Science.gov

Sample records for falling birth rates

  1. U.S. Teen Birth Rate Continues to Fall, Hits New Record Low

    MedlinePlus

    ... U.S. Teen Birth Rate Continues to Fall, Hits New Record Low CDC statistics for 2015 show another ... fell another 8 percent in 2015, reaching a new record low. According to the report from the ...

  2. U.S. Teen Birth Rate Continues to Fall, Hits New Record Low

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159170.html U.S. Teen Birth Rate Continues to Fall, Hits New ... record low. According to the report from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, moms aged ...

  3. Teen Birth Rate. Facts at a Glance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kristin A., Comp.; Snyder, Nancy O., Comp.

    Between 1986 and 1991 the teen birth rate rose by nearly one-fourth, although very small declines were evident in 1992 and 1993. This decline was concentrated among older teens; the number of births to adolescents aged 17 and younger continued to rise. The percentage of teen births that occurred outside of marriage rose to 72%. In 1991, the most…

  4. Estimating birth and death rates of zooplankton

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, B.E.; Slatkin, M.

    1981-01-01

    Two estimates of the birth rate using an egg ratio are derived from a three-stage (eggs, juveniles, and adults) model for an exponentially growing population, and the sensitivity of these estimates to time and age-dependence of the birth and death rates and to measurement errors is explored. Tests to determine whether a population violates the assumptions of the model are suggested, and birth rate estimates which partially compensate for some departures from the model are proposed. Other methods for estimating birth and death rates based on this type of model are reviewed. Four birth rate estimates are compared using data for a population of Daphnia pulicaria, and recommendations on the use of birth and death rates based on the egg ratio are made.

  5. Vitamin D Levels May Fall When Women Stop Taking Birth Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160259.html Vitamin D Levels May Fall When Women Stop Taking Birth ... 2016 THURSDAY, Aug. 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Vitamin D levels may drop after women stop using birth ...

  6. Teen Birth Rates Drop, But Disparities Persist

    MedlinePlus

    ... Features Teen Birth Rates Drop, But Disparities Persist Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The feature you selected is no longer available. In 10 seconds you will be automatically redirected to the CDC. ...

  7. Birth prevalence rates of skeletal dysplasias.

    PubMed

    Stoll, C; Dott, B; Roth, M P; Alembik, Y

    1989-02-01

    This study establishes the prevalence rates at birth of the skeletal dysplasias which can be diagnosed in the perinatal period or during pregnancy. Using a population-based register of congenital anomalies, a prevalence rate of 3.22 0/000 was observed. The most frequent types of skeletal dysplasia were achondroplasia and osteogenesis imperfecta (0.64 0/000, 1/15,000 births), thanatophoric dysplasia and achondrogenesis (0.28 0/000). The mutation rate for achondroplasia was higher in our material than in the other studies: 3.3 x 10(-5) per gamete per generation. Our study demonstrates that prenatal diagnosis by ultrasound is possible in some skeletal dysplasias. PMID:2785882

  8. Teen Birth Rate At Record Low in U.S.

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158550.html Teen Birth Rate at Record Low in U.S. They' ... 2016 THURSDAY, April 28, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The teen birth rate in the United States has reached ...

  9. Teen Birth Rate At Record Low in U.S.

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158550.html Teen Birth Rate at Record Low in U.S. They' ... 2016 THURSDAY, April 28, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The teen birth rate in the United States has reached ...

  10. U.S. Cancer Death Rate Continues to Fall

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157680.html U.S. Cancer Death Rate Continues to Fall But there's been a ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Overall rates of cancer and deaths from cancer in the United States continue to ...

  11. Trends in Birth Rates: New York City 1970-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Madelon L.; Elkin, Elena

    2001-01-01

    Examined teen birth rates in New York City health districts over 25 years, noting ethnic variations. Data from Department of Health vital statistics indicated that the decline in the birth rate among New York City teens was most significant in health districts populated predominantly by blacks. There were substantial decreases among older teens…

  12. The birth rate decline in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Robey, B

    1993-01-01

    in countries with few cultural, social or economic barriers. Developing world birth rates have fallen since the 1960s from an average of six children to four in the 1990s, but a replacement level of 2.1 is needed to reach balanced growth. PMID:12287203

  13. The birth prevalence rates for the skeletal dysplasias.

    PubMed

    Orioli, I M; Castilla, E E; Barbosa-Neto, J G

    1986-08-01

    This study was undertaken to establish the prevalence rates at birth of the skeletal dysplasias that can be recognised in the perinatal period. Using the data base of the Latin-American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC), for the years 1978 to 1983, on 349 470 births (live and stillbirths), a crude prevalence rate of 2.3/10 000 was observed. However, several indications of under-registration suggest that the real value is about twice that observed. The most frequent types of skeletal dysplasia were achondroplasia, with a prevalence rate between 0.5 and 1.5/10 000 births, the thanatophoric dysplasia/achondrogenesis group (0.2 and 0.5/10 000 births), and osteogenesis imperfecta (0.4/10 000 births). The mutation rate for autosomal dominant achondroplasia was estimated at between 1.72 and 5.57 X 10(-5) per gamete per generation. PMID:3746832

  14. Teen Birth Rate. CTS Facts at a Glance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kristin Anderson, Comp.; Papillo, Angela Romano, Comp.; Williams, Stephanie, Comp.; Jager, Justin, Comp.; Jones, Fanette, Comp.

    This fact sheet presents several data tables related to teen pregnancy, birth rates, abortion, contraceptive use, and sexually transmitted diseases. The data reveal that during the 1990s, rates of teen childbearing have declined, returning to the levels reached in the mid-1980s. Declines come from a lower proportion of teens having sex and a…

  15. Teen Birth Rate. Facts at a Glance, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papillo, Angela Romano, Comp.; Franzetta, Kerry, Comp.; Manlove, Jennifer, Comp.; Moore, Kristin Anderson, Comp.; Terry-Humen, Elizabeth, Comp.; Ryan, Suzanne, Comp.

    This publication reports trends in teen childbearing in the nation, in each state, and in large cities using data from the 2001 National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). Rates of teenage childbearing continue to steadily decline, and the 2001 rates are historic lows for each age group. NCHS data showed that almost 80% of teen births nationwide…

  16. Dynamics of Two Populations with Different Birth Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Julia; Pekalski, Andrzej

    We propose a simple model describing the dynamics of a system of two populations — more numerous natives and less numerous immigrants. The immigrants' birth rate is higher than that of the natives. Several modifications of this model taking into account changes of the birth rates due to external factors and/or possibility of contacts between the populations, are also introduced. The model is studied within two approaches — by solving a set of differential equations and through a Monte Carlo simulations. We show that the question of which population will eventually dominate depends on such factors as the probability of producing offsprings of mixed origin, assimilation of the immigrants, the ratio of the birth rates, initial numbers of the populations and the average age of an individual. In all, but two extreme cases, both populations will survive.

  17. Macroeconomic Stabilization When the Natural Real Interest Rate Is Falling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttet, Sebastien; Roy, Udayan

    2015-01-01

    The authors modify the Dynamic Aggregate Demand-Dynamic Aggregate Supply model in Mankiw's widely used intermediate macroeconomics textbook to discuss monetary policy when the natural real interest rate is falling over time. Their results highlight a new role for the central bank's inflation target as a tool of macroeconomic stabilization. They…

  18. Region of birth, migration and homicide rates of African Americans.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, M; Schneider, D

    1997-08-01

    A study was made of all homicide deaths among black Americans during the period 1979-1991 in order to test two competing hypotheses about region of birth and region of death. One hypothesis was that Southern-born blacks had the highest homicide rates in every region of the US. The competing hypothesis was that blacks who did not migrate out of their region of birth had the highest homicide rates. We found that Southern-born blacks had the highest homicide rates among the population 35+ years old in the Northeast, Midwest, South and West. Yet non-migrants (region-born population) had higher rates than their Southern-born counterparts among the population 15-34 years old. Long distance migrants who were born in the Northeast, West or were foreign-born had the lowest homicide rates, by far. The distressing implications of these findings for public health efforts to prevent violent death are discussed. PMID:9426984

  19. Falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... problems with circulation, thyroid or nervous systems. Some medicines make people dizzy. Eye problems or alcohol can be factors. Any of these things can make a fall more likely. Babies and young children are also at risk of falling - off ...

  20. Teen Birth Rates in Sexually Abused and Neglected Females

    PubMed Central

    Shenk, Chad E.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Prospectively track teen childbirths in maltreated and nonmaltreated females and test the hypothesis that child maltreatment is an independent predictor of subsequent teen childbirth over and above demographic characteristics and other risk factors. METHODS: Nulliparous adolescent females (N = 435) aged 14 to 17 years were assessed annually through age 19 years. Maltreated females were referred by Child Protective Services agencies for having experienced substantiated sexual abuse, physical abuse, or neglect within the preceding 12 months. Comparison females were matched on race, family income, age and family constellation. Teen childbirth was assessed via self-report during annual interviews. Births were confirmed using hospital delivery records. RESULTS: Seventy participants gave birth during the study, 54 in the maltreated group and 16 in the comparison group. Maltreated females were twice as likely to experience teen childbirth after controlling for demographic confounds and known risk factors (odds ratio = 2.17, P = 0.01). Birth rates were highest for sexually abused and neglected females. Sexual abuse and neglect were both independent predictors of teen childbirth after controlling for demographic confounds, other risk factors and alternative forms of maltreatment occurring earlier in development. CONCLUSIONS: Results provide evidence that sexual abuse and neglect are unique predictors of subsequent teen childbirth. Partnerships between protective service providers and teen childbirth prevention strategists hold the best promise for further reducing the US teen birth rate. Additional research illuminating the pathways to teen childbirth for differing forms of maltreatment is needed so that tailored interventions can be realized. PMID:23530173

  1. Identification of factors affecting birth rate in Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zámková, Martina; Blašková, Veronika

    2013-10-01

    This article is concerned with identifying economic factors primarily that affect birth rates in Czech Republic. To find the relationship between the magnitudes, we used the multivariate regression analysis and for modeling, we used a time series of annual values (1994-2011) both economic indicators and indicators related to demographics. Due to potential problems with apparent dependence we first cleansed all series obtained from the Czech Statistical Office using first differences. It is clear from the final model that meets all assumptions that there is a positive correlation between birth rates and the financial situation of households. We described the financial situation of households by GDP per capita, gross wages and consumer price index. As expected a positive correlation was proved for GDP per capita and gross wages and negative dependence was proved for the consumer price index. In addition to these economic variables in the model there were used also demographic characteristics of the workforce and the number of employed people. It can be stated that if the Czech Republic wants to support an increase in the birth rate, it is necessary to consider the financial support for households with small children.

  2. In (cautious) defense of the crude birth rate.

    PubMed

    Kent, M M; Haub, C

    1984-02-01

    Both the crude birthrate (CBR) and the crude death rate (CDR) represent a simple concept: the number of births or deaths which occur in a given year per 1000 population. They can also be used to calculate another fundamental measure, the rate of natural increase. Both the CBR and CDR are affected by a country's age structure, i.e., the proportion of a population in each age group. In thinking about crude rates, one notes the examples always given to identify the flaws inherent in these rates. The example is always the CDR. The CBR can give a reasonable estimate of fertility because, while the age composition of countries can vary substantially, the proportion of women in the childbearing years (15-49) varies much less, and it is these women who produce all the births in a population. It is the number of births per woman which ultimately determines the average family size measured by the total fertility rate (TFR) and which also determines the proportion of births to the total population, measured by the CBR. As long as the percentage of women of reproductive age is similar among countries, usually about 1/4 of the total population, the CBR should have this same association with the TFR. At least 2 factors contribute to the lack of an exact relationship between the CBR and TRF. While the proportion of women 15-49 in the total population is often relatively constant, the age structure within the 15-49 age group may not be. Adding to the problems that the CBR will have as an indicator of true fertility levels is the fact that women 15-49 may not always be a constant proportion in all countries, particularly in countries heavily affected by migration. And the age pattern of childbearing varies among countries. Yet, there is a definite range for the TFR suggested by a given value of the CBR. Not the case for the CDR. With a CDR in the range of 9 or 10, life expectancy can vary from about 60 to as high as 75. Only in countries with very low life expectancy--in the 40

  3. Influence of calving season and stocking rate on birth weight and weaning weight of Simmental-sired calves from Brahman-Hereford F1 dams.

    PubMed

    Gaertner, S J; Rouquette, F M; Long, C R; Turner, J W

    1992-08-01

    Braham-Hereford F1 dams have been used to evaluate the influence of grazing pressure on forage attributes and animal performance at the Texas A&M University Agricultural Research Center at Overton. Data for this study were compiled from 1,909 records of Simmental-sired calves born to Braham-Hereford F1 cows from 1975 to 1990. Birth weight and weaning weight were analyzed independently to estimate the influence of year, season of birth, dam age, weaning age, and sex of calf. The effect of stocking rate as represented by levels of forage availability on weaning weights and subsequent birth weights was measured. Within the fall and winter calving seasons, lactating dams grazing at a high stocking rate produced calves with the lowest subsequent birth weights. Lactating dams assigned to creep-fed treatments had calves with the heaviest subsequent birth weights. Although dams that were less than 3.5 yr of age had calves with the lightest birth weights, there was no apparent decline in birth weight of calves from dams 12 to 17 yr old. Year, sex of calf, age of dam, stocking rate, season of birth, age at weaning, and birth weight were significant factors affecting weaning weight (P less than .01). Fall-born calves grazing cool-season annual pastures were heavier at weaning (267.6 kg) than either winter- (252.0 kg) or spring-born calves (240.9 kg). A stocking rate x season-of-birth interaction was observed for birth weight and weaning weight (P less than .05). Differences in weaning weight from low- vs high-stocked pastures were greater for fall-born calves (61.6 kg) than for winter-born calves (48.7).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1506293

  4. Effects of seeding rate on the dry matter yield and nutritive value of fall-oat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several recent research projects have evaluated fall-grown oat as a fall-forage option for harvest as silage, or to extend the fall grazing season. Producers frequently ask about the appropriate seeding rates for fall-grown oat and whether or not it is the same as the traditional recommendation for ...

  5. Low Primary Cesarean Rate and High VBAC Rate With Good Outcomes in an Amish Birthing Center

    PubMed Central

    Deline, James; Varnes-Epstein, Lisa; Dresang, Lee T.; Gideonsen, Mark; Lynch, Laura; Frey, John J.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE Recent national guidelines encourage a trial of labor after cesarean (TOLAC) as a means of increasing vaginal births after cesarean (VBACs) and decreasing the high US cesarean birth rate and its consequences (2010 National Institute of Health Consensus Statement and American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists revised guideline). A birthing center serving Amish women in Southwestern Wisconsin offered an opportunity to look at the effects of local culture and practices that support vaginal birth and TOLAC. This study describes childbirth and perinatal outcomes during a 17-year period in LaFarge, Wisconsin. METHODS We undertook a retrospective analysis of the records of all women admitted to the birth center in labor. Main outcome measures include rates of cesarean deliveries, TOLAC and VBAC deliveries, and perinatal outcomes for 927 deliveries between 1993 and 2010. RESULT S The cesarean rate was 4% (35 of 927), the TOLAC rate was 100%, and the VBAC rate was 95% (88 of 92). There were no cases of uterine rupture and no maternal deaths. The neonatal death rate of 5.4 of 1,000 was comparable to that of Wisconsin (4.6 of 1,000) and the United States (4.5 of 1,000). CONCLUSIONS Both the culture of the population served and a number of factors relating to the management of labor at the birthing center have affected the rates of cesarean delivery and TOLAC. The results of the LaFarge Amish study support a low-technology approach to delivery where good outcomes are achieved with low cesarean and high VBAC rates. PMID:23149530

  6. Seasonal differences in suicide birth rate in Alaska Natives compared to other populations.

    PubMed

    Kettl, P A; Collins, T; Sredy, M; Bixler, E O

    1997-01-01

    Seasonal differences in suicide birth rates among Alaska Natives and for populations at different latitudes (residents of the Yukon, Saskatchewan, Montana, Wyoming, and Pennsylvania) were investigated. Seasonal birth rates for the general population were similarly examined. Suicide birth rates showed small seasonal variations for Alaska Natives with summer births showing more suicides. However, at lower latitudes, suicide birth rates among other populations showed no seasonal differences. Hours of daily sunlight at the summer and winter solstice correlated with the proportion of suicide victims born during those seasons. Seasonal differences in birth rates of suicide victims correlated strongly with latitude and seasonal differences in daylight. General population birth rates did not show significant seasonal differences, and did not correlate with differences in latitude or sunlight length at the summer or winter solstice. PMID:9458541

  7. Where are the Sunday babies? II. Declining weekend birth rates in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerchl, Alexander; Reinhard, Sarah C.

    2008-02-01

    Birth dates from almost 3 million babies born between 1969 and 2005 in Switzerland were analyzed for the weekday of birth. As in other countries but with unprecedented amplitude, a very marked non-random distribution was discovered with decreasing numbers of births on weekends, reaching -17.9% in 2005. While most of this weekend births avoidance rate is due to fewer births on Sundays (up to -21.7%), the downward trend is primarily a consequence of decreasing births on Saturdays (up to -14.5%). For 2005, these percentages mean that 3,728 fewer babies are born during weekends than could be expected from equal distribution. Most interestingly and surprisingly, weekend birth-avoiding rates are significantly correlated with birth numbers ( r = 0.86), i.e. the lower the birth number per year, the lower the number of weekend births. The increasing avoidance of births during weekends is discussed as being a consequence of increasing numbers of caesarean sections and elective labor induction, which in Switzerland reach 29.2 and 20.5%, respectively, in 2004. This hypothesis is supported by the observation that both primary and secondary caesarean sections are significantly correlated with weekend birth avoidance rates. It is therefore likely that financial aspects of hospitals are a factor determining the avoidance of weekend births by increasing the numbers of caesarean sections.

  8. Disentangling Effects of Vector Birth Rate, Mortality Rate, and Abundance on Spread of Plant Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Sisterson, Mark S; Stenger, Drake C

    2016-04-01

    Models on the spread of insect-transmitted plant pathogens often fix vector population size by assuming that deaths are offset by births. Although such mathematical simplifications are often justified, deemphasizing parameters that govern vector population size is problematic, as reproductive biology and mortality schedules of vectors of plant pathogens receive little empirical attention. Here, the importance of explicitly including parameters for vector birth and death rates was evaluated by comparing results from models with fixed vector population size with models with logistic vector population growth. In fixed vector population size models, increasing vector mortality decreased percentage of inoculative vectors, but had no effect on vector population size, as deaths were offset by births. In models with logistic vector population growth, increasing vector mortality decreased percentage of inoculative vectors and decreased vector population size. Consequently, vector mortality had a greater effect on pathogen spread in models with logistic vector population growth than in models with fixed vector population size. Further, in models with logistic vector population growth, magnitude of vector birth rate determined time required for vector populations to reach large size, thereby determining when pathogen spread occurred quickly. Assumptions regarding timing of vector mortality within a time step also affected model outcome. A greater emphasis of vector entomologists on studying reproductive biology and mortality schedules of insect species that transmit plant pathogens will facilitate identification of conditions associated with rapid growth of vector populations and could lead to development of novel control strategies. PMID:26637536

  9. Drug Improves Birth Rates for Women with Ovary Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... therapy in increasing live births for women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Letrozole could provide a less expensive, more effective treatment for women with this syndrome. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a leading cause of female infertility. ...

  10. Density-dependent birth rate, birth pulses and their population dynamic consequences.

    PubMed

    Tang, Sanyi; Chen, Lansun

    2002-02-01

    In most models of population dynamics, increases in population due to birth are assumed to be time-independent, but many species reproduce only during a single period of the year. We propose a single-species model with stage structure for the dynamics in a wild animal population for which births occur in a single pulse once per time period. Using the discrete dynamical system determined by the stroboscopic map, we obtain an exact periodic solution of systems which are with Ricker functions or Beverton-Holt functions, and obtain the threshold conditions for their stability. Above this threshold, there is a characteristic sequence of bifurcations, leading to chaotic dynamics, which implies that the dynamical behaviors of the single species model with birth pulses are very complex, including small-amplitude annual oscillations, large-amplitude multi-annual cycles, and chaos. This suggests that birth pulse, in effect, provides a natural period or cyclicity that allows for a period-doubling route to chaos. PMID:11942532

  11. Rising preterm birth rates, 1989-2004: changing demographics or changing obstetric practice?

    PubMed

    VanderWeele, Tyler J; Lantos, John D; Lauderdale, Diane S

    2012-01-01

    Preterm birth rates are higher in the United States than in most industrialized countries, and have been rising steadily. Some attribute these trends to changing demographics, with more older mothers, more infertility, and more multiple births. Others suggest that changes in obstetrics are behind the trends. We sought to determine what the preterm birth rate in 2004 would have been if demographic factors had not changed since 1989. We examined complete US birth certificate files from 1989 and 2004 and used logistic regression models to estimate what the 2004 preterm birth rates (overall, spontaneous, and medically induced) would have been if maternal age, race, nativity, gravidity, marital status, and education among childbearing women had not changed since 1989. While the overall preterm births increased from 11.2% to 12.8% from 1989 to 2004, medically induced rates increased 94%, from 3.4% to 6.6%, and spontaneous rates declined by 21%, from 7.8% to 6.2%. Had demographic factors in 2004 been what they were in 1989, the 2004 rates would have been almost identical. Changes in multiple births accounted for only 16% of the increase in medically induced rates. Our analysis suggests that the increase in preterm births is more likely due primarily to changes in obstetric practice, rather than to changes in the demographics of childbearing. Further research should examine the degree to which these changes in obstetric practice affect infant morbidity and mortality. PMID:22177849

  12. Fertility rates and future population trends: will Europe's birth rate recover or continue to decline?

    PubMed

    Lutz, Wolfgang

    2006-02-01

    Europe has long completed its demographic transition from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates. But the demographic transition paradigm that has been very useful for explaining global demographic trends during the 20th century and that still has strong predictive power when it comes to projecting future trends in countries that still have high fertility, has nothing to say about the future of fertility in Europe. The currently popular notion of a 'second demographic transition' is a useful way to describe a bundle of behavioural and normative changes that recently happened in Europe, but it has no predictive power. The social sciences have not yet come up with a useful theory to predict the future fertility level of post-demographic transition societies. We even do not know whether the trend will be up or down. Given the lack of a predictive theory, this paper will try to do two things: (i) Summarize different substantive arguments that would either suggest the assumption of a recovery of fertility rates in Europe or alternatively, imply further declines. (ii) Convert this discussion of the uncertainty of future fertility trends into probabilistic population projections for Europe, thus highlighting the implications of alternative fertility levels over the coming years. We will also discuss trade-offs between fertility and immigration, and the phenomenon that Europe now has entered a period of negative momentum of population growth. PMID:16466521

  13. Default Rate on Student Loans Falls for 2005 Fiscal Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basken, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The rate at which borrowers default on their federally guaranteed student loans has declined to 4.6 percent, in part because of a record number of consolidations, the Education Department announced last week. "Borrowers took advantage of the opportunity to lock in record-low interest rates by consolidating their federal student loans," the…

  14. Live Birth and Cumulative Live Birth Rates in Expected Poor Ovarian Responders Defined by the Bologna Criteria Following IVF/ICSI Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Joyce; Lee, Vivian Chi-Yan; Yeung, Tracy Wing-Yee; Li, Raymond Wun-Hang; Ho, Pak-Chung; Ng, Ernest Hung-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the live birth and cumulative live birth rates of expected poor ovarian responders according to the Bologna criteria and to compare their outcomes with those of expected normal responders Design Retrospective analysis Setting University infertility clinic Patients A total of 1,152 subfertile women undergoing their first in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle Interventions Women were classified into 4 groups according to the Bologna criteria for comparison Main Outcome Measure(s) Live birth and cumulative live birth rates Results Women with expected poor response (POR) had the lowest live birth rate than the other 3 groups (23.8%, p = 0.031). Cumulative live birth rates were significantly lower in those with expected POR than those with expected normal ovarian response (NOR) (35.8% vs 62.8%, p<0.0001). In the subgroup analysis, the cumulative live birth rates in expected PORs were significantly lower in those who had ≤3 oocytes retrieved (18.6% for ≤3 oocytes vs 44.0% for >3 oocytes, p = 0.006) whereas the live birth rates in fresh cycle did not differ (17.8% vs 30.9%, p = 0.108). Conclusion Women who were expected POR according to the Bologna criteria had lower live birth and cumulative live birth than expected NOR but they still can achieve reasonable treatment outcomes and IVF treatment should not be precluded. PMID:25748478

  15. Nitrogen rates for wheat with and without fall tillage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alabama wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) farmers are changing management practices to maximize yields and reduce trips across their fields, which include adopting no-till or reduced tillage practices. The use of different tillage practices has prompted questions about nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates and ...

  16. The Rise and Fall of the Graduation Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selingo, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    A college's graduation rate is such a basic consumer fact for would-be students these days that it's difficult to imagine that the federal government didn't even collect the information as recently as the early 1990s. If not for two former Olympic basketball players who made their way to Congress and wanted college athletes to know about their…

  17. No Evidence of Purported Lunar Effect on Hospital Admission Rates or Birth Rates

    PubMed Central

    Margot, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies indicate that a fraction of nursing professionals believe in a “lunar effect”—a purported correlation between the phases of the Earth’s moon and human affairs, such as birth rates, blood loss, or fertility. Purpose This article addresses some of the methodological errors and cognitive biases that can explain the human tendency of perceiving a lunar effect where there is none. Approach This article reviews basic standards of evidence and, using an example from the published literature, illustrates how disregarding these standards can lead to erroneous conclusions. Findings Román, Soriano, Fuentes, Gálvez, and Fernández (2004) suggested that the number of hospital admissions related to gastrointestinal bleeding was somehow influenced by the phases of the Earth’s moon. Specifically, the authors claimed that the rate of hospital admissions to their bleeding unit is higher during the full moon than at other times. Their report contains a number of methodological and statistical flaws that invalidate their conclusions. Reanalysis of their data with proper procedures shows no evidence that the full moon influences the rate of hospital admissions, a result that is consistent with numerous peer-reviewed studies and meta-analyses. A review of the literature shows that birth rates are also uncorrelated to lunar phases. Conclusions Data collection and analysis shortcomings, as well as powerful cognitive biases, can lead to erroneous conclusions about the purported lunar effect on human affairs. Adherence to basic standards of evidence can help assess the validity of questionable beliefs. PMID:25756232

  18. Why is the teen birth rate in the United States so high and why does it matter?

    PubMed

    Kearney, Melissa S; Levine, Phillip B

    2012-01-01

    Teens in the United States are far more likely to give birth than in any other industrialized country in the world. U.S. teens are two and a half times as likely to give birth as compared to teens in Canada, around four times as likely as teens in Germany or Norway, and almost 10 times as likely as teens in Switzerland. Among more developed countries, Russia has the next highest teen birth rate after the United States, but an American teenage girl is still around 25 percent more likely to give birth than her counterpart in Russia. Moreover, these statistics incorporate the almost 40 percent fall in the teen birth rate that the United States has experienced over the past two decades. Differences across U.S. states are quite dramatic as well. A teenage girl in Mississippi is four times more likely to give birth than a teenage girl in New Hampshire--and 15 times more likely to give birth as a teen compared to a teenage girl in Switzerland. This paper has two overarching goals: understanding why the teen birth rate is so high in the United States and understanding why it matters. Thus, we begin by examining multiple sources of data to put current rates of teen childbearing into the perspective of cross-country comparisons and recent historical context. We examine teen birth rates alongside pregnancy, abortion, and "shotgun" marriage rates as well as the antecedent behaviors of sexual activity and contraceptive use. We seek insights as to why the rate of teen childbearing is so unusually high in the United States as a whole, and in some U.S. states in particular. We argue that explanations that economists have tended to study are unable to account for any sizable share of the variation in teen childbearing rates across place. We describe some recent empirical work demonstrating that variation in income inequality across U.S. states and developed countries can explain a sizable share of the geographic variation in teen childbearing. To the extent that income inequality

  19. Revised Birth and Fertility Rates for the 1990s and New Rates for Hispanic Populations, 2000 and 2001: United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Brady E.; Sutton, Paul D.; Ventura, Stephanie J.

    2003-01-01

    This report presents revised birth and fertility rates for 1991-1999, plus previously published rates for 2000-2001, based on populations consistent with the April 1, 2000 census. Revised rates for Hispanic subgroups are also included. Rates are presented by age, race, and Hispanic origin of mother; by age, race, Hispanic origin, and marital…

  20. Paternal Lifelong Socioeconomic Position and Low Birth Weight Rates: Relevance to the African-American Women's Birth Outcome Disadvantage.

    PubMed

    Collins, James W; Rankin, Kristin M; David, Richard J

    2016-08-01

    Objectives To determine the relation of paternal lifelong socioeconomic position (SEP) to the racial disparity in low birth weight (<2500 g, LBW) rates. Methods Stratified and multilevel logistic regression analyses were performed on an Illinois transgenerational dataset of infants (1989-1991) and their parents (1956-1976) with appended U.S. census income data. The neighborhood incomes of father's place of residence at the time of his birth and at the time of his infant's birth were used to measure of lifelong SEP. Population attributable risk (PAR) percentages were calculated to estimate the percentage of LBW infants attributable to paternal low SEP. Results In Cook County, infants (n = 10,168) born to fathers with a lifelong high SEP had a LBW rate of 3.7 %. LBW rates rose among infants born to fathers with early-life (n = 7224), adulthood (n = 2913), or lifelong (n = 7288) low SEP: 5.2, 6.9, and 9.3 %, respectively. The adjusted (controlling for maternal demographic characteristics) OR of LBW for fathers with an early-life, adulthood, or lifelong low (compared to lifelong high) SEP equaled 1.4 (1.2, 1.6), 1.5 (1.3, 1.9), and 2.0 (1.7, 2.3), respectively. The PAR percentages of LBW for paternal low SEP were 40 and 9 % among African-American and White mothers, respectively. Among fathers with a lifelong high SEP, the adjusted OR of LBW for African-American (compared to White) mothers was 1.1 (0.7, 1.7). Conclusions Low paternal SEP is a novel risk factor for infant LBW independent of maternal demographic characteristics. This phenomenon is particularly relevant to the African-American women's birth outcome disadvantage. PMID:27000848

  1. What contributes to disparities in the preterm birth rate in European countries?

    PubMed Central

    Delnord, Marie; Blondel, Béatrice; Zeitlin, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review In countries with comparable levels of development and healthcare systems, preterm birth rates vary markedly – a range from 5 to 10% among live births in Europe. This review seeks to identify the most likely sources of heterogeneity in preterm birth rates, which could explain differences between European countries. Recent findings Multiple risk factors impact on preterm birth. Recent studies reported on measurement issues, population characteristics, reproductive health policies as well as medical practices, including those related to subfertility treatments and indicated deliveries, which affect preterm birth rates and trends in high-income countries. We showed wide variation in population characteristics, including multiple pregnancies, maternal age, BMI, smoking, and percentage of migrants in European countries. Summary Many potentially modifiable population factors (BMI, smoking, and environmental exposures) as well as health system factors (practices related to indicated preterm deliveries) play a role in determining preterm birth risk. More knowledge about how these factors contribute to low and stable preterm birth rates in some countries is needed for shaping future policy. It is also important to clarify the potential contribution of artifactual differences owing to measurement. PMID:25692506

  2. Child Mortality Estimation: Consistency of Under-Five Mortality Rate Estimates Using Full Birth Histories and Summary Birth Histories

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Romesh

    2012-01-01

    Background Given the lack of complete vital registration data in most developing countries, for many countries it is not possible to accurately estimate under-five mortality rates from vital registration systems. Heavy reliance is often placed on direct and indirect methods for analyzing data collected from birth histories to estimate under-five mortality rates. Yet few systematic comparisons of these methods have been undertaken. This paper investigates whether analysts should use both direct and indirect estimates from full birth histories, and under what circumstances indirect estimates derived from summary birth histories should be used. Methods and Findings Usings Demographic and Health Surveys data from West Africa, East Africa, Latin America, and South/Southeast Asia, I quantify the differences between direct and indirect estimates of under-five mortality rates, analyze data quality issues, note the relative effects of these issues, and test whether these issues explain the observed differences. I find that indirect estimates are generally consistent with direct estimates, after adjustment for fertility change and birth transference, but don't add substantial additional insight beyond direct estimates. However, choice of direct or indirect method was found to be important in terms of both the adjustment for data errors and the assumptions made about fertility. Conclusions Although adjusted indirect estimates are generally consistent with adjusted direct estimates, some notable inconsistencies were observed for countries that had experienced either a political or economic crisis or stalled health transition in their recent past. This result suggests that when a population has experienced a smooth mortality decline or only short periods of excess mortality, both adjusted methods perform equally well. However, the observed inconsistencies identified suggest that the indirect method is particularly prone to bias resulting from violations of its strong

  3. First-Time Freshmen Four-Year Transfer Rates: Gainesville College to University System Senior Colleges and Universities, Fall 1988 to Fall 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, John

    A longitudinal study followed self-declared transfer students from time of entry at Gainesville College (GC) in fall 1988 through fall 1992, focusing on 4-year transfer rates to the University System of Georgia. Separate transfer rates were calculated for students who earned associate degrees from GC and for business administration majors, and…

  4. Factors influencing the recession rate of Niagara Falls since the 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, Yuichi S.; Matsukura, Yukinori

    2009-09-01

    The rate of recession of Niagara Falls (Horseshoe and American Falls) in northeastern North America has been documented since the 19th century; it shows a decreasing trend from ca. 1 m y - 1 a century ago to ca. 0.1 m y - 1 at present. Reduction of the flow volume in the Niagara River due to diversion into bypassing hydroelectric schemes has often been taken to be the factor responsible, but other factors such as changes in the waterfall shape could play a role and call for a quantitative study. Here, we examine the effect of physical factors on the historically varying recession rates of Niagara Falls, using an empirical equation which has previously been proposed based on a non-dimensional multiparametric model which incorporates flow volume, waterfall shape and bedrock strength. The changes in recession rates of Niagara Falls in the last century are successfully modeled by this empirical equation; these changes are caused by variations in flow volume and lip length. This result supports the validity of the empirical equation for waterfalls in rivers carrying little transported sediment. Our analysis also suggests that the decrease in the recession rate of Horseshoe Falls is related to both artificial reduction in river discharge and natural increase in waterfall lip length, whereas that of American Falls is solely due to the reduction in flow volume.

  5. Fall rates of prescribed fire-killed ponderosa pine. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, M.G.

    1996-05-01

    Fall rates of prescribed fire-killed ponderosa pine were evaluated relative to tree and fire damage characteristics. High crown scorch and short survival time after fire injury were factors leading to a high probability of early tree fall. The role of chemical defense mechanisms is discussed. Results apply to prescribed-fire injured, second-growth ponderosa pine less than 16 inches diameter at breast height.

  6. Live-birth rate associated with repeat in vitro fertilisation treatment cycles

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Andrew D.A.C.; Tilling, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Importance The likelihood of achieving a live-birth with repeat in-vitro fertilisation (IVF) is unclear, yet treatment is commonly limited to three or four embryo transfers. Objective To determine the live-birth rate per initiated IVF cycle and with repeated cycles. Design, Setting and Participants Prospective study of 156,947 UK women who received 257,398 IVF ovarian stimulation cycles between 2003 and 2010 and were followed until June 2012. Main exposure IVF, with a cycle defined as an episode of ovarian stimulation and all subsequent separate fresh and frozen embryo transfers. Main Outcome(s) Live-birth rate per IVF cycle and the cumulative live-birth rates across all cycles in all women and by age and treatment type. Optimal, prognosis-adjusted and conservative cumulative live-birth rates were estimated, reflecting 0%, 30% and 100% of women discontinuing due to poor prognosis and having a live-birth rate of zero had they continued. Results In all women the live-birth rate for the first cycle was 29.5% (95%CI: 29.3, 29.7). This remained above 20% up to and including the fourth cycle. The cumulative prognosis-adjusted live-birth rate across all cycles continued to increase up to the ninth, with 65.3% (64.8, 65.8) of women achieving a live-birth by the sixth cycle. In women younger than 40 using their own oocytes, the live-birth rate for the first cycle was 32.3% (32.0, 32.5), and remained above 20% up to and including the fourth cycle. Six cycles achieved a cumulative prognosis-adjusted live-birth rate of 68.4% (67.8, 68.9). For women aged 40-42, the live-birth rate for the first cycle was 12.3% (95%CI: 11.8, 12.8), with six cycles achieving a cumulative prognosis-adjusted live-birth rate of 31.5% (29.7, 33.3). For women older than 42 years all rates within each cycle were less than 4%. No age differential was observed among women using donor oocytes. Rates were lower in those with untreated male factor infertility compared to those with any other cause, but

  7. The Regional Centralization of Electronic Fetal Heart Rate Monitoring and Its Impact on Neonatal Acidemia and the Cesarean Birth Rate

    PubMed Central

    Urabe, Hirotoshi; Tokunaga, Syuichi; Kodama, Yuki; Ikenoue, Tsuyomu

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The improvement of the accuracy of fetal heart rate (FHR) pattern interpretation to improve perinatal outcomes remains an elusive challenge. We examined the impact of an FHR centralization system on the incidence of neonatal acidemia and cesarean births. Methods. We performed a regional, population-based, before-and-after study of 9,139 deliveries over a 3-year period. The chi-squared test was used for the statistical analysis. Results. The before-and-after study showed no difference in the rates of acidemia, cesarean births, or perinatal death in the whole population. A subgroup analysis using the 4 hospitals in which an FHR centralization system was continuously connected (compliant group) and 3 hospitals in which the FHR centralization system was connected on demand (noncompliant group) showed that the incidence acidemia was significantly decreased (from 0.47% to 0.11%) without a corresponding increase in the cesarean birth rate due to nonreassuring FHR patterns in the compliant group. Although there was no difference in the incidence of nonreassuring FHR patterns in the noncompliant group, the total cesarean birth rate was significantly higher than that in the compliant group. Conclusion. The continuous FHR centralization system, in which specialists help to interpret results and decide clinical actions, was beneficial in reducing the incidence of neonatal acidemia (pH < 7.1) without increasing the cesarean birth rate due to nonreassuring FHR patterns. PMID:27379185

  8. Course Pass Rates in Fall 1989. Enrollment Analysis EA91-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clagett, Craig A.; Diehl, Patricia

    In 1990, a study was conducted at Prince George's Community College (PGCC) to determine the percentage of students enrolled in courses in the fall term who received passing grades, and to examine these pass rates by course, academic discipline, and division. The study also analyzed student pass rates by gender, age, race, and admission status.…

  9. Course Pass Rates in Fall 1985: Enrollment Analysis Report EA86-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clagett, Craig A.

    A study was conducted to review course completion or pass rates for the fall 1985 semester at Prince George's Community College. Results included the following: (1) female students achieved an overall pass rate of 75%, 7 percentage points higher than that of male students; (2) students over 25 years of age were more successful than younger…

  10. Course Pass Rates in Fall 1988. Enrollment Analysis EA89-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clagett, Craig A.

    In 1989, a study was conducted at Prince George's Community College (PGCC) to determine the percentage of students enrolled in courses in the fall term who received passing grades, and to examine these pass rates for each course, academic discipline, and division. The study also examined student pass rates by gender, age, race, and admission…

  11. The influence of the post-Chernobyl fallout on birth defects and abortion rates in Austria.

    PubMed

    Haeusler, M C; Berghold, A; Schoell, W; Hofer, P; Schaffer, M

    1992-10-01

    Researchers analyzed data on 66,743 births which occurred between 1985-1989 in the Styria region in southern Austria to determine whether radioactive fallout from the meltdown of the nuclear reaction at Chernobyl in the Ukraine, USSR in may 1986 affected the birth defect and abortion rates in this area of Austria. There were 1695 birth defect cases. Of the birth defects which occurred during embryogenesis, most occurred 14-49 days postconception (group 2; n=630). The researchers did not note a short-term effect of the fallout in group 2 or the other groups (relative risk= 0.75, 0.73 for group 1, and 0.93 for group 2). Baseline birth defect rates (per 1000 births) for groups 1, 2, and 3 were 2.5, 8.5, and 1,8 respectively. The only sizable increase occurred in group 2 at years 2 and 3 (10.6 and 10.3, respectively). More reported minor congenital defect cases accounted for this increase due to the newly established data base in the Department of Pediatric Cardiology at the University of Graz. Thus the increase was an artifact and not a true increase. Abortion rates varied from 10% to 14% and did not increase significantly after Chernobyl. Counseling frequency at abortion clinics fluctuated greatly (117-205) both before and after Chernobyl and the changes were not significant. These results indicated that the low dosage of radiation did not have a detectable biologic effect in terms of birth defects and abortions. The researchers addressed the difficulties with measuring teratologic potential of low dose radiation. They also highlighted the need for accurate categorizing of birth defects, adequate baseline data, and very reliable registries. Future research on possible environmental disasters which affect Austria can use these data as baseline data. PMID:1415387

  12. Assessing XCTD Fall Rate Errors using Concurrent XCTD and CTD Profiles in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millar, J.; Gille, S. T.; Sprintall, J.; Frants, M.

    2010-12-01

    Refinements in the fall rate equation for XCTDs are not as well understood as those for XBTs, due in part to the paucity of concurrent and collocated XCTD and CTD profiles. During February and March 2010, the Diapycnal and Isopycnal Mixing Experiment in the Southern Ocean (DIMES) conducted 31 collocated 1000-meter XCTD and CTD casts in the Drake Passage. These XCTD/CTD profile pairs are closely matched in space and time, with a mean distance between casts of 1.19 km and a mean lag time of 39 minutes. The profile pairs are well suited to address the XCTD fall rate problem specifically in higher latitude waters, where existing fall rate corrections have rarely been assessed. Many of these XCTD/CTD profile pairs reveal an observable depth offset in measurements of both temperature and conductivity. Here, the nature and extent of this depth offset is evaluated.

  13. Enrollment and response rates in a longitudinal birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Golding, Jean; Birmingham, Karen

    2009-07-01

    For the scientific credibility of study results, longitudinal cohort studies need to invest time, money and creative thought in establishing and maintaining the maximum number of study participants. Although success depends to a large extent on the resources available, much can be achieved by establishing a culture of integrity and enthusiasm among study staff that is conveyed to participants at all times. In this paper we outline various strategies that can be included in order to maximise the response rates. PMID:19490447

  14. Wireless patch sensor for remote monitoring of heart rate, respiration, activity, and falls.

    PubMed

    Chan, Alexander M; Selvaraj, Nandakumar; Ferdosi, Nima; Narasimhan, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    Unobtrusive continuous monitoring of important vital signs and activity metrics has the potential to provide remote health monitoring, at-home screening, and rapid notification of critical events such as heart attacks, falls, or respiratory distress. This paper contains validation results of a wireless Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) patch sensor consisting of two electrocardiography (ECG) electrodes, a microcontroller, a tri-axial accelerometer, and a BLE transceiver. The sensor measures heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV), respiratory rate, posture, steps, and falls and was evaluated on a total of 25 adult participants who performed breathing exercises, activities of daily living (ADLs), various stretches, stationary cycling, walking/running, and simulated falls. Compared to reference devices, the heart rate measurement had a mean absolute error (MAE) of less than 2 bpm, time-domain HRV measurements had an RMS error of less than 15 ms, respiratory rate had an MAE of 1.1 breaths per minute during metronome breathing, posture detection had an accuracy of over 95% in two of the three patch locations, steps were counted with an absolute error of less than 5%, and falls were detected with a sensitivity of 95.2% and specificity of 100%. PMID:24111135

  15. Effect of Embryo Banking on U.S. National Assisted Reproductive Technology Live Birth Rates

    PubMed Central

    Kushnir, Vitaly A.; Barad, David H.; Albertini, David F.; Darmon, Sarah K.; Gleicher, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Background Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) reports generated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) exclude embryo banking cycles from outcome calculations. Methods We examined data reported to the CDC in 2013 for the impact of embryo banking exclusion on national ART outcomes by recalculating autologous oocyte ART live birth rates. Inflation of reported fresh ART cycle live birth rates was assessed for all age groups of infertile women as the difference between fresh cycle live births with reference to number of initiated fresh cycles (excluding embryo banking cycles), as typically reported by the CDC, and fresh cycle live births with reference to total initiated fresh ART cycles (including embryo banking cycles). Results During 2013, out of 121,351 fresh non-donor ART cycles 27,564 (22.7%) involved embryo banking. The proportion of banking cycles increased with female age from 15.5% in women <35 years to 56.5% in women >44 years. Concomitantly, the proportion of thawed cycles decreased with advancing female age (P <0.0001). Exclusion of embryo banking cycles led to inflation of live birth rates in fresh ART cycles, increasing in size in parallel to advancing female age and utilization of embryo banking, reaching 56.3% in women age >44. The inflation of live birth rates in thawed cycles could not be calculated from the publically available CDC data but appears to be even greater. Conclusions Utilization of embryo banking increased during 2013 with advancing female age, suggesting a potential age selection bias. Exclusion of embryo banking cycles from national ART outcome reports significantly inflated national ART success rates, especially among older women. Précis Exclusion of embryo banking cycles from US National Assisted Reproductive Technology outcome reports significantly inflates reported success rates especially in older women. PMID:27159215

  16. Nonlinear fluctuations-induced rate equations for linear birth-death processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honkonen, J.

    2008-05-01

    The Fock-space approach to the solution of master equations for one-step Markov processes is reconsidered. It is shown that in birth-death processes with an absorbing state at the bottom of the occupation-number spectrum and occupation-number independent annihilation probability of occupation-number fluctuations give rise to rate equations drastically different from the polynomial form typical of birth-death processes. The fluctuation-induced rate equations with the characteristic exponential terms are derived for Mikhailov’s ecological model and Lanchester’s model of modern warfare.

  17. End of the Spectacular Decrease in Fall-Related Mortality Rate: Men Are Catching Up

    PubMed Central

    Hartholt, Klaas A.; Polinder, Suzanne; van Beeck, Ed F.; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Lieshout, Esther M. M.; Patka, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We determined time trends in numbers and rates of fall-related mortality in an aging population, for men and women. Methods. We performed secular trend analysis of fall-related deaths in the older Dutch population (persons aged 65 years or older) from 1969 to 2008, using the national Official-Cause-of-Death-Statistics. Results. Between 1969 and 2008, the age-adjusted fall-related mortality rate decreased from 202.1 to 66.7 per 100 000 older persons (decrease of 67%). However, the annual percentage change (change per year) in mortality rates was not constant, and could be divided into 3 phases: (1) a rapid decrease until the mid-1980s (men −4.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = −4.9, −3.2; women −6.5%; 95% CI, −7.1, −5.9), (2) flattening of the decrease until the mid-1990s (men −1.4%; 95% CI = −2.4, −0.4; women −2.0%; 95% CI = −3.4, −0.6), and (3) stable mortality rates for women (0.0%; 95% CI = −1.2, 1.3) and rising rates for men (1.9%; 95% CI = 0.6, 3.2) over the last decade. Conclusions. The spectacular decrease in fall-related mortality ended in the mid-1990s and is currently increasing in older men at similar rates to those seen in women. Because of the aging society, absolute numbers in fall-related deaths are increasing rapidly. PMID:22401528

  18. Course Pass Rates in Fall 1995. Enrollment Analysis EA96-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince George's Community Coll., Largo, MD. Office of Institutional Research and Analysis.

    Student performance in individual courses constitutes a fundamental learning outcome at community colleges, since many students in credit courses have no intention of earning a degree. A study was conducted at Prince George's Community College, in Maryland, to analyze students' final course grades for fall 1995 to determine course pass rates and…

  19. Population Penetration Rates by City and County Fall Term 1997. Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHewitt, Earl R.

    The Virginia Community College System (VCCS) conducted a study of city and county population penetration rates, or the percentages of residents served by VCCS colleges. Using total in-state enrollment for fall 1997, the study found that the percentage of Virginia's population served by the VCCS increased to 1.82%, returning the system to the…

  20. Course Pass Rates in Fall 1987. Enrollment Analysis Report EA88-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clagett, Craig A.; Diehl, Patricia K.

    A study was conducted at Prince George's Community College (PGCC) in Maryland to determine the percentage of students enrolled in courses in fall 1987 who received passing grades, and to examine these pass rates with respect to academic discipline, and student gender, age, race, and admission status. Study findings included the following: (1) the…

  1. The impact of sex ratio and economic status on local birth rates.

    PubMed

    Chipman, A; Morrison, E

    2013-04-23

    Human mating and reproductive behaviour can vary depending on various mechanisms, including the local sex ratio. Previous research shows that as sex ratios become female-biased, women from economically deprived areas are less likely to delay reproductive opportunities to wait for a high-investing mate but instead begin their reproductive careers sooner. Here, we show that the local sex ratio also has an impact on female fertility schedules. At young ages, a female-biased ratio is associated with higher birth rates in the poorest areas, whereas the opposite is true for the richest areas. At older ages, a female-biased ratio is associated with higher birth rates in the richest, but not the poorest areas. These patterns suggest that female-female competition encourages poorer women to adopt a fast life-history strategy and give birth early, and richer women to adopt a slow life-history strategy and delay reproduction. PMID:23407502

  2. Sex Ratio at Birth and Infant Mortality Rate in China: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Denjian

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we used the data from the last three population censuses of China in 1982, 1990 and 2000, to study the dynamics of the sex ratio at birth and the infant mortality rate in China. In the late 1970s, China started its economic reform and implemented many family planning programs. Since then there has been great economic development…

  3. Seasonal, litter size and birth order effects on farrowing intervals and stillbirth rate in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The number of piglets weaned is affected by the farrowing process through its impact primarily on stillbirth rate (SR). The effects of season and birth order on the farrowing process and SR are not well characterized. To examine these relationships, farrowing was recorded in first parity gilts of ou...

  4. Trends in rates of live births and abortions following state restrictions on public funding of abortion.

    PubMed Central

    Korenbrot, C C; Brindis, C; Priddy, F

    1990-01-01

    Abortion rates rose following the expanded legalization of abortion by the Supreme Court decision in Roe v. Wade. As a result, the impact of the restriction on Federal funding of abortions under the Hyde Amendment in 1977 was not clear. However, abortion rates had plateaued by 1985, when State funding of Medicaid abortions was restricted in Colorado, North Carolina, and Pennsylvania. Analysis of statewide data from the three States indicated that following restrictions on State funding of abortions, the proportion of reported pregnancies resulting in births, rather than in abortions, increased in all three States. In 1985, the first year of State restrictions on the use of public funds for abortion, Colorado, North Carolina, and Pennsylvania recorded 1.9 to 2.4 percent increases in the proportion of reported pregnancies resulting in live births, after years of declining rates. With adjustments for underreporting of abortion, there was an overall 1.2 percent rise in the proportion of pregnancies resulting in live births in those States. Nationally the proportion rose only 0.4 percent. By 1987, the three States had experienced increases above 1984 levels of 1.6 to 5.9 percent in the proportion of reported pregnancies resulting in live births. The experiences of the three States can be used in projecting an expected increase in the proportions of reported pregnancies resulting in live births, rather than in abortions, for similar States. A projection for California, for example, showed that an increase could be expected in the first year of restrictions on the use of public funds for abortion of at least 4,000 births, which could be expected largely to affect women of low income. PMID:2124355

  5. Maternal education inequalities in height growth rates in early childhood: 2004 Pelotas birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Matijasevich, Alicia; Howe, Laura D; Tilling, Kate; Santos, Iná S; Barros, Aluísio J D; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2012-01-01

    Summary Matijasevich A, Howe LD, Tilling K, Santos IS, Barros AJD, Lawlor DA. Maternal education inequalities in height growth rates in early childhood: 2004 Pelotas birth cohort study. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 2012; 26: 236–249. Socio-economic inequalities in attained height have been reported in many countries. The aim of this study was to explore the age at which maternal education inequalities in child height emerge among children from a middle-income country. Using data from the 2004 Pelotas cohort study from Brazil we modelled individual height growth trajectories in 2106 boys and 1947 girls from birth to 4 years using a linear spline mixed-effects model. We examined the associations of maternal education with birth length and trajectories of growth in length/height, and explored the effect of adjusting for a number of potential confounder or mediator factors. We showed linear and positive associations of maternal education with birth length and length/height growth rates at 0–3 months and 12–29/32 months with very little association at 3–12 months, particularly in boys. By age 4 years the mean height of boys was 101.06 cm (SE = 0.28) in the lowest and 104.20 cm (SE = 0.15) in the highest education category (mean difference 3.14 cm, SE = 0.32, P < 0.001). Among girls the mean height was 100.02 cm (SE = 0.27) and 103.03 cm (SE = 0.15) in the lowest and highest education categories, respectively (mean difference 3.01 cm, SE = 0.31, P < 0.001). For both boys and girls there was on average a 3-cm difference between the extreme education categories. Adjusting for maternal height reduced the observed birth length differences across maternal education categories, but differences in postnatal growth rates persisted. Our data demonstrate an increase in the absolute and relative inequality in height after birth; inequality increases from approximately 0.2 standard deviations of birth length to approximately 0.7 standard deviations of height at age

  6. Variations in Multiple Birth Rates and Impact on Perinatal Outcomes in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Heino, Anna; Gissler, Mika; Hindori-Mohangoo, Ashna D.; Blondel, Béatrice; Klungsøyr, Kari; Verdenik, Ivan; Mierzejewska, Ewa; Velebil, Petr; Sól Ólafsdóttir, Helga; Macfarlane, Alison; Zeitlin, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Objective Infants from multiple pregnancies have higher rates of preterm birth, stillbirth and neonatal death and differences in multiple birth rates (MBR) exist between countries. We aimed to describe differences in MBR in Europe and to investigate the impact of these differences on adverse perinatal outcomes at a population level. Methods We used national aggregate birth data on multiple pregnancies, maternal age, gestational age (GA), stillbirth and neonatal death collected in the Euro-Peristat project (29 countries in 2010, N = 5 074 643 births). We also used European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) data on assisted conception and single embryo transfer (SET). The impact of MBR on outcomes was studied using meta-analysis techniques with random-effects models to derive pooled risk ratios (pRR) overall and for four groups of country defined by their MBR. We computed population attributable risks (PAR) for these groups. Results In 2010, the average MBR was 16.8 per 1000 women giving birth, ranging from 9.1 (Romania) to 26.5 (Cyprus). Compared to singletons, multiples had a nine-fold increased risk (pRR 9.4, 95% Cl 9.1–9.8) of preterm birth (<37 weeks GA), an almost 12-fold increased risk (pRR 11.7, 95% CI 11.0–12.4) of very preterm birth (<32 weeks GA). Pooled RR were 2.4 (95% Cl 1.5–3.6) for fetal mortality at or after 28 weeks GA and 7.0 (95% Cl 6.1–8.0) for neonatal mortality. PAR of neonatal death and very preterm birth were higher in countries with high MBR compared to low MBR (17.1% (95% CI 13.8–20.2) versus 9.8% (95% Cl 9.6–11.0) for neonatal death and 29.6% (96% CI 28.5–30.6) versus 17.5% (95% CI 15.7–18.3) for very preterm births, respectively). Conclusions Wide variations in MBR and their impact on population outcomes imply that efforts by countries to reduce MBR could improve perinatal outcomes, enabling better long-term child health. PMID:26930069

  7. Cumulative live birth rate and assisted reproduction: impact of female age and transfer day

    PubMed Central

    Abuzeid, M.I.; Bolonduro, O.; La Chance, J.; Abozaid, T.; Urich, M.; Ullah, K.; Ali, T.; Ashraf, M.; Khan, I.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many studies on assisted reproductive technology examine live birth rate per cycle. However, after a cycle fails, couples often want to know what their chances are of having a live birth if they continue treatment. From a patients’ perspective, the cumulative probability of live birth is more informative. Materials and Methods: This study includes patients who underwent fresh, frozen and non-donor ICSI cycles at our IVF unit between 2006-2012. Patients were divided into two groups; Group 1 represented those who underwent only Day 5 transfers, Group 2 represented only Day 3 transfers. Patients who underwent both were excluded. ­Cycles were analyzed until the first live birth or the end of the 3rd cycle. Using Kaplan-Meier analysis, we estimated the cumulative live birth rates for each group and according to female age. Results: The mean age for Group 1 was significantly lower than for Group 2. After 3 cycles, Group 1’s CLBR was 79% versus 66% in Group 2. When analyzing the live births by age and group, there was a significant difference in the CLBR after 3 cycles with the women less than 35 years having the highest CLBR and the women 40 years or older having the lowest CLBR. Conclusion: In women less than 35 years, excellent CLBR can be achieved irrespective of the transfer day. For women 40 years and above, better results of CLBR are observed with Day 5 transfers. Our findings may impact the counseling of couples considering IVF treatment. PMID:25374657

  8. Association between oocyte number retrieved with live birth rate and birth weight: an analysis of 231,815 cycles of in vitro fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Valerie L.; Brown, Morton B.; Luke, Barbara; Conrad, Kirk P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine if number of oocytes correlates with live birth rate and incidence of low birthweight (LBW). Design Retrospective cohort. Setting N/A. Patients Women undergoing fresh embryo transfer utilizing either autologous (n=194,627) or donor (n=37,188) oocytes whose cycles were reported to the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology 2004–2010. Main outcome measures Live birth rate, birthweight, birth weight z-score, LBW. Interventions None. Results For both autologous and donor oocyte cycles, increasing number of oocytes retrieved paralleled live birth rate and embryos available for cryopreservation in most analyses performed with all models adjusted for age and prior births. For cycles achieving singleton pregnancy using autologous oocytes via transfer of 2 embryos, a higher number of oocytes retrieved was associated with lower mean birth weight, lower birthweight z-score, and greater incidence of LBW. In contrast, for cycles using donor oocytes, there was no association of oocyte number retrieved with measures of birthweight. Conclusions A higher number of oocytes retrieved was associated with an increased incidence of LBW in autologous singleton pregnancies resulting from transfer of 2 embryos but not in donor oocyte cycles. Although the effect of high oocyte number on the incidence of LBW in autologous cycles was of modest magnitude, further study is warranted to determine if a subgroup of women may be particularly vulnerable. PMID:25638421

  9. Exploration of Preterm Birth Rates Using the Public Health Exposome Database and Computational Analysis Methods

    PubMed Central

    Kershenbaum, Anne D.; Langston, Michael A.; Levine, Robert S.; Saxton, Arnold M.; Oyana, Tonny J.; Kilbourne, Barbara J.; Rogers, Gary L.; Gittner, Lisaann S.; Baktash, Suzanne H.; Matthews-Juarez, Patricia; Juarez, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in informatics technology has made it possible to integrate, manipulate, and analyze variables from a wide range of scientific disciplines allowing for the examination of complex social problems such as health disparities. This study used 589 county-level variables to identify and compare geographical variation of high and low preterm birth rates. Data were collected from a number of publically available sources, bringing together natality outcomes with attributes of the natural, built, social, and policy environments. Singleton early premature county birth rate, in counties with population size over 100,000 persons provided the dependent variable. Graph theoretical techniques were used to identify a wide range of predictor variables from various domains, including black proportion, obesity and diabetes, sexually transmitted infection rates, mother’s age, income, marriage rates, pollution and temperature among others. Dense subgraphs (paracliques) representing groups of highly correlated variables were resolved into latent factors, which were then used to build a regression model explaining prematurity (R-squared = 76.7%). Two lists of counties with large positive and large negative residuals, indicating unusual prematurity rates given their circumstances, may serve as a starting point for ways to intervene and reduce health disparities for preterm births. PMID:25464130

  10. Proton Fall or Bicarbonate Rise: GLYCOLYTIC RATE IN MOUSE ASTROCYTES IS PAVED BY INTRACELLULAR ALKALINIZATION.

    PubMed

    Theparambil, Shefeeq M; Weber, Tobias; Schmälzle, Jana; Ruminot, Ivàn; Deitmer, Joachim W

    2016-09-01

    Glycolysis is the primary step for major energy production in the cell. There is strong evidence suggesting that glucose consumption and rate of glycolysis are highly modulated by cytosolic pH/[H(+)], but those can also be stimulated by an increase in the intracellular [HCO3 (-)]. Because proton and bicarbonate shift concomitantly, it remained unclear whether enhanced glucose consumption and glycolytic rate were mediated by the changes in intracellular [H(+)] or [HCO3 (-)]. We have asked whether glucose metabolism is enhanced by either a fall in intracellular [H(+)] or a rise in intracellular [HCO3 (-)], or by both, in mammalian astrocytes. We have recorded intracellular glucose in mouse astrocytes using a FRET-based nanosensor, while imposing different intracellular [H(+)] and [CO2]/[HCO3 (-)]. Glucose consumption and glycolytic rate were augmented by a fall in intracellular [H(+)], irrespective of a concomitant rise or fall in intracellular [HCO3 (-)]. Transport of HCO3 (-) into and out of astrocytes by the electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe1) played a crucial role in causing changes in intracellular pH and [HCO3 (-)], but was not obligatory for the pH-dependent changes in glucose metabolism. Our results clearly show that it is the cytosolic pH that modulates glucose metabolism in cortical astrocytes, and possibly also in other cell types. PMID:27422823

  11. Coital rates, sex-selective infanticide, and sex ratios at birth.

    PubMed

    James, W H

    1996-01-01

    The author of this short article comments on the suggestion by Brewis and Underwood, in their report on Micronesia, that the high sex ratios at birth were due to the high coital rates (greater than 108-110). First, in Australia, the reported sex ratio of births conceived in the first month of marriage from 1908 to 1967 was 109. Mean reported marital coital rates during the first month of marriage for the United States and England are estimated to be 20 per month. The average coital rate is higher among women who conceive. If the variation of sex ratios across societies were explained by coital rates alone, Micronesian coital rates would have to be much greater than 20 per month throughout couples' reproductive lives, and 3 times the averages in postindustrial countries. Such coital rates have not been substantiated; other reasons may account for the high sex ratios in Micronesia. Brewis and Underwood stated that they did not believe sex-selective infanticide was an explanation of the high sex ratios; this may have been based on current practices. Yet past practices of sex-selective infanticide could influence current sex ratios, given that there is mathematical evidence that genetics may influence the probability of producing a child of a particular sex. Therefore, the average current sex ratio at conception and birth of a population depends on: the magnitude of the genetic component of the Lexis variance (the reproductive-lifetime probability of a couple's producing a boy at each birth); and 2) the extent of the sex-selective infanticide in the past. The total extent of the Lexis variance, including its genetic component, is unknown. PMID:8909113

  12. Timing of translocation influences birth rate and population dynamics in a forest carnivore

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Facka, Aaron N; Lewis, Jeffrey C.; Happe, Patricia; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Callas, Richard; Powell, Roger A.

    2016-01-01

    Timing can be critical for many life history events of organisms. Consequently, the timing of management activities may affect individuals and populations in numerous and unforeseen ways. Translocations of organisms are used to restore or expand populations but the timing of translocations is largely unexplored as a factor influencing population success. We hypothesized that the process of translocation negatively influences reproductive rates of individuals that are moved just before their birthing season and, therefore, the timing of releases could influence translocation success. Prior to reintroducing fishers (Pekania pennanti) into northern California and onto the Olympic Peninsula of Washington, we predicted that female fishers released in November and December (early) would have a higher probability of giving birth to kits the following March or April than females released in January, February, and March (late), just prior to or during the period of blastocyst implantation and gestation. Over four winters (2008–2011), we translocated 56 adult female fishers that could have given birth in the spring immediately after release. Denning rates, an index of birth rate, for females released early were 92% in California and 38% in Washington. In contrast, denning rates for females released late were 40% and 11%, in California and Washington, a net reduction in denning rate of 66% across both sites. To understand how releasing females nearer to parturition could influence population establishment and persistence, we used stochastic population simulations using three-stage Lefkovitch matrices. These simulations showed that translocating female fishers early had long-term positive influences on the mean population size and on quasi-extinction thresholds compared to populations where females were released late. The results from both empirical data and simulations show that the timing of translocation, with respect to life history events, should be considered during

  13. Estimation of rates of births, deaths, and immigration from mark-recapture data.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, R B; Lampila, S; Orell, M

    2009-03-01

    The analysis of mark-recapture data is undergoing a period of development and expansion. Here we contribute to that by presenting a model which includes both births and immigration, as well as the usual deaths. Data come from a long-term study of the willow tit (Parus montanus), where we can assume that all births are recorded, and hence immigrants can also be identified as birds captured as adults for the first time. We model the rates of immigration, birth rate per parent, and death rates of juveniles and adults. Using a hierarchical model allows us to incorporate annual variation in these parameters. The model is fitted to the data using Markov chain Monte Carlo, as a Bayesian analysis. In addition to the model fitting, we also check several aspects of the model fit, in particular whether survival varies with age or immigrant status, and whether capture probability is affected by previous capture history. The latter check is important, as independence of capture histories is a key assumption that simplifies the model considerably. Here we find that the capture probability depends strongly on whether the individual was captured in the previous year. PMID:18479483

  14. Bayesian analysis of stage-fall-discharge rating curves and their uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansanarez, Valentin; Le Coz, Jérôme; Renard, Benjamin; Lang, Michel; Pierrefeu, Gilles; Le Boursicaud, Raphaël; Pobanz, Karine

    2016-04-01

    Stage-fall-discharge (SFD) rating curves are traditionally used to compute streamflow records at sites where the energy slope of the flow is variable due to variable backwater effects. Building on existing Bayesian approaches, we introduce an original hydraulics-based method for developing SFD rating curves used at twin gauge stations and estimating their uncertainties. Conventional power functions for channel and section controls are used, and transition to a backwater-affected channel control is computed based on a continuity condition, solved either analytically or numerically. The difference between the reference levels at the two stations is estimated as another uncertain parameter of the SFD model. The method proposed in this presentation incorporates information from both the hydraulic knowledge (equations of channel or section controls) and the information available in the stage-fall-discharge observations (gauging data). The obtained total uncertainty combines the parametric uncertainty and the remnant uncertainty related to the model of rating curve. This method provides a direct estimation of the physical inputs of the rating curve (roughness, width, slope bed, distance between twin gauges, etc.). The performance of the new method is tested using an application case affected by the variable backwater of a run-of-the-river dam: the Rhône river at Valence, France. In particular, a sensitivity analysis to the prior information and to the gauging dataset is performed. At that site, the stage-fall-discharge domain is well documented with gaugings conducted over a range of backwater affected and unaffected conditions. The performance of the new model was deemed to be satisfactory. Notably, transition to uniform flow when the overall range of the auxiliary stage is gauged is correctly simulated. The resulting curves are in good agreement with the observations (gaugings) and their uncertainty envelopes are acceptable for computing streamflow records. Similar

  15. Lung cancer death rates fall, helping drive decrease in overall cancer death rates

    Cancer.gov

    The Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, covering the period 1975–2010, showed death rates for lung cancer, which accounts for more than one in four cancer deaths, dropping at a faster pace than in previous years.

  16. Correlating multidimensional fetal heart rate variability analysis with acid-base balance at birth.

    PubMed

    Frasch, Martin G; Xu, Yawen; Stampalija, Tamara; Durosier, Lucien D; Herry, Christophe; Wang, Xiaogang; Casati, Daniela; Seely, Andrew Je; Alfirevic, Zarko; Gao, Xin; Ferrazzi, Enrico

    2014-12-01

    Fetal monitoring during labour currently fails to accurately detect acidemia. We developed a method to assess the multidimensional properties of fetal heart rate variability (fHRV) from trans-abdominal fetal electrocardiogram (fECG) during labour. We aimed to assess this novel bioinformatics approach for correlation between fHRV and neonatal pH or base excess (BE) at birth.We enrolled a prospective pilot cohort of uncomplicated singleton pregnancies at 38-42 weeks' gestation in Milan, Italy, and Liverpool, UK. Fetal monitoring was performed by standard cardiotocography. Simultaneously, with fECG (high sampling frequency) was recorded. To ensure clinician blinding, fECG information was not displayed. Data from the last 60 min preceding onset of second-stage labour were analyzed using clinically validated continuous individualized multiorgan variability analysis (CIMVA) software in 5 min overlapping windows. CIMVA allows simultaneous calculation of 101 fHRV measures across five fHRV signal analysis domains. We validated our mathematical prediction model internally with 80:20 cross-validation split, comparing results to cord pH and BE at birth.The cohort consisted of 60 women with neonatal pH values at birth ranging from 7.44 to 6.99 and BE from -0.3 to -18.7 mmol L(-1). Our model predicted pH from 30 fHRV measures (R(2) = 0.90, P < 0.001) and BE from 21 fHRV measures (R(2) = 0.77, P < 0.001).Novel bioinformatics approach (CIMVA) applied to fHRV derived from trans-abdominal fECG during labor correlated well with acid-base balance at birth. Further refinement and validation in larger cohorts are needed. These new measurements of fHRV might offer a new opportunity to predict fetal acid-base balance at birth. PMID:25407948

  17. Vagal Regulation of Heart Rate in the Prediction of Developmental Outcome for Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doussard-Roosevelt, Jane A.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Used heart rate and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) assessed at 33 to 35 weeks gestational age to predict developmental outcome at 3 years for very low birth weight infants. Found that RSA measures predicted developmental outcome beyond effects of birth weight, medical risk, and socioeconomic status. For infants < 1,000 grams, RSA maturation…

  18. Changes in Yearly Birth Prevalence Rates of Children with Down Syndrome in the Period 1986-2007 in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Graaf, G.; Haveman, M.; Hochstenbach, R.; Engelen, J.; Gerssen-Schoorl, K.; Poddighe, P.; Smeets, D.; van Hove, G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Netherlands are lacking reliable national empirical data in relation to the development of birth prevalence of Down syndrome. Our study aims at assessing valid national live birth prevalence rates for the period 1986-2007. Method: On the basis of the annual child/adult ratio of Down syndrome diagnoses in five out of the eight Dutch…

  19. Hispanic Teen Pregnancy and Birth Rates: Looking Behind the Numbers. Child Trends Research Brief. Publication #2005-01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Suzanne; Franzetta, Kerry; Manlove, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    This research brief focuses on the birth, pregnancy, contraceptive, and relationship behaviors of Hispanic teens because they represent an important risk group. Teen pregnancy and birth rates for U.S. teens have declined dramatically in recent years. Yet for Hispanic teens, reductions in teen pregnancy and childbearing have lagged behind that of…

  20. Change in Population Characteristics and Teen Birth Rates in 77 Community Areas: Chicago, Illinois, 1999–2009

    PubMed Central

    Gunaratne, Shauna; Masinter, Lisa; Kolak, Marynia

    2015-01-01

    Objective We analyzed community area differences in teen births in Chicago, Illinois, from 1999 to 2009. We analyzed the association between changes in teen birth rates and concurrent measures of community area socioeconomic and demographic change. Methods Mean annual changes in teen birth rates in 77 Chicago community areas were correlated with concurrent census-based population changes during the decade. Census measures included changes in race/ethnicity, adult high school dropouts, poverty or higher-income households, crowded housing, unemployment, English proficiency, foreign-born residents, or residents who moved in the last five years. We included non-collinear census measures with a p<0.1 bivariate association with change in teen births in a stepwise multiple linear regression model. Results Teen birth rates in Chicago fell faster than the overall birth rates, from 85 births per 1,000 teens in 1999 to 57 births per 1,000 teens in 2009. There were strong positive associations between increases in the percentage of residents who were black and Hispanic, poor, without a high school diploma, and living in crowded housing, and a negative association with an increase in higher-income households. Population changes in poverty, Hispanic population, and high school dropouts were the only significant measures in the final model, explaining almost half of the variance in teen birth rate changes. Conclusion The study provides a model of census-based measures that can be used to evaluate predicted vs. observed rates of change in teen births across communities, offering the potential to more appropriately prioritize public health resources for preventing unintended teen pregnancy. PMID:26345288

  1. Adolescent Pregnancy, Birth, and Abortion Rates Across Countries: Levels and Recent Trends

    PubMed Central

    Sedgh, Gilda; Finer, Lawrence B.; Bankole, Akinrinola; Eilers, Michelle A.; Singh, Susheela

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To examine pregnancy rates and outcomes (births and abortions) among 15- to 19-year olds and 10- to 14-year olds in all countries for which recent information could be obtained and to examine trends since the mid-1990s. Methods Information was obtained from countries’ vital statistics reports and the United Nations Statistics Division for most countries in this study. Alternate sources of information were used if needed and available. We present estimates primarily for 2011 and compare them to estimates published for the mid-1990s. Results Among the 21 countries with complete statistics, the pregnancy rate among 15- to 19-year olds was the highest in the United States (57 pregnancies per 1,000 females) and the lowest rate was in Switzerland (8). Rates were higher in some former Soviet countries with incomplete statistics; they were the highest in Mexico and Sub-Saharan African countries with available information. Among countries with reliable evidence, the highest rate among 10- to 14-year olds was in Hungary. The proportion of teen pregnancies that ended in abortion ranged from 17% in Slovakia to 69% in Sweden. The proportion of pregnancies that ended in live births tended to be higher in countries with high teen pregnancy rates (p =.02). The pregnancy rate has declined since the mid-1990s in the majority of the 16 countries where trends could be assessed. Conclusions Despite recent declines, teen pregnancy rates remain high in many countries. Research on the planning status of these pregnancies and on factors that determine how teens resolve their pregnancies could further inform programs and policies. PMID:25620306

  2. Fetal death and reduced birth rates associated with exposure to lead-contaminated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Marc

    2014-01-01

    This ecologic study notes that fetal death rates (FDR) during the Washington DC drinking water "lead crisis" (2000-2004) peaked in 2001 when water lead levels (WLLs) were highest, and were minimized in 2004 after public health interventions were implemented to protect pregnant women. Changes in the DC FDR vs neighboring Baltimore City were correlated to DC WLL (R(2) = 0.72). Birth rates in DC also increased versus Baltimore City and versus the United States in 2004-2006, when consumers were protected from high WLLs. The increased births in DC neighborhoods comparing 2004 versus 2001 was correlated to the incidence of lead pipes (R(2) = 0.60). DC birth rates from 1999 to 2007 correlated with proxies for maternal blood lead including the geometric mean blood lead in DC children (R(2) = 0.68) and the incidence of lead poisoning in children under age 1.3 years (R(2) = 0.64). After public health protections were removed in 2006, DC FDR spiked in 2007-2009 versus 2004-2006 (p < 0.05), in a manner consistent with high WLL health risks to consumers arising from partial lead service line replacements, and DC FDR dropped to historically low levels in 2010-2011 after consumers were protected and the PSLR program was terminated. Re-evaluation of a historic construction-related miscarriage cluster in the USA Today Building (1987-1988), demonstrates that high WLLs from disturbed plumbing were a possible cause. Overall results are consistent with prior research linking increased lead exposure to higher incidence of miscarriages and fetal death, even at blood lead elevations (≈5 μg/dL) once considered relatively low. PMID:24321041

  3. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid improves the implantation and live-birth rates of mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tao; Diao, Yun Fei; Kang, Jung Won; Lee, Jae Eun; Kim, Dong Kyu; Jin, Dong Il

    2015-06-01

    We previously demonstrated that tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) improved the developmental competence of mouse embryos by attenuating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced apoptosis during preimplantation development. Here, we present a follow-up study examining whether TUDCA enhances the implantation and live-birth rate of mouse embryos. Mouse 2-cell embryos were collected by oviduct flushing and cultured in the presence or absence of 50 μM TUDCA. After culture (52 h), blastocysts were transferred to 2.5-day pseudopregnant foster mothers. It was found that the rates of pregnancy and implantation as well as the number of live pups per surrogate mouse were significantly higher in the TUDCA-treated group compared to the control group, but there was no significant difference in the mean weights of the pups or placentae. Thus, we report for the first time that TUDCA supplementation of the embryo culture medium increased the implantation and livebirth rates of transferred mouse embryos. PMID:26051458

  4. Neonatal and Infant Mortality in Korea, Japan, and the U.S.: Effect of Birth Weight Distribution and Birth Weight-Specific Mortality Rates.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do Hyun; Jeon, Jihyun; Park, Chang Gi; Sriram, Sudhir; Lee, Kwang Sun

    2016-09-01

    Difference in crude neonatal and infant mortality rates (NMR and IMR) among different countries is due to the differences in its two determinants: birth weight distribution (BWD) and birth weight-specific mortality rates (BW-SMRs). We aimed to determine impact of BWD and BW-SMRs on differences in crude NMR and IMR among Korea, Japan, and the U.S. Our study used the live birth data of the period 2009 through 2010. Crude NMR/IMR are the lowest in Japan, 1.1/2.1, compared to 1.8/3.2, in Korea, and 4.1/6.2, in the U.S., respectively. Japanese had the best BW-SMRs of all birth weight groups compared to the Koreans and the U.S. The U.S. BWD was unfavorable with very low birth weight (< 1,500 g) rate of 1.4%, compared to 0.6% in Korea, and 0.8% in Japan. If Koreans and Japanese had the same BWD as in the U.S., their crude NMR/IMR would be 3.9/6.1 for the Koreans and 1.5/2.5 for the Japanese. If both Koreans and Japanese had the same BW-SMRs as in the U.S., the crude NMR/IMR would be 2.0/3.8 for the Koreans and 2.7/5.0 for the Japanese. In conclusion, compared to the U.S., lower crude NMR or IMR in Japan is mainly attributable to its better BW-SMRs. Koreans had lower crude NMR and IMR, primarily from its favorable BWD. Comparing crude NMR or IMR among different countries should include further exploration of its two determinants, BW-SMRs reflecting medical care, and BWD reflecting socio-demographic conditions. PMID:27510390

  5. Dam-related effects on heart girth at birth, morbidity and growth rate from birth to 90 days of age in Swedish dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Lundborg, G K; Oltenacu, P A; Maizon, D O; Svensson, E C; Liberg, P G A

    2003-08-01

    We investigated the effects of dam-related factors (such as calving performance, milk leakage, diseases, milk production, and somatic-cell count (SCC)) on heart girth at birth and the incidence risk of diarrhoea and respiratory disease during the first 90 days in Swedish dairy calves. The effects of these dam-related factors and environmental and management-related (but not dietary) factors on the calves' growth rate during the first 90 days of life also were analysed. The study used nearly 3,000 heifer calves born in 1998 on 122 farms in the south-west of Sweden. Individual health records were kept by the farmers and visiting project veterinarians. The calf's heart girth was measured at birth and weaning. We used generalised linear mixed models for the size of the calf at birth and growth rate. Variables associated with the heart girth at birth were breed, calving performance, mastitis in the dam in the last 49 days before calving, milk production and parity. Variables associated with the growth rate were breed, calving performance, disease in the calf during its first 90 days of life, heart girth at birth, and housing of calves. The effect of the dam on the relative risk of diarrhoea and/or respiratory disease in the calf was evaluated by a generalised linear mixed model with a logit link. Morbidity in the dam during late pregnancy, retained placenta and SCC were associated with the relative risk of respiratory disease in the calf. None of the explanatory variables (other then breed) was associated with the relative risk of diarrhoea. PMID:12900157

  6. Changes in Survival Rate for Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants in Korea: Comparison with Other Countries

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Jae Won; Jin, Hyun-Seung

    2015-01-01

    Recently the Korean Neonatal Network (KNN) was established in order to enhance treatment outcomes further through the registration of very-low-birth-weight infants (VLBWI) data. The present study was conducted on 2,606 VLBWI, 2,386 registered and 220 un-registered, in the KNN participating centers, with the objective of reporting on recent survival rates of VLBWI in Korea and verifying the changing trends in survival rates with data from the 1960s and beyond. The study also aimed to compare the premature infants' survival rate in Korea with those reported in neonatal networks of other countries. The recent survival rate of VLBWI increased more than twice from 35.6% in the 1960s to 84.8%, and the survival rate of the extremely low birth weight infants (ELBWI) increased by more than 10 times, indicating improvement of the survival rate in premature infants with lower birth weight and gestational age. Comparison of VLBWI between countries showed improved survival rates according to each birth weight group in Canada, Australia-New Zealand, and European countries with Japan at the head, but in terms of comparison based on gestational age, differences, except for Japan, have been reduced. Efforts to increase the survival rate of premature infants in Korea with low birth rate are inevitable, and they should be the foundation of academic and clinical development based on its network with advanced countries. PMID:26566354

  7. Disentangling effects of vector birth rate, mortality rate, and abundance on spread of a plant pathogen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For insect-transmitted plant pathogens, rates of pathogen spread are a function of vector abundance. While vector abundance is recognized to be important, parameters that govern vector population size receive little attention. For example, epidemiological models often fix vector population size by a...

  8. Sex ratio at birth and mortality rates are negatively related in humans.

    PubMed

    Dama, Madhukar Shivajirao

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary theory posits that resource availability and parental investment ability could signal offspring sex selection, in order to maximize reproductive returns. Non-human studies have provided evidence for this phenomenon, and maternal condition around the time of conception has been identified as most important factor that influence offspring sex selection. However, studies on humans have reported inconsistent results, mostly due to use of disparate measures as indicators of maternal condition. In the present study, the cross-cultural differences in human natal sex ratio were analyzed with respect to indirect measures of condition namely, life expectancy and mortality rate. Multiple regression modeling suggested that mortality rates have distinct predictive power independent of cross-cultural differences in fertility, wealth and latitude that were earlier shown to predict sex ratio at birth. These findings suggest that sex ratio variation in humans may relate to differences in parental and environmental conditions. PMID:21887320

  9. Improved pregnancy and birth rates with routine application of nonsurgical embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Bin Ali, Rahmen; van der Ahé, Fina; Braumuller, Tanya M; Pritchard, Colin; Krimpenfort, Paul; Berns, Anton; Huijbers, Ivo J

    2014-08-01

    Nonsurgical embryo transfer (NSET) of blastocysts to pseudopregnant female recipients provides many benefits over surgical implantation with less distress for the mice, no anesthesia or analgesia required and a considerable reduction in implantation time per mouse. Although a disposable device to perform NSET is on the market since 2009, it is not generally used in transgenic facilities, most likely because surgical implantation is efficient and inexpensive. Here, we report that with several refinements to the original protocol, the NSET method becomes very attractive and outperforms the traditional surgical transfer on basis of pregnancy rate, birth rate and implantation-related discomfort. Furthermore, repeated use of the same NSET device on several recipient females reduces the costs to a reasonable level. The data presented covers all embryo transfers over the last 5 years at the transgenic facility of the Netherlands Cancer Institute, of which the last 2 years were performed exclusively with NSET. PMID:24798251

  10. Sex Ratio at Birth and Mortality Rates Are Negatively Related in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Dama, Madhukar Shivajirao

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary theory posits that resource availability and parental investment ability could signal offspring sex selection, in order to maximize reproductive returns. Non-human studies have provided evidence for this phenomenon, and maternal condition around the time of conception has been identified as most important factor that influence offspring sex selection. However, studies on humans have reported inconsistent results, mostly due to use of disparate measures as indicators of maternal condition. In the present study, the cross-cultural differences in human natal sex ratio were analyzed with respect to indirect measures of condition namely, life expectancy and mortality rate. Multiple regression modeling suggested that mortality rates have distinct predictive power independent of cross-cultural differences in fertility, wealth and latitude that were earlier shown to predict sex ratio at birth. These findings suggest that sex ratio variation in humans may relate to differences in parental and environmental conditions. PMID:21887320

  11. Spontaneous variability in minute ventilation oxygen consumption and heart rate of low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Schulze, K; Kairam, R; Stefanski, M; Sciacca, R; Bateman, D; Dell, R; James, L S

    1981-08-01

    Continuous measurements of minute ventilation (VI), oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate (HR), activity, and temperature were made in eleven low birth weight infants during the interval between feedings. Significant increases in VI, VO2, and HR were noted between quiet and active sleep. (VI Active - VI Quiet/VI Quiet) X 100 = 18.4% VO2 Active - VO2 Quiet/VO2 Quiet) X 100 = 10.1% and HR Active - HR Quiet/HR Quiet) X 100 = 6.4%. Significant differences were also noted within epochs of the same state of sleep: mean slope VI versus time in epoch (t) = -156 ml/kg . min/hr, VO2 versus t. = 1.49 ml/kg . min/hr and HR versus t = -15.0 beats/min/hr. Differences between successive epochs of the same state of sleep were also observed: VI, +5.9 to 46.6%; VO2, 4.7 to 24.6%; HR, 1.0 to 9.7%. These differences were related to the length of time after feeding. These data indicate that steady state conditions do not occur in growing low birth weight infants and that the design of studies of respiration and metabolism in these infants should include continuous assessment of the state of sleep or activity and time after feeding to ensure that experimental and control periods are truly comparable. PMID:7267185

  12. The Effect of Gestational Age at Birth on Post-Term Maturation of Heart Rate Variability

    PubMed Central

    Fyfe, Karinna L.; Yiallourou, Stephanie R.; Wong, Flora Y.; Odoi, Alexsandria; Walker, Adrian M.; Horne, Rosemary S.C.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objective: Preterm birth delays maturation of autonomic cardiovascular control, reflected in reduced heart rate variability (HRV) in preterm compared to term infants at term-equivalent age. It has been suggested that immature cardiovascular control contributes to the increased risk for the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in preterm infants. However, the effects of prone sleeping, the major SIDS risk factor, and of gestational age (GA) at birth on HRV have not been assessed in preterm infants beyond term-equivalent age. Subjects and Methods: Very preterm (n = 21; mean GA 29.4 ± 0.3 weeks), preterm (n = 14; mean GA 33.5 ± 0.3 weeks), and term (n = 17; mean GA 40.1 ± 0.3 weeks) infants were recruited and underwent daytime polysomnography at 2–4 weeks, 2–3 months, and 5–6 months post-term corrected age (CA). Infants slept both supine and prone. HRV was assessed in the low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) ranges. Results: There was no effect of prone sleeping on HRV parameters in either preterm group. In term infants LF/HF was significantly elevated in the prone position in AS at 2–4 weeks (P < 0.05). HF HRV was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) and LF/HF increased (P < 0.05) in very preterm compared to both preterm and term infants at 2–3 months CA. Conclusion: Prone sleeping did not significantly impact on heart rate variability (HRV) in preterm infants. However, reduced maturation of high frequency HRV in very preterm infants resulted in significantly altered sympathovagal balance at 2–3 months corrected age, the age of peak sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) risk. This may contribute to the increased risk of SIDS in infants born at earlier gestational age. Citation: Fyfe KL, Yiallourou SR, Wong FY, Odoi A, Walker AM, Horne RS. The effect of gestational age at birth on post-term maturation of heart rate variability. SLEEP 2015;38(10):1635–1644. PMID:25902805

  13. Testing the effects of a pharmaceutical program on fall rates in older adults.

    PubMed

    Zanetos, Joanne Marie; Lux, Kathleen Mary; Richardson, Luann G

    2014-01-01

    A pretest-posttest no control group design was used to test knowledge on fall incidence in residents of a rehabilitation center. Twenty-six staff nurses were educated on fundamental geriatric pharmacology. Results of a two-tailed t test showed a significant increase in posttest scores (t test(50) = 3.53, p = .003). Retrospective fall and medication data collected over 2 months in 2011 and 2 months in 2012 were compared. The incidence of falls decreased (44.7%) with total number of residents falling (30.7%) post intervention in 2012. Staff nurses need to have continuing pharmaceutical education and medication management classes about the elderly. PMID:24845093

  14. Completing College: A National View of Student Attainment Rates--Fall 2008 Cohort (Signature Report No. 8)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Doug; Dundar, Afet; Yuan, Xin; Harrell, Autumn T.; Wakhungu, Phoebe Khasiala

    2014-01-01

    This third annual report on national college completion rates offers the first look at the six-year outcomes for students who began postsecondary education in fall 2008, the cohort that entered college during the Great Recession. It looks at the various pathways students took toward degree completion, as well as the completion rates through May…

  15. Population Penetration Rates by City and County, Fall Term 1994. Virginia Community College System Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHewitt, Earl R.

    The Virginia Community College System (VCCS) conducted a study of Fall 1994 city and county population penetration rates, or the percentages of residents served by VCCS colleges. The penetration rate was determined by examining headcount as a percentage of the total population based on 1990 and 1995 projections developed by the Virginia Employment…

  16. Global stability of a delayed SIR epidemic model with density dependent birth and death rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Naoki; Hara, Tadayuki

    2007-04-01

    An SIR epidemic model with density dependent birth and death rates is formulated. In our model it is assumed that the total number of the population is governed by logistic equation. The transmission of infection is assumed to be of the standard form, namely proportional to I(t-h)/N(t-h) where N(t) is the total (variable) population size, I(t) is the size of the infective population and a time delay h is a fixed time during which the infectious agents develop in the vector. We consider transmission dynamics for the model. Stability of an endemic equilibrium is investigated. The stability result is stated in terms of a threshold parameter, that is, a basic reproduction number R0.

  17. Impact of agricultural modernization on crude birth rate in Indian Punjab.

    PubMed

    Ali, K

    1981-01-01

    This paper explores the effects of agricultural change on several socioeconomic and demographic characteristics that influence fertility decisions in 11 districts of the Indian Punjab from 1961-71. The basis of the study relates to a household production model which embodies birth rate and infant mortality rate as endogenous variables. Linkage between agricultural modernization and the above variables are discussed. The model is estimated for pooled cross-sectional and time-series observations of the 11 districts. The most important finding is that the infant mortality rate has a positive effect on fertility and, conversely, fertility rates have a positive impact on infant mortality. Agricultural improvements, if equally distributed, lead to a decline in infant mortality and fertility. Implications of the study are that the supply and demand for contraception through socioeconomic development should go hand in hand. Policy makers should attach importance to an even distribution of land and income as well as to an improvement of health and educational facilities, nutritional intake, and sanitation. PMID:12338154

  18. LOW PRETERM BIRTH RATE WITH DECREASING EARLY NEONATAL MORTALITY IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA DURING 2007-2014

    PubMed Central

    Hudic, Igor; Stray-Pedersen, Babill; Skokic, Fahrija; Fatusic, Zlatan; Zildzic-Moralic, Aida; Skokic, Maida; Fatusic, Jasenko

    2016-01-01

    The aim: of the study was to determine the situation of preterm births and early neonatal mortality during 2007-2014 in Tuzla Canton, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods: The study covers a 8-year period and is based on the protocols at the Tuzla Clinic for Gynecology and Obstetrics that covers all birth in Tuzla Canton area. We analyzed the gestational age of all newborns and recorded the number of neonatal deaths in the first week after birth. Demographics, pregnancy and birth characteristics were collected from the maternal records. Results: The total number of births in the period was 32738. Preterm birth was identified in 2401 (7.3%) cases with 12,5% occurring before 32 gestational weeks and 64% in 35-36 gestational weeks. The mothers of the 24-31 gws preterm group were significantly younger that those in the 32-36 group. In the 32-36 group there were significantly greater proportions of mothers with assisted reproductive technology and pre-eclampsia and 16.7% was medical induced preterm births versus 11.4 % in the 24-31 PTB group, p<0.05. The incidence of PTB did no vary significantly during the period, the lowest rate was found in 2010 (6.4%). A total of 221 children died giving a early mortality rate of 6.8 per 1000 live born over the 8 years. The majority 156 dying infants (70.6%) were preterm, only 5.7% died being born in the 35-36 gestational week (5.9 per 1000). Overall the preterm early mortality (7.3 per 1000) has shown a decreasing tendency during the latter years. Conclusion: During the last 8 years there have been no significant decline in preterm birth in the Tuzla region while a decline in early neonatal death has been registered. PMID:27047264

  19. Rates and factors associated with falls in older European Americans, Afro-Caribbeans, African-Americans, and Hispanics

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Edgar Ramos; Tappen, Ruth; Engstrom, Gabriella; da Costa, Bruno R

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate rates and factors associated with older adult falls in different ethnic groups. Participants and methods Information on demographics, medical and falls history, and pain and physical activity levels was collected from 550 community-dwelling older adults (75±9 years old, 222 European Americans, 109 Afro-Caribbeans, 106 African-Americans, and 113 Hispanics). Results Taking medications for anxiety (risk ratio [RR] =1.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.1–2.0), having incontinence (RR =1.4, 95% CI =1.1–1.8, P=0.013), back pain (RR =1.4, 95% CI =1.0–1.8), feet swelling (RR =1.3, 95% CI =1.1–1.7), and age ≥75 years (RR =1.3, 95% CI =1.0–1.6) were associated with falls. The associations were stronger for Afro-Caribbeans, but they presented approximately 40% lower prevalence of falls than the other groups. Conclusion Taking anxiety medication, incontinence, back pain, feet swelling, and age ≥75 years were associated with falls, and Afro-Caribbeans presented lower prevalence of falls. These findings need to be taken into consideration in clinical interventions in aging. PMID:26604718

  20. The Birth Rate of SNe Ia from Hybrid CONe White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiangcun; Podsiadlowski, Philipp

    2014-07-01

    Considering the uncertainties of the C-burning rate (CBR) and the treatment of convective boundaries, Chen et al. found that there is a regime where it is possible to form hybrid CONe white dwarfs (WDs), i.e., ONe WDs with carbon-rich cores. As these hybrid WDs can be as massive as 1.30 M ⊙, not much mass needs to be accreted for these objects to reach the Chandrasekhar limit and to explode as Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). We have investigated their contribution to the overall SN Ia birth rate and found that such SNe Ia tend to be relatively young with typical time delays between 0.1 and 1 Gyr, where some may be as young as 30 Myr. SNe Ia from hybrid CONe WDs may contribute several percent to all SNe Ia, depending on the common-envelope ejection efficiency and the CBR. We suggest that these SNe Ia may produce part of the 2002cx-like SN Ia class.

  1. THE BIRTH RATE OF SNe Ia FROM HYBRID CONe WHITE DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Xiangcun; Podsiadlowski, Philipp

    2014-07-10

    Considering the uncertainties of the C-burning rate (CBR) and the treatment of convective boundaries, Chen et al. found that there is a regime where it is possible to form hybrid CONe white dwarfs (WDs), i.e., ONe WDs with carbon-rich cores. As these hybrid WDs can be as massive as 1.30 M {sub ☉}, not much mass needs to be accreted for these objects to reach the Chandrasekhar limit and to explode as Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). We have investigated their contribution to the overall SN Ia birth rate and found that such SNe Ia tend to be relatively young with typical time delays between 0.1 and 1 Gyr, where some may be as young as 30 Myr. SNe Ia from hybrid CONe WDs may contribute several percent to all SNe Ia, depending on the common-envelope ejection efficiency and the CBR. We suggest that these SNe Ia may produce part of the 2002cx-like SN Ia class.

  2. Delivery by Cesarean Section is not Associated With Decreased at-Birth Fracture Rates in Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    PubMed Central

    Bellur, S; Jain, M; Cuthbertson, D; Krakow, D; Shapiro, JR; Steiner, RD; Smith, PA; Bober, MB; Hart, T; Krischer, J; Mullins, M; Byers, PH; Pepin, M; Durigova, M; Glorieux, FH; Rauch, F; Sutton, VR; Lee, B; Nagamani, SC

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) predisposes to recurrent fractures. The moderate-to-severe forms of OI present with antenatal fractures and the mode of delivery that would be safest for the fetus is not known. Methods We conducted systematic analyses on the largest cohort of individuals (n=540) with OI enrolled to-date in the OI Linked Clinical Research Centers. Self-reported at-birth fracture rates were compared in individuals with OI types I, III, and IV. Multivariate analyses utilizing backward-elimination logistic regression model building were performed to assess the effect of multiple covariates including method of delivery on fracture-related outcomes. Results When accounting for other covariates, at-birth fracture rates did not differ based on whether delivery was by vaginal route or by cesarean section (CS). Increased birth weight conferred higher risk for fractures irrespective of the delivery method. In utero fracture, maternal history of OI, and breech presentation were strong predictors for choosing CS for delivery. Conclusion Our study, the largest to analyze the effect of various factors on at-birth fracture rates in OI shows that delivery by CS is not associated with decreased fracture rate. With the limitation that the fracture data were self-reported in this cohort, these results suggest that CS should be performed only for other maternal or fetal indications, but not for the sole purpose of fracture prevention in OI. PMID:26426884

  3. Impact of estrogen-to-oocyte ratio on live birth rate in women undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Bu, Zhiqin; Wang, Keyan; Guo, Yihong; Su, Yingchun; Zhai, Jun; Sun, Yingpu

    2015-01-01

    In order to evaluate whether the ratio of serum estrogen level on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) administration to number of oocyte retrieved has any impact on live birth rate in women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF), we retrospectively analyzed the clinical data from 7,112 women treated with GnRH-a long protocol in our center. Cycles were firstly divided into 6 groups according to the E2/oocyte ratio (< 150 pg/ml; 150~300 pg/ml; 300~450 pg/ml; 450-600 pg/ml; 600-750 pg/ml; ≥ 750 pg/ml). Live birth rate (39.4%) in women with E2/oocyte ratio ≥ 750 pg/ml was the lowest compared with that in other groups. We further divided the top 10% of patients into high estrogen group (E2/oocyte ≥ 740 pg/ml; n = 713). Compared with controls, those with high E2/oocyte ratio had significantly higher peak E2 level (6711.85 pg/ml versus 4670.89 pg/ml; P = 0.000) on the day of hCG administration; however, the live birth rate (39.27% versus 45.67%; P = 0.001) was significantly lower for women with high estrogen level. Thus, we conclude that high E2/oocyte ratio adversely affects live birth rate in women undergoing IVF treated with GnRH-a long protocol. PMID:26379944

  4. Graduation and Persistence Rates: University of Hawaii Community Colleges, Fall 1987-Fall 1995 Cohorts. A Summary of Selected Data from the NCHEMS/University of Hawaii System Longitudinal Database Project. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Institutional Research Office.

    This report details graduation and persistence rates for degree-seeking students at the seven University of Hawaii Community Colleges (UHCC) from Fall 1987-Fall 1995. The data are from the National Center for Higher Education Management Systems/University of Hawaii System Longitudinal Database Project. The report focuses on full-time and part-time…

  5. Course Pass Rates in Fall 1993. Enrollment Analysis EA94-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diehl, Patricia K.

    Student performance in individual courses constitutes a fundamental learning outcome, as assessed by the faculty. Examination of student outcomes at the course level is especially appropriate at community colleges, since as many as half the students in credit courses have no intention of earning a degree. Fall 1993 final course grades of students…

  6. Laser assisted zona hatching does not improve live birth rate in patients undergoing their first ICSI cycles

    PubMed Central

    Razi, Mohammad Hossein; Halvaei, Iman; Razi, Yasamin

    2013-01-01

    Background: Routine use of assisted hatching (AH) following ICSI is a controversial issue in the literature. There are rare studies regarding the effect of laser assisted hatching (LAH) on live birth rate. Objective: Our main goal was to evaluate the effect of LAH on delivery rate as well as congenital anomaly in patients undergoing their first ICSI cycle. Materials and Methods: A total of 182 patients subjected to ICSI were randomly aliquot into two groups of experiment and control. In experiment group, the embryos were subjected to LAH to open a hole in ZP (about 10-12 µm) while in control group, the transferred embryos were intact with no AH. The patients were followed for clinical pregnancy and delivery rate as well as congenital anomaly. All the patients were infertile due to male factor infertility and LAH and embryo transfer were done on day 2. Results: Laboratory and clinical characteristics of two groups of experiment and control were the same. There were insignificant differences between two groups of experiment and control for clinical pregnancy rate (20% vs. 23.9%, respectively, p=0.3) and live birth rate (11.11% vs. 8.6%, respectively, p=0.6). Also no significant differences were observed between two groups of experiment and control for multiple pregnancy as well as congenital anomaly. Conclusion: Routine use of LAH in first ICSI cycle for male factor patients may have no beneficial effects on clinical pregnancy and live birth rate. PMID:24639729

  7. Changing trends in low birth weight rates among non-Hispanic black infants in the United States, 1991-2004.

    PubMed

    Ferré, Cynthia; Handler, Arden; Hsia, Jason; Barfield, Wanda; Collins, James W

    2011-01-01

    We examined trends in low birth weight (LBW, <2,500 g) rates among US singleton non-Hispanic black infants between 1991 and 2004. We conducted Joinpoint regression analyses, using birth certificate data, to describe trends in LBW, moderately LBW (MLBW, 1,500-2,499 g), and very LBW (VLBW, <1,500 g) rates. We then conducted cross-sectional and binomial regression analyses to relate these trends to changes in maternal or obstetric factors. Non-Hispanic black LBW rates declined -7.35% between 1991 and 2001 and then increased +4.23% through 2004. The LBW trends were not uniform across birth weight subcategories. Among MLBW births, the 1991-2001 decease was -10.20%; the 2001-2004 increase was +5.61%. VLBW did not follow this pattern, increasing +3.84% between 1991 and 1999 and then remaining relatively stable through 2004. In adjusted models, the 1991-2001 MLBW rate decrease was associated with changes in first-trimester prenatal care, cigarette smoking, education levels, maternal foreign-born status, and pregnancy weight gain. The 2001-2004 MLBW rate increase was independent of changes in observed maternal demographic characteristics, prenatal care, and obstetric variables. Between 1991 and 2001, progress occurred in reducing MLBW rates among non-Hispanic black infants. This progress was not maintained between 2001 and 2004 nor did it occur for VLBW infants between 1991 and 2004. Observed population changes in maternal socio-demographic and health-related factors were associated with the 1991-2001 decrease, suggesting multiple risk factors need to be simultaneously addressed to reduce non-Hispanic black LBW rates. PMID:20111989

  8. Spatially varying predictors of teenage birth rates among counties in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Shoff, Carla; Yang, Tse-Chuan

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Limited information is available about teenage pregnancy and childbearing in rural areas, even though approximately 20 percent of the nation’s youth live in rural areas. Identifying whether there are differences in the teenage birth rate (TBR) across metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas is important, because these differences may reflect modifiable ecological-level influences such as education, employment, laws, healthcare infrastructure, and policies that could potentially reduce the TBR. OBJECTIVES The goals of this study are to investigate whether there are spatially varying relationships between the TBR and the independent variables, and if so, whether these associations differ between metropolitan and nonmetropolitan counties. METHODS We explore the heterogeneity within metropolitan/nonmetropolitan county groups separately using geographically weighted regression (GWR), and investigate the difference between metropolitan/nonmetropolitan counties using spatial regime models with spatial errors. These analyses were applied to county-level data from the National Center for Health Statistics and the US Census Bureau. RESULTS GWR results suggested that non-stationarity exists in the associations between TBR and determinants within metropolitan/nonmetropolitan groups. The spatial regime analysis indicated that the effect of socioeconomic disadvantage on TBR significantly varied by the metropolitan status of counties. CONCLUSIONS While the spatially varying relationships between the TBR and independent variables were found within each metropolitan status of counties, only the magnitude of the impact of the socioeconomic disadvantage index is significantly stronger among metropolitan counties than nonmetropolitan counties. Our findings suggested that place-specific policies for the disadvantaged groups in a county could be implemented to reduce TBR in the US. PMID:23144587

  9. Explaining Disproportionately High Rates of Adverse Birth Outcomes among African Americans: The Impact of Stress, Racism, and Related Factors in Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giscombe, Cheryl L.; Lobel, Marci

    2005-01-01

    Compared with European Americans, African American infants experience disproportionately high rates of low birth weight and preterm delivery and are more than twice as likely to die during their 1st year of life. The authors examine 5 explanations for these differences in rates of adverse birth outcomes: (a) ethnic differences in health behaviors…

  10. Dating of Pregnancy in First versus Second Trimester in Relation to Post-Term Birth Rate: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Näslund Thagaard, Ida; Krebs, Lone; Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Olesen Larsen, Severin; Holm, Jens-Christian; Christiansen, Michael; Larsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate in a national standardised setting whether the performance of ultrasound dating during the first rather than the second trimester of pregnancy had consequences regarding the definition of pre- and post-term birth rates. Methods A cohort study of 8,551 singleton pregnancies with spontaneous delivery was performed from 2006 to 2012 at Copenhagen University Hospital, Holbæk, Denmark. We determined the duration of pregnancy calculated by last menstrual period, crown rump length (CRL), biparietal diameter (1st trimester), BPD (2nd trimester), and head circumference and compared mean and median durations, the mean differences, the systematic discrepancies, and the percentages of pre-term and post-term pregnancies in relation to each method. The primary outcomes were post-term and pre-term birth rates defined by different dating methods. Results The change from use of second to first trimester measurements for dating was associated with a significant increase in the rate of post-term deliveries from 2.1–2.9% and a significant decrease in the rate of pre-term deliveries from 5.4–4.6% caused by systematic discrepancies. Thereby 25.1% would pass 41 weeks when GA is defined by CRL and 17.3% when BPD (2nd trimester) is used. Calibration for these discrepancies resulted in a lower post-term birth rate, from 3.1–1.4%, when first compared to second trimester dating was used. Conclusions Systematic discrepancies were identified when biometric formulas were used to determine duration of pregnancy. This should be corrected in clinical practice to avoid an overestimation of post-term birth and unnecessary inductions when first trimester formulas are used. PMID:26760299

  11. France. Country profile. [France's economy adjusts to a declining birth rate].

    PubMed

    Inserra, P

    1984-09-01

    This discussion of France focuses on regions and cities, age distribution, households and families, housing, labor force, consumption, education, and communications. France counted 54,334,871 citizens as of March 4, 1982. There were 250,000 more people than in 1975, yielding a 7-year growth rate of 3.3%. If present trends continue, there will be 56 million French by the end of the 1980s. Since 1975 when the last census was conducted, cities of more than 200,000 lost an average of 5% of their residents. For the 1st time in more than a century, urban areas of 20,000 or more did not gain population but merely held their own. France continues to experience the effects of the large-scale decimation of its male population during the 2 world wars. The World war i loss showed up March 1982 as a relatively smaller 60-74 group. Conversely the population aged 75 and over is growing, both in absolute numbers and as a percent of the population. There were 3.6 million aged 75 and over (6.6% of the population) in 1982 compared with 3 million (5.6%) in 1975. The 19 and under age group declined between 1975-85, from 31% (16.2 million) to 29% (15.6 million). The 20-59 year old group constitutes the largest segment of the population--about double the group aged 19 and under--and its growing. This group was 50% of the population in 1973 and 53% in 1982. The infant mortality rate has declined steadily in France, from 18.2 deaths/1000 births in 1970 to 13.6 in 1975 and 9.5 at present. The total fertility rate has continued to decline: 1.8 children/woman in the 1982 census a rate less than the number needed to replace the present French population. Between 1975-82 households grew 10.4% to a total of 19.6 million. The growth in the number of households is attributed to the increase in divorce and the tendency for French children to leave the parental home at an earlier age. France has nearly 23 million dwelling places. More than half of householders own their own homes. New housing starts

  12. Medicaid prenatal program reducing rates of low birth weight, infant mortality.

    PubMed

    1997-11-01

    Medicaid prenatal program reduces low birth weight and infant mortality: Christiana Care Health System in Wilmington, DE, rejects the free baby stroller and gift certificate approach to motivating members and instead employs peer moms in the community to mentor pregnant Medicaid members and help them make life-long health improvements. PMID:10175564

  13. Reduced Disparities in Birth Rates Among Teens Aged 15-19 Years - United States, 2006-2007 and 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Romero, Lisa; Pazol, Karen; Warner, Lee; Cox, Shanna; Kroelinger, Charlan; Besera, Ghenet; Brittain, Anna; Fuller, Taleria R; Koumans, Emilia; Barfield, Wanda

    2016-01-01

    Teen childbearing can have negative health, economic, and social consequences for mothers and their children (1) and costs the United States approximately $9.4 billion annually (2). During 1991-2014, the birth rate among teens aged 15-19 years in the United States declined 61%, from 61.8 to 24.2 births per 1,000, the lowest rate ever recorded (3). Nonetheless, in 2014, the teen birth rate remained approximately twice as high for Hispanic and non-Hispanic black (black) teens compared with non-Hispanic white (white) teens (3), and geographic and socioeconomic disparities remain (3,4), irrespective of race/ethnicity. Social determinants associated with teen childbearing (e.g., low parental educational attainment and limited opportunities for education and employment) are more common in communities with higher proportions of racial and ethnic minorities (4), contributing to the challenge of further reducing disparities in teen births. To examine trends in births for teens aged 15-19 years by race/ethnicity and geography, CDC analyzed National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) data at the national (2006-2014), state (2006-2007 and 2013-2014), and county (2013-2014) levels. To describe socioeconomic indicators previously associated with teen births, CDC analyzed data from the American Community Survey (ACS) (2010-2014). Nationally, from 2006 to 2014, the teen birth rate declined 41% overall with the largest decline occurring among Hispanics (51%), followed by blacks (44%), and whites (35%). The birth rate ratio for Hispanic teens and black teens compared with white teens declined from 2.9 to 2.2 and from 2.3 to 2.0, respectively. From 2006-2007 to 2013-2014, significant declines in teen birth rates and birth rate ratios were noted nationally and in many states. At the county level, teen birth rates for 2013-2014 ranged from 3.1 to 119.0 per 1,000 females aged 15-19 years; ACS data indicated unemployment was higher, and education attainment and family income were lower in

  14. Reproductive rates, birth weight, calving ease and 24-h calf survival in a four-breed diallel among Simmental, Limousin, Polled Hereford and Brahman beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Comerford, J W; Bertrand, J K; Benyshek, L L; Johnson, M H

    1987-01-01

    Calving and weaning rates, birth weight, calving ease, and 24-h calf survival were evaluated in a four-breed diallel of Simmental (S), Limousin (L), Polled Hereford (H) and Brahman (B) beef cattle in five calf crops. Limousin dams tended to have the highest calving and weaning rates because they were able to have heavier calves with less calving difficulty and higher survival rates. Brahman-sired calves were the heaviest at birth (P less than .05) and B dams produced the lightest calves (P less than .001). Lower birth weights tended to be the limiting factor on survival of these calves. A linear comparison among means to evaluate purebred, additive, maternal and specific combining ability effects showed most of the reduction in birth weight from B dams was due to maternal effects. Breed of dam accounted for a higher proportion of variation in calving ease than did sire breed. Simmental sires had significantly heavier calves at birth and S and H dams tended to have more calving difficulty and lower survival rates. Heterosis for these traits was generally not significant. Correlations were generally positive and significant for birth weight and calving ease, but were more variable for birth weight and survival. Linear regressions of calving ease on birth weight both within years and within dam-breed-year subclasses were very similar in that the association of these two traits was reduced as dam age increased. PMID:3818492

  15. Low-Salt Intake during Mating or Gestation in Rats Is Associated with Low Birth and Survival Rates of Babies.

    PubMed

    Chou, Ranna; Hara, Anna; Du, DongDong; Shimizu, Namiko; Sakuyama, Hiroe; Uehara, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the influence of maternal salt restriction during mating or gestation on birth rate and offspring growth in Dahl salt-sensitive rats (DS). DS were divided into 5 groups: DS fed a low-salt (0.3% NaCl, w/w) (DS-low) or high-salt (4% NaCl, w/w) diet (DS-high) during mating and DS-high or DS-low during gestation, and DS fed regular chow (0.75% NaCl, w/w) (DS-regular) throughout mating and gestation. During the unspecified periods, the rats were given regular chow. DS-low during mating delivered fewer infants than high-salt mothers (P < 0.05). The birth rate on regular chow was 87%. Six out of 11 DS-low rats during pregnancy produced pups while the rats fed a high-salt diet all delivered pups (P < 0.025). The pup survival rate was 67% for high-salt mothers during mating and 54% for mothers on a low-salt diet. The pup survival rate was 95% for mothers on a high-salt diet during pregnancy and 64% for mothers on a low-salt diet (P < 0.0001). Seven out of 8 DS-regular rats during mating delivered 59 neonates. However, 66% of the neonates survived. A low-salt diet during mating or pregnancy lowers birth rate and the neonates from low-salt mothers during pregnancy were more likely to die than those from high-salt mothers. PMID:25197564

  16. Why do child mortality rates fall? An analysis of the Nicaraguan experience.

    PubMed Central

    Sandiford, P; Morales, P; Gorter, A; Coyle, E; Smith, G D

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive review of available sources of mortality data was undertaken to document the changes that have occurred in infant mortality in Nicaragua over the last three decades. It was found that a rapid fall in infant mortality commenced in the early 1970s and has continued steadily since. Trends in several different factors which might have led to this breakthrough were examined including: income, nutrition, breastfeeding practices, maternal education, immunizations, access to health services, provision of water supplies and sanitation, and anti-malarial programs. Of these, improved access to health services appears to have been the most important factor. At a time when the number of hospital beds per capita was dropping, increasing numbers of health care professionals, particularly nurses, were becoming available to staff primary health care facilities built in the 1960s. These were provided at least partly in response to the growing political turmoil enveloping the nation at that time. Certain Nicaraguan cultural attributes may have added to the impact of the reforms. Efforts in the field of public health made since the 1979 insurrection appear to have maintained the decline in child mortality. PMID:1983913

  17. Ca-41 in iron falls, Grant and Estherville - Production rates and related exposure age calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, D.; Klein, J.; Middleton, R.; Vogt, S.; Herzog, G. F.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented of the first phase of a Ca-41 cosmogenic studies program aimed at establishing baseline concentrations and trends in selected meteorites and the use of Ca-41 in estimating exposure ages and preatmospheric meteorite radii. The average Ca-41 saturation activity recorded in four small iron falls is 24 +/-1 dpm/kg. This finding, together with measurements at the center and surface of the large iron Grant, indicates that production of Ca-41 from spallation on iron is weakly dependent on shielding to depths as large as 250 g/sq cm. The (K-41)-Ca-41 exposure age of Grant is estimated at 330 +/-50 My, and an upper limit to its terrestrial age of 43 +/-15 ky. A comparison of the Ca-41 contents of stony and metallic material separated from the mesosiderite Estherville identifies low-energy neutron capture on native Ca as a second important channel of production. It is found that the Ca-41 signal in the stone phase from three meteorites correlates with their size, and that the inferred low-energy neutron fluxes vary by a factor of at least 20.

  18. The ALFALFA Hα Survey. I. Project Description and The Local Star-formation Rate Density from the Fall Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Sistine, Angela; Salzer, John J.; Sugden, Arthur; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; Janowiecki, Steven; Jaskot, Anne E.; Wilcots, Eric M.

    2016-06-01

    The ALFALFA Hα survey utilizes a large sample of H i-selected galaxies from the ALFALFA survey to study star formation (SF) in the local universe. ALFALFA Hα contains 1555 galaxies with distances between ∼20 and ∼100 Mpc. We have obtained continuum-subtracted narrowband Hα images and broadband R images for each galaxy, creating one of the largest homogeneous sets of Hα images ever assembled. Our procedures were designed to minimize the uncertainties related to the calculation of the local SF rate density (SFRD). The galaxy sample we constructed is as close to volume-limited as possible, is a robust statistical sample, and spans a wide range of galaxy environments. In this paper, we discuss the properties of our Fall sample of 565 galaxies, our procedure for deriving individual galaxy SF rates, and our method for calculating the local SFRD. We present a preliminary value of log(SFRD[M ⊙ yr‑1 Mpc‑3]) = ‑1.747 ± 0.018 (random) ±0.05 (systematic) based on the 565 galaxies in our Fall sub-sample. Compared to the weighted average of SFRD values around z ≈ 2, our local value indicates a drop in the global SFRD of a factor of 10.2 over that lookback time.

  19. The ALFALFA Hα Survey. I. Project Description and The Local Star-formation Rate Density from the Fall Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Sistine, Angela; Salzer, John J.; Sugden, Arthur; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; Janowiecki, Steven; Jaskot, Anne E.; Wilcots, Eric M.

    2016-06-01

    The ALFALFA Hα survey utilizes a large sample of H i-selected galaxies from the ALFALFA survey to study star formation (SF) in the local universe. ALFALFA Hα contains 1555 galaxies with distances between ˜20 and ˜100 Mpc. We have obtained continuum-subtracted narrowband Hα images and broadband R images for each galaxy, creating one of the largest homogeneous sets of Hα images ever assembled. Our procedures were designed to minimize the uncertainties related to the calculation of the local SF rate density (SFRD). The galaxy sample we constructed is as close to volume-limited as possible, is a robust statistical sample, and spans a wide range of galaxy environments. In this paper, we discuss the properties of our Fall sample of 565 galaxies, our procedure for deriving individual galaxy SF rates, and our method for calculating the local SFRD. We present a preliminary value of log(SFRD[M ⊙ yr‑1 Mpc‑3]) = ‑1.747 ± 0.018 (random) ±0.05 (systematic) based on the 565 galaxies in our Fall sub-sample. Compared to the weighted average of SFRD values around z ≈ 2, our local value indicates a drop in the global SFRD of a factor of 10.2 over that lookback time.

  20. Birth and death rate estimates of cats and dogs in U.S. households and related factors.

    PubMed

    New, John C; Kelch, William J; Hutchison, Jennifer M; Salman, Mo D; King, Mike; Scarlett, Janet M; Kass, Philip H

    2004-01-01

    Studies report variable factors associated with dog and cat surpluses in the United States. Estimates of cat and dog birth and death rates help understand the problem. This study collected data through a commercial survey company, distributing questionnaires to 7,399 cat- and dog-owning households (HHs) in 1996. The study used an unequal probability sampling plan and reported estimates of means and variances as weighted averages. The study used estimates of HHs and companion animals for national projections. More than 9 million owned cats and dogs died during 1996-yielding crude death rates of 8.3 cat deaths/100 cats in HHs and 7.9 dog deaths/100 dogs in HHs. The study reported twice as many kitten as puppy litters, with an average litter size of 5.73 and 7.57, respectively. The study reported data on planned versus unplanned litters, reasons caregivers did not spay females, disposition of litters, and sources of animals added to HHs. These first national estimates indicate the magnitude of, and reasons for, animals leaving HHs. The crude birth rate was estimated to be 11.2 kittens/100 cats in HHs and 11.4 puppies/100 dogs in HHs. PMID:15857809

  1. Rate of gestational weight gain, pre-pregnancy body mass index and preterm birth subtypes: a retrospective cohort study from Peru

    PubMed Central

    Carnero, AM; Mejía, CR; García, PJ

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the shape (functional form) of the association between the rate of gestational weight gain, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), and preterm birth and its subtypes. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting National reference obstetric centre in Lima, Peru. Population Pregnant women who delivered singleton babies during the period 2006–2009, resident in Lima, and beginning prenatal care at ≤12 weeks of gestation (n = 8964). Methods Data were collected from the centre database. The main analyses consisted of logistic regression with fractional polynomial modelling. Main outcome measures Preterm birth and its subtypes. Results Preterm birth occurred in 12.2% of women, being mostly idiopathic (85.7%). The rate of gestational weight gain was independently associated with preterm birth, and the shape of this association varied by pre-pregnancy BMI. In women who were underweight, the association was linear (per 0.1 kg/week increase) and protective (OR 0.88; 95% CI 0.82–1.00). In women of normal weight or who were overweight, the association was U-shaped: the odds of delivering preterm increased exponentially with rates <0.10 or >0.66 kg/week, and <0.04 or >0.50 kg/week, respectively. In women who were obese, the association was linear, but nonsignificant (OR 1.01; 95% CI 0.95–1.06). The association described for preterm birth closely resembled that of idiopathic preterm birth, although the latter was stronger. The rate of gestational weight gain was not associated with indicated preterm birth or preterm prelabour rupture of membranes. Conclusions In Peruvian pregnant women starting prenatal care at ≤12 weeks of gestation, the rate of gestational weight gain is independently associated with preterm birth, mainly because of its association with idiopathic preterm birth, and the shape of both associations varies by pre-pregnancy BMI. PMID:22607522

  2. Labor market segmentation and relative black/white teenage birth rates.

    PubMed

    Mccrate, E

    1990-01-01

    "Teenage mothers typically have lower educational attainment than other women. Most observers have argued that this is a major reason for their greater risk of poverty. This article takes the opposite view: that circumstances associated with poverty contribute to a greater likelihood of teenage childbearing. In particular, poor educational quality and the chances of secondary sector employment are more common for black women, regardless of their age at first birth. Hence the payoffs to education may be quite low for these women, which may be the reason for early motherhood. This argument is presented in terms of segmented labor market theory. Data to support it is presented from the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Other common explanations of teenage motherhood are critiqued." PMID:12285449

  3. Does parental consent for birth control affect underage pregnancy rates? The case of Texas.

    PubMed

    Girma, Sourafel; Paton, David

    2013-12-01

    Previous work based on conjectural responses of minors predicted that the 2003 Texas requirement for parental consent for state-funded birth control to minors would lead to a large increase in underage pregnancies. We use state- and county-level data to test this prediction. The latter allow us to compare the impact of parental consent in counties with and without state-funded family planning clinics. We control for characteristics systematically correlated with the presence of state-funded clinics by combining difference-in-difference estimation with propensity score-weighted regressions. The evidence suggests that the parental consent mandate led to a large decrease in attendance at family planning clinics among teens but did not lead to an increase in underage pregnancies. PMID:23765262

  4. The CFTR Met 470 Allele Is Associated with Lower Birth Rates in Fertile Men from a Population Isolate

    PubMed Central

    Kosova, Gülüm; Pickrell, Joseph K.; Kelley, Joanna L.; McArdle, Patrick F.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Abney, Mark; Ober, Carole

    2010-01-01

    Although little is known about the role of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene in reproductive physiology, numerous variants in this gene have been implicated in etiology of male infertility due to congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD). Here, we studied the fertility effects of three CBAVD–associated CFTR polymorphisms, the (TG)m and polyT repeat polymorphisms in intron 8 and Met470Val in exon 10, in healthy men of European descent. Homozygosity for the Met470 allele was associated with lower birth rates, defined as the number of births per year of marriage (P = 0.0029). The Met470Val locus explained 4.36% of the phenotypic variance in birth rate, and men homozygous for the Met470 allele had 0.56 fewer children on average compared to Val470 carrier men. The derived Val470 allele occurs at high frequencies in non-African populations (allele frequency  = 0.51 in HapMap CEU), whereas it is very rare in African population (Fst  = 0.43 between HapMap CEU and YRI). In addition, haplotypes bearing Val470 show a lack of genetic diversity and are thus longer than haplotypes bearing Met470 (measured by an integrated haplotype score [iHS] of −1.93 in HapMap CEU). The fraction of SNPs in the HapMap Phase2 data set with more extreme Fst and iHS measures is 0.003, consistent with a selective sweep outside of Africa. The fertility advantage conferred by Val470 relative to Met470 may provide a selective mechanism for these population genetic observations. PMID:20532200

  5. Closed Catheter Access System Implementation in Reducing the Bloodstream Infection Rate in Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Rundjan, Lily; Rohsiswatmo, Rinawati; Paramita, Tiara Nien; Oeswadi, Chrissela Anindita

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bloodstream infection (BSI) is one of the significant causes of morbidity and mortality encountered in a neonatal intensive care unit, especially in developing countries. Despite the implementation of infection control practices, such as strict hand hygiene, the BSI rate in our hospital is still high. The use of a closed catheter access system to reduce BSI related to intravascular catheter has hitherto never been evaluated in our hospital. Objective: To determine the effects of closed catheter access system implementation in reducing the BSI rate in preterm neonates with low birth weight. Methods: Randomized clinical trial was conducted on 60 low birth weight preterm infants hospitalized in the neonatal unit at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia from June to September 2013. Randomized subjects either received a closed or non-closed catheter access system. Subjects were monitored for 2 weeks for the development of BSI based on clinical signs, abnormal infection parameters, and blood culture. Results: Closed catheter access system implementation gave a protective effect toward the occurrence of culture-proven BSI (relative risk 0.095, 95% CI 0.011–0.85, p = 0.026). Risk of culture-proven BSI in the control group was 10.545 (95% CI 1.227–90.662, p = 0.026). BSI occurred in 75% of neonates without risk factors of infection in the control group compared to none in the study group. Conclusion: The use of a closed catheter access system reduced the BSI in low birth weight preterm infants. Choosing the right device design, proper disinfection of device, and appropriate frequency of connector change should be done simultaneously. PMID:25853110

  6. Recurrent Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Romero, Roberto; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Erez, Offer; Pineles, Beth L.; Gotsch, Francesca; Mittal, Pooja; Than, Nandor Gabor

    2012-01-01

    Recurrent preterm birth is frequently defined as two or more deliveries before 37 completed weeks of gestation. The recurrence rate varies as a function of the antecedent for preterm birth: spontaneous versus indicated. Spontaneous preterm birth is the result of either preterm labor with intact membranes or preterm prelabor rupture of the membranes. This article reviews the body of literature describing the risk of recurrence of spontaneous and indicated preterm birth. Also discussed are the factors which modify the risk for recurrent spontaneous preterm birth (a short sonographic cervical length and a positive cervicovaginal fetal fibronectin test). Patients with a history of an indicated preterm birth are at risk not only for recurrence of this subtype, but also for spontaneous preterm birth. Individuals of African-American origin have a higher rate of recurrent preterm birth. The potential roles of genetic and environmental factors in recurrent preterm birth are considered. PMID:17531896

  7. Possible Factors Associated with High Rates of Out-of-Marriage Births Among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilman, Catherine S.

    An exhaustive analytic review of large bodies of research indicates that rates of premarital intercourse among teenagers have risen sharply since 1966. This is particularly true for white females, for whom the rate is probably about three times that of the 1920's thru the mid-1960's; for white males the rate seems to have risen about 50%. By age…

  8. Friction falls towards zero in quartz rock as slip velocity approaches seismic rates.

    PubMed

    Di Toro, Giulio; Goldsby, David L; Tullis, Terry E

    2004-01-29

    An important unsolved problem in earthquake mechanics is to determine the resistance to slip on faults in the Earth's crust during earthquakes. Knowledge of coseismic slip resistance is critical for understanding the magnitude of shear-stress reduction and hence the near-fault acceleration that can occur during earthquakes, which affects the amount of damage that earthquakes are capable of causing. In particular, a long-unresolved problem is the apparently low strength of major faults, which may be caused by low coseismic frictional resistance. The frictional properties of rocks at slip velocities up to 3 mm s(-1) and for slip displacements characteristic of large earthquakes have been recently simulated under laboratory conditions. Here we report data on quartz rocks that indicate an extraordinary progressive decrease in frictional resistance with increasing slip velocity above 1 mm s(-1). This reduction extrapolates to zero friction at seismic slip rates of approximately 1 m s(-1), and appears to be due to the formation of a thin layer of silica gel on the fault surface: it may explain the low strength of major faults during earthquakes. PMID:14749829

  9. Endometriosis, Ovarian Reserve and Live Birth Rate Following In Vitro Fertilization/Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection.

    PubMed

    Coelho Neto, Marcela Alencar; Martins, Wellington de Paula; Luz, Caroline Mantovani da; Jianini, Bruna Talita Gazeto Melo; Ferriani, Rui Alberto; Navarro, Paula Andrea

    2016-05-01

    Purpose To evaluate whether women with endometriosis have different ovarian reserves and reproductive outcomes when compared with women without this diagnosis undergoing in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI), and to compare the reproductive outcomes between women with and without the diagnosis considering the ovarian reserve assessed by antral follicle count (AFC). Methods This retrospective cohort study evaluated all women who underwent IVF/ICSI in a university hospital in Brazil between January 2011 and December 2012. All patients were followed up until a negative pregnancy test or until the end of the pregnancy. The primary outcomes assessed were number of retrieved oocytes and live birth. Women were divided into two groups according to the diagnosis of endometriosis, and each group was divided again into a group that had AFC ≤ 6 (poor ovarian reserve) and another that had AFC ≥ 7 (normal ovarian reserve). Continuous variables with normal distribution were compared using unpaired t-test, and those without normal distribution, using Mann-Whitney test. Binary data were compared using either Fisher's exact test or Chi-square (χ(2)) test. The significance level was set as p < 0.05. Results 787 women underwent IVF/ICSI (241 of which had endometriosis). Although the mean age has been similar between women with and without the diagnosis of endometriosis (33.8 ± 4 versus 33.7 ± 4.4 years, respectively), poor ovarian reserves were much more common in women with endometriosis (39.8 versus 22.7%). The chance of achieving live birth was similar between women with the diagnosis of endometriosis and those without it (19.1 versus 22.5%), and also when considering only women with a poor ovarian reserve (9.4 versus 8.9%) and only those with a normal ovarian reserve (25.5 versus 26.5%). Conclusions Women diagnosed with endometriosis are more likely to have a poor ovarian reserve; however, their chance of conceiving by

  10. Pregnancy rate and birth outcomes among women receiving antiretroviral therapy in Burkina Faso: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Poda, Armel; Hema, Arsène; Konaté, Aina; Kaboré, Firmin; Zoungrana, Jacques; Kamboulé, Euloges; Soré, Ibrahim; Bado, Guillaume; Ouédraogo, Abdoul-Salam; Ouédraogo, Macaire; Meda, Nicolas; Sawadogo, Adrien Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In Sub-Saharan Africa, few studies reported pregnancy incidence and outcomes in women taking antiretroviral therapy (ART). This survey aims to estimate the incidence and outcomes of pregnancy in a cohort of HIV positive women initiating ART in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Methods We carried out a retrospective cohort study. We selected women in childbearing age initiating ART and followed up in Bobo-Dioulasso teaching hospital between January 2005 and June 2011. The incidence of pregnancies during follow-up was calculated. Childbirth was defined by the expulsion of a fetus after 22 weeks of amenorrhea. Before this term, it is an abortion. Childbirth is said premature if it occurs before 37 weeks of gestation, to term if it occurs between the 38th and the 42nd week. The annual age-standardized fertility rates were calculated using the baseline population from the 2010 demographic and health survey (DHS) in Burkina Faso. Results A total of 1,763 women of childbearing age under ART were included in the study. They ranged between 18 and 48 years old with a median of 35 years old. A total of 222 pregnancies were observed during 4639 women-years of follow-up, corresponding to an incidence density of 5 pregnancies for 100 women-years (95% CI: 4.2-5.5). Among the 222 pregnancies recorded, 9(4.0%) ended with abortion, 205(92.4%) with childbirth (including 15 premature childbirths); the outcome of 8(3.6%) pregnancies were unknown abortion. Live birth and stillborn rates were 94.0% (193/205) and 6.0% respectively. The standard fertility rate in our cohort was 45 live births for 1,000 women-years. The general decrease in fertility rates was 66.0% among women infected with HIV compared to the overall population Conclusion This study shows a low pregnancy incidence among women initiating ART as compared to their peers from the general population. Pregnancies that occurred during ART generally end with live births. Care packages for HIV infected women of

  11. Inclusion of non-viable neonates in the birth record and its impact on infant mortality rates in Shelby County, Tennessee, USA

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Bryan L.; Magsumbol, Melina S.

    2010-01-01

    Rates of infant death are one of the most common indicators of a population's overall health status. Infant mortality rates (IMRs) are used to make broad inferences about the quality of health care, effects of health policies and even environmental quality. The purpose of our study was threefold: i) to examine the characteristics of births in the area in relation to gestational age and birthweight; ii) to estimate infant mortality using variable gestational age and/or birthweight criteria for live birth, and iii) to calculate proportional mortality ratios for each cause of death using variable gestational age and/or birthweight criteria for live birth. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all Shelby County resident-linked birth and infant death certificates during the years 1999 to 2004. Descriptive test statistics were used to examine infant mortality rates in relation to specific maternal and infant risk factors. Through careful examination of 1999–2004 resident-linked birth and infant death data sets, we observed a disproportionate number of non-viable live births (≤20 weeks gestation or ≤350 grams) in Shelby County. Issuance of birth certificates to these non-viable neonates is a factor that contributes to an inflated IMR. Our study demonstrates the complexity and the appropriateness of comparing infant mortality rates in smaller geographic units, given the unique characteristics of live births in Shelby County. The disproportionate number of pre-viable infants born in Shelby County greatly obfuscates neonatal mortality and de-emphasizes the importance of post-neonatal mortality. PMID:21589834

  12. National High School Graduation Rate: Are Recent Birth Cohorts Taking More Time to Graduate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joo, Myungkook; Kim, Jeounghee

    2016-01-01

    Debates about the national high school graduation rate have heated up as various national high school graduation estimates based on the Common Core of Data (CCD) and the Current Population Survey (CPS) do not coincide with one another partially due to different assumptions about graduation age. This study found that (a) while graduation rate by…

  13. Low resting heart rate is associated with violence in late adolescence: a prospective birth cohort study in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Joseph; Hallal, Pedro C; Mielke, Gregore I; Raine, Adrian; Wehrmeister, Fernando C; Anselmi, Luciana; Barros, Fernando C

    2016-01-01

    Background: Youth violence is a major global public health problem. Three UK and Swedish studies suggest that low resting heart rate predicts male youth violence, but this has not been tested in other social settings nor for females. Methods: A prospective, population-based birth cohort study was conducted in Pelotas, Brazil. Heart rate was measured using a wrist monitor at ages 11, 15 and 18 years. Violent crime and non-violent crime were measured at age 18 in self-reports and official records (N = 3618). Confounding variables were assessed in the perinatal period and at age 11, in interviews with mothers and children. Logistic regression was used to estimate associations between quartiles of heart rate at each age, and violent and non-violent crime at age 18, separately for males and females. Results: Lower resting heart rate was a robust correlate of violent and non-violent crime for males. Comparing males in the lowest and top quartiles of heart rate at age 15 years, adjusted odds ratios were 1.9 for violent crime [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4–2.7] and 1.7 for non-violent crime (95% CI 1.1–2.6). For females, crime outcomes were associated only with low resting heart rate at age 18. Associations were generally linear across the four heart rate quartiles. There was no evidence that associations differed according to socioeconomic status at age 15. Conclusions: Low resting heart rate predicted violent and non-violent crime for males, and was cross-sectionally associated with crime for females. Biological factors may contribute to individual propensity to commit crime, even in a middle-income setting with high rates of violence. PMID:26822937

  14. Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability Assessment Identifies Individual Differences in Fear Response Magnitudes to Earthquake, Free Fall, and Air Puff in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Hui; Tsien, Joe Z.; Zhao, Fang

    2014-01-01

    Fear behaviors and fear memories in rodents have been traditionally assessed by the amount of freezing upon the presentation of conditioned cues or unconditioned stimuli. However, many experiences, such as encountering earthquakes or accidental fall from tree branches, may produce long-lasting fear memories but are behaviorally difficult to measure using freezing parameters. Here, we have examined changes in heartbeat interval dynamics as physiological readout for assessing fearful reactions as mice were subjected to sudden air puff, free-fall drop inside a small elevator, and a laboratory-version earthquake. We showed that these fearful events rapidly increased heart rate (HR) with simultaneous reduction of heart rate variability (HRV). Cardiac changes can be further analyzed in details by measuring three distinct phases: namely, the rapid rising phase in HR, the maximum plateau phase during which HRV is greatly decreased, and the recovery phase during which HR gradually recovers to baseline values. We showed that durations of the maximum plateau phase and HR recovery speed were quite sensitive to habituation over repeated trials. Moreover, we have developed the fear resistance index based on specific cardiac response features. We demonstrated that the fear resistance index remained largely consistent across distinct fearful events in a given animal, thereby enabling us to compare and rank individual mouse’s fear responsiveness among the group. Therefore, the fear resistance index described here can represent a useful parameter for measuring personality traits or individual differences in stress-susceptibility in both wild-type mice and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) models. PMID:24667366

  15. The effect of embryo catheter loading technique on the live birth rate

    PubMed Central

    Omidi, Marjan; Halvaei, Iman; Mangoli, Esmat; Razi, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Objective Embryo loading (EL) is a major step in embryo transfer (ET) and affect on the success of in vitro fertilization (IVF). This study aimed to compare the effect of two different EL techniques on the rates of pregnancy and delivery in IVF/ET cycles. Methods 207 fresh ET and 194 Frozen-thawed ET (FET) cycles were included in this retrospective study. Two groups (A and B) were defined based on the EL technique used. In group A, the entire catheter was flushed with Ham's F-10 medium. The embryos were then drawn into the catheter using one air bracket. In group B, 70 µL of air was aspirated into the syringe and the catheter was flushed using Ham's F10 medium. The medium, air, embryos, air, and finally another layer of medium were then sequentially drawn into the catheter. The main outcome measures were the pregnancy and delivery rates. Results The groups did not differ with respect to the etiology of infertility, the source of spermatozoa, the quality of the embryos, the type of EL catheter, and the ease of transfer. The pregnancy rate was similar between two groups. In fresh ET cycles, a higher delivery rate was observed in group B than it group A (78.1% vs. 60%, p=0.1). In FET cycles, the rate of delivery was significantly higher in group B than in group A to a nonsignificant extent (88.9% vs. 58.8%, p=0.06). Conclusion EL techniques did not have a significant impact on the delivery rate in either fresh or FET cycles. PMID:26815646

  16. Impact of a stepwise introduction of smoke-free legislation on the rate of preterm births: analysis of routinely collected birth data

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Bianca; Martens, Evelyne; Nemery, Benoit; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the incidence of preterm delivery in the Belgian population after implementation of smoke-free legislation in three phases (in public places and most workplaces January 2006, in restaurants January 2007, and in bars serving food January 2010). Design Logistic regression analyses on routinely collected birth data from January 2002 to December 2011. Setting Flanders, Belgium. Population All live born singleton births delivered at 24–44 weeks of gestation (n=606 877, with n=448 520 spontaneous deliveries). Main outcome measures Preterm birth (gestational age <37 weeks). Results We found reductions in the risk of preterm birth after the introduction of each phase of the smoking ban. No decreasing trend was evident in the years or months before the bans. We observed a step change in the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery of −3.13% (95% CI −4.37% to −1.87%; P<0.01) on 1 January 2007 (ban on smoking in restaurants), and an annual slope change of −2.65% (−5.11% to −0.13%; P=0.04) after 1 January 2010 (ban on smoking in bars serving food). The analysis for all births gave similar results: a step change of −3.18% (−5.38% to −0.94%; P<0.01) on 1 January 2007, and an annual slope change of −3.50% (−6.35% to −0.57%; P=0.02) after 1 January 2010. These changes could not be explained by personal factors (infant sex, maternal age, parity, socioeconomic status, national origin, level of urbanisation); time related factors (underlying trends, month of the year, day of the week); or population related factors (public holidays, influenza epidemics, and short term changes in apparent temperature and particulate air pollution). Conclusion Our study shows a consistent pattern of reduction in the risk of preterm delivery with successive population interventions to restrict smoking. This finding is not definitive but it supports the notion that smoking bans have public health benefits from early life. PMID:23412829

  17. 75 FR 68352 - Salmon Falls Wind Park, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Salmon Falls Wind Park, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Salmon Falls Wind Park, LLC's application for...

  18. 77 FR 21762 - ReEnergy Livermore Falls LLC; Supplemental Notice That Revised Market-Based Rate Tariff Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ReEnergy Livermore Falls LLC; Supplemental Notice That Revised Market-Based... in the above-referenced proceeding of ReEnergy Livermore Falls LLC's tariff revision filing,...

  19. Rate of telomere shortening and cardiovascular damage: a longitudinal study in the 1946 British Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Masi, Stefano; D'Aiuto, Francesco; Martin-Ruiz, Carmen; Kahn, Tauseef; Wong, Andrew; Ghosh, Arjun K.; Whincup, Peter; Kuh, Diana; Hughes, Alan; von Zglinicki, Thomas; Hardy, Rebecca; Deanfield, John Eric

    2014-01-01

    Aim Cross-sectional studies reported associations between short leucocyte telomere length (LTL) and measures of vascular and cardiac damage. However, the contribution of LTL dynamics to the age-related process of cardiovascular (CV) remodelling remains unknown. In this study, we explored whether the rate of LTL shortening can predict CV phenotypes over 10-year follow-up and the influence of established CV risk factors on this relationship. Methods and results All the participants from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development (NSHD) with measures of LTL and traditional CV risk factors at 53 and 60–64 years and common carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), cardiac mass and left ventricular function at 60–64 years were included. LTL was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction and available at both time points in 1033 individuals. While LTL at 53 years was not linked with any CV phenotype at 60–64 years, a negative association was found between LTL and cIMT at 60–64 years (β = −0.017, P = 0.015). However, the strongest association was found between rate of telomere shortening between 53 and 60–64 years and values of cIMT at 60–64 years (β = −0.020, P = 0.006). This association was not affected by adjustment for traditional CV risk factors. Cardiac measurements were not associated with cross-sectional or longitudinal measures of LTL. Conclusion These findings suggest that the rate of progression of cellular ageing in late midlife (reflected by the rate of LTL attrition) relates to vascular damage, independently from contribution of CV risk factor exposure. PMID:24957070

  20. The rise in caesarean birth rate in Sagamu, Nigeria: reflection of changes in obstetric practice.

    PubMed

    Oladapo, O T; Sotunsa, J O; Sule-Odu, A O

    2004-06-01

    A retrospective and comparative study of women delivered by caesarean section over two different 3-year periods was conducted at Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu, Nigeria. The caesarean section rate (CSR) increased from 10.3% in 1989-1991 to 23.1% in 2000-2003. The most frequent indication in both periods was different: prolonged/obstructed labour (20.0%) in 1989-1991 and antepartum haemorrhage (14.9%) in 2000-2003. Malpresentation, antepartum haemorrhage and pre-eclampsia/eclampsia were responsible for 51.7% of the difference in the CSR recorded between both periods. The CSR rose from 13.3% to 25.0% while the instrumental vaginal delivery (IVD) rate decreased significantly by 11.4% among the nulliparous women between the periods. Increase in CSR can be attributed mainly to reduction in IVD rate and alteration in the management of labour complications and induction policy. Strategies to reduce the CSR should cut across all indications and focus on encouraging instrumental vaginal deliveries, especially among nulliparous women. PMID:15203575

  1. Associations of Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) with Lower Birth Weight: An Evaluation of Potential Confounding by Glomerular Filtration Rate Using a Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model (PBPK)

    PubMed Central

    Loccisano, Anne E.; Morken, Nils-Halvdan; Yoon, Miyoung; Wu, Huali; McDougall, Robin; Maisonet, Mildred; Marcus, Michele; Kishi, Reiko; Miyashita, Chihiro; Chen, Mei-Huei; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Andersen, Melvin E.; Clewell, Harvey J.; Longnecker, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) has been associated with lower birth weight in epidemiologic studies. This association could be attributable to glomerular filtration rate (GFR), which is related to PFAS concentration and birth weight. Objectives We used a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of pregnancy to assess how much of the PFAS–birth weight association observed in epidemiologic studies might be attributable to GFR. Methods We modified a PBPK model to reflect the association of GFR with birth weight (estimated from three studies of GFR and birth weight) and used it to simulate PFAS concentrations in maternal and cord plasma. The model was run 250,000 times, with variation in parameters, to simulate a population. Simulated data were analyzed to evaluate the association between PFAS levels and birth weight due to GFR. We compared simulated estimates with those from a meta-analysis of epidemiologic data. Results The reduction in birth weight for each 1-ng/mL increase in simulated cord plasma for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was 2.72 g (95% CI: –3.40, –2.04), and for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was 7.13 g (95% CI: –8.46, –5.80); results based on maternal plasma at term were similar. Results were sensitive to variations in PFAS level distributions and the strength of the GFR–birth weight association. In comparison, our meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies suggested that each 1-ng/mL increase in prenatal PFOS and PFOA levels was associated with 5.00 g (95% CI: –21.66, –7.78) and 14.72 g (95% CI: –8.92, –1.09) reductions in birth weight, respectively. Conclusion Results of our simulations suggest that a substantial proportion of the association between prenatal PFAS and birth weight may be attributable to confounding by GFR and that confounding by GFR may be more important in studies with sample collection later in pregnancy. Citation Verner MA, Loccisano AE, Morken NH, Yoon M, Wu H, Mc

  2. Relief production around the Grand Canyon region: using detrital CRN erosion rates and tributary stream profiles to distinguish lithologic and baselevel fall transient landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darling, A.; Whipple, K. X.; Nichols, K. K.; Bierman, P. R.

    2013-12-01

    The Grand Canyon region exhibits rugged topography in which steep-walled, high-relief canyons are carved into low-relief plateaus. Relief production through the Neogene is apparent from basalt flows cresting canyon rims; however, two scenarios may explain this observation. An increase in base-level fall rate along the Colorado River may be driving relief production since integration of the Colorado River through Grand Canyon. Alternatively, the generally greater rock strength of Permian and older rocks relative to overlying units above canyon rims could induce relief production and canyon formation in the absence of an increase in the rate of mainstem incision. These scenarios both lead to relief production, as erosion rates within the canyon are higher than erosion rates on the surrounding plateau. Our research question is whether or not the rate of mainstem river incision increased. Fortunately, the similar morphology of the canyons and surrounding landscape in both scenarios are formed by a different and thus diagnostic spatial distribution of erosion rates. In each case, erosion rates on the surrounding bench are lower than in the canyons, but only in the baselevel-fall scenario are erosion rates in the canyons greater than erosion rates in catchment headwaters still incising through the weaker cover rocks. Erosion rates in headwater catchments cut in the weaker overlying rocks are expected to reflect the rate of baselevel fall preceding the exposure of the stronger rocks, allowing a space-for-time substitution: erosion rates of subsequent catchments within canyons reflect the recent rate of mainstem river incision and erosion rates in headwater catchments reflect the incision rate before canyon incision. In summary, if the present-day landscape results from baselevel fall then we will measure higher erosion rates within the canyon than in headwater streams. Conversely, if incision is driven by rock strength, erosion rates in canyons and in headwater catchments

  3. Artificial selection for developmental rates in fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its implications on the design of feeding studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding of fall armyworm biology has frequently suffered from disagreements in the findings from different laboratories. One potential source of error is the assumption that laboratory colonies are sufficiently representative of wild populations that their biological parameters can be generali...

  4. Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis and Natural Conception: A Comparison of Live Birth Rates in Patients with Recurrent Pregnancy Loss Associated with Translocation

    PubMed Central

    Sugiura-Ogasawara, Mayumi; Nagayoshi, Motoi; Tanaka, Atsushi; Takeda, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Background Established causes of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) include antiphospholipid syndrome, uterine anomalies, parental chromosomal abnormalities, particularly translocations, and abnormal embryonic karyotypes. The number of centers performing preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for patients with translocations has steadily increased worldwide. The live birth rate with PGD was reported to be 27-54%. The live birth rate with natural conception was reported to be 37-63% on the first trial and 65-83% cumulatively. To date, however, there has been no cohort study comparing age and the number of previous miscarriages in matched patients undergoing or not undergoing PGD. Thus, we compared the live birth rate of patients with RPL associated with a translocation undergoing PGD with that of patients who chose natural conception. Methods and Findings After genetic counseling, 52 patients who desired natural conception and 37 patients who chose PGD were matched for age and number of previous miscarriages and these comprised the subjects of our study. PGD was performed by means of fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. The live birth rates on the first PGD trial and the first natural pregnancy after ascertainment of the carrier status were 37.8% and 53.8%, respectively (odds ratio 0.52, 95% confidence interval 0.22-1.23). Cumulative live birth rates were 67.6% and 65.4%, respectively, in the groups undergoing and not undergoing PGD. The time required to become pregnancy was similar in both groups. PGD was found to reduce the miscarriage rate significantly. The prevalence of twin pregnancies was significantly higher in the PGD group. The cost of PGD was $7,956 U.S. per patient. Conclusions While PGD significantly prevented further miscarriages, there was no difference in the live birth rate. Couples should be fully informed of the similarity in the live birth rate, the similarity in time to become pregnancy, the advantages of PGD, such as the reduction in the

  5. Enrollment in Postsecondary Institutions, Fall 2010; Financial Statistics, Fiscal Year 2010; and Graduation Rates, Selected Cohorts, 2002-07. First Look. NCES 2012-280

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Laura G.; Kelly-Reid, Janice E.; Ginder, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    This "First Look" presents findings from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) spring 2011 data collection. This collection included five components: Student Financial Aid for the 2009-10 academic year; Enrollment for fall 2010; Graduation Rates within 150 percent of normal program completion time for full-time, first-time…

  6. Enrollment in Postsecondary Institutions, Fall 2009; Graduation Rates, 2003 & 2006 Cohorts; and Financial Statistics, Fiscal Year 2009. First Look. NCES 2011-230

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Laura G.; Kelly-Reid, Janice E.; Ginder, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    This "First Look" presents findings from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) spring 2010 data collection. This collection included five components: Student Financial Aid for full-time, first-time degree/certificate-seeking undergraduate students for the 2009-10 academic year; Enrollment for fall 2009; Graduation Rates within…

  7. An Analysis of Student Success Rates for Academic and Workforce Programs at a Large Texas Community College: Examining Fall 2009 to Spring 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    High, Clennis F.

    2012-01-01

    Student success rates for academic track and workforce track students were examined for thousands of students at a large urban Texas Community College. The study covered fall 2009 through spring 2011, a two year period. Data were collected from the institution's data base regarding students who successfully completed the courses in which they were…

  8. Births: Final Data for 2012

    MedlinePlus

    ... women aged 30–44. The total fertility rate (estimated number of births over a woman’s lifetime) declined ... place of residence. Birth rates per 1,000 estimated female population aged 15–19. Population estimated as ...

  9. Birth Defects

    MedlinePlus

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Birth Defects: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What are birth defects? Birth defects are structural or functional abnormalities present ...

  10. Birth Plans

    MedlinePlus

    ... but your partner. previous continue More Birthing Options Atmosphere during labor and delivery. Many hospitals and birthing ... allow women to make some choices about the atmosphere in which they give birth. Do you want ...

  11. Birth Control

    MedlinePlus

    Birth control, also known as contraception, is designed to prevent pregnancy. Birth control methods may work in a number of different ... eggs that could be fertilized. Types include birth control pills, patches, shots, vaginal rings, and emergency contraceptive ...

  12. Why Is the Teen Birth Rate in the United States so High and Why Does It Matter? NBER Working Paper No. 17965

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearney, Melissa Schettini; Levine, Phillip B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines two aspects of teen childbearing in the United States. First, it reviews and synthesizes the evidence on the reasons why teen birth rates are so uniquely high in the United States and especially in some states. Second, it considers why and how it matters. We argue that economists' typical explanations are unable to account for…

  13. Birth Rates for U.S. Teenagers Reach Historic Lows for All Age and Ethnic Groups. NCHS Data Brief. Number 89

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Brady E.; Ventura, Stephanie J.

    2012-01-01

    Teen childbearing has been generally on a long-term decline in the United States since the late 1950s. In spite of these declines, the U.S. teen birth rate remains one of the highest among other industrialized countries. Moreover, childbearing by teenagers continues to be a matter of public concern because of the elevated health risks for teen…

  14. Live birth rates after combined adjuvant therapy in IVF-ICSI cycles: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Motteram, C; Vollenhoven, B; Hope, N; Osianlis, T; Rombauts, L J

    2015-04-01

    The effectiveness of combined co-treatment with aspirin, doxycycline, prednisolone, with or without oestradiol patches, was investigated on live birth (LBR) rates after fresh and frozen embryo transfers (FET) in IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles. Cases (n = 485) and controls (n = 485) were extensively matched in a one-to-one ratio on nine physical and clinical parameters: maternal age, body mass index, smoking status, stimulation cycle number, cumulative dose of FSH, stimulation protocol, insemination method, day of embryo transfer and number of embryos transferred. No significant differences were found in fresh cycles between cases and controls for the pregnancy outcomes analysed, but fewer surplus embryos were available for freezing in the combined adjuvant group. In FET cycles, LBR was lower in the treatment group (OR: 0.49, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.95). The lower LBR in FET cycles seemed to be clustered in patients receiving combined adjuvant treatment without luteal oestradiol (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.80). No difference was found in LBR between cases and controls when stratified according to the number of previous cycles (<3 or ≥3). There is no benefit of this combined adjuvant strategy in fresh IVF cycles, and possible harm when used in frozen cycles. PMID:25676168

  15. An increased rate of falling leads to a rise in fracture risk in postmenopausal women with self-reported osteoarthritis: a prospective multinational cohort study (GLOW)

    PubMed Central

    Prieto-Alhambra, Daniel; Nogues, Xavier; Javaid, M Kassim; Wyman, Allison; Arden, Nigel K; Azagra, Rafael; Cooper, Cyrus; Adachi, Jonathan D; Boonen, Steven; Chapurlat, Roland D; Compston, Juliet E; Gehlbach, Stephen H; Greenspan, Susan L; Hooven, Frederick H; Netelenbos, J Coen; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Rossini, Maurizio; Sambrook, Philip N; Silverman, Stuart; Siris, Ethel S; Watts, Nelson B; Díez-Pérez, Adolfo

    2016-01-01

    Objective Patients with osteoarthritis have increased bone mass, but no decrease in fractures. We studied the association between self-reported osteoarthritis and incident falls and fractures in postmenopausal women. Methods GLOW is a prospective, multinational cohort of 60 393 non-institutionalised women aged ≥55 years who had visited primary care practices within the previous 2 years. Questionnaires were mailed at yearly intervals. Patients were classified as osteoarthritic if they answered yes to the question “Has a doctor or other health provider ever said that you had osteoarthritis or degenerative joint disease?”, and this was validated against primary care records. Information on incident falls, fractures, and covariates was self-reported. Cox and Poisson models were used for incident fractures and number of falls, respectively, to compute hazard ratios (HRs) and rate ratios (RRs) for baseline osteoarthritis status. Results Of 51 386 women followed for a median of 2.9 (interquartile range 2.1 to 3.0) years, 20 409 (40%) reported osteoarthritis. The adjusted HR for osteoarthritis predicting fracture was 1.21 (95% CI 1.13 to 1.30; p<0.0001) and the adjusted RR for falls was 1.24 (95% CI 1.22 to 1.26; p<0.0001). However, the association between osteoarthritis and fracture was not significant after adjustment for incident falls: HR 1.06 (95% CI 0.98 to 1.15; p=0.13). Conclusion Postmenopausal women with self-reported osteoarthritis have a 20% increased risk of fracture and experience 25% more falls than osteoarthritis-free peers. Our data suggest that increased falls are the causal pathway of the association between osteoarthritis and fractures. PMID:22730372

  16. Field screening of maize germplasm lines for fall armyworm resistance using visual damage rating and predator abundance survey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of our long-term research effort on developing new maize germplasm lines conferring multiple insect resistance at different growth stages, 10 newly-developed maize germplasm lines from the Germplasm Enhancement of Maize (GEM) Program were evaluated in 2010 and 2011 for whorl-feeding fall arm...

  17. Preventing falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... worsened. Improving your vision will help reduce falls. Images ... for preventing falls in older people living in the community. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009, Issue 2. Art. No.: ...

  18. Birth Defects

    MedlinePlus

    A birth defect is a problem that happens while a baby is developing in the mother's body. Most birth defects happen during the first 3 months of ... in the United States is born with a birth defect. A birth defect may affect how the ...

  19. A modified natural cycle results in higher live birth rate in vitrified-thawed embryo transfer for women with regular menstruation.

    PubMed

    Guan, Yichun; Fan, Hongfang; Styer, Aaron K; Xiao, Zhiying; Li, Zhen; Zhang, Jianrui; Sun, Lijun; Wang, Xingling; Zhang, Zhan

    2016-10-01

    There is no consensus regimen for the optimal endometrial preparation for cryopreservation and vitrified-thawed embryo transfer cycles. This is largely caused by the lack of sufficient investigation and analyses on the respective pregnancy and perinatal outcomes by different regimens. This study aimed to compare both pregnancy and perinatal outcomes between the modified natural and artificial cycles in vitrified-thawed day three embryo transfer for women with regular menstruation. A total of 1,482 vitrified-thawed day three embryo transfer cycles were reviewed including 427 modified natural cycles (NC), 132 ovulation induction cycles (OC), 794 artificial cycles (AC), and 129 GnRH agonist artificial cycles (GAC). The primary outcome that was evaluated was live birth rate. The NC regimen demonstrated a higher rate of ongoing pregnancy (43.8% vs. 30.2%, P = 0.002) and a lower rate of late abortion (2.8% vs. 14.0%, P = 0.003) than the GAC regimen as well as a higher implantation rate (31.9% vs. 27.1%, P = 0.008) and live birth rate (43.1% vs. 34.1%, P = 0.002) than the AC regimen. A significantly higher peak endometrial thickness before transfer was observed in patients using the NC and GAC regimens (10.0 ± 1.7, 9.9 ± 2.4) compared to the AC regimens (9.2 ± 1.5, P = 0.000). Multivariate logistic regression showed that the NC protocol was associated with a higher live birth rate. There were no significant differences in rates of pregnancy complications, neonatal mortality, birth defects, mean birth weight, and other perinatal outcomes among the regimens. Modified natural cycle endometrial preparation regimen for vitrified-thawed day three embryo transfer is associated with superior live birth pregnancy outcomes compared to artificial cycles. Future studies are warranted to investigate the underlying biologic mechanisms of these findings. Abbreviations ART: assisted reproductive technology; BMI: body mass index; FET: frozen-thawed embryo transfer; HCG: human chorionic

  20. Preventing Falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... from osteoporosis. Lower-body strength exercises and balance exercises can help you prevent falls and avoid the disability that may result from falling. Here are some fall prevention tips from Go4Life : l Have your eyes and hearing tested often. Always wear your glasses when you ...

  1. A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF CLOSE DOUBLE WHITE DWARFS AS GRAVITATIONAL WAVE SOURCES: EVOLUTIONARY CHANNELS, BIRTH RATES, AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Jinzhong; Han Zhanwen; Zhang Fenghui; Zhang Yu

    2010-08-20

    Close double white dwarfs (CDWDs) are believed to dominate the Galactic gravitational wave (GW) radiation in the frequency range 10{sup -4} to 0.1 Hz, which will be detected by the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) detector. The aim of this detector is to detect GW radiation from astrophysical sources in the universe and to help improve our understanding of the origin of the sources and their physical properties (masses and orbital periods). In this paper, we study the probable candidate sources in the Galaxy for the LISA detector: CDWDs. We use the binary population synthesis approach of CDWDs together with the latest findings of the synthesis models from Han, who proposed three evolutionary channels: (1) stable Roche lobe overflow plus common envelope (RLOF+CE), (2) CE+CE, and (3) exposed core plus CE. As a result, we systematically investigate the detailed physical properties (the distributions of masses, orbital periods, and chirp masses) of the CDWD sources for the LISA detector, examine the importance of the three evolutionary channels for the formation of CDWDs, and carry out Monte Carlo simulations. Our results show that RLOF+CE and CE+CE are the main evolutionary scenarios leading to the formation of CDWDs. For the LISA detectable sources, we also explore and discuss the importance of these three evolutionary channels. Using the calculated birth rate, we compare our results to the LISA sensitivity curve and the foreground noise floor of CDWDs. We find that our estimate for the number of CDWD sources that can be detected by the LISA detector is greater than 10,000. We also find that the detectable CDWDs are produced via the CE+CE channel and we analyze the fraction of the detectable CDWDs that are double helium (He+He), or carbon-oxygen plus helium (CO+He) WD binary systems.

  2. Factors associated with inter-institutional variations in sepsis rates of very-low-birth-weight infants in 34 Malaysian neonatal intensive care units

    PubMed Central

    Boo, Nem-Yun; Cheah, Irene Guat-Sim

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to determine whether patient loads, infant status on admission and treatment interventions were significantly associated with inter-institutional variations in sepsis rates in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants in the Malaysian National Neonatal Registry (MNNR). METHODS This was a retrospective study of 3,880 VLBW (≤ 1,500 g) infants admitted to 34 neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in the MNNR. Sepsis was diagnosed in symptomatic infants with positive blood culture. RESULTS Sepsis developed in 623 (16.1%) infants; 61 (9.8%) had early-onset sepsis (EOS) and 562 (90.2%) had late-onset sepsis (LOS). The median EOS rate of all NICUs was 1.0% (interquartile range [IQR] 0%, 2.0%). Compared with NICUs reporting no EOS (n = 14), NICUs reporting EOS (n = 20) had significantly higher patient loads (total live births, admissions, VLBW infants, outborns); more mothers with a history of abortions, and antenatal steroids and intrapartum antibiotic use; more infants requiring resuscitation procedures at birth; higher rates of surfactant therapy, pneumonia and insertion of central venous catheters. The median LOS rate of all NICUs was 14.5% (IQR 7.8%, 19.2%). Compared with NICUs with LOS rates below the first quartile (n = 8), those above the third quartile (n = 8) used less intrapartum antibiotics, and had significantly bigger and more mature infants, more outborns, as well as a higher number of sick infants requiring ventilator support and total parenteral nutrition. CONCLUSION Patient loads, resuscitation at birth, status of infants on admission and treatment interventions were significantly associated with inter-institutional variations in sepsis. PMID:26996633

  3. Births: Final Data for 2014.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Brady E; Martin, Joyce A; Osterman, Michelle J K; Curtin, Sally C; Matthews, T J

    2015-12-01

    This report presents 2014 data on U.S. births according to a wide variety of characteristics. Data are presented for maternal age, live-birth order, race and Hispanic origin, marital status, attendant at birth, method of delivery, period of gestation, birthweight, and plurality. Birth and fertility rates are presented by age, live-birth order, race and Hispanic origin, and marital status. Selected data by mother's state of residence and birth rates by age and race of father also are shown. Trends in fertility patterns and maternal and infant characteristics are described and interpreted. PMID:26727629

  4. Disease burden of congenital cytomegalovirus infection at school entry age: study design, participation rate and birth prevalence.

    PubMed

    Korndewal, M J; Vossen, A C T M; Cremer, J; VAN Binnendijk, R S; Kroes, A C M; VAN DER Sande, M A B; Oudesluys-Murphy, A M; DE Melker, H E

    2016-05-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus infection (cCMV) may lead to symptoms at birth and long-term consequences. We present a nationwide, retrospective cohort study on the outcome of cCMV up to age 6 years. For this study we identified cCMV, using polymerase chain reaction, by analysing dried blood spots, which are taken shortly after birth for neonatal screening. The group of children with cCMV were compared to a group of children who were cCMV negative at birth. Data were collected about their health and development up to age 6 years. Parents of 73 693 children were invited to participate, and 32 486 (44·1%) gave informed consent for testing of their child's dried blood spot for CMV. Of the 31 484 dried blood spots tested, 156 (0·5%) were positive for cCMV. Of these, four (2·6%) children had been diagnosed with cCMV prior to this study. This unique retrospective nationwide study permits the estimation of long-term sequelae of cCMV up to the age of 6 years. The birth prevalence of cCMV in this study was 0·5%, which is in line with prior estimates. Most (97·4%) children with cCMV had not been diagnosed earlier, indicating under-diagnosis of cCMV. PMID:26554756

  5. Advanced Parental Ages and Low Birth Weight in Autism Spectrum Disorders--Rates and Effect on Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben Itzchak, Esther; Lahat, Eli; Zachor, Ditza A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To assess the distribution of parental age and birth weight in a large cohort with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and to compare them to Israeli national data. (2) To examine possible relationships between these risk factors and functioning. Methods: The study included 529 participants diagnosed with ASD using standardized tests:…

  6. Effect of muscle and post-mortem rate of pH and temperature fall on antioxidant enzyme activities in beef.

    PubMed

    Pastsart, Umaporn; De Boever, Maarten; Claeys, Erik; De Smet, Stefaan

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of muscle, inner and outer Musculus biceps femoris (IBF and OBF respectively) and Musculus longissimus dorsi (LD), on the post-mortem rate of pH and temperature fall, and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) during simulated retail display. At day 0 of display (2 days post-mortem), the CAT and GSH-Px activities were lower in IBF than in OBF and LD (P<0.001), and the SOD activity was lower in OBF compared to IBF and LD (P<0.001). At day 10 of display, SOD and CAT activities had decreased in all three muscles compared to day 0 (P<0.001), whereas the GSH-Px activity did increase with time of display. Across muscles, there were significant relationships between temperature fall, colour, lipid and colour stability and antioxidant enzyme activities. PMID:23273481

  7. Birth Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... to have sex makes sense Talking to your parents about sex Deciding about sex Birth control Types of birth control Could I get pregnant ... not planned. Some young people are afraid their parents will find out they’re having sex. If you get birth control from a doctor, ask about keeping the information ...

  8. Births of Hispanic Parentage, 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventura, Stephanie J.

    1983-01-01

    Analysis of Hispanic birth data for 22 states in 1980 showed the following: (1) The fertility rate for Hispanic women was 95.4 births per 1.000 women aged 15-44; this rate was 53 percent higher than the rate for non-Hispanic Whites and five percent higher than for non-Hispanic Blacks. (2) Age-specific birth rates indicated that the fertility of…

  9. Birth Defects Prevalence and Mortality

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator describes the prevalence of birth defects present at birth and mortality rates among infants in the United States between from 1999-2008 and 1979-2007, respectively. Some scientific studies have linked birth defects with environmental exposures. This indicator p...

  10. Data that describe at-a-point temporal variations in the transport rate and particle-size distribution of bedload; East Fork River, Wyoming, and Fall River, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomez, Basil; Emmett, W.W.

    1990-01-01

    Data from the East Fork River, Wyoming, and the Fall River, Colorado, that document at-a-point temporal variations in the transport rate and particle-size distribution of bedload, associated with the downstream migration of dunes, are presented. Bedload sampling was undertaken, using a 76.2 x 76.2 mm Helley-Smith sampler, on three separate occasions at each site in June 1988. In each instance, the sampling time was 30 seconds and the sampling intervals 5 minutes. The sampling period ranged from 4.92 to 8.25 hours. Water stage did not vary appreciably during any of the sampling periods. (USGS)

  11. Maternal age specific risk rate estimates for Down syndrome among live births in whites and other races from Ohio and metropolitan Atlanta, 1970-1989.

    PubMed Central

    Huether, C A; Ivanovich, J; Goodwin, B S; Krivchenia, E L; Hertzberg, V S; Edmonds, L D; May, D S; Priest, J H

    1998-01-01

    Our primary objective was to estimate, by one year and five year intervals, maternal age specific risk rates for Down syndrome among whites and among other races from two different populations, metropolitan Atlanta and south west Ohio, using live birth and prenatally diagnosed cases ascertained during 1970-1989. The five year estimates were also calculated separately for each of the five four year periods during these 20 years. Additionally, we compared two different methods of estimating these risk rates by using a third population of whites, and compared two different statistical methods of smoothing the risk rates. The results indicate good agreement between the metropolitan Atlanta and south west Ohio estimates within races, but show a statistically significant difference between the two race categories. Because 86% of live births in the "other races" category in the combined population are to blacks, these data may be seen as the first estimates of maternal age specific risk rates for Down syndrome among blacks calculated by one year intervals. We found excellent agreement in the risk rate estimates among the five four year time periods, between the estimates obtained by using the two different methods of estimation, and between the estimates obtained using the two different methods of statistical smoothing. Our estimated risk rates for white women in their 20s strongly reinforce those from previous studies currently being used for genetic counselling purposes. While we did find somewhat higher rates for women under 20, and increasingly higher rates for those over 30 years of age, these differences are not substantial. Thus, this study in general supports the risk rates estimated from data collected mostly during the 1960s and 1970s. PMID:9643290

  12. Effects of medical risk and socioeconomic status on the rate of change in cognitive and social development for low birth weight children.

    PubMed

    Landry, S H; Denson, S E; Swank, P R

    1997-04-01

    Using Hierarchical Linear Models (HLM) analysis, this study evaluated the effects of medical risk at birth and socioeconomic status (SES) on the rate of change in cognitive and social development over the first three years of life in premature children with low birth weight (LBW). Children with LBW (n = 79) with both high (HR) (n = 37) and low (LR) (n = 42) medical risk were compared to healthy full-term (FT) (n = 49) children. Children were assessed longitudinally at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months for cognitive development with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development and the McCarthy Scales for Children's Abilities, and for social initiative and responsiveness with observational measures. The HR LBW group had slower rates of increases in cognitive scores than did the LR LBW and FT groups and showed more deceleration in cognitive development by 36 months of age. Children with LBW, regardless of medical risk, had lower social initiating scores and slower rates of increase in initiating across the first 36 months than did FT children. As predicted, the groups did not show different rates of change for measures of social responsiveness. Higher SES was predictive of better cognitive and social development for all children. The difficulties encountered by children with LR and HR LBW in developing social initiating skills are discussed in relation to the link between learning to take initiative and early executive function skills. PMID:9240485

  13. Vaginal progesterone reduces the rate of preterm birth in women with a sonographic short cervix: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    HASSAN, S. S.; ROMERO, R.; VIDYADHARI, D.; FUSEY, S.; BAXTER, J. K.; KHANDELWAL, M.; VIJAYARAGHAVAN, J.; TRIVEDI, Y.; SOMA-PILLAY, P.; SAMBAREY, P.; DAYAL, A.; POTAPOV, V.; O’BRIEN, J.; ASTAKHOV, V.; YUZKO, O.; KINZLER, W.; DATTEL, B.; SEHDEV, H.; MAZHEIKA, L.; MANCHULENKO, D.; GERVASI, M. T.; SULLIVAN, L.; CONDE-AGUDELO, A.; PHILLIPS, J. A.; CREASY, G. W.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Women with a sonographic short cervix in the mid-trimester are at increased risk for preterm delivery. This study was undertaken to determine the ef cacy and safety of using micronized vaginal progesterone gel to reduce the risk of preterm birth and associated neonatal complications in women with a sonographic short cervix. Methods This was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that enrolled asymptomatic women with a singleton pregnancy and a sonographic short cervix (10–20 mm) at 19 + 0to23 + 6 weeks of gestation. Women were allocated randomly to receive vaginal progesterone gel or placebo daily starting from 20 to 23 + 6 weeks until 36 + 6 weeks, rupture of membranes or delivery, whichever occurred rst. Randomization sequence was strati ed by center and history of a previous preterm birth. The primary endpoint was preterm birth before 33 weeks of gestation. Analysis was by intention to treat. Results Of 465 women randomized, seven were lost to follow-up and 458 (vaginal progesterone gel, n = 235; placebo, n = 223) were included in the analysis. Women allocated to receive vaginal progesterone had a lower rate of preterm birth before 33 weeks than did those allocated to placebo (8.9% (n = 21) vs 16.1% (n = 36); relative risk (RR), 0.55; 95% CI, 0.33–0.92; P = 0.02). The effect remained signi cant after adjustment for covariables (adjusted RR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.31–0.91; P = 0.02). Vaginal progesterone was also associated with a signi cant reduction in the rate of preterm birth before 28 weeks(5.1%vs10.3%; RR, 0.50;95%CI, 0.25–0.97; P = 0.04) and 35 weeks (14.5% vs 23.3%; RR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.42–0.92; P = 0.02), respiratory distress syndrome (3.0% vs 7.6%; RR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.17–0.92; P = 0.03), any neonatal morbidity or mortality event (7.7% vs 13.5%; RR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.33–0.99; P = 0.04) and birth weight < 1500 g (6.4% (15/234) vs 13.6% (30/220); RR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.26–0.85; P = 0.01). There were no differences

  14. Preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Preterm birth occurs in about 5% to 10% of all births in resource-rich countries, but in recent years the incidence seems to have increased in some countries, particularly in the USA. We found little reliable evidence for incidence in resource-poor countries. The rate in northwestern Ethiopia has been reported to vary from 11% to 22%, depending on the age group of mothers studied, and is highest in teenage mothers. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of preventive interventions in women at high risk of preterm delivery? What are the effects of interventions to improve neonatal outcome after preterm rupture of membranes? What are the effects of treatments to stop contractions in preterm labour? What are the effects of elective compared with selective caesarean delivery for women in preterm labour? What are the effects of interventions to improve neonatal outcome in preterm delivery? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 58 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: amnioinfusion for preterm rupture of membranes, antenatal corticosteroids, antibiotic treatment, bed rest, beta-mimetics, calcium channel blockers, elective caesarean, enhanced antenatal care programmes, magnesium sulphate, oxytocin receptor antagonists (atosiban), progesterone

  15. 5 CFR 9701.324 - Treatment of employees whose rate of basic pay does not fall below the minimum rate of their band.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Setting and Adjusting Rate Ranges § 9701.324 Treatment of employees whose rate...

  16. 5 CFR 9701.325 - Treatment of employees whose rate of basic pay falls below the minimum rate of their band.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Setting and Adjusting Rate Ranges § 9701.325 Treatment of employees whose rate of basic pay...

  17. 5 CFR 9701.325 - Treatment of employees whose rate of basic pay falls below the minimum rate of their band.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Setting and Adjusting Rate Ranges § 9701.325 Treatment of employees whose rate of basic pay...

  18. 5 CFR 9701.324 - Treatment of employees whose rate of basic pay does not fall below the minimum rate of their band.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Setting and Adjusting Rate Ranges § 9701.324 Treatment of employees whose rate...

  19. 5 CFR 9701.337 - Treatment of employees whose rate of pay falls below the minimum adjusted rate of their band.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Locality and Special Rate Supplements § 9701.337 Treatment of employees whose rate of pay...

  20. 5 CFR 9701.337 - Treatment of employees whose rate of pay falls below the minimum adjusted rate of their band.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Locality and Special Rate Supplements § 9701.337 Treatment of employees whose rate of pay...

  1. 5 CFR 9701.324 - Treatment of employees whose rate of basic pay does not fall below the minimum rate of their band.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Setting and Adjusting Rate Ranges § 9701.324 Treatment of employees whose rate...

  2. 5 CFR 9701.325 - Treatment of employees whose rate of basic pay falls below the minimum rate of their band.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Setting and Adjusting Rate Ranges § 9701.325 Treatment of employees whose rate of basic pay...

  3. 5 CFR 9701.337 - Treatment of employees whose rate of pay falls below the minimum adjusted rate of their band.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Locality and Special Rate Supplements § 9701.337 Treatment of employees whose rate of pay...

  4. Birth Defects

    MedlinePlus

    ... with birth defects may need surgery or other medical treatments. Today, doctors can diagnose many birth defects in the womb. This enables them to treat or even correct some problems before the baby is born. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  5. Redemptive birth.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Lina

    2016-05-01

    Many of us are in the business of improving birth. Some of us are decades into our journeys of midwifery, whilst others are fresh students aspiring to give our best in this new profession. This article looks at ways to redeem birth from two aspects: for the mother; and for the midwife. I work in an international community in a developing country, in a privatised system. Although different from the UK, birth is birth. Women, their families and midwives will be able to relate to similar experiences. Ultimately my goals are likely to be the same as those in other parts of the world. I address issues of the workplaces in which we operate, the role of midwives in redeeming birth outcomes, and how we may better serve women and each other. PMID:27295755

  6. Health benefits in 2007: premium increases fall to an eight-year low, while offer rates and enrollment remain stable.

    PubMed

    Claxton, Gary; Gabel, Jon; DiJulio, Bianca; Pickreign, Jeremy; Whitmore, Heidi; Finder, Benjamin; Jacobs, Paul; Hawkins, Samantha

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports findings from a survey of 1,997 public and private employers with three or more workers, conducted during the first five months of 2007. Premiums increased 6.1 percent from spring 2006 to spring 2007--the lowest rate of increase since 1999. Enrollment in different types of health plans did not change significantly, and high-deductible health plans with a savings option did not experience major growth in enrollment. Despite the comparatively modest increase in premiums during a period of strong economic growth, the percentage of workers obtaining coverage from their employer remained statistically unchanged. PMID:17848452

  7. Birth audit

    PubMed Central

    Sachdeva, Sandeep; Nanda, Smiti; Sachdeva, Ruchi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe profile of births occurring in teaching institution on selected parameters. Materials and Methods: Considering feasibility, four months were systematically chosen for two-year time frame over a decade to gather selected information of consecutive singleton intramural births from log books of labor room on structured pro-forma. Data management was done using software package and analysis carried out by computing descriptive statistics (%) and Chi-square test. Results: It was observed that there were a total of 2862 and 1527 singleton births (>28 weeks) recorded for the sampled time-frame of 2009 and 1999 respectively reflecting increased quantum of institutional deliveries over time-span. Out of 2862 births, monthly distribution was 21.8% (Jan), 20% (Apr), 37.2% (July) and 21.1% (Oct) with similar picture for 1999. The birth according to 8-hourly timeframe was computed to be 31.6% (12 am-8 am), 34.3% (8 am-4 pm) and 34.0% (4 pm to 12 am) for 2009 while it was 28.6%, 38.6% and 32.8% for 1999 (P < 0.05). Births took place through-out seven days of week; however, Sunday (12.0%) was the least popular day while Thursday (18.7%) recorded maximum proportion of births during 2009. Slightly higher proportion of pre-term births were recorded during 2009 (21.76%) in comparison to 1999 (18.53%). The caesarian section rose to 26.1% from 20.2% (P < 0.05) while M:F ratio at birth was 1.28 and 1.17 with similar proportion (92.3%; 93.0%) of newborns being discharged live during 2009 and 1999 respectively. Conclusion: It provides snapshots of birth occurring in a teaching hospital and within study constraints finding could be utilized for improving quality of care, health communication, better utilization of human resource and logistics. PMID:23633853

  8. Sampling frequency of fetal heart rate impacts the ability to predict pH and BE at birth: a retrospective multi-cohort study.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuan; Xu, Yawen; Herry, Christophe; Durosier, L Daniel; Casati, Daniela; Stampalija, Tamara; Maisonneuve, Emeline; Seely, Andrew J E; Audibert, Francois; Alfirevic, Zarko; Ferrazzi, Enrico; Wang, Xiaogang; Frasch, Martin G

    2015-05-01

    Fetal heart rate (FHR) sampling rate used on the bedside is equal or less than 4 Hz. Current FHR analysis methods fail to detect incipient fetal acidemia. In a fetal sheep model of human labour we showed that FHR sampling rates near 1000 Hz are needed to detect fetal acidemia. Trans-abdominal fetal ECG (t-a fECG) sampling FHR at 900 Hz combined with a complex signals bioinformatics approach showed promise in a human cohort. Here we validate this finding in a retrospective human cohort study by comparing the performance of the same bioinformatics approach to predict pH and BE at birth in the cohorts with FHR sampled either at 4 Hz or at 900 Hz.The 4 Hz FHR recording data sets consisted of the open access intrapartum CTG data base with n = 552 subjects used to develop the predictive model and another cohort of prospectively recruited n = 11 labouring women to then validate it. 900 Hz FHR data set comprised two prospectively recruited t-a fECG cohorts of n = 60 and n = 23 subjects. Recruitment criteria were similar across the cohorts. We have determined the goodness of fit (R(2)) and root mean square error (RMSE) as the performance indicators of the model on each cohort.The clinical characteristics of all cohorts were similar (gestational age 280   ±   8 d; gender 50% male; birth body weight 3.5   ±   0.5 kg; pH and BE at birth 7.25   ±   0.1 and  -5.7   ±   3.4 mmol L(  -  1), respectively; 1' and 5' Apgar scores at birth 8.5   ±   1.4 and 9.4   ±   0.6, respectively). The 4 Hz FHR cohort rendered-for pH and BE-R(2) = 0.26 and 0.2 and RMSE = 0.087 and 3.44, respectively. This could not be confirmed in the validation cohort for neither pH nor BE prediction. The 900 Hz FHR cohort rendered-for pH and BE-R(2) = 0.9 and 0.77 and RMSE = 0.03 and 1.70, respectively, and the pH prediction was validated.In our model, lower FHR sampling rate increased the

  9. The Fort McMurray Demonstration Project in Social Marketing: no demonstrable effect on already falling injury rates following intensive community and workplace intervention.

    PubMed

    Guidotti, Tee L; Deb, Pooja; Bertera, Robert; Ford, Lynda

    2009-10-01

    The Fort McMurray Demonstration Project in Social Marketing attempted to achieve mutually reinforcing effects from thematically coordinated educational and awareness efforts in the community as a whole and in the workplace and the inclusion of occupational safety within the framework of a community health promotion project. The study community was Fort McMurray, a small, industrial city in northern Alberta. The Mistahiai Health Region, several hundred kilometers to the west and also dominated by one city, Grande Prairie, served as the reference community. The intervention was based on media and events staged at public events, with supporting educational activities in schools and the community. It relied heavily on community-based partners and volunteers. Data on healthcare utilization of selected preventable injuries were obtained from Alberta Health for the time period 1990-1996 for the Regional Health Authorities of Northern Lights, where the only large population centre is Fort McMurray, and Mistahia. Age-adjusted aggregate injury rates were analyzed for evidence of an effect of the intervention. Severity was measured by proxy, using the number of diagnostic claims submitted for reimbursement for medical services in a given year. The communities differed in age-specific injury rates, with Fort McMurray showing higher rates for residents aged less than 55. Young adults and older adolescents showed higher levels of severity. Injury rates fell substantially and at similar rates in both communities over the five-year period. However, in both communities injury rates were already falling before the intervention in Fort McMurray began and continued to fall at about the same rate, slowing toward the end of the period. No evidence was found for an effect of the Project or for acceleration of the reduction in injury frequency in the intervention area. Over the period, fewer medical services were delivered in office settings and more in emergency rooms, in both

  10. Environmental pollution by depleted uranium in Iraq with special reference to Mosul and possible effects on cancer and birth defect rates.

    PubMed

    Fathi, Riyad Abdullah; Matti, Lilyan Yaqup; Al-Salih, Hana Said; Godbold, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Iraq is suffering from depleted uranium (DU) pollution in many regions and the effects of this may harm public health through poisoning and increased incidence of various cancers and birth defects. DU is a known carcinogenic agent. About 1200 tonnes of ammunition were dropped on Iraq during the Gulf Wars of 1991 and 2003. As a result, contamination occurred in more than 350 sites in Iraq. Currently, Iraqis are facing about 140,000 cases of cancer, with 7000 to 8000 new ones registered each year. In Baghdad cancer incidences per 100,000 population have increased, just as they have also increased in Basra. The overall incidence of breast and lung cancer, Leukaemia and Lymphoma, has doubled even tripled. The situation in Mosul city is similar to other regions. Before the Gulf Wars Mosul had a higher rate of cancer, but the rate of cancer has further increased since the Gulf Wars. PMID:23729095

  11. Hepatitis B birth dose vaccination rates among children in Beijing: A comparison of local residents and first and second generation migrants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ruohan; Li, Youwei; Wangen, Knut Reidar; Nicholas, Stephen; Maitland, Elizabeth; Wang, Jian

    2016-05-01

    Providing hepatitis B vaccine to all neonates within 24 hours of birth (Timely Birth Dose, TBD) is the key preventative measure to control perinatal hepatitis B virus infection. Previous Chinese studies of TBD only differentiated between migrant and non-migrant (local-born generation-LG) children. Our study is the first to stratify migrants in Beijing into first generation migrants (FGM) and second generation migrants (SGM). Based on a questionnaire survey of 2682 people in 3 Beijing villages, we identified 283 children aged 0-15 years, from 246 households, who were eligible for a TBD. Multinomial logistic regression and statistical analyses were used to examine factors explaining TBD rates for LG, FGM and SGM children. Surprisingly, the TBD for LG Beijing children was not significantly different from migrant children. But after stratifying migrant children into FGM and SGM, revealed significant TBD differences were revealed across LG, FGM and SGM according to domicile (p-value < 0.001, OR = 3.24), first vaccination covered by government policy (p-value < 0.05, OR = 3.24), mother's knowledge of hepatitis B (p-value < 0.05, OR = 1.01) and the government's HBV policy environment (p-value < 0.05, OR = 2.338). Birthplace (p-value = 0.002, OR = 6.21) and better policy environments (p-value = 0.01, OR = 2.80) were associated with higher TBD rate for LG and SGM children. Compared with FGM children, SGM had a significantly poorer TBD rate (Fisher exact test of chi-square = 0.013). We identified SGM as a special risk group; proposed Hukou reform to improve SGM TBD; and called for Beijing health authorities to match TBD rates in other provinces, especially by improving practices by health authorities and knowledge of parents. PMID:27043864

  12. Students fall for Fall Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedley, Kara

    2012-02-01

    From Boston to Beijing, thousands of students traveled to San Francisco for the 2011 AGU Fall Meeting. Of those who participated, 183 students were able to attend thanks to AGU's student travel grant program, which assists students with travel costs and seeks to enrich the meeting through ethnic and gender diversity. Students at Fall Meeting enjoyed a variety of programs and activities designed to help them better network with their peers, learn about new fields, and disseminate their research to the interested public. More than 800 students attended AGU's first annual student mixer, sharing drinks and ideas with fellow student members and future colleagues as well as forging new friendships and intellectual relationships.

  13. Planned Out-of-Hospital Birth and Birth Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Snowden, Jonathan M.; Tilden, Ellen L.; Snyder, Janice; Quigley, Brian; Caughey, Aaron B.; Cheng, Yvonne W.

    2016-01-01

    Background The frequency of planned out-of-hospital birth in the United States has increased in recent years. The value of studies assessing the perinatal risks of planned out-of-hospital birth versus hospital birth has been limited by cases in which transfer to a hospital is required and a birth that was initially planned as an out-of-hospital birth is misclassified as a hospital birth. Methods We performed a population-based, retrospective cohort study of all births that occurred in Oregon during 2012 and 2013 using data from newly revised Oregon birth certificates that allowed for the disaggregation of hospital births into the categories of planned in-hospital births and planned out-of-hospital births that took place in the hospital after a woman’s intrapartum transfer to the hospital. We assessed perinatal morbidity and mortality, maternal morbidity, and obstetrical procedures according to the planned birth setting (out of hospital vs. hospital). Results Planned out-of-hospital birth was associated with a higher rate of perinatal death than was planned in-hospital birth (3.9 vs. 1.8 deaths per 1000 deliveries, P = 0.003; odds ratio after adjustment for maternal characteristics and medical conditions, 2.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.37 to 4.30; adjusted risk difference, 1.52 deaths per 1000 births; 95% CI, 0.51 to 2.54). The odds for neonatal seizure were higher and the odds for admission to a neonatal intensive care unit lower with planned out-of-hospital births than with planned in-hospital birth. Planned out-of-hospital birth was also strongly associated with unassisted vaginal delivery (93.8%, vs. 71.9% with planned in-hospital births; P<0.001) and with decreased odds for obstetrical procedures. Conclusions Perinatal mortality was higher with planned out-of-hospital birth than with planned in-hospital birth, but the absolute risk of death was low in both settings. (Funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human

  14. Maternal plasma progesterone and estradiol concentrations prior to farrowing are not associated with either birth intervals or stillbirth rates in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prolonged birth intervals are associated with stillbirth in pigs. Average birth intervals decrease as litter size increases, suggesting a cumulative negative effect of fetuses, placentas or both on average birth interval. Late gestation maternal plasma estrogen concentrations increase with litter si...

  15. Does lower dose of long-acting triptorelin maintain pituitary suppression and produce good live birth rate in long down-regulation protocol for in-vitro fertilization?

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin; Feng, Shu-Xian; Guo, Ping-Ping; He, Yu-Xia; Liu, Yu-Dong; Ye, De-Sheng; Chen, Shi-Ling

    2016-04-01

    The effects of pituitary suppression with one-third depot of long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist in GnRH agonist long protocol for in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) were investigated. A retrospective cohort study was performed on 3186 cycles undergoing IVF/ICSI with GnRH agonist long protocol in a university-affiliated infertility center. The pituitary was suppressed with depot triptorelin of 1.25 mg or 1.875 mg. There was no significant difference in live birth rate between 1.25 mg triptorelin group and 1.875 mg triptorelin group (41.2% vs. 43.7%). The mean luteinizing hormone (LH) level on follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) starting day was significantly higher in 1.25 mg triptorelin group. The mean LH level on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) administration was slightly but statistically higher in 1.25 mg triptorelin group. There was no significant difference in the total FSH dose between the two groups. The number of retrieved oocytes was slightly but statistically less in 1.25 mg triptorelin group than in 1.875 mg triptorelin group (12.90±5.82 vs. 13.52±6.97). There was no significant difference in clinical pregnancy rate between the two groups (50.5% vs. 54.5%). It was suggested that one-third depot triptorelin can achieve satisfactory pituitary suppression and produce good live birth rates in a long protocol for IVF/ICSI. PMID:27072965

  16. Birth Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources In This Article Medical Dictionary Also of Interest (Quiz) First Few Days After Birth (Video) Meconium ... Tap here for the Professional Version Also of Interest Test your knowledge The decision to have a ...

  17. Ratings of self and parents by youth: are they affected by family status, gender, and birth order?

    PubMed

    Parish, T S

    1991-01-01

    In the present study, 648 youths from across the state of Kansas voluntarily evaluated themselves and their parents using the Personal Attribute Inventory for Children. Self-concept was found to be significantly higher for those from intact families in comparison with those from divorced remarried families. Evaluations of mothers were significantly higher for those from intact and divorced nonremarried families as compared with those from divorced remarried families. The ratings of fathers by youths from intact families were significantly more favorable than the ratings by those from either divorced nonremarried or divorced remarried families. Interestingly, gender by family status two-way interaction effects were also found for self-concept and ratings of fathers. Possible explanations for these findings, and their implications, are discussed. PMID:2048465

  18. Rates of Femicide in Women of Different Races, Ethnicities, and Places of Birth: Massachusetts, 1993-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; McKeown, Loreta; Melvin, Patrice; Dang, Quynh; Reed, Joan

    2011-01-01

    To describe the epidemiology of intimate partner violence (IPV) homicide in Massachusetts, an IPV mortality data set developed by the Massachusetts Department of Public Health was analyzed. The rates of death were estimated by dividing the number of decedents over the aged-matched population and Poisson regression was used to estimate the…

  19. The transition from two-dimensional to three-dimensional waves in falling liquid films: Wave patterns and transverse redistribution of local flow rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharlamov, S. M.; Guzanov, V. V.; Bobylev, A. V.; Alekseenko, S. V.; Markovich, D. M.

    2015-11-01

    This article presents the results of experimental investigations of the process of transition from two-dimensional (2D) to three-dimensional (3D) waves in liquid films falling down a vertical plate. The method of laser induced fluorescence was used to obtain instant shapes of three dimensional waves and to investigate the regularities of formation of 3D wave patterns arising due to transverse instability of 2D waves. The obtained results were compared to the results from the published literature on the modeling of 3D wave regimes of film flow. Although many details of 3D wave patterns correspond well, there are a few significant distinctions between our experiments and modeling. In particular, during 2D-3D wave transition, we observed a strong transverse redistribution of liquid leading to the formation of rivulets on the surface of isothermal liquid film, which is a phenomenon not described previously. Possible discrepancies between modeling and experiments, including applicability of boundary layer models and downstream periodic boundary conditions, are discussed. The authors hope that the results presented in the article are of interest not only for modeling of film flows but also for practical applications because at large distances from the film inlet due to 2D-3D wave transition the local flow rates can differ several times at the transverse distances of about 1 cm, which is an effect that cannot be neglected.

  20. Birth Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... your health, frequency of sexual activity, number of sexual partners and desire to have children in the future. Your health care provider can help you select the best form of birth control for you. NIH: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

  1. The Birth Order Puzzle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajonc, R. B.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the controversy of the relationship between birth order and intellectual performance through a detailed evaluation of the confluence model which assumes that the rate of intellectual growth is a function of the intellectual environment within the family and associated with the special circumstances of last children. (CM)

  2. Rates of femicide in women of different races, ethnicities, and places of birth: Massachusetts, 1993-2007.

    PubMed

    Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; McKeown, Loreta; Melvin, Patrice; Dang, Quynh; Reed, Joan

    2011-03-01

    To describe the epidemiology of intimate partner violence (IPV) homicide in Massachusetts, an IPV mortality data set developed by the Massachusetts Department of Public Health was analyzed. The rates of death were estimated by dividing the number of decedents over the aged-matched population and Poisson regression was used to estimate the contribution of race, ethnicity, and foreign-born status to the risk of dying from IPV. Out of the total 270 women whose deaths were associated with IPV, 239 (89%) were killed by a male partner. Black women had a risk of dying from IPV of 16.2 per 1,000,000 person-years. Hispanic women also had a higher risk of dying from IPV than non-Hispanic women; incidence risk ratio of 9.7 (Poisson regression 95% confidence interval 6.8-13.8). IPV femicide disproportionately affected Black and Hispanic women. Agencies must consider the importance of providing culturally appropriate services to IPV survivors and their community. PMID:20522891

  3. Prevention of preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Flood, Karen; Malone, Fergal D

    2012-02-01

    Preterm birth (delivery before 37 completed weeks of gestation) is common and rates are increasing. In the past, medical efforts focused on ameliorating the consequences of prematurity rather than preventing its occurrence. This approach resulted in improved neonatal outcomes, but it remains costly in terms of both the suffering of infants and their families and the economic burden on society. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of preterm labor has altered the approach to this problem, with increased focus on preventive strategies. Primary prevention is a limited strategy which involves public education, smoking cessation, improved nutritional status and avoidance of late preterm births. Secondary prevention focuses on recurrent preterm birth which is the most recognisable risk factor. Widely accepted strategies include cervical cerclage, progesterone and dedicated clinics. However, more research is needed to explore the role of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory treatments in the prevention of this complex problem. PMID:21893439

  4. Smoking and Preterm Birth.

    PubMed

    Ion, Rachel; Bernal, Andrés López

    2015-08-01

    Premature birth is a significant global problem and the leading cause of newborn deaths. Tobacco smoking has been associated with premature birth for over 50 years. The mechanisms through which smoking exerts its effects on pregnancy outcomes remain unclear. In this review, we discuss rates of prematurity and smoking in pregnancy, the evidence of a causal relationship between tobacco and preterm birth, and proposed biochemical pathways through which the interaction is mediated. The suggested mechanisms include nicotine-induced vasoconstriction, carbon monoxide-induced fetal hypoxia, cadmium disruption of calcium signaling, altered steroid hormone production, disruption of prostaglandin synthesis, and changed responses to oxytocin. The relative importance of each of these pathways is yet to be ascertained. Further research is necessary to explore the mechanisms through which smoking exerts its effect on gestational length and the process of parturition. Moreover, the risks of nicotine replacement in pregnancy should be investigated further. PMID:25394641

  5. Ovarian Response and Cumulative Live Birth Rate of Women Undergoing In-Vitro Fertilisation Who Had Discordant Anti-Mullerian Hormone and Antral Follicle Count Measurements: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hang Wun Raymond; Lee, Vivian Chi Yan; Lau, Estella Yee Lan; Yeung, William Shu Biu; Ho, Pak Chung; Ng, Ernest Hung Yu

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate ovarian response and cumulative live birth rate of women undergoing in-vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment who had discordant baseline serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) level and antral follicle count (AFC). Methods This is a retrospective cohort study on 1,046 women undergoing the first IVF cycle in Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong. Subjects receiving standard IVF treatment with the GnRH agonist long protocol were classified according to their quartiles of baseline AMH and AFC measurements after GnRH agonist down-regulation and before commencing ovarian stimulation. The number of retrieved oocytes, ovarian sensitivity index (OSI) and cumulative live-birth rate for each classification category were compared. Results Among our studied subjects, 32.2% were discordant in their AMH and AFC quartiles. Among them, those having higher AMH within the same AFC quartile had higher number of retrieved oocytes and cumulative live-birth rate. Subjects discordant in AMH and AFC had intermediate OSI which differed significantly compared to those concordant in AMH and AFC on either end. OSI of those discordant in AMH and AFC did not differ significantly whether either AMH or AFC quartile was higher than the other. Conclusions When AMH and AFC are discordant, the ovarian responsiveness is intermediate between that when both are concordant on either end. Women having higher AMH within the same AFC quartile had higher number of retrieved oocytes and cumulative live-birth rate. PMID:25313856

  6. Transfer of cryopreserved - thawed embryos in hCG induced natural or clomiphene citrate cycles yields similar live birth rates in normo-ovulatory women

    PubMed Central

    Fatemi, Human M.; Blockeel, Christophe; Stoop, Dominic; Albuarki, H.; Verheyen, Greta; Devroey, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this retrospective analysis is to compare the efficiency of hCG-induced natural and Clomiphene citrate (CC) cycles in normovulatory patients undergoing frozen embryo transfer (FET). Materials and methods It was retrospectively conducted in the Dutchspeaking Free University of Brussels and covered the period from April 2003 to August 2006. In particular, 428 day-three FET cycles belonging to the two comparative groups were recruited. Of these FET cycles, 261 were hCG-induced natural and 167 clomiphene citrate-induced cycles. Results No statistically significant difference was observed in live birth rate between CC and natural group (22.2% versus 22.6%), respectively (P = 0.708). Except for the number of embryos transferred (1.72 ± 0.46 for CC group versus 1.63 ± 0.48 for natural group, P = 0.045), no other parameters seem to influence the outcome. Discussion To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to investigate which of the above mentioned regimens is optimal for normo-ovulatory women in FET cycles. A similar delivery outcome was observed for hCG–induced natural and CC-induced cycles used for endometrial preparation in FET. PMID:20703796

  7. Birth control and family planning

    MedlinePlus

    ... method prevent pregnancy? To tell how well a method works, look at the number of pregnancies in 100 ... rate for reversal is not high. BIRTH CONTROL METHODS THAT DO NOT WORK VERY WELL Withdrawal of the penis from the ...

  8. Clara's birth.

    PubMed

    Thorens, S; Richer, D; Bel, A; Bel, B

    1999-01-01

    Advocacy for homebirth is based on the strong assumption that birthing is a physiological process and does not require medical interventions unless things turn "wrong." Let us assume that something might always go wrong, for instance during Clara's birth when the placenta was still retained after three hours. What needs to be done? The moment the midwife entered the house she was endowed with a responsibility for any problem caused by her failure to give proper guidance. With this weight on her shoulder, and according to her training and experience, there was no other way for her than to suggest an intervention regarding the placenta. The two midwives, B, and C., might not agree on risk estimations, the nature of the intervention, whether it should be performed at home or in a hospital. The estimation of abnormalities, evaluation of risks and the procedures with which to handle them are the main practical difference between classic obstetrics and non-interventionist midwifery--by analogy, between allopathy and naturopathy. The rest (positive thinking) is basically literature. A delivery will not remain normal just because we decide it "must" be physiological. Dr. Barua, a professor of obstetrics in Pondicherry, pointed out that normal deliveries are rare--fewer than 10 percent in South India. What we have instead is either pathological or "natural" deliveries in which regenerative processes take care of abnormal situations. Unless she has developed sensitive hands, a birth assistant or midwife must rely on monitoring procedures to evaluate deviations from the normal process. Even with the greatest care, these procedures are intrusive in that they disconnect the parturient from her own sensations. While successful unattended homebirth stories emphasise the extraordinary power and sensitivity of a birthing woman, the whole dream seems to collapse in abnormal or pathological cases. It would have collapsed for Sonia as well, had she not discarded negative suggestions

  9. Birth Order and Activity Level in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Warren O.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Studied 7,018 children between birth and 7 years and 81 children of 5-8 years to test the hypothesis that birth order is negatively related to motor activity level. Activity level declined linearly across birth position, so that early-borns were rated as more active than later-borns. (RJC)

  10. Planned home birth: benefits, risks, and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Ruth; Ackerson, Kelly; Kane Low, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    While the number of women in developed countries who plan a home birth is low, the number has increased over the past decade in the US, and there is evidence that more women would choose this option if it were readily available. Rates of planned home birth range from 0.1% in Sweden to 20% in the Netherlands, where home birth has always been an integrated part of the maternity system. Benefits of planned home birth include lower rates of maternal morbidity, such as postpartum hemorrhage, and perineal lacerations, and lower rates of interventions such as episiotomy, instrumental vaginal birth, and cesarean birth. Women who have a planned home birth have high rates of satisfaction related to home being a more comfortable environment and feeling more in control of the experience. While maternal outcomes related to planned birth at home have been consistently positive within the literature, reported neonatal outcomes during planned home birth are more variable. While the majority of investigations of planned home birth compared with hospital birth have found no difference in intrapartum fetal deaths, neonatal deaths, low Apgar scores, or admission to the neonatal intensive care unit, there have been reports in the US, as well as a meta-analysis, that indicated more adverse neonatal outcomes associated with home birth. There are multiple challenges associated with research designs focused on planned home birth, in part because conducting randomized controlled trials is not feasible. This report will review current research studies published between 2004 and 2014 related to maternal and neonatal outcomes of planned home birth, and discuss strengths, limitations, and opportunities regarding planned home birth. PMID:25914559

  11. Planned home birth: benefits, risks, and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Zielinski, Ruth; Ackerson, Kelly; Kane Low, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    While the number of women in developed countries who plan a home birth is low, the number has increased over the past decade in the US, and there is evidence that more women would choose this option if it were readily available. Rates of planned home birth range from 0.1% in Sweden to 20% in the Netherlands, where home birth has always been an integrated part of the maternity system. Benefits of planned home birth include lower rates of maternal morbidity, such as postpartum hemorrhage, and perineal lacerations, and lower rates of interventions such as episiotomy, instrumental vaginal birth, and cesarean birth. Women who have a planned home birth have high rates of satisfaction related to home being a more comfortable environment and feeling more in control of the experience. While maternal outcomes related to planned birth at home have been consistently positive within the literature, reported neonatal outcomes during planned home birth are more variable. While the majority of investigations of planned home birth compared with hospital birth have found no difference in intrapartum fetal deaths, neonatal deaths, low Apgar scores, or admission to the neonatal intensive care unit, there have been reports in the US, as well as a meta-analysis, that indicated more adverse neonatal outcomes associated with home birth. There are multiple challenges associated with research designs focused on planned home birth, in part because conducting randomized controlled trials is not feasible. This report will review current research studies published between 2004 and 2014 related to maternal and neonatal outcomes of planned home birth, and discuss strengths, limitations, and opportunities regarding planned home birth. PMID:25914559

  12. Rates of obstetric intervention and associated perinatal mortality and morbidity among low-risk women giving birth in private and public hospitals in NSW (2000–2008): a linked data population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Dahlen, Hannah G; Tracy, Sally; Tracy, Mark; Bisits, Andrew; Brown, Chris; Thornton, Charlene

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the rates of obstetric intervention and associated perinatal mortality and morbidity in the first 28 days among low-risk women giving birth in private and public hospitals in NSW (2000–2008). Design Linked data population-based retrospective cohort study involving five data sets. Setting New South Wales, Australia. Participants 691 738 women giving birth to a singleton baby during the period 2000–2008. Main outcome measures Rates of neonatal resuscitation, perinatal mortality, neonatal admission following birth and readmission to hospital in the first 28 days of life in public and private obstetric units. Results Rates of obstetric intervention among low-risk women were higher in private hospitals, with primiparous women 20% less likely to have a normal vaginal birth compared to the public sector. Neonates born in private hospitals were more likely to be less than 40 weeks; more likely to have some form of resuscitation; less likely to have an Apgar <7 at 5 min. Neonates born in private hospitals to low-risk mothers were more likely to have a morbidity attached to the birth admission and to be readmitted to hospital in the first 28 days for birth trauma (5% vs 3.6%); hypoxia (1.7% vs 1.2%); jaundice (4.8% vs 3%); feeding difficulties (4% vs 2.4%) ; sleep/behavioural issues (0.2% vs 0.1%); respiratory conditions (1.2% vs 0.8%) and circumcision (5.6 vs 0.3%) but they were less likely to be admitted for prophylactic antibiotics (0.2% vs 0.6%) and for socioeconomic circumstances (0.1% vs 0.7%). Rates of perinatal mortality were not statistically different between the two groups. Conclusions For low-risk women, care in a private hospital, which includes higher rates of intervention, appears to be associated with higher rates of morbidity seen in the neonate and no evidence of a reduction in perinatal mortality. PMID:24848087

  13. Falls and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... rises with age. Click for more information Falls Lead to Fractures, Trauma Each year, more than 1. ... and injury deaths. Fractures caused by falls can lead to hospital stays and disability. Most often, fall- ...

  14. Home Improvements Prevent Falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... on. Feature: Falls and Older Adults Home Improvements Prevent Falls Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table of Contents ... or home modification programs to help older people prevent falls. Check with your local health department, senior ...

  15. Falls in Nursing Homes

    MedlinePlus

    ... for health care providers. Learn More Falls in Nursing Homes Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... 5 Why do falls occur more often in nursing homes? Falling can be a sign of other ...

  16. Associations of deliberate self-harm with loneliness, self-rated health and life satisfaction in adolescence: Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 Study

    PubMed Central

    Rönkä, Anna Reetta; Taanila, Anja; Koiranen, Markku; Sunnari, Vappu; Rautio, Arja

    2013-01-01

    Background Deliberate self-harm (DSH) is an act with a non-fatal outcome in which an individual initiates a behavior, such as self-cutting or burning, with the intention of inflicting harm on his or her self. Interpersonal difficulties have been shown to be a risk factor for DSH, but the association between subjective experience of loneliness and DSH have rarely been examined. Objective To examine the frequency of DSH or its ideation and loneliness among 16-year-olds to determine if associations exist between DSH and loneliness, loneliness-related factors, self-rated health and satisfaction with life. Design The study population (n=7,014) was taken from Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (N=9,432). Cross-tabulations were used to describe the frequency of DSH by factors selected by gender. Logistic regression analysis was used to describe the association between DSH and loneliness and other selected factors. Results Nearly 8.7% (n=608) of adolescents reported DSH often/sometimes during the preceding 6 months, with girls (n=488, 13.4%) reporting DSH almost 4 times than that of boys (n=120, 3.6%). Nearly 3.2% of the adolescents (girls: n=149, 4.1%; boys: n=72, 2.2%) expressed that the statement I feel lonely was very/often true, and 26.4% (girls: n=1,265, 34.8%; boys: n=585, 17.4%) expressed that the statement was somewhat/sometimes true. Logistic regression showed that those who reported to be very/often lonely (girls: odds ratio (OR) 4.1; boys: OR 3.2), somewhat/sometimes lonely (girls: OR 2.4; boys: OR 2.4) were dissatisfied with life (girls: OR 3.3; boys: OR 3.3), felt unliked (girls: OR 2.2; boys: OR 6.0) and had moderate self-rated health (girls: OR 2.0; boys: OR 1.7), were more likely to report DSH than those without these feelings. Conclusion The results show that loneliness is associated with DSH, and that loneliness should be considered as a risk for individual health and well-being. PMID:23984286

  17. Pregnancy rate and birth rate of calves from a large-scale IVF program using reverse-sorted semen in Bos indicus, Bos indicus-taurus, and Bos taurus cattle.

    PubMed

    Morotti, F; Sanches, B V; Pontes, J H F; Basso, A C; Siqueira, E R; Lisboa, L A; Seneda, M M

    2014-03-15

    Obtaining sexed sperm from previously frozen doses (reverse-sorted semen [RSS]) provides an important advantage because of the possibility of using the semen of bulls with desired genetic attributes that have died or have become infertile but from whom frozen semen is available. We report the efficiency of RSS on the pregnancy rate and birth rate of calves in a large-scale program using ovum pick-up and in vitro embryo production (IVEP) from Bos indicus, Bos indicus-taurus, and Bos taurus cattle. From 645 ovum pick-up procedures (Holstein, Gir, and Nelore), 9438 viable oocytes were recovered. A dose of frozen semen (Holstein, Nelore, Brahman, Gir, and Braford) was thawed, and the sperm were sex-sorted and cooled for use in IVF. Additionally, IVF with sperm from three Holstein bulls with freeze-thawed, sex-sorted (RSS) or sex-sorted, freeze-thawed (control) was tested. A total of 2729 embryos were produced, exhibiting a mean blastocyst rate of 29%. Heifers and cows selected for adequate body condition, estrus, and health received 2404 embryos, and 60 days later, a 41% average pregnancy rate was observed. A total of 966 calves were born, and 910 were of a predetermined sex, with an average of 94% accuracy in determining the sex. Despite the lower blastocyst rate with freeze-thawed, sex-sorted semen compared with sex-sorted semen, (P < 0.05), the pregnancy rate (bull I, 45% vs. 40%; II, 35% vs. 50%; and III, 47% vs. 48% for RSS and control, respectively; P > 0.05) and sex-sorted efficiency (bull I, 93% vs. 98%; II, 96% vs. 94%; and III, 96% vs. 97% for RSS and control, respectively; P > 0.05) were similar for each of the three bulls regardless of the sperm type used in the IVF. The sexing of previously frozen semen, associated with IVEP, produces viable embryos with a pregnancy rate of up to 40%, and calves of the desired sex are born even if the paternal bull has acquired some infertility, died, or is located a long distance from the sexing laboratory. Furthermore

  18. Turning the Tide for Birth

    PubMed Central

    Budin, Wendy C.

    2010-01-01

    In this column, the editor of The Journal of Perinatal Education discusses the escalating cesarean surgery rate and the need for evidence-based practice changes that support vaginal birth after cesarean. The editor also describes the contents of this issue, which offer a broad range of resources, research, and inspiration for childbirth educators in their efforts to promote natural, safe, and healthy birth practices. PMID:20498750

  19. Mathematics Deficiencies in Children with Very Low Birth Weight or Very Preterm Birth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, H. Gerry; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Anderson, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Children with very low birth weight (VLBW, less than 1500 g) or very preterm birth (VPTB, less than 32 weeks gestational age or GA) have more mathematics disabilities or deficiencies (MD) and higher rates of mathematics learning disabilities (MLD) than normal birth weight term-born children (NBW, greater than 2500 g and greater than 36 weeks GA).…

  20. Birth control pills - combination

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000655.htm Birth control pills - combination To use the sharing features on ... frequency of your menstrual cycles. Types of Combination Birth Control Pills Birth control pills come in packages. You ...

  1. Birth control pills - overview

    MedlinePlus

    Contraception - pills - hormonal methods; Hormonal birth control methods; Birth control pills; Contraceptive pills; BCP; OCP ... Birth control pills are also called oral contraceptives or just "the pill." A health care provider must prescribe ...

  2. Essure Permanent Birth Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... Implants and Prosthetics Essure Permanent Birth Control Essure Permanent Birth Control Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... evaluation of the Essure System Essure is a permanent birth control method for women (female sterilization). Implantation of Essure ...

  3. Birth defects monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Klingberg, M.A.; Papier, C.M.; Hart, J.

    1983-01-01

    Population monitoring of birth defects provides a means for detecting relative changes in their frequency. Many varied systems have been developed throughout the world since the thalidomide tragedy of the early 1960s. Although it is difficult to pinpoint specific teratogenic agents based on rises in rates of a particular defect or a constellation of defects, monitoring systems can provide clues for hypothesis testing in epidemiological investigations. International coordination of efforts in this area resulted in the founding of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Monitoring Systems (ICBDMS) in 1974. In this paper we will describe the functions and basic requirements of monitoring systems in general, and look at the development and activities of the ICBDMS. A review of known and suspected environmental teratogenic agents (eg, chemical, habitual, biological, physical, and nutritional) is also presented.

  4. Correlates of Low Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Hazarika, Jayant; Dutta, Sudip

    2014-01-01

    Background. Low birth weight is the single most important factor that determines the chances of child survival. A recent annual estimation indicated that nearly 8 million infants are born with low birth weight in India. The infant mortality rate is about 20 times greater for all low birth weight babies. Methods. A matched case–control study was conducted on 130 low birth weight babies and 130 controls for 12 months (from August 1, 2007, to July 31, 2008) at the Central Referral Hospital, Tadong, East District of Sikkim, India. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 10.0 for Windows. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were applied. A P value less than .05 was considered as significant. Results. In the first phase of this study, 711 newborn babies, borne by 680 mothers, were screened at the Central Referral Hospital of Sikkim during the 1-year study period, and the proportion of low birth weight babies was determined to be 130 (18.3%). Conclusion. Multiple logistic regression analysis, conducted in the second phase, revealed that low or middle socioeconomic status, maternal underweight, twin pregnancy, previous history of delivery of low birth weight babies, smoking and consumption of alcohol during pregnancy, and congenital anomalies had independent significant association with low birth weight in this study population.

  5. Automatic fall detectors and the fear of falling.

    PubMed

    Brownsell, Simon; Hawley, Mark S

    2004-01-01

    We studied the effect of automatic fall detection units on the fear of falling. Participants were community alarm users living in the community aged over 75 years or those aged 60-74 years who had experienced a fall in the previous six months. Of those approached, 31% consented to take part; the main reason given for potential participants declining involvement was that they were happy with the technology they already had. Subjects were assigned to a control group (n = 21) or intervention group (n = 34) based on age, the number of self-reported falls in the previous six months and their score on the self-administered Falls Efficacy Scale (FES), which measures fear of falling on a scale of 0-100, with higher scores indicating less fear. The monitoring period lasted a mean of 17 weeks (SD 3.1). There was no significant difference between the intervention and control groups in their mean ratings of fear of falls (40.3 vs 37.5, difference 2.8, 95% CI 6.2 to 11.8), health-related quality of life or morale. Differences in fear of falling between an intervention subgroup who wore their detector at least occasionally (62%) and those who did not (38%) suggested that some people may benefit from a fall detector while others may lose confidence if they are provided with one. Most users who wore their detectors at least occasionally felt more confident and independent and considered that the detector improved their safety. PMID:15494083

  6. Birth control pill overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Birth control pills, also called oral contraceptives, are prescription medicines used to prevent pregnancy. Birth control pill overdose occurs when someone takes more than the normal or recommended ...

  7. Fall Enrollment Report. 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes and analyzes fall enrollment in Iowa's community colleges. Each year, Iowa's 15 community colleges submit data on enrollment on the 10th business day of the fall semester. Some highlights from this report include: (1) Fall 2014 enrollment was 93,772 students--a decline of 0.49 percent from last fall; (2) Enrollment continues…

  8. Geographic distribution of unexplained low birth weight

    SciTech Connect

    Jason, C.J.; Samuhel, M.E.; Glick, B.J.; Welsh, A.K.

    1986-08-01

    Low birth weight, largely in the form of intrauterine growth retardation, has been used in animal studies as a sensitive indicator of adverse reproductive outcomes to suspect toxic agents. Methodological problems have severely curtailed studies of low birth weight for human risk assessment. For white and black births, we explore the use of statistical techniques to adjust for maternal risk factors and to isolate US counties having a significantly elevated rate of unexplained low-birth-weight births in 1979. The data are derived from individual birth certificate information made available by the National Center for Health Statistics. Removing variation due to socioeconomic and other intrinsic factors available on birth certificates, clusters of high-risk counties appear. This paper discusses the methodology used to identify these counties.

  9. Using Geographical Information Systems to Explore Disparities in Preterm Birth Rates Among Foreign-born and U.S.-born Black Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, Joan Rosen

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine spatial patterns of neighborhood contextual factors of stress with preterm birth (PTB) and nativity (foreign-born and U.S.-born) among Black mothers. Design Descriptive geographic-spatial research. Setting & Participants Births to Philadelphia residents during 2003–2005 in the context of Philadelphia residential neighborhoods (N = 350) were studied. Methods All data were aggregated to neighborhood levels (census tracts). Maps were created to assess geographic-spatial patterns. A geographic information system (GIS) database was created that imported geo-coded data on births, crime (assaults with guns and domestic abuse), poverty, race, and nativity (foreign-born vs. U.S.-born). Results Clear visual patterns of “bad” neighborhoods emerged and were significantly associated with higher prevalence of PTB for foreign-born Black and U.S.-born Black mothers (p < .0001). Conclusions This study demonstrated how GIS visually clarified important spatial patterns of adverse living conditions and PTB prevalence. Nurses can use GIS to better understand living environments of mothers and their families and to target interventions in geographical areas with the greatest service needs. Further research on individual and contextual factors is warranted to address the observed health disparities among the heterogeneous groups of foreign-born Black mothers. Despite limitations of aggregate data, it is clear that where mothers live matters. This has important implications for nursing practice and policy. PMID:22273411

  10. Birth placement and child health.

    PubMed

    Fergusson, D M; Horwood, J; Shannon, F T

    1981-07-22

    The standards of health and health care for a sample of 1265 Christchurch children during the period birth to three years were examined. There was a systematic tendency for levels of health care and morbidity to vary with the child's birth placement: in general adopted children had the best standard of health care and the lowest rates of morbidity; children who entered single parent families at birth had the poorest standards of health care and the highest rates of morbidity. Statistical control for family social background including maternal age, education, ethnic status, family size and changes of residence tended to reduce the size of the observed differences. However, even when the results were controlled for these factors children in single parent families still has depressed levels of preventive health care and higher rates of hospital admission. Possible explanations of the differences are discussed. PMID:6944632

  11. Cesarean Birth

    MedlinePlus

    ... detect an abnormal heart rate. • Problems with the placenta • A large baby • Breech presentation • Maternal infections, such ... umbilical cord will be cut, and then the placenta will be removed. The uterus will be closed ...

  12. Experimental Analysis of the Effects of Vapor Flow Characteristics on Falling Film Absorption Rate in NH3-H2O Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Yong Tae; Fujita, Yasushi; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    In this paper, experimental analysis was performed for ammonia-water falling film absorption process in a plate heat exchanger with enhanced surfaces such as offset strip fin. This paper examined the effect of vapor flow characteristics, inlet subcooling of the liquid flow and inlet concentration difference on heat and mass transfer performance. The inlet liquid concentration was kept constant at 0% while the inlet vapor concentration was varied from70. 36 to 77.31% It was found that before absorption started there was rectification process at the top of the test section by the inlet subcooling effect. Water desorption phenomenon was found near the bottom of test section. The lower inlet liquid temperature, the higher Nusselt and Sherwood numbers were obtained. NusseIt and Sherwood correlations were developed as functions of vapor Reynolds number ReV, inlet subcooling and inlet concentration difference with ±10% and ±5% error bands, respectively.

  13. Robyn's Birthing Story.

    PubMed

    Murgio, Mariam Noel

    2014-01-01

    This "Celebrate Birth!" column describes the experience of a long-time childbirth educator who attended the birth of her granddaughter Cora, her daughter Robyn's second hospital birth. She discusses how Robyn's instincts and confidence helped to overcome institutional issues to provide a good and safe birthing experience. PMID:25411535

  14. Primate disease and breeding rates.

    PubMed

    Chamove, A; Cameron, G; Nash, V

    1979-10-01

    33 species were compared for 12 disease categories over 3 years of laboratory housing. There were low correlations between popularity, birth, death, and illness rates. Highest rates were: birth, Macaca nemestrina; illness, Pongo pygmaeus; death, Cercopithecus aethiops. Lowest rates were: birth, Lemur catta; illness, Sanguinus mystax; death, Galago crassicaudatus. Galago crassicaudatus and Macaca fasicularus had low disease and high birth rates. PMID:119108

  15. Cesarean Birth: A Journey in Historical Trends.

    PubMed

    Cypher, Rebecca L

    2016-01-01

    Thirty years ago seems like yesterday: a time of immense socioeconomic changes, explosion of an "Internet" computer concept, and identification of human immunodeficiency virus. Like all events of the past, transformations in obstetrics developed over time. Cesarean birth can be better understood in a broader context when one considers how the art of obstetric practice has evolved. Cesarean birth progressed from delivering a fetus perimortem or postmortem to a time of operative births that simultaneously juggle a woman's safety, satisfaction, and freedom of choice concerning birth options. Thirty years of increasing cesarean birth rates have prompted government agencies, national organizations, state-level perinatal collaborative groups, and experts to address these rates and the impact on maternal-child health and healthcare systems. The purpose of this article is to explain cesarean birth's remarkable impact on obstetrics by reviewing key historical periods, current advances, and upcoming trends. PMID:27465462

  16. A population-based study of birth defects in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Thong, M K; Ho, J J; Khatijah, N N

    2005-01-01

    Birth defects are one of the leading causes of paediatric disability and mortality in developed and developing countries. Data on birth defects from population-based studies originating from developing countries are lacking. One of the objectives of this study was to determine the epidemiology of major birth defects in births during the perinatal period in Kinta district, Perak, Malaysia over a 14-month period, using a population-based birth defect register. There were 253 babies with major birth defects in 17,720 births, giving an incidence of 14.3/1000 births, a birth prevalence of 1 in 70. There were 80 babies with multiple birth defects and 173 with isolated birth defects. The exact syndromic diagnosis of the babies with multiple birth defects could not be identified in 18 (22.5%) babies. The main organ systems involved in the isolated birth defects were cardiovascular (13.8%), cleft lip and palate (11.9%), clubfeet (9.1%), central nervous system (CNS) (including neural tube defects) (7.9%), musculoskeletal (5.5%) and gastrointestinal systems (4.7%), and hydrops fetalis (4.3%). The babies with major birth defects were associated with lower birth weights, premature deliveries, higher Caesarean section rates, prolonged hospitalization and increased specialist care. Among the cohort of babies with major birth defects, the mortality rate was 25.2% during the perinatal period. Mothers with affected babies were associated with advanced maternal age, birth defects themselves or their relatives but not in their other offspring, and significantly higher rates of previous abortions. The consanguinity rate of 2.4% was twice that of the control population. It is concluded that a birth defects register is needed to monitor these developments and future interventional trials are needed to reduce birth defects in Malaysia. PMID:16096215

  17. Grade Distributions for the Fall of 1990 and 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, John

    A study was undertaken at Georgia's Gainesville College to compare the distribution of grades awarded in academic courses in fall 1990 with those in fall 1996. Study findings included the following: (1) the overall college-wide pass rate in academic courses rose from 65.1% in fall 1990 to 68.6% in fall 1996; (2) excluding students who withdrew by…

  18. Falls in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Hodgetts, P. Geoffrey

    1992-01-01

    Falls are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly. One in three older people will fall every year. Assessing intrinsic (patient) factors and extrinsic (environmental) factors that increase the risk of falling is an important part of caring for the elderly. Physicians can readily assess balance and mobility as part of a preventive approach. PMID:21221300

  19. Birth control over 30.

    PubMed

    Asnes, M

    1994-07-01

    Among 30-40 year old women, 40% of pregnancies are unplanned, which is indicative of the unreliability of the birth control methods they are using. The 1992 Ortho Birth Control Study interviewed almost 7000 women, of whom 8% listed withdrawal and 4% listed the rhythm method. These two methods have failure rates of 24% and 19%, respectively. Birth control methods often disappoint the users and increasingly they turn to sterilization. 48% of married women aged 15-44 had themselves been sterilized or had a sterilized partner in the Ortho survey. Although reversal of tubal ligation succeeds in 43-88% of cases, conception cannot be guaranteed. For women over the age of 30 who are healthy and do not smoke, low-estrogen or no-estrogen oral contraceptive pills are considered safe. Taking the pill also helps prevent ovarian and endometrial cancer. The failure rate is 6%. Barrier methods also offer protection from sexually transmitted diseases including HIV. Condoms are favored by 33% of unmarried women and 19% of married women. Sexually active 40-44 year old unmarried women run a 14-19% risk of contracting a sexually transmitted disease (STD) in a 12-month period. Diaphragms offer some protection against STDs, but their failure rate is 18%. IUDs are regaining popularity, but only 1% of women use them (ParaGard T380A or Progestasert). Pelvic inflammatory disease is the reason: a 1992 study showed that 0.97% of women developed it within 20 days of use. Norplant is a long-term implant containing levonorgestrel with a failure rate of 0.5%. A 1993 study followed 1253 implant users over 12 months and found a very low rate of pregnancy, but 75% experienced some side effects during the first year. About half of the women using Norplant removed it after 2.5 years because of irregular bleeding. Depo-Provera is an injectable administered every 3 months, but after removal it can take up to a year for ovulation to return. Side effects may include hair loss and weight gain; and links to

  20. Impact of multiple births on late and moderate prematurity.

    PubMed

    Refuerzo, Jerrie S

    2012-06-01

    Multiple gestations have an increased risk of pregnancy complications compared with singletons. Delay in childbearing and assisted reproductive techniques have remained common reasons for the increase in multiple gestations over the last few decades. Higher rates of both spontaneous and indicated preterm birth in twins and triplets lead to a significant proportion of the moderate preterm birth and late preterm birth rates. The article is a review of the causes of preterm birth and morbidities associated with these pregnancies. PMID:22364678

  1. Birth Planning Values and Decisions: Preliminary Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townes, Brenda D.; And Others

    The values and processes which underlie people's birth planning decisions were studied via decision theory. Sixty-three married couples including 23 with no children, 33 with one child, and 27 with two children were presented with a large set of personal values related to birth planning decisions. Individuals rated the importance or utility of…

  2. Preterm Birth: Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Marilee C.; Cristofalo, Elizabeth; Kim, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth is associated with greater difficulty with transitions from childhood to adolescence to adulthood. Adolescents and young adults born preterm have higher rates of cerebral palsy, intellectual disability, cognitive impairment, learning disability, executive dysfunction, attention deficit disorder, and social-emotional difficulties than…

  3. Planned hospital birth versus planned home birth

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Ole; Clausen, Jette A

    2014-01-01

    Background Observational studies of increasingly better quality and in different settings suggest that planned home birth in many places can be as safe as planned hospital birth and with less intervention and fewer complications. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 1998. Objectives To assess the effects of planned hospital birth compared with planned home birth in selected low-risk women, assisted by an experienced midwife with collaborative medical back up in case transfer should be necessary. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (30 March 2012) and contacted editors and authors involved with possible trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials comparing planned hospital birth with planned home birth in low-risk women as described in the objectives. Data collection and analysis The two review authors as independently as possible assessed trial quality and extracted data. We contacted study authors for additional information. Main results Two trials met the inclusion criteria but only one trial involving 11 women provided some outcome data and was included. The evidence from this trial was of moderate quality and too small to allow conclusions to be drawn. Authors’ conclusions There is no strong evidence from randomised trials to favour either planned hospital birth or planned home birth for low-risk pregnant women. However, the trials show that women living in areas where they are not well informed about home birth may welcome ethically well-designed trials that would ensure an informed choice. As the quality of evidence in favour of home birth from observational studies seems to be steadily increasing, it might be as important to prepare a regularly updated systematic review including observational studies as described in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions as to attempt to set up new randomised controlled trials. PMID:22972043

  4. 5 CFR 9701.336 - Treatment of employees whose pay does not fall below the minimum adjusted rate of their band.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Locality and Special Rate Supplements § 9701.336 Treatment of employees whose pay does not...

  5. 5 CFR 9701.336 - Treatment of employees whose pay does not fall below the minimum adjusted rate of their band.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Locality and Special Rate Supplements § 9701.336 Treatment of employees whose pay does not...

  6. 5 CFR 9701.336 - Treatment of employees whose pay does not fall below the minimum adjusted rate of their band.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Locality and Special Rate Supplements § 9701.336 Treatment of employees whose pay does not...

  7. Facilitating home birth.

    PubMed

    Finigan, Valerie; Chadderton, Diane

    2015-06-01

    The birth of a baby is a family experience. However, in the United Kingdom birth often occurs outside the family environment, in hospital. Both home and hospital births have risks and benefits, but research shows that, for most women, it is as safe to give birth at home as it is in hospital. Women report home-birth to be satisfying with lowered risks of intervention and less likelihood of being separated from their family. It is also more cost effective for the National Health Service. Yet, whilst midwives are working hard to promote home birth as an option, it remains controversial. The aim of this paper is to raise awareness of the safety of home birth and the needs of women and midwives when a home birth is chosen. It provides an overview of care required and the role of the midwife in the ensuring care is woman-centred and personalised. PMID:26320334

  8. Birth control pills overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002599.htm Birth control pill overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Birth control pills, also called oral contraceptives, are prescription medicines ...

  9. Vaginal birth - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100198.htm Vaginal birth - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features ... vaginal delivery. Please keep in mind that every birth is unique, and your labor and delivery may ...

  10. Warning Signs After Birth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pregnancy > Postpartum care > Warning signs after birth Warning signs after birth E-mail to a friend Please ... infection Postpartum bleeding Postpartum depression (PPD) What warning signs should you look for? Call your provider if ...

  11. Preterm Labor and Birth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Preterm Labor and Birth: Condition Information Skip sharing on social ... links Share this: Page Content What is preterm labor and birth? In general, a normal human pregnancy ...

  12. How Fast Does a Building Fall?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Mark

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the time required for a tower block to collapse is calculated. The tower collapses progressively, with one floor falling onto the floor below, causing it to fall. The rate of collapse is found to be not much slower than freefall. The calculation is an engaging and relevant application of Newton's laws, suitable for undergraduate…

  13. Birth Control Explorer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Relationships STIs Media Facebook Twitter Tumblr Shares · 5 Birth Control Explorer Sort by all methods most effective methods ... MORE You are here Home » Birth Control Explorer Birth Control Explorer If you’re having sex —or if ...

  14. Facts about Birth Defects

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Facts about Birth Defects Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... having a baby born without a birth defect. Birth Defects Are Common Every 4 ½ minutes, a baby ...

  15. Birth Control Pill

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1 • 2 • 3 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC About Birth Control Birth Control Methods: How Well Do They Work? ... You Need a Pelvic Exam to Get Birth Control? How Can I Get on the Pill Without Telling My Parents? How Can I Get the Pill if I ...

  16. Encyclopedia of Birth Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rengel, Marian

    This encyclopedia brings together in more than 200 entries, arranged in A-to-Z format, a portrait of the complex modern issue that birth control has become with advances in medicine and biochemistry during the 20th century. It is aimed at both the student and the consumer of birth control. Entries cover the following topics: birth control…

  17. Upper ocean stratification and sea ice growth rates during the summer-fall transition, as revealed by Elephant seal foraging in the Adélie Depression, East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, G. D.; Hindell, M.; Houssais, M.-N.; Tamura, T.; Field, I. C.

    2010-11-01

    Southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina), fitted with Conductivity-Temperature-Depth sensors at Macquarie Island in January 2005 and 2010, collected unique oceanographic observations of the Adélie and George V Land continental shelf (140-148° E) during the summer-fall transition (late February through April). This is a key region of dense shelf water formation from enhanced sea ice growth/brine-rejection in the local coastal polynyas. In 2005 two seals occupied the continental shelf break near the grounded icebergs at the northern end of the Mertz Glacier Tongue for nearly two weeks at the onset of sea ice growth. One of the seals migrated north thereafter and the other headed west, possibly utilising the Antarctic Slope Front current near the continental shelf break. In 2010, after that years calving of the Mertz Glacier Tongue, two seals migrated to the same region but penetrated much further southwest across the Adélie Depression and occupied the Commonwealth Bay polynya from March through April. Here we present unique observations of the regional oceanography during the summer-fall transition, in particular (a) the zonal distribution of modified Circumpolar Deep Water exchange across the shelf break, (b) the upper ocean stratification across the Adélie Depression, including alongside iceberg C-28 that calved from the Mertz Glacier and (c) the convective overturning of the deep remnant seasonal mixed layer in Commonwealth Bay from sea ice growth (7.5-12.5 cm s-1). Heat and freshwater budgets to 200-300 m are used to estimate the ocean heat content, heat flux and sea ice growth rates. We speculate that the continuous foraging by the seals within Commonwealth Bay during the summer-fall transition was due to favorable feeding conditions resulting from the convective overturning of the deep seasonal mixed layer and chlorophyll maximum that is a reported feature of this location.

  18. Strategies to Prevent Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Newnham, John P.; Dickinson, Jan E.; Hart, Roger J.; Pennell, Craig E.; Arrese, Catherine A.; Keelan, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    After several decades of research, we now have evidence that at least six interventions are suitable for immediate use in contemporary clinical practice within high-resource settings and can be expected to safely reduce the rate of preterm birth. These interventions involve strategies to prevent non-medically indicated late preterm birth; use of maternal progesterone supplementation; surgical closure of the cervix with cerclage; prevention of exposure of pregnant women to cigarette smoke; judicious use of fertility treatments; and dedicated preterm birth prevention clinics. Quantification of the extent of success is difficult to predict and will be dependent on other clinical, cultural, societal, and economic factors operating in each environment. Further success can be anticipated in the coming years as other research discoveries are translated into clinical practice, including new approaches to treating intra-uterine infection, improvements in maternal nutrition, and lifestyle modifications to ameliorate maternal stress. The widespread use of human papillomavirus vaccination in girls and young women will decrease the need for surgical interventions on the cervix and can be expected to further reduce the risk of early birth. Together, this array of clinical interventions, each based on a substantial body of evidence, is likely to reduce rates of preterm birth and prevent death and disability in large numbers of children. The process begins with an acceptance that early birth is not an inevitable and natural feature of human reproduction. Preventative strategies are now available and need to be applied. The best outcomes may come from developing integrated strategies designed specifically for each health-care environment. PMID:25477878

  19. Birth outcomes in Colorado's undocumented immigrant population

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Mary M; Westfall, John M; Bublitz, Caroline; Battaglia, Catherine; Fickenscher, Alexandra

    2005-01-01

    Background The birth outcomes of undocumented women have not been systematically studied on a large scale. The growing number of undocumented women giving birth in the United States has important implications for clinical care and public health policy. The objective of this study was to describe birth outcomes of undocumented immigrants in Colorado. Methods Retrospective descriptive study of singleton births to 5961 undocumented women using birth certificate data for 1998–1999. Results Undocumented mothers were younger, less educated, and more likely to be single. They had higher rates of anemia, were less likely to gain enough weight, and less likely to receive early prenatal care. They were much less likely to use alcohol or tobacco. Undocumented women had a lower rate of low birth weight (5.3% v 6.5%, P < .001) or preterm infants (12.9% v 14.5%; p = .001). Undocumented women experienced higher rates of labor complications including excessive bleeding (2.3% v 0.8%, p < .001) and fetal distress (8.7% v 3.6%, p < .001). Conclusion Undocumented women have lower rates of preterm delivery and low birth weight infants, but higher rates of pregnancy related risk factors. Higher prevalence of some risk factors which are amenable to medical intervention reveals the need for improved prenatal care in this group. PMID:16202159

  20. Louisa’s Birth

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    In this column, Rachel Mann shares the story of the birth of her third daughter, Louisa. After a previous pregnancy loss, Mann chose to give birth to her third baby in a hospital with attending care from an obstetrician. In spite of the high-risk medical environment, she was able to have an unmedicated, powerful birth. Mann’s careful planning, the support of her husband and doula, and her confidence in her ability to give birth helped make Louisa’s birth all that Mann hoped it would be. PMID:22942619

  1. Trends in contraceptive use and distribution of births with demographic risk factors in Ethiopia: a sub-national analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shiferaw, Solomon; Abdullah, Muna; Mekonnen, Yared; Maïga, Abdoulaye; Akinyemi, Akanni; Amouzou, Agbessi; Friedman, Howard; Barros, Aluisio J. D.; Hounton, Sennen

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence shows that family planning contributes to the decline in child mortality by decreasing the proportions of births that are considered high risk. The main objective of the present analysis was to examine the trends in use of modern contraceptives and their relationship with total fertility rate (TFR) and distribution of births by demographic risk factors as defined by mother's age, birth interval, and birth order at the sub-national level in Ethiopia. Design Analyses used data from three Demographic and Health Surveys in Ethiopia (2000, 2005, and 2011), which are nationally representative data collected through questionnaire-based interviews from women 15–49 using a stratified, two-stage cluster sampling. First, we examined the trends of and relationship between TFR (in the 3 years before each survey) and modern contraceptive use among currently married women in all administrative regions over the time period 2000–2011 using linear regression analysis. We also examined the relationship between birth risks and under-five mortality using the no-risk group as a reference. Finally, multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the relationship between the effect of being a resident in one of the regions and having an avoidable birth risk (which includes births to mothers younger than 18 and older than 34 years, birth interval of less than 24 months and birth order higher than third) after adjusting for select covariates including wealth, educational status, residence, religion and exposure to family planning information. Results Sub-national-level regression analysis showed an inverse relationship between modern contraceptive use among married women and the TFR, with an average decrease of TFR by one child per woman associated with a 13 percentage point increase in modern contraceptive use between 2000 and 2011. A high percentage of births in Ethiopia (62%) fall in one of the risk categories (excluding first births), with wide

  2. Demographic Disequilibrium in Early Twentieth Century Thailand: Falling Mortality, Rising Fertility, or Both?

    PubMed Central

    Carmichael, Gordon A.

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of Thai crude birth and death rates date from 1920 when the former was around 20 per thousand higher than the latter, implying natural increase of 2 percent per annum. Such disequilibrium cannot have been the norm over the long term historical past, when population growth must have been comparatively slow. This paper explores the bases for likely past relative equilibrium between Siamese birth and death rates, then seeks to explain the disequilibrium apparent by 1920. Classic demographic transition theory postulates initially high birth and death rates, this equilibrium eventually being broken by falling mortality. In Thailand, however, there is likely to have been both significant mortality decline and appreciable fertility increase after 1850, as the virtual elimination of indigenous warfare, rapid growth of the export rice economy and the demise of slavery and corvée labour created a new domestic environment. Characterized by more dispersed, often frontier, settlement, this environment was unprecedentedly sedate and settled, afforded ordinary households a previously unknown level of control over their resources of labour, and generated optimism about prospects for the next generation. PMID:21966299

  3. Global Incidence of Preterm Birth.

    PubMed

    Tielsch, James M

    2015-01-01

    Estimating the incidence of preterm birth depends on accurate assessment of gestational age and pregnancy outcomes. In many countries, such data are not routinely collected, making global estimates difficult. A recent systematic approach to this problem has estimated a worldwide incidence of 11.1 per 100 live births in 2010. Significant variation in rates by country and region of the world was noted, but this variation is smaller than observed for a number of other important reproductive outcomes. Rates range from approximately 5% in some northern European countries to over 15% in some countries in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Time trends suggest that preterm birth incidence is increasing, but much of this change may reflect changes in medically induced early delivery practices as improvements in survival of preterm infants has improved. Whether there have been major changes in spontaneous preterm birth is unknown. New approaches to classifying etiologic heterogeneity have been proposed and offer the promise of developing specific interventions to address the range of underlying causes of this important health problem. PMID:26111559

  4. Fall Leaf Portraits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hara, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how students can create a stunning as well as economical mosaic utilizing fall's brilliantly colored leaves, preserved at their peak in color. Start by choosing a beautiful fall day to take students on a nature walk to collect a variety of leaves in different shapes, sizes, and colors. Focus on collecting a…

  5. First Aid: Falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Falls KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Falls Print A A A Text Size en ... Floors, Doors & Windows, Furniture, Stairways: Household Safety Checklist First Aid: Broken Bones Head Injuries Preventing Children's Sports Injuries ...

  6. Experiments in Free Fall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Art, Albert

    2006-01-01

    A model lift containing a figure of Albert Einstein is released from the side of a tall building and its free fall is arrested by elastic ropes. This arrangement allows four simple experiments to be conducted in the lift to demonstrate the effects of free fall and show how they can lead to the concept of the equivalence of inertial and…

  7. Fall armyworm migration patterns.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), infestations in most of North America arise from annual migrations of populations that overwinter in southern Texas and Florida. Cytochrome Oxidase I haplotype profiles within the fall armyworm corn-strain, the subgroup tha...

  8. Learning From Falling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joh, Amy, S.; Adolph, Karen, E.

    2006-01-01

    Walkers fall frequently, especially during infancy. Children (15, 21, 27, 33, and 39 month-olds) and adults were tested in a novel foam pit paradigm to examine age-related changes in the relationship between falling and prospective control of locomotion. In trial 1, participants walked and fell into a deformable foam pit marked with distinct…

  9. Falls and Fall-Related Injuries among Community-Dwelling Adults in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Santosh K.; Willetts, Joanna L.; Corns, Helen L.; Marucci-Wellman, Helen R.; Lombardi, David A.; Courtney, Theodore K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Falls are the leading cause of unintentional injuries in the U.S.; however, national estimates for all community-dwelling adults are lacking. This study estimated the national incidence of falls and fall-related injuries among community-dwelling U.S. adults by age and gender and the trends in fall-related injuries across the adult life span. Methods Nationally representative data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) 2008 Balance and Dizziness supplement was used to develop national estimates of falls, and pooled data from the NHIS was used to calculate estimates of fall-related injuries in the U.S. and related trends from 2004–2013. Costs of unintentional fall-related injuries were extracted from the CDC’s Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System. Results Twelve percent of community-dwelling U.S. adults reported falling in the previous year for a total estimate of 80 million falls at a rate of 37.2 falls per 100 person-years. On average, 9.9 million fall-related injuries occurred each year with a rate of 4.38 fall-related injuries per 100 person-years. In the previous three months, 2.0% of older adults (65+), 1.1% of middle-aged adults (45–64) and 0.7% of young adults (18–44) reported a fall-related injury. Of all fall-related injuries among community-dwelling adults, 32.3% occurred among older adults, 35.3% among middle-aged adults and 32.3% among younger adults. The age-adjusted rate of fall-related injuries increased 4% per year among older women (95% CI 1%–7%) from 2004 to 2013. Among U.S. adults, the total lifetime cost of annual unintentional fall-related injuries that resulted in a fatality, hospitalization or treatment in an emergency department was 111 billion U.S. dollars in 2010. Conclusions Falls and fall-related injuries represent a significant health and safety problem for adults of all ages. The findings suggest that adult fall prevention efforts should consider the entire adult lifespan to ensure a

  10. Upper ocean stratification and sea ice growth rates during the summer-fall transition, as revealed by Elephant seal foraging in the Adélie Depression, East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, G. D.; Hindell, M.; Houssais, M.-N.; Tamura, T.; Field, I. C.

    2011-03-01

    Southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina), fitted with Conductivity-Temperature-Depth sensors at Macquarie Island in January 2005 and 2010, collected unique oceanographic observations of the Adélie and George V Land continental shelf (140-148° E) during the summer-fall transition (late February through April). This is a key region of dense shelf water formation from enhanced sea ice growth/brine rejection in the local coastal polynyas. In 2005, two seals occupied the continental shelf break near the grounded icebergs at the northern end of the Mertz Glacier Tongue for several weeks from the end of February. One of the seals migrated west to the Dibble Ice Tongue, apparently utilising the Antarctic Slope Front current near the continental shelf break. In 2010, immediately after that year's calving of the Mertz Glacier Tongue, two seals migrated to the same region but penetrated much further southwest across the Adélie Depression and sampled the Commonwealth Bay polynya from March through April. Here we present observations of the regional oceanography during the summer-fall transition, in particular (i) the zonal distribution of modified Circumpolar Deep Water exchange across the shelf break, (ii) the upper ocean stratification across the Adélie Depression, including alongside iceberg C-28 that calved from the Mertz Glacier and (iii) the convective overturning of the deep remnant seasonal mixed layer in Commonwealth Bay from sea ice growth. Heat and freshwater budgets to 200-300 m are used to estimate the ocean heat content (400→50 MJ m-2), flux (50-200 W m-2 loss) and sea ice growth rates (maximum of 7.5-12.5 cm day-1). Mean seal-derived sea ice growth rates were within the range of satellite-derived estimates from 1992-2007 using ERA-Interim data. We speculate that the continuous foraging by the seals within Commonwealth Bay during the summer/fall transition was due to favorable feeding conditions resulting from the convective overturning of the deep

  11. [Falls and renal function: a dangerous association].

    PubMed

    De Giorgi, Alfredo; Fabbian, Fabio; Pala, Marco; Mallozzi Menegatti, Alessandra; Misurati, Elisa; Manfredini, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Falls are an important health problem and the risk of falling increases with age. The costs due to falls are related to the progressive decline of patients' clinical conditions, with functional inability inducing increasing social costs, morbidity and mortality. Renal dysfunction is mostly present in elderly people who often have several comorbidities. Risk factors for falls have been classified as intrinsic and extrinsic, and renal dysfunction is included among the former. Chronic kidney disease per se is an important risk factor for falls, and the risk correlates negatively with creatinine clearance. Vitamin D deficiency, dysfunction of muscles and bones, nerve degeneration, cognitive decline, electrolyte imbalance, anemia, and metabolic acidosis have been reported to be associated with falls. Falls seem to be very frequent in dialysis patients: 44% of subjects on hemodialysis fall at least once a year with a 1-year mortality due to fractures of 64%. Male sex, comorbidities, predialysis hypotension, and a history of previous falls are the main risk factors, together with events directly related to renal replacement therapy such as biocompatibility of the dialysis membrane, arrhythmias, fluid overload and length of dialysis treatment. Peripheral nerve degeneration and demyelination as well as altered nerve conduction resulting in muscular weakness and loss of peripheral sensitivity are frequent when the glomerular filtration rate is less than 12 mL/min. Moreover, depression and sleep disorders can also increase the risk of falls. Kidney function is an important parameter to consider when evaluating the risk of falls in the elderly, and the development of specific guidelines for preventing falls in the uremic population should be considered. PMID:22718453

  12. Association of preterm birth with brain malformations

    PubMed Central

    Brown, William R.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the rate of preterm birth in babies with congenital brain defects. Autopsy case reports of congenital brain anomalies were obtained from the literature. The control cases were from a large registry, a published report from the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program. From 428 publications, 1168 cases were abstracted that had autopsy studies of congenital brain defects and information on the gestational age at birth. The control data from Atlanta included 7738 infants with significant birth defects of any kind and 264,392 infants without birth defects. In the autopsy cases with brain defects, the mean gestational age was 36.6 weeks, whereas the Atlanta data showed a mean gestational age of 39.3 weeks for infants with no defects and a significantly shorter gestation of 38.1 weeks (p < 0.0001) for infants with defects. In the Atlanta data, the rate of preterm birth was 9.3 % for those with no defects compared to 21.5 % (p < 0.0001) for those with defects. In the autopsy cases with brain defects, the rate of preterm birth was even greater (33.1%, p < 0.0001). In conclusion, these data show an association of brain defects with preterm births. PMID:19218881

  13. Pre-impact fall detection.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xinyao; Qu, Xingda

    2016-01-01

    Pre-impact fall detection has been proposed to be an effective fall prevention strategy. In particular, it can help activate on-demand fall injury prevention systems (e.g. inflatable hip protectors) prior to fall impacts, and thus directly prevent the fall-related physical injuries. This paper gave a systematical review on pre-impact fall detection, and focused on the following aspects of the existing pre-impact fall detection research: fall detection apparatus, fall detection indicators, fall detection algorithms, and types of falls for fall detection evaluation. In addition, the performance of the existing pre-impact fall detection solutions were also reviewed and reported in terms of their sensitivity, specificity, and detection/lead time. This review also summarized the limitations in the existing pre-impact fall detection research, and proposed future research directions in this field. PMID:27251528

  14. Falls prevention for the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Balzer, Katrin; Bremer, Martina; Schramm, Susanne; Lühmann, Dagmar; Raspe, Heiner

    2012-01-01

    . However, to a variable degree the validity of their results must be rated as compromised due to different biasing factors. In summary, it appears that the performance of tests or the application of parameters to identify individuals at risk of falling yields little or no clinically relevant information. Positive effects of exercise interventions may be expected in relatively young and healthy seniors, while studies indicate opposite effects in the fragile elderly. For this specific vulnerable population the modification of the housing environment shows protective effects. A low number of studies, low quality of studies or inconsistent results lead to the conclusion that the effectiveness of the following interventions has to be rated unclear yet: correction of vision disorders, modification of psychotropic medication, vitamin D supplementation, nutritional supplements, psychological interventions, education of nursing personnel, multiple and multifactorial programs as well as the application of hip protectors. For the context of the German health care system the economic evaluations of fall prevention retrieved by the literature searches yield very few useful results. Cost-effectiveness calculations of fall prevention are mostly based on weak effectiveness data as well as on epidemiological and cost data from foreign health care systems. Ethical analysis demonstrates ambivalent views of the target population concerning fall risk and the necessity of fall prevention. The willingness to take up preventive measures depends on a variety of personal factors, the quality of information, guidance and decision-making, the prevention program itself and social support. The analysis of papers regarding legal issues shows three main challenges: the uncertainty of which standard of care has to be expected with regard to fall prevention, the necessity to consider the specific conditions of every single case when measures for fall prevention are applied, and the difficulty to balance

  15. National ART Success Rates

    MedlinePlus

    ... ART and Birth Defects ART and Autism 2013 Assisted Reproductive Technology National Summary Report Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... live-birth rate? [PDF - 1.37MB] Section 2: ART Cycles using fresh nondonor eggs or embryos What ...

  16. Injuries sustained by falls.

    PubMed Central

    Rozycki, G S; Maull, K I

    1991-01-01

    During a recent 4-year period, 381 patients were admitted with injuries sustained from falls. Equal numbers of patients were less than and greater than 50 years of age and included 53 children (less than or equal to 16 years) and 214 elderly (greater than or equal to 55 years). Falls from heights occurred predominantly in young males (mean age 34.2 years), were most commonly job or recreation related and resulted in higher injury severity scores (ISS). Falls in the elderly occurred more commonly in women, typically on a flat surface, and were less severe. Despite lower mean ISS, fall victims over 55 years of age had longer hospitalizations (11.4 vs. 4.5 days) and incurred higher hospital charges compared to younger patients. There were 35 deaths (9.2%). In patients under 55 years, deaths resulted from fall-related central nervous system (CNS) injury and/or multisystem trauma. In patients over 55 years, fatalities were most commonly related to pre-existent medical conditions. Based on a review of this experience, we conclude that: (1) unlike other causes of blunt and penetrating trauma, both sexes are equally at risk from fall-related injuries but sex incidence is age related; (2) falls from heights are more common in men; (3) advanced age and pre-existing medical conditions account for the increased morbidity and mortality following falls and; (4) cost containment measures for fall-related trauma must consider not only injury severity, but the age and pre-existent medical conditions of the patient. PMID:1772536

  17. Birth control pills - combination

    MedlinePlus

    The pill - combination; Oral contraceptives - combination; OCP - combination; Contraception - combination ... Birth control pills help keep you from getting pregnant. When taken daily, they are one of the most ...

  18. The State of Washington's Children, Fall 2001. [Ninth Annual Report].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Univ., Seattle. School of Public Health and Community Medicine.

    This Kids Count report is the ninth to examine annually statewide trends in the well-being of Washington's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of child well-being in five areas: (1) family and community, including teen birth rate, teen pregnancy rate, divorces involving children, and births to unmarried mothers; (2) economic…

  19. The Relationship between Behavior Ratings and Concurrent and Subsequent Mental and Motor Performance in Toddlers Born at Extremely Low Birth Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messinger, Daniel; Lambert, Brittany; Bauer, Charles R.; Bann, Carla M.; Hamlin-Smith, Kasey; Das, Abhik

    2010-01-01

    When predicting child developmental outcomes, reliance on children's scores on measures of developmental functioning alone might mask more subtle behavioral difficulties, especially in children with developmental risk factors. The current study examined predictors and stability of examiner behavior ratings and their association with concurrent and…

  20. Are Gender Differences in the Relationship between Self-Rated Health and Mortality Enduring? Results from Three Birth Cohorts in Melton Mowbray, United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiers, Nicola; Jagger, Carol; Clarke, Michael; Arthur, Antony

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess whether there is an enduring gender difference in the ability of self-rated health to predict mortality and investigate whether self-reported physical health problems account for this difference. Design and Methods: Cox models for 4-year survival were fitted to data from successive cohorts aged…

  1. [Birth control and family planning].

    PubMed

    1977-01-01

    Several studies on demography define birth control as the intervention of the State into the private life of the couple with the purpose to influence attitudes toward family planning, and to obtain, as a final goal, a decrease in national fertility rate. In fact this intervention means protection of the family to promote its welfare, the formation and education of children, the betterment of living conditions, and to foster more job opportunities, and economic development. PMID:12309625

  2. Survival of falling robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-01-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  3. Osteoporosis: Preventing Falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Osteoporosis Preventing Falls Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table of ... next to your bed Free NIH Videos About Osteoporosis The NIHSeniorHealth Web site features five brief, informative ...

  4. Editors' Fall Picks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffert, Barbara; Heilbrun, Margaret; Kuzyk, Raya; Kim, Ann; McCormack, Heather; Katterjohn, Anna; Burns, Ann; Williams, Wilda

    2008-01-01

    From the fall's cascade of great new books, "Library Journal's" editors select their favorites--a dark rendition of Afghan life, a look at the "self-esteem trap," a celebration of Brooklyn activism, and much more.

  5. Survival of falling robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-02-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  6. Ergodicity bounds for birth-death processes with particularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeifman, Alexander I.; Satin, Yacov; Korotysheva, Anna; Shilova, Galina; Kiseleva, Ksenia; Korolev, Victor Yu.; Bening, Vladimir E.; Shorgin, Sergey Ya.

    2016-06-01

    We introduce an inhomogeneous birth-death process with birth rates λk(t), death rates µk(t), and possible transitions to/from zero with rates βk(t), rk(t) respectively, and obtain ergodicity bounds for this process.

  7. Progesterone to prevent spontaneous preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Romero, Roberto; Yeo, Lami; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Hassan, Sonia S

    2014-02-01

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide, and its prevention is an important healthcare priority. Preterm parturition is one of the 'great obstetrical syndromes' and is caused by multiple etiologies. One of the mechanisms of disease is the untimely decline in progesterone action, which can present as a clinically silent sonographic short cervix in the midtrimester. The detection of a short cervix in the midtrimester is a powerful risk factor for preterm delivery. Vaginal progesterone can reduce the rate of preterm delivery by 45% and the rate of neonatal morbidity (admission to the neonatal intensive care unit, respiratory distress syndrome, need for mechanical ventilation, etc.). To prevent one case of spontaneous preterm birth <33 weeks of gestation, 11 patients with a short cervix would need to be treated (based on an individual patient meta-analysis). Vaginal progesterone reduces the rate of spontaneous preterm birth in women with a short cervix, both with and without a prior history of preterm birth. In patients with a prior history of preterm birth, vaginal progesterone is as effective as cervical cerclage to prevent preterm delivery. 17α-Hydroxyprogesterone caproate has not been shown to be effective in reducing the rate of spontaneous preterm birth in women with a short cervix. PMID:24315687

  8. Progesterone to prevent spontaneous preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Roberto; Yeo, Lami; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Hassan, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Summary Preterm birth is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide, and its prevention is an important healthcare priority. Preterm parturition is one of the ‘great obstetrical syndromes’ and is caused by multiple etiologies. One of the mechanisms of disease is the untimely decline in progesterone action, which can be manifested by a sonographic short cervix in the midtrimester. The detection of a short cervix in the midtrimester is a powerful risk factor for preterm delivery. Vaginal progesterone can reduce the rate of preterm delivery by 45%, and the rate of neonatal morbidity (admission to neonatal intensive care unit, respiratory distress syndrome, need for mechanical ventilation, etc.). To prevent one case of spontaneous preterm birth <33 weeks of gestation, 12 patients with a short cervix would need to be treated. Vaginal progesterone reduces the rate of spontaneous preterm birth in women with a short cervix both with and without a prior history of preterm birth. In patients with a prior history of preterm birth, vaginal progesterone is as effective as cervical cerclage to prevent preterm delivery. 17α-Hydroxyprogesterone caproate has not been shown to be effective in reducing the rate of spontaneous preterm birth in women with a short cervix. PMID:24315687

  9. Exercise in preventing falls and fall related injuries in older people: a review of randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, M.; Robertson, M; Campbell, A

    2000-01-01

    Objective—To assess the effectiveness of exercise programmes in preventing falls (and/or lowering the risk of falls and fall related injuries) in older people. Design—A review of controlled clinical trials designed with the aim of lowering the risk of falling and/or fall injuries through an exercise only intervention or an intervention that included an exercise component Main outcome measures—Falls, fall related injuries, time between falls, costs, cost effectiveness. Subjects—A total of 4933 men and women aged 60 years and older. Results—Eleven trials meeting the criteria for inclusion were reviewed. Eight of these trials had separate exercise interventions, and three used interventions with an exercise programme component. Five trials showed a significant reduction in the rate of falls or the risk of falling in the intervention group. Conclusions—Exercise is effective in lowering falls risk in selected groups and should form part of falls prevention programmes. Lowering fall related injuries will reduce health care costs but there is little available information on the costs associated with programme replication or the cost effectiveness of exercise programmes aimed at preventing falls in older people. Key Words: exercise; elderly; falls; cost effectiveness PMID:10690444

  10. Teen Births: Examining the Recent Increase. Research Brief. Publication #2009-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kristin Anderson

    2009-01-01

    After a 14-year decline, the teen birth rate increased in 2006, according to data from the National Center for Health Statistics. Between 2005 and 2006, the teen birth rate rose 3.5 percent, from 40.5 to 41.9 births per 1,000 females aged 15-19. The number of teen births rose by 20,843, from 414,593 to 435,436 births, the largest annual increase…

  11. Birth Month Affects Longevity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Ernest L.; Kruger, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the association between birth month and longevity for major league baseball players. Players born in the month of November had the greatest longevities whereas those born in June had the shortest life spans. These differences remained after controlling for covariates such as birth year, career length, age at debut, height, and…

  12. Birth control failure.

    PubMed

    Sophocles, A M

    1986-10-01

    Birth control failure usually results from the incorrect or inconsistent use of contraceptives. By providing anticipatory counseling, based on an understanding of the reasons for birth control failure, family physicians can help curtail the current epidemic of unwanted pregnancies. PMID:3766356

  13. Where to Give Birth

    PubMed Central

    Budin, Wendy C.

    2013-01-01

    In this column, the editor of The Journal of Perinatal Education discusses choices mothers make when deciding on where to give birth. The editor also describes the contents of this issue, which offer a broad range of resources, research, and inspiration for childbirth educators in their efforts to promote, support, and protect natural, safe, and healthy birth.

  14. Normal Birth: Two Stories

    PubMed Central

    Scaer, Roberta M.

    2002-01-01

    The author shares two stories: one of a normal birth that took place in a hospital with a nurse-midwife in attendance and another of a home birth unexpectedly shared by many colleagues. Both are told with the goal to inform, inspire, and educate. PMID:17273292

  15. Birth Control Shot

    MedlinePlus

    ... to a year after they stop getting the birth control shot. However, the shot does not cause permanent loss of fertility and most women can get pregnant once they stop getting the shot. previous continue Who Uses It? Every method of birth control should be considered in light of what works ...

  16. Challenges in Defining and Categorizing Falls on Diverse Unit Types

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Jan; Dunton, Nancy; Crosser, Brandon

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, the National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators launched a project to expand its falls indicator for use on pediatric, neonatal, and psychiatric units. We discuss challenges encountered, argue that schemes for categorizing falls by cause or supposed preventability are not suitable for large-scale efforts to track and prevent falls, express concern about the growing burden of collecting increasingly granular quality data, and discuss limitations of total and injurious fall rates as quality measures. PMID:25188525

  17. Birth Order, Educational Attainment, and Earnings: An Investigation Using the PSID

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantarevic, Jasmin; Mechoulan, Stephane

    2006-01-01

    We examine the implications of being early in the birth order, and whether a pattern exists within large families of falling then rising attainment with respect to birth order. Unlike other studies using U.S. data, we go beyond grade for age and look at racial differences. Drawing from OLS and fixed effects estimations, we find that being…

  18. Jonah’s Birth

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Rachel Goldstein shares her experience of exploring options related to care provider and place of birth early in her pregnancy. Goldstein and her husband, Marc, after reading and research, chose midwifery care and a home birth. She shares the story of a long labor at home supported by her husband, her doula, and her midwife. Her positive attitude, her ability to use various comfort strategies, and the support she received throughout labor contributed to being able to give birth naturally and ecstatically to her son Jonah. PMID:23730124

  19. Month of Birth and Children's Health in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lokshin, Michael; Radyakin, Sergiy

    2012-01-01

    We use data from three waves of India National Family Health Survey to explore the relationship between the month of birth and the health outcomes of young children in India. We find that children born during the monsoon months have lower anthropometric scores compared to children born during the fall-winter months. We propose and test hypotheses…

  20. Birth in prison: pregnancy and birth behind bars in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leal, Maria do Carmo; Ayres, Barbara Vasques da Silva; Esteves-Pereira, Ana Paula; Sánchez, Alexandra Roma; Larouzé, Bernard

    2016-06-01

    The high vulnerability of incarcerated women is worsened when they are pregnant and give birth during imprisonment. This article traces the profile of incarcerated women living with their children in female prison units of the capitals and metropolitan regions of Brazil and describes pregnancy and childbirth conditions and healthcare practices while in incarceration. This study is an analysis of a series of cases resultant from a national census conducted between August 2012 and January 2014. This analysis included 241 mothers. Of these, 45% were younger than 25 years old, 57% were dark skinned, 53% had studied less than eight years and 83% were multiparous. At the time of incarceration, 89% were already pregnant and two thirds did not want the current pregnancy. Access to prenatal care was inadequate for 36% of the women. During their hospital stay, 15% referred to having suffered some type of violence (verbal, psychological, or physical). Only 15% of the mothers rated the care received during their hospital stay as excellent. They had low social/familial support and more than one third reported the use of handcuffs during their hospital stay. Incarcerated mothers received poorer healthcare during pregnancy and birth when compared with non-incarcerated users of the public sector. This study also found violations of human rights, especially during birth. PMID:27383340

  1. Central and Peripheral Visual Impairment and the Risk of Falls and Falls with Injury

    PubMed Central

    Patino, Cecilia M.; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Azen, Stanley P.; Allison, Jessica Chung; Choudhury, Farzana; Varma, Rohit

    2009-01-01

    study suggests that targeting both central and peripheral components may be necessary to reduce rates of falls and falls with injury related to vision loss effectively. PMID:20031225

  2. Cohort Analysis, Fall 1993 New Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moraine Valley Community College., Palos Hills, IL. Office of Institutional Research.

    In October 1996, Illinois' Moraine Valley Community College (MVCC) conducted a longitudinal study of the characteristics of and outcomes experienced by students who entered the college for the first time in fall 1993, gathering data on retention rates, average attempted and earned cumulative hours, and graduation rates over 3 years. Of the 3,146…

  3. Student Enrollments, Fall 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Higher Education, Little Rock.

    This document presents demographic information about enrollment at public and independent institutions of higher education in Arkansas as of fall 1995. A listing of abbreviations for the public four-year, public two-year, and independent institutions is followed by a map of their locations. An executive summary identifies highlights such as the…

  4. Falling into Winter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Carolyn Lang

    2000-01-01

    Presents an activity that connects art, science, and nature in which elementary school students learn about deciduous trees. Explains that students create a torn-tissue collage, using fall colors for a background and drawing a silhouette of a tree without leaves on top of the background with black crayon. (CMK)

  5. Editors' Fall Picks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilbrun, Margaret; McCormack, Heather; Katterjohn, Anna; Kuzyk, Raya; Roncevic, Mirela; Fox, Bette-Lee; Hoffert, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    "Library Journal's" review editors select fall titles readers won't want to miss--"Waiting on a Train: The Embattled Future of Passenger Rail Service" (James McCommons); "Happy" (Alex Lemon); "Free for All: Joe Papp, the Public, and the Greatest Theater Story Ever Told" (Kenneth Turan & Joseph Papp); "In My Father's Shadow: A Daughter Remembers…

  6. Fall 2013 International Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Evaluation Association, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This Fall report is an aggregated statistical analysis of Measures of Academic Progress® (MAP®) data from international schools. The report provides a consistent means of comparisons of specific sub-groups by subject and grade, which allows partners to compare their MAP® results with other schools within their region or membership organization.…

  7. The News, Fall 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Ray, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This fall 2002 newsletter from the Community College League of California contains several articles, news stories, and the brochure from the 2002 Annual Convention, "Celebrating the Way California LEARNS." Articles include: (1) "Nursing Shortage Poses Dilemma for Colleges: Access vs. Efficiency," a discussion of the debate over how to increase the…

  8. Freshmen Survey. Fall 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodyear, Don

    In 1985, College of the Sequoias (COS) was asked by the Cooperative Institutional Research Program (conducted jointly by the American Council on Education and the University of California, Los Angeles) to participate in a survey of incoming freshmen for the fall 1985 semester. During the summer counseling session, 259 new COS freshmen were…

  9. Accredited Birth Centers

    MedlinePlus

    ... 59803 406-541-7115 Accredited Since February 2010 60 Interior Birthing Center Accredited 1636 30th Avenue, Suite ... Boulder Accredited 2800 Folsom Street, Suite C Boulder, CO 80304 303-443-3993 Accredited since July 2014 ...

  10. Twins, Triplets, Multiple Births

    MedlinePlus

    ... alone. Multiple births are up in the United States. More women are having babies after age 30 ... support groups for parents of multiples can help. Dept. of Health and Human Services Office on Women's ...

  11. Birth Defects (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ones & When? Smart School Lunches Emmy-Nominated Video "Cerebral Palsy: Shannon's Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & ... defects. Clefting can be surgically repaired after birth. Cerebral palsy usually isn't found until weeks to months ...

  12. Birth Defects Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... chromosomal disorder or heart defect in the baby. Second Trimester Screening Second trimester screening tests are completed between weeks 15 ... look for certain birth defects in the baby. Second trimester screening tests include a maternal serum screen ...

  13. Birth Control Patch

    MedlinePlus

    ... control the functioning of the body's organs. How Does It Work? The combination of the hormones progesterone ... absorbed by the skin.) previous continue How Well Does It Work? Ongoing studies suggest the birth control ...

  14. Preterm Labor and Birth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Preterm Labor and Birth: Overview Skip sharing on social media ... start of the last menstrual period to childbirth. Labor that begins before 37 weeks is called preterm ...

  15. Detecting Falling Snow from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Gail Skofronick; Johnson, Ben; Munchak, Joe

    2012-01-01

    There is an increased interest in detecting and estimating the amount of falling snow reaching the Earth's surface in order to fully capture the atmospheric water cycle. An initial step toward global spaceborne falling snow algorithms includes determining the thresholds of detection for various active and passive sensor channel configurations, snow event cloud structures and microphysics, snowflake particle electromagnetic properties, and surface types. In this work, cloud resolving model simulations of a lake effect and synoptic snow event were used to determine the minimum amount of snow (threshold) that could be detected by the following instruments: the W -band radar of CloudSat, Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) Ku and Ka band, and the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) channels from 10 to 183 plus or minus 7 GHz. Eleven different snowflake shapes were used to compute radar reflectivities and passive brightness temperatures. Notable results include: (1) the W-Band radar has detection thresholds more than an order of magnitude lower than the future GPM sensors, (2) the cloud structure macrophysics influences the thresholds of detection for passive channels, (3) the snowflake microphysics plays a large role in the detection threshold for active and passive instruments, (4) with reasonable assumptions, "the passive 166 GHz channel has detection threshold values comparable to the GPM DPR Ku and Ka band radars with approximately 0.05 g per cubic meter detected at the surface, or an approximately 0.5-1 millimeter per hr. melted snow rate (equivalent to 0.5-2 centimeters per hr. solid fluffy snowflake rate). With detection levels of falling snow known, we can focus current and future retrieval efforts on detectable storms and concentrate advances on achievable results. We will also have an understanding of the light snowfall events missed by the sensors and not captured in the global estimates.

  16. Ocular problems in military free fall parachutists.

    PubMed

    Gruppo, Leonard; Mader, Thomas H; Wedmore, Ian

    2002-10-01

    Military free fall parachutists may be unaware of the risk of corneal freezing and desiccation keratitis should their goggles come off during free fall in subfreezing temperatures. We determine the incidence of ocular difficulties in military free fall parachutists and the role freezing temperatures may play in causing these problems. We found that 79% of those who responded to the survey had lost their goggles at least once during free fall and 69% experienced ocular symptoms after goggle loss. Analysis shows a 30-fold increase in the duration of symptoms in subfreezing vs. above-freezing temperatures, with the odds of the ground mission being affected at 7.3 per 100 jumps in the subfreezing group. The rate of goggles coming off per jump is 3.3 times less with >75 jumps. Contact lenses are not protective and photorefractive keratectomy was not detrimental. PMID:12392242

  17. Infant mortality rates declining, but still high.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, M

    1992-10-01

    Family planning can improve infant survival. Specifically, use of family planning methods can minimize family size, increase birth spacing, and reduce the likelihood of pregnancy for teenagers and women aged 40 or older. Immunizations and oral rehydration are responsible for the falling infant mortality rats since 1977 in developing countries, especially among 1-12 month old infants. Yet, neonatal mortality in developing countries had not changed. WHO intends to step up efforts to improve newborn survival. Accurate data are needed, however. Even in developed countries which keep good statistics, infant mortality bias exists. For example, in Japan, some infant deaths are called fetal deaths. In developing countries, much of the data come from hospitals, yet most birth do not occur in hospitals. Even in surveys, bias exists, such as problems with recall. Many researchers use traditional birth attendants (TBAs) to follow up on all births in an area which may eliminate some biases. Such a prospective and longitudinal study in Trairi county in northeastern Brazil shows the infant mortality rate to be less than half of the official rate (65 vs. 142). The major causes of infant death in developed countries, which tends to occur in the neonatal period, are low birth weight, prematurity, birth complications, and congenital defects; developing countries; they are vaccine preventable infectious diseases, diarrhea and dehydration, and respiratory illnesses, all complicated by malnutrition. To make further strides in reducing infant mortality, public health workers must concentrate on the neonatal period. Training TBAs in sterile techniques, appropriate technology, resuscitation of infants, and identification of potential problems is a positive step. Yet, unpredictable conditions (e.g., AIDS) exist and/or will arise which erode improvements. For example, in Nicaragua, within 1 year after the new government introduced health budget cuts which resulted in the poor paying for

  18. The power of planning births.

    PubMed

    Adamson, P

    1992-01-01

    We already know a means to improve the quality of life at less cost than any other single technology--family planning; yet, we fail to realize it because family planning methods are not universally acceptable. Controversy over family planning has prevented many couples from implementing responsible planning of births. Yet, the range of family planning methods and recently gained experience affords people ways to promote and practice family planning which are responsive to religious and cultural norms of almost all societies. Therefore, no one should be denied the benefits family planning provides. These benefits include saving of 125,000-166,667 women's lives each year who otherwise would have died from pregnancy or delivery-related causes. Further, family planning could prevent millions of pregnancy- or delivery-related disabilities. It could also reduce the number of illegal abortions (more than 50,000 each day) and illegal abortion related deaths to almost nil. Family planning could also enhance women's quality of life by lessening the mental and physical hardships of having too many children too close together or too early or too late. It could also allow women more time for themselves to become educated, to earn income, to improve the quality of taking care of their children, for community efforts, and for rest and leisure. Moreover, it could increase the survival of several million children each year by reducing high-risk births and allowing spacing of births. In fact, fewer and well spaced births improve breast feeding and weaning, thereby reducing malnutrition. Besides, family planning also enhances the children's quality of life. Furthermore, it would reduce rapid population growth. If all women in developing regions who wish to stop childbearing practiced family planning, the population growth rate would decrease 30% (1.3 billion fewer people in 2025). In conclusion, family planning results in many interrelated, synergistic benefits, all of which lead to

  19. Impact of Obstetrician/Gynecologist Hospitalists on Quality of Obstetric Care (Cesarean Delivery Rates, Trial of Labor After Cesarean/Vaginal Birth After Cesarean Rates, and Neonatal Adverse Events).

    PubMed

    Iriye, Brian K

    2015-09-01

    Care via obstetric hospitalists continues to expand, quickly becoming an integral part of labor and delivery management in urban and suburban areas. Overall lower cesarean delivery rates have been found with obstetric hospitalist care. Continuous 24-hour coverage of labor units has displayed lower rates of neonatal adverse events and likely reduces time in decision to delivery. Further study is needed on maternal and neonatal outcomes to corroborate earlier observations, and to closely examine the type of obstetric hospitalist model being observed to aid in planning the ideal deployment of providers in this workforce of the future. PMID:26333637

  20. Birth Defects. Matrix No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brent, Robert L.

    This report discusses the magnitude of the problem of birth defects, outlines advances in the birth defects field in the past decade, and identifies those areas where research is needed for the prevention, treatment, and management of birth defects. The problem of birth defects has consumed a greater portion of our health care resources because of…

  1. #3: Periviable birth.

    PubMed

    Ecker, Jeffrey L; Kaimal, Anjali; Mercer, Brian M; Blackwell, Sean C; deRegnier, Raye Ann O; Farrell, Ruth M; Grobman, William A; Resnik, Jamie L; Sciscione, Anthony C

    2015-11-01

    Approximately 0.5% of all births occur before the third trimester of pregnancy, and these very early deliveries result in the majority of neonatal deaths and more than 40% of infant deaths. A recent executive summary of proceedings from a joint workshop defined periviable birth as delivery occurring from 20 0/7 weeks to 25 6/7 weeks of gestation. When delivery is anticipated near the limit of viability, families and health care teams are faced with complex and ethically challenging decisions. Multiple factors have been found to be associated with short-term and long-term outcomes of periviable births in addition to gestational age at birth. These include, but are not limited to, nonmodifiable factors (eg, fetal sex, weight, plurality), potentially modifiable antepartum and intrapartum factors (eg, location of delivery, intent to intervene by cesarean delivery or induction for delivery, administration of antenatal corticosteroids and magnesium sulfate), and postnatal management (eg, starting or withholding and continuing or withdrawing intensive care after birth). Antepartum and intrapartum management options vary depending upon the specific circumstances but may include short-term tocolytic therapy for preterm labor to allow time for administration of antenatal steroids, antibiotics to prolong latency after preterm premature rupture of membranes or for intrapartum group B streptococci prophylaxis, and delivery, including cesarean delivery, for concern regarding fetal well-being or fetal malpresentation. Whenever possible, periviable births for which maternal or neonatal intervention is planned should occur in centers that offer expertise in maternal and neonatal care and the needed infrastructure, including intensive care units, to support such services. This document describes newborn outcomes after periviable birth, provides current evidence and recommendations regarding interventions in this setting, and provides an outline for family counseling with the goal of

  2. Periviable birth: Interim update.

    PubMed

    Ecker, Jeffrey L; Kaimal, Anjali; Mercer, Brian M; Blackwell, Sean C; deRegnier, Raye Ann O; Farrell, Ruth M; Grobman, William A; Resnik, Jamie L; Sciscione, Anthony C

    2016-08-01

    Approximately 0.5% of all births occur before the third trimester of pregnancy, and these very early deliveries result in the majority of neonatal deaths and more than 40% of infant deaths. A recent executive summary of proceedings from a joint workshop defined periviable birth as delivery occurring from 20 0/7 weeks to 25 6/7 weeks of gestation. When delivery is anticipated near the limit of viability, families and health care teams are faced with complex and ethically challenging decisions. Multiple factors have been found to be associated with short-term and long-term outcomes of periviable births in addition to gestational age at birth. These include, but are not limited to, nonmodifiable factors (eg, fetal sex, weight, plurality), potentially modifiable antepartum and intrapartum factors (eg, location of delivery, intent to intervene by cesarean delivery or induction for delivery, administration of antenatal corticosteroids and magnesium sulfate), and postnatal management (eg, starting or withholding and continuing or withdrawing intensive care after birth). Antepartum and intrapartum management options vary depending upon the specific circumstances but may include short-term tocolytic therapy for preterm labor to allow time for administration of antenatal steroids, antibiotics to prolong latency after preterm premature rupture of membranes or for intrapartum group B streptococci prophylaxis, and delivery, including cesarean delivery, for concern regarding fetal well-being or fetal malpresentation. Whenever possible, periviable births for which maternal or neonatal intervention is planned should occur in centers that offer expertise in maternal and neonatal care and the needed infrastructure, including intensive care units, to support such services. This document describes newborn outcomes after periviable birth, provides current evidence and recommendations regarding interventions in this setting, and provides an outline for family counseling with the goal of

  3. Falling film evaporator

    DOEpatents

    Bruns, Lester E.

    1976-01-01

    A falling film evaporator including a vertically oriented pipe heated exteriorly by a steam jacket and interiorly by a finned steam tube, all heating surfaces of the pipe and steam tube being formed of a material wet by water such as stainless steel, and packing within the pipe consisting of Raschig rings formed of a material that is not wet by water such as polyvinylidene fluoride.

  4. Preterm birth: Transition to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Allen, Marilee C; Cristofalo, Elizabeth; Kim, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth is associated with greater difficulty with transitions from childhood to adolescence to adulthood. Adolescents and young adults born preterm have higher rates of cerebral palsy, intellectual disability, cognitive impairment, learning disability, executive dysfunction, attention deficit disorder, and social-emotional difficulties than their peers born fullterm. Compared to individuals born fullterm, more preterm survivors have major neurodevelopmental or psychiatric disability and need financial supports and societal resources. Neuroimaging studies of adolescents and adults born preterm report higher rates of brain injury, differences in regional brain structure, and different brain circuits than in those born fullterm. Making the transition to adulthood is more difficult for young adults who were born preterm than their peers born fullterm, in that fewer complete high school and higher education, find and keep meaningful employment, and live independently from their parents. As a group, they do not tend to be risk-takers, and they have lower rates of alcohol abuse, use of illicit drugs, and criminal offenses than do their peers. Despite their many challenges, the majority of adults born preterm function well, form personal relationships, integrate well into their community, and are as satisfied with their quality of life as are their peers. Concerns regarding current preterm infants, with more extremely preterm survivors, overwhelming our medical, educational, and societal resources should serve as an impetus for research on prevention of preterm births and brain injury, as well as how to support and promote their ongoing neuromaturation and recovery from injury. PMID:25708075

  5. Interventions for the control of diarrhoeal diseases among young children: prevention of low birth weight*

    PubMed Central

    Ashworth, Ann; Feachem, R. G.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of low birth weight (LBW) on diarrhoea morbidity and mortality is analysed and interventions to increase birth weights are reviewed. Birth weight is a major determinant of infant mortality and, in developed countries at least, its effect on neonatal mortality is independent of socioeconomic status. We have located no satisfactory data on LBW as a determinant of diarrhoea mortality or morbidity. The strong association between LBW and mortality, however, makes it likely that there is an association between LBW and diarrhoea mortality in developing countries where diarrhoea is a major cause of infant death. Poor maternal nutrition, certain infections, pre-eclampsia, arduous work after mid-pregnancy, short birth intervals, and teenage pregnancy are likely to be causally associated with LBW in developing countries. Tobacco and alcohol consumption are additional risk factors. Of the interventions examined, maternal food supplementation has been the most studied. If targeted to mothers at nutritional risk, and if the food is consumed in addition to the usual diet, the prevalence of LBW can be expected to be reduced. However, food supplementation can be expensive and the results from carefully supervised feeding trials may be better than those that can be achieved in national programmes. The effect of supplementation with iron, zinc or folate requires further study. If it were possible to intervene in maternal nutrition, health and life-style in a developing country in a way that reduced the prevalence of LBW from around 30% to around 15%, a fall in the infant mortality rate of around 26% would be expected. The fall in infant diarrhoea mortality rate might be similar. The scarce data on relative risk of morbidity by birth weight do not allow any comparable computations for morbidity reductions to be made. This review confirms that whatever its association with diarrhoea, LBW is an important determinant of infant mortality. For the more general goal of reducing

  6. Influence of birth order, birth weight, colostrum and serum immunoglobulin G on neonatal piglet survival

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Intake of colostrum after birth is essential to stimulate intestinal growth and function, and to provide systemic immunological protection via absorption of Immunoglobulin G (IgG). The birth order and weight of 745 piglets (from 75 litters) were recorded during a one-week period of farrowing. Only pigs weighing greater than 0.68 kg birth weight were chosen for the trial. Sow colostrum was collected during parturition, and piglets were bled between 48 and 72 hours post-birth. Piglet serum IgG and colostral IgG concentrations were determined by radial immunodiffusion. Results Sow parity had a significant (P < 0.001) effect on sow colostral IgG concentration, being 5% higher in multiparous females. Sow colostral IgG concentration explained 6% and piglet birth order accounted for another 4% of the variation observed in piglet serum IgG concentration (P < 0.05); however, birth weight had no detectable effect. Piglet serum IgG concentration had both a linear (P < 0.05) and quadratic effect (P < 0.05) on % survival. Piglets with 1,000 mg/dl serum IgG or less (n=24) had a 67% survival; whereas, piglets with IgG concentrations between 2250 to 2500 mg/dl (n=247) had a 91% survival. Birth order had no detectable effect on survival, but birth weight had a positive linear effect (P < 0.05). Piglets weighing 0.9 kg (n = 107) at birth had a 68% survival rate, and those weighing 1.6 kg (n = 158) had an 89% survival. Conclusion We found that the combination of sow colostrum IgG concentration and birth order can account for 10% of the variation of piglet serum IgG concentration and that piglets with less than 1,000 mg/dl IgG serum concentration and weight of 0.9 kg at birth had low survival rate when compared to their larger siblings. The effective management of colostrum uptake in neonatal piglets in the first 24 hrs post-birth may potentially improve survival from birth to weaning. PMID:23259926

  7. Birth Order and Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Risal, Ajay; Tharoor, Hema

    2012-01-01

    Context: Ordinal position the child holds within the sibling ranking of a family is related to intellectual functioning, personality, behavior, and development of psychopathology. Aim: To study the association between birth order and development of psychopathology in patients attending psychiatry services in a teaching hospital. Settings and Design: Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Retrospective file review of three groups of patients was carried out. Patient-related variables like age of onset, birth order, family type, and family history of mental illness were compared with psychiatry diagnosis (ICD-10) generated. Statistical Analysis: SPSS 13; descriptive statistics and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used. Results: Mean age of onset of mental illness among the adult general psychiatry patients (group I, n = 527) was found to be 33.01 ± 15.073, while it was 11.68 ± 4.764 among the child cases (group II, n = 47) and 26.74 ± 7.529 among substance abuse cases (group III, n = 110). Among group I patients, commonest diagnosis was depression followed by anxiety and somatoform disorders irrespective of birth order. Dissociative disorders were most prevalent in the first born child (36.7%) among group II patients. Among group III patients, alcohol dependence was maximum diagnosis in all birth orders. Conclusions: Depression and alcohol dependence was the commonest diagnosis in adult group irrespective of birth order. PMID:24479023

  8. Birth Weight Ratio as an Alternative to Birth Weight Percentile to Express Infant Weight in Research and Clinical Practice: A Nationwide Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kazemier, Brenda M.; Schuit, Ewoud; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Pajkrt, Eva; Ganzevoort, Wessel

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To compare birth weight ratio and birth weight percentile to express infant weight when assessing pregnancy outcome. Study Design. We performed a national cohort study. Birth weight ratio was calculated as the observed birth weight divided by the median birth weight for gestational age. The discriminative ability of birth weight ratio and birth weight percentile to identify infants at risk of perinatal death (fetal death and neonatal death) or adverse pregnancy outcome (perinatal death + severe neonatal morbidity) was compared using the area under the curve. Outcomes were expressed stratified by gestational age at delivery separate for birth weight ratio and birth weight percentile. Results. We studied 1,299,244 pregnant women, with an overall perinatal death rate of 0.62%. Birth weight ratio and birth weight percentile have equivalent overall discriminative performance for perinatal death and adverse perinatal outcome. In late preterm infants (33+0–36+6 weeks), birth weight ratio has better discriminative ability than birth weight percentile for perinatal death (0.68 versus 0.63, P  0.01) or adverse pregnancy outcome (0.67 versus 0.60, P < 0.001). Conclusion. Birth weight ratio is a potentially valuable instrument to identify infants at risk of perinatal death and adverse pregnancy outcome and provides several advantages for use in research and clinical practice. Moreover, it allows comparison of groups with different average birth weights. PMID:25197283

  9. Elderly fall detection using SIFT hybrid features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoxiao; Gao, Chao; Guo, Yongcai

    2015-10-01

    With the tendency of aging society, countries all over the world are dealing with the demographic change. Fall had been proven to be of the highest fatality rate among the elderly. To realize the elderly fall detection, the proposed algorithm used the hybrid feature. Based on the rate of centroid change, the algorithm adopted VEI to offer the posture feature, this combined motion feature with posture feature. The algorithm also took advantage of SIFT descriptor of VEI(V-SIFT) to show more details of behaviors with occlusion. An improved motion detection method was proposed to improve the accuracy of front-view motion detection. The experimental results on CASIA database and self-built database showed that the proposed approach has high efficiency and strong robustness which effectively improved the accuracy of fall detection.

  10. Simulated unobtrusive falls detection with multiple persons.

    PubMed

    Ariani, Arni; Redmond, Stephen J; Chang, David; Lovell, Nigel H

    2012-11-01

    One serious issue related to falls among the elderly living at home or in a residential care facility is the "long lie" scenario, which involves being unable to get up from the floor after a fall for 60 min or more. This research uses a simulated environment to investigate the potential effectiveness of using wireless ambient sensors (dual-technology (microwave/infrared) motion detectors and pressure mats) to track the movement of multiple persons and to unobtrusively detect falls when they occur, therefore reducing the rate of occurrence of "long lie" scenarios. A path-finding algorithm (A*) is used to simulate the movement of one or more persons through the residential area. For analysis, the sensor network is represented as an undirected graph, where nodes in the graph represent sensors, and edges between nodes in the graph imply that these sensors share an overlapping physical region in their area of sensitivity. A second undirected graph is used to represent the physical adjacency of the sensors (even where they do not overlap in their monitored regions). These graphical representations enable the tracking of multiple subjects/groups within the environment, by analyzing the sensor activation and adjacency profiles, hence allowing individuals/groups to be isolated when multiple persons are present, and subsequently monitoring falls events. A falls algorithm, based on a heuristic decision tree classifier model, was tested on 15 scenarios, each including one or more persons; three scenarios of activity of daily living, and 12 different types of falls (four types of fall, each with three postfall scenarios). The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the falls algorithm are 100.00%, 77.14%, and 89.33%, respectively. PMID:22835529

  11. Maternal age and birth defects: a population study.

    PubMed

    Baird, P A; Sadovnick, A D; Yee, I M

    1991-03-01

    Since more and more women in developed countries are delaying childbearing to an older age, it is important to find out whether birth defects, other than those resulting from chromosomal anomalies, are related to maternal age. We have studied all 26,859 children with birth defects of unknown aetiology identified among 576,815 consecutive livebirths in British Columbia. All these cases' records were linked with provincial birth records to allow determination of maternal age at birth. We excluded children with chromosomal anomalies and those with other birth defects of known aetiology. Only 3 of the 43 birth defect categories studied showed significant maternal-age-specific trends: there were decreasing linear trends with maternal age for patent ductus arteriosus (chi 2 = 36.65, 1 df, p less than 0.01) and hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (chi 2 = 4.90, 1 df, p less than 0.05) and a bell-shaped curve (risk increasing to maternal age 30 then falling) for congenital dislocatable hip/hip click. The findings from this population-based analysis of no association between the incidence of birth defects of unknown aetiology and advancing maternal age should be reassuring to healthy women who opt to delay childbearing. PMID:1671898

  12. The Birth of Miriam Hazel.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Rachel Shapiro

    2015-01-01

    My birth story for Miriam Hazel starts well before her birth, with the birth of her sister, our first-born daughter Colbie Laia. When I gave birth to our first daughter 3 years prior, I was in a completely different place with my body and my mind. Birth was scary, recovery was rough, and my first year followed suit. During my pregnancy with Miriam Hazel, my obstetrician encouraged me to consider a natural birth. I talked to other women and although still frightened, I became more confident and had the birth I never knew I wanted. The birth of Miriam Hazel was incredible and the recovery was completely different. This is my story of Miriam Hazel's birth. PMID:26834441

  13. Person-Environment Interactions Contributing to Nursing Home Resident Falls

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Elizabeth E.; Nguyen, Tam H.; Shaha, Maya; Wenzel, Jennifer A.; DeForge, Bruce R.; Spellbring, Ann Marie

    2011-01-01

    Although approximately 50% of nursing home residents fall annually, the surrounding circumstances remain inadequately understood. This study explored nursing staff perspectives of person, environment, and interactive circumstances surrounding nursing home falls. Focus groups were conducted at two nursing homes in the mid-Atlantic region with the highest and lowest fall rates among corporate facilities. Two focus groups were conducted per facility: one with licensed nurses and one with geriatric nursing assistants. Thematic and content analysis revealed three themes and 11 categories. Three categories under the Person theme were Change in Residents’ Health Status, Decline in Residents’ Abilities, and Residents’ Behaviors and Personality Characteristics. There were five Nursing Home Environment categories: Design Safety, Limited Space, Obstacles, Equipment Misuse and Malfunction, and Staff and Organization of Care. Three Interactions Leading to Falls categories were identified: Reasons for Falls, Time of Falls, and High-Risk Activities. Findings highlight interactions between person and environment factors as significant contributors to resident falls. PMID:20077985

  14. `In free fall'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beijerinck, Herman C. W.

    2014-01-01

    Physicists in the lead of a fiction book or a play, that's a rare event! Writers in general do not understand physics, while physicists seldom have the talent of writing for a large audience. So when it happens, we should rejoice. The up-and-coming German author Juli Zeh [1] (1974), who studied law, has succeeded in combining beautiful prose, psychological drama, crime and physics in a challenging book `In free fall' [2]. A good friend of hers, Bettina Bruinier, has put the core message of the book into a compelling play in the `Volkstheater' in Munich [1]. Yes, it can be done.

  15. The epidemiology, etiology, and costs of preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Frey, Heather A; Klebanoff, Mark A

    2016-04-01

    After decades of rising preterm birth rates in the USA and other countries, recent prematurity rates seem to be on the decline. Despite this optimistic trend, preterm birth rates remain higher in the USA, where nearly one in every eight infants is born early, compared to other developed countries. The prevention of preterm birth is considered a public health priority because of the potential to reduce infant and childhood morbidity and mortality related to this condition. Unfortunately, progress has been modest. One of the greatest challenges in studying this outcome is that preterm birth is a complex condition resulting from multiple etiologic pathways. Recently, experts have developed innovative frameworks for classifying and studying preterm birth based on phenotype. These proposed classification systems have only recently been adopted, but a different perspective on a longstanding problem has the potential to lead to new discoveries. PMID:26794420

  16. Riemann pendulum in free fall systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fargion, Daniele

    2016-07-01

    The possible detection in space and in different free fall system of the tidal effects via a Riemann pendulum rate, is considered. The possibility to perform such an experiment for educational purpouse by a Moire' or Holographic double exposure detection is described. The International Space Station may obtain high quality test of 3D Riemann pendulum effects.

  17. Censored cohort parity progression ratios from birth histories.

    PubMed

    Brass, W; Juarez, F

    1983-08-01

    Despite recent progress in birth data collection and analysis techniques, it remains difficult to establish convincingly that a quantum fall in fertility due to control practices within unions is beginning to be appreciable in a population. A precise measurement of the size of fall associated with such alterations in behavior is difficult. 1 reason for the difficulty of defining measures of significance is the lack of accurate and detailed data. Another reason is the concommitant changes in other demographic characteristics that often occur at the same time as the adoption of control practices. Some of the most common are increases in age at marriage, reduction in length of postpartum amenorrhea, and shorter delays between marriage or cohabitation. Despite evidence of fertility falls over some 15 years, it has been hard to establish the size and nature of this change. The technique for doing so is the life table analysis of birth intervals. The strength of the life table approach is that it adjusts for populations at risk, such as the number of women in an age group of incomplete fertility who have experienced differing numbers of births at different intervals before the survey. The life table analysis deals with the problem of censoring. However, the estimates are seriously biased by selection for speed of reproduction. For some populations the control methods do not seem satisfactory. The most straightforward and effective approach is to subdivide the women by age at earlier birth for any particular interval by order, and to calculate separate life tables for the subdivisions. Individual countries are discussed to illustrate particular features of the analysis (Sri Lanka, Nepal, Korea, Pakistan, Latin America). The approach has been very successful in delineating trends in the parity progression ratios of higher order births. More research is needed on cutoff points of cohort and birth order for the indices, and the best ways of combining the measures to show

  18. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN BIRTH DEFECTS AND EXPOSURE TO AMBIENT VINYL CHLORIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    To better define the association between exposure to vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) and the occurrence of birth defects, this epidemiological study was made in Shawinigan, Quebec, Canada, where a vinyl chloride polymerization plant has operated since 1943. Birth-defect rates in Sha...

  19. Neurobehavioral Assessment before Birth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPietro, Janet A.

    2005-01-01

    The complexities of neurobehavioral assessment of the fetus, which can be neither directly viewed nor manipulated, cannot be understated. Impetus to develop methods for measuring fetal neurobehavioral development has been provided by the recognition that individual differences in neurobehavioral functioning do not originate with birth and…

  20. Birth Order Debate Resolved?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajonc, R. B.

    2001-01-01

    Critiques Rodgers et al.'s June 2000 research on the relation between birth order and intelligence, which suggests that it is a methodological illusion. Explains how the intellectual environment and the teaching function (whereby older children tutor younger ones) contribute to the growth of intellectual maturity, the first negatively and the…

  1. The Birth of "Frankenstein"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Nobody shouts "It's alive!" in the novel that gave birth to Frankenstein's monster. "Frankenstein, or the Modern Prometheus," does not feature mad scientists messing around with beakers in laboratories, nor does it deliver any bug-eyed assistants named Igor. Hollywood has given people those stock images, but the story of the monster and his maker…

  2. Twins, Triplets, Multiple Births

    MedlinePlus

    ... from alone. Multiple births are up in the United States. More women are having babies after age 30 and more are taking fertility drugs. Both boost the chance of carrying more than one baby. A family history of twins also makes multiples more likely. Years ...

  3. Saxon Falls Dam rehabilitation

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolph, R.M.; Quist, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    The Saxon Falls Hydro Project is a high-head hydro owned and operated by Northern States Power Company (NSP) in northwest Wisconsin. Saxon Falls comprises a concrete buttress overflow spillway; mass-concrete tainter gate spillway, conduit intake, and nonoverflow section; earth dam; 1,600-foot-long, 72-inch-diameter steel conduit; two 150-foot-long, 54-inch-diameter penstocks; steel surge tank; and reinforced concrete powerhouse. All structures are founded on bedrock. Engineering inspections revealed severe concrete deterioration and leakage within the intake and deterioration of the middle nonoverflow section. Subsequent to the inspection, concrete cores confirmed the level of deterioration and indicated that immediate measures were necessary to correct the deficiencies and restore project integrity. Because the dam is located on the border between Michigan and Wisconsin, coordination with the respective Departments of Natural Resources was crucial to obtain permits to construct the repairs. Due to concerns regarding a sensitive fishery, a reservoir drawdown was not allowed. To accomplish the work and allow for a suitable construction area, a special braced sheetpile cofferdam was required to complete the project. NSP elected to complete the construction using its own special-construction crews. Close coordination allowed construction personnel, the owner, and the engineer to overcome difficulties encountered during construction.

  4. [Can falls be prevented?].

    PubMed

    Dubousset, Jean

    2014-06-01

    Most recommendations and measures intended to prevent falls focus on the elderly (see HAS guideline of April 2009) but, in our opinion, this isfar too late: prevention must begin much earlier, not only by identifying persons at risk, but also by providing personalized lifestyle advice adapted to each individual's biomechanical, somatic, neurological and biological characteristics. The first preventive measure is to identify a possible deterioration of balance, starting with a physical examination at the age of 45 and repeated regularly throughout life. Extrinsic preventive measures focusing on the domestic and external environments are clearly necessary. But what is most important is to detect and, if necessary, correct any degradation of intrinsic (intracorporeal or somatic) factors starting at the age of 45 years; these include vision, vestibular function and balance, proprioception, and psychological and neurological status. Chronic illnesses and their treatments must also be taken into account: treatment must be limited to indispensable drugs; sedative psychotropics must be avoided if possible; and polymedication must be tightly controlled, as it is a major risk factor for falls. Prevention also requires a diet sufficiently rich in protein, calcium and vitamin D3 (to prevent osteoporosis), and regular daily exercise adapted to the individual, if possible associated with a simultaneous cognitive task. The last key point is the absolute need for thorough functional rehabilitation after any accidental or medical trauma, regardless of age, with the aim of restoring functional status to that existing prior to the accident. PMID:26983186

  5. Birth weight pattern in Karnataka.

    PubMed

    Prasad, K N; Rao, R S; Sujatha, A

    1994-07-01

    The pattern of birth weight is described among births recorded in rural maternity homes in coastal areas of Udupi taluk in South Kanara district in Karnataka state, India. Literacy of the study area was 78.5%, and female literacy was 73.0%. The mean age at marriage was 21.4 years. Over 90% of mothers received some prenatal care. Contraceptive prevalence was 43%. The study area had six rural maternity homes that each served a population of about 10,000 people. The homes were well equipped with trained nurse-midwives, medical rooms, and equipment, and were connected by roads and telephones with Kasturba Hospital. High risk cases were transported by air to Kasturba Hospital. Birth weight was recorded with a UNICEF infant lever balance scale within one hour of delivery. Between July 1985 and June 1988, 4498 singleton live births were recorded: 2308 (51.3%) boys and 2190 (48.7%) girls. 80% weighed between 2500 and 3400 g. 13.3% were low birth weight of under 2500 g, and 0.4% were very low birth weight of under 1500 g. The mean birth weight was 2823 g: 2850 g for boys and 2765.4 for girls. The mean birth weight increased with maternal age; it also increased with increased parity and increased gestation age. The lowest birth weight of 2767.7 g occurred among first births; the highest of 2897.6 g was among births to women with multiple births. 91.3% were born between 37-40 weeks, and 7.5% were preterm. There were statistically significant differences in the mean birth weights by gender. 9.1% of births were to teenagers, and 69% of mothers were 20-29 years old. 30% of births were first births, and 51% were second and third births. The small family norm appeared to be accepted by this study population. PMID:7890348

  6. [Falls in patients with dementia].

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Kiyoshi

    2008-11-01

    People with cognitive impairment are at about 2 to 3 times higher risk of falling compared with cognitively intact elderly. Incidence of falls among patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is high, nevertheless the clinical feature common in patients with mild to moderate AD is the absence of motor impairment. Recent studies suggest that the divided attention markedly impairs the ability of patients with AD to regulate the gait. Falls are particularly common in Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) patients and may aid diagnosis, and the falls are associated with parkinsonism and other unclear factors. Treatment studies evaluating fall reduction strategies in dementia patients are a priority. PMID:18974447

  7. Parent and family outcomes following very preterm or very low birth weight birth: a review.

    PubMed

    Treyvaud, Karli

    2014-04-01

    Parents and the family environment have a pronounced influence on child development. For children at increased risk such as those born very preterm (VPT) or with very low birth weight (VLBW), parent and family functioning can influence the child's level of risk or resilience. This review describes parent and family outcomes after VPT/VLBW birth, specifically parental mental health, parenting stress and the impact of the child on the family. Factors associated with these outcomes are examined, as well as the specific outcomes for fathers. Overall the influence of VPT/VLBW birth on parents and the family appears to be more pronounced in early childhood, with less influence seen by the time of adolescence. Emerging evidence suggests that fathers experience high rates of psychological distress in the first months after VPT birth. Whereas characteristics of the VPT/VLBW child are strongly associated with parent and family outcomes, parent and social factors are also important influences. PMID:24252709

  8. Retrospective analysis of fatal falls.

    PubMed

    Thierauf, Annette; Preuss, Johanna; Lignitz, Eberhard; Madea, Burkhard

    2010-05-20

    Fatal falls are frequent and inhomogeneous events and affect every age. The criminalistic classification can often only be done on the basis of extensive investigations and the autopsy results. We retrospectively surveyed 291 cases of fatal falls on which a post-mortem examination had been carried out in the institutes of Forensic Medicine in Bonn and Greifswald. In large part, these cases are falls from height (n=123) and ground-level falls (n=122). These are compared to fatal falls down a stairs (n=46); the analysis is confined to injuries to the cranium. In ground-level falls the injury pattern in falls under the influence of alcohol differs from that of falls with no alcohol in the case history: all injuries are seen in higher relative frequency in casualties after the consumption of alcohol. In falls from height, the previous consumption of alcohol did not influence the injury pattern; the intracranial traumas are seen in decreasing frequency with increasing heights. The aim of this retrospective analysis is to present injury patterns and influencing factors like fall heights and alcohol for the different kinds of falls on the basis of our collective and to demonstrate similarities and differences between the subgroups. PMID:20176452

  9. Exactly solvable birth and death processes

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Ryu

    2009-10-15

    Many examples of exactly solvable birth and death processes, a typical stationary Markov chain, are presented together with the explicit expressions of the transition probabilities. They are derived by similarity transforming exactly solvable 'matrix' quantum mechanics, which is recently proposed by Odake and the author [S. Odake and R. Sasaki, J. Math. Phys. 49, 053503 (2008)]. The (q-) Askey scheme of hypergeometric orthogonal polynomials of a discrete variable and their dual polynomials play a central role. The most generic solvable birth/death rates are rational functions of q{sup x} (with x being the population) corresponding to the q-Racah polynomial.

  10. Bathing or washing babies after birth?

    PubMed

    Henningsson, A; Nyström, B; Tunnell, R

    One group of healthy full-term newborn babies was washed after birth and another was bathed to remove vernix caseosa and clean the skin. Few infections, none of them serious, occurred in either group. Bacterial colonisation of the umbilical cord on the third day of life was similar in both groups. The rectal temperature fell further and more infants cried during washing than during bathing. Thus bathing the baby after birth makes it calmer, quieter, and more comfortable than washing and causes less heat-loss. Clinical signs of infection and bacterial colonisation rates are no higher after bathing than after washing. PMID:6118769

  11. Birth control pills - progestin only

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000656.htm Birth control pills - progestin only To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Birth control pills help keep you from getting pregnant. The ...

  12. Birth control pill - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to produce a successful pregnancy. To prevent pregnancy, birth control pills affect how these organs normally function. ... The lower levels of estrogen in birth control pills suppress FSH ... woman is pregnant. Ovulation will then not occur, which prevents ...

  13. Birth Defects Data and Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Websites About Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Data & Statistics Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... of birth defects in the United States. For data on specific birth defects, please visit the specific ...

  14. Reducing Risks of Birth Defects

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education FAQs Reducing Risks of Birth Defects Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Reducing Risks of Birth Defects FAQ146, February 2016 ... Your Practice Patient Safety & Quality Payment Reform (MACRA) Education & Events Annual ... Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & ...

  15. Neonatal Mortality of Planned Home Birth in the United States in Relation to Professional Certification of Birth Attendants

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Laurence B.; Arabin, Birgit; Brent, Robert L.; Levene, Malcolm I.; Chervenak, Frank A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Over the last decade, planned home births in the United States (US) have increased, and have been associated with increased neonatal mortality and other morbidities. In a previous study we reported that neonatal mortality is increased in planned home births but we did not perform an analysis for the presence of professional certification status. Purpose The objective of this study therefore was to undertake an analysis to determine whether the professional certification status of midwives or the home birth setting are more closely associated with the increased neonatal mortality of planned midwife-attended home births in the United States. Materials and Methods This study is a secondary analysis of our prior study. The 2006–2009 period linked birth/infant deaths data set was analyzed to examine total neonatal deaths (deaths less than 28 days of life) in term singleton births (37+ weeks and newborn weight ≥ 2,500 grams) without documented congenital malformations by certification status of the midwife: certified nurse midwives (CNM), nurse midwives certified by the American Midwifery Certification Board, and “other” or uncertified midwives who are not certified by the American Midwifery Certification Board. Results Neonatal mortality rates in hospital births attended by certified midwives were significantly lower (3.2/10,000, RR 0.33 95% CI 0.21–0.53) than home births attended by certified midwives (NNM: 10.0/10,000; RR 1) and uncertified midwives (13.7/10,000; RR 1.41 [95% CI, 0.83–2.38]). The difference in neonatal mortality between certified and uncertified midwives at home births did not reach statistical levels (10.0/10,000 births versus 13.7/10,000 births p = 0.2). Conclusions This study confirms that when compared to midwife-attended hospital births, neonatal mortality rates at home births are significantly increased. While NNM was increased in planned homebirths attended by uncertified midwives when compared to certified midwives

  16. Birth of Neutrino Astrophysics

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    Based mainly on the results of two experiments, KamiokaNDE and Super-KamiokaNDE, the birth of neutrino astrophysics will be described. At the end, the result of the third generation Kamioka experiment, KamLAND, will be discussed together with the future possibilities.Organiser(s): Daniel Treille / EP DivisionNote: * Tea & coffee will be served at 16:00 hrs. Please note unusual day.

  17. Birth of Neutrino Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    2010-05-07

    Based mainly on the results of two experiments, KamiokaNDE and Super-KamiokaNDE, the birth of neutrino astrophysics will be described. At the end, the result of the third generation Kamioka experiment, KamLAND, will be discussed together with the future possibilities.Organiser(s): Daniel Treille / EP DivisionNote: * Tea & coffee will be served at 16:00 hrs. Please note unusual day.

  18. Bacterial Hyaluronidase Promotes Ascending GBS Infection and Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Vornhagen, Jay; Quach, Phoenicia; Boldenow, Erica; Merillat, Sean; Whidbey, Christopher; Ngo, Lisa Y.; Adams Waldorf, K. M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Preterm birth increases the risk of adverse birth outcomes and is the leading cause of neonatal mortality. A significant cause of preterm birth is in utero infection with vaginal microorganisms. These vaginal microorganisms are often recovered from the amniotic fluid of preterm birth cases. A vaginal microorganism frequently associated with preterm birth is group B streptococcus (GBS), or Streptococcus agalactiae. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying GBS ascension are poorly understood. Here, we describe the role of the GBS hyaluronidase in ascending infection and preterm birth. We show that clinical GBS strains associated with preterm labor or neonatal infections have increased hyaluronidase activity compared to commensal strains obtained from rectovaginal swabs of healthy women. Using a murine model of ascending infection, we show that hyaluronidase activity was associated with increased ascending GBS infection, preterm birth, and fetal demise. Interestingly, hyaluronidase activity reduced uterine inflammation but did not impact placental or fetal inflammation. Our study shows that hyaluronidase activity enables GBS to subvert uterine immune responses, leading to increased rates of ascending infection and preterm birth. These findings have important implications for the development of therapies to prevent in utero infection and preterm birth. PMID:27353757

  19. Seasonality of births: stability and change in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Holland, B

    1989-08-01

    A marked seasonality of births for the two main ethnic groups of peninsular Malaysia, far exceeding the cyclic fluctuations in births in the United States and Canada, was reported for the 1960s. A 36% excess of births over the average monthly number was observed among Malays each January. Among the ethnic Chinese in Malaysia a regular periodicity in the numbers of births was also found, but it was far less marked and the peak occurred in October or November. The peaks in both groups were due in large measure to conceptions that correlate with religious observances or holidays. Here I report on cyclic birth patterns in peninsular Malaysia for the period 1970-1985. Rapid economic development has occurred during this time and has brought with it demographic changes, such as a massive rise in contraceptive use and a decline in birth rates. These demographic changes have been accompanied by the loss of the pronounced seasonal pattern of births among the Malays. The seasonality of Malay births is now of roughly the same magnitude as the seasonality in the United States and Canada, whereas seasonality of births among the Chinese in Malaysia remains essentially unchanged. PMID:2591915

  20. Fall prevention and bathroom safety in the epilepsy monitoring unit.

    PubMed

    Spritzer, Scott D; Riordan, Katherine C; Berry, Jennnifer; Corbett, Bryn M; Gerke, Joyce K; Hoerth, Matthew T; Crepeau, Amy Z; Drazkowski, Joseph F; Sirven, Joseph I; Noe, Katherine H

    2015-07-01

    Falls are one of the most common adverse events occurring in the epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) and can result in significant injury. Protocols and procedures to reduce falls vary significantly between institutions as it is not yet known what interventions are effective in the EMU setting. This study retrospectively examined the frequency of falls and the impact of serial changes in fall prevention strategies utilized in the EMU between 2001 and 2014 at a single institution. Overall fall rate was 2.81 per 1000 patient days and varied annually from 0 to 9.02 per 1000 patient days. Both seizures and psychogenic nonepileptic events occurring in the bathroom were more likely to result in falls compared with events occurring elsewhere in the room. With initiation of increased patient education, hourly nurse rounding, nocturnal bed alarms, having two persons assisting for high fall risk patients when out of bed, and immediate postfall team review between 2001 and 2013, there was a trend of decreasing fall frequency; however, no specific intervention could be identified as having a particular high impact. In late 2013, a ceiling lift system extending into the bathroom was put in place for use in all EMU patients when out of bed. In the subsequent 15 months, there have been zero falls. The results reinforce both the need for diligent safety standards to prevent falls in the EMU as well as the challenges in identifying the most effective practices to achieve this goal. PMID:26074343

  1. The role of population in tracking meteorite falls in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khiri, F.; Ibhi, A.; Saint-Gerant, T.; Medjkane, M.; Ouknine, L.

    2016-01-01

    The 158 African meteorite falls recorded during the period 1801 to 2014, account for more than 12.3% of all meteorite falls known from the world. Their rate is variable in time and in space. The number of falls continues to grow since 1860. They are concentrated in countries which exhibit large population (mainly rural population) with an uniform distribution. Generally, the number of falls follows the increase of the population density (coefficient of correlation r = 0.98). The colonial phenomenon, the education of population in this field, the population lifestyle and the rural exodus, are also factors among others which could explain the variability of the recovery of meteorite falls in Africa. In this note, we try by a statistical study, to examine the role of the African population in tracking meteorite falls on this continent.

  2. How Can Older Adults Prevent Falls?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Falls and Older Adults How Can Older Adults Prevent Falls? Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table of Contents ... healthy and happy. There are simple ways to prevent most falls. "Injuries from falls are a major ...

  3. Tailored Prevention of Inpatient Falls

    PubMed Central

    ZUYEV, LYUBOV; BENOIT, ANGELA N.; CHANG, FRANK Y.; DYKES, PATRICIA C.

    2011-01-01

    Patient falls and fall-related injuries are serious problems in hospitals. The Fall TIPS application aims to prevent patient falls by translating routine nursing fall risk assessment into a decision support intervention that communicates fall risk status and creates a tailored evidence-based plan of care that is accessible to the care team, patients, and family members. In our design and implementation of the Fall TIPS toolkit, we used the Spiral Software Development Life Cycle model. Three output tools available to be generated from the toolkit are bed poster, plan of care, and patient education handout. A preliminary design of the application was based on initial requirements defined by project leaders and informed by focus groups with end users. Preliminary design partially simulated the paper version of the Morse Fall Scale currently used in hospitals involved in the research study. Strengths and weaknesses of the first prototype were identified by heuristic evaluation. Usability testing was performed at sites where research study is implemented. Suggestions mentioned by end users participating in usability studies were either directly incorporated into the toolkit and output tools, were slightly modified, or will be addressed during training. The next step is implementation of the fall prevention toolkit on the pilot testing units. PMID:20975543

  4. Rurality and Birth Outcomes: Findings from Southern Appalachia and the Potential Role of Pregnancy Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Beth A.; Cole, Laura K. Jones

    2009-01-01

    Context: Rates of preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW) vary by region, with disparities particularly evident in the Appalachian region of the South. Community conditions related to rurality likely contribute to adverse birth outcomes in this region. Purpose: This study examined associations between rurality and related community…

  5. [Birth interval differentials in Rwanda].

    PubMed

    Ilinigumugabo, A

    1992-01-01

    Data from the 1983 Rwanda Fertility Survey are the basis for this study of variations in birth intervals. An analysis of the quality of the Rwandan birth data showed it to be relatively good. The life table technique utilized in this study is explained in a section on methodology, which also describes the Rwanda Fertility Survey questionnaires. A comparison of birth intervals in which live born children died before their first birthday or survived the first birthday shows that infant mortality shortens birth intervals by an average of 5 months. The first birth interval was almost 28 months when the oldest child survived, but declined to 23 months when the oldest child died before age 1. The effect of mortality on birth intervals increased with parity, from 5 months for the first birth interval to 5.5 months for the second and third and 6.4 months for subsequent intervals. The differences amounted to 9 or 10 months for women separating at parities under 4 and over 14 months for women separating at parities of 4 or over. Birth intervals generally increased with parity, maternal age, and the duration of the union. But women entering into unions at higher ages had shorter birth intervals. In the absence of infant mortality and dissolution of the union, women attending school beyong the primary level had first birth intervals 6 months shorter on average than other women. Controlling for infant mortality and marital dissolution, women working for wages had average birth intervals of under 2 years for the first 5 births. Father's occupation had a less marked influence on birth intervals. Urban residence was associated with a shortening of the average birth interval by 6 months between the first and second birth and 5 months between the second and third births. In the first 5 births, Tutsi women had birth intervals 1.5 months longer on average than Hutu women. Women in polygamous unions did not have significantly different birth intervals except perhaps among older women

  6. 1991 Fall Meeting Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, David S.

    The AGU 1991 Fall Meeting, held in San Francisco December 9-13, was the largest national AGU meeting ever held. Meeting participation continued the steady growth trend set throughout the previous decade. A total of 4,037 papers and posters were presented, and by Friday noon of the meeting over 5,500 members had registered.Several special events were scheduled to inform and engage members on societal and programmatic aspects of our science. AGU's Committee on Education and Human Resources sponsored an open forum that addressed opportunities and problems associated with dual-career couples. A discussion of NASA's strategic plan by Berrien Moore and Joseph Alexander drew a large audience, and a special session on societal aspects of the Mt. Pinatubo eruption drew an overflow crowd. Two special lectures— “Plumes, Plates, and Deep Earth Structure” by Don L. Anderson and “New Frontiers in Aeronomy: Effects of Global Atmospheric Change” by P. M. Banks-also drew overflow crowds.

  7. Perceived Fall Risk and Functional Decline: Gender Differences in Patient's Willingness to Discuss Fall Risk, Fall History, or to Have a Home Safety Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Marna Rayl; Moore, Elizabeth C.; Nguyen, Michael C.; Stello, Brian; Goldberg, Arnold; Barraco, Robert D.; Porter, Bernadette G.; Kurt, Anita; Dusza, Stephen W.; Kane, Bryan G.

    2016-01-01

    The CDC reports that among older adults, falls are the leading cause of injury-related death and rates of fall-related fractures among older women are twice those of men. We set out to 1) determine patient perceptions (analyzed by gender) about their perceived fall risk compared to their actual risk for functional decline and death and 2) to report their comfort level in discussing their fall history or a home safety plan with their provider. Elders who presented to the Emergency Department (ED†) were surveyed. The survey included demographics, the Falls Efficacy Scale (FES) and the Vulnerable Elders Survey (VES); both validated surveys measuring fall concern and functional decline. Females had higher FES scores (mean 12.3, SD 5.9) than males (mean 9.7, SD 5.9 p = .007) in the 146 surveys analyzed. Females were more likely to report an increased fear of falling, and almost three times more likely to have a VES score of 3 or greater than males (OR = 2.86, 95% CI: 1.17-7.00, p = .02). A strong correlation was observed between FES and VES scores (r = 0.80, p < .001). No difference in correlation was observed between males and females, p = .26. Participants (77 percent) reported they would be comfortable discussing their fall risk with a provider; there was no difference between genders (p = .57). In this study, irrespective of gender, there appears to be a high association between subjects’ perceived fall risk and risk for functional decline and death. The majority of patients are likely willing to discuss their fall risk with their provider. These findings may suggest a meaningful opportunity for fall risk mitigation in this setting. PMID:27354852

  8. Perceived Fall Risk and Functional Decline: Gender Differences in Patient's Willingness to Discuss Fall Risk, Fall History, or to Have a Home Safety Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Marna Rayl; Moore, Elizabeth C; Nguyen, Michael C; Stello, Brian; Goldberg, Arnold; Barraco, Robert D; Porter, Bernadette G; Kurt, Anita; Dusza, Stephen W; Kane, Bryan G

    2016-06-01

    The CDC reports that among older adults, falls are the leading cause of injury-related death and rates of fall-related fractures among older women are twice those of men. We set out to 1) determine patient perceptions (analyzed by gender) about their perceived fall risk compared to their actual risk for functional decline and death and 2) to report their comfort level in discussing their fall history or a home safety plan with their provider. Elders who presented to the Emergency Department (ED†) were surveyed. The survey included demographics, the Falls Efficacy Scale (FES) and the Vulnerable Elders Survey (VES); both validated surveys measuring fall concern and functional decline. Females had higher FES scores (mean 12.3, SD 5.9) than males (mean 9.7, SD 5.9 p = .007) in the 146 surveys analyzed. Females were more likely to report an increased fear of falling, and almost three times more likely to have a VES score of 3 or greater than males (OR = 2.86, 95% CI: 1.17-7.00, p = .02). A strong correlation was observed between FES and VES scores (r = 0.80, p < .001). No difference in correlation was observed between males and females, p = .26. Participants (77 percent) reported they would be comfortable discussing their fall risk with a provider; there was no difference between genders (p = .57). In this study, irrespective of gender, there appears to be a high association between subjects' perceived fall risk and risk for functional decline and death. The majority of patients are likely willing to discuss their fall risk with their provider. These findings may suggest a meaningful opportunity for fall risk mitigation in this setting. PMID:27354852

  9. Appropriate technology for birth.

    PubMed

    1985-08-24

    In April 1985, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) sponsored an interdisciplinary conference on appropriate technology for birth. A lengthy list of recommendations, reprinted in this article, was unanimously adopted by the conferees. Among the considerations addressed by the recommendations are a woman's right to exercise control over conditions of labor and delivery; the importance of communication between women, their families, and health personnel; and the need to make judicious use of technologies such as fetal monitoring. A network of evaluation groups to assess new technologies, sponsored by WHO and PAHO, is advocated. PMID:2863457

  10. Not Just a Fall Tree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller-Hewes, Kathy A.

    2004-01-01

    Trees burst with color in the northern states. Autumn leaves dust the ground. Painting the fall landscape is nothing new. Teachers have been doing it in classrooms for decades. The approach, however, can make the difference between whether the fall landscape is simply painting for fun, or a real learning experience. Students learn best when they…

  11. A review of postpartum depression, preterm birth, and culture.

    PubMed

    Gulamani, Salima S; Premji, Shahirose Sadrudin; Kanji, Zeenatkhanu; Azam, Syed Iqbal

    2013-01-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) varies worldwide and is considered a serious issue because of its devastating effects on mothers, families, and infants or children. Preterm birth may be a risk factor for PPD. In 2005, the global incidence of preterm birth was estimated to be 9.6%, and of these births, 85% occurred in Africa and Asia. Among Asian countries, Pakistan has a preterm birth rate of 15.7% and the highest prevalence rate of PPD (63.3%). A literature review was therefore undertaken to better understand the potential contribution of preterm birth to PPD and to identify gaps in the scientific literature. Limited studies compare prevalence rates of PPD in mothers of full-term infants and mothers of preterm infants. Furthermore, meta-analyses examining predictors of PPD have not included preterm birth as a variable. The interrelationship between preterm birth and PPD may be explained by early parental stress and mother-infant interaction among mothers of preterm infants. Culture plays an important role in shaping communication between mothers and their infants and defines social support rituals that may or may not mediate PPD. More research is needed to provide evidence for practice. PMID:23360942

  12. Racial disparities in preterm births. The role of urogenital infections.

    PubMed Central

    Fiscella, K

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of urogenital infections on the racial gap between black and white women in preterm birth rates. METHODS: A computer-assisted search of the medical literature was conducted through MEDLINE aided by a manual bibliographic search of published articles and relevant books. Estimates of the relative risk for preterm birth were extracted from published studies for the following infections: N. gonorrhea, syphilis, trichomoniasis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Group B streptococcal vaginal colonization, asymptomatic bacteriuria, genital mycoplasmas, and bacterial vaginosis. Estimates of the prevalence among black and white women by race for each of these infections were extracted from published studies. The attributable risk for preterm birth for selected infections was then calculated for the black and white populations and the impact on the racial gap in preterm births was estimated. RESULTS: Only bacterial vaginosis and bacteriuria appear to be established risk factors for preterm births. Significantly higher rates of bacterial vaginosis among black women may account for nearly 30% of the racial gap in preterm births. Higher rates of bacteriuria among black women may account for roughly 5% of the gap. CONCLUSION: Although these findings are limited by the reliability of published estimates of prevalence and relative risk for these infections, treatment of infections during pregnancy, particularly bacterial vaginosis, offers hope for reducing the racial gap in preterm births. Images p104-a p110-a PMID:8606905

  13. Automatic Fall Monitoring: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Pannurat, Natthapon; Thiemjarus, Surapa; Nantajeewarawat, Ekawit

    2014-01-01

    Falls and fall-related injuries are major incidents, especially for elderly people, which often mark the onset of major deterioration of health. More than one-third of home-dwelling people aged 65 or above and two-thirds of those in residential care fall once or more each year. Reliable fall detection, as well as prevention, is an important research topic for monitoring elderly living alone in residential or hospital units. The aim of this study is to review the existing fall detection systems and some of the key research challenges faced by the research community in this field. We categorize the existing platforms into two groups: wearable and ambient devices; the classification methods are divided into rule-based and machine learning techniques. The relative merit and potential drawbacks are discussed, and we also outline some of the outstanding research challenges that emerging new platforms need to address. PMID:25046016

  14. Utilization of Residence Hall Facilities, Fall 1992, with Trends from Fall 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Albany. Central Staff Office of Institutional Research.

    This report presents utilization summary data in the form of 12 tables from all New York State-operated institutions of higher education having residence hall facilities. The tables provide information on such areas as occupancy rates, bed rental information, revenue-producing "other" utilization, and trends in facility utilization from fall 1983…

  15. Cowlitz Falls Fish Passage.

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The upper Cowlitz was once home to native salmon and steelhead. But the combined impacts of overharvest, farming, logging and road building hammered fish runs. And in the 1960s, a pair of hydroelectric dams blocked the migration path of ocean-returning and ocean-going fish. The lower Cowlitz still supports hatchery runs of chinook, coho and steelhead. But some 200 river miles in the upper river basin--much of it prime spawning and rearing habitat--have been virtually cut off from the ocean for over 26 years. Now the idea is to trap-and-haul salmon and steelhead both ways and bypass previously impassable obstacles in the path of anadromous fish. The plan can be summarized, for the sake of explanation, in three steps: (1) trap and haul adult fish--collect ocean-returning adult fish at the lowermost Cowlitz dam, and truck them upstream; (2) reseed--release the ripe adults above the uppermost dam, and let them spawn naturally, at the same time, supplement these runs with hatchery born fry that are reared and imprinted in ponds and net pens in the watershed; (3) trap and haul smolts--collection the new generation of young fish as they arrive at the uppermost Cowlitz dam, truck them past the three dams, and release them to continue their downstream migration to the sea. The critical part of any fish-collection system is the method of fish attraction. Scientists have to find the best combination of attraction system and screens that will guide young fish to the right spot, away from the turbine intakes. In the spring of 1994 a test was made of a prototype system of baffles and slots on the upriver face of the Cowlitz Falls Dam. The prototype worked at 90% efficiency in early tests, and it worked without the kind of expensive screening devices that have been installed on other dams. Now that the success of the attraction system has been verified, Harza engineers and consultants will design and build the appropriate collection part of the system.

  16. Wireless Falling Detection System Based on Community.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yun; Wu, Yanqi; Zhang, Bobo; Li, Zhiyang; He, Nongyue; Li, Song

    2015-06-01

    The elderly are more likely to suffer the aches or pains from the accidental falls, and both the physiology and psychology of patients would subject to a long-term disturbance, especially when the emergency treatment was not given timely and properly. Although many methods and devices have been developed creatively and shown their efficiency in experiments, few of them are suitable for commercial applications routinely. Here, we design a wearable falling detector as a mobile terminal, and utilize the wireless technology to transfer and monitor the activity data of the host in a relatively small community. With the help of the accelerometer sensor and the Google Mapping service, information of the location and the activity data will be send to the remote server for the downstream processing. The experimental result has shown that SA (Sum-vector of all axes) value of 2.5 g is the threshold value to distinguish the falling from other activities. A three-stage detection algorithm was adopted to increase the accuracy of the real alarm, and the accuracy rate of our system was more than 95%. With the further improvement, the falling detecting device which is low-cost, accurate and user-friendly would become more and more common in everyday life. PMID:26369050

  17. The Birth of Joseph Gabriel

    PubMed Central

    Cantine, Anne Touhill

    2013-01-01

    In this column, a mother shares the story of the birth of her first child. With confidence in the process of birth and in her ability to give birth, and with the support, confidence, and encouragement of her mother and sisters, Anne manages to cope with strong contractions through a busy day. Finally, her husband realizes how fast labor is progressing. Baby Joseph was born less than 2 hours after arrival at the hospital. PMID:24868130

  18. Slip, trip, and fall injuries among nursing care facility workers.

    PubMed

    Bell, Jennifer L; Collins, James W; Tiesman, Hope M; Ridenour, Marilyn; Konda, Srinivas; Wolf, Laurie; Evanoff, Bradley

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this research was to describe the slip, trip, and fall injury experience and trends in a population of nursing home workers, identify risk factors for slip, trip, and fall injuries, and develop prevention strategies for slip, trip, and fall hazards. Workers' compensation injury claims data and payroll data from 1996 through 2003 were obtained from six nursing homes and used to calculate injury incidence rates. Narrative information was used to describe details of slip, trip, and fall events. A total of 86 slip, trip, and fall-related workers' compensation claims were filed during the 8-year period. Slip, trip, and fall claim rates showed a nonsignificant increase during the 8-year period. Most slips, trips, and falls were attributed to hazards that can be mitigated (e.g., water on the floor or loose cords in a walkway). Nursing home workers experience more slip, trip, and fall-related injury claims than workers in other industries. Preventive programs should be implemented and evaluated in this industry. PMID:23521142

  19. Adolescent births in the border region: a descriptive analysis based on US Hispanic and Mexican birth certificates.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Jill A; Mojarro, Octavio; Sutton, Paul D; Ventura, Stephanie J

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent childbearing adversely affects both mothers and infants. The birth rate for US adolescent women of Hispanic origin is higher than that for US adolescents overall. Birth rates among US Hispanic adolescents in the border region are higher than rates among other US Hispanic adolescents, and rates among Mexican border adolescents are higher than rates among other Mexican adolescents. We used binational birth certificate data for US Hispanic and Mexican adolescent women living inside the border region, elsewhere within the border states, and in the US and Mexico overall to compare birth rates and other health indicators among these groups. From 2000 to 2009, birth rates for 15-19 year-olds declined 19-28 % among US Hispanic geographic subgroups and 8-13 % among Mexican geographic subgroups; rates in the border region in 2009 were 73.8/1,000 women ages 15-19 for US Hispanics and 87.2/1,000 for Mexicans and were higher than rates in other US and Mexican subgroups, respectively. Less than one in five US Hispanic and Mexican adolescent mothers in the border region was married. About one in three delivered by cesarean. Late or no prenatal care was more prevalent among US Hispanic (17.6 %) than Mexican (14.3 %) border adolescents. Birth weight and gestational age outcomes were generally poorest in Texas border counties compared with border counties in other US states and in municipios of Mexican states bordering Texas. High birth rates and low prenatal care utilization among adolescents are problems along the US-Mexico border. PMID:24820518

  20. Birth control pills - progestin only

    MedlinePlus

    ... the pill - progestin; Oral contraceptives - progestin; OCP - progestin; Contraception - progestin ... Birth control pills help keep you from getting pregnant. The pills with only progestin come in 28-day ...

  1. Birth control - slow release methods

    MedlinePlus

    Contraception - hormonal methods; Progestin implants; Progestin injections; Skin patch; Vaginal ring ... might want to consider a different birth control method. SKIN PATCH The skin patch is placed on ...

  2. Radar fall detectors: a comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erol, Baris; Amin, Moeness; Ahmad, Fauzia; Boashash, Boualem

    2016-05-01

    Falls are a major cause of accidents in elderly people. Even simple falls can lead to severe injuries, and sometimes result in death. Doppler fall detection has drawn much attention in recent years. Micro-Doppler signatures play an important role for the Doppler-based radar systems. Numerous studies have demonstrated the offerings of micro-Doppler characteristics for fall detection. In this respect, a plethora of micro-Doppler signature features have been proposed, including those stemming from speech recognition and wavelet decomposition. In this work, we consider four different sets of features for fall detection. These can be categorized as spectrogram based features, wavelet based features, mel-frequency cepstrum coefficients, and power burst curve features. Support vector machine is employed as the classifier. Performance of the respective fall detectors is investigated using real data obtained with the same radar operating resources and under identical sensing conditions. For the considered data, the spectrogram based feature set is shown to provide superior fall detection performance.

  3. Graduation Rates for Selected Cohorts, 2006-11; Student Financial Aid, Academic Year 2013-14; and Admissions in Postsecondary Institutions, Fall 2014. First Look (Provisional Data). NCES 2015-181

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginder, Scott A.; Kelly-Reid, Janice E.; Mann, Farrah B.

    2015-01-01

    This "First Look" presents findings from the provisional data of the IPEDS winter 2014-15 data collection, which included four survey components: (1) Graduation Rates (GR); (2) 200 Percent Graduation Rates (GR200); (3) Student Financial Aid (SFA); and (4) Admissions (ADM). GR and GR200 present graduation rates for selected cohorts within…

  4. Profile and birthing practices of Maranao traditional birth attendants

    PubMed Central

    Maghuyop-Butalid, Roselyn; Mayo, Norhanifa A; Polangi, Hania T

    2015-01-01

    This study determined the profile and birthing practices in both modern and traditional ways among Maranao traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in Lanao del Norte, Philippines. It employed a descriptive research design. The respondents were 50 Maranao TBAs selected through the snowball sampling technique. A questionnaire was developed by the researchers to identify the respondents’ modern birthing practices utilizing the Essential Intrapartum and Newborn Care (EINC) Protocol. To determine their profile and traditional birthing practices, items from a previous study and the respondents’ personal claims were adapted. This study shows that Maranao TBAs have less compliance to the EINC Protocol and they often practice the traditional birthing interventions, thus increasing the risk of complications to both mother and newborn. PMID:26604828

  5. Comparative outcome of low birth weight babies.

    PubMed

    Das, B K; Mishra, R N; Mishra, O P; Bhargava, V; Prakash, A

    1993-01-01

    One hundred and fifty six babies with birth weight between 1500-2000 g and 103 full term-appropriate for gestational age (FT-AGA) babies delivered at University Hospital, District Hospital and village homes were included for a comparative study of mortality, morbidity and growth pattern. The low birth weight (LBW) babies from the three centres had similar birth weight and gestational age. Neonatal mortality rates for the LBW babies were similar at the three centres. The main cause of death were infections and aspiration with rates again being similar. Diarrhea and respiratory tract infections were common causes of morbidity. The mortality rates for the LBW babies were significantly higher as compared to FT-AGA babies irrespective of the place of delivery. The incidence of morbidities like diarrhea and respiratory infections were also higher in LBW babies. However, the differences were statistically significant mostly in the preterm group. The weight gain of all LBW babies was similar up to 3 months of age. The findings of an identical outcome for the LBW babies at village level to those managed at hospitals is an encouraging trend to increasing domiciliary care for LBW babies. PMID:8406701

  6. Wartime women giving birth: Narratives of pregnancy and childbirth, Britain c. 1939–1960

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Women in Second World War Britain benefitted from measures to improve maternal and child health. Infant and maternal mortality rates continued to fall, new drugs became available, and efforts were made to improve the health of mothers and babies through the provision of subsidised milk and other foodstuffs. However, in return, women were also expected to contribute to the war effort through motherhood, and this reflected wider cultural ideas in the North Atlantic world in the first half of the twentieth century which equated maternity with military service. The aim of this article is to examine the interplay between narratives of birth and narratives of war in the accounts of maternity from women of the wartime generation. It will explore how the military-maternity analogy sheds light on women’s experiences of pregnancy and childbirth in Britain during the Second World War, whilst also considering maternity within women’s wider role as ‘domestic soldiers’, contributing to the war effort through their traditional work as housewives and mothers. In doing so, the article reveals the complexity of women’s narratives. It demonstrates that they do not simply conform to the ‘medical vs. social’ binary, but reflect the wider cultural context in which women gave birth. Women incorporated the dominant discourses of the period, namely those around war, into their accounts. PMID:24361165

  7. Birth order and myopia

    PubMed Central

    Guggenheim, Jeremy A.; McMahon, George; Northstone, Kate; Mandel, Yossi; Kaiserman, Igor; Stone, Richard A.; Lin, Xiaoyu; Saw, Seang Mei; Forward, Hannah; Mackey, David A.; Yazar, Seyhan; Young, Terri L.; Williams, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    Purpose An association between birth order and reduced unaided vision (a surrogate for myopia) has been observed previously. We examined the association between birth order and myopia directly in 4 subject groups. Methods Subject groups were participants in 1) the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; UK; age 15 years; N=4,401), 2) the Singapore Cohort Study of Risk Factors for Myopia (SCORM; Singapore; age 13 years; N=1,959), 3) the Raine Eye Health Study (REHS; Australia; age 20 years; N=1,344), and 4) Israeli Defense Force recruitment candidates (IDFC; Israel; age 16-22 years; N=888,277). Main outcome: Odds ratio (OR) for myopia in first born versus non-first born individuals after adjusting for potential risk factors. Results The prevalence of myopia was numerically higher in first-born versus non-first-born individuals in all study groups, but the strength of evidence varied widely. The adjusted ORs (95% CI) were: ALSPAC, 1.31 (1.05-1.64); SCORM, 1.25 (0.89-1.77); REHS, 1.18 (0.90-1.55); IDFC, 1.04 (1.03-1.06). In the large IDFC sample, the effect size was greater (a) for the first born versus fourth or higher born comparison than for the first born versus second/third born comparison (P<0.001) and (b) with increasing myopia severity (P<0.001). Conclusions Across all studies, the increased risk of myopia in first born individuals was low (OR <1.3). Indeed, only the studies with >4000 participants provided strong statistical support for the association. The available evidence suggested the relationship was independent of established risk factors such as time outdoors/reading, and thus may arise through a different causal mechanism. PMID:24168726

  8. Factors associated with falls among older adults living in institutions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Falls have enormous impact in older adults. Yet, there is insufficient evidence regarding the effectiveness of preventive interventions in this setting. The objectives were to measure the frequency of falls and associated factors among older people living institutions. Methods Data were obtained from a survey on a probabilistic sample of residents aged ≥65 years, drawn in 1998-99 from institutions of Madrid (Spain). Residents, their caregivers, and facility physicians were interviewed. Fall rates were computed based on the number of physician-reported falls in the preceding 30 days. Adjusted rate ratios were computed using negative binomial regression models, including age, sex, cognitive status, functional dependence, number of diseases, and polypharmacy. Results The final sample comprised 733 residents. The fall rate was 2.4 falls per person-year (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.04-2.82). The strongest risk factor was number of diseases, with an adjusted rate ratio (RR) of 1.32 (95% CI, 1.17-1.50) for each additional diagnosis. Other variables associated with falls were: urinary incontinence (RR = 2.56 [95% CI, 1.32-4.94]); antidepressant use (RR = 2.32 [95% CI, 1.22-4.40]); arrhythmias (RR = 2.00 [95% CI, 1.05-3.81]); and polypharmacy (RR = 1.07 [95% CI, 0.95-1.21], for each additional medication). The attributable fraction for number of diseases (with reference to those with ≤ 1 condition) was 84% (95% CI, 45-95%). Conclusions Number of diseases was the main risk factor for falls in this population of institutionalized older adults. Other variables associated with falls, probably more amenable to preventive action, were urinary incontinence, antidepressants, arrhythmias, and polypharmacy. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/3916151157277337 PMID:23320746

  9. Provider-Initiated Late Preterm Births in Brazil: Differences between Public and Private Health Services

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Maria do Carmo; Esteves-Pereira, Ana Paula; Nakamura-Pereira, Marcos; Torres, Jacqueline Alves; Domingues, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira; Dias, Marcos Augusto Bastos; Moreira, Maria Elizabeth; Theme-Filha, Mariza; da Gama, Silvana Granado Nogueira

    2016-01-01

    Background A large proportion of the rise in prematurity worldwide is owing to late preterm births, which may be due to the expansion of obstetric interventions, especially pre-labour caesarean section. Late preterm births pose similar risks to overall prematurity, making this trend a concern. In this study, we describe factors associated with provider-initiated late preterm birth and verify differences in provider-initiated late preterm birth rates between public and private health services according to obstetric risk. Methods This is a sub-analysis of a national population-based survey of postpartum women entitled “Birth in Brazil”, performed between 2011 and 2012. We included 23,472 singleton live births. We performed non-conditional multiple logistic regressions assessing associated factors and analysing differences between public and private health services. Results Provider-initiated births accounted for 38% of late preterm births; 32% in public health services and 61% in private health services. They were associated with previous preterm birth(s) and maternal pathologies for women receiving both public and private services and with maternal age ≥35 years for women receiving public services. Women receiving private health services had higher rates of provider-initiated late preterm birth (rate of 4.8%) when compared to the ones receiving public services (rate of 2.4%), regardless of obstetric risk–adjusted OR of 2.3 (CI 1.5–3.6) for women of low obstetric risk and adjusted OR of 1.6 (CI 1.1–2.3) for women of high obstetric risk. Conclusion The high rates of provider-initiated late preterm birth suggests a considerable potential for reduction, as such prematurity can be avoided, especially in women of low obstetric risk. To promote healthy births, we advise introducing policies with incentives for the adoption of new models of birth care. PMID:27196102

  10. Incidence of low birth weight among Love Canal residents.

    PubMed

    Vianna, N J; Polan, A K

    1984-12-01

    The incidence of low birth weight among white live-born infants from 1940 through 1978 was studied in various sections of the Love Canal. A statistically significant excess was found in the historic swale area from 1940 through 1953, the period when various chemicals were dumped in this disposal site. Potential confounding factors such as medical-therapeutic histories, smoking, education, maternal age, birth order, length of gestation, and urban-rural difference did not appear to account for this observation. Low birth weight rates were comparable to those of upstate New York from 1954 through 1978, the period when there was no deposition of chemical wastes. PMID:6505690

  11. Ebb and flow of manganese: a possible pathogenic factor in birth defects, cancer and heart disease

    SciTech Connect

    Marienfeld, C.J.; Collins, M.

    1981-06-01

    Manganese is essential and ubiquitous in all living matter and has been considered as one of the least toxic of the elements. However, 14 years ago at this meeting, Cotzias demonstrated a severe Parkinson-like disease among Mn miners. He further showed that the primitive homeostatic mechanism for Mn in man was based almost entirely upon its excretion by the liver via the bile. The lack of storage capacity for Mn and its rapid uptake by mitochondria lead to a rapid and intermittent rise and fall of blood and tissue levels. A similar rise and fall of Mn occurs in water sources, in water treatment and distribution systems and in the preparation of some food beverages. Manganese has been a known and consistent mutagen in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes since the work of Demerec and Hansen in 1951. It produces error prone DNA replication when substituting for magnesium in polymerase enzyme reactions. We have only recently become aware of the degree to which manganese has been relegated to the status of human ecologic immateriality. This conclusion was reached after a preliminary literature search for the possible relevance of a high Mn level found in the drinking water to the high birth defect rate experienced by a community in Missouri. The present aim will be to indicate in agreement with Cotzias that Mn, like other trace elements, is deserving of much more scientific attention and infinitely more respect than it has been receiving. The hit and run mutagenic potential of Mn in the pathogenesis of birth defects, cancer and heart disease is discussed.

  12. Exercises to help prevent falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000493.htm Exercises to help prevent falls To use the sharing ... and easily. Do not hold your breath. Balance exercises You can do some balance exercises during everyday ...

  13. Highlights of 2012 Fall Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finn, Carol

    2013-01-01

    This past December the streets of San Francisco, Calif., surrounding the Moscone Center were awash with a sea of Earth and space scientists attending the 45th consecutive AGU Fall Meeting, eager to share and expand their knowledge "for the benefit of humanity." As it has for many years, attendance at AGU's Fall Meeting—the largest gathering of Earth and space scientists in the world—continued to increase, this year passing the 24,000 mark. Attendees at the meeting, which took place on 3-7 December 2012, hailed from 97 countries; nearly 7000 of them were students. News from the Fall Meeting was carried in newspapers and on Web sites around the world, and the social media sphere lit up with talk of AGU and the Fall Meeting. It's even reported that for a short time we were a trending topic on Twitter.

  14. Community College Estimated Growth: Fall 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillippe, Kent; Mullin, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    A survey from the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) found that enrollment growth in fall 2010 slowed its pace at community colleges, increasing 3.2% from the previous year. This contrasts with more dramatic increases in recent years: more than 11% between fall 2008 and fall 2009, and nearly 17% between fall 2007 and fall 2009,…

  15. Birth Order: Reconciling Conflicting Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajonc, Robert B.; Mullally, Patricia R.

    1997-01-01

    Introduces the confluence model as a theory specifying the process by which the intellectual environment modifies intellectual development. Using this model, explores the contradiction between prediction of secular trends in test scores by trends in aggregate birth order and the lack of prediction of individual test scores by birth order using…

  16. Births: Final Data for 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventura, Stephanie J.; Martin, Joyce A.; Curtin, Sally C.; Matthews, T. J.; Park, Melissa M.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents 1998 data on U.S. births according to a wide variety of characteristics. Data are presented for maternal demographic characteristics, including: (1) age, live-birth order, race, Hispanic origin, marital status, and educational attainment; (2) maternal lifestyle and health characteristics, such as medical risk factors, weight…

  17. Birth Observed: A Photographic Essay

    PubMed Central

    Immega, Georgia

    1988-01-01

    The author presents 17 photographs taken during labour and delivery in a large urban teaching hospital. The text describes a family doctor's experience of normal birth. Shown are birth with the parturient in a squatting position, on hands and knees, and in the lithotomy position, using the squatting bar for high foot support. Images1234567891011121314151617 PMID:21253231

  18. Births: Final Data for 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joyce A.; Hamilton, Brady E.; Ventura, Stephanie J.; Menacker, Fay; Park, Melissa M.; Sutton, Paul D.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents 2001 data on U.S. births according to maternal demographics (age, live-birth order, marital status, race, Hispanic origin, and educational attainment); maternal characteristics (medical risk factors, weight gain, and tobacco and alcohol use); pregnant women's medical care utilization (prenatal care, obstetric procedures,…

  19. Early rapid growth, early birth: Accelerated fetal growth and spontaneous late preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Erez, Offer; Espinoza, Jimmy; Gotsch, Francesca; Goncalves, Luis; Hassan, Sonia; Gomez, Ricardo; Nien, Jyh Kae; Frongillo, Edward A.; Romero, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    The past two decades in the United States have seen a 24 % rise in spontaneous late preterm delivery (34 to 36 weeks) of unknown etiology. This study tested the hypothesis that fetal growth was identical prior to spontaneous preterm (n=221, median gestational age at birth 35.6 weeks) and term (n=3706) birth among pregnancies followed longitudinally in Santiago, Chile. The hypothesis was not supported: Preterm-delivered fetuses were significantly larger than their term-delivered peers by mid-second trimester in estimated fetal weight, head, limb and abdominal dimensions, and they followed different growth trajectories. Piecewise regression assessed time-specific differences in growth rates at 4-week intervals from 16 weeks. Estimated fetal weight and abdominal circumference growth rates faltered at 20 weeks among the preterm-delivered, only to match and/or exceed their term-delivered peers at 24–28 weeks. After an abrupt decline at 28 weeks attenuating growth rates in all dimensions, fetuses delivered preterm did so at greater population-specific sex and age-adjusted weight than their peers from uncomplicated pregnancies (p<0.01). Growth rates predicted birth timing: one standard score of estimated fetal weight increased the odds ratio for preterm birth from 2.8 prior to 23 weeks, to 3.6 (95% confidence interval, 1.82–7.11, p<0.05) between 23 and 27 weeks. After 27 weeks, increasing size was protective (OR: 0.56, 95% confidence interval, 0.38–0.82, p=0.003). These data document, for the first time, a distinctive fetal growth pattern across gestation preceding spontaneous late preterm birth, identify the importance of mid-gestation for alterations in fetal growth, and add perspective on human fetal biological variability. PMID:18988282

  20. The Birth of String Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappelli, Andrea; Castellani, Elena; Colomo, Filippo; Di Vecchia, Paolo

    2012-04-01

    Part I. Overview: 1. Introduction and synopsis; 2. Rise and fall of the hadronic string G. Veneziano; 3. Gravity, unification, and the superstring J. H. Schwarz; 4. Early string theory as a challenging case study for philosophers E. Castellani; Part II. The Prehistory: The Analytic S-Matrix: 5. Introduction to Part II; 6. Particle theory in the sixties: from current algebra to the Veneziano amplitude M. Ademollo; 7. The path to the Veneziano model H. R. Rubinstein; 8. Two-component duality and strings P. G. O. Freund; 9. Note on the prehistory of string theory M. Gell-Mann; Part III. The Dual Resonance Model: 10. Introduction to Part III; 11. From the S-matrix to string theory P. Di Vecchia; 12. Reminiscence on the birth of string theory J. A. Shapiro; 13. Personal recollections D. Amati; 14. Early string theory at Fermilab and Rutgers L. Clavelli; 15. Dual amplitudes in higher dimensions: a personal view C. Lovelace; 16. Personal recollections on dual models R. Musto; 17. Remembering the 'supergroup' collaboration F. Nicodemi; 18. The '3-Reggeon vertex' S. Sciuto; Part IV. The String: 19. Introduction to Part IV; 20. From dual models to relativistic strings P. Goddard; 21. The first string theory: personal recollections L. Susskind; 22. The string picture of the Veneziano model H. B. Nielsen; 23. From the S-matrix to string theory Y. Nambu; 24. The analogue model for string amplitudes D. B. Fairlie; 25. Factorization in dual models and functional integration in string theory S. Mandelstam; 26. The hadronic origins of string theory R. C. Brower; Part V. Beyond the Bosonic String: 27. Introduction to Part V; 28. From dual fermion to superstring D. I. Olive; 29. Dual models with fermions: memoirs of an early string theorist P. Ramond; 30. Personal recollections A. Neveu; 31. Aspects of fermionic dual models E. Corrigan; 32. The dual quark models K. Bardakci and M. B. Halpern; 33. Remembering the dawn of relativistic strings J.-L. Gervais; 34. Early string theory in

  1. Birth, meaningful viability and abortion.

    PubMed

    Jensen, David

    2015-06-01

    What role does birth play in the debate about elective abortion? Does the wrongness of infanticide imply the wrongness of late-term abortion? In this paper, I argue that the same or similar factors that make birth morally significant with regard to abortion make meaningful viability morally significant due to the relatively arbitrary time of birth. I do this by considering the positions of Mary Anne Warren and José Luis Bermúdez who argue that birth is significant enough that the wrongness of infanticide does not imply the wrongness of late-term abortion. On the basis of the relatively arbitrary timing of birth, I argue that meaningful viability is the point at which elective abortion is prima facie morally wrong. PMID:25012846

  2. Multiple component interventions for preventing falls and fall-related injuries among older people: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Limited attention has been paid in the literature to multiple component fall prevention interventions that comprise two or more fixed combinations of fall prevention interventions that are not individually tailored following a risk assessment. The study objective was to determine the effect of multiple component interventions on fall rates, number of fallers and fall-related injuries among older people and to establish effect sizes of particular intervention combinations. Methods Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychInfo, Cochrane, AMED, UK Clinical Research Network Study Portfolio, Current Controlled Trials register and Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials register were systematically searched to August 2013 for randomised controlled trials targeting those aged 60 years and older with any medical condition or in any setting that compared multiple component interventions with no intervention, placebo or usual clinical care on the outcomes reported falls, number that fall or fall-related injuries. Included studies were appraised using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Estimates of fall rate ratio and risk ratio were pooled across studies using random effects meta-analysis. Data synthesis took place in 2013. Results Eighteen papers reporting 17 trials were included (5034 participants). There was a reduction in the number of people that fell (pooled risk ratio = 0.85, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.80 to 0.91) and the fall rate (pooled rate ratio = 0.80, 95% CI 0.72 to 0.89) in favour of multiple component interventions when compared with controls. There was a small amount of statistical heterogeneity (I2 = 20%) across studies for fall rate and no heterogeneity across studies examining number of people that fell. Conclusions This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials found evidence that multiple component interventions that are not tailored to individually assessed risk factors are effective at reducing both the

  3. The BirthPlace collaborative practice model: results from the San Diego Birth Center Study.

    PubMed

    Swartz; Jackson; Lang; Ecker; Ganiats; Dickinson; Nguyen

    1998-07-01

    compared along with cost-effectiveness and acceptance of the model by patients. Data collection occurred primarily through medical record abstraction with the addition of two patient questionnaires. Comparability of the cohorts was established by using a validated methodology to determine medical/perinatal risk and birth center eligibility, which included assessment by two CNMs and an independent blind review by a perinatologist. The cost analysis uses a resource-utilization approach and new methodologies such as activity-based-costing to compare costs from both the perspective of the payor and the health care provider. Patient satisfaction was measured using a self-administered patient questionnaire.Results: Current preliminary results from approximately 38% of the final expected study sample are available. Crude and adjusted analysis have been conducted. Overall, the preliminary results suggest similar morbidity and mortality in the two groups. Fetal deaths are 0.75% in the index and 0.64% in the comparison group, with early neonatal deaths at 0.26% and 0.23%, respectively. The traditional care group showed adjusted rate differences of 5.83% more major maternal intrapartum complications and 9% more NICU admissions. While the birth center group showed adjusted rate differences of 5.5% more low birth weight and 0.95% more preterm birth. For other outcomes, the birth center group showed an adjusted rate difference of 22.34% more exclusive breastfeeding at discharge. Also, there was less utilization of cesarean section and assisted delivery in the birth center group as compared to the traditional care group. The adjusted rate difference for normal spontaneous vaginal deliveries in nulliparas was 10.23% more in the birth center group, with similar results in multiparas with and without history of cesarean (28.88% and 7.84%, respectively). Preliminary results also show that the average total cost for pregnancy-related services paid by California Medicaid was $4,550 for the

  4. Geographic and Institutional Origin of Arkansas College Students, Fall 1983. Report 83-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Mark A.

    Information on the geographic and institutional origins of students at Arkansas state and private colleges and universities in fall 1984 is presented in tabular, geographic, and narrative form. Entering students numbered 13,072 in fall 1983, a 3.32% decline from the fall 1982 figure of 13,521. The college-bound rate of Arkansas high school…

  5. Intuitive Physics of Free Fall: An Information Integration Approach to the Mass-Speed Belief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vicovaro, Michele

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the intuitive physics of free fall was explored using Information Integration Theory and Functional Measurement. The participants had to rate the speed of objects differing in mass and height of release at the end of an imagined free fall. According to physics, falling speed increases with height of release but it is substantially…

  6. Are Older Adults Receiving Evidence-Based Advice to Prevent Falls Post-Discharge from Hospital?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Den-Ching A.; Brown, Ted; Stolwyk, Rene; O'Connor, Daniel W.; Haines, Terry P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Older adults experience a high rate of falls when they transition to community-living following discharge from hospital. Objectives: To describe the proportion of older adults who could recall having discussed falls and falls prevention strategies with a health professional within 6 months following discharge from hospital. To describe…

  7. Fall prevention in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Ungar, Andrea; Rafanelli, Martina; Iacomelli, Iacopo; Brunetti, Maria Angela; Ceccofiglio, Alice; Tesi, Francesca; Marchionni, Niccolò

    2013-01-01

    Summary Falls are frequent in the elderly and affect mortality, morbidity, loss of functional capacity and institutionalization. In the older patient the incidence of falls can sometimes be underestimated, even in the absence of a clear cognitive impairment, because it is often difficult to reconstruct the dynamics. It is quite common that forms due to syncope are associated with retrograde amnesia and in 40 to 60% of the cases falls happen in the absence of witnesses. The pathogenesis of falls is often multifactorial, due to physiological age-related changes or more properly pathological factors, or due to the environment. The identification of risk factors is essential in the planning of preventive measures. Syncope is one of major causes of falls. About 20% of cardiovascular syncope in patients older than 70 appears as a fall and more than 20% of older people with Carotid Sinus Syndrome complain of falls as well as syncope. These data clearly state that older patients with history of falls should undergo a cardiovascular and neuroautonomic assessment besides the survey of other risk factors. Multifactorial assessment requires a synergy of various specialists. The geriatrician coordinates the multidisciplinary intervention in order to make the most effective evaluation of the risk of falling, searching for all predisposing factors, aiming towards a program of prevention. In clear pathological conditions it is possible to enact a specific treatment. Particular attention must indeed be paid to the re-evaluation of drug therapy, with dose adjustments or withdrawal especially for antihypertensive, diuretics and benzodiazepines. The Guidelines of the American Geriatrics Society recommend modification of environmental hazards, training paths, hip protectors and appropriate use of support tools (sticks, walkers), which can be effective elements of a multifactorial intervention program. Balance exercises are also recommended. In conclusion, an initial assessment

  8. Prenatal Surgery: Helping Babies Before Birth

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Zika & Pregnancy Prenatal Surgery: Helping Babies Before Birth KidsHealth > For Parents > Prenatal Surgery: Helping Babies Before ... A Text Size Prenatal Surgery: Helping Babies Before Birth Operating on a baby before birth may seem ...

  9. FastStats: Births -- Method of Delivery

    MedlinePlus

    ... MB] More data Birth Data Births in the United States, 2014 Maternal Morbidity for Vaginal and Cesarean Deliveries, According to Previous Cesarean History: New Data From the Birth Certificate, 2013 [PDF - ...

  10. What to include in your birth plan

    MedlinePlus

    Pregnancy - birth plan ... Birth plans are guides that parents-to-be make to help their health care providers best support ... of things to consider before you make a birth plan. This is a great time to learn ...

  11. Why give birth in health facility? Users’ and providers’ accounts of poor quality of birth care in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Tanzania, half of all pregnant women access a health facility for delivery. The proportion receiving skilled care at birth is even lower. In order to reduce maternal mortality and morbidity, the government has set out to increase health facility deliveries by skilled care. The aim of this study was to describe the weaknesses in the provision of acceptable and adequate quality care through the accounts of women who have suffered obstetric fistula, nurse-midwives at both BEmOC and CEmOC health facilities and local community members. Methods Semi-structured interviews involving 16 women affected by obstetric fistula and five nurse-midwives at maternity wards at both BEmOC and CEmOC health facilities, and Focus Group Discussions with husbands and community members were conducted between October 2008 and February 2010 at Comprehensive Community Based Rehabilitation in Tanzania and Temeke hospitals in Dar es Salaam, and Mpwapwa district in Dodoma region. Results Health care users and health providers experienced poor quality caring and working environments in the health facilities. Women in labour lacked support, experienced neglect, as well as physical and verbal abuse. Nurse-midwives lacked supportive supervision, supplies and also seemed to lack motivation. Conclusions There was a consensus among women who have suffered serious birth injuries and nurse midwives staffing both BEmOC and CEmOC maternity wards that the quality of care offered to women in birth was inadequate. While the birth accounts of women pointed to failure of care, the nurses described a situation of disempowerment. The bad birth care experiences of women undermine the reputation of the health care system, lower community expectations of facility birth, and sustain high rates of home deliveries. The only way to increase the rate of skilled attendance at birth in the current Tanzanian context is to make facility birth a safer alternative than home birth. The findings from this study

  12. Impact of family planning programs in reducing high-risk births due to younger and older maternal age, short birth intervals, and high parity.

    PubMed

    Brown, Win; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Roche, Neil; Sonneveldt, Emily; Darmstadt, Gary L

    2015-08-01

    Several studies show that maternal and neonatal/infant mortality risks increase with younger and older maternal age (<18 and >34 years), high parity (birth order >3), and short birth intervals (<24 months). Family planning programs are widely viewed as having contributed to substantial maternal and neonatal mortality decline through contraceptive use--both by reducing unwanted births and by reducing the burden of these high-risk births. However, beyond averting births, the empirical evidence for the role of family planning in reducing high-risk births at population level is limited. We examined data from 205 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), conducted between 1985 and 2013, to describe the trends in high-risk births and their association with the pace of progress in modern contraceptive prevalence rate (yearly increase in rate of MCPR) in 57 developing countries. Using Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition technique, we then examine the contributions of family planning program, economic development (GDP per capita), and educational improvement (secondary school completion rate) on the progress of MCPR in order to link the net contribution of family planning program to the reduction of high-risk births mediated through contraceptive use. Countries that had the fastest progress in improving MCPR experienced the greatest declines in high-risk births due to short birth intervals (<24 months), high parity births (birth order >3), and older maternal age (>35 years). Births among younger women <18 years, however, did not decline significantly during this period. The decomposition analysis suggests that 63% of the increase in MCPR was due to family planning program efforts, 21% due to economic development, and 17% due to social advancement through women's education. Improvement in MCPR, predominately due to family planning programs, is a major driver of the decline in the burden of high-risk births due to high parity, shorter birth intervals, and older maternal age in

  13. Catching a Falling Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-07-01

    . Comets are another important source of meteoroids and perhaps the most spectacular. After many visits near the Sun, a comet "dirty-snowball" nucleus of ice and dust decays and fragments, leaving a trail of meteoroids along its orbit. Some "meteoroid streams" cross the earth's orbit and when our planet passes through them, some of these particles will enter the atmosphere. The outcome is a meteor shower - the most famous being the "Perseids" in the month of August [2] and the "Leonids" in November. Thus, although meteors are referred to as "shooting" or "falling stars" in many languages, they are of a very different nature. More information The research presented in this paper is published in the journal Meteoritics and Planetary Science, Vol. 39, Nr. 4, p. 1, 2004 ("Spectroscopic anatomy of a meteor trail cross section with the ESO Very Large Telescope", by P. Jenniskens et al.). Notes [1] The team is composed of Peter Jenniskens (SETI Institute, USA), Emmanuël Jehin (ESO), Remi Cabanac (Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile), Christophe Laux (Ecole Centrale de Paris, France), and Iain Boyd (University of Michigan, USA). [2] The maximum of the Perseids is expected on August 12 after sunset and should be easily seen.

  14. Fall Frequency and Risk Assessment in Early Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Voss, TS; Elm, JJ; Wielinski, CL; Aminoff, MJ; Bandyopadhyay, D; Chou, KL; Sudarsky, LR; Tilley, BC

    2012-01-01

    Background We sought to define the frequency of falls in early PD and assess potential risk factors for falls in this population. Methods We analyzed the data from two randomized, placebo controlled trials (NET-PD FS1 and FS-TOO) of 413 individuals with early PD over 18 months of follow-up in FS1 and 12 months in FS-TOO. Falls were defined as any report of falls on the UPDRS or the adverse event log. We assessed the frequency of falls overall and by age. The relationship between prespecified fall risk markers and the probability of falling was assessed using logistic and multiple logistic regression. A hurdle Poisson model was used to jointly model the probability of remaining fall-free and the number of falls. Results During the follow-up period, 23% of participants fell, and 11% were habitual fallers. In a multiple logistic regression model, age, baseline UPDRS Falling score, and baseline PDQ-39 scores were associated with subsequent fall risk (P <0.001). Similarly, in a hurdle Poisson regression model, age, baseline UPDRS falling item, and baseline PDQ-39 were all significantly related to the probability of falling, but only UPDRS falling >0 was associated with the number of falls. Conclusion Falls are frequent and are associated with impaired quality of life, even in early PD. Current standard rating scales do not sufficiently explain future fall risk in the absence of a prior fall history. New assessment methods for falls and postural instability are required to better evaluate this important problem in clinical trials and clinical practice. PMID:22542094

  15. [Guangdong calls for stronger birth control effort].

    PubMed

    1981-08-20

    The Guangzhou Municipal CCP and Revolutionary Committees recently decided that the rural areas of Guangzhou must spend a concentrated period in the second 1/2 of this year in all-round implementation of the policies and measures on planned parenthood, to ensure that this year's target of keeping natural population growth rate below 10.5/1000 is met. Guangzhou Municipality has failed for 4 successive years to meet the population control target assigned by the provincial authorities. The natural population growth rate in 1979 was the highest of 10 major cities. In 1980 the city lagged behind 20 provinces and municipalities in the whole country in this respect. There was a serious rise in the birth rate in the city's suburban counties from January-July this year. As a result, the number of births in the area was 1700 more than in the same period last year. At the same time, there were 39% more marriages in the first 1/2 of the year in the municipality than in the same period last year. Thus, there is bound to be an increase in the number of legal births in the second 1/2 of the year. At present, an extremely conspicuous problem is the many rural pregnancies which are not covered by the plans and involved some 15,000 persons. The municipal CCP and revolutionary committees have therefore issued a circular demanding that all counties and districts spend some time in September and November to concentrate the leaders, cadres, and technical forces, create public opinion in a big way, conduct extensive propaganda, and mobilization, and do a good job in ideological work, to mobilize those who pregnancies are not covered by the plan to take remedial measures, and achieve a big rise in the rate of permanent contraception. The circular reiterated the policy principles in setting population targets, that is, advocating having only 1 child, strictly controlling the birth of a 2nd child according to the conditions, and forbidding the birth of a 3rd. The urban units must vigorously

  16. AIR POLLUTION, INFLAMMATION AND PRETERM BIRTH: A POTENTIAL MECHANISTIC LINK

    PubMed Central

    Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro; Buxton, Miatta A.; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Rojas-Bracho, Leonora; Viveros-Alcaráz, Martin; Castillo-Castrejón, Marisol; Beltrán-Montoya, Jorge; Brown, Daniel G.; O´Neill, Marie S.

    2014-01-01

    Preterm birth is a public health issue of global significance, which may result in mortality during the perinatal period or may lead to major health and financial consequences due to lifelong impacts. Even though several risk factors for preterm birth have been identified, prevention efforts have failed to halt the increasing rates of preterm birth. Epidemiological studies have identified air pollution as an emerging potential risk factor for preterm birth. However, many studies were limited by study design and inadequate exposure assessment. Due to the ubiquitous nature of ambient air pollution and the potential public health significance of any role in causing preterm birth, a novel focus investigating possible causal mechanisms influenced by air pollution is therefore a global health priority. We hypothesize that air pollution may act together with other biological factors to induce systemic inflammation and influence the duration of pregnancy. Evaluation and testing of this hypothesis is currently being conducted in a prospective cohort study in Mexico City and will provide an understanding of the pathways that mediate the effects of air pollution on preterm birth. The important public health implication is that crucial steps in this mechanistic pathway can potentially be acted on early in pregnancy to reduce the risk of preterm birth. PMID:24382337

  17. The sex ratio at birth.

    PubMed

    Rubin, E

    1967-10-01

    Several aspects of the disparity in birth ratio of males over females are discussed including variations among different races, variations by order of birth, by age of the parent, and in multiple births. Avenues of statistical exploration are suggested in an attempt to indicate certain peculiarities in nature. The Negro population in the United States has a sex ratio of 102 males to 100 females as opposed to 105:100 for whites, a highly significant difference. Inferences from these statistics are suggested for study of the sex ratios of mixed unions. The group classified as Mulatto show a lower sex ratio and further analysis of this was suggested including examination of slave records. For the white population sex ratio declines from 106.2 to 102.9 between 1st order and 7th order births. This is highly significant. However, nonwhite determinations were more irregular. Data limitations on sex ratio by age of parent prevented conclusive results. Multiple births among whites show a decline from 105.3 for single live births to 103.2 for twins and 86.1 for all other plural deliveries. Among nonwhites these ratios are 102.3, 99.7, and 102.6 respectively. Further information should be developed using the multiple facts relating to the sex ratio at birth. PMID:12275623

  18. Prepregnancy Obesity and Birth Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Averett, Susan L; Fletcher, Erin K

    2016-03-01

    Objective To investigate the association between prepregnancy obesity and birth outcomes using fixed effect models comparing siblings from the same mother. Methods A total of 7496 births to 3990 mothers from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 survey are examined. Outcomes include macrosomia, gestational length, incidence of low birthweight, preterm birth, large and small for gestational age (LGA, SGA), c-section, infant doctor visits, mother's and infant's days in hospital post-partum, whether the mother breastfed, and duration of breastfeeding. Association of outcomes with maternal pre-pregnancy obesity was examined using Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression to compare across mothers and fixed effects to compare within families. Results In fixed effect models we find no statistically significant association between most outcomes and prepregnancy obesity with the exception of LGA, SGA, low birth weight, and preterm birth. We find that prepregnancy obesity is associated with a with lower risk of low birthweight, SGA, and preterm birth but controlling for prepregnancy obesity, increases in GWG lead to increased risk of LGA. Conclusions Contrary to previous studies, which have found that maternal obesity increases the risk of c-section, macrosomia, and LGA, while decreasing the probability of breastfeeding, our sibling comparison models reveal no such association. In fact, our results suggest a protective effect of obesity in that women who are obese prepregnancy have longer gestation lengths, and are less likely to give birth to a preterm or low birthweight infant. PMID:26515472

  19. Birth of ball lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowke, J. J.; Smith, D.; Nelson, K. E.; Crompton, R. W.; Murphy, A. B.

    2012-10-01

    Many observations of ball lightning report a ball of light, about 10 cm in diameter, moving at about walking speed, lasting up to 20 s and frequently existing inside of houses and even aeroplanes. The present paper reports detailed observations of the initiation or birth of ball lightning. In two cases, navigation crew of aircraft saw ball lightning form at the windscreen inside the cockpit of their planes. In the first case, the ball lightning occurred during a thunderstorm, with much lightning activity outside of the plane. In the second case, large "horns" of electrical corona were seen outside of the plane at the surface of the radome, just prior to the formation of the ball lightning. A third case reports ball lightning formed inside of a house, during a thunderstorm, at a closed glass window. It is proposed, based on two-dimensional calculations of electron and ion transport, that ball lightning in these cases is driven and formed by atmospheric ions impinging and collecting on the insulating surface of the glass or Perspex windows. This surface charge can produce electric fields inside of the cockpit or room sufficient to sustain an electric discharge. Charges of opposite sign to those outside of the window accumulate on the inside surface of the glass, leaving a ball of net charge moving inside of the cockpit or room to produce a pulsed discharge on a microsecond time scale.

  20. Birth defects in India: Hidden truth, need for urgent attention.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rinku

    2013-04-01

    Birth defects (structural, functional and metabolic disorder present from birth, may be diagnosed later) rising up as an important cause of infant mortality even in developing countries where infant mortality has been reduced to much extent. Seventy percent of birth defects are preventable through the application of various cost effective community genetic services. Indian people are living in the midst of risk factors for birth defects, e.g., universality of marriage, high fertility, large number of unplanned pregnancies, poor coverage of antenatal care, poor maternal nutritional status, high consanguineous marriages rate, and high carrier rate for hemoglobinopathies. India being the second most populous country with a large number infant born annually with birth defects should focus its attention on strategies for control of birth defects. Many population based strategies such as iodization, double fortification of salt, flour fortification with multivitamins, folic acid supplementation, periconceptional care, carrier screening and prenatal screening are some of proven strategies for control of birth defects. Strategies such as iodization of salt in spite of being initiated for a long time in the past do have a very little impact on its consumption (only 50% were using iodized salt). Community genetic services for control of birth defects can be easily flourished and integrated with primary health care in India because of its well established infrastructure and personnel in the field of maternal and child health care. As there is wide variation for infant mortality rate (IMR) in different states in India, so there is a need of deferential approach to implement community genetic services in states those had already achieved national goal of IMR. On the other hand, states those have not achieved the national goal on IMR priority should be given to management of other causes of infant mortality. PMID:24019610

  1. Birth defects in India: Hidden truth, need for urgent attention

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rinku

    2013-01-01

    Birth defects (structural, functional and metabolic disorder present from birth, may be diagnosed later) rising up as an important cause of infant mortality even in developing countries where infant mortality has been reduced to much extent. Seventy percent of birth defects are preventable through the application of various cost effective community genetic services. Indian people are living in the midst of risk factors for birth defects, e.g., universality of marriage, high fertility, large number of unplanned pregnancies, poor coverage of antenatal care, poor maternal nutritional status, high consanguineous marriages rate, and high carrier rate for hemoglobinopathies. India being the second most populous country with a large number infant born annually with birth defects should focus its attention on strategies for control of birth defects. Many population based strategies such as iodization, double fortification of salt, flour fortification with multivitamins, folic acid supplementation, periconceptional care, carrier screening and prenatal screening are some of proven strategies for control of birth defects. Strategies such as iodization of salt in spite of being initiated for a long time in the past do have a very little impact on its consumption (only 50% were using iodized salt). Community genetic services for control of birth defects can be easily flourished and integrated with primary health care in India because of its well established infrastructure and personnel in the field of maternal and child health care. As there is wide variation for infant mortality rate (IMR) in different states in India, so there is a need of deferential approach to implement community genetic services in states those had already achieved national goal of IMR. On the other hand, states those have not achieved the national goal on IMR priority should be given to management of other causes of infant mortality. PMID:24019610

  2. Caesarean births among migrant women in high-income countries.

    PubMed

    Merry, Lisa; Vangen, Siri; Small, Rhonda

    2016-04-01

    High caesarean birth rates among migrant women living in high-income countries are of concern. Women from sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia consistently show overall higher rates compared with non-migrant women, whereas women from Latin America and North Africa/Middle East consistently show higher rates of emergency caesarean. Higher rates are more common with emergency caesareans than with planned caesareans. Evidence regarding risk factors among migrant women for undergoing a caesarean birth is lacking. Research suggests that pathways leading to caesarean births in migrants are complex, and they are likely to involve a combination of factors related to migrant women's physical and psychological health, their social and cultural context and the quality of their maternity care. Migration factors, including length of time in receiving country and migration classification, have an influence on delivery outcome; however, their effects appear to differ by women's country/region of origin. PMID:26458998

  3. Cohort shifts in the timing of births in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Oheneba-sakyi, Y

    1989-01-01

    A comparison of cohorts of ever-married Chanaian women suggests evidence of a fertility transition beginning among younger women and select subgroups. Ghana's crude birth rate declined from a high of 50/1000 population in 1970 to 38.8/1000 in 1985. To ascertain whether marital fertility is now being controlled through conscious attempts to lengthen birth intervals, World Fertility Survey data from 1979-80 on the timing of births among different birth cohorts were analyzed. It was hypothesized that, as a result of the influence of Western values that stress independence from parents and the introduction of compulsory education, cohorts of the mid-1950s and 1960s would be more likely to postpone childbearing, more active in the modern sector of the economy, and more accepting of modern contraceptive usage for birth spacing than women in the 1930-39, 1940-49, and 1950-59 cohorts. For the 1940-49 cohort, it took 10.8 months for 25% to have a birth following 1st marriage, 18.7 months for 50% to have a 1st birth, and 27.4 months for 75% to complete this step. By comparison, these figures for the 1955-64 birth cohort were 9.9, 16.7, and 20.5 months, respectively. The significantly shorter (p 0.01) interval between marriage and 1st birth found among younger women in part reflects rising age at marriage; mean age at 1st marriage was 17.9 years for the 1940 cohort and 21.6 years for the most recent cohort. After the birth of the 1st child, recent cohorts were more likely to wait longer for the 2nd birth. For women born in 1950-64, it took 21.8, 36.7, and 44.6 months for 25%, 50%, and 75%, respectively, to reach parity 2. This pattern of lengthened birth interval beyond the 1st birth was apparent at all parities in the youngest cohort and indicates increasing acceptance of contraception among those who have come of age during a period of rapid social change. PMID:12342944

  4. Where are the Sunday babies? III. Caesarean sections, decreased weekend births, and midwife involvement in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerchl, Alexander

    2008-02-01

    A previous study has shown a marked and continuing decline in weekend births in Germany between 1988 and 2003 (Lerchl, Naturwissenschaften 92:592-594, 2005). The present study was performed to investigate the possible influence of caesarean sections (CS) on weekend birth number and on the involvement of midwives in births for all 16 German states for the year 2003. In total, data from 706,721 births were sorted according to weekday of births and state, respectively, and the weekend births avoidance rates were calculated. Weekend births were consistently less frequent than births during the week, with an average of -15.3% for all states and due to fewer births on Saturdays (-13.6%) and Sundays (-16.7%). Between the states, weekend births avoidance rates ranged from -11.6% (Bremen) to -24.2% (Saarland). The proportion of CS was 25.5% for all states, ranging from 19.2% (Sachsen and Sachsen-Anhalt) to 30.5% (Saarland). CS and weekend births avoidance rates were significantly correlated, consistent with the hypothesis that primary (planned) CS are regularly scheduled on weekdays. The number of births per midwife (BPM) was calculated according to the number of active members in the states’ professional midwives’ organizations. The mean number of BPM was 59.5, ranging from 45.2 (Bremen) to 82.4 (Sachsen-Anhalt). CS and BPM were significantly correlated, consistent with the hypothesis that higher CS ratios are associated with lower midwife involvement in births. It is concluded that the decline in weekend births and lower involvement of midwives are caused, at least in part, by an increased number of caesarean sections.

  5. [Accidental falls in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Heinimann, Niklas B; Kressig, Reto W

    2014-06-18

    Falls in the elderly are common with consecutive high mortality and morbidity. Recent consecutive data focus on identification and therapy of intrinsic risk factors. Sarcopenia, imbalance and gait disorders represent the major risk factors. Sarcopenia is caused by a disequilibrium of protein synthesis and breakdown, probably in consequence of age-related changes in protein metabolism. Protein supplements in combination with strength training shows the best benefit. Disorders in balance and gait are caused by age-related or pathologic changes in a complex regulation system of gait. The individual fall risk correlates with the gait variability and even increases with bad dual task performance. Activities with high requirements of attention and body awareness are the most effective prevention for falls in the elderly (-50%). PMID:24938159

  6. A Piece of Paper Falling Faster than Free Fall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vera, F.; Rivera, R.

    2011-01-01

    We report a simple experiment that clearly demonstrates a common error in the explanation of the classic experiment where a small piece of paper is put over a book and the system is let fall. This classic demonstration is used in introductory physics courses to show that after eliminating the friction force with the air, the piece of paper falls…

  7. Modeling seasonal migration of fall armyworm moths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westbrook, J. K.; Nagoshi, R. N.; Meagher, R. L.; Fleischer, S. J.; Jairam, S.

    2016-02-01

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), is a highly mobile insect pest of a wide range of host crops. However, this pest of tropical origin cannot survive extended periods of freezing temperature but must migrate northward each spring if it is to re-infest cropping areas in temperate regions. The northward limit of the winter-breeding region for North America extends to southern regions of Texas and Florida, but infestations are regularly reported as far north as Québec and Ontario provinces in Canada by the end of summer. Recent genetic analyses have characterized migratory pathways from these winter-breeding regions, but knowledge is lacking on the atmosphere's role in influencing the timing, distance, and direction of migratory flights. The Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model was used to simulate migratory flight of fall armyworm moths from distinct winter-breeding source areas. Model simulations identified regions of dominant immigration from the Florida and Texas source areas and overlapping immigrant populations in the Alabama-Georgia and Pennsylvania-Mid-Atlantic regions. This simulated migratory pattern corroborates a previous migratory map based on the distribution of fall armyworm haplotype profiles. We found a significant regression between the simulated first week of moth immigration and first week of moth capture (for locations which captured ≥10 moths), which on average indicated that the model simulated first immigration 2 weeks before first captures in pheromone traps. The results contribute to knowledge of fall armyworm population ecology on a continental scale and will aid in the prediction and interpretation of inter-annual variability of insect migration patterns including those in response to climatic change and adoption rates of transgenic cultivars.

  8. Modeling seasonal migration of fall armyworm moths.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, J K; Nagoshi, R N; Meagher, R L; Fleischer, S J; Jairam, S

    2016-02-01

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), is a highly mobile insect pest of a wide range of host crops. However, this pest of tropical origin cannot survive extended periods of freezing temperature but must migrate northward each spring if it is to re-infest cropping areas in temperate regions. The northward limit of the winter-breeding region for North America extends to southern regions of Texas and Florida, but infestations are regularly reported as far north as Québec and Ontario provinces in Canada by the end of summer. Recent genetic analyses have characterized migratory pathways from these winter-breeding regions, but knowledge is lacking on the atmosphere's role in influencing the timing, distance, and direction of migratory flights. The Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model was used to simulate migratory flight of fall armyworm moths from distinct winter-breeding source areas. Model simulations identified regions of dominant immigration from the Florida and Texas source areas and overlapping immigrant populations in the Alabama-Georgia and Pennsylvania-Mid-Atlantic regions. This simulated migratory pattern corroborates a previous migratory map based on the distribution of fall armyworm haplotype profiles. We found a significant regression between the simulated first week of moth immigration and first week of moth capture (for locations which captured ≥ 10 moths), which on average indicated that the model simulated first immigration 2 weeks before first captures in pheromone traps. The results contribute to knowledge of fall armyworm population ecology on a continental scale and will aid in the prediction and interpretation of inter-annual variability of insect migration patterns including those in response to climatic change and adoption rates of transgenic cultivars. PMID:26045330

  9. Preterm (Premature) Labor and Birth

    MedlinePlus

    ... with serious health problems. Some health problems, like cerebral palsy , can last a lifetime. Other problems, such as ... This medication may help reduce the risk of cerebral palsy that is associated with early preterm birth. What ...

  10. Birth Order and Vocational Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandy, Gerald L.

    1973-01-01

    Investigated birth order differences and the vocational interests of 150 male college students, making use of the Strong Vocational Interest Blank. Sibling sex and interaction effects were also investigated. (DP)

  11. Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues

    MedlinePlus

    ... reduced preterm birth by one-third. What Is Preeclampsia? Preeclampsia is the development of high blood pressure, and protein in the urine of pregnant women. Preeclampsia is estimated to complicate from three to five ...

  12. Brain birth and personal identity.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, D G

    1989-01-01

    The concept of brain birth has assumed a position of some significance in discussions on the status of the human embryo and on the point in embryonic development prior to which experimental procedures may be undertaken on human embryos. This paper reviews previous discussions of this concept, which have placed brain birth at various points between 12 days' and 20 weeks' gestation and which have emphasised the symmetry of brain birth and brain death. Major developmental features of brain development are outlined, including the gradualness with which new features generally appear, and also the electroencephalogram (EEG) characteristics of premature infants. From this it is concluded that, if the concept of brain birth is a valid one, it should be placed at 24-28 weeks' gestation. More importantly, it is concluded that the differences between brain development and brain death throw doubt on the concept itself. PMID:2614785

  13. Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues Past Issues / Winter 2008 Table ... turn Javascript on. What is a High-Risk Pregnancy? All pregnancies involve a certain degree of risk ...

  14. Birth control pill - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The internal female reproductive organs include the uterus, ovaries, cervix and vagina. These organs are necessary to produce a successful pregnancy. To prevent pregnancy, birth control pills affect how these organs normally function.

  15. Research summaries for normal birth.

    PubMed

    Romano, Amy M; Goer, Henci

    2007-01-01

    In this column, the authors summarize four research studies that further support the benefits of normal birth. The topics of the studies include the association of cesarean birth with an increased risk of neonatal death; the use of acupuncture and self-hypnosis as effective pain-management strategies; factors associated with amniotic-fluid embolism; and the positive influence of continuous support by lay doulas on obstetric outcomes for low-income women. PMID:18408810

  16. Radiative and gas cooling of falling molten drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, M. B.

    1978-01-01

    The supercooling rate and solidification time for molten drops of niobium, copper, and lead are calculated. Calculations for both radiation and helium gas cooling are presented in order to estimate the influence that the presence of helium gas would have upon the cooling rate of falling drops in the Marshall Space Flight Center space processing drop tube.

  17. Measured performance of falling-jet flash evaporators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, H. J.; Olson, D. A.; Bharathan, D.; Johnson, D. H.

    1981-06-01

    The rates of heat transfer and approach to thermal equilibrium of flash evaporators operating at pressures of 2 to 4 kPa were investigated. Heat and mass transfer rates from falling jet evaporators operating in the temperature range of 18 to 30 C are measured. The initial experimental results are given and the apparatus is described.

  18. Incidence and predicting factors of falls of older inpatients

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, Hellen Cristina de Almeida; Reiners, Annelita Almeida Oliveira; Azevedo, Rosemeiry Capriata de Souza; da Silva, Ageo Mário Cândido; Abreu, Débora Regina de Oliveira Moura; de Oliveira, Adriana Delmondes

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the incidence and predicting factors associated with falls among older inpatients. METHODS Prospective cohort study conducted in clinical units of three hospitals in Cuiaba, MT, Midwestern Brazil, from March to August 2013. In this study, 221 inpatients aged 60 or over were followed until hospital discharge, death, or fall. The method of incidence density was used to calculate incidence rates. Bivariate analysis was performed by Chi-square test, and multiple analysis was performed by Cox regression. RESULTS The incidence of falls was 12.6 per 1,000 patients/day. Predicting factors for falls during hospitalization were: low educational level (RR = 2.48; 95%CI 1.17;5.25), polypharmacy (RR = 4.42; 95%CI 1.77;11.05), visual impairment (RR = 2.06; 95%CI 1.01;4.23), gait and balance impairment (RR = 2.95; 95%CI 1.22;7.14), urinary incontinence (RR = 5.67; 95%CI 2.58;12.44) and use of laxatives (RR = 4.21; 95%CI 1.15;15.39) and antipsychotics (RR = 4.10; 95%CI 1.38;12.13). CONCLUSIONS The incidence of falls of older inpatients is high. Predicting factors found for falls were low education level, polypharmacy, visual impairment, gait and balance impairment, urinary incontinence and use of laxatives and antipsychotics. Measures to prevent falls in hospitals are needed to reduce the incidence of this event. PMID:26083943

  19. Research on Fall Prevention and Protection from Heights in Japan

    PubMed Central

    OHDO, Katsutoshi; HINO, Yasumichi; TAKAHASHI, Hiroki

    2014-01-01

    The high frequency of fall accidents is a serious problem in Japan. Thus, more stringent countermeasures for preventing falls from scaffolds were developed and incorporated into institutional guidelines. These countermeasures aim to decrease deaths caused by falls from scaffolds. Despite the improvements in such measures, however, the rate of accidental fall deaths remains high in Japan’s construction industries. To improve the rigor of the countermeasures, a committee was established in our institute by the Japan Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare. This committee investigated the regulations applied in other countries and evaluated construction industry compliance with existing fall prevention guidelines. After considerable research and discussion, the Occupational Safety and Health Regulations and Guidelines were amended in 2009. The effects of the amended regulations have recently been investigated on the basis of accident reports. This paper describes the investigation and its results. The paper also discusses other research and workplace safety countermeasures for preventing falls and ensuring fall protection from heights. PMID:25098387

  20. Pupil Membership and Related Information. Fall 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamboldt, Martina

    Information used to prepare this report on Colorado's public school enrollment was collected from the state's public school districts. In fall 1996, there were 673,438 students in Colorado's public schools, an increase of 17,159 students (2.6%) over the fall 1995 membership. Membership increased by 9.9% from fall 1992 to fall 1996, and this…

  1. Fall management of eastern gamagrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent research has suggested that eastern gamagrass (EGG) may be an effective alternative to chopped straw in the blended diets of dairy heifers and cows. Most extension materials discussing appropriate fall management of EGG recommend avoiding harvest within 6 weeks of first frost. Using this guid...

  2. Student Characteristics Report, Fall 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metropolitan Community Colleges of Kansas City, MO. Div. of Planning and Development.

    As part of a continuing survey of student population characteristics at the Metropolitan Community Colleges, this report presents questionnaire responses of 14,630 regular credit enrollment students for fall 1976. Twenty-eight tables organize information by campus in terms of: male and female students by part- or full-time status; enrollment…

  3. Student Characteristics Report, Fall 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metropolitan Community Colleges of Kansas City, MO. Div. of Planning and Development.

    As part of a continuing survey of student characteristics at the Metropolitan Community Colleges, this report presents data from 14,918 regular credit enrollment students for fall 1977 and compares them to data from 1972. For the first time in the district's history, the majority of students (54%) were female, a shift that has only occurred in the…

  4. Student Characteristics Report, Fall, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metropolitan Community Colleges of Kansas City, MO. Div. of Planning and Development.

    This report provides basic characteristics data for 15,329 students enrolled in the Metropolitan Community Colleges during the fall 1975 semester. Twenty-nine tables organize information by campus in terms of: males/females by part-and full-time status; enrollment by college and day/other; freshmen/sophomores; race and ethnic origin; student age…

  5. New Student Survey, Fall 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weglarz, Shirley

    The Fall 1998 annual survey of new Johnson County Community College (JCCC) students was designed to determine new students' educational objectives and what factors influence new students' decisions to attend JCCC. Surveys mailed to 3874 students identified by the Admissions Office resulted in 713 usable returned surveys. This evaluation reports…

  6. Fellows Celebrated at Fall Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-12-01

    The 2010 AGU Fellows will be presented during the Fall Meeting Honors Tribute in San Francisco, Calif. The formal ceremony will be held on Wednesday, 15 December 2010. President-Elect Carol Finn will introduce each Fellow and read a brief statement of the achievements for which each has been selected.

  7. Fellows celebrated at Fall Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-11-01

    The 2011 AGU Fellows will be presented during the Fall Meeting Honors Tribute in San Francisco, Calif. The formal ceremony will be held on Wednesday, 14 December 2011, during which President-Elect Carol Finn will introduce each Fellow and read a brief statement of the achievements for which each has been selected.

  8. Fellows celebrated at Fall Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-11-01

    The 2012 AGU Fellows will be presented during the Fall Meeting Honors Tribute in San Francisco, Calif. The formal ceremony will be held on Wednesday, 5 December 2012, during which President-elect Carol Finn will introduce each Fellow and read a brief statement of the achievements for which each has been selected.

  9. Fall 1972 University Racial Census.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Glenwood C., Jr.; Sedlacek, William E.

    This document reports the results of the fall 1972 racial census at the University of Maryland. Only new freshmen, transfer students, and readmitted students filled out the racial census cards. All returning students constituted the data base of the student body. By adding new and deleting old racial census cards, counts could be made. Results of…

  10. Continuing Education Survey, Fall 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaCalle, James F.; And Others

    In fall 1981, all students attending a continuing education course at Harford Community College (HCC) were asked to complete a survey instrument designed to collect information on student demographics, reasons for attendance, tuition payment, sources of information about the non-credit courses, registration and commuting patterns, satisfaction…

  11. Space Utilization Analysis, Fall 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, John

    In an effort to inform space allocation decisions, Gainesville College (GC) in Georgia, undertook a project to analyze classroom usage for fall 1995 and make projections to the year 2000 based on annual enrollment increases of 3%. Factors potentially affecting the use of space were determined to include the following: (1) conversion to the…

  12. Fall Armyworm in the Southeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two separate experiments testing fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) migration patterns were set up in the southeastern U.S. in 2012. Previous results showed that moths from progeny of overwintering populations from south Texas were found west of the Chattahoochee-Flint-Apalachicola river basin, ...

  13. NOVA Fall 2000 Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ransick, Kristina; Rosene, Dale; Sammons, Fran Lyons; Sammons, James

    This teacher's guide complements six programs that aired on the Public Broadcasting System (PBS) in the fall of 2000. Programs include: (1) "Lincoln's Secret Weapon"; (2) "Hitler's Lost Sub"; (3) "Runaway Universe"; (4) "Garden of Eden"; (5) "Dying to Be Thin"; and (6) "Japan's Secret Garden". It provides activity set-ups related to the programs…

  14. Inter-birth interval in zebras is longer following the birth of male foals than after female foals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnier, Florian; Grange, Sophie; Ganswindt, Andre; Ncube, Hlengisizwe; Duncan, Patrick

    2012-07-01

    Mammalian reproductive rates vary among individuals for physiological and environmental reasons. This study aims to determine reproductive rates from an individually monitored population of wild Plains zebras Equus quagga, and to assess the sources of variability in inter-birth intervals. The animals were monitored, where possible, every six months from 2004 to 2011. Thirty nine intervals corresponding to 65 births in 26 mares were identified, using direct observations and faecal steroid monitoring. Mean foaling rate of the population is 0.74 foal/year, and comparable with the literature. There was no significant effect of mother's age, nor of the season of previous birth on the length of inter-birth intervals. Inter-birth interval was significantly longer when the first foal was a male. This finding indicates that additional costs of having a son may delay future reproduction and thus reduce the total number of offspring a mare can have during her lifetime. Individually-based data provide critical information on the determinants of reproductive rates, and are therefore a key to understanding the causes of variations in life-history traits.

  15. 38 CFR 3.209 - Birth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Birth. 3.209 Section 3..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Evidence Requirements § 3.209 Birth. Age or... abstract of the public record of birth. Such a record established more than 4 years after the birth will...

  16. 38 CFR 3.209 - Birth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Birth. 3.209 Section 3..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Evidence Requirements § 3.209 Birth. Age or... abstract of the public record of birth. Such a record established more than 4 years after the birth will...

  17. 38 CFR 3.209 - Birth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Birth. 3.209 Section 3..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Evidence Requirements § 3.209 Birth. Age or... abstract of the public record of birth. Such a record established more than 4 years after the birth will...

  18. 38 CFR 3.209 - Birth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Birth. 3.209 Section 3..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Evidence Requirements § 3.209 Birth. Age or... abstract of the public record of birth. Such a record established more than 4 years after the birth will...

  19. 38 CFR 3.209 - Birth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Birth. 3.209 Section 3..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Evidence Requirements § 3.209 Birth. Age or... abstract of the public record of birth. Such a record established more than 4 years after the birth will...

  20. Water Birth at Home: Two Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Angha, Amanda M.; Scaer, Roberta M.

    2008-01-01

    In this column, a grandmother, with a long history as an author and activist for normal birth, and her daughter, a new mother, offer their unique experiences of a water birth at home, attended by family members and midwives. Their unique perspectives demonstrate the trust in the normal birth process that is possible for every birth. PMID:19252682

  1. Injury Hospitalizations Due to Unintentional Falls among the Aboriginal Population of British Columbia, Canada: Incidence, Changes over Time, and Ecological Analysis of Risk Markers, 1991-2010

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Aboriginal people in British Columbia (BC) have higher injury incidence than the general population. Our project describes variability among injury categories, time periods, and geographic, demographic and socio-economic groups. This report focuses on unintentional falls. Methods We used BC’s universal health care insurance plan as a population registry, linked to hospital separation and vital statistics databases. We identified Aboriginal people by insurance premium group and birth and death record notations. We identified residents of specific Aboriginal communities by postal code. We calculated crude incidence and Standardized Relative Risk (SRR) of hospitalization for unintentional fall injury, standardized for age, gender and Health Service Delivery Area (HSDA), relative to the total population of BC. We tested hypothesized associations of geographic, socio-economic, and employment-related characteristics with community SRR of injury by linear regression. Results During 1991 through 2010, the crude rate of hospitalization for unintentional fall injury in BC was 33.6 per 10,000 person-years. The Aboriginal rate was 49.9 per 10,000 and SRR was 1.89 (95% confidence interval 1.85-1.94). Among those living on reserves SRR was 2.00 (95% CI 1.93-2.07). Northern and non-urban HSDAs had higher SRRs, within both total and Aboriginal populations. In every age and gender category, the HSDA-standardized SRR was higher among the Aboriginal than among the total population. Between 1991 and 2010, crude rates and SRRs declined substantially, but proportionally more among the Aboriginal population, so the gap between the Aboriginal and total population is narrowing, particularly among females and older adults. These community characteristics were associated with higher risk: lower income, lower educational level, worse housing conditions, and more hazardous types of employment. Conclusions Over the years, as socio-economic conditions improve, risk of

  2. Biomarkers of aging and falling: the Beaver Dam eye study

    PubMed Central

    Knudtson, Michael D.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Klein, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Falls are an important cause of morbidity in older adults and are an important source of health care spending. We hypothesize that falls are associated with systemic biomarkers of aging. The following functions, measured at the 1998–2000 and 2003–05 examinations of the Beaver Dam Eye study, were considered to be biomarkers of aging (frailties): poorer visual acuity, contrast sensitivity or discrepant vision between the eyes, inability to rise from a chair, slower gait time, poorer hand grip strength, and lower peak expiratory flow rate. We found that poorer values on biomarkers of aging (frailties) at the 1998–2000 examination were associated with 2 or more reported falls in the past year at the 2003–05 examination (p < 0.05 for all markers except peak expiratory flow rate). When the markers were combined as an index of biological aging (frailty), the index was significantly associated with falls after controlling for significant confounders (odds ratio per 1 step increase in the index: 1.33; 95% confidence interval = CI = 1.13–1.57) We conclude that biomarkers of aging, including any of three measures of visual function, are associated with falls. Improvement in these functional measures may lead to decreased risk of falls. PMID:18513808

  3. Heterogeneity of Falls Among Older Adults: Implications for Public Health Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Kelsey, Jennifer L.; Procter-Gray, Elizabeth; Hannan, Marian T.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined risk factors for falls among older people according to indoor and outdoor activity at the time of the fall and explored risk factors for seriously injurious falls. Methods. Data came from MOBILIZE Boston, a prospective cohort study of 765 community-dwelling women and men, mainly aged 70 years or older. Over 4.3 years, 1737 falls were recorded, along with indoor or outdoor activity at the time of the fall. Results. Participants with poor baseline health characteristics had elevated rates of indoor falls while transitioning, walking, or not moving. Healthy, active people had elevated rates of outdoor falls during walking and vigorous activity. For instance, participants with fast, rather than normal, gait speed, had a rate ratio of 7.36 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.54, 21.28) for outdoor falls during vigorous activity. The likelihood of a seriously injurious fall also varied by personal characteristics, activity, and location. For example, the odds ratio for serious injury from an outdoor fall while walking outside compared to inside a participant’s neighborhood was 3.31 (95% CI = 1.33, 8.23). Conclusions. Fall prevention programs should be tailored to personal characteristics, activities, and locations. PMID:22994167

  4. Barometric pressure and triaxial accelerometry-based falls event detection.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Federico; Redmond, Stephen J; Narayanan, Michael R; Cerutti, Sergio; Lovell, Nigel H

    2010-12-01

    Falls and fall related injuries are a significant cause of morbidity, disability, and health care utilization, particularly among the age group of 65 years and over. The ability to detect falls events in an unsupervised manner would lead to improved prognoses for falls victims. Several wearable accelerometry and gyroscope-based falls detection devices have been described in the literature; however, they all suffer from unacceptable false positive rates. This paper investigates the augmentation of such systems with a barometric pressure sensor, as a surrogate measure of altitude, to assist in discriminating real fall events from normal activities of daily living. The acceleration and air pressure data are recorded using a wearable device attached to the subject's waist and analyzed offline. The study incorporates several protocols including simulated falls onto a mattress and simulated activities of daily living, in a cohort of 20 young healthy volunteers (12 male and 8 female; age: 23.7 ±3.0 years). A heuristically trained decision tree classifier is used to label suspected falls. The proposed system demonstrated considerable improvements in comparison to an existing accelerometry-based technique; showing an accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of 96.9%, 97.5%, and 96.5%, respectively, in the indoor environment, with no false positives generated during extended testing during activities of daily living. This is compared to 85.3%, 75%, and 91.5% for the same measures, respectively, when using accelerometry alone. The increased specificity of this system may enhance the usage of falls detectors among the elderly population. PMID:20805056

  5. Epidemic spread in coupled populations with seasonally varying migration rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzyczyn, Adam; Shaw, Leah B.

    2009-03-01

    The H5N1 strain of avian influenza has spread worldwide, and this spread may be due to seasonal migration of birds and mixing of birds from different regions in the wintering grounds. We studied a multipatch model for avian influenza with seasonally varying migration rates. The bird population was divided into two spatially distinct patches, or subpopulations. Within each patch, the disease followed the SIR (susceptible-infected-recovered) model for epidemic spread. Migration rates were varied periodically, with a net flux toward the breeding grounds during the spring and towards the wintering grounds during the fall. The case of two symmetric patches reduced to single-patch SIR dynamics. However, asymmetry in the birth and contact rates in the breeding grounds and wintering grounds led to bifurcations to longer period orbits and chaotic dynamics. We studied the bifurcation structure of the model and the phase relationships between outbreaks in the two patches.

  6. Births in the United States, 2013.

    PubMed

    Martin, Joyce A; Hamilton, Brady E; Osterman, Michelle J K

    2014-12-01

    Childbearing is on the decline in the United States overall and among women under age 30 and women in each of the largest race and Hispanic origin groups. Childbearing continues to rise among older women, however, with rates for women aged 35 and over at the highest levels seen in approximately 50 years. After more than a decade of steady rises, cesarean delivery rates are trending slightly downward; a recent report revealed larger declines for 2009-2013 among women at low risk for cesarean delivery than for all women with cesareans. Following several years of relative stability, twinning rates were up for 2013; a recent report based on 2012 data revealed that triplet and higher-order multiple births have been trending sharply downward. Declines in the incidence of preterm deliveries, especially in conjunction with reductions in low birthweight (albeit modest) and in perinatal mortality, suggest some recent progress in improving pregnancy outcome in the United States. The forthcoming report "Births: Final Data for 2013" will present more information on the topics addressed in this report and selected others. PMID:25483923

  7. Highly Effective Birth Control Use Before and After Women's Incarceration

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hsiang-Feng; Cropsey, Karen L.; Clarke, Jennifer G.; Kelly, Patricia J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: We examined factors associated with women's use of highly effective birth control before and after incarceration, since women with ongoing criminal justice involvement bear a disproportionate burden of sexual and reproductive health problems, including high rates of unintended pregnancy and inconsistent contraceptive use. Methods: Using a longitudinal study design, we conducted surveys with 102 women in an urban midwestern jail and then followed up with 66 of them 6 months after incarceration. We used stepwise logistic regression to assess individual, interpersonal, resource-based, organizational, and environmental factors associated with utilizing highly effective birth control. Results: Forty-two percent of women reported utilizing highly effective birth control (e.g., sterilization or other highly effective reversible methods) prior to incarceration, and 54% reported using these methods after release from jail (p<0.001). Ninety percent of women reported not wanting to get pregnant. Consistent use of birth control (p=0.001) and alcohol problems (p=0.027) were associated with utilization of highly effective birth control prior to incarceration. Previous pregnancies (p=0.012) were the only factor associated with utilization of highly effective birth control after release from jail. Conclusions: Clinicians and public health practitioners can use findings from this study to develop clinical and intervention efforts aimed at improving unintended-pregnancy prevention among incarcerated women both during their confinement and during the tumultuous period after their release from jail. PMID:25555175

  8. CDC Grand Rounds: Public Health Strategies to Prevent Preterm Birth.

    PubMed

    Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Barfield, Wanda D; Henderson, Zsakeba; James, Arthur; Howse, Jennifer L; Iskander, John; Thorpe, Phoebe G

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth (delivery before 37 weeks and 0/7 days of gestation) is a leading cause of infant morbidity and mortality in the United States. In 2013, 11.4% of the nearly 4 million U.S. live births were preterm; however, 36% of the 8,470 infant deaths were attributed to preterm birth (1). Infants born at earlier gestational ages, especially <32 0/7 weeks, have the highest mortality (Figure) and morbidity rates. Morbidity associated with preterm birth includes respiratory distress syndrome, necrotizing enterocolitis, and intraventricular hemorrhage; longer-term consequences include developmental delay and decreased school performance. Risk factors for preterm delivery include social, behavioral, clinical, and biologic characteristics (Box). Despite advances in medical care, racial and ethnic disparities associated with preterm birth persist. Reducing preterm birth, a national public health priority (2), can be accomplished by implementing and monitoring strategies that target modifiable risk factors and populations at highest risk, and by providing improved quality and access to preconception, prenatal, and interconception care through implementation of strategies with potentially high impact. PMID:27536925

  9. The politics of population: birth control and the eugenics movement.

    PubMed

    Gordon, L

    1974-01-01

    The birth control movement and the population control movement became inseparable in people's minds during the early years of the birth control movement, led by Margaret Sanger in 1915. Emma Goldman and Margaret Sanger defied obscenity laws by disseminating information on contraception. The birth control movement was concerned with individual choice and reproductive self determination. Population control referred to a large-scale social policy of limiting births throughout a whole society or in certain groups for the purpose of changing economic, ecological and/or political conditions. Population control ideas were dominated by eugenics and marred by racism and nativism in the United States. Unfortunately, eugenic ideas and population control were often confused with birth control, especially by poor, lower class women. Real democracy in population control requires that women, not men, have the reproductive choice. It is the material basis for liberation. If a woman's desire for children interferes with a reasonable and democratic social plan to lower birth rates, the woman should be offered educational and economic opportunities as an alternative to childbearing. Eugenics and imperialism were closely related in American and English history, focussing first on one group of immigrants then another. PMID:11615086

  10. Caesarean birth: consumption, safety, order, and good mothering.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Joanne; Porter, Maree; Tracy, Sally K; Sullivan, Elizabeth A

    2007-09-01

    This article draws on qualitative data to explore the beliefs through which decisions about caesarean birth are made and to consider how these might contribute to the increasing rate of caesarean birth. A total of 36 interviews were conducted in Australia, including 12 hospital-based midwives, 6 obstetricians, and 18 women who had experienced caesarean birth within the 2 years prior to the research interview. Data reveal a belief derived from the pervasive discourse of neo-liberalism that women are self-governing autonomous subjects in their birth experience, with entitlement to the consumption of birthing information and services, as guided by obstetricians. Feeding into this belief are coexisting discourses that serve to organise 'free choice' in terms of safe/unsafe, order/disorder, life/death; and with ontological meanings, by structuring women's mothering identities as good/bad. The neo-liberal obligation to manage risk and pursue success for both mothers and babies means that women (and others) are obliged to choose what is set up as the most obvious and sensible option: safe, ordered caesareans. The structuring of discourses in this way shows how caesareans can be positioned as a preferential means of birth. PMID:17590252

  11. Season and preterm birth in Norway: A cautionary tale

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, Clarice R; Shi, Min; DeRoo, Lisa A; Basso, Olga; Skjærven, Rolv

    2015-01-01

    Background: Preterm birth is a common, costly and dangerous pregnancy complication. Seasonality of risk would suggest modifiable causes. Methods: We examine seasonal effects on preterm birth, using data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (2 321 652 births), and show that results based on births are misleading and a fetuses-at-risk approach is essential. In our harmonic-regression Cox proportional hazards model we consider fetal risk of birth between 22 and 37 completed weeks of gestation. We examine effects of both day of year of conception (for early effects) and day of ongoing gestation (for seasonal effects on labour onset) as modifiers of gestational-age-based risk. Results: Naïve analysis of preterm rates across days of birth shows compelling evidence for seasonality (P < 10−152). However, the reconstructed numbers of conceptions also vary with season (P < 10−307), confounding results by inducing seasonal variation in the age distribution of the fetal population at risk. When we instead properly treat fetuses as the individuals at risk, restrict analysis to pregnancies with relatively accurate ultrasound-based assessment of gestational age (available since 1998) and adjust for socio-demographic factors and maternal smoking, we find modest effects of both time of year of conception and time of year at risk, with peaks for early preterm near early January and early July. Conclusions: Analyses of seasonal effects on preterm birth are demonstrably vulnerable to confounding by seasonality of conception, measurement error in conception dating, and socio-demographic factors. The seasonal variation based on fetuses reveals two peaks for early preterm, coinciding with New Year’s Day and the early July beginning of Norway’s summer break, and may simply reflect a holiday-related pattern of unintended conception. PMID:26045507

  12. Falling Magnets and Electromagnetic Braking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culbreath, Christopher; Palffy-Muhoray, Peter

    2009-03-01

    The slow fall of a rare earth magnet through a copper pipe is a striking example of electromagnetic braking; this remarkable phenomenon has been the subject of a number of scientific paper s [1, 2]. In a pipe having radius R and wall thickness D, the terminal velocity of the falling magnet is proportional to (R̂4)/D. It is interesting to ask what happens in the limit as D becomes very large. We report our experimental observations and theoretical predictions of the dependence of the terminal velocity on pipe radius R for large D. [1] Y. Levin, F.L. da Silveira, and F.B. Rizzato, ``Electromagnetic braking: A simple quantitative model''. American Journal of Physics, 74(9): p. 815-817 (2006). [2] J.A. Pelesko, M. Cesky, and S. Huertas, Lenz's law and dimensional analysis. American Journal of Physics, 3(1): p. 37-39. 2005.

  13. Outcomes associated with planned place of birth among women with low-risk pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Hutton, Eileen K.; Cappelletti, Adriana; Reitsma, Angela H.; Simioni, Julia; Horne, Jordyn; McGregor, Caroline; Ahmed, Rashid J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown that planned home birth is associated with a decreased likelihood of intrapartum intervention with no difference in neonatal outcomes compared with planned hospital birth. The purpose of our study was to evaluate different birth settings by comparing neonatal mortality, morbidity and rates of birth interventions between planned home and planned hospital births in Ontario, Canada. Methods: We used a provincial database of all midwifery-booked pregnancies between 2006 and 2009 to compare women who planned home birth at the onset of labour to a matched cohort of women with low-risk pregnancies who had planned hospital births attended by midwives. We conducted subgroup analyses by parity. Our primary outcome was stillbirth, neonatal death (< 28 d) or serious morbidity (Apgar score < 4 at 5 min or resuscitation with positive pressure ventilation and cardiac compressions). Results: We compared 11 493 planned home births and 11 493 planned hospital births. The risk of our primary outcome did not differ significantly by planned place of birth (relative risk [RR] 1.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.68–1.55). These findings held true for both nulliparous (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.62–1.73) and multiparous women (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.49–2.05). All intrapartum interventions were lower among planned home births. Interpretation: Compared with planned hospital birth, planned home birth attended by midwives in a jurisdiction where home birth is well-integrated into the health care system was not associated with a difference in serious adverse neonatal outcomes but was associated with fewer intrapartum interventions. PMID:26696622

  14. Season of birth and other perinatal risk factors for melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Crump, Casey; Sundquist, Kristina; Sieh, Weiva; Winkleby, Marilyn A; Sundquist, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure is the main risk factor for cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM), but its specific effect in infancy is unknown. We examined whether season of birth, a proxy for solar UVR exposure in the first few months of life, is associated with CMM in childhood through young adulthood. Methods: National cohort study of 3 571 574 persons born in Sweden in 1973–2008, followed up for CMM incidence through 2009 (maximum age 37 years) to examine season of birth and other perinatal factors. Results: There were 1595 CMM cases in 63.9 million person-years of follow-up. We found a sinusoidal pattern in CMM risk by season of birth (P = 0.006), with peak risk corresponding to birthdates in spring (March–May). Adjusted odds ratios for CMM by season of birth were 1.21 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05–1.39; P = 0.008] for spring, 1.07 (95% CI, 0.92–1.24; P = 0.40) for summer and 1.12 (95% CI, 0.96–1.29; P = 0.14) for winter, relative to fall. Spring birth was associated with superficial spreading subtype of CMM (P = 0.02), whereas there was no seasonal association with nodular subtype (P = 0.26). Other CMM risk factors included family history of CMM in a sibling (>6-fold) or parent (>3-fold), female gender, high fetal growth and high paternal education level. Conclusions: In this large cohort study, persons born in spring had increased risk of CMM in childhood through young adulthood, suggesting that the first few months of life may be a critical period of UVR susceptibility. Sun avoidance in early infancy may play an important role in the prevention of CMM in high-risk populations. PMID:24453238

  15. Inflammatory Biomarkers of Birth Asphyxia.

    PubMed

    Chalak, Lina F

    2016-09-01

    Although therapies in addition to whole-body cooling are being developed to treat the neonate at risk for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, we have no quickly measured serum inflammatory or neuronal biomarkers to acutely and accurately identify brain injury or to follow the efficacy of therapy. This review covers inflammatory serum biomarkers in the setting of birth asphyxia that can help assess the degree or severity of encephalopathy at birth and neurodevelopmental outcomes. These biomarkers still need to be independently validated in large cohorts before they are ready for clinical implementation in practice. PMID:27524450

  16. Risk attitudes and birth order.

    PubMed

    Krause, Philipp; Heindl, Johannes; Jung, Andreas; Langguth, Berthold; Hajak, Göran; Sand, Philipp G

    2014-07-01

    Risk attitudes play important roles in health behavior and everyday decision making. It is unclear, however, whether these attitudes can be predicted from birth order. We investigated 200 mostly male volunteers from two distinct settings. After correcting for multiple comparisons, for the number of siblings and for confounding by gender, ordinal position predicted perception of health-related risks among participants in extreme sports (p < .01). However, the direction of the effect contradicted Adlerian theory. Except for alcohol consumption, these findings extended to self-reported risk behavior. Together, the data call for a cautious stand on the impact of birth order on risk attitudes. PMID:23520357

  17. Birth in an Ordinary Instant

    PubMed Central

    De Vries, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    Our daily lives are a series of ordinary moments and unnoticed thresholds—times that define us in ways we often do not give much attention. While we consider childbirth to be one of life's extra-ordinary events, the hours of labor and birth need not be dramatic (or traumatic) ones. I describe a quiet, well-supported birth in the Netherlands that is cause for celebration of the beauty of an ordinary instant that can define and enrich the human experience. PMID:21629383

  18. Hypnotherapy for labor and birth.

    PubMed

    Beebe, Kathleen R

    2014-01-01

    Hypnotherapy is an integrative mind-body technique with therapeutic potential in various health care applications, including labor and birth. Evaluating the efficacy of this modality in controlled studies can be difficult, because of methodologic challenges, such as obtaining adequate sample sizes and standardizing experimental conditions. Women using hypnosis techniques for childbirth in hospital settings may face barriers related to caregiver resistance or institutional policies. The potential anxiolytic and analgesic effects of clinical hypnosis for childbirth merit further study. Nurses caring for women during labor and birth can increase their knowledge and skills with strategies for supporting hypnotherapeutic techniques. PMID:24548496

  19. Team training for safer birth.

    PubMed

    Cornthwaite, Katie; Alvarez, Mary; Siassakos, Dimitrios

    2015-11-01

    Effective and coordinated teamworking is key to achieving safe birth for mothers and babies. Confidential enquiries have repeatedly identified deficiencies in teamwork as factors contributing to poor maternal and neonatal outcomes. The ingredients of a successful multi-professional team are varied, but research has identified some fundamental teamwork behaviours, with good communication, proficient leadership and situational awareness at the heart. Simple, evidence-based methods in teamwork training can be seamlessly integrated into a core, mandatory obstetric emergency training. Training should be an enjoyable, inclusive and beneficial experience for members of staff. Training in teamwork can lead to improved clinical outcomes and better birth experience for women. PMID:25979351

  20. Decline and loss of birth seasonality in Spain: analysis of 33 421 731 births over 60 years

    PubMed Central

    Cancho‐Candela, Ramón; Llano, Jesús María Andrés‐de; Ardura‐Fernández, Julio

    2007-01-01

    Background and aim Several seasonal variations have been found in birth rates in different countries at different periods. The characteristics of the rhythmic patterns vary according to geographical location and chronological changes. This study presents data on spanish birth seasonality over six decades. Methods A time series composed of 33 421 731 births in Spain in the period 1941–2000 was analysed. The series comes from the National Institute of Statistics and was processed according to the following norms: (1) normalisation of the duration of months and years; (2) clinical analysis of temporal series (isolation of seasonal component); (3) Fourier's spectral analysis; and (4) cosinor analysis (adjustment to the cosine curve of two harmonics). Results Significant seasonal rhythm was found in the set of births, both for a 12‐month period and a 6‐month period. The rhythm shows bimodal morphology, with a pronounced birth peak in April and a smaller one in September. These peaks correspond to July and December conceptions, respectively. The major birth peak shifted to March–May between the 1940s and the 1980s. Birth rhythm changed after the 1960s, with a decrease in amplitude and later loss of seasonality in the 1990s. Conclusions In Spain, seasonal birth rhythm shows a decline from 1970, and, finally, lack of birth seasonality in 1991–2000. This trend is similar to other European countries, although Spain shows a more intense loss of seasonality. PMID:17630371

  1. Traditional Birth Attendant Training and Local Birthing Practices in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saravanan, Sheela; Turrell, Gavin; Johnson, Helen; Fraser, Jenny; Patterson, Carla

    2011-01-01

    Training birth attendants (TBAs) to provide essential maternal and infant health care services during delivery and ongoing community care in developing countries. Despite inadequate evidence of relevance and effectiveness of TBA training programmes, there has been a policy shift since the 1990s in that many donor agencies funding TBA training…

  2. Traditional birth attendant training and local birthing practices in India.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, Sheela; Turrell, Gavin; Johnson, Helen; Fraser, Jenny; Patterson, Carla

    2011-08-01

    Training birth attendants (TBAs) provide essential maternal and infant health care services during delivery and ongoing community care in developing countries. Despite inadequate evidence of relevance and effectiveness of TBA training programmes, there has been a policy shift since the 1990s in that many donor agencies funding TBA training programmes redirected funds to providing skilled attendants during delivery. This study aimed to assess the ways in which a TBA training programme in India has been successful in disseminating evidence-based knowledge on birthing practices. TBAs practicing within 16 villages targeted by training programme initiatives were administered with structured questionnaires. The post training birthing practices of trained (24) and untrained (14) TBAs was compared and birthing practices adopted by women assisted by trained (16) and untrained (9) TBAs was analysed. Positive post training practices were hand washing, use of a clean blade for cutting the cord, immediate breastfeeding and weighing of babies. Nevertheless, the training could be further improved with up to date and evidence-based information and more comprehensive instructions. The findings suggest an integration of local and evidence-based knowledge is needed to improve the training. Raising community awareness of public health measures related to maternal and child health is also recommended. PMID:21555049

  3. When Daily Sunspot Births Become Positively Correlated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapoval, Alexander; Le Mouël, Jean-Louis; Shnirman, Mikhail; Courtillot, Vincent

    2015-10-01

    We study the first differences w(t) of the International Sunspot Number (ISSN) daily series for the time span 1850 - 2013. The one-day correlations ρ1 between w(t) and w(t+1) are computed within four-year sliding windows and are found to shift from negative to positive values near the end of Cycle 17 ({˜} 1945). They remain positive during the last Grand Maximum and until {˜} 2009, when they fall to zero. We also identify a prominent regime change in {˜} 1915, strengthening previous evidence of major anomalies in solar activity at this date. We test an autoregressive process of order 1 (AR(1)) as a model that can reproduce the high-frequency component of ISSN: we compute ρ1 for this AR(1) process and find that it is negative. Positive values of ρ1 are found only if the process involves positive correlation: this leads us to suggest that the births of successive spots are positively correlated during the last Grand Maximum.

  4. Fetal breathing movements and changes at birth.

    PubMed

    Koos, Brian J; Rajaee, Arezoo

    2014-01-01

    The fetus, which develops within a fluid-filled amniotic sac, relies on the placenta for respiratory gas exchange rather than the lungs. While not involved in fetal oxygenation, fetal breathing movements (FBM) nevertheless have an important role in lung growth and in development of respiratory muscles and neural regulation. FBM are regulated differently in many respects than postnatal respiration, which results from the unique intrauterine environment. Prominent distinctions of FBM include its episodic nature and apnea-sensitivity to hypoxia. The latter characteristic is the basis for using FBM in the assessment of fetuses at risk for hypoxic injury. At birth, the transition to continuous postnatal respiration involves a fall in temperature, gaseous distention of the lungs, activation of the Hering-Breuer reflexes, and functional connectivity of afferent O2 chemoreceptor activity with respiratory motoneurons and arousal centers. Importantly, exposure to drugs or adverse conditions in utero not only can change patterns of FBM but also can lead to epigenetic dysregulation in postnatal respiration. Such changes, can blunt respiratory and arousal defenses against hypoxic challenges in sleep. Thus, fetal hypoxia and/or drug exposure may in later life dispose sleeping infants, children, and adults to hypertension, diabetes mellitus, brain injury, and sudden death. PMID:25015803

  5. Birth statistics of high birth weight infants (macrosomia) in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Byung-Ho; Moon, Joo-Young; Chung, Sung-Hoon; Choi, Yong-Sung; Lee, Kyung-Suk; Chang, Ji-Young

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The authors analyzed the trend from the birth-related statistics of high birth weight infants (HBWIs) over 50 years in Korea from 1960 to 2010. Methods We used 2 data sources, namely, the hospital units (1960's to 1990's) and Statistics Korea (1993 to 2010). The analyses include the incidence of HBWIs, birth weight distribution, sex ratio, and the relationship of HBWI to maternal age. Results The hospital unit data indicated the incidence of HBWI as 3 to 7% in the 1960's and 1970's and 4 to 7% in the 1980's and 1990's. Data from Statistics Korea indicated the percentages of HBWIs among total live births decreased over the years: 6.7% (1993), 6.3% (1995), 5.1% (2000), 4.5% (2000), and 3.5% (2010). In HBWIs, the birth weight rages and percentage of incidence in infants' were 4.0 to 4.4 kg (90.3%), 4.5 to 4.9 kg (8.8%), 5.0 to 5.4 kg (0.8%), 5.5 to 5.9 kg (0.1%), and >6.0 kg (0.0%) in 2000 but were 92.2%, 7.2%, 0.6%, 0.0%, and 0.0% in 2009. The male to female ratio of HBWIs was 1.89 in 1993 and 1.84 in 2010. In 2010, the mother's age distribution correlated with low (4.9%), normal (91.0%), and high birth weights (3.6%): an increase in mother's age resulted in an increase in the frequency of low birth weight infants (LBWIs) and HBWIs. Conclusion The incidence of HBWIs for the past 50 years has been dropping in Korea. The older the mother, the higher was the risk of a HBWI and LBWI. We hope that these findings would be utilized as basic data that will aid those managing HBWIs. PMID:22977440

  6. Non-Fatal Occupational Falls on the Same Level

    PubMed Central

    Yeoh, Han T.; Lockhart, Thurmon E.; Wu, Xuefang

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe antecedents and characteristics of same level fall injuries. Fall incidents and costs were compiled from the Bureau of Labor Statistics and other sources from 2006–2010. This study indicated that over 29% of “fall on same level” injuries resulted in 31 or more workdays lost. The major source of injury was “floors, walkways or ground surfaces” and the most affected body parts were the lower extremities and the trunk. In regards to gender and age, female workers had the highest risk of falls, while advancing age coincided with an increase in incidence rates. Overall, workers in the health care and social assistance industry, the transportation and warehousing industry, and the accommodation and food services industry had the highest risk for “fall on same level” injuries. Furthermore, the overall compensation cost increased 25% from 2006–2009. Along with existing evidence, these results may facilitate the design and implementation of preventative measures in the workplace and potentially reduce fall-related compensation costs. PMID:23216368

  7. Persistence of Fall 1988 ENGL 330/335 Students through Transfer Level English (1A) over Four Academic Years (Fall 1988-Spring 1992). Research Report #267.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kangas, Jon; Ma, Tony

    In fall 1992, a study was conducted at Evergreen Valley College (EVC) and San Jose City College (SJCC), in California, to measure the persistence rate of fall 1988 developmental English students (ENGL 330 at EVC; ENGL 335 at SJCC) through transfer level English (1A) over 4 academic years. Results of the study included the following: (1) of the 152…

  8. Falls in ambulatory non-demented patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Rascol, Olivier; Perez-Lloret, Santiago; Damier, Philippe; Delval, Arnaud; Derkinderen, Pascal; Destée, Alain; Meissner, Wassilios G; Tison, Francois; Negre-Pages, Laurence

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed at determining the prevalence of falling in PD patients, to assess generic and disease-specific clinical and pharmacological factors, relationship with health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) and changes in falls from OFF to ON in patients with motor fluctuations. Six-hundred and eighty-three PD patients of the COPARK survey were evaluated (11 had missing data and were excluded from the analysis). Patients with falls were identified as those with a UPDRS Item 13 ≥ 1 in the ON condition. All patients were assessed in a standardized manner [demographics, treatments, Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Pittsburg questionnaire and HR-QoL scales (SF36, PDQ39)]. Falling was reported by 108/672 (16%) PD patients during the ON state and prevalence increased according to PD severity, from 5% in Hoehn and Yahr stage 1-60% in stage 4. Falling was significantly related to lower HR-QoL. Falling correlated with (1) generic factors such as female gender, age at the end of academic studies and diuretics consumption, (2) motor PD-specific factors including disease severity, frozen gait, difficulties when arising from a chair, dyskinesia and higher levodopa daily equivalent dose and (3) non-motor PD-specific factors such as orthostatic hypotension and hallucinations. Falling was more frequent in OFF than in ON in 48/74 (64%) patients with motor fluctuations and remained unchanged in 27 patients (36%). In summary, falling affected a significant proportion of PD patients, especially in advanced stages. It was associated with a variety of generic and PD-specific factors and was related to reduced HR-QoL. PMID:25845678

  9. Relationship Between Difficulties in Daily Activities and Falling: Loco-Check as a Self-Assessment of Fall Risk

    PubMed Central

    Maeyashiki, Akie; Yoshihara, Shingo; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Imamura, Tomoaki

    2016-01-01

    Background People aged 65 years or older accounted for 25.1% of the Japanese population in 2013, and this characterizes the country as a “super-aging society.” With increased aging, fall-related injuries are becoming important in Japan, because such injuries underlie the necessity for nursing care services. If people could evaluate their risk of falling using a simple self-check test, they would be able to take preventive measures such as exercise, muscle training, walking with a cane, or renovation of their surroundings to remove impediments. Loco-check is a checklist measure of early locomotive syndrome (circumstances in which elderly people need nursing care service or are at high risk of requiring the service within a short time), prepared by the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) in 2007, but it is unclear if there is any association between this measure and falls. Objective To investigate the association between falls during the previous year and the 7 “loco-check” daily activity items and the total number of items endorsed, and sleep duration. Methods We conducted an Internet panel survey. Subjects were 624 persons aged between 30 and 90 years. The general health condition of the participants, including their experience of falling, daily activities, and sleep duration, was investigated. A multivariate analysis was carried out using logistic regression to investigate the relationship between falls in the previous year and difficulties with specific daily activities and total number of difficulties (loco-check) endorsed, and sleep duration, adjusting for sex and age. Results One-fourth of participants (157 persons) experienced at least one fall during the previous year. Fall rate of females (94/312: 30.1%) was significantly higher than that of males (63/312: 20.2%). Fall rate of persons aged more than 65 years (80/242: 33.1%) was significantly higher than that of younger persons (77/382: 20.2%). Logistic regression analysis revealed that daily

  10. After a fall in the hospital

    MedlinePlus

    ... use a backboard or a lift. Watch the patient closely after the fall. You may need to check the person's alertness, blood pressure and pulse, and possibly blood sugar. Document the fall according to your hospital's policies.

  11. Increasing Incidence of Infants with Low Birth Weight in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Islam, M. Mazharul

    2015-01-01

    This review article provides an overview of the levels, trends and some possible explanations for the increasing rate of low birth weight (LBW) infants in Oman. LBW data from national health surveys in Oman, and published reports from Oman’s Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization were collected and assessed between January and August 2014. Oman’s LBW rate has been increasing since the 1980s. It was approximately 4% in 1980 and had nearly doubled (8.1%) by 2000. Since then, it has shown a slow but steady rise, reaching 10% in recent times. High rates of consanguinity, premature births, number of increased pregnancies at an older maternal age and changing lifestyles are some important factors related to the increasing rate of LBW in Oman. The underlying causes of this increase need to be understood and addressed in obstetric policies and practices in order to reduce the rate of LBW in Oman. PMID:26052449

  12. The Effect of an Increased Minimum Wage on Infant Mortality and Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Livingston, Melvin D.; Markowitz, Sara; Wagenaar, Alexander C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the effects of state minimum wage laws on low birth weight and infant mortality in the United States. Methods. We estimated the effects of state-level minimum wage laws using a difference-in-differences approach on rates of low birth weight (< 2500 g) and postneonatal mortality (28–364 days) by state and month from 1980 through 2011. All models included state and year fixed effects as well as state-specific covariates. Results. Across all models, a dollar increase in the minimum wage above the federal level was associated with a 1% to 2% decrease in low birth weight births and a 4% decrease in postneonatal mortality. Conclusions. If all states in 2014 had increased their minimum wages by 1 dollar, there would likely have been 2790 fewer low birth weight births and 518 fewer postneonatal deaths for the year. PMID:27310355

  13. A spatial bivariate probit model for correlated binary data with application to adverse birth outcomes.

    PubMed

    Neelon, Brian; Anthopolos, Rebecca; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2014-04-01

    Motivated by a study examining geographic variation in birth outcomes, we develop a spatial bivariate probit model for the joint analysis of preterm birth and low birth weight. The model uses a hierarchical structure to incorporate individual and areal-level information, as well as spatially dependent random effects for each spatial unit. Because rates of preterm birth and low birth weight are likely to be correlated within geographic regions, we model the spatial random effects via a bivariate conditionally autoregressive prior, which induces regional dependence between the outcomes and provides spatial smoothing and sharing of information across neighboring areas. Under this general framework, one can obtain region-specific joint, conditional, and marginal inferences of interest. We adopt a Bayesian modeling approach and develop a practical Markov chain Monte Carlo computational algorithm that relies primarily on easily sampled Gibbs steps. We illustrate the model using data from the 2007-2008 North Carolina Detailed Birth Record. PMID:22599322

  14. Screening Tests for Birth Defects

    MedlinePlus

    Member Login Join Pay Dues Follow us: Women's Health Care Physicians Contact Us My ACOG ACOG Departments Donate Shop Career Connection Home Resources & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Screening Tests for Birth Defects Home For Patients Search FAQs ...

  15. The Airway Microbiome at Birth

    PubMed Central

    Lal, Charitharth Vivek; Travers, Colm; Aghai, Zubair H.; Eipers, Peter; Jilling, Tamas; Halloran, Brian; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Keeley, Jordan; Rezonzew, Gabriel; Kumar, Ranjit; Morrow, Casey; Bhandari, Vineet; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam

    2016-01-01

    Alterations of pulmonary microbiome have been recognized in multiple respiratory disorders. It is critically important to ascertain if an airway microbiome exists at birth and if so, whether it is associated with subsequent lung disease. We found an established diverse and similar airway microbiome at birth in both preterm and term infants, which was more diverse and different from that of older preterm infants with established chronic lung disease (bronchopulmonary dysplasia). Consistent temporal dysbiotic changes in the airway microbiome were seen from birth to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely preterm infants. Genus Lactobacillus was decreased at birth in infants with chorioamnionitis and in preterm infants who subsequently went on to develop lung disease. Our results, taken together with previous literature indicating a placental and amniotic fluid microbiome, suggest fetal acquisition of an airway microbiome. We speculate that the early airway microbiome may prime the developing pulmonary immune system, and dysbiosis in its development may set the stage for subsequent lung disease. PMID:27488092

  16. Particulate matter and preterm birth

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM) has been variably associated with preterm birth (PTB) (gestation <37 weeks), but the role played by specific chemical components of PM has been little studied. We examined the association between ambient PM <2.5 micrometers in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.S) ...

  17. Births: Final Data for 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joyce A.; Hamilton, Brady E.; Ventura, Stephanie J.; Menacker, Fay; Park, Melissa M.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents 2000 data on U.S. births, highlighting maternal demographics (e.g., age, race, Hispanic origin, marital status, and educational attainment); maternal characteristics (medical risk factors, weight gain, and tobacco and alcohol use); medical care utilization during pregnancy women (e.g., prenatal care, labor and/or delivery…

  18. Birth Defects and Adolescent Pregnancies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, James

    1975-01-01

    Home economists who work with adolescents can help prepare them for responsible parenthood later in life by explaining the known causes of various birth defects; providing basic information about human genetics, prenatal nutrition, and drug and alcohol effects; and motivating adolescents to exercise increased responsibility in their sexual…

  19. Birth Defects Research and Tracking

    MedlinePlus

    ... support families affected by them. Read about the work taking place in each state » National Birth Defects Prevention Network (NBDPN) CDC supports and collaborates with the NBDPN. The NBDPN is a group of over 225 individuals working at the national, state, and local levels, who ...

  20. The Airway Microbiome at Birth.

    PubMed

    Lal, Charitharth Vivek; Travers, Colm; Aghai, Zubair H; Eipers, Peter; Jilling, Tamas; Halloran, Brian; Carlo, Waldemar A; Keeley, Jordan; Rezonzew, Gabriel; Kumar, Ranjit; Morrow, Casey; Bhandari, Vineet; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam

    2016-01-01

    Alterations of pulmonary microbiome have been recognized in multiple respiratory disorders. It is critically important to ascertain if an airway microbiome exists at birth and if so, whether it is associated with subsequent lung disease. We found an established diverse and similar airway microbiome at birth in both preterm and term infants, which was more diverse and different from that of older preterm infants with established chronic lung disease (bronchopulmonary dysplasia). Consistent temporal dysbiotic changes in the airway microbiome were seen from birth to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely preterm infants. Genus Lactobacillus was decreased at birth in infants with chorioamnionitis and in preterm infants who subsequently went on to develop lung disease. Our results, taken together with previous literature indicating a placental and amniotic fluid microbiome, suggest fetal acquisition of an airway microbiome. We speculate that the early airway microbiome may prime the developing pulmonary immune system, and dysbiosis in its development may set the stage for subsequent lung disease. PMID:27488092