Similarity values of the 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained from the endosymbionts in the ciliate culture and free-living isolates in the range 99.1-99.4% indicate that these organisms belong to the same species. Here, we have emended the description of Polynucleobacter necessarius by characterization of free-living strains maintained as pure cultures. The species Polynucleobacter necessarius was characterized as having low G+C contents of the DNA (44-46 mol%), small genome sizes (1.5-2.5 Mbp) and a lack of motility. Because of distinct differences in lifestyle and the genome size of Polynucleobacter necessarius strains, we propose that two novel subspecies should be established, Polynucleobacter necessarius subsp. necessarius subsp. nov. [with a type, which is a description based on endosymbionts in the culture 'stock 15' of the ciliate E. aediculatus (ATCC 30859)] and Polynucleobacter necessarius subsp. asymbioticus subsp. nov. [with the type strain QLW-P1DMWA-1T (=DSM 18221T=CIP 109841T)], for the obligate endosymbionts of E. aediculatus and Euplotes harpa and obligately free-living strains, respectively. PMID:19567561

  4. Complete genome sequence of Anaplasma marginale subsp. centrale.

    PubMed

    Herndon, David R; Palmer, Guy H; Shkap, Varda; Knowles, Donald P; Brayton, Kelly A

    2010-01-01

    Anaplasma marginale subsp. centrale is a naturally attenuated subtype that has been used as a vaccine for a century. We sequenced the genome of this organism and compared it to those of virulent senso stricto A. marginale strains. The comparison markedly narrows the number of outer membrane protein candidates for development of a safer inactivated vaccine and provides insight into the diversity among strains of senso lato A. marginale. PMID:19854912

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of Anaplasma marginale subsp. centrale?

    PubMed Central

    Herndon, David R.; Palmer, Guy H.; Shkap, Varda; Knowles, Donald P.; Brayton, Kelly A.

    2010-01-01

    Anaplasma marginale subsp. centrale is a naturally attenuated subtype that has been used as a vaccine for a century. We sequenced the genome of this organism and compared it to those of virulent senso stricto A. marginale strains. The comparison markedly narrows the number of outer membrane protein candidates for development of a safer inactivated vaccine and provides insight into the diversity among strains of senso lato A. marginale. PMID:19854912

  6. Transcripts of a gene, encoding a small GTP-binding protein from Fagus sylvatica, are induced by ABA and accumulated in the embryonic axis of dormant seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos Nicolás; Gregorio Nicolás; Dolores Rodríguez

    1998-01-01

    A cDNA clone was selected from a cDNA library constructed using mRNA from ABA-treated Fagus sylvatica L. dormant seeds as a template. The clone is highly expressed in the presence of ABA and tends to disappear in stratified seeds. A search of sequence databases showed that the clone encodes a small GTP-binding protein. By means of in situ hybridization, the

  7. Quantification of interferences in PTR-MS measurements of monoterpene emissions from Fagus sylvatica L. using simultaneous TD-GC-MS measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    É. Joó; J. Dewulf; M. Demarcke; C. Amelynck; N. Schoon; J.-F. Müller; M. Šimpraga; K. Steppe; H. Van Langenhove

    2010-01-01

    The interest in quantitative analysis of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emissions stems from their importance in atmospheric chemistry. In order to compare the most frequently used BVOC measurement techniques, simultaneous on-line PTR-MS and off-line GC-MS data collection was performed on a 3 years old Fagus sylvatica L. tree placed in a growth chamber. Using an internal standard (deuterated toluene)

  8. Inter-annual and seasonal variability of radial growth, wood density and carbon isotope ratios in tree rings of beech ( Fagus sylvatica ) growing in Germany and Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. V. Skomarkova; E. A. Vaganov; M. Mund; A. Knohl; P. Linke; A. Boerner; E.-D. Schulze

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the variability of tree-ring width, wood density and 13C\\/12C in beech tree rings (Fagus sylvatica L.), and analyzed the influence of climatic variables and carbohydrate storage on these parameters. Wood cores were taken from dominant beech trees in three stands in Germany and Italy. We used densitometry to obtain density profiles of tree rings and laser-ablation-combustion-GC-IRMS to estimate

  9. Long-term variations in leaf area index and light extinction in a Fagus sylvatica stand as estimated from global radiation profiles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Q. Wang; J. Tenhunen; A. Granier; M. Reichstein; O. Bouriaud; D. Nguyen; N. Breda

    2004-01-01

    Summary The paper presents a model that estimates leaf area index (LAI) from above- and below-canopy global radiation measurements. The approach is based on a detailed description of radiation regime above and below the canopy. One EuroFlux site, a beech forest ( Fagus sylvatica L.) at Hesse, France was selected for model testing. The time-courses of daily LAI from 1996

  10. Response to canopy opening does not act as a filter to Fagus sylvatica and Acer sp. advance regeneration in a mixed temperate forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Blandine Caquet; Pierre Montpied; Erwin Dreyer; Daniel Epron; Catherine Collet

    2010-01-01

    – \\u000a \\u000a • In mixed-species forest stands, large losses in tree species diversity often occur during the regeneration phase. In a former\\u000a coppice-with-standards, we investigated whether the limiting stage in the recruitment process of advance regeneration is the\\u000a immediate seedling response to canopy release. Experimental canopy gaps were opened and the survival and growth of advance\\u000a seedlings (Fagus sylvatica, Acer pseudoplatanus,

  11. Ozone effects on visible foliar injury and growth of Fagus sylvatica and Viburnum lantana seedlings grown in monoculture or in mixture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristopher Novak; Marcus Schaub; Jürg Fuhrer; John M. Skelly; Beat Frey; Norbert Kräuchi

    2008-01-01

    Seedlings of Fagus sylvatica (beech) and Viburnum lantana (Viburnum) grown in monoculture and mixture were exposed to ambient and sub-ambient (charcoal-filtered) ozone concentrations in open-top chambers over the course of the 2003 and 2004 growing seasons at the WSL Lattecaldo open-top chamber facility in southern Switzerland. The aim of the study was to determine how the sensitivity to ozone in

  12. A Change in a Single Midgut Receptor in the Diamondback Moth (Plutella xylostella) Is Only in Part Responsible for Field Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki and B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai

    PubMed Central

    Wright, D. J.; Iqbal, M.; Granero, F.; Ferre, J.

    1997-01-01

    A population (SERD3) of the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella L.) with field-evolved resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HD-1 (Dipel) and B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai (Florbac) was collected. Laboratory-based selection of two subpopulations of SERD3 with B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (Btk-Sel) or B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai (Bta-Sel) increased resistance to the selecting agent with little apparent cross-resistance. This result suggested the presence of independent resistance mechanisms. Reversal of resistance to B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki and B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai was observed in the unselected SERD3 subpopulation. Binding to midgut brush border membrane vesicles was examined for insecticidal crystal proteins specific to B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (Cry1Ac), B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai (Cry1Ca), or both (Cry1Aa and Cry1Ab). In the unselected SERD3 subpopulation (ca. 50- and 30-fold resistance to B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki and B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai), specific binding of Cry1Aa, Cry1Ac, and Cry1Ca was similar to that for a susceptible population (ROTH), but binding of Cry1Ab was minimal. The Btk-Sel (ca. 600-and 60-fold resistance to B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki and B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai) and Bta-Sel (ca. 80-and 300-fold resistance to B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki and B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai) subpopulations also showed reduced binding to Cry1Ab. Binding of Cry1Ca was not affected in the Bta-Sel subpopulation. The results suggest that reduced binding of Cry1Ab can partly explain resistance to B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki and B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai. However, the binding of Cry1Aa, Cry1Ac, and Cry1Ca and the lack of cross-resistance between the Btk-Sel and Bta-Sel subpopulations also suggest that additional resistance mechanisms are present. PMID:16535597

  13. Comparison of pectic enzymes produced by Erwinia chrysanthemi, Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora, and Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica.

    PubMed Central

    Ried, J L; Collmer, A

    1986-01-01

    Erwinia spp. that cause soft-rot diseases in plants produce a variety of extracellular pectic enzymes. To assess the correlation between patterns of pectic enzyme production and taxonomic classification, we compared the enzymes from representative strains. Supernatants obtained from polygalacturonate-grown cultures of nine strains of Erwinia chrysanthemi, three strains of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora, and three strains of E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica were concentrated and subjected to ultrathin-layer polyacrylamide gel isoelectric focusing. Pectate lyase, polygalacturonase, and exo-poly-alpha-D-galacturonosidase activities were visualized by staining diagnostically buffered pectate-agarose overlays with ruthenium red after incubation of the overlays with the isoelectric focusing gels. The isoelectric focusing profiles of pectate lyase and polygalacturonase were nearly identical for strains of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora and E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica, showing three pectate lyase isozymes with isoelectric points higher than 8.7 and a polygalacturonase with pI of ca. 10.2. Isoelectric focusing profiles of the E. chrysanthemi pectic enzymes were substantially different. Although there was considerable intraspecific heterogeneity, all strains produced at least four isozymes of pectate lyase, which could be divided into three groups: basic (pI, ca. 9.0 to 10.0), slightly basic (pI, ca. 7.0 to 8.5), and acidic (pI, ca. 4.0 to 5.0). Several strains of E. chrysanthemi also produced a single form of exo-poly-alpha-D-galacturonosidase (pI, ca. 8.0).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:3752996

  14. PEDIOCIN PRODUCTION IN MILK BY PEDIOCOCCUS ACIDILACTICI IN CO-CULTURE WITH STREPTOCOCCUS THERMOPHILUS AND LACTOBACILLUS DELBRUECKII SUBSP. BULGARICUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The production of pediocin in milk by Pediococcus acidilactici was evaluated in co-culture with the dairy fermentation cultures Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis. The cultures were tested singly or in different combinations...

  15. SALMONELLA ENTERICA SUBSP. ENTERICA IN CATTLE EGRET (BUBULCUS IBIS) CHICKS FROM CENTRAL TEXAS: PREVALENCE,

    E-print Network

    Mora, Miguel A.

    SALMONELLA ENTERICA SUBSP. ENTERICA IN CATTLE EGRET (BUBULCUS IBIS) CHICKS FROM CENTRAL TEXAS% to 95%. Seventeen Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotypes were isolated, of which the 4,5,12:i of Salmonella, but provided no evidence of transmission between these two species. Similar conclusions were

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of the Strong Mutator Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serotype Heidelberg Strain B182

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Complete Genome Sequence of the Strong Mutator Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serotype the first complete genome sequence of the Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Heidelberg B182 (cB182_4750; GC, 52.2%) and one circular plasmid of 37,581 bp (pB182_37; GC, 42.8%). Salmonella

  17. Identification and characterization of a previously undescribed cyt gene in Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis.

    PubMed Central

    Guerchicoff, A; Ugalde, R A; Rubinstein, C P

    1997-01-01

    Mosquitocidal Bacillus thuringiensis strains show as a common feature the presence of toxic proteins with cytolytic and hemolytic activities, Cyt1Aa1 being the characteristic cytolytic toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis. We have detected the presence of another cyt gene in this subspecies, highly homologous to cyt2An1, coding for the 29-kDa cytolytic toxin from B. thuringiensis subsp. kyushuensis. This gene, designated cyt2Ba1, maps upstream of cry4B coding for the 130-kDa crystal toxin, on the 72-MDa plasmid of strain 4Q2-72. Sequence analysis revealed, as a remarkable feature, a 5' mRNA stabilizing region similar to those described for some cry genes. PCR amplification and Southern analysis confirmed the presence of this gene in other mosquitocidal subspecies. Interestingly, anticoleopteran B. thuringiensis subsp. tenebrionis belonging to the morrisoni serovar also showed this gene. On the other hand, negative results were obtained with the anti-lepidopteran strains B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HD-1 and subsp. aizawai HD-137. Western analysis failed to reveal Cyt2A-related polypeptides in B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis 4Q2-72. However, B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis 1884 and B. thuringiensis subsp. tenebrionis did show cross-reactive products, although in very small amounts. PMID:9212418

  18. Capacidad reproductiva de Pinus nigra subsp. salzmannii en relacin con la edad de la planta madre

    E-print Network

    Herrera, Carlos M.

    Capacidad reproductiva de Pinus nigra subsp. salzmannii en relación con la edad de la planta madre fertilidad del pino salgareño (Pinus nigra subsp. salzmannii) conforme los árboles envejecen. La fertilidad bosques de montaña del sur de Europa. Palabras clave: Pinus nigra, fertilidad, senescencia de las plantas

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides Strain J18, Isolated from Kimchi

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ji Young; Lee, Seung Hyeon; Lee, Se Hee

    2012-01-01

    Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides is one of the most predominant lactic acid bacterial groups during kimchi fermentation. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of L. mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides J18, which was isolated from kimchi. The genome of the strain consists of a 1,896,561-bp chromosome and five plasmids. PMID:22247530

  20. Complete genome sequence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, isolated from human breast milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis is the etiologic agent of Johne’s disease. We report the draft genome sequences of six M. avium subsp paratuberculosis isolates obtained from diverse hosts including bison, cattle and sheep. These sequences will deepen our understanding of host association ...

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis Strain YF11

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yuhui; Song, Lifu; Feng, Wenjing; Pei, Guangsheng; Zheng, Ping; Yu, Zhichao; Sun, Jibin

    2013-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis strain YF11 is a food preservative bacterium with a high capacity to produce nisin. Here, we announce the draft genome sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis YF11 (2,527,433 bp with a G+C content of 34.81%). PMID:23929487

  2. Bacterial Canker (Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis) of tomato in commercial seed produced in Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Anwar; Zouwen van der P. S; S. Ilyas; Wolf van der J. M

    2004-01-01

    In 2002, Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Smith) Davis, the causal organism of bacterial canker of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), was isolated from two of six commercial asymptomatic tomato seed lots produced on Java in Indonesia. C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis has not been reported in Indonesia previously. Methods based on the protocol of the International Seed Health Initiative were used to extract

  3. Limiting Populations and Spread of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis on Seedling Tomatoes in the Greenhouse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. A. Werner; D. W. Fulbright; R. Podolsky; J. Bell; M. K. Hausbeck

    2002-01-01

    Werner, N. A., Fulbright, D. W., Podolsky, R., Bell, J., and Hausbeck, M. K. 2002. Limiting populations and spread of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis on seedling toma- toes in the greenhouse. Plant Dis. 86:535-542. Symptomless greenhouse tomato transplants may harbor high populations of Clavibacter michi- ganensis subsp. michiganensis, the causal agent of bacterial canker, leading to yield loss in the

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of the First Human Isolate of the Ruminant Pathogen Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum.

    PubMed

    Seersholm, Frederik Valeur; Fischer, Anne; Heller, Martin; Jores, Joerg; Sachse, Konrad; Mourier, Tobias; Hansen, Anders Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum is a well-known pathogen of small ruminants. A recent human case of septicemia involving this agent raised the question of its potential pathogenicity to humans. We present the first draft genome sequence of a human Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum isolate. PMID:26089408

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of the First Human Isolate of the Ruminant Pathogen Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Anne; Heller, Martin; Jores, Joerg; Sachse, Konrad; Mourier, Tobias; Hansen, Anders Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum is a well-known pathogen of small ruminants. A recent human case of septicemia involving this agent raised the question of its potential pathogenicity to humans. We present the first draft genome sequence of a human Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum isolate. PMID:26089408

  6. Development and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies and Aptamers Against Major Antigens of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Specific antibodies, available in unlimited quantities, have not been produced against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, the bacterium that causes Johne’s disease (JD). To fill this gap in JD research, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis were produced fr...

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of Type Strain Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis NCTC 10354T

    PubMed Central

    Stynen, Ana Paula Reinato; Lage, Andrey Pereira; Moore, Robert J.; Rezende, Antonio Mauro; de Resende, Vivian D'Afonseca da Silva; Ruy, Patricia de Cássia; Daher, Nesley; Resende, Daniela de Melo; de Almeida, Sintia Silva; Soares, Siomar de Castro; de Abreu, Vinicius Augusto Carvalho; Rocha, Aryane Aparecida C. Magalhães; dos Santos, Anderson Rodrigues; Barbosa, Eudes Guilherme Vieira; Costa, Danielle Fonseca; Dorella, Fernanda Alves; Miyoshi, Anderson; de Lima, Alex Ranieri Jerônimo; Campos, Frederico Davi da Silva; de Sá, Pablo Gomes; Lopes, Thiago Souza; Rodrigues, Ryan Mauricio Araujo; Carneiro, Adriana Ribeiro; Leão, Thiago; Cerdeira, Louise Teixeira; Ramos, Rommel Thiago Jucá; Silva, Artur; Azevedo, Vasco; Ruiz, Jerônimo C.

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis is the etiologic agent of bovine genital campylobacteriosis, a sexually transmitted disease of cattle that is of worldwide importance. The complete sequencing and annotation of the genome of the type strain C. fetus subsp. venerealis NCTC 10354T are reported. PMID:21952544

  8. Isolation of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris from nature by colony hybridization with rRNA probes.

    PubMed Central

    Salama, M S; Sandine, W E; Giovannoni, S J

    1993-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris is widely used in the manufacture of fermented milk products. Despite numerous attempts, efforts to isolate new strains by traditional plating and identification methods have not been successful. Previously, we described oligonucleotide probes for 16S rRNAs which could be used to discriminate L. lactis subsp. cremoris from related strains. These probes were used in colony hybridization experiments to screen large numbers of colonies obtained from enrichment cultures. A total of 170 strains of L. lactis were isolated from six milk samples, two colostrum samples, and one corn sample by using oligonucleotide probe 212RLa specific for the species L. lactis. Fifty-nine of these isolates also hybridized to L. lactis subsp. cremoris-specific probe 68RCa, and 26 of the strains which hybridized to the L. lactis subsp. cremoris-specific probe had the L. lactis subsp. cremoris phenotype. Images PMID:7506898

  9. Model-based analysis of avoidance of ozone stress by stomatal closure in Siebold's beech (Fagus crenata)

    PubMed Central

    Hoshika, Yasutomo; Watanabe, Makoto; Inada, Naoki; Koike, Takayoshi

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Resistance of plants to ozone stress can be classified as either avoidance or tolerance. Avoidance of ozone stress may be explained by decreased stomatal conductance during ozone exposure because stomata are the principal interface for entry of ozone into plants. In this study, a coupled photosynthesis–stomatal model was modified to test whether the presence of ozone can induce avoidance of ozone stress by stomatal closure. Methods The response of Siebold's beech (Fagus crenata), a representative deciduous tree species, to ozone was studied in a free-air ozone exposure experiment in Japan. Photosynthesis and stomatal conductance were measured under ambient and elevated ozone. An optimization model of stomata involving water, CO2 and ozone flux was tested using the leaf gas exchange data. Key Results The data suggest that there are two phases in the avoidance of ozone stress via stomatal closure for Siebold's beech: (1) in early summer ozone influx is efficiently limited by a reduction in stomatal conductance, without any clear effect on photosynthetic capacity; and (2) in late summer and autumn the efficiency of ozone stress avoidance was decreased because the decrease in stomatal conductance was small and accompanied by an ozone-induced decline of photosynthetic capacity. Conclusions Ozone-induced stomatal closure in Siebold's beech during early summer reduces ozone influx and allows the maximum photosynthetic capacity to be reached, but is not sufficient in older leaves to protect the photosynthetic system. PMID:23904447

  10. Effects of elevated CO(2) concentration on leaf characteristics and photosynthetic capacity of beech (Fagus sylvatica) during the growing season.

    PubMed

    Epron, D; Liozon, R; Mousseau, M

    1996-04-01

    Two-year-old beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) saplings were planted directly in the ground at high density (100 per m(2)), in an experimental design that realistically mimicked field conditions, and grown for two years in air containing CO(2) at either ambient or an elevated (ambient + 350 ppm) concentration. Plant dry mass and leaf area were increased by a two-year exposure to elevated CO(2). The saplings produced physiologically distinct types of sun leaves associated with the first and second growth flushes. Leaves of the second flush had a higher leaf mass per unit area and less chlorophyll per unit area, per unit dry mass and per unit nitrogen than leaves of the first flush. Chlorophyll content expressed per unit nitrogen decreased over time in plants grown in elevated CO(2), which suggests that, in elevated CO(2), less nitrogen was invested in machinery of the photosynthetic light reactions. In early summer, the photosynthetic capacity measured at saturating irradiance and CO(2) was slightly but not significantly higher in saplings grown in elevated CO(2) than in saplings grown in ambient CO(2). However, a decrease in photosynthetic capacity was observed after July in leaves of saplings grown in CO(2)-enriched air. The results demonstrate that photosynthetic acclimation to elevated CO(2) can occur in field-grown saplings in late summer, at the time of growth cessation. PMID:14871728

  11. Effect of flooding on C metabolism of flood-tolerant (Quercus robur) and non-tolerant (Fagus sylvatica) tree species.

    PubMed

    Ferner, Eleni; Rennenberg, Heinz; Kreuzwieser, Jürgen

    2012-02-01

    Flooding is assumed to cause an energy crisis in plants because-due to a lack of O(2)-mitochondrial respiration is replaced by alcoholic fermentation which yields considerably less energy equivalents. In the present study, the effect of flooding on the carbon metabolism of flooding-tolerant pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) and flooding-sensitive European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) seedlings was characterized. Whereas soluble carbohydrate concentrations dropped in roots of F. sylvatica, they were constant in Q. robur during flooding. At the same time, root alcohol dehydrogenase activities were decreased in beech but not in oak, suggesting substrate limitation of alcoholic fermentation in beech roots. Surprisingly, leaf and phloem sap sugar concentrations increased in both species but to a much higher degree in beech. This finding suggests that the phloem unloading process in flooding-sensitive beech was strongly impaired. It is assumed that root-derived ethanol is transported to the leaves via the transpiration stream. This mechanism is considered an adaptation to flooding because it helps avoid the accumulation of toxic ethanol in the roots and supports the whole plant's carbon metabolism by channelling ethanol into the oxidative metabolism of the leaves. A labelling experiment demonstrated that in the leaves of flooded trees, ethanol metabolism does not differ between flooded beech and oak, indicating that processes in the roots are crucial for the trees' flooding tolerance. PMID:22367762

  12. Dose–response study of probiotic bacteria Bifidobacterium animalis subsp lactis BB12 and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp paracasei CRL341 in healthy young adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C N Larsen; S Nielsen; P Kæstel; E Brockmann; M Bennedsen; H R Christensen; D C Eskesen; B L Jacobsen; K F Michaelsen

    2006-01-01

    Objective:This study was performed to investigate the dose–response effects of supplementation with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp lactis (BB-12) and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp paracasei (CRL-431) on blood lipids, recovery from feces and bowel habits. Changes of the fecal microflora was analyzed in the 1010 CFU\\/day probiotic and placebo group.Design:The study was designed as a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, parallel dose–response study.Subjects:Healthy young adults

  13. Lipase and Esterase Activities of Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. freudenreichii

    PubMed Central

    Dupuis, C.; Corre, C.; Boyaval, P.

    1993-01-01

    The lipase and esterase activities of eight strains of dairy Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. freudenreichii were studied. A lipase activity was detected on whole cells and in the culture supernatant. The highest activity was expressed at 45°C and pH 6.8. An esterase activity was also detected in the culture medium. The electrophoresis of the intracellular fractions of the cells revealed from three to six different esterase activities. Two esterases were common to all the strains. The substrate specificity was dependent on each esterase, but no activity was revealed, in our experimental conditions, on ester substrates with a chain length longer than that of butyrate. PMID:16349102

  14. Phylogenetic position of Mesorhizobium huakuii subsp. rengei, a symbiont of Astragalus sinicus cv. Japan.

    PubMed

    Nuswantara, S; Fujie, M; Yamada, T; Malek, W; Inaba, M; Kaneko, Y; Murooka, Y

    1999-01-01

    The phylogenetic position of Rhizobium huakuii bv. renge, a symbiont of Astragalus sinicus cv. Japan (renge-sou), was studied. The following phylogenetic approaches were used: restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of a full-length 16S rDNA fragment, 16S rDNA analysis of the first 300-bp sequence, bacteriophage typing, and amplification of the genomic region by random primer. All the data suggest that strains of R. huakuii bv. renge should be classified into subspecies of the new genus Mesorhizobium (Jarvis et al., Inter. J. System. Bacteriol., 47, 895-898, 1997) and renamed M. huakuii subsp. rengei. All the strains fell into a tight cluster which included M. loti and M. huakuii. The strains isolated from root nodules on A. sinicus were divided into three groups as follows: group I, M. huakuii subsp. rengei B3, M. huakuii subsp. rengei My6, M. huakuii subsp. rengei My7, M. huakuii subsp. rengei My3, and M. huakuii subsp. rengei OUT30020; group II, M. huakuii subsp. huakuii CCBAU103(T), M. huakuii subsp. huakuii ACCC13005, M. huakuii subsp. huakuii 7653R, and Mesorhizobium sp. N-1; group III, Mesorhizobium sp. OUT30019. All the strains isolated in Japan except strains N-1 and OUT30019 were classified into group I. Strains in group I were sensitive to bacteriophage H1 which was isolated from rice-paddy soil in Japan. Strains in groups II and III except for M. huakuii subsp. huakuii 7653R were resistant to phage H1. Rhizobium sp. ACMP18, a native symbiont of Astragalus cicer that forms nodules on A. sinicus, showed close similarity to M. huakuii subsp. huakuii CCBAU103(T), and should thus be classified as a Mesorhizobium sp. Taken together, the results of the analyses indicate that M. huakuii subsp. rengei forms a subgroup which is distinct from M. huakuii subsp. huakuii strains isolated in China and that strain B3 is the type strain. PMID:16232424

  15. Strong genetic differentiation between North American and European populations of Phytophthora alni subsp. uniformis.

    PubMed

    Aguayo, Jaime; Adams, Gerard C; Halkett, Fabien; Catal, Mursel; Husson, Claude; Nagy, Zoltán Á; Hansen, Everett M; Marçais, Benoît; Frey, Pascal

    2013-02-01

    Alder decline caused by Phytophthora alni has been one of the most important diseases of natural ecosystems in Europe during the last 20 years. The emergence of P. alni subsp. alni -the pathogen responsible for the epidemic-is linked to an interspecific hybridization event between two parental species: P. alni subsp. multiformis and P. alni subsp. uniformis. One of the parental species, P. alni subsp. uniformis, has been isolated in several European countries and, recently, in North America. The objective of this work was to assess the level of genetic diversity, the population genetic structure, and the putative reproduction mode and mating system of P. alni subsp. uniformis. Five new polymorphic microsatellite markers were used to contrast both geographical populations. The study comprised 71 isolates of P. alni subsp. uniformis collected from eight European countries and 10 locations in North America. Our results revealed strong differences between continental populations (Fst = 0.88; Rst = 0.74), with no evidence for gene flow. European isolates showed extremely low genetic diversity compared with the North American collection. Selfing appears to be the predominant mating system in both continental collections. The results suggest that the European P. alni subsp. uniformis population is most likely alien and derives from the introduction of a few individuals, whereas the North American population probably is an indigenous population. PMID:23095465

  16. Bioluminescence imaging of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis infection of tomato seeds and plants.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiulan; Miller, Sally A; Baysal-Gurel, Fulya; Gartemann, Karl-Heinz; Eichenlaub, Rudolf; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2010-06-01

    Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is a Gram-positive bacterium that causes wilting and cankers, leading to severe economic losses in commercial tomato production worldwide. The disease is transmitted from infected seeds to seedlings and mechanically from plant to plant during seedling production, grafting, pruning, and harvesting. Because of the lack of tools for genetic manipulation, very little is known regarding the mechanisms of seed and seedling infection and movement of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in grafted plants, two focal points for application of bacterial canker control measures in tomato. To facilitate studies on the C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis movement in tomato seed and grafted plants, we isolated a bioluminescent C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis strain using the modified Tn1409 containing a promoterless lux reporter. A total of 19 bioluminescent C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis mutants were obtained. All mutants tested induced a hypersensitive response in Mirabilis jalapa and caused wilting of tomato plants. Real-time colonization studies of germinating seeds using a virulent, stable, constitutively bioluminescent strain, BL-Cmm17, showed that C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis aggregated on hypocotyls and cotyledons at an early stage of germination. In grafted seedlings in which either the rootstock or scion was exposed to BL-Cmm17 via a contaminated grafting knife, bacteria were translocated in both directions from the graft union at higher inoculum doses. These results emphasize the use of bioluminescent C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis to help better elucidate the C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis-tomato plant interactions. Further, we demonstrated the broader applicability of this tool by successful transformation of C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis with Tn1409::lux. Thus, our approach would be highly useful to understand the pathogenesis of diseases caused by other subspecies of the agriculturally important C. michiganensis. PMID:20400561

  17. List of New Hampshire Native Trees There are something like 70 natives tree species found in the wild in New Hampshire. The exact number is

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    birch Betula papyrifera heartleaf birch Betula cordifolia gray birch Betula populifolia Cherry Prunus americana Beech Fagus (Fagaceae) American beech Fagus grandifolia Birch Betula (Betulaceae) yellow birch Betula alleghaniensis sweet birch, black birch Betula lenta river birch Betula nigra paper birch, white

  18. Comparison of pollen gene flow among four European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) populations characterized by different management regimes.

    PubMed

    Piotti, A; Leonardi, S; Buiteveld, J; Geburek, T; Gerber, S; Kramer, K; Vettori, C; Vendramin, G G

    2012-03-01

    The study of the dispersal capability of a species can provide essential information for the management and conservation of its genetic variability. Comparison of gene flow rates among populations characterized by different management and evolutionary histories allows one to decipher the role of factors such as isolation and tree density on gene movements. We used two paternity analysis approaches and different strategies to handle the possible presence of genotyping errors to obtain robust estimates of pollen flow in four European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) populations from Austria and France. In each country one of the two plots is located in an unmanaged forest; the other plots are managed with a shelterwood system and inside a colonization area (in Austria and France, respectively). The two paternity analysis approaches provided almost identical estimates of gene flow. In general, we found high pollen immigration (~75% of pollen from outside), with the exception of the plot from a highly isolated forest remnant (~50%). In the two unmanaged plots, the average within-population pollen dispersal distances (from 80 to 184 m) were higher than previously estimated for beech. From the comparison between the Austrian managed and unmanaged plots, that are only 500 m apart, we found no evidence that either gene flow or reproductive success distributions were significantly altered by forest management. The investigated phenotypic traits (crown area, height, diameter and flowering phenology) were not significantly related with male reproductive success. Shelterwood seems to have an effect on the distribution of within-population pollen dispersal distances. In the managed plot, pollen dispersal distances were shorter, possibly because adult tree density is three-fold (163 versus 57 trees per hectare) with respect to the unmanaged one. PMID:21897442

  19. Use of thermal imaging to determine leaf conductance along a canopy gradient in European beech (Fagus sylvatica).

    PubMed

    Reinert, Stefan; Bögelein, Rebekka; Thomas, Frank M

    2012-03-01

    Using an infrared camera, we measured the leaf temperature across different canopy positions of a 23-m-tall deciduous forest tree (Fagus sylvatica L.) including typical sun and shade leaves as well as intermediate leaf forms, which differed significantly in specific leaf area (SLA). We calculated a temperature index (I(G)) and a crop water stress index (CWSI) using the surface temperatures of wet and dry reference leaves. Additional indices were computed using air temperature plus 5 °C (I(G)?+?5, CWSI?+?5) as dry references. The minimum temperature of the wet leaf and the maximum temperature of the dry leaf proved to be most suitable as reference values. We correlated the temperature indices with leaf area-related conductance to water vapor (g(L)) using porometry at the leaf level and using xylem sap flow at the branch level. At the leaf and at the branch level, I(G) and CWSI were equally well suited as proxies of g(L), whereas the relationships of I(G)?+?5 and CWSI?+?5 with g(L) were only weak or even insignificant. At the leaf level, the correlations of I(G) and CWSI with g(L) were significant in all parts of the crown. The slopes of g(L) vs. I(G) and CWSI did not differ significantly among the crown parts; this indicates that they were not influenced by SLA or irradiance. At the branch level, close correlations (r?>?0.8) were found between temperature indices and g(L) across the crown. These results demonstrate that satisfactory relationships between temperature indices and g(L) can be established in tall trees even in those canopy parts that are exposed to relatively low levels of irradiance and exhibit relatively low values of g(L). PMID:22427372

  20. Tree Species Composition and Harvest Intensity Affect Herbivore Density and Leaf Damage on Beech, Fagus sylvatica, in Different Landscape Contexts.

    PubMed

    Mangels, Jule; Blüthgen, Nico; Frank, Kevin; Grassein, Fabrice; Hilpert, Andrea; Mody, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    Most forests are exposed to anthropogenic management activities that affect tree species composition and natural ecosystem processes. Changes in ecosystem processes such as herbivory depend on management intensity, and on regional environmental conditions and species pools. Whereas influences of specific forest management measures have already been addressed for different herbivore taxa on a local scale, studies considering effects of different aspects of forest management across different regions are rare. We assessed the influence of tree species composition and intensity of harvesting activities on arthropod herbivores and herbivore-related damage to beech trees, Fagus sylvatica, in 48 forest plots in three regions of Germany. We found that herbivore abundance and damage to beech trees differed between regions and that - despite the regional differences - density of tree-associated arthropod taxa and herbivore damage were consistently affected by tree species composition and harvest intensity. Specifically, overall herbivore damage to beech trees increased with increasing dominance of beech trees - suggesting the action of associational resistance processes - and decreased with harvest intensity. The density of leaf chewers and mines was positively related to leaf damage, and several arthropod groups responded to beech dominance and harvest intensity. The distribution of damage patterns was consistent with a vertical shift of herbivores to higher crown layers during the season and with higher beech dominance. By linking quantitative data on arthropod herbivore abundance and herbivory with tree species composition and harvesting activity in a wide variety of beech forests, our study helps to better understand the influence of forest management on interactions between a naturally dominant deciduous forest tree and arthropod herbivores. PMID:25938417

  1. Compared effects of competition by grasses ( Graminoids ) and broom ( Cytisus scoparius ) on growth and functional traits of beech saplings ( Fagus sylvatica )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Damien Provendier; Philippe Balandier

    2008-01-01

    – \\u000a \\u000a • The effect of two weeds (grasses and broom, Cytisus scoparius) competition on the growth and functional traits of European beech saplings (Fagus sylvatica) was investigated in an experimental plantation in the French Massif central.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a • We hypothesized that grasses would have a much more harmful effect than broom on beech growth through strong competition\\u000a for soil water

  2. Virulence, genomic features, and plasticity of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, the causative agent of fish furunculosis.

    PubMed

    Dallaire-Dufresne, Stéphanie; Tanaka, Katherine H; Trudel, Mélanie V; Lafaille, Andrée; Charette, Steve J

    2014-02-21

    The bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is the causative agent of furunculosis, a systemic disease of fish in the salmonid family. Furunculosis is a ubiquitous disease that affects aquaculture operations worldwide and is characterized by high mortality and morbidity. A better understanding of the bacterium is required to find a cure. Thereby, this review centers on A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, its major virulence factors, and its genome. The classification and characteristics of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, the virulence factors, such as the A-layer, extracellular molecules, and type three secretion system as well as the characteristics and plasticity of its genome are described. PMID:23890675

  3. A proposal to unify two subspecies of Staphylococcus equorum: Staphylococcus equorum subsp. equorum and Staphylococcus equorum subsp. linens.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Do-Won; Kim, Hye-Rim; Han, Seulhwa; Jeon, Che Ok; Lee, Jong-Hoon

    2013-12-01

    Twelve isolates from jeotgal, a Korean high-salt-fermented seafood, identified as Staphylococcus equorum were compared by phenotypic and genotypic methods to determine their precise taxonomic identities at the subspecies level. Four strains and three strains had complete 16S rRNA gene sequence matches with S. equorum subsp. equorum DSM 20674(T) and S. equorum subsp. linens DSM 15097(T), respectively. Five strains showed 99.9 % identity with the sequences of both type strains. In our DNA-DNA hybridization analyses among two type strains and two isolates, the similarities were over 72 % and were higher than the similarities presented at the subspecies proposal. Physiological characteristics such as sugar utilization, ?-galactosidase activity, novobiocin resistance and salt tolerance, which were adopted for subspecies separation, could not be applied to assign the isolates to a taxonomic unit. Antibiotic susceptibility, hemolytic activity, biofilm formation and protein profiles did not present markers to divide the isolates into either of the subspecies. Multilocus sequence typing of the sequences of the 16S rRNA gene and five housekeeping genes did not produce any coherent relationship among the isolates and type strains. Repetitive element-PCR fingerprinting using ERIC (enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus) primers classified 12 isolates to three genotypes, and the genotypes of both type strains coincided with two isolates expressing different characteristics. Based on these phenotypic and genotypic analyses results, we propose to unify the present two subspecies of S. equorum into one species, S. equorum. PMID:24057981

  4. MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUBSP. PARATUBERCULOSIS: THE HOST RESPONSE TO A MIGHTY FOE.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) is a chronic, progressive enteric disease of ruminants caused by infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Host immunity to mycobacterial infections are characterized by reciprocal T cell responsiveness associated with the extent of diseas...

  5. Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis infection in waterfowl: first confirmation in animals.

    PubMed Central

    Goyache, J.; Vela, A. I.; Gibello, A.; Blanco, M. M.; Briones, V.; González, S.; Téllez, S.; Ballesteros, C.; Domínguez, L.; Fernández-Garayzábal, J. F.

    2001-01-01

    We report the first description, confirmed by bacteriologic and molecular (polymerase chain reaction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) analysis, of an infection in animals caused by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, affecting waterfowl. PMID:11747704

  6. Humoral response to Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium in naturally infected ring-neck doves (Streptopelia risoria) 

    E-print Network

    Gray, Patricia Lara-Lynn

    2009-05-15

    Creation of a reliable and easy to use serologic test would greatly improve ante mortem diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium and aid in the control of avian mycobacteriosis, particularly in captive birds. In order to determine whether...

  7. Comparative Genomics of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Reveals a Strict Monophyletic Bifidobacterial Taxon

    PubMed Central

    Milani, Christian; Duranti, Sabrina; Lugli, Gabriele Andrea; Bottacini, Francesca; Strati, Francesco; Arioli, Stefania; Foroni, Elena; Turroni, Francesca; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2013-01-01

    Strains of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis are extensively exploited by the food industry as health-promoting bacteria, although the genetic variability of members belonging to this taxon has so far not received much scientific attention. In this article, we describe the complete genetic makeup of the B. animalis subsp. lactis Bl12 genome and discuss the genetic relatedness of this strain with other sequenced strains belonging to this taxon. Moreover, a detailed comparative genomic analysis of B. animalis subsp. lactis genomes was performed, which revealed a closely related and isogenic nature of all currently available B. animalis subsp. lactis strains, thus strongly suggesting a closed pan-genome structure of this bacterial group. PMID:23645200

  8. Antimicrobial phenolics and unusual glycerides from Helichrysum italicum subsp. microphyllum.

    PubMed

    Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Pollastro, Federica; Chianese, Giuseppina; Minassi, Alberto; Gibbons, Simon; Arunotayanun, Warunya; Mabebie, Blessing; Ballero, Mauro; Appendino, Giovanni

    2013-03-22

    During a large-scale isolation campaign for the heterodimeric phloroglucinyl pyrone arzanol (1a) from Helichrysum italicum subsp. microphyllum, several new phenolics as well as an unusual class of lipids named santinols (5a-c, 6-8) have been characterized. Santinols are angeloylated glycerides characterized by the presence of branched acyl- or keto-acyl chains and represent a hitherto unreported class of plant lipids. The antibacterial activity of arzanol and of a selection of Helichrysum phenolics that includes coumarates, benzofurans, pyrones, and heterodimeric phloroglucinols was evaluated, showing that only the heterodimers showed potent antibacterial action against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates. These observations validate the topical use of Helichrysum extracts to prevent wound infections, a practice firmly established in the traditional medicine of the Mediterranean area. PMID:23265253

  9. Carbon sources of natural cyanamide in Vicia villosa subsp. varia.

    PubMed

    Kamo, Tsunashi; Kasahara, Ryohei; Abe, Shun; Hirota, Mitsuru; Sugano, Mami; Yamaya, Hiroko; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Fujii, Yoshiharu

    2010-10-01

    The ¹³C labels of [¹³C]carbon dioxide and D-[¹³C?]glucose were incorporated into cyanamide (NH?CN) when they were administered to Vicia villosa subsp. varia shoots. In contrast, the administration of sodium [2,3-¹³C?]pyruvate did not affect the relative area of the [M + 1]+ ion of cyanamide in the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. [2,3-¹³C?]pyruvate was incorporated into organic acids that are part of the citric acid cycle, such as succinate and fumarate, confirming that the shoots absorbed and metabolised it. These observations demonstrated that the carbon atom of cyanamide is derived from any of the carbohydrates that are present upstream of pyruvate in the metabolic pathway. PMID:20954091

  10. Quinolizidine alkaloids from Sophora velutina subsp. zimbabweensis (Fabaceae: Sophoreae).

    PubMed

    Korir, Erick; Kiplimo, Joyce J; Crouch, Neil R; Moodley, Nivan; Koorbanally, Neil A

    2012-08-01

    Three novel quinolizidine alkaloids, N-methylenehydroxycytisine (1), 6,7-dihydroxylupanine (2), and velutinine (3) have been isolated from the fruits and pods (1 and 2) and stem bark (3) of Sophora velutina subsp. zimbabweensis along with the known quinolizidine alkaloids, 7-hydroxylupanine (4), thermopsine (5), N-methylcytisine (6), cytisine (7), an aromatic ester, methyl-3-(3',4'-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-propenoate (8) and the triterpenoids, lup-20(29)-ene-3beta-ol (9) and 12-oleanen-3-one (10). Compounds 6 and 10 showed good antibacterial activity against E. faecalis, with MIC values of 20.8 and 10.9 microg mL(-1), respectively. The other compounds tested exhibited low to moderate antibacterial activity. PMID:22978215

  11. [Further Helenanolides from the Flowers of Arnica chamissonis subsp. foliosa].

    PubMed

    Willuhn, G; Kresken, J; Leven, W

    1990-02-01

    A phytochemical study of the flowers of ARNICA CHAMISSONIS Less. subsp. FOLIOSA (Nutt.) Maguire (Asteraceae) has resulted in the identification of a further 23 helenanolides. Six of them, 2alpha-hydroxy-6- O-angelicoyl-2,3-dihydrohelenalin ( 3B), 2alpha-hydroxy-6- O-senecioyl-2, 3-dihydrohelenalin ( 3C), 2alpha-hydroxy-6- O-tigloyl-2,3,11alpha,13-tetrahydrohelenalin ( 4A), 2alpha-hydroxy-6- O-isovaleryl-2, 3,11alpha,13-tetrahydrohelenalin ( 4D), 6- O-acetylchamissonolide ( 5C), and 4,6-di- O-acetylchamissonolide ( 5D), were isolated for the first time as natural compounds. Their structures were established by GLC-MS studies and IR, (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectroscopy. PMID:17221381

  12. Quantitative and cytotoxic activity determinations on Galanthus nivalis subsp. cilicicus.

    PubMed

    Kaya, G I; Gözler, B

    2005-06-01

    Aerial and underground parts of Galanthus nivalis subsp. cilicicus, a wild-growing species in Turkey, were collected during two different vegetation periods in flowering and fruiting seasons. Herba and bulbus Galanthi were prepared from each specimen. With the aim of collecting data for prospective monographs on this drug, contents of humidity, ash, sulphated ash and total alkaloids were determined according to DAB 10. The specimens were also analyzed quantitatively for two of the principal alkaloids of the genus, galanthamine and lycorine, by using a method based on spectrophotometry complemented with TLC. LC50 values were determined for the ethanolic and alkaloidal extracts of each of the specimens using brine shrimp lethality bioassay. PMID:15890464

  13. Molecular Characterization of Three Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus Phages

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Eoghan; Mahony, Jennifer; O'Connell-Motherway, Mary; Bottacini, Francesca; Cornelissen, Anneleen; Neve, Horst; Heller, Knut J.; Noben, Jean-Paul; Dal Bello, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    In this study, three phages infecting Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, named Ld3, Ld17, and Ld25A, were isolated from whey samples obtained from various industrial fermentations. These phages were further characterized in a multifaceted approach: (i) biological and physical characterization through host range analysis and electron microscopy; (ii) genetic assessment through genome analysis; (iii) mass spectrometry analysis of the structural components of the phages; and (iv), for one phage, transcriptional analysis by Northern hybridization, reverse transcription-PCR, and primer extension. The three obtained phage genomes display high levels of sequence identity to each other and to genomes of the so-called group b L. delbrueckii phages c5, LL-Ku, and phiLdb, where some of the observed differences are believed to be responsible for host range variations. PMID:25002431

  14. Morphological variation of Medicago sativa subsp. falcata genotypes and their hybrid progeny

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heathcliffe Riday; E. Charles Brummer

    2004-01-01

    Semi-hybrid alfalfa cultivars offer the possibility of capturing non-additive genetic variation. Medicago sativa subsp. falcata and subsp.sativa have been shown to form a heterotic pattern for biomass yield. Objectives of this study were to examine morphological variation\\u000a in a broad range of falcate germplasm and to determine how falcate morphological variation per se is related to the performance of falcate

  15. Alfalfa Subsp. Sativa by Falcata Intersubspecific Semi-Hybrid Seed Production Using Alfalfa Leafcutter Bees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heathcliffe Riday

    2008-01-01

    Intersubspecific sativa by falcata alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hybrids offer a means of improving alfalfa dry-matter yields. The alfalfa leafcutter bee (Megachile rotundata F.) is a major pollinator used in alfalfa seed production in North America. Alfalfa leafcutter bees have a pollinator preference for purple-flowered subsp. sativa plants over the yellow-flowered subsp. falcata plants. This study was conducted to quantify

  16. Effect of phytotoxic compounds produced by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis on resistant and susceptible tomato plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Van Den Bulk; H. J. M. Löffler; J. J. M. Dons

    1989-01-01

    A phytotoxic fraction of high molecular weight was isolated from the culture filtrate ofClavibacter michiganensis subsp.michiganensis, the causal agent of bacterial canker of tomato, and partly purified. This high molecular weight fraction consists of sugars and a minor protein moiety and is therefore probably of similar nature to that of the toxin fromC. michiganensis subsp.michiganensis reported earlier in literature.The high

  17. Die Unkraut-Hirse ( Panicum miliaceum subsp. ruderale ) — neue Tatsachen und Befunde

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hildemar Scholz

    1983-01-01

    The Weed-Broomcorn Millet,Panicum miliaceum L. subsp.ruderale (Kitag.)Tzvelev, until now observed only in Asiatic countries, is also present in Austria (C. Europe). Whereas the cultivatedP. miliaceum subsp.miliaceum, devoid of all natural dispersal ability, cannot actively spread, the Weed-Broomcorn Millet can do so successfully and is increasingly infesting fields ofZea mays. Its spikelets disarticulate at maturity below the glumes, and moreover the

  18. Fate of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis under Simulated Field Conditions.

    PubMed

    Ohana, B; Margalit, J; Barak, Z

    1987-04-01

    The fate of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis in a natural aquatic habitat was studied in a model system by using laboratory-simulated field waters and a mutant of the bacterium resistant to three antibiotics. Contact with mud of a sporal culture of the mutant resulted in an immediate disappearance of the larvicidal activity but had no influence on viability. The cessation of toxicity was caused by bacterial adsorption on soil particles, since 99.8% of the bacteria was found in the mud fraction within 45 min, with concurrent disappearance from the supernatant. When the mud was stirred, the bacteria could be redetected. The viability count of the mud suspension remained practically constant for at least 22 days, indicating that the spores were still fully viable but were incapable of germinating and multiplying in the mud under our experimental conditions. Approximately 8% of the colony forming ability of the bacteria could be separated from the mud by vigorous mixing followed by immediate filtration. The filtrated spores retained their toxicity, killing 90% of the larval populations even after 22 days incubation in the soil. The inactivation of the toxic activity of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis in the mud was therefore a reversible process and was probably due to masking of the bacteria, thus making the bacteria and their toxin inaccessible to the larvae. In the simulated field waters without mud, we observed only a very slow inhibition of the larvicidal activity. In contrast to the activity in the mud suspension, this activity could not be restored. PMID:16347326

  19. Decreased toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis to mosquito larvae after contact with leaf litter.

    PubMed

    Tetreau, Guillaume; Stalinski, Renaud; Kersusan, Dylann; Veyrenc, Sylvie; David, Jean-Philippe; Reynaud, Stéphane; Després, Laurence

    2012-08-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis is a bacterium producing crystals containing Cry and Cyt proteins, which are toxic for mosquito larvae. Nothing is known about the interaction between crystal toxins and decaying leaf litter, which is a major component of several mosquito breeding sites and represents an important food source. In the present work, we investigated the behavior of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis toxic crystals sprayed on leaf litter. In the presence of leaf litter, a 60% decrease in the amount of Cyt toxin detectable by immunology (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays [ELISAs]) was observed, while the respective proportions of Cry toxins were not affected. The toxicity of Cry toxins toward Aedes aegypti larvae was not affected by leaf litter, while the synergistic effect of Cyt toxins on all B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis Cry toxins was decreased by about 20% when mixed with leaf litter. The toxicity of two commercial B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis strains (VectoBac WG and VectoBac 12AS) and a laboratory-produced B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis strain decreased by about 70% when mixed with leaf litter. Taken together, these results suggest that Cyt toxins interact with leaf litter, resulting in a decreased toxicity of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis in litter-rich environments and thereby dramatically reducing the efficiency of mosquitocidal treatments. PMID:22610426

  20. Tomato Fruit and Seed Colonization by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis through External and Internal Routes

    PubMed Central

    Tancos, Matthew A.; Chalupowicz, Laura; Barash, Isaac; Manulis-Sasson, Shulamit

    2013-01-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, causal agent of bacterial wilt and canker of tomato, is an economically devastating pathogen that inflicts considerable damage throughout all major tomato-producing regions. Annual outbreaks continue to occur in New York, where C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis spreads via infected transplants, trellising stakes, tools, and/or soil. Globally, new outbreaks can be accompanied by the introduction of contaminated seed stock; however, the route of seed infection, especially the role of fruit lesions, remains undefined. In order to investigate the modes of seed infection, New York C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis field strains were stably transformed with a gene encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP). A constitutively eGFP-expressing virulent C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis isolate, GCMM-22, was used to demonstrate that C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis could not only access seeds systemically through the xylem but also externally through tomato fruit lesions, which harbored high intra- and intercellular populations. Active movement and expansion of bacteria into the fruit mesocarp and nearby xylem vessels followed, once the fruits began to ripen. These results highlight the ability of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis to invade tomato fruits and seeds through multiple entry routes. PMID:24014525

  1. Tomato fruit and seed colonization by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis through external and internal routes.

    PubMed

    Tancos, Matthew A; Chalupowicz, Laura; Barash, Isaac; Manulis-Sasson, Shulamit; Smart, Christine D

    2013-11-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, causal agent of bacterial wilt and canker of tomato, is an economically devastating pathogen that inflicts considerable damage throughout all major tomato-producing regions. Annual outbreaks continue to occur in New York, where C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis spreads via infected transplants, trellising stakes, tools, and/or soil. Globally, new outbreaks can be accompanied by the introduction of contaminated seed stock; however, the route of seed infection, especially the role of fruit lesions, remains undefined. In order to investigate the modes of seed infection, New York C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis field strains were stably transformed with a gene encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP). A constitutively eGFP-expressing virulent C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis isolate, GCMM-22, was used to demonstrate that C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis could not only access seeds systemically through the xylem but also externally through tomato fruit lesions, which harbored high intra- and intercellular populations. Active movement and expansion of bacteria into the fruit mesocarp and nearby xylem vessels followed, once the fruits began to ripen. These results highlight the ability of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis to invade tomato fruits and seeds through multiple entry routes. PMID:24014525

  2. Decreased Toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis to Mosquito Larvae after Contact with Leaf Litter

    PubMed Central

    Stalinski, Renaud; Kersusan, Dylann; Veyrenc, Sylvie; David, Jean-Philippe; Reynaud, Stéphane; Després, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis is a bacterium producing crystals containing Cry and Cyt proteins, which are toxic for mosquito larvae. Nothing is known about the interaction between crystal toxins and decaying leaf litter, which is a major component of several mosquito breeding sites and represents an important food source. In the present work, we investigated the behavior of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis toxic crystals sprayed on leaf litter. In the presence of leaf litter, a 60% decrease in the amount of Cyt toxin detectable by immunology (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays [ELISAs]) was observed, while the respective proportions of Cry toxins were not affected. The toxicity of Cry toxins toward Aedes aegypti larvae was not affected by leaf litter, while the synergistic effect of Cyt toxins on all B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis Cry toxins was decreased by about 20% when mixed with leaf litter. The toxicity of two commercial B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis strains (VectoBac WG and VectoBac 12AS) and a laboratory-produced B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis strain decreased by about 70% when mixed with leaf litter. Taken together, these results suggest that Cyt toxins interact with leaf litter, resulting in a decreased toxicity of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis in litter-rich environments and thereby dramatically reducing the efficiency of mosquitocidal treatments. PMID:22610426

  3. Characterization of Pneumonia Due to Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus in Dogs?

    PubMed Central

    Priestnall, Simon L.; Erles, Kerstin; Brooks, Harriet W.; Cardwell, Jacqueline M.; Waller, Andrew S.; Paillot, Romain; Robinson, Carl; Darby, Alistair C.; Holden, Matthew T. G.; Schöniger, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus has been linked to cases of acute fatal pneumonia in dogs in several countries. Outbreaks can occur in kenneled dog populations and result in significant levels of morbidity and mortality. This highly contagious disease is characterized by the sudden onset of clinical signs, including pyrexia, dyspnea, and hemorrhagic nasal discharge. The pathogenesis of S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus infection in dogs is poorly understood. This study systematically characterized the histopathological changes in the lungs of 39 dogs from a large rehoming shelter in London, United Kingdom; the dogs were infected with S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus. An objective scoring system demonstrated that S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus caused pneumonia in 26/39 (66.7%) dogs, and most of these dogs (17/26 [65.4%]) were classified as severe fibrino-suppurative, necrotizing, and hemorrhagic. Three recently described superantigen genes (szeF, szeN, and szeP) were detected by PCR in 17/47 (36.2%) of the S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus isolates; however, there was no association between the presence of these genes and the histopathological score. The lungs of S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus-infected dogs with severe respiratory signs and lung pathology did however have significantly higher mRNA levels of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and interleukin 8 (IL-8) than in uninfected controls, suggesting a role for an exuberant host immune response in the pathogenesis of this disease. PMID:20861329

  4. Pork Meat as a Potential Source of Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae Infection in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Kritas, Spyridon; Govaris, Alexander; Burriel, Angeliki R.

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae was isolated from 13 of 123 slaughtered pigs in central Greece. The samples cultured were feces, ileum tissue, mesenteric lymph nodes, and gallbladder swabs. A total of 74 isolates from 492 samples were identified as Salmonella spp. by use of standard laboratory culture media and two commercial micromethods and by use of a polyvalent slide agglutination test for the detection of O and H antigens. Among them were 19 (25.68%) suspected to be S. enterica subsp. arizonae according to analysis with standard laboratory culture media. Of those, 14 were identified as S. enterica subsp. arizonae by the API 20E (bioMérieux, France) and the Microgen GnA+B-ID (Microgen Bioproducts, Ltd., United Kingdom) identification systems. All the isolates were tested for resistance to 23 antimicrobials. Strains identified as S. enterica subsp. arizonae were resistant to 17 (70.8%) antibiotics. The highest proportions of resistance were observed for sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (71.4%), tetracycline (71.4%), ampicillin (64.3%), and amoxicillin (57.1%). Two isolates were resistant to aztreonam (7.1%) and tigecycline (7.1%), used only for the treatment of humans. Thus, pork meat may play a role in the transmission of antibiotic-resistant S. enterica subsp. arizonae to human consumers. This is the first report of S. enterica subsp. arizonae isolation from pigs. PMID:24335956

  5. Influence of litter chemistry and stoichiometry on glucan depolymerization during decomposition of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) litter

    PubMed Central

    Leitner, Sonja; Wanek, Wolfgang; Wild, Birgit; Haemmerle, Ieda; Kohl, Lukas; Keiblinger, Katharina M.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Richter, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Glucans like cellulose and starch are a major source of carbon for decomposer food webs, especially during early- and intermediate-stages of decomposition. Litter quality has previously been suggested to notably influence decomposition processes as it determines the decomposability of organic material and the nutrient availability to the decomposer community. To study the impact of chemical and elemental composition of resources on glucan decomposition, a laboratory experiment was carried out using beech (Fagus sylvatica, L.) litter from four different locations in Austria, differing in composition (concentration of starch, cellulose and acid unhydrolyzable residue or AUR fraction) and elemental stoichiometry (C:N:P ratio). Leaf litter was incubated in mesocosms for six months in the laboratory under controlled conditions. To investigate the process of glucan decomposition and its controls, we developed an isotope pool dilution (IPD) assay using 13C-glucose to label the pool of free glucose in the litter, and subsequently measured the dilution of label over time. This enabled us to calculate gross rates of glucose production through glucan depolymerization, and glucose consumption by the microbial community. In addition, potential activities of extracellular cellulases and ligninases (peroxidases and phenoloxidases) were measured to identify effects of resource chemistry and stoichiometry on microbial enzyme production. Gross rates of glucan depolymerization and glucose consumption were highly correlated, indicating that both processes are co-regulated and intrinsically linked by the microbial demand for C and energy and thereby to resource allocation to enzymes that depolymerize glucans. At early stages of decomposition, glucan depolymerization rates were correlated with starch content, indicating that starch was the primary source for glucose. With progressing litter decomposition, the correlation with starch diminished and glucan depolymerization rates were highly correlated to cellulase activities, suggesting that cellulose was the primary substrate for glucan depolymerization at this stage of decomposition. Litter stoichiometry did not affect glucan depolymerization or glucose consumption rates early in decomposition. At later stages, however, we found significant negative relationships between glucan depolymerization and litter C:N and AUR:N ratio and a positive relationship between glucan depolymerization and litter N concentration. Litter C:N and C:P ratios were negatively related to cellulase, peroxidase and phenoloxidase activities three and six months after incubation, further corroborating the importance of resource stoichiometry for glucan depolymerization after the initial pulse of starch degradation. PMID:22761539

  6. Transport of soluble carbohydrates in temperate deciduous trees: beech (Fagus sylvatica) and ash (Fraxinus excelsior) in comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoms, Ronny; Köhler, Michael; Gessler, Arthur; Gleixner, Gerd

    2015-04-01

    The structure of phloem cells and the physiology of the transport of soluble carbohydrates in plants are well studied. However, the influence of different phloem un- and uploading strategies on the translocation of carbohydrates in different tree species is largely unknown. Therefore, we conducted a pulse labeling on 20 young trees of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and European ash (Fraxinus excelsior) respectively, using the stable isotope 13C in a temperate deciduous forest in Central Germany. In one growing season each tree species was labeled in a closed transparent plastic chamber with 99% 13CO2 for 5 h. The compound specific ? 13C from carbohydrates in the different compartments leaf, branch, stem and root was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography linked with an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (HPLC-IRMS). We found that both tree species used sucrose as a transport sugar, but carbohydrates of the raffinose group (RFO) served as main transport sugar in ash trees. This indicate that beech used only the apoplastic loading strategy into the phloem cells while ash trees relied on both, apoplastic and symplastic loading, preferring the latter at the end of the growing season. Furthermore, we observed different transport velocities of labeled sugars in the two species. Here, sucrose in beech and carbohydrates of the RFO in ash were transported fastest, whereas sucrose was constantly slowest in ash trees. The label of carbohydrates was found over 60 day in the roots of both tree species, with the highest ? 13C enrichment in carbohydrates of RFO than in the other sugars. Accordingly, the mean residence time (MRT) and half life time (HLT) of 13C in different compartments were longest for carbohydrates of RFO in roots (25.6 days) and sucrose in stems (14.9 days), while the shortest MRT and HLT for sucrose appeared in beech in all compartments. Our results give evidence that RFO are preferentially transported to the root tissue as an agent against frost damage. This could have a great impact on the transport and storage behavior of sucrose in ash trees in the end of growing season. We conclude that transport mechanisms of carbohydrates in roots and stems differ. Intermediate storage of sucrose in line with different unloading strategies might be the limiting factor.

  7. Geobacter sulfurreducens subsp. ethanolicus, subsp. nov., an ethanol-utilizing dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacterium from a lotus field.

    PubMed

    Viulu, Samson; Nakamura, Kohei; Kojima, Akihiro; Yoshiyasu, Yuki; Saitou, Sakiko; Takamizawa, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    An ethanol-utilizing Fe(III)-reducing bacterial strain, OSK2A(T), was isolated from a lotus field in Aichi, Japan. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of OSK2A(T) and related strains placed it within Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA(T). Strain OSK2A(T) was shown to be a Gram-negative, motile, rod-shaped bacterium, strictly anaerobic, 0.76-1.65 µm long and 0.28-0.45 ?m wide. Its growth occurred at 20-40?, pH 6.0-8.1, and it tolerated up to 1% NaCl. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 61.2 mol% and DNA-DNA hybridization value with Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA(T) was 60.7%. The major respiratory quinone was MK-8. The major fatty acids were 16?1 ?7c, 16?0, 14?0, 15?0 iso, 16?1 ?5c, and 18?1 ?7c. Strain OSK2A(T) could utilize H2, ethanol, acetate, lactate, pyruvate, and formate as substrates with Fe(III)-citrate as electron acceptor. Amorphous Fe(III) hydroxide, Fe(III)-NTA, fumarate, malate, and elemental sulfur were utilized as electron acceptors with either acetate or ethanol as substrates. Results obtained from physiological, DNA-DNA hybridization, and chemotaxonomic tests support genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain OSK2A(T) from its closest relative. The isolate is assigned as a novel subspecies with the name Geobacter sulfurreducens subsp. ethanolicus, subsp. nov. (type strain OSK2A(T)=DSMZ 26126(T)=JCM 18752(T)). PMID:24201144

  8. Genetic variation in Mediterranean Helichrysum italicum (Asteraceae; Gnaphalieae): do disjunct populations of subsp. microphyllum have a common origin?

    PubMed

    Galbany-Casals, M; Blanco-Moreno, J M; Garcia-Jacas, N; Breitwieser, I; Smissen, R D

    2011-07-01

    The yellow-flowered everlasting daisy Helichrysum italicum (Asteraceae, Gnaphalieae) is widely distributed in the Mediterranean basin, where it grows in continuous and widespread populations in diverse open habitats. Helichrysum italicum subsp. microphyllum has a disjunct distribution in the Balearic Islands (Majorca and Dragonera), Corsica, Sardinia, Crete and Cyprus. Numerous morphological intermediates between subsp. italicum and subsp. microphyllum are known from Corsica, where the two subspecies co-occur. The aims of the study were to investigate if subsp. microphyllum has a common origin, constituting an independent gene pool from subsp. italicum, or if the morphological differences between subsp. microphyllum and subsp. italicum have arisen independently in different locations from a common wider gene pool. Our analyses of AFLP, cpDNA sequences and morphological characters show that there is geographic structure to the genetic variation within H. italicum, with eastern and western Mediterranean groups, which do not correspond with the division into subsp. microphyllum and subsp. italicum as currently circumscribed. Local selection on quantitative trait loci provides sufficient explanation for the morphological divergence observed and is consistent with genetic data. Within the western Mediterranean group of the species we found considerable polymorphism in chloroplast DNA sequences among and within some populations. Comparison with chloroplast DNA sequences from other Helichrysum species showed that some chloroplast haplotypes are shared across species. PMID:21668609

  9. Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis ATCC 27673 Is a Genomically Unique Strain within Its Conserved Subspecies

    PubMed Central

    Loquasto, Joseph R.; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Dudley, Edward G.; Stahl, Buffy; Chen, Chun

    2013-01-01

    Many strains of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis are considered health-promoting probiotic microorganisms and are commonly formulated into fermented dairy foods. Analyses of previously sequenced genomes of B. animalis subsp. lactis have revealed little genetic diversity, suggesting that it is a monomorphic subspecies. However, during a multilocus sequence typing survey of Bifidobacterium, it was revealed that B. animalis subsp. lactis ATCC 27673 gave a profile distinct from that of the other strains of the subspecies. As part of an ongoing study designed to understand the genetic diversity of this subspecies, the genome of this strain was sequenced and compared to other sequenced genomes of B. animalis subsp. lactis and B. animalis subsp. animalis. The complete genome of ATCC 27673 was 1,963,012 bp, contained 1,616 genes and 4 rRNA operons, and had a G+C content of 61.55%. Comparative analyses revealed that the genome of ATCC 27673 contained six distinct genomic islands encoding 83 open reading frames not found in other strains of the same subspecies. In four islands, either phage or mobile genetic elements were identified. In island 6, a novel clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) locus which contained 81 unique spacers was identified. This type I-E CRISPR-cas system differs from the type I-C systems previously identified in this subspecies, representing the first identification of a different system in B. animalis subsp. lactis. This study revealed that ATCC 27673 is a strain of B. animalis subsp. lactis with novel genetic content and suggests that the lack of genetic variability observed is likely due to the repeated sequencing of a limited number of widely distributed commercial strains. PMID:23995933

  10. Molecular Organization of the 25S–18S rDNA IGS of Fagus sylvatica and Quercus suber: A Comparative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Inácio, Vera; Rocheta, Margarida; Morais-Cecílio, Leonor

    2014-01-01

    The 35S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) units, repeated in tandem at one or more chromosomal loci, are separated by an intergenic spacer (IGS) containing functional elements involved in the regulation of transcription of downstream rRNA genes. In the present work, we have compared the IGS molecular organizations in two divergent species of Fagaceae, Fagus sylvatica and Quercus suber, aiming to comprehend the evolution of the IGS sequences within the family. Self- and cross-hybridization FISH was done on representative species of the Fagaceae. The IGS length variability and the methylation level of 18 and 25S rRNA genes were assessed in representatives of three genera of this family: Fagus, Quercus and Castanea. The intergenic spacers in Beech and Cork Oak showed similar overall organizations comprising putative functional elements needed for rRNA gene activity and containing a non-transcribed spacer (NTS), a promoter region, and a 5?-external transcribed spacer. In the NTS: the sub-repeats structure in Beech is more organized than in Cork Oak, sharing some short motifs which results in the lowest sequence similarity of the entire IGS; the AT-rich region differed in both spacers by a GC-rich block inserted in Cork Oak. The 5?-ETS is the region with the higher similarity, having nonetheless different lengths. FISH with the NTS-5?-ETS revealed fainter signals in cross-hybridization in agreement with the divergence between genera. The diversity of IGS lengths revealed variants from ?2 kb in Fagus, and Quercus up to 5.3 kb in Castanea, and a lack of correlation between the number of variants and the number of rDNA loci in several species. Methylation of 25S Bam HI site was confirmed in all species and detected for the first time in the 18S of Q. suber and Q. faginea. These results provide important clues for the evolutionary trends of the rDNA 25S-18S IGS in the Fagaceae family. PMID:24893289

  11. Subspecies IIIa and IIIb Salmonellae Are Defective for Colonization of Murine Models of Salmonellosis Compared to Salmonella enterica subsp. I Serovar Typhimurium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erin Katribe; Lydia M. Bogomolnaya; Heather Wingert; Helene Andrews-Polymenis

    2009-01-01

    Non-subspecies I salmonellae are commensals of cold-blooded vertebrates and cause sporadic disease in mammals. The reasons why non-subspecies I salmonellae do not circulate in populations of warm-blooded vertebrates, but instead only cause occasional disease in this niche, are unknown. We examined the ability of Salmonella enterica subsp. IIIa (subsp. arizonae) and subsp. IIIb (subsp. diarizonae) isolates to grow compet- itively

  12. Growth losses in Swiss forests caused by ozone: epidemiological data analysis of stem increment of Fagus sylvatica L. and Picea abies Karst.

    PubMed

    Braun, Sabine; Schindler, Christian; Rihm, Beat

    2014-09-01

    The estimate of growth losses by ozone exposure of forest trees is a significant part in current C sequestration calculations and will also be important in future modeling. It is therefore important to know if the relationship between ozone flux and growth reduction of young trees, used to derive a Critical Level for ozone, is also valid for mature trees. Epidemiological analysis of stem increment data from Fagus sylvatica L. and Picea abies Karst. observed in Swiss forest plots was used to test this hypothesis. The results confirm the validity of the flux-response relationship at least for beech and therefore enable estimating forest growth losses by ozone on a country-wide scale. For Switzerland, these estimates amount to 19.5% growth reduction for deciduous forests, 6.6% for coniferous forests and 11.0% for all forested areas based on annual ozone stomatal uptake during the time period 1991-2011. PMID:24911370

  13. Infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Results in Rapid Interleukin-1? Release and Macrophage Transepithelial Migration

    PubMed Central

    Lamont, Elise A.; O'Grady, Scott M.; Davis, William C.; Eckstein, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    Pathogen processing by the intestinal epithelium involves a dynamic innate immune response initiated by pathogen-epithelial cell cross talk. Interactions between epithelium and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis have not been intensively studied, and it is currently unknown how the bacterium-epithelial cell cross talk contributes to the course of infection. We hypothesized that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis harnesses host responses to recruit macrophages to the site of infection to ensure its survival and dissemination. We investigated macrophage recruitment in response to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis using a MAC-T bovine macrophage coculture system. We show that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection led to phagosome acidification within bovine epithelial (MAC-T) cells as early as 10 min, which resulted in upregulation of interleukin-1? (IL-1?) at transcript and protein levels. Within 10 min of infection, macrophages were recruited to the apical side of MAC-T cells. Inhibition of phagosome acidification or IL-1? abrogated this response, while MCP-1/CCL-2 blocking had no effect. IL-1? processing was dependent upon Ca2+ uptake from the extracellular medium and intracellular Ca2+ oscillations, as determined by EGTA and BAPTA-AM [1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N?,N?-tetraacetic acid tetrakis (acetoxymethyl ester)] treatments. Thus, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis is an opportunist that takes advantage of extracellular Ca2+-dependent phagosome acidification and IL-1? processing in order to efficiently transverse the epithelium and enter its niche—the macrophage. PMID:22778093

  14. Colonization of tomato seedlings by bioluminescent Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis under different humidity regimes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiulan; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Paul, Pierce A; Miller, Sally A

    2012-02-01

    Tomato bacterial canker, caused by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, is transmitted by infected or infested seed and mechanically from plant to plant. Wounds occurring during seedling production and crop maintenance facilitate the dissemination of the pathogen. However, the effects of environmental factors on C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis translocation and growth as an endophyte have not been fully elucidated. A virulent, stable, constitutively bioluminescent C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis strain BL-Cmm 17 coupled with an in vivo imaging system allowed visualization of the C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis colonization process in tomato seedlings in real time. The dynamics of bacterial infection in seedlings through wounds were compared under low (45%) and high (83%) relative humidity. Bacteria multiplied rapidly in cotyledon petioles remaining after clip inoculation and moved in the stem toward both root and shoot. Luminescent signals were also observed in tomato seedling roots over time, and root development was reduced in inoculated plants maintained under both humidity regimes. Wilting was more severe in seedlings under high-humidity regimes. A strong positive correlation between light intensity and bacterial population in planta suggests that bioluminescent C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis strains will be useful in evaluating the efficacy of bactericides and host resistance. PMID:21936661

  15. Persistence of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki in Urban Environments following Spraying.

    PubMed

    Van Cuyk, Sheila; Deshpande, Alina; Hollander, Attelia; Duval, Nathan; Ticknor, Lawrence; Layshock, Julie; Gallegos-Graves, Laverne; Omberg, Kristin M

    2011-11-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki is applied extensively in North America to control the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar. Since B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki shares many physical and biological properties with Bacillus anthracis, it is a reasonable surrogate for biodefense studies. A key question in biodefense is how long a biothreat agent will persist in the environment. There is some information in the literature on the persistence of Bacillus anthracis in laboratories and historical testing areas and for Bacillus thuringiensis in agricultural settings, but there is no information on the persistence of Bacillus spp. in the type of environment that would be encountered in a city or on a military installation. Since it is not feasible to release B. anthracis in a developed area, the controlled release of B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki for pest control was used to gain insight into the potential persistence of Bacillus spp. in outdoor urban environments. Persistence was evaluated in two locations: Fairfax County, VA, and Seattle, WA. Environmental samples were collected from multiple matrices and evaluated for the presence of viable B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki at times ranging from less than 1 day to 4 years after spraying. Real-time PCR and culture were used for analysis. B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki was found to persist in urban environments for at least 4 years. It was most frequently detected in soils and less frequently detected in wipes, grass, foliage, and water. The collective results indicate that certain species of Bacillus may persist for years following their dispersal in urban environments. PMID:21926205

  16. Oral Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. polymorphum binds to human salivary ?-amylase.

    PubMed

    Zulfiqar, M; Yamaguchi, T; Sato, S; Oho, T

    2013-12-01

    Fusobacterium nucleatum acts as an intermediate between early and late colonizers in the oral cavity. In this study, we showed that F. nucleatum subsp. polymorphum can bind to a salivary component with a molecular weight of approximately 110 kDa and identified the protein and another major factor of 55 kDa, as salivary ?-amylase by time-of-flight mass spectrometry and immuno-reactions. Salivary ?-amylase is present in both monomeric and dimeric forms and we found that formation of the dimer depends on copper ions. The F. nucleatum adhered to both monomeric and dimeric salivary ?-amylases, but the numbers of bacteria bound to the dimeric form were more than those bound to the monomeric form. The degree of adherence of F. nucleatum to four ?-amylases from different sources was almost the same, however its binding to ?-amylase was considerably decreased. Among four ?-amylase inhibitors tested, acarbose and type 1 and 3 inhibitors derived from wheat flour showed significant activity against the adhesion of F.nucleatum to monomeric and dimeric amylases, however voglibose had little effect. Moreover F. nucleatum cells inhibited the enzymatic activity of salivary ?-amylase in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that F. nucleatum plays more important and positive role as an early colonizer for maturation of oral microbial colonization. PMID:23906425

  17. Glutamate Biosynthesis in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis NCDO 2118

    PubMed

    Lapujade; Cocaign-Bousquet; Loubiere

    1998-07-01

    Unlike other lactic acid bacteria, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis NCDO 2118 was able to grow in a medium lacking glutamate and the amino acids of the glutamate family. Growth in such a medium proceeded after a lag phase of about 2 days and with a reduced growth rate (0.11 h-1) compared to that in the reference medium containing glutamate (0.16 h-1). The enzymatic studies showed that a phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity was present, while the malic enzyme and the enzymes of the glyoxylic shunt were not detected. As in most anaerobic bacteria, no alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase activity could be detected, and the citric acid cycle was restricted to a reductive pathway leading to succinate formation and an oxidative branch enabling the synthesis of alpha-ketoglutarate. The metabolic bottleneck responsible for the limited growth rate was located in this latter pathway. As regards the synthesis of glutamate from alpha-ketoglutarate, no glutamate dehydrogenase was detected. While the glutamate synthase-glutamine synthetase system was detected at a low level, high transaminase activity was measured. The conversion of alpha-ketoglutarate to glutamate by the transaminase, the reverse of the normal physiological direction, operated with different amino acids as nitrogen donor. All of the enzymes assayed were shown to be constitutive. PMID:9647819

  18. Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and Its Dipteran-Specific Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Dov, Eitan

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) is the first Bacillus thuringiensis to be found and used as an effective biological control agent against larvae of many mosquito and black fly species around the world. Its larvicidal activity resides in four major (of 134, 128, 72 and 27 kDa) and at least two minor (of 78 and 29 kDa) polypeptides encoded respectively by cry4Aa, cry4Ba, cry11Aa, cyt1Aa, cry10Aa and cyt2Ba, all mapped on the 128 kb plasmid known as pBtoxis. These six ?-endotoxins form a complex parasporal crystalline body with remarkably high, specific and different toxicities to Aedes, Culex and Anopheles larvae. Cry toxins are composed of three domains (perforating domain I and receptor binding II and III) and create cation-selective channels, whereas Cyts are composed of one domain that acts as well as a detergent-like membrane perforator. Despite the low toxicities of Cyt1Aa and Cyt2Ba alone against exposed larvae, they are highly synergistic with the Cry toxins and hence their combinations prevent emergence of resistance in the targets. The lack of significant levels of resistance in field mosquito populations treated for decades with Bti-bioinsecticide suggests that this bacterium will be an effective biocontrol agent for years to come. PMID:24686769

  19. Utilization of galactooligosaccharides by Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis isolates.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Daniel; Ruiz-Moyano, Santiago; Jimenez-Espinoza, Rogelio; Eom, Hyun-Ju; Block, David E; Mills, David A

    2013-04-01

    Prebiotics are non-digestible substrates that stimulate the growth of beneficial microbial populations in the intestine, especially Bifidobacterium species. Among them, fructo- and galacto-oligosaccharides are commonly used in the food industry, especially as a supplement for infant formulas. Mechanistic details on the enrichment of bifidobacteria by these prebiotics are important to understand the effects of these dietary interventions. In this study the consumption of galactooligosaccharides was studied for 22 isolates of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis, one of the most representative species in the infant gut microbiota. In general all isolates showed a vigorous growth on these oligosaccharides, but consumption of larger galactooligosaccharides was variable. Bifidobacterium infantis ATCC 15697 has five genes encoding ?-galactosidases, and three of them were induced during bacterial growth on commercial galactooligosaccharides. Recombinant ?-galactosidases from B. infantis ATCC 15697 displayed different preferences for ?-galactosides such as 4' and 6'-galactobiose, and four ?-galactosidases in this strain released monosaccharides from galactooligosaccharides. Finally, we determined the amounts of short chain fatty acids produced by strain ATCC 15697 after growth on different prebiotics. We observed that biomass and product yields of substrate were higher for lactose and galactooligosaccharides, but the amount of acids produced per cell was larger after growth on human milk oligosaccharides. These results provide a molecular basis for galactooligosaccharide consumption in B. infantis, and also represent evidence for physiological differences in the metabolism of prebiotics that might have a differential impact on the host. PMID:23200660

  20. Detection and Verification of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Fresh Ileocolonic Mucosal Biopsy Specimens from Individuals with and without Crohn's Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tim J. Bull; Elizabeth J. McMinn; Karim Sidi-Boumedine; Angela Skull; Damien Durkin; Penny Neild; Glenn Rhodes; Roger Pickup; John Hermon-Taylor

    2003-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is a robust and phenotypically versatile pathogen which causes chronic inflammation of the intestine in many species, including primates. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection is widespread in domestic livestock and is present in retail pasteurized cows' milk in the United Kingdom and, potentially, elsewhere. Water supplies are also at risk. The involvement of M. avium subsp.

  1. Genome of a European Fresh-Vegetable Food Safety Outbreak Strain of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Weltevreden?

    PubMed Central

    Brankatschk, Kerstin; Blom, Jochen; Goesmann, Alexander; Smits, Theo H. M.; Duffy, Brion

    2011-01-01

    The genome of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Weltevreden strain 2007-60-3289-1 was sequenced. The genome sequence of this fresh-vegetable isolate from Scandinavia will be useful for the elucidation of plant host factors in comparison to other serovars of S. enterica subsp. enterica. PMID:21296964

  2. Changes in the structure and composition of two Pinus nigra subsp. salzmannii forests over a century of different

    E-print Network

    Herrera, Carlos M.

    Changes in the structure and composition of two Pinus nigra subsp. salzmannii forests over ordenados de Pinus nigra subsp. salzmannii durante un siglo de tratamientos selvícolas diferentes Los tratamientos sel- vícolas favorecieron a Pinus nigra y no beneficiaron a otras especies. La cantidad de árboles

  3. Persistent occurrence of a single Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus clone in the pig and monkey population in Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siti Isrina; Oktavia Salasia; I Wayan; Teguh Wibawan; Fachriyan H. Pasaribu; Amir Abdulmawjood; Christoph Lämmler

    In the present study 41 mucoid growing Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus strains (37 strains isolated from healthy two from diseased pigs, two strains isolated from healthy monkeys) appeared to be phenotypically and genotypically identical to mucoid growing S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus strains isolated from a previously described outbreak among the pig and monkey population on the island of Bali, Indonesia.

  4. Short communication. Inhibition of Paenibacillus larvae subsp larvae by the essential oils of two wild plants and their emulsifying agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Fuselli; L. B. Gende; S. B. García; M. J. Eguaras; R. Fritz

    In honey bees (Apis mellifera L.), American foulbrood (AFB) is caused by the infection of the larvae and pupae with the bacterium Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae. The antibacterial effects of the essential oils of wild camomile (Tagetes minuta L.) and Andean thyme (Acantholippia seriphioides A. Gray) against different strains of P. larvae subsp. larvae were evaluated in vitro. The possible

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of Leifsonia xyli subsp. cynodontis Strain DSM46306, a Gram-Positive Bacterial Pathogen of Grasses

    PubMed Central

    Zerillo, Marcelo Marques; Van Sluys, Marie-Anne; Camargo, Luis Eduardo Aranha; Kitajima, João Paulo

    2013-01-01

    We announce the complete genome sequence of Leifsonia xyli subsp. cynodontis, a vascular pathogen of Bermuda grass. The species also comprises Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli, a sugarcane pathogen. Since these two subspecies have genome sequences available, a comparative analysis will contribute to our understanding of the differences in their biology and host specificity. PMID:24201198

  6. The effectiveness of plant essential oils on the growth of Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium sp. and Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dimitra J Daferera; Basil N Ziogas; Moschos G Polissiou

    2003-01-01

    Oregano, thyme, dictamnus, marjoram, lavender, rosemary, sage and pennyroyal essential oils were tested for their effectiveness against Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium sp. (Fusarium solani var. coeruleum), and Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis on artificial growth media. The chemical composition of the oils was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The growth of Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium sp. and Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis was

  7. Growth characteristics of Candida kefyr and two strains of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis isolated from Zimbabwean naturally fermented milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tendekayi H Gadaga; Anthony N Mutukumira; Judith A Narvhus

    2001-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts constitute part of the microflora in Zimbabwean traditional fermented cows' milk, amasi. The present study was carried out to investigate the growth characteristics of Candida kefyr 23, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar. diacetylactis C1 and L. lactis subsp. lactis Lc261, previously isolated from amasi, in ultrahigh temperature (UHT)-treated cows' milk. The strains were inoculated

  8. The genome of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida A449: insights into the evolution of a fish pathogen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael E Reith; Rama K Singh; Bruce Curtis; Jessica M Boyd; Anne Bouevitch; Jennifer Kimball; Janet Munholland; Colleen Murphy; Darren Sarty; Jason Williams; John HE Nash; Stewart C Johnson; Laura L Brown

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is a Gram-negative bacterium that is the causative agent of furunculosis, a bacterial septicaemia of salmonid fish. While other species of Aeromonas are opportunistic pathogens or are found in commensal or symbiotic relationships with animal hosts, A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida causes disease in healthy fish. The genome sequence of A. salmonicida was determined to provide

  9. Distribution of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis in Soil of a Swiss Wetland Reserve after 22 Years of Mosquito Control?†

    PubMed Central

    Guidi, Valeria; Patocchi, Nicola; Lüthy, Peter; Tonolla, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    Recurrent treatments with Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis are required to control the floodwater mosquito Aedes vexans that breeds in large numbers in the wetlands of the Bolle di Magadino Reserve in Canton Ticino, Switzerland. Interventions have been carried out since 1988. In the present study, the spatial distribution of resting B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis spores in the soil was measured. The B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis concentration was determined in soil samples collected along six transects covering different elevations within the periodically flooded zones. A total of 258 samples were processed and analyzed by quantitative PCR that targeted an identical fragment of 159 bp for the B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis cry4Aa and cry4Ba genes. B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis spores were found to persist in soils of the wetland reserve at concentrations of up to 6.8 log per gram of soil. Continuous accumulation due to regular treatments could be excluded, as the decrease in spores amounted to 95.8% (95% confidence interval, 93.9 to 97.7%). The distribution of spores was correlated to the number of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis treatments, the elevation of the sampling point, and the duration of the flooding periods. The number of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis treatments was the major factor influencing the distribution of spores in the different topographic zones (P < 0.0001). These findings indicated that B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis spores are rather immobile after their introduction into the environment. PMID:21498758

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of Phytopathogenic Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum Bacteriophage PP1

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ju-Hoon; Shin, Hakdong; Ji, Samnyu; Malhotra, Shweta; Kumar, Mukesh; Ryu, Sangryeol

    2012-01-01

    Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum is a phytopathogen causing soft rot disease on diverse plant species. To control this plant pathogen, P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum-targeting bacteriophage PP1 was isolated and its genome was completely sequenced to develop a novel biocontrol agent. Interestingly, the 44,400-bp genome sequence does not encode any gene involved in the formation of lysogen, suggesting that this phage may be very useful as a biocontrol agent because it does not make lysogen after host infection. This is the first report on the complete genome sequence of the P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum-targeting bacteriophage, and it will enhance our understanding of the interaction between phytopathogens and their targeting bacteriophages. PMID:22843859

  11. Persistence and recycling of bioinsecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis spores in contrasting environments: evidence from field monitoring and laboratory experiments.

    PubMed

    Duchet, Claire; Tetreau, Guillaume; Marie, Albane; Rey, Delphine; Besnard, Gilles; Perrin, Yvon; Paris, Margot; David, Jean-Philippe; Lagneau, Christophe; Després, Laurence

    2014-04-01

    Sprays of commercial preparations of the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis are widely used for the control of mosquito larvae. Despite an abundant literature on B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis field efficiency on mosquito control, few studies have evaluated the fate of spores in the environment after treatments. In the present article, two complementary experiments were conducted to study the effect of different parameters on B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis persistence and recycling, in field conditions and in the laboratory. First, we monitored B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis persistence in the field in two contrasting regions in France: the Rhône-Alpes region, where mosquito breeding sites are temporary ponds under forest cover with large amounts of decaying leaf matter on the ground and the Mediterranean region characterized by open breeding sites such as brackish marshes. Viable B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis spores can persist for months after a treatment, and their quantity is explained both by the vegetation type and by the number of local treatments. We found no evidence of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis recycling in the field. Then, we tested the effect of water level, substrate type, salinity and presence of mosquito larvae on the persistence/recycling of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis spores in controlled laboratory conditions (microcosms). We found no effect of change in water level or salinity on B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis persistence over time (75 days). B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis spores tended to persist longer in substrates containing organic matter compared to sand-only substrates. B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis recycling only occurred in presence of mosquito larvae but was unrelated to the presence of organic matter. PMID:24402370

  12. Genome-Wide DNA Microarray Analysis of Francisella tularensis Strains Demonstrates Extensive Genetic Conservation within the Species but Identifies Regions That Are Unique to the Highly Virulent F. tularensis subsp. tularensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martien Broekhuijsen; Par Larsson; Anders Johansson; Mona Bystrom; Ulla Eriksson; Eva Larsson; Richard G. Prior; Anders Sjostedt; Richard W. Titball; Mats Forsman; TNO Prins

    2003-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is a potent pathogen and a possible bioterrorism agent. Little is known, however, to ex- plain the molecular basis for its virulence and the distinct differences in virulence found between the four rec- ognized subspecies, F. tularensis subsp. tularensis, F. tularensis subsp. mediasiatica, F. tularensis subsp. holarc- tica, and F. tularensis subsp. novicida. We developed a DNA microarray

  13. Some physical properties of teosinte (Zea mays subsp. parviglumis) pollen.

    PubMed

    Aylor, Donald E; Baltazar, Baltazar M; Schoper, John B

    2005-09-01

    In parts of the world where teosinte and maize are grown in close proximity, there is concern about gene flow between them. Pollen is the primary vehicle for gene flow. Quantifying the biophysical properties of pollen, such as its settling speed and dehydration rate, is important for evaluating outcrossing potential. These properties were measured for teosinte (Zea mays subsp. parviglumis) pollen. Pollen was found to have an average settling speed of 0.165 m s(-1), which agrees well with theoretical values based on the size of the pollen grains. The conductance of the pollen wall for water was derived from the time rate of change of pollen grain size and gave an average conductance of 3.42x10(-4) m s(-1). Water potential, psi, of teosinte pollen was determined at various values of relative water content (dry-weight basis), theta, by using a thermocouple psychrometer and by allowing samples of pollen to come to vapour equilibrium with various saturated salt solutions. Non-linear regression analysis of the data yielded psi (MPa) = -4.13 theta(-1.23) (r2=0.77). Results for conductance and psi were incorporated into a model equation for the rate of water loss from pollen grains, which yielded results that agreed well (r2=0.96) with observations of water loss from pollen grains in air. The data reported here are important building blocks in a model of teosinte pollen movement and should be helpful in establishing the main factors influencing the degree and the direction of pollination between teosinte populations and between maize and teosinte. PMID:16014364

  14. Heat inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Wendy L; O'Riley, Kimberly J; Schroen, Christopher J; Condron, Robin J

    2005-04-01

    The effectiveness of pasteurization and the concentration of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in raw milk have been identified in quantitative risk analysis as the most critical factors influencing the potential presence of viable Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in dairy products. A quantitative assessment of the lethality of pasteurization was undertaken using an industrial pasteurizer designed for research purposes with a validated Reynolds number of 62,112 and flow rates of 3,000 liters/h. M. paratuberculosis was artificially added to raw whole milk, which was then homogenized, pasteurized, and cultured, using a sensitive technique capable of detecting one organism per 10 ml of milk. Twenty batches of milk containing 10(3) to 10(4) organisms/ml were processed with combinations of three temperatures of 72, 75, and 78 degrees C and three time intervals of 15, 20, and 25 s. Thirty 50-ml milk samples from each processed batch were cultured, and the logarithmic reduction in M. paratuberculosis organisms was determined. In 17 of the 20 runs, no viable M. paratuberculosis organisms were detected, which represented > 6-log10 reductions during pasteurization. These experiments were conducted with very heavily artificially contaminated milk to facilitate the measurement of the logarithmic reduction. In three of the 20 runs of milk, pasteurized at 72 degrees C for 15 s, 75 degrees C for 25 s, and 78 degrees C for 15 s, a few viable organisms (0.002 to 0.004 CFU/ml) were detected. Pasteurization at all temperatures and holding times was found to be very effective in killing M. paratuberculosis, resulting in a reduction of > 6 log10 in 85% of runs and > 4 log10 in 14% of runs. PMID:15812001

  15. Characterization of Free Exopolysaccharides Secreted by Mycoplasma mycoides Subsp. mycoides

    PubMed Central

    Bertin, Clothilde; Pau-Roblot, Corinne; Courtois, Josiane; Manso-Silván, Lucía; Thiaucourt, François; Tardy, Florence; Le Grand, Dominique; Poumarat, François; Gaurivaud, Patrice

    2013-01-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia is a severe respiratory disease of cattle that is caused by a bacterium of the Mycoplasma genus, namely Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm). In the absence of classical virulence determinants, the pathogenicity of Mmm is thought to rely on intrinsic metabolic functions and specific components of the outer cell surface. One of these latter, the capsular polysaccharide galactan has been notably demonstrated to play a role in Mmm persistence and dissemination. The free exopolysaccharides (EPS), also produced by Mmm and shown to circulate in the blood stream of infected cattle, have received little attention so far. Indeed, their characterization has been hindered by the presence of polysaccharide contaminants in the complex mycoplasma culture medium. In this study, we developed a method to produce large quantities of EPS by transfer of mycoplasma cells from their complex broth to a chemically defined medium and subsequent purification. NMR analyses revealed that the purified, free EPS had an identical ?(1?>6)-galactofuranosyl structure to that of capsular galactan. We then analyzed intraclonal Mmm variants that produce opaque/translucent colonies on agar. First, we demonstrated that colony opacity was related to the production of a capsule, as observed by electron microscopy. We then compared the EPS extracts and showed that the non-capsulated, translucent colony variants produced higher amounts of free EPS than the capsulated, opaque colony variants. This phenotypic variation was associated with an antigenic variation of a specific glucose phosphotransferase permease. Finally, we conducted in silico analyses of candidate polysaccharide biosynthetic pathways in order to decipher the potential link between glucose phosphotransferase permease activity and attachment/release of galactan. The co-existence of variants producing alternative forms of galactan (capsular versus free extracellular galactan) and associated with an antigenic switch constitutes a finely tuned mechanism that may be involved in virulence. PMID:23869216

  16. Peyer's Patch-Deficient Mice Demonstrate That Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Translocates across the Mucosal Barrier via both M Cells and Enterocytes but Has Inefficient Dissemination ?

    PubMed Central

    Bermudez, Luiz E.; Petrofsky, Mary; Sommer, Sandra; Barletta, Raúl G.

    2010-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, the agent of Johne's disease, infects ruminant hosts by translocation through the intestinal mucosa. A number of studies have suggested that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis interacts with M cells in the Peyer's patches of the small intestine. The invasion of the intestinal mucosa by M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis, a pathogen known to interact with intestinal cells, was compared. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was capable of invading the mucosa, but it was significantly less efficient at dissemination than M. avium subsp. hominissuis. B-cell knockout (KO) mice, which lack Peyer's patches, were used to demonstrate that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis enters the intestinal mucosa through enterocytes in the absence of M cells. In addition, the results indicated that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis had equal abilities to cross the mucosa in both Peyer's patch and non-Peyer's patch segments of normal mice. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was also shown to interact with epithelial cells by an ?5?1 integrin-independent pathway. Upon translocation, dendritic cells ingest M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, but this process does not lead to efficient dissemination of the infection. In summary, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis interacts with the intestinal mucosa by crossing both Peyer's patches and non-Peyer's patch areas but does not translocate or disseminate efficiently. PMID:20498259

  17. Molecular Identification of Mycobacterium avium subsp. silvaticum by Duplex High-Resolution Melt Analysis and Subspecies-Specific Real-Time PCR.

    PubMed

    Rónai, Zsuzsanna; Csivincsik, Ágnes; Dán, Ádám

    2015-05-01

    Accurate identification of mycobacterial species and subspecies is essential to evaluate their significance and to perform epidemiological studies. The subspecies of Mycobacterium avium have different attributes but coincide in their zoonotic potential. Our knowledge about M. avium subsp. silvaticum is limited, since its identification is uncertain. Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium and M. avium subsp. silvaticum can be discriminated from each other based only on phenotypic characteristics, as they have almost identical genome sequences. Here we describe the development of a diagnostic method which enables the molecular identification of M. avium subsp. silvaticum and discrimination from M. avium subsp. avium based on genomic differences in a duplex high-resolution melt and M. avium subsp. silvaticum-specific mismatch real-time PCR. The developed assay was tested on reference strains and 199 field isolates, which were analyzed by phenotypic methods previously. This assay not only identified all 63 M. avium subsp. silvaticum and 138 M. avium subsp. avium strains correctly but also enabled the detection of mixed M. avium subsp. avium-M. avium subsp. silvaticum cultures. This is the first time that such a large panel of strains has been analyzed, and we also report the first isolation of M. avium subsp. silvaticum from red fox, red deer, wild boar, cattle, and badger. This assay is reliable, rapid, simple, inexpensive, and robust. It eliminates the long-existing problem of ambiguous phenotypic identification and opens up the possibility for detailed and comprehensive strain studies. PMID:25740770

  18. Cyt1Aa from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis enhances mosquitocidal activity of B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HD-1 against Aedes aegypti but not Culex quinquefasciatus.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun-Woo; Pino, Brent C; Kozervanich-Chong, Switzerlyna; Hafkenscheid, Erika A; Oliverio, Ryan M; Federici, Brian A; Bideshi, Dennis K

    2013-01-01

    The Cyt1Aa protein of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis is known to synergize mosquitocidal proteins of B. thuringiensis and Bacillus sphaericus strains. Cyt1Aa is highly lipophilic, and after binding in vivo to the midgut microvillar membrane serves as a "receptor" for mosquitocidal Cry proteins, which subsequently form cation channels that kill mosquito larvae. Here we report that Cyt1Aa can serve a similar function for lepidopteran-specific Cry proteins of B. thuringiensis in certain mosquito larvae. Engineering Cyt1Aa into the HD-1 isolate of B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki enhanced toxicity against 4th instars of Aedes aegypti, but not against 4th instars of Culex quinquefasciatus. PMID:23314373

  19. Antioxidant Activity of the Essential Oils of Different Parts of Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb. subsp. excelsa and J. excelsa M. Bieb. subsp. polycarpos (K. Koch) Takhtajan (Cupressaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Emami, Sayyed Ahmad; Abedindo, Bibi Fatemeh; Hassanzadeh-Khayyat, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    The essential oils of branchlets and fruits of Juniperus excelsa subsp. excelsa and Juniperus excelsa subsp. polycarpos were examined for their antioxidant activity. The compositions of the essential oils were studied by GC and GC-MS. To evaluation the antioxidants activity of the volatile oils, pure components and positive controls at different concentrations, thin-layer chromatography (TLC) screening methods, diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, deoxyribose degradation test and modified deoxyribose degradation test were employed. The results of the present study demonstrate some antioxidant activity for the tested essential oils obtained from various parts of both plants. It indicates that the use of these essential oils, in very low concentrations, may be useful as a natural preservative. However before any final conclusion, it is suggested that the antioxidant activity of these oils should also be evaluated by using lipid solvent system methods. PMID:24250416

  20. The Ability of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis To Enter Bovine Epithelial Cells Is Influenced by Preexposure to a Hyperosmolar Environment and Intracellular Passage in Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Dilip; Danelishvili, Lia; Yamazaki, Yoshitaka; Alonso, Marta; Paustian, Michael L.; Bannantine, John P.; Meunier-Goddik, Lisbeth; Bermudez, Luiz E.

    2006-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the cause of Johne's disease in cattle and other ruminants. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection of the bovine host is not well understood; however, it is assumed that crossing the bovine intestinal mucosa is important in order for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis to establish infection. To examine the ability of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis to infect bovine epithelial cells in vitro, Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) epithelial cells were exposed to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. It was observed that bacteria can establish infection and replicate within MDBK cells. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis also has been reported to infect mammary tissue and milk, and we showed that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infects bovine mammary epithelial cells (MAC-T cell line). Using polarized MAC-T cell monolayers, it was also determined that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis crosses apical and basolateral surfaces with approximately the same degree of efficiency. Because M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis can be delivered to the naïve host by milk, it was investigated whether incubation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis with milk has an effect on invasion of MDBK cells. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis exposed to milk entered epithelial cells with greater efficiency than M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis exposed to broth medium or water (P < 0.01). Growth of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis within MAC-T cells also resulted in augmented ability to subsequently infect bovine MDBK cells (P < 0.001). Microarray analysis of intracellular M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis RNA indicates the increased transcription of genes which might be associated with an invasive phenotype. PMID:16622223

  1. Bioprocessing of some agro-industrial residues for endoglucanase production by the new subsp.; Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus strain NEAE-J

    PubMed Central

    El-Naggar, Noura El-Ahmady; Abdelwahed, Nayera A.M.; Saber, Wesam I.A.; Mohamed, Asem A.

    2014-01-01

    The use of low cost agro-industrial residues for the production of industrial enzymes is one of the ways to reduce significantly production costs. Cellulase producing actinomycetes were isolated from soil and decayed agricultural wastes. Among them, a potential culture, strain NEAE-J, was selected and identified on the basis of morphological, cultural, physiological and chemotaxonomic properties, together with 16S rDNA sequence. It is proposed that strain NEAE-J should be included in the species Streptomyces albogriseolus as a representative of a novel sub-species, Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus strain NEAE-J and sequencing product was deposited in the GenBank database under accession number JN229412. This organism was tested for its ability to produce endoglucanase and release reducing sugars from agro-industrial residues as substrates. Sugarcane bagasse was the most suitable substrate for endoglucanase production. Effects of process variables, namely incubation time, temperature, initial pH and nitrogen source on production of endoglucanase by submerged fermentation using Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus have been studied. Accordingly optimum conditions have been determined. Incubation temperature of 30 °C after 6 days, pH of 6.5, 1% sugarcane bagasse as carbon source and peptone as nitrogen source were found to be the optimum for endoglucanase production. Optimization of the process parameters resulted in about 2.6 fold increase in the endoglucanase activity. Therefore, Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus coud be potential microorganism for the intended application. PMID:25242966

  2. Bioprocessing of some agro-industrial residues for endoglucanase production by the new subsp.; Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus strain NEAE-J.

    PubMed

    El-Naggar, Noura El-Ahmady; Abdelwahed, Nayera A M; Saber, Wesam I A; Mohamed, Asem A

    2014-01-01

    The use of low cost agro-industrial residues for the production of industrial enzymes is one of the ways to reduce significantly production costs. Cellulase producing actinomycetes were isolated from soil and decayed agricultural wastes. Among them, a potential culture, strain NEAE-J, was selected and identified on the basis of morphological, cultural, physiological and chemotaxonomic properties, together with 16S rDNA sequence. It is proposed that strain NEAE-J should be included in the species Streptomyces albogriseolus as a representative of a novel sub-species, Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus strain NEAE-J and sequencing product was deposited in the GenBank database under accession number JN229412. This organism was tested for its ability to produce endoglucanase and release reducing sugars from agro-industrial residues as substrates. Sugarcane bagasse was the most suitable substrate for endoglucanase production. Effects of process variables, namely incubation time, temperature, initial pH and nitrogen source on production of endoglucanase by submerged fermentation using Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus have been studied. Accordingly optimum conditions have been determined. Incubation temperature of 30 °C after 6 days, pH of 6.5, 1% sugarcane bagasse as carbon source and peptone as nitrogen source were found to be the optimum for endoglucanase production. Optimization of the process parameters resulted in about 2.6 fold increase in the endoglucanase activity. Therefore, Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus coud be potential microorganism for the intended application. PMID:25242966

  3. Polyphasic taxonomic revision of the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex: proposal to emend the descriptions of Ralstonia solanacearum and Ralstonia syzygii and reclassify current R. syzygii strains as Ralstonia syzygii subsp. syzygii subsp. nov., R. solanacearum phylotype IV strains as Ralstonia syzygii subsp. indonesiensis subsp. nov., banana blood disease bacterium strains as Ralstonia syzygii subsp. celebesensis subsp. nov. and R. solanacearum phylotype I and III strains as Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Safni, Irda; Cleenwerck, Ilse; De Vos, Paul; Fegan, Mark; Sly, Lindsay; Kappler, Ulrike

    2014-09-01

    The Ralstonia solanacearum species complex has long been recognized as a group of phenotypically diverse strains that can be subdivided into four phylotypes. Using a polyphasic taxonomic approach on an extensive set of strains, this study provides evidence for a taxonomic and nomenclatural revision of members of this complex. Data obtained from phylogenetic analysis of 16S-23S rRNA ITS gene sequences, 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer (ITS) region sequences and partial endoglucanase (egl) gene sequences and DNA-DNA hybridizations demonstrate that the R. solanacearum species complex comprises three genospecies. One of these includes the type strain of Ralstonia solanacearum and consists of strains of R. solanacearum phylotype II only. The second genospecies includes the type strain of Ralstonia syzygii and contains only phylotype IV strains. This genospecies is subdivided into three distinct groups, namely R. syzygii, the causal agent of Sumatra disease on clove trees in Indonesia, R. solanacearum phylotype IV strains isolated from different host plants mostly from Indonesia, and strains of the blood disease bacterium (BDB), the causal agent of the banana blood disease, a bacterial wilt disease in Indonesia that affects bananas and plantains. The last genospecies is composed of R. solanacearum strains that belong to phylotypes I and III. As these genospecies are also supported by phenotypic data that allow the differentiation of the three genospecies, the following taxonomic proposals are made: emendation of the descriptions of Ralstonia solanacearum and Ralstonia syzygii and descriptions of Ralstonia syzygii subsp. nov. (type strain R 001(T)?=?LMG 10661(T)?=?DSM 7385(T)) for the current R. syzygii strains, Ralstonia syzygii subsp. indonesiensis subsp. nov. (type strain UQRS 464(T)?=?LMG 27703(T)?=?DSM 27478(T)) for the current R. solanacearum phylotype IV strains, Ralstonia syzygii subsp. celebesensis subsp. nov. (type strain UQRS 627(T)?=?LMG 27706(T)?=?DSM 27477(T)) for the BDB strains and Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum sp. nov. (type strain UQRS 461(T)?=?LMG 9673(T)?=?NCPPB 1029(T)) for the strains of R. solanacearum phylotypes I and III. PMID:24944341

  4. Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis Vatr1 and Vatr2 transcriptional regulators are required for virulence in tomato.

    PubMed

    Savidor, Alon; Chalupowicz, Laura; Teper, Doron; Gartemann, Karl-Heinz; Eichenlaub, Rudolf; Manulis-Sasson, Shulamit; Barash, Isaac; Sessa, Guido

    2014-10-01

    The plant pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is a gram-positive bacterium responsible for wilt and canker disease of tomato. Although disease development is well characterized and diagnosed, molecular mechanisms of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis virulence are poorly understood. Here, we identified and characterized two C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis transcriptional regulators, Vatr1 and Vatr2, that are involved in pathogenicity of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. Vatr1 and Vatr2 belong to TetR and MocR families of transcriptional regulators, respectively. Mutations in their corresponding genes caused attenuated virulence, with the ?vatr2 mutant showing a more dramatic effect than ?vatr1. Although both mutants grew well in vitro and reached a high titer in planta, they caused reduced wilting and canker development in infected plants compared with the wild-type bacterium. They also led to a reduced expression of the ethylene-synthesizing tomato enzyme ACC-oxidase compared with wild-type C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis and to reduced ethylene production in the plant. Transcriptomic analysis of wild-type C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis and the two mutants under infection-mimicking conditions revealed that Vatr1 and Vatr2 regulate expression of virulence factors, membrane and secreted proteins, and signal-transducing proteins. A 70% overlap between the sets of genes positively regulated by Vatr1 and Vatr2 suggests that these transcriptional regulators are on the same molecular pathway responsible for C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis virulence. PMID:24940988

  5. Development of a real-time PCR assay for identification and quantification of the fish pathogen Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis.

    PubMed

    Soto, Esteban; Bowles, Kimberly; Fernandez, Denise; Hawke, John P

    2010-04-01

    Members of the genus Francisella are small Gram-negative facultative intracellular bacteria that cause francisellosis in a wide variety of fish species worldwide. F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis has been recently described as a warm-water pathogen of tilapia Oreochromis spp. In this study, a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) TaqMan probe assay was developed to rapidly and accurately detect and quantify F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis from fish tissue. The target region of the assay was the F. tularensis iglC gene homologue previously found in F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis. Probe specificity was confirmed by the lack of signal and cross-reactivity with 12 common fish pathogens, 2 subspecies of F. tularensis, F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis, and tilapia tissue. The range of linearity was determined to be 50 fg to 1.4 mg, and the lower limit of detection was 50 fg of DNA (equivalent to approximately 25 genome equivalents) per reaction. A similar sensitivity was observed with DNA extracted from a mixture of F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis and fish tissue. The assay was also able to detect and quantify F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis from the spleens of experimentally infected tilapia. No signal was observed in the control groups. In conclusion, we have developed a highly sensitive and specific assay that can be used for the specific identification and quantification of F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis. PMID:20481087

  6. Broad Conservation of Milk Utilization Genes in Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis as Revealed by Comparative Genomic Hybridization ? †

    PubMed Central

    LoCascio, Riccardo G.; Desai, Prerak; Sela, David A.; Weimer, Bart; Mills, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are the third-largest solid component of milk. Their structural complexity renders them nondigestible to the host but liable to hydrolytic enzymes of the infant colonic microbiota. Bifidobacteria and, frequently, Bifidobacterium longum strains predominate the colonic microbiota of exclusively breast-fed infants. Among the three recognized subspecies of B. longum, B. longum subsp. infantis achieves high levels of cell growth on HMOs and is associated with early colonization of the infant gut. The B. longum subsp. infantis ATCC 15697 genome features five distinct gene clusters with the predicted capacity to bind, cleave, and import milk oligosaccharides. Comparative genomic hybridizations (CGHs) were used to associate genotypic biomarkers among 15 B. longum strains exhibiting various HMO utilization phenotypes and host associations. Multilocus sequence typing provided taxonomic subspecies designations and grouped the strains between B. longum subsp. infantis and B. longum subsp. longum. CGH analysis determined that HMO utilization gene regions are exclusively conserved across all B. longum subsp. infantis strains capable of growth on HMOs and have diverged in B. longum subsp. longum strains that cannot grow on HMOs. These regions contain fucosidases, sialidases, glycosyl hydrolases, ABC transporters, and family 1 solute binding proteins and are likely needed for efficient metabolism of HMOs. Urea metabolism genes and their activity were exclusively conserved in B. longum subsp. infantis. These results imply that the B. longum has at least two distinct subspecies: B. longum subsp. infantis, specialized to utilize milk carbon, and B. longum subsp. longum, specialized for plant-derived carbon metabolism. PMID:20802066

  7. Divergent Immune Responses to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Infection Correlate with Kinome Responses at the Site of Intestinal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Määttänen, Pekka; Trost, Brett; Scruten, Erin; Potter, Andrew; Kusalik, Anthony; Griebel, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the causative agent of Johne's disease (JD) in cattle. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infects the gastrointestinal tract of calves, localizing and persisting primarily in the distal ileum. A high percentage of cattle exposed to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis do not develop JD, but the mechanisms by which they resist infection are not understood. Here, we merge an established in vivo bovine intestinal segment model for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection with bovine-specific peptide kinome arrays as a first step to understanding how infection influences host kinomic responses at the site of infection. Application of peptide arrays to in vivo tissue samples represents a critical and ambitious step in using this technology to understand host-pathogen interactions. Kinome analysis was performed on intestinal samples from 4 ileal segments subdivided into 10 separate compartments (6 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected compartments and 4 intra-animal controls) using bovine-specific peptide arrays. Kinome data sets clustered into two groups, suggesting unique binary responses to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Similarly, two M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific immune responses, characterized by different antibody, T cell proliferation, and gamma interferon (IFN-?) responses, were also observed. Interestingly, the kinomic groupings segregated with the immune response groupings. Pathway and gene ontology analyses revealed that differences in innate immune and interleukin signaling and particular differences in the Wnt/?-catenin pathway distinguished the kinomic groupings. Collectively, kinome analysis of tissue samples offers insight into the complex cellular responses induced by M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in the ileum and provides a novel method to understand mechanisms that alter the balance between cell-mediated and antibody responses to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection. PMID:23716614

  8. Progress towards a commerical PCS-based seed assay for Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To develop a commercial-scale PCR-based assay for Acidovorax. avenae subsp. citrulli in watermelon seed, parameters for immunomagnetic separation (IMS) were optimized. Optimal conditions for target cell recovery included 40 'g of polyclonal anti-AAC antibody per 108 immunomagnetic beads (IMBs) for ...

  9. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS SUBSP. ISRAELENSIS AND FATHEAD MINNOWS, PIMEPHALES PROMELAS RAFINESQUE, UNDER LABORATORY CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interactions between Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, were studied in laboratory exposures to two commercial formulations, Vectobac-G and Mosquito Attack. ortality among fatheads exposed to 2.0 x 10 6 to 6.5 x 10 6 CFU/ml with bo...

  10. NEW METHOD OF SEROLOGICAL TESTING FOR MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUBSP. PARATUBERCULOSIS (JOHNE'S DISEASE) BY FLOW CYTOMETRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Johne’s disease (JD) or paratuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), is one of the most widespread and economically important diseases of livestock and wild ruminants worldwide. MAP has also been suspected as an etiologic agent of Crohn’s disease in humans. Attem...

  11. Immunogenicity of Proteome-Determined Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-Specific Proteins in Sheep with Paratuberculosis?

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Valerie; Bannantine, John P.; Denham, Susan; Smith, Stuart; Garcia-Sanchez, Alfredo; Sales, Jill; Paustian, Michael L.; Mclean, Kevin; Stevenson, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis causes paratuberculosis, a chronic granulomatous enteritis. Detecting animals with paratuberculosis infections is difficult because the currently available tools have low sensitivity and lack specificity; these tools are prone to generating spurious positive test results caused by exposure to environmental M. avium complex organisms. To generate candidate antigens for incorporation into a specific test for paratuberculosis, subspecies-specific proteins were determined by proteomic comparison of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. avium subsp. avium. Analysis was aimed at revealing proteins only expressed (or predominant) in the protein profile of M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis resolved approximately 1,000 protein spots from each subspecies. Proteome analysis identified protein spots whose expression profile appeared markedly increased in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, and 32 were identified by analysis of their tryptic peptide profile by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight analysis. Thirty of these proteins were cloned, and their recombinant proteins were expressed. Ovine paratuberculosis sera were used to assess their immunoreactivity by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Western blotting, and dot blot analysis. Seventeen proteins were detected in at least one of the immunoassays, and eleven proteins were detected by ELISA with an optical density in excess of the cutoff of 0.1 in four of six sera tested. The immunoreactivity of these proteins indicates their potential as unique diagnostic antigens for the development of a specific serological detection of paratuberculosis. PMID:18845834

  12. Exploring the strain-specific attachment of Leuconostoc gelidum subsp. gasicomitatum on food contact surfaces.

    PubMed

    Pothakos, Vasileios; Aulia, Yosi Ayu; Van der Linden, Inge; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Devlieghere, Frank

    2015-04-16

    The psychrotrophic lactic acid bacterium (LAB) Leuconostoc gelidum subsp. gasicomitatum has emerged as one of the most prevalent specific spoilage organisms (SSOs) of packaged, cold-stored food products in Northern Europe. The whole genome sequencing of the type strain L. gelidum subsp. gasicomitatum LMG 18811(T) revealed genes encoding for proteins related to adhesion. In the present study the attachment of six food and environmental isolates was monitored on stainless steel (SS) and glass surfaces incubated (7 °C for 5-9 days) in two food simulating substrates (i.e. sweet bell pepper juice and boiled eggs in brine). The selection encompassed unique genotypes, isolated from different food products or sampling sites as well as slime-forming biotypes. The evaluation of the attached cells was performed with the bead vortexing method and a viability staining assay coupled with epifluorescence microscopy. On SS surfaces the slime-formers showed the lowest attachment (3.3-4.5 logCFU/cm(2)), while strain L. gelidum subsp. gasicomitatum ab2, which was isolated from an acetic acid bath in a vegetable salad company, reached significantly higher populations of attached cells exceeding 7 logCFU/cm(2). Strain ab2 formed dense cell aggregations on SS after 9 days of incubation in sweet bell pepper juice. The attachment ability of L. gelidum subsp. gasicomitatum on surfaces documented in the present study extends our knowledge and understanding of the spoilage potential and intra-subspecies diversity of this microbe. PMID:25625910

  13. Comparison of nine PCR primer sets designed to detect Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii in maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, the causal agent of Stewart's bacterial wilt of maize, is a major quarantine pest in maize seed. Verifying freedom from P. stewartii remains a significant hurdle in exporting corn seed from the U.S. Several PCR primer sets have been developed and suggested as bein...

  14. Genome sequence of the invasive Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype enteritidis strain LA5.

    PubMed

    Grépinet, Olivier; Rossignol, Aurore; Loux, Valentin; Chiapello, Hélène; Gendrault, Annie; Gibrat, Jean-François; Velge, Philippe; Virlogeux-Payant, Isabelle

    2012-05-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Enteritidis is one of the major causes of gastroenteritis in humans due to consumption of poultry derivatives. Here we report the whole-genome sequence and annotation, including the virulence plasmid, of S. Enteritidis LA5, which is a chicken isolate used by numerous laboratories in virulence studies. PMID:22493198

  15. Expression in Escherichia coli of the native cyt1Aa from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis.

    PubMed

    Sazhenskiy, Vladislav; Zaritsky, Arieh; Itsko, Mark

    2010-05-01

    The gene cyt1Aa is one of the genes in the complex determining the mosquito larvicidity of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis. Previous cloning in Escherichia coli resulted in a 48-bp addition upstream, encoding a chimera. Here, cyt1Aa was recloned without the artifact, and its toxicity against Aedes aegypti larvae and host E. coli cells was retested. PMID:20348307

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of the Putrescine-Producing Strain Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis 1AA59.

    PubMed

    Ladero, Victor; Del Rio, Beatriz; Linares, Daniel M; Fernandez, María; Mayo, Baltasar; Martín, M Cruz; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2015-01-01

    We report here the 2,576,542-bp genome annotated draft assembly sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis 1AA59. This strain-isolated from a traditional cheese-produces putrescine, one of the most frequently biogenic amines found in dairy products. PMID:26089428

  17. Draft genome sequence of Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. faecalis NCIB 8687 (CCUG 2071).

    PubMed

    Phung, Le T; Trimble, William L; Meyer, Folker; Gilbert, Jack A; Silver, Simon

    2012-09-01

    Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. faecalis NCIB 8687, the betaproteobacterium from which arsenite oxidase had its structure solved and the first "arsenate gene island" identified, provided a draft genome of 3.9 Mb in 186 contigs (with the largest 15 comprising 90% of the total) for this opportunistic pathogen species. PMID:22933773

  18. Analysis of the Immune Response to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Experimentally Infected Calves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hye Cheong Koo; Yong Ho Park; Mary Jo Hamilton; George M. Barrington; Christopher J. Davies; Jong Bae Kim; John L. Dahl; W. Ray Waters; William C. Davis

    2004-01-01

    Johne's disease of cattle is widespread and causes significant economic loss to producers. Control has been hindered by limited understanding of the immune response to the causative agent, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, and lack of an effective vaccine and sensitive specific diagnostic assays. The present study was conducted to gain insight into factors affecting the immune response to M. avium

  19. Unraveling the Host Response to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: One Thread at a Time

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study of host immune responses to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is complicated by a number of factors, including the protracted nature of the disease and the stealthy nature of the pathogen. Improved tools for the measurement of immunologic responses in ruminant species, par...

  20. Environmental contamination with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in endemically infected dairy herds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental contamination with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is thought to be the primary source of infection for dairy cattle. The exact link between fecal shedding of MAP by individual cows and environmental contamination levels at the herd level was explored with a cross-se...

  1. Pathogenesis of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Neonatal Calves after Oral or Intraperitoneal Experimental Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the infection process to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is tantamount to the development of effective vaccines and therapeutics for the control of this disease in the field. The current study compared the effectiveness of oral and intraperitoneal methods of experimental in...

  2. Lymphoproliferative and gamma interferon responses to stress-regulated Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis recombinant proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Johne’s disease in ruminants is a chronic infection of the intestines caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Economic losses associated with Johne’s disease arise due to premature culling, reduced production of milk and wool and mortalities. The disease is characterised by a long inc...

  3. Induction of B Cell Responses Upon Experimental Infection of Neonatal Calves with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal models are useful for studying host responses to infection and aid in the development of diagnostic tools and vaccines. The current study was designed to compare the effects of different methods of experimental infection: Oral (Mycobacterium avium subsp. parauberculosis (MAP) strain K-10; Or...

  4. Predisposition of citrus foliage to infection with Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker (caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xcc) is a serious disease of susceptible citrus in Florida and other citrus-growing areas of the world. The effect of leaf preconditioning as a route for entry of the bacteria is poorly characterized. A series of experiments were designed to i...

  5. Intraspecific variability of the essential oil of Calamintha nepeta subsp. nepeta from Southern Italy (Apulia).

    PubMed

    Negro, C; Notarnicola, S; De Bellis, L; Miceli, A

    2013-03-01

    The essential oil of 46 spontaneous plants of Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi subsp. nepeta growing wild in Sud, Italy (Salento, Apulia), were investigated by GC/MS. Fifty-seven components were identified in the oil representing over the 98% of the total oil composition. Four chemotypes were identified: piperitone oxide, piperitenone oxide, piperitone-menthone and pulegone. PMID:22646908

  6. Intraspecific chemical variability of the leaf essential oil of Juniperus phoenicea subsp. turbinata from Corsica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Serge Rezzi; Carlos Cavaleiro; Ange Bighelli; Ligia Salgueiro; António Proença da Cunha; Joseph Casanova

    2001-01-01

    The composition of 50 samples of essential oil of individual plants of Juniperus phoenicea subsp. turbinata from Corsica was investigated by GC, GC–MS and 13C NMR. ?-Pinene, ?-phellandrene, ?-terpinyl acetate, ?-3-carene, myrcene and ?-phellandrene were found to be the main constituents. The results were submitted to cluster analysis and discriminant analysis which allowed two groups of essential oils to be

  7. Antispasmodic effect of Achillea nobilis L. subsp. sipylea (O. Schwarz) Bässler on the rat isolated duodenum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Canan Karamenderes; Sebnem Apaydin

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the antispasmodic effect of the total extract of Achillea nobilis L. subsp. sipylea (Schwarz) Bässler (Asteraceae) on rat duodenum. In the first part of experiments, cumulative dose–response curves for acetylcholine (Ach) were obtained and then dose–response curves are repeated after addition of atropine, papaverine and different doses of the extract. In

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of the Putrescine-Producing Strain Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis 1AA59

    PubMed Central

    Ladero, Victor; del Rio, Beatriz; Linares, Daniel M.; Fernandez, María; Mayo, Baltasar; Martín, M. Cruz

    2015-01-01

    We report here the 2,576,542-bp genome annotated draft assembly sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis 1AA59. This strain—isolated from a traditional cheese—produces putrescine, one of the most frequently biogenic amines found in dairy products. PMID:26089428

  9. Antigenic Profiles of Recombinant Proteins from Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in Sheep with Johne's Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods to improve the ELISA test to detect Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis have been explored over several years. Previously, selected recombinant proteins of M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis were found to be immunogenic in cattle with Johne’s disease. In the present study, antibo...

  10. New tricks from an old cow: infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae.

    PubMed

    Jordal, Stina; Glambek, Marte; Oppegaard, Oddvar; Kittang, Bård Reiakvam

    2015-02-01

    We present a case of infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae, a major cause of bovine mastitis and previously thought to be an animal-restricted pathogen. The patient reported no direct contact with animals, and the clinical course was severe and complicated. PMID:25472489

  11. Exopolysaccharides in the pathogenic interaction of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis with tomato plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Bermpohl; Jens Dreier; Rainer Bahro; Rudolf Eichenlaub

    1996-01-01

    The extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) of seven strains of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, a pathogen of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) was isolated and the carbohydrate composition was determined. Based on the EPS analyses and the interaction with tomato plants the strains could be placed into two groups. Strains of Group I efficiently colonize tomato plants and produce an EPS with an

  12. Colonization and movement of GFP-labeled Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis during tomato infection.

    PubMed

    Chalupowicz, L; Zellermann, E-M; Fluegel, M; Dror, O; Eichenlaub, R; Gartemann, K-H; Savidor, A; Sessa, G; Iraki, N; Barash, I; Manulis-Sasson, S

    2012-01-01

    The vascular pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is responsible for bacterial wilt and canker of tomato. Pathogenicity of this bacterium is dependent on plasmid-borne virulence factors and serine proteases located on the chromosomal chp/tomA pathogenicity island (PAI). In this study, colonization patterns and movement of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis during tomato infection was examined using a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled strain. A plasmid expressing GFP in C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis was constructed and found to be stable in planta for at least 1 month. Confocal laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM) of inoculated stems showed that the pathogen extensively colonizes the lumen of xylem vessels and preferentially attaches to spiral secondary wall thickening of the protoxylem. Acropetal movement of the wild-type strain C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis NCPPB382 (Cmm382) in tomato resulted in an extensive systemic colonization of the whole plant reaching the apical region after 15 days, whereas Cmm100 (lacking the plasmids pCM1 and pCM2) or Cmm27 (lacking the chp/tomA PAI) remained confined to the area surrounding of the inoculation site. Cmm382 formed biofilm-like structures composed of large bacterial aggregates on the interior of xylem walls as observed by CLSM and scanning electron microscopy. These findings suggest that virulence factors located on the chp/tomA PAI or the plasmids are required for effective movement of the pathogen in tomato and for the formation of cellular aggregates. PMID:21879791

  13. Characterizing the Genetic Diversity of the Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis Population in New York.

    PubMed

    Tancos, Matthew A; Lange, Holly W; Smart, Christine D

    2015-02-01

    New York Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis isolates, collected from disparate bacterial canker of tomato outbreaks over the past 11 years, were characterized with a multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) scheme that differentiated the 51 isolates into 21 haplotypes with a discriminatory power of 0.944. The MLSA scheme consisted of five housekeeping genes (kdpA, sdhA, dnaA, ligA, and gyrB) and three putative pathogenicity genes (celA, tomA, and nagA). Repetitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR), with the BOX-A1R primer, confirmed the high diversity of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis isolates in New York by demonstrating that all six PCR patterns (A, B, 13C, 65C, 81C, and D) were present, with PCR patterns C and A being the most common. The MLSA scheme provided higher resolving power than the current repetitive-PCR approach. The plasmid profiles of New York isolates were diverse and differed from reference strain NCPPB382. PCR analysis indicated that the presence of putative pathogenicity genes varied between isolates and highlighted the ephemeral nature of pathogenicity genes in field populations of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. Analysis of molecular variance between Serbian and New York C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis isolates demonstrated that the two populations were not significantly different, with 98% genetic variation within each population and only 2% genetic variation between populations. PMID:25208240

  14. Detection of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in tomato seeds using immunomagnetic separation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. de León; F. Siverio; A. Rodríguez

    2006-01-01

    The use of pathogen-free plant material is the main strategy for controlling bacterial canker of tomato caused by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. However, detection and isolation of this pathogen from seeds before field or greenhouse cultivation is difficult when the bacterium is at low concentration and associated microbiota are present. Immunomagnetic separation (IMS), based on the use of immunomagnetic beads

  15. Genome Sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris Mast36, a Strain Isolated from Bovine Mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Gazzola, Simona; Fontana, Cecilia; Bassi, Daniela; Cocconcelli, Pier-Sandro; von Wright, Atte

    2015-01-01

    The genome sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris Mast36, isolated from bovine mastitis, is reported here. This strain was shown to be able to grow in milk and still possess genes of vegetable origin. The genome also contains a cluster of genes associated with pathogenicity. PMID:25999570

  16. Genome Sequence of the Clinical Isolate Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus Strain UAMS-1

    PubMed Central

    Sassi, Mohamed; Sharma, Deepak; Felden, Brice; Augagneur, Yoann

    2015-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus strain UAMS-1. UAMS-1 is a virulent oxacillin-susceptible clinical isolate. Its genome is composed of 2,763,963 bp and will be useful for further gene expression analysis using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) technology. PMID:25676774

  17. Genome Sequence of the Probiotic Strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis CNCM I-2494

    PubMed Central

    Chervaux, Christian; Grimaldi, Christine; Bolotin, Alexander; Quinquis, Benoit; Legrain-Raspaud, Sophie; van Hylckama Vlieg, Johan E. T.; Denariaz, Gerard; Smokvina, Tamara

    2011-01-01

    Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis CNCM I-2494 is part of a commercialized fermented dairy product with documented health benefits revealed by multiple randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials. Here we report the complete genome sequence of this strain, which has a circular genome of 1,943,113 bp with 1,660 open reading frames and 4 ribosomal operons. PMID:21914878

  18. Identification of a tomatinase in the tomato-pathogenic actinomycete Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis NCPPB382.

    PubMed

    Kaup, Olaf; Gräfen, Ines; Zellermann, Eva-Maria; Eichenlaub, Rudolf; Gartemann, Karl-Heinz

    2005-10-01

    The insertion site of a transposon mutant of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis NCPPB382 was cloned and found to be located in the gene tomA encoding a member of the glycosyl hydrolase family 10. The intact gene was obtained from a cosmid library of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. The deduced protein TomA (543 amino acids, 58 kDa) contains a predicted signal peptide and two domains, the N-terminal catalytic domain and a C-terminal fibronectin III-like domain. The closest well-characterized relatives of TomA were tomatinases from fungi involved in the detoxification of the tomato saponin alpha-tomatine which acts as a growth inhibitor. Growth inhibition of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis by alpha-tomatine was stronger in the tomA mutants than in the wild type. Tomatinase activity assayed by deglycosylation of alpha-tomatine to tomatidine was demonstrated in concentrated culture supernatants of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. No activity was found with the tomA mutants. However, neither the transposon mutant nor a second mutant constructed by gene disruption was affected in virulence on the tomato cv. Moneymaker. PMID:16255248

  19. Surface Proteome of “Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis” during the Early Stages of Macrophage Infection

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Michael; Tzeng, Shin-Cheng; Maier, Claudia; Zhang, Li

    2012-01-01

    “Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis” is a robust and pervasive environmental bacterium that can cause opportunistic infections in humans. The bacterium overcomes the host immune response and is capable of surviving and replicating within host macrophages. Little is known about the bacterial mechanisms that facilitate these processes, but it can be expected that surface-exposed proteins play an important role. In this study, the selective biotinylation of surface-exposed proteins, streptavidin affinity purification, and shotgun mass spectrometry were used to characterize the surface-exposed proteome of M. avium subsp. hominissuis. This analysis detected more than 100 proteins exposed at the bacterial surface of M. avium subsp. hominissuis. Comparisons of surface-exposed proteins between conditions simulating early infection identified several groups of proteins whose presence on the bacterial surface was either constitutive or appeared to be unique to specific culture conditions. This proteomic profile facilitates an improved understanding of M. avium subsp. hominissuis and how it establishes infection. Additionally, surface-exposed proteins are excellent targets for the host adaptive immune system, and their identification can inform the development of novel treatments, diagnostic tools, and vaccines for mycobacterial disease. PMID:22392927

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus carnosus subsp. utilis LTH 7013, Isolated from South Tyrolean Ham.

    PubMed

    Müller, Anne; Huptas, Christopher; Wenning, Mareike; Schmidt, Herbert; Weiss, Agnes

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus carnosus is used as a starter culture in meat fermentation, where it contributes to color formation and produces aromatic compounds. Here, we report the first draft genome sequence of an S. carnosus subsp. utilis strain, LTH 7013, isolated from South Tyrolean ham, with potential application as a starter culture. PMID:25977432

  1. Conditioned food aversion for control of poisoning by Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conditioned food aversion is a technique that can be used to train livestock to avoid ingestion of poisonous plants. This study tested the efficacy and durability of conditioned food aversion to eliminate goat’s consumption of Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa. We used 14 young Moxotó goats, which wer...

  2. Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri associated with goat respiratory disease and high flock mortality

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Laura; St-Jacques, Marcel; Ontiveros, Lourdes; Acosta, Jorge; Handel, Katherine

    2006-01-01

    Abstract A high mortality outbreak of respiratory mycoplasmosis occurred in goats in Mexico. The clinicopathologic presentation resembled contagious caprine pleuropneumonia caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae. By using a battery of polymerase chain reaction assays, the mycoplasma associated with this outbreak was identified as Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri. PMID:16642877

  3. Genetic analysis and antimicrobial susceptibility of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (sun. F. asiatica) isolates from fish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (syn. F. asiatica) (Fno) is an emergent fish pathogen that causes acute to chronic disease in a wide variety of freshwater, brackish and marine fish. Due to the emergent nature of this bacterium, established protocols to measure antimicrobial susceptibility ...

  4. Experimental Infection of White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) is the causative agent of paratuberculosis or Johne’s disease, a chronic enteric disease of domestic ruminants as well as some non-domestic ruminants. Paratuberculosis is characterized by a protracted subclinical phase followed by clinical signs such...

  5. The germination characteristics of a population of Zannichellia palustris subsp. pedicellata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tiziana Lombardi; Stefano Bedini; Antonino Onnis

    1996-01-01

    In this study the germination characteristics of Zannichellia palustris L. subsp. pedicellata (Wahlemb. et Rosen) Hegi seeds collected from a population along the margin of the Orbetello Lagoon (Tuscany, Italy) was examined. The effect of variations in duration of seed after-ripening and environmental parameters such as light, temperature and culture medium salinity on germination was assessed. In addition, germination ability

  6. Achromobacter xylosoxidans subsp. xylosoxidans prosthetic aortic valve infective endocarditis and aortic root abscesses.

    PubMed

    van Hal, S; Stark, D; Marriott, D; Harkness, J

    2008-04-01

    We report a case of prosthetic valve infective endocarditis and aortic root abscesses caused by Achromobacter xylosoxidans subsp. xylosoxidans. The patient was an intravenous drug user and had injected amphetamines using 'duck pond water' as a diluent. After surgical intervention and 6 weeks of intravenous meropenem therapy, the patient made an uneventful recovery. PMID:18349376

  7. Development and Application of a Multilocus Sequence Typing Scheme for Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus

    PubMed Central

    Dumke, J.; Hinse, D.; Vollmer, T.; Knabbe, C.

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus (formerly known as S. bovis biotype I) is a commensal of the gastrointestinal tract in animals and in up to 15% of healthy humans. Furthermore, it is a facultative pathogen that can cause infectious endocarditis, mastitis, and septicemia. The number of infections is increasing, but the transmission routes and zoonotic potential remain unknown. To assess the zoonotic potential and characterize the epidemiological structure of S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus, we established a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme. We amplified and sequenced internal fragments of seven housekeeping genes. The resulting sequences were analyzed with BioNumerics software 6.6 by using the unweighted-pair group method using average linkages algorithm. A total of 101 S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus strains isolated from animals, humans, and environmental samples were analyzed and divided into 50 sequence types. Our first results highlight the importance of this MLST scheme for investigating the epidemiology, transmission patterns, and infection chains of S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus. PMID:24789199

  8. Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum can cause potato blackleg in temperate climates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eisse G. de Haan; Toos C. E. M. Dekker-Nooren; Gé W. van den Bovenkamp; Arjen G. C. L. Speksnijder; Patricia S. van der Zouwen; Jan M. van der Wolf

    2008-01-01

    It is well established that the pectinolytic bacteria Pectobacterium atrosepticum (Pca) and Dickeya spp. are causal organisms of blackleg in potato. In temperate climates, the role of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc) in potato blackleg, however, is unclear. In different western and central European countries plants are frequently\\u000a found with blackleg from which only Pcc can be isolated, but not

  9. Poa trivialis subsp. sylvicola - neu für Österreich und weitere Funde bemerkenswerter Blütenpflanzen in Kärnten

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. MELZER

    New for the flora of Carinthia are Arabis procurrens, escaped from a ce- metery, Crepis rhoeadifolia, Linaria caesia, both on railway-stations, as well as Poa trivialis subsp. sylvicola, which could possibly be origin the invirons of Arnoldstein and is new for Austria. Arum alpinum can be found there, too, despite of a remark negating this location; the first proven hint

  10. Molecular markers to determine ecological fate of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacillus thuringiensis (“Bt”) is a ubiquitous soil bacterium with entomopathogenic properties. One strain, Bt subsp. kurstaki (“Btk”), is highly toxic to lepidopteran larvae and used in many commercial products for biological pest control. We designed a set of DNA markers that successfully identifi...

  11. An improved assay for detection of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli in watermelon and melon seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac), the causal agent of a watermelon seedling blight and fruit blotch (WFB), has emerged as a serious seedborne pathogen of watermelon, melons, pumpkin, and citron. Although attempts have been made to develop a simple routine laboratory seed assay to detect the...

  12. Evaluation of several seed treatments for eradication of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli from watermelon seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac), the causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), is a serious seedborne pathogen. To determine the effectiveness of several seed treatments for eradication of Aac from seed, healthy triploid watermelon seedlots were spiked with n...

  13. Multilocus sequence typing reveals two evolutionary lineages of the watermelon pathogen, Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac), the causal agent of bacterial blight and fruit blotch of watermelon and other cucurbits, has caused great damage to the watermelon and melon industry in China and the USA. Understanding the origin of this emerging disease is important for controlling outbrea...

  14. Influence of the carbon source on nisin production in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis batch fermentations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LUC DE VUYST; ERICK J. VANDAMME

    1992-01-01

    Nisin production by Lactucmcus lrrctis subsp. lactis NIZO 22186 was studied in batch fermentation using a complex medium. Nisin production showed primary metabolite kinetics: nisin biosynthesis took place during the active growth phase and completely stopped when cells entered the stationary phase. A stringent correlation could be observed between the expression of the prenisin gene (nisA) and the synthesis of

  15. Genome Sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis NCDO 2118, a GABA-Producing Strain

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Letícia C.; Saraiva, Tessália D. L.; Soares, Siomar C.; Ramos, Rommel T. J.; Sá, Pablo H. C. G.; Carneiro, Adriana R.; Miranda, Fábio; Freire, Matheus; Renan, Wendel; Júnior, Alberto F. O.; Santos, Anderson R.; Pinto, Anne C.; Souza, Bianca M.; Castro, Camila P.; Diniz, Carlos A. A.; Rocha, Clarissa S.; Mariano, Diego C. B.; de Aguiar, Edgar L.; Folador, Edson L.; Barbosa, Eudes G. V.; Aburjaile, Flavia F.; Gonçalves, Lucas A.; Guimarães, Luís C.; Azevedo, Marcela; Agresti, Pamela C. M.; Silva, Renata F.; Tiwari, Sandeep; Almeida, Sintia S.; Hassan, Syed S.; Pereira, Vanessa B.; Abreu, Vinicius A. C.; Pereira, Ulisses P.; Dorella, Fernanda A.; Carvalho, Alex F.; Pereira, Felipe L.; Leal, Carlos A. G.; Figueiredo, Henrique C. P.; Silva, Artur; Miyoshi, Anderson

    2014-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis NCDO 2118 is a nondairy lactic acid bacterium, a xylose fermenter, and a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) producer isolated from frozen peas. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of L. lactis NCDO 2118, a strain with probiotic potential activity. PMID:25278529

  16. Osteopontin Expression in Periparturient Dairy Cows Naturally Infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Johne’s disease (JD), caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), is estimated to infect more than 22% of US dairy herds. Periods of immunosuppression, typically seen at parturition, may contribute to the transition from the subclinical, or asymptomatic, to the clinical stage of inf...

  17. NOVEL DETECTION METHOD FOR MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUBSP. PARATUBERCULOSIS USING SURFACE-ENHANCED RAMAN SCATTERING BASED IMMUNOASSAYS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johne's disease in cattle, imparts a loss of over $200 million to the U.S. dairy industry each year. One of the major obstacles in controlling the spread of this highly prevalent disease is the facile detection of the bacteri...

  18. Insertion of Transposon Tn917 Derivatives into the Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis Chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Israelsen, Hans; Hansen, Egon Bech

    1993-01-01

    Two transposition vectors, pTV32 and pLTV1, containing transposon Tn917 derivatives TV32 and LTV1, respectively, were introduced into Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis MG1614. It was found that pTV32 and pLTV1 replicate and that TV32 and LTV1 transpose in this strain. A protocol for production of a collection of Tn917 insertions in L. lactis subsp. lactis was developed. The physical locations of TV32 on the chromosomal SmaI fragments of 62 independent transpositions were established by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. These transpositions could be divided into at least 38 different groups that exhibited no Tn917-dominating hot spots on the L. lactis subsp. lactis chromosome. A total of 10 of the 62 transpositions resulted in strains that express ?-galactosidase. This indicates that there was fusion of the promoterless lacZ of the Tn917 derivatives to a chromosomal promoter. Thus, the Tn917-derived transposons should be powerful genetic tools for studying L. lactis subsp. lactis. Images PMID:16348845

  19. Essential oil polymorphism of Thymus praecox subsp. arcticus on the British Isles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Schmidt; Christina Bischof-Deichnik; Elisabeth Stahl-Biskup

    2004-01-01

    The essential oils of 732 individual plants of Thymuspraecox Opiz subsp. arcticus (E. Durand) Jalas (syn. T. drucei Ronn.) collected in Scotland, Ireland, and in the south of England have been analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry (GC–MS) in order to elucidate the chemical character of this subspecies on the British Isles. In total, 69 components were identified,

  20. DETECTION OF BOVINE MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUBSP. PARATUBERCULOSIS IN CLINICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES FROM AN INFECTED ANIMAL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) causes Johne’s disease, a chronic, enteric infection that is passed from adults to calves via the fecal-oral route. Eradication of M. paratuberculosis from infected farms has been difficult and is likely due to long-ter...

  1. Comparative evaluation of PCR assays for the robust molecular detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Ikonomopoulos; Maria Gazouli; Ivo Pavlik; Milan Bartos; Panayotis Zacharatos; Eftixia Xylouri; Efstathios Papalambros; Vassilis Gorgoulis

    2004-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) can cause a very serious, often-fatal disease, namely paratuberculosis, in several animal species, especially ruminants. Recently, it has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of Infectious Bowel Disease of man. The aim of this study was to develop a molecular method for the routine detection and identification of MAP, from tissue samples of animal origin.

  2. PCR-Based Identification of Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis, the Agent of Rhinoscleroma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cindy Fevre; Virginie Passet; Alexis Deletoile; Valérie Barbe; Lionel Frangeul; Ana S. Almeida; Philippe Sansonetti; Régis Tournebize; Sylvain Brisse

    2011-01-01

    Rhinoscleroma is a chronic granulomatous infection of the upper airways caused by the bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis. The disease is endemic in tropical and subtropical areas, but its diagnosis remains difficult. As a consequence, and despite available antibiotherapy, some patients evolve advanced stages that can lead to disfiguration, severe respiratory impairment and death by anoxia. Because identification of the

  3. Inhibition of protein glycation by essential oils of branchlets and fruits of Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica.

    PubMed

    Asgary, S; Naderi, G A; Shams Ardekani, M R; Sahebkar, A; Airin, A; Aslani, S; Kasher, T; Emami, S A

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress and protein glycation play pivotal roles in the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus and its vascular complications. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-glycation properties of essential oils obtained from different parts of Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica. The branchlets of male tree (BMT) and branchlets of female (BFT) tree, and fruits of J. communis subsp. hemisphaerica were extracted using steam distillation method. The oils were phytochemically analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Anti-glycation properties were evaluated using hemoglobin and insulin glycation assays. Overall, 18 volatile components were identified in the J. communis subsp. hemisphaerica oils, amounting to 82.1%, 100.0% and 96.4% of the BMT, BFT and fruit oils, respectively. Promising inhibitory activity was observed from all concentrations of the tested oils in the hemoglobin and insulin glycation assays. The inhibitory activities peaked to 89.9% (BFT oil; 200 ?g mL(-1)) and 81.0% (BFT oil; 600 ?g mL(-1)) in the hemoglobin and insulin glycation assays, respectively. The evidence from this study suggests that essential oils obtained from the fruits and branchlets of J. communis subsp. hemisphaerica possess anti-glycation properties. These activities may find implication for the prevention and treatment of diabetic complications. PMID:25657787

  4. GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF COMMON AND DWARF BUNT RESISTANCE IN LANDRACES OF TRITICUM AESTIVUM SUBSP. AESTIVUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Landrace accessions of cultivated bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. subsp. aestivum) (TAA) from the USDA-ARS National Small Grains Collection (NSGC) have been tested systematically for the past 25 years for disease resistance. We analyzed the resistance of 10759 TAA accessions to common bunt (CB), c...

  5. Comparison of fecal DNA extraction kits for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fecal culture is considered the gold standard for the diagnostics of paratuberculosis, however, PCR for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in fecal material is widely used today, having demonstrated great sensitivity and specificity. To insure the most efficient and r...

  6. Genome of the Actinomycete Plant Pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus Suggests Recent Niche Adaptation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen D. Bentley; Craig Corton; Susan E. Brown; Andrew Barron; Louise Clark; Jon Doggett; Barbara Harris; Doug Ormond; Michael A. Quail; Georgiana May; David Francis; Dennis Knudson; Julian Parkhill; Carol A. Ishimaru

    2008-01-01

    Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus is a plant-pathogenic bacterium and the causative agent of bacterial ring rot, a devastating agricultural disease under strict quarantine control and zero tolerance in the seed potato industry. This organism appears to be largely restricted to an endophytic lifestyle, proliferating within plant tissues and unable to persist in the absence of plant material. Analysis of the

  7. Complete genome and comparative analysis of Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus, an emerging pathogen of infective endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus is an important causative agent of infectious endocarditis, while the pathogenicity of this species is widely unclear. To gain insight into the pathomechanisms and the underlying genetic elements for lateral gene transfer, we sequenced the entire genome of this pathogen. Results We sequenced the whole genome of S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus strain ATCC BAA-2069, consisting of a 2,356,444 bp circular DNA molecule with a G+C-content of 37.65% and a novel 20,765 bp plasmid designated as pSGG1. Bioinformatic analysis predicted 2,309 ORFs and the presence of 80 tRNAs and 21 rRNAs in the chromosome. Furthermore, 21 ORFs were detected on the plasmid pSGG1, including tetracycline resistance genes telL and tet(O/W/32/O). Screening of 41 S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus isolates revealed one plasmid (pSGG2) homologous to pSGG1. We further predicted 21 surface proteins containing the cell wall-sorting motif LPxTG, which were shown to play a functional role in the adhesion of bacteria to host cells. In addition, we performed a whole genome comparison to the recently sequenced S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus strain UCN34, revealing significant differences. Conclusions The analysis of the whole genome sequence of S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus promotes understanding of genetic factors concerning the pathogenesis and adhesion to ECM of this pathogen. For the first time we detected the presence of the mobilizable pSGG1 plasmid, which may play a functional role in lateral gene transfer and promote a selective advantage due to a tetracycline resistance. PMID:21824414

  8. Biosorption of Cd, Cu, Ni, Mn and Zn from aqueous solutions by thermophilic bacteria, Geobacillus toebii sub.sp. decanicus and Geobacillus thermoleovorans sub.sp. stromboliensis: Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sadin Özdemir; Ersin Kilinc; Annarita Poli; Barbara Nicolaus; Kemal Güven

    2009-01-01

    Biosorption of each of the ions Cd2+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Zn2+ and Mn2+ on Geobacillus toebii sub.sp. decanicus (G1) and Geobacillus thermoleovorans sub.sp. stromboliensis (G2) in a batch stirred system was investigated. The equilibrium adsorptive quantity was determined to be a function of the solution pH, contact time, biomass concentration, initial metal concentrations and temperature. The results obtained from biosorption experiments

  9. Impact of elevated atmospheric O3 on the actinobacterial community structure and function in the rhizosphere of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.)

    PubMed Central

    Haesler, Felix; Hagn, Alexandra; Engel, Marion; Schloter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Many bacteria belonging to the phylum of Actinobacteria are known as antagonists against phytpathogenic microbes. This study aimed to analyze the effect of ozone on the actinobacterial community of the rhizosphere of four years old European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) trees during different time points of the vegetation period. Effects of ozone on the total community structure of Actinobacteria were studied based on the analysis of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. In addition effects of the ozone treatment on the diversity of potential biocontrol active Actionobacteria being able to produce antibiotics were characterized by using the type II polyketide synthases (PKS) genes as marker. Season as well as ozone treatments had a significant effect on parts of the actinobacterial rhizosphere community of European beech. However on the basis of the performed analysis, the diversity of Actinobacteria possessing type II PKS genes is neither affected by seasonal changes nor by the ozone treatments, indicating no influence of the investigated treatments on the biocontrol active part of the actinobacterial community. PMID:24575080

  10. Age-related changes in protein metabolism of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) seeds during alleviation of dormancy and in the early stage of germination.

    PubMed

    Ratajczak, Ewelina; Kalemba, Ewa M; Pukacka, Stanislawa

    2015-09-01

    The long-term storage of seeds generally reduces their viability and vigour. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of long-term storage on beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) seeds at optimal conditions, over 9 years, on the total and soluble protein levels and activity of proteolytic enzymes, including endopeptidases, carboxypeptidases and aminopeptidases, as well as free amino acid levels and protein synthesis, in dry seeds, after imbibition and during cold stratification leading to dormancy release and germination. The same analyses were conducted in parallel on seeds gathered from the same tree in the running growing season and stored under the same conditions for only 3 months. The results showed that germination capacity decreased from 100% in freshly harvested seeds to 75% in seeds stored for 9 years. The levels of total and soluble proteins were highest in freshly harvested seeds and decreased significantly during storage, these proportions were retained during cold stratification and germination of seeds. Significant differences between freshly harvested and stored seeds were observed in the activities of proteolytic enzymes, including endopeptidases, aminopeptidases and carboxypeptidases, and in the levels of free amino acids. The neosynthesis of proteins during dormancy release and in the early stage of seed germination was significantly weaker in stored seeds. These results confirm the importance of protein metabolism for seed viability and the consequences of its reduction during seed ageing. PMID:26071872

  11. Canopy-level stomatal narrowing in adult Fagus sylvatica under O3 stress - means of preventing enhanced O3 uptake under high O3 exposure?

    PubMed

    Matyssek, R; Baumgarten, M; Hummel, U; Häberle, K-H; Kitao, M; Wieser, G

    2015-01-01

    Spatio-temporally consistent O(3) doses are demonstrated in adult Fagus sylvatica from the Kranzberg Forest free-air fumigation experiment, covering cross-canopy and whole-seasonal scopes through sap flow measurement. Given O(3)-driven closure of stomata, we hypothesized enhanced whole-tree level O(3) influx to be prevented under enhanced O(3) exposure. Although foliage transpiration rate was lowered under twice-ambient O(3) around noon by 30% along with canopy conductance, the hypothesis was falsified, as O(3) influx was raised by 25%. Nevertheless, the twice-ambient/ambient ratio of O(3) uptake was smaller by about 20% than that of O(3) exposure, suggesting stomatal limitation of uptake. The O(3) response was traceable from leaves across branches to the canopy, where peak transpiration rates resembled those of shade rather than sun branches. Rainy/overcast-day and nightly O(3) uptake is quantified and discussed. Whole-seasonal canopy-level validation of modelled with sap flow-derived O(3) flux becomes available in assessing O(3) risk for forest trees. PMID:25062776

  12. HAS MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUBSP. PARATUBERCULOSIS ACQUIRED VIRULENCE FACTORS TO COMPENSATE FOR THE ABSENCE OF PE/PGRS/PPE GENES?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial genomes are constantly evolving to increase adaptability to their changing surroundings and generate evolutionary novelty. Comparison of the five sequenced mycobacterial genomes reveals that while Mycobacterium lepare has evolved by retaining a minimal gene set, Mycobacterium avium subsp. ...

  13. The immune response of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon and its susceptibility to Photobacterium damselae subsp . damselae under temperature stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Feng-I Wang; Jiann-Chu Chen

    2006-01-01

    Tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon held in 25‰ seawater and 26 °C seawater were injected with Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae grown in TSB at a dose of 8.48×104 colony-forming units (cfu) shrimp?1, and then reared onward at water temperatures of 22, 26 (control), 30 and 34 °C. Over 24–96 h, the cumulative mortalities of P. damselae subsp. damselae-injected shrimp held in 22 and 34 °C

  14. Contrasting Results of Culture-Dependent and Molecular Analyses of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from Wood Bison

    PubMed Central

    De Buck, Jeroen; Elkin, Brett; Kutz, Susan; van der Meer, Frank; Orsel, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Reduced to near extinction in the late 1800s, a number of wood bison populations (Bison bison athabascae) have been re-established through reintroduction initiatives. Although an invaluable tool for conservation, translocation of animals can spread infectious agents to new areas or expose animals to pathogens in their new environment. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, a bacterium that causes chronic enteritis in ruminants, is among the pathogens of potential concern for wood bison management and conservation. In order to inform translocation decisions, our objectives were to determine the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection status of wood bison herds in Canada and to culture and genetically characterize the infective strain(s). We tested fecal samples from bison (n = 267) in nine herds using direct PCR for three M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific genetic targets with different copy numbers within the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis genome. Restriction enzyme analysis (REA) and sequencing of IS1311 were performed on seven samples from five different herds. We also evaluated a panel of different culture conditions for their ability to support M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis growth from feces and tissues of direct-PCR-positive animals. Eighty-one fecal samples (30%) tested positive using direct IS900 PCR, with positive samples from all nine herds; of these, 75% and 21% were also positive using ISMAP02 and F57, respectively. None of the culture conditions supported the growth of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis from PCR-positive samples. IS1311 REA and sequencing indicate that at least two different M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strain types exist in Canadian wood bison. The presence of different M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains among wood bison herds should be considered in the planning of translocations. PMID:23686265

  15. Contrasting results of culture-dependent and molecular analyses of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from wood bison.

    PubMed

    Forde, Taya; De Buck, Jeroen; Elkin, Brett; Kutz, Susan; van der Meer, Frank; Orsel, Karin

    2013-07-01

    Reduced to near extinction in the late 1800s, a number of wood bison populations (Bison bison athabascae) have been re-established through reintroduction initiatives. Although an invaluable tool for conservation, translocation of animals can spread infectious agents to new areas or expose animals to pathogens in their new environment. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, a bacterium that causes chronic enteritis in ruminants, is among the pathogens of potential concern for wood bison management and conservation. In order to inform translocation decisions, our objectives were to determine the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection status of wood bison herds in Canada and to culture and genetically characterize the infective strain(s). We tested fecal samples from bison (n = 267) in nine herds using direct PCR for three M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific genetic targets with different copy numbers within the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis genome. Restriction enzyme analysis (REA) and sequencing of IS1311 were performed on seven samples from five different herds. We also evaluated a panel of different culture conditions for their ability to support M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis growth from feces and tissues of direct-PCR-positive animals. Eighty-one fecal samples (30%) tested positive using direct IS900 PCR, with positive samples from all nine herds; of these, 75% and 21% were also positive using ISMAP02 and F57, respectively. None of the culture conditions supported the growth of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis from PCR-positive samples. IS1311 REA and sequencing indicate that at least two different M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strain types exist in Canadian wood bison. The presence of different M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains among wood bison herds should be considered in the planning of translocations. PMID:23686265

  16. Detection of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (Bb12) in the Intestine after Feeding of Sows and Their Piglets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gloria Solano-Aguilar; Harry Dawson; Marta Restrepo; Kate Andrews; Bryan Vinyard; Joseph F. Urban

    2008-01-01

    A real-time PCR method has been developed to distinguish Bifidobacterium animalis subspecies in the gastrointestinal tracts of pigs. Identification of a highly conserved single-copy tuf gene encoding the elongation factor Tu involved in bacterial protein biosynthesis was used as a marker to differentiate homologous Bi- fidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (strain Bb12) from Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. animalis, as well as Bifidobacterium

  17. Loop-mediated amplification of the Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis micA gene is highly specific.

    PubMed

    Yasuhara-Bell, Jarred; Kubota, Ryo; Jenkins, Daniel M; Alvarez, Anne M

    2013-12-01

    Loop-mediated amplification (LAMP) was used to specifically identify Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, causal agent of bacterial canker of tomato. LAMP primers were developed to detect micA, a chromosomally stable gene that encodes a type II lantibiotic, michiganin A, which inhibits growth of other C. michiganensis subspecies. In all, 409 bacterial strains (351 C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis and 58 non-C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis) from a worldwide collection were tested with LAMP to determine its specificity. LAMP results were compared with genetic profiles established using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of seven genes (dnaA, ppaJ, pat-1, chpC, tomA, ppaA, and ppaC). C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis strains produced eight distinct profiles. The LAMP reaction identified all C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis strains and discriminated them from other C. michiganensis subspecies and non-Clavibacter bacteria. LAMP has advantages over immunodiagnostic and other molecular detection methods because of its specificity and isothermal nature, which allows for easy field application. The LAMP reaction is also not affected by as many inhibitors as PCR. This diagnostic tool has potential to provide an easy, one-step test for rapid identification of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. PMID:23802869

  18. Comparative polyphasic characterization of Streptococcus phocae strains with different host origin and description of the subspecies Streptococcus phocae subsp. salmonis subsp. nov.

    PubMed

    Avendaño-Herrera, Ruben; Balboa, Sabela; Castro, Nuria; González-Contreras, Alberto; Magariños, Beatriz; Fernández, Jorge; Toranzo, Alicia E; Romalde, Jesús L

    2014-05-01

    A polyphasic study was undertaken to clarify the taxonomic position of Streptococcus phocae strains isolated from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) cage-farmed in Chile. Four salmon and three seal isolates showed minor differences in the SDS-PAGE protein analysis. Thus, a major protein band present in the salmon isolates, of approximately 22.4 kDa, was absent in the pinniped strains, regardless of the growth media employed. In addition, the pinniped strains showed protein bands with molecular masses of 71.5 and 14.2 kDa, when grown on trypticase soy agar supplemented with 1% NaCl, or 25.6 kDa, when grown on Columbia blood agar, not present in the Atlantic salmon strains. A high similarity in the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS spectra of the strains was observed, although some minor peaks were absent in the fish isolates. Fatty acid methyl esters from isolates with different host origin significantly (P<0.05) differed in the content of C16:0, C17:0, C18:1?9c, C20:4?6,9,12,15c and summed features 3, 5 and 8. The salmon isolates formed a separate cluster in the phylogenetic analysis of housekeeping genes, separately or as concatenated sequences. Sequence divergences among salmon and seal strains were in the range of inter-subspecies differentiation for groEL (2.5%), gyrB (1.8%), recN (2.1%), rpoB (1.7%) and sodA (2.0%) genes. DNA-DNA hybridization results confirmed those of sequencing, showing reassociation values between seal and salmon strains close to the borderline of species definition. Differences in growth at low temperatures and in the haemolytic capacities were also observed between both groups of isolates. On the basis of all these results, the salmon isolates represent a novel subspecies of S. phocae, for which the name Streptococcus phocae subsp. salmonis subsp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is C-4T (=CECT 7921T=DSM 24768T). The subspecies Streptococcus phocae subsp. phocae subsp. nov. is automatically created. An emended description of S. phocae is also provided. PMID:24573159

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL871, a Folate-Producing Strain Isolated from a Northwestern Argentinian Yogurt.

    PubMed

    Laiño, Jonathan Emiliano; Hebert, Elvira María; Savoy de Giori, Graciela; LeBlanc, Jean Guy

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL871 is the first strain of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus reported as a folate-producing strain. We report the draft genome sequence of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL871 (2,063,981 bp, G+C content of 49.1%). This strain is of great biotechnological importance to the dairy industry because it constitutes an alternative to folic acid fortification. PMID:26112792

  20. Larvicidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis in the dipteran Haematobia irritans.

    PubMed Central

    Temeyer, K B

    1984-01-01

    A strain of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis was found to be larvicidal to horn flies, Haematobia irritans (L. [Diptera:Muscidae]). The toxic activity was particulate, appeared during sporulation, and could be prevented by the addition of streptomycin before sporulation. Density gradient centrifugation in Renografin was used to separate endospores, crystals, and low-density particulate matter (fraction 3) from sporulated preparations. Larvicidal activity was restricted to purified crystals and fraction 3, indicating that delta-endotoxin of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis was active against horn fly larvae. Purified crystals produced mortality during larval feeding stages, but not pupal stages. Fraction 3 produced significant mortality during both larval and pupal stages. The mortality data indicated the presence of at least two dipteran-active toxins. PMID:6742837

  1. Ingress of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis into Tomato Leaves Through Hydathodes.

    PubMed

    Carlton, W M; Braun, E J; Gleason, M L

    1998-06-01

    ABSTRACT Hydathodes of tomato leaves served as extremely efficient infection courts for the bacterial canker pathogen, Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. Chlorotic lesions developed at the tips of leaflet lobes about 2 weeks after inoculation of guttation droplets. Lesions expanded along the leaflet margins and became necrotic. Movement of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis from the inoculated leaflet into the rachis was slow and erratic. Histological observations revealed that pathogen populations first developed within large intercellular spaces lying beneath the stomata, which serve as water pores in tomato hydathodes. Bacteria were first observed within vessels of the large marginal fimbriate veins 7 days after inoculation. By 14 days after inoculation, large populations could be seen within the vessels; and by 21 days after inoculation, tissue collapse was widespread and masses of bacteria could be seen in the intercellular spaces and within necrotic cells. PMID:18944904

  2. A highly efficient transposon mutagenesis system for the tomato pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis.

    PubMed

    Kirchner, O; Gartemann, K H; Zellermann, E M; Eichenlaub, R; Burger, A

    2001-11-01

    A transposon mutagenesis system for Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis was developed based on antibiotic resistance transposons that were derived from the insertion element IS1409 from Arthrobacter sp. strain TM1 NCIB12013. As a prerequisite, the electroporation efficiency was optimized by using unmethylated DNA and treatment of the cells with glycine such that about 5 x 10(6) transformants per microg of DNA were generally obtained. Electroporation of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis with a suicide vector carrying transposon Tn1409C resulted in approximately 1 x 10(3) transposon mutants per pg of DNA and thus is suitable for saturation mutagenesis. Analysis of Tn1409C insertion sites suggests a random mode of transposition. Transposition of Tn1409C was also demonstrated for other subspecies of C. michiganensis. PMID:11763129

  3. Evaluation and histological examination of a Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis small animal infection model.

    PubMed

    Koya, A; de Wet, S C; Turner, S; Cawdell-Smith, J; Venus, B; Greer, R M; Lew-Tabor, A E; Boe-Hansen, G B

    2015-04-01

    Bovine genital campylobacteriosis (BGC), caused by Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis, is associated with production losses in cattle worldwide. This study aimed to develop a reliable BGC guinea pig model to facilitate future studies of pathogenicity, abortion mechanisms and vaccine efficacy. Seven groups of five pregnant guinea pigs (1 control per group) were inoculated with one of three strains via intra-peritoneal (IP) or intra-vaginal routes. Samples were examined using culture, PCR and histology. Abortions ranged from 0% to 100% and re-isolation of causative bacteria from sampled sites varied with strain, dose of bacteria and time to abortion. Histology indicated metritis and placentitis, suggesting that the bacteria induce inflammation, placental detachment and subsequent abortion. Variation of virulence between strains was observed and determined by culture and abortion rates. IP administration of C. fetus subsp. venerealis to pregnant guinea pigs is a promising small animal model for the investigation of BGC abortion. PMID:25599935

  4. Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil from Mentha spicata L. subsp. Spicata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. ?arer; S. Ya?mur Toprak; B. Otlu; R. Durmaz

    2011-01-01

    The air-dried aerial parts of M.spicata L. subsp. spicata, which were collected from eastern Turkey, were subjected to hydrodistillation and the essential oil was obtained in a yield of 3.24% (v\\/w). The oil was analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. Thirty-seven constituents, accounting for more than 95.3% of the total oil composition, were identified. The main compounds of the essential oil

  5. Avian wildlife reservoir of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni, Yersinia spp., and Salmonella spp. in Norway.

    PubMed

    Kapperud, G; Rosef, O

    1983-02-01

    Cloacal swabs from 540 wild-living birds were cultured for Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni, Yersinia spp., and Salmonella spp. The carrier rates detected were as follows: C. fetus subsp. jejuni, 28.4%; Yersinia spp., 1.2%; and Salmonella spp., 0.8%. All birds were apparently healthy when captured. C. fetus subsp. jejuni was isolated from 11 of the 40 bird species examined. Among birds inhabiting the city of Oslo, the highest isolation rate was found in crows (Corvus corone cornix) (89.8%), followed by gulls (Larus spp.) (50.0%) and domestic pigeons (Columba livia domesticus) (4.2%). The gulls and crows scavenge on refuse dumps. High carrier rates were also detected among the following birds from nonurban, coastal areas: puffin (Fratercula arctica) (51.3%), common tern (Sterna hirundo) (5.6%), common gull (Larus canus) (18.9%), black-headed gull (Larus ridibundus) (13.2%), and herring gull (Larus argentatus) (4.2%). The list of species harboring C. fetus subsp. jejuni also includes the Ural owl (Strix uralensis), goldeneye (Bucephala clangula), and reed bunting (Emberiza schoeniclus). The following five Yersinia strains were isolated: Y. kristensenii (two strains), Y. intermedia (two strains), and "Yersinia X2" (one strain). Four strains belonging to the genus Salmonella were isolated from three different species of gulls. These isolates were identified as S. typhimurium, S. indiana, and S. djugu. The results indicate that campylobacters are a normal component of the intestinal flora in several bird species, whereas Salmonella and Yersinia carriers are more sporadic. PMID:6338824

  6. BranchedChain Amino Acid Transport in Cytoplasmic Membranes of Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum CNRZ 1273

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bert Poolman; David A. Winters; Denis Hemme; Wil N. Konings

    1991-01-01

    Membrane vesicles of Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum fused with proteoliposomes prepared from Escherichia coli phospholipids containing beef heart cytochrome c oxidase were used to study the transport of branched-chain amino acids in a strain isolated from a raw milk cheese. At a medium pH of 6.0, oxidation of an electron donor system comprising ascorbate, N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine, and horse heart cytochrome c

  7. Hare-to-Human Transmission of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Peter; Kohlmann, Rebekka; Müller, Wolfgang; Julich, Sandra; Geis, Gabriele; Gatermann, Sören G.; Peters, Martin; Wolf, Peter Johannes; Karlsson, Edvin; Forsman, Mats; Myrtennäs, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    In November 2012, a group of 7 persons who participated in a hare hunt in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, acquired tularemia. Two F. tularensis subsp. holarctica isolates were cultivated from human and hare biopsy material. Both isolates belonged to the FTN002–00 genetic subclade (derived for single nucleotide polymorphisms B.10 and B.18), thus indicating likely hare-to-human transmission. PMID:25531286

  8. Cytological mechanisms of 2n egg formation in a diploid genotype of Medicago sativa subsp. falcata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Tavoletti

    1994-01-01

    Gametes formed without meiosis in alfalfa would be useful in basic and applied research. Therefore, the cytological analysis of macrosporogenesis of a diploid plant of Medicago sativa subsp. falcata (L.) Arcangeli (named PG-F9), previously selected as a good 2n egg producer, was conducted. A stain-clearing technique was applied which also allowed the analysis of microsporogenesis to be performed. Two mechanisms

  9. Genome Sequence of the "Indian Bison Type" Biotype of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Strain S5.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shoor Vir; Kumar, Naveen; Singh, Shree Narayan; Bhattacharya, Tapas; Sohal, Jagdip Singh; Singh, Pravin Kumar; Singh, Ajay Vir; Singh, Brajesh; Chaubey, Kundan Kumar; Gupta, Saurabh; Sharma, Nitu; Kumar, Shailesh; Raghava, Gajendra Pal Singh

    2013-01-01

    We report the 4.79-Mb genome sequence of the "Indian Bison Type" biotype of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis strain S5, isolated from a terminally sick Jamunapari goat at the CIRG (Central Institute for Research on Goats) farm in India. This draft genome will help in studying novelties of this biotype, which is widely distributed in animals and human beings in India. PMID:23469332

  10. Genome Sequence of the “Indian Bison Type” Biotype of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Strain S5

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Naveen; Singh, Shree Narayan; Bhattacharya, Tapas; Sohal, Jagdip Singh; Singh, Pravin Kumar; Singh, Ajay Vir; Singh, Brajesh; Chaubey, Kundan Kumar; Gupta, Saurabh; Sharma, Nitu; Kumar, Shailesh; Raghava, Gajendra Pal Singh

    2013-01-01

    We report the 4.79-Mb genome sequence of the “Indian Bison Type” biotype of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis strain S5, isolated from a terminally sick Jamunapari goat at the CIRG (Central Institute for Research on Goats) farm in India. This draft genome will help in studying novelties of this biotype, which is widely distributed in animals and human beings in India. PMID:23469332

  11. Isolation, Characterization, and Identification of Bacteria Associated with the Zinc Hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens subsp. Calaminaria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Lodewyckx; M. Mergeay; J. Vangronsveld; H. Clijsters; D. Van Der Lelie

    2002-01-01

    We investigated bacterial populations associated with the Zn hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens subsp. calaminaria grown in a soil collected from an abandoned Zn-Pb mine and smelter in Plombières, Belgium. The bacterial population of the nonrhizospheric soil consisted of typical soil bacteria, some exhibiting multiple heavy-metal resistance characteristics that often are associated with polluted substrates: 7.8% and 4% of the population survived

  12. Description of “ Desulfotomaculum nigrificans subsp. salinus ” as a New Species, Desulfotomaculum salinum sp. nov

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. N. Nazina; E. P. Rozanova; E. V. Belyakova; A. M. Lysenko; A. B. Poltaraus; T. P. Tourova; G. A. Osipov; S. S. Belyaev

    2005-01-01

    This study focused on the physiological, chemotaxonomic, and genotypic characteristics of two thermophilic spore-forming sulfate-reducing bacterial strains, 435T and 781, of which the former has previously been assigned to the subspecies “Desulfotomaculum nigrificans subsp. salinus”. Both strains reduced sulfate with the resulting production of H2S on media supplemented with H2 + CO2, formate, lactate, pyruvate, malate, fumarate, succinate, methanol, ethanol,

  13. Effective heat inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in raw milk contaminated with naturally infected feces.

    PubMed

    Rademaker, Jan L W; Vissers, Marc M M; Te Giffel, Meike C

    2007-07-01

    The effectiveness of high-temperature, short holding time (HTST) pasteurization and homogenization with respect to inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was evaluated quantitatively. This allowed a detailed determination of inactivation kinetics. High concentrations of feces from cows with clinical symptoms of Johne's disease were used to contaminate raw milk in order to realistically mimic possible incidents most closely. Final M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis concentrations varying from 10(2) to 3.5 x 10(5) cells per ml raw milk were used. Heat treatments including industrial HTST were simulated on a pilot scale with 22 different time-temperature combinations, including 60 to 90 degrees C at holding (mean residence) times of 6 to 15 s. Following 72 degrees C and a holding time of 6 s, 70 degrees C for 10 and 15 s, or under more stringent conditions, no viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells were recovered, resulting in >4.2- to >7.1-fold reductions, depending on the original inoculum concentrations. Inactivation kinetic modeling of 69 quantitative data points yielded an E(a) of 305,635 J/mol and an lnk(0) of 107.2, corresponding to a D value of 1.2 s at 72 degrees C and a Z value of 7.7 degrees C. Homogenization did not significantly affect the inactivation. The conclusion can be drawn that HTST pasteurization conditions equal to 15 s at > or =72 degrees C result in a more-than-sevenfold reduction of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. PMID:17496131

  14. Screening and identification of antagonistic Streptomyces spp. against Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis from tomato rhizosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weihong Zhang; Wenxiang Yang; Qingfang Meng; Yaning Li; Daqun Liu

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of our present study were to isolate antagonistic Streptomyces from tomato rhizosphere, and evaluate the potential strain for the biological control of bacterial canker of tomato. One\\u000a hundred and seventy strains of isolated from tomato rhizosphere were tested for antibiosis activity against Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis on double-layer agar. Sixty-three isolates showed antibiosis activity with diameter of an

  15. Response of first generation tomato somaclone progeny to Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renee M De Vries; Christine T Stephens

    1997-01-01

    A total of 283 somaclones from 12 tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill.) cultivars were generated from leaf explants and allowed to self pollinate. Seed progeny were evaluated for reaction to two strains of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. Significant variation in disease resistance was observed. Forty-nine of the R1 progeny lines (25%), produced from four susceptible and four partially-resistant cultivars, demonstrated increased

  16. Expression of putative virulence factors in the potato pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus during infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ingrid Holtsmark; Gunnhild W. Takle; May Bente Brurberg

    2008-01-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus is the causal agent of bacterial wilt and ring rot of potato. So far, only two proteins have been shown to be essential for\\u000a virulence, namely a plasmid-encoded cellulase CelA and a hypersensitive response-inducing protein. We have examined the relative\\u000a expression of CelA and eight putative virulence factors during infection of potato and

  17. Evidence for a Type III Secretion System in Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah E. Burr; Katja Stuber; Thomas Wahli; Joachim Frey

    2002-01-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, the etiological agent of furunculosis, is an important fish patho- gen. We have screened this bacterium with a broad-host-range probe directed against yscV, the gene that encodes the archetype of a highly conserved family of inner membrane proteins found in every known type III secretion system. This has led to the identification of seven open reading

  18. Antibacterial Activities of Naturally Occurring Compounds against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis?

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Stella Y. Y.; Grant, Irene R.; Friedman, Mendel; Elliott, Christopher T.; Situ, Chen

    2008-01-01

    The antibacterial activities of 18 naturally occurring compounds (including essential oils and some of their isolated constituents, apple and green tea polyphenols, and other plant extracts) against three strains of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (a bovine isolate [NCTC 8578], a raw-milk isolate [806R], and a human isolate [ATCC 43015]) were evaluated using a macrobroth susceptibility testing method. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was grown in 4 ml Middlebrook 7H9 broth containing 10% oleic acid-albumin-dextrose-catalase, 0.05% Tween 80 (or 0.2% glycerol), and 2 ?g/ml mycobactin J supplemented with five concentrations of each test compound. The changes in the optical densities of the cultures at 600 nm as a measure of CFU were recorded at intervals over an incubation period of 42 days at 37°C. Six of the compounds were found to inhibit the growth of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The most effective compound was trans-cinnamaldehyde, with a MIC of 25.9 ?g/ml, followed by cinnamon oil (26.2 ?g/ml), oregano oil (68.2 ?g/ml), carvacrol (72.2 ?g/ml), 2,5-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (74 ?g/ml), and 2-hydroxy-5-methoxybenzaldehyde (90.4 ?g/ml). With the exception of carvacrol, a phenolic compound, three of the four most active compounds are aldehydes, suggesting that the structure of the phenolic group or the aldehyde group may be important to the antibacterial activity. No difference in compound activity was observed between the three M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains studied. Possible mechanisms of the antimicrobial effects are discussed. PMID:18676709

  19. VOLATILE PROFILE OF NON-FERMENTED MILK AND MILK FERMENTED BY BIFIDOBACTERIUM ANIMALIS SUBSP. LACTIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dorota Zareba; Malgorzata Ziarno; Mieczyslaw Obiedzinski

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine low-molecular volatile compounds in milk supplemented with the strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb-12 with or without fermentation process, stored at 6 ºC for 4 weeks. The chromatographic analysis of probiotic-supplemented non-fermented milk and milk fermented by strain Bb-12 revealed the presence of volatile compounds such as ketones, organic acid, and alcohols.

  20. Soil bacteria Pseudomonas putida and Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans inactivate triclosan in liquid and solid substrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maura J. Meade; Rebecca L. Waddell; Terrence M. Callahan

    2001-01-01

    Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent that has been incorporated into many household and medical products. Bacteria with high levels of triclosan resistance were isolated from compost, water, and soil samples. Two of these bacteria, Pseudomonas putida TriRY and Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans TR1, were able to use triclosan as a sole carbon source and clear particulate triclosan from agar.

  1. Seed germination ecology of the threatened endemic Iberian Delphinium fissum subsp. sordidum (Ranunculaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José M. Herranz; Pablo Ferrandis; Esmeralda Martínez-Duro

    2010-01-01

    Seeds of Delphinium fissum subsp. sordidum are physiologically dormant at maturity, with underdeveloped embryos; thus they have morphophysiological dormancy (MPD).\\u000a The aims of this study were to determine the requirements for embryo growth, dormancy break and germination, to characterise\\u000a the type of seed dormancy and to evaluate the effects of light, seed age, pollination mechanism, and inter-annual and inter-population\\u000a variability

  2. Biosorption of water-soluble dyes on magnetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae subsp. uvarum cells.

    PubMed

    Safaríková, M; Ptácková, L; Kibriková, I; Safarík, I

    2005-05-01

    Brewer's yeast (bottom yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae subsp. uvarum) cells were magnetically modified using water based magnetic fluid stabilized with perchloric acid. Magnetically modified yeast cells efficiently adsorbed various water soluble dyes. The dyes adsorption can be described by the Langmuir adsorption model. The maximum adsorption capacity of the magnetic cells differed substantially for individual dyes; the highest value was found for aniline blue (approx. 220 mg per g of dried magnetic adsorbent). PMID:15811411

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of the Anoxygenic Filamentous Phototrophic Bacterium Oscillochloris trichoides subsp. DG-6 ?

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsov, Boris B.; Ivanovsky, Ruslan N.; Keppen, Olga I.; Sukhacheva, Marina V.; Bumazhkin, Boris K.; Patutina, Ekaterina O.; Beletsky, Alexey V.; Mardanov, Andrey V.; Baslerov, Roman V.; Panteleeva, Angela N.; Kolganova, Tatjana V.; Ravin, Nikolai V.; Skryabin, Konstantin G.

    2011-01-01

    Oscillochloris trichoides is a mesophilic, filamentous, photoautotrophic, nonsulfur, diazotrophic bacterium which is capable of carbon dioxide fixation via the reductive pentose phosphate cycle and possesses no assimilative sulfate reduction. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of Oscillochloris trichoides subsp. DG-6, the type strain of the species, which has permitted the prediction of genes for carbon and nitrogen metabolism and for the light-harvesting apparatus. PMID:21037015

  4. Optimization of hexadecylpyridinium chloride decontamination for culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from milk.

    PubMed

    Bradner, L; Robbe-Austerman, S; Beitz, D C; Stabel, J R

    2013-05-01

    A protocol was optimized for the isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) from milk and colostrum, with parameters including chemical decontamination, antibiotics, and different culture media. This study demonstrates that the efficiency of MAP recovery from milk is highly dependent upon the culturing protocol, and such protocols should be optimized to ensure that low concentrations of MAP in milk can be detected. PMID:23426920

  5. Application of IS900 PCR for Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Directly from Raw Milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Pillai; B. M. Jayarao

    2002-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay was developed for detection of insertion sequence 900 (IS900 )o fMycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculo- sis in raw milk. This IS900 PCR assay included DNA extraction and PCR assay using commercially available kits. The DNA extraction and PCR assay were opti- mized to detect the IS900 sequence directly from raw milk. The IS900 PCR assay

  6. Lymphoproliferative and gamma interferon responses to stress-regulated Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis recombinant proteins.

    PubMed

    Gurung, Ratna B; Begg, Douglas J; Purdie, Auriol C; de Silva, Kumudika; Bannantine, John P; Whittington, Richard J

    2014-06-01

    Johne's disease in ruminants is a chronic infection of the intestines caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. An important strategy to control disease is early detection, and a potentially efficient method for early detection is measurement of cell-mediated immune responses developed by the host in response to exposure or infection. One method is to measure lymphoproliferation and cytokine release from the host cells when exposed to the organism or parts of the organism. In this study, 10 recombinant M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis proteins known to be upregulated under in vitro stress conditions were evaluated by examining their ability to evoke memory as a result of exposure by vaccination or oral challenge with live Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Out of 10 proteins, MAP2698c was found to induce higher cell-mediated immune responses in vaccinated and challenged sheep in comparison to healthy controls. The findings suggest that not all stress-regulated proteins have the diagnostic potential to detect cell-mediated immune responses in ovine paratuberculosis. PMID:24695774

  7. Survival and dormancy of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in the environment.

    PubMed

    Whittington, Richard J; Marshall, D Jeff; Nicholls, Paul J; Marsh, Ian B; Reddacliff, Leslie A

    2004-05-01

    The survival of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was studied by culture of fecal material sampled at intervals for up to 117 weeks from soil and grass in pasture plots and boxes. Survival for up to 55 weeks was observed in a dry fully shaded environment, with much shorter survival times in unshaded locations. Moisture and application of lime to soil did not affect survival. UV radiation was an unlikely factor, but infrared wavelengths leading to diurnal temperature flux may be the significant detrimental component that is correlated with lack of shade. The organism survived for up to 24 weeks on grass that germinated through infected fecal material applied to the soil surface in completely shaded boxes and for up to 9 weeks on grass in 70% shade. The observed patterns of recovery in three of four experiments and changes in viable counts were indicative of dormancy, a hitherto unreported property of this taxon. A dps-like genetic element and relA, which are involved in dormancy responses in other mycobacteria, are present in the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis genome sequence, providing indirect evidence for the existence of physiological mechanisms enabling dormancy. However, survival of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in the environment is finite, consistent with its taxonomic description as an obligate parasite of animals. PMID:15128561

  8. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis grown in xylem mimicking medium.

    PubMed

    Hiery, Eva; Adam, Susanne; Reid, Stephen; Hofmann, Jörg; Sonnewald, Sophia; Burkovski, Andreas

    2013-12-01

    The interaction between Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis with its host, the tomato plant (Solanum lycopersicum), is poorly understood and only few virulence factors are known. While studying of the bacteria in planta is time-consuming and difficult, the analysis in vitro would facilitate research. Therefore, a xylem mimicking medium (XMM) for C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis was established in this study based on an apoplast medium for Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria. In contrast to the apoplast medium, XMM contains no sugars, but amino acids which serve as nitrogen and carbon source. As a result, growth in XMM induced transcriptional changes of genes encoding putative sugar, amino acid and iron uptake systems. In summary, mRNA levels of about 8% of all C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis genes were changed when XMM-grown bacteria were compared to M9 minimal medium-grown cells. Almost no transcriptional changes of genes encoding hydrolytic enzymes were detected, leading to the idea that XMM reflects the situation in the beginning of infection and therefore allows the characterization of virulence factors in this early stage of infection. The addition of the plant wound substance acetosyringone to the XMM medium led to a change in transcript amount, including genes coding for proteins involved in protein transport, iron uptake and regulation processes. PMID:24060828

  9. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 454 cleaves allergenic peptides of ?-lactoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Pescuma, Micaela; Hébert, Elvira M; Haertlé, Thomas; Chobert, Jean-Marc; Mozzi, Fernanda; Font de Valdez, Graciela

    2015-03-01

    Whey, a cheese by-product used as a food additive, is produced worldwide at 40.7 million tons per year. ?-Lactoglobulin (BLG), the main whey protein, is poorly digested and is highly allergenic. We aimed to study the contribution of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 454 to BLG digestion and to analyse its ability to degrade the main allergenic sequences of this protein. Pre-hydrolysis of BLG by L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 454 increases digestion of BLG assayed by an in vitro simulated gastrointestinal system. Moreover, peptides from hydrolysis of the allergenic sequences V41-K60, Y102-R124, C121-L140 and L149-I162 were found when BLG was hydrolysed by this strain. Interestingly, peptides possessing antioxidant, ACE inhibitory, antimicrobial and immuno-modulating properties were found in BLG degraded by both the Lactobacillus strain and digestive enzymes. To conclude, pre-hydrolysis of BLG by L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 454 has a positive effect on BLG digestion and could diminish allergenic reactions. PMID:25306364

  10. New type of antimicrobial protein produced by the plant pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhanliang; Ma, Ping; Holtsmark, Ingrid; Skaugen, Morten; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Brurberg, May B

    2013-09-01

    It has previously been shown that the tomato pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis secretes a 14-kDa protein, C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis AMP-I (CmmAMP-I), that inhibits growth of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus, the causal agent of bacterial ring rot of potato. Using sequences obtained from tryptic fragments, we have identified the gene encoding CmmAMP-I and we have recombinantly produced the protein with an N-terminal intein tag. The gene sequence showed that CmmAMP-I contains a typical N-terminal signal peptide for Sec-dependent secretion. The recombinant protein was highly active, with 50% growth inhibition (IC50) of approximately 10 pmol, but was not toxic to potato leaves or tubers. CmmAMP-I does not resemble any known protein and thus represents a completely new type of bacteriocin. Due to its high antimicrobial activity and its very narrow inhibitory spectrum, CmmAMP-1 may be of interest in combating potato ring rot disease. PMID:23851100

  11. Detection of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in tomato seeds using immunomagnetic separation.

    PubMed

    de León, L; Siverio, F; Rodríguez, A

    2006-10-01

    The use of pathogen-free plant material is the main strategy for controlling bacterial canker of tomato caused by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. However, detection and isolation of this pathogen from seeds before field or greenhouse cultivation is difficult when the bacterium is at low concentration and associated microbiota are present. Immunomagnetic separation (IMS), based on the use of immunomagnetic beads (IMBs) coated with specific antibodies, was used to capture C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis cells, allowing removal of non-target bacteria from samples before plating on non-selective medium. Different concentrations of IMBs and of two antisera were tested, showing that IMS with 10(6)IMBs/ml coated with a polyclonal antiserum at 1/3200 dilution recovered more than 50% of target cells from initial inocula of 10(3) to 10(0)CFU/ml. Threshold detection was lower than 10CFU/ml even in seed extracts containing seed debris and high populations of non-target bacteria. The IMS permitted C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis isolation from naturally infected seeds with higher sensitivity and faster than direct isolation on the semiselective medium currently used and could become a simple viable system for routinely testing tomato seed lots in phytosanitary diagnostic laboratories. PMID:16631265

  12. Survival and Dormancy of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Whittington, Richard J.; Marshall, D. Jeff; Nicholls, Paul J.; Marsh, Ian B.; Reddacliff, Leslie A.

    2004-01-01

    The survival of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was studied by culture of fecal material sampled at intervals for up to 117 weeks from soil and grass in pasture plots and boxes. Survival for up to 55 weeks was observed in a dry fully shaded environment, with much shorter survival times in unshaded locations. Moisture and application of lime to soil did not affect survival. UV radiation was an unlikely factor, but infrared wavelengths leading to diurnal temperature flux may be the significant detrimental component that is correlated with lack of shade. The organism survived for up to 24 weeks on grass that germinated through infected fecal material applied to the soil surface in completely shaded boxes and for up to 9 weeks on grass in 70% shade. The observed patterns of recovery in three of four experiments and changes in viable counts were indicative of dormancy, a hitherto unreported property of this taxon. A dps-like genetic element and relA, which are involved in dormancy responses in other mycobacteria, are present in the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis genome sequence, providing indirect evidence for the existence of physiological mechanisms enabling dormancy. However, survival of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in the environment is finite, consistent with its taxonomic description as an obligate parasite of animals. PMID:15128561

  13. Neonatal invasive Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus infection with delayed central nervous system complications

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung-Weon; Eun, So-Hee; Kim, Eui-Chong; Seong, Moon-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Group D streptococci are known to cause newborn septicemia and meningitis, but the Streptococcus bovis group strains rarely cause serious neonatal infections in Korea. Central nervous system (CNS) complications of neonatal S. bovis group infection have rarely been reported. In adults, S. bovis group strains cause bacteremia and endocarditis, and are associated with gastrointestinal malignancy. However, only a few studies have reported meningitis and septicemia in infants. Here, we describe a case of bacteremia and meningitis due to Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus with a delayed CNS complication in an infant. A 28-day-old male infant was admitted to the hospital with a 1-day history of fever. Cultures of blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and urine showed the presence of S. bovis group strain-S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus. He was discharged after 21 days of intravenous ampicillin and cefotaxime administration. Two weeks later, he was readmitted with a fever and short episodes of tonic-clonic movements. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed marked bilateral frontal subdural effusion. He was discharged after 31 days of antibiotic therapy, and no neurological sequelae were observed at the 9-month follow-up. In conclusion, we present a rare case of neonatal S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus infection causing urinary tract infection, septicemia, meningitis, and delayed CNS complications. This case emphasizes the need for physicians to be aware of S. bovis infection in infants. PMID:25729397

  14. Phospholipase A2 inhibitors synthesized by two entomopathogenic bacteria, Xenorhabdus nematophila and Photorhabdus temperata subsp. temperata.

    PubMed

    Seo, Samyeol; Lee, Sunghong; Hong, Yongpyo; Kim, Yonggyun

    2012-06-01

    The entomopathogenic bacteria Xenorhabdus nematophila and Photorhabdus temperata subsp. temperata suppress insect immune responses by inhibiting the catalytic activity of phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)), which results in preventing biosynthesis of immune-mediating eicosanoids. This study identified PLA(2) inhibitors derived from culture broths of these two bacteria. Both X. nematophila and P. temperata subsp. temperata culture broths possessed significant PLA(2)-inhibitory activities. Fractionation of these bacterial metabolites in the culture broths using organic solvent and subsequent chromatography purified seven potent PLA(2) inhibitors, three of which (benzylideneacetone [BZA], proline-tyrosine [PY], and acetylated phenylalanine-glycine-valine [FGV]) were reported in a previous study. Four other compounds (indole, oxindole, cis-cyclo-PY, and p-hydroxyphenyl propionic acid) were identified and shown to significantly inhibit PLA(2). X. nematophila culture broth contained these seven compounds, while P. temperata subsp. temperata culture broth contained three compounds (BZA, acetylated FGV, and cis-cyclo-PY). BZA was detected in the largest amount among these PLA(2) compounds in both bacterial culture broths. All seven bacterial metabolites also showed significant inhibitory activities against immune responses, such as phenoloxidase activity and hemocytic nodulation; BZA was the most potent. Finally, this study characterized these seven compounds for their insecticidal activities against the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. Even though these compounds showed relatively low toxicities to larvae, they significantly enhanced the pathogenicity of Bacillus thuringiensis. This study reports bacterial-origin PLA(2) inhibitors, which would be applicable for developing novel insecticides. PMID:22447611

  15. Microencapsulation of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus acidophilus in cocoa butter using spray chilling technology

    PubMed Central

    Pedroso, D.L.; Dogenski, M.; Thomazini, M.; Heinemann, R.J.B.; Favaro-Trindade, C.S.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the cells of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BI-01) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (LAC-04) were encapsulated in cocoa butter using spray-chilling technology. Survival assays were conducted to evaluate the resistance of the probiotics to the spray-chilling process, their resistance to the simulated gastric and intestinal fluids (SGF and SIF), and their stability during 90 days of storage. The viability of the cells was not affected by microencapsulation. The free and encapsulated cells of B. animalis subsp. lactis were resistant to both SGF and SIF. The micro-encapsulated cells of L. acidophilus were more resistant to SGF and SIF than the free cells; the viability of the encapsulated cells was enhanced by 67%, while the free cells reached the detection limit of the method (103 CFU/g). The encapsulated probiotics were unstable when they were stored at 20 °C. The population of encapsulated L. acidophilus decreased drastically when they were stored at 7 °C; only 20% of cells were viable after 90 days of storage. The percentage of viable cells of the encapsulated B. animalis subsp.lactis, however, was 72% after the same period of storage. Promising results were obtained when the microparticles were stored at ?18 °C; the freeze granted 90 days of shelf life to the encapsulated cells. These results suggest that the spray-chilling process using cocoa butter as carrier protects L. acidophilus from gastrointestinal fluids. However, the viability of the cells during storage must be improved. PMID:24516445

  16. Variants of a genomic island in Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida link isolates with their geographical origins.

    PubMed

    Emond-Rheault, Jean-Guillaume; Vincent, Antony T; Trudel, Mélanie V; Brochu, Francis; Boyle, Brian; Tanaka, Katherine H; Attéré, Sabrina A; Jubinville, Éric; Loch, Thomas P; Winters, Andrew D; Faisal, Mohamed; Frenette, Michel; Derome, Nicolas; Charette, Steve J

    2015-01-30

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is a fish pathogen. Analysis of its genomic characteristics is required to determine the worldwide distribution of the various populations of this bacterium. Genomic alignments between the 01-B526 pathogenic strain and the A449 reference strain have revealed a 51-kb chromosomal insertion in 01-B526. This insertion (AsaGEI1a) has been identified as a new genomic island (GEI) bearing prophage genes. PCR assays were used to detect this GEI in a collection of 139 A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida isolates. Three forms of this GEI (AsaGEI1a, AsaGEI1b, AsaGEI2a) are now known based on this analysis and the sequencing of the genomes of seven additional isolates. A new prophage (prophage 3) associated with AsaGEI2a was also discovered. Each GEI appeared to be strongly associated with a specific geographic region. AsaGEI1a and AsaGEI2a were exclusively found in North American isolates, except for one European isolate bearing AsaGEI2a. The majority of the isolates bearing AsaGEI1b or no GEI were from Europe. Prophage 3 has also a particular geographic distribution and was found only in North American isolates. We demonstrated that A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida possesses unsuspected elements of genomic heterogeneity that could be used as indicators to determine the geographic origins of isolates of this bacterium. PMID:25480167

  17. Molecular cloning and functional analysis of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida haem receptor gene.

    PubMed

    Naka, H; Hirono, I; Aoki, T

    2005-02-01

    A haem receptor gene from Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida (formerly known as Pasteurella piscicida) has been cloned, sequenced and analysed for its function. The gene, designated as pph, has an open reading frame consisting of 2154 bp, a predicted 718 amino acid residues and exists as a single copy. It is homologous with the haem receptors of Vibrio anguillarum hupA, V. cholerae hutA, V. mimicus mhuA and V. vulnificus hupA at 32.7, 32.7, 45.6 and 30.9%, respectively, and is highly conserved, consisting of a Phe-Arg-Ala-Pro sequence (FRAP), an iron transport related molecule (TonB) and a Asn-Pron-Asn-Leu sequence (NPNL), binding motifs associated with haem receptors. As a single gene knockout mutant P. damselae subsp. piscicida was able to bind haem in the absence of pph, suggesting that other receptors may be involved in its iron transport system. This study shows that the P. damselae subsp. piscicida pph belongs to the haem receptor family, is conserved and that its iron-binding system may involve more than one receptor. PMID:15705153

  18. PCR-based identification of Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis, the agent of rhinoscleroma.

    PubMed

    Fevre, Cindy; Passet, Virginie; Deletoile, Alexis; Barbe, Valérie; Frangeul, Lionel; Almeida, Ana S; Sansonetti, Philippe; Tournebize, Régis; Brisse, Sylvain

    2011-05-01

    Rhinoscleroma is a chronic granulomatous infection of the upper airways caused by the bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis. The disease is endemic in tropical and subtropical areas, but its diagnosis remains difficult. As a consequence, and despite available antibiotherapy, some patients evolve advanced stages that can lead to disfiguration, severe respiratory impairment and death by anoxia. Because identification of the etiologic agent is crucial for the definitive diagnosis of the disease, the aim of this study was to develop two simple PCR assays. We took advantage of the fact that all Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis isolates are (i) of capsular serotype K3; and (ii) belong to a single clone with diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). The complete sequence of the genomic region comprising the capsular polysaccharide synthesis (cps) gene cluster was determined. Putative functions of the 21 genes identified were consistent with the structure of the K3 antigen. The K3-specific sequence of gene Kr11509 (wzy) was exploited to set up a PCR test, which was positive for 40 K3 strains but negative when assayed on the 76 other Klebsiella capsular types. Further, to discriminate Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis from other K3 Klebsiella strains, a specific PCR assay was developed based on diagnostic SNPs in the phosphate porin gene phoE. This work provides rapid and simple molecular tools to confirm the diagnostic of rhinoscleroma, which should improve patient care as well as knowledge on the prevalence and epidemiology of rhinoscleroma. PMID:21629720

  19. Genome of the actinomycete plant pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus suggests recent niche adaptation.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Stephen D; Corton, Craig; Brown, Susan E; Barron, Andrew; Clark, Louise; Doggett, Jon; Harris, Barbara; Ormond, Doug; Quail, Michael A; May, Georgiana; Francis, David; Knudson, Dennis; Parkhill, Julian; Ishimaru, Carol A

    2008-03-01

    Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus is a plant-pathogenic bacterium and the causative agent of bacterial ring rot, a devastating agricultural disease under strict quarantine control and zero tolerance in the seed potato industry. This organism appears to be largely restricted to an endophytic lifestyle, proliferating within plant tissues and unable to persist in the absence of plant material. Analysis of the genome sequence of C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus and comparison with the genome sequences of related plant pathogens revealed a dramatic recent evolutionary history. The genome contains 106 insertion sequence elements, which appear to have been active in extensive rearrangement of the chromosome compared to that of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. There are 110 pseudogenes with overrepresentation in functions associated with carbohydrate metabolism, transcriptional regulation, and pathogenicity. Genome comparisons also indicated that there is substantial gene content diversity within the species, probably due to differential gene acquisition and loss. These genomic features and evolutionary dating suggest that there was recent adaptation for life in a restricted niche where nutrient diversity and perhaps competition are low, correlated with a reduced ability to exploit previously occupied complex niches outside the plant. Toleration of factors such as multiplication and integration of insertion sequence elements, genome rearrangements, and functional disruption of many genes and operons seems to indicate that there has been general relaxation of selective pressure on a large proportion of the genome. PMID:18192393

  20. Juniperus oxycedrus L. subsp. oxycedrus and Juniperus oxycedrus L. subsp. macrocarpa (Sibth. & Sm.) Ball. "berries" from Turkey: comparative evaluation of phenolic profile, antioxidant, cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Taviano, Maria Fernanda; Marino, Andreana; Trovato, Ada; Bellinghieri, Valentina; Melchini, Antonietta; Dugo, Paola; Cacciola, Francesco; Donato, Paola; Mondello, Luigi; Güvenç, Ay?egül; De Pasquale, Rita; Miceli, Natalizia

    2013-08-01

    This work aimed to evaluate and compare the phenolic profile and some biological properties of the ripe "berries" methanol extracts of Juniperus oxycedrus L. subsp. oxycedrus (Joo) and Juniperus oxycedrus L. subsp. macrocarpa (Sibth. & Sm.) Ball. (Jom) from Turkey. The total phenolic content resulted about 3-fold higher in Jom (17.89±0.23 mg GAE/g extract) than in Joo (5.14±0.06 mg GAE/g extract). The HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS analysis revealed a similar flavonoid fingerprint in Joo and Jom, whereas a difference in their quantitative content was found (4632 ?g/g extract and 12644 ?g/g extract). In addition, three phenolic acids were detected in Jom only (5765 ?g/g extract), and protocatechuic acid was the most abundant one. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was evaluated by different in vitro assays: in the DPPH and in the TBA tests a stronger activity in Jom was highlighted, while Joo exhibited higher reducing power and metal chelating activity. Joo and Jom did not affect HepG2 cell viability and both extracts resulted virtually non-toxic against Artemia salina. The extracts were also studied for their antimicrobial potential, displaying efficacy against Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:23603383

  1. Ground-level ozone differentially affects nitrogen acquisition and allocation in mature European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) trees.

    PubMed

    Weigt, R B; Häberle, K H; Millard, P; Metzger, U; Ritter, W; Blaschke, H; Göttlein, A; Matyssek, R

    2012-10-01

    Impacts of elevated ground-level ozone (O(3)) on nitrogen (N) uptake and allocation were studied on mature European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) in a forest stand, hypothesizing that: (i) chronically elevated O(3) limits nutrient uptake, and (ii) beech responds more sensitively to elevated O(3) than spruce, as previously found for juvenile trees. Tree canopies were exposed to twice-ambient O(3) concentrations (2?×?O(3)) by a free-air fumigation system, with trees under ambient O(3) serving as control. After 5 years of O(3) fumigation, (15)NH(4)(15)NO(3) was applied to soil, and concentrations of newly acquired N (N(labelled)) and total N (N(total)) in plant compartments and soil measured. Under 2?×?O(3), N(labelled) and N(total) were increased in the bulk soil and tended to be lower in fine and coarse roots of both species across the soil horizons, supporting hypothesis (i). N(labelled) was reduced in beech foliage by up to 60%, and by up to 50% in buds under 2?×?O(3). Similarly, N(labelled) in stem bark and phloem was reduced. No such reduction was observed in spruce, reflecting a stronger effect on N acquisition in beech in accordance with hypothesis (ii). In spruce, 2?×?O(3) tended to favour allocation of new N to foliage. N(labelled) in beech foliage correlated with cumulative seasonal transpiration, indicating impaired N acquisition was probably caused by reduced stomatal conductance and, hence, water transport under elevated O(3). Stimulated fine root growth under 2?×?O(3) with a possible increase of below-ground N sink strength may also have accounted for lowered N allocation to above-ground organs. Reduced N uptake and altered allocation may enhance the use of stored N for growth, possibly affecting long-term stand nutrition. PMID:23042769

  2. Patterns of late spring frost leaf damage and recovery in a European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) stand in south-eastern Germany based on repeated digital photographs

    PubMed Central

    Menzel, Annette; Helm, Raimund; Zang, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Damage by late spring frost is a risk deciduous trees have to cope with in order to optimize the length of their growing season. The timing of spring phenological development plays a crucial role, not only at the species level, but also at the population and individual level, since fresh new leaves are especially vulnerable. For the pronounced late spring frost in May 2011 in Germany, we studied the individual leaf development of 35 deciduous trees (mainly European beech Fagus sylvatica L.) at a mountainous forest site in the Bayerischer Wald National Park using repeated digital photographs. Analyses of the time series of greenness by a novel Bayesian multiple change point approach mostly revealed five change points which almost perfectly matched the expected break points in leaf development: (i) start of the first greening between day of the year (DOY) 108–119 (mean 113), (ii) end of greening, and (iii) visible frost damage after the frost on the night of May 3rd/4th (DOY 123/124), (iv) re-sprouting 19–38 days after the frost, and (v) full maturity around DOY 178 (166–184) when all beech crowns had fully recovered. Since frost damage was nearly 100%, individual susceptibility did not depend on the timing of first spring leaf unfolding. However, we could identify significant patterns in fitness linked to an earlier start of leaf unfolding. Those individuals that had an earlier start of greening during the first flushing period had a shorter period of recovery and started the second greening earlier. Thus, phenological timing triggered the speed of recovery from such an extreme event. The maximum greenness achieved, however, did not vary with leaf unfolding dates. Two mountain ashes (Sorbus aucuparia L.) were not affected by the low temperatures of -5°C. Time series analysis of webcam pictures can thus improve process-based knowledge and provide valuable insights into the link between phenological variation, late spring frost damage, and recovery within one stand. PMID:25759707

  3. Effects of long-term exposure to ammonium sulfate particles on growth and gas exchange rates of Fagus crenata, Castanopsis sieboldii, Larix kaempferi and Cryptomeria japonica seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Otani, Yoko; Li, Peiran; Nagao, Hiroshi; Lenggoro, I. Wuled; Ishida, Atsushi; Yazaki, Kenichi; Noguchi, Kyotaro; Nakaba, Satoshi; Yamane, Kenichi; Kuroda, Katsushi; Sano, Yuzou; Funada, Ryo; Izuta, Takeshi

    2014-11-01

    To clarify the effects of long-term exposure to ammonium sulfate (AS) particles on growth and physiological functions of forest tree species, seedlings of Fagus crenata, Castanopsis sieboldii, Larix kaempferi and Cryptomeria japonica were exposed to submicron-size AS particles during two growing seasons from 3 June 2011 to 8 October 2012. The mean sulfate concentration in PM2.5 increased during the exposure inside the chamber in 2011 and 2012 by 2.73 and 4.32 ?g SO42- m-3, respectively. No significant effects of exposure to AS particles were detected on the whole-plant dry mass of the seedlings. These results indicate that the exposure to submicrometer AS particles at the ambient level for two growing seasons did not significantly affect the growth of the seedlings. No significant effects of exposure to AS particles were found on the net photosynthetic rate in the leaves or needles of F. crenata, C. sieboldii and L. kaempferi seedlings. Also, in the previous-year needles of C. japonica seedlings, exposure to AS particles significantly reduced the net photosynthetic rate, which may be caused by the reduction in the concentration of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). On the contrary, in current-year needles of C. japonica seedlings, net photosynthetic rate significantly increased with exposure to AS particles, which may be the result of increases in stomatal conductance and concentrations of Rubisco and chlorophyll. Furthermore, exposure to AS particles correlated with an increase in concentrations of NH4+, free amino acid and total soluble protein, suggesting that AS particles may be deliquesced, absorbed into the leaves and metabolized into amino acid and protein. These results suggest that net photosynthesis in the needles of C. japonica is relatively sensitive to submicron-size AS particles as compared with the other three tree species.

  4. Patterns of late spring frost leaf damage and recovery in a European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) stand in south-eastern Germany based on repeated digital photographs.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Annette; Helm, Raimund; Zang, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Damage by late spring frost is a risk deciduous trees have to cope with in order to optimize the length of their growing season. The timing of spring phenological development plays a crucial role, not only at the species level, but also at the population and individual level, since fresh new leaves are especially vulnerable. For the pronounced late spring frost in May 2011 in Germany, we studied the individual leaf development of 35 deciduous trees (mainly European beech Fagus sylvatica L.) at a mountainous forest site in the Bayerischer Wald National Park using repeated digital photographs. Analyses of the time series of greenness by a novel Bayesian multiple change point approach mostly revealed five change points which almost perfectly matched the expected break points in leaf development: (i) start of the first greening between day of the year (DOY) 108-119 (mean 113), (ii) end of greening, and (iii) visible frost damage after the frost on the night of May 3rd/4th (DOY 123/124), (iv) re-sprouting 19-38 days after the frost, and (v) full maturity around DOY 178 (166-184) when all beech crowns had fully recovered. Since frost damage was nearly 100%, individual susceptibility did not depend on the timing of first spring leaf unfolding. However, we could identify significant patterns in fitness linked to an earlier start of leaf unfolding. Those individuals that had an earlier start of greening during the first flushing period had a shorter period of recovery and started the second greening earlier. Thus, phenological timing triggered the speed of recovery from such an extreme event. The maximum greenness achieved, however, did not vary with leaf unfolding dates. Two mountain ashes (Sorbus aucuparia L.) were not affected by the low temperatures of -5°C. Time series analysis of webcam pictures can thus improve process-based knowledge and provide valuable insights into the link between phenological variation, late spring frost damage, and recovery within one stand. PMID:25759707

  5. The importance of atmospheric deposition, charge and atomic mass to the dynamics of minor and rare elements in developing, ageing, and wilted leaves of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.).

    PubMed

    Tyler, Germund; Olsson, Tommy

    2006-10-01

    The amounts of sixty elements in developing, maturing, senescent and wilting leaves, and in the wintering dead leaves attached to the branches, are reported for a beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest on mor Podzol in south Sweden, a site with no local sources of pollution or geological anomalies. The amounts (contents per leaf) of K (potassium), Rb (rubidium), Cs (caesium), Cu (copper) and P (phosphorus) were highest in young leaves, decreasing throughout the growing season and usually in the subsequent winter. The entirely opposite pattern with a continuous, mostly even increase of the amounts was measured with Be (beryllium), Ba (barium), Hg (mercury), Al (aluminium), Tl (thallium), Pb (lead), Bi (bismuth), V (vanadium), W (tungsten), As (arsenic), Sb (antimony), and Se (selenium). Amounts of rare-earth elements and some transition metals, such as Co (cobalt), Ti (titanium), and the actinides Th (thorium) and U (uranium) were more stable during the growing season, after an initial increase in early summer, but increased greatly in the winter. This winter increase in dead attached leaves has to be accounted for by uptake from long-distance transported constituents in dry and wet deposition. It was similar to deposition rate estimates using moss carpets from the same locality. A passive uptake was positively related to ionic charge and atomic mass. However, the amounts of several, mainly non-essential elements, such as Ni (nickel), Sc (scandium), Zr (zirconium), Cr (chromium), Ag (silver), and Cd (cadmium) were not much lower in the young or maturing leaves than in the wintered dead leaves of this deciduous (hardwood) forest and a proportion apparently originated from internal translocation in the trees. Seasonal fluxes or cycling of many of the scarce or rare elements reported here have never been studied before in forest ecosystems. PMID:16603223

  6. Within-canopy and ozone fumigation effects on delta13C and Delta18O in adult beech (Fagus sylvatica) trees: relation to meteorological and gas exchange parameters.

    PubMed

    Gessler, Arthur; Löw, Markus; Heerdt, Christian; de Beeck, Maarten Op; Schumacher, Johannes; Grams, Thorsten E E; Bahnweg, Günther; Ceulemans, Reinhart; Werner, Herbert; Matyssek, Rainer; Rennenberg, Heinz; Haberer, Kristine

    2009-11-01

    In this study, the effects of different light intensities either in direct sunlight or in the shade crown of adult beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) trees on delta13C and Delta18O were determined under ambient (1 x O3) and twice-ambient (2 x O3) atmospheric ozone concentrations during two consecutive years (2003 and 2004). We analysed the isotopic composition in leaf bulk, leaf cellulose, phloem and xylem material and related the results to (a) meteorological data (air temperature, T and relative humidity, RH), (b) leaf gas exchange measurements (stomatal conductance, g(s); transpiration rate, E; and maximum photosynthetic activity, A(max)) and (c) the outcome of a steady-state evaporative enrichment model. Delta13C was significantly lower in the shade than in the sun crown in all plant materials, whilst Delta18O was increased significantly in the shade than in the sun crown in bulk material and cellulose. Elevated ozone had no effect on delta13C, although Delta18O was influenced by ozone to varied degrees during single months. We observed significant seasonal changes for both parameters, especially in 2004, and also significant differences between the study years. Relating the findings to meteorological data and gas exchange parameters, we conclude that the differences in Delta18O between the sun and the shade crown were predominantly caused by the Péclet effect. This assumption was supported by the modelled Delta18O values for leaf cellulose. It was demonstrated that independent of RH, light-dependent reduction of stomatal conductance (and thus transpiration) and of A(max) can drive the pattern of Delta18O increase with the concomitant decrease of delta13C in the shade crown. The effect of doubling ozone levels on time-integrated stomatal conductance and transpiration as indicated by the combined analysis of Delta18O and delta13C was much lower than the influence caused by the light exposure. PMID:19734546

  7. A Compact Laboratory Spectro-Goniometer (CLabSpeG) to Assess the BRDF of Materials. Presentation, Calibration and Implementation on Fagus sylvatica L. Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Biliouris, Dimitrios; Verstraeten, Willem W.; Dutré, Phillip; van Aardt, Jan A.N.; Muys, Bart; Coppin, Pol

    2007-01-01

    The design and calibration of a new hyperspectral Compact Laboratory Spectro-Goniometer (CLabSpeG) is presented. CLabSpeG effectively measures the bidirectional reflectance Factor (BRF) of a sample, using a halogen light source and an Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD) spectroradiometer. The apparatus collects 4356 reflectance data readings covering the spectrum from 350 nm to 2500 nm by independent positioning of the sensor, sample holder, and light source. It has an azimuth and zenith resolution of 30 and 15 degrees, respectively. CLabSpeG is used to collect BRF data and extract Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) data of non-isotropic vegetation elements such as bark, soil, and leaves. Accurate calibration has ensured robust geometric accuracy of the apparatus, correction for the conicality of the light source, while sufficient radiometric stability and repeatability between measurements are obtained. The bidirectional reflectance data collection is automated and remotely controlled and takes approximately two and half hours for a BRF measurement cycle over a full hemisphere with 125 cm radius and 2.4 minutes for a single BRF acquisition. A specific protocol for vegetative leaf collection and measurement was established in order to investigate the possibility to extract BRDF values from Fagus sylvatica L. leaves under laboratory conditions. Drying leaf effects induce a reflectance change during the BRF measurements due to the laboratory illumination source. Therefore, the full hemisphere could not be covered with one leaf. Instead 12 BRF measurements per leaf were acquired covering all azimuth positions for a single light source zenith position. Data are collected in radiance format and reflectance is calculated by dividing the leaf cycle measurement with a radiance cycle of a Spectralon reference panel, multiplied by a Spectralon reflectance correction factor and a factor to correct for the conical effect of the light source. BRF results of measured leaves are presented.

  8. A specific PCR for the identification of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, the causative agent of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP).

    PubMed

    Woubit, S; Lorenzon, S; Peyraud, A; Manso-Silván, L; Thiaucourt, F

    2004-11-30

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia is a severe infectious disease of goats in Africa and the Middle East. It is caused by a fastidious mycoplasma, Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, a member of the "M. mycoides cluster". Members of this cluster share genomic and antigenic features, which result in common biochemical and serological properties, complicating species identification. Two species of this cluster, M. mycoides subsp. capri and M. mycoides subsp. mycoides large colony biotype, are very often isolated from clinical cases resembling contagious caprine pleuropneumonia. Furthermore, in the laboratory, M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae can be easily confused with the closely related capricolum subspecies. Considering these constraints and the scarcity of available methods for identification, a specific polymerase chain reaction was developed. A DNA fragment of 7109 bp containing genes coding for the arginine deiminase pathway (ADI) was chosen as target sequence for the selection of a specific primer pair. The full ADI operon from M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae strain GL100 was sequenced. Polymorphism within this locus was analyzed by comparison with the sequence from the closely related IPX strain (M. capricolum subsp. capricolum). It varied from 0.6% to 3.5%. The highest divergence was found in a region coding for arcD. Therefore, this gene was chosen as target for the specific amplification of a 316 bp-long DNA fragment. The specificity of this PCR was validated on 14 M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae strains and 27 heterologous strains belonging to the "M. mycoides cluster" and M. putrefaciens. This new PCR will be a valuable tool for the surveillance of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia. PMID:15530747

  9. Effect of Soil Slope on the Appearance of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Water Running off Grassland Soil after Application of Contaminated Slurry

    PubMed Central

    Alfaro, M.; Salazar, F.; Troncoso, E.; Mitchell, R. M.; Ramirez, L.; Naguil, A.; Zamorano, P.; Collins, M. T.

    2013-01-01

    The study assessed the effect of soil slope on Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis transport into rainwater runoff from agricultural soil after application of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-contaminated slurry. Under field conditions, 24 plots of undisturbed loamy soil 1 by 2 m2 were placed on platforms. Twelve plots were used for water runoff: 6 plots at a 3% slope and 6 plots at a 15% slope. Half of the plots of each slope were treated with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-contaminated slurry, and half were not treated. Using the same experimental design, 12 plots were established for soil sampling on a monthly basis using the same spiked slurry application and soil slopes. Runoff following natural rainfall was collected and analyzed for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, coliforms, and turbidity. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was detected in runoff from all plots treated with contaminated slurry and one control plot. A higher slope (15%) increased the likelihood of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis detection but did not affect the likelihood of finding coliforms. Daily rainfall increased the likelihood that runoff would have coliforms and the coliform concentration, but it decreased the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis concentration in the runoff. When there was no runoff, rain was associated with increased M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis concentrations. Coliform counts in runoff were related to runoff turbidity. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis presence/absence, however, was related to turbidity. Study duration decreased bacterial detection and concentration. These findings demonstrate the high likelihood that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in slurry spread on pastures will contaminate water runoff, particularly during seasons with high rainfall. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis contamination of water has potential consequences for both animal and human health. PMID:23542616

  10. Novel Feature of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Highlighted by Characterization of the Heparin-Binding Hemagglutinin Adhesin

    PubMed Central

    Lefrancois, Louise H.; Bodier, Christelle C.; Cochard, Thierry; Canepa, Sylvie; Raze, Dominique; Lanotte, Philippe; Sevilla, Iker A.; Stevenson, Karen; Behr, Marcel A.; Locht, Camille

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis comprises two genotypically defined groups, known as the cattle (C) and sheep (S) groups. Recent studies have reported phenotypic differences between M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis groups C and S, including growth rates, infectivity for macrophages, and iron metabolism. In this study, we investigated the genotypes and biological properties of the virulence factor heparin-binding hemagglutinin adhesin (HBHA) for both groups. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, HBHA is a major adhesin involved in mycobacterium-host interactions and extrapulmonary dissemination of infection. To investigate HBHA in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, we studied hbhA polymorphisms by fragment analysis using the GeneMapper technology across a large collection of isolates genotyped by mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit–variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) and IS900 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP-IS900) analyses. Furthermore, we analyzed the structure-function relationships of recombinant HBHA proteins of types C and S by heparin-Sepharose chromatography and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analyses. In silico analysis revealed two forms of HBHA, corresponding to the prototype genomes for the C and S types of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. This observation was confirmed using GeneMapper on 85 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains, including 67 strains of type C and 18 strains of type S. We found that HBHAs from all type C strains contain a short C-terminal domain, while those of type S present a long C-terminal domain, similar to that produced by Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium. The purification of recombinant HBHA from M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis of both types by heparin-Sepharose chromatography highlighted a correlation between their affinities for heparin and the lengths of their C-terminal domains, which was confirmed by SPR analysis. Thus, types C and S of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis may be distinguished by the types of HBHA they produce, which differ in size and adherence properties, thereby providing new evidence that strengthens the genotypic differences between the C and S types of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. PMID:23974028

  11. Silencing of host basal defense response-related gene expression increases susceptibility of Nicotiana benthamiana to Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis.

    PubMed

    Balaji, Vasudevan; Sessa, Guido; Smart, Christine D

    2011-03-01

    Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is an actinomycete, causing bacterial wilt and canker disease of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). We used virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) to identify genes playing a role in host basal defense response to C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis infection using Nicotiana benthamiana as a model plant. A preliminary VIGS screen comprising 160 genes from tomato known to be involved in defense-related signaling identified a set of 14 genes whose suppression led to altered host-pathogen interactions. Expression of each of these genes and three additional targets was then suppressed in larger-scale VIGS experiments and the effect of silencing on development of wilt disease symptoms and bacterial growth during an N. benthamiana-C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis compatible interaction was determined. Disease susceptibility and in planta bacterial population size were enhanced by silencing genes encoding N. benthamiana homologs of ubiquitin activating enzyme, snakin-2, extensin-like protein, divinyl ether synthase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase 2, and Pto-like kinase. The identification of genes having a role in the host basal defense-response to C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis advances our understanding of the plant responses activated by C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis and raises possibilities for devising novel and effective molecular strategies to control bacterial canker and wilt in tomato. PMID:21062112

  12. A method for purification and characterisation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from the intestinal mucosa of sheep with Johne's disease.

    PubMed

    Choy, E; Whittington, R J; Marsh, I; Marshall, J; Campbell, M T

    1998-11-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, the cause of Johne's disease in ruminants, cannot be cultured in large quantities from affected sheep in Australia. A method is described for the purification of the organism from the intestinal mucosa of sheep with multibacillary Johne's disease in order to undertake restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis for epidemiological purposes. Using sucrose and potassium chloride as separation media for differential and density gradient centrifugation, yields of approximately 90 mg dry weight M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis per 5 g intestinal mucosa were obtained. The preparations of purified M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis were visually free of non-acid fast bacteria and contained 10(2)-10(3) aerobic/ facultatively anaerobic organisms per gram wet weight. DNA extracted from purified M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was examined by hybridisation with an IS900 probe after digestion with BstEII and RFLP patterns distinct from isolates from cattle were obtained. The RFLP pattern of purified M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis from five sheep matched that obtained previously from organisms cultured from sheep in studies in New Zealand, indicating that the purification and RFLP method is robust. PMID:9874103

  13. Evaluation of the API 50CH and API ZYM systems for rapid characterization of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus , causal agent of potato ring rot

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Luis Palomo; María M. López; Pablo García-Benavides; Encarna Velázquez; Eustoquio Martínez-Molina

    2006-01-01

    API 50CH and API ZYM systems were used to characterize fifty-three strains of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus from different geographic locations and several reference strains of the same and different species, including other potato pathogens. Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus strains displayed a high level of homogeneity, both in carbohydrate utilization and in enzymatic activity. Using API 50CH and API ZYM

  14. La presenza di colesterolo nella frazione sterolica dell'olio dei semi di Solanum nigrum L. subsp. nigrum e Solanum dulcamara L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paola Gastaldo; Paola Profumo; Enrico Tiscornia; Maria Angela Pagano

    1977-01-01

    The presence of cholesterol in the sterolic fraction in the oil of the seeds of Solanum nigrum L. subsp. nigrum and Solanum dulcamara L.—The sterol fraction of oil in Solanum nigrum L. subsp. nigrum and Solanum dulcamara L. seeds has been analysed by GLC. The amounts of cholesterol we have found are 8% and 23% respectively, in relation to the

  15. Patterns of late spring frost leaf damage and recovery in a European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) stand in south-eastern Germany based on repeated digital photographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzel, Annette; Helm, Raimund; Zang, Christian

    2015-04-01

    The seasonality of woody plants in cold and temperate climates is adapted to the annual course of temperature and photoperiod in order to maximise the length of the active growing season and, at the same time, avoid damages by frost events, especially by late spring frosts. Winter chilling, spring warming and finally photoperiod trigger the timely bud burst of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) which as a climax species is quite sensitive to winter frost and also as seedling to late spring frosts. However, due to relatively late and less varying dates of leaf unfolding, damages by late spring frosts should not occur each year. In case of a total loss due to a late frost event, F. sylvatica trees produce a new set of leaves which guarantees survival, but diminishes carbon reserves. With a phenological camera we observed the phenological course of such an extreme event in the Nationalpark Bayerischer Wald in May 2011: Spring leaf unfolding, an almost complete loss of fresh green leaves after the frost event in the night 3rd to 4th May, a subsequent leafless period followed by re-sprouting. We modeled this special leaf development from day 80 to 210, observed as green% from the repeated digital camera pictures, using the Bayesian multiple change point approach recently introduced by Henneken et al. (2013). The results for more than 30 trees predominantly suggested a model with five change points: firstly, start of the season, abrupt ending before the frost event, the loss by the frost event and after a longer period of recovery the second leaf unfolding (St. John's sprout) ending in full leaf maturity. Analyzing the results of these models the following questions were answered (1) how long is the period of recovery till the second green-up? (2) does the temporal course of the second leafing differ from the first one? (3) what are the individual factors influencing damage and recovery? (4) are individuals with early or late bud burst more prone to damage? The five change points of the model almost perfectly matched the expected break points: i) start of the first greening between DOY (day of the year) 108 to 119 (mean 113), ii) end of greening and iii) visible frost damage after the frost on the night of May 3rd/4th (DOY 123/124), iv) re-sprouting 19 to 38 days after the frost, and v) full maturity around DOY 178 (166 to 184) when all beech crowns had fully recovered. Since frost damage was nearly 100%, individual susceptibility did not depend on the timing of first spring leaf unfolding. However, we could identify significant patterns in fitness linked to an earlier start of leaf unfolding.

  16. Co-occurrence patterns of trees along macro-climatic gradients and their potential influence on the present and future distribution of Fagus sylvatica L.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meier, E.S.; Edwards, T.C., Jr.; Kienast, Felix; Dobbertin, M.; Zimmermann, N.E.

    2011-01-01

    Aim During recent and future climate change, shifts in large-scale species ranges are expected due to the hypothesized major role of climatic factors in regulating species distributions. The stress-gradient hypothesis suggests that biotic interactions may act as major constraints on species distributions under more favourable growing conditions, while climatic constraints may dominate under unfavourable conditions. We tested this hypothesis for one focal tree species having three major competitors using broad-scale environmental data. We evaluated the variation of species co-occurrence patterns in climate space and estimated the influence of these patterns on the distribution of the focal species for current and projected future climates.Location Europe.Methods We used ICP Forest Level 1 data as well as climatic, topographic and edaphic variables. First, correlations between the relative abundance of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and three major competitor species (Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris and Quercus robur) were analysed in environmental space, and then projected to geographic space. Second, a sensitivity analysis was performed using generalized additive models (GAM) to evaluate where and how much the predicted F. sylvatica distribution varied under current and future climates if potential competitor species were included or excluded. We evaluated if these areas coincide with current species co-occurrence patterns.Results Correlation analyses supported the stress-gradient hypothesis: towards favourable growing conditions of F. sylvatica, its abundance was strongly linked to the abundance of its competitors, while this link weakened towards unfavourable growing conditions, with stronger correlations in the south and at low elevations than in the north and at high elevations. The sensitivity analysis showed a potential spatial segregation of species with changing climate and a pronounced shift of zones where co-occurrence patterns may play a major role.Main conclusions Our results demonstrate the importance of species co-occurrence patterns for calibrating improved species distribution models for use in projections of climate effects. The correlation approach is able to localize European areas where inclusion of biotic predictors is effective. The climate-induced spatial segregation of the major tree species could have ecological and economic consequences. ?? 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. The effect of carbohydrate accumulation and nitrogen deficiency on feedback regulation of photosynthesis in beech (Fagus sylvatica) under elevated CO2 concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klem, K.; Urban, O.; Holub, P.; Rajsnerova, P.

    2012-04-01

    One of the main manifestations of global change is an increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration. Elevated concentration of CO2 has stimulating effect on plant photosynthesis and consequently also on the productivity. Long-term studies, however, show that this effect is progressively reduced due to feedback regulation of photosynthesis. The main causes of this phenomenon are considered as two factors: i) increased biomass production consumes a larger amount of nitrogen from the soil and this leads to progressive nitrogen limitation of photosynthesis, particularly at the level of the enzyme Rubisco, ii) the sink capacity is genetically limited and elevated CO2 concentration leads to increased accumulation of carbohydtrates (mainly sucrose, which is the main transport form of assimilates) in leaves. Increased concentrations of carbohydrates leads to a feedback regulation of photosynthesis by both, long-term feedback regulation of synthesis of the enzyme Rubisco, and also due to reduced capacity to produce ATP in the chloroplasts. However, mechanisms for interactive effects of nitrogen and accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates are still not well understood. Using 3-year-old Fagus sylvatica seedlings we have explored the interactive effects of nitrogen nutrition and sink capacity manipulation (sucrose feeding) on the dynamics of accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates and changes in photosynthetic parameters under ambient (385 ?mol (CO2) mol-1) and elevated (700 ?mol(CO2) mol-1) CO2 concentration. Sink manipulation by sucrose feeding led to a continuous increase of non-structural carbohydrates in leaves, which was higher in nitrogen fertilized seedlings. The accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates was also slightly stimulated by elevated CO2 concentration. Exponential decay (p <0.01) was observed in CO2 assimilation rate and stomatal conductance when the content of non-structural carbohydrates increased. However, this relationship was modified by the nitrogen content. Accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates had relatively smaller effect on actual quantum yield of photosystem II. Both, CO2 assimilation rate and the actual quantum yield of photosystem II decreased more rapidly during sink manipulation in elevated concentrations of CO2 than in ambient. Application of chlorophyll fluorescence imaging enabled us to evaluate changes in spatial distribution of feedback regulation of photosynthesis on the leaf-level. We can conclude that the accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates down-regulates photosynthesis mainly through the stomatal conductance, and this effect is further modified by nitrogen content.

  18. Salmonella enterica Suppresses Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum Population and Soft Rot Progression by Acidifying the Microaerophilic Environment

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, Grace; Charkowski, Amy O.; Barak, Jeri D.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although enteric human pathogens are usually studied in the context of their animal hosts, a significant portion of their life cycle occurs on plants. Plant disease alters the phyllosphere, leading to enhanced growth of human pathogens; however, the impact of human pathogens on phytopathogen biology and plant health is largely unknown. To characterize the interaction between human pathogens and phytobacterial pathogens in the phyllosphere, we examined the interactions between Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and Salmonella enterica or Escherichia coli O157:H7 with regard to bacterial populations, soft rot progression, and changes in local pH. The presence of P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum enhanced the growth of both S. enterica and E. coli O157:H7 on leaves. However, in a microaerophilic environment, S. enterica reduced P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum populations and soft rot progression by moderating local environmental pH. Reduced soft rot was not due to S. enterica proteolytic activity. Limitations on P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum growth, disease progression, and pH elevation were not observed on leaves coinoculated with E. coli O157:H7 or when leaves were coinoculated with S. enterica in an aerobic environment. S. enterica also severely undermined the relationship between the phytobacterial population and disease progression of a P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum budB mutant defective in the 2,3-butanediol pathway for acid neutralization. Our results show that S. enterica and E. coli O157:H7 interact differently with the enteric phytobacterial pathogen P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum. S. enterica inhibition of soft rot progression may conceal a rapidly growing human pathogen population. Whereas soft rotted produce can alert consumers to the possibility of food-borne pathogens, healthy-looking produce may entice consumption of contaminated vegetables. PMID:23404399

  19. Phenolic content and antioxidant property of the bark extracts of Ziziphus mucronata Willd. subsp. mucronata Willd

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several plants traditionally used in treatment of a variety of infections in South Africa are reported in ethnobotanical surveys. Many of these plants including Ziziphus mucronata subsp. mucronata lack scientific reports to support their medicinal importance. Methods The antioxidant activities and phenolic contents of the acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts of the stems of Z. mucronata subsp. mucronata were evaluated using in vitro standard methods. The total phenol, total flavonoids and proanthocyanidin content were determined spectrophotometrically. Quercetin, Tannic acid and catechin equivalents were used for these parameters. The antioxidant activities of the stem bark extracts of this plant were determined by ABTS, DPPH, and ferrous reducing antioxidant property (FRAP) methods. Results The quantity of the phenolic compounds, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins detected differ significantly in the various extracts. The phenolics were significantly higher than the flavonoids and proanthocyanidin contents in all the extracts investigated. The ferric reducing ability and the radical scavenging activities of the extracts were very high and dose-dependent. The ethanol extract had the highest antioxidant activity, followed by the acetone extract while the aqueous extract was the least active. Reacting with ABTS, the 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) were (0.0429 ± 0.04 mg/ml) for aqueous, (0.0317 ± 0.04 mg/ml) for acetone and (0.0306 ± 0.04 mg/ml) for ethanol extracts while they inhibited DPPH radical with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 0.0646 ± 0.02 mg/ml (aqueous), 0.0482 ± 0.02 mg/ml (acetone) and 0.0422 ± 0.03 mg/ml (ethanol). Conclusions A correlation between the antioxidant activity and the total phenolic contents of the extracts indicated that phenolic compounds were the dominant contributors to the antioxidant activity of the plant. This study, therefore, demonstrated that Z. mucronata subsp. mucronata has strong antioxidant property and free radical scavenging capability. PMID:22176659

  20. Isolation and characterization of nisin-producing Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis from bean-sprouts.

    PubMed

    Cai, Y; Ng, L K; Farber, J M

    1997-10-01

    Bacterial isolates from bean-sprouts were screened for anti-Listeria monocytogenes bacteriocins using a well diffusion method. Thirty-four of 72 isolates inhibited the growth of L. monocytogenes Scott A. One, HPB 1688, which had the biggest inhibition zone against L. monocytogenes Scott A, was selected for subsequent analysis. Both ribotyping and DNA sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA gene demonstrated that the isolate was Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis. Polymerase chain reaction and nucleotide sequencing revealed that the genomic DNA of the bean-sprout isolates contained a nisin Z structural gene. In MRS broth, bean-sprout isolate HPB 1688 survived at 3-4.5 degrees C for at least 20 d, grew at 4 degrees C and produced anti-listerial compounds at 5 degrees C. When co-cultured with L. monocytogenes in MRS broth, the isolate inhibited the growth of L. monocytogenes at 4 degrees C after 14 d and at 10 degrees C after 2 d. When co-inoculated with 10(2) cells g-1 of L. monocytogenes on fresh-cut ready-to-eat Caesar salad, L. lactis subsp. lactis (10(8) cells g-1) was able to reduce the number of L. monocytogenes by 1-1.4 logs after storage for 10 d at 7 zero and 10 degrees C. A bacteriocin-producing Enterococcus faecium was also able to reduce the numbers of L. monocytogenes on Caesar salad, but did not act synergistically when co-inoculated with L. lactis subsp. lactis. PMID:9351230

  1. Characterization of the plasmid encoded virulence region pat-1 of phytopathogenic Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis.

    PubMed

    Dreier, J; Meletzus, D; Eichenlaub, R

    1997-03-01

    The tomato pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis NCPPB382, causing bacterial wilt and canker, harbors two plasmids, pCM1 (27.5 kb) and pCM2 (72 kb), carrying genes involved in virulence. The region of plasmid pCM2 encoding the pathogenicity locus pat-1 was mapped by deletion analysis and complementation studies to a 1.5-kb Bg/II/SmaI DNA fragment. Introduction of the pat-1 region into endophytic, plasmid-free isolates of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis converted these bacteria into virulent pathogens. Based on the nucleotide sequence of the pat-1 region, an open reading frame (ORF1) can be predicted, coding for a protein of 280 amino acids and 29.7 kDa with homology to serine proteases. Introduction of a frame-shift mutation in ORF1 leads to a loss of the pathogenic phenotype. Northern (RNA) hybridizations identified an 1.5-knt transcript of the pat-1 structural gene. The site of transcription initiation was mapped by primer extension and a typical -10/-35 region was located with significant homology to the consensus Escherichia coli sigma 70 and Bacillus subtilis sigma 43 promoters. Downstream of the pat-1 structural gene, a peculiar repetitive sequence motif (pat-1rep) is located, consisting of 20 direct tandem repeats preceded by a run of 14 guanosine residues. DNA sequences homologous to pat-1rep were isolated and characterized from four virulent C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis strains exhibiting a high extent of structural conservation. The deletion of this repetitive sequence reduced virulence significantly but did not lead to a complete loss of the virulence phenotype. PMID:9057325

  2. Characterization of a New Bacteriocin, Carocin D, from Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum Pcc21? †

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Eunjung; Park, Tae-Ho; Kim, Myung-il; Lee, Seungdon; Ryu, Sangryeol; Oh, Chang-Sik; Rhee, Sangkee; Kim, Doo-Ho; Park, Beom-Seok; Heu, Sunggi

    2010-01-01

    Two different bacteriocins, carotovoricin and carocin S1, had been found in Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, which causes soft-rot disease in diverse plants. Previously, we reported that the particular strain Pcc21, producing only one high-molecular-weight bacteriocin, carried a new antibacterial activity against the indicator strain Pcc3. Here, we report that this new antibacterial activity is due to a new bacteriocin produced by strain Pcc21 and named carocin D. Carocin D is encoded by the caroDK gene located in the genomic DNA together with the caroDI gene, which seems to encode an immunity protein. N-terminal amino acid sequences of purified carocin D were determined by Edman degradation. In comparison with the primary translation product of caroDK, it was found that 8 amino acids are missing at the N terminus. This finding proved that carocin D is synthesized as a precursor peptide and that 8 amino acids are removed from its N terminus during maturation. Carocin D has two putative translocation domains; the N-terminal and C-terminal domains are homologous to those of Escherichia coli colicin E3 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa S-type pyocin, respectively. When caroDK and caroDI genes were transformed into carocin D-sensitive bacteria such as Pcc3, the bacteria became resistant to this bacteriocin. Carocin D has one putative DNase domain at the extreme C terminus and showed DNase activity in vitro. This bacteriocin had slight tolerance to heat but not to proteases. The caroDK gene was present in only 5 of 54 strains of P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum. These results indicate that carocin D is a third bacteriocin found in P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, and this bacteriocin can be readily expressed in carocin D-sensitive nonpathogenic bacteria, which may have high potential as a biological control agent in the field. PMID:20870796

  3. Essential oil of Juniperus communis subsp. alpina (Suter) ?elak needles: chemical composition, antifungal activity and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Cabral, C; Francisco, V; Cavaleiro, C; Gonçalves, M J; Cruz, M T; Sales, F; Batista, M T; Salgueiro, L

    2012-09-01

    Essential oils are known to possess antimicrobial activity against a wide spectrum of bacteria and fungi. In the present work the composition and the antifungal activity of the oils of Juniperus communis subsp. alpina (Suter) ?elak were evaluated. Moreover, the skin cytotoxicity, at concentrations showing significant antifungal activity, was also evaluated. The oils were isolated by hydrodistillation and analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the oil against dermatophytes (Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis, M. gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, T. rubrum, T. verrucosum), yeasts (Candida albicans, C. guillermondii, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, Cryptococcus neoformans) and Aspergillus species (Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger). Cytotoxicity was tested in HaCaT keratinocytes through the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Essential oil of J. communis subsp. alpina needles was predominantly composed of monoterpene hydrocarbons (78.4%), with the main compounds being sabinene (26.2%), ?-pinene (12-9%) and limonene (10.4%). Results concerning the antifungal activity demonstrated the potential of needle oil against dermatophytes, particularly for Microsporum canis and Trichophyton rubrum with MIC and MLC of 0.32 ?L/mL. Furthermore, evaluation of cell viability showed no significant cytotoxicity in HaCaT keratinocytes at concentrations between 0.32 and 0.64 ?L/mL. These results show that it is possible to find appropriate doses of J. communis subsp. alpina oil with both antifungal activity and a very low detrimental effect on keratinocytes. PMID:22294341

  4. High-Throughput Direct Fecal PCR Assay for Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Sheep and Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Waldron, Anna M.; Galea, Francesca; Whittington, Ann-Michele; Saunders, Vanessa F.; Begg, Douglas J.; de Silva, Kumudika; Purdie, Auriol C.; Whittington, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Johne's disease (JD) is a chronic enteric disease caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis that affects ruminants. Transmission occurs by the fecal-oral route. A commonly used antemortem diagnostic test for the detection of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in feces is liquid culture; however, a major constraint is the 2- to 3-month incubation period needed for this method. Rapid methods for the detection of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis based on PCR have been reported, but comprehensive validation data are lacking. We describe here a new test, the high-throughput-Johnes (HT-J), to detect M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in feces. Its diagnostic accuracy was compared with that of liquid radiometric (Bactec) fecal culture using samples from cattle (1,330 samples from 23 herds) and sheep (596 samples from 16 flocks). The multistage protocol involves the recovery of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells from a fecal suspension, cell rupture by bead beating, extraction of DNA using magnetic beads, and IS900 quantitative PCR. The limit of detection of the assay was 0.0005 pg, and the limit of quantification was 0.005 pg M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis genomic DNA. Only M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was detected from a panel of 51 mycobacterial isolates, including 10 with IS900-like sequences. Of the 549 culture-negative fecal samples from unexposed herds and flocks, 99% were negative in the HT-J test, while 60% of the bovine- and 84% of the ovine-culture-positive samples were positive in the HT-J test. As similar total numbers of samples from M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-exposed animals were positive in culture and HT-J tests in both species, and as the results of a McNemar's test were not significant, these methods probably have similar sensitivities, but the true diagnostic sensitivities of these tests are unknown. These validation data meet the consensus-based reporting standards for diagnostic test accuracy studies for paratuberculosis and the Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments (MIQE) guidelines (S. A. Bustin et al., Clin. Chem. 55:611–622, 2009, doi:10.1373/clinchem.2008.112797). The HT-J assay has been approved for use in JD control programs in Australia and New Zealand. PMID:24352996

  5. Bemerkungen zur Taxonomie und Nomenklatur von Lotus krylovii Schischk . et Serg . und L. corniculatus L. subsp. frondosus Freyn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Chrtková-Žertová

    1970-01-01

    Lotus krylovii\\u000a Schischk. etSerg. undL. corniculatus L. subsp.frondosus\\u000a Freyn sind zwei unterschiedliche Taxa, gekennzeichnet durch einige morphologische Merkmale.L. krylovii ist am nächsten mitL. tenuis\\u000a Waldst. etKit. verwandt;L. corniculatus subsp.frondosus gehört in den Umkreis der Unterart vonL. corniculatus L., die im östlichen Teil des Areals der Art verbreitet ist. Nach ihrer Haupt-Verbreitung gehören die beiden Taxa zu den\\u000a westasiatischen Arten.

  6. Genomic Deletion Marking an Emerging Subclone of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica in France and the Iberian Peninsula? †

    PubMed Central

    Dempsey, M. P.; Dobson, M.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, M.; Lion, C.; Gutiérrez-Martín, C. B.; Iwen, P. C.; Fey, P. D.; Olson, M. E.; Niemeyer, D.; Francesconi, S.; Crawford, R.; Stanley, M.; Rhodes, J.; Wagner, D. M.; Vogler, A. J.; Birdsell, D.; Keim, P.; Johansson, A.; Hinrichs, S. H.; Benson, A. K.

    2007-01-01

    Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica is widely disseminated in North America and the boreal and temperate regions of the Eurasian continent. Comparative genomic analyses identified a 1.59-kb genomic deletion specific to F. tularensis subsp. holarctica isolates from Spain and France. Phylogenetic analysis of strains carrying this deletion by multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis showed that the strains comprise a highly related set of genotypes, implying that these strains were recently introduced or recently emerged by clonal expansion in France and the Iberian Peninsula. PMID:17890329

  7. Structure of a zwitterionic O-polysaccharide from Photorhabdus temperata subsp. cinerea 3240.

    PubMed

    Kondakova, Anna N; Kirsheva, Nadezhda A; Arbatsky, Nikolay P; Shaikhutdinova, Rima Z; Shashkov, Alexander S; Ivanov, Sergey A; Anisimov, Andrey P; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2015-04-30

    A phosphorylated O-polysaccharide was isolated from the lipopolysaccharide of an entomopathogenic bacterium Photorhabdus temperata subsp. cinerea 3240 and studied by sugar analysis, dephosphorylation, and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The following structure of the linear trisaccharide repeating unit of the O-polysaccharide was established: ?3)-?-D-GalpNAc4PEtN-(1?4)-?-D-GlcpA-(1?3)-?-D-FucpNAc4N-(1? where GlcA indicates glucuronic acid, FucNAc4N 2-acetamido-4-amino-2,4,6-trideoxygalactose, and PEtN 2-aminoethyl phosphate. PMID:25699972

  8. Genetic IS901 RFLP diversity among Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolates from four pheasant flocks.

    PubMed

    Moravkova, Monika; Lamka, Jiri; Slany, Michal; Pavlik, Ivo

    2013-01-01

    IS901 RFLP analysis of 36 Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (MAA) isolates from 15 pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) and two goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) from four pheasant farms was performed. Using this method, six different IS901 RFLP types (E, F, G, M, Q, and V) were identified. The distribution of IS901 RFLP profiles was tightly linked to individual flocks. Matching IS901 RFLP profiles observed in the present study indicate MAA transmission between pheasants and goshawks in the same locality. In two flocks, different pheasants within a flock as well as in various organs of five individual pheasants were found to have two distinct IS901 RFLP profiles. PMID:23388436

  9. Genetic IS901 RFLP diversity among Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolates from four pheasant flocks

    PubMed Central

    Moravkova, Monika; Lamka, Jiri; Slany, Michal

    2013-01-01

    IS901 RFLP analysis of 36 Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (MAA) isolates from 15 pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) and two goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) from four pheasant farms was performed. Using this method, six different IS901 RFLP types (E, F, G, M, Q, and V) were identified. The distribution of IS901 RFLP profiles was tightly linked to individual flocks. Matching IS901 RFLP profiles observed in the present study indicate MAA transmission between pheasants and goshawks in the same locality. In two flocks, different pheasants within a flock as well as in various organs of five individual pheasants were found to have two distinct IS901 RFLP profiles. PMID:23388436

  10. Phenolic Glycosides with antiproteasomal activity from Centaurea urvillei DC. subsp. urvillei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derya Gülcemal; Özgen Alanku?-Çal??kan; Canan Karaalp; Ahmet Uygar Örs; Petek Ballar; Erdal Bedir

    2010-01-01

    A new flavanone glycoside, naringenin-7-O-?-d-glucuronopyranoside, and a new flavonol glycoside, 6-hydroxykaempferol-7-O-?-d-glucuronopyranoside were isolated together with 12 known compounds, 5 flavone glycoside; hispidulin-7-O-?-d-glucuronopyranoside, apigenin-7-O-?-d-methylglucuronopyranoside, hispidulin-7-O-?-d-methylglucuronopyranoside, hispidulin-7-O-?-d-glucopyranoside, apigenin-7-O-?-d-glucopyranoside, a flavonol; kaempferol, two flavone; apigenin, and luteolin, a flavanone glycoside; eriodictyol-7-O-?-d-glucuronopyranoside, and three phenol glycoside; arbutin, salidroside, and 3,5-dihydroxyphenethyl alcohol-3-O-?-d-glucopyranoside from Centaurea urvillei subsp. urvillei. The structure elucidation of the new compounds was

  11. Features of alloplasmic wheat-barley substitution and addition lines ( Hordeum marinum subsp. gussoneanum )- Triticum aestivum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. Pershina; E. P. Devyatkina; L. I. Belova; N. V. Trubacheeva; V. S. Arbuzova; L. A. Kravtsova

    2009-01-01

    Two alloplasmic wheat-barley substitution lines were studied: a line replaced at three pairs of chromosomes 1H\\u000a mar\\u000a (1B), 5H\\u000a mar\\u000a (5D), and 7H\\u000a mar\\u000a (7D), and the disomic-substituted line 7H\\u000a mar\\u000a (7D). The lines were constructed on the basis of individual plants from BC1F8 and BC2F6 progeny of barley-wheat hybrids (H. marinum subsp. gussoneanum Hudson (= H. geniculatum All.) (2n

  12. Genetic Diversity of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus and Doxycycline Resistance in Kennelled Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Chalker, Victoria J.; Waller, Andrew; Webb, Katy; Spearing, Emma; Crosse, Patricia; Brownlie, Joe

    2012-01-01

    The genetic diversity and antibiotic resistance profiles of 38 Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus isolates were determined from a kennelled canine population during two outbreaks of hemorrhagic pneumonia (1999 to 2002 and 2007 to 2010). Analysis of the szp gene hypervariable region and the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) indicated a predominant tetO-positive, doxycycline-resistant ST-10 strain during 1999 to 2002 and a predominant tetM-positive doxycycline-resistant ST-62 strain during 2007 to 2010. PMID:22495558

  13. Canopy disturbance patterns and regeneration of Quercus species in two Ohio old-growth forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D.-S. Cho; R. E. J. Boerner

    1991-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the abundance of Quercus species, the spatial pattern of Quercus regeneration, the current canopy disturbance pattern, and their interrelationship in two old-growth deciduous forests in Ohio (Goll Woods and Sears-Carmean Woods). Acer saccharum and Fagus grandifolia had the greatest density and basal area in both forests, yet the largest trees (by basal area) present

  14. The first host records for the Nearctic species Triraphis discoideus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Rogadinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limacodid larvae were collected from 2004 – 2007 on leaves of the following host plants in the District of Columbia and Maryland: Carya glabra, pignut hickory; Quercus alba, white oak; Quercus rubra, northern red oak; Nyssa sylvatica, black gum; Prunus serotina, black cherry; and Fagus grandifolia, ...

  15. the American Mosquito Control Associalinn, 15(3):423-424 1999 in''11"', (C) 1999 by the American Mosquito Coi;;rol Association, Inc.

    E-print Network

    Livdahl, Todd

    the American Mosquito Control Associalinn, 15(3):423-424 1999 in''11"', (C) 1999 by the American Mosquito Coi;;rol Association, Inc. -rtV'f'C" SCIENTIFIC NOTE H2I216 NA FIRST RECORD OF TOXORHYNCHITES. On July 21> 1998- we found 6 Tx. rutilus larvae in tree hole of a beech (Fagus grandifolia) tree lo- cated

  16. The effects of feeding by Oniscus asellus on leaf litter sulfur constituents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. R. Morgan; M. J. Mitchell

    1987-01-01

    Feeding by the isopod, Oniscus asellus, produced changes in the sulfur constituents of leaf litter substrates (Acer negundo, A. saccharum, Fagus grandifolia, Picea rubens, and Tsuga canadensis). Isopod consumption of leaf litter generally accelerated the mineralization of carbon-bonded S and increased the formation of ester sulfate in all substrates. After the isopod egestion of A. negundo leaves, fecal decomposition over

  17. Facilitative Effects of Group Feeding on Performance of the Saddleback Caterpillar (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae)

    E-print Network

    Murphy, Shannon

    (Quercus alba L.) and American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrlich), and recorded multiple measures of insect to have evolved many times as an adaptation to a wide variety of selective pressures (Bowers 1992, Costa are better able to retain heat due to their proximity to one another, as well as the convective recycling

  18. Nitrogen cycling in a northern hardwood forest: Do species matter?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary M. Lovett; Kathleen C. Weathers; Mary A. Arthur; Jack C. Schultz

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the influence of individual tree species on nitrogen (N) cycling in forests, we measured key characteristics of the N cycle in small single-species plots of five dominant tree species in the Catskill Mountains of New York State. The species studied were sugar maple (Acer saccharum), American beech (Fagus grandifolia), yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis), eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), and

  19. OIKOS72: 323-332. Copenhagen1995 Delineationof ecologicalboundaries:comparisonof approaches

    E-print Network

    Fortin, Marie Josee

    58 29.0 Ulmus americana 72 36.0 The 103 51.5 Betula populifolia 88 44.0 Fraxinus americana 88 44.0 Fagus grandifolia 46 23.0 Fraxinus nigra 53 26.5 Pinus strobus 40 20.0 Tilia americana 82 41.0 Tsuga canadensis 136 68.0 Thuja occidentalis

  20. eschweizerbartxxx author Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol.

    E-print Network

    Lowe, Winsor H.

    Forest, New Hampshire, USA. Falls Brook and Canyon Brook are second-order streams in the Hubbard Brook- rum), American beech (Fagus grandifolia), yellow birch (Bet- ula alleghaniensis), red spruce (Picea). Moving upstream, we turned 125 cover objects (rocks between 64 and 256 mm diameter) from within the main

  1. Phytotoxicity of American beech leaf leachate to sugar maple seedlings in a greenhouse experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth N. Hane; Steven P. Hamburg; Adelia L. Barber; Jennifer A. Plaut

    2003-01-01

    In an effort to reexamine the factors that affect codominance of American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), a greenhouse experiment was conducted to test the potential phytotoxic ef- fects of American beech leaf leachate on sugar maple seedlings. We utilized an experimental protocol that addressed phytotoxic, nutrient, and pH effects by watering seedlings with seven

  2. Changes in Presettlement Forest Composition for Five Areas in the Central Hardwood Forest, 1784-1990

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James S. Rentch; Ray R. Hicks

    Witness tree tallies from early land surveys show that presettlement forests in eastern Ohio, southwestern Pennsylvania, and north central West Virginia were oak-dominated forests. Quercus alba was dominant by a large margin - at minimum, twice as abundant as Q. velutina, the second ranked species. Acer saccharum and Fagus grandifolia were among the top ten ranked species at each site;

  3. Late Holocene Decline of Beech Populations in the Central Great Lakes Region: Drought Induced Vegetation Change in a Humid Region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. K. Booth; S. T. Jackson; M. Taylor; E. Pendall; V. A. Sousa

    2007-01-01

    A large decline in beech populations ( Fagus grandifolia) has been well-documented from pollen records in southeastern Michigan and Southern Ontario between 1000 and 600 BP. These records reveal that declines in beech pollen were generally associated with increases in oak ( Quercus) and pine ( Pinus). The beech decline probably extended eastward into western Pennsylvania and New York, although

  4. Cytotoxicity, antimicrobial activity and composition of essential oil from Tanacetum balsamita L. subsp. balsamita.

    PubMed

    Yousefzadi, Morteza; Ebrahimi, Samad Nejad; Sonboli, Ali; Miraghasi, Farah; Ghiasi, Shahla; Arman, Mitra; Mosaffa, Nariman

    2009-01-01

    The aerial parts of Tanacetum balsamita subsp. balsamita were collected at full flowering stage from Tabriz, Iran. The essential oil was isolated by hydrodistillation and analyzed by combination of capillary GC and GC-MS. Twenty seven components were identified, representing 99.2% of the total oil. Carvone (51.0%), beta-thujone (20.8%), 1,8-cineole (4.4%) and alpha-thujone (3.2%) were the main components. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of T. balsamita subsp. balsamita was studied against eight Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, B. pumulis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae) and three fungi (Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus niger). The results of the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil according to the disc diffusion method and MIC values indicated that the oil exhibited moderate to high antimicrobial activity. The in vitro toxicological study based on the MTT cytotoxicity assay on human fetal skin fibroblast (HFSF) and Monkey kidney (Vero) cell lines showed IC50 values of 2500 and 1250 microg/mL, respectively. PMID:19370888

  5. The Cry Toxin Operon of Clostridium bifermentans subsp. malaysia Is Highly Toxic to Aedes Larval Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Nadia; Chawla, Swati; Likitvivatanavong, Supaporn; Lee, Han Lim

    2014-01-01

    The management and control of mosquito vectors of human disease currently rely primarily on chemical insecticides. However, larvicidal treatments can be effective, and if based on biological insecticides, they can also ameliorate the risk posed to human health by chemical insecticides. The aerobic bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis and Lysinibacillus sphaericus have been used for vector control for a number of decades. But a more cost-effective use would be an anaerobic bacterium because of the ease with which these can be cultured. More recently, the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium bifermentans subsp. malaysia has been reported to have high mosquitocidal activity, and a number of proteins were identified as potentially mosquitocidal. However, the cloned proteins showed no mosquitocidal activity. We show here that four toxins encoded by the Cry operon, Cry16A, Cry17A, Cbm17.1, and Cbm17.2, are all required for toxicity, and these toxins collectively show remarkable selectivity for Aedes rather than Anopheles mosquitoes, even though C. bifermentans subsp. malaysia is more toxic to Anopheles. Hence, toxins that target Anopheles are different from those expressed by the Cry operon. PMID:25002432

  6. Antispasmodic effect of Achillea nobilis L. subsp. sipylea (O. Schwarz) Bässler on the rat isolated duodenum.

    PubMed

    Karamenderes, Canan; Apaydin, Sebnem

    2003-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the antispasmodic effect of the total extract of Achillea nobilis L. subsp. sipylea (Schwarz) Bässler (Asteraceae) on rat duodenum. In the first part of experiments, cumulative dose-response curves for acetylcholine (Ach) were obtained and then dose-response curves are repeated after addition of atropine, papaverine and different doses of the extract. In the second part, cumulative dose-response curves to CaCl(2) were obtained in the absence and presence of verapamil and different doses of the extract. In the third part, papaverine and extract were applied to the tissues after contraction with K(+). The extract has exhibited an inhibitory effect on the dose-response curves induced by Ach and CaCl(2) on rat duodenum and significantly reduced the maximal response in a concentration-dependent manner. A similar effect was observed with papaverine but not with atropine on the dose-response curves obtained by ACh. Verapamil also reduced the maximal response in curves induced by CaCl(2). The present results demonstrate that total extract of A. nobilis subsp. sipylea exerts antispasmodic activity on rat duodenum. PMID:12648812

  7. Production of a Thermostable and Alkaline Chitinase by Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki Strain HBK-51

    PubMed Central

    Kuzu, Secil Berna; Güvenmez, Hatice Korkmaz; Denizci, Aziz Akin

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the isolation and identification of chitinase-producing Bacillus from chitin-containing wastes, production of a thermostable and alkaline chitinasese, and enzyme characterization. Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HBK-51 was isolated from soil and was identified. Chitinase was obtained from supernatant of B. thuringiensis HBK-51 strain and showed its optimum activity at 110°C and at pH 9.0. Following 3 hours of incubation period, the enzyme showed a high level of activity at 110°C (96% remaining activity) and between pH 9.0 and 12.0 (98% remaining activity). Considering these characteristics, the enzyme was described as hyperthermophile-thermostable and highly alkaline. Two bands of the enzyme weighing 50 and 125?kDa were obtained following 12% SDS-PAGE analyses. Among the metal ions and chemicals used, Ni2+ (32%), K+ (44%), and Cu2+ (56%) increased the enzyme activity while EDTA (7%), SDS (7%), Hg2+ (11%), and ethyl-acetimidate (20%) decreased the activity of the enzyme. Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HBK-51 is an important strain which can be used in several biotechnological applications as a chitinase producer. PMID:23304523

  8. A new selective medium for isolation of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis from tomato plants and seed.

    PubMed

    Ftayeh, Radwan M; von Tiedemann, Andreas; Rudolph, Klaus W E

    2011-11-01

    A new selective and highly sensitive medium was developed for isolation of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm), the causal agent of bacterial canker of tomato, from seed and latently infected plants. The new medium (BCT) proved to be superior to all published semiselective media for Cmm and is denoted as selective medium because of (i) its mean plating efficiency, amounting to ?89% within 7 days for all 30 Cmm strains from different sources tested; (ii) the high selectivity, because accompanying bacterial species occurring on tomato plants and seed or bacteria obtained from culture collections were inhibited to an extent of 98 to 100%; and (iii) the remarkable detection sensitivity. Thus, 8 CFU of Cmm in field plant homogenates containing 12,750 CFU of accompanying saprophytes were detected on BCT. Under these extreme conditions, all of the published semiselective media (D2, KBT, D2ANX, SCM, mSCM, CMM1, mCNS, and EPPO) gave false-negative results. Either some media were rather toxic and Cmm growth was also inhibited or the other, less toxic media allowed growth of high numbers of saprophytes, so that Cmm growth was suppressed. Exclusively, BCT also supported growth of the closely related C. michiganensis subsp. insidiosus, nebraskensis, and tessellarius. The new medium is recommended for Cmm detection in tomato seed, and in symptomless tomato plantlets, to improve disease control of bacterial canker of tomato. PMID:21999159

  9. The generalist Inga subnuda subsp. luschnathiana (Fabaceae): negative effect of floral visitors on reproductive success?

    PubMed

    Avila, R; Pinheiro, M; Sazima, M

    2015-05-01

    Inga species are characterised by generalist or mixed pollination system. However, this feature does not enhance reproductive rates in species with very low fruit set under natural conditions. Some ecological and genetic factors are associated with this feature, and to test the effect of massive visits on pollination success in Inga subnuda subsp. luschnathiana, we studied the efficacy of polyads deposited on stigmas of flowers isolated from visitors and polyads exposed to visitors. The proportion of polyads fixed in stigmas decreased after exposure to visitors (24 h) in comparison to stigmas isolated from visitors (hummingbirds, bees, wasps, hawkmoths and bats), and fruit set was very low. Furthermore, nectar production, sugar composition and other floral biology traits were evaluated. Increased nectar production, sugar availability and sucrose dominance during the night indicates adaptation to nocturnal visitors and supports their role as main pollinators; although the brush-flower morphology, time of anthesis, nectar dynamics and chemical composition also allow daytime visitors. Thus the species is an important resource for a diverse group of floral visitors. We conclude that excess visits (diurnal and nocturnal) are responsible for the decrease in fixed polyads in stigmas of I. subnuda subsp. luschnathiana flowers, thus contributing, with others factors, to its low fruit set. Therefore, the generalist pollination system does not result in reproductive advantages because the low fruit set in natural conditions could be the result of a negative effect of visitors/pollinators. PMID:25488371

  10. Potential of Pseudomonas chlororaphis subsp. aurantiaca Strain Pcho10 as a Biocontrol Agent Against Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Hu, Weiqun; Gao, Qixun; Hamada, Mohamed Sobhy; Dawood, Dawood Hosni; Zheng, Jingwu; Chen, Yun; Ma, Zhonghua

    2014-12-01

    ABSTRACT To develop an effective biocontrol strategy for management of Fusarium head blight on wheat caused by Fusarium graminearum, the bacterial biocontrol agent Pcho10 was selected from more than 1,476 wheat-head-associated bacterial strains according to its antagonistic activity in vitro. This strain was subsequently characterized as Pseudomonas chlororaphis subsp. aurantiaca based on 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis, assays of the BIOLOG microbial identification system, and unique pigment production. The major antifungal metabolite produced by Pcho10 was further identified as phenazine-1-carboxamide (PCN) on the basis of nuclear magnetic resonance data. The core PCN biosynthesis gene cluster in Pcho10 was cloned and sequenced. PCN showed strong inhibitory activity against F. graminearum conidial germination, mycelial growth, and deoxynivalenol production. Tests both under growth chamber conditions and in field trials showed that Pcho10 well colonized on the wheat head and effectively controlled the disease caused by F. graminearum. Results of this study indicate that P. chlororaphis subsp. aurantiaca Pcho10 has high potential to be developed as a biocontrol agent against F. graminearum. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the use of P. chlororaphis for the management of Fusarium head blight. PMID:24941327

  11. Environmental Survival of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Different Climatic Zones of Eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Begg, Douglas J.; Dhand, Navneet K.; Watt, Bruce; Whittington, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The duration of survival of both the S and C strains of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in feces was quantified in contrasting climatic zones of New South Wales, Australia, and detailed environmental temperature data were collected. Known concentrations of S and C strains in feces placed on soil in polystyrene boxes were exposed to the environment with or without the provision of shade (70%) at Bathurst, Armidale, Condobolin, and Broken Hill, and subsamples taken every 2 weeks were cultured for the presence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The duration of survival ranged from a minimum of 1 week to a maximum of 16 weeks, and the provision of 70% shade was the most important factor in extending the survival time. The hazard of death for exposed compared to shaded samples was 20 and 9 times higher for the S and C strains, respectively. Site did not affect the survival of the C strain, but for the S strain, the hazard of death was 2.3 times higher at the two arid zone sites (Broken Hill and Condobolin) than at the two temperate zone sites (Bathurst and Armidale). Temperature measurements revealed maximum temperatures exceeding 60°C and large daily temperature ranges at the soil surface, particularly in exposed boxes. PMID:24463974

  12. Molecular Characterization of Pigmented and Nonpigmented Isolates of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Karen; Hughes, Valerie M.; de Juan, Lucía; Inglis, Neil F.; Wright, Frank; Sharp, J. Michael

    2002-01-01

    Five pigmented isolates of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis were examined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), IS900 restriction fragment length polymorphism (IS900-RFLP), and IS1311 polymorphism analysis using PCR. All of the pigmented isolates exhibited one of three distinct PFGE profiles with SnaBI, designated 9, 10, and 11, and with SpeI, designated 7, 8, and 9, which generated three multiplex profiles designated [9-7], [10-8], and [11-9]. All of the pigmented isolates had the same IS900-RFLP BstEII and PvuII profiles. The IS900-RFLP BstEII profile was new, but the IS900-RFLP PvuII profile corresponded to PvuII type 6 of a sheep strain described by Cousins and colleagues (D. V. Cousins, S. N. Williams, A. Hope, and G. J. Eamens, Aust. Vet. J. 78:184-190, 2000). IS1311-PCR analysis typed all of the pigmented isolates as sheep (S) strains. The genetic relationship between pigmented and nonpigmented isolates was investigated by using multiplex PFGE data from the analysis of both the 5 pigmented isolates and 88 nonpigmented isolates of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis from a variety of host species and geographic locations. It was possible to classify the isolates into two distinct types designated type I, comprising the pigmented isolates, and type II, comprising the nonpigmented isolates, which exhibit a very broad host range. PMID:11980962

  13. Multi-Method Approach for Characterizing the Interaction between Fusarium verticillioides and Bacillus thuringiensis Subsp. Kurstaki

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Liliana O.; Tralamazza, Sabina Moser.; Reis, Gabriela M.; Rabinovitch, Leon; Barbosa, Cynara B.; Corrêa, Benedito

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial antagonists used as biocontrol agents represent part of an integrated management program to reduce pesticides in the environment. Bacillus thuringiensis is considered a good alternative as a biocontrol agent for suppressing plant pathogens such as Fusarium. In this study, we used microscopy, flow cytometry, indirect immunofluorescence, and high performance liquid chromatography to determine the interaction between B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki LFB-FIOCRUZ (CCGB) 257 and F. verticillioides MRC 826, an important plant pathogen frequently associated with maize. B. thuringiensis showed a strong in vitro suppressive effect on F. verticillioides growth and inhibited fumonisin production. Flow cytometry analysis was found to be adequate for characterizing the fungal cell oscillations and death during these interactions. Further studies of the antagonistic effect of this isolate against other fungi and in vivo testing are necessary to determine the efficacy of B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki in controlling plant pathogens. This is the first report on the use of flow cytometry for quantifying living and apoptotic F. verticillioides cells and the B. thuringiensis Cry 1Ab toxin. PMID:24739804

  14. Persistent infection or successive reinfection of deer mice with Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ying; Calisher, Charles H; Kosoy, Michael Y; Root, J Jeffrey; Doty, Jeffrey B

    2011-03-01

    Bartonella infections are common in rodents. From 1994 to 2006, longitudinal studies of a rodent community, consisting mainly of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), were conducted in southwestern Colorado to study hantaviruses. Blood samples from deer mice captured one or more times during the period 2003 to 2006 (n = 737) were selected to study bartonellae in deer mice. Bartonellae were found to be widely distributed in that population, with an overall prevalence of 82.4% (607/737 mice). No correlation was found between bartonella prevalence and deer mouse weight or sex. Persistent or successive infections with bartonellae were observed in deer mice captured repeatedly, with a prevalence of 83.9% (297/354), and the infection appeared to last for more than 1 year in some of them. Persistent infection with bartonellae may explain the high prevalence of these bacteria in deer mice at this site and, perhaps, elsewhere. Genetic analysis demonstrated that deer mouse-borne bartonella isolates at this site belong to the same species, B. vinsonii subsp. arupensis, demonstrating a specific relationship between B. vinsonii subsp. arupensis and deer mice. PMID:21239553

  15. An outbreak of fatal hemorrhagic pneumonia caused by Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus in shelter dogs

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Soon-Seek; Woo, Gye-Hyeong; Jung, Byeong Yeal; Joo, Yi-Seok

    2009-01-01

    An outbreak of fatal hemorrhagic pneumonia with 70~90% morbidity and 50% mortality occurred in an animal shelter in Yangju, Gyeonggi Province, Korea. Clinically, the affected dogs showed severe respiratory distress within 48 h after arriving in the shelter. The dead were found mainly with nasal bleeding and hematemesis. At necropsy, hemothorax and hemorrhagic pneumonia along with severe pulmonary consolidation was observed, though histopathological analysis showed mainly hemorrhagic bronchopneumonia. Lymphoid depletion was inconsistently seen in the spleen, tonsil and bronchial lymph node. Gram-positive colonies were shown in blood vessels or parenchyma of cerebrum, lung, liver, spleen, and kidney. Also, Streptococcus (S.) equi subsp. zooepidemicus was isolated from the various organs in which the bacterium was microscopically and histologically detected. In addition, approximately 0.9 Kb specific amplicon, antiphagocytic factor H binding protein, was amplified in the bacterial isolates. In this study, we reported an outbreak of canine hemorrhagic bronchopneumonia caused by S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus in an animal shelter in Yangju, Korea. PMID:19687630

  16. Stabilization of Frozen Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in Glycerol Suspensions: Freezing Kinetics and Storage Temperature Effects

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, F.; Marin, M.; Morris, G. J.

    2006-01-01

    The interactions between freezing kinetics and subsequent storage temperatures and their effects on the biological activity of lactic acid bacteria have not been examined in studies to date. This paper investigates the effects of three freezing protocols and two storage temperatures on the viability and acidification activity of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CFL1 in the presence of glycerol. Samples were examined at ?196°C and ?20°C by freeze fracture and freeze substitution electron microscopy. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to measure proportions of ice and glass transition temperatures for each freezing condition tested. Following storage at low temperatures (?196°C and ?80°C), the viability and acidification activity of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus decreased after freezing and were strongly dependent on freezing kinetics. High cooling rates obtained by direct immersion in liquid nitrogen resulted in the minimum loss of acidification activity and viability. The amount of ice formed in the freeze-concentrated matrix was determined by the freezing protocol, but no intracellular ice was observed in cells suspended in glycerol at any cooling rate. For samples stored at ?20°C, the maximum loss of viability and acidification activity was observed with rapidly cooled cells. By scanning electron microscopy, these cells were not observed to contain intracellular ice, and they were observed to be plasmolyzed. It is suggested that the cell damage which occurs in rapidly cooled cells during storage at high subzero temperatures is caused by an osmotic imbalance during warming, not the formation of intracellular ice. PMID:17021195

  17. Persistent Infection or Successive Reinfection of Deer Mice with Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis?

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Ying; Calisher, Charles H.; Kosoy, Michael Y.; Root, J. Jeffrey; Doty, Jeffrey B.

    2011-01-01

    Bartonella infections are common in rodents. From 1994 to 2006, longitudinal studies of a rodent community, consisting mainly of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), were conducted in southwestern Colorado to study hantaviruses. Blood samples from deer mice captured one or more times during the period 2003 to 2006 (n = 737) were selected to study bartonellae in deer mice. Bartonellae were found to be widely distributed in that population, with an overall prevalence of 82.4% (607/737 mice). No correlation was found between bartonella prevalence and deer mouse weight or sex. Persistent or successive infections with bartonellae were observed in deer mice captured repeatedly, with a prevalence of 83.9% (297/354), and the infection appeared to last for more than 1 year in some of them. Persistent infection with bartonellae may explain the high prevalence of these bacteria in deer mice at this site and, perhaps, elsewhere. Genetic analysis demonstrated that deer mouse-borne bartonella isolates at this site belong to the same species, B. vinsonii subsp. arupensis, demonstrating a specific relationship between B. vinsonii subsp. arupensis and deer mice. PMID:21239553

  18. Cytotoxicity of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides Small Colony Type to Bovine Epithelial Cells?

    PubMed Central

    Bischof, Daniela F.; Janis, Carole; Vilei, Edy M.; Bertoni, Giuseppe; Frey, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    The cytotoxicities of various strains of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony type (SC), the agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), were measured in vitro using embryonic calf nasal epithelial (ECaNEp) cells. Strains isolated from acute cases of CBPP induced high cytotoxicity in the presence of glycerol, concomitant with the release of large amounts of toxic H2O2 that were found to be translocated into the cytoplasms of the host cells by close contact of the Mycoplasma strains with the host cells. Currently used vaccine strains also showed high cytotoxicity and high H2O2 release, indicating that they are attenuated in another virulence attribute. Strains isolated from recent European outbreaks of CBPP with mild clinical signs, which are characterized by a defect in the glycerol uptake system, released small amounts of H2O2 and showed low cytotoxicity to ECaNEp cells. M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC strain PG1 released large amounts of H2O2 but was only slightly cytotoxic. PG1 was found to have a reduced capacity to bind to ECaNEp cells and was unable to translocate H2O2 into the bovine cells, in contrast to virulent strains that release large amounts of H2O2. Thus, an efficient translocation of H2O2 into host cells is a prerequisite for the cytotoxic effect and requires an intact adhesion mechanism to ensure a close contact between mycoplasmas and host cells. PMID:17998309

  19. Response of endophytic bacterial communities in potato plants to infection with Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Birgit; Pfeifer, Ulrike; Schwab, Helmut; Sessitsch, Angela

    2002-05-01

    The term endophyte refers to interior colonization of plants by microorganisms that do not have pathogenic effects on their hosts, and various endophytes have been found to play important roles in plant vitality. In this study, cultivation-independent terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA directly amplified from plant tissue DNA was used in combination with molecular characterization of isolates to examine the influence of plant stress, achieved by infection with the blackleg pathogen Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica, on the endophytic population in two different potato varieties. Community analysis clearly demonstrated increased bacterial diversity in infected plants compared to that in control plants. The results also indicated that the pathogen stress had a greater impact on the bacteria population than the plant genotype had. Partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes of isolated endophytes revealed a broad phylogenetic spectrum of bacteria, including members of the alpha, beta, and gamma subgroups of the Proteobacteria, high- and low-G+C-content gram-positive organisms, and microbes belonging to the Flexibacter-Cytophaga-Bacteroides group. Screening of the isolates for antagonistic activity against E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica revealed that 38% of the endophytes protected tissue culture plants from blackleg disease. PMID:11976096

  20. Organization of the genes encoding [Fe] hydrogenase in Desulfovibrio vulgaris subsp. oxamicus Monticello.

    PubMed Central

    Voordouw, G; Strang, J D; Wilson, F R

    1989-01-01

    The genes encoding the periplasmic [Fe] hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris subsp. oxamicus Monticello were cloned by exploiting their homology with the hydAB genes from D. vulgaris subsp. vulgaris Hildenborough, in which this enzyme is present as a heterologous dimer of alpha and beta subunits. Nucleotide sequencing showed that the enzyme is encoded by an operon in which the gene for the 46-kilodalton (kDa) alpha subunit precedes that of the 13.5-kDa beta subunit, exactly as in the Hildenborough strain. The pairs of hydA and hydB genes are highly homologous; both alpha subunits (420 amino acid residues) share 79% sequence identity, while the unprocessed beta subunits (124 and 123 amino acid residues, respectively) share 71% sequence identity. In contrast, there appears to be no sequence homology outside these coding regions, with the exception of a possible promoter element, which was found approximately 90 base pairs upstream from the translational start of the hydA gene. The recently discovered hydC gene, which may code for a 65.8-kDa fusion protein (gamma) of the alpha and beta subunits and is present immediately downstream from the hydAB genes in the Hildenborough strain, was found to be absent from the Monticello strain. The implication of this result for the possible function of the hydC gene product in Desulfovibrio species is discussed. Images PMID:2661538

  1. Culture- and quantitative IS900 real-time PCR-based analysis of the persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in a controlled dairy cow farm environment.

    PubMed

    Moravkova, M; Babak, V; Kralova, A; Pavlik, I; Slana, I

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor the persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in environmental samples taken from a Holstein farm with a long history of clinical paratuberculosis. A herd of 606 head was eradicated, and mechanical cleaning and disinfection with chloramine B with ammonium (4%) was carried out on the farm; in the surrounding areas (on the field and field midden) lime was applied. Environmental samples were collected before and over a period of 24 months after destocking. Only one sample out of 48 (2%) examined on the farm (originating from a waste pit and collected before destocking) was positive for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis by cultivation on solid medium (Herrold's egg yolk medium). The results using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) showed that a total of 81% of environmental samples with an average mean M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cell number of 3.09 × 10(3) were positive for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis before destocking compared to 43% with an average mean M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cell number of 5.86 × 10(2) after 24 months. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-positive samples were detected in the cattle barn as well as in the calf barn and surrounding areas. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was detected from different matrices: floor and instrument scrapings, sediment, or scraping from watering troughs, waste pits, and cobwebs. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis DNA was also detected in soil and plants collected on the field midden and the field 24 months after destocking. Although the proportion of positive samples decreased from 64% to 23% over time, the numbers of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells were comparable. PMID:22773642

  2. MLST-v, multilocus sequence typing based on virulence genes, for molecular typing of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Tankouo-Sandjong; A. Sessitsch; E. Liebana; C. Kornschober; F. Allerberger; H. Hächler; L. Bodrossy

    2007-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica is one of the main causative agents of food-borne disease in man, and can also be the cause of serious systemic illness. Organisms belonging to this genus have traditionally been classified on the basis of the antigenic properties of the cell-surface lipopolysaccharide and of the phase 1 and phase 2 flagellar proteins. Primary isolation, biochemical identification,

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serotype Oranienburg Strain S-76, Isolated from an Aquatic Environment

    PubMed Central

    Medrano-Félix, Andrés; Estrada-Acosta, Mitzi; Jiménez, Maribel; Gómez-Gil, Bruno; León-Félix, Josefina; Amarillas, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella is a widespread microorganism and a common causative agent of food-borne illnesses. Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Oranienburg is highly prevalent in surface water from tropical ecosystems and is not commonly related to illnesses. Here, we report the first genome sequence of Salmonella Oranienburg strain S-76, isolated from an aquatic environment. PMID:24336368

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Give, Isolated from an Imported Chili Powder Product.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Chen, Yi; Ayers, Sherry; Melka, David; Laasri, Anna; Payne, Justin S; Zheng, Jie; Son, Insook; Timme, Ruth; Kastanis, George; Hammack, Thomas S; Strain, Errol; Allard, Marc W; Evans, Peter S; Brown, Eric W

    2015-01-01

    We report the genome sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Give (CFSAN012622), isolated from imported chili powder in 2014. This genome contains genes previously reported to be specific only to S. enterica serovar Enteritidis. This strain shows a unique pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern clustering with serovar Enteritidis (JEG X01.0005). PMID:26139723

  5. Molecular analysis of yogurt containing Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in human intestinal microbiota1-3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raimundo García-Albiach; María José; Pozuelo de Felipe; Santiago Angulo; María-Isabel Morosini; Daniel Bravo; Fernando Baquero; Rosa del Campo

    Background: Yogurt has traditionally been considered a probiotic- carrier food with health-promoting effects. Despite the universal as- sumption of this assertion, several researchers have evaluated the real capability of the yogurt bacteria Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bul- garicus and Streptococcus thermophilus to survive and proliferate in the human intestine and have found contradictory results. Objective: This double-blind crossover study assessed the

  6. A 38-Kilobase Pathogenicity Island Specific for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Encodes Cell Surface Proteins Expressed in the Host

    PubMed Central

    Stratmann, Janin; Strommenger, Birgit; Goethe, Ralph; Dohmann, Karen; Gerlach, Gerald-F.; Stevenson, Karen; Li, Ling-ling; Zhang, Qing; Kapur, Vivek; Bull, Tim J.

    2004-01-01

    We have used representational difference analysis to identify a novel Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific ABC transporter operon (mpt), which comprises six open reading frames designated mptA to -F and is immediately preceded by two putative Fur boxes. Functional genomics revealed that the mpt operon is flanked on one end by a fep cluster encoding proteins involved in the uptake of Fe3+ and on the other end by a sid cluster encoding non-ribosome-dependent heterocyclic siderophore synthases. Together these genes form a 38-kb M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific locus flanked by an insertion sequence similar to IS1110. Expression studies using Western blot analyses showed that MptC is present in the envelope fraction of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The MptD protein was shown to be surface exposed, using a specific phage (fMptD) isolated from a phage-peptide library, by differential screening of Mycobacterium smegmatis transformants. The phage fMptD-derived peptide could be used in a peptide-mediated capture PCR with milk from infected dairy herds, thereby showing surface-exposed expression of the MptD protein in the host. Together, these data suggest that the 38-kb locus constitutes an M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis pathogenicity island. PMID:14977927

  7. A 38-kilobase pathogenicity island specific for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis encodes cell surface proteins expressed in the host.

    PubMed

    Stratmann, Janin; Strommenger, Birgit; Goethe, Ralph; Dohmann, Karen; Gerlach, Gerald-F; Stevenson, Karen; Li, Ling-Ling; Zhang, Qing; Kapur, Vivek; Bull, Tim J

    2004-03-01

    We have used representational difference analysis to identify a novel Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific ABC transporter operon (mpt), which comprises six open reading frames designated mptA to -F and is immediately preceded by two putative Fur boxes. Functional genomics revealed that the mpt operon is flanked on one end by a fep cluster encoding proteins involved in the uptake of Fe(3+) and on the other end by a sid cluster encoding non-ribosome-dependent heterocyclic siderophore synthases. Together these genes form a 38-kb M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific locus flanked by an insertion sequence similar to IS1110. Expression studies using Western blot analyses showed that MptC is present in the envelope fraction of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The MptD protein was shown to be surface exposed, using a specific phage (fMptD) isolated from a phage-peptide library, by differential screening of Mycobacterium smegmatis transformants. The phage fMptD-derived peptide could be used in a peptide-mediated capture PCR with milk from infected dairy herds, thereby showing surface-exposed expression of the MptD protein in the host. Together, these data suggest that the 38-kb locus constitutes an M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis pathogenicity island. PMID:14977927

  8. Protection from UV-B Damage of Mosquito Larvicidal Toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis Expressed in

    E-print Network

    Zaritsky, Arieh

    that penetrates Earth's ozone layer. This organism, which serves as a food source to mosquito larvae and could to control larvae of mosquitoes and black flies, vectors of many human infectious dis- eases and a nuisanceProtection from UV-B Damage of Mosquito Larvicidal Toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp

  9. Modular columns to study depth-dependence behavior of mosquito larvae and toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis.

    PubMed

    Meir, Michal; Ben-Dov, Eitan; Zaritsky, Arieh

    2011-03-01

    Modular transparent column system was designed to study depth-dependence behavior of mosquito larvae. The system was used in preliminary experiments to evaluate the effect of water depth on the larvicidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis de Barjac against bottom feeder larvae of Aedes aegypti (Linn.) (Diptera: Culicidae), and suggestions for increasing the efficiency of the device are discussed. PMID:21167119

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum CC178, a Phyllosphere Bacterium Antagonistic to Plant Pathogenic Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byung-Yong; Lee, Sang-Yeob; Ahn, Jae-Hyung; Song, Jaekyeong; Kim, Wan-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum strain CC178 is a phyllosphere bacterium with antagonistic activity against a wide range of plant fungal pathogens. The genome of strain CC178 is 3,916,828 bp in size and harbors 3,972 genes. Six giant gene clusters are dedicated to the nonribosomal synthesis of antimicrobial polypeptides and polyketides. PMID:25573933

  11. Shedding of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis into milk and colostrum of naturally infected dairy cows over complete lactation cycles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary mode of transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is fecal-oral. However, MAP is also shed into the milk and colostrum of infected cows. The objective of this study was to identify if an association exists between stage of MAP infection and days in lactation with ...

  12. PHYLOGENETIC STUDIES OF CORN AND RICE STRAINS OF ACIDOVORAX AVENAE SUBSP. AVENAE BY DNA/DNA HYBRIDIZATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (Aaa) is the causal agent of diseases of several important economic crops, including bacterial streak of corn (Zea mays) and bacterial stripe of rice (Oryza sativa). To determine the phylogenetic relationship of these two pathogens, a highly reproducible S1 exonuclea...

  13. Potential of the bacterial strain Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae LMG 17238 and macro algae Gracilaria verrucosa for denitrification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. O. Nalcaci; N. Böke; B. Ovez

    2011-01-01

    In this biological nitrate removal study, the performance of the bacterial strain Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae LMG 17238 using different carbon sources such as ethanol, methanol, sodium acetate, glucose and poly(?-caprolactone) was investigated. Additionally the parameters such as an increase of nitrate concentration, carbon source amount (C\\/N) and dilution of a synthetic medium were studied. In laboratory conditions LMG 17238

  14. Evaluation of In Situ Methods Used To Detect Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Samples from Patients with Crohn's Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mangalakumari Jeyanathan; David C. Alexander; Christine Y. Turenne; Christiane Girard; Marcel A. Behr

    In common with other diagnostic tests, detection of mycobacteria in tissue by microscopic examination is susceptible to spectrum bias. Since Crohn's disease is defined by the absence of detectable pathogenic organisms, the use of in situ techniques to search for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Crohn's disease samples requires validation of methods in a paucibacillary setting. To generate paucibacillary infec-

  15. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis attenuated mutants against challenge in a mouse model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Johne’s disease (JD), caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), results in serious economic losses worldwide especially in cattle, sheep and goats. To control the impact of JD on the animal industry, an effective vaccine with minimal adverse effects is urgently required. In order ...

  16. The status and ecology of a Juniperus excelsa subsp. polycarpos woodland in the northern mountains of Oman

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Fisher; Andrew S. Gardner

    1995-01-01

    Juniperus excelsa subsp. polycarpos (K. Koch) Takhtajan is found in mountain areas from Turkey through to India and as an isolated population on Jebel Akhadar in the northern mountains of Oman. Juniperus is one of the dominant plant species in these mountains and a major landscape feature of several proposed National Nature and Scenic Reserves and of Hayl Juwari, a

  17. A NOVEL ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY FOR DIAGNOSIS OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUBSP. PARATUBERCULOSIS INFECTIONS (JOHNE'S DISEASE) IN CATTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ELISAs for the diagnosis of Johne's disease (JD), caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), were developed using whole bacilli treated with formaldehyde (called WELISA) or surface antigens obtained by treating MAP bacilli with formaldehyde and then brief sonication (called SELISA)...

  18. Eradication of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis by incorporating fresh crop debris into soil: Preliminary evaluations under controlled conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    María Jesús Zanón; Concepción Jordá

    2008-01-01

    A method for the eradication of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis was tested for its efficacy in three experiments carried out in the laboratory and greenhouse. In the first experiment, peat moss and sand mix in pots was amended with fresh tomato debris which was either artificially infected with the pathogen, or was not amended. Pots were enclosed in plastic bags

  19. Effect of alternative strategies for the disinfection of tomato seed infected with bacterial canker ( Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A.-M. Kasselaki; D. Goumas; L. Tamm; J. Fuchs; J. Cooper; C. Leifert

    2011-01-01

    Currently there is a lack of effective seed treatments for bacterial pathogens, with Cu-based compounds (the only chemical treatments permitted under organic farming standards) only providing partial control. The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of alternative treatments for the control of bacterial canker (Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis), a major seed-borne bacterial disease in tomato. Treatments assessed

  20. Selection of Antagonistic Bacteria of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis and Evaluation of Their Efficiency Against Bacterial Canker of Tomato

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. H. Boudyach; M. Fatmi; O. Akhayat; E. Benizri; A. Ait Ben Aoumar

    2001-01-01

    A 178 bacterial strains, antagonistic towards Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis , the causal agent of bacterial canker of tomato, were isolated from bulk soil, the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of tomato, originating from different sites in the Souss-Massa Valley, Agadir, Morocco. The strains were characterized on the basis of the Gram stain, sporulation, fluorescence on King's B medium and physiological tests.

  1. Tomato Transcriptional Changes in Response to Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis Reveal a Role for Ethylene in Disease Development1(W)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vasudevan Balaji; Maya Mayrose; Ofra Sherf; Jasmine Jacob-Hirsch; Rudolf Eichenlaub; Naim Iraki; Shulamit Manulis-Sasson; Gideon Rechavi; Isaac Barash; Guido Sessa

    Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm) is a gram-positive actinomycete, causing bacterial wilt and canker disease in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Host responses to gram-positive bacteria and molecular mechanisms associated with the development of disease symptoms caused by Cmm in tomato are largely unexplored. To investigate plant responses activated during this compatible interaction, we used microarray analysis to monitor changes in host

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Give, Isolated from an Imported Chili Powder Product

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi; Ayers, Sherry; Melka, David; Laasri, Anna; Payne, Justin S.; Zheng, Jie; Son, Insook; Timme, Ruth; Kastanis, George; Hammack, Thomas S.; Strain, Errol; Allard, Marc W.; Evans, Peter S.; Brown, Eric W.

    2015-01-01

    We report the genome sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Give (CFSAN012622), isolated from imported chili powder in 2014. This genome contains genes previously reported to be specific only to S. enterica serovar Enteritidis. This strain shows a unique pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern clustering with serovar Enteritidis (JEG X01.0005). PMID:26139723

  3. Notes on spatial genetic structure in a hybrid population between Aconitum japonicum subsp. napiforme and A. jaluense (Ranunculaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Myong Gi Chung; Chong-Wook Park

    The fine-scale genetic structure in a hybrid population (35 × 55-m area) between the herbaceous perennials Aconitum japonicum Thunb. ex Murray subsp. napiforme (Lév. & Vaniot) and A. jaluense Komarov (Ranunculaceae) was analyzed using spatial autocorrelation statistics. Although individuals of the population have protandrous flowers, the population is highly structured. Individual genotypes exhibited significant spatial autocorrelation on a scale of

  4. Ecology and social structure of the Gobi khulan Equus hemionus subsp. in the Gobi B National Park, Mongolia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Feh; B. Munkhtuya; S. Enkhbold; T. Sukhbaatar

    2001-01-01

    The status of the Gobi khulan Equus hemionus subsp. is recorded as “insufficiently known” in the Species Survival Commission's Equid Action Plan. Recent counts confirm that Mongolia holds the most important population of the whole species. Since 1953, the animals have benefited from a protected status, but this is now challenged. A 5-year study in the B part of the

  5. First Fully Closed Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Cubana Associated with a Food-Borne Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Muruvanda, Tim; Pirone, Cary; Korlach, Jonas; Timme, Ruth; Payne, Justin; Evans, Peter; Meng, Jianghong; Brown, Eric W.; Allard, Marc W.

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Cubana (Salmonella serovar Cubana) is associated with human and animal disease. Here, we used third-generation, single-molecule, real-time DNA sequencing to determine the first complete genome sequence of Salmonella serovar Cubana CFSAN002050, which was isolated from fresh alfalfa sprouts during a multistate outbreak in 2012. PMID:25359917

  6. Sequencing of the complete genome of an araphid pennate diatom Synedra acus subsp. radians from Lake Baikal.

    PubMed

    Galachyants, Y P; Zakharova, Yu R; Petrova, D P; Morozov, A A; Sidorov, I A; Marchenkov, A M; Logacheva, M D; Markelov, M L; Khabudaev, K V; Likhoshway, Ye V; Grachev, M A

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput method of sequencing was applied to determine the complete nucleotide sequence of an araphid pennate diatom Synedra acus subsp. radians from Lake Baikal (East Siberia). The assembled genome has a total length of 98 Mbp, the mean coverage is 33x. Structure-functional annotation of the genome was performed. PMID:25937221

  7. Type III Secretion Genes in Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida Are Located on a Large Thermolabile Virulence Plasmid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katja Stuber; Sarah E. Burr; Martin Braun; Thomas Wahli; Joachim Frey

    2003-01-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida (referred to here as A. salmonicida) is an important fish pathogen causing fu- runculosis, a systemic disease of the salmonids. Despite the economic significance of this bacterium, very little is known about the factors that it uses to cause disease. We have recently identified a number of genes in A. salmo- nicida that comprise part of

  8. A group I intron in the terminase gene of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis phage LL-H

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Merja Mikkonen; Tapani Alatossava

    1995-01-01

    An 837 nt long group IA intron was discovered in the Ladobacillus delbnreckii subsp. \\/actis virulent phage LL-H genome. The LL-H intron conforms well to the secondary structure that is common to all group I introns. The only exception is that the extreme 3' nucleotide of the intron is an A residue instead of the usual G; despite this the

  9. The erm(T) Gene Is Flanked by IS1216V in Inducible Erythromycin-Resistant Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Jui-Chang; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Chen, Hsiao-Jan; Tseng, Sung-Pin; Chen, Pei-Yu; Teng, Lee-Jene

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the sequence and the genetic context of the erm(T) gene in six inducible erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus (formerly S. bovis biotype II.2) isolates. In all isolates, the erm(T) genes were flanked by two IS1216V-like elements with the same polarity and were found to be inserted in the chromosome. PMID:16189118

  10. Management of Sinapis alba subsp. mairei winter cover crop residues for summer weed control in southern Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Alcántara; A. Pujadas; M. Saavedra

    2011-01-01

    Sinapis alba subsp. mairei (H. Lindb. fil.) Maire, a wild subspecies of S. alba L., which is distributed throughout the Mediterranean basin, has been recently introduced in southern Spain as a winter cover crop in olive groves. The reason behind using this cover crop is for the reduction of Verticillium dahliae inoculum. The effectiveness of this cover crop for weed

  11. Viability of Mycoplasma agalactiae and Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri in goat milk samples stored under different conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joaquín Amores; Antonio Sánchez; Ángel Gómez Martín; Juan C. Corrales; Antonio Contreras; Christian de la Fe

    2010-01-01

    Control programs for contagious agalactia (CA) involve monitoring milk samples to detect this disease. This study was designed to establish the effects of the preservatives generally used in dairy laboratories and storage temperature on the viability of Mycoplasma (M.) agalactiae (Ma) and M. mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc) in goat milk samples. In total, 1440 determinations were conducted for each mycoplasma

  12. Determination of antioxidant activities of various extracts and essential oil compositions of Thymus praecox subsp. skorpilii var. skorpilii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tevfik Ozen; Ibrahim Demirtas; Huseyin Aksit

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work is to examine the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of separated essential oils and different solvent extracts of Thymus praecox subsp. skorpilii var. skorpilii (TPS). The ethanol, acetone, methanol, hexane, aqueous extracts and separated essential oils of TPS were assessed for their antioxidant activities. Antioxidant activities were evaluated by reduction of Mo(VI) to Mo(V), reducing

  13. Campylobacter mustelae, a New Species Resulting from the Elevation of Campylobacter pylori subsp. mustelae to Species Status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. FOX; TERRY CHILVERS; C. STEWART GOODWIN; N. S. TAYLOR; PAUL EDMONDS; LINDSAY I. SLY; DON J. BRENNER

    The name Campylobacter pylori subsp. mustelae was recently proposed for strains belonging to the genus Campylobacter that were isolated from the gastric mucosa of ferrets because of the high levels of deoxyribo- nucleic acid relatedness (85 to 100%) of these strains to the type strain of Campylobacter pylori. Subsequent deoxyribonucleic acid relatedness studies done independently in three laboratories by three

  14. Genome Sequence of the Lactic Acid Bacterium Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis TOMSC161, Isolated from a Nonscalded Curd Pressed Cheese.

    PubMed

    Velly, H; Renault, P; Abraham, A-L; Loux, V; Delacroix-Buchet, A; Fonseca, F; Bouix, M

    2014-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis is a lactic acid bacterium used in the production of many fermented foods, such as dairy products. Here, we report the genome sequence of L. lactis subsp. lactis TOMSC161, isolated from nonscalded curd pressed cheese. This genome sequence provides information in relation to dairy environment adaptation. PMID:25377704

  15. Genome Sequence of the Lactic Acid Bacterium Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis TOMSC161, Isolated from a Nonscalded Curd Pressed Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Velly, H.; Abraham, A.-L.; Loux, V.; Delacroix-Buchet, A.; Fonseca, F.; Bouix, M.

    2014-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis is a lactic acid bacterium used in the production of many fermented foods, such as dairy products. Here, we report the genome sequence of L. lactis subsp. lactis TOMSC161, isolated from nonscalded curd pressed cheese. This genome sequence provides information in relation to dairy environment adaptation. PMID:25377704

  16. Immunization with a DNA Vaccine Cocktail Induces a Th1 Response and Protects Mice Against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several novel antigens of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis have been studied as vaccine components and their immunogenicity has been evaluated. Previously, we reported that 85 antigen complex (85A, 85B, and 85C), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and 35kDa protein could induce significant lymph...

  17. Immune Responses in Mice to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Following Vaccination with a Novel 74F Recombinant Polyprotein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Johne’s Disease (JD) is a chronic infectious disease of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Here, we report the cloning and expression of a 74kDa recombinant polyprotein (Map74F) and its protective efficacy against MAP infection in mice. Map74F was generated by th...

  18. Are plants more responsive to decreased than to increased rainfall on the Tibetan Plateau? Evidence from Carex duriuscula subsp. stenophylloides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zheng-Sheng He; Wei-Ming He; Ling-Ling Xu; Pei-Li Shi; Xian-Zhou Zhang; Yong-Tao He; Zhi-Ming Zhong; Ming Dong

    Carex duriuscula subsp. stenophylloides is a sedge species in alpine grassland ecosys- tems on the Tibetan Plateau. Here we examine its physiological and growth responses to variation in simulated rainfall in a growing season. Compared with the present local rainfall, increased rainfall had no effect on any measured trait except for long-term water use efficiency, and decreased rainfall significantly reduced

  19. Utility of sequencing the erm(41) gene in isolates of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. abscessus with low and intermediate clarithromycin MICs.

    PubMed

    Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Vasireddy, Sruthi; Vasireddy, Ravikiran; Iakhiaeva, Elena; Howard, Susan T; Nash, Kevin; Parodi, Nicholas; Strong, Anita; Gee, Martha; Smith, Terry; Wallace, Richard J

    2015-04-01

    The erm(41) gene confers inducible macrolide resistance in Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. abscessus, calling into question the usefulness of macrolides for treating M. abscessus subsp. abscessus infections. With an extended incubation (14 days), isolates with MICs of ?8 ?g/ml are considered macrolide resistant by current CLSI guidelines. Our goals were to determine the incidence of macrolide susceptibility in U.S. isolates, the validity of currently accepted MIC breakpoints, and the erm(41) sequences associated with susceptibility. Of 349 isolates (excluding those with 23S rRNA gene mutations), 85 (24%) had clarithromycin MICs of ?8 ?g/ml. Sequencing of the erm(41) genes from these isolates, as well as from isolates with MICs of ?16 ?g/ml, including ATCC 19977T, revealed 10 sequevars. The sequence in ATCC 19977T was designated sequevar (type) 1; most macrolide-resistant isolates were of this type. Seven sequevars contained isolates with MICs of >16 ?g/ml. The T28C substitution in erm(41), previously associated with macrolide susceptibility, was identified in 62 isolates (18%) comprising three sequevars, with MICs of ?2 (80%), 4 (10%), and 8 (10%) ?g/ml. No other nucleotide substitution was associated with macrolide susceptibility. We recommend that clarithromycin susceptibility breakpoints for M. abscessus subsp. abscessus be changed from ?2 to ?4 ?g/ml and that isolates with an MIC of 8 ?g/ml have repeat MIC testing or erm sequencing performed. Our studies suggest that macrolides are useful for treating approximately 20% of U.S. isolates of M. abscessus subsp. abscessus. Sequencing of the erm gene of M. abscessus subsp. abscessus will predict inducible macrolide susceptibility. PMID:25653399

  20. Suppression-Subtractive Hybridization as a Strategy To Identify Taxon-Specific Sequences within the Mycoplasma mycoides Cluster: Design and Validation of an M. capricolum subsp. capricolum-Specific PCR Assay?

    PubMed Central

    Maigre, Laure; Citti, Christine; Marenda, Marc; Poumarat, François; Tardy, Florence

    2008-01-01

    The phylogenetically related Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum and M. mycoides subsp. mycoides biotype Large Colony are two small-ruminant pathogens involved in contagious agalactia. Their respective contributions to clinical outbreaks are not well documented, because they are difficult to differentiate with the current diagnostic techniques. In order to identify DNA sequences specific to one taxon or the other, a suppression-subtractive hybridization approach was developed. DNA fragments resulting from the reciprocal subtraction of the type strains were used as probes on a panel of M. capricolum subsp. capricolum and M. mycoides subsp. mycoides biotype Large Colony strains to assess their intrataxon specificity. Due to a high intrataxon polymorphism and important cross-reactions between taxa, a single DNA fragment was shown to be specific for M. capricolum subsp. capricolum and to be present in all M. capricolum subsp. capricolum field isolates tested in this study. A PCR assay targeting the corresponding gene (simpA51) was designed that resulted in a 560-bp amplification only in M. capricolum subsp. capricolum and in M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (the etiological agent of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia). simpA51 was further improved to generate a multiplex PCR (multA51) that allows the differentiation of M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae from M. capricolum subsp. capricolum. Both the simpA51 and multA51 assays accurately identify M. capricolum subsp. capricolum among other mycoplasmas, including all members of the M. mycoides cluster. simpA51 and multA51 PCRs are proposed as sensitive and robust tools for the specific identification of M. capricolum subsp. capricolum and M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae. PMID:18234866

  1. Comparative chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi subsp. glandulosa (Req.) Nyman and Calamintha grandiflora (L.) Moench (Labiatae).

    PubMed

    Conforti, Filomena; Marrelli, Mariangela; Statti, Giancarlo; Menichini, Federica; Uzunov, Dimitar; Solimene, Umberto; Menichini, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    The two studied Calamintha species showed different polyphenolic content and sterol composition. Calamintha grandiflora possessed twice the polyphenolic content of Calamintha nepeta subsp. glandulosa, while the latter contained a higher number of sterols. Among them, stigmast-5-en-3?-ol was found to be the major constituent. The methanolic extract of C. grandiflora was more potent than the C. nepeta subsp. glandulosa methanolic extract in a DPPH assay, while the activity of the C. grandiflora EtOAc fraction was weaker than its C. nepeta subsp. glandulosa counterpart. Fractions of C. nepeta subsp. glandulosa showed higher activity using a ?-carotene bleaching test. The petrol ether fraction of C. grandiflora showed significant inhibition of NO production. PMID:21861645

  2. Treatment with antibiotics is detrimental to the recovery of viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis cultured from milk and colostrum of dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antibiotic cocktails are frequently used as secondary decontaminants prior to the culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). This study investigated whether secondary incubation with an antibiotic cocktail containing vancomycin, nalidixic acid, and amphotericin B after primary exp...

  3. Granuloma Coinfection with Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, and Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis in Five Hunted Red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Matos, Ana C; Dias, Ana P; Morais, Márcia; Figueira, Luís; Martins, Maria H; Matos, Manuela; Pinto, Maria L; Coelho, Ana C

    2015-07-01

    We report granulomatous lymphadenitis in red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Portugal caused by coinfection with Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, as demonstrated by molecular methods. PMID:25932668

  4. A foodborne outbreak of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Madelia at a silver anniversary reception.

    PubMed

    Hauri, A M; Saehrendt, M; Spangenberg, B; Roggentin, P

    2004-11-01

    Reported here is an outbreak of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Madelia infection that occurred among 44 persons attending a silver anniversary reception in Hesse, Germany. Isolates of Salmonella Madelia are extremely unusual, and no outbreaks associated with this serotype have been reported previously. Forty-two attendees were interviewed and information was obtained from each of them regarding demographic and clinical characteristics and food consumed at the reception. Twenty-four attendees submitted stool samples for microbiological testing, and 10 of these were culture-positive for S. Madelia. Twenty-three attendees met the case definition of infection, while 18 met the clinical case definition (i.e. vomiting or diarrhoea within 3 days of consuming food at the reception) and five had asymptomatic infection with S. Madelia. The most likely vehicles of infection were tortellini and a red pesto sauce. PMID:15558342

  5. Antioxidant and ?-amylase inhibitory activities of extract and isolates from Zygogynum pancheri subsp. arrhantum.

    PubMed

    Keskes, Henda; Litaudon, Marc; Cherif, Atef; Belhadj, Sahla; Hamdi, Besma; El Feki, Abdelfattah; Dumontet, Vincent; Ben Salah, Abdelhamid; Damak, Mohamed; Allouche, Noureddine

    2014-12-01

    One new sesquiterpenoid (5R(*),8R(*),9R(*),10R(*))-cinnamolide (8), and seven known compounds, 5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavonone (1), 8-hydroxy-3-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-6,7-(2?,2?-dimethylchromene)-tetralone (2), 8-hydroxy-3-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl)-6,7-(2?,2?-dimethylchromene)-tetralone (3), 1?-E-O-p-methoxycinnamoyl-bemadienolide (4), 1?-O-(E-cinnamoyl)-6?-hydroxy-9-epi-polygodial (5), 1?-O-(E-cinnamoyl)-6?-hydroxypolygodial (6), and 1?-O-E-cinnamoylpolygodial (7) were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of barks of Zygogynum pancheri subsp. arrhantum (Winteraceae). The structures of these molecules were assigned predominantly based on spectral data. The structure of compound 8 was confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. Compounds 2 and 3 exhibited significant antioxidant activity, whereas compounds 1 and 4-7 showed significant ?-amylase inhibitory activity. PMID:25034255

  6. Metabolism of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris MG 1363 in acid stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Mercade, M; Lindley, N D; Loubière, P

    2000-04-10

    The metabolism of glucose by Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris MG 1363 remains homolactic whatever the pH of the culture medium. The growth rate decreased with the acidification of the medium until a limit pH value of 4.0 for which no growth was observed. In contrast, the specific rate of glucose consumption decreased only for very low pH values, i.e., below 4.5. The efficiency of biomass synthesis relative to the energy supply decreased when the medium pH diminished, as illustrated by Y(ATP) values. This observation was related to the increase in both components of the proton-motive force when the pH decreased. The growth stopped when the internal pH reached a limit value of 5.4 due to organic acid accumulation. PMID:10791737

  7. Development of an Immunochromatographic Strip for Rapid Detection of Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Min; Kong, Dezhao; Wang, Wenbing; Liu, Liqiang; Song, Shanshan; Xu, Chuanlai

    2015-01-01

    A rapid, simple, sensitive, and specific immunochromatographic test strip was developed for the detection of Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (Pss) in corn seed which was soaked overnight and then centrifuged for precipitate re-dissolved as samples. A pair of sensitive monoclonal antibodies for the immunochromatographic test strip was generated by mice immunization and cell fusion. Under optimized conditions, the lower detection limit of the strips for Pss was 1 × 105 cfu/mL both in 0.01 M phosphate buffer solution and corn seed samples, with no cross-reactivity with other common plant pathogens. The developed strip is useful and rapid for the detection of Pss in corn seed samples. PMID:25686315

  8. Optimization of medium composition for the production of mosquitocidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis.

    PubMed

    Poopathi, Subbiah; Archana, B

    2012-01-01

    Optimization of chicken feather (CF) based culture medium for the production of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) biomass in combination with the agro industrial by-product (coconut cake, CC) and manganese chloride (MnCl2) has been evaluated. The biomass yield of Bti spore/crystal toxin was highest (12.06 g/L) from the test medium (CF+CC+MnCl2) compared to the reference medium (Luria Bertani, LB). Toxicity assay with Bti produced from the test medium against mosquito vectors (Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti) was also satisfactory and results were comparable with bacteria produced from LB. The results suggest that Bti can be produced to the maximum extent possible as a potential mosquitocidal activity as suggested by the test medium (CF+CC+MnCl2). PMID:22279944

  9. Cytolytic peptide fragments of Cyt1Aa from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis.

    PubMed

    Nisnevitch, Marina; Nikonov, Svetlana; Nitzan, Yeshayahu

    2013-03-01

    Cyt1Aa is the major and most active component of the parasporal crystal of the Gram-positive soil entomopathogenic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis. The Cyt1Aa protoxin exhibits some hemolytic and cytolytic activity. However, highly active 22-25 kDa toxins are obtained after proteolysis of Cyt1Aa from both the N- and the C-termini. As shown in this study, preliminary binding of the protoxin to polylamellary liposomes or partial denaturation of Cyt1Aa and further processing by several exogenous proteases yielded short 4.9-11.5 kDa cytolytic peptide fragments of Cyt1Aa. The shortest 51 amino acid peptide was obtained after pre-incubation of Cyt1Aa with SDS and proteolysis with proteinase K. This peptide was purified, identified as the Ile87-Asp137 fragment of Cyt1Aa and was shown to exhibit more than 30 % hemolysis of rabbit erythrocytes. PMID:22875467

  10. Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida in the light of its type-three secretion system

    PubMed Central

    Vanden Bergh, Philippe; Frey, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is an important pathogen in salmonid aquaculture and is responsible for the typical furunculosis. The type-three secretion system (T3SS) is a major virulence system. In this work, we review structure and function of this highly sophisticated nanosyringe in A. salmonicida. Based on the literature as well as personal experimental observations, we document the genetic (re)organization, expression regulation, anatomy, putative functional origin and roles in the infectious process of this T3SS. We propose a model of pathogenesis where A. salmonicida induces a temporary immunosuppression state in fish in order to acquire free access to host tissues. Finally, we highlight putative important therapeutic and vaccine strategies to prevent furunculosis of salmonid fish. PMID:24119189

  11. Bioactive alkaloids produced by Pseudomonas brassicacearum subsp. Neoaurantiaca, an endophytic bacterium from Salvia miltiorrhiza.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Jun; Tang, Hao-Yu; Duan, Jia-Li; Gao, Jin-Ming; Xue, Quan-Hong

    2013-03-01

    Eleven compounds were isolated from the culture of an endophytic bacterium Pseudomonas brassicacearum subsp. Neoaurantiaca in Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods as cyclo-(Gly-L-Ala) (1), cyclo-(L-Ala-L-Ala) (2), cyclo-(L-Pro-Gly) (3), cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Ser) (4), cyclo-(L-Ala-trans-4-hydroxy-L-Pro) (5), cyclo-(L-Val-L-Pro) (6), cyclo-(Gly-L-Tyr) (7), cyclo-(L-Ala-L-Tyr) (8), cyclo-(L-Tyr-trans-4-hydroxy-L-Pro) (9), 3-methylhydantoin (10) and 2-piperidinone (11). All these compounds were isolated from this bacterium for the first time. The brine shrimp lethality, antifungal and antibacterial activities of these compounds were evaluated. The results indicated that some cyclodipeptides may play an important role in plant-bacteria interactions. PMID:22765159

  12. Selection of a Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis strain with a decreased ability to produce acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Margolles, Abelardo; Sánchez, Borja

    2012-05-01

    We have characterized a new strain, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis CECT 7953, obtained by random UV mutagenesis, which produces less acetic acid than the wild type (CECT 7954) in three different experimental settings: De Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth without sodium acetate, resting cells, and skim milk. Genome sequencing revealed a single Phe-Ser substitution in the acetate kinase gene product that seems to be responsible for the strain's reduced acid production. Accordingly, acetate kinase specific activity was lower in the low acetate producer. Strain CECT 7953 produced less acetate, less ethanol, and more yoghourt-related volatile compounds in skim milk than the wild type did. Thus, CECT 7953 shows promising potential for the development of dairy products fermented exclusively by a bifidobacterial strain. PMID:22389372

  13. Development of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification for Detection of Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli in Sugarcane

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Guo, Jinlong; Chen, Rukai; Grisham, Michael Paul

    2013-01-01

    Ratoon stunt, caused by the xylem-limited coryneform bacterium Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli (Lxx), is a deep bacteriosis and prevalent in most of sugarcane-producing countries. Based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), we developed a method for detecting Lxx. The major advantages of the LAMP method are visual judgment by color and time saving with only 60?min for identification of Lxx and without the need for costly PCR apparatus and gel scanner. In the present study, positive and negative samples detected by the LAMP method were clearly distinguishable. When total DNA extracted from internode juice was used as the template, the sensitivity of LAMP was 10 times higher than that of the conventional PCR detection. The LAMP assay is a highly specific, rapid, and sensitive method for the diagnosis of ratoon stunt caused by Lxx in sugarcane. This is the first report of LAMP-based assay for the detection of Lxx in sugarcane. PMID:23710444

  14. PCR based differentiation between Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis strains isolated from humans and horses.

    PubMed

    Preziuso, S; Pinho, M D; Attili, A R; Melo-Cristino, J; Acke, E; Midwinter, A C; Cuteri, V; Ramirez, M

    2014-05-01

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) can be severely pathogenic in humans and is increasingly isolated from horses with respiratory, reproductive or other diseases, although it is often considered a commensal bacterium. Here a PCR protocol is described for identifying SDSE recovered from humans. A multiplex PCR targeting the 16S rRNA and the streptokinase precursor gene has been optimized for differentiating between SDSE strains isolated from humans and those isolated from horses. Previously, the sequence of the streptokinase precursor gene of SDSE recovered from horses has been found in two human cases of pneumonia in Japan. Although further evaluation is required, the findings of this study suggest that SDSE strains are host-specific and this multiplex PCR protocol can be useful in further epidemiological studies and for investigating the zoonotic potential of SDSE. PMID:24813401

  15. Genetic analysis and antimicrobial susceptibility of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (syn. F. asiatica) isolates from fish.

    PubMed

    Soto, Esteban; Griffin, Matt; Wiles, Judy; Hawke, John P

    2012-01-27

    Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (syn. F. asiatica) (Fno) is an emergent fish pathogen that causes acute to chronic disease in a wide variety of freshwater, brackish and marine fish. Due to the emergent nature of this bacterium, established protocols to measure antimicrobial susceptibility are lacking. In this project we compare three different methods to examine the antimicrobial susceptibility (Etest, broth microdilution and disk diffusion) of 10 different isolates of Fno from two different fish species and four different geographic outbreaks from 2006 to 2010. PCR mediated genomic fingerprinting (rep-PCR) performed on the different isolates confirmed genetic homogeneity amongst the different isolates. The in vitro susceptibility data presented here provides important baseline data for future research monitoring the development of antibiotic resistance among Fno isolates as well as provides invaluable data for the development of potential therapeutics. PMID:21868177

  16. Nucleotide sequence of the gelatinase gene (gelE) from Enterococcus faecalis subsp. liquefaciens.

    PubMed Central

    Su, Y A; Sulavik, M C; He, P; Makinen, K K; Makinen, P L; Fiedler, S; Wirth, R; Clewell, D B

    1991-01-01

    The gene coding for gelatinase (also called metalloendopeptidase II; microbial proteinase, EC 3.4.24.4) of Enterococcus faecalis subsp. liquefaciens strain OG1-10 was cloned in an Escherichia coli-Enterococcus shuttle vector, and its nucleotide sequence was determined. The DNA sequence encodes one large open reading frame (ORF) with 509 amino acid residues. The ORF contains a signal sequence in its N-terminal region, whereas the N-terminal amino acid sequence determined from the purified extracellular proteinase starts at residue 192 deduced from the ORF. This implies that the gelatinase is synthesized as a prepropolypeptide or prezymogen. The mature gelatinase contains 318 amino acid residues (molecular weight, 34,582) and has significant homology with neutral proteinases from Bacillus species and elastase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:1846126

  17. Draft genome sequences of two Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida isolates harboring plasmids conferring antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Antony T; Tanaka, Katherine H; Trudel, Melanie V; Frenette, Michel; Derome, Nicolas; Charette, Steve J

    2015-02-01

    The bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida is the etiological agent of furunculosis, a widespread fish disease causing important economic losses to the fish farming industry. Antibiotic treatments in fish farms may be challenging given the existence of multidrug-resistant isolates of this bacterium. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of the 2004-05MF26 and 2009-144K3 isolates, which harbor plasmids conferring antibiotic resistance. Both isolates also carry the large plasmid pAsa5, which is known to encode a type three secretion system (TTSS) and the pAsal1 plasmid which has the aopP gene producing a TTSS effector. These two isolates are good representatives of the plasmid diversity in A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. PMID:25724776

  18. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of Hypericum hircinum L. subsp. majus (Aiton) N. Robson essential oil.

    PubMed

    Quassinti, Luana; Lupidi, Giulio; Maggi, Filippo; Sagratini, Gianni; Papa, Fabrizio; Vittori, Sauro; Bianco, Armandodoriano; Bramucci, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the antioxidant and antiproliferative potential of the essential oil of Hypericum hircinum L. subsp. majus (Aiton) N. Robson. Analysis of the oil composition revealed that sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (69.3%) dominate, cis-?-guaiene, ?-selinene and (E)-caryophyllene being the most representative. Significant values of antioxidant activity were found using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assays. The essential oil revealed antiproliferative activity as evaluated on human glioblastoma (T98G), human prostatic adenocarcinoma (PC3), human squamous carcinoma (A431) and mouse melanoma (B16-F1) tumour cell lines by MTT assay. PMID:22480321

  19. Apparent Prevalence of Beef Carcasses Contaminated with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Sampled from Danish Slaughter Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Okura, Hisako; Toft, Nils; Pozzato, Nicola; Tondo, Annalucia; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2011-01-01

    Presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in beef has been reported as a public health concern because asymptomatically infected cattle may contain MAP in tissues that are used for human consumption. Associations between MAP carcasses contamination and animal characteristics such as age, breed, production type, and carcass classification were assessed. Cheek muscles from 501 carcasses were sampled cross-sectionally at a Danish abattoir and tested for presence of viable MAP and MAP DNA by bacterial culture and IS900 realtime PCR, respectively. Cheek muscle tissues from carcasses of two dairy cows were positive by culture whereas 4% of the animals were estimated with ?10?CFU/gram muscle based on realtime PCR. Age was found to be associated with carcass contamination with MAP. The observed viable MAP prevalence in beef carcasses was low. However, detection of MAP and MAP DNA in muscle tissues suggested that bacteremia occurred in slaughtered cattle. PMID:21547261

  20. Efficacy of Various Pasteurization Time-Temperature Conditions in Combination with Homogenization on Inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Milk

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Irene R.; Williams, Alan G.; Rowe, Michael T.; Muir, D. Donald

    2005-01-01

    The effect of various pasteurization time-temperature conditions with and without homogenization on the viability of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was investigated using a pilot-scale commercial high-temperature, short-time (HTST) pasteurizer and raw milk spiked with 101 to 105 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells/ml. Viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was cultured from 27 (3.3%) of 816 pasteurized milk samples overall, 5 on Herrold's egg yolk medium and 22 by BACTEC culture. Therefore, in 96.7% of samples, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis had been completely inactivated by HTST pasteurization, alone or in combination with homogenization. Heat treatments incorporating homogenization at 2,500 lb/in2, applied upstream (as a separate process) or in hold (at the start of a holding section), resulted in significantly fewer culture-positive samples than pasteurization treatments without homogenization (P < 0.001 for those in hold and P < 0.05 for those upstream). Where colony counts were obtained, the number of surviving M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells was estimated to be 10 to 20 CFU/150 ml, and the reduction in numbers achieved by HTST pasteurization with or without homogenization was estimated to be 4.0 to 5.2 log10. The impact of homogenization on clump size distribution in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis broth suspensions was subsequently assessed using a Mastersizer X spectrometer. These experiments demonstrated that large clumps of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells were reduced to single-cell or “miniclump” status by homogenization at 2,500 lb/in2. Consequently, when HTST pasteurization was being applied to homogenized milk, the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells would have been present as predominantly declumped cells, which may possibly explain the greater inactivation achieved by the combination of pasteurization and homogenization. PMID:15932977

  1. The acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL)-type quorum sensing system affects growth rate, swimming motility and virulence in Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiaqin Fan; Guoliang Qian; Tao Chen; Yuqiang Zhao; Fengquan Liu; Ron R. Walcott; Baishi Hu

    2011-01-01

    Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli is a Gram-negative bacterium and is the causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch (BFB) in cucurbits. In this study, the role\\u000a played by the acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL)-type quorum sensing (QS) system in growth, swimming motility and virulence was\\u000a characterized in A.\\u000a avenae subsp. citrulli strain XJL12. The AHL synthase gene of the QS system from strain

  2. kdgR Ecc Negatively Regulates Genes for Pectinases, Cellulase, Protease, Harpin Ecc , and a Global RNA Regulator in Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora

    Microsoft Academic Search

    YANG LIU; GUOQIAO JIANG; YAYA CUI; ASITA MUKHERJEE; WEI LEI MA; ARUN K. CHATTERJEE

    1999-01-01

    Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora produces extracellular pectate lyase (Pel), polygalacturonase (Peh), cellulase (Cel), and protease (Prt). The concerted actions of these enzymes largely determine the virulence of this plant-pathogenic bacterium. E. carotovora subsp. carotovora also produces HarpinEcc, the elicitor of the hypersensitive reaction. We document here that KdgREcc (Kdg, 2-keto-3-deoxygluconate; KdgR, general re- pressor of genes involved in pectin and

  3. Efficacy of various pasteurization time-temperature conditions in combination with homogenization on inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk.

    PubMed

    Grant, Irene R; Williams, Alan G; Rowe, Michael T; Muir, D Donald

    2005-06-01

    The effect of various pasteurization time-temperature conditions with and without homogenization on the viability of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was investigated using a pilot-scale commercial high-temperature, short-time (HTST) pasteurizer and raw milk spiked with 10(1) to 10(5) M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells/ml. Viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was cultured from 27 (3.3%) of 816 pasteurized milk samples overall, 5 on Herrold's egg yolk medium and 22 by BACTEC culture. Therefore, in 96.7% of samples, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis had been completely inactivated by HTST pasteurization, alone or in combination with homogenization. Heat treatments incorporating homogenization at 2,500 lb/in2, applied upstream (as a separate process) or in hold (at the start of a holding section), resulted in significantly fewer culture-positive samples than pasteurization treatments without homogenization (P < 0.001 for those in hold and P < 0.05 for those upstream). Where colony counts were obtained, the number of surviving M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells was estimated to be 10 to 20 CFU/150 ml, and the reduction in numbers achieved by HTST pasteurization with or without homogenization was estimated to be 4.0 to 5.2 log10. The impact of homogenization on clump size distribution in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis broth suspensions was subsequently assessed using a Mastersizer X spectrometer. These experiments demonstrated that large clumps of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells were reduced to single-cell or "miniclump" status by homogenization at 2,500 lb/in2. Consequently, when HTST pasteurization was being applied to homogenized milk, the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells would have been present as predominantly declumped cells, which may possibly explain the greater inactivation achieved by the combination of pasteurization and homogenization. PMID:15932977

  4. Genetic relationships deduced from emm and multilocus sequence typing of invasive Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis and S. canis recovered from isolates collected in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Yusra; Gertz, Robert E; Li, Zhongya; Sakota, Varja; Broyles, Laura N; Van Beneden, Chris; Facklam, Richard; Shewmaker, P Lynn; Reingold, Arthur; Farley, Monica M; Beall, Bernard W

    2009-07-01

    Beta-hemolytic group C and G streptococci cause a considerable invasive disease burden and sometimes cause disease outbreaks. Little is known about the critical epidemiologic parameter of genetic relatedness between isolates. We determined the emm types of 334 Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis isolates, and attempted emm typing of 5 Streptococcus canis isolates from a recent population-based surveillance for invasive isolates. Thirty-four emm types were observed, including one from S. canis. We formulated multilocus sequence typing (MLST) primers with six of the seven loci corresponding to the Streptococcus pyogenes MLST scheme. We performed MLST with 65 of the 334 surveillance isolates (61 S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis isolates, 4 S. canis isolates) to represent each emm type identified, including 2 to 3 isolates for each of the 25 redundantly represented emm types. Forty-one MLST sequence types (STs) were observed. Isolates within 16 redundantly represented S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis emm types shared identical or nearly identical STs, demonstrating concordance between the emm type and genetic relatedness. However, seven STs were each represented by two to four different emm types, and 7 of the 10 S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis eBURST groups represented up to six different emm types. Thus, S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis isolates were similar to S. pyogenes isolates, in that strains of the same emm type were often highly related, but they differed from S. pyogenes, in that S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis strains with identical or closely similar STs often exhibited multiple unrelated emm types. The phylogenetic relationships between S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis and S. pyogenes alleles revealed a history of interspecies recombination, with either species often serving as genetic donors. The four S. canis isolates shared highly homologous alleles but were unrelated clones without evidence of past recombination with S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis or S. pyogenes. PMID:19386831

  5. Outbreak of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus infections on the island of Gran Canaria associated with the consumption of inadequately pasteurized cheese

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Bordes-Benítez; M. Sánchez-Oñoro; P. Suárez-Bordón; A. J. García-Rojas; J. A. Saéz-Nieto; A. González-García; I. Álamo-Antúnez; A. Sánchez-Maroto; M. Bolaños-Rivero

    2006-01-01

    Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus infections are infrequent in humans. A clinical and epidemiological study of a milk-borne outbreak caused by this organism is described. Fifteen patients (5 females, 10 males) with a median age of 70 years (range 47–86) were infected. Twelve (80%) had underlying diseases. Infection with S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus presented as primary bacteremia in six cases, as bacteremia

  6. The chromosome map of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. canadensis HD224 is highly similar to that of the Bacillus cereus type strain ATCC 14579

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cathrine Rein Carlson; Trine Johansen; Anne-Brit Kolstø

    1996-01-01

    A physical map of the Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. canadensis HD224 chromosome based on AscI, NotI, and SfiI restriction sites has been established. The chromosome map of 4.3 Mb was similar to a revised map of the chromosome of the B. cereus type strain ATCC 14579, except that the B. thuringiensis subsp. canadensis HD224 chromosome lacked a NotI site and had

  7. Key Role for the Alternative Sigma Factor, SigH, in the Intracellular Life of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis during Macrophage Stress

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Pallab; Wu, Chia-wei

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis causes Johne's disease, an enteric infection in cattle and other ruminants, greatly afflicting the dairy industry worldwide. Once inside the cell, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis is known to survive harsh microenvironments, especially those inside activated macrophages. To improve our understanding of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis pathogenesis, we examined phagosome maturation associated with transcriptional responses of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis during macrophage infection. Monitoring cellular markers, only live M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis bacilli were able to prevent phagosome maturation and reduce its acidification. On the transcriptional level, over 300 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis genes were significantly and differentially regulated in both naive and IFN-?-activated macrophages. These genes include the sigma factor H (sigH) that was shown to be important for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis survival inside gamma interferon (IFN-?)-activated bovine macrophages. Interestingly, an sigH-knockout mutant showed increased sensitivity to a sustained level of thiol-specific oxidative stress. Large-scale RNA sequence analysis revealed that a large number of genes belong to the sigH regulon, especially following diamide stress. Genes involved in oxidative stress and virulence were among the induced genes in the sigH regulon with a putative consensus sequence for SigH binding that was recognized in a subset of these genes (n = 30), suggesting direct regulation by SigH. Finally, mice infections showed a significant attenuation of the ?sigH mutant compared to its parental strain, suggesting a role for sigH in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis virulence. Such analysis could identify potential targets for further testing as vaccine candidates against Johne's disease. PMID:23569115

  8. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Inhibits Gamma Interferon-Induced Signaling in Bovine Monocytes: Insights into the Cellular Mechanisms of Johne's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Arsenault, Ryan J.; Li, Yue; Bell, Kelli; Doig, Kimberley; Potter, Andrew; Griebel, Philip J.; Kusalik, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the causative agent of Johne's disease in cattle and may have implications for human health. Establishment of chronic infection by M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis depends on its subversion of host immune responses. This includes blocking the ability of infected macrophages to be activated by gamma interferon (IFN-?) for clearance of this intracellular pathogen. To define the mechanism by which M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis subverts this critical host cell function, patterns of signal transduction to IFN-? stimulation of uninfected and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected bovine monocytes were determined through bovine-specific peptide arrays for kinome analysis. Pathway analysis of the kinome data indicated activation of the JAK-STAT pathway, a hallmark of IFN-? signaling, in uninfected monocytes. In contrast, IFN-? stimulation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected monocytes failed to induce patterns of peptide phosphorylation consistent with JAK-STAT activation. The inability of IFN-? to induce differential phosphorylation of peptides corresponding to early JAK-STAT intermediates in infected monocytes indicates that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis blocks responsiveness at, or near, the IFN-? receptor. Consistent with this hypothesis, increased expression of negative regulators of the IFN-? receptors SOCS1 and SOCS3 as well as decreased expression of IFN-? receptor chains 1 and 2 is observed in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected monocytes. These patterns of expression are functionally consistent with the kinome data and offer a mechanistic explanation for this critical M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis behavior. Understanding this mechanism may contribute to the rational design of more effective vaccines and/or therapeutics for Johne's disease. PMID:22689821

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis Strain DOAB 397, Isolated from an Infected Field Corn Plant in Manitoba, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Renlin; Adam, Zaky; Cott, Morgan; Rose, Karin; Reid, Lana M.; Daayf, Fouad; Brière, Stephan; Bilodeau, Guillaume J.

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, the pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis was isolated from symptomatic corn leaves in Manitoba, Canada. We report the draft genome sequence of C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis DOAB 397, consisting of 3.059 Mb with 73.0% G+C content, 2,922 predicted protein-coding sequences, 45 tRNAs, 3 rRNAs, and 37 pseudogenes. PMID:26159537

  10. Comparison of Culture and a Novel 5 Taq Nuclease Assay for Direct Detection of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis in Clinical Specimens from Cattle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lyle McMillen; Geoffry Fordyce; Vivienne J. Doogan; Ala E. Lew

    A Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis-specific 5 Taq nuclease PCR assay using a 3 minor groove binder- DNA probe (TaqMan MGB) was developed based on a subspecies-specific fragment of unknown identity (S. Hum, K. Quinn, J. Brunner, and S. L. On, Aust. Vet. J. 75:827-831, 1997). The assay specifically detected four C. fetus subsp. venerealis strains with no observed cross-reaction with

  11. RNA-Seq reveals transcriptomic interactions of Bacillus subtilis natto and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis in whole soybean solid-state co-fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai Kuan; Ng, Yi Kai; Koh, Eileen; Yao, Lina; Chien, Ang Sze; Lin, Hui Xin; Lee, Yuan Kun

    2015-10-01

    Bifidobacteria are anaerobes and are difficult to culture in conventional fermentation system. It was observed that Bacillus subtilis natto enhanced growth of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis v9 by about 3-fold in a whole soybean solid-state co-fermentation, in a non-anaerobic condition. For the purpose of understanding the metabolic interactions between Bif. animalis subsp. lactis v9 and Ba. subtilis natto, the transcriptome of Bif. animalis subsp. lactis v9 and Ba. subtilis natto was analyzed in single and mixed cultures using RNA-Seq. Compared with the single culture, 459 genes of Bif. animalis subsp. lactis v9 were up regulated and 21 were down regulated in the mixed culture with Ba. subtilis natto, with more than 2-fold difference. Predictive metagenomic analyses suggested that Ba. subtilis natto up regulated transport functions, complex carbohydrates and amino acid metabolism, DNA repair, oxydative stress-related functions, and cell growth of Bif. animalis subsp. lactis v9. In the mixed culture with Bif. animalis subsp. lactis v9, only 3 transcripts of Ba. subtilis natto were over-expressed and 3115 were under-expressed with more than 2-fold difference. The highest down-regulated genes were those involved in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. The data presented here demonstrated a parasitic-like interaction regulated at the transcription level, between Ba. subtilis natto and Bif. animalis subsp. lactis in the mixed culture. The over-expression of genes involved in substrate uptake and metabolism in Bif. animalis subsp. lactis in the mixed culture nevertheless, led to its higher cell concentration in the nutrient rich whole soybean medium. PMID:26187824

  12. Characterization of nitrite degradation by Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus LCR 6013.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong-mei; Wang, Pan; Zhang, Xin-yue; Xu, Xi-lin; Wu, Hui; Li, Li

    2014-01-01

    Nitrites are potential carcinogens. Therefore, limiting nitrites in food is critically important for food safety. The nitrite degradation capacity of Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus LCR 6013 was investigated in pickle fermentation. After LCR 6013 fermentation for 120 h at 37°C, the nitrite concentration in the fermentation system was significantly lower than that in the control sample without the LCR 6013 strain. The effects of NaCl and Vc on nitrite degradation by LCR 6013 in the De Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) medium were also investigated. The highest nitrite degradations, 9.29 mg/L and 9.89 mg/L, were observed when NaCl and Vc concentrations were 0.75% and 0.02%, respectively in the MRS medium, which was significantly higher than the control group (p ? 0.01). Electron capture/gas chromatography and indophenol blue staining were used to study the nitrite degradation pathway of LCR 6013. The nitrite degradation products contained N2O, but no NH4(+). The LCR 6013 strain completely degraded all NaNO2 (50.00 mg/L) after 16 h of fermentation. The enzyme activity of NiR in the periplasmic space was 2.5 times of that in the cytoplasm. Our results demonstrated that L. casei subsp. rhamnosus LCR 6013 can effectively degrade nitrites in both the pickle fermentation system and in MRS medium by NiR. Nitrites are degraded by the LCR 6013 strain, likely via the nitrate respiration pathway (NO2(-)>NO->N2O->N2), rather than the aammonium formation pathway (dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium, DNRA), because the degradation products contain N2O, but not NH4(+). PMID:24755671

  13. Phylogenomics of Brazilian epidemic isolates of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii reveals relationships of global outbreak strains.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Rebecca M; Hasan, Nabeeh A; de Moura, Vinicius Calado Nogueira; Duarte, Rafael Silva; Jackson, Mary; Strong, Michael

    2013-12-01

    Rapidly growing, non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in the Mycobacterium abscessus (MAB) species are emerging pathogens that cause various diseases including skin and respiratory infections. The species has undergone recent taxonomic nomenclature refinement, and is currently recognized as two subspecies, M. abscessus subsp. abscessus (MAB-A) and M. abscessus subsp. bolletii (MAB-B). The recently reported outbreaks of MAB-B in surgical patients in Brazil from 2004 to 2009 and in cystic fibrosis patients in the United Kingdom (UK) in 2006 to 2012 underscore the need to investigate the genetic diversity of clinical MAB strains. To this end, we sequenced the genomes of two Brazilian MAB-B epidemic isolates (CRM-0019 and CRM-0020) derived from an outbreak of skin infections in Rio de Janeiro, two unrelated MAB strains from patients with pulmonary infections in the United States (US) (NJH8 and NJH11) and one type MAB-B strain (CCUG 48898) and compared them to 25 publically available genomes of globally diverse MAB strains. Genome-wide analyses of 27,598 core genome single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) revealed that the two Brazilian derived CRM strains are nearly indistinguishable from one another and are more closely related to UK outbreak isolates infecting CF patients than to strains from the US, Malaysia or France. Comparative genomic analyses of six closely related outbreak strains revealed geographic-specific large-scale insertion/deletion variation that corresponds to bacteriophage insertions and recombination hotspots. Our study integrates new genome sequence data with existing genomic information to explore the global diversity of infectious M. abscessus isolates and to compare clinically relevant outbreak strains from different continents. PMID:24055961

  14. Host Responses to the Pathogen Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and Beneficial Microbes Exhibit Host Sex Specificity

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, K. Wyatt; Chang, David; Brashears, Mindy M.

    2014-01-01

    Differences between microbial pathogenesis in male and female hosts are well characterized in disease conditions connected to sexual transmission. However, limited biological insight is available on variances attributed to sex specificity in host-microbe interactions, and it is most often a minimized variable outside these transmission events. In this work, we studied two gut microbes—a pathogen, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, and a probiotic, Lactobacillus animalis NP-51—and the interaction between each agent and the male and female gastrointestinal systems. This trial was conducted in BALB/c mice (n = 5 per experimental group and per sex at a given time point), with analysis at four time points over 180 days. Host responses to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and L. animalis were sensitive to sex. Cytokines that were significantly different (P ? 0.05) between the sexes included interleukin-1?/? (IL-1?/?), IL-17, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, and gamma interferon (IFN-?) and were dependent on experimental conditions. However, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and IL-13/23 showed no sex specificity. A metabolomics study indicated a 0.5- to 2.0-fold (log2 scale) increase in short-chain fatty acids (butyrate and acetate) in males and greater increases in o-phosphocholine or histidine from female colon tissues; variances distinct to each sex were observed with age or long-term probiotic consumption. Two genera, Staphylococcus and Roseburia, were consistently overrepresented in females compared to males; other species were specific to one sex but fluctuated depending on experimental conditions. The differences observed suggest that male and female gut tissues and microbiota respond to newly introduced microorganisms differently and that gut-associated microorganisms with host immune system responses and metabolic activity are supported by biology distinct to the host sex. PMID:24814797

  15. Long Lasting Persistence of Bacillus thuringiensis Subsp. israelensis (Bti) in Mosquito Natural Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Tilquin, Mathieu; Paris, Margot; Reynaud, Stéphane; Despres, Laurence; Ravanel, Patrick; Geremia, Roberto A.; Gury, Jérôme

    2008-01-01

    Background The detrimental effects of chemical insecticides on the environment and human health have lead to the call for biological alternatives. Today, one of the most promising solutions is the use of spray formulations based on Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) in insect control programs. As a result, the amounts of Bti spread in the environment are expected to increase worldwide, whilst the common belief that commercial Bti is easily cleared from the ecosystem has not yet been clearly established. Methodology/Main Findings In this study, we aimed to determine the nature and origin of the high toxicity toward mosquito larvae found in decaying leaf litter collected in several natural mosquito breeding sites in the Rhône-Alpes region. From the toxic fraction of the leaf litter, we isolated B. cereus-like bacteria that were further characterized as B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis using PCR amplification of specific toxin genes. Immunological analysis of these Bti strains showed that they belong to the H14 group. We finally used amplified length polymorphism (AFLP) markers to show that the strains isolated from the leaf litter were closely related to those present in the commercial insecticide used for field application, and differed from natural worldwide genotypes. Conclusions/Significance Our results raise the issue of the persistence, potential proliferation and environmental accumulation of human-spread Bti in natural mosquito habitats. Such Bti environmental persistence may lengthen the exposure time of insects to this bio-insecticide, thereby increasing the risk of resistance acquisition in target insects, and of a negative impact on non-target insects. PMID:18941501

  16. A quantitative and direct PCR assay for the subspecies-specific detection of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis based on a ferredoxin reductase gene.

    PubMed

    Cho, Min Seok; Lee, Jang Ha; Her, Nam Han; Kim, Changkug; Seol, Young-Joo; Hahn, Jang Ho; Baeg, Ji Hyoun; Kim, Hong Gi; Park, Dong Suk

    2012-06-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is the causal agent of canker disease in tomato. Because it is very important to control newly introduced inoculum sources from commercial materials, the specific detection of this pathogen in seeds and seedlings is essential for effective disease control. In this study, a novel and efficient assay for the detection and quantitation of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in symptomless tomato and red pepper seeds was developed. A pair of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers (Cmm141F/R) was designed to amplify a specific 141 bp fragment on the basis of a ferredoxin reductase gene of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis NCPPB 382. The specificity of the primer set was evaluated using purified DNA from 16 isolates of five C. michiganensis subspecies, one other Clavibacter species, and 17 other reference bacteria. The primer set amplified a single band of expected size from the genomic DNA obtained from the C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis strains but not from the other C. michiganensis subspecies or from other Clavibacter species. The detection limit was a single cloned copy of the ferredoxin reductase gene of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. In conclusion, this quantitative direct PCR assay can be applied as a practical diagnostic method for epidemiological research and the sanitary management of seeds and seedlings with a low level or latent infection of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. PMID:22752914

  17. Genome-wide DNA microarray analysis of Francisella tularensis strains demonstrates extensive genetic conservation within the species but identifies regions that are unique to the highly virulent F. tularensis subsp. tularensis.

    PubMed

    Broekhuijsen, Martien; Larsson, Pär; Johansson, Anders; Byström, Mona; Eriksson, Ulla; Larsson, Eva; Prior, Richard G; Sjöstedt, Anders; Titball, Richard W; Forsman, Mats

    2003-07-01

    Francisella tularensis is a potent pathogen and a possible bioterrorism agent. Little is known, however, to explain the molecular basis for its virulence and the distinct differences in virulence found between the four recognized subspecies, F. tularensis subsp. tularensis, F. tularensis subsp. mediasiatica, F. tularensis subsp. holarctica, and F. tularensis subsp. novicida. We developed a DNA microarray based on 1,832 clones from a shotgun library used for sequencing of the highly virulent strain F. tularensis subsp. tularensis Schu S4. This allowed a genome-wide analysis of 27 strains representing all four subspecies. Overall, the microarray analysis confirmed a limited genetic variation within the species F. tularensis, and when the strains were compared, at most 3.7% of the probes showed differential hybridization. Cluster analysis of the hybridization data revealed that the causative agents of type A and type B tularemia, i.e., F. tularensis subsp. tularensis and F. tularensis subsp. holarctica, respectively, formed distinct clusters. Despite marked differences in their virulence and geographical origin, a high degree of genomic similarity between strains of F. tularensis subsp. tularensis and F. tularensis subsp. mediasiatica was apparent. Strains from Japan clustered separately, as did strains of F. tularensis subsp. novicida. Eight regions of difference (RD) 0.6 to 11.5 kb in size, altogether comprising 21 open reading frames, were identified that distinguished strains of the moderately virulent subspecies F. tularensis subsp. holarctica and the highly virulent subspecies F. tularensis subsp. tularensis. One of these regions, RD1, allowed for the first time the development of an F. tularensis-specific PCR assay that discriminates each of the four subspecies. PMID:12843022

  18. Use of a modified AFLP protocol to discriminate Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis isolates Utilização de um protocolo modificado de AFLP para discriminar isolados de Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica sorovar Enteritidis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clarissa Silveira; Luiz Vaz; André Felipe Streck; Tatiana Tramontina; Marisa Ribeiro de Itapema; Cláudio Wageck Canal

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica (S.) serovar Enteritidis is one of the main pathogens involved in food-borne diseases worldwide. In epidemiological investigations of food-related salmonellosis, subtyping is necessary to improve preven- tive and control measures. Single-enzyme amplified fragment length polymorphism (SE-AFLP) analysis is a modified AFLP that uses only one restriction enzyme to produce DNA fragments that are selectively amplified by

  19. Genomic differences between type strain PG1 and field strains of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small-colony type

    PubMed Central

    Bischof, Daniela F.; Vilei, Edy M.; Frey, Joachim

    2006-01-01

    The recently accomplished complete genomic sequence analysis of the type strain PG1 of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small-colony type revealed four large repeated segments of 24, 13, 12, and 8 kb that are flanked by insertion sequence (IS) elements. Genetic analysis of type strain PG1 and African, European, and Australian field and vaccine strains revealed that the 24-kb genetic locus is repeated only in PG1 and not in other M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC strains. In contrast, the 13-kb genetic locus was found duplicated in some strains originating from Africa and Australia but not in strains that were isolated from the European outbreaks. The 12- and 8-kb genetic loci were found in two and three copies, respectively, in all 28 strains analyzed. The flanking IS elements are assumed to lead to these tandem duplications, thus contributing to genomic plasticity. This aspect must be considered when designing novel diagnostic approaches and recombinant vaccines. PMID:16919417

  20. Six-Month Multicenter Study on Invasive Infections Due to Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Lopardo, Horacio A.; Vidal, Patricia; Sparo, Monica; Jeric, Paola; Centron, Daniela; Facklam, Richard R.; Paganini, Hugo; Pagniez, N. Gaston; Lovgren, Marguerite; Beall, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    During a 6-month period, 95 invasive infections due to Streptococcus pyogenes and group C or group G Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis were recorded from 40 centers of 16 cities in Argentina. We describe here epidemiologic data available for 55 and 19 patients, respectively, associated with invasive infections due to S. pyogenes and S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis. The associated isolates and 58 additional pharyngeal isolates were genotyped and subjected to serologic and/or antibiotic susceptibility testing. Group A streptococcal emm type distribution and strain association with toxic shock appeared to differ somewhat from results found within the United States; however, serologic characterization and sof sequence typing suggested that emm types found in both countries are reflective of shared clonal types. PMID:15695683

  1. Isolation and characterization of a strain of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. morrisoni PG-14 encoding delta-endotoxin Cry1Ac.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yong Soo; Cho, Eun Sook; Je, Yeon Ho; Roh, Jong Yul; Chang, Jin Hee; Li, Ming Shun; Seo, Sook Jae; Sohn, Hung Dae; Jin, Byung Rae

    2004-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis 656-3, isolated from a soil sample collected at mushroom houses, showed high toxicity to mushroom flies, Lycoriella mali and Coboldia fuscipes. B. thuringiensis 656-3 produced bipyramidal inclusions and reacted with the H antiserum of B. thuringiensis subsp. morrisoni (H8a8b). The plasmid and protein profiles of B. thuringiensis 656-3 were similar to those of its reference strain, subsp. morrisoni PG-14. However, PCR analysis using cry gene primers showed that B. thuringiensis 656-3, unlike its reference strain, had cry4A, cry4B, cry10A, cry11A, and cry1Ac genes, suggesting that B. thuringiensis 656-3 was a unique strain with respect to gene type. In addition, B. thuringiensis 656-3 showed a high level of toxicity against mushroom flies, L. mali and C. fuscipes. PMID:15018102

  2. Molecular evolution of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae strains, based on polymorphisms in the 16S rRNA genes.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, B; Bölske, G; Thiaucourt, F; Uhlén, M; Johansson, K E

    1998-05-01

    Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae belongs to the so-called Mycoplasma mycoides cluster and is the causal agent of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP). All members of the M. mycoides cluster have two rRNA operons. The sequences of the 16S rRNA genes of both rRNA operons from 20 strains of M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae of different geographical origins in Africa and Asia were determined. Nucleotide differences which were present in only one of the two operons (polymorphisms) were detected in 24 positions. The polymorphisms were not randomly distributed in the 16S rRNA genes, and some of them were found in regions of low evolutionary variability. Interestingly, 11 polymorphisms were found in all the M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae strains, thus defining a putative ancestor. A sequence length difference between the 16S rRNA genes in a poly(A) region and 12 additional polymorphisms were found in only one or some of the strains. A phylogenetic tree was constructed by comparative analysis of the polymorphisms, and this tree revealed two distinct lines of descent. The nucleotide substitution rate of strains within line II was up to 50% higher than within line I. A tree was also constructed from individual operonal 16S rRNA sequences, and the sequences of the two operons were found to form two distinct clades. The topologies of both clades were strikingly similar, which supports the use of 16S rRNA sequence data from homologous operons for phylogenetic studies. The strain-specific polymorphism patterns of the 16S rRNA genes of M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae may be used as epidemiological markers for CCPP. PMID:9573185

  3. Preconcentration of cadmium and nickel using the bioadsorbent Geobacillus thermoleovorans subsp. stromboliensis immobilized on Amberlite XAD-4

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sadin Özdemir; Reyhan Gul-Guven; Ersin Kilinc; Mehmet Dogru; Sait Erdogan

    2010-01-01

    Cadmium and nickel ions have been preconcentrated on Geobacillus thermoleovorans subsp. stromboliensis, immobilized on Amberlite XAD-4, and were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Parameters such as pH,\\u000a amount of adsorbent, eluent type and volume, flow rate of solution and the matrix interference effect on retention have been\\u000a studied, and extraction conditions were optimized. Elution of Cd(II) and Ni(II)

  4. Antimicrobial Effects of a Hexapetide KCM21 against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 and Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeahyuk; Baek, Kwang-Hyun; Moon, Eunpyo

    2014-09-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are small but effective cationic peptides with variable length. In previous study, four hexapeptides were identified that showed antimicrobial activities against various phytopathogenic bacteria. KCM21, the most effective antimicrobial peptide, was selected for further analysis to understand its modes of action by monitoring inhibitory effects of various cations, time-dependent antimicrobial kinetics, and observing cell disruption by electron microscopy. The effects of KCM21 on Gram-negative strain, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 and Gram-positive strain, Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis were compared. Treatment with divalent cations such as Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) inhibited the bactericidal activities of KCM21 significantly against P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000. The bactericidal kinetic study showed that KCM21 killed both bacteria rapidly and the process was faster against C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. The electron microscopic analysis revealed that KCM21 induced the formation of micelles and blebs on the surface of P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 cells, while it caused cell rupture against C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis cells. The outer membrane alteration and higher sensitivity to Ca(2+) suggest that KCM21 interact with the outer membrane of P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 cells during the process of killing, but not with C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis cells that lack outer membrane. Considering that both strains had similar sensitivity to KCM21 in LB medium, outer membrane could not be the main target of KCM21, instead common compartments such as cytoplasmic membrane or internal macromolecules might be a possible target(s) of KCM21. PMID:25289010

  5. Absence of geographical structure of morphological variation in Juniperus oxycedrus L. subsp. oxycedrus in the Balkan Peninsula

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Brus; Dalibor Ballian; Peter Zhelev; Marija Pandža; Martin Bobinac; Jane Acevski; Yannis Raftoyannis; Kristjan Jarni

    2011-01-01

    We examined leaf and mature seed cone variation of Juniperus oxycedrus L. subsp. oxycedrus in 12 natural populations across the species range in the Balkan Peninsula. We measured 10 morphological traits from a minimum\\u000a of 100 leaves in each of 190 individuals, and two morphological traits from 30–50 seed cones in each of 94 females. High phenotypic\\u000a variation was found,

  6. Analysis of the exopolysaccharides produced by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus NCFB 2772 grown in continuous culture on glucose and fructose

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. J. Grobben; W. H. M. van Casteren; H. A. Schols; A. Oosterveld; G. Sala; M. R. Smith; J. Sikkema; J. A. M. de Bont

    1997-01-01

    The exopolysaccharides produced by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus NCFB 2772 grown in defined medium were investigated. At equal cell densities, the strain produced 95?mg l?1 exopolysaccharides with glucose and 30?mg l?1 with fructose as the carbohydrate source. High-performance size-exclusion chromatography of the exopolysaccharides produced\\u000a on glucose showed the presence of two fractions with relative molecular masses (M\\u000a r) of 1.7?×?106

  7. Characterization of two nisin-producing Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis strains isolated from a commercial sauerkraut fermentation.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, L J; Fleming, H P; Klaenhammer, T R

    1992-01-01

    Two Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis strains, NCK400 and LJH80, isolated from a commercial sauerkraut fermentation were shown to produce nisin. LJH80 was morphologically unstable and gave rise to two stable, nisin-producing (Nip+) derivatives, NCK318-2 and NCK318-3. NCK400 and derivatives of LJH80 exhibited identical morphological and metabolic characteristics, but could be distinguished on the basis of plasmid profiles and genomic hybridization patterns to a DNA probe specific for the iso-ISS1 element, IS946. NCK318-2 and NCK318-3 harbored two and three plasmids, respectively, which hybridized with IS946. Plasmid DNA was not detected in NCK400, and DNA from this strain failed to hybridize with IS946. Despite the absence of detectable plasmid DNA in NCK400, nisin-negative derivatives (NCK402 and NCK403) were isolated after repeated transfer in broth at 37 degrees C. Nisin-negative derivatives concurrently lost the ability to ferment sucrose and became sensitive to nisin. A 4-kbp HindIII fragment containing the structural gene for nisin (spaN), cloned from L. lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454, was used to probe genomic DNA of NCK318-2, NCK318-3, NCK400, and NCK402 digested with EcoRI or HindIII. The spaN probe hybridized to an 8.8-kbp EcoRI fragment and a 10-kbp HindIII fragment in the Nip+ sauerkraut isolates, but did not hybridize to the Nip- derivative, NCK402. A different hybridization pattern was observed when the same probe was used against Nip+ L. lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454 and ATCC 7962. These phenotypic and genetic data confirmed that unique Nip+ L. lactis subsp. lactis strains were isolated from fermenting sauerkraut. Images PMID:1622214

  8. Screening for fluorescent pseudomonades, isolated from the rhizosphere of tomato, for antagonistic activity toward Clavibacter michiganensis subsp . michiganensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Amkraz; E. H. Boudyach; H. Boubaker; B. Bouizgarne; A. Ait Ben Aoumar

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial canker of tomato, caused by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, continues to be a problem for tomato growers in the Souss-Massa Draa valley, South of Morocco. Assuming that biological\\u000a control is an alternative for the management of this disease, a total of 303 fluorescent pseudomonads strains isolated from\\u000a roots and rhizospheric soil of tomato plants were in vitro tested against

  9. ONE-STEP DETECTION OF CLAVIBACTER MICHIGANENSIS SUBSP. MICHIGANENSIS IN SYMPTOMLESS TOMATO SEEDS USING A TAQMAN PROBE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. Zhao; H. Y. Chen; S. F. Zhu; M-X Xia

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (CMM), the causal agent of bacterial canker of tomato, is a quaran- tine organism in many countries. In this study, a one-step method was developed for the detection of CMMs in symptomless tomato seeds directly using a TaqMan probe. The absolute sensitivity threshold was approximately 10 CFU\\/ml. In seeds the bacteria can be detected in

  10. Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis: first steps in the understanding of virulence of a Gram-positive phytopathogenic bacterium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl-Heinz Gartemann; Oliver Kirchner; Jutta Engemann; Ines Gräfen; Rudolf Eichenlaub; Annette Burger

    2003-01-01

    Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is a plant-pathogenic actinomycete. It infects tomato, spreads through the xylem and causes bacterial wilt and canker. The wild-type strain NCPPB382 carries two plasmids, pCM1 and pCM2. The cured plasmid-free derivative CMM100 is still able to colonize tomato, but no disease symptoms develop indicating that all genes required for successful infection, establishment and growth in the

  11. GROWTH INHIBITION OF CLAVIBACTER MICHIGANENSIS subsp. MICHIGANENSIS AND PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE pv. TOMATO BY OLIVE MILL WASTEWATERS AND CITRIC ACID

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Özdemir

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Effects of citric acid and olive mill wastewaters on the growth of seed-borne bacterial pathogens of tomato, Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato were investigated. Bacteria were exposed to citric acid (0.1 mol l -1 ) and 10 fold-diluted filter-sterilized olive mill wastewaters and their growth was determined by the plate count method. Citric acid inhibited

  12. Comparison of specificity and sensitivity of immunochemical and molecular techniques for determination of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Kokošková; I. Mráz; J. Fousek

    2010-01-01

    Detection of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm), causing bacterial canker of tomato, was verified using PTA-ELISA and IFAS with PAbs of Neogen Europe Ltd. (UK), and with published and also laboratory-generated PCR primers from the Cmm tomatinase gene. The specificity of this technique was determined with 15 plant-pathogenic and 4 common, saprophytic bacteria.\\u000a With IFAS, crossreactions were found for Pantoea

  13. A multiplex PCR method for detection of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis with co-amplification of its host DNA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Zhang; Wenxiang Yang; Yaning Li; Daqun Liu; Ting Zhang

    2009-01-01

    A multiplex PCR assay system was developed for the detection of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm), which combined two tests in one reaction mixture. Cmm-specific primers PSA-4\\/PSA-R and Solanum lycopersicum-specific primers NS-7-F\\/NS- 8-R (internal PCR control primer) were combined in one PCR reaction mixture with Cmm and plant\\u000a DNA as template. The primer sets could amplify the target product successfully.

  14. Essential Oils of Thymbra sintenisii Bornm. et Aznav. subsp. isaurica P.H. Davis and Origanum leptocladum Boiss

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. H. C. Baser; N. Ermin; T. Özek; B. Demirçakmak; G. Tümen; H. Duman

    1996-01-01

    The water-distilled essential oils of Thymbra sintenisii Born, et Aznav. subsp. isaurica P.H. Davis and Origanum leptocladum Boiss., both Turkish endemic species, were analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. Thirty-two compounds were characterized in the oil of T. sintenisii ssp. isaurica representing 96.64% of the oil, while 29 compounds were characterized in O. leptocladum oil representing 92.80%. The major components of

  15. Transcriptional, translational and metabolic regulation of glycolysis in Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris MG 1363 grown in continuous acidic cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergine Even; Nic D. Lindley; Muriel Cocaign-Bousquet

    2003-01-01

    The physiological behaviour of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris MG 1363 was characterized in continuous culture under various acidic conditions (pH 4?7-6?6). Biomass yield was diminished in cultures with low pH and the energy dedicated to maintenance increased due to organic acid inhibition and cytoplasmic acidification. Under such acidic conditions, the specific rate of glucose consumption by the bacterium increased, thereby

  16. Complete Sequences of Six IncA/C Plasmids of Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serotype Newport.

    PubMed

    Cao, Guojie; Allard, Marc W; Hoffmann, Maria; Monday, Steven R; Muruvanda, Tim; Luo, Yan; Payne, Justin; Rump, Lydia; Meng, Kevin; Zhao, Shaohua; McDermott, Patrick F; Brown, Eric W; Meng, Jianghong

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Newport has been a long-standing public health concern in the United States. We present the complete sequences of six IncA/C plasmids from animal-derived MDR S. Newport ranging from 80.1 to 158.5 kb. They shared a genetic backbone with S. Newport IncA/C plasmids pSN254 and pAM04528. PMID:25720681

  17. Complete Sequences of Six IncA/C Plasmids of Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serotype Newport

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Guojie; Allard, Marc W.; Hoffmann, Maria; Monday, Steven R.; Muruvanda, Tim; Luo, Yan; Payne, Justin; Rump, Lydia; Meng, Kevin; Zhao, Shaohua; McDermott, Patrick F.; Brown, Eric W.

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Newport has been a long-standing public health concern in the United States. We present the complete sequences of six IncA/C plasmids from animal-derived MDR S. Newport ranging from 80.1 to 158.5 kb. They shared a genetic backbone with S. Newport IncA/C plasmids pSN254 and pAM04528. PMID:25720681

  18. Attenuated virulence of an Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida type III secretion mutant in a rainbow trout model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah E. Burr; Dmitri Pugovkin; Thomas Wahli; Helmut Segner; Joachim Frey

    2005-01-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is the causative agent of furunculosis, a severe systemic disease affecting salmonid fish. This bacterium contains a type III protein secretion system that is responsible for the secretion and translocation of the ADP-ribosylating toxin, AexT, into the cytosol of fish cells. This study showed that inactivation of the type III secretion system by marker-replacement mutagenesis of

  19. Roquette, Eruca vesicaria subsp. sativa a good host for long-term maintenance of aphid vectors of potato viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Goth; R. E. Webb

    1980-01-01

    Since 1971, we have used roquette,Eruca vesicaria (L.) Cav. subsp.sativa (Mill.) Thell., as a host for prolonged maintenance of colonies of the green peach aphid,Myzus persicae (Sulzer), and the potato aphid,Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas). When roquette plants were kept in a growth chamber with 12 hour light and dark periods and a temperature regime\\u000a of 20°C light and 15°C dark, or

  20. Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei 8700:2 Degrades Inulin-Type Fructans Exhibiting Different Degrees of Polymerization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lefteris Makras; Gerald Van Acker; Luc De Vuyst

    2005-01-01

    Ten strains of lactobacilli were assessed for their capacity to degrade inulin-type fructans, which are well-known prebiotics. Both oligofructose and inulin were tested. The dairy isolate Lactobacillus acidophilus IBB 801 degraded only oligofructose. The human isolate Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei 8700:2 degraded oligofructose and long-chain inulin and grew rapidly on both energy sources. In both cases, fractions of different degrees

  1. Volatile Profile of Non-Fermented Milk and Milk Fermented by BifidoBacterium animalis subsp. lactis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dorota Zareba; Malgorzata Ziarno; Mieczyslaw Obiedzinski

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine low-molecular volatile compounds in milk supplemented with the strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb-12 with or without fermentation process, stored at 6°C for 4 weeks. The chromatographic analysis of probiotic-supplemented non-fermented milk and milk fermented by strain Bb-12 revealed the presence of volatile compounds, such as ketones, organic acid, and alcohols. The

  2. Physiological comparison of copper toxicity in the lichens Peltigera rufescens (Weis) Humb. and Cladina arbuscula subsp. mitis (Sandst.) Ruoss

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Ba?kor; Jozef Ková?ik; Alexander Dzubaj; Miriam Ba?korová

    2009-01-01

    Peltigera rufescens (Weis) Humb. with a prokaryotic photobiont Nostoc sp. and Cladina arbuscula subsp. mitis (Sandst.) Ruoss with a eukaryotic photobiont Trebouxia sp. were studied to determine the copper sensitivity of lichens with different algal symbionts. Samples growing on historic\\u000a copper mine-spoil heaps at ?ubietová–Podlipa, Slovakia were assessed for physiological parameters, including total and intracellular\\u000a uptake of copper, assimilation pigmentation,

  3. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and methanol extracts of Achillea millefolium subsp. millefolium Afan. (Asteraceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ferda Candan; Mehmet Unlu; Bekta? Tepe; Dimitra Daferera; Moschos Polissiou; Atalay Sökmen; H. A?k?n Akpulat

    2003-01-01

    The in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and methanol extracts of Achillea millefolium subsp. millefolium Afan. (Asteraceae) were investigated. GC-MS analysis of the essential oil resulted in the identification of 36 compounds constituting 90.8% of the total oil. Eucalyptol, camphor, ?-terpineol, ?-pinene, and borneol were the principal components comprising 60.7% of the oil. The oil strongly

  4. Anticonvulsant effect of Sclerocarya birrea (A. Rich.) Hochst. subsp. caffra (Sond.) Kokwaro (Anacardiaceae) stem-bark aqueous extract in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A. O. Ojewole

    2007-01-01

    Sclerocarya birrea (A.Rich.) Hochst. subsp. caffra (Sond.) Kokwaro (family: Anacardiaceae) is traditionally used in South African folk medicine for the treatment, management and control of a variety of human ailments, including childhood convulsions and epilepsy. In the present study, we have investigated the anticonvulsant activity of the plant’s stem-bark aqueous extract (SBE) against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-, picrotoxin (PCT)-, and bicuculline (BCL)-induced

  5. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant properties of Cyclotrichium niveum, Thymus praecox subsp. caucasicus var. caucasicus, Echinacea purpurea and E. pallida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Orhan; F. S. ?enol; A. R. Gülpinar; M. Kartal; N. ?ekeroglu; M. Deveci; Y. Kan; B. ?ener

    2009-01-01

    The dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, ethanol, and aqueous extracts of Cyclotrichium niveum (CN) and Thymus praecox subsp. caucasicus var. caucasicus (TP), Echinacea purpurea (EPU), and E. pallida (EPA) along with the essential oils of CN and TP were assessed for their anti-acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and antioxidant activities. AChE inhibition was estimated using spectrophotometric method of Ellman. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl

  6. Transgenic Sweet Orange ( Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) Expressing the attacin A Gene for Resistance to Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suane Coutinho Cardoso; Janaynna Magalhães Barbosa-Mendes; Raquel Luciana Boscariol-Camargo; Rock Seille Carlos Christiano; Armando Bergamin Filho; Maria Lúcia Carneiro Vieira; Beatriz Madalena Januzzi Mendes; Francisco de Assis Alves Mourão Filho

    2010-01-01

    Genetic transformation with genes that code for antimicrobial peptides has been an important strategy used to control bacterial\\u000a diseases in fruit crops, including apples, pears, and citrus. Asian citrus canker (ACC) caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri Schaad et al. (Xcc) is a very destructive disease, which affects the citrus industry in most citrus-producing areas of the world. Here, we

  7. Phenotypic and Molecular (RAPD) Differentiation of Four Infraspecific Groups of Cultivated Flax ( Linum usitatissimum L. subsp. usitatissimum )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Axel Diederichsen; Yong-Bi Fu

    2006-01-01

    Based on agro-botanical characterization data, 3101 accessions of cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L. subsp. usitatissimum) from the flax collection held by Plant Gene Resources of Canada (PGRC) were grouped into four infraspecific groups according\\u000a to the classification proposed by Kulpa and Danert (1962) . The objective of this study was to investigate phenotypic and\\u000a RAPD variation within and among the

  8. New Triplex Real-Time PCR Assay for Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Bovine Feces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Schonenbrucher; A. Abdulmawjood; K. Failing; M. Bulte

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, a robust TaqMan real-time PCR amplifying the F57 and the ISMav2 sequences of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from bovine fecal samples was developed and validated. The validation was based on the recommendations of International Organization for Standardization protocols for PCR and real-time PCR methods. For specificity testing, 205 bacterial strains were selected, including 105 M. avium

  9. Characterization of two nisin-producing Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis strains isolated from a commercial sauerkraut fermentation.

    PubMed

    Harris, L J; Fleming, H P; Klaenhammer, T R

    1992-05-01

    Two Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis strains, NCK400 and LJH80, isolated from a commercial sauerkraut fermentation were shown to produce nisin. LJH80 was morphologically unstable and gave rise to two stable, nisin-producing (Nip+) derivatives, NCK318-2 and NCK318-3. NCK400 and derivatives of LJH80 exhibited identical morphological and metabolic characteristics, but could be distinguished on the basis of plasmid profiles and genomic hybridization patterns to a DNA probe specific for the iso-ISS1 element, IS946. NCK318-2 and NCK318-3 harbored two and three plasmids, respectively, which hybridized with IS946. Plasmid DNA was not detected in NCK400, and DNA from this strain failed to hybridize with IS946. Despite the absence of detectable plasmid DNA in NCK400, nisin-negative derivatives (NCK402 and NCK403) were isolated after repeated transfer in broth at 37 degrees C. Nisin-negative derivatives concurrently lost the ability to ferment sucrose and became sensitive to nisin. A 4-kbp HindIII fragment containing the structural gene for nisin (spaN), cloned from L. lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454, was used to probe genomic DNA of NCK318-2, NCK318-3, NCK400, and NCK402 digested with EcoRI or HindIII. The spaN probe hybridized to an 8.8-kbp EcoRI fragment and a 10-kbp HindIII fragment in the Nip+ sauerkraut isolates, but did not hybridize to the Nip- derivative, NCK402. A different hybridization pattern was observed when the same probe was used against Nip+ L. lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454 and ATCC 7962. These phenotypic and genetic data confirmed that unique Nip+ L. lactis subsp. lactis strains were isolated from fermenting sauerkraut. PMID:1622214

  10. Ecological conditions and the distribution of alpine juniper ( Juniperus communis subsp. alpina ) in the Hrubý Jeseník Mts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miroslav Zeidler; Marek Banaš; Michaela Ženatá

    2009-01-01

    In the Hrubý Jeseník Mts of the Czech Republic, research was carried out from 2001–2005 aimed at completing an up-to-date\\u000a census of alpine juniper [Juniperus communis subsp. alpine (Smith) ?elakovský] and an evaluation of the overall health status of the populations, and at investigating the impacts of\\u000a the main environmental factors on the viability of this species. 13 sites were

  11. Cloning of branched chain amino acid biosynthesis genes and assays of ?-acetolactate synthase activities in Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-François Cavin; Véronique Dartois; Cécile Labarre; Charles Diviès

    1999-01-01

    A genomic library from Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris (Lmc) in Escherichia coli was screened for ?-acetolactate synthase (ALS) activity using a phenotypic test detecting the production of acetolactate or related C4 derivatives (diacetyl, acetoin or 2,3-butanediol) in the culture. Four recombinant E. coli clones, with plasmids containing overlapping DNA fragments and displaying anabolic ALS activity, were selected. This activity is encoded by

  12. Influence of pH on growth and bacteriocin production by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis 14ONWC during batch fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Parente; A. Ricciardi; G. Addario

    1994-01-01

    The influence of pH on growth, and lactic acid and bacteriocin production byLactococcus lactis subsp.lactis 140 NWC was studied during batch fermentation in a lactose-based complex medium. Growth and lactic acid production were modelled using a simple logistic equation while substrate consumption was found to be a function growth and lactic acid production rate. The optimal pH for growth and

  13. Characterization of mesentericin ST99, a bacteriocin produced by Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum ST99 isolated from boza

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Svetoslav D. Todorov; Leon M. T. Dicks

    2004-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria isolated from Boza, a cereal-fermented beverage from Belogratchik, Bulgaria, were screened for the production of bacteriocins. With the first screening, 13 of the 52 isolates inhibited the growth of Listeria innocua and Lactobacillus plantarum. The cell-free supernatant of one of these strains, classified as Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum ST99, inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis,

  14. Complete genome sequence of Polynucleobacter necessarius subsp. asymbioticus type strain (QLW-P1DMWA-1T)

    SciTech Connect

    Meincke, Linda [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Berry, Kerrie W. [United States Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hammon, Nancy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Dalin, Eileen [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Richardson, P M [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Schmutz, Jeremy [Stanford University; Brettin, Thomas S [ORNL; Larimer, Frank W [ORNL; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Wu, Qinglong L. [Austrian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Limnology, Mondsee, Austria; Pockl, Matthias [Austrian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Limnology, Mondsee, Austria; Hahn, Martin W. [Austrian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Limnology, Mondsee, Austria; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany

    2012-01-01

    Polynucleobacter necessarius subsp. asymbioticus Hahn et al. 2009 is one of currently two subspecies of P. necessarius. While P. necessarius subsp. asymbioticus is a free-living bacterium, the closely related second subspecies, P. necessarius subsp. necessarius is an obligate endosymbiont living in the cytoplasm of freshwater ciliates of the genus Euplotes aediculatus. The two P. necessarius subspecies were the closest thus far reported phylogenetic neighbors that differ in their lifestyle as obligately free-living vs. obligate endosymbiontic, and they are the only members of the genus Polynucleobacter with completely sequenced genomes. The genome-sequenced strain represents a group of closely related strains not distinguishable by 16S rRNA, 16S-23S ITS or glnA sequences, which is persistent in the home habitat of the strain and frequently contributes > 10% of total bacterial numbers in water samples of the habitat. The 2,159,490 bp long chromosome with a total of 2,088 protein-coding and 48 RNA genes was sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute Community Sequencing Program 2006.

  15. Characterization of genes required for the pathogenicity of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum Pcc21 in Chinese cabbage

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Hwan; Lim, Jeong-A; Lee, Juneok; Roh, Eunjung; Jung, Kyusuk; Choi, Minseon; Oh, Changsik; Ryu, Sangryeol; Yun, Jongchul

    2013-01-01

    Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum is a well-known plant pathogen that causes severe soft rot disease in various crops, resulting in considerable economic loss. To identify pathogenicity-related factors, Chinese cabbage was inoculated with 5314 transposon mutants of P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum Pcc21 derived using Tn5 transposon mutagenesis. A total of 35 reduced-virulence or avirulent mutants were isolated, and 14 loci were identified. The 14 loci could be functionally grouped into nutrient utilization (pyrD, purH, purD, leuA and serB), production of plant cell-wall-degrading enzymes (PCWDEs) (expI, expR and PCC21_023220), motility (flgA, fliA and flhB), biofilm formation (expI, expR and qseC), susceptibility to antibacterial plant chemicals (tolC) and unknown function (ECA2640). Among the 14 genes identified, qseC, tolC and PCC21_023220 are novel pathogenicity factors of P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum involved in biofilm formation, phytochemical resistance and PCWDE production, respectively. PMID:23676432

  16. Exposure of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis to Milk Oligosaccharides Increases Adhesion to Epithelial Cells and Induces a Substantial Transcriptional Response

    PubMed Central

    Kavanaugh, Devon W.; O’Callaghan, John; Buttó, Ludovica F.; Slattery, Helen; Lane, Jonathan; Clyne, Marguerite; Kane, Marian; Joshi, Lokesh; Hickey, Rita M.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we tested the hypothesis that milk oligosaccharides may contribute not only to selective growth of bifidobacteria, but also to their specific adhesive ability. Human milk oligosaccharides (3?sialyllactose and 6?sialyllactose) and a commercial prebiotic (Beneo Orafti P95; oligofructose) were assayed for their ability to promote adhesion of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis ATCC 15697 to HT-29 and Caco-2 human intestinal cells. Treatment with the commercial prebiotic or 3?sialyllactose did not enhance adhesion. However, treatment with 6?sialyllactose resulted in increased adhesion (4.7 fold), while treatment with a mixture of 3?- and 6?-sialyllactose substantially increased adhesion (9.8 fold) to HT-29 intestinal cells. Microarray analyses were subsequently employed to investigate the transcriptional response of B. longum subsp. infantis to the different oligosaccharide treatments. This data correlated strongly with the observed changes in adhesion to HT-29 cells. The combination of 3?- and 6?-sialyllactose resulted in the greatest response at the genetic level (both in diversity and magnitude) followed by 6?sialyllactose, and 3?sialyllactose alone. The microarray data was further validated by means of real-time PCR. The current findings suggest that the increased adherence phenotype of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis resulting from exposure to milk oligosaccharides is multi-faceted, involving transcription factors, chaperone proteins, adhesion-related proteins, and a glycoside hydrolase. This study gives additional insight into the role of milk oligosaccharides within the human intestine and the molecular mechanisms underpinning host-microbe interactions. PMID:23805302

  17. The genome sequence of the tomato-pathogenic actinomycete Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis NCPPB382 reveals a large island involved in pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Gartemann, Karl-Heinz; Abt, Birte; Bekel, Thomas; Burger, Annette; Engemann, Jutta; Flügel, Monika; Gaigalat, Lars; Goesmann, Alexander; Gräfen, Ines; Kalinowski, Jörn; Kaup, Olaf; Kirchner, Oliver; Krause, Lutz; Linke, Burkhard; McHardy, Alice; Meyer, Folker; Pohle, Sandra; Rückert, Christian; Schneiker, Susanne; Zellermann, Eva-Maria; Pühler, Alfred; Eichenlaub, Rudolf; Kaiser, Olaf; Bartels, Daniela

    2008-03-01

    Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is a plant-pathogenic actinomycete that causes bacterial wilt and canker of tomato. The nucleotide sequence of the genome of strain NCPPB382 was determined. The chromosome is circular, consists of 3.298 Mb, and has a high G+C content (72.6%). Annotation revealed 3,080 putative protein-encoding sequences; only 26 pseudogenes were detected. Two rrn operons, 45 tRNAs, and three small stable RNA genes were found. The two circular plasmids, pCM1 (27.4 kbp) and pCM2 (70.0 kbp), which carry pathogenicity genes and thus are essential for virulence, have lower G+C contents (66.5 and 67.6%, respectively). In contrast to the genome of the closely related organism Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus, the genome of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis lacks complete insertion elements and transposons. The 129-kb chp/tomA region with a low G+C content near the chromosomal origin of replication was shown to be necessary for pathogenicity. This region contains numerous genes encoding proteins involved in uptake and metabolism of sugars and several serine proteases. There is evidence that single genes located in this region, especially genes encoding serine proteases, are required for efficient colonization of the host. Although C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis grows mainly in the xylem of tomato plants, no evidence for pronounced genome reduction was found. C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis seems to have as many transporters and regulators as typical soil-inhabiting bacteria. However, the apparent lack of a sulfate reduction pathway, which makes C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis dependent on reduced sulfur compounds for growth, is probably the reason for the poor survival of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in soil. PMID:18192381

  18. Transcriptional profile of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Weltevreden during alfalfa sprout colonization.

    PubMed

    Brankatschk, Kerstin; Kamber, Tim; Pothier, Joël F; Duffy, Brion; Smits, Theo H M

    2014-11-01

    Sprouted seeds represent a great risk for infection by human enteric pathogens because of favourable growth conditions for pathogens during their germination. The aim of this study was to identify mechanisms of interactions of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica?Weltevreden with alfalfa sprouts. RNA-seq analysis of S.?Weltevreden grown with sprouts in comparison with M9-glucose medium showed that among a total of 4158 annotated coding sequences, 177 genes (4.3%) and 345 genes (8.3%) were transcribed at higher levels with sprouts and in minimal medium respectively. Genes that were higher transcribed with sprouts are coding for proteins involved in mechanisms known to be important for attachment, motility and biofilm formation. Besides gene expression required for phenotypic adaption, genes involved in sulphate acquisition were higher transcribed, suggesting that the surface on alfalfa sprouts may be poor in sulphate. Genes encoding structural and effector proteins of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2, involved in survival within macrophages during infection of animal tissue, were higher transcribed with sprouts possibly as a response to environmental conditions. This study provides insight on additional mechanisms that may be important for pathogen interactions with sprouts. PMID:24308841

  19. Characterization of a Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium Operon Associated with Virulence and Drug Detoxification

    PubMed Central

    Viale, Mariana Noelia; Imperiale, Belén; Gioffre, Andrea Karina; Colombatti Olivieri, María Alejandra; Moyano, Roberto Damián; Morcillo, Nora; Santangelo, María de la Paz; Davis, William; Romano, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    The lprG-p55 operon of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis is involved in the transport of toxic compounds. P55 is an efflux pump that provides resistance to several drugs, while LprG is a lipoprotein that modulates the host's immune response against mycobacteria. The knockout mutation of this operon severely reduces the replication of both mycobacterial species during infection in mice and increases susceptibility to toxic compounds. In order to gain insight into the function of LprG in the Mycobacterium avium complex, in this study, we assayed the effect of the deletion of lprG gene in the D4ER strain of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium. The replacement of lprG gene with a hygromycin cassette caused a polar effect on the expression of p55. Also, a twofold decrease in ethidium bromide susceptibility was observed and the resistance to the antibiotics rifampicin, amikacin, linezolid, and rifabutin was impaired in the mutant strain. In addition, the mutation decreased the virulence of the bacteria in macrophages in vitro and in a mice model in vivo. These findings clearly indicate that functional LprG and P55 are necessary for the correct transport of toxic compounds and for the survival of MAA in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24967408

  20. Siderophore production by Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. Lack of strain specificity.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, A I; Fernández, A F; Pérez, M J; Nieto, T P; Ellis, A E

    1998-06-19

    Siderophore production, presence of iron-regulated outer membrane proteins and siderophore specificity was determined among 17 isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida obtained from Spain and Scotland. All grew in the presence of ethylenediamine di(o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid) (EDDA) and siderophore production was detected using chrome azurol S (CAS) agar, confirming the presence of a high-affinity siderophore iron-uptake mechanism. The Arnow test confirmed that all isolates produced a catechol siderophore. Cross-feeding assays with indicator bacteria showed the absence of anguibactin, enterobactin, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) and the hydroxamate siderophore, aerobactin, in the iron-restricted supernants of a representative isolate which cross fed 15/17 A. salmonicida isolates tested. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed the presence of the same 2 major iron-regulated outer membrane proteins (IROMPs) in all isolates when grown in iron-restricted conditions and siderophore strain specificity as assessed by cross-feeding experiments was not apparent. Thus, with respect to IROMP and siderophore production A. salmonicida appears to be a homogeneous species. PMID:9684314