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Sample records for fall chinook acclimation

  1. Fall Chinook Acclimation Project; Pittsburg Landing, Captain John Rapids, and Big Canyon, Annual Report 2003.

    SciTech Connect

    McLeod, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    Fisheries co-managers of U.S. v Oregon supported and directed the construction and operation of acclimation and release facilities for Snake River fall Chinook from Lyons Ferry Hatchery at three sites above Lower Granite Dam. In 1996, Congress instructed the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USCOE) to construct, under the Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP), final rearing and acclimation facilities for fall Chinook in the Snake River basin to complement their activities and efforts in compensating for fish lost due to construction of the lower Snake River dams. The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) played a key role in securing funding and selecting acclimation sites, then assumed responsibility for operation and maintenance of the facilities. In 1997, Bonneville Power Administrative (BPA) was directed to fund operations and maintenance (O&M) for the facilities. Two acclimation facilities, Captain John Rapids and Pittsburg Landing, were located on the Snake River between Asotin, WA and Hells Canyon Dam and one facility, Big Canyon, was located on the Clearwater River at Peck. The Capt. John Rapids facility is a single pond while the Pittsburg Landing and Big Canyon sites consist of portable fish rearing tanks assembled and disassembled each year. Acclimation of 450,000 yearling smolts (150,000 each facility) begins in March and ends 6 weeks later. When available, an additional 2,400,000 fall Chinook sub-yearlings may be acclimated for 6 weeks, following the smolt release. The project goal is to increase the naturally spawning population of Snake River fall Chinook salmon upstream of Lower Granite Dam. This is a supplementation project; in that hatchery produced fish are acclimated and released into the natural spawning habitat for the purpose of returning a greater number of spawners to increase natural production. Only Snake River stock is used and production of juveniles occurs at Lyons Ferry Hatchery. This is a long-term project, targeted to work towards achieving

  2. Fall Chinook Acclimation Project; Pittsburg Landing, Captain John Rapids, and Big Canyon, Annual Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    McLeod, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    Fisheries co-managers of U.S. v Oregon supported and directed the construction and operation of acclimation and release facilities for Snake River fall Chinook from Lyons Ferry Hatchery at three sites above Lower Granite Dam. In 1996, Congress instructed the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USCOE) to construct, under the Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP), final rearing and acclimation facilities for fall Chinook in the Snake River basin to complement their activities and efforts in compensating for fish lost due to construction of the lower Snake River dams. The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) played a key role in securing funding and selecting acclimation sites, then assumed responsibility for operation and maintenance of the facilities. In 1997, Bonneville Power Administrative (BPA) was directed to fund operations and maintenance (O&M) for the facilities. Two acclimation facilities, Captain John Rapids and Pittsburg Landing, are located on the Snake River between Asotin, WA and Hells Canyon Dam and one facility, Big Canyon, is located on the Clearwater River at Peck. The Capt. John Rapids facility is a single pond while the Pittsburg Landing and Big Canyon sites consist of portable fish rearing tanks assembled and disassembled each year. Acclimation of 450,000 yearling smolts (150,000 each facility) begins in March and ends 6 weeks later. When available, an additional 2,400,000 fall Chinook sub-yearlings may be acclimated for 6 weeks, following the smolt release. The project goal is to increase the naturally spawning population of Snake River fall Chinook salmon upstream of Lower Granite Dam. This is a supplementation project; in that hatchery produced fish are acclimated and released into the natural spawning habitat for the purpose of returning a greater number of spawners to increase natural production. Only Snake River stock is used and production of juveniles occurs at Lyons Ferry Hatchery. This is a long-term project, targeted to work towards achieving

  3. John Day Fall Chinook/Salmon Mitigation Plan Acclimation and Imprinting Site Feasibility Study: Summary Report : Completion Report.

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; Sverdrup Corporation; United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1987-09-01

    The purpose of this Plan is to replace upriver bright fall chinook salmon which were lost by construction of the John Day Dam. This will be accomplished by releasing salmon fry and smolts, incubated in the Spring Creek and Bonneville Hatcheries, at several upriver locations. Prior to release it is desired to feed and acclimate the juvenile fish to relieve the stress of truck transport, and to imprint them to the release site. This will ultimately produce adult chinook salmon that return to their historic spawning areas through traditional common property fisheries. It will also provide sexually mature broodstock fish that can be captured and spawned to supplement continued hatchery operation. This report summarizes results of an engineering feasibility study done for 10 potential acclimation sites on the Columbia, Yakima and Walla Walla Rivers. A detailed report has been prepared for each site and each is bound separately.

  4. Monitoring and Evaluation of Yearling Fall Chinook Salmon Released from Acclimation Facilities Upstream of Lower Granite Dam; 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rocklage, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, conducted monitoring and evaluation studies on Lyons Ferry Hatchery (Snake River stock) yearling fall chinook salmon that were acclimated and released at three Fall Chinook Acclimation Project sites upstream of Lower Granite Dam along with yearlings released on-station from Lyons Ferry Hatchery in 1998. The three fall chinook acclimation facilities are operated by the Nez Perce Tribe and located at Pittsburg Landing and Captain John Rapids on the Snake River and at Big Canyon Creek on the Clearwater River. Yearlings at the Big Canyon facility consisted of two size classes that are referred to in this report as 9.5 fish per pound (fpp) and 30 fpp. The Big Canyon 9.5 fpp were comparable to the yearlings at Pittsburg Landing, Captain John Rapids and Lyons Ferry Hatchery. A total of 9,942 yearlings were PIT tagged and released at Pittsburg Landing. PIT tagged yearlings had a mean fork length of 159.9 mm and mean condition factor of 1.19. Of the 9,942 PIT tagged fish released, a total of 6,836 unique tags were detected at mainstem Snake and Columbia River dams (Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental and McNary). A total of 4,926 9.5 fpp and 2,532 30 fpp yearlings were PIT tagged and released at Big Canyon. PIT tagged 9.5 fpp yearlings had a mean fork length of 156.9 mm and mean condition factor of 1.13. PIT tagged 30 fpp yearlings had a mean fork length of 113.1 mm and mean condition factor of 1.18. Of the 4,926 PIT tagged 9.5 fpp yearlings released, a total of 3,042 unique tags were detected at mainstem Snake and Columbia River dams. Of the 2,532 PIT tagged 30 fpp yearlings released, a total of 1,130 unique tags were detected at mainstem Snake and Columbia River dams. A total of 1,253 yearlings were PIT tagged and released at Captain John Rapids. PIT tagged yearlings had a mean fork length of 147.5 mm and mean condition factor of 1.09. Of

  5. Monitoring and Evaluation of Yearling Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Released from Acclimation Facilities Upstream of Lower Granite Dam; 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rocklage, Stephen J.; Kellar, Dale S.

    2005-07-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, conducted monitoring and evaluation studies on Lyons Ferry Hatchery reared yearling fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that were acclimated and released at three Fall Chinook Acclimation Project sites upstream of Lower Granite Dam in 2002. This was the seventh year of a long-term project to supplement natural spawning populations of Snake River stock fall Chinook salmon upstream of Lower Granite Dam. The 479,358 yearlings released from the Fall Chinook Acclimation Project facilities exceeded the 450,000 fish quota. We use Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag technology to monitor the primary performance measures of survival to mainstem dams and migration timing. We also monitor size, condition and tag/mark retention at release. We released 7,545 PIT tagged yearlings from Pittsburg Landing, 7,482 from Big Canyon and 2,487 from Captain John Rapids. Fish health sampling indicated that, overall, bacterial kidney disease levels at the acclimation facilities could be considered medium to high with 43-62% of fish sampled rating medium to very high. Mean fork lengths (95% confidence interval) of the PIT tagged groups ranged from 146.7 mm (146.2-147.2 mm) at Captain John Rapids to 164.8 mm (163.5-166.1 mm) at Lyons Ferry Hatchery. Mean condition factors ranged from 1.06 at Lyons Ferry Hatchery to 1.14 at Pittsburg Landing and Captain John Rapids. Estimated survival (95% confidence interval) of PIT tagged yearlings from release to Lower Granite Dam ranged from 88.6% (86.0-91.1%) for Pittsburg Landing to 97.0% (92.4-101.7%) for Captain John Rapids. Estimated survival from release to McNary Dam ranged from 54.3% (50.2-58.3%) for Big Canyon to 70.5% (65.4-75.5%) for Pittsburg Landing. Median migration rates to Lower Granite Dam, based on all observations of PIT tagged yearlings from the FCAP facilities, ranged from 8.1 river kilometers per

  6. Monitoring and Evaluation of Yearling Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Released from Acclimation Facilities Upstream of Lower Granite Dam; 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rocklage, Stephen J.; Kellar, Dale S.

    2005-07-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, conducted monitoring and evaluation studies on Lyons Ferry Hatchery reared yearling fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that were acclimated and released at three Fall Chinook Acclimation Project (FCAP) sites upstream of Lower Granite Dam along with yearlings released on-station from Lyons Ferry Hatchery in 1999. This was the fourth year of a long-term project to supplement natural spawning populations of Snake River stock fall Chinook salmon upstream of Lower Granite Dam. The 453,117 yearlings released from the Fall Chinook Acclimation Project facilities not only slightly exceeded the 450,000 fish quota, but a second release of 76,386 yearlings (hereafter called Surplus) were acclimated at the Big Canyon facility and released about two weeks after the primary releases. We use Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag technology to monitor the primary performance measures of survival to mainstem dams and migration timing. We also monitor size, condition and tag/mark retention at release. We released 9,941 PIT tagged yearlings from Pittsburg Landing, 9,583 from Big Canyon, 2,511 Big Canyon Surplus and 2,494 from Captain John Rapids. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife released 983 PIT tagged yearlings from Lyons Ferry Hatchery. Fish health sampling indicated that, overall, bacterial kidney disease levels could be considered relatively low and did not appear to increase after transport to the acclimation facilities. Compared to prior years, Quantitative Health Assessment Indices were relatively low at Pittsburg Landing and Lyons Ferry Hatchery and relatively high at Big Canyon and Captain John Rapids. Mean fork lengths (95% confidence interval) of the release groups ranged from 147.4 mm (146.7-148.1 mm) at Captain John Rapids to 163.7 mm (163.3-164.1 mm) at Pittsburg Landing. Mean condition factors ranged from 1.04 at

  7. Monitoring and Evaluation of Yearling Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Released from Acclimation Facilities Upstream of Lower Granite Dam; 2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rocklage, Stephen J.

    2005-07-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, conducted monitoring and evaluation studies on Lyons Ferry Hatchery reared yearling fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that were acclimated and released at three Fall Chinook Acclimation Project (FCAP) sites upstream of Lower Granite Dam in 2003. This was the eighth year of a long-term project to supplement natural spawning populations of Snake River stock fall Chinook salmon upstream of Lower Granite Dam. The 437,633 yearlings released from the Fall Chinook Acclimation Project facilities were short of the 450,000 fish quota. We use Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag technology to monitor the primary performance measures of survival to mainstem dams and migration timing. We also monitor size, condition and tag/mark retention at release. We released 7,492 PIT tagged yearlings from Pittsburg Landing, 7,494 from Big Canyon and 2,497 from Captain John Rapids. Fish health sampling indicated that, overall, bacterial kidney disease levels at the acclimation facilities could be considered medium with 37-83% of the fish sampled rating medium to very high. Mean fork lengths (95% confidence interval) of the PIT tagged groups ranged from 153.7 mm (153.2-154.2 mm) at Captain John Rapids to 164.2 mm (163.9-164.5 mm) at Pittsburg Landing. Mean condition factors ranged from 1.06 at Lyons Ferry Hatchery to 1.22 at Captain John Rapids. Estimated survival (95% confidence interval) of PIT tagged yearlings from release to Lower Granite Dam ranged from 83.1% (80.7-85.5%) for Big Canyon to 91.7% (87.7-95.7%) for Captain John Rapids. Estimated survival from release to McNary Dam ranged from 59.9% (54.6-65.2%) for Big Canyon to 69.4% (60.5-78.4%) for Captain John Rapids. Median migration rates to Lower Granite Dam, based on all observations of PIT tagged yearlings from the FCAP facilities, ranged from 5.8 river kilometers per day (rkm/d) for Captain

  8. Monitoring and Evaluation of Yearling Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Released from Acclimation Facilities Upstream of Lower Granite Dam; 2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rocklage, Stephen J. Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapawi, ID)

    2005-07-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, conducted monitoring and evaluation studies on Lyons Ferry Hatchery reared yearling fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that were acclimated and released at three Fall Chinook Acclimation Project (FCAP) sites upstream of Lower Granite Dam in 2004. This was the ninth year of a long-term project to supplement natural spawning populations of Snake River stock fall Chinook salmon upstream of Lower Granite Dam. The 414,452 yearlings released from the Fall Chinook Acclimation Project facilities were short of the 450,000 fish quota. We use Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag technology to monitor the primary performance measures of survival to mainstem dams and migration timing. We also monitor size, condition and tag/mark retention at release. We released 4,983 PIT tagged yearlings from Pittsburg Landing, 4,984 from Big Canyon and 4,982 from Captain John Rapids. Fish health sampling indicated that, overall, bacterial kidney disease levels could be considered low with 53-94% rating not detected to low. Mean fork lengths (95% confidence interval) of the PIT tagged groups ranged from 154.6 mm (154.0-155.2 mm) at Pittsburg Landing to 163.0 mm (162.6-163.4 mm) at Captain John Rapids. Mean condition factors ranged from 1.06 at Lyons Ferry Hatchery to 1.16 at Big Canyon. Estimated survival (95% confidence interval) of PIT tagged yearlings from release to Lower Granite Dam ranged from 74.7% (72.9-76.5%) for Big Canyon to 88.1% (85.7-90.6%) for Captain John Rapids. Estimated survival from release to McNary Dam ranged from 45.3% (39.2-51.5%) for Pittsburg Landing to 52.1% (42.9-61.2%) for Big Canyon. Median migration rates to Lower Granite Dam, based on all observations of PIT tagged yearlings from the FCAP facilities, ranged from 5.5 river kilometers per day (rkm/d) for Captain John Rapids to 12.8 rkm/d for Pittsburg Landing. Median migration

  9. Monitoring and Evaluation of Yearling Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Released from Acclimation Facilities Upstream of Lower Granite Dam; 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rocklage, Stephen J.; Kellar, Dale S.

    2005-07-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, conducted monitoring and evaluation studies on Lyons Ferry Hatchery reared yearling fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that were acclimated and released at three Fall Chinook Acclimation Project sites upstream of Lower Granite Dam along with yearlings released on-station from Lyons Ferry Hatchery in 2001. This was the sixth year of a long-term project to supplement natural spawning populations of Snake River stock fall Chinook salmon upstream of Lower Granite Dam. The 318,932 yearlings released from the Fall Chinook Acclimation Project facilities were short of the 450,000 fish quota. We use Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag technology to monitor the primary performance measures of survival to mainstem dams and migration timing. We also monitor size, condition and tag/mark retention at release. We released 7,503 PIT tagged yearlings from Pittsburg Landing, 7,499 from Big Canyon and 2,518 from Captain John Rapids. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife released 991 PIT tagged yearlings from Lyons Ferry Hatchery. Fish health sampling indicated that, overall, bacterial kidney disease levels could be considered relatively low. Compared to prior years, Quantitative Health Assessment Indices were relatively low at Big Canyon and Captain John Rapids and about average at Pittsburg Landing and Lyons Ferry Hatchery. Mean fork lengths (95% confidence interval) of the PIT tagged groups ranged from 155.4 mm (154.7-156.1 mm) at Captain John Rapids to 171.6 mm (170.7-172.5 mm) at Lyons Ferry Hatchery. Mean condition factors ranged from 1.02 at Lyons Ferry Hatchery to 1.16 at Big Canyon and Captain John Rapids. Estimated survival (95% confidence interval) of PIT tagged yearlings from release to Lower Granite Dam ranged from 74.4% (73.2-75.5%) for Big Canyon to 85.2% (83.5-87.0%) for Captain John Rapids. Estimated survival from release

  10. Monitoring and Evaluation of Yearling Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Released from Acclimation Facilities Upstream of Lower Granite Dam; 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rocklage, Stephen J.; Kellar, Dale S.

    2005-07-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, conducted monitoring and evaluation studies on Lyons Ferry Hatchery reared yearling fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that were acclimated and released at three Fall Chinook Acclimation Project sites upstream of Lower Granite Dam along with yearlings released on-station from Lyons Ferry Hatchery in 2000. This was the fifth year of a long-term project to supplement natural spawning populations of Snake River stock fall Chinook salmon upstream of Lower Granite Dam. The 397,339 yearlings released from the Fall Chinook Acclimation Project facilities were short of the 450,000 fish quota. We use Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag technology to monitor the primary performance measures of survival to mainstem dams and migration timing. We also monitor size, condition and tag/mark retention at release. We released 7,477 PIT tagged yearlings from Pittsburg Landing, 7,421 from Big Canyon and 2,488 from Captain John Rapids. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife released 980 PIT tagged yearlings from Lyons Ferry Hatchery. Fish health sampling indicated that, overall, bacterial kidney disease levels could be considered relatively low. Compared to prior years, Quantitative Health Assessment Indices were relatively low at Big Canyon and Captain John Rapids and about average at Pittsburg Landing and Lyons Ferry Hatchery. Mean fork lengths (95% confidence interval) of the PIT tagged groups ranged from 157.7 mm (157.3-158.1 mm) at Big Canyon to 172.9 mm (172.2-173.6 mm) at Captain John Rapids. Mean condition factors ranged from 1.06 at Captain John Rapids and Lyons Ferry Hatchery to 1.12 at Big Canyon. Estimated survival (95% confidence interval) of PIT tagged yearlings from release to Lower Granite Dam ranged from 87.0% (84.7-89.4%) for Pittsburg Landing to 95.2% (91.5-98.9%) for Captain John Rapids. Estimated survival from release to

  11. Quantifying Temperature Effects on Fall Chinook Salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Jager, Yetta

    2011-11-01

    The motivation for this study was to recommend relationships for use in a model of San Joaquin fall Chinook salmon. This report reviews literature pertaining to relationships between water temperature and fall Chinook salmon. The report is organized into three sections that deal with temperature effects on development and timing of freshwater life stages, temperature effects on incubation survival for eggs and alevin, and temperature effects on juvenile survival. Recommendations are made for modeling temperature influences for all three life stages.

  12. Fall Chinook Aclimation Project; Pittsburg Landing, Captain John Rapids, and Big Canyon, Annual Report 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    McLeod, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    Fisheries co-managers of U.S. v Oregon supported and directed the construction and operation of acclimation and release facilities for Snake River fall Chinook from Lyons Ferry Hatchery at three sites above Lower Granite Dam. In 1996, Congress instructed the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USCOE) to construct, under the Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP), final rearing and acclimation facilities for fall Chinook in the Snake River basin to complement their activities and efforts in compensating for fish lost due to construction of the lower Snake River dams. The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) played a key role in securing funding and selecting acclimation sites, then assumed responsibility for operation and maintenance of the facilities. In 1997, Bonneville Power Administrative (BPA) was directed to fund operations and maintenance (O&M) for the facilities. Two acclimation facilities, Captain John Rapids and Pittsburg Landing, are located on the Snake River between Asotin, WA and Hells Canyon Dam and one facility, Big Canyon, is located on the Clearwater River at Peck. The Capt. John Rapids facility is a single pond while the Pittsburg Landing and Big Canyon sites consist of portable fish rearing tanks assembled and disassembled each year. Acclimation of 450,000 yearling smolts (150,000 each facility) begins in March and ends 6 weeks later. When available, an additional 2,400,000 fall Chinook sub-yearlings may be acclimated for 6 weeks, following the smolt release. The project goal is to increase the naturally spawning population of Snake River fall Chinook salmon upstream of Lower Granite Dam. This is a supplementation project; in that hatchery produced fish are acclimated and released into the natural spawning habitat for the purpose of returning a greater number of spawners to increase natural production. Only Snake River stock is used and production of juveniles occurs at Lyons Ferry Hatchery. This is a long-term project, and will ultimately work towards achieving

  13. Assessment of Barotrauma from Rapid Decompression of Depth-Acclimated Juvenile Chinook Salmon Bearing Radiotelemetry Transmitters

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Richard S.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Welch, Abigail E.; Stephenson, John R.; Abernethy, Cary S.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Langeslay, Mike; Ahmann, Martin L.; Feil, Daniel H.; Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.

    2009-11-01

    This study investigated the mortality of and injury to juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha exposed to simulated pressure changes associated with passage through a large Kaplan hydropower turbine. Mortality and injury varied depending on whether a fish was carrying a transmitter, the method of transmitter implantation, the depth of acclimation, and the size of the fish. Juvenile Chinook salmon implanted with radio transmitters were more likely than those without to die or sustain injuries during simulated turbine passage. Gastric transmitter implantation resulted in higher rates of injury and mortality than surgical implantation. Mortality and injury increased with increasing pressure of acclimation. Injuries were more common in subyearling fish than in yearling fish. Gas emboli in the gills and internal hemorrhaging were the major causes of mortality. Rupture of the swim bladder and emphysema in the fins were also common. This research makes clear that the exposure of juvenile Chinook salmon bearing radiotelemetry transmitters to simulated turbine pressures with a nadir of 8-19 kPa can result in barotrauma, leading to immediate or delayed mortality. The study also identified sublethal barotrauma injuries that may increase susceptibility to predation. These findings have significant implications for many studies that use telemetry devices to estimate the survival and behavior of juvenile salmon as they pass through large Kaplan turbines typical of those within the Columbia River hydropower system. Our results indicate that estimates of turbine passage survival for juvenile Chinook salmon obtained with radiotelemetry devices may be negatively biased.

  14. Predation Susceptibility of Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon Exposed to Sudden Temperature Changes and Slightly Supersaturated Dissolved Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Bellgraph, Brian J.; Carter, Kathleen M.; Chamness, Michele A.; Abel, Tylor K.; Linley, Timothy J.; Cullinan, Valerie I.

    2014-08-01

    High mortality of hatchery-reared juvenile fall Chinook salmon emigrating from the Clearwater River was previously measured at the confluence of the Snake and Clearwater rivers; however, the causative mechanism of mortality is unknown. To elucidate potential mechanisms, the predation susceptibility of juvenile fall Chinook salmon was assessed during simulated passage from the Clearwater River and through the confluence of the Clearwater and Snake rivers, with and without cool water flow augmentation. Emigrant-sized juvenile salmon were acclimated to temperatures typical of the Clearwater River when cool water augmentation is discharged from Dworshak Dam (10°C to 17°C) and during temperatures that would be present without augmentation (17°C to 24°C), and were then exposed to smallmouth bass within temperatures typical of the Snake River in summer (17°C to 24°C). Slightly supersaturated total dissolved gas concentrations of 105% were also simulated to more closely approximate gas conditions of both rivers in summer. Predation susceptibility of juvenile salmon acclimated at 10°C or 17°C and exposed to predators at 17°C did not differ. However, for salmon exposed to predators at 24°C, predation susceptibility was arguably higher for juvenile salmon acclimated at 10°C (a 14°C increase) than for salmon acclimated at 17°C or 24°C (7°C and 0°C increases, respectively). These results indicate that predation susceptibility may be higher when a relatively large temperature difference exists between the Clearwater and Snake rivers; that is, when cool water flow augmentation is occurs in summer. However, further research is needed to determine if high confluence mortality measured in previous studies is related to cool water augmentation and, ultimately, whether or not this mortality has a population-level effect on the dynamics of wild Snake River fall Chinook salmon.

  15. Behavioral thermoregulation by juvenile spring and fall chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, during smoltification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauter, S.T.; Crawshaw, L.I.; Maule, A.G.

    2001-01-01

    Fall chinook salmon evolved to emigrate during the summer months. The shift in the temperature preference we observed in smolting fall chinook but not spring chinook salmon may reflect a phylogenetic adaptation to summer emigration by (1) providing directional orientation as fall chinook salmon move into the marine environment, (2) maintaining optimal gill function during emigration and seawater entry, and/or (3) resetting thermoregulatory set-points to support physiological homeostasis once smolted fish enter the marine environment. Phylogenetically determined temperature adaptations and responses to thermal stress may not protect fall chinook salmon from the recent higher summer water temperatures, altered annual thermal regimes, and degraded cold water refugia that result from hydropower regulation of the Columbia and Snake rivers. The long-term survival of fall chinook salmon will likely require restoration of normal annual thermographs and rigorous changes in land use practices to protect critical thermal refugia and control maximum summer water temperatures in reservoirs.

  16. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2004 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn

    2009-03-31

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), has implemented a Chinook salmon supplementation program (250,000 smolts) on the Lostine River, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River of Oregon. The Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation project, which involves supplementation of the Upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek in addition to the Lostine River, was established to prevent extirpation and increase the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to the Grande Ronde River. This report covers the eighth season (1997-2004) of adult Chinook salmon broodstock collection in the Lostine River and the sixth season (1999-2004) of acclimation of resulting Lostine River progeny. Production of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts currently occurs at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LGH). The Lostine River supplementation program utilizes two strategies to obtain egg source for production of smolts for supplementation: captive broodstock and conventional broodstock. The captive broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural juvenile spring Chinook salmon smolts from the Lostine River, (2) rearing those to adult and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for eventual acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. The conventional broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural and hatchery origin adults returning to the Lostine River, (2) holding those adults and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progency for acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. This report focuses on (1) the trapping and collection of adult spring Chinook salmon that return to the Lostine River, which provides the broodstock source for the conventional strategy and (2) the acclimation and release of juvenile spring Chinook salmon produced from the captive broodstock and conventional broodstock strategies. In 2004

  17. Antibody-producing cells correlated to body weight in juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) acclimated to optimal and elevated temperatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrahy, L.N.M.; Schreck, C.B.; Maule, A.G.

    2001-01-01

    The immune response of juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) ranging in weight from approximately 10 to 55 g was compared when the fish were acclimated to either 13 or 21?? C. A haemolytic plaque assay was conducted to determine differences in the number of antibody-producing cells (APC) among fish of a similar age but different body weights. Regression analyses revealed significant increases in the number of APC with increasing body weight when fish were acclimated to either water temperature. These results emphasise the importance of standardising fish weight in immunological studies of salmonids before exploring the possible effects of acclimation temperatures. ?? 2001 Academic Press.

  18. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2003 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn

    2009-03-31

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), has implemented a Chinook salmon supplementation program (250,000 smolts) on the Lostine River, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River of Oregon. The Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation project, which involves supplementation of the Upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek in addition to the Lostine River, was established to prevent extirpation and increase the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to the Grande Ronde River. This report covers the seventh season (1997-2003) of adult Chinook salmon broodstock collection in the Lostine River and the fifth season (1999-2003) of acclimating the resultant progeny. Production of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts currently occurs at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LGH). The Lostine River supplementation program utilizes two strategies to obtain egg source for production of smolts for supplementation: captive broodstock and conventional broodstock. The captive broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural juvenile spring Chinook salmon smolts from the Lostine River, (2) rearing those to adult and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for eventual acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. The conventional broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural and hatchery origin adults returning to the Lostine River, (2) holding those adults and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. This report focuses on (1) the trapping and collection of adult spring Chinook salmon that return to the Lostine River, which provides the broodstock source for the conventional strategy and (2) the acclimation and release of juvenile spring Chinook salmon produced from the captive broodstock and conventional broodstock strategies. In 2003, acclimation of

  19. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2007 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn

    2009-03-31

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), has implemented a Chinook salmon supplementation program (250,000 smolts) on the Lostine River, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River of Oregon. The Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation project, which involves supplementation of the Upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek in addition to the Lostine River, was established to prevent extirpation and increase the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to the Grande Ronde River. This report covers the eleventh season (1997-2007) of adult Chinook salmon broodstock collection in the Lostine River and the ninth season (1999-2007) of acclimation of resulting Lostine River progeny. Production of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts currently occurs at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LGH). The Lostine River supplementation program utilizes two strategies to obtain egg source for production of smolts for supplementation: captive broodstock and conventional broodstock. The captive broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural juvenile spring Chinook salmon smolts from the Lostine River, (2) rearing those to adult and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for eventual acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. The conventional broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural and hatchery origin adults returning to the Lostine River, (2) holding those adults and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. This report focuses on (1) the trapping and collection of adult spring Chinook salmon that return to the Lostine River, which provides the broodstock source for the conventional strategy and (2) the acclimation and release of juvenile spring Chinook salmon produced from the captive broodstock and conventional broodstock strategies In 2007

  20. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2006 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn

    2009-03-31

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), has implemented a Chinook salmon supplementation program (250,000 smolts) on the Lostine River, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River of Oregon. The Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation project, which involves supplementation of the Upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek in addition to the Lostine River, was established to prevent extirpation and increase the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to the Grande Ronde River. This report covers the tenth season (1997-2006) of adult Chinook salmon broodstock collection in the Lostine River and the eighth season (1999-2006) of acclimation of resulting Lostine River progeny. Production of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts currently occurs at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LGH). The Lostine River supplementation program utilizes two strategies to obtain egg source for production of smolts for supplementation: captive broodstock and conventional broodstock. The captive broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural juvenile spring Chinook salmon smolts from the Lostine River, (2) rearing those to adult and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for eventual acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. The conventional broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural and hatchery origin adults returning to the Lostine River, (2) holding those adults and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. This report focuses on (1) the trapping and collection of adult spring Chinook salmon that return to the Lostine River, which provides the broodstock source for the conventional strategy and (2) the acclimation and release of juvenile spring Chinook salmon produced from the captive broodstock and conventional broodstock strategies In 2006

  1. Spawning Distribution of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake River : Annual Report 1999.

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Aaron P.

    2000-04-01

    This report is separated into 2 chapters. The chapters are (1) Progress toward determining the spawning distribution of supplemented fall chinook salmon in the Snake River in 1999; and (2) Fall chinook salmon spawning ground surveys in the Snake River, 1999.

  2. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon Spawning below Bonneville Dam; 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    van der Naald, Wayne; Duff, Cameron; Friesen, Thomas A.

    2006-02-01

    Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. populations have declined over the last century due to a variety of human impacts. Chum salmon O. keta populations in the Columbia River have remained severely depressed for the past several decades, while upriver bright (URB) fall Chinook salmon O. tschawytscha populations have maintained relatively healthy levels. For the past seven years we have collected data on adult spawning and juvenile emergence and outmigration of URB fall Chinook and chum salmon populations in the Ives and Pierce islands complex below Bonneville Dam. In 2004, we estimated 1,733 fall Chinook salmon and 336 chum salmon spawned in our study area. Fall Chinook salmon spawning peaked 19 November with 337 redds and chum salmon spawning peaked 3 December with 148 redds. Biological characteristics continue to suggest chum salmon in our study area are similar to nearby stocks in Hardy and Hamilton creeks, and Chinook salmon we observe are similar to upriver bright stocks. Temperature data indicated that 2004 brood URB fall Chinook salmon emergence began on 6 January and ended 27 May 2005, with peak emergence occurring 12 March. Chum salmon emergence began 4 February and continued through 2 May 2005, with peak emergence occurring on 21 March. Between 13 January and 28 June, we sampled 28,984 juvenile Chinook salmon and 1,909 juvenile chum salmon. We also released 32,642 fin-marked and coded-wire tagged juvenile fall Chinook salmon to assess survival. The peak catch of juvenile fall Chinook salmon occurred on 18 April. Our results suggested that the majority of fall Chinook salmon outmigrate during late May and early June, at 70-80 mm fork length (FL). The peak catch of juvenile chum salmon occurred 25 March. Juvenile chum salmon appeared to outmigrate at 40-55 mm FL. Outmigration of chum salmon peaked in March but extended into April and May.

  3. 50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the USGS publication and maps may be... salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section... Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer...

  4. 50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the USGS publication and maps may be... salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section... Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer...

  5. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon Spawning below Bonneville Dam; 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    van der Naald, Wayne; Clark, Roy; Brooks, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In 2002 a total of 364 adult fall chinook and 472 chum were sampled for biological data in the Ives and Pierce islands area below Bonneville Dam. Vital statistics were developed from 290 fall chinook and 403 chum samples. The peak redd count for fall chinook was 214. The peak redd count for chum was 776. Peak spawning time for fall chinook was set at approximately 15 November. Peak spawning time for chum occurred approximately 6 December. There were estimated to be a total of 1,881 fall chinook spawning below Bonneville Dam in 2002. The study area's 2002 chum population was estimated to be 4,232 spawning fish. Temperature unit data suggests that below Bonneville Dam 2002 brood bright stock, fall chinook emergence began on February 3 2003 and ended 7 May 2003, with peak emergence occurring 20 April. 2002 brood juvenile chum emergence below Bonneville Dam began 27 January and continued through 6 April 2003. Peak chum emergence took place 1 March. A total of 10,925 juvenile chinook and 1,577 juvenile chum were sampled between the dates of 24 January and 21 July 2003 below Bonneville Dam. Juvenile chum migrated from the study area in the 40-55 mm fork length range. Migration of chum occurred during the months of March, April and May. Sampling results suggest fall chinook migration from rearing areas took place during the month of June 2003 when juvenile fall chinook were in the 65 to 80 mm fork length size range. Adult and juvenile sampling below Bonneville Dam provided information to assist in determining the stock of fall chinook and chum spawning and rearing below Bonneville Dam. Based on observed spawning times, adult age and sex composition, juvenile emergence timing, juvenile migration timing and juvenile size at the time of migration, it appears that in 2002 and 2003 the majority of fall chinook using the area below Bonneville Dam were of a late-spawning, bright stock of fall chinook. Observed spawning times, adult age and sex composition, GSI and DNA analysis

  6. Evaluate the Restoration Potential of Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Habitat, Status Report 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, T.P.

    2009-01-08

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Project 2003-038-00, Evaluate the restoration potential of Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat, began in FY04 (15 December 2003) and continues into FY06. This status report is intended to summarize accomplishments during FY04 and FY05. Accomplishments are summarized by Work Elements, as detailed in the Statement of Work (see BPA's project management database PISCES). This project evaluates the restoration potential of mainstem habitats for fall Chinook salmon. The studies address two research questions: 'Are there sections not currently used by spawning fall Chinook salmon within the impounded lower Snake River that possess the physical characteristics for potentially suitable fall Chinook spawning habitat?' and 'Can hydrosystem operations affecting these sections be adjusted such that the sections closely resemble the physical characteristics of current fall Chinook salmon spawning areas in similar physical settings?' Efforts are focused at two study sites: (1) the Ice Harbor Dam tailrace downstream to the Columbia River confluence, and (2) the Lower Granite Dam tailrace. Our previous studies indicated that these two areas have the highest potential for restoring Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat. The study sites will be evaluated under existing structural configurations at the dams (i.e., without partial removal of a dam structure), and alternative operational scenarios (e.g., varying forebay/tailwater elevations). The areas studied represent tailwater habitat (i.e., riverine segments extending from a dam downstream to the backwater influence from the next dam downstream). We are using a reference site, indicative of current fall Chinook salmon spawning areas in tailwater habitat, against which to compare the physical characteristics of each study site. The reference site for tailwater habitats is the section extending downstream from the Wanapum Dam tailrace on the Columbia River. Escapement

  7. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon Spawning below Bonneville Dam; 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    van der Naald, Wayne; Duff, Cameron; Brooks, Robert

    2005-01-01

    In 2003 a total of 253 adult fall chinook and 113 chum were sampled for biological data in the Ives and Pierce islands area below Bonneville Dam. Vital statistics were developed from 221 fall chinook and 109 chum samples. The peak redd count for fall chinook was 190. The peak redd count for chum was 262. Peak spawning time for fall chinook was set at approximately 24 November. Peak spawning time for chum occurred approximately 24 November. There were estimated to be a total of 1,533 fall chinook spawning below Bonneville Dam in 2003. The study area's 2003 chum population was estimated to be 688 spawning fish. Temperature unit data suggests that below Bonneville Dam 2003 brood bright stock, fall chinook emergence began on January 6, 2004 and ended 28 April 2004, with peak emergence occurring 13 April. 2003 brood juvenile chum emergence below Bonneville Dam began 22 February and continued through 15 April 2004. Peak chum emergence took place 25 March. A total of 25,433 juvenile chinook and 4,864 juvenile chum were sampled between the dates of 20 January and 28 June 2004 below Bonneville Dam. Juvenile chum migrated from the study area in the 40-55 mm fork length range. Migration of chum occurred during the months of March, April and May. Sampling results suggest fall chinook migration from rearing areas took place during the month of June 2004 when juvenile fall chinook were in the 65 to 80 mm fork length size range. Adult and juvenile sampling below Bonneville Dam provided information to assist in determining the stock of fall chinook and chum spawning and rearing below Bonneville Dam. Based on observed spawning times, adult age and sex composition, juvenile emergence timing, juvenile migration timing and juvenile size at the time of migration, it appears that in 2003 all of the fall chinook using the area below Bonneville Dam were of a late-spawning, bright stock. Observed spawning times, adult age and sex composition, GSI and DNA analysis, juvenile emergence timing

  8. Identification of the Spawning, Rearing and Migratory Requirements of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River Basin, Annual Report 1992.

    SciTech Connect

    Rondorf, Dennis W.; Miller, William H.

    1994-03-01

    This document is the 1992 annual progress report for selected studies of fall chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha conducted by the National Biological Survey (NBS) and the US Fish and Wildlife Service. The decline in abundance of fall chinook salmon in the Snake River basin has become a growing concern. Effective recovery efforts for fall chinook salmon cannot be developed until we increase our knowledge of the factors that are limiting the various life history stages. This study attempts to identify those physical and biological factors which influence spawning of fall chinook salmon in the free-flowing Snake River and their rearing and seaward migration through Columbia River basin reservoirs.

  9. Evaluation of Juvenile Fall Chinook Stranding on the Hanford Reach, 1997-1999 Interim Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Paul; Nugent, John; Price, William

    1999-02-15

    Pilot work conducted in 1997 to aid the development of the study for the 1998 Evaluation of Juvenile Fall Chinook Stranding on The Hanford Reach. The objectives of the 1997 work were to: (1) identify juvenile chinook production and rearing areas..., (2) identify sampling sites and develop the statistical parameters necessary to complete the study, (3) develop a study plan..., (4) conduct field sampling activities...

  10. Color Photographic Index of Fall Chinook Salmon Embryonic Development and Accumulated Thermal Units

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, James W.; Oldenburg, Eric W.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Knowledge of the relationship between accumulated thermal units and developmental stages of Chinook salmon embryos can be used to determine the approximate date of egg fertilization in natural redds, thus providing insight into oviposition timing of wild salmonids. However, few studies have documented time to different developmental stages of embryonic Chinook salmon and no reference color photographs are available. The objectives of this study were to construct an index relating developmental stages of hatchery-reared fall Chinook salmon embryos to time and temperature (e.g., degree days) and provide high-quality color photographs of each identified developmental stage. Methodology/Principal Findings Fall Chinook salmon eggs were fertilized in a hatchery environment and sampled approximately every 72 h post-fertilization until 50% hatch. Known embryonic developmental features described for sockeye salmon were used to describe development of Chinook salmon embryos. A thermal sums model was used to describe the relationship between embryonic development rate and water temperature. Mean water temperature was 8.0°C (range; 3.9–11.7°C) during the study period. Nineteen stages of embryonic development were identified for fall Chinook salmon; two stages in the cleavage phase, one stage in the gastrulation phase, and sixteen stages in the organogenesis phase. The thermal sums model used in this study provided similar estimates of fall Chinook salmon embryonic development rate in water temperatures varying from 3.9–11.7°C (mean = 8°C) to those from several other studies rearing embryos in constant 8°C water temperature. Conclusions/Significance The developmental index provides a reasonable description of timing to known developmental stages of Chinook salmon embryos and was useful in determining developmental stages of wild fall Chinook salmon embryos excavated from redds in the Columbia River. This index should prove useful to other researchers who

  11. Fall Chinook Salmon Survival and Supplementation Studies in the Snake River Reservoirs, 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, John G.; Bjornn , Theodore C.

    1998-05-01

    In 1996, the National Marine Fisheries Service, the Nez Perce Tribe, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service completed the second year of cooperative research to investigate migrational characteristics of subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake River Basin. In spring and early summer, we captured natural subyearling fall chinook salmon by beach seine, PIT tagged them, and released them in two reaches of the Snake River. Also, subyearling fall chinook salmon reared at Lyons Ferry Hatchery were PIT tagged at the hatchery, transported, and released weekly at Pittsburg Landing on the Snake River and Big Canyon Creek on the Clearwater River to collect data on survival detection probabilities, and travel time.

  12. Early life history and survival of natural subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake and Clearwater rivers in 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connor, William P.; Bjornn, Theodore C.; Burge, Howard L.; Garcia, Aaron P.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of this segment of our study were to (1) describe the early life history characteristics of naturally produced subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake and Clearwater rivers, and (2) estimate survival for juvenile fall chinook salmon emigrating from the Snake and Clearwater rivers to the tail race of Lower Granite Dam.

  13. Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Life History Investigations, Annual Report 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Connor, William P.; Bellgraph, Brian J.

    2009-09-15

    This study was initiated to provide empirical data and analyses on the dam passage timing, travel rate, survival, and life history variation of fall Chinook salmon that are produced in the Clearwater River. The area of interest for this study focuses on the lower four miles of the Clearwater River and its confluence with the Snake River because this is an area where many fish delay their seaward migration. The goal of the project is to increase our understanding of the environmental and biological factors that affect juvenile life history of fall Chinook salmon in the Clearwater River. The following summaries are provided for each of the individual chapters in this report.

  14. Spawning Distribution of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake River : Annual Report 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Aaron P.

    2001-08-01

    From 1997 to 2000, we collected data on the spawning distribution of fall chinook salmon above Lower Granite Dam as part of a five-year evaluation of three acclimation/release facilities: Pittsburgh Landing, Captain John, and Big Canyon Creek. The use of multiple facilities is intended to distribute spawning throughout the habitat normally used in the Snake and Clearwater rivers, and our study was designed to determine if this is achieved. In the Snake River, spawning normally occurs throughout a 100 mile reach. Pittsburgh Landing is located within the upper half of this reach, and Captain John is located within the lower half. In the Clearwater River, most spawning occurs within the lower 41 miles and the Big Canyon Creek facility is located therein. Our approach for determining spawning distribution was to first trap returning fish at Lower Granite Dam, identify their origin (all yearling fish were externally marked before they were released), and use radio tags and redd searches to determine where they spawned. Thus far we radio tagged 203 adult fish that were initially released at the acclimation sites. We confirmed the spawning location of 74 of these fish, 42 from releases at Pittsburgh Landing, seven from Captain John, and 25 from releases at the Big Canyon Creek facility. All of the fish from Pittsburgh Landing spawned in the Snake River, 86% within the upper half of the Snake River study area, and 14% in the lower half. Of the adult fish from Captain John, roughly 71% spawned in the lower half of the Snake River study area, 14% spawned in the upper half, and 14% spawned in the Clearwater River. Of the adult fish from releases at Big Canyon Creek, 80% spawned in the Clearwater River and 20% spawned in the Snake River (four in the lower half and one in the upper half). To augment the study, we determined the spawning locations of 16 adult fish that were directly released as subyearlings at or near the three acclimation sites. Ten of the fish were from

  15. Survival of Hatchery Subyearling Fall Chinook Salmon in the Free-Flowing Snake River and Lower Snake River Reservoirs, 1998-2001 Summary Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D.

    2002-09-01

    We report results from four years (1998-2001) of an ongoing study of survival and travel time of subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake River. We report analyses of associations among river conditions and survival and travel time estimates, which include data from 1995 through 1997. At weekly intervals from early June to early July each year (mid-May to late June in 2001), hatchery-reared subyearling fall chinook salmon were PIT tagged at Lyons Ferry Hatchery, trucked upstream, acclimated, and released above Lower Granite Dam at Pittsburgh Landing and Billy Creek on the Snake River and at Big Canyon Creek on the Clearwater River. Each year, a small proportion of fish released were not detected until the following spring. However, the number that overwintered in the river and migrated seaward as yearlings the following spring was small and had minimal effect on survival estimates. Concurrent with our studies, a number of subyearling fall chinook salmon that reared naturally in the Snake River were caught by beach seine, PIT tagged, and released. We compared a number of characteristics of hatchery and wild fish. Hatchery and wild fish were similar in 2001, and from 1995 through 1997. Results for 1998 through 2000 showed some relatively large differences between hatchery and wild fish. However, recent information suggests that a considerable proportion of wild subyearling chinook salmon migrating in a given year may actually be stream-type (spring/summer), rather than ocean-type (fall) fish, which may account for some of the differences we have observed.

  16. Identification of juvenile fall versus spring chinook salmon migrating through the lower Snake River based on body morphology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, K.F.; Rondorf, D.W.; Garland, R.D.; Verhey, P.A.

    2000-01-01

    We tested the use of body morphology to distinguish among subyearling fall-run, subyearling spring-run, and yearling spring-run smolts of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha at two lower Snake River dams during the summer emigration. Based on principal-components analysis, subyearling fall-run chinook salmon had smaller heads and eyes, deeper bodies, and shorter caudal peduncles than yearling spring-run chinook salmon. Subyearling spring-run chinook salmon had characteristics of both subyearling fall-run and yearling spring-run chinook salmon. Subyearling fall-run and yearling spring-run chinook salmon were classified with more than 80% accuracy by means of discriminant analysis. Classification accuracy for subyearling spring-run chinook salmon was only 26%. We conclude that body morphology can be used to accurately identify the age of chinook salmon smolts but not the run. Therefore, genetic analyses are the only means of reliably determining the run composition of summer migrants in the lower Snake River.

  17. Post-Release Attributes and Survival of Hatchery and Natural Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake River : Annual Report 1999.

    SciTech Connect

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes results of research activities conducted in 1999 and years previous. In an effort to provide this information to a wider audience, the individual chapters in this report have been submitted as manuscripts to peer-reviewed journals. These chapters communicate significant findings that will aid in the management and recovery of fall chinook salmon in the Columbia River Basin. Abundance and timing of seaward migration of Snake River fall chinook salmon was indexed using passage data collected at Lower Granite Dam for five years. We used genetic analyses to determine the lineage of fish recaptured at Lower Granite Dam that had been previously PIT tagged. We then used discriminant analysis to determine run membership of PIT-tagged smolts that were not recaptured to enable us to calculate annual run composition and to compared early life history attributes of wild subyearling fall and spring chinook salmon. Because spring chinook salmon made up from 15.1 to 44.4% of the tagged subyearling smolts that were detected passing Lower Granite Dam, subyearling passage data at Lower Granite Dam can only be used to index fall chinook salmon smolt abundance and passage timing if genetic samples are taken to identify run membership of smolts. Otherwise, fall chinook salmon smolt abundance would be overestimated and timing of fall chinook salmon smolt passage would appear to be earlier and more protracted than is the case.

  18. Genetic characterization of naturally spawned Snake River fall-run Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marshall, A.R.; Blankenship, H.L.; Connor, W.P.

    1999-01-01

    We sampled juvenile Snake River chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to genetically characterize the endangered Snake River fall-run population. Juveniles from fall and spring–summer lineages coexisted in our sampling areas but were differentiated by large allozyme allele frequency differences. We sorted juveniles by multilocus genotypes into putative fall and spring lineage subsamples and determined lineage composition using maximum likelihood estimation methods. Paired sMEP-1* and PGK-2* genotypes—encoding malic enzyme (NADP+) and phosphoglycerate kinase, respectively—were very effective for sorting juveniles by lineage, and subsamples estimated to be 100% fall lineage were obtained in four annual samples. We examined genetic relationships of these fall lineage juveniles with adjacent populations from the Columbia River and from Lyons Ferry Hatchery, which was established to perpetuate the Snake River fall-run population. Our samples of naturally produced Snake River fall lineage juveniles were most closely aligned with Lyons Ferry Hatchery samples. Although fall-run strays of Columbia River hatchery origin found on spawning grounds threaten the genetic integrity of the Snake River population, juvenile samples (a) showed distinctive patterns of allelic diversity, (b) were differentiated from Columbia River populations, and (c) substantiate earlier conclusions that this population is an important genetic resource. This first characterization of naturally produced Snake River fall chinook salmon provides a baseline for monitoring and recovery planning.

  19. Spawning Habitat Studies of Hanford Reach Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Chien, Yi-Ju

    2009-03-02

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted this study for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) with funding provided through the Northwest Power and Conservation Council(a) and the BPA Fish and Wildlife Program. The study was conducted in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. The goal of study was to determine the physical habitat factors necessary to define the redd capacity of fall Chinook salmon that spawn in large mainstem rivers like the Hanford Reach and Snake River. The study was originally commissioned in FY 1994 and then recommissioned in FY 2000 through the Fish and Wildlife Program rolling review of the Columbia River Basin projects. The work described in this report covers the period from 1994 through 2004; however, the majority of the information comes from the last four years of the study (2000 through 2004). Results from the work conducted from 1994 to 2000 were covered in an earlier report. More than any other stock of Pacific salmon, fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) have suffered severe impacts from the hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. Fall Chinook salmon rely heavily on mainstem habitats for all phases of their life cycle, and mainstem hydroelectric dams have inundated or blocked areas that were historically used for spawning and rearing. The natural flow pattern that existed in the historic period has been altered by the dams, which in turn have affected the physical and biological template upon which fall Chinook salmon depend upon for successful reproduction. Operation of the dams to produce power to meet short-term needs in electricity (termed power peaking) produces unnatural fluctuations in flow over a 24-hour cycle. These flow fluctuations alter the physical habitat and disrupt the cues that salmon use to select spawning sites, as well as strand fish in near-shore habitat that becomes dewatered. The quality of spawning gravels has been affected by dam construction, flood protection, and

  20. Assessment of Barotrauma Resulting from Rapid Decompression of Depth Acclimated Juvenile Chinook Salmon Bearing Radio Telemetry Transmitters

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Richard S.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Welch, Abigail E.; Stephenson, John R.; Abernethy, Cary S.; McKinstry, Craig A.; Theriault, Marie-Helene

    2007-09-06

    A multifactor study was conducted by Battelle for the US Army Corps of Engineers to assess the significance of the presence of a radio telemetry transmitter on the effects of rapid decompression from simulated hydro turbine passage on depth acclimated juvenile run-of-the-river Chinook salmon. Study factors were: (1) juvenile chinook salmon age;, subyearling or yearling, (2) radio transmitter present or absent, (3) three transmitter implantation factors: gastric, surgical, and no transmitter, and (4) four acclimation depth factors: 1, 10, 20, and 40 foot submergence equivalent absolute pressure, for a total of 48 unique treatments. Exposed fish were examined for changes in behavior, presence or absence of barotrauma injuries, and immediate or delayed mortality. Logistic models were used to test hypotheses that addressed study objectives. The presence of a radio transmitter was found to significantly increase the risk of barotrauma injury and mortality at exposure to rapid decompression. Gastric implantation was found to present a higher risk than surgical implantation. Fish were exposed within 48 hours of transmitter implantation so surgical incisions were not completely healed. The difference in results obtained for gastric and surgical implantation methods may be the result of study design and the results may have been different if tested fish had completely healed surgical wounds. However, the test did simulate the typical surgical-release time frame for in-river telemetry studies of fish survival so the results are probably representative for fish passing through a turbine shortly following release into the river. The finding of a significant difference in response to rapid decompression between fish bearing radio transmitters and those not implies a bias may exist in estimates of turbine passage survival obtained using radio telemetry. However, the rapid decompression (simulated turbine passage) conditions used for the study represented near worst case exposure

  1. Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Brood-Stock Program, 1984 Annual Report of Research.

    SciTech Connect

    Harrell, Lee W.

    1985-02-01

    The objective is the enhancement of upriver stocks through research and development of an eggbank source. Viable gametes, produced from fish held to maturity in sea pens, will be made available for restoration purposes on the Snake River. Seawater entry trials with 0+-age and 1+-age fish have shown that 0+-age Snake River fall chinook salmon are not amenable to seawater entry and will either die or require up to 6 months to fully adapt to seawater. However, 1+-age smolts experience little problem at seawater entry; it is therefore suggested that Snake River fall chinook salmon be released as 1+ smolting fish in hatchery situations. Important marine mortalities occurring from osmoregulatory dysfunction, Bacterial Kidney Disease, and precocity at various life stages have been documented. Also, a previously unreported marine fungal pathogen has been identified. Mortality from this pathogen occurs from 3-years of age to maturity and can exceed 0.5% per day (resulting in losses to 90+%). At the end of December 1984, Snake River fall chinook salmon from 1980 (n = 67), 1981 (n = 876), 1982 (n = 4809), and 1983 (n = 7100) broods were under production. Because of the extensive mortality due to the marine fungal pathogen, only seven spawners were obtained from the 1980 stock in fall 1984. The 1980-brood spawners produced only minimal eggs and these will be used to investigate possible vertical transmission of the fungal pathogen. 4 figs.

  2. Fall Chinook Salmon Survival and Supplementation Studies in the Snake River and Lower Snake River Reservoirs, 1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, William D.; Connor, William P.; Arnsberg, Billy D.

    1999-03-01

    In 1997, the National Marine Fisheries Service, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the Nez Perce Tribe completed the third year of research to investigate migrational characteristics of subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake River Basin.

  3. Post-Release Attributes and Survival of Hatchery and Natural Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake River, Annual Report 1998.

    SciTech Connect

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Rondorf, Dennis W.; Connor, William P.; Burge, Howard L.

    1999-12-01

    This report summarizes results of research activities conducted primarily in 1997 and 1998. This report communicates significant findings that will aid in the management and recovery of fall chinook salmon in the Columbia River Basin.

  4. Chromium Toxicity Test for Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Using Hanford Site Groundwater: Onsite Early Life-Stage Toxicity Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, Gregory W; Dauble, Dennis D; Chamness, Mickie A; Abernethy, Cary S; McKinstry, Craig A

    2001-07-10

    The objective of this study was to evaluate site-specific effects for early life-stage (eyed eggs to free swimming juveniles) fall chinook salmon that might be exposed to hexavalent chromium from Hanford groundwater sources. Our exposure conditions included hexavalent chromium obtained from Hanford groundwater wells near the Columbia River, Columbia River water as the diluent, and locally adapted populations of fall chinook salmon. This report describes both a 96-hr pretest using rainbow trout eggs and an early life-stage test beginning with chinook salmon eggs.

  5. Spawning Distribution of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake River : Annual Report 1998.

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Aaron P.

    1999-03-01

    In 1998 data was collected on the spawning distribution of the first adult fall chinook salmon to return from releases of yearling hatchery fish upriver of Lower Granite Dam. Yearling fish were released at three locations with the intent of distributing spawning throughout the existing habitat. The project was designed to use radio-telemetry to determine if the use of multiple release sites resulted in widespread spawning.

  6. Impacts of the Columbia River Hydroelectric System on Mainstem Habitats of Fall Chinook Salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, Dennis D.; Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Geist, David R.; Parsley, Michael J.

    2003-08-01

    Salmonid habitats in mainstem reaches of the Columbia and Snake rivers have changed dramatically during the past 60 years because of hydroelectric development and operation. Only about 13 and 58% of riverine habitats in the Columbia and Snake rivers, respectively, remain. Most riverine habitat is found in the upper Snake River; however, it is upstream of Hells Canyon Dam and not accessible to anadromous salmonids. We determined that approximately 661 and 805 km of the Columbia and Snake rivers, respectively, were once used by fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha for spawning. Fall chinook salmon currently use only about 85 km of the mainstem Columbia River and 163 km of the mainstem Snake River for spawning. We used a geomorphic model to identify three river reaches downstream of present migration barriers with high potential for restoration of riverine processes: the Columbia River upstream of John Day Dam, the Columbia-Snake-Yakima River confluence, and the lower Snake River upstream of Little Goose Dam. Our analysis substantiated the assertion that historic spawning areas for fall chinook salmon occurred primarily within wide alluvial floodplains once common in the mainstem Columbia and Snake rivers. These areas possessed more unconsolidated sediment, more bars and islands, and had lower water surface slopes than areas not extensively used. Because flows in the mainstem are now highly regulated, the pre-development alluvial river ecosystem is not expected to be restored simply by operational modification of one or more dams. Establishing more normative flow regimes, specifically sustained peak flows for scouring, is essential to restoring the functional characteristics of existing, altered habitats. Restoring production of fall chinook salmon to any of these reaches also requires that population genetics and viability of potential seed populations (i.e., from tributaries and tailrace spawning areas, and hatcheries) be considered.

  7. Impacts of the Columbia River hydroelectric system on main-stem habitats of fall chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dauble, D.D.; Hanrahan, T.P.; Geist, D.R.; Parsley, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Salmonid habitats in main-stem reaches of the Columbia and Snake rivers have changed dramatically during the past 60 years because of hydroelectric development and operation. Only about 13% and 58% of riverine habitats in the Columbia and Snake rivers, respectively, remain. Most riverine habitat is found in the upper Snake River; however, it is upstream of Hells Canyon Dam and not accessible to anadromous salmonids. We determined that approximately 661 and 805 km of the Columbia and Snake rivers, respectively, were once used by fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha for spawning. Fall chinook salmon currently use only about 85 km of the main-stem Columbia River and 163 km of the main-stem Snake River for spawning. We used a geomorphic model to identify three river reaches downstream of present migration barriers with high potential for restoration of riverine processes: the Columbia River upstream of John Day Dam, the Columbia-Snake-Yakima River confluence, and the lower Snake River upstream of Little Goose Dam. Our analysis substantiated the assertion that historic spawning areas for fall chinook salmon occurred primarily within wide alluvial floodplains, which were once common in the mainstem Columbia and Snake rivers. These areas possessed more unconsolidated sediment and more bars and islands and had lower water surface slopes than did less extensively used areas. Because flows in the main stem are now highly regulated, the predevelopment alluvial river ecosystem is not expected to be restored simply by operational modification of one or more dams. Establishing more normative flow regimes - specifically, sustained peak flows for scouring - is essential to restoring the functional characteristics of existing, altered habitats. Restoring production of fall chinook salmon to any of these reaches also requires that population genetics and viability of potential seed populations (i.e., from tributaries, tailrace spawning areas, and hatcheries) be considered.

  8. Imaging fall Chinook salmon redds in the Columbia River with a dual-frequency identification sonar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, K.F.; Rondorf, D.W.; Skalicky, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    We tested the efficacy of a dual-frequency identification sonar (DIDSON) for imaging and enumeration of fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha redds in a spawning area below Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River. The DIDSON uses sound to form near-video-quality images and has the advantages of imaging in zero-visibility water and possessing a greater detection range and field of view than underwater video cameras. We suspected that the large size and distinct morphology of a fall Chinook salmon redd would facilitate acoustic imaging if the DIDSON was towed near the river bottom so as to cast an acoustic shadow from the tailspill over the redd pocket. We tested this idea by observing 22 different redds with an underwater video camera, spatially referencing their locations, and then navigating to them while imaging them with the DIDSON. All 22 redds were successfully imaged with the DIDSON. We subsequently conducted redd searches along transects to compare the number of redds imaged by the DIDSON with the number observed using an underwater video camera. We counted 117 redds with the DIDSON and 81 redds with the underwater video camera. Only one of the redds observed with the underwater video camera was not also documented by the DIDSON. In spite of the DIDSON's high cost, it may serve as a useful tool for enumerating fall Chinook salmon redds in conditions that are not conducive to underwater videography.

  9. Physiological development and migratory behavior of subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, K.F.; Rondorf, D.W.; Wagner, P.G.

    2000-01-01

    We describe the migratory behavior and physiological development of subyearling fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha migrating through John Day Reservoir on the Columbia River, Washington and Oregon. Fish were freeze-branded and coded-wire-tagged at McNary Dam, Oregon, from 1991 to 1994, to determine travel time to John Day Dam and subsequent adult contribution. Stepwise multiple regression showed that 47% of the variation in subyearling fall chinook salmon travel time was explained by the reciprocal of minimum flow and fish size. Smoltification, as measured by gill Na+-K+ adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity, was not important in explaining variability in travel time of subyearling chinook salmon. Fish marked early in the out-migration generally traveled faster than middle and late migrants. Seawater challenges were used to describe physiological development and showed that osmoregulatory competence of premigrants in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River increased with fish size and gill ATPase activity. Once active migrants began passing McNary Dam, fish generally had survival exceeding 90% and were able to regulate their blood plasma Na+ in seawater. Gill ATPase activity increased as premigrants, reared in nearshore areas of the Hanford Reach, reached a peak among active migrants in late June and early July then decreased through the remainder of the out-migration. Salinity preference also peaked in subyearling fall chinook salmon during late June to mid July in 1995. Return of adults from marked groups showed no consistent patterns that would suggest a survival advantage for any portion of the juvenile out-migration. Presumed wild migrants from the middle and late portions of the out-migration were primary contributors to all fisheries, except the Priest Rapids Hatchery. As such, fishery managers should take action to ensure the survival of these fish, especially because they migrate under more unfavorable environmental conditions than early

  10. Evaluation for Early Life Stage Fall Chinook Salmon Exposed to Hexavalent Chromium from a Contaminated Groundwater Source

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, Gregory W.; Dauble, Dennis D.; McKinstry, Craig A.

    2007-09-01

    We conducted a laboratory evaluation to assess the risk to early life stage (i.e., eyed egg to swim up) fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) for exposure to hexavalent chromium from a contaminated groundwater source. Local populations of fall Chinook salmon were exposed to Hanford Site source groundwater that was diluted with Columbia River water. Specific endpoints included survival, development rate, and growth. Tissue burdens of fish were also measured to estimate uptake and elimination rates of chromium. Survival, development, and growth of early life stage fall Chinook salmon were not adversely affected by extended exposures (i.e., 98 day) to hexavalent chromium ranging from 0.79 to 260 μg/L. Survival for all treatment levels and controls exceeded 98% at termination of the test. In addition, there were no differences among the mean lengths and weights of fish among all treatment groups. Whole-body concentrations of chromium in early life stage fall Chinook salmon had a typical dose-response pattern; i.e., those subjected to highest exposure concentrations and longest exposure intervals had higher tissue concentrations. Given the spatial extent of chromium concentrations at the Hanford Site, and the dynamics of the groundwater - river water interface, the current cleanup criterion of 10 µg/L chromium appear adequate to protect fall Chinook salmon populations.

  11. Effects of hyporheic exchange flows on egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, T. P.; Geist, D. R.; Arntzen, E. V.; Abernethy, C. S.

    2004-09-01

    The development of the Snake River hydroelectric system has affected fall Chinook salmon smolts by shifting their migration timing to a period (mid- to late-summer) when downstream reservoir conditions are unfavorable for survival. Subsequent to the Snake River Chinook salmon fall-run Evolutionary Significant Unit being listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act, recovery planning has included changes in hydrosystem operations (e.g., summer flow augmentation) to improve water temperature and flow conditions during the juvenile Chinook salmon summer migration period. In light of the limited water supplies from the Dworshak reservoir for summer flow augmentation, and the associated uncertainties regarding benefits to migrating fall Chinook salmon smolts, additional approaches for improved smolt survival need to be evaluated. This report describes research conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that evaluated relationships among river discharge, hyporheic zone characteristics, and egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas. This was a pilot-scale study to evaluate these relationships under existing operations of Hells Canyon Dam (i.e., without any prescribed manipulations of river discharge) during the 2002–2003 water year.

  12. Evaluation of the Contribution of Fall Chinook Salmon Reared at Columbia River Hatcheries to the Pacific Salmon Fisheries, Appendix, 1989 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Vreeland, Robert R.

    1989-10-01

    This document contains 43 appendices for the Evaluation of the Contribution of Fall Chinook Salmon Reared at Columbia River Hatcheries to the Pacific Salmon Fisheries'' report. This study was initiated to determine the distribution, contribution, and value of artificially propagated fall Chinook Salmon from the Columbia River.

  13. Evaluation of Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon Stranding on the Hanford Reach in the Columbia River, 1998 Interim Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Nugent, John; Newsome, Todd; Nugent, Michael

    2001-07-27

    The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) has been contracted through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Grant County Public Utility District (GCPUD) to perform an evaluation of juvenile fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) stranding on the Hanford Reach. The evaluation, in the second year of a multi-year study, has been developed to assess the impacts of water fluctuations from Priest Rapids Dam on rearing juvenile fall chinook salmon, other fish species, and benthic macroinvertebrates of the Hanford Reach. This document provides the results of the 1998 field season.

  14. Evaluation of Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon Stranding on the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Nugent, John

    2002-01-24

    The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) has been contracted through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Grant County Public Utility District (GCPUD) to perform an evaluation of juvenile fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) stranding on the Hanford Reach. The evaluation, in the third year of a multi-year study, has been developed to assess the impacts of water fluctuations from Priest Rapids Dam on rearing juvenile fall chinook salmon, other fishes, and benthic macroinvertebrates of the Hanford Reach. This document provides the results of the 1999 field season.

  15. Evaluation of Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon Stranding on the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Nugent, John; Nugent, Michael; Brock, Wendy

    2002-05-29

    The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) has been contracted through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Grant County Public Utility District (GCPUD) to perform an evaluation of juvenile fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) stranding on the Hanford Reach. The evaluation, in the fourth year of a multi-year study, has been developed to assess the impacts of water fluctuations from Priest Rapids Dam on rearing juvenile fall chinook salmon, other fishes, and benthic macroinvertebrates of the Hanford Reach. This document provides the results of the 2000 field season.

  16. Evaluation of Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon Stranding on the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Nugent, John; Nugent, Michael; Brock, Wendy

    2002-05-29

    The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) has been contracted through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Grant County Public Utility District (GCPUD) to perform an evaluation of juvenile fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) stranding on the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. The evaluation, in the fifth year of a multi-year study, has been developed to assess the impacts of water fluctuations from Priest Rapids Dam on rearing juvenile fall chinook salmon, other fishes, and benthic macroinvertebrates of the Hanford Reach. This document provides the results of the 2001 field season.

  17. Identification of the Spawning, Rearing, and Migratory Requirements of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River Basin, 1991 Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rondorf, Dennis W.; Miller, William H.

    1993-07-01

    This document is the 1991 annual progress report for selected studies of fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha conducted by the US Fish and Wildlife Service. The decline in abundance of fall chinook salmon in the Snake River basin has become a growing concern. In April 1992, Snake River fall chinook salmon were listed as ``threatened`` under the Endangered Species Act. Effective recovery efforts for fall chinook salmon can not be developed until we increase our knowledge of the factors that are limiting the various life history stages. This study attempts to identify those physical and biological factors which influence spawning of fall chinook salmon in the free-flowing Snake River and their rearing and seaward migration through Columbia River basin reservoirs.

  18. Assessing Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon Restoration in the Upper Clearwater River and Principal Tributaries, 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Arnsberg, Billy D.; Statler, David P.

    1995-08-01

    This is the first annual report of a five year study to assess summer and fall chinook salmon restoration potential in the upper Clearwater River and principal tributaries, Salmon, Grande Ronde, and Imnaha Rivers. During 1994, the authors focused primarily on assessing water temperatures and spawning habitat in the upper Clearwater River and principal tributaries. Water temperature analysis indicated a colder temperature regime in the upper Clearwater River above the North Fork Clearwater River confluence during the winter as compared to the lower Clearwater. This was due to warm water releases from Dworshak Reservoir on the North Fork moderating temperatures in the lower Clearwater River. Thermal temperature unit analysis and available literature suggest a 75% survival threshold level may be anticipated for chinook salmon egg incubation if spawning would occur by November 1 in the upper Clearwater River. Warm water upwelling in historic summer and fall chinook spawning areas may result in increased incubation survivals and will be tested in the future. The authors observed a total of 37 fall chinook salmon redds in the Clearwater River subbasin. They observed 30 redds in the mainstem Clearwater below the North Fork Clearwater River confluence and seven redds in the North Fork Clearwater River. No redds were observed in the South Fork Clearwater, Middle Fork Clearwater, or Selway Rivers. They observed one fall chinook salmon redd in the Salmon River. They recovered 10 fall chinook salmon carcasses in the Clearwater River to obtain biological measurements and to document hatchery contribution to spawning. Unseasonably high and cold Dworshak Dam releases coinciding with early juvenile fall chinook salmon rearing in the lower Clearwater River may be influencing selective life history traits including growth, smolt development, outmigration timing, behavior, and could be directly affecting survival. During July 1994, discharges from Dworshak Dam increased from a

  19. Habitat quality of historic Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning locations and implications for incubation survival: part 1, substrate quality

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Geist, David R.; Arntzen, Evan V.

    2005-07-01

    We evaluated substrate quality at two historic fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning sites in the Snake River, Idaho, USA. The primary objective of this evaluation was to measure sediment permeability within these areas to determine the potential quality of the habitat in the event that anadromous salmonids are reintroduced to the upper Snake River. Riverbed sediments within the two sites in the upper Snake River were sampled using freeze cores and hydraulic slug tests. Sediment grain size distributions at both sites were typical of gravel-bed rivers with the surface layer coarser than the underlying substrate, suggesting the riverbed surface was armored. Despite the armored nature of the bed, the size of the largest material present on the riverbed surface was well within the size limit of material capable of being excavated by spawning fall Chinook salmon. The percentage of fines was low, suggesting good quality substrate for incubating salmon embryos. Geometric mean particle sizes found in this study compared to a 55% to 80% survival to emergence based on literature values. Hydraulic slug tests showed moderate to high hydraulic conductivity and were comparable to values from current fall Chinook salmon spawning areas in the Hells Canyon Reach of the Snake River and the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. Predicted estimates of mean egg survival at both sites (48% and 74%) equaled or exceeded estimates from fall Chinook salmon spawning areas in the Hells Canyon Reach and the Hanford Reach.

  20. Redd site selection and spawning habitat use by fall chinook salmon: The importance of geomorphic features in large rivers

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, D.R. |; Dauble, D.D.

    1998-09-01

    Knowledge of the three-dimensional connectivity between rivers and groundwater within the hyporheic zone can be used to improve the definition of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning habitat. Information exists on the microhabitat characteristics that define suitable salmon spawning habitat. However, traditional spawning habitat models that use these characteristics to predict available spawning habitat are restricted because they can not account for the heterogeneous nature of rivers. The authors present a conceptual spawning habitat model for fall chinook salmon that describes how geomorphic features of river channels create hydraulic processes, including hyporheic flows, that influence where salmon spawn in unconstrained reaches of large mainstem alluvial rivers. Two case studies based on empirical data from fall chinook salmon spawning areas in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River are presented to illustrate important aspects of the conceptual model. The authors suggest that traditional habitat models and the conceptual model be combined to predict the limits of suitable fall chinook salmon spawning habitat. This approach can incorporate quantitative measures of river channel morphology, including general descriptors of geomorphic features at different spatial scales, in order to understand the processes influencing redd site selection and spawning habitat use. This information is needed in order to protect existing salmon spawning habitat in large rivers, as well as to recover habitat already lost.

  1. Evaluation of fall chinook salmon spawning adjacent to the In-Situ Redox Manipulation treatability test site, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, R.P.; Geist, D.R.

    1998-10-02

    The In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) experiment is being evaluated as a potential method to remove contaminants from groundwater adjacent to the Columbia River near the 100-D Area. The ISRM experiment involves using sodium dithionate (Na{sub 2}O{sub 6}S{sub 2}) to precipitate chromate from the groundwater. The treatment will likely create anoxic conditions in the groundwater down-gradient of the ISRM treatability test site; however, the spatial extent of this anoxic plume is not exactly known. Surveys were conducted in November 1997, following the peak spawning of fall chinook salmon. Aerial surveys documented 210 redds (spawning nests) near the downstream island in locations consistent with previous surveys. Neither aerial nor underwater surveys documented fall chinook spawning in the vicinity of the ISRM treatability test site. Based on measurements of depth, velocity, and substrate, less than 1% of the study area contained suitable fall chinook salmon spawning habitat, indicating low potential for fall chinook salmon to spawn in the vicinity of the ISRM experiment.

  2. Assessment of potential impacts of major groundwater contaminants to fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Hanford Reach, Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, D.R.; Poston, T.M.; Dauble, D.D.

    1994-10-01

    Past operations of Hanford Site facilities have contaminated the groundwater adjacent to the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington, with various chemical and radiological constituents. The groundwater is hydraulically connected to the river and contains concentrations of contaminants that sometimes exceed federal and/or state drinking water standards or standards for the protection of aquatic life. For example, concentrations of chromium in shoreline seeps and springs at most 100 Area operable units exceed concentrations found to be toxic to fish. Nitrate and tritium concentrations in shoreline seeps are generally below drinking water standards and concentrations potentially toxic to aquatic life, but nitrate concentrations may be high enough to synergistically interact with and exacerbate chromium toxicity. The Hanford Reach also supports the largest run of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Columbia River Basin. Numbers of fall chinook salmon returning to the Hanford Reach have increased relative to other mainstem populations during the last 30 years. Groundwater discharge appears to occur near some salmon spawning areas, but contaminants are generally not detectable in surface water samples. The concentration and potential toxicity of contaminants in the interstitial waters of the substrate where fall chinook salmon embryogenesis occurs are presently unknown. New tools are required to characterize the extent of groundwater contaminant discharge to the Hanford Reach and to resolve uncertainties associated with assessment of potential impacts to fall chinook salmon.

  3. Redd Site Selection and Spawning Habitat Use by Fall Chinook Salmon, Hanford Reach, Columbia River : Final Report 1995 - 1998.

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R.

    1999-05-01

    This report summarizes results of research activities conducted from 1995 through 1998 on identifying the spawning habitat requirements of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. The project investigated whether traditional spawning habitat models could be improved in order to make better predictions of available habitat for fall chinook salmon in the Snake River. Results suggest models could be improved if they used spawning area-specific, rather than river-specific, spawning characteristics; incorporated hyporheic discharge measurements; and gave further consideration to the geomorphic features that are present in the unconstrained segments of large alluvial rivers. Ultimately the recovery of endangered fall chinook salmon will depend on how well we are able to recreate the characteristics once common in alluvial floodplains of large rivers. The results from this research can be used to better define the relationship between these physical habitat characteristics and fall chinook salmon spawning site selection, and provide more efficient use of limited recovery resources. This report is divided into four chapters which were presented in the author's doctoral dissertation which he completed through the Department of Fisheries and Wildlife at Oregon State University. Each of the chapters has been published in peer reviewed journals or is currently under review. Chapter one is a conceptual spawning habitat model that describes how geomorphic features of river channels create hydraulic processes, including hyporheic flows, that influence where salmon spawn in unconstrained reaches of large mainstem alluvial rivers. Chapter two describes the comparison of the physical factors associated with fall chinook salmon redd clusters located at two sites within the Reach. Spatial point pattern analysis of redds showed that redd clusters averaged approximately 10 hectares in area and their locations were consistent from year to

  4. Large-scale spatial variability of riverbed temperature gradients in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.

    2007-02-01

    In the Snake River basin of the Pacific northwestern United States, hydroelectric dam operations are often based on the predicted emergence timing of salmon fry from the riverbed. The spatial variability and complexity of surface water and riverbed temperature gradients results in emergence timing predictions that are likely to have large errors. The objectives of this study were to quantify the thermal heterogeneity between the river and riverbed in fall Chinook salmon spawning areas and to determine the effects of thermal heterogeneity on fall Chinook salmon emergence timing. This study quantified river and riverbed temperatures at 15 fall Chinook salmon spawning sites distributed in two reaches throughout 160 km of the Snake River in Hells Canyon, Idaho, USA, during three different water years. Temperatures were measured during the fall Chinook salmon incubation period with self-contained data loggers placed in the river and at three different depths below the riverbed surface. At all sites temperature increased with depth into the riverbed, including significant differences (p<0.05) in mean water temperature of up to 3.8°C between the river and the riverbed among all the sites. During each of the three water years studied, river and riverbed temperatures varied significantly among all the study sites, among the study sites within each reach, and between sites located in the two reaches. Considerable variability in riverbed temperatures among the sites resulted in fall Chinook salmon emergence timing estimates that varied by as much as 55 days, depending on the source of temperature data used for the estimate. Monitoring of riverbed temperature gradients at a range of spatial scales throughout the Snake River would provide better information for managing hydroelectric dam operations, and would aid in the design and interpretation of future empirical research into the ecological significance of physical riverine processes.

  5. Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Activity Versus Daylight and Flow in the Tailrace of a Large Hydroelectric Dam

    SciTech Connect

    McMichael, Geoffrey A.; McKinstry, Craig A.; Vucelick, Jessica A.; Lukas, Joe

    2005-05-01

    We deployed an acoustic system during the fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning season in 2001 to determine whether fall Chinook salmon spawning activity in a hydroelectric dam tailrace area was affected by daylight or river flow dynamics. The system was deployed following a randomized study design to record fall Chinook salmon spawning activity during day and night periods in two index areas downstream of Wanapum Dam on the Columbia River in Washington, USA. One index area was a deepwater spawning area located (river kilometer (rkm) 663) in 9 to 11 m of water. The other index site was a moderate depth mid-channel bar, where water depths ranged from 2.5 to 6 m. The acoustic system was used to collect spawning activity data during free-drifts in a boat through the index areas. Spawning activity was defined as digs per minute from underwater sound recordings. Fall Chinook salmon spawning activity in the Wanapum Dam tailrace was influenced by daylight and river discharge. Results showed there was a substantial amount of spawning activity occurring during both daylight and darkness. However, there was significantly more spawning activity during daylight than at night in both index areas. Spawning activity was also affected by flow. Project discharge had a pronounced non-linear effect on spawning activity. Spawning activity was generally highest at project discharges between 1,700 and 2266 m3 sec-1 in both spawning areas, with reduced activity as discharge increased to between 3,400 and 4,250 m3 sec-1. We concluded that fall Chinook salmon spawning activity in highly variable environments was affected more by flow (and velocity) than by daylight.

  6. Hydraulic Characteristics of the Lower Snake River During Periods of Juvenile Fall Chinook Migration

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Chris B.; Dibrani, Berhon; Richmond, Marshall C.; Bleich, Matthew D.; Titzler, P. Scott; Fu, Tao

    2006-01-30

    This report documents a four-year study to assess hydraulic conditions in the lower Snake River. The work was conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Cold water released from the Dworshak Reservoir hypolimnion during mid- to late-summer months cools the Clearwater River far below equilibrium temperature. The volume of released cold water augments the Clearwater River, and the combined total discharge is on the order of the Snake River discharge when the two rivers meet at their confluence near the upstream edge of Lower Granite Reservoir. With typical temperature differences between the Clearwater and Snake rivers of 10°C or more during July and August, the density difference between the two rivers during summer flow augmentation periods is sufficient to stratify Lower Granite Reservoir as well as the other three reservoirs downstream. Because cooling of the river is desirable for migrating juvenile fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) during this same time period, the amount of mixing and cold water entrained into Lower Granite Reservoir’s epilimnion at the Clearwater/Snake River confluence is of key biological importance to juvenile fall Chinook salmon. Data collected during this project indicates the three reservoirs downstream of Lower Granite also stratify as direct result of flow augmentation from Dworshak Reservoir. These four lower Snake reservoirs are also heavily influenced by wind forcing at the water’s surface, and during periods of low river discharge, often behave like a two-layer lake. During these periods of stratification, lower river discharge, and wind forcing, the water in the upper layer of the reservoir is held in place or moves slightly upstream. This upper layer is also exposed to surface heating and may warm up to temperatures close to equilibrium temperature. The depth of this upper warm layer and its direction of travel may also be of key

  7. Snake River fall Chinook salmon life history investigations: Annual report 2011 (April 2011 - March 2012)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Connor, William P.; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Kock, Tobias J.; Mullins, Frank; Steinhorst, R. Kirk; Christiansen, Helena E.; McCormick, Stephen D.; Ortega, Lori A.; Carter, Kathleen M.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Klett, Katherine J.C.; Deng, Z. Daniel; Abel, Tylor K.; Linley, Timothy J.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; St John, Scott J.; Erhardt, John M.; Bickford, Brad; Schmidt, Amanda; Rhodes, Tobyn

    2013-01-01

    Chapter Four – We conducted monthly beam trawling in Lower Granite and Little Goose reservoirs to describe the seasonal abundance of benthic epifauna that are potentially important as prey to juvenile fall Chinook salmon. The predominant taxa collected were Siberian prawns, the opossum shrimp Neomysis mercedis, and the amphipod Corophium sp. Prawns were relatively abundant at shallow sites in both reservoirs in June, but were more abundant at deep sites in lower and middle reservoir reaches in autumn. Prawn densities were commonly <0.2/m2. Prawn length-frequency data indicated that there were at least two size classes. Juvenile prawns present in shallow water more often than adult prawns, which were generally only found in deep water by autumn. Ovigerous prawns had an average of 171 eggs, which represented about 11.5% of their body weight. Limited diet analyses suggested that prawns consumed Corophium, Neomysis, and aquatic insects. Neomysis dominated all catches both in terms of abundance and biomass, and they were more abundant in Lower Granite compared to Little Goose reservoir. Neomysis were more abundant at shallow sites than at deep sites. Corophium were present in our collections but were never abundant, probably because our trawl was not effective at capturing them. The caloric content of prawns (4,782 Kcal), Neomysis (4,962 Kcal), and Corophium (4,926 Kcal) indicates that these prey would be energetically profitable for juvenile salmon. Subyearling fall Chinook salmon prey heavily on Neomysis and Corophium at times, but the importance of prawns as prey is uncertain.

  8. Fall Chinook Salmon Survival and Supplementation Studies in the Snake River and Lower Snake River Reservoirs, 1995 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, John G.; Bjomn , Theodore C.

    1997-03-01

    In 1994, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the US Fish and Wildlife Service began a cooperative study to investigate migrational characteristics of subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake River. The primary study objectives were to (1) determine the feasibility of estimating detection and passage survival probabilities of natural and hatchery subyearling fall chinook salmon released in the Snake River (Chapter 1), (2) investigate relationships between detection and passage survival probabilities and travel time of subyearling fall chinook salmon and environmental influences such as flow volume and water temperature (Chapter 1), (3) monitor and evaluate dispersal of hatchery subyearling chinook salmon into nearshore rearing areas used by natural fish (Chapter 2), and (4) monitor and evaluate travel time to Lower Granite Dam, growth from release in the Snake River to recapture at Lower Granite Dam, ATPase levels of fish recaptured at Lower Granite Dam, and survival from release in the free-flowing Snake River to the tailrace of Lower Granite Dam (Chapter 2).

  9. Effects of Hydroelectric Dam Operations on the Restoration Potential of Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Spawning Habitat Final Report, October 2005 - September 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Arntzen, Evan V.

    2007-11-13

    This report describes research conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as part of the Fish and Wildlife Program directed by the Northwest Power and Conservation Council. The study evaluated the restoration potential of Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat within the impounded lower Snake River. The objective of the research was to determine if hydroelectric dam operations could be modified, within existing system constraints (e.g., minimum to normal pool levels; without partial removal of a dam structure), to increase the amount of available fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the lower Snake River. Empirical and modeled physical habitat data were used to compare potential fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Snake River, under current and modified dam operations, with the analogous physical characteristics of an existing fall Chinook salmon spawning area in the Columbia River. The two Snake River study areas included the Ice Harbor Dam tailrace downstream to the Highway 12 bridge and the Lower Granite Dam tailrace downstream approximately 12 river kilometers. These areas represent tailwater habitat (i.e., riverine segments extending from a dam downstream to the backwater influence from the next dam downstream). We used a reference site, indicative of current fall Chinook salmon spawning areas in tailwater habitat, against which to compare the physical characteristics of each study site. The reference site for tailwater habitats was the section extending downstream from the Wanapum Dam tailrace on the Columbia River. Fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat use data, including water depth, velocity, substrate size and channelbed slope, from the Wanapum reference area were used to define spawning habitat suitability based on these variables. Fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat suitability of the Snake River study areas was estimated by applying the Wanapum reference reach habitat

  10. Identification of the Spawning, Rearing, and Migratory Requirements of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River Basin, Annual Report 1993.

    SciTech Connect

    Rondorf, Dennis W.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.

    1994-12-01

    Recovery efforts for the endangered fall chinook salmon necessitates knowledge of the factors limiting the various life history stages. This study attempts to identify those physical and biological factors which affect spawning of the fish in the free-flowing Snake River and their rearing seward migration through Columbia River basin reservoirs. The spawning was generally a November event in 1993, with some activity in late Oct. and early Dec. Spawning habitat availability was assessed by applying hydraulic and habitat models to known fall chinook salmon spawning sites. Juveniles were seined and PIT tagged in the free-flowing Snake River, and in the Columbia River in he Hanford Reach and in McNary Reservoir. Subyearling fish were marked at McNary Dam to relate river flow and migration patterns of juveniles to adult returns. Hydroacoustic surveys were conducted on McNary and John Day reservoirs and in net pens.

  11. Spawning and abundance of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, 1948--1988

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.D.; Watson, D.G.

    1990-03-01

    The Hanford Reach of the Columbia River provides the only major spawning habitat for the upriver bright (URB) race of fall chinook salmon in the mainstem Columbia River. Hanford Site biologists have conducted aerial surveys of spawning salmon in the Hanford Reach since 1948. This report summarizes data on fall chinook salmon spawning in the Hanford Reach and presents a discussion of factors that may affect population trends. Most data are limited to fisheries agency reports and other working documents. Fisheries management practices in the Columbia River system have changed rapidly over the last decade, particularly under requirements of the Pacific Northwest Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980. New information has been generated and included in this report. 75 refs., 17 figs., 11 tabs.

  12. Snake River fall Chinook salmon life history investigations: Annual report 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Connor, William P.; Buchanan, Rebecca A.; St John, Scott J.; Erhardt, John M.; Haskell, Craig A.

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes three research activities conducted in 2010-2011. The first was a radiotelemetry study conducted in the lower Clearwater River. The second was a hydroacoustic study conducted in Lower Granite and Little Goose reservoirs. The third was an analysis of covariates affecting juvenile fall Chinook salmon survival and behavior. In 2010, we used radiotelemetry to evaluate the migratory behavior, delay, and relative mortality of subyearling fall Chinook salmon in the Clearwater River and Lower Granite Reservoir. We captured, tagged, and released a total of 100 run-at-large subyearlings in the Transition Zone of the lower Clearwater River in late July and monitored their downstream movement past fixed detection sites and by mobile tracking through the end of August. The Transition Zone is that portion of the river where it transitions from free-flowing to impounded habitat. Median residence time of fish that passed through the Transition Zone, Confluence, and Upper Reservoir reaches was relatively short (8.8-25.6 h). However, for fish that remained in the Transition Zone that were detected by mobile tracking, median residence time was over 30 d (N=6). Median migration rates through the study reaches were variable but slow (range 2.9-17.2 km/d) compared to that of more active migrants indicating that subyearlings from the Clearwater River were not actively migrating during July and August. The fate of radio-tagged subyearlings was determined from mobile tracking records. A total of 37 of the 71 fish detected during tracking were deemed to be dead, 22 were determined to be alive, and the fate of 16 was unknown. We also radio tagged 66 smallmouth bass in the Confluence reach and later detected 59 bass during mobile tracking. Predators were primarily located along shorelines in the Confluence reach, but a few fish did swim downstream into the Upper Reservoir reach. Most radio-tagged subyearlings that we determined to be dead were also located in shoreline

  13. Influence of flow and temperature on survival of wild subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connor, W.P.; Burge, H.L.; Yearsley, J.R.; Bjornn, T.C.

    2003-01-01

    Summer flow augmentation to increase the survival of wild subyearling fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha is implemented annually to mitigate for the development of the hydropower system in the Snake River basin, but the efficacy of this practice has been disputed. We studied some of the factors affecting survival of wild subyearling fall chinook salmon from capture, tagging, and release in the free-flowing Snake River to the tailrace of the first dam encountered by smolts en route to the sea. We then assessed the effects of summer flow augmentation on survival to the tailrace of this dam. We tagged and released 5,030 wild juvenile fall chinook salmon in the free-flowing Snake River from 1998 to 2000. We separated these tagged fish into four sequential within-year release groups termed cohorts (N = 12). Survival probability estimates (mean ?? SE) to the tailrace of the dam for the 12 cohorts when summer flow augmentation was implemented ranged from 36% ?? 4% to 88% ?? 5%. We fit an ordinary least-squares multiple regression model from indices of flow and temperature that explained 92% (N = 12; P < 0.0001) of the observed variability in cohort survival. Survival generally increased with increasing flow and decreased with increasing temperature. We used the regression model to predict cohort survival for flow and temperature conditions observed when summer flow augmentation was implemented and for approximated flow and temperature conditions had the summer flow augmentation not been implemented. Survival of all cohorts was predicted to be higher when flow was augmented than when flow was not augmented because summer flow augmentation increased the flow levels and decreased the temperatures fish were exposed to as they moved seaward. We conclude that summer flow augmentation increases the survival of young fall chinook salmon.

  14. Estimated Fall Chinook Salmon Survival to Emergence in Dewatered Redds in a Shallow Side Channel of the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; James, B B.; Lukas, Joe

    2005-08-01

    Fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) often spawn in the tailraces of large hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River. Redds built in shallow habitats downstream of these dams may be periodically dewatered due to hydropower operations prior to the emergence of fry. To determine whether fall Chinook salmon redds were successful in a shallow area subjected to periodic dewatering downstream of Wanapum Dam on the Columbia River, we installed 7 redd caps and monitored fry emergence. Large numbers of live fry were captured from the redds between March 9 and May 18, 2003. Estimated survival from egg to fry for these redds, which were all subjected to some degree of dewatering during the incubation and post-hatch intragravel rearing period, ranged from 16.1 to 63.2 percent and averaged 27.8 percent (assuming 4,500 eggs/redd). The peak emergence date ranged from April 1 to 29, with the average peak about April 14, 2003. Mean fork length of fall Chinook salmon emerging from individual redds ranged from 38.3 to 41.2 mm, and lengths of fish emerging from individual redds increased throughout the emergence period.

  15. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon Spawning below Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day, and McNary Dams; 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    van der Naald, Wayne; Clark, Roy; Spellman, Bryant

    2003-04-01

    In 2001 a total of 309 adult fall chinook and 264 chum were sampled in the Ives and Pierce islands area below Bonneville Dam. The peak redd count for fall chinook was 48. The peak redd count for chum was 181. Peak spawning time for fall chinook was set at approximately 16 November. Peak spawning time for chum occurred approximately 26 November. There were estimated to be a total of 721 fall chinook spawning below Bonneville Dam in 2001. The 2001 chum population below Bonneville Dam was estimated to be 532 spawning fish. Temperature unit data suggests that below Bonneville Dam 2001 brood chinook emergence began on 11 March 2002 and ended 18 May 2002, with peak emergence occurring 26 April. 2001 brood juvenile chum emergence below Bonneville Dam began 29 January and continued through 31 March 2002. Peak chum emergence took place 25 February. A total of 5,487 juvenile chinook and 678 juvenile chum were sampled between the dates of 22 January and 30 July 2002 below Bonneville Dam. Juvenile chum migrated from the study area in the 40-55 mm fork length range. Migration of chum occurred during the months of March, April and May. Sampling results suggest fall chinook migration from rearing areas took place from mid June through early July 2002 when juvenile fall chinook were in the 65 to 80 mm fork length size range. Adult and juvenile sampling below Bonneville Dam provided information to assist in determining the stock of fall chinook and chum spawning and rearing below Bonneville Dam. Based on observed spawning times, adult age and sex composition, GSI analysis, juvenile emergence timing, juvenile migration timing and juvenile size at the time of migration, it appears that in 2001 and 2002 the majority of fall chinook using the area below Bonneville Dam were of a late-spawning bright stock of fall chinook. Observed spawning times, adult age and sex composition, GSI analysis, juvenile emergence timing, juvenile migration timing and juvenile size at the time of migration

  16. Pen Rearing and Imprinting of Fall Chinook Salmon, 1983 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Novotny, Jerry F.; Macy, Thomas L.; Gardenier, James T.

    1984-02-01

    Backwaters and protected sites located along the Columbia River between John Day and Priest Rapids dams, and the lower reaches of the Umatilla, Yakima, and Snake rivers were surveyed to determine their suitability for experimental rearing of age-0 fall (upriver bright) chinook salmon. All but eight potential study sites observed were judged as unusable based on criteria which included depth, area, accessibility, potential water level and temperature fluctuations, entrance-access to the river, public use, and obvious water quality problems. These eight sites were then thoroughly evaluated to determine suitability for rearing studies, using water quality and biological data to supplement physical observations. The criteria used in the final selection of rearing sites included an assessment of water source, depth, temperature, and quality, proximity to natural spawning sites, ease of adult capture, and benthos and zooplankton abundance. Two sites were selected as satisfying the most criteria for experimental rearing studies: Rock Creek (river km 337) and Social Security Pond (river km 468). All other sites surveyed were ranked as either less desirable, or unusable for these studies.

  17. Pen rearing and Imprinting of Fall Chinook Salmon, 1994 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Beeman, John W.; Novotny, Jerry F.

    1994-06-01

    Results of rearing upriver bright fall chinook salmon juveniles in net pens and a barrier net enclosure in two backwater areas and a pond along the Columbia River were compared with traditional hatchery methods. Growth, smoltification, and general condition of pen-reared fish receiving supplemental feeding were better than those of fish reared using traditional methods. Juvenile fish receiving no supplemental feeding were generally in poor condition resulting in a net loss of production. Rearing costs using pens were generally lower than in the hatchery. However, low adult returns resulted in greater cost per adult recovery than fish reared and released using traditional methods. Much of the differences in recovery rates may have been due to differences in rearing locations, as study sites were as much as 128 mi upstream from the hatcheries and study fish may have incurred higher mortality associated with downstream migration than control fish. Fish reared using these methods could be a cost-effective method of enhancing salmon production in the Columbia River Basin.

  18. Identification of the Spawning, Rearing, and Migratory Requirements of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River Basin, Annual Report 1994.

    SciTech Connect

    Rondorf, Dennis W.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.

    1996-08-01

    Spawning ground surveys were conducted in 1994 as part of a five year study of Snake River chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawyacha begun in 1991. Observations of fall chinook salmon spawning in the Snake River were limited to infrequent aerial red counts in the years prior to 1987. From 1987-1990, red counts were made on a limited basis by an interagency team and reported by the Washington Department of Fisheries. Starting in 1991, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), and other cooperating agencies and organizations, expanded the scope of spawning ground surveys to include: (1) additional aerial surveys to improve red counts and provide data on the timing of spawning; (2) the validation (ground truthing) of red counts from aerial surveys to improve count accuracy; (3) underwater searches to locate reds in water too deep to allow detection from the air; and (4) bathymetric mapping of spawning sites for characterizing spawning habitat. This document is the 1994 annual progress report for selected studies of fall chinook salmon. The studies were undertaken because of the growing concern about the declining salmon population in the Snake River basin.

  19. Variables influencing the presence of subyearling fall Chinook salmon in shoreline habitats of the Hanford Reach, Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, K.F.; Clark, L.O.; Garland, R.D.; Rondorf, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    Little information currently exists on habitat use by subyearling fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha rearing in large, main-stem habitats. We collected habitat use information on subyearlings in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River during May 1994 and April-May 1995 using point abundance electrofishing. We analyzed measures of physical habitat using logistic regression to predict fish presence and absence in shoreline habitats. The difference between water temperature at the point of sampling and in the main river channel was the most important variable for predicting the presence and absence of subyearlings. Mean water velocities of 45 cm/s or less and habitats with low lateral bank slopes were also associated with a greater likelihood of subyearling presence. Intermediate-sized gravel and cobble substrates were significant predictors of fish presence, but small (<32-mm) and boulder-sized (>256-mm) substrates were not. Our rearing model was accurate at predicting fish presence and absence using jackknifing (80% correct) and classification of observations from an independent data set (76% correct). The habitat requirements of fall Chinook salmon in the Hanford Reach are similar to those reported for juvenile Chinook salmon in smaller systems but are met in functionally different ways in a large river.

  20. Determination of Swimming Speeds and Energetic Demands of Upriver Migrating Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus Tshawytscha) in the Klickitat River, Washington.

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Richard S.; Geist, David R.; Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation, Washington

    2002-08-30

    This report describes a study conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Bonneville Power Administration's Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program during the fall of 2001. The objective was to study the migration and energy use of adult fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) traveling up the Klickitat River to spawn. The salmon were tagged with either surgically implanted electromyogram (EMG) transmitters or gastrically implanted coded transmitters and were monitored with mobile and stationary receivers. Swim speed and aerobic and anaerobic energy use were determined for the fish as they attempted passage of three waterfalls on the lower Klickitat River and as they traversed free-flowing stretches between, below, and above the falls. Of the 35 EMG-tagged fish released near the mouth of the Klickitat River, 40% passed the first falls, 24% passed the second falls, and 20% made it to Lyle Falls. None of the EMG-tagged fish were able to pass Lyle Falls, either over the falls or via a fishway at Lyle Falls. Mean swimming speeds ranged from as low as 52.6 centimeters per second (cm s{sup -1}) between falls to as high as 189 (cm s{sup -1}) at falls passage. Fish swam above critical swimming speeds while passing the falls more often than while swimming between the falls (58.9% versus 1.7% of the transmitter signals). However, fish expended more energy swimming the stretches between the falls than during actual falls passage (100.7 to 128.2 kilocalories [kcals] to traverse areas between or below falls versus 0.3 to 1.0 kcals to pass falls). Relationships between sex, length, and time of day on the success of falls passage were also examined. Average swimming speeds were highest during the day in all areas except at some waterfalls. There was no apparent relationship between either fish condition or length and successful passage of waterfalls in the lower Klickitat River. Female fall chinook salmon, however, had a much lower likelihood of passing

  1. Effects of Hyporheic Exchange Flows on Egg Pocket Water Temperature in Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Geist, David R.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Abernethy, Cary S.

    2004-09-24

    The development of the Snake River hydroelectric system has affected fall chinook salmon smolts by shifting their migration timing to a period when downstream reservoir conditions are unfavorable for survival. Subsequent to the Snake River chinook salmon fall-run Evolutionary Significant Unit being listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act, recovery planning has included changes in hydrosystem operations to improve water temperature and flow conditions during the juvenile chinook salmon summer migration period. In light of the limited water supplies from the Dworshak reservoir for summer flow augmentation, and the associated uncertainties regarding benefits to migrating fall chinook salmon smolts, additional approaches for improved smolt survival need to be evaluated. This report describes research conducted by PNNL that evaluated relationships among river discharge, hyporheic zone characteristics, and egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall chinook salmon spawning areas. The potential for improved survival would be gained by increasing the rate at which early life history events proceed (i.e., incubation and emergence), thereby allowing smolts to migrate through downstream reservoirs during early- to mid-summer when river conditions are more favorable for survival. PNNL implemented this research project throughout 160 km of the Hells Canyon Reach (HCR) of the Snake River. The hydrologic regime during the 2002?2003 sampling period exhibited one of the lowest, most stable daily discharge patterns of any of the previous 12 water years. The vertical hydraulic gradients (VHG) between the river and the riverbed suggested the potential for predominantly small magnitude vertical exchange. The VHG also showed little relationship to changes in river discharge at most sites. Despite the relatively small vertical hydraulic gradients at most sites, the results from the numerical modeling of riverbed pore water velocity and hyporheic zone temperatures

  2. Pen Rearing and Imprinting of Fall Chinook Salmon, 1985 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Novotny, Jerry F.; Macy, Thomas L.; Gardenier, James T.

    1985-05-01

    Upriver bright fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) are being reared in a backwater and a pond along John Day Reservoir to evaluate the benefits of rearing fish and releasing them off-station compared to traditional hatchery procedures. Fish reared in net pens at a density/feeding combination judged to be the economic optimum of those used during 1984 rearing trials exhibited good growth and smolt development. Size of fish averaged 112 fish/lb (4.0g/fish), ATPase activities ranged from 16.4 to 29.5 micromoles Pi/mg prot/hr at release and total mortality of fish was low among pens, ranging from 0.3 to 1.1%. Poor growth and smolt development was observed in fish reared in a large barrier net, especially during the initial two weeks after stocking. In addition, mortality of fish in the barrier net was high (49%) in relation to any of the other treatments tested thus far. The combined effects of generally poor condition of fish at stocking, low zooplankton densities during the initial two weeks of rearing, and losses to predation were thought to be the primary causes of the slow growth rates and high mortality. Unfed fish in pens utilized the available natural food base, but zooplankton densities were apparently not sufficient for growth, and may have been marginal for sustenance, especially at higher density. ATPase activities at release were significantly higher in low-density pens than in higher density pens, but development at all densities was retarded when compared with ATPase activities of fed fish. Preliminary cost estimates for producing fish-using the rearing strategies developed in the current pen-rearing study compared favorably with the average costs of rearing salmonids in a Northwest hatchery.

  3. Behavioural thermoregulation by subyearling fall (autumn) Chinook salmon oncorhynchus tshawytscha in a reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, K.F.; Kock, T.J.; Connor, W.P.; Steinhorst, R.K.; Rondorf, D.W.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated behavioural thermoregulation by subyearling fall (autumn) Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in a reservoir on the Snake River, Washington, U.S.A. During the summer, temperatures in the reservoir varied from 23?? C on the surface to 11?? C at 14 m depth. Subyearlings implanted with temperature-sensing radio transmitters were released at the surface at temperatures >20?? C during three blocks of time in summer 2004. Vertical profiles were taken to measure temperature and depth use as the fish moved downstream over an average of 5??6-7??2 h and 6??0-13??8 km. The majority of the subyearlings maintained average body temperatures that differed from average vertical profile temperatures during most of the time they were tracked. The mean proportion of the time subyearlings tracked within the 16-20?? C temperature range was larger than the proportion of time this range was available, which confirmed temperature selection opposed to random use. The subyearlings selected a depth and temperature combination that allowed them to increase their exposure to temperatures of 16-20?? C when temperatures 20?? C were available at lower and higher positions in the water column. A portion of the subyearlings that selected a temperature c. 17??0?? C during the day, moved into warmer water at night coincident with an increase in downstream movement rate. Though subyearlings used temperatures outside of the 16-20?? C range part of the time, behavioural thermoregulation probably reduced the effects of intermittent exposure to suboptimal temperatures. By doing so, it might enhance growth opportunity and life-history diversity in the population of subyearlings studied.

  4. Pen Rearing and Imprinting of Fall Chinook Salmon, 1989 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Beeman, John W.; Novotny, Jerry F.

    1990-02-01

    The goal of this project is to compare net-pen rearing methods to traditional hatchery methods of rearing upriver bright fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawvtscha). Fish were reared at several densities in net pens at three Columbia River backwater sites during 1984-1987, and in a barrier net at one site during 1984-1986; methods included both fed and unfed treatments. The purpose of this report is to summarize the results obtained from the unfed treatments and the current return of adults from all fed treatments and the barrier net. Zooplankton were the primary food item of unfed fish. Fish reared in net pens utilized insects colonizing the nets as an additional food source, whereas those reared in the barrier net did not. Growth and production of fish reared in the unfed treatments were low. Instantaneous growth rates of unfed fish were much lower than those of the fed treatments and hatchery controls except when zooplankton densities were high and chironomid larvae were important in the diet of unfed fish reared in pens. Only fish in the barrier net treatment resulted in consistent net gains in growth and production over the rearing periods. Adult returns of fish from all fed and unfed treatments are lower than those of control fish reared at the hatchery. Returns appear to be inversely related to rearing density. Even though adult returns are lower than those of traditional hatchery methods, a cost-benefit analysis, as return data becomes more complete, may prove these methods to be an economical means of expanding current hatchery production, particularly if thinning releases were used.

  5. Post-Release Performance of Natural and Hatchery Subyearling Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake and Clearwater Rivers.

    SciTech Connect

    Connor, William P.

    2008-04-01

    In 2006, we continued a multi-year study to compare smolt-to-adult return rate (SAR) ratios between two groups of Snake River Basin fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that reached the sea through a combination of either (1) transportation and inriver migration or (2) bypass and inriver migration. We captured natural subyearlings rearing along the Snake and Clearwater rivers and implanted them with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags, but knew in advance that sample sizes of natural fish would not be large enough for precise comparisons of SAR ratios. To increase sample sizes, we also cultured Lyons Ferry Hatchery subyearlings under a surrogate rearing strategy, implanted them with PIT tags, and released them into the Snake and Clearwater rivers to migrate seaward. The surrogate rearing strategy involved slowing growth at Dworshak National Fish Hatchery to match natural subyearlings in size at release as closely as possible, while insuring that all of the surrogate subyearlings were large enough for tagging (i.e., 60-mm fork length). Surrogate subyearlings were released from late May to early July 2006 to coincide with the historical period of peak beach seine catch of natural parr in the Snake and Clearwater rivers. We also PIT tagged a large representative sample of hatchery subyearlings reared under a production rearing strategy and released them into the Snake and Clearwater rivers in 2006 as part of new research on dam passage experiences (i.e., transported from a dam, dam passage via bypass, dam passage via turbine intakes or spillways). The production rearing strategy involved accelerating growth at Lyons Ferry Hatchery, sometimes followed by a few weeks of acclimation at sites along the Snake and Clearwater rivers before release from May to June. Releasing production subyearlings has been suggested as a possible alternative for making inferences on the natural population if surrogate fish were not available. Smoltto-adult return rates are not

  6. Quantifying flow-dependent changes in subyearling fall chinook salmon rearing habitat using two-dimensional spatially explicit modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, K.F.; Garland, R.D.; Rondorf, D.W.

    2002-01-01

    We used an analysis based on a geographic information system (GIS) to determine the amount of rearing habitat and stranding area for subyearling fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River at steady-state flows ranging from 1,416 to 11,328 m3/s. High-resolution river channel bathymetry was used in conjunction with a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model to estimate water velocities, depths, and lateral slopes throughout our 33-km study area. To relate the probability of fish presence in nearshore habitats to measures of physical habitat, we developed a logistic regression model from point electrofishing data. We only considered variables that were compatible with a GIS and therefore excluded other variables known to be important to juvenile salmonids. Water velocity and lateral slope were the only two variables included in our final model. The amount of available rearing habitat generally decreased as flow increased, with the greatest decreases occurring between 1,416 and 4,814 m3/s. When river discharges were between 3,682 and 7,080 m3/s, flow fluctuations of 566 m3/s produced the smallest change in available rearing area (from -6.3% to +6.8% of the total). Stranding pool area was greatly reduced at steady-state flows exceeding 4,531 m3/s, but the highest net gain in stranding area was produced by 850 m3/s decreases in flow when river discharges were between 5,381 and 5,664 m3/s. Current measures to protect rearing fall chinook salmon include limiting flow fluctuations at Priest Rapids Dam to 850 m3/s when the dam is spilling water and when the weekly flows average less than 4,814 m3/s. We believe that limiting flow fluctuations at all discharges would further protect subyearling fall chinook salmon.

  7. A model of the effects of flow fluctuations on fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat availability in the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R.; Murray, Christopher J.; Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Xie, YuLong

    2008-12-01

    Previously we reported that about 30% to 60% of the area predicted to be used by fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) for spawning in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River did not contain redds. One explanation for the overprediction of habitat was that our model did not incorporate streamflow fluctuation. Daily fluctuation in flow caused by load-following operations (power generation to meet short-term electrical demand) at Priest Rapids Dam, situated at the upper end of the Hanford Reach, changes the hydraulic characteristics to which fish respond in selecting redd sites. The purpose of the study described here was to examine the effect of flow changes on spawning habitat modeling and, in particular, to look at the connection between spawning and the variability and persistence of habitat variables caused by rapid changes in flow resulting from load-following operations at Priest Rapids Dam. We found that spawning habitat use by fall Chinook salmon was consistent with previous fall Chinook salmon studies in the Reach. Dynamic variables that were based on hourly time series were used to account for the variability in habitat as a result of flow fluctuations. The analysis showed that the proportion of velocities that fell within the range of 1.0 to 2.5 m/s differed significantly between locations that were predicted to be spawning by the logistic regression model where spawning actually occurred and locations that were predicted to be spawning where spawning did not occur. However, the resulting sequential logistic regression model that incorporated the dynamic variables did not provide significant improvement in the percentage of errors for areas predicted to be spawning; the model’s overprediction errors still ranged from 63% to 78%. We suggest that while flow fluctuation may affect spawning habitat and individual fish behavior, the high correlation between time-averaged velocities and the proportion of hourly velocities that fell within the most

  8. Upstream Passage, Spawning, and Stock Identification of Fall Chinook in the Snake River, 1992 and 1993 : Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenship, H. Lee; Mendel, Glen W.

    1997-05-01

    This final report of the 3-year study summarizes activities and results for 1993. Study objectives were to: (1) determine the source of losses (or accounting errors) for adult chinook salmon between Ice Harbor Dam (IHR) and Lower Granite Dam (LGR), and upstream of LGR in the Snake River; (2) identify spawning locations upstream of LGR for calibration of aerial redd surveys, redd habitat mapping, carcass recovery for genetic stock profile analysis, and correction of estimated adult/redd ratios; and (3) estimate passage and migration times at Snake River. 200 fall chinook salmon were radio tagged and tracked with aerial, fixed-site, and ground mobile tracking. Fish were released upstream of IHR at Charbonneau Park (CHAR). 190 of the fish were tracked or relocated away from CHAR. 59 fish descended to below IHR without crossing Lower Monumental Dam (LMO). Another 128 salmon passed upstream of LMO without falling back at IHR. Only 80 salmon passed Little Goose Dam (LGO) without falling back at a downstream dam; 66 of these fish passed LGR. Many fish that fell back reascended the dams. A total of 72 salmon released at CHAR passed upstream of LGR, including fish that had fallen back and reascended a dam. Over 80 percent of the salmon that entered Lyons Ferry Hatchery each year had reached LGO before descending to the hatchery. Extensive wandering was documented between LMO and upstream of LGR before salmon entered Lyons Ferry Hatchery or the Tucannon River. In 1993, 41 salmon were found to be of hatchery origin when recovered. These fish entered Lyons Ferry Hatchery with similar movements to unmarked salmon. Each year a few salmon have remained near the hatchery without entering, which suggests the hatchery may have inadequate attraction flows. Fall chinook passed lower Snake River dams in 2-5 days each on average. Median travel times through LMO and LGO were 1.0-1.3 days each, which was slower than for spring chinook or steelhead in 1993. 5 refs., 21 figs., 20 tabs.

  9. Physicochemical characteristics of the hyporheic zone affect redd site selection of chum salmon and fall chinook salmon in the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R. ); Hanrahan, Timothy P. ); Arntzen, Evan V. ); McMichael, Geoffrey A. ); Murray, Christopher J. ); Chien, Yi-Ju )

    2002-11-01

    Chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and fall chinook salmon O. tshawytscha spawned at different locations in the vicinity of Ives Island, Washington, a side channel to the Columbia River downstream of Bonneville Dam. We hypothesized that measurements of water depth, substrate size, and water velocity alone would not explain the separation in spawning areas and began a 2-year investigation of physicochemical characteristics of the hyporheic zone. We found that chum salmon spawned in upwelling water that was significantly warmer than the surrounding river water. In contrast, fall chinook salmon constructed redds at downwelling sites where there was no difference in temperature between the river and its bed. Understanding the specific features that are important for chum salmon and fall chinook salmon redd site selection at Ives Island will be useful to resource managers attempting to maximize available spawning habitat for these species within the constraints imposed by other water resource needs.

  10. Hatchery Evaluation Report / Bonneville Hatchery - Urb Fall Chinook : An Independent Audit Based on Integrated Hatchery Operations Team (IHOT) Performance Measures : Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Montgomery

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the findings of the independent audit of the Bonneville Hatchery (Upriver bright [URB] Fall Chinook). The hatchery is located on the Columbia River just west of Cascade Locks, Oregon. The hatchery is used for adult collection, egg incubation, and rearing of Tule Fall Chinook and URB Fall Chinook. The audit was conducted in April 1996 as part of at two-year effort that will include 67 hatcheries and satellite facilities located on the Columbia and Snake River system in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The hatchery operating agencies include the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.

  11. Hatchery Evaluation Report / Bonneville Hatchery - Tule Fall Chinook : An Independent Audit Based on Integrated Hatchery Operations Team (IHOT) Performance Measures : Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Montgomery

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the findings of the independent audit of the Bonneville Hatchery (Tule Fall Chinook). The hatchery is located on the Columbia River just west of Cascade Locks, Oregon. The hatchery is used for adult collection, egg incubation, and rearing of Tule Fall Chinook and URB Fall Chinook. The audit was conducted in April 1996 as part of a two-year effort that will include 67 hatcheries and satellite facilities located on the Columbia and Snake River system in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The hatchery operating agencies include the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.

  12. Using remotely sensed imagery and GIS to monitor and research salmon spawning: A case study of the Hanford Reach fall chinook (Oncorhynchus Tshawytscha)

    SciTech Connect

    RH Visser

    2000-03-16

    The alteration of ecological systems has greatly reduced salmon populations in the Pacific Northwest. The Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, for example, is a component of the last ecosystem in eastern Washington State that supports a relatively healthy population of fall chinook salmon ([Oncorhynchus tshawytscha], Huntington et al. 1996). This population of fall chinook may function as a metapopulation for the Mid-Columbia region (ISG 1996). Metapopulations can seed or re-colonize unused habitat through the mechanism of straying (spawning in non-natal areas) and may be critical to the salmon recovery process if lost or degraded habitat is restored (i.e., the Snake, Upper Columbia, and Yakima rivers). For these reasons, the Hanford Reach fall chinook salmon population is extremely important for preservation of the species in the Columbia River Basin. Because this population is important to the region, non-intrusive techniques of analysis are essential for researching and monitoring population trends and spawning activities.

  13. Pen Rearing and Imprinting of Fall Chinook Salmon, 1986 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Novotny, Jerry F.; Macy, Thomas L.; Gardenier, James T.; Beeman, John W.

    1986-12-01

    Pen rearing studies during 1986 completed the second of three years intended for rearing and releasing upriver bright fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from two study sites, a backwater and a pond, adjacent to the Columbia River; both areas are located in the Jonn Day Reservoir. Results of this study in 1984 and 1985 showed that fish could be successfully reared in net pens and that growth and physiological development of the off-station reared fish proceeded at a faster rate than in fish reared at a hatchery. Transfer of fish from the hatchery to off-station sites at Social Security Pond (pond) and Rock Creek (backwater) during early March increased the period of rearing in 1986 by about four weeks. The increased period of rearing allowed all treatments of fed fish to reach a minimum weight of YU fish/lb by release. Differences in growth of fed fish between regular density treatments and additional, high density treatments (double and triple the regular densities) were not significantly different (P > 0.05), but growth of all fed fish reared off-station was again significantly better than that of hatchery reared fish (P < 0.05), Mortalities in all groups of fed fish were low. Physiological development of fed fish was similar in all treatments. At release, development of fish at Social Security Pond appeared to be somewhat ahead of fish at Rock Creek on the same dates however, none of the groups of fed fish achieved a high state of smoltification by release. Unfed fish grew poorly over the redring period, and at release were significantly smaller than either fed groups at the off-station sites, or the control groups reared at the hatchery (P < 0.05). Development of unfed fish toward smoltification was much slower than of fed fish. Mortality of all groups of unfed fish, including the barrier net, was relatively low. Health of all fish reared off-station remained good over the rearing period, and no outbreaks of disease were noted. On-site marking and

  14. Deepwater Spawning of Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawtscha) Near Ives and Pierce Island of the Columbia River, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Robert

    2003-09-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted video-based boat surveys to identify fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning areas located in deep water (>1 m) downstream of Bonneville Dam in the fall of 2002. This report documents the number and extent of chinook salmon spawning near Ives and Pierce Islands of the Columbia River, and is the fourth in a series of reports prepared since 1999. The main objective of this study was to find deepwater spawning locations of fall chinook salmon in the main Columbia River channel, collect additional data on physical habitat parameters at spawning sites, and provide estimates of adult spawners in the surveyed area. The secondary objective was to document the occurrence of any chum salmon (O. keta) redds located in the deeper sections near below Hamilton Creek. There was a significant increase in the number of fall chinook salmon redds found in the locations surveyed during the 2002 surveys when compared to previous surveys by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. A total of 192 redds were found in two general locations adjacent to Pierce Island (river km 228.5) encompassing an area of approximately 9.31 ha. Peak spawning activity, based on redd counts and live fish seen near redds, was on or near November 15, 2002. An estimated 1,768 fall chinook salmon redds at water depths exceeding {approx}1.m ({approx} 125 kcfs) were documented in 2002. This estimate is the expanded number based on the number of redds found within the pre-defined survey area. Fall chinook salmon redds were found at water depths from 0.9 to 8.5 m and were constructed in gravel to large cobble ranging in size from 4.83 to 13.4 cm in diameter. No chum salmon redds were found in areas surveyed during 2002, although several carcasses were found at the mouth of Woodward Creek and in the deeper sections below Hamilton Creek.

  15. Seasonal use of shallow water habitat in the Lower Snake River reservoirs by juvenile fall Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Connor, William P.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) is preparing a long term management plan for sediments that affect the authorized project purposes of the Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, and Ice Harbor reservoirs (hereafter, the lower Snake River reservoirs), and the area from the mouth of the Snake River to Ice Harbor Dam. We conducted a study from spring 2010 through winter 2011 to describe the habitat use by juvenile Chinook salmon within a selected group of shallow water habitat complexes (< 6 m deep) in the lower Snake River reservoirs to help inform the long-term plan. Natural fry and parr were present within all four shallow water habitat complexes that we studied from early spring through early summer, and parr ( = 40,345 ± 18,800 [error bound]) were more abundant than fry ( = 24,615 ± 5,701). Water < 2 m deep was highly used for rearing by natural fall Chinook salmon subyearlings (fry and parr combined; hereafter natural subyearlings) based on duration of use and relative group abundances during spring and summer, whereas the 2–6 m depth interval was more highly used by migratory hatchery fall Chinook salmon subyearlings and spring, summer, and fall Chinook salmon yearlings. Overall mean spring-summer apparent density of natural subyearlings was 15.5 times higher within the < 2 m depth interval than within the 2–6 m depth interval. Density of natural subyearlings also decreased as the distance a given shallow water habitat complex was located from the riverine spawning areas increased. Reservoir-type juveniles (or fish likely destined to become reservoir-type juveniles) were present in the lower Snake River reservoirs from fall 2010 through winter 2011; however, use of shallow water habitat by reservoir-type juveniles was limited during our study. We only collected 38 reservoir-type juveniles in shallow water habitat sites in beach and lampara seines during the fall. Radiotelemetry data revealed that though many tagged fish passed shallow water

  16. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon Spawning below Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day, and McNary Dams; 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    van der Naald, Wayne; Clark, Roy; Spellman, Bryant

    2002-09-17

    This report describes work conducted by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) from 1 October 2000 to 30 September 2001. The work is part of studies to evaluate spawning of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and chum salmon (O. keta) below the four lowermost Columbia River dams under the Bonneville Power Administration's Project 99-003. The purpose of this project is twofold: (1) Document the existence of fall chinook and chum populations spawning below Bonneville Dam (river mile (RM) 145), The Dalles Dam (RM 192), John Day Dam (RM 216), and McNary Dam (RM 292) (Figure 1) and estimate the size of these populations. (2) Profile stocks for important population characteristics; including spawning time, genetic make-up, emergence timing, migration size and timing, and juvenile to adult survival rates. Specific tasks conducted by ODFW and WDFW during this period were: (1) Documentation of fall chinook and chum spawning below Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day and McNary dams using on-water observations; (2) Collection of biological data to profile stocks in areas described in Task 1; (3) Determination of spawning population estimates and age composition, average size at return, and sex ratios in order to profile stocks in areas described in Task 1; (4) Collection of data to determine stock origin of adult salmon found in areas described in Task 1; (5) Determination of possible stock origins of adult salmon found in areas described in Task 1 using tag rates based on coded-wire tag recoveries and genetic baseline analysis; (6) Determination of emergence timing and hatching rate of juvenile fall chinook and chum below Bonneville Dam; (7) Determination of migration time and size for juvenile fall chinook and chum rearing in the area described in Task 6; (8) Investigation of feasibility of determining stock composition of juvenile fall chinook and chum rearing in the area described in Task 6; (9

  17. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon below Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day and McNary Dams; 1998-1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    van der Naald, Wayne; Clark, Roy; Spellman, Bryant

    1999-12-01

    This report describes work conducted by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) from 1 October 1998 to 30 September 1999. The work is part of studies to evaluate spawning of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and chum salmon (O. keta) below the four lowermost Columbia River dams under the Bonneville Power Administration's Project 99-003. The purpose of this project is twofold: (1) Document the existence of fall chinook and chum populations spawning below Bonneville Dam (river mile (RM) 145), The Dalles Dam (RM 192), John Day Dam (RM 216), and McNary Dam (RM 292) (Figure 1) and estimate the size of these populations; and (2) Profile stocks for important population characteristics; including spawning time, genetic make-up, emergence timing, migration size and timing, and juvenile to adult survival rates. Specific tasks conducted by ODFW and WDFW during this period were: (1) Documentation of fall chinook and chum spawning below Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day and McNary dams using on-water observations; (2) Collection of biological data to profile stocks in areas described in Task 1; (3) Determination of spawning population estimates and age composition, average size at return, and sex ratios in order to profile stocks in areas described in Task 1; (4) Collection of data to determine stock origin of adult salmon found in areas described in Task 1; (5) Determination of possible stock origins of adult salmon found in areas described in Task 1 using tag rates based on coded-wire tag recoveries and genetic baseline analysis; (6) Determination of emergence timing and hatching rate of juvenile fall chinook and chum below Bonneville Dam; (7) Determination of migration time and size for juvenile fall chinook and chum rearing in the area described in Task 6; (8) Investigation of feasibility of determining stock composition of juvenile fall chinook and chum rearing in the area described in Task 6

  18. Effects of acute thermal stress on the survival, predator avoidance, and physiology of juvenile fall Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mesa, M.G.; Weiland, L.K.; Wagner, P.

    2002-01-01

    We subjected juvenile fall chinook salmon from the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River to acute thermal stressors in the laboratory that were derived from field data. We assessed the effects of thermal stress on: (1) the extent of direct mortality; (2) the vulnerability of fish to predation by smallmouth bass; and (3) some general physiological stress responses and synthesis of heat shock protein 70 (hsp70). Thermally-stressed fish showed little direct mortality and no increases in vulnerability to predation. However, these fish showed transient increases in plasma concentrations of cortisol, glucose, and lactate, and a dramatic (25-fold higher than controls) and persistent (lasting 2 wk) increase in levels of liver hsp70. Our results indicate that exposure of Hanford Reach juvenile fall chinook salmon to such stressors did not lead to significant increases in direct mortality or vulnerability to predation, but did alter physiological homeostasis, which should be of concern to those managing this resource. Because our fish received only a single exposure to one of the stressors we examined, we are also concerned about the consequences of exposing fish to multiple, cumulative stressors - a likely scenario for fish in the wild.

  19. Snake River fall Chinook salmon life history investigations, 1/1/2013 – 12/31/2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Connor, William P.

    2015-01-01

    Smallmouth bass predation on subyearling fall Chinook salmon was examined in the upper portion of Lower Granite Reservoir during 2013. During the time subyearlings were present in the reservoir, smallmouth bass were collected, their stomach contents removed for diet analysis, and their abundance estimated with mark-recapture techniques. In 2013, the greatest consumption of subyearlings by smallmouth bass occurred in late May and early June—as much as 50% of their diet by weight. Sand rollers were the most common non-salmonid fish consumed by smallmouth bass. In the section of the reservoir above the confluence with the Clearwater River, the abundance of bass was higher in non-riprap habitat than in riprap, but the opposite was true in the section below the confluence. We estimated that over 168,000 subyearlings were lost to smallmouth bass predation in 2013. Given the predominance of sand rollers in the diet of smallmouth bass, we believe this species reduces predation on subyearling fall Chinook salmon. A complete report of our findings is provided in the Appendix.

  20. Physicochemical Characteristics of the Hyporheic Zone Affect Redd Site Selection of Chum and Fall Chinook Salmon, Columbia River.

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R.

    2001-10-01

    Chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) may historically have been the most abundant species of Columbia River salmon, contributing as much as 50% of the total biomass of all salmon in the Pacific Ocean prior to the 1940's (Neave 1961). By the 1950's, however, run sizes to the Columbia River dropped dramatically and in 1999 the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed Columbia River chum salmon as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA; NMFS 1999). Habitat degradation, water diversions, harvest, and artificial propagation are the major human-induced factors that have contributed to the species decline (NMFS 1998). Columbia River chum salmon spawn exclusively in the lower river below Bonneville Dam, including an area near Ives Island. The Ives Island chum salmon are part of the Columbia River evolutionary significant unit (ESU) for this species, and are included in the ESA listing. In addition to chum salmon, fall chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) also spawn at Ives Island. Spawning surveys conducted at Ives Island over the last several years show that chum and fall chinook salmon spawned in clusters in different locations (US Fish and Wildlife Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, unpublished data). The presence of redd clusters suggested that fish were selecting specific habitat features within the study area (Geist and Dauble 1998). Understanding the specific features of these spawning areas is needed to quantify the amount of habitat available to each species so that minimum flows can be set to protect fish and maintain high quality habitat.

  1. Pilot Study of the Effects of Simulated Turbine Passage Pressure on Juvenile Chinook Salmon Acclimated with Access to Air at Absolute Pressures Greater than Atmospheric

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Abernethy, Cary S.

    2005-04-28

    The impacts of pressure on juvenile salmon who pass through the turbines of hydroelectric dams while migrating downstream on the Columbia and Snake rivers has not been well understood, especially as these impacts relate to injury to the fish's swim bladder. The laboratory studies described here were conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the US Army Corps of Engineers Portland District at PNNL's fisheries research laboratories in 2004 to investigate the impacts of simulated turbine passage pressure on fish permitted to achieve neutral buoyancy at pressures corresponding to depths at which they are typically observed during downstream migration. Two sizes of juvenile Chinook salmon were tested, 80-100mm and 125-145mm total length. Test fish were acclimated for 22 to 24 hours in hyperbaric chambers at pressures simulating depths of 15, 30, or 60 ft, with access to a large air bubble. High rates of deflated swim bladders and mortality were observed. Our results while in conclusive show that juvenile salmon are capable of drawing additional air into their swimbladder to compensate for the excess mass of implanted telemetry devices. However they may pay a price in terms of increased susceptibility to injury, predation, and death for this additional air.

  2. Survival, development, and growth of fall Chinook salmon embryos, alevin, and fry exposed to variable thermal and dissolved oxygen regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R.; Abernethy, Cary S.; Hand, Kristine D.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Chandler, James A.; Groves, Philip

    2006-11-15

    Some fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) initiate spawning in the Snake River downstream of Hells Canyon Dam at temperatures that exceed 13?C and at intergravel dissolved oxygen concentrations that are less than 8 mg O2/L. Although water temperature declines and dissolved oxygen increases soon after spawning, these temperature and dissolved oxygen levels do not meet the water quality standards established by the states of Oregon and Idaho for salmonid spawning. Our objective was to determine if temperatures from 13 to 17 C and dissolved oxygen levels from 4 to greater than 8 mg O2/L during the first 40 days of incubation followed by declining temperature and rising dissolved oxygen affected survival, development, and growth of Snake River fall Chinook salmon embryos, alevins, and fry. During the first 40 days of incubation, temperatures were adjusted downward approximately 0.2 C/day and oxygen was increased in increments of 2 mg O2/L to mimic the thermal and oxygen regime of the Snake River where these fish spawn. At 40 days post-fertilization, embryos were moved to a common exposure regime that followed the thermal and dissolved oxygen profile of the Snake River through emergence. Mortality of fall Chinook salmon embryos increased markedly at initial incubation temperatures equal to or greater than 17?C, and a rapid decline in survival occurred between 16.5 C and 17 C, with no significant difference in survival at temperatures less than or equal to 16.5 C. Initial dissolved oxygen levels as low as 4 mg O2/L over a range of initial temperatures from 15 to 16.5 C did not affect embryo survival to emergence. There were no significant differences across the range of initial temperature exposures for alevin and fry size at hatch and emergence. The number of days from fertilization to eyed egg, hatch, and emergence was highly related to temperature and dissolved oxygen; it took from 6 to 10 days longer to reach hatch at 4 mg O2/L than at saturation and up to

  3. Conceptual Spawning Habitat Model to Aid in ESA Recovery Plans for Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David

    2005-09-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a spawning habitat model that can be used to determine the physical habitat factors that are necessary to define the production potential for fall chinook salmon that spawn in large mainstem rivers like the Columbia River's Hanford Reach and Snake River. This project addresses RPA 155 in the NMFS 2000 Biological Opinion: Action 155: BPA, working with BOR, the Corps, EPA, and USGS, shall develop a program to: (1) Identify mainstem habitat sampling reaches, survey conditions, describe cause-and-effect relationships, and identify research needs; (2) Develop improvement plans for all mainstem reaches; and (3) Initiate improvements in three mainstem reaches. During FY 2003 we continued to collect and analyze information on fall chinook salmon spawning habitat characteristics in the Hanford Reach that will be used to address RPA 155, i.e., items 1-3 above. For example, in FY 2003: (1) We continued to survey spawning habitat in the Hanford Reach and develop a 2-dimensional hydraulic and habitat model that will be capable of predicting suitability of fall chinook salmon habitat in the Hanford Reach; (2) Monitor how hydro operations altered the physical and chemical characteristics of the river and the hyporheic zone within fall chinook salmon spawning areas in the Hanford Reach; (3) Published a paper on the impacts of the Columbia River hydroelectric system on main-stem habitats of fall chinook salmon (Dauble et al. 2003). This paper was made possible with data collected on this project; (4) Continued to analyze data collected in previous years that will ultimately be used to identify cause-and-effect relationships and identify research needs that will assist managers in the improvement of fall chinook habitat quality in main-stem reaches. During FY 2004 we plan to: (1) Complete preliminary reporting and submit papers based on the results of the project through FY 2004. Although we have proposed additional analysis of data be

  4. Determination of Swimming Speeds and Energetic Demands of Upriver Migrating Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Klickitat River, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Richard S.; Geist, David R.

    2002-07-01

    This report describes a field study by PNNL for Bonneville Power Administration in fall 2001 to study the migration and energy use of adult fall chinook salmon traveling up the Klickitat River to spawn. The salmon were tagged with surgically implanted electromyogram transmitters or gastrically implanted coded transmitters. Swim speed and aerobic and anaerobic energy use were determined for the fish as they attempted to pass three waterfalls on the lower Klickitat and as they traversed free-flowing stretches between and below the falls. Of the 35 EMG-tagged fish released near the mouth of the Klickitat, 40% passed the first falls, 36% passed the second falls, and 20% reached Lyle Falls but were unable to leap over. Mean swimming speeds ranged from as low as 52.6 cm/sec between falls to as high as 158.1 cm/sec at falls passage. Fish exhibited a higher percentage of occurrences of burst swimming while passing the falls than while between falls (58.9% versus 1.7%). However, fish expended more energy swimming the stretches between the falls than during actual falls passage (52.3-236.2 kcals versus 0.3-1.1 kcals). Male-female and day-night differences in falls passage success were noted. PNNL also examined energy costs and swimming speeds for fish released above Lyle Falls as they migrated to upstream spawning areas. This journey averaged 15.93 days at a mean rate of 2.36 km/day to travel a mean maximum of 37.6 km upstream at a total energy cost of approx 4,492 kcals (32% anaerobic/68% aerobic). When the salmon have expended the estimated 968 kcals needed to get through Bonneville Dam and the three falls on the Lower Klickitat, plus this 4,492 kcals to reach the spawning grounds, they are left with approximately 8 to 12% (480 to 742 kcals) of their energy reserves for spawning. A delay of 4 to 7 days along the lower Klickitat River could deplete their remaining energy reserves (at a rate of about 103 kcals/day), resulting in death before spawning would occur.

  5. Deepwater Spawning of Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus Tshawytscha) : Spawning Near Ives and Pierce Island of the Columbia River, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Robert P.

    2002-10-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory initiated studies to identify potential fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning habitat and assess the extent of spawning in deep water (>1 m) downstream of Bonneville Dam in the fall of 1999. This report provides results from 2001, the third year of our effort. The main objective of this study was to find deepwater spawning locations of fall chinook salmon in the main Columbia River channel, collect additional data on physical habitat parameters at spawning sites, and provide estimates of adult spawners in the area. The secondary objective was to map any chum salmon redds located in the deeper sections near Hamilton Slough. River flows during the spawning surveys in 2001 were lower than in 1999 and 2000. Peak spawning activity, based on redd counts and live fish seen near redds, was on or near November 9, 2001. The location of the spawning area was similar to that of 1999 and 2000. One difference was the majority of redds were found in deeper water (>1.5 m) and closer to the shoreline adjacent to Pierce Island. Because of the low river flows during the fall of 2001, only a handful of redds were found using the boat-deployed video system within Hamilton Slough. No chum salmon (O. keta) redds were found in areas surveyed during 2000. (Note: surveys were limited to deeper sections of Hamilton Slough and near the main river channel.) An estimated 717 fall chinook salmon redds at water depths exceeding 1.5 m ({approx} 125 kcfs) were documented in 2001. These estimates are expanded from the number of redds found within a predefined survey area. Fall chinook salmon redds were found at water depths from 1.5-4.6 m and were located in a general area of {approx} 4.9 ha. Fall chinook salmon redds were constructed in gravels ranging from 3.2-13.4 cm in diameter and water velocities of 0.29-0.70 m/s.

  6. Effects of Flow on the Migratory Behavior and Survival of Juvenile Fall and Summer Chinook Salmon in John Day Reservior, 1982 Annual Report of Research.

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David R.; Sims, Carl W.

    1983-11-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration is conducting a 6-year study of the effects of instream flows on the passage time, survival, and migrational behavior of juvenile fall and summer (O-age) chinook salmon in John Day Reservoir. In 1982, the second year of the study, research activities concentrated on refining distribution and behavior data in John Day Reservoir and on releasing and recapturing marked fish needed to define flow/travel time relationships. Twenty-two groups (61,887 fish) of marked O-age chinook salmon were wire-tagged, branded, and released into the tailrace at McNary Dam, and forty-four groups (13,128 fish) were branded and released into the reservoir at various other sites. Sampling at the John Day Dam airlift facility captured 54,647 subyearling chinook salmon including 482 marked recoveries. Additional marks (279) were recovered from purse seine samples taken at various sites throughout the reservoir. The average passage time to John Day Dam for marked O-age chinook salmon released in the McNary tailrace was 23 days. Weekend flow reductions at McNary Dam did not affect passage time of subyearling chinook salmon in John Day Reservoir. There was no statistical evidence to indicate that instream flows affected either the rate of movement or residence time of O-age chinook salmon in John Day Reservoir.

  7. Accumulation and clearance of orally administered erythromycin and its derivative, azithromycin, in juvenile fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha.

    PubMed

    Fairgrieve, William T; Masada, Cyndy L; McAuley, W Carlin; Peterson, Mark E; Myers, Mark S; Strom, Mark S

    2005-04-18

    Fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha were fed practical diets medicated with azithromycin (30 mg kg(-1) fish for 14 d) or erythromycin (100 mg kg(-1) fish for 28 d) either 1, 2, or 3 times beginning 14 d after initiation of exogenous feeding (February) and ending at smoltification (June). Average tissue concentrations of azithromycin increased from 19.0 microg g(-1) in fry to 44.9 microg g(-1) in smolts, and persisted in the tissues > 76 d after treatment ceased. Tissue concentrations of erythromycin were comparatively low, ranging from 0.2 microg g(-1) in fry to 10.4 microg g(-1) in smolts. Erythromycin was not detectable 21 d post-treatment. Neither antibiotic caused histopathologically significant lesions in the trunk kidney or other organ tissues. The high tissue concentrations and prolonged retention of azithromycin in Chinook may be factors that increase the efficacy of the antibiotic against Renibacterium salmoninarum, compared with erythromycin, particularly in early life history stages before covertly infected fish show clinical signs of disease. PMID:15918472

  8. Deepwater Spawning of Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawtscha) Near Ives and Pierce Island of the Columbia River, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Robert

    2004-10-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted video-based boat surveys in fall 2003 to identify spawning areas for fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in deep water (>1 m) downstream of Bonneville Dam. This report documents the number and extent of Chinook salmon spawning near Ives and Pierce islands of the Columbia River, and is the fifth in a series of reports prepared since 1999. The primary objective of this study was to find deepwater spawning locations of fall Chinook salmon in the main Columbia River channel, collect additional data on physical habitat parameters at spawning sites, and provide estimates of adult spawners in the surveyed area. The secondary objective was to document the occurrence of any chum salmon (O. keta) redds in the deeper sections near below Hamilton Creek. Results from the 2003 study show a continuing trend upward in the number of fall Chinook salmon redds found within the survey zones. The number of fall Chinook redds found in the Ives Pierce Island complex (river km 228.5) has increased by a factor of five since the surveys began in 1999. The total number of redds found during 2003 was 336, which compares to 192 in 2002, 43 in 2001, 76 in 2000, and 64 in 1999. The redds encompassed an area of 13.7 ha occurring adjacent to the lower part of Ives Island and Pierce Island. Peak spawning activity, based on redd counts and live fish seen near redds, was on or near November 24, 2003. An expanded redd count based on percentage of video coverage in the primary and secondary search zones was 3,218 fall Chinook salmon redds in water exceeding 1 m deep and flowing at about 125 kcfs. Fall Chinook salmon redds were found at water depths from 1.07 to 7.6 m and were constructed predominantly of medium cobbles ranging from 7.6 to 15.2 cm in diameter. Two chum salmon redds were found in a small location downstream from Hamilton Creek in water depths of approximately 1 m. No salmon redds were found in other areas searched, including near

  9. Deepwater Spawning of Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) near Ives and Pierce Island of the Columbia River, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Robert

    2005-10-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted video-based boat surveys to identify fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning areas located in deep water (greater than 1 m) downstream of Bonneville Dam in fall 2004. This report documents the number and extent of Chinook salmon spawning near Ives and Pierce Islands of the Columbia River and is the sixth in a series of reports prepared since 1999. The main objectives of this study were to find deepwater spawning locations of fall Chinook salmon in the main Columbia River channel, collect additional data on physical habitat parameters at spawning sites, and provide estimates of adult spawners in the surveyed area. The primary search area was adjacent to the upper portion of Pierce Island, and the secondary search zone was downstream of this area near the lower portion of Pierce Island. A secondary objective was to document the occurrence of any chum salmon (O. keta) redds in the deeper sections downstream of Hamilton Creek (slough zone search area). Fall Chinook salmon redd numbers were down slightly from the record number found during 2003. The number of fall Chinook redds found in the Ives-Pierce Island complex (river km 228.5) during 2004 was 293, which does not include the number of shallow water redds found by visual observation by boat by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife. The redds encompassed an area of 14.6 ha occurring adjacent to the lower part of Ives Island and Pierce Island. Peak spawning activity, based on redd counts and live fish seen near redds, was on or near November 16, 2004. An expanded redd count based on percentage video coverage in the primary and secondary search zones was 3,198 fall Chinook salmon redds at water depths exceeding approximately 1.0 m (approximately 125 kcfs) with an estimated spawning population of 10,800. Fall Chinook salmon redds were found at water depths from 1.07 to 7.6 m and were constructed predominantly of medium cobbles ranging in size from 7

  10. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon Spawning Habitat near Ives and Pierce Islands in the Columbia River, Progress Report 1999-2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Garland, Rodney; Tiffan, Kenneth; Rondorf, Dennis

    2003-09-01

    The area around Ives Island below Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River supports spawning populations of chum and fall chinook salmon. Because this area is sensitive to water level fluctuations caused by changes in discharge from Bonneville Dam and from tidal cycles, we initiated a study to quantify flow-dependent changes in available spawning habitat for chum and fall chinook salmon. We conducted surveys to characterize the substrates available in the Ives Island study area. Detailed bathymetry was also obtained to serve as a foundation for two-dimension hydrodynamic modeling, which was used to estimate water velocities, depths, and wetted area over a range of simulated flows. Habitat surveys were conducted and logistic regression was used to identify physical habitat variables that were important in determining the presence of chum and fall chinook salmon redds. The physical habitat data were analyzed using the logistic regression models to create probability coverages for the presence of redds in a Geographic Information System. There was generally good agreement between chum and fall chinook salmon redd locations and areas where we predicted suitable spawning habitat. We found that at Columbia River discharges less than 120 kcfs, an important chum salmon spawning area below the mouth of Hamilton Creek could only be supported by discharge from Hamilton Creek. Chum salmon did not appear to spawn in proportion to habitat availability, however our predictive model did not include all variables known to be important to chum salmon redd-site selection. Fall chinook salmon spawning habitat was less sensitive to flow and the main channel of the Columbia River along Pierce Island was predicted to contain sufficient habitat at all modeled flows.

  11. Influence of river level on temperature and hydraulic gradients in chum and fall Chinook salmon spawning areas downstream of Bonneville Dam, Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Murray, Christopher J.; McGrath, Kathy; Bott, Yi-Ju; Hanrahan, Timothy P.

    2008-02-01

    Chum (Oncorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook (O. tshawytscha) salmon segregate spatially during spawning in the Ives Island side channel of the lower Columbia River downstream from Bonneville Dam. Previous research during one spawning season (2000) suggested that these species selected spawning habitats based on differences in hyporheic temperature and vertical hydraulic gradient (VHG) with the river. In this study, we confirmed the spatial segregation of spawning based on hyporheic characteristics over four years (2001–2004) and examined the effects of load-following operations (power generation to meet short-term electrical demand) at Bonneville Dam on hyporheic function and characteristics. We found that during the study period, hyporheic temperature and VHG in chum salmon spawning areas were highly variable during periods of load-following operation when river levels fluctuated. In contrast, hyporheic water temperature and VHG within chum spawning areas fluctuated less when river levels were not changing due to load-following operation. Variable temperature and VHG could affect chum and fall Chinook salmon spawning segregation and incubation success by altering the cues each species uses to select redd sites. Alterations in site selection would result in a breakdown in the spatial segregation of spawning between chum and fall Chinook salmon, which would expose earlier spawning fall Chinook eggs to a greater risk of dislodgement from later spawning chum salmon. Additional research will be required to fully assess the effects of load-following operations on the hyporheic environment and spawning and incubation success of chum and fall Chinook salmon downstream from Bonneville Dam.

  12. Downstream movement of fall Chinook salmon juveniles in the lower Snake River reservoirs during winter and early spring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Kock, Tobias J.; Connor, William P.; Mullins, Frank; Steinhorst, R. Kirk

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a 3-year radiotelemetry study in the lower Snake River to (1) determine whether juvenile fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha pass dams during winter, when bypass systems and structures designed to prevent mortality are not operated; (2) determine whether downstream movement rate varies annually, seasonally, and from reservoir to reservoir; and (3) identify some of the factors that contribute to annual, seasonal, and spatial variation in downstream movement rate. Fall Chinook salmon juveniles moved downstream up to 169 km and at a sufficiently fast rate (7.5 km/d) such that large percentages (up to 93%) of the fish passed one or more dams during the winter. Mean downstream movement rate varied annually (9.2–11.3 km/d), increased from winter (7.5 km/d) to spring (16.4 km/d), and increased (from 6.9 to 16.8 km/d) as fish moved downstream from reservoir to reservoir. Fish condition factor at tagging explained some of the annual variation in downstream movement rate, whereas water particle velocity and temperature explained portions of the seasonal variation. An increase in migrational disposition as fish moved downstream helped to explain the spatial variation. The potential cost of winter movement might be reduced survival due to turbine passage at a time when the bypass systems and spillway passage structures are not operated. Efforts to understand and increase passage survival of winter migrants in large impoundments might help to rehabilitate some imperiled anadromous salmonid populations.

  13. Effects of dam removal on Tule Fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the White Salmon River, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatten, James R.; Batt, Thomas R.; Skalicky, Joseph J.; Engle, Rod; Barton, Gary J.; Fosness, Ryan L.; Warren, Joe

    2016-01-01

    Condit Dam is one of the largest hydroelectric dams ever removed in the USA. Breached in a single explosive event in October 2011, hundreds-of-thousands of cubic metres of sediment washed down the White Salmon River onto spawning grounds of a threatened species, Columbia River tule fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. We investigated over a 3-year period (2010–2012) how dam breaching affected channel morphology, river hydraulics, sediment composition and tule fall Chinook salmon (hereafter ‘tule salmon’) spawning habitat in the lower 1.7 km of the White Salmon River (project area). As expected, dam breaching dramatically affected channel morphology and spawning habitat due to a large load of sediment released from Northwestern Lake. Forty-two per cent of the project area that was previously covered in water was converted into islands or new shoreline, while a large pool near the mouth filled with sediments and a delta formed at the mouth. A two-dimensional hydrodynamic model revealed that pool area decreased 68.7% in the project area, while glides and riffles increased 659% and 530%, respectively. A spatially explicit habitat model found the mean probability of spawning habitat increased 46.2% after dam breaching due to an increase in glides and riffles. Shifting channels and bank instability continue to negatively affect some spawning habitat as sediments continue to wash downstream from former Northwestern Lake, but 300 m of new spawning habitat (river kilometre 0.6 to 0.9) that formed immediately post-breach has persisted into 2015. Less than 10% of tule salmon have spawned upstream of the former dam site to date, but the run sizes appear healthy and stable. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  14. Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Life History Investigations, Annual Report 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Connor, William P.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.

    2009-08-21

    In 2007, we used radio and acoustic telemetry to evaluate the migratory behavior, survival, mortality, and delay of subyearling fall Chinook salmon in the Clearwater River and Lower Granite Reservoir. Monthly releases of radio-tagged fish ({approx}95/month) were made from May through October and releases of 122-149/month acoustic-tagged fish per month were made from August through October. We compared the size at release of our tagged fish to that which could have been obtained at the same time from in-river, beach seine collections made by the Nez Perce Tribe. Had we relied on in-river collections to obtain our fish, we would have obtained very few in June from the free-flowing river but by late July and August over 90% of collected fish in the transition zone were large enough for tagging. Detection probabilities of radio-tagged subyearlings were generally high ranging from 0.60 (SE=0.22) to 1.0 (SE=0) in the different study reaches and months. Lower detection probabilities were observed in the confluence and upper reservoir reaches where fewer fish were detected. Detection probabilities of acoustic-tagged subyearlings were also high and ranged from 0.86 (SE=0.09) to 1.0 (SE=0) in the confluence and upper reservoir reaches during August through October. Estimates of the joint probability of migration and survival generally declined in a downstream direction for fish released from June through August. Estimates were lowest in the transition zone (the lower 7 km of the Clearwater River) for the June release and lowest in the confluence area for July and August releases. The joint probability of migration and survival in these reaches was higher for the September and October releases, and were similar to those of fish released in May. Both fish weight and length at tagging were significantly correlated with the joint probability of migrating and surviving for both radio-tagged and acoustic-tagged fish. For both tag types, fish that were heavier at tagging had a

  15. Effects of Flow on the Migratory Behavior and Survival of Juvenile Fall and Summer Chinook Salmon in John Day Reservoir : Annual Report 1983.

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David R.; Sims, Carl W.

    1984-06-01

    The effects of instream river flow on the passage time, survival, and migrational behavior of juvenile fall and summer (O-age) chinook salmon in John Day Reservoir is being studied. In 1983, the final year of juvenile sampling in the reservoir, research activities continued to refine flow/travel time relationships and distributional behavior of O-age chinook salmon. Fifteen groups (72,559 fish) of marked O-age chinook salmon were wire-tagged, branded, and released into the tailrace at McNary Dam, and thirty-two groups (22,206 fish) were branded and released into the reservoir at various other sites. Sampling at John Day Dam, utilizing the airlift pump system in the B and C slots of Turbine Intake Unit 3, captured 82,698 subyearling chinook salmon including 640 mark recoveries. Additional marks (458) were recovered from purse seine samples taken at various sites throughout the reservoir. Weekly mean fork lengths of O-age chinook salmon captured at McNary and John fsm Dams and in the reservoir by purse seine ranged from 103 mm in mid-June to 166 mm in mid-December. Fish captured at the John Day Dam monitoring facility and by purse seine throughout the reservoir were in excellent condition. Preliminary analysis of stomach samples taken in 1982 and 1983 from purse seine catches indicates active feeding is taking place. The average passage time of the fastest moving marked O-age chinook salmon from McNary Dam to John Day Dam was 11 days (based on 25th percentile of mark recaptures). The average reservoir residence time was 22 days. Regression analysis was used to develop a description of the relationship of river flow to the rate of downstream movement of O-age chinook salmon in John Day Reservoir in 1983. The slope of this line and the correlation coefficient (R) were not significantly different from zero.

  16. Effects of Hyporheic Exchange Flows on Egg Pocket Water Temperature in Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Areas, 2002-2003 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, T.; Geist, D.; Arntzen, C.

    2004-09-01

    The development of the Snake River hydroelectric system has affected fall Chinook salmon smolts by shifting their migration timing to a period (mid- to late-summer) when downstream reservoir conditions are unfavorable for survival. Subsequent to the Snake River Chinook salmon fall-run Evolutionary Significant Unit being listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act, recovery planning has included changes in hydrosystem operations (e.g., summer flow augmentation) to improve water temperature and flow conditions during the juvenile Chinook salmon summer migration period. In light of the limited water supplies from the Dworshak reservoir for summer flow augmentation, and the associated uncertainties regarding benefits to migrating fall Chinook salmon smolts, additional approaches for improved smolt survival need to be evaluated. This report describes research conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that evaluated relationships among river discharge, hyporheic zone characteristics, and egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas. This was a pilot-scale study to evaluate these relationships under existing operations of Hells Canyon Dam (i.e., without any prescribed manipulations of river discharge) during the 2002-2003 water year. The project was initiated in the context of examining the potential for improving juvenile Snake River fall Chinook salmon survival by modifying the discharge operations of Hells Canyon Dam. The potential for improved survival would be gained by increasing the rate at which early life history events proceed (i.e., incubation and emergence), thereby allowing smolts to migrate through downstream reservoirs during early- to mid-summer when river conditions are more favorable for survival. PNNL implemented this research project at index sites throughout 160 km of the Hells Canyon Reach (HCR) of the Snake River. The HCR extends from Hells Canyon Dam (river kilometer [rkm] 399

  17. Hydraulic Characteristics of the Lower Snake River during Periods of Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon Migration, 2002-2006 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, C.; Dibrani, B.; Richmond, M.; Bleich, M.; Titzler, P..; Fu, T.

    2006-01-01

    This report documents a four-year study to assess hydraulic conditions in the lower Snake River. The work was conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Cold water released from the Dworshak Reservoir hypolimnion during mid- to late-summer months cools the Clearwater River far below equilibrium temperature. The volume of released cold water augments the Clearwater River, and the combined total discharge is on the order of the Snake River discharge when the two rivers meet at their confluence near the upstream edge of Lower Granite Reservoir. With typical temperature differences between the Clearwater and Snake rivers of 10 C or more during July and August, the density difference between the two rivers during summer flow augmentation periods is sufficient to stratify Lower Granite Reservoir as well as the other three reservoirs downstream. Because cooling of the river is desirable for migrating juvenile fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) during this same time period, the amount of mixing and cold water entrained into Lower Granite Reservoir's epilimnion at the Clearwater/Snake River confluence is of key biological importance. Data collected during this project indicates the three reservoirs downstream of Lower Granite also stratify as direct result of flow augmentation from Dworshak Reservoir. These four reservoirs are also heavily influenced by wind forcing at the water's surface and during periods of low river discharge often behave like a two-layer lake. During these periods of stratification, lower river discharge, and wind forcing, the water in the upper layer of the reservoir is held in place or moves slightly upstream. This upper layer is also exposed to surface heating and may warm up to temperatures close to equilibrium temperature. The thickness (depth) of this upper warm layer and its direction of travel may be of key biological importance to juvenile fall Chinook

  18. Effects of Summer Flow Augmentation on the Migratory Behavior and Survival of Juvenile Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon; 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Connor, William P.

    2006-03-01

    This report summarizes results of research activities conducted in 2004 and years previous to aid in the management and recovery of fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Columbia River basin. For detailed summaries, we refer the reader to the abstracts given on the second page of each chapter. The Annual Reporting section includes information provided to fishery managers in-season and post-season, and it contains a detailed summary of life history and survival statistics on wild Snake River fall Chinook salmon juveniles for the years 1992-2004. Publication is a high priority of our staff. Publication provides our results to a wide audience, and it insures that our work meets high scientific standards. The Bibliography of Published Journal Articles section provides citations for peer-reviewed papers co-authored by personnel of project 1991-02900 that were written or published from 1998 to 2005.

  19. Effects of Summer Flow Augmentation on the Migratory Behavior and Survival of Juvenile Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon; 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Haskell, Craig A.; Connor, William P.

    2003-10-01

    This report summarizes results of research activities conducted in 2002 and years previous to aid in the management and recovery of fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Columbia River basin. The report is divided into self-standing chapters. For detailed summaries, we refer the reader to the abstracts given on the second page of each chapter. The Annual Reporting section includes information provided to fishery managers in-season and post-season, and it contains a detailed summary of life history and survival statistics on wild Snake River fall chinook salmon juveniles for the years 1992-2002. Peer-review publication remains a high priority of this research project, and it insures that our work meets high scientific standards. The Bibliography of Published Journal Articles section provides citations for peer-reviewed papers coauthored by personnel of project 199102900 that were written or published from 1998 to 2003.

  20. Hatchery Evaluation Report/Spring Creek National Fish Hatchery - Tule Fall Chinook : An Independent Audit Based on Integrated Hatchery Operations Team (IHOT) Performance Measures.

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Montgomery

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the findings of the independent audit of the Spring Creek National Fish Hatchery (Tule Fall Chinook). The hatchery is located along the Columbia River at Underwood, Washington, approximately 30 miles upstream of Bonneville Dam. The hatchery is used for adult collection, egg incubation, and rearing of Tule Fall chinook. The audit was conducted in April 1996 as part of a two-year effort that will include 67 hatcheries and satellite facilities located on the Columbia and Snake River system in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The hatchery operating agencies include the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.

  1. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon Spawning below Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day and McNary Dams; 1999-2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    van der Naald, Wayne; Spellman, Bryant; Clark, Roy

    2001-10-01

    This report describes work conducted by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) from 1 October 1999 to 30 September 2000. The work is part of studies to evaluate spawning of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and chum salmon (O. keta) below the four lowermost Columbia River dams under the Bonneville Power Administration's Project 99-003. The purpose of this project is twofold: (1) Document the existence of fall chinook and chum populations spawning below Bonneville Dam (river mile (RM) 145), The Dalles Dam (RM 192), John Day Dam (RM 216), and McNary Dam (RM 292) (Figure 1) and estimate the size of these populations; and (2) Profile stocks for important population characteristics; including spawning time, genetic make-up, emergence timing, migration size and timing, and juvenile to adult survival rates.

  2. Identifying and Quantifying Sources of Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Gravel to the Snake River in Hells Canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welcker, C. W.; Burke, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Snake River in Hells Canyon supports a growing population of spawning Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) immediately downstream of the Hells Canyon Complex (HCC) of hydroelectric dams for the last 60 years. The long-term survival of this salmon run depends on the input of spawning gravel (25-150 mm) from local tributaries balancing the losses of spawning gravel through attrition and export out of the reach between the HCC and the Salmon River confluence. We are working to quantify the gravel input of these local tributaries at different time-scales and put this into the context of historical supply and transport. Long-term total sediment production rates of these tributaries estimated through various methods have varied by over 2 orders of magnitude, but we have recently completed 10Be work to constrain these estimates. We are measuring the change in storage of Fall Chinook spawning-size gravel through repeat multibeam echosounder surveys of the riverbed. The limited amount of repeat data collected to date has shown complex patterns of change in the riverbed. One possible driver of this complexity is the episodic and spatially variable nature of sediment inputs from these tributaries. We are attempting to quantify the frequency of the debris flows or floods capable of transporting spawning gravel through digitizing historic imagery of the last 60 years to determine the recurrence interval. We are measuring the magnitude of these events by surveying tributary fans pre and post-event to measure the sediment volume and particle size produced by specific events. These floods and debris flows are driven by extreme rainfall or snowmelt events, so we have also reconstructed historical meteorological conditions to identify the triggering conditions for transport, and identify the areas where snowmelt or rainfall is the more likely trigger. We are currently testing whether the unique bedrock geology of Hells Canyon can be used as a tracer to identify the

  3. Evaluation of the Contribution of Fall Chinook Salmon Reared at Columbia River Hatcheries to the Pacific Salmon Fisheries, 1989 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Vreeland, Robert R.

    1989-10-01

    In 1979 this study was initiated to determine the distribution, contribution, and value of artificially propagated fall chinook salmon from the Columbia River. Coded wire tagging (CWT) of hatchery fall chinook salmon began in 1979 with the 1978 brood and was completed in 1982 with the 1981 brood of fish at rearing facilities on the Columbia River system. From 18 to 20 rearing facilities were involved in the study each brood year. Nearly 14 million tagged fish, about 4% of the production, were released as part of this study over the four years, 1979 through 1982. Sampling for recoveries of these tagged fish occurred from 1980 through 1986 in the sport and commercial marine fisheries from Alaska through California, Columbia River fisheries, and returns to hatcheries and adjacent streams. The National Marine Fisheries Service coordinated this study among three fishery agencies: US Fish and Wildfire Service, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fisheries. The objectives of this study were to determine the distribution, fishery contribution, survival, and value of the production of fall chinook salmon from each rearing facility on the Columbia River system to Pacific coast salmon fisheries. To achieve these objectives fish from each hatchery were given a distinctive CWT. 81 refs., 20 figs., 68 tabs.

  4. Distinguishing between natural and hatchery Snake River fall Chinook salmon subyearlings in the field using body morphology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, K.F.; Connor, W.P.

    2011-01-01

    We used body morphology to distinguish between natural- and hatchery-origin subyearling fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in rearing areas of the Snake River and at a downstream dam during seaward migration. Using subjective eye and body shape characteristics, field personnel correctly classified 88.9–100% of natural subyearlings (N = 626) and 90.0–100% of hatchery subyearlings (N = 867) in rearing areas from 2001 to 2008. The morphological characteristics used by these personnel proved to have a quantitative basis, as was shown by digital photography and principal components analysis. Natural subyearlings had smaller eyes and pupils, smaller heads, deeper bodies, and shorter caudal peduncles than their hatchery counterparts during rearing and at the dam. A discriminant function fitted from this set of morphological characteristics classified the origin of fish during rearing and at the dam with over 97% accuracy. We hypothesize that these morphological differences were primarily due to environmental influences during incubation and rearing because it is highly probable that a large portion of the natural juveniles we studied were the offspring of hatchery × hatchery mating in the wild. The findings in this paper might provide guidance for others seeking to differentiate between natural and hatchery fish.

  5. Comparison of subyearling fall chinook salmon's use of riprap revetments and unaltered habitats in Lake Wallula of the Columbia river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garland, R.D.; Tiffan, K.F.; Rondorf, D.W.; Clark, L.O.

    2002-01-01

    Subyearling fall chinook salmon's Oncorhynchus tshawytscha use of unaltered and riprap habitats in Lake Wallula of the Columbia River was determined with point abundance data collected by electrofishing in May 1994 and 1995. We documented the presence or absence of subyearlings at 277 sample sites and collected physical habitat information at each site. Based on logistic regression, we found that the probability of fish presence was greater in unaltered shoreline habitats than in riprap habitats. Substrate size was the most important factor in determining fish presence, with dominant substrates larger than 256 mm having the lowest probability of fish presence. Water velocity, also included in our model due to its biological importance, was not a significant factor affecting presence or absence (P = 0.1102). The correct prediction rate of fish presence or absence in our sample sites using cross validation was 67%. Our model showed that substrate was the most important factor determining subyearling habitat use, but the model did not include other habitat variables known to be important to subyearlings in more diverse systems. We suggest that resource managers consider alternative methods of bank stabilization that are compatible with the habitat requirements of the fish that use them.

  6. Hyporheic discharge of river water into fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning areas in the Hanford Reach, Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R. )

    1999-12-01

    Fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawned predominantly in areas of the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River where hyporheic water discharged into the river channel. This upwelling water had a dissolved solids content (i.e., specific conductance) indicative of river water and was presumed to have entered highly permeable riverbed substrate at locations upstream of the spawning areas. Hyporheic discharge zones composed of undiluted ground water or areas with little or no upwelling were not used by spawning salmon. Rates of upwelling into spawning areas averaged 1,200 L?m-2?day-1 (95% C.I.= 784 to 1,665 L?m-2?day-1) as compared to approximately 500 L?m-2?day-1 (95% C.I.= 303 to 1,159 L?m-2?day-1) in non-spawning areas. Dissolved oxygen content of the hyporheic discharge near salmon spawning areas was about 9 mg?L-1 (+ 0.4 mg?L-1) whereas in non-spawning areas dissolved oxygen values were 7 mg?L-1 (+ 0.9 mg?L-1) or lower. In both cases dissolved oxygen of the river water was higher (11.3+ 0.3 mg?L-1). Physical and chemical gradients between the hyporheic zone and the river may provide cues for adult salmon to locate suitable spawning areas. This information will help fisheries managers to describe the suitability of salmon spawning habitat in large rivers.

  7. Summary of Temperature Data Collected to Improve Emergence Timing Estimates for Chum and Fall Chinook Salmon in the Lower Columbia River, 1998-2004 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Arntzen, E.; Geist, D.; Hanrahan, T.

    2005-10-01

    From 1999 through 2004, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory collected temperature data from within chum and fall Chinook salmon spawning gravels and the overlying river at 21 locations in the Ives Island area approximately 5 km downstream from Bonneville Dam. Sample locations included areas where riverbed temperatures were elevated, potentially influencing alevin development and emergence timing. The study objectives were to (1) collect riverbed and river temperature data each year from the onset of spawning (October) to the end of emergence (June) and (2) provide those data in-season to fisheries management agencies to assist with fall Chinook and chum salmon emergence timing estimates. Three systems were used over the life of the study. The first consisted of temperature sensors deployed inside piezometers that were screened to the riverbed or the river within chum and fall Chinook salmon spawning areas. These sensors required direct access by staff to download data and were difficult to recover during high river discharge. The second system consisted of a similar arrangement but with a wire connecting the thermistor to a data logger attached to a buoy at the water surface. This system allowed for data retrieval at high river discharge but proved relatively unreliable. The third system consisted of temperature sensors installed in piezometers such that real-time data could be downloaded remotely via radio telemetry. After being downloaded, data were posted hourly on the Internet. Several times during the emergence season of each year, temperature data were downloaded manually and provided to management agencies. During 2003 and 2004, the real-time data were made available on the Internet to assist with emergence timing estimates. Examination of temperature data reveals several important patterns. Piezometer sites differ in the direction of vertical flow between surface and subsurface water. Bed temperatures in upwelling areas are more stable during salmon

  8. Garfield County Habitat for Fall Chinook and Steelhead, Annual Report 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Bartels, Duane

    2007-01-01

    The objectives and tasks outlined in detail in this project report were implemented during calendar year 2006 in all the watersheds of Garfield County. The Pataha Creek Watershed was selected in 1993, along with the Tucannon and Asotin Creeks, as model watersheds by the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NPCC). In the years since 1993, other watersheds in Garfield County have been designated as salmon bearing streams and have received numerous practices formerly just designated for the Pataha Creek Watershed. The following sections show the individual practices, quantity of practices implemented, total costs, BPA costs and tons of soil saved for all the BPA funds used to protect and enhance the natural resources in the salmon bearing watersheds of Garfield County. In the year 2006, 55% of the funding received from BPA went into cost share practices. Of all the cost share received in the county, 22% came from BPA. This is largely due to other funding programs becoming available to address livestock influenced water quality problems and riparian health improvement. Over 95% of the sediment entering the streams can be tied directly to the upland and riparian areas of the watershed. The Pataha Creek, Deadman Creek, and Alpowa Creek have had steelhead runs in the past. The Pataha Creek has native and planted rainbow trout in the mid to upper portion. Suckers, pikeminow, and shiners inhabit the lower portion of Pataha Creek because of the higher water temperatures and lack of vegetation. The improvement of riparian habitat through the CREP, CCRP, and DOE grants has improved habitat for all the fish species. The lower portion of the Pataha Creek is slowly developing into spawning and rearing habitat for Chinook salmon. With the future removal of some migration barriers on the lower portion of the Deadman and Pataha, more stream miles will become useful spawning and rearing habitat. The upland projects completed during 2006 were practices that significantly reduce

  9. Pen Rearing and Imprinting of Fall Chinook Salmon, 1987 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, William R.; Novotny, Jerry F.; Macy, Thomas L.

    1987-12-01

    The 1987 field season was the third and final year fox the rearing and release of juvenile upriver bright chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) at off-station sites. Disease problems in the hatchery where fish for the study were spawned and hatched resulted in the movement of trials to Drano Lake, a backwater located near river km 261, 105 km downstream of Rock Creek and 205 km downstream of Social Security Pond, the two off-station rearing sites where studies were completed in 1984--86. Fish in fed treatments were successfully reared in pens during March, April, and May and were released in the third week of May at a mean size of about 4,5 g (l00/lb). Growth and physiological development of fish reared In Drano Lake were only slightly faster than observed in hatchery controls over much of the rearing period. However, during the final two weeks of rearing, ATPase activities and growth of the fish reared in pens increased, and at release the fed treatments tested in Drano Lake were significantly larger, and physiological development was significantly ahead of hatchery controls. The health and condition of fed fish in Drano Lake remained good throughout the study and survival was high (>99%) in all treatments; no pathogens were detected in any of the groups. However, infectious hematopoietic necrosis was diagnosed among upriver brights being reared in the hatchery; the latter group was destroyed on May 21. Unfed fish grew poorly throughout the rearing period with little or no detectable growth in the two higher density treatments and mean growth of less than 0.3 g in the lower density. Survival of fish reared at the higher density was poor, while survival in the two lower density treatments was much better. Densities tested in pen rearing trials have been much lower than the maximum recommended in terms of available rearing spare. However, during periods of limited water exchange the highest density tested so fax (4.13 kg/ma) would be above the recommended

  10. Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Ground Surveys in the Snake River Basin Upriver of Lower Granite Dam, 2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, A.P.; Bradbury, S.; Arnsberg, B.D.; Rocklage, S.J.; Groves, P.A.

    2006-10-01

    Redd counts are routinely used to document the spawning distribution of fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Snake River basin upriver of Lower Granite Dam. The first reported redd counts were from aerial searches conducted intermittently between 1959 and 1978 (Irving and Bjornn 1981, Witty 1988; Groves and Chandler 1996)(Appendix 1). In 1986, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife began an annual monitoring program that, in addition to the Snake River, included aerial searches of the Grande Ronde River the first year (Seidel and Bugert 1987), and the Imnaha River in subsequent years (Seidel et al. 1988; Bugert et al. 1989-1991; Mendel et al. 1992). The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Idaho Power Company began contributing to this effort in 1991 by increasing the number of aerial searches conducted each year and adding underwater searches in areas of the Snake River that were too deep to be searched from the air (Connor et al. 1993; Garcia et al. 1994a, 1994b, 1996-2005; Groves 1993; Groves and Chandler 1996). The Nez Perce Tribe added aerial searches in the Clearwater River basin beginning in 1988 (Arnsberg et. al 1992), and the Salmon River beginning in 1992. Currently searches are conducted cooperatively by the Nez Perce Tribe, Idaho Power Company, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Our objective for this report was to consolidate the findings from annual redd searches into a single document, containing detailed information about the searches from the most recent spawning season, and summary information from previous years. The work conducted in 2005 was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration and Idaho Power Company.

  11. Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Ground Surveys in the Snake River Basin Upriver of Lower Granite Dam, Annual Report 2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, A.P.; Bradbury, S.M.; Arnsberg, B.D.

    2004-08-01

    Redd counts were used to document the spawning distribution of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Snake River basin upriver of Lower Granite Dam. The first reported redd counts were from aerial searches conducted intermittently between 1959 and 1978 (Irving and Bjornn 1981, Witty 1988; Groves and Chandler 1996)(Appendix 1). In 1986, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife began an annual monitoring program that, in addition to the Snake River, included aerial searches of the Grande Ronde River the first year (Seidel and Bugert 1987), and the Imnaha River in subsequent years (Seidel et al. 1988; Bugert et al. 1989-1991; Mendel et al. 1992). The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Idaho Power Company began contributing to this effort in 1991 by increasing the number of aerial searches conducted each year and adding underwater searches in areas of the Snake River that were too deep to be searched from the air (Connor et al. 1993; Garcia et al. 1994a, 1994b, 1996-2003; Groves 1993; Groves and Chandler 1996). The Nez Perce Tribe added aerial searches in the Clearwater River basin beginning in 1988 (Arnsberg et. al 1992) and the Salmon River beginning in 1992. Currently searches are conducted cooperatively by the Nez Perce Tribe, Idaho Power Company, and U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Our objective for this report was to consolidate the findings from annual redd searches into a single document containing detailed information about the searches from the most recent spawning season, and summary information from previous years. The work conducted in 2003 was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (Projects 199801003, 199801004, 199403400, 198335003), Idaho Power Company, and Bureau of Land Management.

  12. Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Ground Surveys in the Snake River Basin Upriver of Lower Granite Dam, 2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, A.P.; Bradbury, S.; Arnsberg, B.D.; Rocklage, S.J.; Groves, P.A.

    2005-10-01

    Redd counts were used to document the spawning distribution of fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Snake River basin upriver of Lower Granite Dam. The first reported redd counts were from aerial searches conducted intermittently between 1959 and 1978 (Irving and Bjornn 1981, Witty 1988; Groves and Chandler 1996)(Appendix 1). In 1986, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife began an annual monitoring program that, in addition to the Snake River, included aerial searches of the Grande Ronde River the first year (Seidel and Bugert 1987), and the Imnaha River in subsequent years (Seidel et al. 1988; Bugert et al. 1989-1991; Mendel et al. 1992). The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Idaho Power Company began contributing to this effort in 1991 by increasing the number of aerial searches conducted each year and adding underwater searches in areas of the Snake River that were too deep to be searched from the air (Connor et al. 1993; Garcia et al. 1994a, 1994b, 1996-2004; Groves 1993; Groves and Chandler 1996). The Nez Perce Tribe added aerial searches in the Clearwater River basin beginning in 1988 (Arnsberg et. al 1992), and the Salmon River beginning in 1992. Currently searches are conducted cooperatively by the Nez Perce Tribe, Idaho Power Company, and U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Our objective for this report was to consolidate the findings from annual redd searches into a single document, containing detailed information about the searches from the most recent spawning season, and summary information from previous years. The work conducted in 2004 was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration, Idaho Power Company, and Bureau of Land Management.

  13. Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Ground Surveys in the Snake River Basin Upriver of Lower Granite Dam, Annual Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Aaron P.; Bradbury, S.M.; Arnsberg, Billy D.

    2003-09-01

    Redd counts were used to document the spawning distribution of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Snake River basin upriver of Lower Granite Dam. The first reported redd counts were from aerial searches conducted intermittently between 1959 and 1978 (Irving and Bjornn 1981, Witty 1988; Groves and Chandler 1996)(Appendix 1). In 1986, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife began an annual monitoring program that, in addition to the Snake River, included aerial searches of the Grande Ronde River the first year (Seidel and Bugert 1987), and the Imnaha River in subsequent years (Seidel et al. 1988; Bugert et al. 1989-1991; Mendel et al. 1992). The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Idaho Power Company began contributing to this effort in 1991 by increasing the number of aerial searches conducted each year and adding underwater searches in areas of the Snake River that were too deep to be searched from the air (Connor et al. 1993; Garcia et al. 1994a, 1994b, 1996-2001; Groves 1993; Groves and Chandler 1996). The Nez Perce Tribe added aerial searches in the Clearwater River basin beginning in 1988 (Arnsberg et. al 1992) and the Salmon River beginning in 1992. Currently searches are conducted cooperatively by the Nez Perce Tribe, Idaho Power Company, and U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Our objective for this report was to consolidate the findings from annual redd searches into a single document containing detailed information about the searches from the most recent spawning season, and summary information from previous years. The work conducted in 2002 was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (Projects 1998-01-003 and 1994-03-400) and the Idaho Power Company.

  14. Use of hydrogen peroxide during incubation of landlocked fall Chinook salmon eggs in vertical-flow incubators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, M.E.; Gaikowski, M.P.

    2004-01-01

    Six different hydrogen peroxide treatment regimes were evaluated in a series of three trials with landlocked fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha eggs incubated in vertical-flow incubators. Six daily 15-min hydrogen peroxide treatment regimes (1,000 mg/L; 1,000 mg/L with a decrease to 500 mg/L during estimated blastopore formation; 2,000 mg/L; 2,000 mg/L with a decrease to 500 mg/L during estimated blastopore formation; 2,500 mg/L; and 2,500 mg/L with a decrease to 500 mg/L during estimated blastopore formation) were compared with daily 15-min treatments of 1,667 mg/L of formalin. Mortality at egg eye-up and fry hatch and from eye-up to hatch was significantly greater in eggs receiving the 2,500-mg/L hydrogen peroxide treatments throughout incubation and in those receiving 2,500 mg/L hydrogen peroxide with a decrease to 500 mg/L during blastopore formation than in either of the 1,000-mg/L hydrogen peroxide treatment regimes or the formalin-treated eggs in the first trial. No significant differences in mortality were observed among any of the treatments in the subsequent two trials with maximum hydrogen peroxide concentrations of 2,000 mg/L. Fungal infestations were observed primarily in the incubation trays treated at either of the 1,000-mg/L hydrogen peroxide regimens, as well as in those trays whose treatment concentrations were dropped to 500 mg/L during blastopore formation. Infestations were not observed in any of the formalin-treated trays. If minor fungal infestation is acceptable, then daily hydrogen peroxide treatments of 1,000 mg/L for 15 min would probably provide adequate fungal control compared with formalin usage.

  15. Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Ground Surveys in the Snake River Basin Upriver of Lower Granite Dam, 2007 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, A.P.; Bradbury, S.; Arnsberg, B.D.; Groves, P.A.

    2008-11-25

    Redd counts are routinely used to document the spawning distribution of fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Snake River basin upriver of Lower Granite Dam. The first reported redd counts were from aerial searches conducted intermittently between 1959 and 1978 (Irving and Bjornn 1981, Witty 1988; Groves and Chandler 1996)(Appendix 1). In 1986, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife began an annual monitoring program that, in addition to the Snake River, included aerial searches of the Grande Ronde River the first year (Seidel and Bugert 1987), and the Imnaha River in subsequent years (Seidel et al. 1988; Bugert et al. 1989-1991; Mendel et al. 1992). The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Idaho Power Company began contributing to this effort in 1991 by increasing the number of aerial searches conducted each year and adding underwater searches in areas of the Snake River that were too deep to be searched from the air (Connor et al. 1993; Garcia et al. 1994a, 1994b, 1996-2007; Groves 1993; Groves and Chandler 1996). The Nez Perce Tribe added aerial searches in the Clearwater River basin beginning in 1988 (Arnsberg et. al 1992), and the Salmon River beginning in 1992. Currently searches are conducted cooperatively by the Nez Perce Tribe, Idaho Power Company, and U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Our objective for this report was to consolidate the findings from annual redd searches counted upstream of Lower Granite Dam into a single document, containing detailed information about the searches from the most recent spawning season, and summary information from previous years. The work conducted in 2007 was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration and Idaho Power Company.

  16. The Use of PIT Tagging to Estimate Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon Migration Time Through the Priest Rapids Project Area on the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, R; McMichael, Geoffrey A. )

    2000-12-01

    We are in the process of evaluating how the Priest Rapids Project (PRP, located north of the Hanford reach on the Columbia River) affects populations of wild, fall Chinook salmon that are produced. One part of this project involves using mark-recapture technique to monitor fall juvenile Chinook movement in the area. A passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag technology was used to document migration timing out of the influence of the PRP, and track fish through downstream dams as they make their way to the ocean. On June 6 and 7, 2000, we tagged 1083 fall Chinook sub-yearlings above and below Wanapum Dam, subsequently detecting them as they began to pass through downstream dams. As of 9 August 2000, 122 fish had been detected in one or more of the dams downstream of the PRP. A mean migration time for tagged the fish of 5.5 km/day below the McNary dam and 4.5 km/day above the McNary Dam. The mean migration rate between McNary Dam and John Day Dam was 21.4 km/day. Back calculation, indicated the mean date of departure for juveniles tagged in the pool above Wanapum Dam was July 16, 2000, while juveniles tagged below Wanapum Dam was July 1, 2000. Because fish are still being detected at the dams only preliminary conclusions can be attempted. Since the peak of migration time for these fish seems to have passed, the time when these fish most likely left the PRP area can also be estimated. Data analysis will continue analysis, and hopefully some of the adult returns will be measured as they come through the dams throughout the duration of the project.

  17. Upstream Passage, Spawning, and Stock Identification of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake River, 1992 : Annual Report FY 92-93.

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenship, H. Lee; Mendel, Glen Wesley

    1993-12-01

    This report summarizes the activities and results for the second year (1992) of a three year study. The goals of the study were as follows: (1) to determine the source (s) of interdam losses of adult fall chinook salmon between Ice Harbor Dam (IHR) and Lower Granite Dam (LGR), as well as upstream of LGR; (2) identify spawning locations upstream of LGR for calibration of aerial redd surveys, and to assist with redd habitat mapping and carcass recovery (for genetic stock profile analysis). Radio telemetry was used as the method of addressing project goals. Unmarked (not adipose clipped) adult fall chinook salmon were trapped and radio tagged at IHR and LGR dams as they ascended the Snake River during their spawning migration. They used aerial and ground mobile radio tracking to determine the movements of these fish. They examined movements of all radio tagged salmon upstream of LGR Dam. That provided us with a sample of 17 radio tagged fish tagged at IHR and 20 tagged at LGR. They estimate a combined fall back rate at LGR of 37.1% (13 fish). Another 10.8--13.5% were `lost` or prespawning mortalities. They identified two potential spawning locations that would not have been detected from the aerial spawning surveys. One site was upstream of Troy on the Grande Ronde River and the other was in the upper Snake River.

  18. Research, monitoring, and evaluation of emerging issues and measures to recover the Snake River fall Chinook salmon ESU, 1/1/2014 - 12/31/2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connor, William P.; Mullins, Frank L; Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Perry, Russell W.; Erhardt, John M.; St John, Scott J.; Bickford, Brad; Rhodes, Tobyn

    2015-01-01

    The portion of the Snake River fall Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ESU that spawns upstream of Lower Granite Dam transitioned from low to high abundance during 1992–2014 in association with U.S. Endangered Species Act recovery efforts and other Federally mandated actions. This annual report focuses on (1) numeric and habitat use responses by natural- and hatchery-origin spawners, (2) phenotypic and numeric responses by natural-origin juveniles, and (3) predator responses in the Snake River upper and lower reaches as abundance of adult and juvenile fall Chinook Salmon increased. Spawners have located and used most of the available spawning habitat and that habitat is gradually approaching redd capacity. Timing of spawning and fry emergence has been relatively stable; whereas the timing of parr dispersal from riverine rearing habitat into Lower Granite Reservoir has become earlier as apparent abundance of juveniles has increased. Growth rate (g/d) and dispersal size of parr also declined as apparent abundance of juveniles increased. Passage timing of smolts from the two Snake River reaches has become earlier and downstream movement rate faster as estimated abundance of fall Chinook Salmon smolts in Lower Granite Reservoir has increased. In 2014, consumption of subyearlings by Smallmouth Bass was highest in the upper reach which had the highest abundance of Bass. With a few exceptions, predation tended to decrease seasonally from April through early July. A release of hatchery fish in mid-May significantly increased subyearling consumption by the following day. We estimated that over 600,000 subyearling fall Chinook Salmon were lost to Smallmouth Bass predation along the free-flowing Snake River in 2014. More information on predation is presented in Appendix A.3 (page 51). These findings coupled with stock-recruitment analyses presented in this report provide evidence for density-dependence in the Snake River reaches and in Lower Granite Reservoir that was

  19. Snake River fall Chinook salmon life history investigations, 1/1/2012 - 12/31/2012: Annual report 2002-032-00

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Connor, Willam P.; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Chittaro, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Finally, we examined the role of different invasive invertebrates in lower Snake River reservoir food webs that are food, or competitors for food, for juvenile fall Chinook salmon. The Siberian prawn, a relatively new invader, is relatively abundant but its role on the food web is largely unexplored. Prawns are successfully reproducing and their diet is 81% Neomysis (an invasive opossum shrimp) which is heavily used at times by juvenile salmon for food. Neomysis has become very abundant in lower Snake River reservoirs in recent years and may be a profitable food item for many fish species.

  20. Post-Release Attributes and Survival of Hatchery and Natural Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake River; 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Connor, William P.

    2003-02-01

    This report summarizes results of research activities conducted in 2000, 2001, and years previous to aid in the management and recovery of fall chinook salmon in the Columbia River basin. The report is divided into sections and self-standing chapters. For detailed summaries, we refer the reader to the abstracts given on the second page of each chapter. The Annual Reporting section includes information provided to fishery managers in-season and post-season, and it contains a detailed summary of life history and survival statistics on wild Snake River fall chinook salmon juveniles for the years 1992-2001. The Journal Manuscripts section includes complete copies of papers submitted or published during 2000 and 2001 that were not included in previous annual reports. Publication is a high priority for this project because it provides our results to a wide audience, it ensures that our work meets high scientific standards, and we believe that it is a necessary obligation of a research project. The Bibliography of Published Journal Articles section provides citations for peer-reviewed papers co-authored by personnel of project 199102900 that were published from 1998 to 2001.

  1. Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin, Volume VIII; New Model for Estimating Survival Probabilities and Residualization from a Release-Recapture Study of Fall Chinook Salmon Smolts in the Snake River, 1995 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Lowther, Alan B.; Skalski, John R.

    1997-09-01

    Standard release-recapture analysis using Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) models to estimate survival probabilities between hydroelectric facilities for Snake River fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) ignore the possibility of individual fish residualizing and completing their migration in the year following tagging.

  2. Survival, development, and growth of Snake River fall Chinook salmon Embryos, Alevins, and Fry Exposed to Variable Thermal and Dissolved Oxygen Regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R.; Abernethy, Cary S.; Hand, Kristine D.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Chandler, James A.; Groves, Philip

    2006-11-01

    Fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) initiate spawning in the Hells Canyon reach of the Snake River, Idaho (rkm 240-397), at water temperatures above 16 C. This temperature exceeds the states of Idaho and Oregon water quality standards for salmonid spawning. These standards are consistent with results from studies of embryos exposed to a constant thermal regime, while salmon eggs in the natural environment are rarely exposed to a constant temperature regime. The objective of this study was to assess whether variable temperatures (i.e., declining after spawning) affected embryo survival, development, and growth of Snake River fall Chinook salmon alevins and fry. In 2003, fall Chinook salmon eggs were exposed to initial incubation temperatures ranging from 11-19 C in 2 C increments, and in 2004 eggs were exposed to initial temperatures of 13 C, 15 C, 16 C, 16.5 C, and 17 C. In both years, temperatures were adjusted downward approximately 0.2 C/day to mimic the thermal regime of the Snake River where these fish spawn. At 37-40 days post-fertilization, embryos were moved to a common exposure regime that followed the thermal profile of the Snake River through emergence. Mortality of fall Chinook salmon embryos increased markedly at initial incubation temperatures >17 C in both years. A logistic regression model estimated that a 50% reduction in survival from fertilization to emergence would occur at an initial incubation temperature of {approx}16 C. The laboratory results clearly showed a significant reduction in survival between 15 C and 17 C, which supported the model estimate. Results from 2004 showed a rapid decline in survival occurred between 16.5 C and 17 C, with no significant differences in survival at initial incubation temperatures <16.5 C. There were no significant differences across the range of initial temperature exposures for alevin and fry size at hatch and emergence. Differences in egg mass among females (notably 2003) most likely masked any

  3. Hatchery Evaluation Report / Lyons Ferry Hatchery - Fall Chinook : An Independent Audit Based on Integrated Hatchery Operations Teams (IHOT) Performance Measures : Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Montgomery

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the findings of the independent audit of the Lyons Ferry Hatchery (Fall Chinook). The audit is being conducted as a requirement of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) ``Strategy for Salmon`` and the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. Under the audit, the hatcheries are evaluated against policies and related performance measures developed by the Integrated Hatchery Operations Team (IHOT). IHOT is a multi-agency group established by the NPPC to direct the development of new basinwide standards for managing and operating fish hatcheries. The audit was conducted in April 1996 as part of a two-year effort that will include 67 hatcheries and satellite facilities located on the Columbia and Snake River system in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The hatchery operating agencies include the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.

  4. Quantifying Upper Particle-size Limits of Salmonid Spawning Gravel: Analysis of Fall-run Chinook Salmon of the Sacramento River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooster, J. K.; Riebe, C. S.; Ligon, F. K.

    2008-12-01

    Reversing the decline of historically prolific runs of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) remains a high priority of river restoration along the US Pacific Coast. One routinely implemented strategy is gravel injection, to supplement spawning habitat which has been depleted by gravel mining and bed coarsening below dams. Gravel augmentation is generally designed around a qualitatively assessed "preferred" median particle size. Implementation sites are not always ecologically ideal, because there often is little quantitative basis for determining where added gravel would be most suitable. Although gravel augmentation may increase spawning habitat, a more mechanistic design basis could reduce costs, improve efficiency, and make results more predictable. One key to developing better designs is a better method for characterizing existing spawning gravel deposits. Here we propose a series of mechanistically oriented hypotheses about the spawning suitability of natural gravels. One hypothesis is that there is an upper size limit on particles that can be moved by salmon. We expect that this limit depends on salmon size, water velocity and the size (and embeddedness) of surrounding rocks. Another hypothesis is that spawning success is related to percent coverage by immovable particles. A corollary hypothesis is that redds become irregular (and less productive) as percent coverage by immovable particles increases. Another related hypothesis is that redd-building success should approach zero at an upper threshold of coverage by immovable particles. We explored our hypotheses for fall-run Chinook in the Sacramento River. We collected grain size data, constructed facies maps of the bed, and delineated boundaries of spawning use at the peak of spawning, prior to the run's recent population decline. Our observations suggest that particles with intermediate axes diameters bigger than about 130 mm are not generally movable by fall run Chinook. Moreover we observed no

  5. Survival of Subyearling Fall Chinook Salmon in the Free-flowing Snake River and Lower Snake River Reservoirs in 2003 and from McNary Dam Tailrace to John Day Dam Tailrace in the Columbia River from 1999 to 2002, 1999-2003 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, William D.; Axel, Gordon A.; Smith, Steven G.

    2004-12-01

    We report results from an ongoing study of survival and travel time of subyearling fall Chinook salmon in the Snake River during 2003 and in the Columbia River during 1999-2002. Earlier years of the study included serial releases of PIT-tagged hatchery subyearling Chinook salmon upstream from Lower Granite Dam, but these were discontinued in 2003. Instead, we estimated survival from a large number of PIT-tagged fish released upstream from Lower Granite Dam to evaluate transportation from Snake River Dams. During late May and early June 2003, 68,572 hatchery-reared subyearling fall Chinook salmon were PIT tagged at Lyons Ferry Hatchery, trucked upstream, acclimated, and released at Couse Creek and Pittsburg Landing in the free-flowing Snake River. We estimated survival for these fish from release to Lower Granite Dam tailrace. In comparison to wild subyearling fall Chinook salmon PIT tagged and released in the free-flowing Snake River, the hatchery fish we released traveled faster and had higher survival to Lower Granite Dam, likely because of their larger size at release. For fish left in the river to migrate we estimated survival from Lower Granite Dam tailrace to McNary Dam tailrace. Each year, a small proportion of fish released are not detected until the following spring. However, the number of fish released in 2003 that overwintered in the river and were detected as they migrated seaward as yearlings in 2004 was small (<1.0%) and had minimal effect on survival estimates. We evaluated a prototype floating PIT-tag detector deployed upstream from Lower Granite reservoir to collect data for use in partitioning travel time and survival between free-flowing and reservoir habitats. The floating detector performed poorly, detecting only 27 PIT tags in 340 h of operation from a targeted release of 68,572; far too few to partition travel time and survival between habitats. We collected river-run subyearling Chinook salmon (mostly wild fish from the Hanford Reach) at Mc

  6. Predicted changes in subyearling fall Chinook salmon rearing and migratory habitat under two drawdown scenarios for John Day Reservoir, Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, K.F.; Garland, R.D.; Rondorf, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the potential effects of two different drawdown scenarios on rearing and migration habitat of subyearling fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in John Day Reservoir on the Columbia River. We compared habitats at normal operating pool elevation with habitats at drawdown to spillway crest elevation and drawdown to the historical natural river elevation for two flows (4,417 and 8,495 m3/s). Using two-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling and a predictive habitat model, we determined the quantity and spatial distribution of rearing habitat and predicted water velocities. We predicted that the most habitat area would occur under normal pool elevation, but 93% of habitat was located in the upper third of the reservoir. Although less habitat area was predicted under drawdown to the spillway crest and the natural river, it was distributed more homogeneously throughout the study area. Habitat connectivity, patch size, and percent of suitable shoreline were greatest under drawdown to the natural river elevation. Mean cross-sectional water velocity and the variation in velocity increased with increasing level of reservoir drawdown. Water velocities under drawdown to the natural river were about twice as high as those under drawdown to spillway crest and five times higher than those under normal pool. The variability in water velocity, which may provide cues to fish migration, was highest under drawdown to the natural river and lowest under normal pool elevation. The extent to which different drawdown scenarios would be effective in John Day Reservoir depends in part on restoring normative riverine processes.

  7. The interaction of ground water and surface water within fall chinook salmon spawning areas in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R. )

    2000-01-01

    Fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawned predominantly in areas of the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River where hyporheic water discharged into the river channel. This upwelling water had a dissolved solids content (i.e., specific conductance) indicative of river water and was presumed to have entered highly permeable riverbed substrate at locations upstream of the spawning areas. Hyporheic discharge zones composed of undiluted ground water or areas with little or no upwelling were not used by spawning salmon. Rates of upwelling into spawning areas averaged 1,200 L / m{sup 2} / day (95% C.I.= 784 to 1,665 L / m{sup 2} / day) as compared to approximately 500 L / m{sup 2} / day (95% C.I.= 303 to 1,159 L / m{sup 2} / day) in non-spawning areas. Dissolved oxygen content of the hyporheic discharge near salmon spawning areas was about 9 mg/L (+/-0.4 mg/L) whereas in non-spawning areas dissolved oxygen values were 7 mg/L (+/- 0.9 mg/L) or lower. In both cases dissolved oxygen of the river water was higher (11.3+/- 0.3 mg/L). Physical and chemical gradients between the hyporheic zone and the river may provide cues for adult salmon to locate suitable spawning areas. This information will help fisheries managers to describe the suitability of salmon spawning habitat in large rivers.

  8. Diel activity patterns of juvenile late fall-run Chinook salmon with implications for operation of a gated water diversion in the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plumb, John M.; Adams, Noah S.; Perry, Russell W.; Holbrook, Christopher; Romine, Jason G.; Blake, Aaron R.; Burau, Jon R.

    2016-01-01

    In the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, California, tidal forces that reverse river flows increase the proportion of water and juvenile late fall-run Chinook salmon diverted into a network of channels that were constructed to support agriculture and human consumption. This area is known as the interior delta, and it has been associated with poor fish survival. Under the rationale that the fish will be diverted in proportion to the amount of water that is diverted, the Delta Cross Channel (DCC) has been prescriptively closed during the winter out-migration to reduce fish entrainment and mortality into the interior delta. The fish are thought to migrate mostly at night, and so daytime operation of the DCC may allow for water diversion that minimizes fish entrainment and mortality. To assess this, the DCC gate was experimentally opened and closed while we released 2983 of the fish with acoustic transmitters upstream of the DCC to monitor their arrival and entrainment into the DCC. We used logistic regression to model night-time arrival and entrainment probabilities with covariates that included the proportion of each diel period with upstream flow, flow, rate of change in flow and water temperature. The proportion of time with upstream flow was the most important driver of night-time arrival probability, yet river flow had the largest effect on fish entrainment into the DCC. Modelling results suggest opening the DCC during daytime while keeping the DCC closed during night-time may allow for water diversion that minimizes fish entrainment into the interior delta.

  9. Falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... problems with circulation, thyroid or nervous systems. Some medicines make people dizzy. Eye problems or alcohol can be factors. Any of these things can make a fall more likely. Babies and young children are also at risk of falling - off ...

  10. Research, monitoring, and evaluation of emerging issues and measures to recover the Snake River fall Chinook salmon ESU, 1/1/2012 – 12/31/2013: Annual report, 1991-029-00

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connor, William P.; Mullins, Frank; Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Perry, Russell W.; Erhardt, John M.; St. John, Scott J.; Bickford, Brad; Rhodes, Tobyn

    2014-01-01

    The portion of the Snake River fall Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ESU that spawns upstream of Lower Granite Dam transitioned from low to high abundance during 1992–2014 in association with U.S. Endangered Species Act recovery efforts and other Federally mandated actions. This annual report focuses on (1) numeric and habitat use responses by natural- and hatchery-origin spawners, (2) phenotypic and numeric responses by natural-origin juveniles, and (3) predator responses in the Snake River upper and lower reaches as abundance of adult and juvenile fall Chinook Salmon increased. Spawners have located and used most of the available spawning habitat and that habitat is gradually approaching redd capacity. Timing of spawning and fry emergence has been relatively stable; whereas the timing of parr dispersal from riverine rearing habitat into Lower Granite Reservoir has become earlier as apparent abundance of juveniles has increased. Growth rate (g/d) and dispersal size of parr also declined as apparent abundance of juveniles increased. Passage timing of smolts from the two Snake River reaches has become earlier and downstream movement rate faster as estimated abundance of fall Chinook Salmon smolts in Lower Granite Reservoir has increased. In 2014, consumption of subyearlings by Smallmouth Bass was highest in the upper reach which had the highest abundance of Bass. With a few exceptions, predation tended to decrease seasonally from April through early July. A release of hatchery fish in mid-May significantly increased subyearling consumption by the following day. We estimated that over 600,000 subyearling fall Chinook Salmon were lost to Smallmouth Bass predation along the free-flowing Snake River in 2014. More information on predation is presented in Appendix A.3 (page 51). These findings coupled with stock-recruitment analyses presented in this report provide evidence for density-dependence in the Snake River reaches and in Lower Granite Reservoir that was

  11. Effects of Flow on the Migratory Behavior and Survival of Juvenile Fall and Summer Chinook Salmon in John Day Reservoir, 1981 Annual Report of Research.

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, Carl W.; Miller, David R.

    1982-06-01

    Research was conducted by NMFS in 1981 to define the effects of instream flows on the passage time, survival, and migrational behavior of 0-age chinook salmon in John Day Reservoir. Fourteen groups (74,683 fish) of marked 0-age chinook salmon were wire-tagged, branded, and released into the tailrace at McNary Dam, fourteen groups (13,746 fish) were branded and released into the reservoir at River Kilometer 375, and 34 groups (14,273) were branded and released into the reservoir at various other sites. More than 55,000 0-age chinook salmon were sampled at the John Day Dam airlift facility. This sample included 623 mark recoveries. Four hundred and eight (408) additional marks were recovered from purse seine samples taken at various sites throughout the reservoir. The average passage time of marked 0-age chinook salmon released in the McNary trailrace was 22 days in 1981. There was no statistically significant evidence to indicate that instream flows affected either the rate of movement or residence time of 0-age chinook salmon in John Day Reservoir in 1981. 7 references, 1 figure, 12 tables.

  12. Emigration of Natural and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon, October 20, 1999 to June 15, 2000 : 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Cleary, Peter J.

    2002-12-01

    This report details the smolt performance of natural and hatchery chinook salmon and steelhead from the Imnaha River to the Snake River and Columbia River dams during migration year 2000. Flow conditions in the Imnaha River and Snake River were appreciably lower during May and June in 2000, compared to historic levels at gauging stations, but flow conditions in the Imnaha and Snake River were above average during April. Overall, water conditions for the entire Columbia River were characterized by the Fish Passage Center as below normal levels. Spill occurred continuously at Lower Granite Dam (LGR), Little Goose Dam (LGO), and Lower Monumental Dam (LMO) from April 5, April 10, and April 4, respectively, to June 20, and encompassed the periods of migration of Imnaha River juvenile chinook salmon and steelhead, with a few exceptions. Outflow in the tailraces of LGR, LGO, and LMO decreased in May and June while temperatures increased. Chinook salmon and steelhead were captured using rotary screw traps at river kilometer (rkm) 74 and 7 during the fall from October 20 to November 24, 1999, and during the spring period from February 26 to June 15, 2000, at rkm 7. Spring trapping information was reported weekly to the Fish Passage Center's Smolt Monitoring Program. A portion of these fish were tagged weekly with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and were detected migrating past interrogation sites at Snake River and Columbia River dams. Survival of PIT tagged fish was estimated with the Survival Using Proportional Hazards model (SURPH model). Estimated survival of fall tagged natural chinook (with {+-} 95% confidence intervals in parenthesis) from the upper Imnaha (rkm 74) to LGR was 29.6% ({+-} 2.8 ). Natural chinook salmon tagged in the fall in the lower Imnaha River at rkm 7, which over wintered in the Snake River, had an estimated survival of 36.8% ({+-} 2.9%) to LGR. Spring tagged natural chinook salmon from the lower site had an estimated survival of 84

  13. Spring Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Supplementation in the Clearwater Subbasin ; Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation Project, 2007 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Backman, Thomas; Sprague, Sherman; Bretz, Justin

    2009-06-10

    The Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH) program has the following goals (BPA, et al., 1997): (1) Protect, mitigate, and enhance Clearwater Subbasin anadromous fish resources; (2) Develop, reintroduce, and increase natural spawning populations of salmon within the Clearwater Subbasin; (3) Provide long-term harvest opportunities for Tribal and non-Tribal anglers within Nez Perce Treaty lands within four generations (20 years) following project initiation; (4) Sustain long-term fitness and genetic integrity of targeted fish populations; (5) Keep ecological and genetic impacts to non-target populations within acceptable limits; and (6) Promote Nez Perce Tribal management of Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Facilities and production areas within Nez Perce Treaty lands. The NPTH program was designed to rear and release 1.4 million fall and 625,000 spring Chinook salmon. Construction of the central incubation and rearing facility NPTH and spring Chinook salmon acclimation facilities were completed in 2003 and the first full term NPTH releases occurred in 2004 (Brood Year 03). Monitoring and evaluation plans (Steward, 1996; Hesse and Cramer, 2000) were established to determine whether the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery program is achieving its stated goals. The monitoring and evaluation action plan identifies the need for annual data collection and annual reporting. In addition, recurring 5-year program reviews will evaluate emerging trends and aid in the determination of the effectiveness of the NPTH program with recommendations to improve the program's implementation. This report covers the Migratory Year (MY) 2007 period of the NPTH Monitoring & Evaluation (M&E) program. There are three NPTH spring Chinook salmon treatment streams: Lolo Creek, Newsome Creek, and Meadow Creek. In 2007, Lolo Creek received 140,284 Brood Year (BY) 2006 acclimated pre-smolts at an average weight of 34.9 grams per fish, Newsome Creek received 77,317 BY 2006 acclimated pre-smolts at an average of 24.9 grams

  14. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program: Facility Operation and Maintenance and Monitoring and Evaluation, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Boe, Stephen J.; Lofy, Peter T.

    2003-03-01

    This is the third annual report of a multi-year project to operate adult collection and juvenile acclimation facilities on Catherine Creek and the upper Grande Ronde River for Snake River spring chinook salmon. These two streams have historically supported populations that provided significant tribal and non-tribal fisheries. Supplementation using conventional and captive broodstock techniques is being used to restore fisheries in these streams. Statement of Work Objectives for 2000: (1) Participate in implementation of the comprehensive multiyear operations plan for the Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Supplementation Program (GRESCP). (2) Plan for recovery of endemic summer steelhead populations in Catherine Creek and the upper Grande Ronde River. (3) Ensure proper construction and trial operation of semi-permanent adult and juvenile facilities for use in 2000. (4) Collect summer steelhead. (5) Collect adult endemic spring chinook salmon broodstock. (6) Acclimate juvenile spring chinook salmon prior to release into the upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek. (7) Document accomplishments and needs to permitters, comanagers, and funding agency. (8) Communicate project results to the scientific community. (9) Plan detailed GRESCP Monitoring and Evaluation for future years. (10) Monitor adult population abundance and characteristics of Grande Ronde River spring chinook salmon populations and incidentally-caught summer steelhead and bull trout. (11) Monitor condition, movement, and mortality of spring chinook salmon acclimated at remote facilities. (12) Monitor water quality at facilities. (13) Participate in Monitoring & Evaluation of the captive brood component of the Program to document contribution to the Program.

  15. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program: Facility Operation and Maintenance and Monitoring and Evaluation, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Boe, Stephen J.; Ogburn, Parker N.

    2003-03-01

    This is the second annual report of a multi-year project to operate adult collection and juvenile acclimation facilities on Catherine Creek and the upper Grande Ronde River for Snake River spring chinook salmon. These two streams have historically supported populations that provided significant tribal and non-tribal fisheries. Supplementation using conventional and captive broodstock techniques is being used to restore fisheries in these streams. Statement of Work Objectives for 2001: (1) Participate in implementation of the comprehensive multiyear operations plan for the Grande Ronde Endemic Spring chinook Supplementation Program (GRESCP). (2) Plan detailed GRESCP Monitoring and Evaluation for future years. (3) Ensure proper construction and trial operation of semi-permanent adult and juvenile facilities for use in 2001. (4) Plan for data collection needs for bull trout. (5) Ensure proper construction and trial operation of semi-permanent adult and juvenile facilities for use in 2001. (6) Collect summer steelhead. (7) Monitor adult endemic spring chinook salmon populations and collect broodstock. (8) Acclimate juvenile spring chinook salmon prior to release into the upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek. (9) Monitor adult population abundance and characteristics of Grande Ronde River spring chinook salmon populations. (10) Monitor condition, movement, and mortality of spring chinook salmon acclimated at remote facilities. (11) Participate in Monitoring & Evaluation of the captive brood component of the Program to document contribution to the Program. (12) Monitor water quality at facilities. (13) Document accomplishments and needs to permitters, comanagers, and funding agencies. (14) Communicate Project results to the scientific community.

  16. The Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin : Volume XVII : Effects of Ocean Covariates and Release Timing on First Ocean-Year Survival of Fall Chinook Salmon from Oregon and Washington Coastal Hatcheries.

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, Caitlin; Skalski, John R.

    2001-05-01

    Effects of oceanographic conditions, as well as effects of release-timing and release-size, on first ocean-year survival of subyearling fall chinook salmon were investigated by analyzing CWT release and recovery data from Oregon and Washington coastal hatcheries. Age-class strength was estimated using a multinomial probability likelihood which estimated first-year survival as a proportional hazards regression against ocean and release covariates. Weight-at-release and release-month were found to significantly effect first year survival (p < 0.05) and ocean effects were therefore estimated after adjusting for weight-at-release. Negative survival trend was modeled for sea surface temperature (SST) during 11 months of the year over the study period (1970-1992). Statistically significant negative survival trends (p < 0.05) were found for SST during April, June, November and December. Strong pairwise correlations (r > 0.6) between SST in April/June, April/November and April/December suggest the significant relationships were due to one underlying process. At higher latitudes (45{sup o} and 48{sup o}N), summer upwelling (June-August) showed positive survival trend with survival and fall (September-November) downwelling showed positive trend with survival, indicating early fall transition improved survival. At 45{sup o} and 48{sup o}, during spring, alternating survival trends with upwelling were observed between March and May, with negative trend occurring in March and May, and positive trend with survival occurring in April. In January, two distinct scenarios of improved survival were linked to upwelling conditions, indicated by (1) a significant linear model effect (p < 0.05) showing improved survival with increasing upwelling, and (2) significant bowl-shaped curvature (p < 0.05) of survival with upwelling. The interpretation of the effects is that there was (1) significantly improved survival when downwelling conditions shifted to upwelling conditions in January (i

  17. Early life history attributes and run composition of PIT-tagged wild subyearling Chinook salmon recaptured after migrating downstream past Lower Granite Dam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connor, W.P.; Bjornn, T.C.; Burge, H.L.; Marshall, A.R.; Blankenship, H.L.; Steinhorst, R.K.; Tiffan, K.F.

    2001-01-01

    Seaward migration timing of Snake River fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) smolts is indexed using subyearling chinook salmon passage data collected at Lower Granite Dam. However, not all of the subyearlings are fall chinook salmon. For six years, we recaptured wild subyearling chinook salmon smolts, which had been previously PIT tagged in the Snake River, to genetically determine if the fish were offspring of spring and summer (hereafter, spring/summer), or fall chinook salmon. Springfall chinook salmon comprised over 10% of the samples of recaptured smolts in five of six years. For these five years, we used discriminant analysis to determine run membership of PIT-tagged smolts that were not recaptured (i.e., not sampled for genetic identification). Accuracy of the discriminant analysis models, based on genetically identified smolts, varied between 75 and 85%. After using discriminant analysis to classify run membership for each PIT-tagged smolt that was not genetically identified, we compared early life history attributes between fall and spring/summer chinook salmon and calculated annual run composition. The life history attributes we studied overlapped, but spring/summer chinook salmon reared along the shoreline of the free-flowing Snake River earlier, were larger, and began seaward migration earlier than fall chinook salmon. Spring/summer chinook salmon made up from 15.1 to 44.4% of the tagged subyearling smolts that were detected passing Lower Granite Dam. As a result, the presence of spring/summer chinook salmon makes migration timing for the fall chinook salmon seem earlier and more protracted than is the case. If wild subyearling spring/summer chinook salmon smolts are not considered, fall chinook salmon abundance at Lower Granite Dam will be overestimated.

  18. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program : Facility Operation and Maintenance Facilities, Annual Report 2003.

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, Michael L.; Seeger, Ryan; Hewitt, Laurie

    2004-01-01

    Anadromous salmonid stocks have declined in both the Grande Ronde River Basin (Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP) Status Review Symposium 1998) and in the entire Snake River Basin (Nehlsen et al. 1991), many to the point of extinction. The Grande Ronde River Basin historically supported large populations of fall and spring chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), sockeye (O. nerka), and coho (O. kisutch) salmon and steelhead trout (O. mykiss) (Nehlsen et al. 1991). The decline of chinook salmon and steelhead populations and extirpation of coho and sockeye salmon in the Grande Ronde River Basin was, in part, a result of construction and operation of hydroelectric facilities, over fishing, and loss and degradation of critical spawning and rearing habitat in the Columbia and Snake River basins (Nehlsen et al. 1991). Hatcheries were built in Oregon, Washington and Idaho under the Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP) to compensate for losses of anadromous salmonids due to the construction and operation of the lower four Snake River dams. Lookingglass Hatchery (LGH) on Lookingglass Creek, a tributary of the Grande Ronde River, was completed under LSRCP in 1982 and has served as the main incubation and rearing site for chinook salmon programs for Grande Ronde and Imnaha rivers in Oregon. Despite these hatchery programs, natural spring chinook populations continued to decline resulting in the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listing Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon as ''threatened'' under the federal Endangered Species Act (1973) on 22 April 1992. Continuing poor escapement levels and declining population trends indicated that Grande Ronde River basin spring chinook salmon were in imminent danger of extinction. These continuing trends led fisheries co-managers in the basin to initiate the Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program (GRESCSSP) in order to prevent extinction and preserve options for use of endemic fish stocks

  19. Major histocompatibility complex differentiation in Sacramento River chinook salmon.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, T J; Parker, K M; Hedrick, P W

    1999-01-01

    The chinook salmon of the Sacramento River, California, have been reduced to a fraction of their former abundance because of human impact and use of the river system. Here we examine the genetic variation at a major histocompatibility complex class II exon in the four Sacramento chinook salmon runs. Examination of the alleles found in these and other chinook salmon revealed nucleotide patterns consistent with selection for amino acid replacement at the putative antigen-binding sites. We found a significant amount of variation in each of the runs, including the federally endangered winter run. All of the samples were in Hardy-Weinberg proportions. A significant amount of genetic differentiation between runs was revealed by several measures of differentiation. Winter run was the most genetically divergent, while the spring, late-fall, and fall runs were less differentiated. PMID:10049927

  20. Hatchery Evaluation Report/Lyons Ferry Hatchery - Spring Chinook : an Independent Audit Based on Integrated Hatchery Operations Team (IHOT) Performance Measures.

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Montgomery.

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the findings of the independent audit of the Lyons Ferry Hatchery (Spring Chinook). Lyons Ferry Hatchery is located downstream of the confluence of the Palouse and Snake rivers, about 7 miles west of Starbuck, Washington. The hatchery is used for adult collection of fall chinook and summer steelhead, egg incubation of fall chinook, spring chinook, steelhead. and rainbow trout and rearing of fall chinook, spring chinook, summer steelhead, and rainbow trout. The audit was conducted in April 1996 as part of a two-year effort that will include 67 hatcheries and satellite facilities located on the Columbia and Snake River system in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The hatchery operating agencies include the U.S Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.

  1. Thiamine and fatty acid content of Lake Michigan Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Peters, A.K.; Jones, M.L.

    2008-01-01

    Nutritional status of Lake Michigan Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) is inadequately documented. An investigation was conducted to determine muscle and liver thiamine content and whole body fatty acid composition in small, medium and large Chinook salmon. Muscle and liver thiamine concentrations were highest in small salmon, and tended to decrease with increasing fish size. Muscle thiamine was higher in fall than spring in large salmon. The high percentage of Chinook salmon (24-32% in fall and 58-71% in spring) with muscle thiamine concentration below 500 pmol/g, which has been associated with loss of equilibrium and death in other Great Lake salmonines, suggest that Chinook appear to rely less on thiamine than other Great Lakes species for which such low concentrations would be associated with thiamine deficiency (Brown et al. 2005b). A positive correlation was observed between liver total thiamine and percent liver lipids (r = 0.53, P < 0.0001, n = 119). In medium and large salmon, liver lipids were observed to be low in fish with less than 4,000 pmol/g liver total thiamine. In individuals with greater than 4,000 pmol/g liver thiamine, liver lipid increased with thiamine concentration. Individual fatty acids declined between fall and spring. Essential omega-3 fatty acids appear to be conserved as lipid content declined. Arachidonic acid (C20:4n6), an essential omega-6 fatty acid was not different between fall and spring, although the sum of omega-6 (Sw6) fatty acids declined over winter. Elevated concentrations of saturated fatty acids (sum) were observed in whole body tissue lipid. In summary, thiamine, a dietary essential vitamin, and individual fatty acids were found to vary in Lake Michigan Chinook salmon by fish size and season of the year.

  2. Quantifying mortal injury of juvenile Chinook salmon exposed to simulated hydro-turbine passage

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Richard S.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Gingerich, Andrew J.; Stephenson, John R.; Pflugrath, Brett D.; Welch, Abigail E.; Langeslay, Mike; Ahmann, Martin L.; Johnson, Robert L.; Skalski, John R.; Seaburg, Adam; Townsend, Richard L.

    2012-02-01

    A proportion of juvenile Chinook salmon and other salmonids travel through one or more turbines during seaward migration in the Columbia and Snake River every year. Despite this understanding, limited information exists on how these fish respond to hydraulic pressures found during turbine passage events. In this study we exposed juvenile Chinook salmon to varied acclimation pressures and subsequent exposure pressures (nadir) to mimic the hydraulic pressures of large Kaplan turbines (ratio of pressure change). Additionally, we varied abiotic (total dissolved gas, rate of pressure change) and biotic (condition factor, fish length, fish weight) factors that may contribute to the incidence of mortal injury associated with fish passing through hydro-turbines. We determined that the main factor associated with mortal injury of juvenile Chinook salmon during simulated turbine passage was the ratio between acclimation and nadir pressures. Condition factor, total dissolved gas, and the rate of pressure change were found to only slightly increase the predictive power of equations relating probability of mortal injury to conditions of exposure or characteristics of test fish during simulated turbine passage. This research will assist engineers and fisheries managers in operating and improving hydroelectric facility efficiency while minimizing mortality and injury of turbine-passed juvenile Chinook salmon. The results are discussed in the context of turbine development and the necessity of understanding how different species of fish will respond to the hydraulic pressures of turbine passage.

  3. Stock Identification of Columbia River Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout, 1986 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Schreck, Carl B.; Li, Hiran W.; Hjort, Randy C.

    1986-08-01

    For the first time genetic similarities among chinook salmon and among steelhead trout stocks of the Columbia River were determined using a holistic approach including analysis of life history, biochemical, body shape and meristic characters. We examined between year differences for each of the stock characteristics and we also correlated the habitat characteristics with the wild stock characteristics. The most important principle for managing stocks of Columbia River chinook salmon and steelhead trout is that geographically proximal stocks tend to be like each other. Run timing and similarity of the stream systems should be taken into account when managing stocks. There are similarities in the classifications derived for chinook salmon and steelhead trout. Steelhead trout or chinook salmon tend to be genetically similar to other steelhead or chinook stocks, respectively, that originate from natal streams that are geographically close, regardless of time of freshwater entry. The primary exception Lo this trend is between stocks of spring and fall chinook in the upper Columbia River where fish with the different run timings are dissimilar, though geographically proximate stocks within a run form are generally very similar. Spring chinook stocks have stronger affinities to other spring chinook stocks that originate in the same side of the Cascade Range than to these Spring chinook stock: spawned on the other side of the Cascade Range. Spring chinook from west of the Cascades are more closely related to fall chinook than they are to spring chinook from east of the Cascades. Summer chinook can be divided into two main groups: (1) populations in the upper Columbia River that smolt as subyearlings and fall chinook stocks; and (2) summer chinook stocks from the Salmon River, Idaho, which smolt as yearlings and are similar to spring chinook stocks from Idaho. Fall chinook appear to comprise one large diverse group that is not easily subdivided into smaller subgroups. In

  4. Thermal acclimation, growth, and burst swimming of threespine stickleback: enzymatic correlates and influence of photoperiod.

    PubMed

    Guderley, H; Leroy, P H; Gagné, A

    2001-01-01

    Threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) that had been reared in the laboratory under natural photoperiods were acclimated to 23 degrees and 8 degrees C in late spring under increasing day lengths and again in late fall under decreasing day lengths. The parents of these fish were from the anadromous Isle Verte population. In the spring, cold- and warm-acclimated fish grew at the same rates and attained similar condition factors (mass L(-3)), although food intake was considerably higher at 23 degrees C. As both groups had similar increases in mass and condition, the higher axial muscle activities of citrate synthase and phosphofructokinase (measured at 20 degrees C) after cold acclimation were likely a direct response to temperature. Multiple regression analysis showed that axial muscle levels of cytochrome C oxidase and citrate synthase were correlated with the burst swimming speeds of the spring sticklebacks, while growth rates were positively correlated with lactate dehydrogenase levels in pectoral and axial muscles and creatine kinase levels in the axial muscle. In the fall, the fish in both acclimation groups grew little, although they fed at similar rates as in the spring experiment. Overall, the sticklebacks showed lower burst swimming speeds in the fall. In both spring and fall, the burst speeds of cold- and warm-acclimated sticklebacks only differed at warm temperatures. In the spring experiment, the cold-acclimated fish swam faster, whereas in the fall experiment the warm-acclimated fish swam faster despite their lower percentage of axial muscle. Swimming speeds were measured both at a fish's acclimation temperature and after 12 h at the other temperature. Cold-acclimated sticklebacks seem to have more facility in rapidly adjusting to warm temperatures when they have experienced increasing rather than decreasing day lengths, perhaps as a result of the requirements of the spring migration to the intertidal breeding grounds. PMID:11226015

  5. Thermoregulation in hypergravity-acclimated rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monson, Conrad B.; Patterson, Susan L.; Horowitz, John M.; Oyama, Jiro

    1989-01-01

    The effect of acclimation to hypergravity on thermoregulatory responses of rats was determined by comparing data on core temperature, T(c), tail temperature, and O2 consumption in rats raised at 1 G (C) and at 2.1 G. It was found that, when C rats were exposed to an ambient temperature of 9 C concurrently with exposure to 2.1 G, the T(c) fell by about 6 C, while in rats acclimated to 2.1 G, the T(c) fell only by 1 C. Results of O2 consumption measurements showed that C rats exposed simultaneously to cold and hypergravity were not activating their thermogenic mechanism sufficiently to prevent a fall in T(c). In other experiments, rats acclimated to either 1 or 2.1 G were found to lack the ability to maintain their T(c) when exposed to a 5.8-G field or when cold-stressed at 1 G for extended times.

  6. Comparative Survival Rate Study (CSS) of Hatchery PIT-tagged Chinook; Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Jonasson, Brian

    2004-02-01

    We PIT-tagged juvenile spring chinook salmon reared at Lookingglass Hatchery in October 2002 as part of the Comparative Survival Rate Study (CSS) for migratory year (MY) 2003. We tagged 20,950 Imnaha stock spring chinook salmon, and after mortality and tag loss, we allowed the remaining 20,904 fish to leave the acclimation pond at our Imnaha River satellite facility beginning 1 April 2003 to begin their seaward migration. The fish remaining in the pond were forced out on 15 April 2003. We tagged 20,820 Catherine Creek stock captive and conventional brood progeny spring chinook salmon, and after mortality and tag loss, we allowed the remaining 20,628 fish to leave the acclimation ponds at our Catherine Creek satellite facility beginning during two acclimation periods. The volitional release for the early acclimation group began 12 March 2003, and all remaining fish were forced out of the ponds on 23 March 2003. The volitional release for the late acclimation group began 31 March 2003, and all remaining fish were forced out of the ponds on 14 April 2003. We estimated survival rates, from release to Lower Granite Dam in MY 2003, for three stocks of hatchery spring chinook salmon tagged at Lookingglass Hatchery to determine their relative migration performance. Survival rates for the Imnaha River, Lostine River, and Catherine Creek stocks were 0.714, 0.557, and 0.350, respectively. We PIT-tagged 20,944 BY 2002 Imnaha River stock and 20,980 BY 2002 Catherine Creek stock captive and conventional brood progeny in October and November 2003 as part of the CSS for MY 2004. From tagging to January 28, 2004, the rates of mortality and tag loss for Imnaha River stock were 0.16% and 0.04%, respectively. Catherine Creek stock, during the same period, had rates of mortality and tag loss of 0.19% and 0.06%, respectively.

  7. Migration of precocious male hatchery chinook salmon in the Umatilla River, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, C.E.; Stonecypher, R.W., Jr.; Hayes, M.C.

    2003-01-01

    Between 1993 and 2000, precocious yearling males of hatchery-produced fall and spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha composed 3.6-82.1% of chinook salmon runs to the Umatilla River, Oregon. These yearling males are smaller than typical jack salmon, which spend a full winter in the ocean, and are commonly referred to as "mini jacks." Minijack fall chinook salmon are characterized by enlarged testes and an increased gonadosomatic index. Our goal was to determine if minijacks migrated to saltwater between the time they are released from the hatchery and the time they return to the Umatilla River, a period of 4-6 months. During 1999-2000, we collected otoliths from an adult male fall chinook salmon, 12 spring chinook salmon minijacks, and 10 fall chinook salmon minijacks. We measured strontium:calcium (Sr:Ca) ratios from the age-1 annulus to the edge of the otolith to determine whether these fish had migrated to the ocean. The Sr:Ca ratios increased from low values near the age-1 annulus, similar to ratios expected from freshwaters, to higher values near the edge of the otolith. The Sr:Ca ratios increased to levels similar to ratios expected in saltwater, indicating that these fish had migrated to saltwater before returning to the Umatilla River. Analysis of published water chemistry data from the Columbia and Snake rivers and rearing experiments in the main-stem Columbia River confirmed that high Sr:Ca ratios measured in otoliths were not the result of high strontium levels encountered in the freshwater environment. Previously assumed to remain within freshwater and near the point of release, our results suggest these minijack salmon migrated at least 800 km and past three hydroelectric dams to reach saltwater and return to the Umatilla River.

  8. Migratory Characteristics of Spring Chinook Salmon in the Willamette River : Annual Report 1991.

    SciTech Connect

    Snelling, John C.

    1993-05-01

    This report documents our research to examine in detail the migration of juvenile and adult spring chinook salmon in the Willamette River. We seek to determine characteristics of seaward migration of spring chinook smolts in relation to oxygen supplementation practices at Willamette Hatchery, and to identify potential sources of adult spring chinook mortality in the Willamette River above Willamette Falls and use this information towards analysis of the study on efficiency of oxygen supplementation. The majority of juvenile spring chinook salmon released from Willamette hatchery in 1991 begin downstream movement immediately upon liberation. They travel at a rate of 1.25 to 3.5 miles per hour during the first 48 hours post-release. Considerably slower than the water velocities available to them. Juveniles feed actively during migration, primarily on aquatic insects. Na{sup +}/K{sup +} gill ATPase and cortisol are significantly reduced in juveniles reared in the third pass of the Michigan series with triple density and oxygen supplementation, suggesting that these fish were not as well developed as those reared under other treatments. Returning adult spring chinook salmon migrate upstream at an average rate of about 10 to 20 miles per day, but there is considerable between fish variation. Returning adults exhibit a high incidence of wandering in and out of the Willamette River system above and below Willamette Falls.

  9. Spawning Success of Hatchery Spring Chinook Salmon Outplanted as Adults in the Clearwater River Basin, Idaho, 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Cramer, Steven P.; Ackerman, Nichlaus; Witty, Kenneth L.

    2002-04-16

    The study described in this report evaluated spawning distribution, overlap with naturally-arriving spawners, and pre-spawning mortality of spring chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, outplanted as adults in the Clearwater River Subbasin in 2001. Returns of spring chinook salmon to Snake River Basin hatcheries and acclimation facilities in 2001 exceeded needs for hatchery production goals in Idaho. Consequently, management agencies including the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) and Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) agreed to outplant chinook salmon adults as an adaptive management strategy for using hatchery adults. Adult outplants were made in streams or stream sections that have been typically underseeded with spawners. This strategy anticipated that outplanted hatchery chinook salmon would spawn successfully near the areas where they were planted, and would increase natural production. Outplanting of adult spring chinook salmon from hatcheries is likely to be proposed in years when run sizes are similar to those of the 2001 run. Careful monitoring of results from this year's outplanting can be used to guide decisions and methods for future adult outplanting. Numbers of spring chinook salmon outplanted was based on hatchery run size, hatchery needs, and available spawning habitat. Hatcheries involved in outplanting in the Clearwater Basin included Dworshak National Fish Hatchery, Kooskia National Fish Hatchery, Clearwater Anadromous Fish Hatchery, and Rapid River Fish Hatchery. The NPT, IDFG, FWS, and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) agreed upon outplant locations and a range of numbers of spring chinook salmon to be outplanted (Table 1). Outplanting occurred mainly in the Selway River Subbasin, but additional outplants were made in tributaries to the South Fork Clearwater River and the Lochsa River (Table 1). Actual outplanting activities were carried out primarily by the NPT with supplemental outplanting done

  10. Genetic variation in chinook, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and coho, O. Kisutch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reisenbichler, R.R.; Phelps, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    We used starch-gel electrophoresis to genetically characterize the populations of chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and coho salmon, O. kisutch, in the major drainages of the north coast of Washington (the Quillayute, Uoh, Queets, and Quinault Rivers). Of 55 loci examined for electrophoretically detectable variation. 6 were polymorphic (frequency of the common allele was less than 0.95) in chinook salmon and 3 in coho salmon. Statistical tests of interdrainage and intradrainage variation for coho salmon were tenuous because most of the fish examined were from a single year class so that we could not account for variation among year classes. Nevertheless, these tests suggested that distinct stocks ofcoho salmon exist within drainages. and that variation was not significantly greater among drainages than within drainages. Interdrainage variation for wild chinook salmon was not significant. The data suggested that summer chinook salmon were electrophoretically different from fall chinook salmon, and the hatchery populations of chinook salmon were distinct from wild fish. A hatchery population developed primarily from north coast fish was electrophoretically more similar to wild chinook salmon than were the others.

  11. Tradeoffs between homing and habitat quality for spawning site selection by hatchery-origin Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cram, Jeremy M.; Torgersen, Christian E.; Klett, Ryan S.; Pess, George R.; May, Darran; Pearsons, Todd N.; Dittman, Andrew H.

    2013-01-01

    Spawning site selection by female salmon is based on complex and poorly understood tradeoffs between the homing instinct and the availability of appropriate habitat for successful reproduction. Previous studies have shown that hatchery-origin Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) released from different acclimation sites return with varying degrees of fidelity to these areas. To investigate the possibility that homing fidelity is associated with aquatic habitat conditions, we quantified physical habitat throughout 165 km in the upper Yakima River basin (Washington, USA) and mapped redd and carcass locations from 2004 to 2008. Principal components analysis identified differences in substrate, cover, stream width, and gradient among reaches surrounding acclimation sites, and canonical correspondence analysis revealed that these differences in habitat characteristics were associated with spatial patterns of spawning (p < 0.01). These analyses indicated that female salmon may forego spawning near their acclimation area if the surrounding habitat is unsuitable. Evaluating the spatial context of acclimation areas in relation to surrounding habitat may provide essential information for effectively managing supplementation programs and prioritizing restoration actions.

  12. Otolith analysis of pre-restoration habitat use by Chinook salmon in the delta-flats and nearshore regions of the Nisqually River Estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lind-Null, Angie; Larsen, Kim

    2010-01-01

    The Nisqually Fall Chinook population is one of 27 salmon stocks in the Puget Sound (Washington) evolutionarily significant unit listed as threatened under the federal Endangered Species Act (ESA). Extensive restoration of the Nisqually River delta ecosystem is currently taking place to assist in recovery of the stock as juvenile Fall Chinook salmon are dependent on the estuary. A pre-restoration baseline that includes the characterization of life history strategies, estuary residence times, growth rates, and habitat use is needed to evaluate the potential response of hatchery and natural origin Chinook salmon to restoration efforts and to determine restoration success. Otolith analysis was selected as a tool to examine Chinook salmon life history, growth, and residence in the Nisqually River estuary. Previously funded work on samples collected in 2004 (marked and unmarked) and 2005 (unmarked only) partially established a juvenile baseline on growth rates and length of residence associated with various habitats (freshwater, forested riverine tidal, emergent forested transition, estuarine emergent marsh, delta-flats and nearshore). However, residence times and growth rates for the delta-flats (DF) and nearshore (NS) habitats have been minimally documented due to small sample sizes. The purpose of the current study is to incorporate otolith microstructural analysis using otoliths from fish collected within the DF and NS habitats during sampling years 2004-08 to increase sample size and further evaluate between-year variation in otolith microstructure. Our results from this analysis indicated the delta-flats check (DFCK) on unmarked and marked Chinook samples in 2005-08 varied slightly in appearance from that seen on samples previously analyzed only from 2004. A fry migrant life history was observed on otoliths of unmarked Chinook collected in 2005, 2007, and 2008. Generally, freshwater mean increment width of unmarked fish, on average, was smaller compared to marked

  13. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen; Matthews, Gene M.; Kamikawa, Daniel J.

    1995-09-01

    The goals of this study are to (1) characterize the outmigration timing of different wild stocks of spring/summer chinook salmon smolts at dams on the Snake and Columbia Rivers, (2) determine if consistent patterns are apparent, and (3) determine what environmental factors influence outmigration timing. The authors PIT tagged wild spring/summer chinook salmon parr in the Snake River Basin in 1993, and subsequently monitored these fish during their smolt migration through Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, and McNary Dams during spring, summer, and fall 1994. This report details their findings.

  14. Biotic and abiotic influences on abundance and distribution of nonnative Chinook salmon and native ESA-listed steelhead in the Wind River, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jezorek, Ian G.; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    Biotic and abiotic factors influence fish populations and distributions. Concerns have been raised about the influence of hatchery fish on wild populations. Carson National Fish Hatchery produces spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Wind River, Washington, and some spawn in the river. Managers were concerned that Chinook salmon could negatively affect wild steelhead O. mykiss and that a self-sustaining population of Chinook salmon may develop. Our objectives were to assess: 1) the distribution and populations of juvenile spring Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead in the upper Wind River; 2) the influence of stream flow and of each population on the other; and 3) if Chinook salmon populations were self-sustaining. We snorkeled to determine distribution and abundance. Flow in the fall influenced upstream distribution and abundance of juvenile Chinook salmon. Juvenile Chinook salmon densities were consistently low (range 0.0 to 5.7 fish 100 m-2) and not influenced by number of spawners, winter flow magnitude, or steelhead abundance. Juvenile steelhead were distributed through the study section each year. Age-0 and age-1 steelhead densities (age-0 range: 0.04 to 37.0 fish 100 m-2; age-1 range: 0.02 to 6.21 fish 100 m-2) were consistently higher than for juvenile Chinook salmon. Steelhead spawner abundance positively influenced juvenile steelhead abundance. During this study, Chinook salmon in the Wind River appear to have had little effect on steelhead. Low juvenile Chinook salmon abundance and a lack of a spawner-to-juvenile relationship suggest Chinook salmon are not self-sustaining and potential for such a population is low under current conditions.

  15. Emigration of Natural and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon, Progress Report 2000-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Cleary, Peter; Kucera, Paul; Blenden, Michael

    2003-12-01

    This report summarizes the emigration studies of the Nez Perce Tribe in the Imnaha River subbasin during the 2001 and 2002 migration years. A migration year for the Imnaha River is defined here as beginning July 31 of the previous year and ending July 30 the following year. The conclusion of the studies at the end of migration year 2002 marked the 11th year of the Nez Perce Tribe's Lower Snake River Emigration Studies. The Nez Perce Tribe has participated in the Fish Passage Center's Smolt Monitoring Program for nine of the 11 years. These studies collect and tag juvenile chinook salmon and steelhead at two locations in the fall, rkm 74 and rkm 7, and at rkm 7 during the spring. Data from captured and tagged fish provide an evaluation of hatchery production and releases strategies, post release survival of hatchery chinook salmon, abundance of natural chinook salmon, and downstream survival and arrival timing of natural and hatchery chinook salmon and steelhead. The hydrologic conditions that migrating fish encountered in 2001 were characterized as a drought and conditions in 2002 were characterized as below average. Hatchery chinook salmon had a mean fork length that was 34 mm greater in 2001 and 35 mm greater in 2002 than the mean fork length of natural chinook smolts. Hatchery steelhead smolt mean fork lengths were 39 mm greater than natural steelhead smolts in 2001 and 44 mm greater than natural steelhead smolt fork lengths in 2002. A significant difference (p < 0.05) between hatchery and natural chinook salmon and steelhead fork lengths has been documented by these emigration studies from 1997 to 2002. Hatchery chinook salmon were volitionally released in 2001 and 2002 and the 90% arrivals for 2001 and 2002 at the lower rkm 7 trap were within the range of past observations of 22 to 38 days observed in 1999 and 2000. We estimated that 93.9% of the 123,014 hatchery chinook salmon released in 2001 survived to the lower trap and 90.2% of the 303,769 hatchery

  16. Maximum Neutral Buoyancy Depth of Juvenile Chinook Salmon: Implications for Survival during Hydroturbine Passage

    SciTech Connect

    Pflugrath, Brett D.; Brown, Richard S.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-03-01

    This study investigated the maximum depth at which juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha can acclimate by attaining neutral buoyancy. Depth of neutral buoyancy is dependent upon the volume of gas within the swim bladder, which greatly influences the occurrence of injuries to fish passing through hydroturbines. We used two methods to obtain maximum swim bladder volumes that were transformed into depth estimations - the increased excess mass test (IEMT) and the swim bladder rupture test (SBRT). In the IEMT, weights were surgically added to the fishes exterior, requiring the fish to increase swim bladder volume in order to remain neutrally buoyant. SBRT entailed removing and artificially increasing swim bladder volume through decompression. From these tests, we estimate the maximum acclimation depth for juvenile Chinook salmon is a median of 6.7m (range = 4.6-11.6 m). These findings have important implications to survival estimates, studies using tags, hydropower operations, and survival of juvenile salmon that pass through large Kaplan turbines typical of those found within the Columbia and Snake River hydropower system.

  17. Yakima River Spring Chinook Enhancement Study, Fisheries Resource Management, Yakima Indian Nation1983 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Wasserman, Larry

    1984-02-01

    The purpose was to evaluate enhancement methodologies that can be used to rebuild runs of spring chinook to the Yakima River system. In January, 1983, 100,000 fish raised at Leavenworth National Fish Hatchery were transported to Nile Springs Rearing Ponds on the Naches River. These fish were allowed a volitional release as smolts in April. An additional 100,000 smolts were transported from Leavenworth Hatchery in April and immediately released to the Upper Yakima River. Relative survival of smolts from their points of release to a trap at Prosser (RM48) was 1.69:1 for fish from Nile Springs, versus the trucked smolts. The fish from Nile Springs arrived at Prosser and McNary Dam approximately 1 week earlier than the transported fish. To better determine the magnitude and location of releases, distribution and abundance studies were undertaken. There is a decrease in abundance from upstream areas over time, indicating a general downstream movement. In the Naches System, the lower Naches River is heavily utilized by juvenile spring chinook during the early summer. A preliminary study evaluated physical limitations of production. On a single evening 67 fish were killed on diversion screens at Chandler Canal. This constituted 5.7% of the wild spring chinook entering the canal and 8.2% of the fall chinook. The larger hatchery spring chinook sustained a 2.3% loss. Adult returns resulted in 443 redds in the Yakima System, with 360 in the Yakima River and 83 in the Naches System.

  18. Climate variability and the collapse of a Chinook salmon stock (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindley, S.; Mohr, M.; Peterson, W. T.; Grimes, C.; Stein, J.; Anderson, J.; Botsford, L. W.; Bottom, D.; Busack, C.; Collier, T.; Ferguson, J.; Garza, C.; Grover, A.; Hankin, D.; Kope, R.; Lawson, P.; Low, A.; Macfarlane, B.; Moore, K.; Palmer-Zwahlen, M.; Schwing, F. B.; Smith, J.; Tracy, C.; Webb, R. S.; Wells, B.; Williams, T.

    2009-12-01

    As recently as 2002, nearly 1.5 million Sacrament River fall Chinook (SRFC) were caught in fisheries or returned to the Sacramento River basin to spawn. Only 66,000 spawners returned to natural areas and hatcheries in 2008. As a result of this dramatic decline, fisheries for Chinook salmon off California and Oregon were closed to protect SRFC in 2008 and 2009. In this paper, we show that the proximate cause of this unprecedented collapse was unusual but perhaps not unprecedented oceanographic conditions in the coastal ocean that created poor feeding conditions for juvenile salmon. The ultimate cause of the collapse may be the declining resilience of the Central Valley chinook complex that has been driven by a century and a half of land and water development. A simple conceptual model illustrates how the dynamics of a salmon population supplemented by hatchery production are influenced by trends in freshwater environmental quality, hatchery production, fitness, and climate. The model predicts that SRFC will recover to higher levels of abundance when ocean conditions improve (which may already be happening), only to decline sharply when ocean conditions again turn poor. Improving the sustainability of the Chinook salmon fishery depends on reversing trends in freshwater and estuarine habitat quality and quantity, which should also benefit runs of Chinook protected by the Endangered Species Act. Ecosystem-based management and ecological risk assessment will be required to make progress on these challenging problems, which are being exacerbated by climate change and human development.

  19. Combined effects of temperature acclimation and cadmium exposure on mitochondrial function in eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica gmelin (Bivalvia: Ostreidae).

    PubMed

    Cherkasov, Anton S; Ringwood, Amy H; Sokolova, Inna M

    2006-09-01

    Cadmium and temperature have strong impacts on the metabolic physiology of aquatic organisms. To analyze the combined impact of these two stressors on aerobic capacity, effects of Cd exposure (50 microg/L) on mitochondrial function were studied in oysters (Crassostrea virginica) acclimated to 12 and 20 degrees C in winter and to 20 and 28 degrees C in fall. Cadmium exposure had different effects on mitochondrial bioenergetics of oysters depending on the acclimation temperature. In oysters acclimated to 12 degrees C, Cd exposure resulted in elevated intrinsic rates of mitochondrial oxidation, whereas at 28 degrees C, a rapid and pronounced decrease of mitochondrial oxidative capacity was found in Cd-exposed oysters. At the intermediate acclimation temperature (20 degrees C), effects of Cd exposure on intrinsic rates of mitochondrial oxidation were negligible. Degree of coupling significantly decreased in mitochondria from 28 degrees C-acclimated oysters but not in that from 12 degrees C- or 20 degrees C-acclimated oysters. Acclimation at elevated temperatures also increased sensitivity of oyster mitochondria to extramitochondrial Cd. Variation in mitochondrial membrane potential explained 41% of the observed variation in mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate synthesis and proton leak between different acclimation groups of oysters. Temperature-dependent sensitivity of metabolic physiology to Cd has significant implications for toxicity testing and for extrapolation of laboratory studies to field populations of aquatic poikilotherms, indicating the importance of taking into account the thermal regime of the environment. PMID:16986802

  20. Spring Chinook Salmon Interactions Indices and Residual/Precocial Monitoring in the Upper Yakima Basin, 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    James, Brenda B.; Pearsons, Todd N.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.

    1999-12-01

    Select ecological interactions and spring chinook salmon residual/precocial abundance were monitored in 1998 as part of the Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project's supplementation monitoring program. Monitoring these variables is part of an effort to help evaluate the factors that contribute to, or limit supplementation success. The ecological interactions that were monitored were prey consumption, competition for food, and competition for space. The abundance of spring chinook salmon life-history forms that have the potential to be influenced by supplementation and that have important ecological and genetic roles were monitored (residuals and precocials). Residual spring chinook salmon do not migrate to the ocean during the normal emigration period and continue to rear in freshwater. Precocials are those salmon that precocially mature in freshwater. The purpose of sampling during 1998 was to collect baseline data one year prior to the release of hatchery spring chinook salmon which occurred during the spring of 1999. All sampling that the authors report on here was conducted in upper Yakima River during summer and fall 1998. The stomach fullness of juvenile spring chinook salmon during the summer and fall averaged 12%. The food competition index suggested that mountain whitefish (0.59), rainbow trout (0.55), and redside shiner (0.55) were competing for food with spring chinook salmon. The space competition index suggested that rainbow trout (0.31) and redside shiner (0.39) were competing for space with spring chinook salmon but mountain whitefish (0.05) were not. Age-0 spring chinook salmon selected a fairly narrow range of microhabitat parameters in the summer and fall relative to what was available. Mean focal depths and velocities for age 0 spring chinook salmon during the summer were 0.5 m {+-} 0.2 m and 0.26 m/s {+-} 0.19 m/s, and during the fall 0.5 m {+-} 0.2 m and 0.24 m/s {+-} 0.18 m/s. Among potential competitors, age 1+ rainbow trout exhibited the greatest

  1. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program; Satellite Facilities Operation and Maintenance, 2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, Michael L.; Seeger, Ryan; Hewitt, Laurie

    2006-01-01

    prompting an early release. The total mortality for the acclimation period was 49 (0.05 %). The total number of fish released from the acclimation facility during the late period was 105,369. Maintenance and repair activities were conducted at the acclimation facilities in 2005. Facility maintenance work consisted of snow removal, installation of drainage lines, removal of gravel from intake area, installation of new gate at the CCAF, and complete overhaul of 2 travel trailers. The Catherine Creek Adult Capture Facility (CCACF) was put into operation on 11 February 2005. The first adult summer steelhead was captured on 4 March. A total of 190 adult summer steelhead were trapped and released from 4 March to 16 May 2005. Peak arrival at the trap was the week of 8 April. The first adult spring Chinook salmon was captured at CCACF on 6 May 2005. A total of 226 spring Chinook salmon were trapped from 6 May to 8 July 2005. There were 56 adults and 4 jacks unmarked and 136 adult and 30 jack marked spring Chinook salmon trapped. Peak arrival at the trap was the week of 10 June for the unmarked and marked fish. None of the captive broodstock returns were collected for broodstock. Broodstock was collected systematically over the entire return from 31 May to 6 July 2005. Ten of the 34 broodstock collected and transported from CCACF to LGH were unmarked fish trapped. About 18% of the naturally produced adult males and females trapped were taken to LGH for broodstock. One jack was collected for every 5 adult males that were taken to LGH. A total of 30 age 4 and 5 and 4 age 3 fish were transported to LGH for broodstock. The hatchery component of the broodstock was 66.7%. Five weekly spawning surveys were conducted below the weir on Catherine Creek beginning 30 June 2005. During these surveys no live or dead fish were observed. The trap was removed from Catherine Creek on 3 August 2005. Temperatures at the CCACF ranged from -0.1 C on 14 February to 23.7 C on 21 July. The hourly

  2. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 1994-1995 Progress (Annual) Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen

    1996-09-01

    We PIT tagged wild spring/summer chinook-salmon parr in the Snake River Basin in 1994 and subsequently monitored these fish during their smolt migration through Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Darns during spring, summer, and fall 1995. This report details our findings. The goals of this study are to (1) characterize the migration timing of different wild stocks of Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon smolts at dams on the Snake and Columbia Rivers, (2) determine if consistent patterns are apparent, and (3) determine what environmental factors influence migration timing.

  3. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program: Facility Operation and Maintenance and Monitoring and Evaluation, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Boe, Stephen J.; Lofy, Peter T.

    2002-11-01

    This is the second annual report of a multi-year, multi-agency project to restore spring chinook salmon populations in the Grande Ronde River Basin (Grande Ronde Endemic Chinook Salmon Program--GRESCP). The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) operates adult collection and juvenile acclimation facilities on Catherine Creek and the upper Grande Ronde River for Snake River spring chinook salmon. These two streams have historically supported populations that provided significant tribal and non-tribal fisheries. Supplementation using conventional and captive broodstock techniques is being used to increase natural production and restore fisheries in these two streams. Statement of Work Objectives for 1999: (1) Participate in development and continued implementation of the comprehensive multi year operations plan for the Grande Ronde Endemic Supplementation Program. (2) Ensure proper construction and trial operation of semi-permanent adult and juvenile facilities for use in 2000. (3) Monitor adult endemic spring chinook salmon populations and collect broodstock. (4) Plan detailed Monitoring and Evaluation for future years. (5) Monitor population abundance and characteristics and local environmental factors that may influence abundance and run timing of Grande Ronde River spring chinook populations. (6) Participate in Monitoring and Evaluation of the captive brood component of the Program to assure this component is contributing to the Program. (7) Participate in data collection for incidentally-caught bull trout and summer steelhead and planning for recovery of summer steelhead populations. (8) Document accomplishments and needs to permitters, comanagers, and funding agencies. (9) Communicate project results to the scientific community.

  4. A "virus" disease of chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, A.J.; Rucker, R.R.

    1960-01-01

    Epizootics among chinook salmon fingerlings at the Coleman National Fish Hatchery have occurred periodically since 1941. A virus or virus-like filterable agent has been demonstrated to be the causative agent of this disease.

  5. Dam breaching and Chinook salmon recovery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dambacher, Jeffrey M.; Rossignol, Philippe A.; Li, Hiram W.; Emlen, John M.; Kareiva, Peter; Marvier, Michelle; Michelle M. McClure

    2001-01-01

    The Report by Kareiva et al. on recovery and management options for spring/summer chinook salmon (1) has the potential to have a major impact in deciding whether to breach dams on the Snake River. Based on interpretation of their model results, they argue that dam breaching would be insufficient to reverse the decline of salmon. An examination of the specifics of their model, however, suggests that, despire their argument, dam breaching remains a viable recovery option for chinook salmon.

  6. Evaluation of the Contribution of Chinook Salmon Reared at Columbia River Hatcheries to the Pacific Salmon Fisheries, 1986 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Vreeland, Robert R.

    1986-12-01

    FY 1986 was the eighth year of a study to determine the distribution, contribution, and value of artificially propagated fall chinook on the Columbia River. Tagging of hatchery fall chinook was completed in FY81. Sampling of sport and commercial marine fisheries from Alaska through California, Columbia River fisheries, and Columbia River hatcheries and adjacent streams occurred in 1986 as planned. Catches and returns of one brood year tagged for this study (1981) could have occurred in 1986. Returns of fall chinook to Columbia River facilities as of December 1, 1986 are 108,154. This return is already the fourth largest of the past seven years. Several facilities (Cowlitz, Grays River, and Washougal) are having the greatest returns since inception of the study. However, Spring Creek and Lewis River hatcheries are having the smallest return. Estimated Catches of coded wire tagged salmonids are available through 1984 for all fisheries except Alaska in 1981 and Washington in 1984. Catch proportions by fishery for the 1978 brood are .01, .39, .34, .07, 0, and .19 for the Alaska, Canada, Washington, Oregon, California, and Columbia River fisheries respectively. Catch proportions for the 1979 brood are similar to those for the 1978 brood (.03, .33, .37, .05, .01, and . 21) for the same fisheries respectively. The proportion of recoveries for the four age groups of 1978-brood fish caught are .07, .69, .23, .01 for the two-through five-year-old chinook respectively.

  7. Preventing falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... worsened. Improving your vision will help reduce falls. Images ... for preventing falls in older people living in the community. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009, Issue 2. Art. No.: ...

  8. Early life history study of Grande Ronde River Basin chinook salmon. Annual progress report, September 1, 1994--August 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, M.; Anderson, D.J.; Carmichasel, R.W.; Jonasson, B.C.

    1996-06-01

    The Grande Ronde River originates in the Blue Mountains in northeast Oregon and flows 334 kilometers to its confluence with the Snake River near Rogersburg, Washington. Historically, the Grande Ronde River produced an abundance of salmonids including stocks of spring, summer and fall chinook salmon, sockeye salmon, coho salmon, and summer steelhead. During the past century, numerous factors have caused the reduction of salmon stocks such that only stocks of spring chinook salmon and summer steelhead remain. The sizes of spring chinook salmon populations in the Grande Ronde basin also have been declining steadily and are substantially depressed from estimates of historic levels. It is estimated that prior to the construction of the Columbia and Snake River dams, more than 20,000 adult spring chinook salmon returned to spawn in the Grande Ronde River basin. A spawning escapement of 12,200 adults was estimated for the Grande Ronde River basin in 1957. Recent population estimates have been variable year to year, yet remain a degree of magnitude lower than historic estimates. In 1992, the escapement estimate for the basin was 1,022 adults (2.4 {times} number of redds observed). In addition to a decline in population abundance, a constriction of spring chinook salmon spawning distribution is evident in the Grande Ronde basin. Historically, 21 streams supported spawning chinook salmon, yet today the majority of production is limited to eight tributary streams and the mainstem upper Grande Ronde River. Numerous factors are thought to contribute to the decline of spring chinook salmon in the Snake River and its tributaries. These factors include passage problems and increased mortality of juvenile and adult migrants at mainstem Columbia and Snake river dams, overharvest, and habitat degradation associated with timber, agricultural, and land development practices. More than 80% of anadromous fish habitat in the upper Grande Ronde River is considered to be degraded.

  9. Preventing Falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... from osteoporosis. Lower-body strength exercises and balance exercises can help you prevent falls and avoid the disability that may result from falling. Here are some fall prevention tips from Go4Life : l Have your eyes and hearing tested often. Always wear your glasses when you ...

  10. Pre-Restoration Habitat Use by Chinook Salmon in the Nisqually Estuary Using Otolith Analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lind-Null, Angela; Larsen, Kimberly; Reisenbichler, Reginald

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The Nisqually Fall Chinook population is one of 27 stocks in the Puget Sound evolutionarily significant unit listed as threatened under the federal Endangered Species Act. The preservation of the Nisqually delta ecosystem coupled with extensive restoration of approximately 1,000 acres of diked estuarine habitat is identified as the highest priority action for the recovery of naturally spawning Nisqually River Fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Nisqually Chinook Recovery Plan. In order to evaluate the response of Chinook salmon to restoration, a pre-restoration baseline of life history diversity and estuary utilization must be established. Otolith analysis has been proposed as a means to measure Chinook salmon life history diversity, growth, and residence in the Nisqually estuary. Over time, the information from the otolith analyses will be used to: (1) determine if estuary restoration actions cause changes to the population structure (i.e. frequency of the different life history trajectories) for Nisqually River Chinook, (2) compare pre and post restoration residence times and growth rates, and (3) suggest whether estuary restoration yields substantial benefits for Chinook salmon. Otoliths are calcium carbonate structures in the inner ear that grow in proportion to the overall growth of the fish. Daily growth increments can be measured so date and fish size at various habitat transitions can be back-calculated. Careful analysis of otolith microstructure can be used to determine the number of days that a fish resided in the estuary as a juvenile (increment counts), size at entrance to the estuary, size at egress, and the amount that the fish grew while in the estuary. Juvenile Chinook salmon can exhibit a variety of life history trajectories ? some enter the sea (or Puget Sound) as fry, some rear in the estuary before entering the sea, and some rear in the river and then move rapidly through the estuary into the sea as smolts. The

  11. Derivation of Mortal Injury Metric for Studies of Rapid Decompression of Depth-Acclimated Physostomous Fish

    SciTech Connect

    McKinstry, Craig A.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Brown, Richard S.

    2007-11-05

    In 2005 the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) began a study to investigate the response of hatchery and run-of-the-river (ROR) juvenile Chinook salmon to the effects of rapid decompression during passage through mainstem Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Kaplan turbines. In laboratory studies conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for USACE since 2005, juvenile fish have been exposed to rapid decompression in a barometric pressure chamber. An initial study considered the response of juvenile Chinook salmon bearing radio transmitters to rapid decompression resulting from exposure to a pressure time history simulating the worst case condition that might be experienced during passage through an operating turbine. The study in 2005 found that acclimation depth was a very important treatment factor that greatly influenced the significantly higher incidence of injury and mortality of rapidly decompressed Chinook salmon bearing radio telemetry devices. In 2006 we initiated a statistical investigation using data in hand into derivation of a new end-point measure for assessment of the physiological response of juvenile Chinook salmon to rapid decompression. Our goal was a measure that would more fully utilize both mortality and injury data while providing a better assessment of the most likely survival outcome for juvenile physostomous fish exposed to rapid decompression. The conclusion of the analysis process was to classify fish as mortally injured when any of the 8 injuries are present, regardless of whether the fish was last observed alive or not. The mortally injured classification has replaced mortality as the end point metric for our rapid decompression studies. The process described in this report is an example of how a data set may be analyzed to identify decision criterion for objective classification of test fish to a specific end-point. The resulting list of 8 mortal injuries is applicable to assess injuries from rapid

  12. Adaptive genetic markers discriminate migratory runs of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) amid continued gene flow.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Kathleen G; Jacobson, Dave P; Kurth, Ryon; Dill, Allen J; Banks, Michael A

    2013-12-01

    Neutral genetic markers are routinely used to define distinct units within species that warrant discrete management. Human-induced changes to gene flow however may reduce the power of such an approach. We tested the efficiency of adaptive versus neutral genetic markers in differentiating temporally divergent migratory runs of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) amid high gene flow owing to artificial propagation and habitat alteration. We compared seven putative migration timing genes to ten microsatellite loci in delineating three migratory groups of Chinook in the Feather River, CA: offspring of fall-run hatchery broodstock that returned as adults to freshwater in fall (fall run), spring-run offspring that returned in spring (spring run), and fall-run offspring that returned in spring (FRS). We found evidence for significant differentiation between the fall and federally listed threatened spring groups based on divergence at three circadian clock genes (OtsClock1b, OmyFbxw11, and Omy1009UW), but not neutral markers. We thus demonstrate the importance of genetic marker choice in resolving complex life history types. These findings directly impact conservation management strategies and add to previous evidence from Pacific and Atlantic salmon indicating that circadian clock genes influence migration timing. PMID:24478800

  13. Acclimation of marine phytoplankton to ultraviolet radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hazzard, C.E.

    1993-01-01

    The ability of marine phytoplankton to acclimate to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) was examined. Monocultures of a subtropical diatom, Chaetoceros gracilis, were maintained under photosynthetically available radiation (PAR-only) and PAR plus UVR (PAR + UVR) for a 48 h exposure period. By 24 h, and for the remainder of the 48 h exposure period, growth rate, pigment concentrations, Rubisco activity and carbon fixation capability were not affected by PAR + UVR. After 48 h of UVR exposure turnover rates of the putative D1 protein of photosystem II (PSII) and Chlorophyll (Chl) a were higher than controls, suggesting continual damage by UVR. Maximum rate of oxygen evolution and the efficiency of PSII increased following acclimation to UVR. The maximum rate of carbon fixation was not affected on a per cell basis and decreased on a per Chl a basis following UVR acclimation. Chlorophyll a specific photosynthesis over a 5 h exposure period was equal between the two acclimation treatments (PAR-only and PAR + UV). Transfer of PAR-only acclimated cells to PAR + UVR for the same 5 h period lead to a reduction in Chl a specific photosynthesis, indicating acute inhibition of photosynthesis by UVR. Chlorophyll a specific photosynthesis of cells acclimated to PAR + UVR and transferred to PAR-only was 24% higher than cells maintained in PAR + UVR during the determination of photosynthesis, indicating enhancement of productivity following the removal of UVR. Effect of ambient subtropical UVR on natural phytoplankton populations was examined. Rates of primary production by assemblages Natural phytoplankton assemblages from Hawaii, exposed to PAR-only and PAR + UVR were equal. Assemblages acclimated to PAR + UVR and then transferred to PAR-only fixed 67% more carbon per Chl a than assemblages acclimated to PAR + UVR and maintained in PAR + UVR. Acclimation to ambient PAR + UVR resulted in a 171% increase in Chl a concentration compared to assemblages maintained under PAR-only conditions.

  14. Differences in neurobehavioral responses of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to copper and cobalt: Behavioral avoidance

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, J.A.; Marr, J.C.A.; Lipton, J.; Cacela, D.; Bergman, H.L.

    1999-09-01

    Behavioral avoidance of copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), and a Cu and Co mixture in soft water differed greatly between rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha). Chinook salmon avoided at least 0.7 {micro}g Cu/L, 24 {micro}g Co/L, and the mixture of 1.0 {micro}g Cu/L and 0.9 {micro}g Co/L, whereas rainbow trout avoided at least 1.6 {micro}g Cu/L, 180 {micro}g Co/L, and the mixture of 2.6 {micro}g Cu/L and 2.4 {micro}g Co/L. Chinook salmon were also more sensitive to the toxic effects of Cu in that they failed to avoid {ge}44 {micro}g Cu/L, whereas rainbow trout failed to avoid {ge}180 {micro}g Cu/L. Furthermore, following acclimation to 2 {micro}g Cu/L, rainbow trout avoided 4 {micro}g Cu/L and preferred clean water, but chinook salmon failed to avoid any Cu concentrations and did not prefer clean water. The failure to avoid high concentrations of metals by both species suggests that the sensory mechanism responsible for avoidance responses was impaired. Exposure to Cu concentrations that were not avoided could result in lethality from prolonged Cu exposure or in impairment of sensory-dependent behaviors that are essential for survival and reproduction.

  15. 50 CFR 679.65 - Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR program). 679.65 Section 679.65 Wildlife and... and Aleutian Island Directed Pollock Fishery Management Measures § 679.65 Bering Sea Chinook...

  16. 50 CFR 679.65 - Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR program). 679.65 Section 679.65 Wildlife and... and Aleutian Island Directed Pollock Fishery Management Measures § 679.65 Bering Sea Chinook...

  17. 50 CFR 679.65 - Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR program). 679.65 Section 679.65 Wildlife and... and Aleutian Island Directed Pollock Fishery Management Measures § 679.65 Bering Sea Chinook...

  18. Stress of formalin treatment in juvenile spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wedemeyer, Gary; Yasutake, W.T.

    1973-01-01

    The physiological stress of 200 ppm formalin treatments at 10 C is more severe in the juvenile steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri) than in the spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). In the steelhead, a marked hypochloremia follows a 1-hr treatment and recovery requires about 24 hr. During longer treatments, hypercholesterolemia together with reduced regulatory precision, hypercortisolemia, alkaline reserve depletion, and hypocapnia unaccompanied by a fall in blood pH occur — suggestive of compensated respiratory alkalosis. In the spring chinook, hypochloremia and reduced plasma cholesterol regulatory precision are the significant treatment side effects but recovery requires only a few hours.Formalin treatments also cause epithelial separation, hypertrophy, and necrosis in the gills of both fishes but again, consistent with the physiological dysfunctions, these are more severe in the steelhead.

  19. The Influence of Tag Presence on the Mortality of Juvenile Chinook Salmon Exposed to Simulated Hydroturbine Passage: Implications for Survival Estimates and Management of Hydroelectric Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Brown, Richard S.; Stephenson, John R.; Pflugrath, Brett D.; Colotelo, Alison HA; Gingerich, Andrew J.; Benjamin, Piper L.; Langeslay, Mike; Ahmann, Martin L.; Johnson, Robert L.; Skalski, John R.; Seaburg, Adam; Townsend, Richard L.

    2012-05-01

    Each year, millions of fish have telemetry tags (acoustic, radio, inductive) surgically implanted to assess their passage and survival through hydropower facilities. One route of passage of particular concern is through hydro turbines, in which fish may be exposed to a range of potential injuries, including barotraumas from rapid decompression. The change in pressure from acclimation to exposure (nadir) has been found to be an important factor in predicting the likelihood of mortality and injury for juvenile Chinook salmon undergoing rapid decompression associated with simulated turbine passage. The presence of telemetry tags has also been shown to influence the likelihood of injury and mortality for juvenile Chinook salmon. This research investigated the likelihood of mortality and injury for juvenile Chinook salmon carrying telemetry tags and exposed to a range of simulated turbine passage. Several factors were examined as predictors of mortal injury for fish undergoing rapid decompression, and the ratio of pressure change and tag burden were determined to be the most predictive factors. As the ratio of pressure change and tag burden increase, the likelihood of mortal injury also increases. The results of this study suggest that previous survival estimates of juvenile Chinook salmon passing through hydro turbines may have been biased due to the presence of telemetry tags, and this has direct implications to the management of hydroelectric facilities. Realistic examples indicate how the bias in turbine passage survival estimates could be 20% or higher, depending on the mass of the implanted tags and the ratio of acclimation to exposure pressures. Bias would increase as the tag burden and pressure ratio increase, and have direct implications on survival estimates. It is recommended that future survival studies use the smallest telemetry tags possible to minimize the potential bias that may be associated with carrying the tag.

  20. Investigations into the Early Life History of Naturally Produced Spring Chinook Salmon in the Grande Ronde Riiver Basin : Fish Research Project Oregon : Annual Progress Report 1 September 1995 to 1 August 1996.

    SciTech Connect

    Jonasson, Brian C.; Carmichael, Richard W.; Keefe, MaryLouise

    1997-09-01

    Historically, the Grande Ronde River produced an abundance of salmonids including stocks of spring, summer and fall chinook salmon, sockeye salmon, coho salmon, and summer steelhead. During the past century, numerous factors have caused the reduction of salmon stocks such that only sustainable stocks of spring chinook salmon and summer steelhead remain. The sizes of spring chinook salmon populations in the Grande Ronde River basin also have been declining steadily and are substantially depressed from estimates of historic levels. In addition to a decline in population abundance, a reduction of spring chinook salmon spawning distribution is evident in the Grande Ronde River basin. Numerous factors are thought to contribute to the decline of spring chinook salmon in the Snake River and its tributaries. These factors include passage problems and increased mortality of juvenile and adult migrants at mainstem Columbia and Snake river dams, overharvest, and habitat degradation associated with timber, agricultural, and land development practices. This study was designed to describe aspects of the life history strategies exhibited by spring chinook salmon in the Grande Ronde River basin. During the past year the focus was on rearing and migration patterns of juveniles in the upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek. The study design included three objectives: (1) document the annual in-basin migration patterns for spring chinook salmon juveniles in the upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek, including the abundance of migrants, migration timing and duration; (2) estimate and compare smolt survival indices to mainstem Columbia and Snake river dams for fall and spring migrating spring chinook salmon; and (3) determine summer and winter habitat utilization and preference of juvenile spring chinook salmon in the upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek.

  1. Evaluation of a chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) bioenergetics model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; O'Connor, Daniel V.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in both the laboratory and the field. Chinook salmon in laboratory tanks were fed alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), the predominant food of chinook salmon in Lake Michigan. Food consumption and growth by chinook salmon during the experiment were measured. To estimate the efficiency with which chinook salmon retain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from their food in the laboratory, PCB concentrations of the alewife and of the chinook salmon at both the beginning and end of the experiment were determined. Based on our laboratory evaluation, the bioenergetics model was furnishing unbiased estimates of food consumption by chinook salmon. Additionally, from the laboratory experiment, we calculated that chinook salmon retained 75% of the PCBs contained within their food. In an earlier study, assimilation rate of PCBs to chinook salmon from their food in Lake Michigan was estimated at 53%, thereby suggesting that the model was substantially overestimating food consumption by chinook salmon in Lake Michigan. However, we concluded that field performance of the model could not be accurately assessed because PCB assimilation efficiency is dependent on feeding rate, and feeding rate of chinook salmon was likely much lower in our laboratory tanks than in Lake Michigan.

  2. Optimal Conventional and Semi-Natural Treatments for the Upper Yakima Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Treatment Definitions and Descriptions and Biological Specifications for Facility Design, 1995-1999 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hager, Robert C.; Costello, Ronald J.

    1999-10-01

    This report describes the Yakima Fisheries Project facilities (Cle Elum Hatchery and acclimation satellites) which provide the mechanism to conduct state-of-the-art research for addressing questions about spring chinook supplementation strategies. The definition, descriptions, and specifications for the Yakima spring chinook supplementation program permit evaluation of alternative fish culture techniques that should yield improved methods and procedures to produce wild-like fish with higher survival that can be used to rebuild depleted spring chinook stocks of the Columbia River Basin. The definition and description of three experimental treatments, Optimal Conventional (OCT), Semi-Natural (SNT), Limited Semi-Natural (LSNT), and the biological specifications for facilities have been completed for the upper Yakima spring chinook salmon stock of the Yakima Fisheries Project. The task was performed by the Biological Specifications Work Group (BSWG) represented by Yakama Indian Nation, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, National Marine Fisheries Service, and Bonneville Power Administration. The control and experimental variables of the experimental treatments (OCT, SNT, and LSNT) are described in sufficient detail to assure that the fish culture facilities will be designed and operated as a production scale laboratory to produce and test supplemented upper Yakima spring chinook salmon. Product specifications of the treatment groups are proposed to serve as the generic templates for developing greater specificity for measurements of product attributes. These product specifications will be used to monitor and evaluate treatment effects, with respect to the biological response variables (post release survival, long-term fitness, reproductive success and ecological interactions).

  3. Rapid River Hatchery - Spring Chinook, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, M.

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the findings of the independent audit of the Rapid River Hatchery (Spring Chinook). The hatchery is located in the lower Snake River basin near Riggins Idaho. The hatchery is used for adult collection, egg incubation, and rearing of spring chinook. The audit was conducted in April 1996 as part of a two-year effort that will include 67 hatcheries and satellite facilities located on the Columbia and Snake River system in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The hatchery operating agencies include the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.

  4. Characterization of Estuary Use by Nisqually Hatchery Chinook Based on Otolith Analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lind-Null, Angie M.; Larsen, Kim A.; Reisenbichler, Reg

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The Nisqually Fall Chinook population is one of 27 stocks in the Puget Sound evolutionarily significant unit listed as threatened under the federal Endangered Species Act (ESA). Preservation and extensive restoration of the Nisqually delta ecosystem are planned to assist in recovery of the stock. A pre-restoration baseline including life history types, estuary residence time, growth rates, and habitat use are needed to evaluate the potential response of hatchery and wild Chinook salmon to restoration. Otolith analysis has been selected as a means to examine Chinook salmon life history, growth, and residence in the Nisqually estuary. Over time, the information from the otolith analyses will be used to: 1) determine if estuary restoration actions cause changes to the population structure (i.e. frequency of the different life history trajectories) for Nisqually River Chinook, 2) compare pre- and post- restoration residence times and growth rates, 3) suggest whether estuary restoration yields substantial benefits for Chinook salmon through (1) and (2), and 4) compare differences in habitat use between hatchery and wild Chinook to further protect ESA listed stock. Otoliths are calcium carbonate structures in the inner ear that grow in proportion to the overall growth of the fish. Daily growth increments can be measured so date and fish size at various habitat transitions can be back-calculated. Careful analysis of otolith microstructure can be used to determine the number of days that a fish resided in the estuary as a juvenile (increment counts), size at entrance to the estuary, size at egress, and the amount that the fish grew while in the estuary. Juvenile hatchery Chinook salmon are generally released as smolts that move quickly through the delta with much shorter residence times than for many wild fish and are not dependent on the delta as nursery habitat (Myers and Horton 1982; Mace 1983; Levings et al. 1986). The purpose of this study is to use and

  5. Effects of surgically implanted acoustic transmitters >2% of body mass on the swimming performance, survival, and growth of juvenile sockeye and Chinook salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Richard S.; Geist, David R.; Deters, Katherine A.; Grassel, Mark A.

    2006-12-01

    This study examined the influence of surgical implantation of an acoustic transmitter on the swimming performance, growth, and survival of juvenile sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) and fall Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha). The transmitter weighed 0.72g in air and the fish weighed 6 to 23 g. Mean critical swimming speeds for fall Chinook salmon ranged from 47.5 to 51.2 cm s-1 (4.34 to 4.69 body lengths [BL] s-1) and did not differ among tagged, untagged and sham-tagged groups. Tagged sockeye salmon, however, did have lower Ucrit than control or sham fish. The mean Ucrit for tagged sockeye salmon was 46.1 cm s-1 (4.1 BL s-1) which was approximately 5% less than the mean Ucrit for control and sham fish (both groups were 48.6 cm s-1 or 4.3 BL s-1). There was no difference in length or weight among treatments (control, sham, tag) either at the start or the end of the test period suggesting that implantation did not negatively influence the growth of either species. None of the sockeye salmon died from the influence of surgical implantation of transmitters. In contrast, we did find that the 21-d survival differed between tagged and control groups of fall Chinook salmon although this result was confounded by the poor health of fall Chinook salmon treatment groups.

  6. Bacterial Acclimation Inside an Aqueous Battery

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Dexian; Chen, Baoling; Chen, P.

    2015-01-01

    Specific environmental stresses may lead to induced genomic instability in bacteria, generating beneficial mutants and potentially accelerating the breeding of industrial microorganisms. The environmental stresses inside the aqueous battery may be derived from such conditions as ion shuttle, pH gradient, free radical reaction and electric field. In most industrial and medical applications, electric fields and direct currents are used to kill bacteria and yeast. However, the present study focused on increasing bacterial survival inside an operating battery. Using a bacterial acclimation strategy, both Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis were acclimated for 10 battery operation cycles and survived in the battery for over 3 days. The acclimated bacteria changed in cell shape, growth rate and colony color. Further analysis indicated that electrolyte concentration could be one of the major factors determining bacterial survival inside an aqueous battery. The acclimation process significantly improved the viability of both bacteria E. coli and B. subtilis. The viability of acclimated strains was not affected under battery cycle conditions of 0.18-0.80 mA cm-2 and 1.4-2.1 V. Bacterial addition within 1.0×1010 cells mL-1 did not significantly affect battery performance. Because the environmental stress inside the aqueous battery is specific, the use of this battery acclimation strategy may be of great potential for the breeding of industrial microorganisms. PMID:26070088

  7. Northeast Oregon Hatchery Spring Chinook Master Plan, Technical Report 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashe, Becky L.; Concannon, Kathleen; Johnson, David B.

    2000-04-01

    Spring chinook salmon populations in the Imnaha and Grande Ronde rivers are listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and are at high risk of extirpation. The Nez Perce Tribe, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, are co-managers of conservation/restoration programs for Imnaha and Grande Ronde spring chinook salmon that use hatchery supplementation and conventional and captive broodstock techniques. The immediate goal of these programs is to prevent extirpation and provide the potential for restoration once factors limiting production are addressed. These programs redirect production occurring under the Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP) from mitigation to conservation and restoration. Both the Imnaha and Grande Ronde conservation/restoration programs are described in ESA Section 10 permit applications and the co-managers refer to the fish production from these programs as the Currently Permitted Program (CPP). Recently, co-managers have determined that it is impossible to produce the CPP at Lookingglass Hatchery, the LSRCP facility intended for production, and that without additional facilities, production must be cut from these conservation programs. Development of new facilities for these programs through the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program is considered a new production initiative by the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) and requires a master plan. The master plan provides the NPPC, program proponents and others with the information they need to make sound decisions about whether the proposed facilities to restore salmon populations should move forward to design. This master plan describes alternatives considered to meet the facility needs of the CPP so the conservation program can be fully implemented. Co-managers considered three alternatives: modify Lookingglass Hatchery; use existing facilities elsewhere in the Basin; and use new facilities in

  8. Emigration of Natural and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon, 1998-1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Cleary, Peter J.; Blenden, Michael L.; Kucera, Paul A.

    2002-08-01

    -river survival of PIT tagged hatchery chinook salmon smolts released at the Imnaha River acclimation facility to the Imnaha River Trap. (5) Determine arrival timing, travel time and estimated survival of PIT tagged hatchery and natural chinook salmon and natural and hatchery steelhead smolts from the Imnaha River to Snake and Columbia river dams.

  9. Tucannon River Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Brood Program, FY 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bumgarner, Joseph D.; Gallinat, Michael P.

    2001-06-01

    This report summarizes the objectives, tasks, and accomplishments of the Tucannon River spring chinook captive brood program from program inception (1997) through April 2001. The WDFW initiated a captive broodstock program in 1997. The overall goal of the Tucannon River captive broodstock program is for the short-term, and eventually long-term, rebuilding of the Tucannon River spring chinook salmon run, with the hope that natural production will eventually sustain itself. The project goal is to rear captive salmon to adults, spawn them, rear their progeny, and release approximately 150,000 smolts annually into the Tucannon River between 2003-2007. These smolt releases, in combination with the current hatchery supplementation program (132,000 smolts), and wild production, is expected to produce 600-700 returning adult spring chinook to the Tucannon River each year from 2005-2010. The Master Plan, Environmental Assessment, and most facility modifications at LFH were completed for the Tucannon River spring chinook captive broodstock program during FY2000 and FY2001. DNA samples collected since 1997 have been sent to the WDFW genetics lab in Olympia for baseline DNA analysis. Results from the genetic analysis are not available at this time. The captive broodstock program is planned to collect fish from five (1997-2001) brood years (BY). The captive broodstock program was initiated with 1997 BY juveniles, and the 2000 BY fish have been selected. As of April 30, 2001, WDFW has 172 BY 1997, 262 BY 1998, 407 BY 1999, and approximately 1,190 BY 2000 fish on hand at LFH. Twelve of 13 mature 97 BY females were spawned in 2000. Total eggtake was 14,813. Mean fecundity was 1,298 eggs/female based on 11 fully spawned females. Egg survival to eye-up was 47.3%. This low survival was expected for three year old captive broodstock females. As of April 30, 2001, WDFW has 4,211 captive broodstock progeny on hand. These fish will be tagged with blank wire tag without fin clips and

  10. Physiological status of naturally reared juvenile spring chinook salmon in the Yakima River: Seasonal dynamics and changes associated with smolting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beckman, B.R.; Larsen, D.A.; Sharpe, C.; Lee-Pawlak, B.; Schreck, C.B.; Dickhoff, Walton W.

    2000-01-01

    Two year-classes of juvenile spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from the Yakima River, Washington, were sampled from July (3-4 months postemergence) through May (yearling smolt out-migration). Physiological characters measured included liver glycogen, body lipid, gill Na+-K+ ATPase, plasma thyroxine (T4), and plasma insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). Distinct physiological changes were found that corresponded to season. Summer and fall were characterized by relatively high body lipid and condition factor. Winter was characterized by decreases in body lipid, condition factor, and plasma hormones. An increase in condition factor and body lipid was found in February and March. Finally, April and May were characterized by dramatic changes characteristic of smolting, including increased gill Na+-K+ ATPase activity, plasma T4, and IGF-I and decreased condition factor, body lipid, and liver glycogen. These results create a physiological template for juvenile spring chinook salmon in the drainage that provides a baseline for comparison with other years, populations, and life history types. In addition, this baseline provides a standard for controlled laboratory experiments and a target for fish culturists who rear juvenile spring chinook salmon for release from conservation hatcheries. The implications of these results for juvenile chinook salmon ecology and life history are discussed.

  11. Heat acclimation and cross tolerance to hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Ely, Brett R; Lovering, Andrew T; Horowitz, Michal; Minson, Christopher T

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has suggested a potential for some of the physiological and cellular responses to heat acclimation to carry over to improved tolerance of the novel stresses of another environment. This cross-tolerance is evident in heat-acclimated animals that exhibit enhanced tolerance to either hypoxic or ischemic stress, and is primarily attributed to shared cellular stress response pathways. These pathways include Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 (HIF-1) and Heat Shock Proteins (HSP). Whether these shared cellular stress response pathways translate to systemic cross-tolerance (improved exercise tolerance, reduced risk of environment-associated illness) has not been clearly shown, particularly in humans. This review highlights the HIF-1 and HSP pathways and their relationship with systemic acclimation responses, and further examines the potential cellular and systemic adaptations that may result in cross-tolerance between hot and hypoxic environments.

  12. Identification of a genetic marker that discriminates ocean-type and stream-type chinook salmon in the Columbia River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rasmussen, C.; Ostberg, C.O.; Clifton, D.R.; Holloway, J.L.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    A marker based on randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), OT-38, was discovered that nonlethally discriminates between stream-type and ocean-type populations of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Columbia River basin, including the threatened fall-run (ocean-type) and spring-run (stream-type) Snake River populations. This marker was developed by amplifying chinook salmon genomic DNA with a single RAPD primer, sequencing the termini of the polymorphic products, and designing primer pairs for allele-specific amplification. It was used to assay 18-80 individuals from several wild and hatchery populations differing in year-class, freshwater life history, and location along the Columbia River OT-38 unambiguously distinguished ocean-type from stream-type populations in 93.1% of the chinook salmon sampled.

  13. Epigenetics and cytoprotection with heat acclimation.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, Michal

    2016-03-15

    Studying "phenotypic plasticity" involves comparison of traits expressed in response to environmental fluctuations and aims to understand tolerance and survival in new settings. Reversible phenotypic changes that enable individuals to match their phenotype to environmental demands throughout life can be artificially induced, i.e., acclimation or occur naturally, i.e., acclimatization. The onset and achievement of acclimatory homeostasis are determined by molecular programs that induce the acclimated transcriptome. In heat acclimation, much evidence suggests that epigenetic mechanisms are powerful players in these processes. Epigenetic mechanisms affect the accessibility of the DNA to transcription factors, thereby regulating gene expression and controlling the phenotype. The heat-acclimated phenotype confers cytoprotection against novel stressors via cross-tolerance mechanisms, by attenuation of the initial damage and/or by accelerating spontaneous recovery through the release of help signals. This indispensable acclimatory feature has a memory and can be rapidly reestablished after the loss of acclimation and the return to the physiological preacclimated phenotype. The transcriptional landscape of the deacclimated phenotype includes constitutive transcriptional activation of epigenetic bookmarks. Heat shock protein (HSP) 70/HSP90/heat shock factor 1 memory protocol demonstrated constitutive histone H4 acetylation on hsp70 and hsp90 promotors. Novel players in the heat acclimation setup are poly(ADP-ribose)ribose polymerase 1 affecting chromatin condensation, DNA linker histones from the histone H1 cluster, and transcription factors associated with the P38 pathway. We suggest that these orchestrated responses maintain euchromatin and proteostasis during deacclimation and predispose to rapid reacclimation and cytoprotection. These mechanisms represent within-life epigenetic adaptations and cytoprotective memory. PMID:26472869

  14. Students fall for Fall Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedley, Kara

    2012-02-01

    From Boston to Beijing, thousands of students traveled to San Francisco for the 2011 AGU Fall Meeting. Of those who participated, 183 students were able to attend thanks to AGU's student travel grant program, which assists students with travel costs and seeks to enrich the meeting through ethnic and gender diversity. Students at Fall Meeting enjoyed a variety of programs and activities designed to help them better network with their peers, learn about new fields, and disseminate their research to the interested public. More than 800 students attended AGU's first annual student mixer, sharing drinks and ideas with fellow student members and future colleagues as well as forging new friendships and intellectual relationships.

  15. Monitoring and Evaluation of Supplemented Spring Chinook Salmon and Life Histories of Wild Summer Steelhead in the Grande Ronde Basin, 2007 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Boe, Stephen J.; Crump, Carrie A.; Weldert, Rey L.

    2009-04-10

    This is the ninth annual report for a multi-year project designed to monitor and evaluate supplementation of endemic spring Chinook salmon in Catherine Creek and the upper Grande Ronde River. These two streams historically supported anadromous fish populations that provided significant tribal and non-tribal fisheries, but in recent years, have experienced severe declines in abundance. Conventional and captive broodstock supplementation methods are being used to restore these spring Chinook salmon populations. Spring Chinook salmon populations in Catherine Creek and the upper Grande Ronde River, and other streams in the Snake River Basin have experienced severe declines in abundance over the past two decades (Nehlsen et al. 1991). A supplementation program was initiated in Catherine Creek and the upper Grande Ronde River, incorporating the use of both captive and conventional broodstock methods, in order to prevent extinction in the short term and eventually rebuild populations. The captive broodstock component of the program (BPA Project 199801001) uses natural-origin parr collected by seining and reared to maturity at facilities near Seattle, Washington (Manchester Marine Laboratory) and Hood River, Oregon (Bonneville Hatchery). Spawning occurs at Bonneville Hatchery, and resulting progeny are reared in hatcheries. Shortly before outmigration in the spring, juveniles are transferred to acclimation facilities. After an acclimation period of about 2-4 weeks, volitional release begins. Any juveniles remaining after the volitional release period are forced out. The conventional broodstock component uses returning adults collected at traps near the spawning areas, transported to Lookingglass Hatchery near Elgin, Oregon, held, and later spawned. The resulting progeny are reared, acclimated, and released similar to the captive broodstock component. All progeny released receive one or more marks including a fin (adipose) clip, codedwire tag, PIT tag, or visual implant

  16. Effect of Heat Acclimation on Sweat Minerals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: This study examined the impact of 10-days of exercise-heat acclimation on sweat mineral concentrations. Methods: Eight male subjects walked on a treadmill at 1.56 m/sec, 4% grade for 100 continuous minutes or until rectal temperature reached 39.5°C on 10 consecutive days in an environmenta...

  17. Thermal acclimation in a small Afrotropical Bird.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Lindy J; Brown, Mark; Downs, Colleen T

    2016-07-01

    Wild-caught animals are regularly used in physiological studies, yet the length of time it takes for completion of their acclimation to laboratory conditions remains largely unknown. In particular, Afrotropical species are relatively understudied compared with temperate and Holarctic species. Thus, we measured a number of metabolic variables in a 10g Afrotropical bird, the Cape White-eye (Zosterops virens), at weekly intervals, over an 8-week period, while birds were acclimating to two different constant thermal environments; 25°C and 29°C. Body mass increased significantly in the first three weeks, remaining approximately constant thereafter, with no significant difference between birds housed at 25°C and those housed at 29°C. However, whole animal resting metabolic rates remained constant throughout the eight-week study period, with values for birds housed at 29°C lower than for birds housed at 25°C. Rather than pointing to a minimum time period necessary for thermal acclimation, these results suggest that in some instances, freshly wild-caught small passerines may not need to be acclimated to laboratory conditions or respirometry equipment, prior to measurements of their resting metabolic rate. PMID:27133922

  18. Migratory Behavior of Adult Spring Chinook Salmon in the Willamette River and its Tributaries: Completion report

    SciTech Connect

    Schreck, Carl B.

    1994-01-01

    Migration patterns of adult spring chinook salmon above Willamette Falls differed depending on when the fish passed the Falls, with considerable among-fish variability. Early-run fish often terminated their migration for extended periods of time, in association with increased flows and decreased temperatures. Mid-run fish tended to migrate steadily upstream at a rate of 30-40 km/day. Late-run fish frequently ceased migrating or fell back downstream after migrating 10-200 km up the Willamette River or its tributaries; this appeared to be associated with warming water during summer and resulted in considerable mortality. Up to 40% of the adult salmon entering the Willamette River System above Willamette Falls (i.e. counted at the ladder) may die before reaching upriver spawning areas. Up to 10% of the fish passing up over Willamette Falls may fall-back below the Falls; some migrate to the Columbia River or lower Willamette River tributaries. If rearing conditions at hatcheries affect timing of adult returns because of different juvenile development rates and improper timing of smolt releases, then differential mortality in the freshwater segment of the adult migrations may confound interpretation of studies evaluating rearing practices.

  19. Acute exposure to gas-supersaturated water does not affect reproductive success of female adult chinook salmon late in maturation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gale, William L.; Maule, A.G.; Postera, A.; Peters, M.H.

    2004-01-01

    At times, total dissolved gas concentrations in the Columbia and Snake rivers have been elevated due to involuntary spill from high spring runoff and voluntary spill used as a method to pass juvenile salmonids over dams. The goal of this project was to determine if acute exposure to total dissolved gas supersaturation (TDGS) affects the reproductive performance of female chinook salmon late in their maturation. During this study, adult female spring chinook salmon were exposed to mean TDGS levels of 114.1 % to 125.5%. We ended exposures at first mortality, or at the appearance of impending death. Based on this criterion, exposures lasted from 10 to 68 h and were inversely related to TDGS. There was no effect of TDGS on pre-spawning mortality or fecundity when comparing treatment fish to experimental controls or the general hatchery population four to six weeks after exposures. Egg quality, based on egg weight and egg diameter, did not differ between treatment and control fish. Fertilization rate and survival to eyed-stage was high (>94%) for all groups. With the exception of Renibacterium salmoninarum (the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease; BKD), no viral or bacterial fish pathogens were isolated from experimental fish. The prevalence (about 45%) and severity of R. salmoninarum did not differ among the groups or the general hatchery population. We conclude that these acute exposures to moderate levels of gas-supersaturated water-perhaps similar to that experienced by immigrating adult salmon as they approach and pass a hydropower dam on the Columbia River-did not affect reproductive success of female chinook salmon late in their maturation. These results are most applicable to summer and fall chinook salmon, which migrate in the summer/fall and spawn shortly after reaching their natal streams. Published in 2004 by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  20. Pre-Restoration Habitat Use by Chinook Salmon in the Nisqually Estuary Using Otolith Analysis: An Additional Year

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lind-Null, Angie; Larsen, Kim

    2009-01-01

    The Nisqually Fall Chinook population is one of 27 stocks in the Puget Sound evolutionarily significant unit listed as threatened under the Federal Endangered Species Act (ESA). Preservation and extensive restoration of the Nisqually delta ecosystem is currently taking place to assist in recovery of the stock as juvenile Fall Chinook salmon are dependent upon the estuary. A pre-restoration baseline that includes characterization of life history types, estuary residence times, growth rates, and habitat use is needed to evaluate the potential response of hatchery and natural origin Chinook salmon to restoration efforts and determine restoration success. Otolith analysis was selected to examine Chinook salmon life history, growth, and residence in the Nisqually Estuary. Previously funded work on wild samples collected in 2004 established the growth rate and length of residence associated with various habitats. The purpose of the current study is to build on the previous work by incorporating otolith microstructure analysis from 2005 (second sampling year), to verify findings from 2004, and to evaluate between-year variation in otolith microstructure. Our results from this second year of analysis indicated no inter-annual variation in the appearance of the tidal delta check (TDCK) and delta-flats check (DFCK). However, a new life history type (fry migrant) was observed on samples collected in 2005. Fish caught in the tidal delta regardless of capture date spent an average of 17 days in the tidal delta. There was a corresponding increase in growth rate as the fish migrated from freshwater (FW) to tidal delta to nearshore (NS) habitats. Fish grew 33 percent faster in the tidal delta than in FW habitat and slightly faster (14 percent) in the delta flats (DF) habitat compared to the tidal delta.

  1. Tucannon River Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Program, Annual Report 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Gallinat, Michael P.; Bumgarner, Joseph D.

    2002-05-01

    This report summarizes the objectives, tasks, and accomplishments of the Tucannon River spring chinook captive brood during 2001. The WDFW initiated a captive broodstock program in 1997. The overall goal of the Tucannon River captive broodstock program is for the short-term, and eventually long-term, rebuilding of the Tucannon River spring chinook salmon run, with the hope that natural production will sustain itself. The project goal is to rear captive salmon selected from the supplementation program to adults, spawn them, rear their progeny, and release approximately 150,000 smolts annually into the Tucannon River between 2003-2007. These smolt releases, in combination with the current hatchery supplementation program (132,000 smolts) and wild production, are expected to produce 600-700 returning adult spring chinook to the Tucannon River each year from 2005-2010. The captive broodstock program will collect fish from five (1997-2001) brood years (BY). The captive broodstock program was initiated with 1997 BY juveniles, and the 2001 BY fish have been selected. As of Jan 1, 2002, WDFW has 17 BY 1997, 159 BY 1998, 316 BY 1999, 448 BY 2000, and approximately 1,200 BY 2001 fish on hand at LFH. The 2001 eggtake from the 1997 brood year (Age 4) was 233,894 eggs from 125 ripe females. Egg survival was 69%. Mean fecundity based on the 105 fully spawned females was 1,990 eggs/female. The 2001 eggtake from the 1998 brood year (Age 3) was 47,409 eggs from 41 ripe females. Egg survival was 81%. Mean fecundity based on the 39 fully spawned females was 1,160 eggs/female. The total 2001 eggtake from the captive brood program was 281,303 eggs. As of May 1, 2002 we have 171,495 BY 2001 captive brood progeny on hand. A total of 20,592 excess fish were marked as parr (AD/CWT) and will be released during early May, 2002 into the Tucannon River (rkm 40-45). This will allow us to stay within our maximum allowed number (150,000) of smolts released. During April 2002, WDFW volitionally

  2. Status and Monitoring of Natural and Supplemented Chinook Salmon in Johnson Creek, Idaho, 2006-2007 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rabe, Craig D.; Nelson, Douglas D.

    2008-11-17

    The Nez Perce Tribe Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation Enhancement Project (JCAPE) has conducted juvenile and adult monitoring and evaluation studies for its 10th consecutive year. Completion of adult and juvenile Chinook salmon studies were conducted for the purpose of evaluating a small-scale production initiative designed to increase the survival of a weak but recoverable spawning aggregate of summer Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. The JCAPE program evaluates the life cycle of natural origin (NOR) and hatchery origin (HOR) supplementation fish to quantify the key performance measures: abundance, survival-productivity, distribution, genetics, life history, habitat, and in-hatchery metrics. Operation of a picket style weir and intensive multiple spawning ground surveys were completed to monitor adult Chinook salmon and a rotary screw trap was used to monitor migrating juvenile Chinook salmon in Johnson Creek. In 2007, spawning ground surveys were conducted on all available spawning habitat in Johnson Creek and one of its tributaries. A total of 63 redds were observed in the index reach and 11 redds for all other reaches for a combined count of 74 redds. Utilization of carcass recovery surveys and adult captures at an adult picket weir yielded a total estimated adult escapement to Johnson Creek of 438 Chinook salmon. Upon deducting fish removed for broodstock (n=52), weir mortality/ known strays (n=12), and prespawning mortality (n=15), an estimated 359 summer Chinook salmon were available to spawn. Estimated total migration of brood year 2005 NOR juvenile Chinook salmon at the rotary screw trap was calculated for three seasons (summer, fall, and spring). The total estimated migration was 34,194 fish; 26,671 of the NOR migrants left in the summer (July 1 to August 31, 2005) as fry/parr, 5,852 left in the fall (September 1 to November 21, 2005) as presmolt, and only 1,671 NOR fish left in the spring (March 1 to June 30, 2006) as smolt. In addition, there

  3. Cowlitz Falls Fish Passage.

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The upper Cowlitz was once home to native salmon and steelhead. But the combined impacts of overharvest, farming, logging and road building hammered fish runs. And in the 1960s, a pair of hydroelectric dams blocked the migration path of ocean-returning and ocean-going fish. The lower Cowlitz still supports hatchery runs of chinook, coho and steelhead. But some 200 river miles in the upper river basin--much of it prime spawning and rearing habitat--have been virtually cut off from the ocean for over 26 years. Now the idea is to trap-and-haul salmon and steelhead both ways and bypass previously impassable obstacles in the path of anadromous fish. The plan can be summarized, for the sake of explanation, in three steps: (1) trap and haul adult fish--collect ocean-returning adult fish at the lowermost Cowlitz dam, and truck them upstream; (2) reseed--release the ripe adults above the uppermost dam, and let them spawn naturally, at the same time, supplement these runs with hatchery born fry that are reared and imprinted in ponds and net pens in the watershed; (3) trap and haul smolts--collection the new generation of young fish as they arrive at the uppermost Cowlitz dam, truck them past the three dams, and release them to continue their downstream migration to the sea. The critical part of any fish-collection system is the method of fish attraction. Scientists have to find the best combination of attraction system and screens that will guide young fish to the right spot, away from the turbine intakes. In the spring of 1994 a test was made of a prototype system of baffles and slots on the upriver face of the Cowlitz Falls Dam. The prototype worked at 90% efficiency in early tests, and it worked without the kind of expensive screening devices that have been installed on other dams. Now that the success of the attraction system has been verified, Harza engineers and consultants will design and build the appropriate collection part of the system.

  4. Chinook salmon foraging patterns in a changing Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobs, Gregory R.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Bunnell, David B.; Warner, David M.; Claramunt, Randall M.

    2013-01-01

    Since Pacific salmon stocking began in Lake Michigan, managers have attempted to maintain salmon abundance at high levels within what can be sustained by available prey fishes, primarily Alewife Alosa pseudoharengus. Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha are the primary apex predators in pelagic Lake Michigan and patterns in their prey selection (by species and size) may strongly influence pelagic prey fish communities in any given year. In 1994–1996, there were larger Alewives, relatively more abundant alternative prey species, fewer Chinook Salmon, and fewer invasive species in Lake Michigan than in 2009–2010. The years 2009–2010 were instead characterized by smaller, leaner Alewives, fewer alternative prey species, higher abundance of Chinook Salmon, a firmly established nonnative benthic community, and reduced abundance of Diporeia, an important food of Lake Michigan prey fish. We characterized Chinook Salmon diets, prey species selectivity, and prey size selectivity between 1994–1996 and 2009–2010 time periods. In 1994–1996, Alewife as prey represented a smaller percentage of Chinook Salmon diets than in 2009–2010, when alewife comprised over 90% of Chinook Salmon diets, possibly due to declines in alternative prey fish populations. The size of Alewives eaten by Chinook Salmon also decreased between these two time periods. For the largest Chinook Salmon in 2009–2010, the average size of Alewife prey was nearly 50 mm total length shorter than in 1994–1996. We suggest that changes in the Lake Michigan food web, such as the decline in Diporeia, may have contributed to the relatively low abundance of large Alewives during the late 2000s by heightening the effect of predation from top predators like Chinook Salmon, which have retained a preference for Alewife and now forage with greater frequency on smaller Alewives.

  5. Immune and endocrine responses of adult spring Chinook salmon during freshwater migration and sexual maturation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maule, A.G.; Schrock, R.M.; Slater, C.; Fitzpatrick, M.S.; Schreck, C. B.

    1996-01-01

    The immune –endocrine responses in spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were examined during their freshwater migration and final maturation. In 1990, migrating fish had high plasma cortisol titres (means 200 ng ml−1) and generated relatively few antibody-producing cells (APC) from peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) (100 –200 per culture). After three weeks acclimation in constant environmental conditions, plasma cortisol was reduced and APC increased. There were no changes in number or affinity of glucocorticoid receptors. Concentrations of several sex steroids correlated with APC in females, but there were no such correlations in males. In 1993, fish in a hatchery had significantly greater cortisol concentrations in primary circulation than in secondary circulation, but sex steroid concentrations did not differ between circulations. Mean lysozyme activity in the primary and secondary circulation did not differ in June. In August, activity in the primary circulation was significantly less than that of the secondary, perhaps the result of acute stress associated with sampling. While some sex steroids correlated with lysozyme activity, the fact that in both years all endocrine and immune variables that correlated with each other also correlated with the date of sample, raises the question as to whether or not these are cause-and-effect relations.

  6. The relationship between chinook conditions and women's physical and mental well-being

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhoef, Marja J.; Rose, M. Sarah; Ramcharan, Savitri

    1995-09-01

    The objective of this study was (1) to determine the relationship between chinook conditions and physical and psychological symptoms in women aged 20 49 years, and (2) to examine the possibility of subgroups of chinook-sensitive women. The evidence for this relationship is at present merely anecdotal. The study carried out in 1985 1986 in Calgary comprises the secondary analysis of a large survey of various health and health-related factors, including different symptoms, of urban women aged 20 49 years. The interview date was used to link these data to days on which pre-chinook, chinook, post-chinook and non-chinook conditions occurred. Between November 1, 1985 and February 28, 1986, 182 women were interviewed on pre-chinook days, 74 on chinook days, 229 on post-chinook days and 886 on non-chinook days. Autonomic reactions and skin disorders were found to be significantly related to chinook conditions. None of the psychological symptoms was related to chinook conditions. However, a significant relationship was found between symptoms and chinook conditions in women with a history of emotional disorders. This type of information is important to educate chinook-sensitive women and health professionals as well as for hospital emergency departments in order to be able to prepare for potential increases in workload.

  7. Investigations into the Early Life History of Naturally Produced Spring Chinook Salmon and Summer Steelhead in the Grande Ronde River Basin : Annual Report 2000 : Project Period 1 October 1999 to 30 November 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Monzyk, Fred R.

    2002-06-01

    The authors determined migration timing and abundance of juvenile spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and juvenile steelhead/rainbow trout O. mykiss from three populations in the Grande Ronde River basin. Based on migration timing and abundance, two distinct life-history strategies of juvenile spring chinook and O.mykiss could be distinguished. An early migrant group left upper rearing areas from July through January with a peak in the fall. A late migrant group descended from upper rearing areas from February through June with a peak in the spring.

  8. Kidney disease postorbital lesions in spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hendricks, Jerry D.; Leek, Steve L.

    1975-01-01

    Gross exophthalmos in one or both eyes of yearling spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) was caused by postorbital, granulomatous inflammatory tissue that developed in response to invasion of the site by Corynebacterium sp., the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease.

  9. Plasticity of fish muscle mitochondria with thermal acclimation

    PubMed

    Guderley; Johnston

    1996-01-01

    Short-horned sculpin Myoxocephalus scorpius were acclimated to 5 and 15 °C to evaluate the impact of thermal acclimation upon maximal rates of substrate oxidation by mitochondria and upon the thermal sensitivity of their ADP affinity. Cold acclimation virtually doubled maximal rates of pyruvate oxidation at all experimental temperatures (2.5, 7.5, 12.5 and 20 °C). Rates of palmitoyl carnitine oxidation were also enhanced by cold acclimation, but to a lesser degree. At their respective acclimation temperatures, the mitochondria attained similar rates of pyruvate oxidation. For warm-acclimated sculpin, the Q10 values for mitochondrial pyruvate and palmitoyl carnitine oxidation were higher between 2.5 and 7.5 °C than between 7.5 and 12.5 °C or between 12.5 and 20 °C. In contrast, for cold-acclimated fish, the Q10 values did not differ over these thermal ranges. The Arrhenius activation energy for pyruvate oxidation was reduced by cold acclimation (from 70 to 55 kJ mol-1), whereas that for palmitoyl carnitine oxidation was unchanged (approximately 75 kJ mol-1). Cold acclimation did not alter the ADP affinity of mitochondria at low temperatures but markedly increased the apparent Km for ADP (Km,app) at 12.5 and 20 °C. At the acclimation temperatures, mitochondrial ADP Km,app values did not differ. The loss of ADP affinity at higher temperatures may represent a cost of the enhanced maximal oxidative capacity achieved during cold acclimation. PMID:9319187

  10. Spring Chinook Salmon Interactions Indices and Residual/Precocial Monitoring in the Upper Yakima Basin; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Pearsons, Todd N.; James, Brenda B.; Johnson, Christopher L.

    2003-05-01

    . 1997). Monitoring ecological interactions will be accomplished using interactions indices. Interactions indices will be used to index the availability of prey and competition for food and space. The tasks described below represent various subject areas of juvenile spring chinook salmon monitoring but are treated together because they can be accomplished using similar methods and are therefore more cost efficient than if treated separately. Three areas of investigation we pursued in this work were: (1) strong interactor monitoring (competition index and prey index), (2) carrying capacity monitoring (microhabitat monitoring); (3) residual and precocial salmon monitoring (abundance). This report is organized into three chapters to represent these three areas of investigation. Data were collected during the summer and fall, 2002 in index sections of the upper Yakima Basin (Figure 1). Hatchery reared spring chinook salmon were first released during the spring of 1999. The monitoring plan for the Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project calls for the continued monitoring of the variables covered in this report. All findings in this report should be considered preliminary and subject to further revision as more data and analytical results become available.

  11. Yakima River Spring Chinook Enhancement Study Appendices, 1991 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, David E.

    1991-05-01

    This document consists of the appendices for annual report DOE/BP/39461--9 which is summarized as follows. The population of Yakima River spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) has been drastically reduced from historic levels reported to be as high as 250,000 adults (Smoker 1956). This reduction is the result of a series of problems including mainstem Columbia dams, dams within the Yakima itself, severely reduced flows due to irrigation diversions, outmigrant loss in irrigation canals, increased thermal and sediment loading, and overfishing. Despite these problems, the return of spring chinook to the Yakima River has continued at levels ranging from 854 to 9,442 adults since 1958. In October 1982, the Bonneville Power Administration contracted the Yakima Indian Nation to develop methods to increase production of spring chinook in the Yakima system. The Yakima Nation's current enhancement policy attempts to maintain the genetic integrity of the spring chinook stock native to the Yakima Basin. Relatively small numbers of hatchery fish have been released into the basin in past years. The goal of this study was to develop data that will be used to present management alternatives for Yakima River spring chinook. A major objective of this study is to determine the distribution, abundance and survival of wild Yakima River spring chinook. The second major objective of this study is to determine the relative effectiveness of different methods of hatchery supplementation. The last three major objectives of the study are to locate and define areas in the watershed that may be used for the rearing of spring chinook; to define strategies for enhancing natural production of spring chinook in the Yakima River; and to determine the physical and biological limitations on production within the system.

  12. Yakima River Spring Chinook Enhancement Study, 1991 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, David E.

    1991-05-01

    The population of Yakima River spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) has been drastically reduced from historic levels reported to be as high as 250,000 adults (Smoker 1956). This reduction is the result of a series of problems including mainstem Columbia dams, dams within the Yakima itself, severely reduced flows due to irrigation diversions, outmigrant loss in irrigation canals, increased thermal and sediment loading, and overfishing. Despite these problems, the return of spring chinook to the Yakima River has continued at levels ranging from 854 to 9,442 adults since 1958. In October 1982, the Bonneville Power Administration contracted the Yakima Indian Nation to develop methods to increase production of spring chinook in the Yakima system. The Yakima Nation's current enhancement policy attempts to maintain the genetic integrity of the spring chinook stock native to the Yakima Basin. Relatively small numbers of hatchery fish have been released into the basin in past years. The goal of this study was to develop data that will be used to present management alternatives for Yakima River spring chinook. A major objective of this study is to determine the distribution, abundance and survival of wild Yakima River spring chinook. The second major objective of this study is to determine the relative effectiveness of different methods of hatchery supplementation. The last three major objectives of the study are to locate and define areas in the watershed that may be used for the rearing of spring chinook; to define strategies for enhancing natural production of spring chinook in the Yakima River; and to determine the physical and biological limitations on production within the system. 47 refs., 89 figs., 67 tabs.

  13. Thermal and metabolic responses of temperature-acclimated rats during cold and heat exposures.

    PubMed

    Kuroshima, A; Yahata, T; Doi, K; Ohno, T

    1982-01-01

    Some endocrine and metabolic responses to acute cold and heat exposures were observed in rats acclimated to cold, heat, or both cold and heat. Rats exposed to both cold (12 hr, 5 degrees C) and heat (12 hr, 34 degrees C) for 4 to 5 weeks (CHA) showed less fall of colonic temperature (Tc) in the cold (-5 degrees C) than heat-acclimated rats (34 degrees C, 4 to 5 weeks) (HA) and warm controls (WC), but a greater fall than cold-acclimated rats (5 degrees C, 4 to 5 weeks) (CA). CHA possessed a larger quantity of interscapular brown adipose tissue and showed greater cold-induced oxygen consumption (VO2) than WC and HA but less than CA. Blood glycerol levels rose similarly in all groups in the cold, while the increase in blood free fatty acids (FFA) levels was significantly greater in HA and smaller in CA than in WC and CHA. Acute cold exposure caused the elevation of plasma glucagon level in WC and HA, but not in CA and CHA. It lowered plasma insulin levels in HA, and the insulin/glucagon molar ratio (I/G) in WC, HA, and CHA. All groups showed the same increases in Tc during acute heat exposure (34 degrees C). However, the heat-induced increase in VO2 was greater in WC than in HA, CA, and CHA. Blood metabolite levels were not affected by acute heat exposure in all groups. Plasma glucagon levels decreased in CHA, while plasma insulin levels increased in WC and CA. I/G increased in WC and CHA. These results indicate that thermal and metabolic responses would be modified by previous exposures to cold, heat, and cold-heat. PMID:6757502

  14. Minnows can acclimate to total residual chlorine

    SciTech Connect

    Lotts, J.W. Jr.; Stewart, A.J.

    1995-08-01

    Observations in a chlorine-contaminated stream in eastern Tennessee revealed several species of fish in areas where total residual chlorine (TRC) concentrations were often great enough to be lethal, based on the results of other studies. The authors used in situ and laboratory experiments to test the hypothesis that minnows could acclimate to TRC. Acclimation was assessed by time-to-death for fish exposed to a single lethal regime of TRC. In in situ experiments, striped shiner and central stoneroller minnows collected from East Fork Poplar Creek at a TRC-contaminated site and a site farther downstream, where TRC was below detection, were caged at sites in the stream where TRC concentrations were either nil or great enough to be lethal. At the cage with high TRC, minnows collected from the ``TRC-free`` site survived two to four times longer (15.8 h vs. 6.1 h) than the same species from the ``TRC-free`` site. In laboratory experiments, golden shiner minnows were exposed to TRC in a stepwise increasing concentration regime (0.04 mg/L during week 1, 0.08 mg/L during week 2, and 0.12 mg/L during week 3) before being challenged-tested with a lethal concentration of TRC. Minnows that had been previously exposed to TRC survived longer than controls in each test, and the magnitude of the mean time to death increased as the TRC concentration and duration of exposure increased (1.2-, 2.5-, and 3.9-fold increases for weeks 1, 2, and 3, respectively). Another experiment with golden shiner minnows showed that a 21-d exposure to TRC at a low concentration (0.04 mg/L) only slightly increased their tolerance to TRC. Thus, several minnow species apparently can acclimate, fairly rapidly, to TRC. This study may help explain why fish kills are less common than expected in TRC-contaminated streams.

  15. Elucidating cold acclimation pathway in blueberry by transcriptome profiling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A fundamental goal of cold acclimation research is to understand the mechanisms responsible for the increase in freezing tolerance in response to environmental cues. Changes in gene expression underlie some of the biochemical and physiological changes that occur during cold acclimation. Detailed and...

  16. Investigations into the Early Life History of Naturally Produced Spring Chinook Salmon and Summer Steelhead in the Grande Ronde River Subbasin, Annual Report 2008 : Project Period 1 February 2008 to 31 January 2009.

    SciTech Connect

    Yanke, Jeffrey A.; Alfonse, Brian M.; Bratcher, Kyle W.

    2009-07-31

    This study was designed to document and describe the status and life history strategies of spring Chinook salmon and summer steelhead in the Grande Ronde River Subbasin. We determined migration timing, abundance, and life-stage survival rates for juvenile spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and summer steelhead O. mykiss in four streams during migratory year 2008 from 1 July 2007 through 30 June 2008. As observed in previous years of this study, spring Chinook salmon and steelhead exhibited fall and spring movements out of natal rearing areas, but did not begin their smolt migration through the Snake and lower Columbia River hydrosystem until spring. In this report we provide estimates of migrant abundance and migration timing for each study stream, and their survival and timing to Lower Granite Dam. We also document aquatic habitat conditions using water temperature and stream flow in four study streams in the subbasin.

  17. Sweating responses during heat acclimation and moderate conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shvartz, E.; Bhattacharya, A.; Sperinde, S. J.; Brock, P. J.; Sciaraffa, D.; Van Beaumont, W.

    1979-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on ten young male subjects to determine sweating onset, distribution, and patterns as well as the relationships of these responses to body temperature during heat acclimation and moderate conditioning performed in temperate (24 C) conditions. The subjects are randomly assigned to two groups of five subjects each. The experimental period consisted of eight successive days of either graded exercise to exhaustion on a bicycle ergometer in heat (acclimation group) or in a temperate environment (control group). Major conclusions are that (1) acclimation and conditioning result in relatively more sweat rate on the limbs than on the torso, but that these changes are less related to body temperature than torso sweat rate; and (2) sweating sensitivity increases during acclimation and conditioning, but its contribution to heat acclimation is minor.

  18. Thyroid function and cold acclimation in the hamster, Mesocricetus auratus

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasi, T.E.; Horwitz, B.A.

    1987-02-01

    Basal metabolic rate (BMR), thyroxine utilization rate (T4U), and triiodothyronine utilization rate (T3U) were measured in cold-acclimated (CA) and room temperature-acclimated (RA) male golden hamsters, Mesocricetus auratus. Hormone utilization rates were calculated via the plasma disappearance technique using SVI-labeled hormones and measuring serum hormone levels via radioimmunoassay. BMR showed a significant 28% increase with cold acclimation. The same cold exposure also produced a 32% increase in T4U, and a 204% increase in T3U. The much greater increase in T3U implies that previous assessments of the relationship between cold acclimation and thyroid function may have been underestimated and that cold exposure induces both quantitative and qualitative changes in thyroid function. It is concluded that in the cold-acclimated state, T3U more accurately reflects thyroid function than does T4U. A mechanism for the cold-induced change in BMR is proposed.

  19. Deconditioning-induced exercise responses as influenced by heat acclimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shvartz, E.; Bhattacharya, A.; Sperinde, S. J.; Brock, P. J.; Sciaraffa, D.; Haines, R. F.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    A study to determine the effect of heat acclimation and physical training in temperate conditions on changes in exercise tolerance following water-immersion deconditioning is presented. Five young men were tested on a bicycle ergometer before and after heat acclimation and after water immersion. The subjects and the experimental procedure, heat acclimation and exercise training, water immersion, and exercise tolerance are discussed. Heat acclimation resulted in the usual decreases in exercise heart rate and rectal temperature and an increase in sweat rate. Water immersion resulted in substantial diuresis despite water consumed. The results show that heat acclimation provides an effective method of preventing the adverse effects of water-immersion deconditioning on exercise tolerance.

  20. Waterlogging and submergence stress: affects and acclimation.

    PubMed

    Phukan, Ujjal J; Mishra, Sonal; Shukla, Rakesh Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Submergence, whether partial or complete, imparts some serious consequences on plants grown in flood prone ecosystems. Some plants can endure these conditions by embracing various survival strategies, including morphological adaptations and physiological adjustments. This review summarizes recent progress made in understanding of the stress and the acclimation responses of plants under waterlogged or submerged conditions. Waterlogging and submergence are often associated with hypoxia development, which may trigger various morphological traits and cellular acclimation responses. Ethylene, abscisic acid, gibberellic acid and other hormones play a crucial role in the survival process which is controlled genetically. Effects at the cellular level, including ATP management, starch metabolism, elemental toxicity, role of transporters and redox status have been explained. Transcriptional and hormonal interplay during this stress may provide some key aspects in understanding waterlogging and submergence tolerance. The level and degree of tolerance may vary depending on species or climatic variations which need to be studied for a proper understanding of waterlogging stress at the global level. The exploration of regulatory pathways and interplay in model organisms such as Arabidopsis and rice would provide valuable resources for improvement of economically and agriculturally important plants in waterlogging affected areas. PMID:26177332

  1. Investigations into the [Early] Life History of Spring Chinook Salmon in the Grande Ronde River Basin : Fish Research Project, Oregon : Annual Report 1994 : Project Period 1 June 1993 to 31 May 1994.

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, MaryLouise

    1996-04-01

    This study was designed to describe aspects of the life history strategies of spring chinook salmon in the Grande Ronde basin. During the past year we focused on rearing and migration patterns of juveniles and surveys of spawning adults. The specific objectives for the early life history portion of the study were: Objective 1, document the annual in-basin migration patterns for spring chinook salmon juveniles in the upper Grande Ronde River, including the abundance of migrants, migration timing and duration; Objective 2, estimate and compare smolt survival indices to mainstem Columbia and Snake River dams for fall and spring migrating spring chinook salmon; Objective 3 initiate study of the winter habitat utilized by spring chinook salmon in the Grande Ronde River basin. The specific objectives for the spawning ground surveys were: Objective 4, conduct extensive and supplemental spring chinook salmon spawning ground surveys in spawning streams in the Grande Ronde and Imnaha basin, Objective 5; determine how adequately historic index area surveys index spawner abundance by comparing index counts to extensive and supplemental redd counts; Objective 6, determine what changes in index areas and timing of index surveys would improve the accuracy of index surveys; Objective 7, determine the relationship between number of redds observed and fish escapement for the Grande Ronde and Imnaha river basins.

  2. Falls and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... rises with age. Click for more information Falls Lead to Fractures, Trauma Each year, more than 1. ... and injury deaths. Fractures caused by falls can lead to hospital stays and disability. Most often, fall- ...

  3. Home Improvements Prevent Falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... on. Feature: Falls and Older Adults Home Improvements Prevent Falls Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table of Contents ... or home modification programs to help older people prevent falls. Check with your local health department, senior ...

  4. Falls in Nursing Homes

    MedlinePlus

    ... for health care providers. Learn More Falls in Nursing Homes Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... 5 Why do falls occur more often in nursing homes? Falling can be a sign of other ...

  5. 75 FR 32378 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Data Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Data Collection; Workshop for Industry Review of Data Forms AGENCY... Bering Sea pollock trawl industry on data forms for evaluating the Bering Sea Chinook salmon bycatch... knowledgeable about industry plans and operations for avoiding Chinook salmon bycatch. DATES: The...

  6. Population Structure of Columbia River Basin Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout, Technical Report 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Brannon, E.L.; National Science Foundation

    2002-08-01

    The population structure of chinook salmon and steelhead trout is presented as an assimilation of the life history forms that have evolved in synchrony with diverse and complex environments over their Pacific range. As poikilotherms, temperature is described as the overwhelming environmental influence that determines what life history options occur and where they are distributed. The different populations represent ecological types referred to as spring-, summer-, fall, and winter-run segments, as well as stream- and ocean-type, or stream- and ocean-maturing life history forms. However, they are more correctly described as a continuum of forms that fall along a temporal cline related to incubation and rearing temperatures that determine spawn timing and juvenile residence patterns. Once new habitats are colonized, members of the founding populations spread through adaptive evolution to assume complementary life history strategies. The related population units are collectively referred to as a metapopulation, and members most closely associated within common temporal and geographic boundaries are designated as first-order metapopulations. Population structure of chinook salmon and steelhead in the Columbia Basin, therefore, is the reflection of the genetic composition of the founding source or sources within the respective region, shaped by the environment, principally temperature, that defines life history evolutionary strategy to maximize fitness under the conditions delineated. The complexity of structure rests with the diversity of opportunities over the elevations that exist within the Basin. Consistent with natural selection, rather than simply attempting to preserve populations, the challenge is to provide opportunities to expand their range to new or restored habitat that can accommodate genetic adaptation as directional environmental changes are elaborated. Artificial propagation can have a critical role in this process, and the emphasis must be placed on

  7. The Environmental Control of Cold Acclimation in Apple 1

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Gordon S.; Weiser, C. J.

    1970-01-01

    The role of photoperiod and temperature in the cold acclimation of living Haralson apple (Pyrus malus L.) bark was studied in the autumn under field conditions in Minnesota. Whole trees, or different parts of the same tree, were exposed to either natural conditions, artifically lengthened days, or artificially warmed nights, or they were subjected to manual leaf removal. The results indicate that acclimation occurs in two stages which are induced by short days and frost (or low temperature), respectively. Leaves were stimulated by short days to produce translocatable substance(s) which promoted cold acclimation of the living bark. Leaves of plants grown under long days were the source of a translocatable substance(s) which inhibited acclimation. The second stage of hardiness, induced by frost (or low temperature), did not involve translocatable factors. Inductive short days could overcome the effect of high temperatures, and low temperatures could overcome the effect of noninductive long days in promoting the first stage of acclimation to −30 C. Frost was necessary for maximum hardiness to −55 C. Plants grown in a greenhouse, in the autumn, under long days and high temperatures acclimated slightly in spite of the noninductive conditions. Short days and frost (or low temperatures) appeared to regulate different and independent endogenous acclimation processes. PMID:16657323

  8. Fall Enrollment Report. 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes and analyzes fall enrollment in Iowa's community colleges. Each year, Iowa's 15 community colleges submit data on enrollment on the 10th business day of the fall semester. Some highlights from this report include: (1) Fall 2014 enrollment was 93,772 students--a decline of 0.49 percent from last fall; (2) Enrollment continues…

  9. Yakima River Spring Chinook Enhancement Study, 1989 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, David E.

    1989-12-01

    Smolt outmigration was monitored at Wapatox on the Naches River and Prosser on the lower Yakima. The survival from egg to smolt was calculated using the 1987 redd counts and the 1989 smolt outmigration at Prosser. Spring chinook were counted at Roza Dam from April 1 to September 29, 1989. The smolt to adult (S{sub sa}) survival will be calculated when scale analysis from spawner surveys is complete. Spring chinook adults from ten different experimental release groups were recovered in 1989. A total of 143 coded wire tags were recovered. This project is a multi-year undertaking that will evaluate different management and enhancement strategies. At the conclusion of this study, a series of alternatives will be developed that can be used to determine how best to enhance the runs of spring chinook in the Yakima Basin. 13 refs., 3 figs., 26 tabs.

  10. Yakima River Spring Chinook Enhancement Study, 1985 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, David E.

    1986-02-01

    The purpose was to evaluate enhancement methodologies that can be used to rebuild runs of spring chinook salmon in the Yakima River basin. The objectives were to: (1) determine the abundance, distribution and survival of naturally produced fry and smolts in the Yakima River; (2) evaluate different methods of fry and smolt supplementation into the natural rearing environment while maintaining as much as possible the gentic integrity of naturally produced stocks; (3) locate and define areas in the watershed which may be used for the rearing of spring chinook; (4) define strategies for enhancing natural production of spring chinook in the Yakima River; and (5) determine physical and biological limitations for production within the system.

  11. The relationship between chinook conditions and women's illness-related behaviours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, M. Sarah; Verhoef, Marja J.; Ramcharan, Savitri

    1995-09-01

    The objective of this study was to (1) to describe the relationship between chinook conditions and illness related behaviour in women, aged 20 49 years, and (2) to examine the possibility of the existence of subgroups of chinook-sensitive women. At present no empirical evidence is available regarding a relationship between chinook conditions and illness related behaviours. This study comprises the secondary analysis of a large survery of various health and health-related factors of urban women aged 20 49 years, carried out in 1985 1986 in Calgary. The interview date was used to link behaviours to chinook conditions. We found no evidence of a significant relationship between the behaviours investigated and chinook conditions in the general population. However, the data strongly supported the concept of chinook sensitivity. Women with a history of chronic health problems were more likely to visit a health care professional on chinook days than healthy women and women in the subgroup aged less than 35 years cut down their usual daily activities during chinook conditions. Women with a history of recurring migraine headaches were less likely to take prescription medication on chinook days, and women with a history of emotional disorders were more likely to have higher scores on the accident scale and to report bursts of energy or excitement during chinook days. More research is needed to identify subgroups of susceptible persons, as well as to determine whether chinook sensitive persons are equally susceptible to weather changer of other types.

  12. Salt Acclimation of Cyanobacteria and Their Application in Biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Pade, Nadin; Hagemann, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The long evolutionary history and photo-autotrophic lifestyle of cyanobacteria has allowed them to colonize almost all photic habitats on Earth, including environments with high or fluctuating salinity. Their basal salt acclimation strategy includes two principal reactions, the active export of ions and the accumulation of compatible solutes. Cyanobacterial salt acclimation has been characterized in much detail using selected model cyanobacteria, but their salt sensing and regulatory mechanisms are less well understood. Here, we briefly review recent advances in the identification of salt acclimation processes and the essential genes/proteins involved in acclimation to high salt. This knowledge is of increasing importance because the necessary mass cultivation of cyanobacteria for future use in biotechnology will be performed in sea water. In addition, cyanobacterial salt resistance genes also can be applied to improve the salt tolerance of salt sensitive organisms, such as crop plants. PMID:25551682

  13. Anaerobic biodegradation of chlorophenols in fresh and acclimated sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, S.A.; Shelton, D.R.

    1984-02-01

    An investigation was made of the anaerobic biodegradation of mono- and dichlorophenol isomers by fresh (unacclimated) sludge and by sludge acclimated to either 2-chlorophenol, 3-chlorophenol, or 4-chlorophenol. Biodegradation was evaluated by monitoring substrate disappearance and, in selected cases, production of /sup 14/CH/sub 4/ from labeled substrates. In unacclimated sludge, each of the monochlorophenol isomers was degraded. The relative rates of disappearance were in this order: ortho > meta > para. For the dichlorophenols in unacclimated sludge, reductive dechlorination of the Cl group ortho to phenolic OH was observed, and the monochlorophenol compounds released were subsequently degraded. 3,4-Dichlorophenol and 3,5-dichlorophenol were persistent. Sludge acclimated to 2-chlorophenol cross-acclimated to 4-chlorophenol but did not utilize 3-chlorophenol. This sludge also degraded 2,4-dichlorophenol. Sludge acclimated to 3-chlorophenol cross-acclimated to 4-chlorophenol but not to 2-chlorophenol. This sludge degraded 3,4- and 3,5-dichlorophenol but not 2,3- or 2,5-dichlorophenol. The specific cross-acclimation patterns observed for monochlorophenol degradation demonstrated the existence of two unique microbial activities that were in turn different from fresh sludge. The sludge acclimated to 4-chlorophenol could degrade all three monochlorophenol isomers and 2,4- and 3,4-dichlorophenol. The active microbial population in this sludge appeared to be a mixture of populations present in the 2-chlorophenol- and 3-chlorophenol-acclimated sludges, both of which could utilize 4-chlorophenol. Experiments with /sup 14/C-radiolabeled p-chlorophenol, o-chlorophenol, and 2,4-dichlorophenol demonstrated that these compounds were converted to /sup 14/CH/sub 4/ and /sup 14/CO/sub 2/. 10 references.

  14. Transgenerational acclimation of fishes to climate change and ocean acidification

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    There is growing concern about the impacts of climate change and ocean acidification on marine organisms and ecosystems, yet the potential for acclimation and adaptation to these threats is poorly understood. Whereas many short-term experiments report negative biological effects of ocean warming and acidification, new studies show that some marine species have the capacity to acclimate to warmer and more acidic environments across generations. Consequently, transgenerational plasticity may be a powerful mechanism by which populations of some species will be able to adjust to projected climate change. Here, I review recent advances in understanding transgenerational acclimation in fishes. Research over the past 2 to 3 years shows that transgenerational acclimation can partially or fully ameliorate negative effects of warming, acidification, and hypoxia in a range of different species. The molecular and cellular pathways underpinning transgenerational acclimation are currently unknown, but modern genetic methods provide the tools to explore these mechanisms. Despite the potential benefits of transgenerational acclimation, there could be limitations to the phenotypic traits that respond transgenerationally, and trade-offs between life stages, that need to be investigated. Future studies should also test the potential interactions between transgenerational plasticity and genetic evolution to determine how these two processes will shape adaptive responses to environmental change over coming decades. PMID:25580253

  15. Transgenerational acclimation of fishes to climate change and ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Munday, Philip L

    2014-01-01

    There is growing concern about the impacts of climate change and ocean acidification on marine organisms and ecosystems, yet the potential for acclimation and adaptation to these threats is poorly understood. Whereas many short-term experiments report negative biological effects of ocean warming and acidification, new studies show that some marine species have the capacity to acclimate to warmer and more acidic environments across generations. Consequently, transgenerational plasticity may be a powerful mechanism by which populations of some species will be able to adjust to projected climate change. Here, I review recent advances in understanding transgenerational acclimation in fishes. Research over the past 2 to 3 years shows that transgenerational acclimation can partially or fully ameliorate negative effects of warming, acidification, and hypoxia in a range of different species. The molecular and cellular pathways underpinning transgenerational acclimation are currently unknown, but modern genetic methods provide the tools to explore these mechanisms. Despite the potential benefits of transgenerational acclimation, there could be limitations to the phenotypic traits that respond transgenerationally, and trade-offs between life stages, that need to be investigated. Future studies should also test the potential interactions between transgenerational plasticity and genetic evolution to determine how these two processes will shape adaptive responses to environmental change over coming decades. PMID:25580253

  16. Acclimation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to Different Growth Irradiances*

    PubMed Central

    Bonente, Giulia; Pippa, Sara; Castellano, Stefania; Bassi, Roberto; Ballottari, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    We report on the changes the photosynthetic apparatus of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii undergoes upon acclimation to different light intensity. When grown in high light, cells had a faster growth rate and higher biomass production compared with low and control light conditions. However, cells acclimated to low light intensity are indeed able to produce more biomass per photon available as compared with high light-acclimated cells, which dissipate as heat a large part of light absorbed, thus reducing their photosynthetic efficiency. This dissipative state is strictly dependent on the accumulation of LhcSR3, a protein related to light-harvesting complexes, responsible for nonphotochemical quenching in microalgae. Other changes induced in the composition of the photosynthetic apparatus upon high light acclimation consist of an increase of carotenoid content on a chlorophyll basis, particularly zeaxanthin, and a major down-regulation of light absorption capacity by decreasing the chlorophyll content per cell. Surprisingly, the antenna size of both photosystem I and II is not modulated by acclimation; rather, the regulation affects the PSI/PSII ratio. Major effects of the acclimation to low light consist of increased activity of state 1 and 2 transitions and increased contributions of cyclic electron flow. PMID:22205699

  17. Foliar temperature acclimation reduces simulated carbon sensitivity to climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Nicholas G.; Malyshev, Sergey L.; Shevliakova, Elena; Kattge, Jens; Dukes, Jeffrey S.

    2016-04-01

    Plant photosynthesis and respiration are the largest carbon fluxes between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere, and their parameterizations represent large sources of uncertainty in projections of land carbon uptake in Earth system models (ESMs). The incorporation of temperature acclimation of photosynthesis and foliar respiration, commonly observed processes, into ESMs has been proposed as a way to reduce this uncertainty. Here we show that, across 15 flux tower sites spanning multiple biomes at various locations worldwide (10° S-67° N), acclimation parameterizations improve a model's ability to reproduce observed net ecosystem exchange of CO2. This improvement is most notable in tropical biomes, where photosynthetic acclimation increased model performance by 36%. The consequences of acclimation for simulated terrestrial carbon uptake depend on the process, region and time period evaluated. Globally, including acclimation has a net effect of increasing carbon assimilation and storage, an effect that diminishes with time, but persists well into the future. Our results suggest that land models omitting foliar temperature acclimation are likely to overestimate the temperature sensitivity of terrestrial carbon exchange, thus biasing projections of future carbon storage and estimates of policy indicators such as the transient climate response to cumulative carbon emissions.

  18. Investigations into the Early Life-history of Naturally Produced Spring Chinook Salmon and Summer Steelhead in the Grande Ronde River Basin, Annual Report 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Reischauer, Alyssa; Monzyk, Frederick; Van Dyke, Erick

    2003-06-01

    We determined migration timing and abundance of juvenile spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and juvenile steelhead/rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss using rotary screw traps on four streams in the Grande Ronde River basin during the 2001 migratory year (MY 2001) from 1 July 2000 through 30 June 2001. Based on migration timing and abundance, two distinct life-history strategies of juvenile spring chinook and O. mykiss could be distinguished. An 'early' migrant group left upper rearing areas from 1 July 2000 through 29 January 2001 with a peak in the fall. A 'late' migrant group descended from upper rearing areas from 30 January 2001 through 30 June 2001 with a peak in the spring. The migrant population of juvenile spring chinook salmon in the upper Grande Ronde River in MY 2001 was very low in comparison to previous migratory years. We estimated 51 juvenile spring chinook migrated out of upper rearing areas with approximately 12% of the migrant population leaving as early migrants to overwinter downstream. In the same migratory year, we estimated 16,067 O. mykiss migrants left upper rearing areas with approximately 4% of these fish descending the upper Grande Ronde River as early migrants. At the Catherine Creek trap, we estimated 21,937 juvenile spring chinook migrants in MY 2001. Of these migrants, 87% left upper rearing areas early to overwinter downstream. We also estimated 20,586 O. mykiss migrants in Catherine Creek with 44% leaving upper rearing areas early to overwinter downstream. At the Lostine River trap, we estimated 13,610 juvenile spring chinook migrated out of upper rearing areas with approximately 77% migrating early. We estimated 16,690 O. mykiss migrated out of the Lostine River with approximately 46% descending the river as early migrants. At the Minam River trap, we estimated 28,209 juvenile spring chinook migrated out of the river with 36% migrating early. During the same period, we estimated 28,113 O. mykiss with approximately 14

  19. Tucannon River Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Program, Annual Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Gallinat, Michael; Varney, Michelle

    2003-05-01

    This report summarizes the objectives, tasks, and accomplishments of the Tucannon River Spring Chinook Captive Broodstock Program during 2002. The WDFW initiated a captive broodstock program in 1997. The overall goal of the Tucannon River captive broodstock program is for the short-term, and eventually long-term, rebuilding of the Tucannon River spring chinook salmon run, with the hope that natural production will sustain itself. The project goal is to rear captive salmon selected from the supplementation program to adults, spawn them, rear their progeny, and release approximately 150,000 smolts annually into the Tucannon River between 2003-2007. These smolt releases, in combination with the current hatchery supplementation program (132,000 smolts) and wild production, are expected to produce 600-700 returning adult spring chinook to the Tucannon River each year from 2005-2010. The captive broodstock program collected fish from five (1997-2001) brood years (BY). As of January 1, 2003, WDFW has approximately 11 BY 1998, 194 BY 1999, 314 BY 2000, 447 BY 2001, and 300 BY 2002 (for extra males) fish on hand at LFH. The 2002 eggtake from the 1997 brood year (Age 5) was 13,176 eggs from 10 ripe females. Egg survival was 22%. Mean fecundity based on the 5 fully spawned females was 1,803 eggs/female. The 2002 eggtake from the 1998 brood year (Age 4) was 143,709 eggs from 93 ripe females. Egg survival was 29%. Mean fecundity based on the 81 fully spawned females was 1,650 eggs/female. The 2002 eggtake from the 1999 brood year (Age 3) was 19,659 eggs from 18 ripe females. Egg survival was 55%. Mean fecundity based on the 18 fully spawned fish was 1,092 eggs/female. The total 2002 eggtake from the captive brood program was 176,544 eggs. A total of 120,833 dead eggs (68%) were removed with 55,711 live eggs remaining for the program. As of May 1, 2003 we had 46,417 BY 2002 captive brood progeny on hand A total of 20,592 excess BY 01 fish were marked as parr (AD/CWT) and

  20. Spring Chinook Salmon Interactions Indices and Residual/Precocious Male Monitoring in the Upper Yakima Basin; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Pearsons, Todd N.; Johnson, Christopher L.; James, Brenda B.

    2005-05-01

    interpret why supplementation is working or not working (Busack et al. 1997). Monitoring ecological interactions will be accomplished using interactions indices. Interactions indices will be used to index the availability of prey and competition for food and space. The tasks described below represent various subject areas of juvenile spring chinook salmon monitoring but are treated together because they can be accomplished using similar methods and are therefore more cost efficient than if treated separately. Topics of investigation we pursued in this work were: (1) strong interactor monitoring (competition index and prey index), (2) carrying capacity monitoring (microhabitat monitoring); (3) residual and precocious male salmon monitoring (abundance); (4) performance of growth modulation in reducing precocious males during spawning; (5) incidence of predation by residualized chinook salmon; and (6) benefits of salmon carcasses to juvenile salmonids. This report is organized into six chapters to represent these topics of investigation. Data were collected during the summer and fall, 2004 in index sections of the upper Yakima Basin (Figure 1). Previous results on the topics in this report were reported in James et al. (1999), and Pearsons et al. (2003; 2004). Hatchery-reared spring chinook salmon were first released during the spring of 1999. The monitoring plan for the Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project calls for the continued monitoring of the variables covered in this report. All findings in this report should be considered preliminary and subject to further revision as more data and analytical results become available.

  1. Hanford Reach Fall Chinook Redd Monitoring Report for Calendar Year 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsey, Cole T.; Nugent, John J.

    2014-02-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) conducts ecological monitoring on the Hanford Site to collect and track data needed to ensure compliance with an array of environmental laws, regulations, and policies governing DOE activities. Ecological monitoring data provide baseline information about the plants, animals, and habitat under DOE-RL stewardship at Hanford required for decision-making under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). The Hanford Site Comprehensive Land Use Plan (CLUP, DOE/EIS-0222-F) which is the Environmental Impact Statement for Hanford Site activities, helps ensure that DOE-RL, its contractors, and other entities conducting activities on the Hanford Site are in compliance with NEPA.

  2. Post-mortem sporulation of Ceratomyxa shasta (Myxozoa) after death in adult Chinook salmon.

    PubMed

    Kent, M L; Soderlund, K; Thomann, Estela; Schreck, C B; Sharpton, T J

    2014-10-01

    Ceratomyxa shasta (Myxozoa) is a common gastrointestinal pathogen of salmonid fishes in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. We have been investigating this parasite in adult Chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ) in the Willamette River, Oregon. In prior work, we observed differences in the pattern of development of C. shasta in adult salmon compared to juvenile salmon. Adult salmon consistently had large numbers of prespore stages in many of the fish that survived to spawn in the fall. However, myxospores were rarely observed, even though they were exposed and presumably infected for months before spawning. We evaluated the ability of C. shasta to sporulate following fish death because it is reported that myxosores are common in carcasses of Chinook salmon. We collected the intestine from 30 adult salmon immediately after artificial spawning and death (T0). A total of 23 fish were infected with C. shasta based on histology, but only a few myxospores were observed in 1 fish by histology. Intestines of these fish were examined at T0 and T7 (latter held at 17 C for 7 days) using quantified wet mount preparations. An increase in myxospore concentrations was seen in 39% of these fish, ranging between a 1.5- to a 14.5-fold increase. The most heavily infected fish exhibited a 4.6-fold increase from 27,841 to 129,352 myxospores/cm. This indicates, supported by various statistical analyses, that under certain conditions presporogonic forms are viable and continue to sporulate after death in adult salmon. Considering the life cycle of C. shasta and anadromous salmon, the parasite may have evolved 2, non-mutually exclusive developmental strategies. In young fish (parr and smolts), the parasite sporulates shortly after infection and is released into freshwater from either live or dead fish before their migration to seawater, where the alternate host is absent. The second strategy occurs in adult salmon, particularly spring Chinook salmon, which become infected

  3. Effects of Acoustic Transmitters on the Swimming Performance and Predator Avoidance of Juvenile Chinook Salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Anglea, Steven M.; Geist, David R.; Brown, Richard S.; Deters, Katherine A.; Mcdonald, Robert D.

    2004-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were negatively influenced by the implantation of acoustic transmitters. The critical swimming speed (Ucrit) of tagged fish, sham (surgery but no tag), and control fish was measured in a respirometer to determine tag effects on swimming performance. Predator avoidance was evaluated by comparing the proportion of each treatment group eaten: active tag, inactive tag, sham, and control after being exposed to piscivorous adult rainbow trout (O. mykiss). Results from this study demonstrated that the surgical implantation of acoustic tags in juvenile fall chinook salmon does not significantly affect swimming performance. Swimming performance was similar between treatment groups (control, sham, and inactive tag) at 1- and 21-day post-surgery intervals. Critical swimming speeds for all treatment groups were similar to values reported in the literature. Implantation of acoustic transmitters (active and inactive) did not result in tagged fish being more susceptible to predation over untagged fish. Percentages of each prey group consumed in each of the four trials were highly variable and demonstrated no obvious selection preference by adult rainbow trout. In summary, measurable differences were not found between tagged and un-tagged fish, however, trends were consistent in the two experiments with tagged fish consistently performing slightly worse than un-tagged fish. We conclude that based on the current body of knowledge and findings of the present study, fish implanted with an acoustic tag perform and/or behave similarly to the population-at-large recognizing that subtle differences exist in the behavior of tagged fish.

  4. Basis for managing the harvest of Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reisenbichler, R.R.; Phelps, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    On the basis of estimated spawner-recruit relations for populations of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from British Columbia to California, harvest fractions of 60-70% may be reasonable for stocks for which the productivities are not known. Care should be taken to detect and to avoid excessive harvest from stocks with low productivity.

  5. Chronic oral DDT toxicity in juvenile coho and chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buhler, Donald R.; Rasmusson, Mary E.; Shanks, W.E.

    1969-01-01

    Technical and p,p′-DDT was incorporated into test diets and fed to juvenile chinook and coho salmon for periods as long as 95 days. Pure p,p′-DDT was slightly more toxic to young salmon than was the technical DDT mixture. Chinook salmon appeared to be 2–3 times more sensitive to a given concentration of DDT in the diet than were coho salmon. The size of the fish greatly influenced toxicity, smaller younger fish being more susceptible to a given diet than larger older fish. The dose of DDT accumulated within the median survival time ranged from 27–73 mg/kg for chinook salmon and from 56–72 mg/kg for coho salmon. The extrapolated 90-dose LD50 (Hayes, 1967) for young chinook and coho salmon were 0.0275 and 0.064 mg/kg/day, respectively. Liver size decreased on prolonged feeding with DDT, and carcass lipid content was increased. A severe surface ulceration of the nose region appeared in coho salmon fed DDT over long periods. In addition, an interesting localized degeneration of the distal convoluted tubule was observed in the kidney of coho salmon receiving DDT.

  6. 78 FR 18967 - Walla Walla Basin Spring Chinook Hatchery Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... Administration (BPA), Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an Environmental Impact... Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), BPA intends to prepare an EIS on its decision whether to fund the Confederated... spring Chinook population. With this Notice of Intent, BPA is initiating the public scoping process...

  7. Yakima River Spring Chinook Enhancement Study, 1987 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, David E.

    1988-01-01

    The smelt outmigration was monitored at wapatox on the Naches River and Prosser on the lower Yakima. The spring outmigration at Wapatox was estimated to be 16,141 smolts. The 1987 spring outmigration of wild spring chinook from the Yakima Basin was estimated to be 251,975 smolts at Prosser. The survival from egg to smelt was calculated using the 1985 redd counts and the 1987 smolt outmigration at Prosser. The estimated survival was 4.16%, which gives a mean egg to smolt survival over four years of 6.32%. In 1987 a total of 3,683 adult and 335 jack spring chinook salmon returning to the Yakima River were counted at Prosser fish ladder. This gives a total of 4,018 salmon returning to Prosser Dam. The median dates of passage were May 12 and May 16 for adults and jacks respectively. An additional 372 fish were estimated to have been caught in the Yakima River subsistence dipnet fishery below Horn Rapids and Prosser Dams. Therefore, total return to the Yakima system was 4,390 spring chinook salmon. Spring chinook were counted at Roza Dam from May 1 to September 30, 1987. Passage at Roza Dam was 1,610 adult and 67 jack spring chinook for a total of 1,677 wild fish. The median dates of passage at Roza Dam were May 29 and May 26 for spring chinook adults and jacks respectively. The smolt to adult (S{sub sa}) survival was calculated based on the 1983 smelt outmigration estimated at Prosser and the 1984 return of jacks (3 year old fish) the 1985 return of four year old adults, and the 1986 return of five year old fish to the Yakima River. It was estimated that 6,012 wild three, four, and five year old fish returned from an estimated smolt outmigration of 135,548 fish in 1983. This gives an estimated survival from smolt to adult of 4.4%. The smolt to adult survival for the 1984 smolt outmigration was 5.3% with 423 jacks returning in 1985, 5,163 four year old adults returning in 1986, and 983 five year old fish returning in 1987 fran an estimated 123,732 smolts in 1984. Spring

  8. The impact of cold acclimation and hibernation on antioxidant defenses in the ground squirrel (Spermophilus citellus): an update.

    PubMed

    Vucetic, Milica; Stancic, Ana; Otasevic, Vesna; Jankovic, Aleksandra; Korac, Aleksandra; Markelic, Milica; Velickovic, Ksenija; Golic, Igor; Buzadzic, Biljana; Storey, Kenneth B; Korac, Bato

    2013-12-01

    Any alteration in oxidative metabolism is coupled with a corresponding response by an antioxidant defense (AD) in appropriate subcellular compartments. Seasonal hibernators pass through circannual metabolic adaptations that allow them to either maintain euthermy (cold acclimation) or enter winter torpor with body temperature falling to low values. The present study aimed to investigate the corresponding pattern of AD enzyme protein expressions associated with these strategies in the main tissues involved in whole animal energy homeostasis: brown and white adipose tissues (BAT and WAT, respectively), liver, and skeletal muscle. European ground squirrels (Spermophilus citellus) were exposed to low temperature (4 ± 1 °C) and then divided into two groups: (1) animals fell into torpor (hibernating group) and (2) animals stayed active and euthermic for 1, 3, 7, 12, or 21 days (cold-exposed group). We examined the effects of cold acclimation and hibernation on the tissue-dependent protein expression of four enzymes which catalyze the two-step detoxification of superoxide to water: superoxide dismutase 1 and 2 (SOD 1 and 2), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). The results showed that hibernation induced an increase of AD enzyme protein expressions in BAT and skeletal muscle. However, AD enzyme contents in liver were largely unaffected during torpor. Under these conditions, different WAT depots responded by elevating the amounts of specific enzymes, as follows: SOD 1 in retroperitoneal WAT, GSH-Px in gonadal WAT, and CAT in subcutaneous WAT. Similar perturbations of AD enzymes contents were seen in all tissues during cold acclimation, often in a time-dependent manner. It can be concluded that BAT and muscle AD capacity undergo the most dramatic changes during both cold acclimation and hibernation, while liver is relatively unaffected by either condition. Additionally, this study provides a basis for further metabolic study that will illuminate the causes

  9. Falls in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Hodgetts, P. Geoffrey

    1992-01-01

    Falls are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly. One in three older people will fall every year. Assessing intrinsic (patient) factors and extrinsic (environmental) factors that increase the risk of falling is an important part of caring for the elderly. Physicians can readily assess balance and mobility as part of a preventive approach. PMID:21221300

  10. Investigations into the Early Life History of Naturally Produced Spring Chinook Salmon in the Grande Ronde River Basin : Fish Research Project Oregon : Annual Progress Report Project Period 1 September 1998 to 31 August 1999.

    SciTech Connect

    Jonasson, Brian C.

    2000-01-01

    We determined migration timing and abundance of juvenile spring chinook salmon from three populations in the Grande Ronde River basin. We estimated 13,180 juvenile chinook salmon left upper rearing areas of the Grande Ronde River from July 1998 to June 1999; approximately 0.2% of the migrants left in summer, 18% in fall and 82% in spring. We estimated 15,949 juvenile chinook salmon left upper rearing areas of Catherine Creek from July 1998 to June 1999; approximately 0.2% of the migrants left in summer, 57% in fall, 2% in winter, and 41% in spring. We estimated 14,537 juvenile chinook salmon left the Grande Ronde Valley, located below the upper rearing areas in Catherine Creek and the Grande Ronde River, from October 1998 to June 1999; approximately 99% of the migrants left in spring. We estimated 31,113 juvenile chinook salmon left upper rearing areas of the Lostine River from July 1998 to June 1999; approximately 4% of the migrants left in summer, 57% in fall, 3% in winter, and 36% in spring. We estimated 42,705 juvenile spring chinook salmon left the Wallowa Valley, located below the mouth of the Lostine River, from August 1998 to June 1999; approximately 46% of the migrants left in fall, 6% in winter, and 47% in spring. Juvenile chinook salmon PIT-tagged on the upper Grande Ronde River were detected at Lower Granite Dam from 31 March to 20 June 1999, with a median passage date of 5 May. PIT-tagged salmon from Catherine Creek were detected at Lower Granite Dam from 19 April to 9 July 1999, with a median passage date of 24 May. PIT-tagged salmon from the Lostine River were detected at Lower Granite Dam from 31 March through 8 July 1999, with a median passage date of 4 May. Juveniles tagged as they left the upper rearing areas of the Grande Ronde River in fall and that overwintered in areas downstream were detected in the hydrosystem at a higher rate than fish tagged during winter in the upper rearing areas, indicating a higher overwinter survival in the

  11. Short Duration Heat Acclimation in Australian Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Monica; Gastin, Paul B.; Dwyer, Daniel B; Sostaric, Simon; Snow, Rodney J.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined if five sessions of short duration (27 min), high intensity, interval training (HIIT) in the heat over a nine day period would induce heat acclimation in Australian football (AF) players. Fourteen professional AF players were matched for VO2peak (mL·kg-1·min-1) and randomly allocated into either a heat acclimation (Acc) (n = 7) or Control (Con) group (n = 7). The Acc completed five cycle ergometer HIIT sessions within a nine day period on a cycle ergometer in the heat (38.7 ± 0.5 °C; 34.4 ± 1.3 % RH), whereas Con trained in thermo-neutral conditions (22.3 ± 0.2 °C; 35.8 ± 0. % RH). Four days prior and two days post HIIT participants undertook a 30 min constant load cycling test at 60% V̇O2peak in the heat (37.9 ± 0.1 °C; 28.5 ± 0.7 % RH) during which VO2, blood lactate concentration ([Lac-]), heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal comfort, core and skin temperatures were measured. Heat acclimation resulted in reduced RPE, thermal comfort and [Lac-] (all p < 0.05) during the submaximal exercise test in the heat. Heart rate was lower (p = 0.007) after HIIT, in both groups. Heat acclimation did not influence any other measured variables. In conclusion, five short duration HIIT sessions in hot dry conditions induced limited heat acclimation responses in AF players during the in-season competition phase. In practice, the heat acclimation protocol can be implemented in a professional team environment; however the physiological adaptations resulting from such a protocol were limited. Key points Some minor heat acclimation adaptations can be induced in professional AF players with five 27 min non-consecutive, short duration HIIT sessions in the heat. The heat acclimation protocol employed in this study was able to be implemented in a professional team sport environment during an actual competitive season. Elevating and maintaining a high core temperature sufficient for heat acclimation likely requires a longer heat

  12. Short Duration Heat Acclimation in Australian Football Players.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Monica; Gastin, Paul B; Dwyer, Daniel B; Sostaric, Simon; Snow, Rodney J

    2016-03-01

    This study examined if five sessions of short duration (27 min), high intensity, interval training (HIIT) in the heat over a nine day period would induce heat acclimation in Australian football (AF) players. Fourteen professional AF players were matched for VO2peak (mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) and randomly allocated into either a heat acclimation (Acc) (n = 7) or Control (Con) group (n = 7). The Acc completed five cycle ergometer HIIT sessions within a nine day period on a cycle ergometer in the heat (38.7 ± 0.5 °C; 34.4 ± 1.3 % RH), whereas Con trained in thermo-neutral conditions (22.3 ± 0.2 °C; 35.8 ± 0. % RH). Four days prior and two days post HIIT participants undertook a 30 min constant load cycling test at 60% V̇O2peak in the heat (37.9 ± 0.1 °C; 28.5 ± 0.7 % RH) during which VO2, blood lactate concentration ([Lac(-)]), heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal comfort, core and skin temperatures were measured. Heat acclimation resulted in reduced RPE, thermal comfort and [Lac(-)] (all p < 0.05) during the submaximal exercise test in the heat. Heart rate was lower (p = 0.007) after HIIT, in both groups. Heat acclimation did not influence any other measured variables. In conclusion, five short duration HIIT sessions in hot dry conditions induced limited heat acclimation responses in AF players during the in-season competition phase. In practice, the heat acclimation protocol can be implemented in a professional team environment; however the physiological adaptations resulting from such a protocol were limited. Key pointsSome minor heat acclimation adaptations can be induced in professional AF players with five 27 min non-consecutive, short duration HIIT sessions in the heat.The heat acclimation protocol employed in this study was able to be implemented in a professional team sport environment during an actual competitive season.Elevating and maintaining a high core temperature sufficient for heat acclimation likely requires a longer heat

  13. Paradoxical acclimation responses in the thermal performance of insect immunity.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Laura V; Heinrichs, David E; Sinclair, Brent J

    2016-05-01

    Winter is accompanied by multiple stressors, and the interactions between cold and pathogen stress potentially determine the overwintering success of insects. Thus, it is necessary to explore the thermal performance of the insect immune system. We cold-acclimated spring field crickets, Gryllus veletis, to 6 °C for 7 days and measured the thermal performance of potential (lysozyme and phenoloxidase activity) and realised (bacterial clearance and melanisation) immune responses. Cold acclimation decreased the critical thermal minimum from -0.5 ± 0.25 to -2.1 ± 0.18 °C, and chill coma recovery time after 72 h at -2 °C from 16.8 ± 4.9 to 5.2 ± 2.0 min. Measures of both potential and realised immunity followed a typical thermal performance curve, decreasing with decreasing temperature. However, cold acclimation further decreased realised immunity at low, but not high, temperatures; effectively, immune activity became paradoxically specialised to higher temperatures. Thus, cold acclimation induced mismatched thermal responses between locomotor and immune systems, as well as within the immune system itself. We conclude that cold acclimation in insects appears to preferentially improve cold tolerance over whole-animal immune performance at low temperatures, and that the differential thermal performance of physiological responses to multiple pressures must be considered when predicting ectotherms' response to climate change. PMID:26846428

  14. Sublethal toxicity of chlorpyrifos to salmonid olfaction after hypersaline acclimation.

    PubMed

    Maryoung, Lindley A; Blunt, Brian; Tierney, Keith B; Schlenk, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Salmonid habitats can be impacted by several environmental factors, such as salinization, which can also affect salmonid tolerance to anthropogenic stressors, such as pesticides. Previous studies have shown that hypersaline acclimation enhances the acute toxicity of certain organophosphate and carbamate pesticides to euryhaline fish; however, sublethal impacts have been far less studied. The current study aims to determine how hypersaline acclimation and exposure to the organophosphate chlorpyrifos (CPF) impact salmonid olfaction. Combined acclimation and exposure to CPF was shown to impact rainbow trout olfaction at the molecular, physiological, and behavioral levels. Concurrent exposure to hypersalinity and 0.5μg/L CPF upregulated four genes (chloride intracellular channel 4, G protein zgc:101761, calcium calmodulin dependent protein kinase II delta, and adrenergic alpha 2C receptor) that inhibit olfactory signal transduction. At the physiological level, hypersalinity and chlorpyrifos caused a decrease in sensory response to the amino acid l-serine and the bile salt taurocholic acid. Combined acclimation and exposure also negatively impacted behavior and reduced the avoidance of a predator cue (l-serine). Thus, acclimation to hypersaline conditions and exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of chlorpyrifos caused an inhibition of olfactory signal transduction leading to a decreased response to odorants and impairment of olfactory mediated behaviors. PMID:25697678

  15. Acclimation improves salt stress tolerance in Zea mays plants.

    PubMed

    Pandolfi, Camilla; Azzarello, Elisa; Mancuso, Stefano; Shabala, Sergey

    2016-08-20

    Plants exposure to low level salinity activates an array of processes leading to an improvement of plant stress tolerance. Although the beneficial effect of acclimation was demonstrated in many herbaceous species, underlying mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain poorly understood. In the present study we have addressed this issue by investigating ionic mechanisms underlying the process of plant acclimation to salinity stress in Zea mays. Effect of acclimation were examined in two parallel sets of experiments: a growth experiment for agronomic assessments, sap analysis, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll content, and confocal laser scanning imaging; and a lab experiment for in vivo ion flux measurements from root tissues. Being exposed to salinity, acclimated plants (1) retain more K(+) but accumulate less Na(+) in roots; (2) have better vacuolar Na(+) sequestration ability in leaves and thus are capable of accumulating larger amounts of Na(+) in the shoot without having any detrimental effect on leaf photochemistry; and (3) rely more on Na(+) for osmotic adjustment in the shoot. At the same time, acclimation affect was not related in increased root Na(+) exclusion ability. It appears that even in a such salt-sensitive species as maize, Na(+) exclusion from uptake is of a much less importance compared with the efficient vacuolar Na(+) sequestration in the shoot. PMID:27372277

  16. Cold acclimation recruits human brown fat and increases nonshivering thermogenesis

    PubMed Central

    van der Lans, Anouk A.J.J.; Hoeks, Joris; Brans, Boudewijn; Vijgen, Guy H.E.J.; Visser, Mariëlle G.W.; Vosselman, Maarten J.; Hansen, Jan; Jörgensen, Johanna A.; Wu, Jun; Mottaghy, Felix M.; Schrauwen, Patrick; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, it has been shown that humans have active brown adipose tissue (BAT) depots, raising the question of whether activation and recruitment of BAT can be a target to counterbalance the current obesity pandemic. Here, we show that a 10-day cold acclimation protocol in humans increases BAT activity in parallel with an increase in nonshivering thermogenesis (NST). No sex differences in BAT presence and activity were found either before or after cold acclimation. Respiration measurements in permeabilized fibers and isolated mitochondria revealed no significant contribution of skeletal muscle mitochondrial uncoupling to the increased NST. Based on cell-specific markers and on uncoupling protein-1 (characteristic of both BAT and beige/brite cells), this study did not show “browning” of abdominal subcutaneous white adipose tissue upon cold acclimation. The observed physiological acclimation is in line with the subjective changes in temperature sensation; upon cold acclimation, the subjects judged the environment warmer, felt more comfortable in the cold, and reported less shivering. The combined results suggest that a variable indoor environment with frequent cold exposures might be an acceptable and economic manner to increase energy expenditure and may contribute to counteracting the current obesity epidemic. PMID:23867626

  17. Spring Chinook Salmon Interactions Indices and Residual/Precocial Monitoring in the Upper Yakima Basin; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation Report 5 of 7, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Pearsons, Todd N.; Johnson, Christopher L.; James, Brenda B.

    2004-05-01

    is working or not working (Busack et al. 1997). Monitoring ecological interactions will be accomplished using interactions indices. Interactions indices will be used to index the availability of prey and competition for food and space. The tasks described below represent various subject areas of juvenile spring chinook salmon monitoring but are treated together because they can be accomplished using similar methods and are therefore more cost efficient than if treated separately. Three areas of investigation we pursued in this work were: (1) strong interactor monitoring (competition index and prey index), (2) carrying capacity monitoring (microhabitat monitoring); (3) residual and precocial salmon monitoring (abundance). This report is organized into three chapters to represent these three areas of investigation. Data were collected during the summer and fall, 2003 in index sections of the upper Yakima Basin (Figure 1). Previous results on the topics in this report were reported in James et al. (1999), and Pearsons et al. (2003). Hatchery-reared spring chinook salmon were first released during the spring of 1999. The monitoring plan for the Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project calls for the continued monitoring of the variables covered in this report. All findings in this report should be considered preliminary and subject to further revision as more data and analytical results become available.

  18. Comparisons of spawning areas and times for two runs of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Kenai River, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burger, C.V.; Wilmot, R.L.; Wangaard, D.B.

    1985-01-01

    From 1979 to 1982,188 chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were tagged with radio transmitters to locate spawning areas in the glacial Kenai River, southcentral Alaska. Results confirmed that an early run entered the river in May and June and spawned in tributaries, and a late run entered the river from late June through August and spawned in the main stem. Spawning peaked during August in tributaries influenced by lakes, but during July in other tributaries. Lakes may have increased fall and winter temperatures of downstream waters, enabling successful reproduction for later spawning fish within these tributaries. This hypothesis assumes that hatching and emergence can be completed in a shorter time in lake-influenced waters. The time of upstream migration and spawning (mid- to late August) of the late run is unique among chinook stocks in Cook Inlet. This behavior may have developed only because two large lakes (Kenai and Skilak) directly influence the main-stem Kenai River. If run timing is genetically controlled, and if the various components of the two runs are isolated stocks that have adapted to predictable stream temperatures, there are implications for stock transplantation programs and for any activities of man that alter stream temperatures.

  19. Extended alternating-temperature cold acclimation and culture duration improve pear shoot cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Y; Reed, B M

    2000-06-01

    Meristems of many pear genotypes can be successfully cryopreserved following 1 week of cold acclimation, but an equal number do not survive the process or have very little regrowth. This study compared commonly used cold acclimation protocols to determine whether the cold acclimation technique used affected the cold hardiness of shoots or the regrowth of cryopreserved meristems. In vitro-grown pear (Pyrus L.) shoots were cold acclimated for up to 16 weeks, then either the shoot tips were tested for cold hardiness or the meristems were cryopreserved by controlled freezing. Cold acclimation consisted of alternating temperatures (22 degrees C with light/-1 degrees C darkness with various photo- and thermoperiods) or a constant temperature (4 degrees C with an 8-h photoperiod or darkness). Compared with nonacclimated controls, both alternating- and constant-temperature acclimation significantly improved postcryopreservation regrowth of P. cordata Desv. and P. pashia Buch. -Ham. ex D. Don meristems. Alternating-temperature acclimation combined with either an 8-h photoperiod or darkness was significantly better than constant-temperature acclimation. Alternating-temperature shoot acclimation for 2 to 5 weeks significantly increased postcryopreservation meristem regrowth, and recovery remained high for up to 15 weeks acclimation. Postcryopreservation meristem regrowth increased with 1 to 5 weeks of constant-temperature acclimation and then declined with longer acclimation. Shoot cold hardiness varied with the acclimation procedure. The LT(50) of shoots acclimated for 10 weeks with alternating temperatures was -25 degrees C; that with constant temperature was -14.7 degrees C; and that of the nonacclimated control was -10 degrees C. Less frequent transfer of cultures also improved acclimation of shoots. Shoots grown without transfer to fresh medium for 6-12 weeks had higher postcryopreservation recovery with shorter periods of acclimation than shoots with a 3-week transfer

  20. Drinking and water balance during exercise and heat acclimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Brock, P. J.; Keil, L. C.; Morse, J. T.

    1983-01-01

    The interactions between fluid intake and balance, and plasma ion, osmotic, and endocrine responses during dehydration produced by exercise in cool and warm environments during acclimation are explored. Two groups of five male subjects performed 8 days of ergometer exercise in hot and thermoneutral conditions, respectively. The exercise trials lasted 2 hr each. Monitoring was carried out on the PV, osmotic, sodium, and endocrine concentrations, voluntary fluid intake, fluid balances, and fluid deficits. A negative correlation was observed between the plasma sodium and osmolality during acclimation. The presence of hypervolemia during acclimation is suggested as a cause of drinking, while the vasopressin concentration was not found to be a significant factor stimulating drinking. Finally, the predominant mechanism in fluid intake during exercise and heat exposure is concluded to be the renin-angiotensin II system in the presence of reductions in total body water and extracellular plasma volumes.

  1. Investigations into the Early Life History of Naturally Spring Chinook Salmon in the Grande Ronde River Basin : Fish Research Project Oregon : Annual Progress Report Project Period 1 September 1997 to 31 August 1998.

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, MaryLouise; Tranquilli, J. Vincent

    1998-01-01

    We determined migration timing and abundance of juvenile spring chinook salmon from three populations in the Grande Ronde River basin. We estimated 6,716 juvenile chinook salmon left upper rearing areas of the Grande Ronde River from July 1997 to June 1998; approximately 6% of the migrants left in summer, 29% in fall, 2% in winter, and 63% in spring. We estimated 8,763 juvenile chinook salmon left upper rearing areas of Catherine Creek from July 1997 to June 1998; approximately 12% of the migrants left in summer, 37% in fall, 21% in winter, and 29% in spring. We estimated 8,859 juvenile chinook salmon left the Grande Ronde Valley, located below the upper rearing areas in Catherine Creek and the Grande Ronde River, from October 1997 to June 1998; approximately 99% of the migrants left in spring. We estimated 15,738 juvenile chinook salmon left upper rearing areas of the Lostine River from July 1997 to April 1998; approximately 3% of the migrants left in summer, 61% in fall, 2% in winter, and 34% in spring. We estimated 22,754 juvenile spring chinook salmon left the Wallowa Valley, located below the mouth of the Lostine River, from September 1997 to April 1998; approximately 55% of the migrants left in fall, 5% in winter, and 40% in spring. Juvenile chinook salmon PIT-tagged on the upper Grande Ronde River were detected at Lower Granite Dam from 4 April to 26 June 1998, with a median passage date of 1 May. PIT-tagged salmon from Catherine Creek were detected at Lower Granite Dam from 3 April to 26 June 1998, with a median passage date of 8 May. PIT-tagged salmon from the Lostine River were detected at Lower Granite Dam from 31 March through 26 May 1998, with a median passage date of 28 April. Juveniles tagged as they left the upper rearing areas of the Grande Ronde and Lostine rivers in fall and that overwintered in areas downstream were detected in the hydrosystem at a higher rate than fish tagged during winter in the upper rearing areas, indicating a higher

  2. UV-B Perception and Acclimation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Tilbrook, Kimberley; Dubois, Marine; Crocco, Carlos D; Yin, Ruohe; Chappuis, Richard; Allorent, Guillaume; Schmid-Siegert, Emanuel; Goldschmidt-Clermont, Michel; Ulm, Roman

    2016-04-01

    Plants perceive UV-B, an intrinsic component of sunlight, via a signaling pathway that is mediated by the photoreceptor UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8) and induces UV-B acclimation. To test whether similar UV-B perception mechanisms exist in the evolutionarily distant green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, we identified Chlamydomonas orthologs of UVR8 and the key signaling factor CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1). Cr-UVR8 shares sequence and structural similarity to Arabidopsis thaliana UVR8, has conserved tryptophan residues for UV-B photoreception, monomerizes upon UV-B exposure, and interacts with Cr-COP1 in a UV-B-dependent manner. Moreover, Cr-UVR8 can interact with At-COP1 and complement the Arabidopsis uvr8 mutant, demonstrating that it is a functional UV-B photoreceptor. Chlamydomonas shows apparent UV-B acclimation in colony survival and photosynthetic efficiency assays. UV-B exposure, at low levels that induce acclimation, led to broad changes in the Chlamydomonas transcriptome, including in genes related to photosynthesis. Impaired UV-B-induced activation in the Cr-COP1 mutant hit1 indicates that UVR8-COP1 signaling induces transcriptome changes in response to UV-B. Also, hit1 mutants are impaired in UV-B acclimation. Chlamydomonas UV-B acclimation preserved the photosystem II core proteins D1 and D2 under UV-B stress, which mitigated UV-B-induced photoinhibition. These findings highlight the early evolution of UVR8 photoreceptor signaling in the green lineage to induce UV-B acclimation and protection. PMID:27020958

  3. Daily photosynthetic and C-export patterns in winter wheat leaves during cold stress and acclimation.

    PubMed

    Leonardos, Evangelos D.; Savitch, Leonid V.; Huner, Norman P. A.; Oquist, Gunnar; Grodzinski, Bernard

    2003-04-01

    Diurnal patterns of whole-plant and leaf gas exchange and 14C-export of winter wheat acclimated at 20 and 5 degrees C were determined. The 5 degrees C-acclimated plants had lower relative growth rates, smaller biomass and leaf area, but larger specific leaf weight than 20 degrees C plants. Photosynthetic rates in 20 degrees C and 5 degrees C-acclimated leaves were similar; however, daytime export from 5 degrees C-acclimated leaves was 45% lower. Photosynthesis and export remained steady in 20 degrees C and 5 degrees C-acclimated leaves during the daytime. By comparison, photosynthesis in 5 degrees C-stressed leaves (20 degrees C-acclimated plants exposed to 5 degrees C 12 h before and during measurements) declined from 70 to 50% of the 20 degrees C-acclimated leaves during the daytime, while export remained constant at 35% of the 20 degrees C-acclimated and 60% of the 5 degrees C-acclimated leaves. At high light and CO2, photosynthesis and export increased in both 20 degrees C and 5 degrees C-acclimated leaves, but rates in 5 degrees C-stressed leaves remained unchanged. At all conditions daytime export was greater than nighttime export. Taken together, during cold acclimation photosynthesis was upregulated, whereas export was only partially increased. We suggest that this reflects a requirement of cold-acclimated plants to both sustain an increased leaf metabolic demand while concomitantly supporting translocation of photoassimilates to overwintering sinks. PMID:12675742

  4. Thermal acclimation of photosynthesis: on the importance of adjusting our definitions and accounting for thermal acclimation of respiration.

    PubMed

    Way, Danielle A; Yamori, Wataru

    2014-02-01

    While interest in photosynthetic thermal acclimation has been stimulated by climate warming, comparing results across studies requires consistent terminology. We identify five types of photosynthetic adjustments in warming experiments: photosynthesis as measured at the high growth temperature, the growth temperature, and the thermal optimum; the photosynthetic thermal optimum; and leaf-level photosynthetic capacity. Adjustments of any one of these variables need not mean a concurrent adjustment in others, which may resolve apparently contradictory results in papers using different indicators of photosynthetic acclimation. We argue that photosynthetic thermal acclimation (i.e., that benefits a plant in its new growth environment) should include adjustments of both the photosynthetic thermal optimum (T opt) and photosynthetic rates at the growth temperature (A growth), a combination termed constructive adjustment. However, many species show reduced photosynthesis when grown at elevated temperatures, despite adjustment of some photosynthetic variables, a phenomenon we term detractive adjustment. An analysis of 70 studies on 103 species shows that adjustment of T opt and A growth are more common than adjustment of other photosynthetic variables, but only half of the data demonstrate constructive adjustment. No systematic differences in these patterns were found between different plant functional groups. We also discuss the importance of thermal acclimation of respiration for net photosynthesis measurements, as respiratory temperature acclimation can generate apparent acclimation of photosynthetic processes, even if photosynthesis is unaltered. We show that while dark respiration is often used to estimate light respiration, the ratio of light to dark respiration shifts in a non-predictable manner with a change in leaf temperature. PMID:23812760

  5. Optimising the acquisition and retention of heat acclimation.

    PubMed

    Daanen, H A M; Jonkman, A G; Layden, J D; Linnane, D M; Weller, A S

    2011-11-01

    Heat acclimation (HA) often starts in a moderately hot environment to prevent thermal overload and stops immediately prior to athletic activities. The aims of this study were (1) to establish whether acclimation to a moderately hot climate is sufficient to provide full acclimation for extreme heat and (2) to investigate the physiological responses to heat stress during the HA decay period. 15 male subjects exercised for 9 consecutive days at 26° C Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) and 3 days at 32° C WBGT on a cycle ergometer for up to 2 h per day and repeated the exercise 3, 7 and 18 days later in 26° C WBGT. Rectal temperature (T (re)) and heart rate (HR) were measured during 60 min of steady state exercise (∼45% of maximum oxygen uptake). During days 1-9, end-exercise T (re) was reduced from 38.7±0.1 to a plateau of 38.2±0.1° C (p<0.05), HR was reduced from 156±10 to 131±11 bpm (p<0.05). No changes in HR and T (re) occurred during the 3 days in the very hot environment. However, T (re) during rest and exercise were significantly lower by 0.4-0.5° C after HA compared with day 9, suggesting that heat acclimation did not decay but resulted in further favourable adaptations. PMID:22052034

  6. Molecular processes of transgenerational acclimation to a warming ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veilleux, Heather D.; Ryu, Taewoo; Donelson, Jennifer M.; van Herwerden, Lynne; Seridi, Loqmane; Ghosheh, Yanal; Berumen, Michael L.; Leggat, William; Ravasi, Timothy; Munday, Philip L.

    2015-12-01

    Some animals have the remarkable capacity to acclimate across generations to projected future climate change; however, the underlying molecular processes are unknown. We sequenced and assembled de novo transcriptomes of adult tropical reef fish exposed developmentally or transgenerationally to projected future ocean temperatures and correlated the resulting expression profiles with acclimated metabolic traits from the same fish. We identified 69 contigs representing 53 key genes involved in thermal acclimation of aerobic capacity. Metabolic genes were among the most upregulated transgenerationally, suggesting shifts in energy production for maintaining performance at elevated temperatures. Furthermore, immune- and stress-responsive genes were upregulated transgenerationally, indicating a new complement of genes allowing the second generation of fish to better cope with elevated temperatures. Other differentially expressed genes were involved with tissue development and transcriptional regulation. Overall, we found a similar suite of differentially expressed genes among developmental and transgenerational treatments. Heat-shock protein genes were surprisingly unresponsive, indicating that short-term heat-stress responses may not be a good indicator of long-term acclimation capacity. Our results are the first to reveal the molecular processes that may enable marine fishes to adjust to a future warmer environment over multiple generations.

  7. Cold Acclimation Improves Regrowth of Cryopreserved Apple Shoot Tips

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryopreservation is important for preserving the genetic resources of apple germplasm in Kazakhstan, the center of origin for apples. In this study of five apple genotypes [Malus domestica Borkh. and Malus sieversii (Ledeb.) M. Roem] we determined cold hardiness and the effect of cold acclimation o...

  8. Phospholipase A2 activity during cold acclimation of wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phospholipase A2 (EC 3.1.1.4; PLA2) activity in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crown tissue from plants undergoing cold acclimation and/or chilling stress was investigated in a moderately cold tolerant winter wheat, a spring wheat, and a poorly cold tolerant winter wheat. Activity levels were inv...

  9. Evidence for developmental thermal acclimation in the damselfish, Pomacentrus moluccensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenchik, M. K.; Donelson, J. M.; Munday, P. L.

    2013-03-01

    Tropical species are predicted to have limited capacity for acclimation to global warming. This study investigated the potential for developmental thermal acclimation by the tropical damselfish Pomacentrus moluccensis to ocean temperatures predicted to occur over the next 50-100 years. Newly settled juveniles were reared for 4 months in four temperature treatments, consisting of the current-day summer average (28.5 °C) and up to 3 °C above the average (29.5, 30.5 and 31.5 °C). Resting metabolic rate (RMR) of fish reared at 29.5 and 31.5 °C was significantly higher than the control group reared at 28.5 °C. In contrast, RMR of fish reared at 30.5 °C was not significantly different from the control group, indicating these fish had acclimated to their rearing temperature. Furthermore, fish that developed in 30.5 and 31.5 °C exhibited an enhanced ability to deal with acute temperature increases. These findings illustrate that developmental acclimation may help coral reef fish cope with warming ocean temperatures.

  10. Identification of genes associated with cold acclimation in perennial ryegrass.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sensitivity to cold temperatures restricts the cultivation of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) in some temperate areas. Understanding cold-acclimation mechanisms is important for plant cultivation and breeding for cold tolerance. Our objective was to profile the transcriptome in perennial ry...

  11. Heat stress in grapevine: the pros and cons of acclimation.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Luísa C; Coito, João L; Colaço, Silvana; Sangiogo, Maurício; Amâncio, Sara

    2015-04-01

    Heat stress is a major limiting factor of grapevine production and quality. Acclimation and recovery are essential to ensure plant survival, and the recovery mechanisms can be independent of the heat response mechanisms. An experimental set up with and without acclimation to heat followed by recovery [stepwise acclimation and recovery (SAR) and stepwise recovery (SR), respectively] was applied to two grapevine varieties, Touriga Nacional (TN), and Trincadeira (TR), with different tolerance to abiotic stress. Major differences were found between leaves of SAR and SR, especially after recovery; in SAR, almost all parameters returned to basal levels while in SR they remained altered. Acclimation led to a swifter and short-term antioxidative response, affecting the plant to a lesser extent than SR. Significant differences were found among varieties: upon stress, TN significantly increased ascorbate and glutathione reduction levels, boosting the cell's redox-buffering capacity, while TR needed to synthesize both metabolites, its response being insufficient to keep the redox state at working levels. TR was affected by stress for a longer period and the up-regulation pattern of antioxidative stress genes was more obvious. In TN, heat shock proteins were significantly induced, but the canonical heat-stress gene signature was not evident probably because no shutdown of the housekeeping metabolism was needed. PMID:25211707

  12. Enzymatic activity of rodents acclimated to cold and long scotophase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fourie, F. Le R.; Haim, A.

    1980-09-01

    Rodents representative of a diurnal species ( Rhabdomys pumilio) as well as a nocturnal species ( Praomys natalensis) were acclimated to cold (Ta = 8°C) at a photoperiod of LD 12:12 and a long scotophase (LD 8; 16) at a temperature of 25° C(Ta). Control groups were kept for both species at Ta = 25° C and LD 12:12 and winter acclimated individuals were obtained during July and August to serve as further reference. Blood samples obtained from the tail were analysed for enzymes representative of three major biochemical pathways. The enzymatic activity of LDH (glycolytic pathway), MDH (Krebs cycle) and G6PDH (hexose monophosphate shunt, as an indicator of gonadal activity) were monitored to represent metabolic activity of the respective cycles. Cold acclimated as well as winter acclimatized mice revealed similar enzymatic patterns for both species and significant increases in LDH and MDH were recorded with a concurrent decrease in G6PDH activity. Specimens exposed to long scotophase exhibited similar enzymatic patterns for both species studied, but enzymatic activity was higher than those of cold acclimated individuals. From these results it is concluded that cold as well as long scotophase induce metabolic adaptations through biochemical activity in the experimental animals. The effect of long scotophase is assumed to be an important factor in the induction of winter acclimatization.

  13. Fall Leaf Portraits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hara, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how students can create a stunning as well as economical mosaic utilizing fall's brilliantly colored leaves, preserved at their peak in color. Start by choosing a beautiful fall day to take students on a nature walk to collect a variety of leaves in different shapes, sizes, and colors. Focus on collecting a…

  14. First Aid: Falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Falls KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Falls Print A A A Text Size en ... Floors, Doors & Windows, Furniture, Stairways: Household Safety Checklist First Aid: Broken Bones Head Injuries Preventing Children's Sports Injuries ...

  15. Experiments in Free Fall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Art, Albert

    2006-01-01

    A model lift containing a figure of Albert Einstein is released from the side of a tall building and its free fall is arrested by elastic ropes. This arrangement allows four simple experiments to be conducted in the lift to demonstrate the effects of free fall and show how they can lead to the concept of the equivalence of inertial and…

  16. Fall armyworm migration patterns.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), infestations in most of North America arise from annual migrations of populations that overwinter in southern Texas and Florida. Cytochrome Oxidase I haplotype profiles within the fall armyworm corn-strain, the subgroup tha...

  17. Learning From Falling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joh, Amy, S.; Adolph, Karen, E.

    2006-01-01

    Walkers fall frequently, especially during infancy. Children (15, 21, 27, 33, and 39 month-olds) and adults were tested in a novel foam pit paradigm to examine age-related changes in the relationship between falling and prospective control of locomotion. In trial 1, participants walked and fell into a deformable foam pit marked with distinct…

  18. Manchester Spring Chinook Broodstock Project : Progress Report, 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    McAuley, W. Carlin; Wastel, Michael R.; Flagg, Thomas A.

    2000-11-01

    In spring 1995 the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) and the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) initiated captive broodstocks as part of conservation efforts for ESA-listed stocks of Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). The need for this captive broodstock strategy was identified as critical in the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Proposed Recovery Plan for Snake River Salmon. These captive broodstock programs are being coordinated by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) through the Chinook Salmon Captive Propagation Technical Oversight Committee (CSCPTOC). Oregon's Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon captive broodstock program currently focuses on three stocks captured as juveniles from the Grande Ronde River Basin: the upper Grande Ronde River, Catherine Creek, and the Lostine River. Idaho's Snake River program includes three stocks captured as eggs and juveniles from the Salmon River Basin: the Lemhi River, East Fork Salmon River, and West Fork Yankee Fork. The majority of captive fish from each stock of the Grande Ronde Basin will be grown to maturity in freshwater at the ODFW Bonneville Hatchery. A minority of the Salmon River Basin stocks will be grown to maturity in freshwater at the IDFG Eagle Hatchery. However, the IDFG and ODFW requested that a portion of each group also be reared in protective culture in seawater. In August 1996, NMFS began a BPA funded project (Project 96-067-00) to rear Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon captive broodstocks in seawater at the NMFS Manchester Research Station. During 1997-1999, facilities modifications were undertaken at Manchester to provide secure facilities for rearing of these ESA-listed fish. This included construction of a building housing a total of twenty 6.1-m diameter fiberglass rearing tanks, upgrade of the Manchester salt water pumping and filtration/sterilization systems to a total capacity of 5,670 L/min (1,500 gpm), and installation

  19. Diatom Proteomics Reveals Unique Acclimation Strategies to Mitigate Fe Limitation

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Brook L.; Faux, Jessica F.; Hippmann, Anna A.; Maldonado, Maria T.; Harvey, H. Rodger; Goodlett, David R.; Boyd, Philip W.; Strzepek, Robert F.

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplankton growth rates are limited by the supply of iron (Fe) in approximately one third of the open ocean, with major implications for carbon dioxide sequestration and carbon (C) biogeochemistry. To date, understanding how alteration of Fe supply changes phytoplankton physiology has focused on traditional metrics such as growth rate, elemental composition, and biophysical measurements such as photosynthetic competence (Fv/Fm). Researchers have subsequently employed transcriptomics to probe relationships between changes in Fe supply and phytoplankton physiology. Recently, studies have investigated longer-term (i.e. following acclimation) responses of phytoplankton to various Fe conditions. In the present study, the coastal diatom, Thalassiosira pseudonana, was acclimated (10 generations) to either low or high Fe conditions, i.e. Fe-limiting and Fe-replete. Quantitative proteomics and a newly developed proteomic profiling technique that identifies low abundance proteins were employed to examine the full complement of expressed proteins and consequently the metabolic pathways utilized by the diatom under the two Fe conditions. A total of 1850 proteins were confidently identified, nearly tripling previous identifications made from differential expression in diatoms. Given sufficient time to acclimate to Fe limitation, T. pseudonana up-regulates proteins involved in pathways associated with intracellular protein recycling, thereby decreasing dependence on extracellular nitrogen (N), C and Fe. The relative increase in the abundance of photorespiration and pentose phosphate pathway proteins reveal novel metabolic shifts, which create substrates that could support other well-established physiological responses, such as heavily silicified frustules observed for Fe-limited diatoms. Here, we discovered that proteins and hence pathways observed to be down-regulated in short-term Fe starvation studies are constitutively expressed when T. pseudonana is acclimated (i

  20. Alcohol and heat tolerance in warm-acclimated rats.

    PubMed

    Huttunen, P

    1992-01-01

    The effect of chronic ethanol intake and warm acclimation on the heat tolerance of rats under the influence of alcohol was studied. The animals were divided into two groups: Group 1 received water as their fluid intake and, group 2 received a 10% ethanol solution, and both groups were exposed to a temperature of 30 degrees C for 4 weeks. Excretion of urinary catecholamines was measured prior to warm exposure at 22 degrees C and once a week during warm exposure at 30 degrees C. After warm acclimation a dose of alcohol 2 g/kg was injected in the rats intraperitoneally (i.p.), and then they were exposed to a heat stress of 40 degrees C for 45 min. During warm acclimation, the controls consumed more fluid and they excreted more norepinephrine into the urine than the alcohol-fed animals during the first week. After the period of acclimation there were no significant differences in urinary excretion of catecholamines between the groups. Colonic temperature of the controls was 0.7 degrees C higher than in the alcohol-fed animals. Acute alcohol administration (2 g/kg) increased the colonic temperature of the alcohol-fed animals during a heat stress of 40 degrees C more than in the controls. After heat stress, the concentration of catecholamines in the blood was significantly higher in the controls. The results show that the hyperthermic effect of ethanol was more considerable in the rats whose drinking water during warm acclimation was an ethanol solution. PMID:1599624

  1. Assessment of High Rates of Precocious Male Maturation in a Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Hatchery Program, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Donald; Beckman, Brian; Cooper, Kathleen

    2003-08-01

    The Yakima River Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project in Washington State is currently one of the most ambitious efforts to enhance a natural salmon population in the United States. Over the past five years we have conducted research to characterize the developmental physiology of naturally- and hatchery-reared wild progeny spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Yakima River basin. Fish were sampled at the main hatchery in Cle Elum, at remote acclimation sites and, during smolt migration, at downstream dams. Throughout these studies the maturational state of all fish was characterized using combinations of visual and histological analysis of testes, gonadosomatic index (GSI), and measurement of plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT). We established that a plasma 11-KT threshold of 0.8 ng/ml could be used to designate male fish as either immature or precociously maturing approximately 8 months prior to final maturation (1-2 months prior to release as 'smolts'). Our analyses revealed that 37-49% of the hatchery-reared males from this program undergo precocious maturation at 2 years of age and a proportion of these fish appear to residualize in the upper Yakima River basin throughout the summer. An unnaturally high incidence of precocious male maturation may result in loss of potential returning anadromous adults, skewing of female: male sex ratios, ecological, and genetic impacts on wild populations and other native species. Precocious male maturation is significantly influenced by growth rate at specific times of year and future studies will be conducted to alter maturation rates through seasonal growth rate manipulations.

  2. 50 CFR Table 47b to Part 679 - Percent of the AFA Mothership Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-Out Allocation and Annual... Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-Out Allocation and... of Chinook salmon for the opt-out allocation (2,220) Column F Number of Chinook salmon for the...

  3. 50 CFR Table 47b to Part 679 - Percent of the AFA Mothership Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-Out Allocation and Annual... Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-Out Allocation and... of Chinook salmon for the opt-out allocation (2,220) Column F Number of Chinook salmon for the...

  4. 50 CFR Table 47b to Part 679 - Percent of the AFA Mothership Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-Out Allocation and Annual... Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-Out Allocation and... of Chinook salmon for the opt-out allocation (2,220) Column F Number of Chinook salmon for the...

  5. 50 CFR Table 47b to Part 679 - Percent of the AFA Mothership Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-Out Allocation and Annual... Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-Out Allocation and... of Chinook salmon for the opt-out allocation (2,220) Column F Number of Chinook salmon for the...

  6. 50 CFR Table 47b to Part 679 - Percent of the AFA Mothership Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-Out Allocation and Annual... Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-Out Allocation and... of Chinook salmon for the opt-out allocation (2,220) Column F Number of Chinook salmon for the...

  7. 50 CFR Figure 8 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area 8 Figure 8 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings...

  8. 50 CFR Figure 8 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area 8 Figure 8 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings...

  9. 50 CFR Figure 8 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area 8 Figure 8 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings...

  10. 50 CFR Figure 8 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area 8 Figure 8 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings...

  11. 50 CFR Figure 8 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area 8 Figure 8 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings...

  12. 50 CFR 226.204 - Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run chinook salmon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run chinook salmon. 226.204 Section 226.204 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE... HABITAT § 226.204 Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run chinook salmon. The following...

  13. 50 CFR 226.204 - Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run chinook salmon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run chinook salmon. 226.204 Section 226.204 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE... HABITAT § 226.204 Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run chinook salmon. The following...

  14. 50 CFR 226.204 - Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run chinook salmon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run chinook salmon. 226.204 Section 226.204 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE... HABITAT § 226.204 Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run chinook salmon. The following...

  15. Pre-impact fall detection.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xinyao; Qu, Xingda

    2016-01-01

    Pre-impact fall detection has been proposed to be an effective fall prevention strategy. In particular, it can help activate on-demand fall injury prevention systems (e.g. inflatable hip protectors) prior to fall impacts, and thus directly prevent the fall-related physical injuries. This paper gave a systematical review on pre-impact fall detection, and focused on the following aspects of the existing pre-impact fall detection research: fall detection apparatus, fall detection indicators, fall detection algorithms, and types of falls for fall detection evaluation. In addition, the performance of the existing pre-impact fall detection solutions were also reviewed and reported in terms of their sensitivity, specificity, and detection/lead time. This review also summarized the limitations in the existing pre-impact fall detection research, and proposed future research directions in this field. PMID:27251528

  16. Effects of dewatering on chinook salmon redds: tolerance of four developmental phases to daily dewaterings

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, C.D.; Neitzel, D.A.; Fickeisen, D.H.

    1982-09-01

    Four intergravel developmental phases of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha were dewatered experimentally in artificial redds. The redds consisted of aquaria containing a gravel mix and supplied with 4 liters of water per minute at 10 C. Cleavage eggs and embryos (the egg phases), and eleutheroembryos and pre-emergent alevins (the alevin phases) were dewatered 20 consecutive times in 22-day tests. The egg phases were considerably more tolerant than alevins. Some cleavage eggs were killed by 12- and 16-hour daily dewaterings, but embryos survived up to 22-hour daily dewaterings. Embryos also tolerated extended, multiple dewaterings (over 60% survival for four consecutive 118-hour periods) and one-time, continuous dewatering for up to 12 consecutive days (over 80% survival). In contrast, about half the eleutheroembryos were killed by 4-hour daily dewaterings, and nearly all pre-emergent alevins were killed by 1-hour daily dewaterings. Intergravel temperatures were affected by insolation and air temperature. Intergravel temperatures increased to lethal levels during dewatering of cleavage eggs in early fall, and limited their survival. Growth of egg phases from some females was retarded by dewatering, but this phenomenon was not consistent for all egg groups. The size of surviving eleutheroembryos decreased as the length of daily dewatering periods increased.

  17. Testing advances in molecular discrimination among Chinook salmon life histories: evidence from a blind test.

    PubMed

    Banks, Michael A; Jacobson, David P; Meusnier, Isabelle; Greig, Carolyn A; Rashbrook, Vanessa K; Ardren, William R; Smith, Christian T; Bernier-Latmani, Jeremiah; Van Sickle, John; O'Malley, Kathleen G

    2014-06-01

    The application of DNA-based markers toward the task of discriminating among alternate salmon runs has evolved in accordance with ongoing genomic developments and increasingly has enabled resolution of which genetic markers associate with important life-history differences. Accurate and efficient identification of the most likely origin for salmon encountered during ocean fisheries, or at salvage from fresh water diversion and monitoring facilities, has far-reaching consequences for improving measures for management, restoration and conservation. Near-real-time provision of high-resolution identity information enables prompt response to changes in encounter rates. We thus continue to develop new tools to provide the greatest statistical power for run identification. As a proof of concept for genetic identification improvements, we conducted simulation and blind tests for 623 known-origin Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) to compare and contrast the accuracy of different population sampling baselines and microsatellite loci panels. This test included 35 microsatellite loci (1266 alleles), some known to be associated with specific coding regions of functional significance, such as the circadian rhythm cryptochrome genes, and others not known to be associated with any functional importance. The identification of fall run with unprecedented accuracy was demonstrated. Overall, the top performing panel and baseline (HMSC21) were predicted to have a success rate of 98%, but the blind-test success rate was 84%. Findings for bias or non-bias are discussed to target primary areas for further research and resolution. PMID:24628286

  18. An estimate of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning habitat and redd capacity upstream of a migration barrier in the upper Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Dauble, Dennis D.; Geist, David R.

    2004-02-01

    Chief Joseph Dam on the Columbia River is the upstream terminus for anadromous fish, due to its lack of fish passage facilities. Management agencies are currently evaluating the feasibility of reintroducing anadromous fish upriver of Chief Joseph Dam. We evaluated the physical characteristics of potential fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning habitat in the upper section of Chief Joseph Reservoir. The objective of this study was to estimate the quantity and location of potential spawning habitat, and secondly to determine the redd capacity of the area based on spawning habitat characteristics. We used a geomorphic approach to first identify specific segments with the highest potential for spawning. The suitability of these segments for spawning was then estimated through the use of empirical physical data and modeled hydraulic data. We estimated 5% (48.7 ha) of the study area contains potentially suitable fall chinook salmon spawning habitat. Potential spawning habitat is primarily limited by water too deep and secondly by water velocities too low, the combination of which results in 20% (9.6 ha) of the potential spawning habitat being characterized as high quality. Estimates of redd capacity within potential spawning habitat range from 207? 1599 redds, based on proportional use of potential habitat and varying amounts of channelbed used by spawning salmon. The results of our study provide fisheries managers significant insight into one component of the complex issue of reintroducing anadromous fish to the Columbia River upstream of Chief Joseph Dam.

  19. Injuries sustained by falls.

    PubMed Central

    Rozycki, G S; Maull, K I

    1991-01-01

    During a recent 4-year period, 381 patients were admitted with injuries sustained from falls. Equal numbers of patients were less than and greater than 50 years of age and included 53 children (less than or equal to 16 years) and 214 elderly (greater than or equal to 55 years). Falls from heights occurred predominantly in young males (mean age 34.2 years), were most commonly job or recreation related and resulted in higher injury severity scores (ISS). Falls in the elderly occurred more commonly in women, typically on a flat surface, and were less severe. Despite lower mean ISS, fall victims over 55 years of age had longer hospitalizations (11.4 vs. 4.5 days) and incurred higher hospital charges compared to younger patients. There were 35 deaths (9.2%). In patients under 55 years, deaths resulted from fall-related central nervous system (CNS) injury and/or multisystem trauma. In patients over 55 years, fatalities were most commonly related to pre-existent medical conditions. Based on a review of this experience, we conclude that: (1) unlike other causes of blunt and penetrating trauma, both sexes are equally at risk from fall-related injuries but sex incidence is age related; (2) falls from heights are more common in men; (3) advanced age and pre-existing medical conditions account for the increased morbidity and mortality following falls and; (4) cost containment measures for fall-related trauma must consider not only injury severity, but the age and pre-existent medical conditions of the patient. PMID:1772536

  20. Diet composition and feeding periodicity of wild and hatchery subyearling Chinook salmon in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    Diel feeding periodicity, daily ration, and diet composition of wild and hatchery subyearling Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha were examined in Lake Ontario and the Salmon River, New York. The diet of wild riverine salmon was composed mainly of aquatic invertebrates (63.4%), mostly ephemeropterans (25.8%), chiromomids (15.8%), and trichopterans (8.3%). The diet of riverine Chinook was more closely associated with the composition of drift samples rather than bottom samples, suggesting mid-water feeding. In Lake Ontario terrestrial invertebrates were more important in the diet of hatchery Chinook (49.0%) than wild salmon (30.5%) and diet overlap between hatchery and wild salmon was low (0.46%). The diet of both hatchery and wild Chinook salmon was more closely associated with the composition of mid-water invertebrate samples rather than benthic core samples, indicating mid-water and surface feeding. Hatchery Chinook salmon consumed significantly less food (P < 0.05) than wild Chinook salmon in the lake and in the river, and wild salmon from Lake Ontario consumed more food than wild salmon in the Salmon River. Peak feeding of wild Chinook salmon occurred between 1200-1600 hours in Lake Ontario and between 1600-2000 hours in the Salmon River; there was no discernable feeding peak for the hatchery Chinook in Lake Ontario. Hatchery Chinook salmon also had the least diverse diet over the 24-hour sample period. These results suggest that at 7 days post-stocking hatchery Chinook salmon had not yet fully adapted to their new environment.

  1. Behavior and dam passage of juvenile Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead at Detroit Reservoir and Dam, Oregon, March 2012-February 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, John W.; Hansel, Hal C.; Hansen, Amy C.; Evans, Scott D.; Haner, Philip V.; Hatton, Tyson W.; Kofoot, Eric E.; Sprando, Jamie M.; Smith, Collin D.

    2014-01-01

    The in-reservoir movements and dam passage of individual juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were studied at Detroit Reservoir and Dam, near Detroit, Oregon, during 2012 and 2013. The goal of the study was to provide data to inform decisions about future downstream passage alternatives and factors affecting downstream passage rates with the existing dam configuration. In 2012, 468 juvenile Chinook salmon and 200 juvenile steelhead were tagged and released during a 3-month period in the spring, and another 514 juvenile Chinook salmon were tagged and released during a 3-month period in the fall. The fish were surgically implanted with a small acoustic transmitter with an expected life of about 3 months and a passive integrated transponder tag with an indefinite life, and were released into the two main tributaries several kilometers upstream of the reservoir. Juvenile Chinook salmon migrated from the release sites to the reservoir in a greater proportion than juvenile steelhead, but once in the reservoir, juvenile steelhead migrated to the forebay faster and had a higher dam passage rate than juvenile Chinook salmon. The routes available for passing water and fish varied throughout the year, with low reservoir elevations in winter and high reservoir elevations in summer in accordance with the flood-control purpose of the dam. Most dam passage was through the spillway during the spring and summer, when the reservoir elevation was high and the spillway and powerhouse were the most common routes in operation, and via the powerhouse during the fall and winter period, when the reservoir elevation was low and the regulating outlet and powerhouse were the most common routes in operation. Few tagged fish passed when the powerhouse was the only route in operation. Dam passage rates during the spring and summer were greatest at night, increased with dam discharge, and were greater when water was passed freely over the

  2. Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation and Enhancement Project Operations and Maintenance Program; Brood Year 2000: Johnson Creek Chinook Salmon Supplementation, Biennial Report 2000-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Mitch; Gebhards, John; Hill, Robert

    2003-05-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe, through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration, has implemented a small scale chinook salmon supplementation program on Johnson Creek, a tributary in the South Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. The Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation Enhancement project was established to enhance the number of threatened Snake River summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to Johnson Creek through artificial propagation. Adult chinook salmon trapping, broodstock selection, and spawning was first implemented in 1998, did not occur in 1999, and was resumed in 2000. A total of 152 salmon were trapped in Johnson Creek in 2000, of which 73 (25 males, 16 females, and 32 jacks) fish were transported to Idaho Fish and Game=s South Fork Salmon River adult holding and spawning facility for artificial propagation purposes. The remaining 79 (29 males, 16 females, and 24 jacks) fish were released above the weir to spawn naturally. A total of 65,060 green eggs were taken from 16 female salmon and transported to the McCall Fish Hatchery for incubation and rearing. Egg counts indicated an average eye-up rate of 86.0% for 55,971 eyed eggs. Average fecundity for Johnson Creek females was 4,066 eggs per female. Juvenile fish were reared indoors at the McCall Fish Hatchery through November 2001. These fish were transferred to outdoor rearing facilities in December 2001 where they remained until release in March 2002. All of these fish were marked with Coded Wire Tags and Visual Implant Elastomer tags. In addition 9,987 were also PIT tagged. Hand counts provided by marking crews were used to amend the number of juvenile salmon released from the original egg count. A total of 57,392 smolts were released into a temporary acclimation channel in Johnson Creek on March 18, 19, 20, 2002. These fish were held in this facility until a fish screen was removed on March 22, 2002 and the fish were allowed to emigrate.

  3. Survival of falling robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-01-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  4. Osteoporosis: Preventing Falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Osteoporosis Preventing Falls Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table of ... next to your bed Free NIH Videos About Osteoporosis The NIHSeniorHealth Web site features five brief, informative ...

  5. Editors' Fall Picks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffert, Barbara; Heilbrun, Margaret; Kuzyk, Raya; Kim, Ann; McCormack, Heather; Katterjohn, Anna; Burns, Ann; Williams, Wilda

    2008-01-01

    From the fall's cascade of great new books, "Library Journal's" editors select their favorites--a dark rendition of Afghan life, a look at the "self-esteem trap," a celebration of Brooklyn activism, and much more.

  6. Survival of falling robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-02-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  7. Understanding and quantifying foliar temperature acclimation for Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, N. G.; Dukes, J.

    2015-12-01

    Photosynthesis and respiration on land are the two largest carbon fluxes between the atmosphere and Earth's surface. The parameterization of these processes represent major uncertainties in the terrestrial component of the Earth System Models used to project future climate change. Research has shown that much of this uncertainty is due to the parameterization of the temperature responses of leaf photosynthesis and autotrophic respiration, which are typically based on short-term empirical responses. Here, we show that including longer-term responses to temperature, such as temperature acclimation, can help to reduce this uncertainty and improve model performance, leading to drastic changes in future land-atmosphere carbon feedbacks across multiple models. However, these acclimation formulations have many flaws, including an underrepresentation of many important global flora. In addition, these parameterizations were done using multiple studies that employed differing methodology. As such, we used a consistent methodology to quantify the short- and long-term temperature responses of maximum Rubisco carboxylation (Vcmax), maximum rate of Ribulos-1,5-bisphosphate regeneration (Jmax), and dark respiration (Rd) in multiple species representing each of the plant functional types used in global-scale land surface models. Short-term temperature responses of each process were measured in individuals acclimated for 7 days at one of 5 temperatures (15-35°C). The comparison of short-term curves in plants acclimated to different temperatures were used to evaluate long-term responses. Our analyses indicated that the instantaneous response of each parameter was highly sensitive to the temperature at which they were acclimated. However, we found that this sensitivity was larger in species whose leaves typically experience a greater range of temperatures over the course of their lifespan. These data indicate that models using previous acclimation formulations are likely incorrectly

  8. A comparison of the effects of two methods of acclimation of aerobic biodegradability

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, H.M. . Environmental Sciences Section)

    1993-11-01

    The acclimation or adaptation of microorganisms to organic chemicals is an important factor influencing both the rate and the extent of biodegradation. In this study two acclimation procedures were evaluated in terms of their effectiveness in enhancing biodegradation, their relative ease of use in the laboratory, and the implications for biodegradability testing. In the single-flask procedure, microorganisms were acclimated for 2 to 7 d in a single acclimation flask at constant or increasing concentrations of the test chemical without transfer of microorganisms. In the second procedure, the enrichment procedure, microorganisms were acclimated in a series of flasks over a 21-d period by making adaptive transfers to increasing concentrations of the test chemical. Acclimated microorganisms from each procedure were used as the source of inoculum for subsequent biodegradation tests in which carbon dioxide evolution was measured. Six chemicals were tested: quinoline, p-nitrophenol, N-methylaniline, N,N-dimethylaniline, acrylonitrile, and 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol monoisobutyrate. Microorganisms acclimated in the single-flask procedure were much more effective than those acclimated in the enrichment procedure in degrading the test chemicals. The single-flask procedure is more convenient to use, and it permits monitoring of the time needed for acclimation. The results from these studies have implications for the methodology used in biodegradation test systems and suggest caution before adopting a multiple-flask, enrichment acclimation procedure before the performance of standardized tests for aerobic biodegradability.

  9. Rapid Acclimation Ability Mediated by Transcriptome Changes in Reef-Building Corals

    PubMed Central

    Bay, Rachael A.; Palumbi, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    Population response to environmental variation involves adaptation, acclimation, or both. For long-lived organisms, acclimation likely generates a faster response but is only effective if the rates and limits of acclimation match the dynamics of local environmental variation. In coral reef habitats, heat stress from extreme ocean warming can occur over several weeks, resulting in symbiont expulsion and widespread coral death. However, transcriptome regulation during short-term acclimation is not well understood. We examined acclimation during a 11-day experiment in the coral Acropora nana. We acclimated colonies to three regimes: ambient temperature (29 °C), increased stable temperature (31 °C), and variable temperature (29–33 °C), mimicking local heat stress conditions. Within 7–11 days, individuals acclimated to increased temperatures had higher tolerance to acute heat stress. Despite physiological changes, no gene expression changes occurred during acclimation before acute heat stress. However, we found strikingly different transcriptional responses to heat stress between acclimation treatments across 893 contigs. Across these contigs, corals acclimated to higher temperatures (31 °C or 29–33 °C) exhibited a muted stress response—the magnitude of expression change before and after heat stress was less than in 29 °C acclimated corals. Our results show that corals have a rapid phase of acclimation that substantially increases their heat resilience within 7 days and that alters their transcriptional response to heat stress. This is in addition to a previously observed longer term response, distinguishable by its shift in baseline expression, under nonstressful conditions. Such rapid acclimation may provide some protection for this species of coral against slow onset of warming ocean temperatures. PMID:25979751

  10. Rapid Acclimation Ability Mediated by Transcriptome Changes in Reef-Building Corals.

    PubMed

    Bay, Rachael A; Palumbi, Stephen R

    2015-06-01

    Population response to environmental variation involves adaptation, acclimation, or both. For long-lived organisms, acclimation likely generates a faster response but is only effective if the rates and limits of acclimation match the dynamics of local environmental variation. In coral reef habitats, heat stress from extreme ocean warming can occur over several weeks, resulting in symbiont expulsion and widespread coral death. However, transcriptome regulation during short-term acclimation is not well understood. We examined acclimation during a 11-day experiment in the coral Acropora nana. We acclimated colonies to three regimes: ambient temperature (29 °C), increased stable temperature (31 °C), and variable temperature (29-33 °C), mimicking local heat stress conditions. Within 7-11 days, individuals acclimated to increased temperatures had higher tolerance to acute heat stress. Despite physiological changes, no gene expression changes occurred during acclimation before acute heat stress. However, we found strikingly different transcriptional responses to heat stress between acclimation treatments across 893 contigs. Across these contigs, corals acclimated to higher temperatures (31 °C or 29-33 °C) exhibited a muted stress response--the magnitude of expression change before and after heat stress was less than in 29 °C acclimated corals. Our results show that corals have a rapid phase of acclimation that substantially increases their heat resilience within 7 days and that alters their transcriptional response to heat stress. This is in addition to a previously observed longer term response, distinguishable by its shift in baseline expression, under nonstressful conditions. Such rapid acclimation may provide some protection for this species of coral against slow onset of warming ocean temperatures. PMID:25979751

  11. Red and white Chinook salmon: genetic divergence and mate choice.

    PubMed

    Lehnert, Sarah J; Pitcher, Trevor E; Devlin, Robert H; Heath, Daniel D

    2016-03-01

    Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) exhibit extreme differences in coloration of skin, eggs and flesh due to genetic polymorphisms affecting carotenoid deposition, where colour can range from white to bright red. A sympatric population of red and white Chinook salmon occurs in the Quesnel River, British Columbia, where frequencies of each phenotype are relatively equal. In our study, we examined evolutionary mechanisms responsible for the maintenance of the morphs, where we first tested whether morphs were reproductively isolated using microsatellite genotyping, and second, using breeding trials in seminatural spawning channels, we tested whether colour assortative mate choice could be operating to maintain the polymorphism in nature. Next, given extreme difference in carotenoid assimilation and the importance of carotenoids to immune function, we examined mate choice and selection between colour morphs at immune genes (major histocompatibility complex genes: MHC I-A1 and MHC II-B1). In our study, red and white individuals were found to interbreed, and under seminatural conditions, some degree of colour assortative mate choice (71% of matings) was observed. We found significant genetic differences at both MHC genes between morphs, but no evidence of MHC II-B1-based mate choice. White individuals were more heterozygous at MHC II-B1 compared with red individuals, and morphs showed significant allele frequency differences at MHC I-A1. Although colour assortative mate choice is likely not a primary mechanism maintaining the polymorphisms in the population, our results suggest that selection is operating differentially at immune genes in red and white Chinook salmon, possibly due to differences in carotenoid utilization. PMID:26836978

  12. Heat Acclimation and Water-Immersion Deconditioning: Responses to Exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shvartz, E.; Bhattacharya, A.; Sperinde, S. J.; Brock, P. J.; Sciaraffa, D.; Haines, R. F.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    Simulated subgravity conditions, such as bed rest and water immersion, cause a decrease in a acceleration tolerance (3, 4), tilt tolerance (3, 9, 10), work capacity (5, 7), and plasma volume (1, 8-10). Moderate exercise training performed during bed rest (4) and prior to water immersion (5) provides some protection against the adverse effects of deconditioning, but the relationship between exercise and changes due to deconditioning remains unclear. Heat acclimation increases plasma and interstitial volumes, total body water, stroke volume (11), and tilt tolerance (6) and may, therefore, be a more efficient method of ameliorating deconditioning than physical training alone. The present study was undertaken to determine the effects of heat acclimation and moderate physical training, performed in cool conditions, on water-immersion deconditioning.

  13. Degradation of mono-fluorophenols by an acclimated activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Chaojie, Zhang; Qi, Zhou; Ling, Chen; Yuan, Yuan; Hui, Yu

    2007-02-01

    Acclimated activated sludge was examined for its ability to degrade mono-fluorophenols as the sole carbon source in aerobic batch cultures. The acclimated activated sludge degraded fluorophenol efficiently. It degraded 100 mg/l 3-fluoropheno and 4-fluorophenol in 16 h with, respectively, 99.85% and 99.91% fluoride anion release and it degraded 50 mg/l 2-fluorophenol in 15 h with 99.26% fluoride anion release. The aerobic biodegradability of the mono-fluorophenols decreased in the order: 4-fluorophenol > 3-fluorophenol > 2-fluorophenol, resulting mainly from a different octanol/water partition coefficient and different steric parameter of the fluorophenols. The mechanism study revealed that the initial step in the aerobic biodegradation of mono-fluorophenols by the activated sludge was their transformation to fluorocatechol. Following transformation of the fluorophenol to fluorocatechol, ring cleavage by catechol 1, 2-dioxygenases proceeded via an ortho-cleavage pathway, then defluorination occurred. PMID:16819592

  14. Metabolic acclimation to low temperature anoxia in cereals

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, C.J.; Hope, H.J. )

    1989-04-01

    Cold hardened seedlings of winter wheat, but not winter barley show an anaerobic acclimation response in which low temperature flooding increases the survival of plants in subsequent ice encasement at {minus}1{degrees}C. Previous flooding increases the level of total adenylates by about 40%, but the level declines throughout the ice exposure whether the plants are flooded or not. Barley shows a faster decline particularly in those plants previously flooded. ATP:ADP ratios increase, or are maintained in wheat plants briefly ice encased after flooding, but not in barley plants so treated. Activity of alcohol dehydrogenase and phosphofructokinase is higher in plants briefly ice encased after flooding indicating an increase in glycolytic rate. Winter wheat administered {sup 35}S methionine shows a change in radioactive proteins synthesized in 4 days of low temperature flooding, supporting the physiological evidence of acclimation.

  15. Acclimation strategy to increase phenol tolerance of an anaerobic microbiota.

    PubMed

    Madigou, Céline; Poirier, Simon; Bureau, Chrystelle; Chapleur, Olivier

    2016-09-01

    A wide variety of inhibitory substances can induce anaerobic digester upset or failure. In this work the possibility to improve the resistance of an anaerobic microbiota to a common pollutant, the phenol, was evaluated in a lab-scale semi-continuous bioreactor. An acclimation strategy, consisting in a regular step-wise adaptation of the microbiota to stressful condition was employed. Degradation performances were monitored and molecular tools (16S sequencing and ARISA fingerprinting technique) were used to track changes in the microbial community. The acclimation strategy progressively minimized the effect of phenol on degradation performances. After 3 successive disturbance episodes, microbiota resistance was considerably developed and total inhibition threshold increased from 895 to 1942mg/L of phenol. Microbiota adaptation was characterized by the selection of the most resistant Archaea OTU from Methanobacterium genus and an important elasticity of Bacteria, especially within Clostridiales and Bacteroidales orders, that probably enabled the adaptation to more and more stressful conditions. PMID:27233100

  16. Extensive Acclimation in Ectotherms Conceals Interspecific Variation in Thermal Tolerance Limits.

    PubMed

    Pintor, Anna F V; Schwarzkopf, Lin; Krockenberger, Andrew K

    2016-01-01

    Species' tolerance limits determine their capacity to tolerate climatic extremes and limit their potential distributions. Interspecific variation in thermal tolerances is often proposed to indicate climatic vulnerability and is, therefore, the subject of many recent meta-studies on differential capacities of species from climatically different habitats to deal with climate change. Most studies on thermal tolerances do not acclimate animals or use inconsistent, and insufficient, acclimation times, limiting our knowledge of the shape, duration and extent of acclimation responses. Consequently patterns in thermal tolerances observed in meta-analyses, based on data from the literature are based on inconsistent, partial acclimation and true trends may be obscured. In this study we describe time-course of complete acclimation of critical thermal minima in the tropical ectotherm Carlia longipes and compare it to the average acclimation response of other reptiles, estimated from published data, to assess how much acclimation time may contribute to observed differences in thermal limits. Carlia longipes decreased their lower critical thermal limits by 2.4°C and completed 95% of acclimation in 17 weeks. Wild populations did not mirror this acclimation process over the winter. Other reptiles appear to decrease cold tolerance more quickly (95% in 7 weeks) and to a greater extent, with an estimated average acclimation response of 6.1°C. However, without data on tolerances after longer acclimation times available, our capacity to estimate final acclimation state is very limited. Based on the subset of data available for meta-analysis, much of the variation in cold tolerance observed in the literature can be attributed to acclimation time. Our results indicate that (i) acclimation responses can be slow and substantial, even in tropical species, and (ii) interspecific differences in acclimation speed and extent may obscure trends assessed in some meta-studies. Cold tolerances of

  17. Extensive Acclimation in Ectotherms Conceals Interspecific Variation in Thermal Tolerance Limits

    PubMed Central

    Pintor, Anna F. V.; Schwarzkopf, Lin; Krockenberger, Andrew K.

    2016-01-01

    Species’ tolerance limits determine their capacity to tolerate climatic extremes and limit their potential distributions. Interspecific variation in thermal tolerances is often proposed to indicate climatic vulnerability and is, therefore, the subject of many recent meta-studies on differential capacities of species from climatically different habitats to deal with climate change. Most studies on thermal tolerances do not acclimate animals or use inconsistent, and insufficient, acclimation times, limiting our knowledge of the shape, duration and extent of acclimation responses. Consequently patterns in thermal tolerances observed in meta-analyses, based on data from the literature are based on inconsistent, partial acclimation and true trends may be obscured. In this study we describe time-course of complete acclimation of critical thermal minima in the tropical ectotherm Carlia longipes and compare it to the average acclimation response of other reptiles, estimated from published data, to assess how much acclimation time may contribute to observed differences in thermal limits. Carlia longipes decreased their lower critical thermal limits by 2.4°C and completed 95% of acclimation in 17 weeks. Wild populations did not mirror this acclimation process over the winter. Other reptiles appear to decrease cold tolerance more quickly (95% in 7 weeks) and to a greater extent, with an estimated average acclimation response of 6.1°C. However, without data on tolerances after longer acclimation times available, our capacity to estimate final acclimation state is very limited. Based on the subset of data available for meta-analysis, much of the variation in cold tolerance observed in the literature can be attributed to acclimation time. Our results indicate that (i) acclimation responses can be slow and substantial, even in tropical species, and (ii) interspecific differences in acclimation speed and extent may obscure trends assessed in some meta-studies. Cold tolerances

  18. A Virus-like disease of chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, A.J.; Pelnar, J.; Rucker, R.R.

    1960-01-01

    Consideration is given to a recurring disease of early feeding chinook salmon fingerlings at the Coleman, California, Federal Fish Cultural Station. The infection becomes manifest in the early spring months at low water temperatures and abates as the water temperature rises. Bacteriological studies have failed to yield the presence of a disease agent, either by cultural or staining procedures. The disease has been successfully transmitted from infected fish to healthy fish by the injection of bacteria-free filtrates prepared from diseased fish tissue. The causative agent is therefore believed to be a virus-like entity.

  19. Impact of stressors on transmission potential of Renibacterium salmoninarum in Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Winton, James R.

    2014-01-01

    DNA in fish dually-infected with R. salmoninarum. Overall, results in Aim 1 indicated: 1) that the experimental diets impacted bacterial but not parasitic infection patterns, 2) that low thiamine levels may reduce the severity of R. salmoninarum infection, and 3) that fish infected with R. salmoninarum may be less able to clear a secondary infection with a parasite. The second study (Aim 2) focused on the role that temperature plays in the progression of BKD from the asymptomatic infected state to a diseased state. Lake Michigan Chinook salmon were infected with R. salmoninarum at a common intermediate water temperature and, at 2 weeks post-infection, were split into three temperature groups (cool, intermediate and warm). Fish held at the cool temperature (8°C) had significantly greater mortality following challenge, significantly higher levels of bacteria in the kidney, and shed significantly greater amounts of bacteria into the water relative to fish held at the intermediate (12°C) and warm (15°C) temperatures. Thus, our results support the hypothesis that, for BKD, warm temperature stress does not contribute to greater disease progression and increased bacterial shedding. Our laboratory results are consistent with field epidemiological observations that BKD mortality in the Great Lakes is commonly associated with declining water temperatures in the fall or when water temperatures begin to increase but are still cool after over-wintering. 

  20. Behavior and passage of juvenile salmonids during the evaluation of a behavioral guidance structure at Cowlitz Falls Dam, Washington, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kock, Tobias J.; Liedtke, Theresa L.; Ekstrom, Brian K.; Tomka, Ryan G.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    2012-01-01

    Tagged fish that arrived at Cowlitz Falls Dam were distributed across the dam face but a high percentage of each species (65 percent of steelhead; 61 percent of coho salmon; 71 percent of Chinook salmon) arrived on the northern side of the dam. Movement probabilities near spillbays 1 and 4 showed a strong preference for tagged fish to move from the outer edges of the dam towards the center of the dam where they were detected at the debris barrier (range of probabilities = 0.690–0.841). We found that 76 percent of the steelhead, 61 percent of the coho salmon, and 92 percent of the Chinook salmon were detected at spillbays 2 or 3 during the study. This

  1. Chlorophyll Fluorescence Analysis of Cyanobacterial Photosynthesis and Acclimation

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Douglas; Hurry, Vaughan; Clarke, Adrian K.; Gustafsson, Petter; Öquist, Gunnar

    1998-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are ecologically important photosynthetic prokaryotes that also serve as popular model organisms for studies of photosynthesis and gene regulation. Both molecular and ecological studies of cyanobacteria benefit from real-time information on photosynthesis and acclimation. Monitoring in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence can provide noninvasive measures of photosynthetic physiology in a wide range of cyanobacteria and cyanolichens and requires only small samples. Cyanobacterial fluorescence patterns are distinct from those of plants, because of key structural and functional properties of cyanobacteria. These include significant fluorescence emission from the light-harvesting phycobiliproteins; large and rapid changes in fluorescence yield (state transitions) which depend on metabolic and environmental conditions; and flexible, overlapping respiratory and photosynthetic electron transport chains. The fluorescence parameters FV/FM, FV′/FM′,qp,qN, NPQ, and φPS II were originally developed to extract information from the fluorescence signals of higher plants. In this review, we consider how the special properties of cyanobacteria can be accommodated and used to extract biologically useful information from cyanobacterial in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence signals. We describe how the pattern of fluorescence yield versus light intensity can be used to predict the acclimated light level for a cyanobacterial population, giving information valuable for both laboratory and field studies of acclimation processes. The size of the change in fluorescence yield during dark-to-light transitions can provide information on respiration and the iron status of the cyanobacteria. Finally, fluorescence parameters can be used to estimate the electron transport rate at the acclimated growth light intensity. PMID:9729605

  2. Emigration of Natural and Hatchery Naco x (Chinook salmon; Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Heeyey (Steelhead; Oncorhynchus mykiss) Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon from 5 October 2006 to 21 June 2007, Annual Report 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Michaels, Brian; Espinosa, Neal

    2009-02-18

    and past dams on the Snake River and Columbia River. In season indices of migration strength and migration timing are provided for the run-at large at key monitoring sites. Marked smolts are utilized to measure travel time and estimate survival through key index reaches. Fish quality and descaling measures are recorded at each monitoring site and provide indicators of the health of the run. Co-managers in the Imnaha River subbasin (Ecovista 2004) have identified the need to collect information on life history, migration patterns, juvenile emigrant abundance, reach specific smolt survivals, and Smolt-to-Adult Return rates (SAR's) for both Heeyey (steelhead) and Naco x (Chinook salmon) smolts. The current study provides information related to the majority of the high priority data needs. Current funding does not allow for determination of a total (annual) juvenile emigrant abundance and lack of adult passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag detectors at the mouth of the Imnaha River results in the inability to calculate tributary specific SAR's. Information is shared with the Fish Passage Center (FPC) on a real time basis during the spring emigration period. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) contracted the NPT to monitor emigration timing and tag up to 19,000 emigrating natural and hatchery Naco x (Chinook salmon) and Heeyey (steelhead) smolts from the Imnaha River with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. The completion of trapping in the spring of 2007 marked the 16th year of emigration studies on the Imnaha River, and the 14th year of participating in the FPC smolt monitoring program. Monitoring and evaluation objectives were to: (1) Evaluate effects of flow, temperature and other environmental factors on juvenile migration timing. (2) Determine emigration timing, travel time, and in-river survival of PIT tagged hatchery Naco x (Chinook salmon) smolts released at the Imnaha River acclimation

  3. Cold acclimation wholly reorganizes the Drosophila melanogaster transcriptome and metabolome.

    PubMed

    MacMillan, Heath A; Knee, Jose M; Dennis, Alice B; Udaka, Hiroko; Marshall, Katie E; Merritt, Thomas J S; Sinclair, Brent J

    2016-01-01

    Cold tolerance is a key determinant of insect distribution and abundance, and thermal acclimation can strongly influence organismal stress tolerance phenotypes, particularly in small ectotherms like Drosophila. However, there is limited understanding of the molecular and biochemical mechanisms that confer such impressive plasticity. Here, we use high-throughput mRNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to compare the transcriptomes and metabolomes of D. melanogaster acclimated as adults to warm (rearing) (21.5 °C) or cold conditions (6 °C). Cold acclimation improved cold tolerance and led to extensive biological reorganization: almost one third of the transcriptome and nearly half of the metabolome were differentially regulated. There was overlap in the metabolic pathways identified via transcriptomics and metabolomics, with proline and glutathione metabolism being the most strongly-supported metabolic pathways associated with increased cold tolerance. We discuss several new targets in the study of insect cold tolerance (e.g. dopamine signaling and Na(+)-driven transport), but many previously identified candidate genes and pathways (e.g. heat shock proteins, Ca(2+) signaling, and ROS detoxification) were also identified in the present study, and our results are thus consistent with and extend the current understanding of the mechanisms of insect chilling tolerance. PMID:27357258

  4. In-storage psychrophilic anaerobic digestion: acclimated microbial kinetics.

    PubMed

    King, Susan; Courvoisier, Pierre; Guiot, Serge; Barrington, Suzelle

    2012-01-01

    In-storage psychrophilic anaerobic digestion develops by microbial acclimation in covered swine-manure storage tanks, producing CH4 and stabilizing organic matter. To optimize the system's performance, the process kinetics must be understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate kinetic parameters describing the major stages in the digestion process, and to investigate the effect of temperature acclimation on these parameters. Specific activity tests were performed using manure inocula and five substrates at three incubation temperatures. Extant substrate activities were determined analytically for each case, and intrinsic kinetic parameters for glucose uptake were estimated by grid search fitting to the Monod model. The results demonstrate that this acclimated microbial community exhibits different kinetic parameters to those of the mesophilic communities currently modelled in the literature, with increased activity at low temperatures, varying with substrate and temperature. For glucose, the higher uptake is accompanied by lower microbial yield and half-saturation constant. Decomposing these values suggests that active psychrophilic and mesophilic microbial populations co-exist within the community. This work also confirms that a new method of assessing microbial substrate kinetics must be developed for manure microbial communities, separating microbial mass from other suspended organics. PMID:22988638

  5. Acclimation of photosynthesis to low leaf water potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, M.A.; Boyer, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    Photosynthesis is reduced at low leaf water potentials (PSI/sub l/) but repeated water deficits can decrease this reduction, resulting in photosynthetic acclimation. The contribution of the stomata and the chloroplasts to this acclimation is unknown. The authors evaluated stomatal and chloroplast contributions when soil-grown sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants were subjected to water deficit pretreatments for 2 weeks. The relationship between photosynthesis and PSI/sub l/, determined from gas-exchange and isopiestic thermocouple psychometry, was shifted 3 to 4 bars towards lower PSI/sub l/ in pretreated plants. Leaf diffusive resistance was similarly affected. Chloroplast activity, demonstrated in situ with measurements of quantum yield and the capacity to fix CO/sub 2/ at all partial pressures of CO/sub 2/, and in vitro by photosystem II activity of isolated organelles, was inhibited at low PSI/sub l/ but less in pretreated plants than in control plants. The magnitude of this inhibition indicated that decreases in chloroplast activity contributed more than closure of stomata both to losses in photosynthesis and to the acclimation of photosynthesis to low PSI/sub l/. 32 references, 8 figures.

  6. Cardiovascular adaptations supporting human exercise-heat acclimation.

    PubMed

    Périard, Julien D; Travers, Gavin J S; Racinais, Sébastien; Sawka, Michael N

    2016-04-01

    This review examines the cardiovascular adaptations along with total body water and plasma volume adjustments that occur in parallel with improved heat loss responses during exercise-heat acclimation. The cardiovascular system is well recognized as an important contributor to exercise-heat acclimation that acts to minimize physiological strain, reduce the risk of serious heat illness and better sustain exercise capacity. The upright posture adopted by humans during most physical activities and the large skin surface area contribute to the circulatory and blood pressure regulation challenge of simultaneously supporting skeletal muscle blood flow and dissipating heat via increased skin blood flow and sweat secretion during exercise-heat stress. Although it was traditionally held that cardiac output increased during exercise-heat stress to primarily support elevated skin blood flow requirements, recent evidence suggests that temperature-sensitive mechanisms may also mediate an elevation in skeletal muscle blood flow. The cardiovascular adaptations supporting this challenge include an increase in total body water, plasma volume expansion, better sustainment and/or elevation of stroke volume, reduction in heart rate, improvement in ventricular filling and myocardial efficiency, and enhanced skin blood flow and sweating responses. The magnitude of these adaptations is variable and dependent on several factors such as exercise intensity, duration of exposure, frequency and total number of exposures, as well as the environmental conditions (i.e. dry or humid heat) in which acclimation occurs. PMID:26905458

  7. Cold acclimation wholly reorganizes the Drosophila melanogaster transcriptome and metabolome

    PubMed Central

    MacMillan, Heath A.; Knee, Jose M.; Dennis, Alice B.; Udaka, Hiroko; Marshall, Katie E.; Merritt, Thomas J. S.; Sinclair, Brent J.

    2016-01-01

    Cold tolerance is a key determinant of insect distribution and abundance, and thermal acclimation can strongly influence organismal stress tolerance phenotypes, particularly in small ectotherms like Drosophila. However, there is limited understanding of the molecular and biochemical mechanisms that confer such impressive plasticity. Here, we use high-throughput mRNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and liquid chromatography – mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to compare the transcriptomes and metabolomes of D. melanogaster acclimated as adults to warm (rearing) (21.5 °C) or cold conditions (6 °C). Cold acclimation improved cold tolerance and led to extensive biological reorganization: almost one third of the transcriptome and nearly half of the metabolome were differentially regulated. There was overlap in the metabolic pathways identified via transcriptomics and metabolomics, with proline and glutathione metabolism being the most strongly-supported metabolic pathways associated with increased cold tolerance. We discuss several new targets in the study of insect cold tolerance (e.g. dopamine signaling and Na+-driven transport), but many previously identified candidate genes and pathways (e.g. heat shock proteins, Ca2+ signaling, and ROS detoxification) were also identified in the present study, and our results are thus consistent with and extend the current understanding of the mechanisms of insect chilling tolerance. PMID:27357258

  8. Plasma aldosterone and sweat sodium concentrations after exercise and heat acclimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirby, C. R.; Convertino, V. A.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between plasma aldosterone levels and sweat sodium excretion after chronic exercise and heat acclimation was investigated, using subjects exercised, at 40 C and 45 percent humidity, for 2 h/day on ten consecutive days at 45 percent of their maximal oxygen uptake. The data indicate that, following heat acclimation, plasma aldosterone concentrations decrease, and that the eccrine gland responsiveness to aldosterone, as represented by sweat sodium reabsorption, may be augmented through exercise and heat acclimation.

  9. Comparison of 180-degree and 90-degree needle rotation to reduce wound size in PIT-injected juvenile Chinook salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Bryson, Amanda J.; Woodley, Christa M.; Karls, Rhonda K.; Hall, Kathleen D.; Weiland, Mark A.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Eppard, Matthew B.

    2013-04-30

    Animal telemetry, which requires the implantation of passive transponders or active transmitters, is used to monitor and assess fish stock and conservation to gain an understanding of fish movement and behavior. As new telemetry technologies become available, studies of their effects on species of interest are imperative as is development of implantation techniques. In this study, we investigated the effects of bevel rotation (0-, 90-, 180-degree axis rotation) on wound extent, tag loss, and wound healing rates in juvenile Chinook salmon injected with an 8-gauge needle, which is required for implantation of the novel injectable Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry Systems (JSATS) acoustic transmitter or large passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. Although the injection sites were not closed after injection (e.g., with sutures or glue), there were no mortalities, dropped tags, or indications of fungus, ulceration, and/or redness around the wound. On Day 0 and post-implantation Day 7, the 90-degree bevel rotation produced smaller wound extent than the 180-degree bevel rotation. No axis rotation (0-degrees) resulted in the PIT tag frequently misleading or falling out upon injection. The results of this study indicated the 90-degree bevel rotation was the more efficient technique, produced less wound extent. Given the wound extent compared to size of fish, we recommend researchers should consider a 90-degree rotation over the 180-degree rotation in telemetry studies. Highlights •Three degrees of needle rotation were examined for effects in Chinook salmon. •Mortality, tag loss, wound extent, healing, and infection indicators were measured. •There were no mortalities, tag loss, or indications of infection. •The 90-degree needle rotation through Day 7 produced the smallest wound extent.

  10. Drought Stress Acclimation Imparts Tolerance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Pseudomonas syringae in Nicotiana benthamiana

    PubMed Central

    Ramegowda, Venkategowda; Senthil-Kumar, Muthappa; Ishiga, Yasuhiro; Kaundal, Amita; Udayakumar, Makarla; Mysore, Kirankumar S.

    2013-01-01

    Acclimation of plants with an abiotic stress can impart tolerance to some biotic stresses. Such a priming response has not been widely studied. In particular, little is known about enhanced defense capacity of drought stress acclimated plants to fungal and bacterial pathogens. Here we show that prior drought acclimation in Nicotiana benthamiana plants imparts tolerance to necrotrophic fungus, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and also to hemi-biotrophic bacterial pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci. S. sclerotiorum inoculation on N. benthamiana plants acclimated with drought stress lead to less disease-induced cell death compared to non-acclimated plants. Furthermore, inoculation of P. syringae pv. tabaci on N. benthamiana plants acclimated to moderate drought stress showed reduced disease symptoms. The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in drought acclimated plants were highly correlated with disease resistance. Further, in planta growth of GFPuv expressing P. syringae pv. tabaci on plants pre-treated with methyl viologen showed complete inhibition of bacterial growth. Taken together, these experimental results suggested a role for ROS generated during drought acclimation in imparting tolerance against S. sclerotiorum and P. syringae pv. tabaci. We speculate that the generation of ROS during drought acclimation primed a defense response in plants that subsequently caused the tolerance against the pathogens tested. PMID:23644883

  11. Qualitative modification of muscle metabolic organization with thermal acclimation of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Guderley, H; Gawlicka, A

    1992-08-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were acclimated to 4 and 18°C and fed at rations levels which led to an equal change in mass at these temperatures during the six week acclimation. Thermal acclimation markedly modified the metabolic organization of red and white muscle. Cold-acclimated fish had activities of β-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase in both red and white muscle that were twice those of warm-acclimated fish. By contrast, the activities of cytochrome oxidase were unchanged by thermal acclimation. Thus, the capacity for β-oxidation of lipids is specifically enhanced in the muscle of cold-acclimated trout. In white muscle, citrate synthase and phosphofructokinase activities were also enhanced by cold acclimation (increases of 125% and 35% respectively), while cytochrome oxidase levels were unchanged. The non-parallel changes in the activities of mitochondrial enzymes strongly suggest that trout muscle mitochondria undergo qualitative reorganization during cold acclimation. The relative activities of mitochondrial enzymes suggest that mitochondria from red muscle have a threefold greater capacity to oxidize lipids than those from white muscle. PMID:24214209

  12. Transmission and persistence of Ceratonova shasta genotypes in Chinook salmon.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Charlene N; Wong, Peter; Hallett, Sascha L; Ray, R Adam; Bartholomew, Jerri L

    2014-12-01

    Ceratonova shasta is a myxozoan parasite of salmon and trout transmitted by waterborne actinospores. Based on DNA sequence data and host specificity, 4 distinct parasite genotypes are recognized. Genotypes I and II are common in the lower reaches of the Klamath River, Oregon-California, but only infection by genotype I causes mortality in Chinook salmon. We conducted sentinel fish exposures and determined genotype composition in river water during exposure, and in fish gills, intestine, and tank water post-exposure to determine whether: (1) transmission of parasites having different genotypes is host-specific and (2) all transmitted genotypes persist in the host through to release as waterborne stages. Initial parasite transmission to the fish host appears indiscriminant, since we detected both genotypes I and II in 83.6% of the fish gills sampled. However, only genotype I was detected in fish that succumbed to infection, while both genotypes persisted in fish that survived. Persistence was likely dependent on exposure dose, initial infection type (mixed or single) and infection outcome (mortality or survival). The transmission of both genotypes to a majority of Chinook salmon and the persistence of multiple genotypes raises questions about how infection with mixed genotypes could result in within-host interactions that affect disease severity. PMID:24945751

  13. Oxidative stress in juvenile chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welker, T.L.; Congleton, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    Juvenile chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), were held in 8-11??C freshwater, starved for 3 days and subjected to a low-water stressor to determine the relationship between the general stress response and oxidative stress. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels (lipid hydroperoxides) were measured in kidney, liver and brain samples taken at the beginning of the experiment (0-h unstressed controls) and at 6, 24 and 48 h after application of a continuous low-water stressor. Tissue samples were also taken at 48 h from fish that had not been exposed to the stressor (48-h unstressed controls). Exposure to the low-water stressor affected LPO in kidney and brain tissues. In kidney, LPO decreased 6 h after imposition of the stressor; similar but less pronounced decreases also occurred in the liver and brain. At 48 h, LPO increased (in comparison with 6-h stressed tissues) in the kidney and brain. In comparison with 48-h unstressed controls, LPO levels were higher in the kidney and brain of stressed fish. Although preliminary, results suggest that stress can cause oxidative tissue damage in juvenile chinook salmon. Measures of oxidative stress have shown similar responses to stress in mammals; however, further research is needed to determine the extent of the stress-oxidative stress relationship and the underlying physiological mechanisms in fish.

  14. Smolt Quality Assessment of Spring Chinook Salmon : Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zaugg, Waldo S.

    1991-04-01

    The physiological development and physiological condition of spring chinook salmon are being studied at several hatcheries in the Columbia River Basin. The purpose of the study is to determine whether any or several smolt indices can be related to adult recovery and be used to improve hatchery effectiveness. The tests conducted in 1989 on juvenile chinook salmon at Dworshak, Leavenworth, and Warm Springs National Fish Hatcheries, and the Oregon State Willamette Hatchery assessed saltwater tolerance, gill ATPase, cortisol, insulin, thyroid hormones, secondary stress, fish morphology, metabolic energy stores, immune response, blood cell numbers, and plasma ion concentrations. The study showed that smolt development may have occurred before the fish were released from the Willamette Hatchery, but not from the Dworshak, Leavenworth, or Warm Springs Hatcheries. These results will be compared to adult recovery data when they become available, to determine which smolt quality indices may be used to predict adult recovery. The relative rankings of smolt quality at the different hatcheries do not necessarily reflect the competency of the hatchery managers and staff, who have shown a high degree of professionalism and expertise in fish rearing. We believe that the differences in smolt quality are due to the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. One aim of this research is to identify factors that influence smolt development and that may be controlled through fish husbandry to regulate smolt development. 35 refs., 27 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Ontogeny of the stress response in chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feist, G.; Schreck, C.B.

    2001-01-01

    Whole body concentrations of cortisol were determined via radioimmunoassay in chinook salmon, Onchorynchus tshawytscha, during early development in both stressed and non-stressed fish to determine when the corticosteroidogenic stress response first appeared. Progeny from both pooled and individual females were examined to determine if differences existed in offspring from different females. Levels of cortisol were low in eyed eggs, increased at hatch, decreased 2 weeks later and then remained constant thereafter. Differences in cortisol between stressed and control fish were found 1 week after hatch and persisted for the remainder of the study. The magnitude of the stress response, or relative amount of cortisol produced, generally increased from the time when it was first detected, but a decrease in the ability to elicit cortisol was seen 4 weeks after hatching. Cortisol content of separate progeny from two individual females showed a similar pattern to that seen in pooled eggs. Our results indicate that chinook salmon are capable of producing cortisol following a stressful event approximately 1 week after the time of hatching. The decrease in endogenous cortisol content seen 2 weeks after hatching, and the decrease in the magnitude of the stress response seen 4 weeks after hatching may be comparable to developmental events documented in mammals where corticosteroid synthesis is inhibited to neutralize possible detrimental effects of these hormones during critical periods of development.

  16. Proteomic Analysis of Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Ovarian Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sheri L.; Villarroel, Marsha; Rosengrave, Patrice; Carne, Alan; Kleffmann, Torsten; Lokman, P. Mark; Gemmell, Neil J.

    2014-01-01

    The ovarian, or coelomic, fluid that is released with the egg mass of many fishes is increasingly found to play an important role in several biological processes crucial for reproductive success. These include maintenance of oocyte fertility and developmental competence, prolonging of sperm motility, and enhancing sperm swimming speed. Here we examined if and how the proteome of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) ovarian fluid varied among females and then sought to examine the composition of this fluid. Ovarian fluid in chinook salmon was analyzed using 1D SDS PAGE and LC-MS/MS tryptic digest screened against Mascot and Sequest databases. We found marked differences in the number and concentrations of proteins in salmon ovarian fluid across different females. A total of 174 proteins were identified in ovarian fluid, 47 of which were represented by six or more peptides, belonging to one of six Gene Ontology pathways. The response to chemical stimulus and response to hypoxia pathways were best represented, accounting for 26 of the 174 proteins. The current data set provides a resource that furthers our understanding of those factors that influence successful egg production and fertilisation in salmonids and other species. PMID:25089903

  17. Proteomic analysis of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) ovarian fluid.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sheri L; Villarroel, Marsha; Rosengrave, Patrice; Carne, Alan; Kleffmann, Torsten; Lokman, P Mark; Gemmell, Neil J

    2014-01-01

    The ovarian, or coelomic, fluid that is released with the egg mass of many fishes is increasingly found to play an important role in several biological processes crucial for reproductive success. These include maintenance of oocyte fertility and developmental competence, prolonging of sperm motility, and enhancing sperm swimming speed. Here we examined if and how the proteome of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) ovarian fluid varied among females and then sought to examine the composition of this fluid. Ovarian fluid in chinook salmon was analyzed using 1D SDS PAGE and LC-MS/MS tryptic digest screened against Mascot and Sequest databases. We found marked differences in the number and concentrations of proteins in salmon ovarian fluid across different females. A total of 174 proteins were identified in ovarian fluid, 47 of which were represented by six or more peptides, belonging to one of six Gene Ontology pathways. The response to chemical stimulus and response to hypoxia pathways were best represented, accounting for 26 of the 174 proteins. The current data set provides a resource that furthers our understanding of those factors that influence successful egg production and fertilisation in salmonids and other species. PMID:25089903

  18. Comparing the Reproductive Success of Yakima River Hatchery-and Wild-Origin Spring Chinook; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Schroder, S.L.; Knudsen, C.M.; Rau, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    In the Yakima Spring Chinook supplementation program, wild fish are brought into the Cle Elum Hatchery, artificially crossed, reared, transferred to acclimation sites, and released into the upper Yakima River as smolts. When these fish mature and return to the Yakima River most of them will be allowed to spawn naturally; a few, however, will be brought back to the hatchery and used for research purposes. In order for this supplementation approach to be successful, hatchery-origin fish must be able to spawn and produce offspring under natural conditions. Recent investigations on salmonid fishes have indicated that exposure to hatchery environments during juvenile life may cause significant behavioral, physiological, and morphological changes in adult fish. These changes appear to reduce the reproductive competence of hatchery fish. In general, males are more affected than females; species with prolonged freshwater rearing periods are more strongly impacted than those with shorter rearing periods; and stocks that have been exposed to artificial culture for multiple generations are more impaired than those with a relatively short exposure history to hatchery conditions.

  19. Effectiveness of an integrated hatchery program: Can genetic-based performance differences between hatchery and wild Chinook salmon be avoided?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, Michael C.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Drake, Deanne C.; Stenberg, Karl D.; Young, Sewall F.

    2013-01-01

    Performance of wild (W) and hatchery (H) spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) was evaluated for a sixth generation hatchery program. Management techniques to minimize genetic divergence from the wild stock included regular use of wild broodstock and volitional releases of juveniles. Performance of HH, WW, and HW (hatchery female spawned with wild male) crosses was compared in hatchery and stream environments. The WW juveniles emigrated from the hatchery at two to three times the rate of HH fish in the fall (HW intermediate) and 35% more HH than WW adults returned (27% more HW than WW adults). Performance in the stream did not differ statistically between HH and WW fish, but outmigrants (38% WW, 30% HW, and 32% HH fish) during the first 39 days of the 16-month sampling period composed 74% of total outmigrants. Differences among hatchery-reared crosses were partially due to additive genetic effects, were consistent with domestication (increased fitness for the hatchery population in the hatchery program), and suggested that selection against fall emigration from the hatchery was a possible mechanism of domestication.

  20. Student Enrollments, Fall 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Higher Education, Little Rock.

    This document presents demographic information about enrollment at public and independent institutions of higher education in Arkansas as of fall 1995. A listing of abbreviations for the public four-year, public two-year, and independent institutions is followed by a map of their locations. An executive summary identifies highlights such as the…

  1. Falling into Winter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Carolyn Lang

    2000-01-01

    Presents an activity that connects art, science, and nature in which elementary school students learn about deciduous trees. Explains that students create a torn-tissue collage, using fall colors for a background and drawing a silhouette of a tree without leaves on top of the background with black crayon. (CMK)

  2. Editors' Fall Picks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilbrun, Margaret; McCormack, Heather; Katterjohn, Anna; Kuzyk, Raya; Roncevic, Mirela; Fox, Bette-Lee; Hoffert, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    "Library Journal's" review editors select fall titles readers won't want to miss--"Waiting on a Train: The Embattled Future of Passenger Rail Service" (James McCommons); "Happy" (Alex Lemon); "Free for All: Joe Papp, the Public, and the Greatest Theater Story Ever Told" (Kenneth Turan & Joseph Papp); "In My Father's Shadow: A Daughter Remembers…

  3. Fall 2013 International Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Evaluation Association, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This Fall report is an aggregated statistical analysis of Measures of Academic Progress® (MAP®) data from international schools. The report provides a consistent means of comparisons of specific sub-groups by subject and grade, which allows partners to compare their MAP® results with other schools within their region or membership organization.…

  4. The News, Fall 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Ray, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This fall 2002 newsletter from the Community College League of California contains several articles, news stories, and the brochure from the 2002 Annual Convention, "Celebrating the Way California LEARNS." Articles include: (1) "Nursing Shortage Poses Dilemma for Colleges: Access vs. Efficiency," a discussion of the debate over how to increase the…

  5. Freshmen Survey. Fall 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodyear, Don

    In 1985, College of the Sequoias (COS) was asked by the Cooperative Institutional Research Program (conducted jointly by the American Council on Education and the University of California, Los Angeles) to participate in a survey of incoming freshmen for the fall 1985 semester. During the summer counseling session, 259 new COS freshmen were…

  6. Cross Acclimation between Heat and Hypoxia: Heat Acclimation Improves Cellular Tolerance and Exercise Performance in Acute Normobaric Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ben J.; Miller, Amanda; James, Rob S.; Thake, Charles D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The potential for cross acclimation between environmental stressors is not well understood. Thus, the aim of this investigation was to determine the effect of fixed-workload heat or hypoxic acclimation on cellular, physiological, and performance responses during post acclimation hypoxic exercise in humans. Method: Twenty-one males (age 22 ± 5 years; stature 1.76 ± 0.07 m; mass 71.8 ± 7.9 kg; V˙O2 peak 51 ± 7 mL.kg−1.min−1) completed a cycling hypoxic stress test (HST) and self-paced 16.1 km time trial (TT) before (HST1, TT1), and after (HST2, TT2) a series of 10 daily 60 min training sessions (50% N V˙O2 peak) in control (CON, n = 7; 18°C, 35% RH), hypoxic (HYP, n = 7; fraction of inspired oxygen = 0.14, 18°C, 35% RH), or hot (HOT, n = 7; 40°C, 25% RH) conditions. Results: TT performance in hypoxia was improved following both acclimation treatments, HYP (−3:16 ± 3:10 min:s; p = 0.0006) and HOT (−2:02 ± 1:02 min:s; p = 0.005), but unchanged after CON (+0:31 ± 1:42 min:s). Resting monocyte heat shock protein 72 (mHSP72) increased prior to HST2 in HOT (62 ± 46%) and HYP (58 ± 52%), but was unchanged after CON (9 ± 46%), leading to an attenuated mHSP72 response to hypoxic exercise in HOT and HYP HST2 compared to HST1 (p < 0.01). Changes in extracellular hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α followed a similar pattern to those of mHSP72. Physiological strain index (PSI) was attenuated in HOT (HST1 = 4.12 ± 0.58, HST2 = 3.60 ± 0.42; p = 0.007) as a result of a reduced HR (HST1 = 140 ± 14 b.min−1; HST2 131 ± 9 b.min−1 p = 0.0006) and Trectal (HST1 = 37.55 ± 0.18°C; HST2 37.45 ± 0.14°C; p = 0.018) during exercise. Whereas PSI did not change in HYP (HST1 = 4.82 ± 0.64, HST2 4.83 ± 0.63). Conclusion: Heat acclimation improved cellular and systemic physiological tolerance to steady state exercise in moderate hypoxia. Additionally we show, for the first time, that heat acclimation improved cycling time trial performance to a magnitude

  7. Acclimation to ultraviolet irradiation affects UV-B sensitivity of Daphnia magna to several environmental toxicants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungkon; Lee, Minjung; Oh, Sorin; Ku, Ja-Lok; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Choi, Kyungho

    2009-12-01

    Phototoxicity of several environmental contaminants by UV light has been reported in many studies. Nevertheless, field observations suggest the presence of certain defense mechanisms that would protect aquatic organisms against phototoxic damages. The current study was conducted to understand the responses of aquatic receptors to phototoxic chemicals in a natural environment where low dose UV light is present and long-term acclimation to UV might have been taken place. For this purpose, the water flea Daphnia magna was acclimated to a non-lethal, environmentally relevant level of UV-B light for >20 successive generations. The differences in toxicity response were evaluated between the UV-B acclimated and the non-acclimated daphnids when they were exposed to phototoxic compounds such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (fluoranthene and pyrene), a pharmaceutical (sulfathiazole), or metals (Cd and Cu) under UV-B light. Following the UV-B acclimation, toxicity of metals under UV-B light significantly decreased (P<0.1) suggesting the defense/repair system which might be developed through acclimation. For PAHs and sulfathiazole, however the acclimation rendered organisms more susceptible (P<0.05). The metabolic cost incurred during the acclimation to UV-B stress may in part explain the organisms' reduced capacity to deal with other stressors. Addition of vitamin C significantly increased the resistance of UV-B acclimated individuals against Cu, while no change was observed for the other chemicals, suggesting that the mode of Cu phototoxicity is different from those of the other phototoxicants under UV-B light. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analyses showed that long-term acclimation to UV-B lead to notable changes in protein expression, which may be further evaluated to explain varying susceptibilities of the acclimated daphnids to different phototoxicants. PMID:19836821

  8. Host and parasite thermal acclimation responses depend on the stage of infection.

    PubMed

    Altman, Karie A; Paull, Sara H; Johnson, Pieter T J; Golembieski, Michelle N; Stephens, Jeffrey P; LaFonte, Bryan E; Raffel, Thomas R

    2016-07-01

    Global climate change is expected to alter patterns of temperature variability, which could influence species interactions including parasitism. Species interactions can be difficult to predict in variable-temperature environments because of thermal acclimation responses, i.e. physiological changes that allow organisms to adjust to a new temperature following a temperature shift. The goal of this study was to determine how thermal acclimation influences host resistance to infection and to test for parasite acclimation responses, which might differ from host responses in important ways. We tested predictions of three, non-mutually exclusive hypotheses regarding thermal acclimation effects on infection of green frog tadpoles (Lithobates clamitans) by the trematode parasite Ribeiroia ondatrae with fully replicated controlled-temperature experiments. Trematodes or tadpoles were independently acclimated to a range of 'acclimation temperatures' prior to shifting them to new 'performance temperatures' for experimental infections. Trematodes that were acclimated to intermediate temperatures (19-22 °C) had greater encystment success across temperatures than either cold- or warm-acclimated trematodes. However, host acclimation responses varied depending on the stage of infection (encystment vs. clearance): warm- (22-28 °C) and cold-acclimated (13-19 °C) tadpoles had fewer parasites encyst at warm and cold performance temperatures, respectively, whereas intermediate-acclimated tadpoles (19-25 °C) cleared the greatest proportion of parasites in the week following exposure. These results suggest that tadpoles use different immune mechanisms to resist different stages of trematode infection, and that each set of mechanisms has unique responses to temperature variability. Our results highlight the importance of considering thermal responses of both parasites and hosts when predicting disease patterns in variable-temperature environments. PMID:27040618

  9. NEW EYE DISEASE IN PEN-REARED CHINOOK SALMON CAUSED BY METACESTODES OF GILQUINIA SQUALI (TRYPANORHYNCHA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eye infections by metacestodes of Gilcruinia squali (Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha) caused mortality in seawater netpen reared chinook salmon, ncorhynchus tshawytscha, at two locations in British Columbia, Canada. ortality associated with the disease was approximately 105 at one site a...

  10. ``Föhn illness'' and human biometeorology in the Chinook area of Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Roy J.

    1988-09-01

    Literature on the nature and possible causes of ‘föhn illness’ is reviewed. Seven physiological and psychological aspects of human well-being were solicited from 1828 residents of southern Alberta by telephone interview. Data were evaluated to determine if well-being was weather related. Meteorological parameters included eight 48-h weather types, temperature, humidity, wind and pressure. The expected increase in föhn illness symptoms during the frequent warm chinook and decrease at times of cold non-chinook weather were not present. However, with the cool chinook (temperature slightly below freezing) many people claimed additional irritability and, to a lesser extent, more pain in their joints, headaches and nervousness. Several adverse symptoms were positively correlated with wind velocity. However, no widespread ‘chinook illness’ comparable to the föhn illness was found.

  11. SYSTEMIC HEXAMITID (PROTOZOA: DIPLOMONADIDA) INFECTION IN SEAWATER PEN-REARED CHINOOK SALMON ONCORHYNCHUS TSSHAWYTSCHA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A systemic infection with a diplomonad flagellate resembling Hexamita salmonis caused high mortality in chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, reared at a seawater netpen farm in British Columbia, Canada. ffected fish were anemic and had swollen abdomens containing serosanguin...

  12. Survival of Juvenile Chinook Salmon during Barge Transport

    SciTech Connect

    McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Skalski, J. R.; Deters, Katherine A.

    2011-12-01

    To mitigate for fish losses related to passage through the Federal Columbia River Power System, an extensive fish transportation program using barges and trucks to move fish around and downstream of dams and reservoirs was implemented in 1981. Population modeling and other analyses to support Pacific salmon recovery efforts have assumed that the survival of juvenile salmonids during the transportation experience was 98%. To estimate survival during barge transport from Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River to a release area downstream of Bonneville Dam, a distance of 470 km, we used a novel adaptation of a release-recapture model with acoustic-tagged yearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) smolts. A total of 1,494 yearling Chinook salmon were surgically implanted with Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) acoustic transmitters and passive integrated transponders (PIT) and divided into three groups. The three tagged groups consisted of; (1) a group which was released into the raceway with the population of fish which were later loaded into transportation barges (R{sub B}), (2) a group which was held in a net-pen suspended within the general barge population until 5-6 h prior to barge evacuation, at which time they were confirmed to be alive and then released into the general barge population (R{sub A}), and (3) to validate a model assumption, a group which was euthanized and released into the barge population 2-8 h prior to barge evacuation (R{sub D}). Six replicates of these groups were loaded onto fish transport barges that departed Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River between 29 April and 13 May, 2010. Acoustic receiver arrays between 70 and 220 km downstream of the barge evacuation site were used to detect tagged fish and served as the basis for estimation of survival within the barge. Tag-life-corrected estimates of reach survival were calculated for barged and control fish in each of the six replicate trials. The ratio of survival from

  13. Indirect effects of impoundment on migrating fish: temperature gradients in fish ladders slow dam passage by adult Chinook salmon and steelhead.

    PubMed

    Caudill, Christopher C; Keefer, Matthew L; Clabough, Tami S; Naughton, George P; Burke, Brian J; Peery, Christopher A

    2013-01-01

    Thermal layering in reservoirs upstream from hydroelectric dams can create temperature gradients in fishways used by upstream migrating adults. In the Snake River, Washington, federally-protected adult salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) often encounter relatively cool water in dam tailraces and lower ladder sections and warmer water in the upstream portions of ladders. Using radiotelemetry, we examined relationships between fish passage behavior and the temperature difference between the top and bottom of ladders (∆T) at four dams over four years. Some spring Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) experienced ∆T ≥ 0.5 °C. Many summer and fall Chinook salmon and summer steelhead (O. mykiss) experienced ∆T ≥ 1.0 °C, and some individuals encountered ΔT > 4.0°C. As ΔT increased, migrants were consistently more likely to move down fish ladders and exit into dam tailraces, resulting in upstream passage delays that ranged from hours to days. Fish body temperatures equilibrated to ladder temperatures and often exceeded 20°C, indicating potential negative physiological and fitness effects. Collectively, the results suggest that gradients in fishway water temperatures present a migration obstacle to many anadromous migrants. Unfavorable temperature gradients may be common at reservoir-fed fish passage facilities, especially those with seasonal thermal layering or stratification. Understanding and managing thermal heterogeneity at such sites may be important for ensuring efficient upstream passage and minimizing stress for migratory, temperature-sensitive species. PMID:24392020

  14. Indirect Effects of Impoundment on Migrating Fish: Temperature Gradients in Fish Ladders Slow Dam Passage by Adult Chinook Salmon and Steelhead

    PubMed Central

    Caudill, Christopher C.; Keefer, Matthew L.; Clabough, Tami S.; Naughton, George P.; Burke, Brian J.; Peery, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Thermal layering in reservoirs upstream from hydroelectric dams can create temperature gradients in fishways used by upstream migrating adults. In the Snake River, Washington, federally-protected adult salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) often encounter relatively cool water in dam tailraces and lower ladder sections and warmer water in the upstream portions of ladders. Using radiotelemetry, we examined relationships between fish passage behavior and the temperature difference between the top and bottom of ladders (∆T) at four dams over four years. Some spring Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) experienced ∆T ≥ 0.5 °C. Many summer and fall Chinook salmon and summer steelhead (O. mykiss) experienced ∆T ≥ 1.0 °C, and some individuals encountered ΔT > 4.0°C. As ΔT increased, migrants were consistently more likely to move down fish ladders and exit into dam tailraces, resulting in upstream passage delays that ranged from hours to days. Fish body temperatures equilibrated to ladder temperatures and often exceeded 20°C, indicating potential negative physiological and fitness effects. Collectively, the results suggest that gradients in fishway water temperatures present a migration obstacle to many anadromous migrants. Unfavorable temperature gradients may be common at reservoir-fed fish passage facilities, especially those with seasonal thermal layering or stratification. Understanding and managing thermal heterogeneity at such sites may be important for ensuring efficient upstream passage and minimizing stress for migratory, temperature-sensitive species. PMID:24392020

  15. Investigations into the Early History of Naturally Produced Spring Chinook Salmon in the Grand Ronde Basin : Fish Research Project Oregon : Annual Progress Report Project Period September 1, 1996 to August 31, 1997.

    SciTech Connect

    Johasson, Brian C.; Tranquilli, J. Vincent; Keefe, MaryLouise

    1998-10-28

    We have documented two general life history strategies utilized by juvenile spring chinook salmon in the Grande Ronde River basin: (1) juveniles migrate downstream out of summer rearing areas in the fall, overwinter in river valley habitats, and begin their seaward migration in the spring, and (2) juveniles remain in summer rearing areas through the winter and begin seaward migration in the spring. In migration year 96-97, the patterns evident from migrant trap data were similar for the three Grande Ronde River populations studied, with 42% of the Lostine River migrants and 76% of the Catherine Creek migrants leaving upper rearing areas in the fall. Contrary to past years, the majority (98%) of upper Grande Ronde River migrants moved out in the fall. Total trap catch for the upper Grande Ronde River was exceedingly low (29 salmon), indicating that patterns seen this year may be equivocal. As in previous years, approximately 99% of chinook salmon juveniles moved past our trap at the lower end of the Grande Ronde River valley in the spring, reiterating that juvenile chinook salmon overwinter within the Grande Ronde valley section of the river. PIT-tagged fish were recaptured at Grande Ronde River traps and mainstem dams. Recapture data showed that fish that overwintered in valley habitats left as smolts and arrived at Lower Granite Dam earlier than fish that overwintered in upstream rearing areas. Fish from Catherine Creek that overwintered in valley habitats were recaptured at the dams at a higher rate than fish that overwintered upstream. In this first year of data for the Lostine River, fish tagged during the fall migration were detected at a similar rate to fish that overwintered upstream. Abundance estimates for migration year 96-97 were 70 for the upper Grande Ronde River, 4,316 for the Catherine Creek, and 4,323 for the Lostine River populations. Although present in most habitats, juvenile spring chinook salmon were found in the greatest abundance in pool

  16. Resting Energy Expenditure of Rats Acclimated to Hyper-Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, Charles E.; Moran, Megan M.; Oyama, Jiro; Schwenke, David; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    To determine the influence of body mass and age on resting energy expenditure (EE) following acclimation to hyper-gravity, oxygen consumption (VO2) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) were measured to calculate resting energy expenditure (EE), in male rats, ages 40 to 400 days, acclimated to 1.23 or 4.1 G for a minimum of two weeks. Animals were maintained on a centrifuge to produce the hyper-gravity environment. Measurements were made over three hours in hyper-gravity during the period when the lights were on, the inactive period of rats. In rats matched for body mass (approximately 400 g) hyper-gravity increased VO2 by 18% and VCO2 by 27% compared to controls, resulting in an increase in RER, 0.80 to 0.87. There were increases in resting EE with an increase in gravity. This increase was greater when the mass of the rat was larger. Rating EE for 400g animals were increased from 47 +/- 1 kcal/kg/day at 1 G, to 57 +/- 1.5 and 5.8 +/- 2.2 kcal/kg/day at 2,3 and 4.1 G, respectively. There was no difference between the two hyper-gravity environments. When differences in age of the animals were accounted for, the increase in resting EE adjusted for body mass was increased by over 36% in older animals due to exposure to hyper-gravity. Acclimation to hyper-gravity increases the resting EE of rats, dependent upon body mass and age, and appears to alter substrate metabolism. Increasing the level of hyper-gravity, from 2.3 to 4.1 G, produced no further changes raising questions as to a dose effect of gravity level on resting metabolism.

  17. Resting energy expenditure of rats acclimated to hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, Charles E.; Moran, Megan M.; Oyama, Jiro

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of centrifugation at 1 G has been advocated as a control condition during spaceflight and as a countermeasure to compensate for the adverse effects of spaceflight. Rodents are the primary animal model for the study of the effects of spaceflight and will be used in the evaluation of centrifugation as a countermeasure and means of control at 1 G during flight. HYPOTHESIS: The present study was designed to assess whether resting energy expenditure (EER) of male rats was increased in relation to the magnitude of the level of gravity to which the animals were exposed. The influence of body mass and age on resting energy expenditure (EER) of male rats (n = 42, age 40-400 d) was determined following 2 wk of acclimation to 1, 2.3, or 4.1 G. Hypergravity environments were created by centrifugation. Measurements were made at the gravity level to which the animal was acclimated and during the lights-on period. RESULTS: In rats matched for body mass (approximately 400 g), mean O2 consumption and CO2 production were higher (18% and 27%, respectively) in the 2.3- and 4.1 -G groups than controls. Mean respiratory exchange ratio (RER) increased from 0.80 to 0.87. EER was increased from 47 +/- 0.1 kcal x d(-1) at 1 G, to 57 +/- 1.5 and 58 +/- 2.2 kcal x d(-1) at 2.3 and 4.1 G, respectively. There was no difference in EER between the hypergravity groups. When age differences were considered, EER (kcal x kg(-1) x d(-1)) with increased gravity was 40% higher than at 1 G. The increase in EER was not proportional over gravity levels. CONCLUSION: Acclimation of rats to hypergravity increases their EER, dependent on body mass and age, and may alter substrate metabolism. The increase in EER was not related to the level of gravity increase.

  18. Evidence for a carrier state of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha.

    PubMed

    St Hilaire, S; Ribble, C; Traxler, G; Davies, T; Kent, M L

    2001-10-01

    In British Columbia, Canada, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is prevalent in wild sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka and has caused disease in seawater net-pen reared Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. In this study, chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha experimentally exposed to an isolate of IHNV found in British Columbia became carriers of the virus. When Atlantic salmon were cohabited with these virus-exposed chinook salmon, IHNV was isolated from the Atlantic salmon. Identification of chinook salmon populations that have been exposed to IHNV may be difficult, as virus isolation was successful only in fish that were concurrently infected with either Renibacterium salmoninarum or Piscirickettisia salmonis. Also, IHNV-specific antibodies were detected in only 2 of the 70 fish experimentally exposed to the virus. Two samples collected from chinook salmon exposed to IHNV while at a salt water net-pen site had a seroprevalence of 19 and 22%; however, the inconsistencies between our laboratory and field data suggest that further research is required before we can rely on serological analysis for identifying potential carrier populations. Because of the difficulty in determining the exposure status of populations of chinook salmon, especially if there is no concurrent disease, it may be prudent not to cohabit Atlantic salmon with chinook salmon on a farm if there is any possibility that the latter have been exposed to the virus. PMID:11710551

  19. Genes critical for the induction of cold acclimation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenotypic studies have shown that cold acclimation in wheat and its relatives start at different temperatures. To gain insight into the underlying mechanisms that regulate the induction of cold-acclimation process in cereals we compared the expression of genes in winter-habit (winter Norstar and w...

  20. Supramaximal heat production induced by aminophylline in temperature-acclimated rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L. C. H.

    1985-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that aminophylline, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor (thereby increasing intracellular cyclic AMP concentration) elicits supramaximal heat production and improves cold tolerance in rats acclimated to 22°C. To test whether aminophylline-stimulated supramaximal thermogenesis is independent of both the thermogenic capacity (i.e. aerobic fitness) and the mode of thermogenesis (shivering vs. non-shivering), rats (adult male Sprague-Dawley, approximately 400 g) of two different ages (4 11 month and 9 17 month, n=12 for each) were acclimated to 5, 15, and 25°C in succession and their thermogenic responses to aminophylline subsequently assessed. Aminophylline elicited supramaximal thermogenesis and improved cold tolerance regardless of age or acclimating temperatures. Further, the absolute net increase in heat production stimulated by aminophylline was also similar for all acclimating temperatures. After acclimating to 15°C, a single injection of aminophylline in the older rats elicited thermogenesis greater than that of the controls acclimated to 5°C; in the younger rats, aminophylline duplicated 46% of the increase in thermogenesis observed after acclimating to 5°C. These results indicated that the aminophylline-stimulated extra heat production is independent of both the thermogenic capacity and the mode of thermogenesis. It is possible that an enhanced substrate mobilization consequent to increased intracellular cyclic AMP concentration by aminophylline underlies the common mechanism via which supramaximal thermogenesis is elicited in temperature-acclimated rats.

  1. Cold resistance depends on acclimation and behavioral caste in a temperate ant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modlmeier, Andreas P.; Pamminger, Tobias; Foitzik, Susanne; Scharf, Inon

    2012-10-01

    Adjusting to low temperatures is important for animals living in cold environments. We studied the chill-coma recovery time in temperate ant workers ( Temnothorax nylanderi) from colonies collected in autumn and spring in Germany. We experimentally acclimated these ant colonies to cold temperatures followed by warm temperatures. As expected, cold-acclimated workers recovered faster from freezing temperatures, but subsequent heat acclimation did not change the short recovery times observed after cold acclimation. Hence, either heat acclimation improves cold tolerance, possibly as a general response to stress, or at least it does not negate enhanced cold tolerance following cold acclimation. Colonies collected in spring showed similar cold tolerance levels to cold-acclimated colonies in the laboratory. Next, we compared the chill-coma recovery time of different worker castes and found that exterior workers recovered faster than interior workers. This difference may be related to their more frequent exposure to cold, higher activity level, or distinct physiology. Interior workers were also heavier and showed a higher gaster-to-head ratio and thorax ratio compared to exterior workers. An obvious difference between exterior and interior workers is activity level, but we found no link between activity and cold tolerance. This suggests that physiology rather than behavioral differences could cause the increased cold tolerance of exterior workers. Our study reveals the importance of acclimation for cold tolerance under natural and standardized conditions and demonstrates differences in cold tolerance and body dimensions in monomorphic behavioral castes of an ant.

  2. Cold-hardiness, acclimation, and deacclimation among diverse blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Until recently, only limited evaluations have been done on the acclimation and deacclimation process in blueberry, even though it is an integral part of flower bud survival and, thus, reproductive success. In this study we have measured the timing and rate of acclimation and deacclimation in seven b...

  3. Temperature acclimation in the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus): biochemical and organ weight changes.

    PubMed

    Steffen, J M; Roberts, J C

    1977-01-01

    1. Adult Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) were acclimated to 5 +/- 1, 24 +/- 1 and 34 +/- 1 degrees C for 6-8 weeks. 2. Body weights of temperature acclimated gerbils did not differ significantly from controls. Organ wt/body wt ratios of liver, kidney and heart increased in cold-acclimated and decreased in heat-acclimated gerbils. Adrenal wt/body wt ratio increased in the cold and was unchanged in the heat. Relative weights of brain, spleen, lungs, brown fat and ovaries + uterus did not change with temperature acclimation. 3. Cold acclimation produced significant increases in specific and total activity of brown fat alpha GPO and liver SO and AAO and in total activity of kidney SO; a significant decrease in liver mitochondrial ADP/O ratio with succinate as substrate; and no change in brown fat SO or liver alpha KGO. 4. Heat acclimation produced significant decreases in specific and total activity of liver and kidney SO, and in total activity of brown fat SO and alpha GPO, and liver AAO and alpha KGO. 5. The combined biochemical and organ wt changes seen in temperature-acclimated gerbils suggest that this species is capable of altering its metabolic thermogenic potential in response to a wide range of ambient temperatures. PMID:318267

  4. Can targeting glutamate receptors with long-term heat acclimation improve outcomes following hypoxic injury?

    PubMed Central

    Ely, Brett R; Brunt, Vienna E; Minson, Christopher T

    2015-01-01

    Long-term heat acclimation appears to improve tolerance to hypoxic insults in various tissues, including brain, providing a promising avenue to improve functional outcomes following cerebrovascular events. Glutamate discharge is implicated in dysfunction following hypoxic stress and thus, targeting glutamate receptors with heat acclimation could improve cognitive outcomes following hypoxic injury. PMID:27227003

  5. Mitochondrial physiology and reactive oxygen species production are altered by hypoxia acclimation in killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus).

    PubMed

    Du, Sherry N N; Mahalingam, Sajeni; Borowiec, Brittney G; Scott, Graham R

    2016-04-15

    Many fish encounter hypoxia in their native environment, but the role of mitochondrial physiology in hypoxia acclimation and hypoxia tolerance is poorly understood. We investigated the effects of hypoxia acclimation on mitochondrial respiration, O2kinetics, emission of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and antioxidant capacity in the estuarine killifish ( ITALIC! Fundulus heteroclitus). Killifish were acclimated to normoxia, constant hypoxia (5 kPa O2) or intermittent diel cycles of nocturnal hypoxia (12 h:12 h normoxia:hypoxia) for 28-33 days and mitochondria were isolated from liver. Neither pattern of hypoxia acclimation affected the respiratory capacities for oxidative phosphorylation or electron transport, leak respiration, coupling control or phosphorylation efficiency. Hypoxia acclimation also had no effect on mitochondrial O2kinetics, but ITALIC! P50(the O2tension at which hypoxia inhibits respiration by 50%) was lower in the leak state than during maximal respiration, and killifish mitochondria endured anoxia-reoxygenation without any impact on mitochondrial respiration. However, both patterns of hypoxia acclimation reduced the rate of ROS emission from mitochondria when compared at a common O2tension. Hypoxia acclimation also increased the levels of protein carbonyls and the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in liver tissue (the latter only occurred in constant hypoxia). Our results suggest that hypoxia acclimation is associated with changes in mitochondrial physiology that decrease ROS production and may help improve hypoxia tolerance. PMID:26896545

  6. Post-acclimation transcriptome adjustment is a major factor in freezing tolerance of winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of cold-acclimated wheat plants to survive freezing to several degrees below 0C varies among wheat genotypes. While the transcriptional regulation of the cold acclimation process above 0C has been studied extensively, very little is known of the changes in gene expression that may occur ...

  7. The Yin-Yang of Cytokinin Homeostasis and Drought Acclimation/Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiqiang; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2016-07-01

    Increasing evidence has shown that cytokinins (CKs) regulate plant drought acclimation/adaptation through a multistep phosphorelay pathway. Recent progress has allowed us to suggest a yin-and-yang-type relationship between CK homeostasis and acclimation/adaptation responses that modulates plant fitness and yields stability under drought through a complex network involving crosstalk with abscisic acid (ABA). PMID:27270336

  8. Acclimation to temperature and irradiance modulates PSII charge recombination.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, A G; Sane, P V; Krol, M; Gray, G R; Balseris, A; Savitch, L V; Oquist, G; Hüner, N P A

    2006-05-15

    Acclimation of wild type and the chlorina F2 mutant of barley to either high light or low temperature results in a 2- to 3-fold increase in non-photochemical quenching which occurred independently of either energy-dependent quenching (qE), xanthophyll cycle-mediated antenna quenching or state transitions. Results of in vivo thermoluminescence measurements used to address this conundrum indicated that excitation pressure regulates the temperature gap for S(2)Q(B)(-) and S(2)Q(A)(-) charge recombinations within photosystem II reaction centers. This is discussed in terms of photoprotection through non-radiative charge recombination. PMID:16674953

  9. Falling film evaporator

    DOEpatents

    Bruns, Lester E.

    1976-01-01

    A falling film evaporator including a vertically oriented pipe heated exteriorly by a steam jacket and interiorly by a finned steam tube, all heating surfaces of the pipe and steam tube being formed of a material wet by water such as stainless steel, and packing within the pipe consisting of Raschig rings formed of a material that is not wet by water such as polyvinylidene fluoride.

  10. Heat and cold acclimation in helium-cold hypothermia in the hamster.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musacchia, X. J.

    1972-01-01

    A study was made of the effects of acclimation of hamsters to high (34-35 C) and low (4-5 C) temperatures for periods up to 6 weeks on the induction of hypothermia in hamsters. Hypothermia was achieved by exposing hamsters to a helox mixture of 80% helium and 20% oxygen at 0 C. Hypothermic induction was most rapid (2-3 hr) in heat-acclimated hamsters and slowest (6-12 hr) in cold-acclimated hamsters. The induction period was intermediate (5-8 hr) in room temperature nonacclimated animals (controls). Survival time in hypothermia was relatable to previous temperature acclimations. The hypothesis that thermogenesis in cold-acclimated hamsters would accentuate resistance to induction of hypothermia was substantiated.

  11. Thermal acclimation, mitochondrial capacities and organ metabolic profiles in a reptile (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Guderley, Helga; Seebacher, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Reptiles thermoregulate behaviourally, but change their preferred temperature and the optimal temperature for performance seasonally. We evaluated whether the digestive and locomotor systems of the alligator show parallel metabolic adjustments during thermal acclimation. To this end, we allowed juvenile alligators to grow under thermal conditions typical of winter and summer, providing them with seasonally appropriate basking opportunities. Although mean body temperatures of alligators in these groups differed by approximately 10°C, their growth and final anatomic status was equivalent. While hepatic mitochondria isolated from cold-acclimated alligators had higher oxidative capacities at 30°C than those from warm-acclimated alligators, the capacities did not differ at 20°C. Cold acclimation decreased maximal oxidative capacities of muscle mitochondria. For mitochondria from both organs and acclimation groups, palmitate increased oligomycin-inhibited respiration. GDP addition reduced palmitate-uncoupled rates more in liver mitochondria from warm- than cold-acclimated alligators. In muscle mitochondria, carboxyatractyloside significantly reduced palmitate-uncoupled rates. This effect was not changed by thermal acclimation. The aerobic capacity of liver, skeletal muscle and duodenum, as estimated by activities of cytochrome c oxidase (COX), increased with cold acclimation. At acclimation temperatures, the activities of COX and citrate synthase (CS) in these organs were equivalent. By measuring COX and CS in isolated mitochondria and tissue extracts, we estimated that cold acclimation did not change the mitochondrial content in liver, but increased that of muscle. The thermal compensation of growth rates and of the aerobic capacity of the locomotor and digestive systems suggests that alligators optimised metabolic processes for the seasonally altered, preferred body temperature. The precision of this compensatory response exceeds that typically shown by aquatic

  12. Thermal acclimation effects differ between voluntary, maximum, and critical swimming velocities in two cyprinid fishes.

    PubMed

    O'Steen, Shyril; Bennett, Albert F

    2003-01-01

    Temperature acclimation may be a critical component of the locomotor physiology and ecology of ectothermic animals, particularly those living in eurythermal environments. Several studies of fish report striking acclimation of biochemical and kinetic properties in isolated muscle. However, the relatively few studies of whole-animal performance report variable acclimation responses. We test the hypothesis that different types of whole-animal locomotion will respond differently to temperature acclimation, probably due to divergent physiological bases of locomotion. We studied two cyprinid fishes, tinfoil barbs (Puntius schwanenfeldii) and river barbels (Barbus barbus). Study fish were acclimated to either cold or warm temperatures for at least 6 wk and then assayed at four test temperatures for three types of swimming performance. We measured voluntary swimming velocity to estimate routine locomotor behavior, maximum fast start velocity to estimate anaerobic capacity, and critical swimming velocity to estimate primarily aerobic capacity. All three performance measures showed some acute thermal dependence, generally a positive correlation between swimming speed and test temperature. However, each performance measure responded quite differently to acclimation. Critical speeds acclimated strongly, maximum speeds not at all, and voluntary speeds uniquely in each species. Thus we conclude that long-term temperature exposure can have very different consequences for different types of locomotion, consistent with our hypothesis. The data also address previous hypotheses that predict that polyploid and eurythermal fish will have greater acclimation abilities than other fish, due to increased genetic flexibility and ecological selection, respectively. Our results conflict with these predictions. River barbels are eurythermal polyploids and tinfoil barbs stenothermal diploids, yet voluntary swimming acclimated strongly in tinfoil barbs and minimally in river barbels, and

  13. Stock Identification of Columbia River Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout, 1984-1985 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Schreck, Carl B.; Sharpe, Cameron; Li, Hiram W.

    1985-09-21

    Fish were collected from 60 stocks of chinook salmon and 62 stocks of steelhead trout. Electrophoretic analyses were completed on 43 stocks of chinook salmon and 41 stocks of steelhead trout and meristic counts were completed on 43 stocks of chinook and 41 stocks of steelhead. Statistical comparisons between year classes of our electrophoretic data indicate that most enzyme systems are stable over time but some may be dynamic and should be used with caution in our analyses. We also compared neighboring stocks of both spring chinook and steelhead trout. These comparisons were between stocks of the same race from adjacent stream systems and/or hatcheries. Differences in isozyme gene frequencies can be used to estimate genetic segregation between pairs of stocks. Analysis of the chinook data suggests that, as expected, the number of statistically significant differences in isozyme gene frequencies increases as the geographic distance between stocks increases. The results from comparisons between adjacent steelhead stocks were inconclusive and must await final analysis with more data. Cluster analyses using either isozyme gene frequencies or meristic characters both tended to group the chinook and steelhead stocks by geographic areas and by race and both methods resulted in generally similar grouping patterns. However, cluster analyses using isozyme gene frequencies produced more clusters than the analyses using meristic characters probably because of the greater number of electrophoretic characters compared to the number of meristic characters. Heterozygosity values for each stock were computed using the isozyme gene frequencies. The highest heterozygosity values for chinook were observed in summer chinook and the hatchery stocks while the lowest values were observed in the spring chinook and wild stocks. The results of comparisons of heterozygosity values among areas were inconclusive. The steelhead heterozygosity values were higher in the winter stocks than in the

  14. Community assembly of a euryhaline fish microbiome during salinity acclimation.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Victor T; Smith, Katherine F; Melvin, Donald W; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A

    2015-05-01

    Microbiomes play a critical role in promoting a range of host functions. Microbiome function, in turn, is dependent on its community composition. Yet, how microbiome taxa are assembled from their regional species pool remains unclear. Many possible drivers have been hypothesized, including deterministic processes of competition, stochastic processes of colonization and migration, and physiological 'host-effect' habitat filters. The contribution of each to assembly in nascent or perturbed microbiomes is important for understanding host-microbe interactions and host health. In this study, we characterized the bacterial communities in a euryhaline fish and the surrounding tank water during salinity acclimation. To assess the relative influence of stochastic versus deterministic processes in fish microbiome assembly, we manipulated the bacterial species pool around each fish by changing the salinity of aquarium water. Our results show a complete and repeatable turnover of dominant bacterial taxa in the microbiomes from individuals of the same species after acclimation to the same salinity. We show that changes in fish microbiomes are not correlated with corresponding changes to abundant taxa in tank water communities and that the dominant taxa in fish microbiomes are rare in the aquatic surroundings, and vice versa. Our results suggest that bacterial taxa best able to compete within the unique host environment at a given salinity appropriate the most niche space, independent of their relative abundance in tank water communities. In this experiment, deterministic processes appear to drive fish microbiome assembly, with little evidence for stochastic colonization. PMID:25819646

  15. Metabolic acclimation to excess light intensity in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Davis, Maria C; Fiehn, Oliver; Durnford, Dion G

    2013-07-01

    There are several well-described acclimation responses to excess light in green algae but the effect on metabolism has not been thoroughly investigated. This study examines the metabolic changes during photoacclimation to high-light (HL) stress in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. Using principal component analysis, a clear metabolic response to HL intensity was observed on global metabolite pools, with major changes in the levels of amino acids and related nitrogen metabolites. Amino acid pools increased during short-term photoacclimation, but were especially prominent in HL-acclimated cultures. Unexpectedly, we observed an increase in mitochondrial metabolism through downstream photorespiratory pathways. The expression of two genes encoding key enzymes in the photorespiratory pathway, glycolate dehydrogenase and malate synthase, were highly responsive to the HL stress. We propose that this pathway contributes to metabolite pools involved in nitrogen assimilation and may play a direct role in photoacclimation. Our results suggest that primary and secondary metabolism is highly pliable and plays a critical role in coping with the energetic imbalance during HL exposure and a necessary adjustment to support an increased growth rate that is an effective energy sink for the excess reducing power generated during HL stress. PMID:23346954

  16. Integration of polyamines in the cold acclimation response.

    PubMed

    Alcázar, Rubén; Cuevas, Juan C; Planas, Joan; Zarza, Xavier; Bortolotti, Cristina; Carrasco, Pedro; Salinas, Julio; Tiburcio, Antonio F; Altabella, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Temperature is one of the most important environmental factors limiting the geographical distribution of plants and accounts for significant reductions in the yield of agriculturally important crops. Low temperature damages many plant species, especially those adapted to tropical climates. In contrast, some species from temperate regions are able to develop freezing tolerance in response to low-non-freezing temperature, an adaptive process named cold acclimation. Numerous molecular, biochemical and physiological changes occur during cold acclimation, most of them being associated with significant changes in gene expression and metabolite profiles. During recent years, transcriptomic and metabolomic approaches have allowed the identification of cold-responsive genes and main metabolites which accumulate in plants exposed to cold. The obtained data support the previously held idea that polyamines (PAs) are involved in plant responses to cold, although their specific role is still not well understood. In this review, we synthesize published data regarding PA-responses to cold stress and integrate them with global transcriptional and metabolic changes. The potential of PA genetic engineering for the development of plants resistant to cold and freezing temperatures, and their plausible mechanisms of action are also discussed. PMID:21421344

  17. Photosynthetic acclimation to temperature in the endemic Petrophytum cinerascens

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D.J.; Nowak, R.S.

    1995-06-01

    Past research has shown that only some plants have the ability to acclimate to increased temperatures. Petrophytum cinerascens is a highly restricted endemic found on steep rocky outcrops and sandy soils. Our goal was to examine the plant`s ability to acclimate to increased temperature. Plants collected from the field were subjected to three sets of day/night temperatures and to two different watering regimes. Data were analyzed using a 3x2 split plot treatment with temperature as the main effect and watering treatment as a split plot factor. Leaf gas exchange was measured at step-intervals of leaf temperature. Data were fit to individual temperature response curves, and optimum assimilation rate (A{sub opt}), optimum temperature for assimilation (T{sub opt}) and high temperature intercept (T{sub high}) were calculated from the regressions. A{sub opt} for clones grown at 30/16 and 34/20 C was significantly greater than that for clones grown at 38/24 C, but the main effects of temperature on T{sub opt} and T{sub high} were not significant. The only significant effect of watering treatment was a significant temperature x water treatment interaction. The lack of change in T{sub opt} and T{sub high} suggests that p. cinerascens is not able to tolerate increased global temperature and therefore may serve as a sensitive indicator of climate change.

  18. Light acclimation in Porphyridium purpureum (Rhodophyta): Growth, photosynthesis, and phycobilisomes

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, I.; Gantt, E. )

    1988-12-01

    Acclimation to three photon flux densities 10, 35, 180 {mu}E{center dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center dot}s{sup {minus}1} was determined in laboratory cultures of Porphyridium purpureum Bory, Drew and Ross. Cultures grown at low, medium, and high PPFDs had compensation points of <3, 6, and 20 {mu}E{center dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center dot}s{sup {minus}1}, respectively, and saturating irradiances in the initial log phase of 90, 115, 175 {mu}E{center dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center dot}s{sup {minus}1} and up to 240 {mu}E{center dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center dot}s{sup {minus}1} in late log phase. High light cells had the smallest photosynthetic unit size (phycobiliproteins plus chlorophyll), the highest photosynthetic capacity, and the highest growth rates. Photosystem I reaction centers (P700) per cell remained proportional to chlorophyll at ca. 110 chl/P700. However, phycobiliprotein content decreased as did the phycobilisome number (ca. 50%) in high light cells, whereas the phycobilisome size remained the same as in medium and low light cells. We concluded that acclimation of this red alga to varied PPFDs was manifested by the plasticity of the photosystem II antennae with little, if any, affect noted on photosystem I.

  19. Adaptation and acclimation of photosynthetic microorganisms to permanently cold environments.

    PubMed

    Morgan-Kiss, Rachael M; Priscu, John C; Pocock, Tessa; Gudynaite-Savitch, Loreta; Huner, Norman P A

    2006-03-01

    Persistently cold environments constitute one of our world's largest ecosystems, and microorganisms dominate the biomass and metabolic activity in these extreme environments. The stress of low temperatures on life is exacerbated in organisms that rely on photoautrophic production of organic carbon and energy sources. Phototrophic organisms must coordinate temperature-independent reactions of light absorption and photochemistry with temperature-dependent processes of electron transport and utilization of energy sources through growth and metabolism. Despite this conundrum, phototrophic microorganisms thrive in all cold ecosystems described and (together with chemoautrophs) provide the base of autotrophic production in low-temperature food webs. Psychrophilic (organisms with a requirement for low growth temperatures) and psychrotolerant (organisms tolerant of low growth temperatures) photoautotrophs rely on low-temperature acclimative and adaptive strategies that have been described for other low-temperature-adapted heterotrophic organisms, such as cold-active proteins and maintenance of membrane fluidity. In addition, photoautrophic organisms possess other strategies to balance the absorption of light and the transduction of light energy to stored chemical energy products (NADPH and ATP) with downstream consumption of photosynthetically derived energy products at low temperatures. Lastly, differential adaptive and acclimative mechanisms exist in phototrophic microorganisms residing in low-temperature environments that are exposed to constant low-light environments versus high-light- and high-UV-exposed phototrophic assemblages. PMID:16524924

  20. Adaptation and Acclimation of Photosynthetic Microorganisms to Permanently Cold Environments

    PubMed Central

    Morgan-Kiss, Rachael M.; Priscu, John C.; Pocock, Tessa; Gudynaite-Savitch, Loreta; Huner, Norman P. A.

    2006-01-01

    Persistently cold environments constitute one of our world's largest ecosystems, and microorganisms dominate the biomass and metabolic activity in these extreme environments. The stress of low temperatures on life is exacerbated in organisms that rely on photoautrophic production of organic carbon and energy sources. Phototrophic organisms must coordinate temperature-independent reactions of light absorption and photochemistry with temperature-dependent processes of electron transport and utilization of energy sources through growth and metabolism. Despite this conundrum, phototrophic microorganisms thrive in all cold ecosystems described and (together with chemoautrophs) provide the base of autotrophic production in low-temperature food webs. Psychrophilic (organisms with a requirement for low growth temperatures) and psychrotolerant (organisms tolerant of low growth temperatures) photoautotrophs rely on low-temperature acclimative and adaptive strategies that have been described for other low-temperature-adapted heterotrophic organisms, such as cold-active proteins and maintenance of membrane fluidity. In addition, photoautrophic organisms possess other strategies to balance the absorption of light and the transduction of light energy to stored chemical energy products (NADPH and ATP) with downstream consumption of photosynthetically derived energy products at low temperatures. Lastly, differential adaptive and acclimative mechanisms exist in phototrophic microorganisms residing in low-temperature environments that are exposed to constant low-light environments versus high-light- and high-UV-exposed phototrophic assemblages. PMID:16524924

  1. `In free fall'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beijerinck, Herman C. W.

    2014-01-01

    Physicists in the lead of a fiction book or a play, that's a rare event! Writers in general do not understand physics, while physicists seldom have the talent of writing for a large audience. So when it happens, we should rejoice. The up-and-coming German author Juli Zeh [1] (1974), who studied law, has succeeded in combining beautiful prose, psychological drama, crime and physics in a challenging book `In free fall' [2]. A good friend of hers, Bettina Bruinier, has put the core message of the book into a compelling play in the `Volkstheater' in Munich [1]. Yes, it can be done.

  2. Synchronous cycling of Ichthyophoniasis with Chinook salmon density revealed during the annual Yukon River spawning migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zuray, Stanley; Kocan, Richard; Hershberger, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Populations of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Yukon River declined by more than 57% between 2003 and 2010, probably the result of a combination of anthropogenic and environmental factors. One possible contributor to this decline is Ichthyophonus, a mesomycetozoan parasite that has previously been implicated in significant losses of fish, including Chinook salmon. A multiyear epidemiological study of ichthyophoniasis in the Yukon River revealed that disease prevalence and Chinook salmon population abundance increased and decreased simultaneously (i.e., were concordant) from 1999 to 2010. The two values rose and fell synchronously 91% of the time for female Chinook salmon and 82% of the time for males; however, there was no significant correlation between Ichthyophonus prevalence and population abundance. This synchronicity might be explained by a single factor, such as a prey item that is critical to Chinook salmon survival as well as a source of Ichthyophonus infection. The host–parasite relationship between Ichthyophonus and migrating Chinook salmon from 2004 to 2010 was similar to that reported for the previous 5 years. During 2004–2010, overall disease prevalence was significantly higher among females (21%) than among males (8%), increased linearly with fish length for both males and females, and increased in both sexes as the fish progressed upriver. These regularly occurring features of host–parasite dynamics confirm a stable base of transmission for Ichthyophonus. However, from 2003 to 2010, disease prevalence decreased from 30% to just 8% in males and from 45% to 9% in females, paralleling a similar decline in Chinook salmon abundance during the same period. These findings may help clarify questions regarding the complex host–parasite dynamics that occur in marine species such as herrings Clupea spp., which have less well-defined population structures.

  3. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Juveniles, 2007-2008

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen; Sandford, Benjamin P.; Hockersmith, Eric E.

    2009-07-09

    This report provides results from an ongoing project to monitor the migration behavior and survival of wild juvenile spring/summer Chinook salmon in the Snake River Basin. Data reported is from detections of PIT tagged fish during late summer 2007 through mid-2008. Fish were tagged in summer 2007 by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) in Idaho and by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) in Oregon. Our analyses include migration behavior and estimated survival of fish at instream PIT-tag monitors and arrival timing and estimated survival to Lower Granite Dam. Principal results from tagging and interrogation during 2007-2008 are: (1) In July and August 2007, we PIT tagged and released 7,390 wild Chinook salmon parr in 12 Idaho streams or sample areas. (2) Overall observed mortality from collection, handling, tagging, and after a 24-hour holding period was 1.4%. (3) Of the 2,524 Chinook salmon parr PIT tagged and released in Valley Creek in summer 2007, 218 (8.6%) were detected at two instream PIT-tag monitoring systems in lower Valley Creek from late summer 2007 to the following spring 2008. Of these, 71.6% were detected in late summer/fall, 11.9% in winter, and 16.5% in spring. Estimated parr-to-smolt survival to Lower Granite Dam was 15.5% for the late summer/fall group, 48.0% for the winter group, and 58.5% for the spring group. Based on detections at downstream dams, the overall efficiency of VC1 (upper) or VC2 (lower) Valley Creek monitors for detecting these fish was 21.1%. Using this VC1 or VC2 efficiency, an estimated 40.8% of all summer-tagged parr survived to move out of Valley Creek, and their estimated survival from that point to Lower Granite Dam was 26.5%. Overall estimated parr-to-smolt survival for all summer-tagged parr from this stream at the dam was 12.1%. Development and improvement of instream PIT-tag monitoring systems continued throughout 2007 and 2008. (4) Testing of PIT-tag antennas in lower Big Creek during 2007

  4. Saxon Falls Dam rehabilitation

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolph, R.M.; Quist, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    The Saxon Falls Hydro Project is a high-head hydro owned and operated by Northern States Power Company (NSP) in northwest Wisconsin. Saxon Falls comprises a concrete buttress overflow spillway; mass-concrete tainter gate spillway, conduit intake, and nonoverflow section; earth dam; 1,600-foot-long, 72-inch-diameter steel conduit; two 150-foot-long, 54-inch-diameter penstocks; steel surge tank; and reinforced concrete powerhouse. All structures are founded on bedrock. Engineering inspections revealed severe concrete deterioration and leakage within the intake and deterioration of the middle nonoverflow section. Subsequent to the inspection, concrete cores confirmed the level of deterioration and indicated that immediate measures were necessary to correct the deficiencies and restore project integrity. Because the dam is located on the border between Michigan and Wisconsin, coordination with the respective Departments of Natural Resources was crucial to obtain permits to construct the repairs. Due to concerns regarding a sensitive fishery, a reservoir drawdown was not allowed. To accomplish the work and allow for a suitable construction area, a special braced sheetpile cofferdam was required to complete the project. NSP elected to complete the construction using its own special-construction crews. Close coordination allowed construction personnel, the owner, and the engineer to overcome difficulties encountered during construction.

  5. [Can falls be prevented?].

    PubMed

    Dubousset, Jean

    2014-06-01

    Most recommendations and measures intended to prevent falls focus on the elderly (see HAS guideline of April 2009) but, in our opinion, this isfar too late: prevention must begin much earlier, not only by identifying persons at risk, but also by providing personalized lifestyle advice adapted to each individual's biomechanical, somatic, neurological and biological characteristics. The first preventive measure is to identify a possible deterioration of balance, starting with a physical examination at the age of 45 and repeated regularly throughout life. Extrinsic preventive measures focusing on the domestic and external environments are clearly necessary. But what is most important is to detect and, if necessary, correct any degradation of intrinsic (intracorporeal or somatic) factors starting at the age of 45 years; these include vision, vestibular function and balance, proprioception, and psychological and neurological status. Chronic illnesses and their treatments must also be taken into account: treatment must be limited to indispensable drugs; sedative psychotropics must be avoided if possible; and polymedication must be tightly controlled, as it is a major risk factor for falls. Prevention also requires a diet sufficiently rich in protein, calcium and vitamin D3 (to prevent osteoporosis), and regular daily exercise adapted to the individual, if possible associated with a simultaneous cognitive task. The last key point is the absolute need for thorough functional rehabilitation after any accidental or medical trauma, regardless of age, with the aim of restoring functional status to that existing prior to the accident. PMID:26983186

  6. 50 CFR Table 47a to Part 679 - Percent of the AFA Catcher/Processor Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-out Allocation and... Catcher/Processor Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-out... pollock Column E Number of Chinook salmon for the opt-out allocation (8,093) Column F Number of...

  7. 50 CFR Table 47d to Part 679 - Percent of the CDQ Program's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-Out Allocation and Annual Threshold Amount... Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-Out Allocation and Annual Threshold Amount...) Column A Column B Percent ofCDQ Program pollock Column C Number ofChinook salmon for the...

  8. 50 CFR Table 47d to Part 679 - Percent of the CDQ Program's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-Out Allocation and Annual Threshold Amount... Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-Out Allocation and Annual Threshold Amount...) Column A Column B Percent ofCDQ Program pollock Column C Number ofChinook salmon for the...

  9. 50 CFR Table 47a to Part 679 - Percent of the AFA Catcher/Processor Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-out Allocation and... Catcher/Processor Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-out... pollock Column E Number of Chinook salmon for the opt-out allocation (8,093) Column F Number of...

  10. 50 CFR Table 47a to Part 679 - Percent of the AFA Catcher/Processor Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-out Allocation and... Catcher/Processor Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-out... pollock Column E Number of Chinook salmon for the opt-out allocation (8,093) Column F Number of...

  11. 50 CFR Table 47d to Part 679 - Percent of the CDQ Program's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-Out Allocation and Annual Threshold Amount... Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-Out Allocation and Annual Threshold Amount...) Column A Column B Percent ofCDQ Program pollock Column C Number ofChinook salmon for the...

  12. 50 CFR Table 47d to Part 679 - Percent of the CDQ Program's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-Out Allocation and Annual Threshold Amount... Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-Out Allocation and Annual Threshold Amount...) Column A Column B Percent ofCDQ Program pollock Column C Number ofChinook salmon for the...

  13. 50 CFR Table 47d to Part 679 - Percent of the CDQ Program's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-Out Allocation and Annual Threshold Amount... Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-Out Allocation and Annual Threshold Amount...) Column A Column B Percent ofCDQ Program pollock Column C Number ofChinook salmon for the...

  14. 50 CFR Table 47a to Part 679 - Percent of the AFA Catcher/Processor Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-out Allocation and... Catcher/Processor Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-out... pollock Column E Number of Chinook salmon for the opt-out allocation (8,093) Column F Number of...

  15. 50 CFR Table 47a to Part 679 - Percent of the AFA Catcher/Processor Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-out Allocation and... Catcher/Processor Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-out... pollock Column E Number of Chinook salmon for the opt-out allocation (8,093) Column F Number of...

  16. Heat production in cold and long scotophase acclimated and winter acclimatized rodents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haim, A.; Fourie, F. Le R.

    1980-09-01

    Heat production by means of oxygen consumptionVo2 (at Ta = 6° C, 25° C, 30° C, and 32° C) and non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) were studied in individuals of a diurnal rodent ( Rhabdomys pumilio) and a nocturnal rodent ( Praomys natalensis). The studied mice were acclimated to cold at Ta=8°C with a photoperiod of LD 12:12. On the otherhand specimens of these two species were acclimated at Ta=25°C with a long scotophase LD8:16. The results were compared with a control group (Ta=25° C, LD 12:12) and winter acclimatized individuals of both species.Vo2 in cold acclimated mice of both species was significantly increased when compared to the control group and was even higher than the winter acclimatized group when measured below the lower critical temperature. Long scotophase acclimated mice of both species also increased their oxygen consumption significantly when compared to the control group. NST was significantly increased in long scotophase acclimated mice from both species when compared to the control group. The results of this study indicate that the effects of acclimation to long scotophase are similar to those of cold acclimation. As changes in photoperiod are regular, it may be assumed that heat production mechanisms in acclimatization to winter will respond to changes in photoperiodicity.

  17. The low temperature response pathways for cold acclimation and vernalization are independent.

    PubMed

    Bond, Donna M; Dennis, Elizabeth S; Finnegan, E Jean

    2011-10-01

    Vernalization is the promotion of flowering in response to the prolonged cold of winter. To survive sub-zero winter temperatures, plants must first acclimate to low, non-freezing temperatures (cold acclimation). Induction of VERNALIZATION INSENSITIVE 3 (VIN3), the first gene in the vernalization pathway, is initiated within the same time frame as the induction of genes in the cold acclimation pathway raising the question of whether there are common elements in the signal transduction pathways that activate these two responses to cold. We show that none of the signalling components required for cold acclimation, including the 'master regulator'INDUCTION OF CBF EXPRESSION1 (ICE1) or HIGH EXPRESSION OF OSMOTICALLY RESPONSIVE GENE1 (HOS1), which has been described as a link between cold acclimation and vernalization, play a role in VIN3 induction. We also show that the hormone abscisic acid (ABA) does not modulate VIN3 induction, consistent with earlier reports that ABA signalling plays no role in the vernalization response. The cold acclimation pathway is activated at 12 °C, at which temperature there is no induction of VIN3 expression. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the responses to low temperatures leading to cold acclimation and vernalization are controlled by distinct signalling pathways. PMID:21631537

  18. Trait Acclimation Mitigates Mortality Risks of Tropical Canopy Trees under Global Warming

    PubMed Central

    Sterck, Frank; Anten, Niels P. R.; Schieving, Feike; Zuidema, Pieter A.

    2016-01-01

    There is a heated debate about the effect of global change on tropical forests. Many scientists predict large-scale tree mortality while others point to mitigating roles of CO2 fertilization and – the notoriously unknown – physiological trait acclimation of trees. In this opinion article we provided a first quantification of the potential of trait acclimation to mitigate the negative effects of warming on tropical canopy tree growth and survival. We applied a physiological tree growth model that incorporates trait acclimation through an optimization approach. Our model estimated the maximum effect of acclimation when trees optimize traits that are strongly plastic on a week to annual time scale (leaf photosynthetic capacity, total leaf area, stem sapwood area) to maximize carbon gain. We simulated tree carbon gain for temperatures (25–35°C) and ambient CO2 concentrations (390–800 ppm) predicted for the 21st century. Full trait acclimation increased simulated carbon gain by up to 10–20% and the maximum tolerated temperature by up to 2°C, thus reducing risks of tree death under predicted warming. Functional trait acclimation may thus increase the resilience of tropical trees to warming, but cannot prevent tree death during extremely hot and dry years at current CO2 levels. We call for incorporating trait acclimation in field and experimental studies of plant functional traits, and in models that predict responses of tropical forests to climate change. PMID:27242814

  19. Effect of cold acclimation on the photosynthetic performance of two ecotypes of Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth) Bartl.

    PubMed

    Bravo, León A; Saavedra-Mella, Felipe A; Vera, Felipe; Guerra, Alexi; Cavieres, Lohengrin A; Ivanov, Alexander G; Huner, Norman P A; Corcuera, Luis J

    2007-01-01

    The effects of cold acclimation of two ecotypes (Antarctic and Andes) of Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth) Bartl. Caryophyllaceae on their photosynthetic characteristics and performance under high light (HL) were compared. Non-acclimated plants of the Antarctic ecotype exhibited a higher (34%) maximal rate of photosynthesis than the Andes ecotype. In cold-acclimated plants the light compensation point was increased. Dark respiration was significantly increased during the exposure to 4 degrees C in both ecotypes. Cold-acclimated Antarctic plants showed higher Phi(PSII) and qP compared with the Andes ecotype. In addition, the Antarctic ecotype exhibited higher heat dissipation (NPQ), especially in the cold-acclimated state, which was mainly associated with the fast relaxing component of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ(F)). By contrast, the Andes ecotype exhibited a lower NPQ(F) and a significant increase in the slowly relaxing component (NPQ(s)) at low temperature and HL, indicating higher sensitivity to low temperature-induced photoinhibition. Although the xanthophyll cycle was fully operational in both ecotypes, cold-acclimated Antarctic plants exposed to HL exhibited higher epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle pigments (EPS) compared with the cold-acclimated Andes ecotype. Thus, the photosynthetic apparatus of the Antarctic ecotype operates more efficiently than that of the Andes one, under a combination of low temperature and HL. The ecotype differences are discussed in relation to the different climatic conditions of the two Colobanthus. PMID:18057038

  20. Global convergence in leaf respiration from estimates of thermal acclimation across time and space.

    PubMed

    Vanderwel, Mark C; Slot, Martijn; Lichstein, Jeremy W; Reich, Peter B; Kattge, Jens; Atkin, Owen K; Bloomfield, Keith J; Tjoelker, Mark G; Kitajima, Kaoru

    2015-09-01

    Recent compilations of experimental and observational data have documented global temperature-dependent patterns of variation in leaf dark respiration (R), but it remains unclear whether local adjustments in respiration over time (through thermal acclimation) are consistent with the patterns in R found across geographical temperature gradients. We integrated results from two global empirical syntheses into a simple temperature-dependent respiration framework to compare the measured effects of respiration acclimation-over-time and variation-across-space to one another, and to a null model in which acclimation is ignored. Using these models, we projected the influence of thermal acclimation on: seasonal variation in R; spatial variation in mean annual R across a global temperature gradient; and future increases in R under climate change. The measured strength of acclimation-over-time produces differences in annual R across spatial temperature gradients that agree well with global variation-across-space. Our models further project that acclimation effects could potentially halve increases in R (compared with the null model) as the climate warms over the 21st Century. Convergence in global temperature-dependent patterns of R indicates that physiological adjustments arising from thermal acclimation are capable of explaining observed variation in leaf respiration at ambient growth temperatures across the globe. PMID:25898850

  1. Trait Acclimation Mitigates Mortality Risks of Tropical Canopy Trees under Global Warming.

    PubMed

    Sterck, Frank; Anten, Niels P R; Schieving, Feike; Zuidema, Pieter A

    2016-01-01

    There is a heated debate about the effect of global change on tropical forests. Many scientists predict large-scale tree mortality while others point to mitigating roles of CO2 fertilization and - the notoriously unknown - physiological trait acclimation of trees. In this opinion article we provided a first quantification of the potential of trait acclimation to mitigate the negative effects of warming on tropical canopy tree growth and survival. We applied a physiological tree growth model that incorporates trait acclimation through an optimization approach. Our model estimated the maximum effect of acclimation when trees optimize traits that are strongly plastic on a week to annual time scale (leaf photosynthetic capacity, total leaf area, stem sapwood area) to maximize carbon gain. We simulated tree carbon gain for temperatures (25-35°C) and ambient CO2 concentrations (390-800 ppm) predicted for the 21st century. Full trait acclimation increased simulated carbon gain by up to 10-20% and the maximum tolerated temperature by up to 2°C, thus reducing risks of tree death under predicted warming. Functional trait acclimation may thus increase the resilience of tropical trees to warming, but cannot prevent tree death during extremely hot and dry years at current CO2 levels. We call for incorporating trait acclimation in field and experimental studies of plant functional traits, and in models that predict responses of tropical forests to climate change. PMID:27242814

  2. [Falls in patients with dementia].

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Kiyoshi

    2008-11-01

    People with cognitive impairment are at about 2 to 3 times higher risk of falling compared with cognitively intact elderly. Incidence of falls among patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is high, nevertheless the clinical feature common in patients with mild to moderate AD is the absence of motor impairment. Recent studies suggest that the divided attention markedly impairs the ability of patients with AD to regulate the gait. Falls are particularly common in Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) patients and may aid diagnosis, and the falls are associated with parkinsonism and other unclear factors. Treatment studies evaluating fall reduction strategies in dementia patients are a priority. PMID:18974447

  3. Retrospective analysis of fatal falls.

    PubMed

    Thierauf, Annette; Preuss, Johanna; Lignitz, Eberhard; Madea, Burkhard

    2010-05-20

    Fatal falls are frequent and inhomogeneous events and affect every age. The criminalistic classification can often only be done on the basis of extensive investigations and the autopsy results. We retrospectively surveyed 291 cases of fatal falls on which a post-mortem examination had been carried out in the institutes of Forensic Medicine in Bonn and Greifswald. In large part, these cases are falls from height (n=123) and ground-level falls (n=122). These are compared to fatal falls down a stairs (n=46); the analysis is confined to injuries to the cranium. In ground-level falls the injury pattern in falls under the influence of alcohol differs from that of falls with no alcohol in the case history: all injuries are seen in higher relative frequency in casualties after the consumption of alcohol. In falls from height, the previous consumption of alcohol did not influence the injury pattern; the intracranial traumas are seen in decreasing frequency with increasing heights. The aim of this retrospective analysis is to present injury patterns and influencing factors like fall heights and alcohol for the different kinds of falls on the basis of our collective and to demonstrate similarities and differences between the subgroups. PMID:20176452

  4. Drought acclimation in wild and cultivated barley lines. [Hordeum spontaneum; Hordeum vulgare

    SciTech Connect

    Glinka, Z. ); Gunasekera, D.; Mane, S.; Berkowitz, G. )

    1991-05-01

    Wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) seeds collected from arid and temperate regions in Israel were used, along with cultivated barley (H. vulgare) in a study to evaluate the range of acclimation responses to low leaf water potential ({Psi}w). Stress was imposed on plants by withholding water until {Psi}w was {minus}2 megapascals (MPa). Protoplast volume (PV) was measured at {minus}0.2 and {minus}2 MPa (imposed in vitro) in leaf tissue from well-watered and stressed plants. In well-watered plants, PV declined at {minus}2, as compared to {minus}0.2 MPa in all lines. With tissue from in situ stressed plants, PV reduction at {minus}2 MPa was not as great in some lines. The change in the extent of PV reduction occurring at {minus}2 MPa was used as an index of drought acclimation. The 13 wild barley lines were separated into high, medium, and low acclimation groups. Lines collected from arid regions scored in the high acclimation group. The cultivated barley lines scored in the medium and low groups. Relative water content decline at low leaf {Psi}w in situ was not a good indicator of acclimation; all lines responded similarly. Photosynthesis in situ was measured at high and low leaf {Psi}w in lines from the three groupings. Photosynthetic sensitivity to low {Psi}w was twice as great in low acclimation, as compared to high acclimation lines. It was concluded that PV response to low {Psi}w is a good indicator of drought acclimation in barley, and that wild lines offer a range of acclimation potential which could be used in breeding programs.

  5. Family origin and the response of threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus, to thermal acclimation.

    PubMed

    Guderley, H; Leroy, P H

    2001-03-01

    To establish whether family origin affects the response of the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) to thermal acclimation, we examined the rates of feeding, growth, and food conversion, relative tissue and organ masses and activities of a mitochondrial and a glycolytic enzyme in pectoral and axial muscle of individually housed fish from six families during acclimation to 8 degrees C and 23 degrees C. Feeding rates differed among families but were consistently higher in warm-acclimated than cold-acclimated fish. Growth rates differed among families. In four families growth was greater at 8 degrees C; these families generally had higher conversion efficiencies at 8 degrees C than 23 degrees C. For two families, growth was greater at 23 degrees C than 8 degrees C and conversion efficiencies did not differ between 8 degrees C and 23 degrees C. Relative tissue and organ masses (percent axial muscle, hepatosomatic, gut and kidney indices) differed with gender and among families (hepatosomatic, gut and kidney indices) but little with acclimation status. In all families and in both muscles, activities of the mitochondrial enzyme, citrate synthase (CS), were increased by cold acclimation. Axial muscle levels of the glycolytic enzyme, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), were not affected by thermal acclimation or family origin, but were strongly correlated with the hepatosomatic index and axial muscle protein content. Pectoral muscle levels of LDH were affected by family origin which also influenced the response to thermal acclimation. Similar patterns were observed for specific activities and total muscle contents of these enzymes. Stickleback family origin influenced rates of feeding and growth and the thermal sensitivity of growth rates but not the compensatory increase in muscle CS levels with cold acclimation. The differing thermal sensitivities of growth could reflect distinct strategies for the timing of juvenile growth. PMID:11302536

  6. Chinook Salmon Adult Abundance Monitoring; Hydroacoustic Assessment of Chinook Salmon Escapement to the Secesh River, Idaho, 2002-2004 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.; McKinstry, C.; Mueller, R.

    2004-01-01

    Accurate determination of adult salmon spawner abundance is key to the assessment of recovery actions for wild Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Onchorynchus tshawytscha), a species listed as 'threatened' under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). As part of the Bonneville Power Administration Fish and Wildlife Program, the Nez Perce Tribe operates an experimental project in the South Fork of the Salmon River subbasin. The project has involved noninvasive monitoring of Chinook salmon escapement on the Secesh River between 1997 and 2000 and on Lake Creek since 1998. The overall goal of this project is to accurately estimate adult Chinook salmon spawning escapement numbers to the Secesh River and Lake Creek. Using time-lapse underwater video technology in conjunction with their fish counting stations, Nez Perce researchers have successfully collected information on adult Chinook salmon spawner abundance, run timing, and fish-per-redd numbers on Lake Creek since 1998. However, the larger stream environment in the Secesh River prevented successful implementation of the underwater video technique to enumerate adult Chinook salmon abundance. High stream discharge and debris loads in the Secesh caused failure of the temporary fish counting station, preventing coverage of the early migrating portion of the spawning run. Accurate adult abundance information could not be obtained on the Secesh with the underwater video method. Consequently, the Nez Perce Tribe now is evaluating advanced technologies and methodologies for measuring adult Chinook salmon abundance in the Secesh River. In 2003, the use of an acoustic camera for assessing spawner escapement was examined. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in a collaborative arrangement with the Nez Perce Tribe, provided the technical expertise to implement the acoustic camera component of the counting station on the Secesh River. This report documents the first year of a proposed three-year study to determine the

  7. Cryopreservation of Adult Male Spring and Summer Chinook Salmon Gametes in the Snake River Basin, 1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul A.; Armstrong, Robyn D.

    1998-06-01

    Chinook salmon populations in the Northwest are decreasing in number. The Nez Perce Tribe was funded in 1997 by the Bonneville Power Administration to coordinate and initiate gene banking of adult male gametes from Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin.

  8. 76 FR 42099 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ...NMFS proposes to implement the Chinook Salmon Economic Data Report Program to evaluate the effectiveness of Chinook salmon bycatch management measures for the Bering Sea pollock fishery that were implemented under Amendment 91 to the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area (FMP). The data collected for this program would be submitted by......

  9. The effects of cold acclimation on electrocardiogram parameters in five species of turtles.

    PubMed

    Risher, J F; Claussen, D L

    1987-01-01

    The effects of thermal acclimation at 25 or 5 degrees C on electrical activity in the heart were investigated in Pseudemys scripta, Terrapene carolina, Chrysemys picta marginata, Chrysemys picta dorsalis, Chelydra serpentina, and Sternotherus odoratus. The durations of the QRS complex and P-R, R-T and R-R intervals were found to increase with decreasing body temperature in all animals tested. The amplitudes of the P and T waves and QRS complex were dependent upon both acclimation temperature and test temperature. Differences between acclimation groups in the change in QRS amplitudes between 20 and 0 degrees C were statistically significant for all species. PMID:2886260

  10. Passage and survival probabilities of juvenile Chinook salmon at Cougar Dam, Oregon, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, John W.; Evans, Scott D.; Haner, Philip V.; Hansel, Hal C.; Hansen, Amy C.; Smith, Collin D.; Sprando, Jamie M.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes studies of juvenile-salmon dam passage and apparent survival at Cougar Dam, Oregon, during two operating conditions in 2012. Cougar Dam is a 158-meter tall rock-fill dam used primarily for flood control, and passes water through a temperature control tower to either a powerhouse penstock or to a regulating outlet (RO). The temperature control tower has moveable weir gates to enable water of different elevations and temperatures to be drawn through the dam to control water temperatures downstream. A series of studies of downstream dam passage of juvenile salmonids were begun after the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration determined that Cougar Dam was impacting the viability of anadromous fish stocks. The primary objectives of the studies described in this report were to estimate the route-specific fish passage probabilities at the dam and to estimate the survival probabilities of fish passing through the RO. The first set of dam operating conditions, studied in November, consisted of (1) a mean reservoir elevation of 1,589 feet, (2) water entering the temperature control tower through the weir gates, (3) most water routed through the turbines during the day and through the RO during the night, and (4) mean RO gate openings of 1.2 feet during the day and 3.2 feet during the night. The second set of dam operating conditions, studied in December, consisted of (1) a mean reservoir elevation of 1,507 ft, (2) water entering the temperature control tower through the RO bypass, (3) all water passing through the RO, and (4) mean RO gate openings of 7.3 feet during the day and 7.5 feet during the night. The studies were based on juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) surgically implanted with radio transmitters and passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. Inferences about general dam passage percentage and timing of volitional migrants were based on surface-acclimated fish released in the reservoir. Dam passage and apparent

  11. Foraging and growth potential of juvenile Chinook Salmon after tidal restoration of a large river delta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    David, Aaron T.; Ellings, Christopher; Woo, Isa; Simenstad, Charles A.; Takekawa, John Y.; Turner, Kelley L.; Smith, Ashley L.; Takekawa, Jean E.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated whether restoring tidal flow to previously diked estuarine wetlands also restores foraging and growth opportunities for juvenile Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Several studies have assessed the value of restored tidal wetlands for juvenile Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp., but few have used integrative measures of salmon performance, such as habitat-specific growth potential, to evaluate restoration. Our study took place in the Nisqually River delta, Washington, where recent dike removals restored tidal flow to 364 ha of marsh—the largest tidal marsh restoration project in the northwestern contiguous United States. We sampled fish assemblages, water temperatures, and juvenile Chinook Salmon diet composition and consumption rates in two restored and two reference tidal channels during a 3-year period after restoration; these data were used as inputs to a bioenergetics model to compare Chinook Salmon foraging performance and growth potential between the restored and reference channels. We found that foraging performance and growth potential of juvenile Chinook Salmon were similar between restored and reference tidal channels. However, Chinook Salmon densities were significantly lower in the restored channels than in the reference channels, and growth potential was more variable in the restored channels due to their more variable and warmer (2°C) water temperatures. These results indicate that some—but not all—ecosystem attributes that are important for juvenile Pacific salmon can recover rapidly after large-scale tidal marsh restoration.

  12. Yakima River Radio-Telemetry Study: Spring Chinook Salmon, 1991-1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hockersmith, Eric

    1994-09-01

    As part of the presupplementation planning, baseline data on the productivity of spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Yakima River have been collected. However, for adult salmonids, data on habitat use, delays in passage at irrigation diversions, migration rates, and substock separation had not been previously collected. In 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service began a 2-year radio-telemetry study of adult spring chinook salmon in the Yakima River Basin. Specific objectives addressed in this study were: to determine spawning populations` run timing, passage patterns at irrigation diversion dams, and morphometric characteristics to determine where and when substocks become separated; to evaluate fish passage at Yakima River Basin diversion dams including Prosser, Sunnyside, Wapato, Roza, Town Diversion, Easton, Cowiche, and Wapatox Dams; to determine spring chinook salmon migration rates between Yakima River Basin dams, prespawning behavior, temporal distribution, and habitat utilization; to identify spawning distribution and timing of spring chinook salmon; to determine the amount and cause of prespawning mortality of spring chinook salmon; and to evaluate adult fish-handling procedures for the right-bank, adult-trapping facility at Prosser Dam.

  13. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Project - ODFW, 2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, Scott

    2009-04-10

    Core activities of the Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Supplementation Program (GRESCSP) are funded through the authority of the Lower Snake River Fish and Wildlife Compensation Plan (LSRCP). The LSRCP program was approved by the Water Resources Development Act of 1976, PL 94-587, Section 102, 94th Congress substantially in accordance with the Special Report, LSRCP, June 1975 on file with the Chief of Engineers. The LSRCP was prepared and submitted in compliance with the Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act of 1958, PL 85-624, 85th Congress, August 12, 1958 to mitigate for the losses of fish and wildlife caused by the construction of dams on lower Snake River. The GRESCSP is an artificial propagation program that was initiated by Bonneville Power Administrations Fish and Wildlife program in the mid 1990's. The intent of this program was to change the mitigation aspect of the LSRCP program (harvest mitigation) to an integrated supplementation program; inasmuch as, hatchery produced fish could be experimentally used as a recovery tool and fish surplus to mitigation would be available for in-place and in-kind harvest. Fish production is still authorized by the LSRCP with the original mitigation return goal of 5,860 adult spring Chinook to the project area. The GRESCSP was developed with two primary components: (1) conventional broodstock (projects 199800702; 199800703; 199800704) and (2) captive brood (projects 199801001; 199801006). The GRESCSP relies on cooperative M&E efforts from the LSRCP including setting aside the Wenaha and Minam tributaries as natural production reserves components used for reference streams. The GRESCSP, coordinated with federal and tribal partners, identifies production levels for both propagation components and weir management strategies for each of the three supplemented tributary areas within the Grande Ronde Sub-basin. The three supplemented areas are Catherine Creek, Lostine River, and upper Grande Ronde River. Lookingglass Creek, an

  14. Shedding of Renibacterium salmoninarum by infected chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tschawytscha

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKibben, C.L.; Pascho, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Laboratory studies of the transmission and pathogenesis of Renibacterium salmoninarum may describe more accurately what is occurring in the natural environment if test fish are infected by waterborne R. salmoninarum shed from infected fish. To quantify bacterial shedding by chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tschawytscha at 13??C in freshwater, groups of fish were injected intraperitoneally with R. salmoninarum at either 1.3 x 106 colony forming units (CFU) fish-1 (high-dose injection group) or 1.5 x 103 CFU fish-1 (low-dose injection group). R. salmoninarum infection levels were measured in the exposed fish by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (BKD-ELISA). At regular intervals for 30 d, the numbers of R. salmoninarum shed by the injected fish were calculated on the basis of testing water samples by the membrane filtration-fluorescent antibody test (MF-FAT) and bacteriological culture. Mean BKD-ELISA optical densities (ODs) for fish in the low-dose injection group were not different from those of control fish [p > 0.05), and no R. salmoninarum were detected in water samples taken up to 30 d after injection of fish in the low-dose group. By 12 d after injection a proportion of the fish from the high-dose infection group had high (BKD-ELISA OD ??? 1.000) to severe (BKD-ELISA OD ??? 2.000) R. salmoninarum infection levels, and bacteria were detected in the water by both tests. However, measurable levels of R. salmoninarum were not consistently detected in the water until a proportion of the fish maintained high to severe infection levels for an additional 8 d. The concentrations of R salmoninarum in the water samples ranged from undetectable up to 994 cells ml-1 on the basis of the MF-FAT, and up to 1850 CFU ml-1 on the basis of bacteriological culture. The results suggest that chinook salmon infected with R. salmoninarum by injection of approximately 1 x 106 CFU fish-1 can be used as the source of infection in cohabitation challenges beginning 20 darter injection.

  15. Shedding of Renibacterium salmoninarum by infected chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tschawytscha.

    PubMed

    McKibben, C L; Pascho, R J

    1999-10-11

    Laboratory studies of the transmission and pathogenesis of Renibacterium salmoninarum may describe more accurately what is occurring in the natural environment if test fish are infected by waterborne R. salmoninarum shed from infected fish. To quantify bacterial shedding by chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tschawytscha at 13 degrees C in freshwater, groups of fish were injected intraperitoneally with R. salmoninarum at either 1.3 x 10(6) colony forming units (CFU) fish (-1) (high-dose injection group) or 1.5 x 10(3) CFU fish (-1) (low-dose injection group). R. salmoninarum infection levels were measured in the exposed fish by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (BKD-ELISA). At regular intervals for 30 d, the numbers of R. salmoninarum shed by the injected fish were calculated on the basis of testing water samples by the membrane filtration-fluorescent antibody test (MF-FAT) and bacteriological culture. Mean BKD-ELISA optical densities (ODs) for fish in the low-dose injection group were not different from those control fish (p > 0.05), and no R. salmoninarum were detected in water samples taken up to 30 d after injection of fish in the low-dose group. By 12 d after injection a proportion of the fish from the high-dose infection group had high (BKD-ELISA OD > or = 1.000) to severe (BKD-ELISA OD > or = 2.000) R. salmoninarum infection levels, and bacteria were detected in the water by both tests. However, measurable levels of R. salmoninarum were not consistently detected in the water until a proportion of the fish maintained high to severe infection levels for an additional 8 d. The concentrations of R. salmoninarum in the water samples ranged from undetectable up to 994 cells ml(-1) on the basis of the MF-FAT, and up to 1850 CFU ml(-1) on the basis of bacteriological culture. The results suggest that chinook salmon infected with R. salmoninarum by injection of approximately 1 x 10(6) CFU fish (-1) can be used as the source of infection in cohabitation challenges

  16. Prey availability, consumption, and quality contribute to variation in growth of subyearling Chinook Salmon rearing in riverine and reservoir habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Erhardt, John M.; St. John, Scott J.

    2014-01-01

    We examined prey availability, prey consumed, and diet energy content as sources of variation in growth of natural fall Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha subyearlings rearing in riverine and reservoir habitats in the Snake River. Subyearlings in riverine habitat primarily consumed aquatic insects (e.g., Diptera, Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera), of which a high proportion was represented by adult, terrestrial forms. In the reservoir, subyearlings also consumed aquatic insects but also preyed heavily at times on nonnative lentic amphipods Corophium spp. and the mysid Neomysis mercedis, which were absent in riverine habitats. The availability of prey was typically much higher in the reservoir due to N. mercedis often composing over 90% of the biomass, but when this taxon was removed from consideration, biomass estimates were more often higher in the riverine habitat. Subyearling diets during 2009–2011 were generally 17–40% higher in energy in the riverine habitat than in the reservoir. Observed growth in both length and weight were significantly higher in the riverine habitat than in the reservoir. Little is known about how temporal and spatial changes in the food web in large river landscapes influence populations of native anadromous fishes. Our results provide a glimpse of how the spread and establishment of nonnative prey species can reduce juvenile salmon growth in a large river impoundment, which in turn can affect migration timing and survival.

  17. Effects of rearing density and raceway conformation on growth, food conversion, and survival of juvenile spring chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ewing, R.D.; Sheahan, J.E.; Lewis, M.A.; Palmisano, Aldo N.

    2000-01-01

    Four brood years of juvenile spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha were reared in conventional and baffled raceways at various rearing densities and loads at Willamette Hatchery, Oregon. A period of rapid linear growth occurred from August to November, but there was little or no growth from November to March when the fish were released. Both fall and winter growth rates were inversely related to rearing density. Final weight and length were also inversely related to rearing density. No significant relationship between load and any growth variable was observed. Fish reared at lower densities in conventional raceways tended to develop bimodal length distributions in winter and early spring. Fish reared in conventional raceways showed significantly larger growth rates and final lengths and weights than those reared in baffled raceways. Food conversions and average delivery times for feed were significantly greater in baffled than in conventional raceways. No significant relationships were observed between either rearing density or load and condition factor, food conversion, or mortality. Mortality was not significantly different between the two raceway types. When fish were transported to seawater for further rearing, there were no significant relationships between mortality in seawater and rearing density or load, but fish reared in baffled raceways had significantly higher mortality than those reared in conventional raceways.

  18. 50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the USGS publication and maps may be... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.205 Critical habitat...

  19. 50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the USGS publication and maps may be... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.205 Critical habitat...

  20. 50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the USGS publication and maps may be... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.205 Critical habitat...

  1. Spring Outmigration of Wild and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout Smolts from the Imnaha River; 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashe, Becky L.; Miller, Alan C.; Kucera, Paul A.

    1995-01-01

    In 1994, the Nez Perce Tribe began a smolt monitoring study on the Imnaha River in cooperation with the Fish Passage Center (FPC). A rotary screw trap was used to collect emigrating wild and hatchery chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) smolts from March 1 to June 15, 1994. We PIT tagged and released 956 wild chinook salmon, 661 hatchery chinook salmon, 1,432 wild steelhead trout and 2,029 hatchery steelhead trout. Cumulative interrogation rates at mainstem Snake and Columbia River dams were 62.2% for wild chinook salmon, 45.2% for hatchery chinook salmon, 51.3% for wild steelhead trout, and 34.3% for hatchery steelhead trout.

  2. Spring Outmigration of Wild and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon; 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Blenden, Michael L.; Rocklage, Stephen J.; Kucera, Paul A.

    1997-04-01

    For the third consecutive year, the Nez Perce Tribe, in conjunction with the Fish Passage Center, participated in the smolt monitoring program in the Imnaha River. A rotary screw trap was used to collect emigrating wild and hatchery chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) smolts from February 23 to June 24, 1996. A total of 1,797 wild chinook salmon, 11,896 hatchery chinook salmon, 3,786 wild steelhead trout, and 31,094 hatchery steelhead trout smolts were captured during outmigration studies on the Imnaha River in 1996. Mortality associated with trapping, handling and tagging was low, being 1.4% for wild chinook, 0.18% for hatchery chinook, 0.21% for wild steelhead and 0.28% for hatchery steelhead trout smolts.

  3. Cold acclimation induces distinctive changes in the chromatin state and transcript levels of COR genes in Cannabis sativa varieties with contrasting cold acclimation capacities.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Boris F; Ali-Benali, Mohamed Ali; Demone, Jordan; Bertrand, Annick; Charron, Jean-Benoit

    2015-11-01

    Little is known about the capacity of Cannabis sativa to cold-acclimate and develop freezing tolerance. This study investigates the cold acclimation (CA) capacity of nine C. sativa varieties and the underlying genetic and epigenetic responses. The varieties were divided into three groups based on their contrasting CA capacities by comparing the survival of non-acclimated and cold-acclimated plants in whole-plant freeze tests. In response to the CA treatment, all varieties accumulated soluble sugars but only the varieties with superior capacity for CA could maintain higher levels throughout the treatment. In addition, the varieties that acclimated most efficiently accumulated higher transcript levels of cold-regulated (COR) genes and genes involved in de novo DNA methylation while displaying locus- and variety-specific changes in the levels of H3K9ac, H3K27me3 and methylcytosine (MeC) during CA. Furthermore, these hardy C. sativa varieties displayed significant increases in MeC levels at COR gene loci when deacclimated, suggesting a role for locus-specific DNA methylation in deacclimation. This study uncovers the molecular mechanisms underlying CA in C. sativa and reveals higher levels of complexity regarding how genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors intertwine. PMID:25534661

  4. Acclimation of metabolism to light in A rabidopsis thaliana: the glucose 6‐phosphate/phosphate translocator GPT2 directs metabolic acclimation

    PubMed Central

    DYSON, BETH C.; ALLWOOD, J. WILLIAM; FEIL, REGINA; XU, YUN; MILLER, MATTHEW; BOWSHER, CAROLINE G.; GOODACRE, ROYSTON; LUNN, JOHN E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Mature leaves of plants transferred from low to high light typically increase their photosynthetic capacity. In A rabidopsis thaliana, this dynamic acclimation requires expression of GPT2, a glucose 6‐phosphate/phosphate translocator. Here, we examine the impact of GPT2 on leaf metabolism and photosynthesis. Plants of wild type and of a GPT2 knockout (gpt2.2) grown under low light achieved the same photosynthetic rate despite having different metabolic and transcriptomic strategies. Immediately upon transfer to high light, gpt2.2 plants showed a higher rate of photosynthesis than wild‐type plants (35%); however, over subsequent days, wild‐type plants acclimated photosynthetic capacity, increasing the photosynthesis rate by 100% after 7 d. Wild‐type plants accumulated more starch than gpt2.2 plants throughout acclimation. We suggest that GPT2 activity results in the net import of glucose 6‐phosphate from cytosol to chloroplast, increasing starch synthesis. There was clear acclimation of metabolism, with short‐term changes typically being reversed as plants acclimated. Distinct responses to light were observed in wild‐type and gpt2.2 leaves. Significantly higher levels of sugar phosphates were observed in gpt2.2. We suggest that GPT2 alters the distribution of metabolites between compartments and that this plays an essential role in allowing the cell to interpret environmental signals. PMID:25474495

  5. Behavior and dam passage of juvenile Chinook salmon at Cougar Reservoir and Dam, Oregon, March 2012 - February 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, John W.; Hansel, Hal C.; Hansen, Amy C.; Evans, Scott D.; Haner, Philip V.; Hatton, Tyson; Kofoot, Eric E.; Sprando, Jamie M.; Smith, Collin

    2014-01-01

    The movements and dam passage of individual juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were studied at Cougar Reservoir and Dam, near Springfield, Oregon, during 2012 and 2013. Cougar Dam is a high-head flood-control reservoir with a temperature control tower as its outlet enabling selective withdrawals of water at various depths to control the temperature of water passed downstream. This report describes the second year of a 2-year study with the goal of providing information to inform decisions about future downstream passage alternatives. Inferences were based on the behavior of yearling-size juvenile Chinook salmon implanted with acoustic transmitters. The fish were released near the head of the reservoir during the spring (March, April, and May) and fall (September, October, and November) of 2012. Most tagged fish were of hatchery origin (468 spring, 449 fall) because of the low number of wild fish captured from within the reservoir (0 spring, 65 fall). Detections at hydrophones placed in several lines across the reservoir and within a collective system used to estimate three-dimensional positions near the temperature control tower were used to determine fish behavior and factors affecting dam passage rates. Most tagged fish made repeated non-random migrations from one end of the reservoir to the other and took a median of 3.7–11.7 days to travel about 7 kilometers from the release site to within about 100 meters of the temperature control tower, depending on season and origin. Reservoir passage efficiency (percentage of tagged fish detected at the head of the forebay) was 97.8 percent for hatchery fish and 74.2 percent for wild fish. Tagged fish commonly were within about 100 meters of the temperature control tower, and often spent considerable time near the entrance to the tower; however, the dam passage efficiency (percentage of dam passage of fish detected at the head of the forebay) was low for fish released during the spring (11.1 percent) and

  6. Behavior patterns and fates of adult steelhead, Chinook salmon, and coho salmon released into the upper Cowlitz River Basin, 2005–09 and 2012, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kock, Tobias J.; Ekstrom, Brian K.; Liedtke, Theresa L.; Serl, John D.; Kohn, Mike

    2016-01-01

    A multiyear radiotelemetry evaluation was conducted to monitor adult steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha), and coho salmon (O. kisutch) behavior and movement patterns in the upper Cowlitz River Basin. Volitional passage to this area was eliminated by dam construction in the mid-1960s, and a reintroduction program began in the mid-1990s. Fish are transported around the dams using a trap-and-haul program, and adult release sites are located in Lake Scanewa, the uppermost reservoir in the system, and in the Cowlitz and Cispus Rivers. Our goal was to estimate the proportion of tagged fish that fell back downstream of Cowlitz Falls Dam before the spawning period and to determine the proportion that were present in the Cowlitz and Cispus Rivers during the spawning period. Fallback is important because Cowlitz Falls Dam does not have upstream fish passage, so fish that pass the dam are unable to move back upstream and spawn. A total of 2,051 steelhead and salmon were tagged for the study, which was conducted during 2005–09 and 2012, and 173 (8.4 percent) of these regurgitated their transmitter prior to, or shortly after release. Once these fish were removed from the dataset, the final number of fish that was monitored totaled 1,878 fish, including 647 steelhead, 770 Chinook salmon, and 461 coho salmon.Hatchery-origin (HOR) and natural-origin (NOR) steelhead, Chinook salmon, and coho salmon behaved differently following release into Lake Scanewa. Detection records showed that the percentage of HOR fish that moved upstream and entered the Cowlitz River or Cispus River after release was relatively low (steelhead = 38 percent; Chinook salmon = 67 percent; coho salmon = 41 percent) compared to NOR fish (steelhead = 84 percent; Chinook salmon = 82 percent; coho salmon = 76 percent). The elapsed time from release to river entry was significantly lower for NOR fish than for HOR fish for all three species. Tagged fish entered the Cowlitz River in

  7. Identification of Saprolegnia Spp. Pathogenic in Chinook Salmon : Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Whisler, Howard C.

    1997-06-01

    This project has developed procedures to assess the role of the fungal parasite, Saprolegnia in the biology of salmon, particularly adult Chinook, in the Columbia River Basin. Both morphological and DNA ``fingerprinting`` surveys reveal that Saprolegnia parasitica (=S. diclina, Type I) is the most common pathogen of these fish. In the first phase of this study 92% of 620 isolates, from salmon lesions, conformed to this taxa of Saprolegnia. In the current phase, the authors have developed variants of DNA fingerprinting (RAPD and SWAPP analysis) that permit examination of the sub-structure of the parasite population. These results confirm the predominance of S. parasitica, and suggest that at least three different sub-groups of this fungus occur in the Pacific N.W., USA. The use of single and paired primers with PCR amplification permits identification of pathogenic types, and distinction from other species of the genus considered to be more saprophytic in character. A year`s survey of saprolegniaceous fungi from Lake Washington indicated that the fish-pathogen was not common in the water column. Where and how fish encounter this parasite can be approached with the molecular tags identified in this project.

  8. Asymmetric hybridization and introgression between pink salmon and chinook salmon in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenfield, Jonathan A.; Todd, Thomas; Greil, Roger

    2000-01-01

    Among Pacific salmon collected in the St. Marys River, five natural hybrids of pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha and chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and one suspected backcross have been detected using morphologic, meristic, and color evidence. One allozyme (LDH, l-lactate dehydrogenase from muscle) and one nuclear DNA locus (growth hormone) for which species-specific fixed differences exist were analyzed to detect additional hybrids and to determine if introgression had occurred. Restriction fragment length polymorphism of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was used to identify the maternal parent of each hybrid. Evidence of introgression was found among the five previously identified hybrids. All hybrid specimens had chinook salmon mtDNA, indicating that hybridization between chinook salmon and pink salmon in the St. Marys River is asymmetric and perhaps unidirectional. Ecological, physiological, and sexual selection forces may contribute to this asymmetric hybridization. Introgression between these highly differentiated species has implications for management, systematics, and conservation of Pacific salmon.

  9. Modeling population responses of Chinook and coho salmon to suspended sediment using a life history approach.

    PubMed

    Araujo, H Andres; Cooper, Andrew B; MacIsaac, Erland A; Knowler, Duncan; Velez-Espino, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    This study develops a quantitative framework for estimating the effects of extreme suspended-sediment events (SSC>25 mg L(-1)) on virtual populations of Chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho (O. kisutch) salmon in a coastal watershed of British Columbia, Canada. We used a life history model coupled with a dose-response model to evaluate the populations' responses to a set of simulated suspended sediments scenarios. Our results indicate that a linear increase in SSC produces non-linear declining trajectories in both Chinook and coho populations, but this decline was more evident for Chinook salmon despite their shorter fresh-water residence. The model presented here can provide insights into SSC impacts on population responses of salmonids and potentially assist resource managers when planning conservation or remediation strategies. PMID:25963631

  10. Regulatory Networks Controlling Plant Cold Acclimation or Low Temperature Regulatory Networks Controlling Cold Acclimation in Arabidopsis (2011 JGI User Meeting)

    ScienceCinema

    Thomashow, Mike

    2011-06-03

    The U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI) invited scientists interested in the application of genomics to bioenergy and environmental issues, as well as all current and prospective users and collaborators, to attend the annual DOE JGI Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting held March 22-24, 2011 in Walnut Creek, Calif. The emphasis of this meeting was on the genomics of renewable energy strategies, carbon cycling, environmental gene discovery, and engineering of fuel-producing organisms. The meeting features presentations by leading scientists advancing these topics. Mike Thomashow of Michigan State University gives a presentation on on "Low Temperature Regulatory Networks Controlling Cold Acclimation in Arabidopsis" at the 6th annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 23, 2011. «

  11. Regulatory Networks Controlling Plant Cold Acclimation or Low Temperature Regulatory Networks Controlling Cold Acclimation in Arabidopsis (2011 JGI User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Thomashow, Mike

    2011-03-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI) invited scientists interested in the application of genomics to bioenergy and environmental issues, as well as all current and prospective users and collaborators, to attend the annual DOE JGI Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting held March 22-24, 2011 in Walnut Creek, Calif. The emphasis of this meeting was on the genomics of renewable energy strategies, carbon cycling, environmental gene discovery, and engineering of fuel-producing organisms. The meeting features presentations by leading scientists advancing these topics. Mike Thomashow of Michigan State University gives a presentation on on "Low Temperature Regulatory Networks Controlling Cold Acclimation in Arabidopsis" at the 6th annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 23, 2011. «

  12. Minthorn Springs Creek Summer Juvenile Release and Adult Collection Facility; 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rowan, Gerald D.

    1995-05-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) are cooperating in a joint effort to enhance steelhead and re-establish salmon runs in the Umatilla River Basin. Bonifer Pond, Minthorn Springs and Imeques C-mem-ini-kem acclimation facilities are operated for acclimation and release of juvenile summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), fall and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) and coho salmon (O, kisutch). Minthorn is also used for holding and spawning summer steelhead, fall chinook and coho salmon. In the spring of 1994, juvenile summer steelhead were acclimated at Bonifer and Minthorn. At Imeques C-mem-ini-kem, juvenile spring chinook were acclimated in the spring and fall. A total of 92 unmarked and 42 marked summer steelhead were collected for broodstock at Three Mile Dam from October 1, 1993 through May 2, 1994 and held at Minthorn. An estimated 234,432 green eggs were taken from 48 females. The eggs were transferred to Irrigon Hatchery for incubation and early rearing. Fingerlings were transferred to Umatilla Hatchery for final rearing and release into the Umatilla River in 1995. Fall chinook and coho salmon broodstock were not collected in 1994. Coded-wire tag recovery information was accessed to determine the contribution of Umatilla River releases to ocean, Columbia River and Umatilla River fisheries. Total estimated juvenile adult survival rates are detailed in this document.

  13. Norepinephrine turnover in heart and spleen of 7-, 22-, and 34 C-acclimated hamsters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, S. B.; Musacchia, X. J.

    1976-01-01

    The relationship of norepinephrine (NE) concentration and endogenous turnover rates in both myocardial and spleen tissues in the golden hamster is examined as a function of chronic exposure to either high or low ambient temperatures. Changes in myocardial and spleen NE turnover values are discussed in terms of functional alterations in sympathetic nerve activity and the importance of such changes in temperature acclimation. It is found that acclimation of hamsters to 7 C for 7-10 weeks results in decreased myocardial NE concentration and an apparent increase in myocardial NE turnover. In contrast, exposure to 34 C for 6-8 weeks results in increased myocardial NE concentration and an apparent decrease in NE turnover in both myocardial and spleen tissues. The implication of altered NE synthesis is that sympathetic nerve activity is reduced with heat acclimation and is enhanced with cold acclimation.

  14. Temperature acclimation of photosynthesis and respiration: A key uncertainty in the carbon cycle-climate feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardozzi, Danica L.; Bonan, Gordon B.; Smith, Nicholas G.; Dukes, Jeffrey S.; Fisher, Rosie A.

    2015-10-01

    Earth System Models typically use static responses to temperature to calculate photosynthesis and respiration, but experimental evidence suggests that many plants acclimate to prevailing temperatures. We incorporated representations of photosynthetic and leaf respiratory temperature acclimation into the Community Land Model, the terrestrial component of the Community Earth System Model. These processes increased terrestrial carbon pools by 20 Pg C (22%) at the end of the 21st century under a business-as-usual (Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5) climate scenario. Including the less certain estimates of stem and root respiration acclimation increased terrestrial carbon pools by an additional 17 Pg C (~40% overall increase). High latitudes gained the most carbon with acclimation, and tropical carbon pools increased least. However, results from both of these regions remain uncertain; few relevant data exist for tropical and boreal plants or for extreme temperatures. Constraining these uncertainties will produce more realistic estimates of land carbon feedbacks throughout the 21st century.

  15. Acclimation of nitrifying biomass and its effect on 2-chlorophenol removal.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Alfaro, J E; González-Blanco, G; Sierra-Palacios, E; Marcial-Quino, J; Beristain-Cardoso, R

    2015-01-01

    The metabolic and kinetic behavior of a nitrifying sludge exposed to 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) was evaluated in batch cultures. Two kinds of nitrifying culture were used; one acclimated to 4-methylphenol (4-mp), and the other unacclimated to 4-mp. The unacclimated culture was affected adversely by the 2-CP's presence, since neither nitrification nor 2-CP oxidation was observed. Nonetheless, the acclimated culture showed metabolic capacity to nitrify and mineralize 2-CP. Ammonium removal was 100%, with a nitrifying yield of 0.92 ± 0.04 mg NO(3)(-)-N/mg NH(4)(+)-N consumed. The consumption efficiency for 2-CP was 100% and the halogenated compound was mineralized to CO2. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) patterns showed the shift in microbial community structure, indicating that microbial diversity was due to the acclimation process. This is the first evidence where nitrifying culture acclimated to 4-mp completely removed ammonium and 2-CP. PMID:25633952

  16. Impacts of thermal acclimation of photosynthesis on future land carbon storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercado, L. M.; Medlyn, B. E.; Huntingford, C.; Sitch, S.; Zelazowsk, P.; Cox, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    Plants have the ability to adjust their photosynthetic characteristics in order to improve their performance at the prevailing thermal regimes, this is termed thermal acclimation of photosynthesis. The impacts of thermal acclimation of photosynthesis on future land sink and climate is unknown. In this study we estimate the impact of accounting for thermal acclimation of photosynthetic traits on future land carbon sink using 22 climate models and a global land surface model. We find an enhancement of land carbon storage of up to 70 % and 13 % in tropical and temperate regions in 2100 when accounting for thermal plasticity of photosynthetic capacity. The outcome of this study highlights the urgent need for more studies on thermal acclimation of photosynthesis, specifically in the tropical regions where there is a lack of data and ecosystem scale warming and elevated CO2 experiments.

  17. Gelation in protein extracts from cold acclimated and non-acclimated winter rye (Secale cereale L. cv Musketeer).

    PubMed

    Lim, Ze Long; Low, Nicholas H; Moffatt, Barbara A; Gray, Gordon R

    2013-04-01

    A protein gel is a three-dimensional network consisting of molecular interactions between biopolymers that entrap a significant volume of a continuous liquid phase (water). Molecular interactions in gels occur at junction zones within and between protein molecules through electrostatic forces, hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic associations (van der Waals attractions) and covalent bonding. Gels have the physicochemical properties of both solids and liquids, and are extremely important in the production and stability of a variety of foods, bioproducts and pharmaceuticals. In this study, gelation was induced in phenol extracted protein fractions from non-acclimated (NA) and cold-acclimated (CA) winter rye (Secale cereale L. cv Musketeer) leaf tissue after repeated freeze-thaw treatments. Gel formation only occurred at high pH (pH 12.0) and a minimum of 3-4 freeze-thaw cycles were required. The gel was thermally stable and only a specific combination of chemical treatments could disrupt the gel network. SDS-PAGE analysis identified ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase (Rubisco) as the major protein component in the gel, although Rubisco itself did not appear to be a factor in gelation. Raman spectroscopy suggested changes in protein secondary structure during freeze-thaw cycles. Overall, the NA and CA gels were similar in composition and structure, with the exception that the CA gel appeared to be amyloidic in nature based on thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence. Protein gelation, particularly in the apoplast, may confer protection against freeze-induced dehydration and potentially have a commercial application to improve frozen food quality. PMID:23348601

  18. No effects of acclimation to heat on immune and hormonal responses to passive heating in healthy volunteers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanikowska, Dominika; Sato, Maki; Sugenoya, Junichi; Iwase, Satoshi; Shimizu, Yuuki; Nishimura, Naoki; Inukai, Yoko

    2012-01-01

    Heat acclimation results in whole body-adaptations that increase heat tolerance, and might also result in changed immune responses. We hypothesized that, after heat acclimation, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 6 and the lymphocyte count would be altered. Heat acclimation was induced in 6 healthy men by 100 min of heat exposure for 9 days. Heat exposure consisted of (1) 10 min of immersion up to chest-level in water at 42°C and (2) 90 min of passive heating by a warm blanket to maintain tympanic temperature at 37.5°C. The climatic chamber was maintained at 40°C and a relative humidity of 50%. Blood samples were analyzed before and after heat acclimation for natural killer (NK) cell activity, counts of lymphocytes B and T, before and after heat acclimation for peripheral blood morphology, interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and cortisol. A Japanese version of the profile of mood states questionnaire was also administered before and after acclimation. The concentrations of white blood cells, lymphocytes B and T, cortisol, interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor alpha and NK cell activity showed no significant differences between pre- and post-acclimation, but there was a significantly lower platelet count after acclimation and, with the profile of mood states questionnaire, there was a significant rise in anger after acclimation. It is concluded that heat acclimation by passive heating does not induce alterations in immune or endocrine responses.

  19. Time course of the response of mitochondria from oxidative muscle during thermal acclimation of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Patrice; Guderley, Helga

    2003-10-01

    The time course of changes in the properties of mitochondria from oxidative muscle of rainbow trout was examined during warm (15 degrees C) and cold (5 degrees C) acclimation. Mitochondrial oxidative capacities showed a biphasic response during thermal acclimation: at a given assay temperature, capacities first increased and then decreased during warm acclimation and showed the inverse pattern during cold acclimation. This was most apparent for maximal rates of state 3 oxygen consumption expressed per mg mitochondrial protein. Rates expressed per nmol ADP-ATP translocase (ANT) showed this pattern during cold acclimation. A biphasic pattern was also apparent for state 4 and oligomycin-inhibited (state 4(ol)) rates of oxygen uptake expressed per mg protein. Changes in states 4 and 4(ol) were smaller during cold than warm acclimation. Warm acclimation reduced the proportion of cytochrome c oxidase and citrate synthase needed during mitochondrial substrate oxidation. Phospholipid concentrations per mg mitochondrial protein changed little with thermal acclimation. Mitochondrial properties changed more quickly during warm than cold acclimation. While the biochemical modifications during thermal acclimation may eventually compensate for the thermal change, compensation did not occur at its onset. Rather, the initial changes of mitochondrial oxidative capacity in response to temperature change accentuated the functional impact of the thermal change, and prolonged exposure to the new temperature was required to attain a degree of thermal compensation. PMID:12939376

  20. Constraints, independence, and evolution of thermal plasticity: Probing genetic architecture of long- and short-term thermal acclimation

    PubMed Central

    Gerken, Alison R.; Eller, Olivia C.; Hahn, Daniel A.; Morgan, Theodore J.

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal and daily thermal variation can limit species distributions because of physiological tolerances. Low temperatures are particularly challenging for ectotherms, which use both basal thermotolerance and acclimation, an adaptive plastic response, to mitigate thermal stress. Both basal thermotolerance and acclimation are thought to be important for local adaptation and persistence in the face of climate change. However, the evolutionary independence of basal and plastic tolerances remains unclear. Acclimation can occur over longer (seasonal) or shorter (hours to days) time scales, and the degree of mechanistic overlap is unresolved. Using a midlatitude population of Drosophila melanogaster, we show substantial heritable variation in both short- and long-term acclimation. Rapid cold hardening (short-term plasticity) and developmental acclimation (long-term plasticity) are positively correlated, suggesting shared mechanisms. However, there are independent components of these traits, because developmentally acclimated flies respond positively to short-term acclimation. A strong negative correlation between basal cold tolerance and developmental acclimation suggests that basal cold tolerance may constrain developmental acclimation, whereas a weaker negative correlation between basal cold tolerance and short-term acclimation suggests less constraint. Using genome-wide association mapping, we show the genetic architecture of rapid cold hardening and developmental acclimation responses are nonoverlapping at the SNP and corresponding gene level. However, genes associated with each trait share functional similarities, including genes involved in apoptosis and autophagy, cytoskeletal and membrane structural components, and ion binding and transport. These results indicate substantial opportunity for short-term and long-term acclimation responses to evolve separately from each other and for short-term acclimation to evolve separately from basal thermotolerance. PMID

  1. Constraints, independence, and evolution of thermal plasticity: probing genetic architecture of long- and short-term thermal acclimation.

    PubMed

    Gerken, Alison R; Eller, Olivia C; Hahn, Daniel A; Morgan, Theodore J

    2015-04-01

    Seasonal and daily thermal variation can limit species distributions because of physiological tolerances. Low temperatures are particularly challenging for ectotherms, which use both basal thermotolerance and acclimation, an adaptive plastic response, to mitigate thermal stress. Both basal thermotolerance and acclimation are thought to be important for local adaptation and persistence in the face of climate change. However, the evolutionary independence of basal and plastic tolerances remains unclear. Acclimation can occur over longer (seasonal) or shorter (hours to days) time scales, and the degree of mechanistic overlap is unresolved. Using a midlatitude population of Drosophila melanogaster, we show substantial heritable variation in both short- and long-term acclimation. Rapid cold hardening (short-term plasticity) and developmental acclimation (long-term plasticity) are positively correlated, suggesting shared mechanisms. However, there are independent components of these traits, because developmentally acclimated flies respond positively to short-term acclimation. A strong negative correlation between basal cold tolerance and developmental acclimation suggests that basal cold tolerance may constrain developmental acclimation, whereas a weaker negative correlation between basal cold tolerance and short-term acclimation suggests less constraint. Using genome-wide association mapping, we show the genetic architecture of rapid cold hardening and developmental acclimation responses are nonoverlapping at the SNP and corresponding gene level. However, genes associated with each trait share functional similarities, including genes involved in apoptosis and autophagy, cytoskeletal and membrane structural components, and ion binding and transport. These results indicate substantial opportunity for short-term and long-term acclimation responses to evolve separately from each other and for short-term acclimation to evolve separately from basal thermotolerance. PMID

  2. How Can Older Adults Prevent Falls?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Falls and Older Adults How Can Older Adults Prevent Falls? Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table of Contents ... healthy and happy. There are simple ways to prevent most falls. "Injuries from falls are a major ...

  3. White River Falls Fish Passage Project, Tygh Valley, Oregon : Final Technical Report, Volume I..

    SciTech Connect

    Oregon. Dept. of Fish and Wildlife; Mount Hood National Forest

    1985-06-01

    Studies were conducted to describe current habitat conditions in the White River basin above White River Falls and to evaluate the potential to produce anadromous fish. An inventory of spawning and rearing habitats, irrigation diversions, and enhancement opportunities for anadromous fish in the White River drainage was conducted. Survival of juvenile fish at White River Falls was estimated by releasing juvenile chinook and steelhead above the falls during high and low flow periods and recapturing them below the falls in 1983 and 1984. Four alternatives to provide upstream passage for adult salmon and steelhead were developed to a predesign level. The cost of adult passage and the estimated run size of anadromous fish were used to determine the benefit/cost ratio of the preferred alternative. Possible effects of the introduction of anadromous fish on resident fish and on nearby Oak Springs Hatchery were evaluated. This included an inventory of resident species, a genetic study of native rainbow, and the identification of fish diseases in the basin. 28 figs., 23 tabs.

  4. Tailored Prevention of Inpatient Falls

    PubMed Central

    ZUYEV, LYUBOV; BENOIT, ANGELA N.; CHANG, FRANK Y.; DYKES, PATRICIA C.

    2011-01-01

    Patient falls and fall-related injuries are serious problems in hospitals. The Fall TIPS application aims to prevent patient falls by translating routine nursing fall risk assessment into a decision support intervention that communicates fall risk status and creates a tailored evidence-based plan of care that is accessible to the care team, patients, and family members. In our design and implementation of the Fall TIPS toolkit, we used the Spiral Software Development Life Cycle model. Three output tools available to be generated from the toolkit are bed poster, plan of care, and patient education handout. A preliminary design of the application was based on initial requirements defined by project leaders and informed by focus groups with end users. Preliminary design partially simulated the paper version of the Morse Fall Scale currently used in hospitals involved in the research study. Strengths and weaknesses of the first prototype were identified by heuristic evaluation. Usability testing was performed at sites where research study is implemented. Suggestions mentioned by end users participating in usability studies were either directly incorporated into the toolkit and output tools, were slightly modified, or will be addressed during training. The next step is implementation of the fall prevention toolkit on the pilot testing units. PMID:20975543

  5. Boreal and temperate trees show strong acclimation of respiration to warming.

    PubMed

    Reich, Peter B; Sendall, Kerrie M; Stefanski, Artur; Wei, Xiaorong; Rich, Roy L; Montgomery, Rebecca A

    2016-03-31

    Plant respiration results in an annual flux of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere that is six times as large as that due to the emissions from fossil fuel burning, so changes in either will impact future climate. As plant respiration responds positively to temperature, a warming world may result in additional respiratory CO2 release, and hence further atmospheric warming. Plant respiration can acclimate to altered temperatures, however, weakening the positive feedback of plant respiration to rising global air temperature, but a lack of evidence on long-term (weeks to years) acclimation to climate warming in field settings currently hinders realistic predictions of respiratory release of CO2 under future climatic conditions. Here we demonstrate strong acclimation of leaf respiration to both experimental warming and seasonal temperature variation for juveniles of ten North American tree species growing for several years in forest conditions. Plants grown and measured at 3.4 °C above ambient temperature increased leaf respiration by an average of 5% compared to plants grown and measured at ambient temperature; without acclimation, these increases would have been 23%. Thus, acclimation eliminated 80% of the expected increase in leaf respiration of non-acclimated plants. Acclimation of leaf respiration per degree temperature change was similar for experimental warming and seasonal temperature variation. Moreover, the observed increase in leaf respiration per degree increase in temperature was less than half as large as the average reported for previous studies, which were conducted largely over shorter time scales in laboratory settings. If such dampening effects of leaf thermal acclimation occur generally, the increase in respiration rates of terrestrial plants in response to climate warming may be less than predicted, and thus may not raise atmospheric CO2 concentrations as much as anticipated. PMID:26982730

  6. Effect of Cold Acclimation on Intracellular Ice Formation in Isolated Protoplasts 1

    PubMed Central

    Dowgert, Michael F.; Steponkus, Peter L.

    1983-01-01

    When cooled at rapid rates to temperatures between −10 and −30°C, the incidence of intracellular ice formation was less in protoplasts enzymically isolated from cold acclimated leaves of rye (Secale cereale L. cv Puma) than that observed in protoplasts isolated from nonacclimated leaves. The extent of supercooling of the intracellular solution at any given temperature increased in both nonacclimated and acclimated protoplasts as the rate of cooling increased. There was no unique relationship between the extent of supercooling and the incidence of intracellular ice formation in either nonacclimated or acclimated protoplasts. In both nonacclimated and acclimated protoplasts, the extent of intracellular supercooling was similar under conditions that resulted in the greatest difference in the incidence of intracellular ice formation—cooling to −15 or −20°C at rates of 10 or 16°C/minute. Further, the hydraulic conductivity determined during freeze-induced dehydration at −5°C was similar for both nonacclimated and acclimated protoplasts. A major distinction between nonacclimated and acclimated protoplasts was the temperature at which nucleation occurred. In nonacclimated protoplasts, nucleation occurred over a relatively narrow temperature range with a median nucleation temperature of −15°C, whereas in acclimated protoplasts, nucleation occurred over a broader temperature range with a median nucleation temperature of −42°C. We conclude that the decreased incidence of intracellular ice formation in acclimated protoplasts is attributable to an increase in the stability of the plasma membrane which precludes nucleation of the supercooled intracellular solution and is not attributable to an increase in hydraulic conductivity of the plasma membrane which purportedly precludes supercooling of the intracellular solution. PMID:16663149

  7. Effects of acclimation on poststocking dispersal and physiological condition of age-1 pallid sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oldenburg, E.W.; Guy, C.S.; Cureton, E.S.; Webb, M.A.H.; Gardner, W.M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of acclimation to flow and site-specific physicochemical water conditions on poststocking dispersal and physiological condition of age-1 hatchery-reared pallid sturgeon. Fish from three acclimation treatments were radio-tagged, released at two locations (Missouri River and Marias River), and monitored using passive telemetry stations. Marias treatment was acclimated to flow and site-specific physicochemical conditions, Bozeman treatment was acclimated to flow only, and controls had no acclimation (reared under traditional conservation propagation protocol). During both years, fish released in the Missouri River dispersed less than fish released in the Marias River. In 2005, Marias treatment dispersed less and nearly twice as many fish remained in the Missouri River reach as compared to control fish. In 2006, pallid sturgeon dispersed similarly among treatments and the number of fish remaining in the Missouri River reach was similar among all treatments. Differences in poststocking dispersal between years were related to fin curl which was present in all fish in 2005 and only 26% in 2006. Pallid sturgeon from all treatments in both years had a greater affinity for the lower reaches of the Missouri River than the upper reaches. Thus, release site influenced poststocking dispersal more than acclimation treatment. No difference was observed in relative growth rate among treatments. However, acclimation to flow (i.e., exercise conditioning) prevented fat accumulation from rupturing hepatocytes. Acclimation conditions used in this study did not benefit pallid sturgeon unless physiological maladies were present. Overriding all treatment effects was stocking location; thus, natural resource agencies need to consider stocking location carefully to reduce poststocking dispersal. ?? 2011 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  8. Effects of Acclimation on Poststocking Dispersal and Physiological Condition of Age-1 Pallid Sturgeon

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Eric W.; Guy, Christopher S.; Cureton, Eli S.; Webb, Molly H.; Gardner, William M.

    2011-03-28

    A propagation program for pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus in the upper Missouri River was implemented by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service in 1997. Preliminary research indicated that many hatchery-reared pallid sturgeon were experiencing significant downstream poststocking dispersal, negatively affecting their recruitment. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of acclimation to flow and site-specific physicochemical water conditions on poststocking dispersal and physiological condition of age-1 pallid sturgeon. Fish from three acclimation treatments were radio-tagged, released at two locations (Missouri River and Marias River), and monitored using passive telemetry stations. Marias treatment was acclimated to flow and site-specific physicochemical conditions, Bozeman treatment was acclimated to flow only, and traditional treatment had no acclimation (reared under traditional protocol). During both years fish released in the Missouri River dispersed less than fish released in the Marias River. In 2005, Marias treatment dispersed less and nearly twice as many fish remained in the Missouri River reach than traditional treatment. In 2006, pallid sturgeon dispersed similarly among treatments and fish remaining in the Missouri River reach were similar among all treatments. Differences in poststocking dispersal between years may be related to fin curl. Fin curl was present in all fish in 2005 and 27% of the fish in 2006. Pallid sturgeon from all treatments in both years had a greater affinity for the lower reaches of the Missouri River than the upper reaches. Thus, habitat at release site influenced poststocking dispersal more than acclimation treatment. No difference was observed in relative growth rate among treatments in 2006. However, acclimation to flow (i.e., exercise conditioning) may reduce liver fat content. Acclimation conditions used in this study may not benefit pallid sturgeon unless physiological maladies are present

  9. 1991 Fall Meeting Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, David S.

    The AGU 1991 Fall Meeting, held in San Francisco December 9-13, was the largest national AGU meeting ever held. Meeting participation continued the steady growth trend set throughout the previous decade. A total of 4,037 papers and posters were presented, and by Friday noon of the meeting over 5,500 members had registered.Several special events were scheduled to inform and engage members on societal and programmatic aspects of our science. AGU's Committee on Education and Human Resources sponsored an open forum that addressed opportunities and problems associated with dual-career couples. A discussion of NASA's strategic plan by Berrien Moore and Joseph Alexander drew a large audience, and a special session on societal aspects of the Mt. Pinatubo eruption drew an overflow crowd. Two special lectures— “Plumes, Plates, and Deep Earth Structure” by Don L. Anderson and “New Frontiers in Aeronomy: Effects of Global Atmospheric Change” by P. M. Banks-also drew overflow crowds.

  10. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Programs, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Carmichael, Richard W.

    2003-03-01

    Endangered Species Permit Number 1011 (formerly Permit No. 973) authorizes ODFW to take listed spring chinook salmon juveniles from Catherine Creek (CC), Lostine River (LR) and Grande Ronde River (GR) for research and enhancement purposes. Modification 2 of this permit authorizes ODFW to take adults for spawning and the production and release of smolts for the Captive and Conventional broodstock programs. This report satisfies the requirement that an annual report be submitted. Herein we report on activities conducted and provide cursory data analyses for the Grande Ronde spring chinook salmon Captive and Conventional broodstock projects from 1 January-31 December 2001.

  11. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Program, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Carmichael, Richard W.

    2003-03-01

    Endangered Species Permit Number 1011 (formerly Permit No. 973) authorizes ODFW to take listed spring chinook salmon juveniles from Catherine Creek (CC), Lostine River (LR) and Grande Ronde River (GR) for research and enhancement purposes. Modification 2 of this permit authorizes ODFW to take adults for spawning and the production and release of smolts for the Captive and Conventional broodstock programs. This report satisfies the requirement that an annual report be submitted. Herein we report on activities conducted and provide cursory data analyses for the Grande Ronde spring chinook salmon Captive and Conventional broodstock projects from 1 January-31 December 2000.

  12. Analysis of Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River from an Ecosystem Perspective. Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Lichatowich, James A.; Mobrand, Lars E.

    1995-01-01

    Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment (EDT) methodology was applied to the analysis of chinook salmon in the mid-Columbia subbasins which flow through the steppe and steppe-shrub vegetation zones. The EDT examines historical changes in life history diversity related to changes in habitat. The emphasis on life history, habitat and historical context is consistent with and ecosystem perspective. This study is based on the working hypothesis that the decline in chinook salmon was at least in part due to a loss of biodiversity defined as the intrapopulation life history diversity. The mid Columbia subbasins included in the study are the Deschutes, John Day, Umatilla, Tucannon and Yakima.

  13. Identification of Mutants of Arabidopsis Defective in Acclimation of Photosynthesis to the Light Environment1

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Robin G.; Shephard, Freya; Rogers, Jennifer J.M.; Rolfe, Stephen A.; Horton, Peter

    2003-01-01

    In common with many other higher plant species, Arabidopsis undergoes photosynthetic acclimation, altering the composition of the photosynthetic apparatus in response to fluctuations in its growth environment. The changes in photosynthetic function that result from acclimation can be detected in a noninvasive manner by monitoring chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence. This technique has been used to develop a screen that enables the rapid identification of plants defective at ACCLIMATION OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS TO THE ENVIRONMENT (APE) loci. The application of this screen to a population of T-DNA-transformed Arabidopsis has successfully led to the identification of a number of mutant lines with altered Chl fluorescence characteristics. Analysis of photosynthesis and pigment composition in leaves from three such mutants showed that they had altered acclimation responses to the growth light environment, each having a distinct acclimation-defective phenotype, demonstrating that screening for mutants using Chl fluorescence is a viable strategy for the investigation of acclimation. Sequencing of the genomic DNA flanking the T-DNA elements showed that in the ape1 mutant, a gene was disrupted that encodes a protein of unknown function but that appears to be specific to photosynthetic organisms, whereas the ape2 mutant carries an insertion in the region of the TPT gene encoding the chloroplast inner envelope triose phosphate/phosphate translocator. PMID:12586872

  14. Short-term Cold Acclimation Recruits Brown Adipose Tissue in Obese Humans.

    PubMed

    Hanssen, Mark J W; van der Lans, Anouk A J J; Brans, Boudewijn; Hoeks, Joris; Jardon, Kelly M C; Schaart, Gert; Mottaghy, Felix M; Schrauwen, Patrick; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D

    2016-05-01

    Recruitment of brown adipose tissue (BAT) has emerged as a potential tool to combat obesity and associated metabolic complications. Short-term cold acclimation has been shown not only to enhance the presence and activity of BAT in lean humans but also to improve the metabolic profile of skeletal muscle to benefit glucose uptake in patients with type 2 diabetes. Here we examined whether short-term cold acclimation also induced such adaptations in 10 metabolically healthy obese male subjects. A 10-day cold acclimation period resulted in increased cold-induced glucose uptake in BAT, as assessed by [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography. BAT activity was negatively related to age, with a similar trend for body fat percentage. In addition, cold-induced glucose uptake in BAT was positively related to glucose uptake in visceral white adipose tissue, although glucose uptake in visceral and subcutaneous white adipose tissue depots was unchanged upon cold acclimation. Cold-induced skeletal muscle glucose uptake tended to increase upon cold acclimation, which was paralleled by increased basal GLUT4 localization in the sarcolemma, as assessed through muscle biopsies. Proximal skin temperature was increased and subjective responses to cold were slightly improved at the end of the acclimation period. These metabolic adaptations to prolonged exposure to mild cold may lead to improved glucose metabolism or prevent the development of obesity-associated insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. PMID:26718499

  15. Temperature-Acclimated Brown Adipose Tissue Modulates Insulin Sensitivity in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Paul; Smith, Sheila; Linderman, Joyce; Courville, Amber B.; Brychta, Robert J.; Dieckmann, William; Werner, Charlotte D.; Chen, Kong Y.

    2014-01-01

    In rodents, brown adipose tissue (BAT) regulates cold- and diet-induced thermogenesis (CIT; DIT). Whether BAT recruitment is reversible and how it impacts on energy metabolism have not been investigated in humans. We examined the effects of temperature acclimation on BAT, energy balance, and substrate metabolism in a prospective crossover study of 4-month duration, consisting of four consecutive blocks of 1-month overnight temperature acclimation (24°C [month 1] → 19°C [month 2] → 24°C [month 3] → 27°C [month 4]) of five healthy men in a temperature-controlled research facility. Sequential monthly acclimation modulated BAT reversibly, boosting and suppressing its abundance and activity in mild cold and warm conditions (P < 0.05), respectively, independent of seasonal fluctuations (P < 0.01). BAT acclimation did not alter CIT but was accompanied by DIT (P < 0.05) and postprandial insulin sensitivity enhancement (P < 0.05), evident only after cold acclimation. Circulating and adipose tissue, but not skeletal muscle, expression levels of leptin and adiponectin displayed reciprocal changes concordant with cold-acclimated insulin sensitization. These results suggest regulatory links between BAT thermal plasticity and glucose metabolism in humans, opening avenues to harnessing BAT for metabolic benefits. PMID:24954193

  16. Exploiting heterogeneous environments: does photosynthetic acclimation optimize carbon gain in fluctuating light?

    PubMed Central

    Retkute, Renata; Smith-Unna, Stephanie E.; Smith, Robert W.; Burgess, Alexandra J.; Jensen, Oliver E.; Johnson, Giles N.; Preston, Simon P.; Murchie, Erik H.

    2015-01-01

    Plants have evolved complex mechanisms to balance the efficient use of absorbed light energy in photosynthesis with the capacity to use that energy in assimilation, so avoiding potential damage from excess light. This is particularly important under natural light, which can vary according to weather, solar movement and canopy movement. Photosynthetic acclimation is the means by which plants alter their leaf composition and structure over time to enhance photosynthetic efficiency and productivity. However there is no empirical or theoretical basis for understanding how leaves track historic light levels to determine acclimation status, or whether they do this accurately. We hypothesized that in fluctuating light (varying in both intensity and frequency), the light-response characteristics of a leaf should adjust (dynamically acclimate) to maximize daily carbon gain. Using a framework of mathematical modelling based on light-response curves, we have analysed carbon-gain dynamics under various light patterns. The objective was to develop new tools to quantify the precision with which photosynthesis acclimates according to the environment in which plants exist and to test this tool on existing data. We found an inverse relationship between the optimal maximum photosynthetic capacity and the frequency of low to high light transitions. Using experimental data from the literature we were able to show that the observed patterns for acclimation were consistent with a strategy towards maximizing daily carbon gain. Refinement of the model will further determine the precision of acclimation. PMID:25788730

  17. Effects of fasting on maximum thermogenesis in temperature-acclimated rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L. C. H.

    1981-09-01

    To further investigate the limiting effect of substrates on maximum thermogenesis in acute cold exposure, the present study examined the prevalence of this effect at different thermogenic capabilities consequent to cold- or warm-acclimation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=11) were acclimated to 6, 16 and 26‡C, in succession, their thermogenic capabilities after each acclimation temperature were measured under helium-oxygen (21% oxygen, balance helium) at -10‡C after overnight fasting or feeding. Regardless of feeding conditions, both maximum and total heat production were significantly greater in 6>16>26‡C-acclimated conditions. In the fed state, the total heat production was significantly greater than that in the fasted state at all acclimating temperatures but the maximum thermogenesis was significant greater only in the 6 and 16‡C-acclimated states. The results indicate that the limiting effect of substrates on maximum and total thermogenesis is independent of the magnitude of thermogenic capability, suggesting a substrate-dependent component in restricting the effective expression of existing aerobic metabolic capability even under severe stress.

  18. Phosphoprotein SAK1 is a regulator of acclimation to singlet oxygen in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    Wakao, Setsuko; Chin, Brian L; Ledford, Heidi K; Dent, Rachel M; Casero, David; Pellegrini, Matteo; Merchant, Sabeeha S; Niyogi, Krishna K

    2014-01-01

    Singlet oxygen is a highly toxic and inevitable byproduct of oxygenic photosynthesis. The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is capable of acclimating specifically to singlet oxygen stress, but the retrograde signaling pathway from the chloroplast to the nucleus mediating this response is unknown. Here we describe a mutant, singlet oxygen acclimation knocked-out 1 (sak1), that lacks the acclimation response to singlet oxygen. Analysis of genome-wide changes in RNA abundance during acclimation to singlet oxygen revealed that SAK1 is a key regulator of the gene expression response during acclimation. The SAK1 gene encodes an uncharacterized protein with a domain conserved among chlorophytes and present in some bZIP transcription factors. The SAK1 protein is located in the cytosol, and it is induced and phosphorylated upon exposure to singlet oxygen, suggesting that it is a critical intermediate component of the retrograde signal transduction pathway leading to singlet oxygen acclimation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02286.001 PMID:24859755

  19. Cold acclimation alters the connective tissue content of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) heart.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Amy C; Turko, Andy J; Klaiman, Jordan M; Johnston, Elizabeth F; Gillis, Todd E

    2014-06-01

    Thermal acclimation can alter cardiac function and morphology in a number of fish species, but little is known about the regulation of these changes. The purpose of the present study was to determine how cold acclimation affects zebrafish (Danio rerio) cardiac morphology, collagen composition and connective tissue regulation. Heart volume, the thickness of the compact myocardium, collagen content and collagen fiber composition were compared between control (27°C) and cold-acclimated (20°C) zebrafish using serially sectioned hearts stained with Picrosirius Red. Collagen content and fiber composition of the pericardial membrane were also examined. Cold acclimation did not affect the volume of the contracted heart; however, there was a significant decrease in the thickness of the compact myocardium. There was also a decrease in the collagen content of the compact myocardium and in the amount of thick collagen fibers throughout the heart. Cold-acclimated zebrafish also increased expression of the gene transcript for matrix metalloproteinase 2, matrix metalloproteinase 9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 and collagen Type I α1. We propose that the reduction in the thickness of the compact myocardium as well as the change in collagen content may help to maintain the compliance of the ventricle as temperatures decrease. Together, these results clearly demonstrate that the zebrafish heart undergoes significant remodeling in response to cold acclimation. PMID:24577447

  20. Benefit of heat acclimation is limited by the evaporative potential when wearing chemical protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Chang, S K; Gonzalez, R R

    1999-08-01

    Heat acclimation-induced sweating responses have the potential of reducing heat strain for chemical protective garment wearers. However, this potential benefit is strongly affected by the properties of the garment. If the clothing ensemble permits sufficient evaporative heat dissipation, then heat acclimation becomes helpful in reducing heat strain. On the other hand, if the garment creates an impenetrable barrier to moisture, no benefit can be gained from heat acclimation as the additional sweating cannot be evaporated. Ten subjects were studied exercising on a treadmill while wearing two different chemical protective ensembles. Skin heat flux, skin temperature, core temperature, metabolic heat production and heart rate were measured. It was found that the benefit of heat acclimation is strongly dependent on the ability of the body to dissipate an adequate amount of heat evaporatively. The evaporative potential (EP), a measure of thermal insulation modified by moisture permeability, of the clothing ensemble offers a quantitative index useful to determine, a priori, whether heat acclimation would be helpful when wearing protective clothing system. The data show that when EP is < 15%, heat acclimation affords no benefit. An evaporative potential graph is created to aid in this determination. PMID:10504888

  1. Cold acclimation is accompanied by complex responses of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Daisuke; Kawamura, Yukio; Uemura, Matsuo

    2016-01-01

    Cold acclimation results in changes of the plasma membrane (PM) composition. The PM is considered to contain specific lipid/protein-enriched microdomains which can be extracted as detergent-resistant plasma membrane (DRM). Previous studies in animal cells have demonstrated that glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) can be targeted to microdomains and/or the apoplast. However, the functional significance of GPI-APs during cold acclimation in plants is not yet fully understood. In this study, we aimed to investigate the responsiveness of GPI-APs to cold acclimation treatment in Arabidopsis. We isolated the PM, DRM, and apoplast fractions separately and, in addition, GPI-AP-enriched fractions were prepared from the PM preparation. Label-free quantitative shotgun proteomics identified a number of GPI-APs (163 proteins). Among them, some GPI-APs such as fasciclin-like arabinogalactan proteins and glycerophosphoryldiester phosphodiesterase-like proteins predominantly increased in PM- and GPI-AP-enriched fractions while the changes of GPI-APs in the DRM and apoplast fractions during cold acclimation were considerably different from those of other fractions. These proteins are thought to be associated with cell wall structure and properties. Therefore, this study demonstrated that each GPI-AP responded to cold acclimation in a different manner, suggesting that these changes during cold acclimation are involved in rearrangement of the extracellular matrix including the cell wall towards acquisition of freezing tolerance. PMID:27471282

  2. Cold acclimation is accompanied by complex responses of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Daisuke; Kawamura, Yukio; Uemura, Matsuo

    2016-09-01

    Cold acclimation results in changes of the plasma membrane (PM) composition. The PM is considered to contain specific lipid/protein-enriched microdomains which can be extracted as detergent-resistant plasma membrane (DRM). Previous studies in animal cells have demonstrated that glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) can be targeted to microdomains and/or the apoplast. However, the functional significance of GPI-APs during cold acclimation in plants is not yet fully understood. In this study, we aimed to investigate the responsiveness of GPI-APs to cold acclimation treatment in Arabidopsis We isolated the PM, DRM, and apoplast fractions separately and, in addition, GPI-AP-enriched fractions were prepared from the PM preparation. Label-free quantitative shotgun proteomics identified a number of GPI-APs (163 proteins). Among them, some GPI-APs such as fasciclin-like arabinogalactan proteins and glycerophosphoryldiester phosphodiesterase-like proteins predominantly increased in PM- and GPI-AP-enriched fractions while the changes of GPI-APs in the DRM and apoplast fractions during cold acclimation were considerably different from those of other fractions. These proteins are thought to be associated with cell wall structure and properties. Therefore, this study demonstrated that each GPI-AP responded to cold acclimation in a different manner, suggesting that these changes during cold acclimation are involved in rearrangement of the extracellular matrix including the cell wall towards acquisition of freezing tolerance. PMID:27471282

  3. Interaction between heat acclimation and exogenous insulin in brown adipose tissue of rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, H.; Yamashita, H.; Sato, N.; Habara, Y.; Gasa, S.; Nagasawa, J.; Sato, Y.; Ishikawa, M.; Segawa, M.; Yamamoto, M.

    1992-09-01

    Seventy-one male Wistar strain rats (7 weeks old) were kept at 5, 25, or 34° C, respectively, for 2 weeks with or without insulin administration. Insulin (Novo Lente MC) was given subcutaneously in a dose of 3.62 nmol/125 µl saline per 100 g body weight. An apparent effect of insulin treatment was noted only in heat-exposed rats, resulting in a remarkable gain in inter-scapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) mass of heat-acclimated, insulin-treated rats in terms of weight or weight per unit body weight. The BAT from heat-acclimated, insulin-treated rats had significantly higher levels of protein, DNA, RNA, and triglyceride than BAT from heat-acclimated, saline-treated rats. Therefore, it seems likely that the growth of BAT in heat-acclimated, insulin-treated rats was mostly due to the anabolic effects of insulin. The uncoupling protein mRNA was, however, present in BAT of heat-