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Sample records for fallout occurred effects

  1. Distribution and Ratios of 137Cs and K in Control and K-treated Coconut Trees at Bikini Island where Nuclear Test Fallout Occurred: Effects and Implications

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, W L; Brown, P H; Stone, E L; Hamilton, T F; Conrado, C L; Kehl, S R

    2008-05-19

    is logarithmic but K remobilization is linear in K-treated trees where K concentration is high. As a result of K treatment the {sup 137}Cs concentration in K-treated fronds is extremely low and constant with frond age. Fronds of K treated trees contain a greater amount of K than control tree fronds. As they fall to the ground and decay they provide a small continuing pool of K that is about 3% of the natural K in soil under the tree canopy. Results of K and {sup 137}Cs concentration and distribution in control and K-treated coconut trees suggest that the application of K reduces {sup 137}Cs uptake both in the short term immediately following K fertilization and in the long term, after soil K levels have returned to normal but while plant K stores remain high. These results suggests that high internal K concentration and not high soil K is primarily responsible for long-term reduction of {sup 137}Cs in edible fruits, and plays a significant role in limiting further uptake of {sup 137}Cs by roots, and affects allocation of {sup 137}Cs to edible fruits for years. Coconut trees are capable of luxury K accumulation when provided with excess K and in this example the additional K can effectively provide the K requirements of the plant for in excess of 10 years. The reduction of {sup 137}Cs uptake lasts for at least 10 y after K is last applied and greatly reduces the estimated radiation dose to people consuming local tree foods. Effectiveness and duration of K treatment provides important assurances that reduction in {sup 137}Cs is long term and the radiation dose from consuming local plant foods will remain low.

  2. Distribution and ratios of 137Cs and K in control and K-treated coconut trees at Bikini Island where nuclear test fallout occurred: effects and implications.

    PubMed

    Robison, William L; Brown, Patrick H; Stone, Earl L; Hamilton, Terry F; Conrado, Cynthia L; Kehl, Steven

    2009-01-01

    linear in K-treated trees where K concentration is high. As a result of K treatment the 137Cs concentration in K-treated fronds is extremely low and constant with frond age. Fronds of K-treated trees contain a greater amount of K than control tree fronds. As they fall to the ground and decay they provide a small continuing pool of K that is about 3% of the natural K in soil under the tree canopy. Results of K and 137Cs concentration and distribution in control and K-treated coconut trees suggest that the application of K reduces 137Cs uptake both in the short term immediately following K fertilization and in the long term, after soil K levels have returned to normal but while plant K stores remain high. These results suggest that high internal K concentration and not high soil K is primarily responsible for long-term reduction of 137Cs in edible fruits, play a significant role in limiting further uptake of 137Cs by roots, and affects allocation of 137Cs to edible fruits for years. Coconut trees are capable of luxury K accumulation when provided with excess K and in this example the additional K can effectively provide the K requirements of the plant for in excess of 10y. The reduction of 137Cs uptake lasts for at least 10y after K is last applied and greatly reduces the estimated radiation dose to people consuming local tree foods. Effectiveness and duration of K treatment provide important assurances that reduction in 137Cs is long term and the radiation dose from consuming local plant foods will remain low. PMID:19064306

  3. Radioactive fallout

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, C.S.; Harvey, T.F.; Peterson, K.R.

    1985-12-01

    Potential radiation doses from several scenarios involving nuclear attack on an unsheltered United States population are calculated for local, intermediate time scale and long-term fallout. Dose estimates are made for both a normal atmosphere and an atmosphere perturbed by smoke produced by massive fires. A separate section discusses the additional doses from nuclear fuel facilities, were they to be targeted in an attack. Finally, in an appendix the direct effects of fallout on humans are considered. These include effects of sheltering and biological repair of damage from chronic doses. 21 refs., 10 figs., 11 tabs.

  4. Fallout from Nuclear Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comar, C. L.

    This booklet, in the series "Understanding the Atom," summarizes the important findings on radioactive fallout for which there is substantial scientific agreement, indicates the areas of disagreement, and lists some answered questions. Sources of fallout, its local and worldwide effects (including movement in the atmosphers), the biological…

  5. Effect of origin of radiocaesium on the transfer from fallout to reindeer meat.

    PubMed

    Ahman, B; Wright, S M; Howard, B J

    2001-10-20

    Data on radiocaesium contamination of reindeer from five regions in Sweden have been used, together with interpolated radiocaesium deposition data, to quantify spatial variation in transfer to reindeer meat and to consider how it changes with time in different areas. Since the regions were contaminated to different extents by global and Chernobyl fallout, it was also possible to determine the influence of the origin or age of radiocaesium fallout on the transfer to reindeer meat. The regions differed significantly with regard to transfer of radiocaesium to reindeer meat. In two regions in the North of Sweden, where there was less Chernobyl 137Cs, aggregated transfer coefficients (Tag), estimated for the main slaughter period in the first year after the Chernobyl fallout, were low (0.15 and 0.36 m2 kg(-1) in January-April). Average Tag values calculated for the winter period (January-April) in two regions in the middle of Sweden, where deposition from Chernobyl dominated (83 and 94%, respectively, of the total deposition), were 0.78 and 0.84 m2 kg(-1), respectively with a maximum Tag for an individual reindeer of 1.87 m2 kg(-1). There was a threefold increase in Tag values from early autumn to late winter reflecting the change in the reindeer diet from less contaminated vascular plants to more contaminated lichens. The decline of 137Cs in reindeer meat from 1986 to 2000 differed between regions with longer effective half-lives (Tef) in the northerly regions (11.0 and 7.1 years, respectively) with less Chernobyl fallout, and shorter half-lives in the other three regions (3.5-3.8 years). This observation, together with a lack of a decline in early autumn in the region with least Chernobyl fallout, supports the theory of a gradual, but reversible, fixation of radiocaesium in the soil over the mid-long term. The results suggest that both the extent of transfer of 137Cs to reindeer meat, and its subsequent decline with time, are affected by the differing origins of

  6. The medical effects of radioactive fall-out: role of stable end-products?

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, B. A.; Cardarelli, J. C.; Boling, E. A.; Sinex, F. M.

    1981-01-01

    To summarize, from preliminary observations on the possible effects of radioactive fall-out, it may be inferred that in addition to the secondary products of ionizing irradiation per se, the stable end-products of the transmutation of certain radionuclides may adversely influence cellular metabolism, including mutagenesis. The discussion of the possible role of intracellular barium as an end-product of 137Cs decay is offered as an example of an unpredictable number of broad ecological, as well as the more limited medical, effects that may be of both clinical and climatological significance. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:7281411

  7. Effect of ash fallout on water quality in western Montana. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Juday, R.E.; Keller, E.J.

    1984-01-01

    Subsequent to the eruption of Mount St. Helens in 1980, a water-quality study was conducted on lakes and streams of the Clearwater drainage of Western Montana and several oligotrophic high mountain lakes in Idaho. Field studies indicated that the fallout, although containing appreciable amounts of water-soluble nutrients, had virtually no effect on productivity of oligotrophic lakes. Appreciable increases in algal productivity were noted in the mesotrophic study lakes in 1980, although they were no larger than might be expected from climatological changes or from local logging activity. Laboratory studies showed that, imitating natural conditions, appreciable amounts of nutrients could be extracted from the ash, and that the extracts increased algal productivity in incubated lake samples.

  8. The chernobyl fallout in Greece and its effects on the dating of archaeological materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liritzis, Y.

    1987-10-01

    The effects of the fallout from the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl have been monitored at various sites in Greece. Here we present the first estimates of gamma dose rates, an essential parameter in the dating of archaeological materials by thermoluminescence (TL) and ESR methods. The dose rates are derived from the long-lived radionuclides of 137Cs, 134Cs, 106Ru and 144Ce (with t {1}/{2} ⩾ 1 yr). The present dose rates vary between 30 and 60 mrad/yr, but maximum values of around 811 mrad/yr have also been recorded, for ground-surface exposures. These dose rate values must be regarded as very significant to TL and ESR dating of samples from now on and a correction factor should be applied.

  9. Ingestion of Nevada Test Site fallout: internal dose estimates.

    PubMed

    Whicker, F W; Kirchner, T B; Anspaugh, L R; Ng, Y C

    1996-10-01

    This paper summarizes individual and collective dose estimates for the internal organs of hypothetical yet representative residents of selected communities that received measurable fallout from nuclear detonations at the Nevada Test Site. The doses, which resulted from ingestion of local and regional food products contaminated with over 20 radionuclides, were estimated with use of the PATHWAY food-chain-transport model to provide estimates of central tendency and uncertainty. The thyroid gland received much higher doses than other internal organs and tissues. In a very few cases, infants might have received thyroid doses in excess of 1 Gy, depending on location, diet, and timing of fallout. 131I was the primary thyroid dose contributor, and fresh milk was the main exposure pathway. With the exception of the thyroid, organ doses from the ingestion pathway were much smaller (< 3%) than those from external gamma exposure to deposited fallout. Doses to residents living closest to the Nevada Test Site were contributed mainly by a few fallout events; doses to more distantly located people were generally smaller, but a greater number of events provided measurable contributions. The effectiveness of different fallout events in producing internal organ doses through ingestion varied dramatically with seasonal timing of the test, with maximum dose per unit fallout occurring for early summer depositions when milk cows were on pasture and fresh, local vegetables were used. Within specific communities, internal doses differed by age, sex, and lifestyle. Collective internal dose estimates for specific geographic areas are provided. PMID:8830749

  10. Ingestion of Nevada Test Site Fallout: Internal dose estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Whicker, F.W.; Kirchner, T.B.; Anspaugh, L.R.

    1996-10-01

    This paper summarizes individual and collective dose estimates for the internal organs of hypothetical yet representative residents of selected communities that received measurable fallout from nuclear detonations at the Nevada Test Site. The doses, which resulted from ingestion of local and regional food products contaminated with over 20 radionuclides, were estimated with use of the PATHWAY food-chain-transport model to provide estimates of central tendency and uncertainty. The thyroid gland received much higher doses than other internal organs and tissues. In a avery few cases, infants might have received thyroid doses in excess of 1 Gy, depending on location, diet, and timing of fallout. {sup 131}I was the primary thyroid dose contributor, and fresh milk was the main exposure pathway. With the exception of the thyroid, organ doses from the ingestion pathway were much smaller (<3%) than those from external gamma exposure to deposited fallout. Doses to residents living closest to the Nevada Test Site were contributed mainly by a few fallout events; doses to more distantly located people were generally smaller, but a greater number of events provided measurable contributions. The effectiveness of different fallout events in producing internal organ doses through ingestion varied dramatically with seasonal timing of the test, with maximum dose per unit fallout occurring for early summer depositions when milk cows were on pasture and fresh, local vegetables were used. Within specific communities, internal doses differed by age, sex, and lifestyle. Collective internal dose estimates for specific geographic areas are provided.

  11. Analyzing effects of naturally occurring missense mutations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhe; Miteva, Maria A; Wang, Lin; Alexov, Emil

    2012-01-01

    Single-point mutation in genome, for example, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) or rare genetic mutation, is the change of a single nucleotide for another in the genome sequence. Some of them will produce an amino acid substitution in the corresponding protein sequence (missense mutations); others will not. This paper focuses on genetic mutations resulting in a change in the amino acid sequence of the corresponding protein and how to assess their effects on protein wild-type characteristics. The existing methods and approaches for predicting the effects of mutation on protein stability, structure, and dynamics are outlined and discussed with respect to their underlying principles. Available resources, either as stand-alone applications or webservers, are pointed out as well. It is emphasized that understanding the molecular mechanisms behind these effects due to these missense mutations is of critical importance for detecting disease-causing mutations. The paper provides several examples of the application of 3D structure-based methods to model the effects of protein stability and protein-protein interactions caused by missense mutations as well. PMID:22577471

  12. Ready II damage estimation system: fallout trajectories program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    The Fallout Trajectories Program is designed to provide the Ready II Fallout Effects Program with a file containing weapon fallout trajectories. The program is designed to be run on an Univac 1108 computer in conjunction with the Ready II Damage Estimation System. This program differs from earlier versions in that it allows the attack to cover up to a 2-week period.

  13. Ecological half-time and effective dose from chernobyl debris and from nuclear weapons fallout of 137Cs as measured in different Swedish populations.

    PubMed

    Rääf, C L; Hubbard, L; Falk, R; Agren, G; Vesanen, R

    2006-05-01

    The fallout in Sweden of radiocesium from nuclear weapons tests during the 1960's (137Cs) and from the Chernobyl accident in 1986 (134Cs and 137Cs) has transferred to humans through different ecological pathways. Data from whole-body burden measurements of 134Cs, 137Cs, and 40K in various Swedish populations between 1964 and 2002 have been compiled. This database enables an evaluation of the temporal and geographical dependence of the transfer of radiocesium from ground deposition to humans and the associated absorbed dose. The body burdens of 137Cs gradually decrease after the peak values reached in 1965 from nuclear weapons fallout and in 1987 from the Chernobyl fallout, but at a varying rate depending on the population. Assuming a dual exponential decrease, a short-term component of typically 1-2 y and a long-term component of 5-10 y are found in urban populations in Sweden. Among reindeer herders and hunters the effective ecological half-time is mono-exponential with a half-time of 5-7 y. The estimated time-integrated effective dose to an individual during a period of 50 y from the Chernobyl fallout is, on average, approximately 10 mSv for reindeer herders, which is 10-100 times higher than the estimated dose received by urban populations in the three major Swedish urban areas (Malmö, Göteborg, and Stockholm). PMID:16607176

  14. Tephra fallout hazard assessment at Vesuvius: the effect of uncertainties on the wind and the eruption source parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macedonio, Giovanni; Costa, Antonio; Scollo, Simona; Neri, Augusto

    2016-04-01

    In this study we investigate the effect of using different meteorological datasets and eruption source parameters on tephra fallout hazard assessment for a sub-Plinian eruption of Vesuvius, which is considered as a reference case for hazard assessment analysis of Vesuvius. We analyze the effect of using different meteorological data, from: i) radio-sounding carried out at the meteorological station of Brindisi (Italy) between 1962 and 1976 and between 1996 and 2012 and at Pratica di Mare (Rome, Italy) between 1995 and 2013; ii) meteorological models of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). Furthermore, we consider the effects of perturbing reference eruptive source parameters. In particular, we vary the total mass, the total grain-size distribution, the column height, and the effective atmospheric diffusion coefficient to evaluate how these parameters affect the hazard probability maps. Moreover, the effect of the seasonal variation of the wind field and the effect of the rain on the deposit loading are considered. Results show that the parameter that mostly affects hazard maps is, as expected, the total erupted mass; furthermore, keeping constant the erupted mass, the most important control on hazard is due to the particle terminal settling velocity distribution which is a function of the total grain-size distribution, particle density and shape. Within the considered range variations, the hazard depends less on the use of different meteorological datasets, column height and effective diffusion coefficient.

  15. Fukushima fallout at Milano, Italy.

    PubMed

    Ioannidou, Alexandra; Manenti, Simone; Gini, Luigi; Groppi, Flavia

    2012-12-01

    The radionuclides (131)I, (137)Cs and (134)Cs were observed in the Milano region (45°) of Italy early after the nuclear accident in Fukushima, Japan. Increased atmospheric radioactivity was observed on an air filter taken on 30 March 2011, while the maximum activity of 467 μBq m(-3) for (131)I was recorded at April 3-4, 2011. The first evidence of Fukushima fallout was confirmed with (131)I and (137)Cs measured in precipitation at two sampling sites at Milano on 28 March, 2011, with the concentrations of (131)I and (137)Cs in the rainwater equal to 0.89 Bq L(-1) and 0.12 Bq L(-1), respectively. A sample of dry deposition that was collected 9 days after the first rainfall event of 27-28 March, 2011 showed that the dry deposition was more effective in the case of (137)Cs than it was for (131)I, probably because iodine was mainly in gaseous form whereas caesium was rapidly bound to aerosols and thus highly subject to dry deposition. The relatively high observed values of (137)Cs in grass, soil and fresh goat and cow milk samples were probably from Chernobyl fallout and global fallout from past nuclear tests rather than from the Fukushima accident. Finally, a dose assessment for the region of investigation showed clearly that the detected activities in all environmental samples were very far below levels of concern. PMID:22300481

  16. Effects of later-occurring nonlinguistic sounds on speech categorization.

    PubMed

    Wade, Travis; Holt, Lori L

    2005-09-01

    Nonspeech stimuli influence phonetic categorization, but effects observed so far have been limited to precursors' influence on perception of following speech. However, both preceding and following speech affect phonetic categorization. This asymmetry raises questions about whether general auditory processes play a role in context-dependent speech perception. This study tested whether the asymmetry stems from methodological issues or genuine mechanistic limitations. To determine whether and how backward effects of nonspeech context on speech may occur, one experiment examined perception of CVC words with [ga]-[da] series onsets followed by one of two possible embedded tones and one of two possible final consonants. When the tone was separated from the target onset by 100 ms, contrastive effects of tone frequency similar to those of previous studies were observed; however, when the tone was moved closer to the target segment assimilative effects were observed. In another experiment, contrastive effects of a following tone were observed in both CVC words and CV nonwords, although the size of the effects depended on syllable structure. Results are discussed with respect to contrastive mechanisms not speech-specific but operating at a relatively high level, taking into account spectrotemporal patterns occurring over extended periods before and after target events. PMID:16240828

  17. Estimates of doses from global fallout.

    PubMed

    Bouville, André; Simon, Steven L; Miller, Charles W; Beck, Harold L; Anspaugh, Lynn R; Bennett, Burton G

    2002-05-01

    This paper summarizes information about external and internal doses resulting from global fallout and presents preliminary estimates of doses resulting from intermediate fallout in the contiguous United States. Most of the data on global fallout were extracted from the reports of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, in which the radiation exposures from fallout have been extensively reviewed at regular intervals. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation estimated the average effective doses received by the world's population before 2000 to be about 0.4 mSv from external irradiation and 0.6 mSv from internal irradiation, the main radionuclide contributing to the effective dose being 137Cs. Effective doses received beyond 2000 result mainly from the environmentally mobile, long-lived 14C and amount to about 2.5 mSv summed over present and future generations. Specific information about the doses from fallout received by the United States population is based on the preliminary results of a study requested by the U.S. Congress and conducted jointly by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Cancer Institute. Separate calculations were made for the tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site and for the high-yield tests conducted mainly by the United States and the former Soviet Union at sites far away from the contiguous United States (global tests). The estimated average doses from external irradiation received by the United States population were about 0.5 mGy for Nevada Test Site fallout and about 0.7 mGy for global fallout. These values vary little from one organ or tissue of the body to another. In contrast, the average doses from internal irradiation vary markedly from one organ or tissue to another; estimated average thyroid doses to children born in 1951 were about 30 mGy from Nevada Test Site fallout and about 2 mGy from global fallout. PMID:12003019

  18. The effect of wind and eruption source parameter variations on tephra fallout hazard assessment: an example from Vesuvio (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macedonio, Giovanni; Costa, Antonio; Scollo, Simona; Neri, Augusto

    2015-04-01

    Uncertainty in the tephra fallout hazard assessment may depend on different meteorological datasets and eruptive source parameters used in the modelling. We present a statistical study to analyze this uncertainty in the case of a sub-Plinian eruption of Vesuvius of VEI = 4, column height of 18 km and total erupted mass of 5 × 1011 kg. The hazard assessment for tephra fallout is performed using the advection-diffusion model Hazmap. Firstly, we analyze statistically different meteorological datasets: i) from the daily atmospheric soundings of the stations located in Brindisi (Italy) between 1962 and 1976 and between 1996 and 2012, and in Pratica di Mare (Rome, Italy) between 1996 and 2012; ii) from numerical weather prediction models of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. Furthermore, we modify the total mass, the total grain-size distribution, the eruption column height, and the diffusion coefficient. Then, we quantify the impact that different datasets and model input parameters have on the probability maps. Results shows that the parameter that mostly affects the tephra fallout probability maps, keeping constant the total mass, is the particle terminal settling velocity, which is a function of the total grain-size distribution, particle density and shape. Differently, the evaluation of the hazard assessment weakly depends on the use of different meteorological datasets, column height and diffusion coefficient.

  19. Fallout of lead and uptake by crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlain, A. C.

    The distribution with depth of lead in cores of peat shows that the annual fallout in the U.K. has not changed greatly since the middle of the last century. Increased fallout of lead from vehicles has been balanced by decreases in other sources. Fallout of lead from vehicles since 1946 has contributed about 3 ppm in country districts and less than 10 ppm in towns to topsoils. This represents a small addition to the amounts naturally present or attributable to dissemination of industrial and domestic waste over the centuries. However, the current rate of fallout can be ascribed mainly to vehicle emissions. Although many surveys and experiments comparing lead in plants and soils have been done, the contribution of root uptake to lead in crops remains uncertain. Contamination of foliage with particles of soil may be more important than uptake by roots in many instances. Foliage near motorways and other sources of airborne lead shows evidence of direct contamination, and extrapolation of the results indicates that foliar uptake accounts for most of the lead in grasses and other plants having high leaf surface area per unit mass. Translocation of lead from outer to inner leaves, and to tubers, fruits and seeds is very slight, and it seems that not more than a few μg per day of lead enters diet by this route. Measurements of the naturally-occurring radioisotope 210Pb in fallout and in diet can be used to calculate an equivalent area, defined as Equivalent area = Amount in average adult diet per day/ Amount falling per unit area of ground per day The equivalent area for 210Pb is 0.18 m 2, and if it is assumed that stable lead in fallout enters diet to the same degree as does 210Pb, it follows that together the various pathways contribute about 13 μg day -1 to the average adult diet.

  20. [The biological effects of a nuclear explosion. Introduction of a new system on a colorimetric scale (black, grey, red, orange, yellow and white zone) to estimate the effects of fall-out on civilian populations].

    PubMed

    Nacci, G

    2002-08-01

    Following September 11 the eventuality of terrorist attacks using bags containing nuclear devices is considered possible in western cities like New York, London, Paris, Rome, Berlin, Moscow etc. However, with a modern Civil Defence programme the effects of a catastrophe of this nature can be partially limited, at least as far as Fall-out is concerned. The present paper explains the medical reasons for building anti-fall-out shelters for the larger part of western populations: from the USA to Russia. The paper also sets out a new method for classifying levels of radioactive Fall-out based on a scale of colours (black, grey, red, orange, yellow and white) whatever kind of radioactivity is involved (total gamma levels, Cesium 137 levels, Strontium 90 levels). The arrival times for fall-out in each area of the scale are fixed, whatever the energy of the explosion and the speed of the wind might be. The radioactive decay in each area of the scale, from the time of arrival of the fall-out is described with precision. Also described are the acute radiation syndrome, tumours, miscarriages and genetic diseases. A nomogram is attached for civil defence purposes showing the leeward extension of these areas, easily measurable in just a few minutes, if four parameters are known: ground zero (locality) of the explosion, the energy of the explosion, the direction of the wind and the speed of the wind. PMID:12207196

  1. Committed effective dose from naturally occuring radionuclides in shellfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Wahib, Norfadira Binti; Amin, Yusoff Mohd.; Bradley, D. A.

    2013-07-01

    Recognizing their importance in the average Malaysian daily diet, the radioactivity concentrations in mollusc- and crustacean-based food have been determined for key naturally occuring radionuclides. Fresh samples collected from various maritime locations around peninsular Malaysia have been processed using standard procedures; the radionuclide concentrations being determined using an HPGe γ-ray spectrometer. For molluscs, assuming secular equilibrium, the range of activities of 238U (226Ra), 232Th (228Ra) and 40K were found to be 3.28±0.35 to 5.34±0.52, 1.20±0.21 to 2.44±0.21 and 118±6 to 281±14 Bq kg-1 dry weight, respectively. The respective values for crustaceans were 3.02±0.57 to 4.70±0.52, 1.38±0.21 to 2.40±0.35 and 216±11 to 316±15 Bq kg-1. The estimated average daily intake of radioactivity from consumption of molluscs are 0.37 Bq kg-1 for 238U (226Ra), 0.16 Bq kg-1 for 232Th (228Ra) and 18 Bq kg-1 for 40K; the respective daily intake values from crustaceans are 0.36 Bq kg-1, 0.16 Bq kg-1 and 23 Bq kg-1. Associated annual committed effective doses from molluscs are estimated to be in the range 21.3 to 34.7 μSv for 226Ra, 19.3 to 39.1 μSv for 228Ra and 17.0 to 40.4 μSv for 40K. For crustaceans, the respective dose ranges are 19.6 to 30.5 μSv, 22.0 to 38.4 μSv and 31.1 to 45.5 μSv, being some several times world average values.

  2. Electroencephalographic and behavioral effects of nocturnally occurring jet aircraft sounds.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levere, T. E.; Bartus, R. T.; Hart, F. D.

    1972-01-01

    The present research presents data relative to the objective evaluation of the effects of a specific complex auditory stimulus presented during sleep. The auditory stimulus was a jet aircraft flyover of approximately 20-sec duration and a peak intensity level of approximately 80 dB (A). Our specific interests were in terms of how this stimulus would interact with the frequency pattern of the sleeping EEG and whether there would be any carry-over effects of the nocturnally presented stimuli to the waking state. The results indicated that the physiological effects (changes in electroencephalographic activity) produced by the jet aircraft stimuli outlasted the physical presence of the auditory stimuli by a considerable degree. Further, it was possible to note both behavioral and electroencephalographic changes during waking performances subsequent to nights disturbed by the jet aircraft flyovers which were not apparent during performances subsequent to undisturbed nights.

  3. Pygmalion Effects Among Blacks: When and How Expectancies Occur.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derlega, Valerian J.; And Others

    Using methods employed by Chaikin et al (1974) and Chaikin and Derlega (1978) to determine when tutors are susceptible to expectancy effects and whether expectancies lead to discrimination against low ability students, black undergraduates (N=76) taught a lesson on fire safety at home to a 10-year-old boy. Two black male and two white male…

  4. Naturally Occurring Isothiocyanates Exert Anticancer Effects by Inhibiting Deubiquitinating Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Ann P; Long, Marcus J C; Coffey, Rory T; Qian, Yu; Weerapana, Eranthie; El Oualid, Farid; Hedstrom, Lizbeth

    2015-12-01

    The anticancer properties of cruciferous vegetables are well known and attributed to an abundance of isothiocyanates such as benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) and phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC). While many potential targets of isothiocyanates have been proposed, a full understanding of the mechanisms underlying their anticancer activity has remained elusive. Here we report that BITC and PEITC effectively inhibit deubiquitinating enzymes (DUB), including the enzymes USP9x and UCH37, which are associated with tumorigenesis, at physiologically relevant concentrations and time scales. USP9x protects the antiapoptotic protein Mcl-1 from degradation, and cells dependent on Mcl-1 were especially sensitive to BITC and PEITC. These isothiocyanates increased Mcl-1 ubiquitination and either isothiocyanate treatment, or RNAi-mediated silencing of USP9x decreased Mcl-1 levels, consistent with the notion that USP9x is a primary target of isothiocyanate activity. These isothiocyanates also increased ubiquitination of the oncogenic fusion protein Bcr-Abl, resulting in degradation under low isothiocyanate concentrations and aggregation under high isothiocyanate concentrations. USP9x inhibition paralleled the decrease in Bcr-Abl levels induced by isothiocyanate treatment, and USP9x silencing was sufficient to decrease Bcr-Abl levels, further suggesting that Bcr-Abl is a USP9x substrate. Overall, our findings suggest that USP9x targeting is critical to the mechanism underpinning the well-established anticancer activity of isothiocyanate. We propose that the isothiocyanate-induced inhibition of DUBs may also explain how isothiocyanates affect inflammatory and DNA repair processes, thus offering a unifying theme in understanding the function and useful application of isothiocyanates to treat cancer as well as a variety of other pathologic conditions. PMID:26542215

  5. FALLOUT DOSAGE AND MONITORING

    PubMed Central

    Kinsman, Simon

    1960-01-01

    At present there are a large number of people capable of conducting the task of surface and area radiation monitoring including external monitoring of personnel. Once the extent and the intensity of radioactivity in an area is determined, good use of personnel can be made without too much risk. This is fortunate for the medical profession whose personnel can devote their talents to casualty care during or following nuclear warfare. Most individuals who know how to detect and measure the extent of radioactive contamination are also capable of conducting personnel decontamination operations and would do so if necessary. Consequently the spread of contamination can be minimized by adequate decontamination and the medical personnel can treat casualties who are relatively free of external radioactive contamination. The appropriate use of trained manpower and radiation detection equipment which are available in California combined with sufficient rehearsals prior to a nuclear war will greatly reduce any casualty damage due to radioactive fallout. The chances of survival of individuals can be greatly improved with a little knowledge of protection from radioactive contamination and of salvage of food and water. PMID:14409247

  6. New technologies to improve the monitoring of tephra fallouts from Etna: the collaborative system Tefranet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andronico, Daniele; Ferrari, Ferruccio; Merenda, Riccardo; Reitano, Danilo; Scollo, Simona; Cristaldi, Antonio; Lodato, Luigi; Mangiagli, Salvatore

    2016-04-01

    During early December 2015, Mt. Etna (Italy) produced 4 paroxysmal events from the Voragine crater in just 3 days. This activity caused ash and lapilli fallout over a wide area extending from the volcanic slopes up to ~100 km from the volcano, affecting numerous villages and the cities of Messina and Reggio Calabria. Monitoring this kind of volcanic activity in order to know the dispersal of tephra fallout in quasi-real time can prove challenging, especially when several paroxysmal events follow each other as during these latest eruptions in December. To tackle similar recurring periods of frequent activity, which have occurred a number of times at Etna over recent years, we devised a collaborative system named Tefranet. The system is easy to use but at the same time designed to rapidly retrieve useful georeferenced information on tephra fallouts from Etna's explosive activity. Tefranet includes a mobile application and a web site, with particular attention to an administration backend tool, making owners of smartphones or other mobile devices participants. The system aims to involve citizens living not only in eastern Sicily (i.e. the area most affected by fallout based on the prevailing winds blowing on Etna), but also those resident at some distance, in areas potentially covered by tephra (more than 60-80 km from the volcano) and that are difficult to reach before the original amounts of tephra on the ground may become altered by anthropic (e.g. car traffic) and atmospheric (wind and rain) factors. The Tefranet community will be informed by the INGV specialists via mobile device in case explosive activity resumes, with users able to visualize all the tephra signals on a map in real time. All kinds of information concerning start/end of the tephra fallout, estimation of the clast dimensions, thickness of the deposit, level of tephra cover on the ground, will be welcomed, especially if accompanied by photos of the deposit and of the eruption plume. Here, we

  7. Chernobyl fallout and outcome of pregnancy in Finland.

    PubMed Central

    Auvinen, A; Vahteristo, M; Arvela, H; Suomela, M; Rahola, T; Hakama, M; Rytömaa, T

    2001-01-01

    Possible effects of Chernobyl fallout on outcome of pregnancy in Finland were evaluated in a nationwide follow-up study. The outcomes were the rate of live births and stillbirths, pregnancy loss, and induced abortions by municipality. Exposure was assessed based on nationwide surveys of radiation dose rate from the Chernobyl fallout, from both external and internal exposures. Using these measurements, we estimated the monthly dose rate for each of the 455 Finnish municipalities. On average, the dose rate from Chernobyl fallout reached 50 microSv per month in May 1986--a doubling of the natural background radiation. In the most heavily affected area, 4 times the normal background dose rates were recorded. Given the underlying regional differences in live birth, stillbirth, and abortion rates, we used longitudinal analysis comparing changes over time within municipalities. A temporary decline in the live birth rate had already begun before 1986, with no clear relationship to the level of fallout. A statistically significant increase in spontaneous abortions with dose of radiation was observed. No marked changes in induced abortions or stillbirths were observed. The decrease in the live birth rate is probably not a biological effect of radiation, but more likely related to public concerns of the fallout. The effect on spontaneous abortions should be interpreted with caution, because of potential bias or confounding. Further, there is little support in the epidemiologic literature on effects of very low doses of radiation on pregnancy outcome. PMID:11266330

  8. New Trends in Fallout Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Civil Defense (DOD), Washington, DC.

    The objective of the national fallout shelter program is to provide shelter space for all Americans by--(1) locating, marking, and stocking suitable public shelter areas in existing buildings, and (2) having new structures designed and built to maximize protection. This nation's architects and engineers are now knowledgeable in radiation shielding…

  9. Chernobyl fallout on Alpine glaciers

    SciTech Connect

    Ambach, W.; Rehwald, W.; Blumthaler, M.; Eisner, H.; Brunner, P.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements of the gross beta activity of snow samples from four Alpine glaciers contaminated by radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear accident and a gamma-spectrum analysis of selected samples are reported. The results are discussed with respect to possible risks to the population from using meltwater from these glaciers as drinking water.

  10. Predictive Fallout Composition Modeling: Improvements and Applications of the Defense Land Fallout Interpretive Code

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, David A; Jodoin, Vincent J; Lee, Ronald W; Monterial, Mateusz

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines several improvements to the Particle Activity Module of the Defense Land Fallout Interpretive Code (DELFIC). The modeling of each phase of the fallout process is discussed within DELFIC to demonstrate the capabilities and limitations with the code for modeling and simulation. Expansion of the DELFIC isotopic library to include actinides and light elements is shown. Several key features of the new library are demonstrated, including compliance with ENDF/B-VII standards, augmentation of hardwired activated soil and actinide decay calculations with exact Bateman calculations, and full physical and chemical fractionation of all material inventories. Improvements to the radionuclide source term are demonstrated, including the ability to specify heterogeneous fission types and the ability to import source terms from irradiation calculations using the Oak Ridge Isotope Generation (ORIGEN) code. Additionally, the dose, kerma, and effective dose conversion factors are revised. Finally, the application of DELFIC for consequence management planning and forensic analysis is presented. For consequence management, DELFIC is shown to provide disaster recovery teams with simulations of real-time events, including the location, composition, time of arrival, activity rates, and dose rates of fallout, accounting for site-specific atmospheric effects. The results from DELFIC are also demonstrated for use by nuclear forensics teams to plan collection routes (including the determination of optimal collection locations), estimate dose rates to collectors, and anticipate the composition of material at collection sites. These capabilities give mission planners the ability to maximize their effectiveness in the field while minimizing risk to their collectors.

  11. Potential effects of oil spills and other chemical pollutants on marine mammals occurring in Alaskan waters

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    The outer continental shelf report describes and assesses the potential effects of oil spills and other contaminants on marine mammals that occur in Alaskan waters, assuming that a spill or contamination occurs. The report focuses primarily on the potential direct and indirect effects of oil spills on marine mammals and addresses both short-term effects that may occur at the time of contact with oil, and long-term effects that may occur long after contact with oil. The report also briefly reviews the literature on the potential effects of other contaminants such as heavy metals and organochlorines (DDT and PCB's) on marine mammals. The assessment concludes that sea otters, polar bears, fur seals, and very young seal pups could suffer serious or lethal effects if contact with oil occurred.

  12. Dirty Bomb Fallout

    SciTech Connect

    Gates-Anderson, D; Rasmussen, C; Fischer, R; Viani, B; Hu, Q; Sutton, M; McNab, W

    2007-05-02

    At present, there is a significant need to develop decontamination agents that can be used effectively after detonation of a radiological dispersal device (RDD) in an urban environment. There is also a need for the development of reproducible test surfaces to be used to determine the efficacy of the agent being developed. Researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), under the auspices of the US Department of Energy (DoE), conducted a field study to evaluate the deposition of an explosively dispersed radionuclide surrogate (CsCl) on grime-bearing and non-grime-bearing urban surfaces. The goal was to investigate the preparation and contamination of urban surfaces that closely mimic what one would expect to encounter following the detonation of an RDD. Migration of Cs into concrete surfaces was investigated in detail. Many non-proliferation, security and response organizations that have modeled RDD scenarios use cesium-137, as well as cobalt-60, strontium-90, americium-241 as the most likely RDD agents. Cesium-137 is an isotope of concern for possible use in an RDD due to its potential availability resulting from its widespread legitimate use in construction, geotechnical and medical industrial devices. In some Cs-containing instruments the Cesium-137 is present as the highly dispersible and water soluble salt, cesium chloride (CsCl). In this form Cs is able to rapidly disperse in the environment, as witnessed in the 1987 Goiania accident in Brazil, when inadvertent dispersal of a radiotherapy source resulted in fatalities and injuries.

  13. Fallout forecasting: 1945-1962

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, W.R. Jr.

    1986-03-01

    The delayed hazards of fallout from the detonations of nuclear devices in the atmosphere have always been the concern of those involved in the Test Program. Even before the Trinity Shot (TR-2) of July 16, 1945, many very competent, intelligent scientists and others from all fields of expertise tried their hand at the prediction problems. This resume and collection of parts from reports, memoranda, references, etc., endeavor to chronologically outline prediction methods used operationally in the field during Test Operations of nuclear devices fired into the atmosphere.

  14. Radioanalytical studies of fallout 63Ni.

    PubMed

    Holm, E; Roos, P; Skwarzec, B

    1992-01-01

    Fallout of Nickel-63 (T1/2 = 100 a) produced in small amounts at nuclear weapon tests following the neutron activation of weapon construction material was investigated by studying carpets of lichen collected during 1961 to 1988 at the Lake Rogen district in central Sweden (62.3 degrees N, 12.4 degrees E). The maximal level of 63Ni in the lichen carpet, which occurred in 1964, was about 0.6 Bq kg-1, dry weight, and decreased to 0.1 Bq kg-1 in 1988. The deposition pattern for 63Ni was similar to other fallout radionuclides such as 137Cs, 90Sr and 239 + 240Pu. The concentrations of stable Ni were relatively constant at 0.5 to 1.0 microgram g-1 throughout the years resulting in, for example, a specific activity (63Ni/stable Ni) of 0.5 Bq mg-1 in 1964 and 0.1 Bq mg-1 in 1988. The total area content of 63Ni was estimated to be 1.0 Bq m-2 and the activity ratio 63Ni/60Co was estimated to be 0.03 in 1966. The Chernobyl accident in April 1986 did not significantly increase the levels of 63Ni. For the measurement of these extremely low-levels of 63Ni, 200 g of dry material (about 1 kg fresh) were ashed and leached with aqua regia after hydroxides had been precipitated with ammonia, leaving Ni in the aqueous phase. Nickel was extracted as a dimethylglyoxime complex by chloroform and back-extracted with HCl. Finally, Ni was electroplated onto copper discs from an ammonium sulfate medium at high pH. The radiochemical yield was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry of stable Ni before and after electrodeposition.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1310303

  15. Dynamic Monitoring of Cleanroom Fallout Using an Air Particle Counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Radford

    2011-01-01

    The particle fallout limitations and periodic allocations for the James Webb Space Telescope are very stringent. Standard prediction methods are complicated by non-linearity and monitoring methods that are insufficiently responsive. A method for dynamically predicting the particle fallout in a cleanroom using air particle counter data was determined by numerical correlation. This method provides a simple linear correlation to both time and air quality, which can be monitored in real time. The summation of effects provides the program better understanding of the cleanliness and assists in the planning of future activities. Definition of fallout rates within a cleanroom during assembly and integration of contamination-sensitive hardware, such as the James Webb Space Telescope, is essential for budgeting purposes. Balancing the activity levels for assembly and test with the particle accumulation rate is paramount. The current approach to predicting particle fallout in a cleanroom assumes a constant air quality based on the rated class of a cleanroom, with adjustments for projected work or exposure times. Actual cleanroom class can also depend on the number of personnel present and the type of activities. A linear correlation of air quality and normalized particle fallout was determined numerically. An air particle counter (standard cleanroom equipment) can be used to monitor the air quality on a real-time basis and determine the "class" of the cleanroom (per FED-STD-209 or ISO-14644). The correlation function provides an area coverage coefficient per class-hour of exposure. The prediction of particle accumulations provides scheduling inputs for activity levels and cleanroom class requirements.

  16. The Frequency, Nature, and Effects of Naturally Occurring Appearance-Focused Social Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahey, Tricia M.; Crowther, Janis H.; Mickelson, Kristin D.

    2007-01-01

    This research examined the effects of naturally occurring appearance-focused social comparisons on women's affect, body satisfaction, and weight-related cognitions. During their daily activities, women reporting body dissatisfaction (n = 53) and women reporting body satisfaction (n = 34) recorded their reactions to comparison information.…

  17. Dispersal and fallout simulations for urban consequences management (u)

    SciTech Connect

    Grinstein, Fernando F; Wachtor, Adam J; Nelson, Matt; Brown, Michael; Bos, Randy; Patnik, Gopal

    2010-01-01

    Hazardous chemical, biological, or radioactive releases from leaks, spills, fires, or blasts, may occur (intentionally or accidentally) in urban environments during warfare or as part of terrorist attacks on military bases or other facilities. The associated contaminant dispersion is complex and semi-chaotic. Urban predictive simulation capabilities can have direct impact in many threat-reduction areas of interest, including, urban sensor placement and threat analysis, contaminant transport (CT) effects on surrounding civilian population (dosages, evacuation, shelter-in-place), education and training of rescue teams and services. Detailed simulations for the various processes involved are in principle possible, but generally not fast. Predicting urban airflow accompanied by CT presents extremely challenging requirements. Crucial technical issues include, simulating turbulent fluid and particulate transport, initial and boundary condition modeling incorporating a consistent stratified urban boundary layer with realistic wind fluctuations, and post-processing of the simulation results for practical consequences management. Relevant fluid dynamic processes to be simulated include, detailed energetic and contaminant sources, complex building vortex shedding and flows in recirculation zones, and modeling of particle distributions, including particulate fallout, as well as deposition, re-suspension and evaporation. Other issues include, modeling building damage effects due to eventual blasts, addressing appropriate regional and atmospheric data reduction.

  18. Effects of the Cerro Grande Fire (Smoke and Fallout Ash) on Soil Chemical Properties Within and Around Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Fresquez, P.R.; Velasquez, W.R.; Naranjo, L. Jr.

    2000-11-01

    Soil surface (0- to 2-in. depth) samples were collected from areas within and around Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) just after the Cerro Grande fire, analyzed for radionuclides, radioactivity, and trace elements (heavy metals), and compared to soil samples collected in 1999 from the same sites. In addition, many types of organic substances (volatile and semivolatile organic compounds, organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, high explosives, and dioxin and dioxin-like compounds) were assessed in soils from LANL, perimeter, and regional sites after the fire. Results show that impacts to regional, perimeter, and on-site (mesa top) areas from smoke and fallout ash as a result of the Cerro Grande fire were minimal.

  19. When the dust settles: stable xenon isotope constraints on the formation of nuclear fallout.

    PubMed

    Cassata, W S; Prussin, S G; Knight, K B; Hutcheon, I D; Isselhardt, B H; Renne, P R

    2014-11-01

    Nuclear weapons represent one of the most immediate threats of mass destruction. In the event that a procured or developed nuclear weapon is detonated in a populated metropolitan area, timely and accurate nuclear forensic analysis and fallout modeling would be needed to support attribution efforts and hazard assessments. Here we demonstrate that fissiogenic xenon isotopes retained in radioactive fallout generated by a nuclear explosion provide unique constraints on (1) the timescale of fallout formation, (2) chemical fractionation that occurs when fission products and nuclear fuel are incorporated into fallout, and (3) the speciation of fission products in the fireball. Our data suggest that, in near surface nuclear tests, the presence of a significant quantity of metal in a device assembly, combined with a short time allowed for mixing with the ambient atmosphere (seconds), may prevent complete oxidation of fission products prior to their incorporation into fallout. Xenon isotopes thus provide a window into the chemical composition of the fireball in the seconds that follow a nuclear explosion, thereby improving our understanding of the physical and thermo-chemical conditions under which fallout forms. PMID:25014883

  20. Alimentary Tract Absorption (f1 Values) for Radionuclides in Local and Regional Fallout from Nuclear Tests

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Shawki; Simon, Steven L; Bouville, André; Melo, Dunstana; Beck, Harold

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents gastrointestinal absorption fractions (f1 values) for estimating internal doses from local and regional fallout radionuclides due to nuclear tests. The choice of f1 values are based on specific circumstances of weapons test conditions and a review of reported f1 values for elements in different physical and chemical states. Special attention is given to fallout from nuclear tests conducted at the Marshall Islands. We make a distinction between the f1 values for intakes of radioactive materials immediately after deposition (acute intakes) and intakes that occur in the course of months and years after deposition, following incorporation into terrestrial and aquatic foodstuffs (chronic intakes). Multiple f1 values for different circumstances where persons are exposed to radioactive fallout (e.g. local vs. regional fallout and coral vs. continental tests) are presented when supportive information is available. In some cases, our selected f1 values are similar to those adopted by the ICRP (e.g. iodine and most actinides). However, f1 values for cesium and strontium derived from urine bioassay data of the Marshallese population are notably lower than the generic f1 values recommended by ICRP, particularly for acute intakes from local fallout (0.4 and 0.05 for Cs and Sr, respectively. The f1 values presented here form the first complete set of values relevant to realistic dose assessments for exposure to local or regional radioactive fallout. PMID:20622554

  1. Alimentary tract absorption (f1 values) for radionuclides in local and regional fallout from nuclear tests.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Shawki A; Simon, Steven L; Bouville, André; Melo, Dunstana; Beck, Harold L

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents gastrointestinal absorption fractions (f1 values) for estimating internal doses from local and regional fallout radionuclides due to nuclear tests. The choice of f1 values are based on specific circumstances of weapons test conditions and a review of reported f1 values for elements in different physical and chemical states. Special attention is given to fallout from nuclear tests conducted at the Marshall Islands. We make a distinction between the f1 values for intakes of radioactive materials immediately after deposition (acute intakes) and intakes that occur in the course of months and years after deposition, following incorporation into terrestrial and aquatic foodstuffs (chronic intakes). Multiple f1 values for different circumstances where persons are exposed to radioactive fallout (e.g., local vs. regional fallout and coral vs. continental tests) are presented when supportive information is available. In some cases, our selected f1 values are similar to those adopted by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) (e.g., iodine and most actinides). However, f1 values for cesium and strontium derived from urine bioassay data of the Marshallese population are notably lower than the generic f1 values recommended by ICRP, particularly for acute intakes from local fallout (0.4 and 0.05 for Cs and Sr, respectively). The f1 values presented here form the first complete set of values relevant to realistic dose assessments for exposure to local or regional radioactive fallout. PMID:20622554

  2. Standard KDF0C4 Fallout Calculations for Buried Nuclear Detonations

    SciTech Connect

    Serduke, F J D

    2001-09-14

    The collateral damage caused by fallout from shallow-buried nuclear devices is of considerable interest. In this paper, we present results for ''standard'' calculations using the KDFOC4 fallout computer code. Results are presented for a parametric range of yields from 0.1 kt to 1 Mt in equally-spaced logarithmic increments and for emplacement depths of 5 meters in hard, dry rock and 20 meters in moist soil. We will see that for low yields, this emplacement depth has a marked influence on the shape of the fallout patterns but for the highest yields, the fallout patterns are insensitive to the emplacement medium and depth. We look at two categories of doses: (1) Those for which health effects begin to be serious and range upward to lethal, and (2) Doses that are politically very sensitive but for which any deleterious health effects are difficult to prove.

  3. The influence of the post-Chernobyl fallout on birth defects and abortion rates in Austria.

    PubMed

    Haeusler, M C; Berghold, A; Schoell, W; Hofer, P; Schaffer, M

    1992-10-01

    Researchers analyzed data on 66,743 births which occurred between 1985-1989 in the Styria region in southern Austria to determine whether radioactive fallout from the meltdown of the nuclear reaction at Chernobyl in the Ukraine, USSR in may 1986 affected the birth defect and abortion rates in this area of Austria. There were 1695 birth defect cases. Of the birth defects which occurred during embryogenesis, most occurred 14-49 days postconception (group 2; n=630). The researchers did not note a short-term effect of the fallout in group 2 or the other groups (relative risk= 0.75, 0.73 for group 1, and 0.93 for group 2). Baseline birth defect rates (per 1000 births) for groups 1, 2, and 3 were 2.5, 8.5, and 1,8 respectively. The only sizable increase occurred in group 2 at years 2 and 3 (10.6 and 10.3, respectively). More reported minor congenital defect cases accounted for this increase due to the newly established data base in the Department of Pediatric Cardiology at the University of Graz. Thus the increase was an artifact and not a true increase. Abortion rates varied from 10% to 14% and did not increase significantly after Chernobyl. Counseling frequency at abortion clinics fluctuated greatly (117-205) both before and after Chernobyl and the changes were not significant. These results indicated that the low dosage of radiation did not have a detectable biologic effect in terms of birth defects and abortions. The researchers addressed the difficulties with measuring teratologic potential of low dose radiation. They also highlighted the need for accurate categorizing of birth defects, adequate baseline data, and very reliable registries. Future research on possible environmental disasters which affect Austria can use these data as baseline data. PMID:1415387

  4. The effect of various naturally occurring metal-binding compounds on the electrochemical behavior of aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, D.C.; McCafferty, E.

    1996-01-01

    Naturally occurring biological molecules are of considerable interest as possible corrosion inhibitors because of increased attention on the development of environmentally compatible, nonpolluting corrosion inhibitors. A hydroxamate yeast siderophore (rhodotorulic acid), a catecholate bacterial siderophore (parabactin), an adhesive protein from the blue mussel Mytilus edulis, and two metal-binding compounds isolated from the tomato and sunflower roots, namely, chlorogenic and caffeic acid, respectively, were adsorbed from solution onto pure aluminum (99.9995%) and their effect on the critical pitting potential and polarization resistance in deaerated 0.1 M NaCl was measured. These measurements were made using anodic polarization and ac impedance spectroscopy. The catechol-containing siderophore has an inhibitive effect on the critical pitting potential of aluminum in 0.1 M NaCl and increases the polarization resistance of the metal over time. The adhesive protein from the blue mussel is also effective in inhibiting the pitting of aluminum.

  5. Fallout-particle-trajectory computations and fallout-particle arrival time calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, V.E.; Kennedy, N.C.

    1989-09-01

    This report describes the Weather Service Nuclear Support Office (WSNSO) procedure for deriving estimates of fallout-particle arrival times along a fallout pattern. Analyses of meteorological data are discussed. The equations and calculations used in deriving particle-sedimentation velocities and times in layers are discussed. 17 refs., 21 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Environmental effects on germination phenology of co-occurring eucalypts: implications for regeneration under climate change.

    PubMed

    Rawal, Deepa S; Kasel, Sabine; Keatley, Marie R; Nitschke, Craig R

    2015-09-01

    Germination is considered one of the important phenological stages that are influenced by environmental factors, with timing and abundance determining plant establishment and recruitment. This study investigates the influence of temperature, soil moisture and light on the germination phenology of six Eucalyptus species from two co-occurring groups of three species representing warm-dry and cool-moist sclerophyll forests. Data from germination experiments were used to calibrate the germination module of the mechanistic model TACA-GEM, to evaluate germination phenology under a range of climate change scenarios. With the exception of E. polyanthemos, the optimal niche for all species was characterised by cool-moist stratification, low light, cool temperatures and high soil moisture. Model results indicated that of the warm-dry species, Eucalyptus microcarpa exhibited greater germination and establishment under projected changes of warmer drier conditions than its co-occurring species Eucalyptus polyanthemos and Eucalyptus tricarpa which suggests that E. microcarpa could maintain its current distribution under a warmer and drier climate in southeastern Australia. Among the cool-moist species, Eucalyptus radiata was the only species that established under projected climate change of the 2080s but at such a low probability that its persistence compared to Eucalyptus obliqua and Eucalyptus sieberi cannot be posited. For all cool-moist species, germination did not benefit from the phenological shifts they displayed. This study successfully demonstrated environmental effects on germination phenology and how a shift in climate can influence the timing and success of recruitment. PMID:25409871

  7. Environmental effects on germination phenology of co-occurring eucalypts: implications for regeneration under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawal, Deepa S.; Kasel, Sabine; Keatley, Marie R.; Nitschke, Craig R.

    2015-09-01

    Germination is considered one of the important phenological stages that are influenced by environmental factors, with timing and abundance determining plant establishment and recruitment. This study investigates the influence of temperature, soil moisture and light on the germination phenology of six Eucalyptus species from two co-occurring groups of three species representing warm-dry and cool-moist sclerophyll forests. Data from germination experiments were used to calibrate the germination module of the mechanistic model TACA-GEM, to evaluate germination phenology under a range of climate change scenarios. With the exception of E. polyanthemos, the optimal niche for all species was characterised by cool-moist stratification, low light, cool temperatures and high soil moisture. Model results indicated that of the warm-dry species, Eucalyptus microcarpa exhibited greater germination and establishment under projected changes of warmer drier conditions than its co-occurring species Eucalyptus polyanthemos and Eucalyptus tricarpa which suggests that E. microcarpa could maintain its current distribution under a warmer and drier climate in southeastern Australia. Among the cool-moist species, Eucalyptus radiata was the only species that established under projected climate change of the 2080s but at such a low probability that its persistence compared to Eucalyptus obliqua and Eucalyptus sieberi cannot be posited. For all cool-moist species, germination did not benefit from the phenological shifts they displayed. This study successfully demonstrated environmental effects on germination phenology and how a shift in climate can influence the timing and success of recruitment.

  8. Taking Effective Treatments to Scale: Organizational Effects on Outcomes of Multisystemic Therapy for Youth with Co-occurring Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Schoenwald, Sonja K.; Chapman, Jason E.; Henry, David B.; Sheidow, Ashli J.

    2012-01-01

    A prospective multi-site study examined organizational climate and structure effects on the behavior and functioning of delinquent youth with and without co-occurring substance treated with an evidence-based treatment for serious antisocial behavior (i.e., Multisystemic Therapy). Participants were 1979 youth treated by 429 therapists across 45 provider organizations in North America. Results of Mixed Effects Regression Models showed some aspects of climate and structure had no effects, some had similar effects, and some had slightly differential and sometimes counter-intuitive effects on the outcomes of these youth. Implications are considered for research to increase the array and availability of effective treatments for youth with co-occurring substance use across service sectors. PMID:22844190

  9. The effects of Raman scattering accompanied by the soliton excitation occurring in molecular crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, X. F.

    2001-06-01

    A theoretical research is made for the effects of Raman scattering caused by the soliton excitation occurring in the organic molecular crystals, e.g., acetanilide, on the basis of vibration model of amide-I. The energy gap between the soliton state and the vibron state have been found by partial diagonalized method in second quantized representation, which is 18.1-33 cm -1. This result is approximately consistent with the red shift value obtained from the experiments, 16 cm -1. The differential cross-section of the Raman scattering, arising from the soliton excitation, has also been obtained. Finally, we derive some properties of the Raman scattering in such a case. This result establishes spectral signatures of the soliton in the molecular crystals, which may be observed in the experiment.

  10. Studies of two naturally occurring compounds which effect release of acetylcholine from synaptosomes. [Leptinotarsa decemlineata

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    Two naturally occurring compounds which effect the release of neurotransmitter from synaptosomes have been purified to apparent homogeneity. Iotrochotin (IOT) isolated from wound exudate of the Caribbean purple bleeder sponge promotes release in a manner that is independent of the extracellular Ca/sup 2 +/ ion concentration. Leptinotarsin (LPT-d), a protein taken from hemolymph of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, stimulates Ca/sup 2 +/-dependent release. IOT is slightly acidic and has a molecular weight of approximately 18 kD. (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine which has been introduced into synaptosomes as (/sup 3/H)choline can be released by IOT. The toxin releasable pool of labelled neurotransmitter is not depleted by depolarization of the synaptosomes with high potassium, and therefore seems to be primarily extravesicular. LPT-d is a larger protein (molecular weight = 45 kD) than IOT, and seems to effect primarily vesicular release by opening at least one type of presynaptic Ca/sup 2 +/ channel. The facilitatory effects of the toxin on synaptosomal release can be inhibited by inorganic Ca/sup 2 +/ channel antagonists, but are not generally affected by organic antagonists.

  11. The effect of inoculum volume on the microbiologic detection of naturally occurring Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infections.

    PubMed

    Walker, Jennifer B; Rajala-Schultz, Päivi J; DeGraves, Fred J

    2010-09-01

    Currently no standard definitions for the diagnosis of Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infection (IMI) exist. As a result, criteria applied in research to diagnose S. aureus IMIs have varied making comparisons between published works difficult. The goal of the current study was to define the optimal inoculum volume used in the diagnosis of naturally occurring S. aureus IMIs. Microbiologic results from 2 field studies examining S. aureus IMIs were used to examine the effects of inoculum volume on the microbiologic detection of S. aureus. A total of 1,583 milk samples were included in the analysis, and the results of using a 0.01-ml and a 0.1-ml inoculum are presented. Using a 0.01-ml inoculum resulted in a sensitivity of 91% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 88.6-93%) and a specificity of 99.4% (95% CI: 98.6-99.8%). Using the larger 0.1-ml inoculum resulted in a sensitivity of 96.8% (95% CI: 95.2-97.9%) and a specificity of 99.3% (95% CI: 98.4-99.7%). All false-positive samples were from S. aureus-negative quarters in S. aureus-positive cows. There were no false-positive cultures from S. aureus-negative cows. Of the false-negative samples, the majority (77%) were from 6 of the 34 S. aureus-positive quarters. Results from the current study of naturally occurring S. aureus IMIs support the hypothesis that, when using quarter level milk samples, a S. aureus IMI is most accurately diagnosed using a 0.1-ml inoculum. Regardless of inoculum volume, a single quarter sample culture that is positive with S. aureus (>or=1 colony-forming unit) is sufficient to diagnose a S. aureus IMI. PMID:20807927

  12. Environmental effects on growth phenology of co-occurring Eucalyptus species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawal, Deepa S.; Kasel, Sabine; Keatley, Marie R.; Aponte, Cristina; Nitschke, Craig R.

    2014-05-01

    Growth is one of the most important phenological cycles in a plant's life. Higher growth rates increase the competitive ability, survival and recruitment and can provide a measure of a plant's adaptive capacity to climate variability and change. This study identified the growth relationship of six Eucalyptus species to variations in temperature, soil moisture availability, photoperiod length and air humidity over 12 months. The six species represent two naturally co-occurring groups of three species each representing warm-dry and the cool-moist sclerophyll forests, respectively. Warm-dry eucalypts were found to be more tolerant of higher temperatures and lower air humidity than the cool-moist eucalypts. Within groups, species-specific responses were detected with Eucalyptus microcarpa having the widest phenological niche of the warm-dry species, exhibiting greater resistance to high temperature and lower air humidity. Temperature dependent photoperiodic responses were exhibited by all the species except Eucalyptus tricarpa and Eucalyptus sieberi, which were able to maintain growth as photoperiod shortened but temperature requirements were fulfilled. Eucalyptus obliqua exhibited a flexible growth rate and tolerance to moisture limitation which enables it to maintain its growth rate as water availability changes. The wider temperature niche exhibited by E. sieberi compared with E. obliqua and Eucalyptus radiata may improve its competitive ability over these species where winters are warm and moisture does not limit growth. With climate change expected to result in warmer and drier conditions in south-east Australia, the findings of this study suggest all cool-moist species will likely suffer negative effects on growth while the warm-dry species may still maintain current growth rates. Our findings highlight that climate driven shifts in growth phenology will likely occur as climate changes and this may facilitate changes in tree communities by altering inter

  13. In silico prediction of the cosmetic whitening effects of naturally occurring lead compounds.

    PubMed

    Fong, Pedro; Tong, Henry H Y

    2012-10-01

    The identification of tyrosinase inhibitors is important, not only for the treatment of skin hyperpigmentation disorders, such as melasma, but also for the production of cosmetic whitening effects. The aim of this study was the in silico prediction of the naturally occurring lead compounds in three commonly used skin-whitening herbs: Ampelopsis japonica, Lindera aggregata, and Ginkgo biloba. The active ingredients responsible for the whitening effect of these herbs remain largely unknown. The tyrosinase binding affinities and skin permeation, skin irritancy, and corrosive properties of43 natural constituents of the three herbs were predicted by docking simulations using Surflex-Dock and the QSAR-based Dermal Permeability Coefficient Program (DERMWIN) and Skin Irritation Corrosion Rules Estimation Tool (SICRET) implemented in Toxtree. Nine constituents of the three herbs were found to have more advanced binding energies than the gold standard whitening agents, arbutin and kojic acid, but 40 were indicative of at least one skin sensitization alert, and many exhibited poor skin permeability. Linderagalactone c and (+)-n-methyllaurotetanine were found to have the strongest prospects for use in topical formulations, as they achieved high predicted tyrosinase binding scores and displayed good skin permeation properties and minimal potential for skin sensitization and irritation. PMID:23156992

  14. Taking Effective Treatments to Scale: Organizational Effects on Outcomes of Multisystemic Therapy for Youths with Co-Occurring Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenwald, Sonja K.; Chapman, Jason E.; Henry, David B.; Sheidow, Ashli J.

    2012-01-01

    A prospective multisite study examined organizational climate and structure effects on the behavior and functioning of delinquent youths with and without co-occurring substance use treated with an evidence-based treatment (EBT) for serious antisocial behavior (i.e., Multisystemic Therapy). Participants were 1,979 youths treated by 429 therapists…

  15. Tephra-fallout hazard of Violent Strombolian eruptions at Vesuvius: insights from the 1906 event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsotti, Sara; D'Oriano, Claudia; Neri, Augusto; Cioni, Raffaello; Mulas, Maurizio

    2013-04-01

    Mt. Vesuvius is one of the most studied volcano in the world and its vicinity to an extremely populated area makes it also one of the most threatening. Violent Strombolians (VS) events have occurred in the most recent history of the volcano and are likely to occur in case of its reactivation in the future. In order to assess the regional hazard of this eruptive category we performed new field work and adopted a dispersal code to simulate the associated tephra dispersal and fallout. Attention was specifically focused on the 1906 event. Based on field analyses and historical observations, we reconstructed the temporal evolution of the eruptive source conditions during the event. We assumed a 5-day long scenario characterized by two distinct phases: a former short and intense phase of lava fountaining followed by a prolonged weaker phase of ash emission. Grain-size distributions adopted, for the two phases, as input to the model were derived from deposit records accounting also for the presence of sub-micron particles. Based on simplified reconstructions of wind field directions, we simulated the 1906 event and compared it with field data in order to evaluate the validity of the event characterization as well as the model performance. In particular, model outcomes were compared to refined field measurements and deposit distributions. In addition, several hypothetical scenarios with the same source conditions were simulated by adopting realistic meteorological data. Results are shown for specific cases in terms of hazard assessment on the ground (ash deposition and ash concentration in the air). The model clearly highlighted the remarkable effect of the variable local meteorology on ash dispersal and the key role of wind shear on the final cumulative ground deposit. In particular, the prevailing zonal wind, present at this latitude, demonstrated how ash fallout on the city of Naples is a possible scenario to be considered. Lastly, the effect of wet deposition and

  16. COMIDA: a radionuclide food chain model for acute fallout deposition.

    PubMed

    Abbott, M L; Rood, A S

    1994-01-01

    A dynamic food chain model and computer code, named "COMIDA," has been developed to estimate radionuclide concentrations in agricultural food products following an acute fallout event. COMIDA estimates yearly harvest concentrations for five human crop types (Bq kg-1 crop per Bq m-2 deposited) and integrated concentrations for four animal products (Bq d kg-1 animal product per Bq m-2) for a unit deposition that occurs on any user-specified day of the year. COMIDA is structurally very similar to the PATHWAY model and includes the same seasonal transport processes and discrete events for soil and vegetation compartments. Animal product assimilation is modeled using simpler equilibrium models. Differential transport and ingrowth of up to three radioactive progeny are also evaluated. Benchmark results between COMIDA and PATHWAY for monthly fallout events show very similar seasonal agreement for integrated concentrations in milk and beef. Benchmark results between COMIDA and four international steady-state models show good agreement for deposition events that occur during the middle of the growing season. COMIDA will be implemented in the new Department of Energy version of the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System for evaluation of accidental releases from nuclear power plants. PMID:8253573

  17. Synergy of Streptogramin Antibiotics Occurs Independently of Their Effects on Translation

    PubMed Central

    Noeske, Jonas; Huang, Jian; Olivier, Nelson B.; Giacobbe, Robert A.; Zambrowski, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Streptogramin antibiotics are divided into types A and B, which in combination can act synergistically. We compared the molecular interactions of the streptogramin combinations Synercid (type A, dalfopristin; type B, quinupristin) and NXL 103 (type A, flopristin; type B, linopristin) with the Escherichia coli 70S ribosome by X-ray crystallography. We further analyzed the activity of the streptogramin components individually and in combination. The streptogramin A and B components in Synercid and NXL 103 exhibit synergistic antimicrobial activity against certain pathogenic bacteria. However, in transcription-coupled translation assays, only combinations that include dalfopristin, the streptogramin A component of Synercid, show synergy. Notably, the diethylaminoethylsulfonyl group in dalfopristin reduces its activity but is the basis for synergy in transcription-coupled translation assays before its rapid hydrolysis from the depsipeptide core. Replacement of the diethylaminoethylsulfonyl group in dalfopristin by a nonhydrolyzable group may therefore be beneficial for synergy. The absence of general streptogramin synergy in transcription-coupled translation assays suggests that the synergistic antimicrobial activity of streptogramins can occur independently of the effects of streptogramin on translation. PMID:24957822

  18. Design of Schools to Incorporate Fallout Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folley, Milo D.

    Means are suggested by which a school district may incorporate low-cost fallout protection in a school construction program, through construction of an underground shelter beneath the concrete slab foundation. Ways of controlling distribution and filtering air are discussed. The author also suggests consideration of a completely underground…

  19. Assessing the long-term probabilistic volcanic hazard for tephra fallout in Reykjavik, Iceland: a preliminary multi-source analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonini, Roberto; Barsotti, Sara; Sandri, Laura; Tumi Guðmundsson, Magnús

    2015-04-01

    Icelandic volcanism is largely dominated by basaltic magma. Nevertheless the presence of glaciers over many Icelandic volcanic systems results in frequent phreatomagmatic eruptions and associated tephra production, making explosive eruptions the most common type of volcanic activity. Jökulhlaups are commonly considered as major volcanic hazard in Iceland for their high frequency and potentially very devastating local impact. Tephra fallout is also frequent and can impact larger areas. It is driven by the wind direction that can change with both altitude and season, making impossible to predict a priori where the tephra will be deposited during the next eruptions. Most of the volcanic activity in Iceland occurs in the central eastern part, over 100 km to the east of the main population centre around the capital Reykjavík. Therefore, the hazard from tephra fallout in Reykjavík is expected to be smaller than for communities settled near the main volcanic systems. However, within the framework of quantitative hazard and risk analyses, less frequent and/or less intense phenomena should not be neglected, since their risk evaluation depends on the effects suffered by the selected target. This is particularly true if the target is highly vulnerable, as large urban areas or important infrastructures. In this work we present the preliminary analysis aiming to perform a Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Assessment (PVHA) for tephra fallout focused on the target area which includes the municipality of Reykjavík and the Keflavík international airport. This approach reverts the more common perspective where the hazard analysis is focused on the source (the volcanic system) and it follows a multi-source approach: indeed, the idea is to quantify, homogeneously, the hazard due to the main hazardous volcanoes that could pose a tephra fallout threat for the municipality of Reykjavík and the Keflavík airport. PVHA for each volcanic system is calculated independently and the results

  20. Effect of calcitonin pretreatment on naturally occurring intervertebral disc degeneration in guinea pig

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiaohua; Tian, Faming; Wang, Wenya; Yan, Jinyin; Liu, Huanjiang; Liu, Binbin; Song, Huiping; Zhang, Yingze; Shen, Yong; Zhang, Liu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Our previous study suggested protective effects of calcitonin (CT) on experimental osteoarthritis. The aim of the present study was to provide evidence of whether CT pretreatment could prevent naturally occurring intervertebral disc degeneration in guinea pigs. Methods: Forty-two 3 months old female guinea pigs were randomly assigned into 2 groups as follows: Twenty-four were treated by normal saline as control group and sacrificed at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of age (6 animals at each time point), the other 18 were received salmon CT (8 ug/kg/day, everyday) treatment at 3 months of age and sacrificed at the age of 6, 9 and 12 months respectively. Van Gieson stain and the histological score were used to identify the histological changes of the lumbar intervertebral discs. The disc height and vertebral body height were measured. Immunohistochemistry measurements for glycosaminoglycan, type II collagen, and matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-1 expressions were performed. Bone quality and microstructural changes in the L3-6 lumbar vertebral bodies were assessed by bone mineral density (BMD), micro-CT analysis and biomechanical testing. Results: Histological analysis indicated significantly higher disc degeneration scores in 9-month-old guinea pigs in comparison with younger animals, and grew higher with increasing age. CT treatment significantly reduced the histological score, and increased the disc height and the ratio to vertebral body height in 12 months old animals, as well as upregulated the glycosaminoglycan, type II collagen and inhibited the MMP-1 expression. Micro-CT analysis showed decreased percent bone volume (BV/TV) and increased trabecular separation (Tb.Sp), structural model index (SMI) in 12 months old animals in comparison with the younger animals. Markedly increased BV/TV and decreased Tb.Sp were observed in CT treated animals when compared with control animals. The biomechanical properties including maximum load, maximum stress, yield stress and

  1. Effects of naturally occurring coumarins on hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes inmice

    SciTech Connect

    Kleiner, Heather E. Xia, Xiaojun; Sonoda, Junichiro; Zhang, Jun; Pontius, Elizabeth; Abey, Jane; Evans, Ronald M.; Moore, David D.; DiGiovanni, John

    2008-10-15

    Cytochromes P450 (P450s) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) constitute two important enzyme families involved in carcinogen metabolism. Generally, P450s play activation or detoxifying roles while GSTs act primarily as detoxifying enzymes. We previously demonstrated that oral administration of the linear furanocoumarins, isopimpinellin and imperatorin, modulated P450 and GST activities in various tissues of mice. The purpose of the present study was to compare a broader range of naturally occurring coumarins (simple coumarins, and furanocoumarins of the linear and angular type) for their abilities to modulate hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes when administered orally to mice. We now report that all of the different coumarins tested (coumarin, limettin, auraptene, angelicin, bergamottin, imperatorin and isopimpinellin) induced hepatic GST activities, whereas the linear furanocoumarins possessed the greatest abilities to induce hepatic P450 activities, in particular P450 2B and 3A. In both cases, this corresponded to an increase in protein expression of the enzymes. Induction of P4502B10, 3A11, and 2C9 by xenobiotics often is a result of activation of the pregnane X receptor (PXR) and/or constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). Using a pregnane X receptor reporter system, our results demonstrated that isopimpinellin activated both PXR and its human ortholog SXR by recruiting coactivator SRC-1 in transfected cells. In CAR transfection assays, isopimpinellin counteracted the inhibitory effect of androstanol on full-length mCAR, a Gal4-mCAR ligand-binding domain fusion, and restored coactivator binding. Orally administered isopimpinellin induced hepatic mRNA expression of Cyp2b10, Cyp3a11, and GSTa in CAR(+/+) wild-type mice. In contrast, the induction of Cyp2b10 mRNA by isopimpinellin was attenuated in the CAR(-/-) mice, suggesting that isopimpinellin induces Cyp2b10 via the CAR receptor. Overall, the current data indicate that naturally occurring coumarins have

  2. Protective effect of naturally occurring anti-HER2 autoantibodies on breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Tabuchi, Yukiko; Shimoda, Masafumi; Kagara, Naofumi; Naoi, Yasuto; Tanei, Tomonori; Shimomura, Atsushi; Shimazu, Kenzo; Kim, Seung Jin; Noguchi, Shinzaburo

    2016-05-01

    Anti-HER2-autoantibodies (HER2-AAbs) are found in breast cancer patients as well as healthy individuals. However, the clinical relevance of the antibodies is unknown. We established an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with high sensitivity and quantified serum HER2-AAbs in 100 healthy women, 100 untreated patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and 500 untreated patients with invasive breast carcinoma (IBC). The associations between the levels of HER2-AAbs and breast cancer risk, and recurrence-free survival, were examined. High levels of HER2-AAbs were significantly associated with a reduced risk of DCIS (odds ratio [OR] 0.19, P = 4.6 × 10(-7)) or IBC (OR 0.31, P = 3.7 × 10(-7)). Subgroup analysis of IBC revealed a stronger association of HER2-AAbs with a reduced risk of the hormone receptor (HR)(-)/HER2(+) subtype (OR 0.12) than the other subtypes (HR(+)/HER2(-) [OR = 0.32], HR(+)/HER2(+) [OR 0.38], and HR(-)/HER2(-) [OR 0.29]). When we set the cutoff of HER2-AAbs at 20 ng/mL, recurrence-free survival of HER2-AAb-positive patients (N = 74) was significantly better than that of HER2-AAb-negative patients (N = 426) (P = 0.015). Univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated that HER2-AAbs, as well as histological grade, were independently and significantly (P = 0.0065 and 0.049, respectively) associated with recurrence-free survival. Our exploratory study suggests a protective effect of naturally occurring HER2-AAbs on the development of primary and recurrent breast cancer. Further studies on HER2-AAbs are warranted. PMID:27113738

  3. Antioxidant effect of naturally occurring xanthines on the oxidative damage of DNA bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, A. J. S. C.; Telo, J. P.; Pereira, H. F.; Patrocínio, P. F.; Dias, R. M. B.

    1999-01-01

    The repair of the oxidised radicals of adenine and guanosine by several naturally occurring xanthines was studied. Each pair of DNA purine/xanthine was made to react with the sulphate radical and the decrease of the concentration of both compounds was measured by HPLC as a function of irradiation time. The results show that xanthine efficiently prevents the oxidation of the two DNA purines. Theophyline and paraxanthine repair the oxidised radical of adenine but not the one from guanosine. Theobromine and caffeine do not show any protecting effect. An order of the oxidation potentials of all the purines studied is proposed. La réparation des radicaux oxydés de l'adénine et de la guanosine par des xanthines naturelles a été étudiée en soumettant chaque paire base de l'ADN/xanthine à l'oxydation par le radical sulfate et en mesurant par HPLC la disparition des deux composés en fonction du temps d'irradiation. Les résultats montrent que la xanthine joue un rôle protecteur efficace contre l'oxydation des deux purines de l'ADN. La théophyline et la paraxanthine réparent le radical oxydé de l'adénine mais pas celui de la guanosine. La théobromine et la cafeíne n'ont pas d'effet protecteur. Un ordre de potentiels d'oxydation des purines étudiées est proposé.

  4. Fallout Deposition in the Marshall Islands from Bikini and Enewetak Nuclear Weapons Tests

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Harold L.; Bouville, André; Moroz, Brian E.; Simon, Steven L.

    2009-01-01

    Deposition densities (Bq m-2) of all important dose-contributing radionuclides occurring in nuclear weapons testing fallout from tests conducted at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls (1946-1958) have been estimated on a test-specific basis for all the 31 atolls and separate reef islands of the Marshall Islands. A complete review of various historical and contemporary data, as well as meteorological analysis, was used to make judgments regarding which tests deposited fallout in the Marshall Islands and to estimate fallout deposition density. Our analysis suggested that only 20 of the 66 nuclear tests conducted in or near the Marshall Islands resulted in substantial fallout deposition on any of the 25 inhabited atolls. This analysis was confirmed by the fact that the sum of our estimates of 137Cs deposition from these 20 tests at each atoll is in good agreement with the total 137Cs deposited as estimated from contemporary soil sample analyses. The monitoring data and meteorological analyses were used to quantitatively estimate the deposition density of 63 activation and fission products for each nuclear test, plus the cumulative deposition of 239+240Pu at each atoll. Estimates of the degree of fractionation of fallout from each test at each atoll, as well as of the fallout transit times from the test sites to the atolls were used in this analysis. The estimates of radionuclide deposition density, fractionation, and transit times reported here are the most complete available anywhere and are suitable for estimations of both external and internal dose to representative persons as described in companion papers. PMID:20622548

  5. Fallout deposition in the Marshall Islands from Bikini and Enewetak nuclear weapons tests.

    PubMed

    Beck, Harold L; Bouville, André; Moroz, Brian E; Simon, Steven L

    2010-08-01

    Deposition densities (Bq m(-2)) of all important dose-contributing radionuclides occurring in nuclear weapons testing fallout from tests conducted at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls (1946-1958) have been estimated on a test-specific basis for 32 atolls and separate reef islands of the Marshall Islands. A complete review of various historical and contemporary data, as well as meteorological analysis, was used to make judgments regarding which tests deposited fallout in the Marshall Islands and to estimate fallout deposition density. Our analysis suggested that only 20 of the 66 nuclear tests conducted in or near the Marshall Islands resulted in substantial fallout deposition on any of the 23 inhabited atolls. This analysis was confirmed by the fact that the sum of our estimates of 137Cs deposition from these 20 tests at each atoll is in good agreement with the total 137Cs deposited as estimated from contemporary soil sample analyses. The monitoring data and meteorological analyses were used to quantitatively estimate the deposition density of 63 activation and fission products for each nuclear test, plus the cumulative deposition of 239+240Pu at each atoll. Estimates of the degree of fractionation of fallout from each test at each atoll, as well as of the fallout transit times from the test sites to the atolls were used in this analysis. The estimates of radionuclide deposition density, fractionation, and transit times reported here are the most complete available anywhere and are suitable for estimations of both external and internal dose to representative persons as described in companion papers. PMID:20622548

  6. Fallout Protection in School Construction. Proceedings, Association of School Business Officials of the United States and Canada (49th, Denver, Colorado, November 3-8, 1963).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roembke, James E.

    Discussion of the effects of nuclear weapons and consequent radiation fallout precedes justification of the need for fallout shelters. Competition for the design of an elementary school with a population of 300-500 and an emergency population of 600-1000 is then described. Criteria and requirements are detailed. The winning entries illustrate…

  7. Whistleblowing Need not Occur if Internal Voices Are Heard: From Deaf Effect to Hearer Courage

    PubMed Central

    Cleary, Sonja R.; Doyle, Kerrie E.

    2016-01-01

    Whistleblowing by health professionals is an infrequent and extraordinary event and need not occur if internal voices are heard. Mannion and Davies’ editorial on "Cultures of Silence and Cultures of Voice: The Role of Whistleblowing in Healthcare Organisations" asks the question whether whistleblowing ameliorates or exacerbates the ‘deaf effect’ prevalent in healthcare organisations. This commentary argues that the focus should remain on internal processes and hearer courage . PMID:26673652

  8. Effect of lignin content on changes occurring in poplar cellulose ultrastructure during dilute acid pretreatment

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sun, Qining; Foston, Marcus; Meng, Xianzhi; Sawada, Daisuke; Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; O’Neill, Hugh M.; Li, Hongjia; Wyman, Charles E.; Langan, Paul; Ragauskas, Art J.; et al

    2014-10-14

    Obtaining a better understanding of the complex mechanisms occurring during lignocellulosic deconstruction is critical to the continued growth of renewable biofuel production. A key step in bioethanol production is thermochemical pretreatment to reduce plant cell wall recalcitrance for downstream processes. Previous studies of dilute acid pretreatment (DAP) have shown significant changes in cellulose ultrastructure that occur during pretreatment, but there is still a substantial knowledge gap with respect to the influence of lignin on these cellulose ultrastructural changes. This study was designed to assess how the presence of lignin influences DAP-induced changes in cellulose ultrastructure, which might ultimately have largemore » implications with respect to enzymatic deconstruction efforts. Native, untreated hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa x Populus deltoids) samples and a partially delignified poplar sample (facilitated by acidic sodium chlorite pulping) were separately pretreated with dilute sulfuric acid (0.10 M) at 160°C for 15 minutes and 35 minutes, respectively . Following extensive characterization, the partially delignified biomass displayed more significant changes in cellulose ultrastructure following DAP than the native untreated biomass. With respect to the native untreated poplar, delignified poplar after DAP (in which approximately 40% lignin removal occurred) experienced: increased cellulose accessibility indicated by increased Simons’ stain (orange dye) adsorption from 21.8 to 72.5 mg/g, decreased cellulose weight-average degree of polymerization (DPw) from 3087 to 294 units, and increased cellulose crystallite size from 2.9 to 4.2 nm. These changes following DAP ultimately increased enzymatic sugar yield from 10 to 80%. We conclude that, overall, the results indicate a strong influence of lignin content on cellulose ultrastructural changes occurring during DAP. With the reduction of lignin content during DAP, the enlargement of

  9. Effect of lignin content on changes occurring in poplar cellulose ultrastructure during dilute acid pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Qining; Foston, Marcus; Meng, Xianzhi; Sawada, Daisuke; Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; O’Neill, Hugh M.; Li, Hongjia; Wyman, Charles E.; Langan, Paul; Ragauskas, Art J.; Kumar, Rajeev

    2014-10-14

    Obtaining a better understanding of the complex mechanisms occurring during lignocellulosic deconstruction is critical to the continued growth of renewable biofuel production. A key step in bioethanol production is thermochemical pretreatment to reduce plant cell wall recalcitrance for downstream processes. Previous studies of dilute acid pretreatment (DAP) have shown significant changes in cellulose ultrastructure that occur during pretreatment, but there is still a substantial knowledge gap with respect to the influence of lignin on these cellulose ultrastructural changes. This study was designed to assess how the presence of lignin influences DAP-induced changes in cellulose ultrastructure, which might ultimately have large implications with respect to enzymatic deconstruction efforts. Native, untreated hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa x Populus deltoids) samples and a partially delignified poplar sample (facilitated by acidic sodium chlorite pulping) were separately pretreated with dilute sulfuric acid (0.10 M) at 160°C for 15 minutes and 35 minutes, respectively . Following extensive characterization, the partially delignified biomass displayed more significant changes in cellulose ultrastructure following DAP than the native untreated biomass. With respect to the native untreated poplar, delignified poplar after DAP (in which approximately 40% lignin removal occurred) experienced: increased cellulose accessibility indicated by increased Simons’ stain (orange dye) adsorption from 21.8 to 72.5 mg/g, decreased cellulose weight-average degree of polymerization (DPw) from 3087 to 294 units, and increased cellulose crystallite size from 2.9 to 4.2 nm. These changes following DAP ultimately increased enzymatic sugar yield from 10 to 80%. We conclude that, overall, the results indicate a strong influence of lignin content on cellulose ultrastructural changes occurring during DAP. With the reduction of lignin content during DAP, the enlargement of

  10. Indication of the radioactive fallout in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia following the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Alkhomashi, N; Almasoud, Fahad I

    2016-02-01

    On March 2011, a severe damage has occurred to Fukushima Di-iachi nuclear reactor complex in Japan following the huge earthquake and the resulting Tsunami. Consequently, vast amounts of radioactive fallout were released into the atmosphere and contaminated the environment in Japan. Soon after the accident, traces of anthropogenic radionuclides were detected in environmental samples collected in many parts in the northern hemisphere even very far away from Japan creating a global concern. There is no information about radioactive contamination in the Arabian Peninsula caused by the Japanese Fukushima nuclear accident. The first evidence of Fukushima radioactive fallout in Riyadh (24° 43' N, 46° 38' E), Saudi Arabia has been confirmed in April 8, 2011. The airborne fission products (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs were measured in air samples. The radionuclide concentrations were determined by identifying their characteristic gamma rays using a germanium detector. Their activity concentrations were studied as a function of time over a period of 20 days at the end of which they had mostly fallen below our limit of detection. The maximum activity concentration of (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs in air of, respectively, 323.7 ± 18.5, 17.2 ± 1.0 and 26.0 ± 1.8 μBq m(-3) were observed on April 10-11, 2011. The (131)I/(137)Cs and (134)Cs/(137)Cs activity ratio values in air were presented and discussed. Finally, the effective doses to the public of Riyadh city from inhalation of (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs due to contribution from Fukushima incident was found far below levels of concern. PMID:26650827

  11. Fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear disaster and congenital malformations in Europe.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, W

    2001-01-01

    Investigators estimate that the population exposure that resulted from the Chernobyl fallout is in the range of natural background radiation for most European countries. Given current radiobiologic knowledge, health effects-if any-would not be measurable with epidemiologic tools. In several independent reports, however, researchers have described isolated peaks in the prevalence of congenital malformations in the cohort conceived immediately after onset of the fallout. The consistency of the time pattern and the specific types of malformation raise concern about their significance. In this study, the author summarizes findings from Turkey, Belarus, Croatia, Finland, Germany, and other countries, and implications for radiation protection and public health issues are discussed. PMID:11958546

  12. Fallout 137Cs in reindeer herders in Arctic Norway.

    PubMed

    Skuterud, Lavrans; Thørring, Håvard

    2015-03-01

    Reindeer herders in the Arctic were among the most heavily exposed populations to the global fallout from nuclear weapons testing in the 1950s and 1960s, due to high transfer of radionuclides in the lichens-reindeer-human food chain. Annual studies of (137)Cs in reindeer herders in Kautokeino, Norway, were initiated in 1965 to monitor radiation doses and follow environmental (137)Cs behavior. The (137)Cs concentrations declined from the peak in 1965 with effective half-times of 6-8 years, only interrupted by a temporary doubling in levels from 1986 to 1987 due to the Chernobyl fallout. During the period of 1950-2010 an average herder received an integrated effective dose from incorporated (137)Cs of about 18 mSv. This dose represents an insignificant increase in the risk for developing cancer. Health studies even show a significantly lower cancer incidence among Sámis and reindeer herders in northern Norway compared to other populations in the same area. PMID:25671344

  13. Application of the ORIGEN Fallout Analysis Tool and the DELFIC Fallout Planning Tool to National Technical Nuclear Forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Jodoin, Vincent J; Lee, Ronald W; Peplow, Douglas E.; Lefebvre, Jordan P

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this project was to provide a robust fallout analysis and planning tool for the National Technical Nuclear Forensics interagency ground sample collection team. Their application called for a fast-running, portable mission-planning tool for use in response to emerging improvised nuclear device (IND) post-detonation situations. The project met those goals by research and development of models to predict the physical, chemical, and radiological properties of fallout debris. ORNL has developed new graphical user interfaces for two existing codes, the Oak Ridge Isotope Generation (ORIGEN) code and the Defense Land Fallout Interpretive Code (DELFIC). ORIGEN is a validated, radionuclide production and decay code that has been implemented into the Fallout Analysis Tool to predict the fallout source term nuclide inventory after the detonation of an IND. DELFIC is a validated, physics-based, research reference fallout prediction software package. It has been implemented into the Fallout Planning Tool and is used to predict the fractionated isotope concentrations in fallout, particle sizes, fractionation ratios, dose rate, and integrated dose over the planned collection routes - information vital to ensure quality samples for nuclear forensic analysis while predicting dose to the sample collectors. DELFIC contains a particle activity module, which models the radiochemical fractionation of the elements in a cooling fireball as they condense into and onto particles to predict the fractionated activity size distribution for a given scenario. This provides the most detailed physics-based characterization of the fallout source term phenomenology available in an operational fallout model.

  14. Effects of clinically occurring chronic lameness in sheep on the concentrations of plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline.

    PubMed

    Ley, S J; Livingston, A; Waterman, A E

    1992-07-01

    Plasma adrenaline (AD) and noradrenaline (NA) concentrations were measured by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection in blood samples from control and lame sheep. The lame sheep suffered from naturally occurring foot rot and showed behavioural characteristics normally associated with chronic pain. The lame sheep were scored both for impairment of gait and pathology of the foot and divided into mild and severely affected groups. Both the mildly and severely lame group showed a significant increase in plasma AD and plasma NA which tended to persist even after clinical resolution of the condition. The measurement of plasma AD and NA may provide information which can be used to assess animals experiencing chronic pain, when taken in conjunction with other parameters, such as nociceptive thresholds and plasma hormone levels. PMID:1410809

  15. Relative effects of case hardening parameters on distortion occurring during carburizing and quenching

    SciTech Connect

    Milam, D.L.

    1996-12-31

    Distortion of bearing races during heating, carburization, and quenching can become significant if a quenching press is not used. The relative contributions of various heat treatment factors on the resulting shape of large free-quenched races were determined via metallurgical analysis and a Design of Experiments methodology. The relative effects of eleven heat treatment factors were determined using a factorial design as a screening test. Five of these factors were determined to have produced significant effects. A large variance existing within the runs may have caused other main and/or interaction effects to be significant. The results demonstrate that the microstructure existing prior to heating and the method of heating to the carburization temperature have a greater effect on distortion than do the quenching factors.

  16. Beneficial effects of autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in naturally occurring tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Roger Kenneth Whealands; Werling, Natalie Jayne; Dakin, Stephanie Georgina; Alam, Rafiqul; Goodship, Allen E; Dudhia, Jayesh

    2013-01-01

    Tendon injuries are a common age-related degenerative condition where current treatment strategies fail to restore functionality and normal quality of life. This disease also occurs naturally in horses, with many similarities to human tendinopathy making it an ideal large animal model for human disease. Regenerative approaches are increasingly used to improve outcome involving mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), supported by clinical data where injection of autologous bone marrow derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) suspended in marrow supernatant into injured tendons has halved the re-injury rate in racehorses. We hypothesized that stem cell therapy induces a matrix more closely resembling normal tendon than the fibrous scar tissue formed by natural repair. Twelve horses with career-ending naturally-occurring superficial digital flexor tendon injury were allocated randomly to treatment and control groups. 1X10(7) autologous BM-MSCs suspended in 2 ml of marrow supernatant were implanted into the damaged tendon of the treated group. The control group received the same volume of saline. Following a 6 month exercise programme horses were euthanized and tendons assessed for structural stiffness by non-destructive mechanical testing and for morphological and molecular composition. BM-MSC treated tendons exhibited statistically significant improvements in key parameters compared to saline-injected control tendons towards that of normal tendons and those in the contralateral limbs. Specifically, treated tendons had lower structural stiffness (p<0.05) although no significant difference in calculated modulus of elasticity, lower (improved) histological scoring of organisation (p<0.003) and crimp pattern (p<0.05), lower cellularity (p<0.007), DNA content (p<0.05), vascularity (p<0.03), water content (p<0.05), GAG content (p<0.05), and MMP-13 activity (p<0.02). Treatment with autologous MSCs in marrow supernatant therefore provides significant benefits compared to untreated tendon repair in

  17. Beneficial Effects of Autologous Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Naturally Occurring Tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Roger Kenneth Whealands; Werling, Natalie Jayne; Dakin, Stephanie Georgina; Alam, Rafiqul; Goodship, Allen E.; Dudhia, Jayesh

    2013-01-01

    Tendon injuries are a common age-related degenerative condition where current treatment strategies fail to restore functionality and normal quality of life. This disease also occurs naturally in horses, with many similarities to human tendinopathy making it an ideal large animal model for human disease. Regenerative approaches are increasingly used to improve outcome involving mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), supported by clinical data where injection of autologous bone marrow derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) suspended in marrow supernatant into injured tendons has halved the re-injury rate in racehorses. We hypothesized that stem cell therapy induces a matrix more closely resembling normal tendon than the fibrous scar tissue formed by natural repair. Twelve horses with career-ending naturally-occurring superficial digital flexor tendon injury were allocated randomly to treatment and control groups. 1X107 autologous BM-MSCs suspended in 2 ml of marrow supernatant were implanted into the damaged tendon of the treated group. The control group received the same volume of saline. Following a 6 month exercise programme horses were euthanized and tendons assessed for structural stiffness by non-destructive mechanical testing and for morphological and molecular composition. BM-MSC treated tendons exhibited statistically significant improvements in key parameters compared to saline-injected control tendons towards that of normal tendons and those in the contralateral limbs. Specifically, treated tendons had lower structural stiffness (p<0.05) although no significant difference in calculated modulus of elasticity, lower (improved) histological scoring of organisation (p<0.003) and crimp pattern (p<0.05), lower cellularity (p<0.007), DNA content (p<0.05), vascularity (p<0.03), water content (p<0.05), GAG content (p<0.05), and MMP-13 activity (p<0.02). Treatment with autologous MSCs in marrow supernatant therefore provides significant benefits compared to untreated tendon repair in

  18. When attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder co-occurs with anxiety disorders: effects on treatment.

    PubMed

    Manassis, Katharina

    2007-08-01

    Anxiety disorders (ANX) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) commonly co-occur; this comorbidity is associated with a high degree of impairment and a poor long-term prognosis. In this review, the nature of this comorbidity and its treatment will be described, and an approach to treating children with ANX + ADHD will be presented. The etiology of ANX + ADHD is controversial, with biological, developmental, environmental and cognitive factors examined in various studies. There is increasing evidence that ANX + ADHD may be distinct from each separate disorder, and may represent a neuropsychiatric condition that involves dysregulation in both anxiety and ADHD domains. Treatment usually requires a combination of medication and psychotherapeutic intervention. Stimulant medications have been found most helpful so far compared with other medications, although atomoxetine is also being studied. There is limited evidence for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and their potential for behavioral activation may be problematic in these children. Intensive behavior modification was shown to be beneficial in conjunction with medication for ANX + ADHD in a multimodal treatment study of children with ADHD. Cognitive-behavioral therapy has been used to address anxiety symptoms, but may need to be individualized in ANX + ADHD as cognitive limitations and ADHD behaviors may otherwise interfere. Parental anxious or ADHD traits and the child's developmental level must also be considered to optimize treatment. PMID:17678493

  19. Long-term effects of sexual abuse which occurred in childhood: a review.

    PubMed

    Cahill, C; Llewelyn, S P; Pearson, C

    1991-05-01

    The psychological problems and difficulties experienced by adults who report having been sexually abused in childhood are reviewed. These long-term effects include damage to the victims' emotional reactions and self-perceptions, relationship problems, problems with sexuality and difficulties in social functioning. Common presenting problems of victims of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are described. Also discussed are the characteristics of incestuous abuse in terms of the victim, the abusive relationship and its termination; the contributions of the various aspects of CSA to the psychological impact of such abuse; and psychodynamic explanations of the development of long-term effects. The bulk of the published material regarding the long-term effects of CSA refers to female victims only, and this 'bias' is reflected in the review. PMID:2059744

  20. Effects of Naturally Occuring Arginine 14 Deletion on Phospholamban Conformational Dynamics and Membrane Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Vostrikov, Vitaly V.; Soller, Kailey J.; Ha, Kim N.; Gopinath, T.; Veglia, Gianluigi

    2014-01-01

    Phospholamban (PLN) is a single-pass membrane protein that regulates the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA). Phosphorylation of PLN at Ser16 reverses its inhibitory function under β-adrenergic stimulation, augmenting Ca2+ uptake in the sarcoplasmic reticulum and muscle contractility. PLN exists in two conformations; a T state, where the cytoplasmic domain is helical and absorbed on the membrane surface, and an R state, where the cytoplasmic domain is unfolded and membrane detached. Previous studies from our group have shown that the PLN conformational equilibrium is crucial to SERCA regulation. Here, we used a combination of solution and solid-state NMR techniques to compare the structural topology and conformational dynamics of monomeric PLN (PLNAFA) with that of the PLNR14del, a naturally occurring deletion mutant that is linked to the progression of dilated cardiomyopathy. We found that the behavior of the inhibitory transmembrane domain of PLNR14del is similar to that of the native sequence. In contrast, the conformational dynamics of R14del both in micelles and lipid membranes are enhanced. We conclude that the deletion of Arg14 in the cytoplasmic region weakens the interactions with the membrane and shifts the conformational equilibrium of PLN toward the disordered R state. This conformational transition is correlated with the loss-of-function character of this mutant and is corroborated by SERCA’s activity assays. These findings further support our hypothesis that SERCA function is fine-tuned by PLN conformational dynamics and begin to explain the aberrant regulation of SERCA by the R14del mutant. PMID:25251363

  1. Directly toxic effects of plant chemicals which may occur in human and animal foods.

    PubMed

    Seawright, A A

    1995-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are among the most significant plant chemicals causing disease in animals and humans. After absorption from the gut, the compounds are converted to electrophilic pyrroles in the liver which, apart from causing damage to this organ, may escape to cause injury to extraheptic tissues such as the lungs, heart, and kidneys. A group of compounds more recently found to be associated with neurotoxicity are various polyhydroxyalkaloids which are able to interfere with polysaccharide metabolism. They are able to inhibit lysosomal monosaccharidases by virtue of their structural resemblance to the transition state of particular sugar molecules. The resulting lysosomal storage diseases have pathology identical to that of the respective congenital and heritable lysosomal storage diseases which occur in animals and humans. Consumption of cycad plants by cattle may cause a neurotoxicity characterised mainly by a posterior sensory ataxia. In recent years, cycads are considered to be a risk factor for a spectrum of progressive neuro degenerative diseases of humans in the Western Pacific region. The known toxins in the plant are the methylazoxymethanol glycosides which are hepatotoxic and carcinogenic, and the neurotoxic non-protein amino acid beta-methylaminoalanine. A plant carcinogen which can be of great abundance in the nutritional environment is the illudine norsesquiterpene glucoside ptaquiloside which is found in bracken fern. This is the only plant carcinogen which causes natural outbreaks of bladder and/or intestinal cancer in livestock. Many legumes contain phytooestrogens, notably isoflavones. Consumption of these compounds at high levels by sheep can cause extensive lesions of the genitalia of females and castrated males.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7582621

  2. Effect of leachability on environmental risk assessment for naturally occurring radioactive materials in petroleum oil fields.

    PubMed

    Rajaretnam, G; Spitz, H B

    2000-02-01

    Elevated concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), including 238U, 232Th, and their progeny found in underground geologic deposits, are often encountered during crude oil recovery. Radium, the predominant radionuclide brought to the surface with the crude oil and produced water, co-precipitates with barium in the form of complex compounds of sulfates, carbonates, and silicates found in sludge and scale. These NORM deposits are highly stable and very insoluble under ambient conditions at the earth's surface. However, the co-precipitated radium matrix is not thermodynamically stable at reducing conditions which may enable a fraction of the radium to eventually be released to the environment. Although the fate of radium in uranium mill tailings has been studied extensively, the leachability of radium from crude oil NORM deposits exposed to acid-rain and other aging processes is generally unknown. The leachability of radium from NORM contaminated soil collected at a contaminated oil field in eastern Kentucky was determined using extraction fluids having wide range of pH reflecting different extreme environmental conditions. The average 226Ra concentration in the samples of soil subjected to leachability testing was 32.56 Bq g(-1) +/- 0.34 Bq g(-1). The average leaching potential of 226Ra observed in these NORM contaminated soil samples was 1.3% +/- 0.46% and was independent of the extraction fluid. Risk assessment calculations using the family farm scenario show that the annual dose to a person living and working on this NORM contaminated soil is mainly due to external gamma exposure and radon inhalation. However, waterborne pathways make a non-negligible contribution to the dose for the actual resident families living on farmland with the type of residual NORM contamination due to crude oil recovery operations. PMID:10647985

  3. Determination of mask induced polarization effects occurring in hyper NA immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teuber, Silvio; Bubke, Karsten; Hollein, Ingo; Ziebold, Ralf; Peters, Jan H.

    2005-05-01

    As the lithographic projection technology of the future will require higher numerical aperture (NA) values, new physical effects will have to be taken into consideration. Immersion lithography will result in NA values of up to 1.2 and above. New optical effects like 3D shadowing, effects from oblique incident angles, mask-induced polarization of the transmitted light and birefringence from the substrate should be considered when the masks optical performance is evaluated. This paper addresses mask induced polarization effects from dense lines-and-space structures of standard production masks. On a binary and on an attenuated phase-shifting mask, which were manufactured at the Advanced Mask Technology Center (AMTC) transmission experimental investigations were performed. Measurements of diffraction efficiencies for TE- and TM-polarized light using three different incident angles are presented for all considered mask types and compared to simulations. The structures under investigation include line-space-pattern with varying pitches as well as varying duty cycles. Experimental results show good agreement with simulations.

  4. Effect of naturally occurring antimicrobials and chemical preservatives on the growth of Aspergillus Parasiticus.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Prathesha; Ramaswamy, K

    2012-04-01

    Effect of water activity (aw, 0.99), pH (4.5) and their interaction on the growth inhibition of Aspergillus parasiticus was studied on potato dextrose agar (PDA) using various antimicrobial agents (citral, carvacrol, eugenol, cineole, thymol guaiacol, vanillin, anethol, potassium sorbate and sorbic acid). The results demonstrate that colony diameter (mm) exhibited a constant increase with time (zero order kinetics) for all antimicrobials evaluated. Eugenol and sorbic acid inhibited the test fungi at 300 and 600 ppm, respectively. Radial growth rate (RGR) of A. parasiticus was significantly (p < 0.05) different among different antimicrobials as well as the concentrations tested. However, this difference was not observed with higher concentration of citral, eugenol, vanillin and sorbic acid. Among the antimicrobials evaluated potassium sorbate, cineole, anethol and guaiacol were least effective. Thymol, eugenol and carvacrol were more effective in inhibiting A. parasiticus even with low concentration (150 ppm) as their mean RGR was zero even after 20 days of incubation (pH 4.5). PMID:23572846

  5. The Dose Rate Conversion Factors for Nuclear Fallout

    SciTech Connect

    Spriggs, G D

    2009-02-13

    In a previous paper, the composite exposure rate conversion factor (ECF) for nuclear fallout was calculated using a simple theoretical photon-transport model. The theoretical model was used to fill in the gaps in the FGR-12 table generated by ORNL. The FGR-12 table contains the individual conversion factors for approximate 1000 radionuclides. However, in order to calculate the exposure rate during the first 30 minutes following a nuclear detonation, the conversion factors for approximately 2000 radionuclides are needed. From a human-effects standpoint, it is also necessary to have the dose rate conversion factors (DCFs) for all 2000 radionuclides. The DCFs are used to predict the whole-body dose rates that would occur if a human were standing in a radiation field of known exposure rate. As calculated by ORNL, the whole-body dose rate (rem/hr) is approximately 70% of the exposure rate (R/hr) at one meter above the surface. Hence, the individual DCFs could be estimated by multiplying the individual ECFs by 0.7. Although this is a handy rule-of-thumb, a more consistent (and perhaps, more accurate) method of estimating the individual DCFs for the missing radionuclides in the FGR-12 table is to use the linear relationship between DCF and total gamma energy released per decay. This relationship is shown in Figure 1. The DCFs for individual organs in the body can also be estimated from the estimated whole-body DCF. Using the DCFs given FGR-12, the ratio of the organ-specific DCFs to the whole-body DCF were plotted as a function of the whole-body DCF. From these plots, the asymptotic ratios were obtained (see Table 1). Using these asymptotic ratios, the organ-specific DCFs can be estimated using the estimated whole-body DCF for each of the missing radionuclides in the FGR-12 table. Although this procedure for estimating the organ-specific DCFs may over-estimate the value for some low gamma-energy emitters, having a finite value for the organ-specific DCFs in the table is

  6. Palmitoylethanolamide, a naturally occurring lipid, is an orally effective intestinal anti-inflammatory agent

    PubMed Central

    Borrelli, Francesca; Romano, Barbara; Petrosino, Stefania; Pagano, Ester; Capasso, Raffaele; Coppola, Diana; Battista, Giovanni; Orlando, Pierangelo; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Izzo, Angelo A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) acts via several targets, including cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors, transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) ion channels, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR α) and orphan G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GRR55), all involved in the control of intestinal inflammation. Here, we investigated the effect of PEA in a murine model of colitis. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Colitis was induced in mice by intracolonic administration of dinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (DNBS). Inflammation was assessed by evaluating inflammatory markers/parameters and by histology; intestinal permeability by a fluorescent method; colonic cell proliferation by immunohistochemistry; PEA and endocannabinoid levels by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry; receptor and enzyme mRNA expression by quantitative RT-PCR. KEY RESULTS DNBS administration caused inflammatory damage, increased colonic levels of PEA and endocannabinoids, down-regulation of mRNA for TRPV1 and GPR55 but no changes in mRNA for CB1, CB2 and PPARα. Exogenous PEA (i.p. and/or p.o., 1 mg·kg−1) attenuated inflammation and intestinal permeability, stimulated colonic cell proliferation, and increased colonic TRPV1 and CB1 receptor expression. The anti-inflammatory effect of PEA was attenuated or abolished by CB2 receptor, GPR55 or PPARα antagonists and further increased by the TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS PEA improves murine experimental colitis, the effect being mediated by CB2 receptors, GPR55 and PPARα, and modulated by TRPV1 channels. PMID:25205418

  7. Effects on Liver Lipid Metabolism of the Naturally Occurring Dietary Flavone Luteolin-7-glucoside.

    PubMed

    Sá, Carla; Oliveira, Ana Rita; Machado, Cátia; Azevedo, Marisa; Pereira-Wilson, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Disruptions in whole-body lipid metabolism can lead to the onset of several pathologies such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The present study aimed at elucidating the molecular mechanisms behind the lipid-lowering effects of the flavone luteolin-7-glucoside (L7G) which we previously showed to improve plasma lipid profile in rats. L7G is abundant in plant foods of Mediterranean diet such as aromatic plants used as herbs. Results show that dietary supplementation with L7G for one week induced the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α) and of its target gene carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT-1) in rat liver. L7G showed a tendency to decrease the hepatic expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1), without affecting fatty acid synthase (FAS) protein levels. Although SREBP-2 and LDLr mRNA levels did not change, the expression of HMG CoA reductase (HMGCR) was significantly repressed by L7G. L7G also inhibited this enzyme's in vitro activity in a dose dependent manner, but only at high and not physiologically relevant concentrations. These results add new evidence that the flavone luteolin-7-glucoside may help in preventing metabolic diseases and clarify the mechanisms underlying the beneficial health effects of diets rich in fruits and vegetables. PMID:26113868

  8. Effects on Liver Lipid Metabolism of the Naturally Occurring Dietary Flavone Luteolin-7-glucoside

    PubMed Central

    Sá, Carla; Oliveira, Ana Rita; Machado, Cátia; Azevedo, Marisa; Pereira-Wilson, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Disruptions in whole-body lipid metabolism can lead to the onset of several pathologies such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The present study aimed at elucidating the molecular mechanisms behind the lipid-lowering effects of the flavone luteolin-7-glucoside (L7G) which we previously showed to improve plasma lipid profile in rats. L7G is abundant in plant foods of Mediterranean diet such as aromatic plants used as herbs. Results show that dietary supplementation with L7G for one week induced the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α) and of its target gene carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT-1) in rat liver. L7G showed a tendency to decrease the hepatic expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1), without affecting fatty acid synthase (FAS) protein levels. Although SREBP-2 and LDLr mRNA levels did not change, the expression of HMG CoA reductase (HMGCR) was significantly repressed by L7G. L7G also inhibited this enzyme's in vitro activity in a dose dependent manner, but only at high and not physiologically relevant concentrations. These results add new evidence that the flavone luteolin-7-glucoside may help in preventing metabolic diseases and clarify the mechanisms underlying the beneficial health effects of diets rich in fruits and vegetables. PMID:26113868

  9. PREDICTIONS OF DISPERSION AND DEPOSITION OF FALLOUT FROM NUCLEAR TESTING USING THE NOAA-HYSPLIT METEOROLOGICAL MODEL

    PubMed Central

    Moroz, Brian E.; Beck, Harold L.; Bouville, André; Simon, Steven L.

    2013-01-01

    The NOAA Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT) was evaluated as a research tool to simulate the dispersion and deposition of radioactive fallout from nuclear tests. Model-based estimates of fallout can be valuable for use in the reconstruction of past exposures from nuclear testing, particularly, where little historical fallout monitoring data is available. The ability to make reliable predictions about fallout deposition could also have significant importance for nuclear events in the future. We evaluated the accuracy of the HYSPLIT-predicted geographic patterns of deposition by comparing those predictions against known deposition patterns following specific nuclear tests with an emphasis on nuclear weapons tests conducted in the Marshall Islands. We evaluated the ability of the computer code to quantitatively predict the proportion of fallout particles of specific sizes deposited at specific locations as well as their time of transport. In our simulations of fallout from past nuclear tests, historical meteorological data were used from a reanalysis conducted jointly by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). We used a systematic approach in testing the HYSPLIT model by simulating the release of a range of particles sizes from a range of altitudes and evaluating the number and location of particles deposited. Our findings suggest that the quantity and quality of meteorological data are the most important factors for accurate fallout predictions and that when satisfactory meteorological input data are used, HYSPLIT can produce relatively accurate deposition patterns and fallout arrival times. Furthermore, when no other measurement data are available, HYSPLIT can be used to indicate whether or not fallout might have occurred at a given location and provide, at minimum, crude quantitative estimates of the magnitude of the deposited activity. A variety of

  10. Predictions of dispersion and deposition of fallout from nuclear testing using the NOAA-HYSPLIT meteorological model.

    PubMed

    Moroz, Brian E; Beck, Harold L; Bouville, André; Simon, Steven L

    2010-08-01

    The NOAA Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT) was evaluated as a research tool to simulate the dispersion and deposition of radioactive fallout from nuclear tests. Model-based estimates of fallout can be valuable for use in the reconstruction of past exposures from nuclear testing, particularly where little historical fallout monitoring data are available. The ability to make reliable predictions about fallout deposition could also have significant importance for nuclear events in the future. We evaluated the accuracy of the HYSPLIT-predicted geographic patterns of deposition by comparing those predictions against known deposition patterns following specific nuclear tests with an emphasis on nuclear weapons tests conducted in the Marshall Islands. We evaluated the ability of the computer code to quantitatively predict the proportion of fallout particles of specific sizes deposited at specific locations as well as their time of transport. In our simulations of fallout from past nuclear tests, historical meteorological data were used from a reanalysis conducted jointly by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). We used a systematic approach in testing the HYSPLIT model by simulating the release of a range of particle sizes from a range of altitudes and evaluating the number and location of particles deposited. Our findings suggest that the quantity and quality of meteorological data are the most important factors for accurate fallout predictions and that, when satisfactory meteorological input data are used, HYSPLIT can produce relatively accurate deposition patterns and fallout arrival times. Furthermore, when no other measurement data are available, HYSPLIT can be used to indicate whether or not fallout might have occurred at a given location and provide, at minimum, crude quantitative estimates of the magnitude of the deposited activity. A variety of

  11. Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to fallout radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Conard, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Particularly important has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

  12. Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to fallout radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Conard, R.A.

    1991-12-31

    This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Particularly important has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

  13. Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidently exposed to fallout radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Conard, R.A.

    1992-09-01

    This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical Team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Noteworthy has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

  14. Radioactive Fallout from Terrorist Nuclear Detonations

    SciTech Connect

    Marrs, R E

    2007-05-03

    Responding correctly during the first hour after a terrorist nuclear detonation is the key to reducing casualties from a low-yield surface burst, and a correct response requires an understanding of the rapidly changing dose rate from fallout. This report provides an empirical formula for dose rate as a function of time and location that can guide the response to an unexpected nuclear detonation. At least one post-detonation radiation measurement is required if the yield and other characteristics of the detonation are unknown.

  15. Naturally occurring chemical carcinogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural products are chemicals found in nature which have unique pharmacological effects. Humans are exposed to many of these bioactive naturally occurring chemicals via the air breathed, the water drunk and the food eaten. Exposure also occurs in clinical settings. Naturally occurring chemicals ...

  16. The antifibrotic effects of plasminogen activation occur via prostaglandin E2 synthesis in humans and mice

    PubMed Central

    Bauman, Kristy A.; Wettlaufer, Scott H.; Okunishi, Katsuhide; Vannella, Kevin M.; Stoolman, Joshua S.; Huang, Steven K.; Courey, Anthony J.; White, Eric S.; Hogaboam, Cory M.; Simon, Richard H.; Toews, Galen B.; Sisson, Thomas H.; Moore, Bethany B.; Peters-Golden, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Plasminogen activation to plasmin protects from lung fibrosis, but the mechanism underlying this antifibrotic effect remains unclear. We found that mice lacking plasminogen activation inhibitor–1 (PAI-1), which are protected from bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, exhibit lung overproduction of the antifibrotic lipid mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Plasminogen activation upregulated PGE2 synthesis in alveolar epithelial cells, lung fibroblasts, and lung fibrocytes from saline- and bleomycin-treated mice, as well as in normal fetal and adult primary human lung fibroblasts. This response was exaggerated in cells from Pai1–/– mice. Although enhanced PGE2 formation required the generation of plasmin, it was independent of proteinase-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1) and instead reflected proteolytic activation and release of HGF with subsequent induction of COX-2. That the HGF/COX-2/PGE2 axis mediates in vivo protection from fibrosis in Pai1–/– mice was demonstrated by experiments showing that a selective inhibitor of the HGF receptor c-Met increased lung collagen to WT levels while reducing COX-2 protein and PGE2 levels. Of clinical interest, fibroblasts from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis were found to be defective in their ability to induce COX-2 and, therefore, unable to upregulate PGE2 synthesis in response to plasmin or HGF. These studies demonstrate crosstalk between plasminogen activation and PGE2 generation in the lung and provide a mechanism for the well-known antifibrotic actions of the fibrinolytic pathway. PMID:20501949

  17. Biological Effects of Naturally Occurring Sphingolipids, Uncommon Variants, and Their Analogs.

    PubMed

    Lai, Mitchell K P; Chew, Wee Siong; Torta, Federico; Rao, Angad; Harris, Greg L; Chun, Jerold; Herr, Deron R

    2016-09-01

    Sphingolipids (SPs) comprise a highly diverse class of lipids that serve biological roles both as structural components of cell membranes and as mediators of cell signaling. Pharmacologic and genetic manipulation of SPs and their signaling systems have underscored their importance in most biological processes, including central nervous system development and function. Likewise, perturbations of SP accumulation or signaling have been associated with a number of disease states, such as neural tube defects, neuroinflammation, stroke, and dementia. SPs can be endogenously synthesized de novo, and their metabolism is a well-regulated process, so their value as nutraceuticals has not been scrutinized. However, there is evidence that sphingolipid-rich diets can affect lipid homeostasis, and several mycotoxins are SP analogs that are known to cause profound derangement of SP metabolism or signaling. Furthermore, plants and invertebrates have SP species that are not present in mammals. Several of these have been shown to induce biological responses in mammalian cells. These findings suggest that dietary intake of SPs or SP analogs may have significant effects on human health or disease outcome. This manuscript provides an overview of SP metabolism and signaling, their perturbations in neurological diseases, as well as potential impacts of modulating this system in the brain. PMID:27393119

  18. Environmental effects on stem water deficit in co-occurring conifers exposed to soil dryness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberhuber, Walter; Kofler, Werner; Schuster, Roman; Wieser, Gerhard

    2015-04-01

    We monitored dynamics of stem water deficit (Δ W) and needle water potential ( Ψ) during two consecutive growing seasons (2011 and 2012) in a dry inner Alpine environment (750 m above sea level, Tyrol, Austria), where Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies and Larix decidua form mixed stands. Δ W was extracted from stem circumference variations, which were continuously recorded by electronic band dendrometers (six trees per species) and correlations with environmental variables were performed. Results revealed that (i) Δ W reached highest and lowest values in P. abies and L. decidua, respectively, while mean minimum water potential ( Ψ ea) amounted to -3.0 MPa in L. decidua and -1.8 MPa in P. abies and P. sylvestris. (ii) Δ W and Ψ ea were significantly correlated in P. abies ( r = 0.630; P = 0.038) and L. decidua ( r = 0.646; P = 0.032). (iii) In all species, Δ W reached highest values in late summer and was most closely related to temperature ( P < 0.001). Results indicate that all species were undergoing water limitations as measured by increasing Δ W throughout the growing season, whereby P. abies most strongly drew upon water reserves in the living tissues of the bark. Quite similar Δ W developed in drought-sensitive L. decidua and drought-tolerant P. sylvestris indicate that various water storage locations are depleted in species showing different strategies of water status regulation, i.e. anisohydric vs. isohydric behavior, respectively, and/or water uptake efficiency differs among these species. Close coupling of Δ W to temperature suggests that climate warming affects plant water status through its effect on atmospheric demand for moisture.

  19. Anti-amyloidogenic effects of glycosphingolipid synthesis inhibitors occur independently of ganglioside alterations.

    PubMed

    Noel, Anastasia; Ingrand, Sabrina; Barrier, Laurence

    2016-09-01

    Evidence has suggested that ganglioside abnormalities may be linked to the proteolytic processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and that pharmacological inhibition of ganglioside synthesis may reduce amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) production. In this study, we assessed the usefulness of two well-established glycosphingolipid (GSL) synthesis inhibitors, the synthetic ceramide analog D-PDMP (1-phenyl 2-decanoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol) and the iminosugar N-butyldeoxynojirimycin (NB-DNJ or miglustat), as anti-amyloidogenic drugs in a human cellular model of AD. We found that both GSL inhibitors were able to markedly inhibit Aβ production, although affecting differently the APP cleavage. Surprisingly, the L-enantiomer of PDMP, which promotes ganglioside accumulation, acted similarly to D-PDMP to inhibit Aβ production. Concurrently, both D- and L-PDMP strongly and equally reduced the levels of long-chain ceramides. Altogether, our data suggested that the anti-amyloidogenic effects of PDMP agents are independent of the altered cellular ganglioside composition, but may result, at least in part, from their ability to reduce ceramide levels. Moreover, our current study established for the first time that NB-DNJ, a drug already used as a therapeutic for Gaucher disease (a lysosomal storage disorder), was also able to reduce Aβ production in our cellular model. Therefore, our study provides novel information regarding the possibilities to target amyloidogenic processing of APP through modulation of sphingolipid metabolism and emphasizes the potential of the iminosugar NB-DNJ as a disease modifying therapy for AD. PMID:27373967

  20. Far field fallout prediction techniques. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bigelow, W.S. Jr.

    1983-12-01

    A calculational technique for use in predicting fallout far downwind from nuclear bursts is developed and validated. Possible siting strategies for the next generation of missiles might invite a concentrated attack by thousands of nuclear warheads. The resulting fallout field could consist of the superposition of thousands of single burst patterns. The downwind extent of damaging radiation levels would extend beyond the distances to which calculations are usually performed for single bursts. Numerical models currently available cannot be extended to these large downwind distances because of the artificial pattern break up inherent in their numerical quadrature and because of prohibitive computing requirements. Two approaches to this problem are taken here. First, a numerical smoothing which conserves radioactivity is developed to help prevent pattern break up. This is partially successful in that it extends the predictive range farther downwind, but not far enough. The second approach is to abandon the numerical quadrature -- known as disc tossing -- and adopt a whole cloud smearing approach. The key function needed for the smearing approach, the fractional arrival rate of activity on the ground, is derived directly from physical principles and validated by comparison with an extensive series of numerical (disc tosser) predictions.

  1. Effects of Trauma Intervention on HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors among Women with Co-Occurring Disorders in Substance Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaro, Hortensia; Larson, Mary Jo; Zhang, Annie; Acevedo, Andrea; Dai, Jianyu; Matsumoto, Atsushi

    2007-01-01

    Women in substance abuse treatment often have co-occurring mental health disorders and a history of trauma; they are also at high risk for HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases via unprotected sex. A quasi-experimental study evaluated the effectiveness of trauma-enhanced substance abuse treatment combined with HIV/AIDS prevention…

  2. Laboratory Study of Airborne Fallout Particles and Their Time Distribution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, H. A., Jr.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Samples of filtered airborne particulate, collected daily for the first month after the September 18, 1977 Chinese nuclear detonation, showed fourteen fission products. Fluctuations in the daily fallout activity levels suggested a global fallout orbit time of approximately twenty days. (Author/BB)

  3. Effects of fluvial processes in different order river valleys on redistribution and storage of particle-bound radioactive caesium-137 in area of significant Chernobyl fallout and impact on linked rivers with lower contamination levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, Vladimir; Golosov, Valentin; Shamshurina, Evgeniya; Ivanov, Maxim; Ivanova, Nadezhda; Bezukhov, Dmitry; Onda, Yuichi; Wakiyama, Yoshifumi; Evrard, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Detailed investigations of the post-fallout fate of radionuclide contamination represent an important task in terms of environmental quality assessment. In addition, particle-bound radionuclides such as the most widespread anthropogenic isotope caesium-137 can be used as tracers for quantitative assessment of different sediment redistribution processes. In landscapes of humid plains with agriculture-dominated land use the post-fallout redistribution of caesium-137 is primarily associated with fluvial activity of various scales in cascade systems starting from soil erosion on cultivated hillslopes through gully and small dry valley network into different order perennial streams and rivers. Our investigations in the so-called Plavsk hotspot (area of very high Chernobyl caesium-137 contamination within the Plava River basin, Tula Region, Central European Russia) has been continuing for more than 15 years by now, while the time passed since the Chernobyl disaster and associated radioactive fallout (1986) is almost 29 years. Detailed information on the fluvial sediment and associated caesium-137 redistribution has been obtained for case study sites of different size from individual cultivated slopes and small catchments of different size (2-180 km2) to the entire Plava River basin scale (1856 km2). It has been shown that most of the contaminated sediment over the time passed since the fallout has remained stored within the small dry valleys of the 1-4 Hortonian order and local reservoirs (>70%), while only about 5% reached the 5-6 order valleys (main tributaries of the Plava River) and storage of the Plava floodplain itself represents as low as 0.3% of the basin-scale total sediment production from eroded cultivated hillslopes. Nevertheless, it has been shown that contaminated sediment yield from the Plava River basin exerts significant influence on less polluted downstream-linked river system. Recent progress of the investigations involved sampling of 7 detailed depth

  4. Assessment of spatial distribution of fallout radionuclides through geostatistics concept.

    PubMed

    Mabit, L; Bernard, C

    2007-01-01

    After introducing geostatistics concept and its utility in environmental science and especially in Fallout Radionuclide (FRN) spatialisation, a case study for cesium-137 ((137)Cs) redistribution at the field scale using geostatistics is presented. On a Canadian agricultural field, geostatistics coupled with a Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to test three different techniques of interpolation [Ordinary Kriging (OK), Inverse Distance Weighting power one (IDW1) and two (IDW2)] to create a (137)Cs map and to establish a radioisotope budget. Following the optimization of variographic parameters, an experimental semivariogram was developed to determine the spatial dependence of (137)Cs. It was adjusted to a spherical isotropic model with a range of 30 m and a very small nugget effect. This (137)Cs semivariogram showed a good autocorrelation (R(2)=0.91) and was well structured ('nugget-to-sill' ratio of 4%). It also revealed that the sampling strategy was adequate to reveal the spatial correlation of (137)Cs. The spatial redistribution of (137)Cs was estimated by Ordinary Kriging and IDW to produce contour maps. A radioisotope budget was established for the 2.16 ha agricultural field under investigation. It was estimated that around 2 x 10(7)Bq of (137)Cs were missing (around 30% of the total initial fallout) and were exported by physical processes (runoff and erosion processes) from the area under investigation. The cross-validation analysis showed that in the case of spatially structured data, OK is a better interpolation method than IDW1 or IDW2 for the assessment of potential radioactive contamination and/or pollution. PMID:17673340

  5. [Comparative analysis of the radionuclide composition in fallout after the Chernobyl and the Fukushima accidents].

    PubMed

    Kotenko, K V; Shinkarev, S M; Abramov, Iu V; Granovskaia, E O; Iatsenko, V N; Gavrilin, Iu I; Margulis, U Ia; Garetskaia, O S; Imanaka, T; Khoshi, M

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear accident occurred at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) (March 11, 2011) similarly to the accident at the Chernobyl NPP (April 26, 1986) is related to the level 7 of the INES. It is of interest to make an analysis of the radionuclide composition of the fallout following the both accidents. The results of the spectrometric measurements were used in that comparative analysis. Two areas following the Chernobyl accident were considered: (1) the near zone of the fallout - the Belarusian part of the central spot extended up to 60 km around the Chernobyl NPS and (2) the far zone of the fallout--the "Gomel-Mogilev" spot centered 200 km to the north-northeast of the damaged reactor. In the case of Fukushima accident the near zone up to about 60 km considered. The comparative analysis has been done with respect to refractory radionuclides (95Zr, 95Nb, 141Ce, 144Ce), as well as to the intermediate and volatile radionuclides 103Ru, 106Ru, 131I, 134Cs, 137Cs, 140La, 140Ba and the results of such a comparison have been discussed. With respect to exposure to the public the most important radionuclides are 131I and 137Cs. For the both accidents the ratios of 131I/137Cs in the considered soil samples are in the similar ranges: (3-50) for the Chernobyl samples and (5-70) for the Fukushima samples. Similarly to the Chernobyl accident a clear tendency that the ratio of 131I/137Cs in the fallout decreases with the increase of the ground deposition density of 137Cs within the trace related to a radioactive cloud has been identified for the Fukushima accident. It looks like this is a universal tendency for the ratio of 131I/137Cs versus the 137Cs ground deposition density in the fallout along the trace of a radioactive cloud as a result of a heavy accident at the NPP with radionuclides releases into the environment. This tendency is important for an objective reconstruction of 131I fallout based on the results of 137Cs measurements of soil samples carried out at

  6. Analysis of meteorological and radiological data for selected fallout episodes

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, V.E. )

    1990-11-01

    The Weather Service Nuclear Support Office has analyzed the meteorological and radiological data collected for the following atmospheric nuclear tests: TRINITY; EASY of the Tumbler-Snapper series; ANNIE, NANCY, BADGER, SIMON, and HARRY of the Upshot-Knothole series; BEE and ZUCCHINI of the Teapot series; BOLTZMANN and SMOKY of the Plumbbob series; and SMALL BOY of the Dominic II series. These tests were chosen as having the greatest impact on nearby downwind populated locations, contributing approximately 80% of the collective estimated exposure. This report describes the methods of analysis used in deriving fallout-pattern contours and estimated fallout arrival times. Inconsistencies in the radiological data and their resolution are discussed. The methods of estimating fallout arrival times from the meteorological data are described. Comparisons of fallout patterns resulting from these analyses with earlier analyses show insignificant differences in the areas covered or people exposed.

  7. 31. Threequarter view of front of building 161, fallout shelter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Three-quarter view of front of building 161, fallout shelter taken from top of water storage mound, looking northwest - Nike Missile Battery MS-40, County Road No. 260, Farmington, Dakota County, MN

  8. 38. Overall view showing building 161, fallout shelter on far ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Overall view showing building 161, fallout shelter on far right, and building 102, officers quarters and enlisted men barracks on far left, looking east - Nike Missile Battery MS-40, County Road No. 260, Farmington, Dakota County, MN

  9. Environmentally co‐occurring mercury resistance plasmids are genetically and phenotypically diverse and confer variable context‐dependent fitness effects

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Ellie; Lilley, Andrew K.; Paterson, Steve; Spiers, Andrew J.; Brockhurst, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Plasmids are important mobile elements that can facilitate genetic exchange and local adaptation within microbial communities. We compared the sequences of four co‐occurring pQBR family environmental mercury resistance plasmids and measured their effects on competitive fitness of a P seudomonas fluorescens  SBW25 host, which was isolated at the same field site. Fitness effects of carriage differed between plasmids and were strongly context dependent, varying with medium, plasmid status of competitor and levels of environmental mercury. The plasmids also varied widely in their rates of conjugation and segregational loss. We found that few of the plasmid‐borne accessory genes could be ascribed functions, although we identified a putative chemotaxis operon, a type IV pilus‐encoding cluster and a region encoding putative arylsulfatase enzymes, which were conserved across geographically distant isolates. One plasmid, pQBR55, conferred the ability to catabolize sucrose. Transposons, including the mercury resistance Tn5042, appeared to have been acquired by different pQBR plasmids by recombination, indicating an important role for horizontal gene transfer in the recent evolution of pQBR plasmids. Our findings demonstrate extensive genetic and phenotypic diversity among co‐occurring members of a plasmid community and suggest a role for environmental heterogeneity in the maintenance of plasmid diversity. PMID:25969927

  10. Global risk of radioactive fallout after nuclear reactor accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunkel, D.; Lelieveld, J.; Lawrence, M. G.

    2012-04-01

    Reactor core meltdowns of nuclear power plants are rare, yet the consequences are catastrophic. But what is meant by "rare"? And what can be learned from the Chernobyl and Fukushima incidents? Here we assess the risk of exposure to radioactivity due to atmospheric dispersion of gases and particles following severe nuclear accidents, using particulate 137Cs and gaseous 131I as proxies for the fallout. It appears that previously the occurrence of major accidents and the risks of radioactive contamination have been underestimated. Using a global model of the atmosphere we compute that on average, in the event of a core melt of any nuclear power plant worldwide, more than 90 % of emitted 137Cs would be transported beyond 50 km and about 50 % beyond 1000 km distance. This corroborates that such accidents have large-scale and trans-boundary impacts. Although the emission strengths and atmospheric removal processes of 137Cs and 131I are quite different, the radioactive contamination patterns over land and the human deposition exposure are computed to be similar. High human exposure risks occur around reactors in densely populated regions, notably in southern Asia where a core melt can subject 55 million people to radioactive contamination. The recent decision by Germany to phase out its nuclear reactors will reduce the national risk, though a large risk will still remain from the reactors in neighbouring countries.

  11. Global risk of radioactive fallout after nuclear reactor accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lelieveld, J.; Kunkel, D.; Lawrence, M. G.

    2011-11-01

    Reactor core meltdowns of nuclear power plants are rare, yet the consequences are catastrophic. But what is meant by "rare"? And what can be learned from the Chernobyl and Fukushima incidents? Here we assess the risk of exposure to radioactivity due to atmospheric dispersion of gases and particles following severe nuclear accidents, using particulate 137Cs and gaseous 131I as proxies for the fallout. It appears that previously the occurrence of major accidents and the risks of radioactive contamination have been underestimated. Using a global model of the atmosphere we compute that on average, in the event of a core melt of any nuclear power plant worldwide, more than 90% of emitted 137Cs would be transported beyond 50km and about 50% beyond 1000 km distance. This corroborates that such accidents have large-scale and trans-boundary impacts. Although the emission strengths and atmospheric removal processes of 137Cs and 131I are quite different, the radioactive contamination patterns over land and the human deposition exposure are computed to be similar. High human exposure risks occur around reactors in densely populated regions, notably in southern Asia where a core melt can subject 55 million people to radioactive contamination. The recent decision by Germany to phase out its nuclear reactors will reduce the national risk, though a large risk will still remain from the reactors in neighbouring countries.

  12. Short term soil erosion dynamics in alpine grasslands - Results from a Fallout Radionuclide repeated-sampling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arata, Laura; Meusburger, Katrin; Zehringer, Markus; Ketterer, Michael E.; Mabit, Lionel; Alewell, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Improper land management and climate change has resulted in accelerated soil erosion rates in Alpine grasslands. To efficiently mitigate and control soil erosion and reduce its environmental impact in Alpine grasslands, reliable and validated methods for comprehensive data generation on its magnitude and spatial extent are mandatory. The use of conventional techniques (e.g. sediment traps, erosion pins or rainfall simulations) may be hindered by the extreme topographic and climatic conditions of the Alps. However, the application of the Fallout Radionuclides (FRNs) as soil tracers has already showed promising results in these specific agro-ecosystems. Once deposited on the ground, FRNs strongly bind to fine particles at the surface soil and move across the landscape primarily through physical processes. As such, they provide an effective track of soil and sediment redistribution. So far, applications of FRN in the Alps include 137Cs (half-life: 30.2 years) and 239+240Pu (239Pu [half-life = 24110 years] and 240Pu [half-life = 6561 years]). To investigate short term (4-5 years) erosion dynamics in the Swiss Alps, the authors applied a FRNs repeated sampling approach. Two study areas in the central Swiss Alps have been investigated: the Urseren Valley (Canton Uri), where significant land use changes occurred in the last centuries, and the Piora Valley (Canton Ticino), where land use change plays a minor role. Soil samples have been collected at potentially erosive sites along the valleys over a period of 4-5 years and measured for 137Cs and 239+240Pu activity. The inventory change between the sampling years indicates high erosion and deposition dynamics at both valleys. High spatial variability of 137Cs activities at all sites has been observed, reflecting the heterogeneous distribution of 137Cs fallout after the Chernobyl power plant accident in 1986. Finally, a new modelling technique to convert the inventory changes to quantitative estimates of soil erosion has

  13. Effects of synthetic and naturally occurring flavonoids on mitogen-induced proliferation of human peripheral-blood lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, Toshihiko; Oka, Kitaro; Kawashima, Etsuko; Akiba, Mitsuo )

    1989-01-01

    Examination was made of the effects of 17 synthetic and naturally occurring flavonoids on human lymphocyte proliferation in the presence of concanavalin A as a mitogen. Twelve of the flavonoids examined were mono-hydroxy of methoxy derivatives. The mitogen-induced response of lymphocytes was evaluated from the extent of the incorporation of ({sup 3}H)thymidine into cells in vitro. All the compounds showed inhibitory effects; 4.5-77.7% of ({sup 3}H) thymidine incorporation was blocked by an 1.0 {mu}g/ml concentration. The viability of lymphocytes before and after treatment, as assessed by a dye exclusion test, indicated no change, and thus the flavonoids may inhibit DNA synthesis. The flavonoids possessing 5-hydroxyl, 5-methoxyl and 6-methoxyl groups, and those with cyclohexyl instead of phenyl substituent (i.e. 2-cyclohexyl-benzopyran-4-one), showed the greatest inhibition. The inhibitory effect of any one of them was less than one half that of prednisolone, but essentially the same or somewhat exceeding that of bredinine of azathioprine. It would thus appear that the well-known anti-inflammatory effects of flavonoids may possibly arise in part from the inhibition of the proliferative response of lymphocytes.

  14. A MODEL BUILDING CODE ARTICLE ON FALLOUT SHELTERS WITH RECOMMENDATIONS FOR INCLUSION OF REQUIREMENTS FOR FALLOUT SHELTER CONSTRUCTION IN FOUR NATIONAL MODEL BUILDING CODES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC.

    A MODEL BUILDING CODE FOR FALLOUT SHELTERS WAS DRAWN UP FOR INCLUSION IN FOUR NATIONAL MODEL BUILDING CODES. DISCUSSION IS GIVEN OF FALLOUT SHELTERS WITH RESPECT TO--(1) NUCLEAR RADIATION, (2) NATIONAL POLICIES, AND (3) COMMUNITY PLANNING. FALLOUT SHELTER REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIELDING, SPACE, VENTILATION, CONSTRUCTION, AND SERVICES SUCH AS ELECTRICAL…

  15. Neuropsychological deficits in BPD patients and the moderator effects of co-occurring mental disorders: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Unoka, Zsolt; J Richman, Mara

    2016-03-01

    Studies have shown that patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) have co-occurring disorders; literature has also suggested that BPD patients have impairments in neuropsychological functioning, as seen in a previous meta-analysis (Ruocco, 2005). This meta-analysis showed that neuropsychological functioning are marked areas of concern in BPD; however, this meta-analytic research did not assess the effects of co-occurring disorders on neuropsychological functioning in BPD patients. The current meta-analysis takes this into consideration and a systematic review of cross-sectional studies comparing neuropsychological performance of individuals with BPD with age-matched healthy comparison subjects was carried out. Potential moderators (i.e., age, gender, education level, and co-morbid mental disorders) were analyzed. Significant deficits were observed in the decision making, memory, executive functioning, processing speed, verbal intelligence, and visuospatial abilities. BPD patients with more education and with parents of a higher educational level had better neuropsychological functioning. Globally, BPD samples with a higher percentage of co-morbid personality disorders, major depression, eating disorders, or any substance abuse disorders performed worse than patients with a less percentage; however, anxiety disorders and PTSD co-morbidity did not affect the cognitive performance of the BPD group. Differences are seen dependent on neuropsychological domain and specific co-morbidity. These findings highlight the clinical relevance of characterizing cognitive functioning in BPD and the importance of considering demographic and clinical moderators in future analyses. PMID:26708387

  16. Pu isotopes in soils collected downwind from Lop Nor: regional fallout vs. global fallout

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Wenting; Ni, Youyi; Guo, Qiuju; Zheng, Jian; Uchida, Shigeo

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, soil core samples from the Jiuquan region have been analyzed for Pu isotopes for radioactive source identification and radiological assessment. The Jiuquan region is in downwind from the Lop Nor Chinese nuclear test (CNT) site. The high Pu inventories (13 to 546 Bq/m2) in most of the sampling locations revealed that this region was heterogeneously contaminated by the regional fallout Pu from the CNTs. The contributions of the CNTs to the total Pu in soils were estimated to be more than 40% in most cases. The 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios in the soils ranged from 0.059 to 0.186 with an inventory-weighted average of 0.158, slightly lower than that of global fallout. This atom ratio could be considered as a mixed fingerprint of Pu from the CNTs. In addition, Pu in soils of Jiuquan region had a faster downward migration rate compared with other investigated places in China. PMID:26184740

  17. Pu isotopes in soils collected downwind from Lop Nor: regional fallout vs. global fallout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Wenting; Ni, Youyi; Guo, Qiuju; Zheng, Jian; Uchida, Shigeo

    2015-07-01

    For the first time, soil core samples from the Jiuquan region have been analyzed for Pu isotopes for radioactive source identification and radiological assessment. The Jiuquan region is in downwind from the Lop Nor Chinese nuclear test (CNT) site. The high Pu inventories (13 to 546 Bq/m2) in most of the sampling locations revealed that this region was heterogeneously contaminated by the regional fallout Pu from the CNTs. The contributions of the CNTs to the total Pu in soils were estimated to be more than 40% in most cases. The 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios in the soils ranged from 0.059 to 0.186 with an inventory-weighted average of 0.158, slightly lower than that of global fallout. This atom ratio could be considered as a mixed fingerprint of Pu from the CNTs. In addition, Pu in soils of Jiuquan region had a faster downward migration rate compared with other investigated places in China.

  18. Ameliorative effect of a rarely occurring C-methylrotenoid on HMGB1-induced septic responses in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yang, Eun-Ju; Lee, Wonhwa; Song, Kyung-Sik; Bae, Jong-Sup

    2016-06-15

    The ubiquitous nuclear protein, high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) functions as a late mediator of sepsis. A new rarely occurring C-methylrotenoid, named boeravinone X (comp 1), was isolated and identified from Abronia nana suspension cultures during our continuous works on the discovery of anti-septic natural products. Here, we investigated the antiseptic effects and underlying mechanisms of comp 1 against HMGB1-mediated septic responses. According to the results, comp 1 effectively inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced release of HMGB1, and suppressed HMGB1-mediated septic responses, such as hyperpermeability, adhesion and migration of leukocytes, and expression of cell adhesion molecules. And, comp 1 suppressed the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), and the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) by HMGB1. Collectively, these results indicate that comp 1 could be potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of various severe vascular inflammatory diseases via inhibition of the HMGB1 signaling pathway. PMID:27106082

  19. Transfer of fallout radionuclides by Fukushima NPP accident from tree crown to forest ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onda, Y.; Kato, H.; Wakahara, T.; Kawamori, A.; Tsujimura, M.

    2011-12-01

    Radioactive contamination has been detected in Fukushima and the neighboring prefectures due to the nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) following the earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011. The total deposition of radioactive materials in fallout samples for 137Cs ranged from 0.02to >10 M Bq/m2 for Cs-137. Experimental catchments have been established in Yamakiya district, Kawamata Town, Fukushima prefecture, located about 35 km from Fukushima power plant, and designated as the evacuated zone. Approximate Cs-137 fallout in this area is 200-600k Bq/m2. We established 3 forest sites: broad leaf tree forest and two Japanese cedar forest plantation (young and mature). In each site we installed towers of 8-12 meters. Using these towers, we sampled tree leaves, and measure Cs-137 and Cs-134 in the laboratory, and also we have measure Cs-137, Cs-134 content at various height in each forest using a portable High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector (Ortech; Detective-EX). We also measured the throughfall, stem flow and litter fall inside of the forest. In each site, we establish the 20 m x 20 m plot to monitor the changes of fallout radionuclides through time with the portable HPGe detector. The monitoring is now ongoing but we found significant amount of Cs-134 and Cs-137 has been trapped by cedar forest plantations especially young trees, but not so much in broad leaf trees. The trapped Cs-137 and Cs-134 is then washed by rainfall and found into throughfall. Therefore, in forest ecosystems, the fallout has been still ongoing, and and effective remediation method in forested area (especially cedar plantation) can be removing the trees.

  20. Toxoplasma antibodies and retinochoroiditis in the Marshall Islands and their association with exposure to radioactive fallout

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, W.H.; Kindermann, W.R.; Walls, K.W.; Heotis, P.M.

    1987-03-01

    Nearly universal serologic evidence of Toxoplasma gondii infection was found to have occurred by adulthood in 517 Marshallese tested in 1981-1982. The prevalence and incidence of retinal lesions compatible with toxoplasmosis were 3.9% and 273 cases/year/100,000 seropositive persons, respectively, thus indicating a significant public health problem. Seronegativity was significantly more common in a subgroup of Marshallese that had received 110-190 rads of total-body gamma radiation as a consequence of accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. Despite this finding there was no evidence of an increase in clinically significant lesions in exposed persons.

  1. Adolescent Pathways to Co-Occurring Problem Behavior: The Effects of Peer Delinquency and Peer Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Monahan, Kathryn C.; Rhew, Isaac C.; Hawkins, J. David; Brown, Eric C.

    2013-01-01

    Delinquency and substance use are more likely to co-occur in adolescence compared to earlier and later developmental periods. The present study examined developmental pathways to co-occurring problem behavior from 6th-10th grade (N=2,002), testing how peer delinquency and substance use were linked to transitioning between abstaining, delinquency, substance use, and co-occurring problem behavior. Developmentally, most youth transition from abstinence to delinquent behavior, and then escalate to co-occurring problem behavior. Once co-occurring problem behavior onsets, remitting to single problem behavior or abstinence is unlikely. The impact of peers on problem behavior are domain specific when individuals transition from abstaining to a single problem behavior, but are more general with respect to escalation of and desistance from problem behavior. PMID:25506186

  2. Global risk of radioactive fallout after major nuclear reactor accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lelieveld, J.; Kunkel, D.; Lawrence, M. G.

    2012-05-01

    Major reactor accidents of nuclear power plants are rare, yet the consequences are catastrophic. But what is meant by "rare"? And what can be learned from the Chernobyl and Fukushima incidents? Here we assess the cumulative, global risk of exposure to radioactivity due to atmospheric dispersion of gases and particles following severe nuclear accidents (the most severe ones on the International Nuclear Event Scale, INES 7), using particulate 137Cs and gaseous 131I as proxies for the fallout. Our results indicate that previously the occurrence of INES 7 major accidents and the risks of radioactive contamination have been underestimated. Using a global model of the atmosphere we compute that on average, in the event of a major reactor accident of any nuclear power plant worldwide, more than 90% of emitted 137Cs would be transported beyond 50 km and about 50% beyond 1000 km distance before being deposited. This corroborates that such accidents have large-scale and trans-boundary impacts. Although the emission strengths and atmospheric removal processes of 137Cs and 131I are quite different, the radioactive contamination patterns over land and the human exposure due to deposition are computed to be similar. High human exposure risks occur around reactors in densely populated regions, notably in West Europe and South Asia, where a major reactor accident can subject around 30 million people to radioactive contamination. The recent decision by Germany to phase out its nuclear reactors will reduce the national risk, though a large risk will still remain from the reactors in neighbouring countries.

  3. Childhood leukemia and fallout from the Nevada nuclear tests

    SciTech Connect

    Land, C.E.; McKay, F.W.; Machado, S.G.

    1984-01-13

    Cancer mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics, covering the period 1950 through 1978, were used to test a reported association between childhood leukemia and exposure to radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons tests in Nevada between 1951 and 1958. No pattern of temporal and geographic variation in risk supportive of the reported association was found. Comparison of these results with those presented in support of an association of risk with fallout suggests that the purported association merely reflects an anomalously low leukemia rate in southern Utah during the period 1944 to 1949. 14 references, 4 figures, 7 tables.

  4. Sediment core record of global fallout and Bikini close-in fallout Pu in Sagami Bay, Western Northwest Pacific margin.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jian; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2004-07-01

    The total 239-240Pu activity and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratio in the sediments in Sagami Bay of the western Northwest Pacific margin were investigated using ICP-MS with a shield torch system. 239+240Pu inventories in the examined sediment cores were found to be much higher than those predicted from atmospheric global fallout (42 MBq/km2) at the same latitude. In addition, elevated 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios ranging from 0.22 to 0.28 were observed in the sediment samples. On the basis of the vertical profiles of 239+240Pu and characterized 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios in a sediment core collected in the center of Sagami Bay, we identified two distinct sources of fallout Pu in the bay: the global stratospheric fallout with characteristic 240Pu/239Pu ratio of 0.18 and the transported close-in fallout derived from Bikini and Enewetak surface nuclear weapon test series in the 1950s. We propose that the Pu transportation was mainly due to oceanic processes (for example, through the North Equatorial Current and the Kuroshio Current). Using a two fallout end-member model, we find that the contribution of Bikini close-in fallout Pu ranged from 44 to 59% in Sagami Bay sediments. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that Pu contamination, which originated from Bikini and Enewetak nuclear weapon test series in the 1950s, has extended westwards as far as the Japanese coast. PMID:15296298

  5. Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation: January 1988 through December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, J.E.; Heotis, P.M.; Scott, W.A.; Adams, W.H.

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to disseminate information concerning the medical status of 253 Marshallese exposed to fallout radiation in 1954. This report discusses the medical care provided and the medical findings for the years 1988-1991. Details of the BRAVO thermonuclear accident that caused the exposure have been published, and a 1955 article in the Journal of the American Medical Association describing the acute medical effects in the exposed population remains a definitive and relevant description of events. Participation in the Marshall Islands Medical Program by the exposed Marshallese is voluntary. In the spring and fall of each year, medical surveillance is provided to exposed and unexposed cohorts. Examinations performed include: a cancer-related examination as defined by the American Society, an annual thyroid examination and thyroid function testing, serum prolactin testing looking for pituitary tumors, annual blood counts to include platelets, and evaluation for paraneoplastic evidence of neoplasms. This report details the medical program, medical findings, and thyroid surgery findings. Deaths (4 exposed and 10 nonexposed) that occurred during the reporting period are discussed. There is a mild but relatively consistent depression of neutrophil, lymphocyte, and platelet concentrations in the blood of the exposed population. This depression appears to be of no clinical significance. Thyroid hypofunction, either clinical or biochemical, has been documented as a consequence of radiation exposure in 14 exposed individuals. Previously, one other exposed person was diagnosed with basal cell carcinoma. During this reporting period, a thyroid nodule was identified in an individual who was in utero during the exposure. Upon pathologic review, the nodule was diagnosed as occult papillary carcinoma.

  6. Electromigration occurences and its effects on metallic surfaces submitted to high electromagnetic field: A novel approach to breakdown in accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoine, C. Z.; Peauger, F.; Le Pimpec, F.

    2011-02-01

    The application of a high electrical field on metallic surfaces leads to the well described phenomena of breakdown. In the classical scenario, explosive electron emission (EEE), breakdown (BD) originates from an emitting site (surface protrusion): the current at the apex vaporizes the emitting tip and the emitting current triggers a plasma in the vapor close to the surface. The plasma in turn melts the emitting site and makes it (hopefully) disappear. The conditioning process consists of "burning" the emitting sites one after another and numerous observations exhibit surfaces covered with molten craters that more or less overlap. In the case of radiofrequency (RF) applied fields, the effects of fatigue are also considered due to the cyclic nature of the applied stress. Nevertheless when dealing with RF cavities for accelerators, where increasingly fields are now sought, one can legitimately wonder if other physical phenomena should also be taken into account. In particular, we believe that electromigration, especially at surfaces or grain boundaries cannot be neglected anymore at high field (i.e. 50-100 MV/m). Many publications in the domain of liquid metal emission sources show that very stable and strong emission sources, either ions or electrons, build up on metallic surfaces submitted to electrical fields through a mechanism that is slightly different from the usual localized breakdown evoked in accelerators. This mechanism involves the combination of electromigration and collective motion of surface atoms. In the case of emission source, this effect is sought after and has been extensively studied, whereas in our case it is very detrimental to the possibility of reaching high fields. The recent results obtained on 30 GHz Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) accelerating structures, altogether with the data exposed hereafter have led us to propose a complementary scenario, which could explain early melting of large areas of the surface. In this paper we will

  7. National Fallout Shelter Design Competition. Community Center. Awards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Civil Defense (DOD), Washington, DC.

    Award winning designs for dual-use fallout shelters are presented, representing contributions by the design professions toward development of the national defense resource. The focus and concept of the competition is described as the basis for judging. The nature of dual-use shelter is discussed, which contributes to understanding of the…

  8. Radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident

    SciTech Connect

    Beiriger, J.M.; Failor, R.A.; Marsh, K.V.; Shaw, G.E.

    1987-08-01

    This report describes the detection of fallout in the United States from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. As part of its environmental surveillance program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory maintained detectors for gamma-emitting radionuclides. Following the reactor accident, additional air filters were set out. Several uncommon isotopes were detected at the time the plume passed into the US. (TEM)

  9. Rate of neuronal fallout in a transsynaptic cerebellar model.

    PubMed

    Triarhou, L C

    1998-10-01

    Quantitative analyses of transsynaptic granule cell death subsequent to the genetically determined degeneration of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum of pcd/pcd mutant mice show that granule neuron fallout follows a typical mathematical pattern of elemental decay. Biological and theoretical connotations are discussed in light of the empirical observations and a simulation model. PMID:9865853

  10. Temporal variability of beryllium-7 fallout in southwest UK.

    PubMed

    Taylor, A; Keith-Roach, M J; Iurian, A R; Mabit, L; Blake, W H

    2016-08-01

    Cosmogenic beryllium-7 has been widely employed as a sediment tracing tool and continued development of its use as a soil erosion tracer requires knowledge of fallout temporal dynamics. Data regarding beryllium-7 fallout in the UK are scarce and here the authors provide a record of beryllium-7 fallout in southwest England spanning a two-year period. A monthly fallout record was developed for Plymouth, UK using regular rainfall sampling to determine beryllium-7 rainfall activity concentration (Bq L(-1)) and deposition flux (Bq m(-2)). Data showed a general tendency for higher activity during the spring/summer months and lower activity in the autumn/winter months. Comparison with data for other UK sites (Chilton and Aberporth) for the same period found significant differences in (7)Be activity in rainwater and lower variability in Plymouth than Chilton and Aberporth. Total deposition was largely controlled by rainfall in Plymouth although regression coefficients suggested greater importance of other atmospheric controls at the Chilton and Aberporth sites. Use of a deposition proportion to rainfall proportion ratio identified periods when deposition was influenced by varying (7)Be activity in rainfall. Broad ranges in ratios were found for Chilton and Aberporth and this has implications for sediment tracer studies requiring estimates of (7)Be deposition flux across months or seasons. PMID:27155526

  11. Pituitary tumors following fallout radiation exposure. [Marshall Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, W.H.; Harper, J.A.; Rittmaster, R.S.; Grimson, R.C.

    1984-08-03

    Two pituitary tumors were diagnosed in a small population of Marshallese accidentally exposed to radioactive fallout in 1954. Endocrinologic findings in the exposed population, are reported and the possible relation of the tumors to radiation exposure and thyroid disease is discussed.

  12. Transfer of 137Cs from Chernobyl debris and nuclear weapons fallout to different Swedish population groups.

    PubMed

    Rääf, C L; Hubbard, L; Falk, R; Agren, G; Vesanen, R

    2006-08-15

    Data from measurements on the body burden of (134)Cs, (137)Cs and (40)K in various Swedish populations between 1959 and 2001 has been compiled into a national database. The compilation is a co-operation between the Departments of Radiation Physics in Malmö and Göteborg, the National Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) and the Swedish Defense Research Agency (FOI). In a previous study the effective ecological half time and the associated effective dose to various Swedish populations due to internal contamination of (134)Cs and (137)Cs have been assessed using the database. In this study values of human body burden have been combined with data on the local and regional ground deposition of fallout from nuclear weapons tests (only (137)Cs) and Chernobyl debris (both (134)Cs and (137)Cs), which have enabled estimates of the radioecological transfer in the studied populations. The assessment of the database shows that the transfer of radiocesium from Chernobyl fallout to humans varies considerably between various populations in Sweden. In terms of committed effective dose over a 70 y period from internal contamination per unit activity deposition, the general (predominantly urban) Swedish population obtains 20-30 microSv/kBq m(-2). Four categories of populations exhibit higher radioecological transfer than the general population; i.) reindeer herders ( approximately 700 microSv/kBq m(-2)), ii.) hunters in the counties dominated by forest vegetation ( approximately 100 microSv/kBq m(-2)), iii.) rural non-farming populations living in sub-arctic areas (40-150 microSv/kBq m(-2)), and iv.) farmers ( approximately 50 microSv/kBq m(-2)). Two important factors determine the aggregate transfer from ground deposition to man; i.) dietary habits (intakes of foodstuff originating from natural and semi-natural ecosystems), and ii.) inclination to follow the recommended food restriction by the authorities. The transfer to the general population is considerably lower

  13. Reconstruction of a phreatic eruption on 27 September 2014 at Ontake volcano, central Japan, based on proximal pyroclastic density current and fallout deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeno, Fukashi; Nakada, Setsuya; Oikawa, Teruki; Yoshimoto, Mitsuhiro; Komori, Jiro; Ishizuka, Yoshihiro; Takeshita, Yoshihiro; Shimano, Taketo; Kaneko, Takayuki; Nagai, Masashi

    2016-05-01

    The phreatic eruption at Ontake volcano on 27 September 2014, which caused the worst volcanic disaster in the past half-century in Japan, was reconstructed based on observations of the proximal pyroclastic density current (PDC) and fallout deposits. Witness observations were also used to clarify the eruption process. The deposits are divided into three major depositional units (Units A, B, and C) which are characterized by massive, extremely poorly sorted, and multimodal grain-size distribution with 30-50 wt% of fine ash (silt-clay component). The depositional condition was initially dry but eventually changed to wet. Unit A originated from gravity-driven turbulent PDCs in the relatively dry, vent-opening phase. Unit B was then produced mainly by fallout from a vigorous moist plume during vent development. Unit C was derived from wet ash fall in the declining stage. Ballistic ejecta continuously occurred during vent opening and development. As observed in the finest population of the grain-size distribution, aggregate particles were formed throughout the eruption, and the effect of water in the plume on the aggregation increased with time and distance. Based on the deposit thickness, duration, and grain-size data, and by applying a scaling analysis using a depth-averaged model of turbulent gravity currents, the particle concentration and initial flow speed of the PDC at the summit area were estimated as 2 × 10-4-2 × 10-3 and 24-28 m/s, respectively. The tephra thinning trend in the proximal area shows a steeper slope than in similar-sized magmatic eruptions, indicating a large tephra volume deposited over a short distance owing to the wet dispersal conditions. The Ontake eruption provided an opportunity to examine the deposits from a phreatic eruption with a complex eruption sequence that reflects the effect of external water on the eruption dynamics.

  14. Fallout beryllium-7 as a soil and sediment tracer in river basins: current status and needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Alex; Blake, Will H.; Smith, Hugh G.; Mabit, Lionel; Keith-Roach, Miranda J.

    2013-04-01

    Beryllium-7 is a cosmogenic radionuclide formed in the upper atmosphere by cosmic ray spallation of nitrogen and oxygen. Its constant natural production and fallout via precipitation coupled with its ability to bind to soil particles have underpinned its application as a sediment tracer. The short half-life of beryllium-7 (53.3 days) lends itself to tracing sediment dynamics over short time periods, thus, enabling assessment of the effect of land use change upon soil redistribution. Although beryllium-7 has been widely applied as a tracer to date, there remain crucial gaps in understanding relating to the assumptions for its use. To further support the application of beryllium-7 as a tracer across a range of environments requires consideration of both the current strengths and shortcomings of the technique to direct research needs. Here we review research surrounding the assumptions underpinning beryllium-7 use as a tracer and identify key knowledge gaps relating to i) the effects of rain shadowing and vegetation interception upon beryllium-7 fallout uniformity at the hillslope-scale; ii) the effect of preferential flow pathways upon beryllium-7 depth distribution in soil and overland flow upon beryllium-7 inventory uniformity and iii) the potential for beryllium-7 desorption in saline and reducing environments. To provide continued support for the use of beryllium-7 as a hillslope and catchment-scale tracer, there is an urgent need to undertake further research to quantify the effect of these factors upon tracer estimates.

  15. Estimation of the Adriatic Sea water turnover time using fallout 90Sr as a radioactive tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franić, Zdenko

    2005-08-01

    Systematic, long-term measurements, starting in 1963, of 90Sr activity concentrations in sea water have been performed at four locations (cities of Rovinj, Rijeka, Split and Dubrovnik) along the Croatian coast of the Adriatic Sea. In addition, fallout samples were collected in the city of Zadar. 90Sr activity concentrations are in good correlation with the fallout activity, the coefficient of correlation being 0.72. After the nuclear moratorium on atmospheric nuclear bomb tests in 1960s, 90Sr activity concentrations in sea water exponentially dropped from 14.8 ± 2.4 Bq m -3 in 1963 to 2.0 ± 0.3 Bq m -3 in 2003. In the same period, the total annual 90Sr land surface deposit in Zadar fell by three orders of magnitude, from 713.3 Bq m -2 in 1963 to 0.4 Bq m -2 in 2003. Using strontium sea water and fallout data, a mathematical model was developed to describe the rate of change of 90Sr activity concentrations in the Adriatic Sea water and estimate its mean residence time in the Adriatic. By fitting the experimental data to a theoretically predicted curve, the mean residence time of 90Sr in the Adriatic Sea water was estimated to be approximately 3.4 ± 0.4 years, standard deviation being calculated by Monte Carlo simulations. As in physical oceanography 90Sr can be used as effective radioactive tracer of water mass transport, this value also reflects the upper limit for turnover time of the Adriatic Sea water. The turnover time of 3.4 years for the Adriatic Sea water is in reasonable agreement with the value which was estimated, by studying water flows through the Strait of Otranto, to be on the order of 1 year.

  16. A survey of radioactive fallout data in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    DePhillips, M.P.

    1995-10-23

    Considerable attention has been directed by the scientific community to assessing the levels and fate of radionuclides in Arctic ecosystems. The following text and tables present available data and discussion of radionuclide fallout in Alaska. A literature search of 23 on-line databases (Table 1) using Alaska, Strontium (Sr), Cesium (Cs), Plutonium (Pu) and Radionuclide as constraint terms responded with 177 possible citations. After eliminating duplicate citations, 31 articles were available: 17 were relevant to the subject matter; the remainder addressed geologic issues. All of the cited literature addressed {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239,240}Pu as a result of radionuclide fallout from nuclear testing or accidental release.

  17. Modeling the effects of naturally occurring organic carbon on chlorinated ethene transport to a public supply well.

    PubMed

    Chapelle, Francis H; Kauffman, Leon J; Widdowson, Mark A

    2014-09-01

    The vulnerability of public supply wells to chlorinated ethene (CE) contamination in part depends on the availability of naturally occurring organic carbon to consume dissolved oxygen (DO) and initiate reductive dechlorination. This was quantified by building a mass balance model of the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer, which is widely used for public water supply in New Jersey. This model was built by telescoping a calibrated regional three-dimensional (3D) MODFLOW model to the approximate capture zone of a single public supply well that has a history of CE contamination. This local model was then used to compute a mass balance between dissolved organic carbon (DOC), particulate organic carbon (POC), and adsorbed organic carbon (AOC) that act as electron donors and DO, CEs, ferric iron, and sulfate that act as electron acceptors (EAs) using the Sequential Electron Acceptor Model in three dimensions (SEAM3D) code. SEAM3D was constrained by varying concentrations of DO and DOC entering the aquifer via recharge, varying the bioavailable fraction of POC in aquifer sediments, and comparing observed and simulated vertical concentration profiles of DO and DOC. This procedure suggests that approximately 15% of the POC present in aquifer materials is readily bioavailable. Model simulations indicate that transport of perchloroethene (PCE) and its daughter products trichloroethene (TCE), cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE), and vinyl chloride (VC) to the public supply well is highly sensitive to the assumed bioavailable fraction of POC, concentrations of DO entering the aquifer with recharge, and the position of simulated PCE source areas in the flow field. The results are less sensitive to assumed concentrations of DOC in aquifer recharge. The mass balance approach used in this study also indicates that hydrodynamic processes such as advective mixing, dispersion, and sorption account for a significant amount of the observed natural attenuation in this system. PMID:24372440

  18. Modeling the Effects of Naturally Occurring Organic Carbon on Chlorinated Ethene Transport to a Public Supply Well†

    PubMed Central

    Chapelle, Francis H; Kauffman, Leon J; Widdowson, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    The vulnerability of public supply wells to chlorinated ethene (CE) contamination in part depends on the availability of naturally occurring organic carbon to consume dissolved oxygen (DO) and initiate reductive dechlorination. This was quantified by building a mass balance model of the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer, which is widely used for public water supply in New Jersey. This model was built by telescoping a calibrated regional three-dimensional (3D) MODFLOW model to the approximate capture zone of a single public supply well that has a history of CE contamination. This local model was then used to compute a mass balance between dissolved organic carbon (DOC), particulate organic carbon (POC), and adsorbed organic carbon (AOC) that act as electron donors and DO, CEs, ferric iron, and sulfate that act as electron acceptors (EAs) using the Sequential Electron Acceptor Model in three dimensions (SEAM3D) code. SEAM3D was constrained by varying concentrations of DO and DOC entering the aquifer via recharge, varying the bioavailable fraction of POC in aquifer sediments, and comparing observed and simulated vertical concentration profiles of DO and DOC. This procedure suggests that approximately 15% of the POC present in aquifer materials is readily bioavailable. Model simulations indicate that transport of perchloroethene (PCE) and its daughter products trichloroethene (TCE), cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE), and vinyl chloride (VC) to the public supply well is highly sensitive to the assumed bioavailable fraction of POC, concentrations of DO entering the aquifer with recharge, and the position of simulated PCE source areas in the flow field. The results are less sensitive to assumed concentrations of DOC in aquifer recharge. The mass balance approach used in this study also indicates that hydrodynamic processes such as advective mixing, dispersion, and sorption account for a significant amount of the observed natural attenuation in this system. PMID:24372440

  19. Modeling the effects of naturally occurring organic carbon on chlorinated ethene transport to a public supply well

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapelle, Francis H.; Kauffman, Leon J.; Widdowson, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    The vulnerability of public supply wells to chlorinated ethene (CE) contamination in part depends on the availability of naturally occurring organic carbon to consume dissolved oxygen (DO) and initiate reductive dechlorination. This was quantified by building a mass balance model of the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer, which is widely used for public water supply in New Jersey. This model was built by telescoping a calibrated regional three-dimensional (3D) MODFLOW model to the approximate capture zone of a single public supply well that has a history of CE contamination. This local model was then used to compute a mass balance between dissolved organic carbon (DOC), particulate organic carbon (POC), and adsorbed organic carbon (AOC) that act as electron donors and DO, CEs, ferric iron, and sulfate that act as electron acceptors (EAs) using the Sequential Electron Acceptor Model in three dimensions (SEAM3D) code. SEAM3D was constrained by varying concentrations of DO and DOC entering the aquifer via recharge, varying the bioavailable fraction of POC in aquifer sediments, and comparing observed and simulated vertical concentration profiles of DO and DOC. This procedure suggests that approximately 15% of the POC present in aquifer materials is readily bioavailable. Model simulations indicate that transport of perchloroethene (PCE) and its daughter products trichloroethene (TCE), cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE), and vinyl chloride (VC) to the public supply well is highly sensitive to the assumed bioavailable fraction of POC, concentrations of DO entering the aquifer with recharge, and the position of simulated PCE source areas in the flow field. The results are less sensitive to assumed concentrations of DOC in aquifer recharge. The mass balance approach used in this study also indicates that hydrodynamic processes such as advective mixing, dispersion, and sorption account for a significant amount of the observed natural attenuation in this system.

  20. An estimate by two methods of thyroid absorbed doses due to BRAVO fallout in several northern Marshall Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Musolino, S.V.; Hull, A.P.; Greenhouse, N.A.

    1997-10-01

    Estimates of the thyroid absorbed doses due to fallout originating from the 1 March 1954 BRAVO thermonuclear test on Bikini Atoll have been made for several inhabited locations in the Northern Marshall Islands. Rongelap, Utirik, Rongerik and Ailinginae Atolls were also inhabited on 1 March 1954, where retrospective thyroid absorbed doses have previously been reconstructed. Current estimates are based primarily on external exposure data, which were recorded shortly after each nuclear test in the Castle Series, and secondarily on soil concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in samples collected in 1978 and 1988, along with aerial monitoring done in 1978. External exposures and {sup 137}Cs Soil concentrations were representative of the atmospheric transport and deposition patterns of the entire Castle Series tests and show that the BRAVO test was the major contributor to fallout exposure during the Castle series and other test series which were carried out in the Marshall Islands. These data have been used as surrogates for fission product radioiodines and telluriums in order to estimate the range of thyroid absorbed doses that may have occurred throughout the Marshall Islands. Dosimetry based on these two sets of estimates agreed within a factor of 4 at the locations where BRAVO was the dominant contributor to the total exposure and deposition. Both methods indicate that thyroid absorbed doses in the range of 1 Gy (100 rad) may have been incurred in some of the northern locations, whereas the doses at southern locations did not significantly exceed levels comparable to those from worldwide fallout. The results of these estimates indicate that a systematic medical survey for thyroid disease should be conducted, and that a more definitive dose reconstruction should be made for all the populated atolls and islands in the Northern Marshall Islands beyond Rongelap, Utirik, Rongerik and Ailinginae, which were significantly contaminated by BRAVO fallout. 30 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs.

  1. An estimate by two methods of thyroid absorbed doses due to BRAVO fallout in several Northern Marshall Islands.

    PubMed

    Musolino, S V; Greenhouse, N A; Hull, A P

    1997-10-01

    Estimates of the thyroid absorbed doses due to fallout originating from the 1 March 1954 BRAVO thermonuclear test on Bikini Atoll have been made for several inhabited locations in the Northern Marshall Islands. Rongelap, Utirik, Rongerik and Ailinginae Atolls were also inhabited on 1 March 1954, where retrospective thyroid absorbed doses have previously been reconstructed. The current estimates are based primarily on external exposure data, which were recorded shortly after each nuclear test in the Castle Series, and secondarily on soil concentrations of 137Cs in samples collected in 1978 and 1988, along with aerial monitoring done in 1978. The external exposures and 137Cs soil concentrations were representative of the atmospheric transport and deposition patterns of the entire Castle Series tests and show that the BRAVO test was the major contributor to fallout exposure during the Castle series and other test series which were carried out in the Marshall Islands. These data have been used as surrogates for fission product radioiodines and telluriums in order to estimate the range of thyroid absorbed doses that may have occurred throughout the Marshall Islands. Dosimetry based on these two sets of estimates agreed within a factor of 4 at the locations where BRAVO was the dominant contributor to the total exposure and deposition. Both methods indicate that thyroid absorbed doses in the range of 1 Gy (100 rad) may have been incurred in some of the northern locations, whereas the doses at southern locations did not significantly exceed levels comparable to those from worldwide fallout. The results of these estimates indicate that a systematic medical survey for thyroid disease should be conducted, and that a more definitive dose reconstruction should be made for all the populated atolls and islands in the Northern Marshall Islands beyond Rongelap, Utirik, Rongerik and Ailinginae, which were significantly contaminated by BRAVO fallout. PMID:9314227

  2. THE DEVELOPMENT OF RADIOACTIVE GLASS SURROGATES FOR FALLOUT DEBRIS

    SciTech Connect

    Martha R. Finck; Leigh R. Martin; Russel R. Lewis; Kevin P. Carney; Christopher A. McGrath

    2014-01-01

    The production of glass that emulates fallout is desired for the nuclear forensics community for training and measurement exercises. The composition of nuclear fallout is complex varying isotopic compositions . As the gaseous cloud traverses from hotter to cooler regions of the atmosphere, the processes of condensation and nucleation entrain environmental materials, vaporized nuclear materials and fission products. The elemental and isotopic composition of the fission products is altered due to chemical fractionation (i.e. the fission product composition that would be expected from fission of the original nuclear material is altered by differences in condensation rates of the elements); the fallout may be enriched or depleted in volatile or refractory fission products. This work describes preliminary results to synthesize, irradiate and fractionate the fission product content of irradiated particulate glass using a thermal distillation two hours after irradiation. The glass was synthesized using a solution-based polymerization of tetraethyl orthosilicate. Uranium was incorporated into the glass particulate at trace concentrations during polymerization. The particulate was subjected to a short thermal neutron irradiation then heated to 1273 K approximately 2 hours after the end of irradiation. Fission products of 133, 134, 135I, 132, 134Te, 135Xe, 138Cs and 91, 92Sr were observed to be distilled from the particulate. The results of these preliminary studies are discussed.

  3. Web-Enabled Optoelectronic Particle-Fallout Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lineberger, Lewis P.

    2008-01-01

    A Web-enabled optoelectronic particle- fallout monitor has been developed as a prototype of future such instruments that (l) would be installed in multiple locations for which assurance of cleanliness is required and (2) could be interrogated and controlled in nearly real time by multiple remote users. Like prior particle-fallout monitors, this instrument provides a measure of particles that accumulate on a surface as an indication of the quantity of airborne particulate contaminants. The design of this instrument reflects requirements to: Reduce the cost and complexity of its optoelectronic sensory subsystem relative to those of prior optoelectronic particle fallout monitors while maintaining or improving capabilities; Use existing network and office computers for distributed display and control; Derive electric power for the instrument from a computer network, a wall outlet, or a battery; Provide for Web-based retrieval and analysis of measurement data and of a file containing such ancillary data as a log of command attempts at remote units; and Use the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) for maximum performance and minimal network overhead.

  4. Thyroid neoplasia in Marshall Islanders exposed to nuclear fallout

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T.E.; van Belle, G.; LoGerfo, J.P.

    1987-08-07

    We studied the risk of thyroid neoplasia in Marshall Islanders exposed to radioiodines in nuclear fallout from the 1954 BRAVO thermonuclear test. We screened 7266 Marshall Islanders for thyroid nodules; the islanders were from 14 atolls, including several southern atolls, which were the source of the best available unexposed comparison group. Using a retrospective cohort design, we determined the prevalence of thyroid nodularity in a subgroup of 2273 persons who were alive in 1954 and who therefore were potentially exposed to fallout from the BRAVO test. For those 12 atolls previously thought to be unexposed to fallout, the prevalence of thyroid nodules ranged from 0.9% to 10.6%. Using the distance of each atoll from the test site as a proxy for the radiation dose to the thyroid gland, a weighted linear regression showed an inverse linear relationship between distance and the age-adjusted prevalence of thyroid nodules. Distance was the strongest single predictor in logistic regression analysis. A new absolute risk estimate was calculated to be 1100 excess cases/Gy/y/1 X 10(6) persons (11.0 excess cases/rad/y/1 million persons), 33% higher than previous estimates. We conclude that an excess of thyroid nodules was not limited only to the two northern atolls but extended throughout the northern atolls; this suggests a linear dose-response relationship.

  5. [Effects of silicon on flowering Chinese cabbage's anthracnose occurence, flower stalk formation, and silicon uptake and accumulation].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xian; Feng, Hong-Xian; Yang, Yue-Sheng

    2008-05-01

    Different concentrations of silicon (Si) were applied to flowering Chinese cabbbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. utilis Tsen et Lee) to study their effects on the flowering Chinese cabbage's anthracnose occurrence, flower stalk formation, and Si uptake and accumulation. The results indicated that Si could obviously control the occurrence of anthracnose, and the effect was genotype-dependant. The plants of susceptible cultivar applied with 2.5 mmol L(-1) Si and those of resistant cultivar applied with 0.5 mmol L(-1) Si exhibited the highest resistance to Colletotrichum higginsianum, with the lowest disease index and the higheist flower stalk yield. Si application also obviously affected the quality of flower stalk. For susceptible cultivar, Si application promoted the synthesis of chlorophyll, crude fiber and vitamin C, and induced the formation of soluble sugars. The contents of chlorophyll and crude fiber increased with increasing Si level. For resistant cultivar, the chlorophyll content increased while vitamin C content decreased with increasing Si level, but Si application had less effect on the contents of crude fiber and soluble sugars. For both cultivars, Si application did not have significant effect on the contents of crude protein and soluble protein but remarkably increased the Si accumulation in plant leaves, and the leaf Si content was significantly increased with increasing Si level. The Si granules deposited in leaf tissues were not equal in size, and distributed unevenly in epidermis tissues. It was concluded that the accumulation of Si in leaves could increase the resistance of plant to anthracnose, but there was no linear correlation between the accumulated amount of Si and the resistance. PMID:18655585

  6. Oxidative stress triggered by naturally occurring flavone apigenin results in senescence and chemotherapeutic effect in human colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Kacoli; Mandal, Mahitosh

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies involving phytochemical polyphenolic compounds have suggested flavones often exert pro-oxidative effect in vitro against wide array of cancer cell lines. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in-vitro pro-oxidative activity of apigenin, a plant based flavone against colorectal cancer cell lines and investigate cumulative effect on long term exposure. In the present study, treatment of colorectal cell lines HT-29 and HCT-15 with apigenin resulted in anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects characterized by biochemical and morphological changes, including loss of mitochondrial membrane potential which aided in reversing the impaired apoptotic machinery leading to negative implications in cancer pathogenesis. Apigenin induces rapid free radical species production and the level of oxidative damage was assessed by qualitative and quantitative estimation of biochemical markers of oxidative stress. Increased level of mitochondrial superoxide suggested dose dependent mitochondrial oxidative damage which was generated by disruption in anti-apoptotic and pro-apoptotic protein balance. Continuous and persistent oxidative stress induced by apigenin at growth suppressive doses over extended treatment time period was observed to induce senescence which is a natural cellular mechanism to attenuate tumor formation. Senescence phenotype inducted by apigenin was attributed to changes in key molecules involved in p16-Rb and p53 independent p21 signaling pathways. Phosphorylation of retinoblastoma was inhibited and significant up-regulation of p21 led to simultaneous suppression of cyclins D1 and E which indicated the onset of senescence. Pro-oxidative stress induced premature senescence mediated by apigenin makes this treatment regimen a potential chemopreventive strategy and an in vitro model for aging research. PMID:25965143

  7. A synergistic effect in controlling plum postharvest diseases occurs by applying UV-C light to sodium bicarbonate treated fruit.

    PubMed

    D'Hallewin, G; Cubaiu, L; Ladu, G; Venditti, T

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of ultraviolet-C light (UV-C; 254 nm) alone at 0, 3, 6 and 12 kJm(-2), or combined with 0.0 or 0.5% (w7v) sodium bicarbonate (SBC), to control plum (Prunus domestica cv Stanley) postharvest decay caused by Penicillium expansum L. and Botrytis cinerea was investigated. First, fruit was sanitized and in one experiment plums were artificially wound-inoculated 24 h before treatments and afterwards kept at 25 degrees C with 90% RH for 7 days. In the second experiment, treatments were applied before fruit was spray-contaminated with conidia and then stored for 4 weeks at 5 degrees C and 90% RH (storage conditions). In both experiments, the highest degree of decay caused by the two pathogens was monitored when fruit stayed untreated (control), and a negligible reduction was achieved by treating with the sole salt or with a 3 kJm(-2) UV-C light. Compared to control (89 +/- 3% decay), the treatment of wound-inoculated fruit with 6 kJm(-2) provided a 35 and 38% reduction of P. expansum and B. cinerea decay, respectively. Meanwhile, 12 kJm(-2) provided an additional decrease of 25 and 27%, respectively. In both experiments, the best control of decay was attained when treatments with SBC and UV-C light were combined and the efficacy depended upon the sequence of application. Synergistic effects were found by applying the salt before UV-C light. When 6 or 12 kJm(-2) were employed following the 2% SBC treatment, no disease symptoms developed for either pathogens in both experiments. The same combination with 3 kJm(-2) resulted in a nearly 5 fold increase of efficacy compared to the sole light treatment. The combined treatments controlled the two pathogens to valuable levels and, since no quality losses were observed during storage, they could be considered as a suitable approach to contain postharvest losses of this fruit. PMID:25151834

  8. Effects of co-occurring aromatic hydrocarbons on degradation of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in marine sediment slurries.

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, J E; Capone, D G

    1988-01-01

    Rates of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degradation and mineralization were influenced by preexposure to alternate PAHs and a monoaromatic hydrocarbon at relatively high (100 ppm) concentrations in organic-rich aerobic marine sediments. Prior exposure to three PAHs and benzene resulted in enhanced [14C]naphthalene mineralization, while [14C]anthracene mineralization was stimulated only by benzene and anthracene preexposure. Preexposure of sediment slurries to phenanthrene stimulated the initial degradation of anthracene. Prior exposure to naphthalene stimulated the initial degradation of phenanthrene but had no effect on either the initial degradation or mineralization of anthracene. For those compounds which stimulated [14C]anthracene or [14C]naphthalene mineralization, longer preexposures (2 weeks) to alternative aromatic hydrocarbons resulted in an even greater stimulation response. Enrichment with individual PAHs followed by subsequent incubation with one or two PAHs showed no alteration in degradation patterns due to the simultaneous presence of PAHs. The evidence suggests that exposure of marine sediments to a particular PAH or benzene results in the enhanced ability of these sediments to subsequently degrade that PAH as well as certain other PAHs. The enhanced degradation of a particular PAH after sediments have been exposed to it may result from the selection and proliferation of specific microbial populations capable of degrading it. The enhanced degradation of other PAHs after exposure to a single PAH suggests that the populations selected have either broad specificity for PAHs, common pathways of PAH degradation, or both. PMID:3415231

  9. B-chromosome effects on Hsp70 gene expression does not occur at transcriptional level in the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Domínguez, Beatriz; Cabrero, Josefa; Camacho, Juan Pedro M; López-León, María Dolores

    2016-10-01

    As intragenomic parasites, B chromosomes can elicit stress in the host genome, thus inducing a response for host adaptation to this kind of continuous parasitism. In the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans, B-chromosome presence has been previously associated with a decrease in the amount of the heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70). To investigate whether this effect is already apparent at transcriptional level, we analyze the expression levels of the Hsp70 gene in gonads and somatic tissues of males and females with and without B chromosomes from two populations, where the predominant B chromosome variants (B2 and B24) exhibit different levels of parasitism, by means of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) on complementary DNA (cDNA). The results revealed the absence of significant differences for Hsp70 transcripts associated with B-chromosome presence in virtually all samples. This indicates that the decrease in HSP70 protein levels, formerly reported in this species, may not be a consequence of transcriptional down-regulation of Hsp70 genes, but the result of post-transcriptional regulation. These results will help to design future studies oriented to identifying factors modulating Hsp70 expression, and will also contribute to uncover the biological role of B chromosomes in eukaryotic genomes. PMID:27334602

  10. Effects of citral, a naturally occurring antiadipogenic molecule, on an energy-intense diet model of obesity

    PubMed Central

    Modak, Tamonud; Mukhopadhaya, Abhilash

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Retinaldehyde inhibits adipogenesis, increases metabolic rate, reduces weight gain, and improves tolerance to a glucose load. We assessed the effects of citral – an inhibitor of retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (the primary enzyme metabolizing retinaldehyde), on body weight, glucose tolerance, fasting plasma glucose and insulin levels, metabolic rate, adipocyte size, and morphology in a diet-induced model of obesity. Materials and Methods: Out of the 5 groups of 6-week-old male Sprague–Dawley rats, 4 were maintained on an energy-intense, palatable, diet for a period of – 42 days, while 1 served as the control. After obesity had been induced, 3 groups were treated with daily doses of citral (10, 15, and 20 mg/kg body weight) for a period of 28 days. They were then subjected to metabolic experiments. Body weight, fasting plasma glucose, glucose tolerance to an intraperitoneal glucose load, metabolic rate, and adipocyte size were assessed. Results: Citral-treated groups showed a dose-dependent reduction in body weight gain. They significantly had lower fasting glucose levels, improved glucose tolerance, lower fasting plasma glucose, higher metabolic rate, and smaller adipocytes after drug administration. Conclusion: The findings suggest that citral increased energy dissipation (and also reduced lipid accumulation) consequently preventing and ameliorating diet-induced obesity. In addition it improved insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. In the current scenario of increasing prevalence of obesity and diabetes, citral may prove as novel agent in its management. PMID:21713095

  11. Lethal effects of water quality on threatened California salamanders but not on co-occurring hybrid salamanders.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Maureen E; Johnson, Jarrett R; Fitzpatrick, Benjamin M; Lowenstine, Linda J; Picco, Angela M; Shaffer, H Bradley

    2013-02-01

    Biological invasions and habitat alteration are often detrimental to native species, but their interactions are difficult to predict. Interbreeding between native and introduced species generates novel genotypes and phenotypes, and human land use alters habitat structure and chemistry. Both invasions and habitat alteration create new biological challenges and opportunities. In the intensively farmed Salinas Valley, California (U.S.A.), threatened California tiger salamanders (Ambystoma californiense) have been replaced by hybrids between California tiger salamander and introduced barred tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum mavortium). We conducted an enclosure experiment to examine the effects habitat modification and relative frequency of hybrid and native California tiger salamanders have on recruitment of salamanders and their prey, Pacific chorus frogs (Pseudacris regilla). We tested whether recruitment differed among genetic classes of tiger salamanders (hybrid or native) and pond hydroperiod (seasonal or perennial). Roughly 6 weeks into the experiment, 70% (of 378 total) of salamander larvae died in 4 out of 6 ponds. Native salamanders survived (n = 12) in these ponds only if they had metamorphosed prior to the die-offs. During die-offs, all larvae of native salamanders died, whereas 56% of hybrid larvae died. We necropsied native and hybrid salamanders, tested water quality, and queried the California Department of Pesticide Regulation database to investigate possible causes of the die-offs. Salamander die-offs, changes in the abundance of other community members (invertebrates, algae, and cyanobacteria), shifts in salamander sex ratio, and patterns of pesticide application in adjacent fields suggest that pesticide use may have contributed to die-offs. That all survivors were hybrids suggests that environmental stress may promote rapid displacement of native genotypes. PMID:23140535

  12. The Effect of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE) Fortification on the Liver Element Distribution that Occurs After Exercise.

    PubMed

    Akil, Mustafa; Coban, Funda Karabag; Yalcinkaya, Ozcan

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of the caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) fortification applied to the rats, which were made to exercise, on the liver elements. The study was conducted on 32 Sprague-Dawley male rats. The experimental animals were divided into 4 groups in equal numbers. Group 1 is the group which was applied 10 μmol/kg/day CAPE as intraperitoneal (IP) for 4 weeks, and they were not made to exercise at the end of the application. Group 2 is the group which was applied 10 μmol/kg/day CAPE as IP for 4 weeks, and they were made to exercise at the end of the 4th week. Group 3 is the general control group. Group 4 is the swimming control group. A 10 mmol/kg CAPE application dissolved in ethyl alcohol of 10 % was applied to the CAPE group. Sodium (Na), zinc (Zn), calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), chrome (Cr), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) levels were identified in the liver samples at the end of the application. The results of the study suggest that exercise and CAPE fortification in rats cause changes in the Na, Zn, Ca, Fe and Cr parameters in liver tissues, and it does not affect Cd, Cu, Mg and K element distribution. It is thought that CAPE fortification would be helpful for preserving those parameters whose levels are known to be changing with exercise. PMID:26743862

  13. Global fallout Pu recorded in lacustrine sediments in Lake Hongfeng, SW China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jian; Wu, Fengchang; Yamada, Masatoshi; Liao, Haiqing; Liu, Congqiang; Wan, Guojiang

    2008-03-01

    Studies on the distribution and isotope compositions of fallout Pu are important for source characterization of possible future non-fallout Pu contamination in aquatic environments, and useful for dating of recent sediments to understand the pollution history of environmental contaminants. We present the historical record of atmospheric Pu fallout reconstructed from a sediment core from Lake Hongfeng, China. The Pu activity profile was in agreement with the 137Cs profile. Inventories were 50.7 Bq m(-2) for 239+240Pu and 1586 Bq m(-2) for 137Cs. The average 240Pu/239Pu atom ratio was 0.185+/-0.009, indicating that Pu originated from global stratospheric fallout rather than from direct tropospheric or close-in fallout from the Chinese nuclear testing conducted in the 1970s. Our data suggested that Lake Hongfeng would be an ideal setting for monitoring atmospheric fallout and environmental changes in this region. PMID:17651874

  14. Naturally Occurring Food Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, Laurie C.; Matulka, Ray A.; Burdock, George A.

    2010-01-01

    Although many foods contain toxins as a naturally-occurring constituent or, are formed as the result of handling or processing, the incidence of adverse reactions to food is relatively low. The low incidence of adverse effects is the result of some pragmatic solutions by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other regulatory agencies through the creative use of specifications, action levels, tolerances, warning labels and prohibitions. Manufacturers have also played a role by setting limits on certain substances and developing mitigation procedures for process-induced toxins. Regardless of measures taken by regulators and food producers to protect consumers from natural food toxins, consumption of small levels of these materials is unavoidable. Although the risk for toxicity due to consumption of food toxins is fairly low, there is always the possibility of toxicity due to contamination, overconsumption, allergy or an unpredictable idiosyncratic response. The purpose of this review is to provide a toxicological and regulatory overview of some of the toxins present in some commonly consumed foods, and where possible, discuss the steps that have been taken to reduce consumer exposure, many of which are possible because of the unique process of food regulation in the United States. PMID:22069686

  15. Co-Occurring Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Care of You Top Ten Freshman Year Issues Alcohol, Substance Abuse and Depression Winter Break Survival Tips for College Students Implementing ... supporters and consumers in the mental health field. Alcohol and Drug Abuse, Addiction and Co-occurring Disorders: Co-occurring ... In Crisis? Call ...

  16. Rainfall erosivity in catchments contaminated with fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laceby, J. Patrick; Chartin, Caroline; Evrard, Olivier; Onda, Yuichi; Garcia-Sanchez, Laurent; Cerdan, Olivier

    2016-06-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident in March 2011 resulted in the fallout of significant quantities of radiocesium over the Fukushima region. After reaching the soil surface, radiocesium is quickly bound to fine soil particles. Thereafter, rainfall and snowmelt run-off events transfer particle-bound radiocesium downstream. Characterizing the precipitation regime of the fallout-impacted region is thus important for understanding post-deposition radiocesium dynamics. Accordingly, 10 min (1995-2015) and daily precipitation data (1977-2015) from 42 meteorological stations within a 100 km radius of the FDNPP were analyzed. Monthly rainfall erosivity maps were developed to depict the spatial heterogeneity of rainfall erosivity for catchments entirely contained within this radius. The mean average precipitation in the region surrounding the FDNPP is 1420 mm yr-1 (SD 235) with a mean rainfall erosivity of 3696 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 yr-1 (SD 1327). Tropical cyclones contribute 22 % of the precipitation (422 mm yr-1) and 40 % of the rainfall erosivity (1462 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 yr-1 (SD 637)). The majority of precipitation (60 %) and rainfall erosivity (82 %) occurs between June and October. At a regional scale, rainfall erosivity increases from the north to the south during July and August, the most erosive months. For the remainder of the year, this gradient occurs mostly from northwest to southeast. Relief features strongly influence the spatial distribution of rainfall erosivity at a smaller scale, with the coastal plains and coastal mountain range having greater rainfall erosivity than the inland Abukuma River valley. Understanding these patterns, particularly their spatial and temporal (both inter- and intraannual) variation, is important for contextualizing soil and particle-bound radiocesium transfers in the Fukushima region. Moreover, understanding the impact of tropical cyclones will be important for managing sediment and sediment-bound contaminant

  17. Self-shielding of fallout gamma rays by terrain roughness. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Herte, M.S.

    1991-02-28

    The study presents a first order calculation of the self-shielding of nuclear weapon fission fragment gamma rays by surface roughness (microscopic terrain irregularities). To simulate fallout particles, polymer microspheres were deposited on slides containing samples of soil, concrete and asphalt roofing shingles. Scanning electron microscopy was used to photographically map the surfaces. The thickness of surface irregularities at various angles was measured by converting the photographs to digital images. Measurements showed a dependence upon the surface type, but not upon particle size. Average values of the measurements were modelled using a homogeneous buried source. With this geometry, dose rates were calculated using the Monte Carlo transport code, MORSE. The MORSE calculations showed self-shielding due to roughness of not more than five percent for the soil samples and eight percent for the shingles. The 30 percent self-shielding used in The Effects of Nuclear Weapons for level terrain is six times as great. It is postulated the large attenuation formerly attributed to roughness may actually be an artifact of an incorrect global/local fallout partition.

  18. Ultrasound-Detected Thyroid Nodule Prevalence and Radiation Dose from Fallout

    PubMed Central

    Land, C. E.; Zhumadilov, Z.; Gusev, B. I.; Hartshorne, M. H.; Wiest, P. W.; Woodward, P. W.; Crooks, L. A.; Luckyanov, N. K.; Fillmore, C. M.; Carr, Z.; Abisheva, G.; Beck, H. L.; Bouville, A.; Langer, J.; Weinstock, R.; Gordeev, K. I.; Shinkarev, S.; Simon, S. L.

    2014-01-01

    Settlements near the Semipalatinsk Test Site (SNTS) in northeastern Kazakhstan were exposed to radioactive fallout during 1949–1962. Thyroid disease prevalence among 2994 residents of eight villages was ascertained by ultrasound screening. Malignancy was determined by cytopathology. Individual thyroid doses from external and internal radiation sources were reconstructed from fallout deposition patterns, residential histories and diet, including childhood milk consumption. Point estimates of individual external and internal dose averaged 0.04 Gy (range 0–0.65) and 0.31 Gy (0–9.6), respectively, with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.46. Ultrasound-detected thyroid nodule prevalence was 18% and 39% among males and females, respectively. It was significantly and independently associated with both external and internal dose, the main study finding. The estimated relative biological effectiveness of internal compared to external radiation dose was 0.33, with 95% confidence bounds of 0.09–3.11. Prevalence of papillary cancer was 0.9% and was not significantly associated with radiation dose. In terms of excess relative risk per unit dose, our dose–response findings for nodule prevalence are comparable to those from populations exposed to medical X rays and to acute radiation from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombings. PMID:18363427

  19. Multifractal structure of the ¹³⁷Cs fallout at small spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Grubich, A O

    2012-05-01

    Regardless of the surface area of the site, the spatial distribution of radioactive contamination of soils with ¹³⁷Cs for Chernobyl fallout is described by a lognormal distribution. Moreover, the spatial pattern of the radioactive contamination of soil is random geometrical multifractal field. Due to that, any contamination spot, when studied in detail, decomposes into a multitude of small spots decomposing further into a multitude of smaller spots etc. Similar patterns are apparently characteristic for fallout of other radionuclides, the Fukushima fallout, as well as atmospheric fallout of non-radioactive dust and aerosols. PMID:22370652

  20. Children become the first victims of fallout

    SciTech Connect

    Balter, M.

    1996-04-19

    Pediatric endocrinologist Larisa Astakhova described a dramatic increase in thyroid cancer among the children of Belarus, with half the new cases, starting to appear in 1990, concentrated in Gomel north of Chernobyl. Gomel received heavy doses of radiation, including large amounts of Iodine-131 and other radioactive iodine isotopes, which the body selectively takes up into the thyroid gland. Since this was only 4 years, not the expected 6-8 year after the Chernobyl accident, the scientific public was at first skeptic, but became convinced. The tragic epidemic, the most pronounced health effect of the accident so far, has sparked intense collaborations between Western and Eastern radiation scientists. This article describes the research and implications of these studies.

  1. Outcome of Transplant-fallout Patients With Unresectable Cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sio, Terence T.; Haddock, Michael G.; Novotny, Paul J.; Gores, Gregory J.; Alberts, Steven R.; Miller, Robert C.; Heimbach, Julie K.; Rosen, Charles B.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this was to determine survival after starting neoadjuvant therapy for patients who became ineligible for orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Methods and Materials: Since January 1993, 215 patients with unresectable cholangiocarcinoma began treatment with planned OLT. Treatment included external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) with fluorouracil, bile duct brachytherapy, and postradiotherapy fluorouracil or capecitabine before OLT. Adverse findings at the staging operation, death, and other factors precluded OLT in 63 patients (29%), of whom 61 completed neoadjuvant chemoradiation. Results: By October 2012, 56 (89%) of the 63 patients unable to undergo OLT had died. Twenty-two patients (35%) became ineligible for OLT before the staging operation, 38 (60%) at the staging operation, and 3 (5%) after staging. From the date of diagnosis, median overall survival was 12.3 months. Survival was 17% at 18 months and 7% at 24 months. Median survival after fallout was 6.8 months. Median survival after the staging operation was 6 months. Two patients lived for 3.7 and 8.7 years before dying of cancer or liver failure caused by persistent biliary stricture at the site of the original cancer, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that time from diagnosis to fallout correlated with overall survival (P=0.04). Conclusions: In highly selected patients initially suitable for OLT, the mortality rate for cholangiocarcinoma was high in patients who became ineligible for OLT. Their survival, however, was comparable to expected survival for patients with locally advanced or metastatic disease treated with nontransplant therapies. The most common reason for patient fallout was adverse findings at the staging operation. PMID:24921218

  2. Radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident

    SciTech Connect

    Beiriger, J.M.; Failor, R.A.; Marsh, K.V.; Shaw, G.E.

    1987-03-23

    Following the accident at the nuclear reactor at Chernobyl, in the Soviet Union on April 26, 1986, we performed a variety of measurements to determine the level of the radioactive fallout on the western United States. We used gamma-spectroscopy to analyze air filters from the areas around Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), California, and Barrow and Fairbanks, Alaska. Milk from California and imported vegetables were also analyzed. The levels of the various fission products detected were far below the maximum permissible concentration levels.

  3. Individual human odor fallout as detected by trained canines.

    PubMed

    Vyplelová, Petra; Vokálek, Václav; Pinc, Ludvík; Pacáková, Zuzana; Bartoš, Luděk; Santariová, Milena; Čapková, Zuzana

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that if odor fallout (the release of a human's odor onto an untouched object) in human subjects exists, then holding a hand above an absorbent will produce a detectable scent which will be subsequently matched in a detection test by trained canines. Scents were collected from seven males to sterile cotton absorbent squares. The left hand was used to get the control scent and the right hand served as the target scent. Each experimental subject was sitting; his left hand was laid down on a cotton square for 3 min. The right hand was held 5 cm above another cotton square for 3 min. The scent identification was done by two specially trained police German shepherds. These canines had routinely performed scent identification line-ups as part of criminal investigation procedures. Both canines performed 14 line-ups and correctly matched the collected scents of all test subjects. The results suggest the existence of human odor fallout, whereby a human scent trace is left by humans even if they do not touch an object. PMID:24378296

  4. Determination of lateral spread of nuclear-fallout patterns. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, D.P.

    1986-03-01

    This report develops an improved method of determining the lateral spread of nuclear fallout. A full physics model of pattern development based on particle mass is analyzed. A rapid, simplified method for the prediction of nuclear-fallout patterns is developed for the case of a 1-Mt weapon based on empirical data from WSEG-10. This model is extended to other weapon sizes.

  5. Application of fallout radionuclides as indicators of eco-geomorphic adjustments to dams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magilligan, F. J.; Kaste, J. M.; Renshaw, C. E.; Fisher, G. B.; Nislow, K. H.

    2008-12-01

    Because of the profound effects of dams on flow variability and sediment transport dynamics, extensive research by both geomorphologists and ecologists has attempted to document the array of bio-physical changes associated with dams. Yet specifically linking ecological responses to geomorphic processes has proven difficult and thus is often lacking in eco-geomorphic assessments, indicating the need for a broader array of efficient methodological approaches. This research investigates new approaches for assessing bio- physical changes occurring both in-channel and across the broader riparian zone as a consequence of reduced flows downstream of flood control structures in the Upper Connecticut River watershed. In particular, we seek to ascertain the role of tributaries in either exacerbating or attenuating the effects of dammed mainstems. Our approach takes advantage of the naturally occurring short-lived fallout radionuclides 7-Be and 210-Pb by documenting changes in radionuclide activities and inventories as a functions of in-channel sediment residence time and floodplain overbank inundation histories. As most streams in the Upper Connecticut River watershed have limited fines, we ran controlled exposure experiments to establish whether the more common sand-sized grains can sorb radionuclides and be used as tracers. Results indicate that even profiles containing well sorted 2-4 mm grains develop a classic exponential decay in 7-Be activity with depth, with surface samples (0-2 mm depth) having very high 7-Be content >20 Bq/kg) that can be modeled to approach equilibrium with the atmosphere. To capture compositional effects we compared the grain surface area normalized 7-Be activity to the ratio of 7-Be to excess 210-Pb and to the ratio of 7-Be to total 210-Pb. We find that the ratio of 7-Be to total 210-Pb has the strongest relationship with grain surface area normalized 7-Be activity (r = 0.90; p < 0.01). Analyses of 7-Be activity of transitional bed load sediment

  6. "Naturally occurring asbestos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagnard, F.; Lahondère, D.; Blein, O.; Lahfid, A.; Wille, G.

    2012-04-01

    The term asbestos refers to six silicate minerals from amphibole and serpentine groups. By definition, it consists in bundles of thin and flexible long fibers, with high-tensile strength, and chemical and heat resistance. In contrast to asbestos found within commercial products and mining, the specific term ''naturally occurring asbestos'' (NOA) refers to asbestiform minerals occurring within rocks or soils that can be released by human activities or weathering processes. The fact that the exposure to asbestos is related to lung pathologies is now widely demonstrated (e.g. asbestosis, mesothelioma and lung cancer). However, if health risks associated with exposure to NOA exist, they are not yet well documented. The crystallization of natural asbestos occurs in specific Mg-rich lithologies associated with peculiar structural and metamorphic conditions. By recognizing and combining such specific geologic criteria, the presence or the absence of asbestos in bedrock terrains can be reasonably predicted and maps of NOA hazard can be drawn. We present here new results of geological mapping and petrological study concerning the evaluation of the NOA hazard in the Alps and Corsica, in France. The three folds approach consists in (1) a determination of lithologies with potential NOA from a bibliographic compilation and extraction of target zones from a geological geodatabase (2) a geological mapping of the target zones followed by a petrological characterization of sampled asbestiform minerals in the laboratory (optical microscopy, TEM, SEM, and Raman spectroscopy technics), and (3) the drawing of the final map of NOA hazard, at regional-scale. Occurrence criteria can be retained as follows: 1. NOA are abundant in the internal zones of the Alps and Corsica, especially within ophiolitic complexes. Natural asbestos are mostly concentrated within ultramafic rocks but can also occur within basic lithologies such as Mg-metagabbros, metabasalts and meta-pillow-lavas, 2. Asbestos

  7. Challenges and opportunities for use of natural fallout 7Be as a soil erosion tracer in agricultural systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Will; Taylor, Alex; Mabit, Lionel

    2015-04-01

    High resolution measurement of soil erosion amounts is difficult to achieve using conventional methodologies without interfering with agricultural practice and hence compromising the representativeness of results. Tracer technologies, both natural and tag-and-trace, offer opportunity to derive soil erosion data under 'real-world' conditions, providing a valuable complement to experimental and modelled data. Beryllium-7 (7Be) is a naturally-occurring cosmogenic fallout radionuclide formed in the upper atmosphere by cosmic ray spallation of nitrogen and oxygen. Its constant production and delivery to the surface via precipitation coupled with its affinity for soil and sediment particles has underpinned its application as a conservative soil and sediment tracer wherein its short half-life (53.3 days) lends itself to tracing soil redistribution dynamics over short time periods. While the radionuclide budget approach to deriving soil redistribution amounts and patterns is conceptually straightforward, important aspects of the tracer's environmental behaviour, especially linked to its physical and geochemical distribution within the soil, remain poorly understood. These contribute to uncertainty in conversion of radionuclide inventory to soil erosion amounts and there is a need to develop a rigorous harmonised approach to application of the tracer, with opportunity to share experience with the tag-and-trace community. Drawing on past studies and recent experimental work within a validation plot experiment, this contribution offers an evaluation of the approach as applied to date and explores the challenges and opportunities for effective use of 7Be as a tracer to support soil conservation and management strategies in the future.

  8. The Exposure Rate Conversion Factor for Nuclear Fallout

    SciTech Connect

    Spriggs, G D

    2009-02-11

    Nuclear fallout is comprised of approximately 2000 radionuclides. About 1000 of these radionuclides are either primary fission products or activated fission products that are created during the burn process. The exposure rate one meter above the surface produced by this complex mixture of radionuclides varies rapidly with time since many of the radionuclides are short-lived and decay numerous times before reaching a stable isotope. As a result, the mixture of radionuclides changes rapidly with time. Using a new code developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the mixture of radionuclides at any given point in time can be calculated. The code also calculates the exposure rate conversion factor (ECF) for all 3864 individual isotopes contained in its database based on the total gamma energy released per decay. Based on the combination of isotope mixture and individual ECFs, the time-dependent variation of the composite exposure rate conversion factor for nuclear fallout can be easily calculated. As example of this new capability, a simple test case corresponding to a 10 kt, uranium-plutonium fuel has been calculated. The results for the time-dependent, composite ECF for this test case are shown in Figure 1. For comparison, we also calculated the composite exposure rate conversion factor using the conversion factors found in Federal Guidance Report No.12 (FGR-12) published by ORNL, which contains the conversion factors for approximately 1000 isotopes. As can be noted from Figure 1, the two functions agree reasonably well at times greater than about 30 minutes. However, they do not agree at early times since FGR-12 does not include all of the short-lived isotopes that are produced in nuclear fallout. It should also be noted that the composite ECF at one hour is 19.7 R/hr per Ci/m{sup 2}. This corresponds to 3148 R/hr per 1 kt per square mile, which agrees reasonably well with the value of 3000 R/hr per 1 kt per square mile as quoted by Glasstone. We have

  9. The KFM, A Homemade Yet Accurate and Dependable Fallout Meter

    SciTech Connect

    Kearny, C.H.

    2001-11-20

    The KFM is a homemade fallout meter that can be made using only materials, tools, and skills found in millions of American homes. It is an accurate and dependable electroscope-capacitor. The KFM, in conjunction with its attached table and a watch, is designed for use as a rate meter. Its attached table relates observed differences in the separations of its two leaves (before and after exposures at the listed time intervals) to the dose rates during exposures of these time intervals. In this manner dose rates from 30 mR/hr up to 43 R/hr can be determined with an accuracy of {+-}25%. A KFM can be charged with any one of the three expedient electrostatic charging devices described. Due to the use of anhydrite (made by heating gypsum from wallboard) inside a KFM and the expedient ''dry-bucket'' in which it can be charged when the air is very humid, this instrument always can be charged and used to obtain accurate measurements of gamma radiation no matter how high the relative humidity. The heart of this report is the step-by-step illustrated instructions for making and using a KFM. These instructions have been improved after each successive field test. The majority of the untrained test families, adequately motivated by cash bonuses offered for success and guided only by these written instructions, have succeeded in making and using a KFM. NOTE: ''The KFM, A Homemade Yet Accurate and Dependable Fallout Meter'', was published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory report in1979. Some of the materials originally suggested for suspending the leaves of the Kearny Fallout Meter (KFM) are no longer available. Because of changes in the manufacturing process, other materials (e.g., sewing thread, unwaxed dental floss) may not have the insulating capability to work properly. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has not tested any of the suggestions provided in the preface of the report, but they have been used by other groups. When using these instructions, the builder can verify the

  10. Childhood Thyroid Radioiodine Exposure and Subsequent Infertility in the Intermountain Fallout Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Mary Bishop; Lyon, Joseph L.; VanDerslice, James A.; Alder, Stephen C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Above-ground and underground nuclear weapon detonation at the Nevada Test Site (1951–1992) has resulted in radioiodine exposure for nearby populations. Although the long-term effect of environmental radioiodine exposure on thyroid disease has been well studied, little is known regarding the effect of childhood radioiodine exposure on subsequent fertility. Objectives: We investigated early childhood thyroid radiation exposure from nuclear testing fallout (supplied predominantly by radioactive isotopes of iodine) and self-reported lifetime incidence of male or female infertility or sterility. Methods: Participants were members of the 1965 Intermountain Fallout Cohort, schoolchildren at the time of exposure who were reexamined during two subsequent study phases to collect dietary and reproductive histories. Thyroid radiation exposure was calculated via an updated dosimetry model. We used multivariable logistic regression with robust sandwich estimators to estimate odds ratios for infertility, adjusted for potential confounders and (in separate models) for a medically confirmed history of thyroid disease. Results: Of 1,389 participants with dosimetry and known fertility history, 274 were classified as infertile, including 30 classified as sterile. Childhood thyroid radiation dose was possibly associated with infertility [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.17; 95% CI: 0.82, 1.67 and AOR = 1.35; 95% CI: 0.96, 1.90 for the middle and upper tertiles vs. the first tertile of exposure, respectively]. The odds ratios were attenuated (AOR = 1.08; 95% CI: 0.75, 1.55 and AOR = 1.29; 95% CI: 0.91, 1.83 for the middle and upper tertiles, respectively) after adjusting for thyroid disease. There was no association of childhood radiation dose and sterility. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that childhood radioiodine exposure from nuclear testing may be related to subsequent adult infertility. Further research is required to confirm this. PMID:23099433

  11. A case with occurring adverse effects when cross-over titration from fluvoxamine to paroxetine associated with increasing the plasma fluvoxamine level in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Hori, Hikaru; Yoshimura, Reiji; Ueda, Nobuhisa; Ikenouchi-Sugita, Atsuko; Umene-Nakano, Wakako; Nakamura, Jun

    2009-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are first line drugs for treating not only depressive disorder but also anxiety disorder. Fluvoxamine, a SSRI, is mainly metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 and 1A2. However, paroxetine, an another SSRI is potent inhibitor for CYP 2D6. We report a case with depression whose plasma fluvoxamine level rapidly increased after the addition of paroxetine while switching from fluvoxamine to paroxetine. The case indicates that emerging adverse effects via the pharmacokinetic interaction of these drugs when switching patients from fluvoxamine to paroxetine can occur. PMID:18609433

  12. Effects of human-induced alteration of groundwater flow on concentrations of naturally-occurring trace elements at water-supply wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayotte, J.D.; Szabo, Z.; Focazio, M.J.; Eberts, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of human-induced alteration of groundwater flow patterns on concentrations of naturally-occurring trace elements were examined in five hydrologically distinct aquifer systems in the USA. Although naturally occurring, these trace elements can exceed concentrations that are considered harmful to human health. The results show that pumping-induced hydraulic gradient changes and artificial connection of aquifers by well screens can mix chemically distinct groundwater. Chemical reactions between these mixed groundwaters and solid aquifer materials can result in the mobilization of trace elements such as U, As and Ra, with subsequent transport to water-supply wells. For example, in the High Plains aquifer near York, Nebraska, mixing of shallow, oxygenated, lower-pH water from an unconfined aquifer with deeper, confined, anoxic, higher-pH water is facilitated by wells screened across both aquifers. The resulting higher-O2, lower-pH mixed groundwater facilitated the mobilization of U from solid aquifer materials, and dissolved U concentrations were observed to increase significantly in nearby supply wells. Similar instances of trace element mobilization due to human-induced mixing of groundwaters were documented in: (1) the Floridan aquifer system near Tampa, Florida (As and U), (2) Paleozoic sedimentary aquifers in eastern Wisconsin (As), (3) the basin-fill aquifer underlying the California Central Valley near Modesto (U), and (4) Coastal Plain aquifers of New Jersey (Ra). Adverse water-quality impacts attributed to human activities are commonly assumed to be related solely to the release of the various anthropogenic contaminants to the environment. The results show that human activities including various land uses, well drilling, and pumping rates and volumes can adversely impact the quality of water in supply wells, when associated with naturally-occurring trace elements in aquifer materials. This occurs by causing subtle but significant changes in

  13. Using fallout plutonium as a probe for erosion assessment.

    PubMed

    Hoo, W T; Fifield, L K; Tims, S G; Fujioka, T; Mueller, N

    2011-10-01

    A study has been carried out to assess the potential of using fallout plutonium (Pu), which originated from atmospheric nuclear-weapons tests, as a tool to investigate recent erosional processes within the lower Cotter water-supply catchment in the Australian Capital Territory. This catchment, which was predominantly pine plantation, was severely affected by a major bush fire in 2003. Accelerator mass spectrometry has been used to measure Pu in soil samples collected from a number of sites across the catchment. The results indicate that less than 1cm of surface soil had been lost since the early 1960s over much of the catchment. Areas of more erodible soil have, however, lost 2-4cm of topsoil, and a loss of ∼6cm of soil was identified at one particular site. PMID:20638160

  14. Another look at the calculation of fallout tephra volumes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fierstein, J.; Nathenson, M.

    1992-01-01

    The calculation of volumes of fallout tephra layers is difficult because of the nonlinear dependence of thickness on area and because of the extrapolations required at the vent and in distal regions. Calculation using the trapezoidal rule, straight lines on log-log plots of area versus thickness, straight lines on plots of log thickness versus area1/2, and the crystal-concentration method are reviewed and the problems with each method discussed. The method using straight lines on plots of log thickness versus area1/2 is the most geologically reasonable because most deposits thin exponentially from source and therefore plot as straight lines using these coordinates. Errors and uncertainties in previous derivations for using this method are discussed and more general formulas presented. The method is also used to gain perspective on the "missing" distal volumes calculated by the crystal-concentration method compared to those calculated based only on isopach data. ?? 1992 Springer-Verlag.

  15. Chernobyl team seeks aid for fallout cleanup studies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-18

    British nuclear experts have begun raising international aid agency interest in financing studies into cleaning up vast areas of the Ukraine still contaminated with fallout from the Chernobyl reactor explosion in April 1986. In a new 11-month investigation of the area outside an 18.6-mile radius of Chernobyl, the experts identified 80 necessary studies estimated to cost $62 million. [open quotes]That's just to get the system up and running. The total cost is much larger, but the authors don't yet know how much,[close quotes] says investigation coordinator Alan Eggleton of AEA Technology Ltd., Harwell, which led the study team. According to the report, radioactivity contaminated 19,000 sq miles of the Ukraine. The government is now spending some 12% of its income on mitigating the contamination, although most spending is for victim compensation and resettlement.

  16. Effect of the co-occurring components from olive oil and thyme extracts on the antioxidant status and its bioavailability in an acute ingestion in rats.

    PubMed

    Rubió, Laura; Serra, Aida; Chen, C-Y Oliver; Macià, Alba; Romero, Maria-Paz; Covas, Maria-Isabel; Solà, Rosa; Motilva, Maria-José

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this work was to examine whether bioactives in thyme could enhance the antioxidant capacity of phenolics in virgin olive oil and their bioavailability in Wistar rats. After acute oral administration of extracts from olive cake (OE), thyme (TE) or their combination (OTE), blood samples were collected from 0 to 360 min. Plasma antioxidant status was analyzed by DPPH and FRAP in plasma and by SOD, CAT and GPx activities in erythrocytes. Plasma pharmacokinetics of the main metabolites of bioactives in olive oil and thyme were characterized. Plasma non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity was significantly modulated by OE, TE, and OTE in a time-, assay, and extract-dependent manner. OE, TE, and OTE all significantly decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and catalase (CAT) activity was increased. Pharmacokinetic results showed that plasma concentration (Cmax) of the main olive phenolic metabolites in rats fed with OTE were similar to those of OE. These results indicate that an enhanced bioavailability of olive phenolic compounds could occur in the presence of thyme, although any synergistic effect was observed in the antioxidant status when both phenolic extracts were administered. Antioxidant protection by phenolics from olive and thyme against oxidative stress occurs primarily through a direct antioxidant effect and may be related to the phenolic plasmatic metabolites. PMID:24554091

  17. Naturally occurring cardiac glycosides.

    PubMed

    Radford, D J; Gillies, A D; Hinds, J A; Duffy, P

    1986-05-12

    Cardiac glycoside poisoning from the ingestion of plants, particularly of oleanders, occurs with reasonable frequency in tropical and subtropical areas. We have assessed a variety of plant specimens for their cardiac glycoside content by means of radioimmunoassays with antibodies that differ in their specificity for cardiac glycosides. Significant amounts of immunoreactive cardiac glycoside were found to be present in the ornamental shrubs: yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana); oleander (Nerium oleander); wintersweet (Carissa spectabilis); bushman's poison (Carissa acokanthera); sea-mango (Cerbera manghas); and frangipani (Plumeria rubra); and in the milkweeds: redheaded cotton-bush (Asclepias curassavica); balloon cotton (Asclepias fruiticosa); king's crown (Calotropis procera); and rubber vine (Cryptostegia grandifolia). The venom gland of the cane toad (Bufo marinus) also contained large quantities of cardiac glycosides. The competitive immunoassay method permits the rapid screening of specimens that are suspected to contain cardiac glycosides. Awareness of the existence of these plant and animal toxins and their dangers allows them to be avoided and poisoning prevented. The method is also useful for the confirmation of the presence of cardiac glycosides in serum in cases of poisoning. PMID:3086679

  18. Use of Lasers to Study the Impact of Fractionation and Condensation on the Toxicity of Nuclear Weapon Fallout

    SciTech Connect

    Vidnovic III, T; Bradley, K S; Debonnel, C S; Dipeso, G; Fournier, K; Karpenko, V P; Tobin, M

    2005-04-01

    An experimental concept has been developed to collect data to aid in the refinement of simulation programs designed to predict the fallout effects arising from surface and shallowly buried nuclear weapon detonations. These experiments, called the Condensation Debris Experiments (CDE), are intended to study the condensation/fractionation of material that is liberated following an initial deposition of laser energy onto a small, characterized target. The CDE effort also encompasses target development and material studies as well as supporting computational efforts studying radiation hydrodynamics, computational fluid dynamics, and relevant neutron activation processes (not discussed here).

  19. Effects of repetition within trials and frequency of trial sessions on quantitative parameters of vertical force peak in horses with naturally occurring lameness.

    PubMed

    Kaido, Mari; Kilborne, Allison H; Sizemore, Joy L; Reisbig, Nathalie A; Aarnes, Turi K; Bertone, Alicia L

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the effects of vertical force peak (VFP) of repition within trials and between trial sessions in horses with naturally occurring appendicular lameness. ANIMALS 20 lame horses acclimated to trotting over a force plate. PROCEDURES Kinetic gait data were collected by use of a force plate regarding affected and contralateral limbs of lame horses that completed 5 valid repetitions in each of 5 sessions performed at 0, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours, constituting 1 trial/horse. Data were compared within and among repetitions and sessions, and factors influencing VFP values were identified. RESULTS VFP values differed for lame limbs after 3 valid repetitions were performed within a session and when the interval between sessions was 3 hours. Direction of change reflected less lameness (greater VFP). Lamer horses (≥ grade 4/5) had this finding to a greater degree than did less lame horses. Results were similar for contralateral limbs regarding valid repetitions within a session; however, VFP decreased when the interval between sessions exceeded 6 hours. The coefficient of variation for VFP was ≤ 8% within sessions and ≤ 6% between sessions. The asymmetry index for VFP did not change throughout the study. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Lameness profiles obtained through kinetic gait analysis of horses with naturally occurring lameness were most accurate when valid repetitions were limited to 3 and the interval between sessions within a trial was > 3 hours. Findings suggested that natural lameness may be as suitable as experimentally induced lameness for lameness research involving horses. PMID:27347829

  20. Long-runout landslide occurred in snowmelt period at the Higashi-kubiki Hill, Niigata, Japan: effects of snowpack on behavior of landslide movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Takashi; Hatada, Kazuhiro; Maruyama, Kiyoteru; Noro, Tomoyuki

    2013-04-01

    The mountain areas and the western part of Japan, along the Japan Sea, have over 1.0 m snow accumulation in every winter. For this reason, snowmelt-induced landslides occur frequently in these regions. If a landslide occurs particularly in early snowmelt period, abundant snow potentially causes the landslide to travel long distance. However, because there have been few literatures reported details of landslide movements in deep snow condition, our understanding of landslide movements affected by snow is still limited. This work reports movements and topographies of the Kokugawa landslide, occurred in early snowmelt period at the Higashi-kubiki Hill, Niigata, and discusses the effects of snowpack on behavior of landslide movements. On 7th March 2012, a snowmelt-induced landslide occurred at gentle slope (10-20° ) of the Higashi-kubiki Hill, adjacent to the Takada floodplain, Niigata, Japan, and destroyed eleven houses. Geology of the site consists of Neogene marine mudstone and Early Pleistocene conglomerate, while the slope surface is covered by loose materials (7-8m thick) composed of old colluvial deposits and spoil of gravel extraction in the 1980s. The Kokugawa landslide occurred initially as a rotational slide, which continued to enlarge until the afternoon of 8th, then it tuned into earthflow. The estimated earthflow volume was 750,000 m3. Although the outer part of the sliding mass spread out and deposited at the foot of hill, 350-500 m downward from the top of the scarp, the main body of the sliding mass continued to move rapidly (approximately 15 m/h) without spread out after reaching flat paddy field. When the landslide occurred, about two meters snow covered the site. Snow on the paddy field was pushed by the sliding mass and swelled up several meters above the snow surface level. The swelled snow formed moraine-like snowpack of 5-20 m width. The sliding mass including the snowpack reached houses 250 m apart from the foot of hill on morning of 10th, and

  1. Effect of the co-occurring olive oil and thyme extracts on the phenolic bioaccessibility and bioavailability assessed by in vitro digestion and cell models.

    PubMed

    Rubió, Laura; Macià, Alba; Castell-Auví, Anna; Pinent, Montserrat; Blay, M Teresa; Ardévol, Anna; Romero, Maria-Paz; Motilva, Maria-José

    2014-04-15

    Olive oils flavoured with edible herbs have grown in popularity because of their added value and potential health benefits. However, the combined presence of different phytochemicals from olive oil and herbs requires study of their possible interactions during intestinal transport and metabolism. The aim of this study was firstly to evaluate the effect on bioaccessibility of the co-occurring bioactive compounds from olive oil and thyme through an in vitro digestion model of three extracts: olive extract (OE), thyme extract (TE) and a combination of both (OTE). The bioaccessible fractions were exposed to Caco-2 and HepG-2 cell models, as well as to a co-culture of both of these. Results indicated that the bioaccessibility of hydroxytyrosol was enhanced when OTE was digested. After Caco-2 cells exposure, no significant differences were observed in hydroxytyrosol transport, whereas the main flavonoids from thyme seemed to undergo an enhanced basolateral permeation when both phenolic sources where exposed. PMID:24295707

  2. Naturally occurring autoantibodies against Aβ oligomers exhibited more beneficial effects in the treatment of mouse model of Alzheimer's disease than intravenous immunoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Teng; Xie, Xi-Xiu; Ji, Mei; Wang, Shao-Wei; Zha, Jun; Zhou, Wei-Wei; Yu, Xiao-Lin; Wei, Chen; Ma, Shan; Xi, Zhi-Ying; Pang, Guang-Li; Liu, Rui-Tian

    2016-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by memory loss, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, and extracellular plaque deposits composed of β-amyloid (Aβ). Previous reports showed that naturally occurring autoantibodies, such as intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), benefited patients with moderate-stage AD who carried an APOE-ε4 allele. However, the mechanism underlying the role of IVIG remains unclear. In this study, we identified naturally occurring autoantibodies against Aβ oligomers (NAbs-Aβo), which were purified by Aβ42 oligomer or Cibacron Blue affinity chromatography from IVIG and termed as Oli-NAbs and Blue-NAbs, respectively. Oli-NAbs and Blue-NAbs recognized Aβ42 oligomers or both Aβ40 and 42 oligomers, differently. Both antibodies inhibited Aβ42 aggregation and attenuated Aβ42-induced cytotoxicity. Compared with vehicles, Oli-NAbs, Blue-NAbs and IVIG significantly improved the memory and cognition, and reduced the soluble and oligomeric Aβ levels in APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice. Further investigation showed that Blue-NAbs at increased doses effectively decreased plaque burden and insoluble Aβ levels, whereas Oli-NAbs significantly declined the microgliosis and astrogliosis, as well as the production of proinflammatory cytokines in vivo. Therefore, high levels of these antibodies against oligomeric Aβ40 or Aβ42 were required, correspondingly, to achieve the optimal effect. NAbs-Aβo could be condensed to a high concentration by affinity chromatography and its isolation from IVIG may not interfere with the normal function of conventional IVIG as its concentration is very low. Thus, the isolated NAbs-Aβo as an extra product of plasma required low cost and the enriched NAbs-Aβo may be more feasible than IVIG for the treatment of AD. PMID:26907803

  3. Effects of diversion on adults with co-occurring mental illness and substance use: outcomes from a national multi-site study.

    PubMed

    Broner, Nahama; Lattimore, Pamela K; Cowell, Alexander J; Schlenger, William E

    2004-01-01

    This quasi-experimental non-equivalent comparison group study examines outcomes for participants in eight programs conducting criminal justice diversion for people with co-occurring serious mental illness and substance use disorders compared with jail detainees eligible for diversion, but who were processed through standard criminal justice methods without diversion. Nearly 2000 participants were interviewed at baseline, and 1500 at 3 month and 1300 at 12 month follow-up to baseline. In these interviews, outcome measures of re-arrest, mental health functioning, substance abuse, quality of life, and service utilization were obtained. Those diverted were more likely to have received mental health counseling, mental health medication, and mental health hospitalization than those not enrolled in a diversion program, but were equally likely to have received substance abuse counseling. Overall, the differences in proportions receiving services between the two groups were small, even when these differences were statistically significant. The effect associated with diversion differed somewhat across the individual sites. However, overall cross-site pooled analyses revealed no outcome differences between groups on measures of mental health symptoms, substance use, criminal justice recidivism, or quality of life. Although the immediate benefit of diversion as an access mechanism to community treatment is indicated in pooled cross-site results, such access was driven by more coercive (pre-booking and court) models and results suggest that effecting substantially greater access to services or services use did not occur. The findings also suggest that mental health, substance abuse, and criminal justice outcomes remain dependent on the treatment intervention received, perhaps moderated by type of diversion intervention, rather than on a generic and initial diversion event. PMID:15282838

  4. Redistribution of fallout radionuclides in Enewetak Atoll lagoon sediments by callianassid bioturbation.

    PubMed

    McMurtry, G M; Schneider, R C; Colin, P L; Buddemeier, R W; Suchanek, T H

    The lagoon sediments of Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands contain a large selection of fallout radionuclides as a result of 43 nuclear weapon tests conducted there between 1948 and 1958. Studies of the burial of fallout radionuclides have been conducted on the islands and in several of the large craters, but studies of their vertical distribution have been limited to about the upper 20 cm of the lagoon sediments. We have found elevated fallout radionuclide concentrations buried more deeply in the lagoon sediments and evidence of burrowing into the sediment by several species of callianassid ghost shrimp (Crustacea: Thalassinidea) which has displaced highly radioactive sediment. The burrowing activities of callianassids, which are ubiquitous on the lagoon floor, facilitate radionuclide redistribution and complicate the fallout radionuclide inventory of the lagoon. PMID:3974699

  5. Tephra fallout hazards at Quito International Airport (Ecuador)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volentik, Alain C. M.; Houghton, Bruce F.

    2015-06-01

    Tephra fallout is the most widespread hazard posed by explosive volcanic eruptions. The 2010 explosive eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland significantly exposed the vulnerability of aviation operations to volcanic ash. The presence of fine ash in the atmosphere forced authorities to close most of European airspace for almost a week. A worldwide study of airport operations disrupted by volcanic eruptions (Guffanti et al., Nat Hazards 51:287-302, 2009) showed significant past exposure to tephra fall of the old international airport (OUIO) in Quito, Ecuador. A new international airport, Mariscal Sucre International Airport (UIO), located 15 km due east to OUIO, started operations on February 20, 2013. Given its location close to the old airport, UIO is also at risk for tephra fallout in the future. We identified five volcanoes capable of producing tephra hazard at UIO. Three (Guagua Pichincha, Reventador, and Tungurahua) are currently active and have recently disrupted aviation operations in Ecuador. The other two (Cotopaxi and Pululagua) are not currently active, but any future eruption from these two volcanoes would probably be explosive, hence capable of producing tephra hazard to UIO. As eruption parameters and wind profiles cannot be forecast in advance, we used a probabilistic approach to quantify the probability of tephra accumulation exceeding 1 mm and 1 cm (regarded as non-conservative and conservative bounds for airport disruption) following an explosive eruption from each volcano. Each eruptive parameter was randomly sampled within a predefined distribution, and wind profiles are randomly sampled within a 5-year dataset. The probability of tephra accumulation reaching 1 mm and 1 cm at UIO is 14.3-19.9 and 2.5-5.8 %, respectively, for Cotopaxi; 17.5-19.9 and 7-7.7 %, respectively, for Guagua Pichincha; and 44.3-44.8 and 18.8-24.9 %, respectively, for Pululagua. According to our results, Reventador and Tungurahua are not likely to yield tephra

  6. The risk of leukaemia in young children from exposure to tritium and carbon-14 in the discharges of German nuclear power stations and in the fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing.

    PubMed

    Wakeford, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Towards the end of 2007, the results were published from a case-control study (the "KiKK Study") of cancer in young children, diagnosed <5 years of age during 1980-2003 while resident near nuclear power stations in western Germany. The study found a tendency for cases of leukaemia to live closer to the nearest nuclear power station than their matched controls, producing an odds ratio that was raised to a statistically significant extent for residence within 5 km of a nuclear power station. The findings of the study received much publicity, but a detailed radiological risk assessment demonstrated that the radiation doses received by young children from discharges of radioactive material from the nuclear reactors were much lower than those received from natural background radiation and far too small to be responsible for the statistical association reported in the KiKK Study. This has led to speculation that conventional radiological risk assessments have grossly underestimated the risk of leukaemia in young children posed by exposure to man-made radionuclides, and particular attention has been drawn to the possible role of tritium and carbon-14 discharges in this supposedly severe underestimation of risk. Both (3)H and (14)C are generated naturally in the upper atmosphere, and substantial increases in these radionuclides in the environment occurred as a result of their production by atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons during the late 1950s and early 1960s. If the leukaemogenic effect of these radionuclides has been seriously underestimated to the degree necessary to explain the KiKK Study findings, then a pronounced increase in the worldwide incidence of leukaemia among young children should have followed the notably elevated exposure to (3)H and (14)C from nuclear weapons testing fallout. To investigate this hypothesis, the time series of incidence rates of leukaemia among young children <5 years of age at diagnosis has been examined from ten cancer registries

  7. Effects of Soil Characteristics, Allelopathy and Frugivory on Establishment of the Invasive Plant Carpobrotus edulis and a Co-Occuring Native, Malcolmia littorea

    PubMed Central

    Novoa, Ana; González, Luís; Moravcová, Lenka; Pyšek, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Background The species Carpobrotus edulis, native to South Africa, is one of the major plant invaders of Mediterranean coastal ecosystems around the world. Invasion by C. edulis exerts a great impact on coastal habitats. The low number of native species in invaded communities points to the possible existence of mechanisms suppressing their germination. In this study we assessed whether soil factors, endozoochory, competition and allelopathic effects of the invader affect its own early establishment and that of the native species Malcolmia littorea. We used laboratory solutions representing different chemical composition and moisture of the soil, herbivore feeding assays to simulate seed scarification and rainwater solutions to account for the effect of differently aged C. edulis litter. Principal Findings We show that unlike that of the native species, germination and early growth of C. edulis was not constrained by low moisture. The establishment of C. edulis, in terms of germination and early growth, was increased by scarification of seeds following passage through the European rabbit intestines; the rabbits therefore may have potential implications for plant establishment. There was no competition between C. edulis and M. littorea. The litter of the invasive C. edulis, which remains on the soil surface for several years, releases allelopathic substances that suppress the native plant germination process and early root growth. Conclusions The invasive species exhibits features that likely make it a better colonizer of sand dunes than the co-occurring native species. Allelopathic effects, ability to establish in drier microsites and efficient scarification by rabbits are among the mechanisms allowing C. edulis to invade. The results help to explain the failure of removal projects that have been carried out in order to restore dunes invaded by C. edulis, and the long-lasting effects of C. edulis litter need to be taken into account in future restoration projects

  8. Ranking of length-class, seasonal and regional effects on dietary compositions of the co-occurring Pagrus auratus (Sparidae) and Pseudocaranx georgianus (Carangidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, Ben; Platell, Margaret E.; Clarke, K. Robert; Potter, Ian C.

    2012-12-01

    Using an effective combination of multivariate testing and ordination analyses, this study compares the extents to which the diets of two co-occurring fish species (Pagrus auratus and Pseudocaranx georgianus) are related to body size (length class), season and region and the rank order importance of those effects. Thus, volumetric dietary compositions were determined for these species on the lower west coast of Australia, where both are abundant, and for P. auratus from the mid west coast and P. georgianus from the south coast. The diet of P. auratus on the lower west coast was strongly related to body size and slightly less to season. With increasing body size, its diet shifted from predominantly ophiuroids to larger prey, such as brachyuran crabs, teleosts, echinoids and ultimately asteroids, probably reflecting a shift from foraging over soft sediments to areas over and around reefs. Seasonal changes on the lower west coast were restricted mainly to small P. auratus, while larger fish underwent seasonal changes further north. Analyses using a common size range of medium to larger P. auratus demonstrated that dietary composition differed more between regions than seasons. The relationships between diet and length class of P. georgianus on both the lower west and south coasts were less pronounced than for P. auratus and seasonal changes were restricted to the south coast, where amphipod consumption increased markedly in summer. The diet of P. georgianus was related far more to region than length class and season, with more small teleosts, small crabs, carideans and littorinids and less amphipods, isopods and small bivalves being ingested on the lower west than south coasts. Although crabs and teleosts were important typifying prey of P. auratus and P. georgianus, when co-occurring, the former predator tended to ingest greater volumes of larger and often less mobile prey. This reflects differences in dentition, jaw morphology and feeding behaviour and reduces the

  9. Development and validation of UHPLC-MS/MS method for determination of eight naturally occurring catechin derivatives in various tea samples and the role of matrix effects.

    PubMed

    Svoboda, Pavel; Vlčková, Hana; Nováková, Lucie

    2015-10-10

    A complete analytical procedure combining optimized tea infusion preparation and validated UHPLC-MS/MS method was developed for routine quantification of eight naturally occurring catechin derivatives in various tea samples. The preparation of tea infusions was optimized in terms of temperature, time and water-to-tea ratio in green, white and black teas. The catechins were analyzed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in a run of only 4 min including equilibration of the system. The UHPLC-MS/MS method was fully validated in terms of inter/intra-day precision, accuracy, linearity (r(2)>0.9991), range (50-5000 ng/ml), LOD (1.5-7.5 ng/ml) and LOQ (5-25 ng/ml). Validation of the method included also the determination of the matrix effects that were evaluated in both flavored and unflavored green, white and black teas. Dilution of the resulting tea infusions appeared to be crucial for the matrix effects and also for subsequent catechin quantification in real tea samples in order to fit into the linear range of the UHPLC-MS/MS method. This complete procedure for catechin quantification was finally applied to real sample analysis represented by 70 commercial tea samples. PMID:26025813

  10. Effects of naturally occurring antioxidants on combined 1,2-dimethylhydrazine- and 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea-initiated carcinogenesis in F344 male rats.

    PubMed

    Imaida, K; Hirose, M; Yamaguchi, S; Takahashi, S; Ito, N

    1990-11-19

    The effects of treatment with naturally occurring antioxidants, selenium, beta-carotene, ferulic acid, esculin and eugenol during the promotional phase of tumor development were investigated in male F344 rats pre-treated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) and 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea (MNU). Animals were given 3 subcutaneous injections of DMH at a dose of 40 mg/kg body wt. within 1 week and then were injected with MNU i.p. at a dose of 20 mg/kg body wt. 2 times per week, for 2 weeks. Thereafter, the rats were maintained on diet containing either 0.2% beta-carotene, 2 ppm selenium, 1% ferulic acid, 1% esculin or 0.8% eugenol. At week 52, surviving rats were killed and complete histological examinations were performed. Administration of eugenol enhanced the development of both hyperplasia and papillomas in the forestomach. Although treatment with beta-carotene tended to decrease the incidence and number of large intestinal carcinomas, beta-carotene, selenium, esculin and eugenol all decreased the incidence of kidney nephroblastomas, the differences were not statistically significant. The results thus showed that eugenol exerts promoting activity for forestomach carcinogenesis while the other antioxidants might have weak organ-specific inhibitory effects under these experimental conditions. PMID:2245410

  11. Effect of Naturally Occurring Organic Matter (NOOM) Type and Source on NOOM Adsorption onto Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles under Varying Environmental Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erhayem, Mohamed Erhayem Omar

    In many studies, different humic acid sources and naturally occurring organic matter (NOOM) types are used interchangeably to evaluate the effect of organic matter on geochemical processes in the environment. This research looks more specifically at the effect of humic acid source and different fractions of NOOM on NOOM adsorption onto nano-TiO2 and how NOOM adsorption affects the fate and transport of nano-TiO2, as a function of pH, ionic strength and electrolyte. For NOOM source, seven HAs were studied, including soil HA (SHA), freshwater sedimentary HA (FSDHA) and estuarine sedimentary HA (ESDHA) all originating from the state of Florida. For NOOM type, three NOOM were studied, including Suwannee River humic acid (SRHA), fulvic acid (SRFA), and natural organic matter (SRNOM), all from the same source. Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectroscopy was used to monitor the NOOM adsorption onto nano-TiO2 and the sedimentation of NOOM-coated and uncoated nano-TiO 2. Synchronous scan fluorescence (SSF) spectroscopy was used to provide more information about NOOM adsorption onto nano-TiO2. Selected samples of NOOM-coated and uncoated nano-TiO2 were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  12. Fallout from Chernobyl and incidence of childhood leukaemia in Finland, 1976-92.

    PubMed Central

    Auvinen, A.; Hakama, M.; Arvela, H.; Hakulinen, T.; Rahola, T.; Suomela, M.; Söderman, B.; Rytömaa, T.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess effects of fallout from Chernobyl on incidence of childhood leukaemia in Finland. DESIGN--Nationwide cohort study. External exposure measured for 455 Finnish municipalities with instruments driven 19,000 km throughout the country. Values specific to municipalities corrected for shielding due to houses and fallout from A bomb testing. Internal exposure estimated from whole body measurements on a random sample of 81 children. Mean effective dose for two years after incident calculated from these measurements. Data on childhood leukaemia obtained from Finnish cancer registry and verified through hospitals treating childhood cancers. SETTING--Finland, one of the countries most heavily contaminated by the Chernobyl accident; the population was divided into fifths by exposure. SUBJECTS--Children aged 0-14 years in 1976-92. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Standardised incidence ratio of childhood leukaemia and relative excess risk of childhood leukaemia per mSv. From incidence data of Finnish cancer registry for 1976-85, expected numbers specific to sex and age group (0-4, 5-9, and 10-14 years) were calculated for each municipality for three periods (1976-85, 1986-8, and 1989-92) and pooled as exposure fifths. Dose response was estimated as regression slope of standardised incidence ratios on mean doses for fifths for each period. RESULTS--Population weighted mean effective doses for first two years after the accident were 410 microSv for the whole country and 970 microSv for the population fifth with the highest dose. In all Finland the incidence of childhood leukaemia did not increase 1976-92. The relative excess risk 1989-92 was not significantly different from zero (7% per mSv; 95% confidence interval -27% to 41%). CONCLUSIONS--An important increase in childhood leukaemia can be excluded. Any effect is smaller than eight extra cases per million children per year in Finland. The results are consistent with the magnitude of effect expected. PMID:8044092

  13. Nonlinear effects in evolution - an ab initio study: A model in which the classical theory of evolution occurs as a special case.

    PubMed

    Clerc, Daryl G

    2016-07-21

    An ab initio approach was used to study the molecular-level interactions that connect gene-mutation to changes in an organism׳s phenotype. The study provides new insights into the evolutionary process and presents a simplification whereby changes in phenotypic properties may be studied in terms of the binding affinities of the chemical interactions affected by mutation, rather than by correlation to the genes. The study also reports the role that nonlinear effects play in the progression of organs, and how those effects relate to the classical theory of evolution. Results indicate that the classical theory of evolution occurs as a special case within the ab initio model - a case having two attributes. The first attribute: proteins and promoter regions are not shared among organs. The second attribute: continuous limiting behavior exists in the physical properties of organs as well as in the binding affinity of the associated chemical interactions, with respect to displacements in the chemical properties of proteins and promoter regions induced by mutation. Outside of the special case, second-order coupling contributions are significant and nonlinear effects play an important role, a result corroborated by analyses of published activity levels in binding and transactivation assays. Further, gradations in the state of perfection of an organ may be small or large depending on the type of mutation, and not necessarily closely-separated as maintained by the classical theory. Results also indicate that organs progress with varying degrees of interdependence, the likelihood of successful mutation decreases with increasing complexity of the affected chemical system, and differences between the ab initio model and the classical theory increase with increasing complexity of the organism. PMID:27029513

  14. The distribution of fallout {sup 137}Cs in Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, A.; Mora, P.

    1996-08-01

    Baseline levels of {sup 137}Cs on different sites throughout the Costa Rican territory are presented in this study from local and undisturbed soils. They are believed to represent the fallout input to the land surface. Seventy samples were collected from September 1991 to December 1993, and analyzed by gamma spectroscopy. The territory was divided in three regions, Caribbean, Pacific, and Central, based on meteorological and geographical conditions to study spatial distribution of cesium. The results show a higher activity in the Caribbean region perhaps due to the wind influence and higher rain precipitation throughout the year. No relevant time variation of the activity levels of reach location was found. The highest value of 17.6 Bq kg{sup {minus}1} of {sup 137}Cs is compared with it generalized derived limit, being only 1.97% of the generalized derived limit value. The mean country activity value ranges from 0.4 to 17.8 Bq kg{sup {minus}1} with an average of 3.7 Bq kg{sup {minus}1}. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Beyond eruptive scenarios: assessing tephra fallout hazard from Neapolitan volcanoes

    PubMed Central

    Sandri, Laura; Costa, Antonio; Selva, Jacopo; Tonini, Roberto; Macedonio, Giovanni; Folch, Arnau; Sulpizio, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of volcanic hazards is necessary for risk mitigation. Typically, hazard assessment is based on one or a few, subjectively chosen representative eruptive scenarios, which use a specific combination of eruptive sizes and intensities to represent a particular size class of eruption. While such eruptive scenarios use a range of representative members to capture a range of eruptive sizes and intensities in order to reflect a wider size class, a scenario approach neglects to account for the intrinsic variability of volcanic eruptions, and implicitly assumes that inter-class size variability (i.e. size difference between different eruptive size classes) dominates over intra-class size variability (i.e. size difference within an eruptive size class), the latter of which is treated as negligible. So far, no quantitative study has been undertaken to verify such an assumption. Here, we adopt a novel Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Analysis (PVHA) strategy, which accounts for intrinsic eruptive variabilities, to quantify the tephra fallout hazard in the Campania area. We compare the results of the new probabilistic approach with the classical scenario approach. The results allow for determining whether a simplified scenario approach can be considered valid, and for quantifying the bias which arises when full variability is not accounted for. PMID:27067389

  16. Radiocaesium fallout behaviour in volcanic soils in Iceland.

    PubMed

    Sigurgeirsson, M A; Arnalds, O; Palsson, S E; Howard, B J; Gudnason, K

    2005-01-01

    The retention of 137Cs in various types of Andosols in Iceland was investigated. Soils were sampled at 29 sites with varying precipitation and environmental conditions. Samples were obtained from 0 to 5, 5 to 10, and 10 to 15 cm depths. The amount of radiocaesium present was quite variable, ranging between 300 and 4800 Bq m(-2) and correlated closely to total annual precipitation (r2=0.71). The majority of 137Cs, 82.7% on average, was retained in the uppermost 5 cm of the soil. The greatest penetration of 137Cs was observed for organic Histosols (76.3% in top 5 cm). The Icelandic Vitrisols (barren, poorly developed Andosols) are coarse grained with only 2-5% clay content and contain little organic matter (<1%). Yet these soils retained 74% of 137Cs in the top 5 cm. The results indicate that radiocaesium fallout is strongly retained by colloidal materials characteristic of Andosols, such as allophane and ferrihydrite. Most soils in Iceland are subject to severe and prolonged freezing and waterlogging; despite this, 137Cs is retained in the upper soil horizons and vertical migration is negligible in Icelandic Andosols. However, erosion and aeolian activity can markedly influence the amount and vertical distribution of radiocaesium in Icelandic soils. PMID:15571875

  17. Cancer mortality and radioactive fallout in southwestern Utah.

    PubMed

    Machado, S G; Land, C E; McKay, F W

    1987-01-01

    Cancer mortality was compared between a three-county region in southwestern Utah and the remainder of Utah in an investigation of reported excess cancer risks associated with residence in southwestern Utah during the period of above-ground nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. Because most of the fallout in southwestern Utah was deposited during 1953-1957, comparisons were limited to persons born before 1958, and deaths from leukemia and bone cancer during 1955-1980 and from other cancers during 1964-1980. There was no excess risk of cancer mortality in southwestern Utah, for single or grouped sites, with the single exception of leukemia which showed statistically significant odds ratios of 1.45 based on 62 deaths at all ages, and 2.84 based on nine deaths at ages 0-14. The finding for childhood leukemia was based on different time periods and geographic comparisons from those of two earlier studies in which no such excess was found. Mortality from all cancer sites combined was significantly lower in southwestern Utah than in the remainder of the state, even after adjustment for the higher proportion of (lower risk) Mormons in southwestern Utah. The present results, including the positive association for leukemia, are inconsistent with the high excess risks reported by Johnson (JAMA 1984;251:230-6) based on an interview survey of cancer incidence among long-term Mormon residents of southwestern Utah. PMID:3788954

  18. Dust fallout in Kuwait city: deposition and characterization.

    PubMed

    Al-Awadhi, Jasem M; Alshuaibi, Arafat A

    2013-09-01

    Dust fallouts in Kuwait city was monitored on monthly basis during the period from March 2011 to February 2012 at 10 locations. The results of this study reveal that: (1) monthly dust deposition rates ranged from 0.002 to 0.32 kg/m(2) with average deposition rate of 0.053 kg/m(2) and annual average deposition rate of 0.59 kg/m(2), ranking the first out of 56 dust deposition rates observed throughout the world; (2) on average, about 55.9% of the settled dust have fine to very fine sand fraction sizes, while silt and clay comprise an average of 37.4 and 1.4% of the total sample, respectively; (3) the concentrations for Zn and Mo out of 15 other elements analyzed from the dust were up to 11 times higher than their soil background values in Kuwait, while Pb and Ni were about seven times higher; (4) Mo, Ni, Pb and Zn show maximum enrichment relative to the upper continental crustal component (Mn); (5) Sr, Zr and Zn show highest concretions among all collected samples; and (6) quartz and calcite were the dominant minerals in the dust samples. The distribution of the heavy metals in dust seems to be controlled mainly by the land uses and the volume of traffic emissions. PMID:23722090

  19. Fallout plutonium in two oxic-anoxic environments

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, A.L.; Murray, J.W.; Schell, W.R.; Miller, L.G.

    1986-09-01

    The profiles of soluble fallout plutonium in two partially anoxic waters revealed minimum concentrations at the O/sub 2/-H/sub 2/S interface, indicating Pu removal onto particulate phases of Fe and other oxidized species that form during the redox cycle. In Saanich Inlet, an intermittently anoxic fjord in Vancouver Island, Canada, the concentration of soluble Pu in the anoxic zone was slightly less than in the oxygenated surface layer. In Soap Lake, a saline meromictic lake in eastern Washington State, Pu concentrations i the permanently anoxic zone were at least an order of magnitude higher than at the surface. Differences in the chemical characteristics of these two waters suggest important chemical species that influenced the observed Pu distribution. In the permanently anoxic zone of Soap Lake, high values of total alkalinity ranging from 940 to 1500 meq liter/sup -1/, sulfide species from 38 to 128 ..mu..M, dissolved organic carbon from 163 to 237 mg liter/sup -1/, and total dissolved solids from 80 to 140 ppt, all correlated with the observed high concentration of Pu. In Saanich Inlet, where total alkalinity ranged from 2.1 to 2.4 meq liter/sup -1/ and salinity from 25 to 32 per thousand and H/sub 2/S concentration in May 1981 showed a maximum of 8..mu..M, the observed Pu concentrations were significantly lower than for the Soap Lake monimolimnion.

  20. Beyond eruptive scenarios: assessing tephra fallout hazard from Neapolitan volcanoes.

    PubMed

    Sandri, Laura; Costa, Antonio; Selva, Jacopo; Tonini, Roberto; Macedonio, Giovanni; Folch, Arnau; Sulpizio, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of volcanic hazards is necessary for risk mitigation. Typically, hazard assessment is based on one or a few, subjectively chosen representative eruptive scenarios, which use a specific combination of eruptive sizes and intensities to represent a particular size class of eruption. While such eruptive scenarios use a range of representative members to capture a range of eruptive sizes and intensities in order to reflect a wider size class, a scenario approach neglects to account for the intrinsic variability of volcanic eruptions, and implicitly assumes that inter-class size variability (i.e. size difference between different eruptive size classes) dominates over intra-class size variability (i.e. size difference within an eruptive size class), the latter of which is treated as negligible. So far, no quantitative study has been undertaken to verify such an assumption. Here, we adopt a novel Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Analysis (PVHA) strategy, which accounts for intrinsic eruptive variabilities, to quantify the tephra fallout hazard in the Campania area. We compare the results of the new probabilistic approach with the classical scenario approach. The results allow for determining whether a simplified scenario approach can be considered valid, and for quantifying the bias which arises when full variability is not accounted for. PMID:27067389

  1. Beyond eruptive scenarios: assessing tephra fallout hazard from Neapolitan volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandri, Laura; Costa, Antonio; Selva, Jacopo; Tonini, Roberto; Macedonio, Giovanni; Folch, Arnau; Sulpizio, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    Assessment of volcanic hazards is necessary for risk mitigation. Typically, hazard assessment is based on one or a few, subjectively chosen representative eruptive scenarios, which use a specific combination of eruptive sizes and intensities to represent a particular size class of eruption. While such eruptive scenarios use a range of representative members to capture a range of eruptive sizes and intensities in order to reflect a wider size class, a scenario approach neglects to account for the intrinsic variability of volcanic eruptions, and implicitly assumes that inter-class size variability (i.e. size difference between different eruptive size classes) dominates over intra-class size variability (i.e. size difference within an eruptive size class), the latter of which is treated as negligible. So far, no quantitative study has been undertaken to verify such an assumption. Here, we adopt a novel Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Analysis (PVHA) strategy, which accounts for intrinsic eruptive variabilities, to quantify the tephra fallout hazard in the Campania area. We compare the results of the new probabilistic approach with the classical scenario approach. The results allow for determining whether a simplified scenario approach can be considered valid, and for quantifying the bias which arises when full variability is not accounted for.

  2. Fallout /sup 3/H ingestion in Akita, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Hisamatsu, S.; Takizawa, Y.; Abe, T.; Katsumata, T.

    1987-09-01

    To study fallout /sup 3/H ingestion in Japan, 16 separate food group samples were collected from Akita during 1985. The /sup 3/H concentration in free water and that in a tissue-bound form were determined separately. The average /sup 3/H concentration in the tissue-bound form was 2.2 Bq L-1, 1.7 times higher than in the free water of the food. The ingestions of /sup 3/H in the tissue-bound form and as free water in the diet were 0.60 Bq d-1 and 1.0 Bq d-1, respectively. Cereals represented the food group that contributed the most to the ingestion of tissue-bound /sup 3/H. Total /sup 3/H ingestion was estimated to be 4.1 Bq d-1. The contribution of the tissue-bound form to the total ingestion was 15%, considerably lower than reported for Italian diets. The ratio of /sup 3/H ingestion in the tissue-bound form to the free water form in the diet was similar to the ratio reported for New York City.

  3. Effects of a naturally occurring and a synthetic synergist on toxicity of three insecticides and a phytochemical to navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Niu, Guodong; Pollock, Henry S; Lawrance, Allen; Siegel, Joel P; Berenbaum, May R

    2012-04-01

    The navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is the most destructive lepidopteran pest of almonds [Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A.Webb] and pistachios (Pistacia vera L.) in California and is a serious problem in figs (Ficus carica L.) and walnuts (Juglans spp.). In addition to direct damage, larval feeding leaves nuts vulnerable to infection by Aspergillus spp., fungi that produce toxic aflatoxins. A potentially safe and sustainable approach for managing navel orangeworm in orchards may be to use natural essential oil synergists to interfere with this insect's ability to detoxify insecticides and phytochemicals. We tested the effects of a naturally occurring plant-derived chemical, myristicin, and a synthetic inhibitor of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s), piperonyl butoxide, on the toxicity of three insecticides (alpha-cypermethrin, tau-fluvalinate, and methoxyfenozide [Intrepid]) and a phytochemical (xanthotoxin) to A. transitella. Piperonyl butoxide significantly synergized alpha-cypermethrin and tau-fluvalinate, whereas myristicin synergized only alpha-cypermethrin. Piperonyl butoxide synergized the toxicity of xanthotoxin as early as 72 h after exposure, whereas myristicin synergized xanthotoxin after 120 h. In view of these findings and the limited availability of environmentally safe synthetic insecticides for sustainable management, particularly in organic orchards, myristicin is a potential field treatment in combination with insecticides to reduce both navel orangeworm survival and aflatoxin contamination of nuts. In addition, this study demonstrates that in A. transitella the insect growth regulator methoxyfenozide is not detoxified by P450s. PMID:22606811

  4. Tribochemical polymerization of adsorbed n-pentanol on SiO2 during rubbing: when does it occur and is it responsible for effective vapor phase lubrication?

    PubMed

    Barnette, Anna L; Asay, David B; Ohlhausen, James A; Dugger, Michael T; Kim, Seong H

    2010-11-01

    The origin and role of tribochemical reaction products formed while sliding silicon oxide surfaces in the presence of adsorbed alcohol molecules in equilibrium with the vapor phase were studied. Wear and friction coefficient studies with varying contact loads and n-pentanol vapor environments were used to determine under what operating conditions the tribochemical reaction species was produced. Imaging time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and microinfrared spectroscopy found that hydrocarbon species with a molecular weight higher than the starting vapor molecules are produced when there is wear of the SiO(2) surface. When the n-pentanol vapor lubrication is effective and the silicon oxide surface does not wear, then the tribochemical polymerization products are negligible. These results imply that the tribochemical polymerization is associated with the substrate wear process occurring due to insufficient adsorbate supply or high mechanical load. The tribochemical reactions do not seem to be the primary lubrication mechanism for vapor phase lubrication of SiO(2) surfaces with alcohol, although they may lubricate the substrate momentarily upon failure of the alcohol vapor delivery to the sliding contact. PMID:20735117

  5. Effects of synthetic and naturally occurring flavonoids on Na sup + , K sup + -ATPase: Aspects of the structure-activity relationship and action mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, T.; Oka, K.; Akiba, M. )

    1989-01-01

    A comparative study was made of the effects of 15 synthetic and naturally occurring flavonoids on the hydrolytic activity of Na{sup +}, K{sup +} -adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase). Twelve of the flavonoids examined were mono-hydroxy or mono-methoxy derivatives. All inhibited Na{sup +}, K{sup +} -ATPase from dog kidney cortex when present at concentrations from 40-1000 {mu}M. Flavones possessing cyclohexyl instead of the phenyl group were the most potent with IC{sub 50} at 257-320 {mu}M. Structure-activity relationships were observed among the following mono-substituted flavones as: (i) 2-cyclohexyl-benzopyran-4-one {much gt} 2-phenyl-benzopyran-4-one; (ii) 2-cyclohexyl-7-hydroxybenzopyran-4-one {gt} 2-cyclohexyl-6-hydroxy-benzopyran-4-one {gt} 2-cyclohexyl-5-hydroxybenzopyran-4-one. Some flavonoids showing potent inhibitory activity were also examined for ouabain-displacement activity on human erythrocytes. Hardly and of the flavonoids were able to block ({sup 3}H) ouabain binding to erythrocytes. These results suggest that the mechanism by which flavonoid block Na{sup +}, K{sup +} -ATPase is not related to the cardiac glycoside-specific binding site(s) of this enzyme.

  6. Evaluation of total effective dose due to certain environmentally placed naturally occurring radioactive materials using a procedural adaptation of RESRAD code.

    PubMed

    Beauvais, Z S; Thompson, K H; Kearfott, K J

    2009-07-01

    Due to a recent upward trend in the price of uranium and subsequent increased interest in uranium mining, accurate modeling of baseline dose from environmental sources of radioactivity is of increasing interest. Residual radioactivity model and code (RESRAD) is a program used to model environmental movement and calculate the dose due to the inhalation, ingestion, and exposure to radioactive materials following a placement. This paper presents a novel use of RESRAD for the calculation of dose from non-enhanced, or ancient, naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). In order to use RESRAD to calculate the total effective dose (TED) due to ancient NORM, a procedural adaptation was developed to negate the effects of time progressive distribution of radioactive materials. A dose due to United States' average concentrations of uranium, actinium, and thorium series radionuclides was then calculated. For adults exposed in a residential setting and assumed to eat significant amounts of food grown in NORM concentrated areas, the annual dose due to national average NORM concentrations was 0.935 mSv y(-1). A set of environmental dose factors were calculated for simple estimation of dose from uranium, thorium, and actinium series radionuclides for various age groups and exposure scenarios as a function of elemental uranium and thorium activity concentrations in groundwater and soil. The values of these factors for uranium were lowest for an adult exposed in an industrial setting: 0.00476 microSv kg Bq(-1) y(-1) for soil and 0.00596 microSv m(3) Bq(-1) y(-1) for water (assuming a 1:1 234U:238U activity ratio in water). The uranium factors were highest for infants exposed in a residential setting and assumed to ingest food grown onsite: 34.8 microSv kg Bq(-1) y(-1) in soil and 13.0 microSv m(3) Bq(-1) y(-1) in water. PMID:19509509

  7. Effects of Isoflavones and Amino Acid Therapies for Hot Flashes and Co-occurring Symptoms during the Menopausal Transition and Early Post Menopause: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Annette; Ismail, Rita; Taylor-Swanson, Lisa; Cray, Lori; Schnall, Janet G.; Mitchell, Ellen Sullivan; Woods, Nancy Fugate

    2014-01-01

    Aims Review controlled clinical trials of isoflavones and amino acid preparation effects on hot flashes and at least one other symptom including mood, sleep, pain, and cognitive function that women report during the menopausal transition and early postmenopause. Methods An experienced reference librarian searched PubMed/Medline, CINAHL Plus, PsycInfo, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, EMBASE, AMED, and Alt-Health Watch for English-language randomized controlled trials between 2004 to July 2011. Seventeen trials of isoflavones and amino acid effects on hot flashes and one additional symptom were identified. Results In five trials of soy isoflavone preparations, two (6g soy germ extract and 25g soy protein in soy nuts) significantly decreased hot flashes, but no other symptoms. In the seven trials of other isoflavones, six significantly reduced hot flashes; in addition, Red Clover (80 mg) significantly reduced mood symptoms; Rexflavone (350 mg) for women with Kupperman Index > 20 significantly reduced sleep symptoms; two trials had significant reductions for pain: Isoflavone powder (90 mg) and Red Clover (80 mg). The only trial in this systematic review that significantly reduced cognitive symptoms was Red Clover (80 mg). In one trial, Red Clover isoflavone (80 mg/d) significantly relieved hot flashes, mood, pain, and cognitive symptoms. Amino acids yielded no significant results. Equol supplements of 30 mg/d for non-Equol producing women significantly reduced mood symptoms in one trial. The Magnolia Bark Extract combination significantly reduced hot flashes, mood, and sleep symptoms. Conclusions Isoflavone trials yielded significant reductions on hot flashes and co-occurring symptoms during the menopausal transition and postmenopause, but studies require replication with larger sample sizes and attention to measurement of outcomes. PMID:24951101

  8. Erratum to: Electromigration occurences and its effects on metallic surfaces submitted to high electromagnetic field: A novel approach to breakdown in accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoine, C. Z.; Peauger, F.; Le Pimpec, F.

    2012-04-01

    We regret to inform you that the: Electromigration occurences and its effects on metallic surfaces submitted to high electromagnetic field: A novel approach to breakdown in accelerators which is found in the issue 665C (pp 54-69) is an incorrect version. The correct version is the following: The application of a high electrical field on metallic surfaces leads to the well described phenomena of breakdown. In the classical scenario, explosive electron emission (EEE), breakdown (BD) originates from an emitting site (surface protrusion): the current at the apex vaporizes the emitting tip and the emitting current triggers a plasma in the vapor close to the surface. The plasma in turn melts the emitting site and makes it (hopefully) disappear. The conditioning process consists of "burning" the emitting sites one after another and numerous observations exhibit surfaces covered with molten craters that more or less overlap. In the case of radiofrequency (RF) applied fields, the effects of fatigue are also considered due to the cyclic nature of the applied stress. Nevertheless when dealing with RF cavities for accelerators, where higher fields are now sought, one can legitimately wonder if other physical phenomena should also be taken into account. In particular, we believe that electromigration, especially at surfaces or grain boundaries cannot be neglected anymore at high field (i.e. 50-100 MV/m). Many publications in the domain of liquid metal emission sources show that very stable and strong emission sources, either ions or electrons, build up on metallic surfaces submitted to electrical fields through a mechanism that is slightly different from the usual localized breakdown evoked in accelerators. This mechanism involves the combination of electromigration and collective motion of surface atoms. In the case of emission source, this effect is sought after and has been extensively studied, whereas in our case it is very detrimental to the possibility of reaching high

  9. The surgical management of benign and malignant thyroid neoplasms in Marshall Islanders exposed to hydrogen bomb fallout.

    PubMed

    Dobyns, B M; Hyrmer, B A

    1992-01-01

    On March 1, 1954, a serious fallout accident occurred during the United States atomic testing program at Bikini in the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. Following the detonation of a large thermonuclear device (known as Bravo) an unexpected shift in winds resulted in deposition of radioactive debris on several inhabited atolls in the Marshall Islands. During the early post-detonation period military, sea, and air surveys traced the hottest portion of the parabolic cloud as it drifted in an ever widening pattern of diminishing concentration eastward and southeast of Bikini. The center of the cloud passed North of the Rongelap Atoll, which was the nearest inhabited atoll. This report concerns the development of thyroid lesions, the special circumstances encountered during thyroid surgery, and the results of the surgical management of benign and malignant lesions that were subsequently encountered in this population. PMID:1290253

  10. Source Functions and Path Effects from Earthquakes in the Farallon Transform Fault Region, Gulf of California, Mexico that Occurred on October 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Raúl R.; Stock, Joann M.; Hauksson, Egill; Clayton, Robert W.

    2016-07-01

    We determined source spectral functions, Q and site effects using regional records of body waves from the October 19, 2013 (M w = 6.6) earthquake and eight aftershocks located 90 km east of Loreto, Baja California Sur, Mexico. We also analyzed records from a foreshock with magnitude 3.3 that occurred 47 days before the mainshock. The epicenters of this sequence are located in the south-central region of the Gulf of California (GoC) near and on the Farallon transform fault. This is one of the most active regions of the GoC, where most of the large earthquakes have strike-slip mechanisms. Based on the distribution of the aftershocks, the rupture propagated northwest with a rupture length of approximately 27 km. We calculated 3-component P- and S-wave spectra from ten events recorded by eleven stations of the Broadband Seismological Network of the GoC (RESBAN). These stations are located around the GoC and provide good azimuthal coverage (the average station gap is 39°). The spectral records were corrected for site effects, which were estimated calculating average spectral ratios between horizontal and vertical components (HVSR method). The site-corrected spectra were then inverted to determine the source functions and to estimate the attenuation quality factor Q. The values of Q resulting from the spectral inversion can be approximated by the relations Q_{P} = 48.1 ± 1.1 f^{0.88 ± 0.04} and Q_{S} = 135.4 ± 1.1 f^{0.58 ± 0.03} and are consistent with previous estimates reported by Vidales-Basurto et al. (Bull Seism Soc Am 104:2027-2042, 2014) for the south-central GoC. The stress drop estimates, obtained using the ω2 model, are below 1.7 MPa, with the highest stress drops determined for the mainshock and the aftershocks located in the ridge zone. We used the values of Q obtained to recalculate source and site effects with a different spectral inversion scheme. We found that sites with low S-wave amplification also tend to have low P-wave amplification, except

  11. Effects of oral exposure to naturally-occurring and synthetic deoxynivalenol congeners on proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine mRNA expression in the mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Wenda; He, Kaiyu; Zhou, Hui-Ren; Berthiller, Franz; Adam, Gerhard; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Watanabe, Maiko; Krantis, Anthony; Durst, Tony; Zhang, Haibin; Pestka, James J.

    2014-07-15

    The foodborne mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) induces a ribotoxic stress response in mononuclear phagocytes that mediate aberrant multi-organ upregulation of TNF-α, interleukins and chemokines in experimental animals. While other DON congeners also exist as food contaminants or pharmacologically-active derivatives, it is not known how these compounds affect expression of these cytokine genes in vivo. To address this gap, we compared in mice the acute effects of oral DON exposure to that of seven relevant congeners on splenic expression of representative cytokine mRNAs after 2 and 6 h. Congeners included the 8-ketotrichothecenes 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), fusarenon X (FX), nivalenol (NIV), the plant metabolite DON-3-glucoside (D3G) and two synthetic DON derivatives with novel satiety-inducing properties (EN139528 and EN139544). DON markedly induced transient upregulation of TNF-α IL-1β, IL-6, CXCL-2, CCL-2 and CCL-7 mRNA expressions. The two ADONs also evoked mRNA expression of these genes but to a relatively lesser extent. FX induced more persistent responses than the other DON congeners and, compared to DON, was: 1) more potent in inducing IL-1β mRNA, 2) approximately equipotent in the induction of TNF-α and CCL-2 mRNAs, and 3) less potent at upregulating IL-6, CXCL-2, and CCL-2 mRNAs. EN139528's effects were similar to NIV, the least potent 8-ketotrichothecene, while D3G and EN139544 were largely incapable of eliciting cytokine or chemokine mRNA responses. Taken together, the results presented herein provide important new insights into the potential of naturally-occurring and synthetic DON congeners to elicit aberrant mRNA upregulation of cytokines associated with acute and chronic trichothecene toxicity. - Highlights: • We compared effects of DON congeners on biomarker proinflammatory genes in mice. • Oral DON induced splenic IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α,CXCL-2, CCL-2 and CCL-7 mRNAs. • 8-Ketotrichothecene ranking for

  12. Water, Water Everywhere but is it Safe to Drink? Some Detrimental Health Effects Associated with Consumption of Groundwater Enriched in Naturally-Occurring Contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuge, R.

    2007-05-01

    Drinking water represents a major pathway of trace elements into the human body. As such, groundwaters, the chemistry of which reflect water/rock interaction, can be a source of trace elements which will have a marked health effect on humans consuming them. Health problems associated with the consumption of groundwater enriched in various elements and compounds have been recorded for many years. For example, high-arsenic groundwaters used for public water supply were first associated with harmful health effects as early as 1917 in Córdoba Province in Argentina, where the local population suffered from skin disorders. Subsequently, in the 1960s consumption of high-arsenic groundwaters was identified as a factor in the aetiology of "black foot disease", an endemic vascular disease, in Taiwan. However, it is problems associated with the very high-arsenic groundwaters of the highly populous Ganges delta area of Bangladesh and West Bengal that has more recently highlighted the health problem of consuming high-arsenic waters. The most obvious problems of excess arsenic consumption through drinking water are arsenical skin lesions, the severity of which being generally correlated with arsenic content of the water. A high incidence of cancers of the skin, bladder and other organs has been recorded in the high-arsenic drinking water areas of the world. A high incidence of vascular disease, found in the arsenic-rich area of Taiwan, has also been shown to occur in Bangladesh. In addition, it has been suggested that high arsenic in drinking water results in increased incidence of diabetes mellitus. Fluorine is another element long recognised as having a major effect on the well-being of humans. Consumption of high-fluorine waters were first identified as having a detrimental effect on teeth in the 1920s and 30s. It was subsequently shown that where fluorine is present in drinking waters at concentrations of around 0.5 to 1 mg/L it can have beneficial effects on humans

  13. Estimates of exposure rates and fallout arrival times near the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.B. )

    1990-11-01

    One of the tasks of the Off-Site Radiation Exposure Review Project (ORERP) was to estimate doses to individuals resulting from exposure to fallout from nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Dose estimates are based on estimates of the exposure rate 12 h post-detonation (H + 12) and the time of fallout arrival from events producing discernible fallout at locations off the NTS. These estimates are derived from both published fallout patterns and survey meter readings taken by monitors in the field. Each fallout pattern is digitized, and kriging is used to interpolate estimates of exposure rate and arrival time onto a 10-km grid covering the contours of the pattern. These grid values are then used to calculate estimates at any location of interest within the pattern. Exposure rate is also estimated from the survey meter readings for a particular nuclear event by decay-correcting the measurements near a selected location to H + 12 and then aggregating them into one estimate. Estimates of discernible exposure rate and time of fallout arrival from 74 nuclear events at the NTS are contained in the Town Data Base. Estimates are given for 352 locations in Arizona, California, Nevada, and Utah. Each record in the data base contains estimates for a specified event and location. The distribution of exposure rate is represented by a geometric mean and standard deviation; the distribution of fallout arrival time is represented by an arithmetic mean and standard deviation. A more extensive description and a listing of the Town Data Base are included in a separate report.

  14. Prediction of spatial variation in global fallout of 137Cs using precipitation.

    PubMed

    Pálsson, S E; Howard, B J; Wright, S M

    2006-08-31

    Deposition from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests (termed global fallout) has been shown to be proportional to the rate of precipitation. Here we describe methods for using precipitation and radionuclide deposition information for a reference site to estimate global fallout at other locations. These methods have been used to estimate global fallout in Iceland, identified during the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) by Wright et al. [Wright, S.M., Howard, B.J., Strand, P., Nylén, T., Sickel, M.A.K., 1999. Prediction of 137Cs deposition from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests within the Arctic. Environ Pollut 104, 131-143.] as one of the Arctic areas which received the highest global fallout, but where measurements of contamination were sparse, and difficult to obtain due to the remote and inaccessible terrain of much of the country. Measurements of global fallout 137Cs deposition have been made in Iceland at sites close to meteorological stations to ensure that precipitation data were of high quality. The AMAP modeling approach, based on measured precipitation and radionuclide deposition data, was applied using a reference monitoring station located close to Reykjavik. The availability of good precipitation data and locally based estimates of time dependent ratios of 137Cs deposition to precipitation during the fallout period gave a better correlation between predicted and measured 137Cs global fallout (r2=0.96) than that achieved using the much more heterogeneous set of data collected by AMAP over the whole of the Arctic. Having obtained satisfactory results with the model for a number of calibration sites alongside meteorological stations we then produced a map of estimated 137Cs deposition based on a model of estimated precipitation. This deposition map was then successfully validated (r2=0.85) for sites where 137Cs deposition was measured; the associated uncertainty in predictions was also estimated. PMID:16545432

  15. An evaluation of the Kearny Fallout Meter (KFM), a radiation detector constructed from commonly available household materials.

    PubMed

    McDonald, J T; West, W G; Kearfott, K J

    2004-11-01

    A radiation detector constructed of common household materials was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) by Cresson H. Kearny and has been referred to as the Kearny Fallout Meter (KFM). Developed during the height of the Cold War, the KFM was intended to place a radiation meter capable of measuring fallout from nuclear weapons in the hands of every U.S. citizen. Instructions for the construction of the meter, as well as information about radiation health effects, were developed in the form of multi-page newspaper insert. Subsequently, the sensitivity of the meter was refined by a high school teacher, Dr. Paul S. Lombardi, for use in demonstrations about radiation. The meter is currently being marketed for survivalists in light of potential radiation terrorist concerns. The KFM and Lombardi's variation of it are constructed and evaluated for this work. Calibrated tests of the response and variations in response are reported. A critique of the multi-page manual is made. In addition, the suitability of using such a detector, in terms of actual ease of construction and practical sensitivity, is discussed for its use in demonstrations and introductory classes on nuclear topics. PMID:15551780

  16. Fallout plume of submerged oil from Deepwater Horizon

    PubMed Central

    Valentine, David L.; Fisher, G. Burch; Bagby, Sarah C.; Nelson, Robert K.; Reddy, Christopher M.; Sylva, Sean P.; Woo, Mary A.

    2014-01-01

    The sinking of the Deepwater Horizon in the Gulf of Mexico led to uncontrolled emission of oil to the ocean, with an official government estimate of ∼5.0 million barrels released. Among the pressing uncertainties surrounding this event is the fate of ∼2 million barrels of submerged oil thought to have been trapped in deep-ocean intrusion layers at depths of ∼1,000–1,300 m. Here we use chemical distributions of hydrocarbons in >3,000 sediment samples from 534 locations to describe a footprint of oil deposited on the deep-ocean floor. Using a recalcitrant biomarker of crude oil, 17α(H),21β(H)-hopane (hopane), we have identified a 3,200-km2 region around the Macondo Well contaminated by ∼1.8 ± 1.0 × 106 g of excess hopane. Based on spatial, chemical, oceanographic, and mass balance considerations, we calculate that this contamination represents 4–31% of the oil sequestered in the deep ocean. The pattern of contamination points to deep-ocean intrusion layers as the source and is most consistent with dual modes of deposition: a “bathtub ring” formed from an oil-rich layer of water impinging laterally upon the continental slope (at a depth of ∼900–1,300 m) and a higher-flux “fallout plume” where suspended oil particles sank to underlying sediment (at a depth of ∼1,300–1,700 m). We also suggest that a significant quantity of oil was deposited on the ocean floor outside this area but so far has evaded detection because of its heterogeneous spatial distribution. PMID:25349409

  17. Fallout plume of submerged oil from Deepwater Horizon.

    PubMed

    Valentine, David L; Fisher, G Burch; Bagby, Sarah C; Nelson, Robert K; Reddy, Christopher M; Sylva, Sean P; Woo, Mary A

    2014-11-11

    The sinking of the Deepwater Horizon in the Gulf of Mexico led to uncontrolled emission of oil to the ocean, with an official government estimate of ∼ 5.0 million barrels released. Among the pressing uncertainties surrounding this event is the fate of ∼ 2 million barrels of submerged oil thought to have been trapped in deep-ocean intrusion layers at depths of ∼ 1,000-1,300 m. Here we use chemical distributions of hydrocarbons in >3,000 sediment samples from 534 locations to describe a footprint of oil deposited on the deep-ocean floor. Using a recalcitrant biomarker of crude oil, 17α(H),21β(H)-hopane (hopane), we have identified a 3,200-km(2) region around the Macondo Well contaminated by ∼ 1.8 ± 1.0 × 10(6) g of excess hopane. Based on spatial, chemical, oceanographic, and mass balance considerations, we calculate that this contamination represents 4-31% of the oil sequestered in the deep ocean. The pattern of contamination points to deep-ocean intrusion layers as the source and is most consistent with dual modes of deposition: a "bathtub ring" formed from an oil-rich layer of water impinging laterally upon the continental slope (at a depth of ∼ 900-1,300 m) and a higher-flux "fallout plume" where suspended oil particles sank to underlying sediment (at a depth of ∼ 1,300-1,700 m). We also suggest that a significant quantity of oil was deposited on the ocean floor outside this area but so far has evaded detection because of its heterogeneous spatial distribution. PMID:25349409

  18. Time-averaged fluxes of lead and fallout radionuclides to sediments in Florida Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, J.A.; Holmes, C.; Halley, R.; Bothner, M.; Shinn, E.; Graney, J.; Keeler, G.; TenBrink, M.; Orlandini, K.A.; Rudnick, D.

    2000-01-01

    Recent, unmixed sediments from mud banks of central Florida Bay were dated using 210Pb/226Ra, and chronologies were verified by comparing sediment lead temporal records with Pb/Ca ratios in annual layers of coral (Montastrea annularis) located on the ocean side of the Florida Keys. Dates of sediment lead peaks (1978 ?? 2) accord with prior observations of a 6 year lag between the occurrence of maximum atmospheric lead in 1972 and peak coral lead in 1978. Smaller lags of 1-2 years occur between the maximum atmospheric radionuclide fallout and peaks in sediment temporal records of 137Cs and Pu. Such lags are consequences of system time averaging (STA) in which atmospherically delivered particle-associated constituents accumulate and mix in a (sedimentary?) reservoir before transferring to permanent sediments and coral. STA model calculations, using time-dependent atmospheric inputs, produced optimized profiles in excellent accord with measured sediment 137Cs, Pu, lead, and coral lead distributions. Derived residence times of these particle tracers (16 ?? 1, 15.7 ?? 0.7, 19 ?? 3, and 16 ?? 2 years, respectively) are comparable despite differences in sampling locations, in accumulating media, and in element loading histories and geochemical properties. For a 16 year weighted mean residence time, STA generates the observed 6 year lead peak lag. Evidently, significant levels of nondegradable, particle-associated contaminants can persist in Florida Bay for many decades following elimination of external inputs. Present results, in combination with STA model analysis of previously reported radionuclide profiles, suggest that decade-scale time averaging may occur widely in recent coastal marine sedimentary environments. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. New isotopic evidence of lead contamination in wheat grain from atmospheric fallout.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Chen, Tongbin; Lei, Mei; Zhou, Xiaoyong; Huang, Qifei; Ma, Chuang; Gu, Runyao; Guo, Guanghui

    2015-10-01

    Crops could accumulate trace metals by soil-root transfer and foliar uptake from atmospheric fallout, and an accurate assessment of pollution sources is a prerequisite for preventing heavy metal pollution in agricultural products. In this study, we examined Pb isotope rates to trace the sources of Pb in wheat grain grown in suburbs. Results showed that, even in zones with scarcely any air pollution spots, atmospheric fallout was still a considerable source of Pb accumulation in wheat. The concentration of Pb in wheat grain has poor correlation with that in farm soil. The Pb concentration in wheat grains with dust in bran coat was significantly higher than that in wheat grains, which indicates that Pb may accumulate by foliar uptake. The Pb isotope rate has obvious differences between the soil and atmospheric fallout, and scatter ratio is significantly closer between the wheat grain and atmospheric fallout. Atmospheric fallout is a more significant source of Pb concentration in wheat grains than in soil. As far as we know, this is the first study on the main sources of lead in grain crop (wheat) samples with isotope. This study aims to improve our understanding of the translocation of foliar-absorbed metals to nonexposed parts of plants. PMID:25982979

  20. Genetic consequences of radioactive contamination by the Chernobyl fallout to agricultural crops.

    PubMed

    Geraskin, S A; Dikarev, V G; Zyablitskaya, Ye Ya; Oudalova, A A; Spirin, Ye V; Alexakhin, R M

    2003-01-01

    The genetic consequences of radioactive contamination by the fallout to agricultural crops after the accident at the Chernobyl NPP in 1986 have been studied. In the first, acute, period of this accident, when the absorbed dose was primarily due to external beta- and gamma-irradiation, the radiation injury of agricultural crops, according to the basic cytogenetic tests, resembled the effect produced by acute gamma-irradiation at comparable doses. The yield of cytogenetic damage in leaf meristem of plants grown in the 10-km zone of the ChNPP in 1987-1989 (the period of chronic, lower level radiation exposure) was shown to be enhanced and dependent on the level of radioactive contamination. The rate of decline with time in cytogenetic damage induced by chronic exposure lagged considerably behind that of the radiation exposure. Analysis of genetic variability in three sequential generations of rye and wheat revealed increased cytogenetic damage in plants exposed to chronic irradiation during the 2nd and 3rd years. PMID:12590075

  1. The 12-13 January 2011 lava fountain of Mt. Etna volcano: total mass and grain-size evaluation of the fallout deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andronico, Daniele; Cristaldi, Antonio; Lo Castro, Maria Deborah; Scollo, Simona

    2013-04-01

    South-East Crater (SEC) of Mt Etna, Italy, is renowned for its sequences of paroxysms, otherwise called episodic eruptions, which produced more than 150 events since 1998. Each episode typically gives rise to eruption columns and fallout deposits over distances of up to several tens of km from the vent. The last sequence consisted of twenty-five lava fountains occurred between 12 January 2011 and 24 April 2012. The 2011-12 sequence began from a pit-vent located on the eastern flank of the cone; with time, the intense and recurrent paroxysmal activity was able to build a new cone above the SEC, renamed New South-East Crater. The first episode was preceded by the resumption of Strombolian activity on 11 January 2011; late in the afternoon of 12 January, the increasing of explosion intensity and frequency led to the formation of powerful magma jets and a dense eruption column which moved toward SSW. The paroxysmal activity lasted about 1 hour and half; afterward it almost abruptly stopped early on 13 January, thus causing also the end of the eruption plume. Based on prevalent winds blowing in the Etnean area, most of the fallout deposits from Etna disperse their tephra fallout eastward toward the Valle del Bove depression, difficulty accessible in the upper part, then reaching the Ionian Sea. These peculiar conditions usually prevent direct observation of the deposit within 5 km from and 15 km beyond the eruptive vent. The 12-13 January lava fountain fallout, conversely, was dispersed over the South of Etna, exceeding the southern coastline of Sicily and thus giving the chance to map, sample and describe for more than 100 km the tephra fallout, passing from a black scoria deposit to ash deposit (90 % of which formed by sideromelane particles). In particular, the proximal deposit (up to 5 km of distance from SEC) was composed of a continuous to almost continuous tephra blanket containing decimetric-sized scoriae to coarse lapilli, while the most distal sites were

  2. Historical overview of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing and estimates of fallout in the continental United States.

    PubMed

    Beck, Harold L; Bennett, Burton G

    2002-05-01

    From 1945 to 1980, over 500 weapons tests were conducted in the atmosphere at a number of locations around the world. These tests resulted in the release of substantial quantities of radioactive debris to the environment. Local, intermediate, and global fallout deposition densities downwind from test sites depended on the heights of bursts, the yields, and the half-lives and volatilities of the particular fission or activation products, as well as on the meteorological conditions. A number of national and international monitoring programs were established to trace the fallout through the atmosphere and biosphere. These programs included continuous monitoring of ground-level air, exposure rates, and deposition as well as periodic sampling of food, bone, water, soil, and stratospheric air. Although data for specific high-yield tests are still classified, the fission and fusion yields of the various tests and test series have been estimated and from this information the quantities of specific fission and activation products released into the atmosphere have been determined. The geographic and temporal variations in the fallout deposition of specific radionuclides based on both actual measurements and model calculations are discussed in this paper. A feasibility study to estimate the deposition density (deposition per unit area) of particular radionuclides from both Nevada Test Site and "global" fallout on a county-by-county scale for the continental United States is described. These deposition estimates provide a basis for reconstructing population exposure and dose. They support the feasibility of a more detailed evaluation of the population doses that resulted from fallout from atmospheric tests to document the experience fully and to report results more systematically and completely to the world community. The impact of weapons fallout will continue to be felt for years to come since a contaminant baseline has been imposed on the ambient radiation environment that

  3. Sources of fine-grained sediment to streams using fallout radionuclides in the Midwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gellis, A.; Fuller, C. C.; Van Metre, P. C.

    2014-12-01

    Fluvial sediment is a major factor in aquatic habitat degradation. Understanding the sources of this sediment is a necessary component of management plans and policies aimed at reducing sediment inputs. Because of the time intensive framework of most sediment-source studies, spatial interpretations are often limited to the study watershed. To address sediment sources on a larger scale, the U.S. Geological Survey- National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program as part of the Midwest Stream Quality Assessment, used fallout radioisotopes (excess lead-210, cesium-137, and beryllium-7) to determine the source ((upland (surface runoff) or channel derived)) of fine-grained (<0.063 mm) bed sediment in the Cornbelt Ecoregion. The study area encompassed parts of 11 states in the Midwestern United States covering 648,239 km2 of the United States. Sampling occurred in July and August of 2013, in conjunction with water chemistry, aquatic-habitat and ecological community assessments. Ninety-nine watersheds were sampled, the majority of which were predominately agricultural, with contributing areas ranging between 6.7 to 5,893 km2. Using the ratio of beryllium-7 to excess lead-210, the percent of upland to channel-derived sediment was estimated. Results indicate that sediment sources vary among the 99 watersheds. Channel sediment is an important source presumably from bank erosion. Upland sediment was not the dominant source of sediment in many of these agricultural watersheds. Suspended-sediment samples collected over an 8-week period for 3 watersheds also show that the percent of upland versus channel sediment varies spatially and temporally.

  4. Long-term transfer of global fallout ¹³⁷Cs to cow's milk in Iceland.

    PubMed

    Pálsson, S E; Howard, B J; Gudnason, K; Sigurgeirsson, M A

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to provide improved information on the long-term transfer of global nuclear weapons (137)Cs fallout to cow's milk in Iceland many years after deposition. The spatial variation in deposition was confirmed to be explained by precipitation. Soil samples showed a significant difference in (137)Cs deposition density between the main agricultural areas, with the South having the highest values, then the West and North and the lowest in the Northeast. There was no significant difference between the effective half-lives in (137)Cs activity concentrations in milk and milk powder from the main dairies in Iceland based on data for milk from 1990 to 2007 and for milk powder from 1986 to 2007. There was, however, a significant difference between the effective half-lives obtained for these two regions, 13.5 years for the Northern and 10.5 years for the Southern regions. These half-lives for global fallout are longer than those previously reported for similar time periods in other Arctic areas. The transfer of (137)Cs to cow's milk was quantified for different agricultural regions using aggregated transfer coefficients (T (ag)) for the period of peak global fallout soil inventory in 1965-1967. The values ranged from 2.8 × 10(-3) to 10.6 × 10(-3) m(2) kg(-1). By 2001-2004, the T (ag) values had only declined, in the main agricultural areas, to 0.6 × 10(-3)-1.0 × 10(-3) m(2) kg(-1). Long-term transfer rates to milk many years after deposition were high in Iceland compared with most other reported data. The transfer is potentially relevant for some of the contaminated areas around the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant after the accident in March 2011 since limited information is available on uptake from Andosols and associated effective half-lives. PMID:22270587

  5. PHYSICAL EFFECTS OCCURRING DURING GENERATION AND AMPLIFICATION OF LASER RADIATION: Dynamic chaos in a laser with a bleachable filter and dimensionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samson, A. M.; Kotomtseva, L. A.; Grigor'eva, E. V.

    1989-02-01

    A theoretical study of the dynamics of a laser with a bleachable filter revealed chaotic lasing regimes and ranges of bistable states of parameters close to those found in reality. It is shown how a transition to chaos occurs as a result of period-doubling bifurcation. A study is reported of the degree of chaos and of the structure of the resultant strange attractor by calculation of its fractal dimensionality and of the Lyapunov indices.

  6. Development and validation of a new fallout transport method using variable spectral winds. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, A.T.

    1984-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and validate a fallout prediction method using variable transport calculations. The new method uses National Meteorological Center (NMC) spectral coefficients to compute wind vectors along the space- and time-varying trajectories of falling particles. The method was validated by comparing computed and actual cloud trajectories from a Mount St. Helens volcanic eruption and a high dust cloud. In summary, this research demonstrated the feasibility of using spectral coefficients for fallout transport calculations, developed a two-step smearing model to treat variable winds, and showed that uncertainties in spectral winds do not contribute significantly to the error in computed dose rate.

  7. Organizational and social-psychological issues relevant to fallout-shelter evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Wernette, D.R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a preliminary review of the literature on organizational and social-psychological issues relevant to fallout-shelter evaluation. Fallout-shelter options are evaluated along two dimensions: shelter size, and extent of shelteree participation in the shelter construction. Four functional criteria are used in the evaluation: decision-making, member coordination, social control, and maintaining morale. Smaller shelters requiring shelteree participation in construction appear preferable as measured in most of these criteria. Additional factors mentioned include demographic characteristics of the shelter population, degree and type of ventilation system, and availability of medical equipment and personnel. 10 references.

  8. Distribution of neptunium and plutonium in New Mexico lichen samples (Usnea arizonica) contaminated by atmospheric fallout

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Oldham, Jr., Warren J.; Hanson, Susan K.; Lavelle, Kevin B.; Miller, Jeffrey L.

    2015-08-30

    In this study, the concentrations of 237Np, 239Pu and 240Pu were determined in lichen samples (Usnea arizonica) that were collected from ten locations in New Mexico between 2011 and 2013 using isotope dilution inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS). The observed isotopic ratios for 237Np/239Pu and 240Pu/239Pu indicate trace contamination from global and regional fallout (e.g. Trinity test and atmospheric testing at the Nevada Test Site). The fact that actinide contamination is detected in recent lichen collections suggests continuous re-suspension of fallout radionuclides even 50 years after ratification of the Limited Test Ban Treaty.

  9. Effects of viscosity on the behavior of entropy change in the shock wave that occurred after the December 13, 2006 coronal mass ejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çavuş, H.; Kurt, A.

    2015-04-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and the solar wind are the two main demonstrations of solar activity. These events can drive a shock wave. The shock wave occurs where the solar wind changes from being supersonic (with respect to the surrounding interplanetary medium) to subsonic. The main purpose of this study is to apply the algorithm and the results given in our recent papers to the shock wave that happened after the December 13, 2006 CME, and evaluate the behavior of entropy during this solar activity.

  10. The Immediate Affect of Information in a Delayed Choice on a Distant Distribution as Seen in Different Inertial Reference Frames: The ``Effect'' May Occur Before the ``Cause''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Douglas

    2015-03-01

    An experiment is described in the laboratory reference frame that relies on delayed choices for idler photons that immediately affects the distribution of signal photons with which the idler photons are initially entangled. The delayed choices on the idler photons concern whether to maintain or instead eliminate the entanglement between the paired idler and signal photons before any measurements are made. Eliminating the entanglement is done through eliminating the which-way information carried by the idler photon. If the entanglement is maintained, the result is which-way information in the distribution of the signal photons. If the entanglement is instead eliminated, the result is the elimination of which-way information and the presence of interference in the distribution of the signal photons. In other inertial reference frames, the change in state in the signal photon may occur before the delayed choice on the paired idler photon is made. A Minkowski diagram depicts the situation for the laboratory reference frame and another inertial reference frame where the change in state in the signal photon occurs before the delayed choice on the paired idler photon.

  11. Effect of some naturally occurring iron ion chelators on the formation of radicals in the reaction mixtures of rat liver microsomes with ADP, Fe3+ and NADPH

    PubMed Central

    Minakata, Katsuyuki; Fukushima, Kazuaki; Nakamura, Masayuki; Iwahashi, Hideo

    2011-01-01

    In order to clarify the mechanism by polyphenols of protective effects against oxidative damage or by quinolinic acid of its neurotoxic and inflammatory actions, effects of polyphenols or quinolinic acid on the radical formation were examined. The ESR measurements showed that some polyphenols such as caffeic acid, catechol, gallic acid, D-(+)-catechin, L-dopa, chlorogenic acid and L-noradrenaline inhibited the formation of radicals in the reaction mixture of rat liver microsomes with ADP, Fe3+ and NADPH. The ESR measurements showed that α-picolinic acid, 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid and quinolinic acid (2,3-pyridinedicarboxylic acid) enhanced the formation of radicals in the reaction mixture of rat liver microsomes with Fe3+ and NADPH. Caffeic acid and α-picolinic acid had no effects on the formation of radicals in the presence of EDTA, suggesting that the chelation of iron ion seems to be related to the inhibitory and enhanced effects. The polyphenols may exert protective effects against oxidative damage of erythrocyte membrane, ethanol-induced fatty livers, cardiovascular diseases, inflammatory and cancer through the mechanism. On the other hand, quinolinic acid may exert its neurotoxic and inflammatory effects because of the enhanced effect on the radical formation. PMID:22128221

  12. Using Fallout Cesium-137 to understand soil redistribution over agricultural landscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While it is recognized that soil erosion is highly variable in space and time, studies of the redistribution of soil and soil organic carbon (SOC) within a field or watershed are limited. Our studies focus on the use of fallout Cesium-137 to understand pattern of soil and SOC movement on the landsca...

  13. Using fallout Cesium-137 to understand soil redistribution over agricultural landscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While it is recognized that soil erosion is highly variable in space and time, studies of the redistribution of soil within a field or watershed are limited. Our studies focus on the use of fallout Cesium-137 to understand pattern of soil movement on the landscape. It is often assumed that eroding...

  14. VULNERABILITY OF HEADWATER CATCHMENT RESOURCES TO INCIDENCES OF 210PB EXCESS AND 137CS RADIONUCLIDE FALLOUT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent identification of elevated excess 210Pb (≤302.6 mBq L-1) and 137Cs (≤ 111.3 mBq L-1) activity in drinking water wells up to 20 m depth indicates some transport of airborne radionuclide fallout beyond soils in the Shaker Village c...

  15. New insights on using fallout radionuclides to estimate soil redistribution rates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fallout radionuclides such as 137Cs have been widely accepted and used in the past 40 years to provide quantitative soil redistribution estimates at a point scale. Recently their usefulness has been questioned by a few researchers challenging the validity of the key assumption that the spatial ...

  16. Preliminary evaluation of crisis-relocation fallout-shelter options. Volume 2. Detailed analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Santini, D.J.; Clinch, J.M.; Davis, F.H.; Hill, L.G.; Lynch, E.P.; Tanzman, E.A.; Wernette, D.R.

    1982-12-01

    This report presents a preliminary, detailed evaluation of various shelter options for use if the President orders crisis relocation of the US urban population because of strong expectation of a nuclear war. The availability of livable shelter space at 40 ft/sup 2/ per person (congregate-care space) by state is evaluated. Options are evaluated for construction of fallout shelters allowing 10 ft/sup 2/ per person - such shelters are designed to provide 100% survival at projected levels of radioactive fallout. The FEMA concept of upgrading existing buildings to act as fallout shelters can, in principle, provide adequate shelter throughout most of the US. Exceptions are noted and remedies proposed. In terms of upgrading existing buildings to fallout shelter status, great benefits are possible by turning away from a standard national approach and adopting a more site-specific approach. Existing FEMA research provides a solid foundation for successful crisis relocation planning, but the program can be refined by making suitable modifications in its locational, engineering, and institutionally specific elements.

  17. Using Radioactive Fallout Cesium (137Cs) to Distinguish Sediment Sources in an Agricultural Watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Radioactive fallout Cesium (Cs-137) has been used for quantifying sources of accumulating sediment in water bodies and to determine the rates and pattern of soil erosion. The objectives of this research are to use Cs-137 as a tracer to determine patterns of soil erosion and deposition of eroding soi...

  18. Graphic presentation of quarterly /sup 90/Sr fallout data, 1954-1982

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    This report graphically presents all of the precipitation and /sup 90/Sr deposition data for all stations operated as part of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory's (EML) global fallout program since the initiation of the program in 1954. 3 references, 179 figures.

  19. Individual external exposures from Nevada Test Site fallout for Utah leukemia cases and controls.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, R D; Gren, D C; Simon, S L; Wrenn, M E; Hawthorne, H A; Lotz, T M; Stevens, W; Till, J E

    1990-11-01

    External gamma-ray exposures from fallout originating at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) have been assigned to 6,507 individual subjects (1,177 leukemia cases and 5,330 control subjects) who died as Utah residents between 1952 and 1981. Leukemia cases were identified, confirmed, and classified by cell type from the Utah Cancer Registry, Utah State vital records, and medical records. Residential histories were obtained from the Deceased Membership File (DMF) of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS), supplemented by information from the LDS Church Census Records that were taken in 1950, 1955, and 1960-62. Control subjects were selected randomly within age strata from the DMF and were frequency-matched to the cases by age at death and for sex. Individual radiation exposures were assigned as a function of residence location and time interval for each residence during the fallout period (1951-1958) using geographic exposure data taken from the literature. Temporal distribution of exposure for subjects who resided in more than one locality or who were born or died during the fallout period was determined from data of other investigators. Calculated gamma-ray exposures for each place of residence were summed for each subject to yield the exposure to fallout from the NTS. PMID:2211126

  20. Fallout of uranium and plutonium from recent volcanic eruptions

    SciTech Connect

    Sandoval, D.N.

    1984-01-01

    The concentrations of /sup 234/U, /sup 235/U, /sup 238/U in rain water were measured in a total of 102 individual samples which were collected at Fayetteville, Arkansas, from July 1980 through April 1983. A spectacular increase in the heavy isotope of uranium (/sup 238/U) was observed in the months of July, August (1980); January through April, November and December 1981. This large increase in /sup 238/U in rain appeared to have had its origin in the May 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens. An increase in the concentration of /sup 238/U in rain, smaller than 1981, was observed, which seems to have originated from the El Chichon volcano eruption in March 1982, and the spring peak or so-called cycling effect. A striking increase in the average bimonthly concentration of /sup 239,240/Pu occurred during the months of September-October 1980 (15.6 fCi/l) and March-April 1981 (29.4 fCi/l). The excess deposition of /sup 239,240/Pu brought down by the rain at Fayetteville, Arkansas, from March 1980 through December 1982 was found to be 1.01 fCi/cm/sup 2/. The total amount of /sub 239,240/Pu deposited at Fayetteville, Arkansas, from March through December 1982, was found to be about 30 times higher than the total amount calculated from reported literature values. The excess /sup 239,240/Pu has been attributed to stratospheric /sub 239,240/Pu from nuclear weapons testing prior to the 25th Chinese nuclear test.

  1. Effect of Severe Winter Cold on the Photosynthetic Potentials of Three Co-occurring Evergreen Woody Species in a Mediterranean Forest, Catalonia (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperlich, Dominik; Gracia, Carlos; Peñuelas, Josep; Sabaté, Santi

    2013-04-01

    Evergreen tree species in the Mediterranean region have to cope with a wide range of environmental stress conditions from summer drought to winter cold. The winter period can lead to photoinhibition due to a combination of high solar irradiances and chilling temperatures which can reduce the light saturation point. However, Mediterranean winter mildness can lead periodically to favourable environmental conditions above the threshold for positive carbon balance benefitting evergreen woody species in contrast to winter deciduous species. The advantage of being able to photosynthesis all year round with a significant fraction in the winter month is compensating for the lower photosynthetic potentials during spring and summer in comparison to deciduous species. In this work, we investigated the physiological behaviour of three evergreen tree species (Quercus ilex, Pinus halepensis, Arbutus undeo) co-occurring in a natural and mature Mediterranean forest after a period of mild winter conditions and their response to a sudden period of intense cold weather. Therefore, we examined in each period the photosynthetic potentials by estimating the maximum carboxylation rate (Vcmax) and the maximum electron transport rate (Jmax) through gas exchange measurements. The results indicate that all species exhibited extraordinary high photosynthetic potentials during the first period of measurement as a response to the mild conditions. However, the sudden cold period affected negatively the photosynthetic potentials of Quercus ilex and A. unedo with reduction ranging between 37 to 45 %, whereas they were observed to be only insignificantly reduced in Pinus halepensis. Our results can be explained by previous classifications into photoinhibition-avoiding (P. halpensis) and photoinhibition-tolerant (Q. ilex, A. undeo) species on the basis of their susceptibility to dynamic photoinhibition (Martinez Ferri 2000). Photoinhibition tolerant species are characterised with a more dynamic

  2. Towards prediction of redistribution of fallout radiocesium on forested area discharged from Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Satoru; Aoyama, Michio; Ito, Eriko; Shichi, Koji; Takata, Daisuke; Masaya, Masumori; Sekiya, Nobuhito; Kobayashi, Natsuko; Takano, Naoto; Kaneko, Shinji; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko

    2015-04-01

    Redistribution of fallout 137Cs on forested area discharged from Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) is an issue of major concern for the people in Fukushima and its surrounding areas. To approach this question we investigated global fallout 137Cs (137Cs-GFO) from nuclear weapon tests in the atmosphere in the 1950s and 60s, and 137Cs distribution derived from FNPP (137Cs-FK) within the whole trees contaminated directly. We examined concentrations and amounts of 137Cs-GFO in surface soils (0-5, 5-15 and 15-30 cm in depth) of 3470 samples at 316 sites all over Japan, which were collected just before the accident of FNPP. We determined 137Cs-GFO activities by NaI well-type scintillation counter with its accuracy verified using measurements by a germanium detector. We divided 316 sampling sites into 10 groups separated by one longitudinal line and four transversal lines on the terrain of Japan islands, then analyzed rainfall and geomorphological effects on 137Cs-GFO inventories. In addition to this dataset, we collected three whole tree samples of 26 year-old Quercus serrata at a contaminated area by FNPP accident in April, 2014 and examined concentrations of 137Cs-FK of above- and belowground tree parts by a germanium detector. We estimated an average of 137Cs-GFO inventories of forest soils in Japan to be 1.7 ± 1.4 kBq m-2 as of 2008. 137Cs-GFO inventories varied largely from 0-7.9 kBq m-2 among the country and accumulated greater in the north-western part along the Sea of Japan side. We detected rainfall effect on 137Cs-GFO inventories, which were greater where winter rainfall was large. As for vertical distribution of 137Cs-GFO, 44% of 137Cs-GFO remained within the uppermost 5 cm of soil profiles whereas the rest of 56% existed in 5-30 cm in depth. This indicated that considerable downward migration of 137Cs-GFO has happened during these fifty years in forest soils in Japan. However, multiple linear regression analysis by geomorphological factors related to soil

  3. Effects of Dynamic Strain Hardening Exponent on Abnormal Cleavage Fracture Occurring During Drop Weight Tear Test of API X70 and X80 Linepipe Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Minju; Kim, Hyunmin; Lee, Sunghak; Shin, Sang Yong

    2014-02-01

    In this study, drop weight tear tests (DWTT) were conducted on API X70 and X80 linepipe steels fabricated with various compositions and rolling and cooling conditions in order to correlate the strain hardening with the abnormal cleavage fracture occurring in the hammer-impacted area. Area fractions of fracture modes were measured from fractured DWTT specimens, and the measured data were analyzed in relation to microstructures, Charpy impact energy, and strain hardening. All the steels consisted of fine acicular ferrite, together with some bainitic ferrite, granular bainite, and martensite-austenite constituent. As the volume fraction of acicular ferrite increased, the area fraction of DWTT abnormal cleavage fracture decreased because the toughness of acicular ferrite was higher than other microstructures. The area fraction of abnormal cleavage fracture was weakly related with strain hardening exponents obtained from the quasi-static tensile and compressive tests, but showed better correlation with those obtained from the dynamic compressive test. This tendency could be more clearly observed when steels having similar Charpy impact energy levels were grouped. Since the DWTT was performed under a dynamic loading condition, thus, the abnormal cleavage fracture behavior should be related with the strain hardening analyzed under a dynamic loading condition.

  4. Pilot Study to Evaluate the Effect of Topical Dimethicone on Clinical Signs and Skin Barrier Function in Dogs with Naturally Occurring Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Pellicoro, C.; Marsella, R.; Ahrens, K.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a skin protectant solution (dimethicone 2%) on clinical signs and skin barrier function in canine atopic dermatitis (AD). Eighteen dogs with AD were randomly divided into two groups, one received dimethicone and the other received the vehicle (cyclomethicone) on selected areas (pinnae, groin, and axillae) daily for 4 weeks. Owners and investigators were blinded regarding group allocation. Clinical efficacy was evaluated using a scoring system and skin barrier by measuring the transepidermal water loss. Twelve dogs completed the study (50% drop rate in the vehicle and 20% in the dimethicone). For clinical signs, analysis of variance showed an effect of time (P < 0.005; day 0 > day 28) and region (axillae < groin < pinnae) but no effect of group or group × time interaction. For transepidermal water loss, analysis of variance showed only a main effect of region (axillae > pinnae > groin). Pearson found no correlation between transepidermal water loss and clinical scores. In this pilot study dimethicone had no significant effect on clinical signs and transepidermal water loss in canine atopic dermatitis. PMID:23710417

  5. Quantifying Atmospheric Fallout of Fukushima-derived Radioactive Isotopes in the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, Trista; Dulai, Henrietta

    2016-04-01

    On March 11, 2011, several reactors at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant suffered damage and released the radioisotopes iodine-131, cesium-134, and cesium-137 into the atmosphere. A week later, these isotopes were detected in aerosols over the state of Hawaii and in milk samples analyzed from the Big Island. Because the detected levels were significantly below levels of health concern, the state did not attempt to quantify the deposition of these nuclides on the islands. This study estimated the magnitude of atmospheric fallout of cesium and iodine, and examined the patterns of cesium wet deposition with precipitation observed in March 2011. Mushroom and soil samples were collected along precipitation gradients on Oahu and the island of Hawaii and analyzed for cesium isotopes using gamma spectrometry. Fukushima-derived fallout was differentiated from historic nuclear weapons testing fallout by the presence of Cs-134, which has a shorter half-life of 2.06 years and the fact that Cs-134 and 137 were released from the severed power plant nearly in parity. We found that Fukushima-derived cesium was present in both mushrooms and soil and the soil inventories ranged 2.2-60.9 Bq/m2 for Cs-137 and 16.1-445.8 Bq/m2 for I-131. Additionally, we found that Fukushima-derived cesium inventories in soils were correlated with precipitation gradients. This research confirmed and quantified the presence of Fukushima-derived fallout in Hawaii, however the activities detected were orders of magnitude lower than fallout associated with the nuclear weapons testing in the Pacific.

  6. The Polarized Effect of Intracellular Calcium on the Renal Epithelial Sodium Channel Occurs as a Result of Subcellular Calcium Signaling Domains Maintained by Mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Thai, Tiffany L; Yu, Ling; Galarza-Paez, Laura; Wu, Ming Ming; Lam, Ho Yin Colin; Bao, Hui Fang; Duke, Billie Jeanne; Al-Khalili, Otor; Ma, He-Ping; Liu, Bingchen; Eaton, Douglas C

    2015-11-27

    The renal epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) provides regulated sodium transport in the distal nephron. The effects of intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) on this channel are only beginning to be elucidated. It appears from previous studies that the [Ca(2+)]i increases downstream of ATP administration may have a polarized effect on ENaC, where apical application of ATP and the subsequent [Ca(2+)]i increase have an inhibitory effect on the channel, whereas basolateral ATP and [Ca(2+)]i have a stimulatory effect. We asked whether this polarized effect of ATP is, in fact, reflective of a polarized effect of increased [Ca(2+)]i on ENaC and what underlying mechanism is responsible. We began by performing patch clamp experiments in which ENaC activity was measured during apical or basolateral application of ionomycin to increase [Ca(2+)]i near the apical or basolateral membrane, respectively. We found that ENaC does indeed respond to increased [Ca(2+)]i in a polarized fashion, with apical increases being inhibitory and basolateral increases stimulating channel activity. In other epithelial cell types, mitochondria sequester [Ca(2+)]i, creating [Ca(2+)]i signaling microdomains within the cell that are dependent on mitochondrial localization. We found that mitochondria localize in bands just beneath the apical and basolateral membranes in two different cortical collecting duct principal cell lines and in cortical collecting duct principal cells in mouse kidney tissue. We found that inhibiting mitochondrial [Ca(2+)]i uptake destroyed the polarized response of ENaC to [Ca(2+)]i. Overall, our data suggest that ENaC is regulated by [Ca(2+)]i in a polarized fashion and that this polarization is maintained by mitochondrial [Ca(2+)]i sequestration. PMID:26451045

  7. Direct and Indirect Effects of Stimulating Phoneme Awareness vs. Other Linguistic Skills in Preschoolers with Co-Occurring Speech and Language Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Ann A.; Gillon, Gail; Macrae, Toby; Johnson, Roberta L.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an integrated phoneme awareness/speech intervention in comparison to an alternating speech/morphosyntax intervention for specific areas targeted by the different interventions, as well as the extent of indirect gains in nontargeted areas. Method: A total of 30 children with co-occurring…

  8. Cost-effectiveness of assertive community treatment versus standard case management for persons with co-occurring severe mental illness and substance use disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, R E; Teague, G B; Ricketts, S K; Bush, P W; Xie, H; McGuire, T G; Drake, R E; McHugo, G J; Keller, A M; Zubkoff, M

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the cost-effectiveness of Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) in comparison to Standard Case Management (SCM) for persons with severe mental illness and substance use disorders. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SETTING: Original data on the effectiveness and social costs of ACT and SCM that were collected between 1989 and 1995. Seven community mental health centers in New Hampshire provided both types of treatment. STUDY DESIGN: Persons with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder and a concurrent substance use disorder were randomly assigned to ACT or SCM and followed for three years. The primary variables assessed were substance use, psychiatric symptoms, functioning, quality of life, and social costs. DATA COLLECTION METHODS: Effectiveness data were obtained from interviews at six-month intervals with persons enrolled in treatment and with their service providers. Social cost and service utilization data came from client reports; interviews with informal caregivers; provider information systems and Medicaid claims; law enforcement agencies; courts; and community service providers. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants in both groups showed significant reductions in substance use over time. Focusing on quality of life and substance use outcomes, ACT and SCM were not significantly different in cost-effectiveness over the entire three-year study period. Longitudinal analyses showed that SCM tended to be more efficient during the first two years but that ACT was significantly more efficient than SCM during the final year of the study. CONCLUSIONS: In an adequately funded system, ACT is not more cost-effective than SCM. However, ACT efficiency appears to improve over time. PMID:9865221

  9. Dual-core mass-balance approach for evaluating mercury and210Pb atmospheric fallout and focusing to lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, P.C.; Fuller, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    Determining atmospheric deposition rates of mercury and other contaminants using lake sediment cores requires a quantitative understanding of sediment focusing. Here we present a novel approach that solves mass-balance equations for two cores algebraically to estimate contaminant contributions to sediment from direct atmospheric fallout and from watershed and in-lake focusing. The model is applied to excess 210Pb and Hg in cores from Hobbs Lake, a high-altitude lake in Wyoming. Model results for excess 210Pb are consistent with estimates of fallout and focusing factors computed using excess 210Pb burdens in lake cores and soil cores from the watershed and model results for Hg fallout are consistent with fallout estimated using the soil-core-based 210Pb focusing factors. The lake cores indicate small increases in mercury deposition beginning in the late 1800s and large increases after 1940, with the maximum at the tops of the cores of 16-20 ??g/m 2year. These results suggest that global Hg emissions and possibly regional emissions in the western United States are affecting the north-central Rocky Mountains. Hg fallout estimates are generally consistent with fallout reported from an ice core from the nearby Upper Fremont Glacier, but with several notable differences. The model might not work for lakes with complex geometries and multiple sediment inputs, but for lakes with simple geometries, like Hobbs, it can provide a quantitative approach for evaluating sediment focusing and estimating contaminant fallout.

  10. Modeling the fallout from stabilized nuclear clouds using the HYSPLIT atmospheric dispersion model.

    PubMed

    Rolph, G D; Ngan, F; Draxler, R R

    2014-10-01

    The Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model, developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Air Resources Laboratory, has been configured to simulate the dispersion and deposition of nuclear materials from a surface-based nuclear detonation using publicly available information on nuclear explosions. Much of the information was obtained from "The Effects of Nuclear Weapons" by Glasstone and Dolan (1977). The model was evaluated against the measurements of nuclear fallout from six nuclear tests conducted between 1951 and 1957 at the Nevada Test Site using the global NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis Project (NNRP) and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) meteorological data as input. The model was able to reproduce the general direction and deposition patterns using the coarse NNRP data with Figure of Merit in Space (FMS - the percent overlap between predicted and measured deposition patterns) scores in excess of 50% for four of six simulations for the smallest dose rate contour, with FMS scores declining for higher dose rate contours. When WRF meteorological data were used the FMS scores were 5-20% higher in five of the six simulations, especially at the higher dose rate contours. The one WRF simulation where the scores declined slightly (10-30%) was also the best scoring simulation when using the NNRP data. When compared with measurements of dose rate and time of arrival from the Town Data Base (Thompson et al., 1994), similar results were found with the WRF simulations providing better results for four of six simulations. The overall result was that the different plume simulations using WRF data had more consistent performance than the plume simulations using NNRP data fields. PMID:24878719