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Sample records for falls efficacy scale

  1. Investigation of psychometric properties of the Falls Efficacy Scale using Rasch analysis in patients with hemiplegic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun Young; Choi, Yoo Im

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Falls Efficacy Scale using Rasch analysis in patients with hemiplegic stroke. [Subjects] Fifty-five community-dwelling hemiplegic stroke patients were selected as participants. [Methods] Data were analyzed using the Winsteps program (version 3.62) with the Rasch model to confirm the unidimensionality through item fit, reliability, and appropriateness of the rating scale. [Results] There were no misfit persons or items. Furthermore, infit and outfit statistics appeared adjacent. The person separation value was 3.07, and the reliability coefficient was 0.90. The reliability of all items was at an acceptable level for patients with hemiplegic stroke. [Conclusion] This was the first study to investigate the psychometric properties of the Falls Efficacy Scale using Rasch analysis. The results of this study suggest that the 6-point Falls Efficacy Scale is an appropriate tool for measuring the self-perceived fear of falling in patients with hemiplegic stroke. PMID:26504303

  2. The effects of obesity on fall efficacy in elderly people.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Byoung-Jin

    2013-11-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to identify the effects of obesity on falls as a practical verification of the importance of obesity-targeting interventions as part of future fall prevention programs. [Subjects and Methods] The study involved 351 elderly people (172 men, 179 women) living in rural areas. The dependent variable, fall efficacy, was measured using the Falls Efficacy Scale, while the independent variables, body mass index (BMI) and visceral fat, were measured using the InBody 720. The Faces Pain Scale was used to measure pain. Mobility was measured using the Timed Up and Go Test, and balance ability was measured according to the duration subjects could stand on one foot with their eyes closed. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed for the final data analysis. [Results] Investigation of the correlations between the variables revealed a negative correlation between fall efficacy and the other variables. Ultimatley, investigation of the causality of fall efficacy revealed that the BMI, pain, and mobility were influential factors. In other words, fall efficacy tends to be lower when there are higher degrees of obesity, increased pain, and decreased mobility. [Conclusion] To improve the fall efficacy of elderly people living in rural areas, pain management and the maintenance of physical functionality are required. The present study confirms that the elderly need continuous obesity management to lead healthy lives. PMID:24396217

  3. Development of a scale to assess concern about falling and applications to treatment programs.

    PubMed

    Lusardi, M M; Smith, E V

    1997-01-01

    This study used Rasch methodology to pursue three goals. First, we sought to demonstrate the psychometric limitations of the Falls Efficacy Scale (Tinetti, Richman, & Powell, 1990). Second, we addressed these limitations using a simultaneous calibration of the Falls Efficacy Scale and Mobility Efficacy Scale items. Third, we review previous explorations of the self-efficacy construct in relationship to health behaviors and discuss a possible treatment program based on the simultaneous calibrated items and Social Cognitive Theory. Results indicate that responses from the Falls Efficacy Scale fail to assess the higher ends of the self-efficacy continuum. Simultaneous calibration of items improved this lack of scale definition. This initial work in assessing self-efficacy perceptions provides a theoretical framework for planning treatment programs that may be more cost effective than collecting performance measures. PMID:9661714

  4. The effect of modified trampoline training on balance, gait, and falls efficacy of stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Joohee; Shin, Seonhae; Lee, Wanhee

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This research was conducted to investigate the effects of modified trampoline training on the balance, gait, and falls efficacy of stroke patients. [Subjects] Twenty-four stroke patients participated in this study. The subjects were randomly allocated to one of two groups: the trampoline group (n=12) or the control group (n=12). [Methods] Both groups participated in conventional physical therapy for thirty minutes per day, three times a week for six weeks. The trampoline group also took part in trampoline training for thirty minutes per day, three times a week for six weeks. We evaluated balance (Berg balance scale, timed up and go test), gait (dynamic gait index), and falls efficacy (falls efficacy scale-K) to confirm the effects of the intervention. [Results] Both the trampoline and the control group showed significant improvements in balance, gait, and falls efficacy compared to before the intervention, and the improvements were significantly greater in the trampoline group than in the control group. [Conclusion] Modified trampoline training resulted in significantly improved balance, dynamic gait, and falls efficacy of stroke patients compared to the control group. These results suggest that modified trampoline training is feasible and effective at improving balance, dynamic gait, and falls efficacy after stroke. PMID:26696696

  5. Cross-cultural validation of the Falls Efficacy Scale International (FES-I) using self-report and interview-based questionnaires among Persian-speaking elderly adults.

    PubMed

    Baharlouei, Hamzeh; Salavati, Mahyar; Akhbari, Behnam; Mosallanezhad, Zahra; Mazaheri, Masood; Negahban, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    FES-I has been designed to assess fear of falling (FoF). The purpose of this study was to establish the Persian-language version of the FES-I and to assess its psychometric properties under different modes of administration: self-report and interview-based. Participants included 191 elderly people aged over 60 who were mostly community dwelling. With an interval of 14 days, 97 volunteers completed the questionnaire in the retest session. To evaluate the construct validity, we assessed the ability of the FES-I to discriminate people based on gender, level of education, number of falls and FoF. The correlation with the Short Form of Health Survey (SF-36), Timed Up and Go (TUG) and Functional Reach Test (FRT) was also determined to test validity. Internal consistency was excellent in both self-report (0.93) and interview (0.92) versions. All intra-class correlations (ICCs) were above 0.70 with the highest reliability obtained for the condition where the interview based FES-I was used in both test and retest sessions. The strength of correlation between the FES-I and TUG varied based on mode of administration: moderate for interview and high for self-report mode. The FES-I had a higher correlation with the SF-36 subscales of physical health than subscales of mental health. The FES-I had the ability to discriminate the participants based on gender, educational level, and number of falls and FoF. In conclusion, both interview and self-report versions of the FES-I demonstrated acceptable measurement properties to assess FoF in Iranian elderly persons. PMID:23830993

  6. Development of a Scale To Assess Concern about Falling and Applications to Treatment Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lusardi, Michelle M.; Smith, Everett V., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Rasch methodology, often used in educational research, was used to assess psychometric limitations of a scale designed to measure fear of falling in older persons. Simultaneous calibration of scale items improved its lack of scale definition. Implications for assessment of self-efficacy perceptions and planning treatment programs are discussed.…

  7. The effects of aquatic walking and jogging program on physical function and fall efficacy in patients with degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Hyun; Sung, Eunsook

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 12-week aqua walking and jogging program on muscle function, ankle range of motion (ROM), balance and fell efficacy in degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (DLSS) patients. Six patients (2 males, 4 females) with DLSS participated in aquatic exercise program 3 times per week with each session of 60 min (warming-up, aqua walking, aqua jogging and cool down) at 1 m 20 cm–1 m 30 cm deep pool. Janda’s muscle function test, ankle ROM, Berg balance scale (BBS) and fall efficacy scale (FES) were analyzed before and after the training intervention. We found significant increases in balance, muscle function, ankle ROM and fall efficacy after training intervention. In conclusion, aquatic exercise seems to affect physical function and fall efficacy positively in elderly DLSS patients. PMID:26535218

  8. Falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... problems with circulation, thyroid or nervous systems. Some medicines make people dizzy. Eye problems or alcohol can be factors. Any of these things can make a fall more likely. Babies and young children are also at risk of falling - off ...

  9. Development of Physics Self-Efficacy Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çalişkan, Serap; Selçuk, Gamze S.; Erol, Mustafa

    2007-04-01

    In this article, we describe development of a Physics Self-Efficacy Scale (PSES) that is a self-administered measure to assess physics self-efficacy beliefs regarding one's ability to successfully perform physics tasks in physics classroom. The scale is initially composed of 56 items prepared following a brief scrutiny of relating literature on self-efficacy. It was initially administered 30 physics teacher candidates and was also examined by 6 experts of physics education, then ambiguous or incomprehensible 6 items were dismissed. This PSES was tested on 558 undergraduate students all completed fundamental physics courses. Cronbach's Alpha reliability coefficient of the PSES was calculated as 0.94. The final version of the PSES contained 30 items with 5 dimensions namely, 1. Self-efficacy towards solving physics problems, 2. Self-efficacy towards physics laboratory, 3. Self-efficacy towards learning physics, 4. Self-efficacy towards application of physics knowledge and 5. Self-efficacy towards memorizing physics knowledge.

  10. The Effects of Augmented Reality-based Otago Exercise on Balance, Gait, and Falls Efficacy of Elderly Women

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Ha-na; Chung, EunJung; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of augmented reality-based Otago exercise on balance, gait, and falls efficacy of elderly women. [Subjects] The subjects were 21 elderly women, who were randomly divided into two groups: an augmented reality-based Otago exercise group of 10 subjects and an Otago exercise group of 11 subjects. [Methods] All subjects were evaluated for balance (Berg Balance Scale, BBS), gait parameters (velocity, cadence, step length, and stride length), and falls efficacy. Within 12 weeks, Otago exercise for muscle strengthening and balance training was conducted three times, for a period of 60 minutes each, and subjects in the experimental group performed augmented reality-based Otago exercise. [Results] Following intervention, the augmented reality-based Otago exercise group showed significant increases in BBS, velocity, cadence, step length (right side), stride length (right side and left side) and falls efficacy. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest the feasibility and suitability of this augmented reality-based Otago exercise for elderly women. PMID:24259856

  11. The Impact of Osteoporosis, Falls, Fear of Falling and Efficacy Expectations on Exercise Among Community Dwelling Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nahm, Eun Shim; Zhu, Shijun; Brown, Clayton; An, Minjeong; Park, Bukyung; Brown, Jeannie

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to test a model delineating the factors known to influence fear of falling and exercise behavior among older adults. Design and Methods This was a secondary data analysis using baseline data from the Bone Health study. A total of 866 individuals from two online communities participated in the study, 161 (18.6%) were from SeniorNet and 683 (78.9%) were from MyHealtheVet. More than half (63%) of the participants were male with a mean age of 62.8 (SD= 8.5). The majority was white (89%), married (53%) and had some college (87%). Results Knowledge about osteoporosis and awareness one has a diagnosis of osteoporosis directly influenced fear of falling, and knowledge of osteoporosis directly and indirectly influenced exercise behavior. A diagnosis of osteoporosis indirectly influenced exercise behavior. Taken together, the hypothesized model explained 13% of the variance in exercise behavior. Implications Improving knowledge of osteoporosis and awareness of having a diagnosis of osteoporosis, decreasing fear of falling and strengthening self-efficacy and outcome expectations for exercise may help improve exercise behavior among older adults. PMID:25233207

  12. Fear of falling: efficacy of virtual reality associated with serious games in elderly people

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Fanny; Leboucher, Pierre; Rautureau, Gilles; Komano, Odile; Millet, Bruno; Jouvent, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Objective Fear of falling is defined as an ongoing concern about falling that is not explained by physical examination. Focusing on the psychological dimension of this pathology (phobic reaction to walking), we looked at how virtual reality associated with serious games can be used to treat this pathology. Methods Participants with fear of falling were randomly assigned to either a treatment group or a waiting list. The therapy consisted of 12 weekly sessions of virtual reality exposure therapy associated with serious games. Results Sixteen participants were included. The mean age of the treatment group was 72 years and that of the control group was 69 years. Participants’ scores on the fear of falling measure improved after treatment with virtual reality associated with serious games, leading to a significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion Virtual reality exposure therapy associated with serious games can be used in the treatment of fear of falling. The two techniques are complementary (top-down and bottom-up processes). To our knowledge, this is the first time that a combination of the two has been assessed. There was a specific effect of this therapy on the phobic reaction. Further studies are needed to confirm its efficacy and identify its underlying mechanism. PMID:27143889

  13. Developing the "Pedagogical Efficacy Perception Scale" for Teacher Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akbaba, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to develop the "Pedagogical Efficacy Perception Scale" for teacher candidates and to compare scale scores. The sample of this survey model study consists of 310 students studying in a faculty of education. The "Pedagogical Efficacy Perception Scale" developed by the author was used for data collection.…

  14. Principal Self-Efficacy and Work Engagement: Assessing a Norwegian Principal Self-Efficacy Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federici, Roger A.; Skaalvik, Einar M.

    2011-01-01

    One purpose of the present study was to develop and test the factor structure of a multidimensional and hierarchical Norwegian Principal Self-Efficacy Scale (NPSES). Another purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between principal self-efficacy and work engagement. Principal self-efficacy was measured by the 22-item NPSES. Work…

  15. Validation of the Sexual Communication Self-Efficacy Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn-Nilas, Christopher; Milhausen, Robin R.; Breuer, Rebecca; Bailey, Julia; Pavlou, Menelaos; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed a newly developed Sexual Communication Self-Efficacy Scale designed to measure the sexual communication self-efficacy of adolescent men and women. Three-hundred and seventy-four U.K. adolescents completed this new scale, along with several other validity measures. Factor analysis revealed that the Sexual Communication…

  16. Efficacy of Cry1F insecticidal protein in maize and cotton for control of fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efficacy of maize, Zea mays L., hybrids and cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.), varieties expressing Cry1F insecticidal crystal protein of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) var. aizawai Berliner (transformation event TC1507 in corn and event DAS-24236-5 in cotton) was evaluated for control of fall armyworm, ...

  17. Development of the Social Efficacy and Social Outcome Expectations Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Stephen L.; Wright, Dorothy A.; Jenkins-Guarnieri, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    The current study developed an 18-item scale measuring individuals' social expectations in relationships related to their efficacy expectations (Subscale 1) and outcome expectations (Subscale 2) based on Bandura's self-efficacy theory. Results from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, using an undergraduate sample ("N"…

  18. Development and Exploratory Validation of an Organizational Efficacy Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohn, James G.

    2010-01-01

    Although many instruments have been developed to measure organizational constructs such as citizenship, climate, and organization-based esteem, to date no scale has been designed specifically to measure efficacy at the organizational level. Tools to measure organizational efficacy in a business context have been recommended for over two decades.…

  19. The Coaching Efficacy Scale II--High School Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Nicholas D.; Feltz, Deborah L.; Chase, Melissa A.; Reckase, Mark D.; Hancock, Gregory R.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this validity study was to improve measurement of coaching efficacy, an important variable in models of coaching effectiveness. A revised version of the coaching efficacy scale (CES) was developed for head coaches of high school teams (CES II-HST). Data were collected from head coaches of 14 relevant high school sports (N = 799).…

  20. Factor Structure of the Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornick, Jessica E.

    2015-01-01

    The current study utilized exercise self-efficacy ratings from undergraduate students to assess the factor structure of the Self-Efficacy to Regulate Exercise Scale (Bandura, 1997, 2006). An exploratory factor analysis (n = 759) indicated a two-factor model solution and three separate confirmatory factor analyses (n = 1,798) supported this…

  1. The HIV Medication Taking Self-Efficacy Scale: Psychometric Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Erlen, Judith A.; Cha, EunSeok; Kim, Kevin H.; Caruthers, Donna; Sereika, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    Aim This paper is a report of an examination of the psychometric properties of the HIV Medication Taking Self-efficacy Scale. Background Self-efficacy is a critically important component of strategies to improve HIV medication-taking; however, valid and reliable tools for assessing HIV medication-taking self-efficacy are limited. Method We used a cross-sectional, correlational design. Between 2003 and 2007, 326 participants were recruited from sites in Pennsylvania and Ohio in the United States of America. Six self-report questionnaires administered at baseline and 12 weeks later during “Improving Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy” were used to examine the variables of interest. Means and variances, reliability, criterion, and construct validity of the HIV Medication Taking Self-efficacy Scale were assessed. Findings Participants reported high self-confidence in their ability to carry out specific medication-related tasks (mean=8.31) and in the medication’s ability to effect good outcomes (mean=8.56). The HIV Medication Taking Self-efficacy Scale and subscales showed excellent reliability (α = .93 ~ .94). Criterion validity was well-established by examining the relationships between the HIV Medication Taking Self-efficacy Scale and selected physiological and psychological factors, and self-reported medication adherence (r = −.20 ~ .58). A two-factor model with a correlation between self-efficacy belief and outcome expectancy fitted the data well (model χ2 = 3871.95, df = 325, p<001; CFA =.96; RMSEA =.046). Conclusion The HIV Medication Taking Self-efficacy Scale is a psychometrically sound measure of medication-taking self-efficacy for use by researchers and clinicians with people with HIV. The findings offer insight into the development of interventions to promote self-efficacy and medication adherence in persons with HIV. PMID:20722799

  2. Anti-fall Efficacy of Oral Supplemental Vitamin D and Active Vitamin D

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Results from fall prevention trials with supplemental vitamin D have been mixed and trials varied by dose, type of vitamin D (D3 = cholecalciferol or D2 = ergocalciferol), and quality of fall assessment. A possible differential benefit of supplemental versus alpha-hydroxylated vitamin D (active D) h...

  3. Validation of the Sexual Communication Self-Efficacy Scale.

    PubMed

    Quinn-Nilas, Christopher; Milhausen, Robin R; Breuer, Rebecca; Bailey, Julia; Pavlou, Menelaos; DiClemente, Ralph J; Wingood, Gina M

    2016-04-01

    This study assessed a newly developed Sexual Communication Self-Efficacy Scale designed to measure the sexual communication self-efficacy of adolescent men and women. Three-hundred and seventy-four U.K. adolescents completed this new scale, along with several other validity measures. Factor analysis revealed that the Sexual Communication Self-Efficacy Scale consisted of five underlying factors: contraception communication, positive sexual messages, negative sexual messages, sexual history, and condom negotiation. These factors demonstrated high internal consistency and presents evidence to support construct validity. This scale may have utility in assessing the effectiveness of interventions designed to enhance sexual communication and sexual health behaviors among young people. PMID:26286296

  4. A Confirmatory Study of Rating Scale Category Effectiveness for the Coaching Efficacy Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Nicholas D.; Feltz, Deborah L.; Wolfe, Edward W.

    2008-01-01

    This study extended validity evidence for measures of coaching efficacy derived from the Coaching Efficacy Scale (CES) by testing the rating scale categorizations suggested in previous research. Previous research provided evidence for the effectiveness of a four-category (4-CAT) structure for high school and collegiate sports coaches; it also…

  5. Construct validity of the Modified Gait Efficacy Scale in older females.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Allon; Talley, Susan Ann; Adamo, Diane E

    2016-05-01

    There are few well-validated tools that focus on the assessment of walking confidence in older adults. The main objective of this study was to assess construct validity of the 10-item Modified Gait Efficacy Scale (mGES) as a measure of walking confidence in older adults. Twenty-four older females completed the mGES, the 16-item Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC-16) scale, and the Senior Fitness Test (SFT). Construct validity of the mGES was evaluated by quantifying relationships between the mGES and the ABC-16 and the SFT, and by examining the ability of the mGES to discriminate between known groups (no/lower fear of falling versus higher fear of falling). There was a strong correlation between mGES and the ABC-16 scale (rs = 0.85; p < 0.001). The mGES was significantly associated with SFT components that required lower extremity strength, stepping aerobic endurance, and walking agility and dynamic balance (rs = 0.45 to 0.61; p < 0.05). Relationships between the mGES and number of arm curls in 30 s, chair sit and reach test, and back scratch test were weak (rs = 0.13-0.25; p > 0.05). Mean mGES score was 91.5% in a no/lower fear of falling group, while it was 81.4% in a higher fear group (p = 0.22). There was a trend toward a significant difference in the unstandardized residuals derived from regression of ranked mGES scores on ranked covariate (age and 8 foot up and go) scores, between the no/lower versus higher fear of falling group (p = 0.095). These results support construct validity of the mGES as a measure of gait self-efficacy in community-dwelling older females. PMID:27253337

  6. The Teacher Efficacy for Inclusive Practices (TEIP) Scale: Dimensionality and Factor Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Mi-Hwa; Dimitrov, Dimiter M.; Das, Ajay; Gichuru, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    The "Teacher Efficacy for Inclusive Practices" (TEIP) scale is designed to measure teacher-self efficacy to teach in inclusive classrooms. The original study identified three scale factors: "efficacy in using inclusive instruction" ("EII"), "efficacy in collaboration" ("EC"), and "efficacy in…

  7. A Factor Analysis of the Research Self-Efficacy Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bieschke, Kathleen J.; And Others

    Counseling professionals' and counseling psychology students' interest in performing research seems to be waning. Identifying the impediments to graduate students' interest and participation in research is important if systematic efforts to engage them in research are to succeed. The Research Self-Efficacy Scale (RSES) was designed to measure…

  8. Investigating the Latent Structure of the Teacher Efficacy Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagler, Amy; Wagler, Ron

    2013-01-01

    This article reevaluates the latent structure of the Teacher Efficacy Scale using confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) on a sample of preservice teachers from a public university in the U.S. Southwest. The fit of a proposed two-factor CFA model with an error correlation structure consistent with internal/ external locus of control is compared to…

  9. Rating Scale Analysis and Psychometric Properties of the Caregiver Self-Efficacy Scale for Transfers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cipriani, Daniel J.; Hensen, Francine E.; McPeck, Danielle L.; Kubec, Gina L. D.; Thomas, Julie J.

    2012-01-01

    Parents and caregivers faced with the challenges of transferring children with disability are at risk of musculoskeletal injuries and/or emotional stress. The Caregiver Self-Efficacy Scale for Transfers (CSEST) is a 14-item questionnaire that measures self-efficacy for transferring under common conditions. The CSEST yields reliable data and valid…

  10. Comparison of the Validity of Four Fall-Related Psychological Measures in a Community-Based Falls Risk Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Delilah S.; Ellis, Rebecca; Kosma, Maria; Fabre, Jennifer M.; McCarter, Kevin S.; Wood, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the measurement properties of fall-related psychological instruments with a sample of 133 older adults (M age = 74.4 years, SD = 9.4). Measures included the Comprehensive Falls Risk Screening Instrument, Falls-efficacy Scale-International (FES-I), Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC), modified Survey of Activities and Fear of…

  11. Validity and reliability of the Chinese version of the Daily Living Self-Efficacy Scale among stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Yan; Cheng, Hui-Lin; Fang, Liang; Bi, Rui-Xue; Fang, Xiao-Qun; Hu, Min

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the Daily Living Self-Efficacy Scale (DLSES) in stroke patients. In total, 172 participants were recruited from a local hospital in China. The internal consistent reliability and convergent validity of the total scale and activities of daily living (ADL) and psychosocial functioning subscales were examined and factor analysis was carried out. Cronbach's αs for the Chinese version of the DLSES, ADL subscale, and psychosocial subscale were 0.96, 0.90, and 0.95, respectively. In the factor analysis, two factors (ADL and psychosocial functioning) were extracted, explaining 84.4% of the total variance in self-efficacy (χ/d.f.=2.19, root mean square error of approximation=0.08, normed fit index=0.95, comparative fit index=0.98, incremental fit index=0.98). Convergent validity was confirmed by positive relationships between the Chinese version of the DLSES and the Modified Fall Efficacy Scale (r=0.87). The ADL subscale was associated positively with the Barthel Index (r=0.74) and the psychosocial functioning subscale was associated negatively with the Functional Activities Questionnaire (r=-0.73) and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (r=-0.44). The Chinese version of the DLSES was shown to be a reliable and valid measure of self-efficacy in stroke patients. PMID:27119223

  12. Similarity scaling of turbulence in a temperate lake during fall cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedford, Edmund W.; MacIntyre, Sally; Miller, Scott D.; Czikowsky, Matthew J.

    2014-08-01

    Turbulence, quantified as the rate of dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy (ɛ), was measured with 1400 temperature-gradient microstructure profiles obtained concurrently with time series measurements of temperature and current profiles, meteorology, and lake-atmosphere fluxes using eddy covariance in a 4 km2 temperate lake during fall cooling. Winds varied from near calm to 5 m s-1 but reached 10 m s-1 during three storm events. Near-surface values of ɛ were typically on the order of 10-8 to 10-7 m2 s-3 and reached 10-5 m2 s-3 during windy periods. Above a depth equal to |LMO|, the Monin-Obukhov length scale, turbulence was dominated by wind shear and dissipation followed neutral law of the wall scaling augmented by buoyancy flux during cooling. During cooling, ɛz = 0.56 u*w3/kz + 0.77 JB0 and during heating ɛz = 0.6 u*w3/kz, where u*w is the water friction velocity computed from wind shear stress, k is von Karman's constant, z is depth, and JB0 is surface buoyancy flux. Below a depth equal to |LMO| during cooling, dissipation was uniform with depth and controlled by buoyancy flux. Departures from similarity scaling enabled identification of additional processes that moderate near-surface turbulence including mixed layer deepening at the onset of cooling, high-frequency internal waves when the diurnal thermocline was adjacent to the air-water interface, and horizontal advection caused by differential cooling. The similarity scaling enables prediction of near-surface ɛ as required for estimating the gas transfer coefficient using the surface renewal model and for understanding controls on scalar transport.

  13. Impact of SCALE-UP on science teaching self-efficacy of students in general education science courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassani, Mary Kay Kuhr

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of two pedagogical models used in general education science on non-majors' science teaching self-efficacy. Science teaching self-efficacy can be influenced by inquiry and cooperative learning, through cognitive mechanisms described by Bandura (1997). The Student Centered Activities for Large Enrollment Undergraduate Programs (SCALE-UP) model of inquiry and cooperative learning incorporates cooperative learning and inquiry-guided learning in large enrollment combined lecture-laboratory classes (Oliver-Hoyo & Beichner, 2004). SCALE-UP was adopted by a small but rapidly growing public university in the southeastern United States in three undergraduate, general education science courses for non-science majors in the Fall 2006 and Spring 2007 semesters. Students in these courses were compared with students in three other general education science courses for non-science majors taught with the standard teaching model at the host university. The standard model combines lecture and laboratory in the same course, with smaller enrollments and utilizes cooperative learning. Science teaching self-efficacy was measured using the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument - B (STEBI-B; Bleicher, 2004). A science teaching self-efficacy score was computed from the Personal Science Teaching Efficacy (PTSE) factor of the instrument. Using non-parametric statistics, no significant difference was found between teaching models, between genders, within models, among instructors, or among courses. The number of previous science courses was significantly correlated with PTSE score. Student responses to open-ended questions indicated that students felt the larger enrollment in the SCALE-UP room reduced individual teacher attention but that the large round SCALE-UP tables promoted group interaction. Students responded positively to cooperative and hands-on activities, and would encourage inclusion of more such activities in all of the

  14. Psychometric Properties of the Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale within the Greek Educational Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsigilis, Nikolaos; Koustelios, Athanasios; Grammatikopoulos, Vasilios

    2010-01-01

    Many concerns have been raised about the validity of the existing instruments measuring teachers' efficacy. Recently, a new instrument to measure teachers' perceived efficacy has been presented, namely, the Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES). The purpose of the present study is to examine the psychometric properties of the TSES in the Greek…

  15. Invited Reaction: Development and Exploratory Validation of an Organizational Efficacy Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Carol A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the author's comments on James G. Bohn's article "Development and Exploratory Validation of an Organizational Efficacy Scale". In his article, Bohn has captured a deficiency, as he quotes, of "over two decades" in the human resource development (HRD) field. Since no scale has been designed specifically to measure efficacy at…

  16. Development of Self-Efficacy towards Using Alternative Assessment Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buldur, Serkan; Tatar, Nilgun

    2011-01-01

    Determining the candidate teachers' opinions regarding self-efficacy towards alternative assessment will be beneficial in that this will improve their competencies while using these approaches in their applications within the classroom. In this article, the development and validation of the "Self-efficacy towards Using Alternative Assessment…

  17. Fear of falling in older adults: comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Jung, Dukyoo

    2008-12-01

    Fear of falling has been reported in a high percentage of community-dwelling elderly who both do and don't have a history of falling. The aims of this review are to: (a) elucidate the definition of fear of falling; (b) clarify measurements of fear of falling based on its definition; and (c) describe the risk factors for fear of falling. Despite the importance of the percentage and the consequences of fear of falling, its definition is still vague and warrants clarification. Based on a literature review, major fear of falling measurements involve the evaluation of fear of falling and use of a fall efficacy scale. Using a correct definition of fear of falling, nurses working close with older adults need to identify the different definitions of fear of falling and fall efficacy scale. In addition, nurses who work closely with older adults should encourage them to increase or maintain modifiable factors by maximizing their basic health status and enhancing their physical activity to decrease fear of falling. PMID:25029959

  18. Evaluating the Turkish Version of the Discipline Efficacy Scale (DES): Translation Adequacy and Factor Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurt, Hakan; Ekici, Gulay

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to adapt the discipline efficacy scale to Turkish language, and conduct the validity and reliability analysis of the adapted scale. The scale was applied to 157 teacher candidates. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to reveal the construct validity of the scale. The results of the exploratory…

  19. Psychometric evaluations of the efficacy expectations and Outcome Expectations for Exercise Scales in African American women.

    PubMed

    Murrock, Carolyn J; Gary, Faye

    2014-01-01

    This secondary analysis tested the reliability and validity of the Self-Efficacy for Exercise (SEE) and the Outcome Expectations for Exercise (OEE) scales in 126 community dwelling, middle aged African American women. Social Cognitive Theory postulates self-efficacy is behavior age, gender and culture specific. Therefore, it is important to determine ifself-efficacy scales developed and tested in older Caucasian female adults are reliable and valid in middle aged, minority women. Cronbach's alpha and construct validity using hypothesis testing and confirmatory factor analysis supported the reliability and validity of the SEE and OEE scales in community dwelling, middle aged African American women. PMID:25612395

  20. Automatic fall detectors and the fear of falling.

    PubMed

    Brownsell, Simon; Hawley, Mark S

    2004-01-01

    We studied the effect of automatic fall detection units on the fear of falling. Participants were community alarm users living in the community aged over 75 years or those aged 60-74 years who had experienced a fall in the previous six months. Of those approached, 31% consented to take part; the main reason given for potential participants declining involvement was that they were happy with the technology they already had. Subjects were assigned to a control group (n = 21) or intervention group (n = 34) based on age, the number of self-reported falls in the previous six months and their score on the self-administered Falls Efficacy Scale (FES), which measures fear of falling on a scale of 0-100, with higher scores indicating less fear. The monitoring period lasted a mean of 17 weeks (SD 3.1). There was no significant difference between the intervention and control groups in their mean ratings of fear of falls (40.3 vs 37.5, difference 2.8, 95% CI 6.2 to 11.8), health-related quality of life or morale. Differences in fear of falling between an intervention subgroup who wore their detector at least occasionally (62%) and those who did not (38%) suggested that some people may benefit from a fall detector while others may lose confidence if they are provided with one. Most users who wore their detectors at least occasionally felt more confident and independent and considered that the detector improved their safety. PMID:15494083

  1. Development and Validation of Scores on a Computer Programming Self-Efficacy Scale and Group Analyses of Novice Programmer Self-Efficacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramalingam, Vennila; Wiedenbeck, Susan

    1998-01-01

    A 32-item self-efficacy scale for computer programming was developed, primed to the C++ programming language. The scale was administered to 421 students at the beginning and end of an introductory course in C++ programming. There was growth in self-efficacy between two administrations of the scale 12 weeks apart, particularly for students who…

  2. A Psychometric Evaluation of the Parent Self-Efficacy in Managing the Transition to School Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giallo, Rebecca; Kienhuis, Mandy; Treyvaud, Karli; Matthews, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Parent Self-efficacy in Managing the Transition to School Scale (PSMTSS) were investigated with a sample of 763 mothers whose children were starting primary school in Australia. Exploratory factor analysis identified two factors, Efficacy and Worry, accounting for 56.6% of the total variance in parent…

  3. Technical Analysis of Scores on the "Self-Efficacy Self-Report Scale"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erford, Bradley T.; Schein, Hallie; Duncan, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide preliminary analysis of reliability and validity of scores on the "Self-Efficacy Self-Report Scale", which was designed to assess general self-efficacy in students aged 10 to 17 years. Confirmatory factor analysis on cross-validated samples was conducted revealing a marginal fit of the data to the 19-item…

  4. The Self-Efficacy Scale for Preschool Teachers Regarding Asthma Care: Instrument Development and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gau, Bih-Shya; Hung, Chao-Chia

    2014-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to develop and test the psychometric properties of a questionnaire that assesses preschool teachers' self-efficacy in providing asthma care. Methods: A total of 407 teachers from 54 preschools in Taiwan participated in the study by completing the asthma management self-efficacy scale. We assessed…

  5. Reliability of a Scale of Work-Related Self-Efficacy for People with Psychiatric Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Meredith

    2010-01-01

    Work-related self-efficacy at a core task level fits with the social cognitive career theory explaining the career development of people with severe mental illness. The aim of this study was to further investigate the psychometric properties of the "Work-related Self- Efficacy Scale" for use with people with psychiatric disabilities. Sixty…

  6. Construction and Field Testing of the "Job Seeking Self-Efficacy Scale"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauser, David R.; Berven, Norman L.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument, the "Job Seeking Self-Efficacy Scale," to measure perceived self-efficacy in job-seeking activities. The construction of the instrument, which incorporated tasks that have been determined to be important in job seeking for individuals with disabilities, was based on Bandura's theory of…

  7. Using Mathematics in Teaching Science Self-Efficacy Scale--UMSSS: A Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Can, Bilge Taskin; Gunhan, Berna Canturk; Erdal, Sevinc Ongel

    2012-01-01

    In this study, an instrument, Using Mathematics in Science Self-efficacy Scale (UMSSS), was developed in order to determine preservice science teachers' self-efficacy toward the use of mathematics in their lessons. Data gathered from 250 preservice science teachers were used for Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis…

  8. A Scale to Measure Teachers' Self-Efficacy in Deaf-Blindness Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartmann, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The Teacher Efficacy in Deafblindness Education Scale (TEDE) was developed to expand the construct of self-efficacy to teach children with deaf-blindness. Methods: Eighty-seven special educators in the United States were asked to rate their confidence to perform a variety of tasks that are associated with teaching children who are…

  9. 2011 Outstanding AFCPE[R] Conference Paper: Development and Validation of a Financial Self-Efficacy Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lown, Jean M.

    2011-01-01

    This study developed a 6-item Financial Self-Efficacy Scale for use by researchers, educators, counselors, and advisors. Bandura's concept of self-efficacy and Prochaska's Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change provided the theoretical framework. Scale items were adapted from Schwarzer and Jerusalem's (1995) General Self-Efficacy Scale.…

  10. Development of a Drug Use Resistance Self-Efficacy (DURSE) Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Carrie M.; Howard, Donna

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To develop and evaluate psychometric properties of a new instrument, the drug use resistance self-efficacy (DURSE) scale, designed for young adolescents. Methods: Scale construction occurred in 3 phases: (1) initial development, (2) pilot testing of preliminary items, and (3) final scale administration among a sample of seventh graders…

  11. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the High School Chemistry Self-Efficacy Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Yesim Capa; Uzuntiryaki, Esen

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a scale assessing high school students' self-efficacy beliefs in chemistry-related tasks and to assess psychometric properties of scores on this scale. A pilot study with a sample of 150 high school students provided initial evidence for two-factor structure of 16-item scale, named High School Chemistry…

  12. Efficacy of petal fall and shuck split fungicides for control of scab on peach in middle Georgia, 2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungicides were evaluated for control of scab in a mid-ripening experimental peach block (‘Flameprince’) located at the USDA-ARS Fruit and Tree Nut Research Laboratory (Byron, GA). Chemical formulations were applied at each application date: 3 Apr (petal fall to 1% shuck split), 10 Apr (shuck split ...

  13. Large-scale spatial variability of riverbed temperature gradients in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.

    2007-02-01

    In the Snake River basin of the Pacific northwestern United States, hydroelectric dam operations are often based on the predicted emergence timing of salmon fry from the riverbed. The spatial variability and complexity of surface water and riverbed temperature gradients results in emergence timing predictions that are likely to have large errors. The objectives of this study were to quantify the thermal heterogeneity between the river and riverbed in fall Chinook salmon spawning areas and to determine the effects of thermal heterogeneity on fall Chinook salmon emergence timing. This study quantified river and riverbed temperatures at 15 fall Chinook salmon spawning sites distributed in two reaches throughout 160 km of the Snake River in Hells Canyon, Idaho, USA, during three different water years. Temperatures were measured during the fall Chinook salmon incubation period with self-contained data loggers placed in the river and at three different depths below the riverbed surface. At all sites temperature increased with depth into the riverbed, including significant differences (p<0.05) in mean water temperature of up to 3.8°C between the river and the riverbed among all the sites. During each of the three water years studied, river and riverbed temperatures varied significantly among all the study sites, among the study sites within each reach, and between sites located in the two reaches. Considerable variability in riverbed temperatures among the sites resulted in fall Chinook salmon emergence timing estimates that varied by as much as 55 days, depending on the source of temperature data used for the estimate. Monitoring of riverbed temperature gradients at a range of spatial scales throughout the Snake River would provide better information for managing hydroelectric dam operations, and would aid in the design and interpretation of future empirical research into the ecological significance of physical riverine processes.

  14. Analysis of the Professional Choice Self-Efficacy Scale Using the Rasch-Andrich Rating Scale Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambiel, Rodolfo A. M.; Noronha, Ana Paula Porto; de Francisco Carvalho, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to analyze the psychometrics properties of the professional choice self-efficacy scale (PCSES), using the Rasch-Andrich rating scale model. The PCSES assesses four factors: self-appraisal, gathering occupational information, practical professional information search and future planning. Participants were 883 Brazilian…

  15. Adapting Computer Programming Self-Efficacy Scale and Engineering Students' Self-Efficacy Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korkmaz, Özgen; Altun, Halis

    2014-01-01

    Students might have different type and different level of perceptions: Positive or negative perceptions on programming; a perception on benefit of programming, perceptions related to difficulties of programming process etc. The perception of student on their own competence is defined as self-efficacy. Based on the discussions reported in…

  16. Field Scale Controls of Uranium Bioreduction Efficacy: the Role of Physico-chemical Heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Gawande, N.; Kowalsky, M. B.; Steefel, C.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2011-12-01

    It has been demonstrated in laboratory systems that bacteria from natural environments can reduce U(VI) to immobile U(IV), therefore preventing the spreading of U(VI). The ultimate rate and efficacy of bioreduction at the field scale, however, is often challenging to quantify because it depends on the characteristics of field sites. In this work, the field scale efficacy of uranium bioreduction is quantified using an integrated approach. The approach combines field data, inverse and forward hydrological and reactive transport modeling, and upscaling. The approach is used to explore the impact of local scale (tens of centimeters) parameters and processes on field scale (tens of meters) system responses to biostimulation treatments and the controls of physicochemical heterogeneity on bioreduction efficacy. Using the biostimulation experiments at the Department of Energy Old Rifle site as an example, our results show that the spatial distribution of hydraulic conductivity and solid phase mineral (Fe(III)) play a critical role in determining the field-scale bioreduction efficacy. Due to the dependence on Fe-reducing bacteria, the overall U(VI) bioreduction efficacy was found to be largely controlled by the abundance of Fe(III) minerals at the vicinity of the injection wells. In addition, if there is preferential flow paths that connect injection wells to down gradient Fe(III) abundant areas, uranium bioreduction efficacy can also be enhanced.

  17. Exon capture phylogenomics: efficacy across scales of divergence.

    PubMed

    Bragg, Jason G; Potter, Sally; Bi, Ke; Moritz, Craig

    2016-09-01

    The evolutionary histories of species are not measured directly, but estimated using genealogies inferred for particular loci. Individual loci can have discordant histories, but in general we expect to infer evolutionary histories more accurately as more of the genome is sampled. High Throughput Sequencing (HTS) is now providing opportunities to incorporate thousands of loci in 'phylogenomic' studies. Here, we used target enrichment to sequence c.3000 protein-coding exons in a group of Australian skink lizards (crown group age c.80 Ma). This method uses synthetic probes to 'capture' target exons that were identified in the transcriptomes of selected probe design (PD) samples. The target exons are then enriched in sample DNA libraries prior to performing HTS. Our main goal was to study the efficacy of enrichment of targeted loci at different levels of phylogenetic divergence from the PD species. In taxa sharing a common ancestor with PD samples up to c.20 Ma, we detected little reduction in efficacy, measured here as sequencing depth of coverage. However, at around 80 Myr divergence from the PD species, we observed an approximately two-fold reduction in efficacy. A secondary goal was to develop a workflow for analysing exon capture studies of phylogenetically diverse samples, while minimizing potential bias. Our approach assembles each exon in each sample separately, by first recruiting short sequencing reads having homology to the corresponding protein sequence. In sum, custom exon capture provides a complement to existing, more generic target capture methods and is a practical and robust option across low-moderate levels of phylogenetic divergence. PMID:26215687

  18. The Reliability and Validity of the Mathematics Self-Efficacy Informative Sources Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozyurek, Ragip

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on the convergent and discriminate validity of the Mathematics Self- Efficacy Informative Sources Scale for high school students. A total number of 692 high school students participated in the study. Both explanatory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted for the content of the scale. Whether the Mathematics…

  19. Cross-Validation of the Norwegian Teacher's Self-Efficacy Scale (NTSES)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avanzi, Lorenzo; Miglioretti, Massimo; Velasco, Veronica; Balducci, Cristian; Vecchio, Luca; Fraccaroli, Franco; Skaalvik, Einar M.

    2013-01-01

    The study assesses the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Norwegian Teacher Self-Efficacy Scale--NTSES. Multiple group confirmatory factor analysis was used to explore the measurement invariance of the scale across two countries. Analyses performed on Italian and Norwegian samples confirmed a six-factor structure of the scale…

  20. Validation of the General Self-Efficacy Scale among Qatari young women.

    PubMed

    Crandall, A; Rahim, H F Abdul; Yount, K M

    2016-12-01

    The General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) is a measure of people's beliefs about their capacity to cope with life's demands. Self-efficacy may be particularly relevant in transitional stages such as in late adolescence, when young people make decisions that will impact their adult lives. In the present study, we aimed to validate an Arabic version of GSES among 355 Qatari young women aged 18+ years and finishing their final year of high school. We conducted exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to assess the scale dimensionality. The final model fit was adequate (root mean square error of approximation = 0.07, comparative fit index = 1.00, Tucker-Lewis index = 0.99), confirming a unidimensional self-efficacy measure. The Qatari Standard Arabic GSES is a reliable tool for measuring general self-efficacy among young Qatari women. PMID:26996362

  1. The Smoking Outcome Expectation Scale and Anti-Smoking Self-Efficacy Scale for Early Adolescents: Instrument Development and Validation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen-Ju; Yeh, Ming-Chen; Tang, Fu-In; Yu, Shu

    2015-10-01

    Smoking-related outcome expectation and self-efficacy have been found to be associated with adolescent smoking initiation. There is, however, a lack of appropriate instruments to investigate early adolescents' smoking outcome expectations and antismoking self-efficacy. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the Smoking Outcome Expectation Scale (SOES) and Anti-Smoking Self-Efficacy Scale (ASSES). A total of 232 fifth and sixth graders from four elementary schools in Taiwan participated in the study. Both scales had good content validity, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability. On the basis of exploratory factor analysis, the 6-item SOES with two factors accounted for 54.72% of total variance and the 15-item ASSES with three factors accounted for 56.49% of total variance. The SOES had convergent and discriminant validity and ASSES had convergent validity. The two scales could help school nurses to understand early adolescents' smoking outcome expectation and antismoking self-efficacy and to develop more appropriate antismoking curricula. PMID:25467167

  2. Proposed Modifications to the Conceptual Model of Coaching Efficacy and Additional Validity Evidence for the Coaching Efficacy Scale II-High School Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Nicholas; Feltz, Deborah; Chase, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether theoretically relevant sources of coaching efficacy could predict the measures derived from the Coaching Efficacy Scale II-High School Teams (CES II-HST). Data were collected from head coaches of high school teams in the United States (N = 799). The analytic framework was a multiple-group…

  3. Efficacy of the Supports Intensity Scale (SIS) to Predict Extraordinary Support Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehmeyer, Michael; Chapman, Theodore E.; Little, Todd D.; Thompson, James R.; Schalock, Robert; Tasse, Marc J.

    2009-01-01

    Data were collected on 274 adults to investigate the efficacy of the Supports Intensity Scale (SIS) as a tool to measure the support needs of individuals with intellectual and related developmental disabilities. Findings showed that SIS scores contributed significantly to a model that predicted greater levels of support need. Moreover, scores from…

  4. Development and Validation of Chemistry Self-Efficacy Scale for College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uzuntiryaki, Esen; Aydin, Yesim Capa

    2009-01-01

    This study described the process of developing and validating the College Chemistry Self-Efficacy Scale (CCSS) that can be used to assess college students' beliefs in their ability to perform essential tasks in chemistry. In the first phase, data collected from 363 college students provided evidence for the validity and reliability of the new…

  5. A Scenario-Based Dieting Self-Efficacy Scale: The DIET-SE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stich, Christine; Knauper, Barbel; Tint, Ami

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses a scenario-based dieting self-efficacy scale, the DIET-SE, developed from dieter's inventory of eating temptations (DIET). The DIET-SE consists of items that describe scenarios of eating temptations for a range of dieting situations, including high-caloric food temptations. Four studies assessed the psychometric properties of…

  6. The Psychometric Properties of the Difficult Behavior Self-Efficacy Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Hyun-Kyoung; Kozub, Francis M.

    2010-01-01

    The study was designed to estimate the psychometric properties of Hastings and Brown's (2002a) Difficult Behavior Self-efficacy Scale. Participants were two samples of physical educators teaching in Korea (n = 229) and the United States (U.S.; n = 139). An initial translation of the questionnaire to Korean and pilot study were conducted along with…

  7. The Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale: Confirming the Factor Structure with Beginning Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffin, Lisa C.; French, Brian F.; Patrick, Helen

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the factor structure of the Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES; Tschannen-Moran & Woolfolk Hoy, 2001) using the scores of pre-service teachers at the beginning stage of teacher development to gather internal structure score validity evidence. Two plausible rival models derived from prior research were tested using CFA.…

  8. Using Small-Scale Randomized Controlled Trials to Evaluate the Efficacy of New Curricular Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drits-Esser, Dina; Bass, Kristin M.; Stark, Louisa A.

    2014-01-01

    How can researchers in K-12 contexts stay true to the principles of rigorous evaluation designs within the constraints of classroom settings and limited funding? This paper explores this question by presenting a small-scale randomized controlled trial (RCT) designed to test the efficacy of curricular supplemental materials on epigenetics. The…

  9. The Development and Validation of the School-Based Counseling Self-Efficacy Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boughfman, Erica M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the School-Based Counseling Self-Efficacy Scale (SB-SES). Two hundred sixty-five (N = 265) licensed mental health professionals participated in this study. Fifty-eight percent of the participants reported experience working as a school-based counselor with the remaining 42% reporting no…

  10. Examining the Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale at the Item Level with Rasch Measurement Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Mei-Lin; Engelhard, George, Jr.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the psychometric quality of the Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES) with data collected from 554 teachers in a U.S. Midwestern state. The many-facet Rasch model was used to examine several potential contextual influences (years of teaching experience, school context, and levels of emotional exhaustion)…

  11. Development and Validation of Chemistry Self-Efficacy Scale for College Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzuntiryaki, Esen; Çapa Aydın, Yeşim

    2009-08-01

    This study described the process of developing and validating the College Chemistry Self-Efficacy Scale (CCSS) that can be used to assess college students’ beliefs in their ability to perform essential tasks in chemistry. In the first phase, data collected from 363 college students provided evidence for the validity and reliability of the new scale. Three dimensions emerged: self-efficacy for cognitive skills, self-efficacy for psychomotor skills, and self-efficacy for everyday applications. In the second phase, data collected from an independent sample of 353 college students confirmed the factorial structure of the 21-item CCSS. The Cronbach alpha coefficients ranged from 0.82 to 0.92. In addition, each dimension of the CCSS had moderate and significant correlations with student chemistry achievement and differentiated between major and non-major students. Followed by the additional validation studies, the CCSS will serve as a valuable tool for both instructors and researchers in science education to assess college students’ chemistry self-efficacy beliefs.

  12. Function Self-Efficacy Scale-FSES: Development, Evaluation, and Contribution to Well-Being.

    PubMed

    Tovel, Hava; Carmel, Sara

    2016-08-01

    This article describes the development and validation of the Function Self-Efficacy Scale (FSES) for assessing the degree of confidence in self-functioning while facing decline in health and function (DHF). The FSES was evaluated in two studies of older Israelis, aged 75+ years. Data were collected by structured home interviews. Exploratory factor analyses conducted in both studies clearly revealed two underlying factors: emotion self-efficacy and action self-efficacy. Confirmatory factor analyses resulted in acceptable model fit criteria. The shortened final 13-item FSES had good internal consistency and satisfactory criterion and convergent validity. Multiple regression analyses, conducted to predict subjective well-being in each of the studies, showed that function self-efficacy had a positive and significant contribution to the explanation of well-being, while controlling for general self-efficacy, self-rated health, and sociodemographic variables. We propose that appropriate interventions can strengthen function self-efficacy, thus improving the well-being of elderly persons and their ability to cope with DHF. PMID:26239228

  13. Validation of the Korean Version of the Depression Coping Self-Efficacy Scale (DCSES-K).

    PubMed

    Lim, Young Mi; Perraud, Suzanne

    2016-08-01

    Coping self-efficacy is regarded as an important indicator of the quality of life and well-being for community-dwelling patients with depression. The Depression Coping Self-Efficacy Scale (DCSES) was designed to measure self-efficacy beliefs related to the ability to perform tasks specific to coping with the symptoms of depression. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of a Korean version of the Depression Coping Self-Efficacy Scale (DCSES-K) for community-dwelling patients with depression. A cross-sectional survey design was used. Content and semantic equivalence of the instrument using translation and back-translation of the DCSES was established. A convenience sample of 149 community-dwelling patients with depression was recruited from psychiatric outpatient clinics. The reliability alpha for the DCSES-K was .93, and the internal consistency was found to be acceptable. For convergent validity, DCSES-K score was positively correlated with the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES-K) score. For construct validity, significant differences in DCSES-K scores were found between a lower BDI group (mean=73.7, SD=16.54) and a higher BDI group (mean=53.74, SD=16.99) (t=7.19, p<.001). For the DCSES-K, 5 factors were extracted, accounting for 62.7% of the variance. Results of this study suggest that DCSES-K can be used as a reliable and valid measure for examining self-efficacy coping with depression for Korean community-dwelling patients with depression. PMID:27455919

  14. Self-Efficacy Scale for Weight Loss among Multi-Ethnic Women of Lower Income: A Psychometric Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latimer, Lara; Walker, Lorraine O.; Kim, Sunghun; Pasch, Keryn E.; Sterling, Bobbie Sue

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and construct and predictive validity of the Physical Activity and Nutrition Self-Efficacy (PANSE) scale, an 11-item instrument to assess weight-loss self-efficacy among postpartum women of lower income. Methods: Seventy-one women completed the PANSE scale and…

  15. Aging and health: Self-efficacy for Self-direction in Health Scale

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Albertina L; Silva, José T; Lima, Margarida P

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To validate the Escala de Autoeficácia para a Autodireção na Saúde (EAAS – Self-efficacy for Self-direction in Health Scale). METHODS Non-experimental quantitative study of EAAS validation, by confirmatory factorial analyses, evaluating a sample of 508 older adults from the north and the center of Portugal with mean age of 71.67 (from 51 to 96 years), to whom the Self-efficacy for Self-direction in Health Scale, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale were applied. The EAAS was developed from the theoretical constructs of self-efficacy and from self-directed learning within the PALADIN European project framework, aiming to develop an instrument able to assess the extent to which older adults take good care of their health. RESULTS The internal consistency was 0.87 (Cronbach’s alpha) and confirmatory factorial analyses enabled to find a model near the one theoretically proposed, indicating a structure consisting of four dimensions: physical exercise, healthy diet, engaging in health-related learning, and visits to health professionals. From the psychometric point of view, the model in four factors showed quite satisfactory fit indicators. CONCLUSIONS The Self-efficacy for Self-direction in Health Scale, with 16 items, is adequate to evaluate to what extent older adults have confidence in their ability to take care of their own health, with high degree of autonomy. PMID:27384970

  16. The hospital social work self-efficacy scale: a partial replication and extension.

    PubMed

    Holden, G; Cuzzi, L; Spitzer, W; Rutter, S; Chernack, P; Rosenberg, G

    1997-11-01

    The Hospital Social Work Self-Efficacy Scale (HSWSE) was developed to assess social workers' confidence about their ability to perform hospital social work. The scale was originally tested with master's-level social work students. This partial replication and extension included both students and professional social workers. In addition, we used a new scale to assess construct validity and added another hospital to assess external validity. In general, findings continue to support the use of the HSWSE. In addition, anecdotal evidence suggests that this is an outcome measure that practitioners see as easy to use, specific, and highly relevant. PMID:9408775

  17. Development and validation of the French-Canadian Chronic Pain Self-efficacy Scale

    PubMed Central

    Lacasse, Anaïs; Bourgault, Patricia; Tousignant-Laflamme, Yannick; Courtemanche-Harel, Roxanne; Choinière, Manon

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Perceived self-efficacy is a non-negligible outcome when measuring the impact of self-management interventions for chronic pain patients. However, no validated, chronic pain-specific self-efficacy scales exist for studies conducted with French-speaking populations. OBJECTIVES: To establish the validity of the use of the French-Canadian Chronic Pain Self-efficacy Scale (FC-CPSES) among chronic pain patients. METHODS: The Chronic Disease Self-Efficacy Scale is a validated 33-item self-administered questionnaire that measures perceived self-efficacy to perform self-management behaviours, manage chronic disease in general and achieve outcomes (a six-item version is also available). This scale was adapted to the context of chronic pain patients following cross-cultural adaptation guidelines. The FC-CPSES was administered to 109 fibromyalgia and 34 chronic low back pain patients (n=143) who participated in an evidence-based self-management intervention (the PASSAGE program) offered in 10 health care centres across the province of Quebec. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients (α) were calculated to determine the internal consistency of the 33- and six-item versions of the FC-CPSES. With regard to convergent construct validity, the association between the FC-CPSES baseline scores and related clinical outcomes was examined. With regard to the scale’s sensitivity to change, pre- and postintervention FC-CPSES scores were compared. RESULTS: Internal consistency was high for both versions of the FC-CPSES (α=0.86 to α=0.96). Higher self-efficacy was significantly associated with higher mental health-related quality of life and lower pain intensity and catastrophizing (P<0.05), supporting convergent validity of the scale. There was a statistically significant increase in FC-CPSES scores between pre- and postintervention measures for both versions of the FC-CPSES (P<0.003), which supports their sensitivity to clinical change during an intervention. CONCLUSIONS: These

  18. Racer efficacy study, Fall 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control is a serious concern for commercial vegetable producers because of the limited number of herbicides available for this group of minor crops and the potential for crop injury. Organic producers of vegetables have an even bigger challenge since their weed control tools are limited to cul...

  19. Racer efficacy study, Fall 2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research in 2007 demonstrated the effectiveness of Racer (ammonium nonanoate) for burn-down control of several weed species. Racer has been labeled by EPA in the past year for burn-down weed control in food crops and is close to receiving approval for use by organic producers. The objective of thi...

  20. Cultural adaptation of the Condom Use Self Efficacy Scale (CUSES) in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Accurate assessment of self-reports of sexual behaviours is vital to the evaluation of HIV prevention and family planning interventions. This investigation was to determine the cross-cultural suitability of the Condom Use Self Efficacy Scale (CUSES) originally developed for American adolescents and young adults by examining the structure and psychometric properties. Method A self-administered cross-sectional survey of a convenient sample of 511 participants from a private university in Ghana with mean age 21.59 years. Result A Principal Component Analysis with varimax rotation identified a 14 item scale with four reliable factors labelled Appropriation (Cronbach alpha = .85), Assertive (Cronbach alpha = .90), Pleasure and Intoxicant (Cronbach alpha = .83), and STDs (Cronbach alpha = .81) that altogether explained 73.72% of the total variance. The scale correlated well with a measure of condom use at past sexual encounter (r = .73), indicating evidence of construct and discriminatory validity. The factor loadings were similar to the original CUSES scale but not identical suggesting relevant cultural variations. Conclusion The 14 item scale (CUSES-G) is a reliable and valid instrument for assessing condom use self efficacy. It is culturally appropriate for use among Ghanaian youth to gauge actual condom use and to evaluate interventions meant to increase condom use. Finally, the study cautioned researchers against the use of the original CUSES without validation in African settings and contexts. PMID:20433724

  1. Validation of the condom use self-efficacy scale in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The measurement of condom use self-efficacy requires contextually suitable, valid and reliable instruments due to variability of the scale across nations with different cultural and ethnic backgrounds. This study aims to construct a condom use self-efficacy scale suitable to Ethiopia (CUSES-E), based on the original scale developed by Brafford and Beck. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on a random sample of 492 students at Hawassa University. A self-administered questionnaire containing 28 items from the original scale was used to collect the data. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) with Varimax rotation was used to extract factor structures. Cronbach’s alpha and item-total correlations were used to determine the internal consistency of the scale. The convergent and discriminant validity of the scale was verified using a correlation matrix. Results The PCA extracted three factors containing a total of 9-items. The extracted factors were labeled Assertiveness, Fear for partner rejection and Intoxicant Control, with internal consistency coefficients (Cronbach’s alpha) of 0.86, 0.86 and 0.92, respectively. Altogether, the factors explained 77.8% of variance in the items. An evaluation of CUSES-E showed a significantly higher self-efficacy score among students who ever used condoms; P < 0.001. The correlation matrix revealed that all of the convergent correlations were higher than the discriminant ones, providing evidence in support of both types of validity. In the split sample validation, the communalities, factor loadings and factor structure were the same on the analysis on each half and the full data set, suggesting that the new scale is generalizable and replicable. Conclusion This study of CUSES using an Ethiopian population found a different dimension to emerge, suggesting that the scale should be validated to local contexts before application. The CUSES-E is valid, reliable and replicable. Therefore, health cadres and

  2. Development and Psychometric Testing of a Breast Cancer Survivor Self-Efficacy Scale

    PubMed Central

    Champion, Victoria L.; Ziner, Kim W.; Monahan, Patrick O.; Stump, Timothy E.; Cella, David; Smith, Lisa G.; Bell, Cynthia J.; Von Ah, Diane; Sledge, George W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To describe the development of a self-efficacy instrument that measures perceived ability to manage symptoms and quality-of-life problems resulting from the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. Design Items were developed and content validity assessed. A 14-item scale was psychometrically evaluated using internal consistency reliability and several types of construct validity. Sample 1,127 female breast cancer survivors (BCSs). Methods Written consents were mailed to the research office. Data were collected via mail and telephone. Main Research Variables Demographics, symptom bother, communication with healthcare provider, attention function, fear of recurrence, depression, marital satisfaction, fatigue, sexual functioning, trait and state anxiety, and overall well-being. Findings Data demonstrated that the breast cancer self-efficacy scale (BCSES) was reliable, with an alpha coefficient of 0.89, inter-item correlations ranging from 0.3–0.6, and item-total correlation coefficients ranging from 0.5–0.73. Three of 14 items were deleted because of redundancy as identified through high (> 0.7) inter-item correlations. Factor analysis revealed that the scale was unidimensional. Predictive validity was supported through testing associations between self-efficacy and theoretically supported quality-of-life variables, including physical, psychological, and social dimensions, as well as overall well-being. Conclusions The BCSES demonstrated high internal consistency reliability, unidimensionality, and excellent content and construct validity. This scale should be integrated into interventions that target self-efficacy for managing symptoms in BCSs. Implications for Nursing Nurses working with BCSs may use this tool to assess areas in which survivors might need to build confidence to adequately cope with their specific survivorship concerns. Knowledge Translation The use of the BCSES can inform nurse researchers about the impact of an intervention

  3. Psychometric Properties of the Coping Self-Efficacy Scale Among HIV-Infected Iranian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudi, Maryam; Shojaezadeh, Davoud; Dehdari, Tahereh; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Taghdisi, Mohammad Hossein; Abbasian, Ladan; Roohi, Mahdiyeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Self-efficacy is an important predicator of coping with stress. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the psychometric characteristics of the coping self-efficacy (CSE) scale among HIV-infected Iranian patients. Patients and Methods: Psychometric properties of the CSE scale were examined by using a cross-sectional study design. One hundred and twenty HIV-infected Iranian patients that had been referred to the Counseling of Behavioral Diseases Center at Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran, Iran in 2014 were selected through simple random sampling method. To determine the Content Validity Index (CVI) and the content validity ratio (CVR), a panel of experts (n = 20) reviewed items of CSE scale. Reliability was estimated through the internal consistency (n = 30) and the conformity factor analysis was performed. Results: Iranian version of the CSE scale contained 16 items, including 7 items on the “use of problem-focused coping” method, 5 items on “stopping unpleasant emotions and thoughts”, and 4 items on “getting support from friends and family”. CVI and CVR scores were 0.79, 0.42 and more, respectively. Internal consistencies (range, 0.64 to 0.84) of 3 subscales were acceptable. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that comparative indices of the model, including CFI, IFI, GFI, RMSEA, and Chi-square (χ2/df) were 0.96, 0.95, 0.84, 0.83, and 1.82, respectively, which indicated a good fit for the data. Conclusions: The Iranian version of the CSE scale is a valid instrument to measure the coping self-efficacy among people living with HIV in research and community settings in Iran. PMID:25793120

  4. Development and evaluation of the Marijuana Reduction Strategies Self-Efficacy Scale.

    PubMed

    Davis, Alan K; Osborn, Lawrence A; Leith, Jaclyn; Rosenberg, Harold; Ashrafioun, Lisham; Hawley, Anna; Bannon, Erin E; Jesse, Samantha; Kraus, Shane; Kryszak, Elizabeth; Cross, Nicole; Carhart, Victoria; Baik, Kyoung-deok

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate several psychometric properties of a questionnaire designed to assess college students' self-efficacy to employ 21 cognitive-behavioral strategies intended to reduce the amount and/or frequency with which they consume marijuana, we recruited 273 marijuana-using students to rate their confidence that they could employ each of the strategies. Examination of frequency counts for each item, principal components analysis, internal consistency reliability, and mean interitem correlation supported retaining all 21 items in a single scale. In support of criterion validity, marijuana use-reduction self-efficacy scores were significantly positively correlated with cross-situational confidence to abstain from marijuana, and significantly negatively correlated with quantity and frequency of marijuana use and marijuana-related problems. In addition, compared with respondents whose use of marijuana either increased or remained stable, self-efficacy was significantly higher among those who had decreased their use of marijuana over the past year. This relatively short and easily administered questionnaire could be used to identify college students who have low self-efficacy to employ specific marijuana reduction strategies and as an outcome measure to evaluate educational and skill-training interventions. PMID:24955675

  5. Preventing falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... worsened. Improving your vision will help reduce falls. Images ... for preventing falls in older people living in the community. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009, Issue 2. Art. No.: ...

  6. Confirmatory factor analysis of the generalized self-efficacy scale in Brazil and Portugal.

    PubMed

    Leme, Vanessa B R; Coimbra, Susana; Gato, Jorge; Fontaine, Anne Marie; Del Prette, Zilda A P

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the construct validity, internal consistency and cross-cultural invariance of the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale-Portuguese version (GSE) in a Brazilian and Portuguese sample. The GSE is composed of 10 items, designed to parsimoniously and comprehensively assess self-efficacy beliefs to deal with a wide range of stress-inducing situations. The construct validity (factorial, convergent and discriminant) and internal consistency of the instrument were established within a sample of 304 Portuguese adolescents (study 1) and a sample of 477 Brazilian adolescents (study 2). Then, the invariance of the GSE was tested in a sample of Brazilian adolescents (study 3), using Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis (MGCFA). In the first two studies, the construct validity of the GSE was demonstrated in its three components and the reliability of the scales was confirmed based on satisfactory levels of internal consistency. In the third study, the cross-cultural invariance of the instrument was established. This work adds to previous research on generalized self-efficacy instruments, with good psychometric qualities. Moreover, comparisons can now be made with confidence using this instrument among adolescent samples from Portugal and Brazil. PMID:24230956

  7. Cross-Cultural Validation of Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale in Three Asian Countries: Test of Measurement Invariance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruan, Jiening; Nie, Youyan; Hong, Ji; Monobe, Gumiko; Zheng, Guomin; Kambara, Hitomi; You, Sula

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to validate the widely adopted Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES) for the East Asian context. The researchers seek to find out whether TSES holds validity and reliability and is appropriate for use to measure teacher efficacy in China, Korea, and Japan. 489 teachers from the three countries participated in the…

  8. Rasch Calibration of Physical Activity Self-Efficacy and Social Support Scale for Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Miyoung; Peterson, Jana J.; Dixon, Alicia

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the construct validity of the Self-Efficacy/Social Support for Activity for persons with Intellectual Disability (SE/SS-AID) scales developed by Peterson, Peterson, Lowe, & Nothwehr (2009). A total of 146 participants with intellectual disabilities completed 6 self-efficacy (SE) items and 18 social…

  9. A Job-Seeking Self-Efficacy Scale for People with Physical Disabilities: Preliminary Development and Psychometric Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, Julie; Wright, Chris; Cullen, Lesley

    2002-01-01

    Study sought to develop and conduct preliminary testing of the psychometric properties of a job-seeking self-efficacy (JSS) scale that reflected the experiences of people with physical disabilities. Greater job seeking self-efficacy and perceived ability to manage disability at interview were associated with more positive psychological well-being.…

  10. Preventing Falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... from osteoporosis. Lower-body strength exercises and balance exercises can help you prevent falls and avoid the disability that may result from falling. Here are some fall prevention tips from Go4Life : l Have your eyes and hearing tested often. Always wear your glasses when you ...

  11. The Validity and Reliability Study of the Turkish Version of the Online Technologies Self-Efficacy Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horzum, Mehmet Baris; Cakir, Ozlem

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to adapt a scale of self-efficacy towards online technologies which was developed by Miltiadou and Yu (2000) to Turkish. In order to adapt the scale, first, the scale items were translated to Turkish by the researchers. Then, a translation form was further developed by consulting eight specialists. These English and…

  12. Mapping the efficacy of new designs for large scale sonochemical reactors.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ajay; Gogate, Parag R; Pandit, Aniruddha B

    2007-07-01

    Sonochemical reactors have a great promise for many physical and chemical processing applications but its applicability at pilot or industrial scale levels is hindered by lack of novel designs which can reproduce the spectacular effects generated at the laboratory scale. The present work evaluates the efficacy of two new designs, operating at a liquid capacity of 7l. Mapping of the cavitational activity has been carried out using measurements of local pressure using hydrophone and cativational intensity using Cavitation Activity Indicator (Model IC-3, N. Deznukov, Belarus State University, Minsk, Belarus). Aim has been to identify the distribution of the cavitational activity in radial and axial directions and possibly characterizing the zones with very high and very low cavitational activity in these reactor configurations. It has been observed that the cavitational activity is substantially uniform in both the reactors unlike the conventional single transducer based reactors. The study clearly indicates the feasibility of these designs for future large scale applications. PMID:17224297

  13. ELEMENTARY STUDENT SELF EFFICACY SCALE DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOCUSED ON STUDENT LEARNING, PEER RELATIONS, AND RESISTING DRUG USE

    PubMed Central

    FERTMAN, CARL I.; PRIMACK, BRIAN A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of a child self efficacy scale for learning, peer interactions, and resisting pressure to use drugs, to use in an elementary school drug prevention education program based on social cognitive theory. A diverse cohort of 392 4th and 5th grade students completed the 20-item self efficacy scale and social support and social skills instruments. The results provide evidence for a valid and reliable 3-factor self efficacy scale. Subscale internal consistency reliability was good to excellent (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.75, 0.83, 0.91). Construct validity was supported by correlations between each subscale and social skills, social support, and demographic data. The scale has potential as a tool to measure self efficacy in children related to learning, peer interactions, and resisting peer pressure to use drags and to help shape drag education programs. PMID:19886160

  14. A Self-Efficacy Scale for Clinical Nurse Leaders: Results of a Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Gilmartin, Mattia J; Nokes, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Introduced in 2003, the Clinical Nurse Leader (CNL) role is the first new nursing role introduced in more than 30 years. The hallmark of CNL practice is the management of client-centered care and clinical excellence at the point of care. As part of multifaceted efforts to implement the CNL role, understanding how an individual's self-efficacy with the identified role competencies changes over time has important implications for individuals, educational programs preparing CNLs, and health care organizations employing CNLs. In this study, preliminary psychometric analyses assessing the construct validity, reliability, and discriminant validity for a new state-specific scale (CNL Self-Efficacy Scale) that assesses nurses' perceptions of their ability to function effectively as a CNL are reported. Because self-confidence is a key predictor of successful role transition, job satisfaction, and job performance, measuring individuals' self-confidence with the core competencies associated with the CNL role over time will be important to gain the full benefit of this innovative, unit-based advanced generalist role. PMID:26259337

  15. Psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the General Self-Efficacy Scale in stroke survivors.

    PubMed

    Carlstedt, Emma; Lexell, Eva Månsson; Pessah-Rasmussen, Hélène; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of a Swedish version of the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE) in stroke survivors. The GSE was administered by the same assessor on two occasions 3 weeks apart with 34 stroke survivors (21 men, 13 women; mean age=68.1 years) 6-10 months after stroke. Psychometric properties including targeting and scaling assumptions, and several reliability indices, were calculated. The mean score was well above the midpoint of the scale and the total scores spanned almost the entire scale range. Floor and ceiling effects were within the limits of 15-20% for total scores (0 and 8.8%, respectively), but not for each item individually. Total skewness was estimated at -1.02 and skewness for individual items was estimated as -1.55 to -0.33. The corrected item-total correlations were all above 0.3, except for one item. Cronbach's α was high (0.92) and the test-retest reliability was acceptable (intraclass correlation coefficient2,1=0.82). The mean difference (đ) was -0.68 (NS). The SEM was 2.97 (SEM%; 9.40). In conclusion, although targeting in relation to skewness and ceiling effects was observed in some items, the GSE was reliable for use in mobile stroke survivors 6-10 months after stroke. PMID:26288119

  16. Development and initial validation of the Multicultural Counseling Self-Efficacy Scale--Racial Diversity Form.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Hung-Bin; Lent, Robert W

    2007-03-01

    Drawing upon social-cognitive theory and the multicultural counseling competency literature, the Multicultural Counseling Self-Efficacy Scale-Racial Diversity Form (MCSE-RD) was developed to assess perceived ability to counsel racially diverse clients. Data were collected from 181 graduate students in counseling-related programs, 41 undergraduate psychology students, and 22 graduate students enrolled in a prepracticum course. Results of an exploratory factor analysis retained 37 items and identified three underlying factors: Multicultural Intervention, Multicultural Assessment, and Multicultural Session Management. MCSE-RD subscale and total scores produced adequate internal consistency and test-retest reliability estimates. Initial validity findings indicated theory-consistent relations of MCSE-RD scores with general counseling self-efficacy, multicultural counseling competency, social desirability, therapist demographics, and educational/training variables. Participation in prepracticum was associated with positive change in MCSE-RD scores. Implications for training and future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:22122166

  17. Efficacy of contrast enhanced grey scale ultrasound in characterisation of hepatic focal lesions: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, P.; George, R.A.; Tyagi, A.K.; Sinha, Anamika

    2014-01-01

    Background Contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has recently gained widespread acceptance as an adjunct to conventional grey scale ultrasound. The present pilot study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of this technique in characterisation of hepatic focal lesions. Methods Adult patients who had at least one focal liver lesion underwent ultrasound evaluation in regular and contrast mode before and after intravenous administration of sulphur hexafluoride. The diagnoses were confirmed by comparison with a reference standard (multidetector CT), response to treatment or pathological correlation. Results The rate of correct diagnosis for unenhanced ultrasound was 54%, CEUS was 72% and multidetector CT (MDCT) was 92%. A comparison of unenhanced ultrasound versus CEUS using the McNemar test yielded a p value of 0.0704 (>0.05). However, comparison of CEUS versus MDCT using the McNemar test yielded a p value of 0.0265 (<0.05). Additionally, comparison of unenhanced ultrasound versus MDCT using the McNemar test yielded a p value of <0.0001. Conclusion CEUS increases diagnostic efficacy over unenhanced ultrasound but does not have any significant advantages over MDCT. Currently it may be used as a problem solving tool in atypical haemangiomas, echogenic focal liver lesions, contrast sensitivity and to avoid multiple studies utilising ionising radiation. PMID:25378775

  18. Perceived Fall Risk and Functional Decline: Gender Differences in Patient's Willingness to Discuss Fall Risk, Fall History, or to Have a Home Safety Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Marna Rayl; Moore, Elizabeth C.; Nguyen, Michael C.; Stello, Brian; Goldberg, Arnold; Barraco, Robert D.; Porter, Bernadette G.; Kurt, Anita; Dusza, Stephen W.; Kane, Bryan G.

    2016-01-01

    The CDC reports that among older adults, falls are the leading cause of injury-related death and rates of fall-related fractures among older women are twice those of men. We set out to 1) determine patient perceptions (analyzed by gender) about their perceived fall risk compared to their actual risk for functional decline and death and 2) to report their comfort level in discussing their fall history or a home safety plan with their provider. Elders who presented to the Emergency Department (ED†) were surveyed. The survey included demographics, the Falls Efficacy Scale (FES) and the Vulnerable Elders Survey (VES); both validated surveys measuring fall concern and functional decline. Females had higher FES scores (mean 12.3, SD 5.9) than males (mean 9.7, SD 5.9 p = .007) in the 146 surveys analyzed. Females were more likely to report an increased fear of falling, and almost three times more likely to have a VES score of 3 or greater than males (OR = 2.86, 95% CI: 1.17-7.00, p = .02). A strong correlation was observed between FES and VES scores (r = 0.80, p < .001). No difference in correlation was observed between males and females, p = .26. Participants (77 percent) reported they would be comfortable discussing their fall risk with a provider; there was no difference between genders (p = .57). In this study, irrespective of gender, there appears to be a high association between subjects’ perceived fall risk and risk for functional decline and death. The majority of patients are likely willing to discuss their fall risk with their provider. These findings may suggest a meaningful opportunity for fall risk mitigation in this setting. PMID:27354852

  19. Perceived Fall Risk and Functional Decline: Gender Differences in Patient's Willingness to Discuss Fall Risk, Fall History, or to Have a Home Safety Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Marna Rayl; Moore, Elizabeth C; Nguyen, Michael C; Stello, Brian; Goldberg, Arnold; Barraco, Robert D; Porter, Bernadette G; Kurt, Anita; Dusza, Stephen W; Kane, Bryan G

    2016-06-01

    The CDC reports that among older adults, falls are the leading cause of injury-related death and rates of fall-related fractures among older women are twice those of men. We set out to 1) determine patient perceptions (analyzed by gender) about their perceived fall risk compared to their actual risk for functional decline and death and 2) to report their comfort level in discussing their fall history or a home safety plan with their provider. Elders who presented to the Emergency Department (ED†) were surveyed. The survey included demographics, the Falls Efficacy Scale (FES) and the Vulnerable Elders Survey (VES); both validated surveys measuring fall concern and functional decline. Females had higher FES scores (mean 12.3, SD 5.9) than males (mean 9.7, SD 5.9 p = .007) in the 146 surveys analyzed. Females were more likely to report an increased fear of falling, and almost three times more likely to have a VES score of 3 or greater than males (OR = 2.86, 95% CI: 1.17-7.00, p = .02). A strong correlation was observed between FES and VES scores (r = 0.80, p < .001). No difference in correlation was observed between males and females, p = .26. Participants (77 percent) reported they would be comfortable discussing their fall risk with a provider; there was no difference between genders (p = .57). In this study, irrespective of gender, there appears to be a high association between subjects' perceived fall risk and risk for functional decline and death. The majority of patients are likely willing to discuss their fall risk with their provider. These findings may suggest a meaningful opportunity for fall risk mitigation in this setting. PMID:27354852

  20. A Pilot Study of an Intervention Designed to Promote Walking, Balance, and Self-Efficacy in Older Adults with Fear of Falling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dattilo, John; Martire, Lynn; Gottschall, Jinger; Weybright, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    There is a need to provide interventions that are of interest to older adults who are not inclined to participate in conventional exercise programs and that can improve balance and fear of falling. One purpose of this pilot study was to assess feasibility and acceptability of an eight-week (3x/wk, 90-minute sessions) multifaceted, small group,…

  1. Using Small-Scale Randomized Controlled Trials to Evaluate the Efficacy of New Curricular Materials

    PubMed Central

    Bass, Kristin M.; Stark, Louisa A.

    2014-01-01

    How can researchers in K–12 contexts stay true to the principles of rigorous evaluation designs within the constraints of classroom settings and limited funding? This paper explores this question by presenting a small-scale randomized controlled trial (RCT) designed to test the efficacy of curricular supplemental materials on epigenetics. The researchers asked whether the curricular materials improved students’ understanding of the content more than an alternative set of activities. The field test was conducted in a diverse public high school setting with 145 students who were randomly assigned to a treatment or comparison condition. Findings indicate that students in the treatment condition scored significantly higher on the posttest than did students in the comparison group (effect size: Cohen's d = 0.40). The paper discusses the strengths and limitations of the RCT, the contextual factors that influenced its enactment, and recommendations for others wishing to conduct small-scale rigorous evaluations in educational settings. Our intention is for this paper to serve as a case study for university science faculty members who wish to employ scientifically rigorous evaluations in K–12 settings while limiting the scope and budget of their work. PMID:25452482

  2. Psychometric Properties of a Symptom Management Self-Efficacy Scale for Women Living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Webel, Allison R.; Okonsky, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Context Many people with HIV/AIDS find it difficult to manage the symptoms of the disease, but by adopting effective symptom management behavior, they increase the potential of alleviating the burden of those symptoms. Self-efficacy is a recognized mediator of successful behavior change and is utilized by many researchers and clinicians when developing symptom management interventions. Despite this, an instrument measuring the self-efficacy of symptom management behavior specifically for people living with HIV/AIDS has not yet been made available. Objective To introduce and test the psychometric properties of the HIV Symptom Management Self-Efficacy for Women Scale (HSM-SEWS) for women with HIV/AIDS. This scale, a new 9-item measurement instrument, was modified from the Chronic Disease Self-Efficacy Scale. Methods In this study, psychometric testing focused on the reliability and validity of the HSM-SEWS instrument. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha. Exploratory factor analysis with oblique promax rotation was used to examine validity and test hypothetical associations. Results Eighty-nine HIV-positive women were recruited and asked to complete the scale every four weeks for a total of 16 weeks. Factor analysis supported a one-factor solution explaining 93% of the variance among items. Internal consistency of the nine items was found to range from 0.83–0.93, with an overall Cronbach’s alpha of 0.92. Conclusions Psychometric analyses suggest that the HIV Symptom Management Self-Efficacy for Women Scale is a reliable and valid instrument that measures the self-efficacy of symptom management behavior in women with HIV/AIDS and can be used during interventions and in research targeting this area of health care research. PMID:21145198

  3. The Smoking Outcome Expectation Scale and Anti-Smoking Self-Efficacy Scale for Early Adolescents: Instrument Development and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chen-Ju; Yeh, Ming-Chen; Tang, Fu-In; Yu, Shu

    2015-01-01

    Smoking-related outcome expectation and self-efficacy have been found to be associated with adolescent smoking initiation. There is, however, a lack of appropriate instruments to investigate early adolescents' smoking outcome expectations and antismoking self-efficacy. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the Smoking Outcome…

  4. Rasch Analysis of the General Self-Efficacy Scale in Workers with Traumatic Limb Injuries.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tzu-Yi; Yu, Wan-Hui; Huang, Chien-Yu; Hou, Wen-Hsuan; Hsieh, Ching-Lin

    2016-09-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to apply Rasch analysis to examine the unidimensionality and reliability of the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE) in workers with traumatic limb injuries. Furthermore, if the items of the GSE fitted the Rasch model's assumptions, we transformed the raw sum ordinal scores of the GSE into Rasch interval scores. Methods A total of 1076 participants completed the GSE at 1 month post injury. Rasch analysis was used to examine the unidimensionality and person reliability of the GSE. The unidimensionality of the GSE was verified by determining whether the items fit the Rasch model's assumptions: (1) item fit indices: infit and outfit mean square (MNSQ) ranged from 0.6 to 1.4; and (2) the eigenvalue of the first factor extracted from principal component analysis (PCA) for residuals was <2. Person reliability was calculated. Results The unidimensionality of the 10-item GSE was supported in terms of good item fit statistics (infit and outfit MNSQ ranging from 0.92 to 1.32) and acceptable eigenvalues (1.6) of the first factor of the PCA, with person reliability = 0.89. Consequently, the raw sum scores of the GSE were transformed into Rasch scores. Conclusions The results indicated that the items of GSE are unidimensional and have acceptable person reliability in workers with traumatic limb injuries. Additionally, the raw sum scores of the GSE can be transformed into Rasch interval scores for prospective users to quantify workers' levels of self-efficacy and to conduct further statistical analyses. PMID:26614307

  5. The Iranian Version of the Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale (ESES): Factor Structure, Internal Consistency and Construct Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noroozi, Azita; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Heydarnia, Ali Reza; Nabipour, Iraj; Tahmasebi, Rahim; Tavafian, Sedighe Sadat

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The exercise self-efficacy scale (ESES) is largely used among diabetic patients to enhance exercise behaviour. However, the Iranian version of ESES was not available. The aim of this study was to validate ESES in this country. Method: Data were collected from 348 women who referred to a diabetes institute in Iran through convenience…

  6. Relationships between Computer Self-Efficacy, Technology, Attitudes and Anxiety: Development of the Computer Technology Use Scale (CTUS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Agatha M.; Munro, Don

    2008-01-01

    Two studies are reported which describe the development and evaluation of a new instrument, the Computer Technology Use Scale (CTUS), comprising three domains: computer self-efficacy, attitudes to technology, and technology related anxiety. Study 1 describes the development of the instrument and explores its factor structure. Study 2 used…

  7. Elementary Student Self Efficacy Scale Development and Validation Focused on Student Learning, Peer Relations, and Resisting Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fertman, Carl I.; Primack, Brian A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of a child self efficacy scale for learning, peer interactions, and resisting pressure to use drugs, to use in an elementary school drug prevention education program based on social cognitive theory. A diverse cohort of 392 4th and 5th grade students completed the 20-item…

  8. A Psychometric Evaluation of the Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form among French University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaudron, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the reliability and the factor structure of the Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (CDSES-SF) among French university students. Based on a sample of 650 respondents, the alpha coefficients indicated high reliability for total scores but not for the subscale scores with values of 0.70 and…

  9. Reliability and Validity of Five-Level Response Continua for the Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betz, Nancy E.; Hammond, Marie S.; Multon, Karen D.

    2005-01-01

    The present study, based on three samples of college students totaling 1,832 participants, resulted in the conclusion that a 5-level response continuum for the short form of the Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale (CDSE) proved at least as reliable and valid as the 10-level continua used in normative studies. Values of coefficient alpha ranged…

  10. A Validation and Reliability Study of the Physical Activity and Healthy Food Efficacy Scale for Children (PAHFE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Christina M.; De Ayala, R. J.; Lebow, Ryan; Hayden, Emily

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain validity evidence for the Physical Activity and Healthy Food Efficacy Scale for Children (PAHFE). Construct validity evidence identifies four subscales: Goal-Setting for Physical Activity, Goal-Setting for Healthy Food Choices, Decision-Making for Physical Activity, and Decision-Making for Healthy Food…

  11. Self-Efficacy for Managing Work-Family Conflict: Validating the English Language Version of a Hebrew Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennessy, Kelly D.; Lent, Robert W.

    2008-01-01

    The Self-Efficacy for Work-Family Conflict Management Scale (SE-WFC), developed in Israel, was designed to assess beliefs regarding one's ability to manage conflict between work and family roles. This study examined the factor structure, reliability, and validity of an English language version of the SE-WFC in a sample of 159 working mothers in…

  12. A Small-Scale Randomized Efficacy Trial of Carescapes: Enhancing Children's Social Development in Child Care Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusby, Julie C.; Smolkowski, Keith; Marquez, Brion; Taylor, Ted K.

    2008-01-01

    The quality of the child care environment and caregiver practices can potentially have significant, lasting impact on children's social development. This study involves the development and a small-scale efficacy trial of the Carescapes program, a video-based training program that focuses on promoting positive social development in young children…

  13. An Examination of the Structure of the Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale (Short Form) among Italian High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presti, Alessandro Lo; Pace, Francesco; Mondo, Marina; Nota, Laura; Casarubia, Provvidenza; Ferrari, Lea; Betz, Nancy E.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the factor structure of Career Decision Self-Efficacy scale-short form in a sample of Italian high school adolescents. confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test the degree to which a one-factor structure and a five-factor structure provided the best fit. In view of available research the five-factor structure…

  14. Combined Use of Self-Efficacy Scale for Oral Health Behaviour and Oral Health Questionnaire: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soutome, Sakiko; Kajiwara, Kazumi; Oho, Takahiko

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether the combined use of a task-specific self-efficacy scale for oral health behaviour (SEOH) and an oral health questionnaire (OHQ) would be useful for evaluating subjects' behaviours and cognitions. Design: Questionnaires. Methods: One hundred and eighty-five students completed the SEOH and OHQ. The 30-item OHQ uses a…

  15. Rapid large- and site scale RPAS mission planning for remote sensing of rock falls and landslides in alpine areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gräupl, Thomas; Pschernig, Elias; Rokitansky, Carl-Herbert; Oleire-Oltmanns, Sebastian; Zobl, Fritz

    2014-05-01

    Since landslides and rock falls are complex phenomena involving a multitude of factors, current and historic surface data play besides geologic conditions and others an important role in analyzing hazard situation and efficient site-specific remediation actions. Especially in displacement acceleration phases which are frequently linked to bad weather conditions, data acquisition remains difficult. Therefore RPAS with their small ground sampling distance and correspondingly high resolution open up possibilities for surveying ground situations not only for visual inspection but also for geodetic data acquisition. Both, visual and geodetic data provide valuable information for geologists and related decision makers. Slides or rock falls in alpine areas pose special challenges due to mostly acute and unforeseen displacements on the one hand and geographic conditions of narrow valleys along with steep slopes on the other hand. Rapid RPAS mission planning and mission adaption for individual requirements according to different project stages (initial investigation, repeat measurements, identification of hazard zones for urgent remediation actions, etc.) is therefore of particular importance. Here we present a computer-simulation supported approach to RPAS mission planning taking the identified thematic and remote sensing targets, the relevant terrain and obstacle databases, legal restrictions, aircraft performance, sensor characteristics, and communication ranges into account in order to produce a safe and mission-optimized flight route. For the RPAS mission planning, we combine and adapt tools developed at University of Salzburg, namely a flight track generator taking into account a 3D-model of the earth surface with both, focus on large area coverage (e.g. Austria) and the highest available resolution (e.g. sub-meter for specific areas), available obstacle data bases for the mission area (e.g. cable car lines, power lines, buildings, slope stabilization constructions

  16. From Efficacy Research to Large-Scale Impact on Undernutrition: The Role of Organizational Cultures12

    PubMed Central

    Pelletier, David; Pelto, Gretel

    2013-01-01

    discipline of nutrition is to play a central role in translating the findings from efficacy trials into large-scale reductions in undernutrition. PMID:24228200

  17. From efficacy research to large-scale impact on undernutrition: the role of organizational cultures.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, David; Pelto, Gretel

    2013-11-01

    discipline of nutrition is to play a central role in translating the findings from efficacy trials into large-scale reductions in undernutrition. PMID:24228200

  18. Students fall for Fall Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedley, Kara

    2012-02-01

    From Boston to Beijing, thousands of students traveled to San Francisco for the 2011 AGU Fall Meeting. Of those who participated, 183 students were able to attend thanks to AGU's student travel grant program, which assists students with travel costs and seeks to enrich the meeting through ethnic and gender diversity. Students at Fall Meeting enjoyed a variety of programs and activities designed to help them better network with their peers, learn about new fields, and disseminate their research to the interested public. More than 800 students attended AGU's first annual student mixer, sharing drinks and ideas with fellow student members and future colleagues as well as forging new friendships and intellectual relationships.

  19. [Contraceptive self efficacy in male and female adolescents: validation of the French version of the Levinson scale].

    PubMed

    Bilodeau, A; Forget, G; Tétreault, J

    1994-01-01

    The social learning theory of Bandura leads us to believe that contraceptive self-efficacy supports the adoption and the maintenance of effective contraceptive behaviours during the teenage years. Levinson has developed a validated measure of this concept which consists of an 18-item scale for sexually active girls. However there are no such scales in French or for sexually active boys. The health promotion program, entitled SEXPRIMER, which aims at reducing teenage pregnancy, has incorporated the French version of the Levinson scale, the adapted boy's version and the validity studies. A 15-item scale for girls and a 14-item scale for boys with respective reliability coefficients of .78 and .71 resulted from this program. A logistic regression analysis shows the predictive value of the measures in regard to contraceptive behaviours. According to Levinson's more recent studies, results indicate that new research on the factor matrix of the scale are relevant. PMID:8012913

  20. Full-Scale Direct Numerical Simulation of Two- and Three-Dimensional Instabilities and Rivulet Formulation in Heated Falling Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnamoorthy, S.; Ramaswamy, B.; Joo, S. W.

    1995-01-01

    A thin film draining on an inclined plate has been studied numerically using finite element method. Three-dimensional governing equations of continuity, momentum and energy with a moving boundary are integrated in an arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian frame of reference. Kinematic equation is solved to precisely update interface location. Rivulet formation based on instability mechanism has been simulated using full-scale computation. Comparisons with long-wave theory are made to validate the numerical scheme. Detailed analysis of two- and three-dimensional nonlinear wave formation and spontaneous rupture forming rivulets under the influence of combined thermocapillary and surface-wave instabilities is performed.

  1. Reliability and validity of the self-efficacy for exercise and outcome expectations for exercise scales with minority older adults.

    PubMed

    Resnick, Barbara; Luisi, Daria; Vogel, Amanda; Junaleepa, Piyatida

    2004-01-01

    Older African Americans and Latinos tend to exercise less than older Whites and are more likely to have chronic diseases that could benefit from exercise. Measurement of self-efficacy of exercise and exercise outcome expectations in this older population is required if exercise is to be monitored carefully and enhanced in this population. The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the Self-Efficacy for Exercise Scale (SEE) and Outcome Expectations for Exercise Scale (OEE) in a sample of African American and Latino older adults. A total of 166 individuals, 32 males (19%) and 134 females (81%) with an average age of 72.8 +/- 8.4 years participated in the study. The SEE and OEE scales were completed using face-to-face interviews. There was evidence of internal consistency for both scales with alphas of .89 and .90 for the SEE scale and .72 and .88 for the OEE scale. There was some evidence of validity for both scales based on confirmatory factor analysis and hypothesis testing, because factor loadings were greater than .50 in all but two items in the OEE, and there were significant relationships between self-efficacy and outcome expectations and exercise behavior at all testing time-points. The measurement models showed a fair fit of the data to the models. The study provided some evidence for the reliability and validity of the SEE and OEE when used with minority older adults, and it provides some guidelines for future scale revisions and use. PMID:16138727

  2. Adolescents' Self-Efficacy to Overcome Barriers to Physical Activity Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, John J. M.; Chulak, Tala; Maitland, Scott; Allison, Kenneth R.; Lysy, Daria C.; Faulkner, Guy E. J.; Sheeshka, Judy

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a revised measure of self-efficacy to overcome barriers to moderate and vigorous physical activity in a sample of 484 high school students in Toronto, Ontario. The students had a mean age of 15.3 years. Principal axis factoring with oblique rotation yielded five factors: self-efficacy to overcome internal, harassment, physical…

  3. Turkish Version of the Principals' Sense of Efficacy Scale: Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isik, Ayse Negis; Derinbay, Deniz

    2015-01-01

    Problem Statement: Principals are known as important actors in effective schools. So it is important to know which variables influence principals' success. One of these predictors can be self-efficacy. However, there is very few research about principals' sense of efficacy. Purpose of the Study: The purpose of this research was to test the…

  4. Development and Analysis of a Scale for Meauring Teachers' Sense of Efficacy in Urban Schools (SEUS).

    PubMed

    Garner, Mary; Kokan, Julie; Annis, Kathy; Baker, Mark; Phillips, Maggie; Head, Catherine; Hearrington, Doug; Yanosky, Daniel; Holbein, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Research in teacher self-efficacy has a long history that can be traced back to Bandura (1986) and has been shown to be linked to teacher performance. This article presents evidence for teacher self-efficacy in urban schools, a construct that is separate from but related to the more general construct of teacher self-efficacy. An instrument was developed and validated by a team of university faculty, urban teachers, and school administrators. The Teachers' Sense of Efficacy in Urban Schools (SEUS) is a 15-item instrument designed to address factors that are important for success in teaching in an urban environment, including working effectively with English language learners, students with disabilities, economically disadvantaged students, cultural diversity, literacy, technology, differentiation, and assessment data. The present study analyzes SEUS on multiple levels, using the Rasch partial credit model. PMID:26771568

  5. [The biological effects of a nuclear explosion. Introduction of a new system on a colorimetric scale (black, grey, red, orange, yellow and white zone) to estimate the effects of fall-out on civilian populations].

    PubMed

    Nacci, G

    2002-08-01

    Following September 11 the eventuality of terrorist attacks using bags containing nuclear devices is considered possible in western cities like New York, London, Paris, Rome, Berlin, Moscow etc. However, with a modern Civil Defence programme the effects of a catastrophe of this nature can be partially limited, at least as far as Fall-out is concerned. The present paper explains the medical reasons for building anti-fall-out shelters for the larger part of western populations: from the USA to Russia. The paper also sets out a new method for classifying levels of radioactive Fall-out based on a scale of colours (black, grey, red, orange, yellow and white) whatever kind of radioactivity is involved (total gamma levels, Cesium 137 levels, Strontium 90 levels). The arrival times for fall-out in each area of the scale are fixed, whatever the energy of the explosion and the speed of the wind might be. The radioactive decay in each area of the scale, from the time of arrival of the fall-out is described with precision. Also described are the acute radiation syndrome, tumours, miscarriages and genetic diseases. A nomogram is attached for civil defence purposes showing the leeward extension of these areas, easily measurable in just a few minutes, if four parameters are known: ground zero (locality) of the explosion, the energy of the explosion, the direction of the wind and the speed of the wind. PMID:12207196

  6. Efficacy of curcumin as an adjunct to scaling and root planning in chronic periodontitis patients: A clinical and microbiological study

    PubMed Central

    Nagasri, M.; Madhulatha, M.; Musalaiah, S. V. V. S.; Kumar, P. Aravind; Krishna, C. H. Murali; Kumar, P. Mohan

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Curcumin is a naturally occurring anti-inflammatory agent with various biologic and medicinal properties. Its therapeutic applications have been studied in a variety of conditions, but only few studies have evaluated the efficacy of curcumin as local drug delivery agent and in the treatment of periodontitis. The present study was to evaluate the efficacy of the adjunctive use of curcumin with scaling/root planing as compared with scaling/root planing alone in the treatment of the chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with two sites in the contralateral quadrants having probing pocket depths (PPDs) of ≥5 mm were selected. Full mouth scaling and root planing (SRP) was performed followed by application of curcumin gel on a single side. Assessment of plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), PPD, and clinical attachment levels (CALs) were done at baseline and at 4th week. Microbiologic assessment with polymerase chain reaction was done for Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tanerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola by collection of plaque samples. Results: The results revealed that there was a reduction in PI, GI, probing depth, CAL, and microbiologic parameters in test sites following SRP and curcumin gel application, when compared with SRP alone in control group. Conclusion: The local application of curcumin in conjunction with scaling and root planing have showed improvement in periodontal parameters and has a beneficial effect in patients with chronic periodontitis. PMID:26538916

  7. Factors Underlying the Collective Teacher Efficacy Scale and Their Mediating Role in the Effect of Socioeconomic Status on Academic Achievement at the School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoach, D. Betsy; Colbert, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examine the psychometric properties of the Collective Teacher Efficacy Scale (CTES), an instrument designed to measure collective teacher efficacy. Specifically, a multilevel confirmatory factor analysis is used to determine the factor structure of the CTES, comparing one- and two-factor models. The mediating role of the CTES factors…

  8. Evaluating Treatment Efficacy in Commercial Food Facilities: Insights Gained from Small-Scale Simulated Warehouse Experiments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although critical to a successful IPM program, it is challenging to evaluate treatment efficacy in commercial food facilities because of the inability to obtain absolute estimates of insect population levels. These populations are spatially fragmented and occupy cryptic habitats, such as equipment,...

  9. Coping with Late-Life Challenges: Development and Validation of the Care-Receiver Efficacy Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Enid O.; Green, Kathy E.; Seo, Honglan; Inaba, Miyuki; Quillen, Alicia Alyla

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Measures are lacking that address the challenges that people think they face in their roles as elderly care receivers. However, the development of a sense of efficacy in this role by mentally competent care receivers is critical to successful partnerships between caregivers and care receivers. The purpose of this article is to report the…

  10. Bicultural Self-Efficacy among College Students: Initial Scale Development and Mental Health Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, E. J. R.; Okazaki, Sumie; Saw, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Theory and empirical research suggest that perceived self-efficacy, or one's perceived ability to perform personally significant tasks, is related to individuals' psychological well-being and mental health. Thus, the authors hypothesized that bicultural individuals' perceived ability to function competently in 2 cultures, or perceived bicultural…

  11. Evaluating treatment efficacy in commercial food facilities: Insights gained from small-scale simulated warehouse experiments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although critical to a successful IPM program, it is challenging to evaluate treatment efficacy in commercial food facilities because of the inability to obtain absolute estimates of insect population levels. These populations are spatial fragmented and occupy cryptic habitats such as equipment, pa...

  12. Tailored Prevention of Inpatient Falls

    PubMed Central

    ZUYEV, LYUBOV; BENOIT, ANGELA N.; CHANG, FRANK Y.; DYKES, PATRICIA C.

    2011-01-01

    Patient falls and fall-related injuries are serious problems in hospitals. The Fall TIPS application aims to prevent patient falls by translating routine nursing fall risk assessment into a decision support intervention that communicates fall risk status and creates a tailored evidence-based plan of care that is accessible to the care team, patients, and family members. In our design and implementation of the Fall TIPS toolkit, we used the Spiral Software Development Life Cycle model. Three output tools available to be generated from the toolkit are bed poster, plan of care, and patient education handout. A preliminary design of the application was based on initial requirements defined by project leaders and informed by focus groups with end users. Preliminary design partially simulated the paper version of the Morse Fall Scale currently used in hospitals involved in the research study. Strengths and weaknesses of the first prototype were identified by heuristic evaluation. Usability testing was performed at sites where research study is implemented. Suggestions mentioned by end users participating in usability studies were either directly incorporated into the toolkit and output tools, were slightly modified, or will be addressed during training. The next step is implementation of the fall prevention toolkit on the pilot testing units. PMID:20975543

  13. Development of a new diabetes medication self-efficacy scale and its association with both reported problems in using diabetes medications and self-reported adherence

    PubMed Central

    Sleath, Betsy; Carpenter, Delesha M; Blalock, Susan J; Davis, Scott A; Hickson, Ryan P; Lee, Charles; Ferreri, Stefanie P; Scott, Jennifer E; Rodebaugh, Lisa B; Cummings, Doyle M

    2016-01-01

    Background Although there are several different general diabetes self-efficacy scales, there is a need to develop a self-efficacy scale that providers can use to assess patient’s self-efficacy regarding medication use. The purpose of this study was to: 1) develop a new diabetes medication self-efficacy scale and 2) examine how diabetes medication self-efficacy is associated with patient-reported problems in using diabetes medications and self-reported adherence. Patients and methods Adult English-speaking patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited from a family medicine clinic and a pharmacy in Eastern North Carolina, USA. The patients were eligible if they reported being nonadherent to their diabetes medicines on a visual analog scale. Multivariable regression was used to examine the relationship between self-efficacy and the number of reported diabetes medication problems and adherence. Results The diabetes medication self-efficacy scale had strong reliability (Cronbach’s alpha =0.86). Among a sample (N=51) of mostly African-American female patients, diabetes medication problems were common (6.1±3.1) and a greater number of diabetes medications were associated with lower medication adherence (odds ratio: 0.35; 95% confidence interval: 0.13, 0.89). Higher medication self-efficacy was significantly related to medication adherence (odds ratio: 1.17; 95% confidence interval: 1.05, 1.30) and inversely related to the number of self-reported medication problems (β=−0.13; P=0.006). Conclusion Higher diabetes medication self-efficacy was associated with fewer patient-reported medication problems and better medication adherence. Assessing medication-specific self-efficacy may help to identify medication-related problems that providers can help the patients address, potentially improving adherence and patient outcomes. PMID:27354769

  14. Psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Self-Efficacy for Appropriate Medication Use Scale in patients with stroke

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xiao-fang; Liu, Yan-jin; Wang, Ai-xia; Lv, Pei-hua

    2016-01-01

    Background It has been reported that stroke has a higher incidence and mortality rate in the People’s Republic of China compared to the global average. These conditions can be managed by proper medication use, but ensuring medication adherence is challenging. Objective To translate the Self-Efficacy for Appropriate Medication Use Scale into Chinese and test its validity and reliability in patients with stroke. Methods Instrument performances were measured from January 15, 2015 to April 28, 2015 on a convenience sample of 400 patients with stroke recruited at four neurology departments of the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University. Questionnaires included the Chinese versions of the Self-Efficacy for Appropriate Medication Use Scale (C-SEAMS) and the General Self-Efficacy Scale (C-GSE). Construct validity, convergent validity, internal consistency, and test–retest reliability were measured. Results Item analysis showed that item-to-total correlations were in the range of 0.362–0.672. Exploratory factor analysis revealed two factors (which accounted for 60.862% of total variance), with factor loading ranging from 0.534 to 0.756. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to support the results, with an acceptable fit (χ2=73.716; df=64; P<0.01; goodness-of-fit index =0.902; adjusted goodness-of-fit index =0.897; comparative fit index =0.865; root-mean-square error of approximation =0.058). The convergent validity of the C-SEAMS correlated well with the validated measure of the C-GSE in measuring self-efficacy (r=0.531, P<0.01). Good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha ranged from 0.826 to 0.915) and test–retest reliability (Pearson’s correlation coefficient r=0.642, P<0.01) were found. Conclusion The C-SEAMS is a brief and psychometrically sound measure for evaluating self-efficacy for medication adherence in the Chinese population with stroke. PMID:27042023

  15. Adaptation and evaluation of the measurement properties of the Brazilian version of the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale1

    PubMed Central

    Pedrosa, Rafaela Batista dos Santos; Rodrigues, Roberta Cunha Matheus

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: to undertake the cultural adaptation of, and to evaluate the measurement properties of, the Brazilian version of the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients, with outpatient monitoring at a teaching hospital. Method: the process of cultural adaptation was undertaken in accordance with the international literature. The data were obtained from 147 CHD patients, through the application of the sociodemographic/clinical characterization instrument, and of the Brazilian versions of the Morisky Self-Reported Measure of Medication Adherence Scale, the General Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale. Results: the Brazilian version of the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale presented evidence of semantic-idiomatic, conceptual and cultural equivalencies, with high acceptability and practicality. The floor effect was evidenced for the total score and for the domains of the scale studied. The findings evidenced the measure's reliability. The domains of the Brazilian version of the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale presented significant inverse correlations of moderate to strong magnitude between the scores of the Morisky scale, indicating convergent validity, although correlations with the measure of general self-efficacy were not evidenced. The validity of known groups was supported, as the scale discriminated between "adherents" and "non-adherents" to the medications, as well as to "sufficient dose" and "insufficient dose". Conclusion: the Brazilian version of the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale presented evidence of reliability and validity in coronary heart disease outpatients. PMID:27192417

  16. Body-Efficacy Expectation: Assessment of Beliefs concerning Bodily Coping Capabilities with a Five-Item Scale

    PubMed Central

    Schützler, Lena; Witt, Claudia M.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Expectancies regarding a treatment play an important role in recovery as has been shown in placebo research. The role of expectations regarding the bodily capability to overcome illness is less investigated although in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) such capability is the target of interventions. We introduced a new construct, body-efficacy expectation, defined as the conviction that one's body is able to deal with health-threatening factors by itself, and developed and validated a scale for its measurement. Methods. The scale was developed following expert recommendations. Using online survey data from 1054 participants an exploratory factor analysis was conducted and psychometric properties of the scale were examined (item characteristics, reliability, and validity). Results. The exploratory factor analysis yielded a one-factor solution explaining 51.96% of total variance (Cronbach's α = 0.77). One of the originally six items was removed due to poor item characteristics. Correlations with several validation measures were in line with the theoretical background of the construct. Most importantly, participants with better general health showed higher body-efficacy expectation than participants with poorer health status. Conclusions. Further studies confirming the factor structure and using clinical samples are recommended. Also, the relations with the appraisal of CAM and CAM use warrant further research. PMID:24312132

  17. Psychometric Validation of the Self-Efficacy for Restricting Dietary Salt in Hemodialysis Scale

    PubMed Central

    Clark-Cutaia, Maya N.; Ren, Dianxu; Hoffman, Leslie A.; Snetselaar, Linda; Sevick, Mary Ann

    2014-01-01

    The development and progression of left ventricular hypertrophy is a consequence of multiple comorbid conditions associated with end-stage renal disease and large variations in interdialytic weight gains. The literature suggests that dietary sodium restriction alone significantly reduces interdialytic weight gains. A total of 124 hemodialysis participants in an ongoing randomized control trial participated in the validation in which psychometric properties of a self-efficacy survey were a secondary analysis. We evaluated the internal consistency, construct validity, and convergent validity of the instrument. The overall Cronbach α was 0.93. Three factors extracted explain 67.8% of the variance of the white and African American participants. The Self-Efficacy Survey has adequate internal consistency and construct and convergent validity. Future research is needed to evaluate the stability and discriminant validity of the instrument. PMID:26213444

  18. The psychometric properties of Chinese version of SCI Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale in patients with stroke

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xiaofang; Liu, Yanjin; Wang, Aixia; Wang, Min

    2016-01-01

    Objective To test the Chinese version of the SCI Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale (C-ESES) in stroke patients and evaluate its validity and reliability. Background Physical inactivity is a well established and changeable risk factor for stroke, and regular exercise of 3–7 days per week is essential for stroke survivors and the general population. Though regular exercise is beneficial, it has been proved that duration, frequency, and intensity of exercise are generally low in stroke survivors. Methods The performance of the instrument was assessed in 350 Chinese stroke survivors and repeated in 50 patients to examine test–retest reliability. Questionnaires included a form on demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, C-ESES, and the Chinese version of the General Self-Efficacy Scale. The AMOS 20.0 and SPSS 17.0 were chosen to evaluate their validity and reliability. Results Even though 350 participants answered the questionnaires in the present study, useful data were obtained from 321 participants (response rate: 91.71%). Correlation between item and the total scale score (Item–Total Correlation) ranged from 0.551 to 0.718, indicating that no item needed to be omitted; two factors, with factor loading 0.620 and 0.806, were obtained from an exploratory principal components analysis, assuming 59.745% of the total variance. The two factors were named internal motivation and external motivation. A confirmatory factor analysis supported the results with a suitable model (χ5=291.157; df=185; P<0.001; root mean square error of approximation =0.044; goodness-of-fit index =0.938; adjusted goodness-of-fit index =0.914; comparative fit index =0.858). The C-ESES correlated well with the validated General Self-Efficacy Scale (r=0.827, P<0.01). Good internal consistency (Cronbach’s α=0.757 to 0.879) and test–retest reliability (r=0.750, P<0.01) were obtained. Conclusion The C-ESES is a short, easy to understand, and psychometrically sound measurement to evaluate

  19. Multicultural counseling self-efficacy scale-racial diversity form: factor structure and test of a social cognitive model.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Hung-Bin; Rigali-Oiler, Marybeth; Lent, Robert W

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to gather evidence on the factor structure and concurrent criterion validity of the multicultural counseling self-efficacy scale-racial diversity form (MCSE-RD; Sheu & Lent, 2007). The MCSE-RD was designed to assess therapists' perceived capabilities in performing culturally relevant in-session behaviors in cross-racial counseling. Participants were 209 students in counseling-related graduate programs in the USA. Confirmatory factor analyses identified a bifactor structure in which responses to MCSE-RD items could be explained by one generic and three multicultural-specific counseling self-efficacy factors. Support was also found for a social cognitive model in which self-efficacy and interests in multicultural counseling mediated the effects of prior cross-racial client contacts and perceptions of multicultural training environments on intent to perform multicultural counseling in the future. Additionally, outcome expectations were predictive of multicultural counseling interests and choice goals. Implications for multicultural training and directions for future research are highlighted. PMID:22574664

  20. The Swedish Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale (ESES-S): reliability and validity in a rheumatoid arthritis population

    PubMed Central

    Nessen, Thomas; Demmelmaier, Ingrid; Nordgren, Birgitta; Opava, Christina H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate aspects of reliability and validity of the Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale (ESES-S) in a rheumatoid arthritis (RA) population. Methods: A total of 244 people with RA participating in a physical activity stkudy were included. The six-item ESES-S, exploring confidence in performing exercise, was assessed for test–retest reliability over 4–6 months, and for internal consistency. Construct validity investigated correlation with similar and other constructs. Results: An intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.59 (95% CI 0.37–0.73) was found for 84 participants with stable health perceptions between measurement occasions. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients of 0.87 and 0.89 were found at the first and second measurements. Corrected item-total correlation single ESES-S items ranged between 0.53 and 0.73. Construct convergent validity for the ESES-S was partly confirmed by correlations with health-enhancing physical activity and outcome expectations respectively (Pearson’s r = 0.18, p < 0.01). Construct divergent validity was confirmed by the absence of correlations with age or gender. No floor or ceiling effects were found for ESES-S. Conclusions: The results indicate that the ESES-S has moderate test–retest reliability and respectable internal consistency in people with RA. Construct validity was partially supported in the present sample. Further research on construct validity of the ESES-S is recommended.Implications for RehabilitationPhysical exercise is crucial for management of symptoms and co-morbidity in rheumatoid arthritis.Self-efficacy for exercise is important to address in rehabilitation as it regulates exercise motivation and behavior.Measurement properties of self-efficacy scales need to be assessed in specific populations and different languages. PMID:25572319

  1. Adaptation and Psychometric Properties of the Self-Efficacy/Social Support for Activity for Persons with Intellectual Disability Scale (SE/SS-AID) in a Spanish Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio Ignacio; Paz-Lourido, Berta; Lee, Miyoung; Peterson-Besse, Jana J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In this study we aimed to develop a Spanish version of the Self-Efficacy/Social Support Scales for Activity for persons with Intellectual Disability (SE/SS-AID). Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a sample of 117 individuals with intellectual disability (ID). The SE/SS-AID scales were translated into Spanish and their…

  2. Racer efficacy study – Lane, Fall 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Racer (ammonium nonanoate) is labeled for non-food use and efforts are currently underway to label it as a bio-herbicide for organically grown food crops. The main component of Racer is ammonium nonanoate which occurs in nature and is primarily formed from biodegradation of higher fatty acids. The...

  3. Racer efficacy study - Bixby, Fall 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed competition is a primary concern for conventional and organic vegetable producers. Racer (ammonium nonanoate) is labeled for non-food use and efforts are currently underway to label it as a bio-herbicide for organically grown food crops. The objective of this study was to investigate differen...

  4. Falls and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... rises with age. Click for more information Falls Lead to Fractures, Trauma Each year, more than 1. ... and injury deaths. Fractures caused by falls can lead to hospital stays and disability. Most often, fall- ...

  5. Home Improvements Prevent Falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... on. Feature: Falls and Older Adults Home Improvements Prevent Falls Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table of Contents ... or home modification programs to help older people prevent falls. Check with your local health department, senior ...

  6. Falls in Nursing Homes

    MedlinePlus

    ... for health care providers. Learn More Falls in Nursing Homes Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... 5 Why do falls occur more often in nursing homes? Falling can be a sign of other ...

  7. Fear of falling in elderly people living in a nursing home -- perspective from Manisa.

    PubMed

    Tavsanli, Nurgul Gungor; Turkmen, Sevgi Nehir

    2015-04-01

    Our study aimed to determine the level of fear of falling in elderly nursing home residents. The research population consisted of all the elderly residents of Manisa Municipal Nursing Home between November 2011 and February 2012. The 76 elderly people who agreed to participate were included in the study. A demographics form and the Tinetti Falls Efficacy Scale were used in data collection. The statistical analysis of the data was performed using SPSS 15.0, using percentage calculations, the t-test and Cronbach's alpha. The mean score on the Tinetti Falls Efficacy Scale for elderly individuals was found to be 4.57 ± 3.80. 57.9% of the old people feared falling while taking a bath, 59.2% while going to bed or getting up, and 53.6% while sitting down or getting up from a chair. It was found that mean fear of falling scores were significantly higher in elderly individuals with chronic diseases, sleep problems and urinary incontinence. PMID:25976579

  8. Developing the Scale of Teacher Self-Efficacy in Teaching Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korkmaz, Fahrettin; Unsal, Serkan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a reliable and valid measurement tool which will reveal teachers' self-competence in education process. Participants of the study are 300 teachers working at state primary schools in the province of Gaziantep. Results of the exploratory factor analysis administered to the scale in order to determine its…

  9. Efficacy of Adjunctive Er, Cr:YSGG Laser Application Following Scaling and Root Planing in Periodontally Diseased Patients.

    PubMed

    Magaz, Vanessa Ruiz; Alemany, Antonio Santos; Alfaro, Federico Hernández; Molina, José Nart

    2016-01-01

    The application of laser as a monotherapy has been shown to reduce probing pocket depths and increase clinical attachment levels after treatment of patients suffering from chronic periodontitis. Its controversial use as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) is discussed. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of adjunctive Er, Cr:YSGG laser application following conventional SRP. A total of 30 patients with chronic periodontitis were enrolled in the study. The quadrants of each patient were allocated to either SRP or SRP + laser. A total of 3,654 sites with pocket depths ≥ 4 mm were treated and evaluated at 6 weeks and 6 months postoperatively with respect to attachment gain. Both therapies resulted in improved probing pocket depths and clinical attachment levels. The adjunctive application of Er, Cr:YSGG laser following SRP did not improve probing pocket depth or attachment level compared with SRP alone. PMID:27560676

  10. The REFORM study protocol: a cohort randomised controlled trial of a multifaceted podiatry intervention for the prevention of falls in older people

    PubMed Central

    Cockayne, Sarah; Adamson, Joy; Corbacho Martin, Belen; Fairhurst, Caroline; Hewitt, Catherine; Hicks, Kate; Hull, Robin; Keenan, Anne Maree; Lamb, Sarah E; Loughrey, Lorraine; McIntosh, Caroline; Menz, Hylton B; Redmond, Anthony C; Rodgers, Sara; Vernon, Wesley; Watson, Judith; Torgerson, David

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Falls and fall-related injuries are a serious cause of morbidity and cost to society. Foot problems and inappropriate footwear may increase the risk of falls; therefore podiatric interventions may play a role in reducing falls. Two Cochrane systematic reviews identified only one study of a podiatry intervention aimed to reduce falls, which was undertaken in Australia. The REFORM trial aims to evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of a multifaceted podiatry intervention in reducing falls in people aged 65 years and over in a UK and Irish setting. Methods and analysis This multicentre, cohort randomised controlled trial will recruit 2600 participants from routine podiatry clinics in the UK and Ireland to the REFORM cohort. In order to detect a 10% point reduction in falls from 50% to 40%, with 80% power 890 participants will be randomised to receive routine podiatry care and a falls prevention leaflet or routine podiatry care, a falls prevention leaflet and a multifaceted podiatry intervention. The primary outcome is rate of falls (falls/person/time) over 12 months assessed by patient self-report falls diary. Secondary self-report outcome measures include: the proportion of single and multiple fallers and time to first fall over a 12-month period; Short Falls Efficacy Scale—International; fear of falling in the past 4 weeks; Frenchay Activities Index; fracture rate; Geriatric Depression Scale; EuroQoL-five dimensional scale 3-L; health service utilisation at 6 and 12 months. A qualitative study will examine the acceptability of the package of care to participants and podiatrists. Ethics and dissemination The trial has received a favourable opinion from the East of England—Cambridge East Research Ethics Committee and Galway Research Ethics Committee. The trial results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and at conference presentations. Trial registration number Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN68240461assigned 01/07/2011. PMID

  11. Fall Enrollment Report. 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes and analyzes fall enrollment in Iowa's community colleges. Each year, Iowa's 15 community colleges submit data on enrollment on the 10th business day of the fall semester. Some highlights from this report include: (1) Fall 2014 enrollment was 93,772 students--a decline of 0.49 percent from last fall; (2) Enrollment continues…

  12. 160. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    160. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Field Book #361 #86, page 1). SCALE DRAWING, CANAL HEADGATES AND CANAL SURVEY, 'A' LINE. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  13. The efficacy of a daily self-weighing weight loss intervention using smart scales and email

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Dori M.; Tate, Deborah F.; Bennett, Gary G.; Ennett, Susan; Samuel-Hodge, Carmen; Ward, Dianne S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the impact of a weight loss intervention that focused on daily self-weighing for self-monitoring as compared to a delayed control group among 91 overweight adults. Design and Methods The 6-month intervention included a cellular-connected “smart” scale for daily weighing, web-based weight loss graph, and weekly emails with tailored feedback and lessons. An objective measure of self-weighing frequency was obtained. Weight was measured in clinic at 3 and 6 months. Caloric intake and expenditure, and perceptions of daily self-weighing were also measured. Results Using intent-to-treat analyses, the intervention group lost significantly more weight compared to the control group [Mean (95%CI); 3 months: −4.41%(−5.5, −3.3) vs. −0.37%(−1.5, .76); 6 months: −6.55%(−7.7, −5.4) vs. −0.35%(−1.5, .79); group×time interaction: p<.001] and a greater percentage achieved 5% (42.6% vs. 6.8%; p<.0001) and 10% (27.7% vs. 0%; p<.0001) weight loss. On average, the intervention group self-weighed more days/week (6.1±1.1 vs. 1.1±1.5; p<.0001) and consumed fewer calories/day compared to the control group [Mean (95% CI); 6 months: 1509 (1291,1728) vs. 1856 (1637,2074); group×time interaction: p=.006]. Among intervention participants, daily self-weighing was perceived positively. Conclusions These results indicate that an intervention focusing on daily self-weighing can produce clinically significant weight loss. PMID:23512320

  14. Falls prevention advice and visual feedback to those at risk of falling: study protocol for a pilot randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that functional strength and balance exercises can reduce the risk of falling in older people if they are done on a regular basis. However, the repetitive nature of these exercises; combined with the inherent lack of feedback of progress may discourage seniors from exercising in the home, thereby rendering such an intervention ineffective. This study hypothesizes that the use of visual feedback and multimodal games will be more effective in encouraging adherence to home rehabilitation than standard care; thereby promoting independence and improving the quality of life in older adults at risk of falling. Methods A pllel-group pilot randomized controlled trial with 3 groups of participants will be conducted in the home for 12 weeks. Participants will include older adults who have been identified as at risk of falling (n = 48), over the age of 65, living in the community, and suitable for a home exercise intervention. The primary outcome is adherence to exercise. Secondary outcomes include: variability in stride length, stride time and double support time (DST); walking speed; Timed up and go test (TUG); Falls Efficacy Scale International (FES-I); CONFbal scale; Romberg’s test; and quality of life measures (SF-12 and EuroQol EQ-5D). Qualitative assessments on personal experiences with rehabilitation tools will be done before and after the trial. Discussion This study will investigate the use of visual feedback and engaging multimodal activities to address the problem of non-compliance to home exercises for falls rehabilitation. One of the unique qualities of this study is the adaptation of special participatory design methods through which the end users (fallers) will be involved in the design of the proposed rehabilitation tools at various stages of the design process. Trial registration ISRCTN79967470 PMID:23510162

  15. Validity and Reliability Study of the Self-Efficacy Scale in Rendering Piano Education to Children of 6-12 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekinci, Hatice

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to develop a valid and reliable scale that can be used in measuring self-efficacy of candidate music teachers in rendering piano education to children of 6-12 years. To this end, a pool of 51 items was created by using the literature, and taking the opinions of piano professors and piano instructors working with…

  16. Development and Validation of a Cervical Cancer Screening Self-Efficacy Scale for Low-Income Mexican American Women

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Maria E.; Diamond, Pamela M.; Rakowski, William; Gonzales, Alicia; Tortolero-Luna, Guillermo; Williams, Janet; Morales-Campos, Daisy Y.

    2011-01-01

    While self-efficacy (SE), a construct from Social Cognitive Theory, has been shown to influence other screening behaviors, few measures currently exist for measuring Pap test SE. This paper describes the development and psychometric testing of such a measure for Mexican-American women. Data from two separate samples of Mexican-American women 50 years or older, obtained as part of a study to develop and evaluate a breast and cervical cancer screening educational program, were used in the current study. Exploratory factor analysis indicated a single factor solution and all item loadings were > .73. Confirmatory analysis confirmed a single factor structure with all standardized loadings greater than .40 as hypothesized. The eight item SE scale demonstrated high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = .95). As hypothesized, SE was correlated with knowledge, prior experience, and screening intention. Logistic regression supported the theoretical relationship that women with higher SE were more likely to have had a recent Pap test. Findings showed a significant increase in SE following the intervention, indicating the measure has good sensitivity to change over time. PMID:19258484

  17. Methylphenidate Efficacy: Immediate versus Extended Release at Short Term in Mexican Children with ADHD Assessed by Conners Scale and EEG.

    PubMed

    Durand-Rivera, Alfredo; Alatorre-Miguel, Efren; Zambrano-Sánchez, Elizabeth; Reyes-Legorreta, Celia

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects 5-6% of school aged children worldwide. Pharmacological therapy is considered the first-line treatment and methylphenidate (MPH) is considered the first-choice medication. There are two formulations: immediate release (IR) MPH and long-acting (or extended release) formulation (MPH-ER). In this work, we measure the efficacy of treatment for both presentations in one month with Conners' scales and electroencephalography (EEG). Results. for IR group, in parents and teachers Conners test, all items showed significant differences, towards improvement, except for teachers in perfectionism and emotional instability. For ER group in parent's Conners test, the items in which there were no significant differences are psychosomatic and emotional instability. For teachers, there were no significant differences in: hyperactivity and perfectionism. Comparing the Conners questionnaires (parents versus teachers) we find significant differences before and after treatment in hyperactivity, perfectionism, psychosomatics, DSM-IV hyperactive-impulsive, and DSM-IV total. In the EEG the Wilcoxon test showed a significant difference (P < 0.0001). As we can see, both presentations are suitable for managing the ADHD and have the same effect on the symptomatology and in the EEG. PMID:25838946

  18. Methylphenidate Efficacy: Immediate versus Extended Release at Short Term in Mexican Children with ADHD Assessed by Conners Scale and EEG

    PubMed Central

    Alatorre-Miguel, Efren; Zambrano-Sánchez, Elizabeth; Reyes-Legorreta, Celia

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects 5-6% of school aged children worldwide. Pharmacological therapy is considered the first-line treatment and methylphenidate (MPH) is considered the first-choice medication. There are two formulations: immediate release (IR) MPH and long-acting (or extended release) formulation (MPH-ER). In this work, we measure the efficacy of treatment for both presentations in one month with Conners' scales and electroencephalography (EEG). Results. for IR group, in parents and teachers Conners test, all items showed significant differences, towards improvement, except for teachers in perfectionism and emotional instability. For ER group in parent's Conners test, the items in which there were no significant differences are psychosomatic and emotional instability. For teachers, there were no significant differences in: hyperactivity and perfectionism. Comparing the Conners questionnaires (parents versus teachers) we find significant differences before and after treatment in hyperactivity, perfectionism, psychosomatics, DSM-IV hyperactive-impulsive, and DSM-IV total. In the EEG the Wilcoxon test showed a significant difference (P < 0.0001). As we can see, both presentations are suitable for managing the ADHD and have the same effect on the symptomatology and in the EEG. PMID:25838946

  19. Falls in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Hodgetts, P. Geoffrey

    1992-01-01

    Falls are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly. One in three older people will fall every year. Assessing intrinsic (patient) factors and extrinsic (environmental) factors that increase the risk of falling is an important part of caring for the elderly. Physicians can readily assess balance and mobility as part of a preventive approach. PMID:21221300

  20. The Effectiveness of a Participatory Program on Fall Prevention in Oncology Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Li-Chi; Ma, Wei-Fen; Li, Tsai-Chung; Liang, Yia-Wun; Tsai, Li-Yun; Chang, Fy-Uan

    2015-01-01

    Falls are known to be one of the most common in patient adverse events. A high incidence of falls was reported on patients with cancer. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of a participatory program on patient's knowledge and self-efficacy of fall prevention and fall incidence in an oncology ward. In this quasi-experimental study,…

  1. History of falls, gait, balance, and fall risks in older cancer survivors living in the community.

    PubMed

    Huang, Min H; Shilling, Tracy; Miller, Kara A; Smith, Kristin; LaVictoire, Kayle

    2015-01-01

    Older cancer survivors may be predisposed to falls because cancer-related sequelae affect virtually all body systems. The use of a history of falls, gait speed, and balance tests to assess fall risks remains to be investigated in this population. This study examined the relationship of previous falls, gait, and balance with falls in community-dwelling older cancer survivors. At the baseline, demographics, health information, and the history of falls in the past year were obtained through interviewing. Participants performed tests including gait speed, Balance Evaluation Systems Test, and short-version of Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale. Falls were tracked by mailing of monthly reports for 6 months. A "faller" was a person with ≥1 fall during follow-up. Univariate analyses, including independent sample t-tests and Fisher's exact tests, compared baseline demographics, gait speed, and balance between fallers and non-fallers. For univariate analyses, Bonferroni correction was applied for multiple comparisons. Baseline variables with P<0.15 were included in a forward logistic regression model to identify factors predictive of falls with age as covariate. Sensitivity and specificity of each predictor of falls in the model were calculated. Significance level for the regression analysis was P<0.05. During follow-up, 59% of participants had one or more falls. Baseline demographics, health information, history of falls, gaits speed, and balance tests did not differ significantly between fallers and non-fallers. Forward logistic regression revealed that a history of falls was a significant predictor of falls in the final model (odds ratio =6.81; 95% confidence interval =1.594-29.074) (P<0.05). Sensitivity and specificity for correctly identifying a faller using the positive history of falls were 74% and 69%, respectively. Current findings suggested that for community-dwelling older cancer survivors with mixed diagnoses, asking about the history of falls may

  2. Prevalence and cost of imaging in inpatient falls: the rising cost of falling

    PubMed Central

    Fields, Jessica; Alturkistani, Tahani; Kumar, Neal; Kanuri, Arjun; Salem, Deeb N; Munn, Samson; Blazey-Martin, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Objective To quantify the type, prevalence, and cost of imaging following inpatient falls, identify factors associated with post-fall imaging, and determine correlates of positive versus negative imaging. Design Single-center retrospective cohort study of inpatient falls. Data were collected from the hospital’s adverse event reporting system, DrQuality. Age, sex, date, time, and location of fall, clinical service, Morse Fall Scale/fall protocol, admitting diagnosis, and fall-related imaging studies were reviewed. Cost included professional and facilities fees for each study. Setting Four hundred and fifteen bed urban academic hospital over 3 years (2008–2010). Patients All adult inpatient falls during the study period were included. Falls experienced by patients aged <18 years, outpatient and emergency patients, visitors to the hospital, and staff were excluded. Measurements and main results Five hundred and thirty inpatient falls occurred during the study period, average patient age 60.7 years (range 20–98). More than half of falls were men (55%) and patients considered at risk of falls (56%). Falls were evenly distributed across morning (33%), evening (34%), and night (33%) shifts. Of 530 falls, 178 (34%) patients were imaged with 262 studies. Twenty percent of patients imaged had at least one positive imaging study attributed to the fall and 82% of studies were negative. Total cost of imaging was $160,897, 63% ($100,700) from head computed tomography (CT). Conclusion Inpatient falls affect patients of both sexes, all ages, occur at any time of day and lead to expensive imaging, mainly from head CTs. Further study should be targeted toward clarifying the indications for head CT after inpatient falls and validating risk models for positive and negative imaging, in order to decrease unnecessary imaging and thereby limit unnecessary cost and radiation exposure. PMID:26082653

  3. Self efficacy for fruit, vegetable and water intakes: expanded and abbreviated scales from item response modeling analyses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to improve an existing measure of fruit and vegetable intake self efficacy, by including items that varied on levels of difficulty, and testing a corresponding measure of water intake self efficacy. A cross sectional assessment was used. Items were modified to have easy, moderate, ...

  4. Preliminary Assessment of Rock Fall Hazard and Risk In The Central Part of The Nera Valley, Umbria Region, Central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghigi, S.; Guzzetti, F.; Reichenbach, P.; Detti, R.

    Rock falls are one of the most common types of fast moving landslides in mountain areas. They represent the most abundant landslides triggered by earthquakes. Rock falls are one of the primary causes of fatalities and of damage caused by landslides. Despite being widespread and highly destructive, only a few attempts have been made to establish rock fall hazard and the associate risk along transportation corridors in mountain areas. We present a preliminary assessment of rock fall hazard and risk for the central part of the Nera River Valley, in the Umbria Region of Central Italy. The Nera River, a tributary of the Tiber River, flows across the Apennines in a deep and narrow valley. Two national roads, the SS 305 and the SS 209, and several mountain villages are located along the valley bottom. The villages and the roads are frequently affected by rock falls. On October 1997, aftershocks of the Umbria-Marche earth- quake triggered hundreds of rock falls, ranging in size from few cubic decimeters, to some tens of cubic meter. Damage was severe and the two national roads were closed for several weeks. Following the earthquake defensive measures (including scaling, rock fences, elastic fences, and artificial tunnels) were installed along the valley. These costly defensive measures were installed without any specific assessment of rock fall hazard and the associated risk. Using a 3-dimensional, spatially distributed rock falls simulation program, we have quantitatively evaluated rock fall hazard along a 20 kilo- metres section of the central part of the valley. The source areas of rock falls (i.e., the detachment zones) were identified from vertical aerial photographs and in the field. Parameters controlling the loss of energy at impact points and during rolling were ob- tained from a surface geology map prepared updating a geological map through the analysis of aerial photographs and field surveys. Maps of the expected rock fall count, a proxy for the probability of

  5. A Selective Corrective Exercise to Decrease Falling and Improve Functional Balance in Idiopathic Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sedaghati, Parisa; Daneshmandi, Hassan; Karimi, Noureddin; Barati, Amir-Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background: Posture instability and unsteady gait disorders in Parkinson’s Disease (PD) usually contribute to fall-related fractures. Fall-related trauma in PD is the most common reason for injury. Despite providing modern care for PD patients (PP) in the recent years, anti-PD drugs have no effect on falling. There is an urgent need to administer exercise interventions to reduce falls and related injuries in the rehabilitation program of PP. Objectives: To explore the effect of a selective 10-week corrective exercise with an emphasis on gait training activities (GTA) on the number of falls (NOFs), fear of falling, functional balance, timed up and go (TUG) test among PD patients. Patients and Methods: A purposeful sampling was performed on PP who had fallen or were at risk of falling in 2014. The study intervention consisted of a 10-week (3 sessions each week, each lasting 60 min) corrective exercise program. Participants were randomly allocated to control and two exercise groups; the exercise group with balance pad (EGBP) or exercise group with no balance pad (EGNBP). The analysis of variance (ANOVA) and paired t-test were used for comparison between the groups (P ≤ 0.05). Results: Administrating a selective corrective exercise in exercise group with balance pad (EGBP) showed a significant difference in number of falls (NOF), Fall Efficacy Scale-international (FES-I), Berg balance scale (BBS) (and timed up and go) TUG (P = 0.001); while administrating the same exercise in exercise group with no balance pad (EGNBP) showed no significant difference in NOF (P = 0.225) and a significant difference in FES-I (P = 0.031), BBS (P = 0.047) and TUG (P = 0.012). The control group showed no significant difference in each of the dependent variables. Conclusions: Performing a selective corrective exercise on balance pad improves falling and functional balance in idiopathic PD. PMID:27218051

  6. [Small-scale evaluation of the efficacy of growth-regulating insecticides on larvae of the Simulium damnosum complex (Diptera: Simuliidae)].

    PubMed

    Doannio, J M; Dossou-Yovo, J; Duval, J; Hougard, J M

    1992-09-01

    The efficacy of insect growth regulators was assessed in small scale tests on larvae of the Simulium damnosum complex (Diptera: Simuliidae) in the Ivory Coast. Three compounds [OMS 2015 (triflumuron), OMS 3009 (teflubenzuron), OMS 3013 (chlorfluazuron)] belong to the group of benzoylphenyl-urea substitutes; these IGR's are supposed to inhibit chitin synthesis. Two other compounds are Juvenile Hormone Analogs (JHA's) (OMS 3007 and OMS 3019). The last compound (OMS 3010) is a phenoxycarbamate. The first three compounds had a low efficacy on blackfly larvae, which is consistent with the literature data for another compound of this group: diflubenzuron. The other three compounds (OMS 3007, OMS 3010 and OMS 3019) were much more efficient, OMS 3010 and OMS 3019 showing high activity at low concentrations. These results would justify further studies on the effect of larval age and exposure parameters, and eventually full scale river tests. PMID:1476468

  7. First Aid: Falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Falls KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Falls Print A A A Text Size en ... Floors, Doors & Windows, Furniture, Stairways: Household Safety Checklist First Aid: Broken Bones Head Injuries Preventing Children's Sports Injuries ...

  8. Fall Leaf Portraits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hara, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how students can create a stunning as well as economical mosaic utilizing fall's brilliantly colored leaves, preserved at their peak in color. Start by choosing a beautiful fall day to take students on a nature walk to collect a variety of leaves in different shapes, sizes, and colors. Focus on collecting a…

  9. Experiments in Free Fall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Art, Albert

    2006-01-01

    A model lift containing a figure of Albert Einstein is released from the side of a tall building and its free fall is arrested by elastic ropes. This arrangement allows four simple experiments to be conducted in the lift to demonstrate the effects of free fall and show how they can lead to the concept of the equivalence of inertial and…

  10. Fall armyworm migration patterns.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), infestations in most of North America arise from annual migrations of populations that overwinter in southern Texas and Florida. Cytochrome Oxidase I haplotype profiles within the fall armyworm corn-strain, the subgroup tha...

  11. Learning From Falling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joh, Amy, S.; Adolph, Karen, E.

    2006-01-01

    Walkers fall frequently, especially during infancy. Children (15, 21, 27, 33, and 39 month-olds) and adults were tested in a novel foam pit paradigm to examine age-related changes in the relationship between falling and prospective control of locomotion. In trial 1, participants walked and fell into a deformable foam pit marked with distinct…

  12. Pre-impact fall detection.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xinyao; Qu, Xingda

    2016-01-01

    Pre-impact fall detection has been proposed to be an effective fall prevention strategy. In particular, it can help activate on-demand fall injury prevention systems (e.g. inflatable hip protectors) prior to fall impacts, and thus directly prevent the fall-related physical injuries. This paper gave a systematical review on pre-impact fall detection, and focused on the following aspects of the existing pre-impact fall detection research: fall detection apparatus, fall detection indicators, fall detection algorithms, and types of falls for fall detection evaluation. In addition, the performance of the existing pre-impact fall detection solutions were also reviewed and reported in terms of their sensitivity, specificity, and detection/lead time. This review also summarized the limitations in the existing pre-impact fall detection research, and proposed future research directions in this field. PMID:27251528

  13. Challenges in Defining and Categorizing Falls on Diverse Unit Types

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Jan; Dunton, Nancy; Crosser, Brandon

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, the National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators launched a project to expand its falls indicator for use on pediatric, neonatal, and psychiatric units. We discuss challenges encountered, argue that schemes for categorizing falls by cause or supposed preventability are not suitable for large-scale efforts to track and prevent falls, express concern about the growing burden of collecting increasingly granular quality data, and discuss limitations of total and injurious fall rates as quality measures. PMID:25188525

  14. Injuries sustained by falls.

    PubMed Central

    Rozycki, G S; Maull, K I

    1991-01-01

    During a recent 4-year period, 381 patients were admitted with injuries sustained from falls. Equal numbers of patients were less than and greater than 50 years of age and included 53 children (less than or equal to 16 years) and 214 elderly (greater than or equal to 55 years). Falls from heights occurred predominantly in young males (mean age 34.2 years), were most commonly job or recreation related and resulted in higher injury severity scores (ISS). Falls in the elderly occurred more commonly in women, typically on a flat surface, and were less severe. Despite lower mean ISS, fall victims over 55 years of age had longer hospitalizations (11.4 vs. 4.5 days) and incurred higher hospital charges compared to younger patients. There were 35 deaths (9.2%). In patients under 55 years, deaths resulted from fall-related central nervous system (CNS) injury and/or multisystem trauma. In patients over 55 years, fatalities were most commonly related to pre-existent medical conditions. Based on a review of this experience, we conclude that: (1) unlike other causes of blunt and penetrating trauma, both sexes are equally at risk from fall-related injuries but sex incidence is age related; (2) falls from heights are more common in men; (3) advanced age and pre-existing medical conditions account for the increased morbidity and mortality following falls and; (4) cost containment measures for fall-related trauma must consider not only injury severity, but the age and pre-existent medical conditions of the patient. PMID:1772536

  15. Evaluation of fall and fall recovery in a simulated seismic environment: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Abu-Faraj, Ziad O; Akar, Hassan A; Assaf, Elie H; Al-Qadiri, Mohamad N; Youssef, Elssy G

    2010-01-01

    Fall-related injuries, disabilities, and fatalities are known to seriously affect the healthcare and industry sectors. Nevertheless, an abled individual, as well as a trained senior citizen, is believed to be capable of withstanding and overcoming unusual environmental variations in terms of postural stability and balance. Understanding the biomechanics of fall and fall recovery through quantitative measurements could provide academic and methodical means to maintain human postural stability, of various ages, in such environments. This study assesses human performance and endurance in the most hazardous environment of a simulated violent seismic activity of a magnitude of 6.5 degrees on the Richter's scale. The objective is to evaluate fall and fall recovery in young abled adults using dynamic plantar pressure measurements. The obtained results support the hypothesis that falls in young adults could be prevented via exercise intervention programs. Further investigation is done by our research group to validate the same concept for senior citizens. PMID:21097092

  16. Validation of the Saskatoon Falls Prevention Consortium's Falls Screening and Referral Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Sara Nicole; Zaluski, Neal; Petrie, Amanda; Arnold, Cathy; Basran, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To investigate the concurrent validity of the Saskatoon Falls Prevention Consortium's Falls Screening and Referral Algorithm (FSRA). Method: A total of 29 older adults (mean age 77.7 [SD 4.0] y) residing in an independent-living senior's complex who met inclusion criteria completed a demographic questionnaire and the components of the FSRA and Berg Balance Scale (BBS). The FSRA consists of the Elderly Fall Screening Test (EFST) and the Multi-factor Falls Questionnaire (MFQ); it is designed to categorize individuals into low, moderate, or high fall-risk categories to determine appropriate management pathways. A predictive model for probability of fall risk, based on previous research, was used to determine concurrent validity of the FSRI. Results: The FSRA placed 79% of participants into the low-risk category, whereas the predictive model found the probability of fall risk to range from 0.04 to 0.74, with a mean of 0.35 (SD 0.25). No statistically significant correlation was found between the FSRA and the predictive model for probability of fall risk (Spearman's ρ=0.35, p=0.06). Conclusion: The FSRA lacks concurrent validity relative to to a previously established model of fall risk and appears to over-categorize individuals into the low-risk group. Further research on the FSRA as an adequate tool to screen community-dwelling older adults for fall risk is recommended. PMID:24381379

  17. Novaluron as an ovicide for bollworm on cotton: Deposition and efficacy of field-scale aerial applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Novaluron, Diamond 0.83 EC, was evaluated for deposition on cotton and ovicidal efficacy against bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), because of the need to use insecticides with modes of action different than synthetic pyrethroids. Novaluron at the lowest label recommended rate was aerially-applied...

  18. Osteoporosis: Preventing Falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Osteoporosis Preventing Falls Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table of ... next to your bed Free NIH Videos About Osteoporosis The NIHSeniorHealth Web site features five brief, informative ...

  19. Editors' Fall Picks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffert, Barbara; Heilbrun, Margaret; Kuzyk, Raya; Kim, Ann; McCormack, Heather; Katterjohn, Anna; Burns, Ann; Williams, Wilda

    2008-01-01

    From the fall's cascade of great new books, "Library Journal's" editors select their favorites--a dark rendition of Afghan life, a look at the "self-esteem trap," a celebration of Brooklyn activism, and much more.

  20. Survival of falling robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-01-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  1. Survival of falling robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-02-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  2. The large-scale distribution and internal geometry of the fall 2000 Po River flood deposit: Evidence from digital X-radiography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wheatcroft, R.A.; Stevens, A.W.; Hunt, L.M.; Milligan, T.G.

    2006-01-01

    Event-response coring on the Po River prodelta (northern Adriatic Sea) coupled with shipboard digital X-radiography, resistivity profiling, and grain-size analyses permitted documentation of the initial distribution and physical properties of the October 2000 flood deposit. The digital X-radiography system comprises a constant-potential X-ray source and an amorphous silicon imager with an active area of 29??42 cm and 12-bit depth resolution. Objective image segmentation algorithms based on bulk density (brightness), layer contacts (edge detection) and small-scale texture (fabric) were used to identify the flood deposit. Results indicate that the deposit formed in water depths of 6-29 m immediately adjacent to the three main distributary mouths of the Po (Pila, Tolle and Gnocca/Goro). Maximal thickness was 36 cm at a 20-m site off the main mouth (Pila), but many other sites hadthicknesses >20 cm. The Po flood deposit has a complex internal stratigraphy, with multiple layers, a diverse suite of physical sedimentary structures (e.g., laminations, ripple cross bedding, lenticular bedding, soft-sediment deformation structures), and dramatic changes in grain size that imply rapid deposition and fluctuations in energy during emplacement. Based on the flood deposit volume and well-constrained measurements of deposit bulk density the mass of the flood deposit was estimated to be 16??109 kg, which is about two-thirds of the estimated suspended sediment load delivered by the river during the event. The locus of deposition, overall thickness, and stratigraphic complexity of the flood deposit can best be explained by the relatively long sediment throughput times of the Po River, whereby sediment is delivered to the ocean during a range of conditions (i.e., the storm responsible for the precipitation is long gone), the majority of which are reflective of the fair-weather condition. Sediment is therefore deposited proximal to the river mouths, where it can form thick, but

  3. A Randomized Trial of a Multifaceted Intervention to Reduce Falls among Community-Dwelling Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Patrick J.; Vazquez, Laurie; Tonner, Chris; Stevens, Judy A.; Fineman, Norman; Ross, Leslie K.

    2010-01-01

    Using a randomized controlled trial, we tested the efficacy of a fall prevention intervention to reduce falls among adults in a community-based health promotion program. Adults aged 65 and older within two counties were recruited (control n = 257; intervention n = 286). After 12 months, there was a significant decrease in the number of falls in…

  4. Doppler radar fall activity detection using the wavelet transform.

    PubMed

    Su, Bo Yu; Ho, K C; Rantz, Marilyn J; Skubic, Marjorie

    2015-03-01

    We propose in this paper the use of Wavelet transform (WT) to detect human falls using a ceiling mounted Doppler range control radar. The radar senses any motions from falls as well as nonfalls due to the Doppler effect. The WT is very effective in distinguishing the falls from other activities, making it a promising technique for radar fall detection in nonobtrusive inhome elder care applications. The proposed radar fall detector consists of two stages. The prescreen stage uses the coefficients of wavelet decomposition at a given scale to identify the time locations in which fall activities may have occurred. The classification stage extracts the time-frequency content from the wavelet coefficients at many scales to form a feature vector for fall versus nonfall classification. The selection of different wavelet functions is examined to achieve better performance. Experimental results using the data from the laboratory and real inhome environments validate the promising and robust performance of the proposed detector. PMID:25376033

  5. Reducing Sun Exposure for Prevention of Skin Cancers: Factorial Invariance and Reliability of the Self-Efficacy Scale for Sun Protection

    PubMed Central

    Babbin, Steven F.; Yin, Hui-Qing; Rossi, Joseph S.; Redding, Colleen A.; Paiva, Andrea L.; Velicer, Wayne F.

    2015-01-01

    The Self-Efficacy Scale for Sun Protection consists of two correlated factors with three items each for Sunscreen Use and Avoidance. This study evaluated two crucial psychometric assumptions, factorial invariance and scale reliability, with a sample of adults (N = 1356) participating in a computer-tailored, population-based intervention study. A measure has factorial invariance when the model is the same across subgroups. Three levels of invariance were tested, from least to most restrictive: (1) Configural Invariance (nonzero factor loadings unconstrained); (2) Pattern Identity Invariance (equal factor loadings); and (3) Strong Factorial Invariance (equal factor loadings and measurement errors). Strong Factorial Invariance was a good fit for the model across seven grouping variables: age, education, ethnicity, gender, race, skin tone, and Stage of Change for Sun Protection. Internal consistency coefficient Alpha and factor rho scale reliability, respectively, were .84 and .86 for Sunscreen Use, .68 and .70 for Avoidance, and .78 and .78 for the global (total) scale. The psychometric evidence demonstrates strong empirical support that the scale is consistent, has internal validity, and can be used to assess population-based adult samples. PMID:26457203

  6. Neighborhood walkability, fear and risk of falling and response to walking promotion: The Easy Steps to Health 12-month randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Merom, D.; Gebel, K.; Fahey, P.; Astell-Burt, T.; Voukelatos, A.; Rissel, C.; Sherrington, C.

    2015-01-01

    In older adults the relationships between health, fall-related risk factors, perceived neighborhood walkability, walking behavior and intervention impacts are poorly understood. To determine whether: i) health and fall-related risk factors were associated with perceptions of neighborhood walkability; ii) perceived environmental attributes, and fall-related risk factors predicted change in walking behavior at 12 months; and iii) perceived environmental attributes and fall-related risk factors moderated the effect of a self-paced walking program on walking behavior. Randomized trial on walking and falls conducted between 2009 and 2012 involving 315 community-dwelling inactive adults ≥ 65 years living in Sydney, Australia. Measures were: mobility status, fall history, injurious fall and fear of falling (i.e., fall-related risk factors), health status, walking self-efficacy and 11 items from the neighborhood walkability scale and planned walking ≥ 150 min/week at 12 months. Participants with poorer mobility, fear of falling, and poor health perceived their surroundings as less walkable. Walking at 12 months was significantly greater in “less greenery” (AOR = 3.3, 95% CI: 1.11–9.98) and “high traffic” (AOR = 1.98, 95% CI: 1.00–3.91) neighborhoods. The intervention had greater effects in neighborhoods perceived to have poorer pedestrian infrastructure (p for interaction = 0.036). Low perceived walkability was shaped by health status and did not appear to be a barrier to walking behavior. There appears to be a greater impact of, and thus, need for, interventions to encourage walking in environments perceived not to have supportive walking infrastructure. Future studies on built environments and walking should gather information on fall-related risk factors to better understand how these characteristics interact. PMID:26844140

  7. Freshmen Survey. Fall 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodyear, Don

    In 1985, College of the Sequoias (COS) was asked by the Cooperative Institutional Research Program (conducted jointly by the American Council on Education and the University of California, Los Angeles) to participate in a survey of incoming freshmen for the fall 1985 semester. During the summer counseling session, 259 new COS freshmen were…

  8. Falling into Winter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Carolyn Lang

    2000-01-01

    Presents an activity that connects art, science, and nature in which elementary school students learn about deciduous trees. Explains that students create a torn-tissue collage, using fall colors for a background and drawing a silhouette of a tree without leaves on top of the background with black crayon. (CMK)

  9. Editors' Fall Picks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilbrun, Margaret; McCormack, Heather; Katterjohn, Anna; Kuzyk, Raya; Roncevic, Mirela; Fox, Bette-Lee; Hoffert, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    "Library Journal's" review editors select fall titles readers won't want to miss--"Waiting on a Train: The Embattled Future of Passenger Rail Service" (James McCommons); "Happy" (Alex Lemon); "Free for All: Joe Papp, the Public, and the Greatest Theater Story Ever Told" (Kenneth Turan & Joseph Papp); "In My Father's Shadow: A Daughter Remembers…

  10. Fall 2013 International Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Evaluation Association, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This Fall report is an aggregated statistical analysis of Measures of Academic Progress® (MAP®) data from international schools. The report provides a consistent means of comparisons of specific sub-groups by subject and grade, which allows partners to compare their MAP® results with other schools within their region or membership organization.…

  11. Student Enrollments, Fall 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Higher Education, Little Rock.

    This document presents demographic information about enrollment at public and independent institutions of higher education in Arkansas as of fall 1995. A listing of abbreviations for the public four-year, public two-year, and independent institutions is followed by a map of their locations. An executive summary identifies highlights such as the…

  12. The News, Fall 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Ray, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This fall 2002 newsletter from the Community College League of California contains several articles, news stories, and the brochure from the 2002 Annual Convention, "Celebrating the Way California LEARNS." Articles include: (1) "Nursing Shortage Poses Dilemma for Colleges: Access vs. Efficiency," a discussion of the debate over how to increase the…

  13. Functional capacity and fear of falling in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Niederer, Daniel; Schmidt, Katharina; Vogt, Lutz; Egen, Janis; Klingler, Julia; Hübscher, Markus; Thiel, Christian; Bernhörster, Marcus; Banzer, Winfried

    2014-03-01

    Cancer patients, particularly during chemotherapy, often encounter functional status limitations. This study examines fear of falling, balance, gait and lower limb strength in cancer patients during ongoing or recently completed (≤12 months) chemotherapeutic treatment in comparison to age-matched and senior controls (≥65 years). Data were obtained from 69 subjects; 21 cancer patients (51±7 years) with histological confirmed diagnosis and two control groups (2×n=24): one age-matched (53±7 years) and one senior group (70±3 years). Fear of falling (FoF) was evaluated using the Falls Efficacy Scale-International Version. Motor function measurement included postural sway (centre of pressure) in upright stance with eyes covered, gait speed (comfortable fluid walking) and maximum voluntary isometric quadriceps strength (MIVF). One-way ANOVA followed by corrected post hoc paired-sample t-test revealed inferior values in cancer patients than in age-matched healthy regarding all parameters. Gait speed and MIVF of cancer patients were higher than in the senior control group (p<.05), whereas their FoF and postural sway were comparable (p>.05). Physical performance parameters of cancer patients were found to be lower in comparison to healthy age-matched subjects. Cancer patients show physical impairments which may limit independence and may increase fall risk. The present findings call for routine screening of physical function in cancer patients, and further stress the relevance of exercise interventions during and after chemotherapy. PMID:24360638

  14. The Internet Self-Perception Scale: Measuring Elementary Students' Levels of Self-Efficacy regarding Internet Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinson, Janice; DiStefano, Christine; Daniel, Cathy

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated fourth grade students' perceptions of abilities to use the Internet. The 31-item research instrument measuring Internet Self-Perceptions was adapted for use from the Reader Self-Perception Scale (RSPS) developed by Henk and Melnick (1995). The RSPS survey was based upon Bandura's (1977, 1986, 1995) research in the areas of…

  15. From Efficacy Trial to Large Scale Effectiveness Trial: A Tier 2 Mathematics Intervention for First Graders with Difficulties in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolfhus, Eric; Clarke, Ben; Decker, Lauren E.; Williams, Chuck; Dimino, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Large scale longitudinal research (Morgan, Farkas, & Wu, 2009) and a meta-analysis (Duncan et al., 2007) have found that early mathematics achievement is a strong predictor of later mathematics achievement. In fact, end of Kindergarten and end of grade 1 mathematics achievement on ECLS-K and similar mathematics proficiency measures tends to be…

  16. Scales

    MedlinePlus

    Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Eczema , ringworm , and psoriasis ...

  17. Efficacy of a commercial live attenuated Lawsonia intracellularis vaccine in a large scale field trial in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sangshin; Lee, Joong-Bok; Kim, Kyung-Jin; Oh, Yu-Sik; Kim, Man-Ok; Oh, Yu-Ri; Hwang, Min-A; Lee, Jung-Ah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Porcine proliferative enteropathy (PPE) is known as one of the most important risk factors causing economic losses in swine industry worldwide. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a commercial oral attenuated Lawsonia intracellularis vaccine (Enterisol Ileitis) against PPE under a commercial pig farm condition in Korea. Materials and Methods Thirty two-day-old 672 piglets were randomly allocated into vaccinated and control groups. All piglets in the vaccinated group were inoculated with a commercial attenuated L. intracellularis vaccine as following the manufacturer's instruction. Body weights of all pigs in both groups were measured on the vaccination day and 6, 14, and 20 weeks post vaccination and an average daily weight gain (ADWG) was calculated. Health status was observed biweekly during the whole trial. Results The vaccinated group showed significantly higher body weight (p<0.05) and ADWG (p<0.05) than those of the control group. The vaccinated group had significantly reduced impairments in activity, growth, defecation frequency, and stool hardness (p<0.05). Additional health benefits and improved weight gain by the vaccination produced a 4.2:1 return of investment, and the higher gross margin was $4.80 per pig. Conclusion Our finding suggests that the L. intracellularis vaccine program has effects on the substantial health and economic benefits in the Korean swine industry. PMID:23858405

  18. Falling film evaporator

    DOEpatents

    Bruns, Lester E.

    1976-01-01

    A falling film evaporator including a vertically oriented pipe heated exteriorly by a steam jacket and interiorly by a finned steam tube, all heating surfaces of the pipe and steam tube being formed of a material wet by water such as stainless steel, and packing within the pipe consisting of Raschig rings formed of a material that is not wet by water such as polyvinylidene fluoride.

  19. Physical Activity and the Association With Self-Reported Impairments, Walking Limitations, Fear of Falling, and Incidence of Falls in Persons With Late Effects of Polio.

    PubMed

    Winberg, Cecilia; Brogårdh, Christina; Flansbjer, Ulla-Britt; Carlsson, Gunilla; Rimmer, James; Lexell, Jan

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the association between physical activity and self-reported disability in ambulatory persons with mild to moderate late effects of polio (N = 81, mean age 67 years). The outcome measures were: Physical Activity and Disability Survey (PADS), a pedometer, Self-Reported Impairments in Persons with Late Effects of Polio Scale (SIPP), Walking Impact Scale (Walk-12), Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I), and self-reported incidence of falls. The participants were physically active on average 158 min per day and walked 6,212 steps daily. Significant associations were found between PADS and Walk-12 (r = -.31, p < .001), and between the number of steps and SIPP, Walk-12, and FES-I (r = -.22 to -.32, p < .05). Walk-12 and age explained 14% of the variance in PADS and FES-I explained 9% of the variance in number of steps per day. Thus, physical activity was only weakly to moderately associated with self-reported disability. PMID:25268608

  20. `In free fall'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beijerinck, Herman C. W.

    2014-01-01

    Physicists in the lead of a fiction book or a play, that's a rare event! Writers in general do not understand physics, while physicists seldom have the talent of writing for a large audience. So when it happens, we should rejoice. The up-and-coming German author Juli Zeh [1] (1974), who studied law, has succeeded in combining beautiful prose, psychological drama, crime and physics in a challenging book `In free fall' [2]. A good friend of hers, Bettina Bruinier, has put the core message of the book into a compelling play in the `Volkstheater' in Munich [1]. Yes, it can be done.

  1. Falls and confidence related quality of life outcome measures in an older British cohort

    PubMed Central

    Parry, S; Steen, N; Galloway, S; Kenny, R; Bond, J

    2001-01-01

    Falls are common in older subjects and result in loss of confidence and independence. The Falls Efficacy Scale (FES) and the Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale (ABC) were developed in North America to quantify these entities, but contain idiom unfamiliar to an older British population. Neither has been validated in the UK. The FES and the ABC were modified for use within British culture and the internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the modified scales (FES-UK and ABC-UK) assessed. A total of 193 consecutive, ambulant, new, and return patients (n=119; 62%) and their friends and relatives ("visitors", n=74; 38%) were tested on both scales, while the last 60 subjects were retested within one week. Internal reliability was excellent for both scales (Cronbach's alpha 0.97 (FES-UK), and 0.98 (ABC-UK)). Test-retest reliability was good for both scales, though superior for the ABC-UK (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.58 (FES-UK), 0.89 (ABC-UK)). There was evidence to suggest that the ABC-UK was better than the FES-UK at distinguishing between older patients and younger patients (|tABC| = 4.4; |tFES| = 2.3); and between fallers and non-fallers (|tABC| = 8.7; |tFES| = 5.0) where the t statistics are based on the comparison of two independent samples. The ABC-UK and FES-UK are both reliable and valid measures for the assessment of falls and balance related confidence in older adults. However, better test-retest reliability and more robust differentiation of subgroups in whom falls related quality of life would be expected to be different make the ABC-UK the current instrument of choice in assessing this entity in older British subjects.


Keywords: quality of life; falls; elderly; health status measurement PMID:11161077

  2. Relationships Among the Knowledge, Efficacy, and Practices Instrument, Color-Blind Racial Attitudes Scale, Deamonte Driver Survey, and Defining Issues Test 2.

    PubMed

    Behar-Horenstein, Linda S; Garvan, Cynthia W

    2016-03-01

    Concordance studies indicate the degree to which instruments measure the same or similar constructs or something different. The aims of this study were to identify the factor structure of the Deamonte Driver Survey and determine the relationship between the Deamonte Driver (a measure of social class stereotyping), the Defining Issues Test 2 (DIT2; a measure of ethical sensitivity), the Color-Blind Racial Attitudes Scale (CoBRAS; a measure of racial stereotyping), and the Knowledge, Efficacy, and Practices Instrument (KEPI; a measure of cultural competence). The results showed a three-factor solution for the Deamonte Driver Survey and significant relationships between CoBRAS and DIT2 subscales and between CoBRAS and Deamonte Driver subscales. Significant relationships between the measures and exploratory variables, underrepresented minority status, age, citizenship, marital status, political stance, English as a first language, and gender were found. The lack of a significant relationship between the KEPI and Deamonte Driver, DIT2, or CoBRAS subscales suggests that the KEPI is measuring a unique construct. These findings showed how these scales contributed to the assessment of cultural competence among dental students and faculty. PMID:26933112

  3. The role of entrainment by falling raindrops in microbursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Steven K.

    1988-01-01

    The numerical model of Krueger et al. (1986) for dry microburst simulations is used to study the role of entrainment by falling raindrops. Two series of numerical simulations were conducted: a control series, and a series with the raindrop fall speed set to zero so that the rain moved with the air instead of falling through it. The results show that entrainment due to falling raindrops helps microbursts with large raindrop mixing ratios to form in stable stratifications. It is found that entrainment appears to contribute to the small spatial and temporal scales that characterize microburst outflows.

  4. Stick balancing, falls and Dragon-Kings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera, J. L.; Milton, J. G.

    2012-05-01

    The extent to which the occurrence of falls, the dominant feature of human attempts to balance a stick at their fingertip, can be predicted is examined in the context of the "Dragon-King" hypothesis. For skilled stick balancers, fluctuations in the controlled variable, namely the vertical displacement angle θ, exhibit power law behaviors. When stick balancing is made less stable by either decreasing the length of the stick or by requiring the subject to balance the stick on the surface of a table tennis racket, systematic departures from the power law behaviors are observed in the range of large θ. This observation raises the possibility that the presence of departures from the power law in the large length scale region, possibly Dragon-Kings, may identify situations in which the occurrence of a fall is more imminent. However, whether or not Dragon-Kings are observed, there is a Weibull-type survival function for stick falling. The possibility that increased risk of falling can, at least to some extent, be predicted from fluctuations in the controlled variable before the event occurs has important implications for the development of preventative strategies for the management of phenomena ranging from earthquakes to epileptic seizures to falls in the elderly.

  5. [Can falls be prevented?].

    PubMed

    Dubousset, Jean

    2014-06-01

    Most recommendations and measures intended to prevent falls focus on the elderly (see HAS guideline of April 2009) but, in our opinion, this isfar too late: prevention must begin much earlier, not only by identifying persons at risk, but also by providing personalized lifestyle advice adapted to each individual's biomechanical, somatic, neurological and biological characteristics. The first preventive measure is to identify a possible deterioration of balance, starting with a physical examination at the age of 45 and repeated regularly throughout life. Extrinsic preventive measures focusing on the domestic and external environments are clearly necessary. But what is most important is to detect and, if necessary, correct any degradation of intrinsic (intracorporeal or somatic) factors starting at the age of 45 years; these include vision, vestibular function and balance, proprioception, and psychological and neurological status. Chronic illnesses and their treatments must also be taken into account: treatment must be limited to indispensable drugs; sedative psychotropics must be avoided if possible; and polymedication must be tightly controlled, as it is a major risk factor for falls. Prevention also requires a diet sufficiently rich in protein, calcium and vitamin D3 (to prevent osteoporosis), and regular daily exercise adapted to the individual, if possible associated with a simultaneous cognitive task. The last key point is the absolute need for thorough functional rehabilitation after any accidental or medical trauma, regardless of age, with the aim of restoring functional status to that existing prior to the accident. PMID:26983186

  6. Saxon Falls Dam rehabilitation

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolph, R.M.; Quist, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    The Saxon Falls Hydro Project is a high-head hydro owned and operated by Northern States Power Company (NSP) in northwest Wisconsin. Saxon Falls comprises a concrete buttress overflow spillway; mass-concrete tainter gate spillway, conduit intake, and nonoverflow section; earth dam; 1,600-foot-long, 72-inch-diameter steel conduit; two 150-foot-long, 54-inch-diameter penstocks; steel surge tank; and reinforced concrete powerhouse. All structures are founded on bedrock. Engineering inspections revealed severe concrete deterioration and leakage within the intake and deterioration of the middle nonoverflow section. Subsequent to the inspection, concrete cores confirmed the level of deterioration and indicated that immediate measures were necessary to correct the deficiencies and restore project integrity. Because the dam is located on the border between Michigan and Wisconsin, coordination with the respective Departments of Natural Resources was crucial to obtain permits to construct the repairs. Due to concerns regarding a sensitive fishery, a reservoir drawdown was not allowed. To accomplish the work and allow for a suitable construction area, a special braced sheetpile cofferdam was required to complete the project. NSP elected to complete the construction using its own special-construction crews. Close coordination allowed construction personnel, the owner, and the engineer to overcome difficulties encountered during construction.

  7. Effects of Low-Impact Dance on Blood Biochemistry, Bone Mineral Density, the Joint Range of Motion of Lower Extremities, Knee Extension Torque, and Fall in Females.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hui Ying; Tu, Jui Hung; Hsu, Chin Hsing; Tsao, Te Hung

    2016-01-01

    The effect of low-impact dance on blood metabolites, the joint range of motion (ROM) of the lower extremities, knee extension torque, bone mass density (BMD), the number of falls, and the confidence to perform daily activities (Modified Falls Efficacy Scale [MFES]) was examined in older sedentary women (age: 59 ± 4 years) before and after a 16-week intervention. Results showed that the average score for the MFES, some parameters of blood chemistry, and joint ROM were significantly improved after low-impact intervention. In addition to improvements in blood lipids and body fat percentages, the increases shown in the parameters regarding the lower extremities may contribute to confidence in performing common daily activities in older women, although the number of falls did not significantly differ between the two groups during the 16-week period. PMID:25642949

  8. Inactivated Enterovirus 71 Vaccine Produced by 200-L Scale Serum-Free Microcarrier Bioreactor System Provides Cross-Protective Efficacy in Human SCARB2 Transgenic Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chia-Ying; Lin, Yi-Wen; Kuo, Chia-Ho; Liu, Wan-Hsin; Tai, Hsiu-Fen; Pan, Chien-Hung; Chen, Yung-Tsung; Hsiao, Pei-Wen; Chan, Chi-Hsien; Chang, Ching-Chuan; Liu, Chung-Cheng; Chow, Yen-Hung; Chen, Juine-Ruey

    2015-01-01

    Epidemics and outbreaks caused by infections of several subgenotypes of EV71 and other serotypes of coxsackie A viruses have raised serious public health concerns in the Asia-Pacific region. These concerns highlight the urgent need to develop a scalable manufacturing platform for producing an effective and sufficient quantity of vaccines against deadly enteroviruses. In this report, we present a platform for the large-scale production of a vaccine based on the inactivated EV71(E59-B4) virus. The viruses were produced in Vero cells in a 200 L bioreactor with serum-free medium, and the viral titer reached 107 TCID50/mL 10 days after infection when using an MOI of 10−4. The EV71 virus particles were harvested and purified by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Fractions containing viral particles were pooled based on ELISA and SDS-PAGE. TEM was used to characterize the morphologies of the viral particles. To evaluate the cross-protective efficacy of the EV71 vaccine, the pooled antigens were combined with squalene-based adjuvant (AddaVAX) or aluminum phosphate (AlPO4) and tested in human SCARB2 transgenic (Tg) mice. The Tg mice immunized with either the AddaVAX- or AlPO4-adjuvanted EV71 vaccine were fully protected from challenges by the subgenotype C2 and C4 viruses, and surviving animals did not show any degree of neurological paralysis symptoms or muscle damage. Vaccine treatments significantly reduced virus antigen presented in the central nervous system of Tg mice and alleviated the virus-associated inflammatory response. These results strongly suggest that this preparation results in an efficacious vaccine and that the microcarrier/bioreactor platform offers a superior alternative to the previously described roller-bottle system. PMID:26287531

  9. Inactivated Enterovirus 71 Vaccine Produced by 200-L Scale Serum-Free Microcarrier Bioreactor System Provides Cross-Protective Efficacy in Human SCARB2 Transgenic Mouse.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chia-Ying; Lin, Yi-Wen; Kuo, Chia-Ho; Liu, Wan-Hsin; Tai, Hsiu-Fen; Pan, Chien-Hung; Chen, Yung-Tsung; Hsiao, Pei-Wen; Chan, Chi-Hsien; Chang, Ching-Chuan; Liu, Chung-Cheng; Chow, Yen-Hung; Chen, Juine-Ruey

    2015-01-01

    Epidemics and outbreaks caused by infections of several subgenotypes of EV71 and other serotypes of coxsackie A viruses have raised serious public health concerns in the Asia-Pacific region. These concerns highlight the urgent need to develop a scalable manufacturing platform for producing an effective and sufficient quantity of vaccines against deadly enteroviruses. In this report, we present a platform for the large-scale production of a vaccine based on the inactivated EV71(E59-B4) virus. The viruses were produced in Vero cells in a 200 L bioreactor with serum-free medium, and the viral titer reached 10(7) TCID50/mL 10 days after infection when using an MOI of 10(-4). The EV71 virus particles were harvested and purified by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Fractions containing viral particles were pooled based on ELISA and SDS-PAGE. TEM was used to characterize the morphologies of the viral particles. To evaluate the cross-protective efficacy of the EV71 vaccine, the pooled antigens were combined with squalene-based adjuvant (AddaVAX) or aluminum phosphate (AlPO4) and tested in human SCARB2 transgenic (Tg) mice. The Tg mice immunized with either the AddaVAX- or AlPO4-adjuvanted EV71 vaccine were fully protected from challenges by the subgenotype C2 and C4 viruses, and surviving animals did not show any degree of neurological paralysis symptoms or muscle damage. Vaccine treatments significantly reduced virus antigen presented in the central nervous system of Tg mice and alleviated the virus-associated inflammatory response. These results strongly suggest that this preparation results in an efficacious vaccine and that the microcarrier/bioreactor platform offers a superior alternative to the previously described roller-bottle system. PMID:26287531

  10. [Falls in patients with dementia].

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Kiyoshi

    2008-11-01

    People with cognitive impairment are at about 2 to 3 times higher risk of falling compared with cognitively intact elderly. Incidence of falls among patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is high, nevertheless the clinical feature common in patients with mild to moderate AD is the absence of motor impairment. Recent studies suggest that the divided attention markedly impairs the ability of patients with AD to regulate the gait. Falls are particularly common in Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) patients and may aid diagnosis, and the falls are associated with parkinsonism and other unclear factors. Treatment studies evaluating fall reduction strategies in dementia patients are a priority. PMID:18974447

  11. Retrospective analysis of fatal falls.

    PubMed

    Thierauf, Annette; Preuss, Johanna; Lignitz, Eberhard; Madea, Burkhard

    2010-05-20

    Fatal falls are frequent and inhomogeneous events and affect every age. The criminalistic classification can often only be done on the basis of extensive investigations and the autopsy results. We retrospectively surveyed 291 cases of fatal falls on which a post-mortem examination had been carried out in the institutes of Forensic Medicine in Bonn and Greifswald. In large part, these cases are falls from height (n=123) and ground-level falls (n=122). These are compared to fatal falls down a stairs (n=46); the analysis is confined to injuries to the cranium. In ground-level falls the injury pattern in falls under the influence of alcohol differs from that of falls with no alcohol in the case history: all injuries are seen in higher relative frequency in casualties after the consumption of alcohol. In falls from height, the previous consumption of alcohol did not influence the injury pattern; the intracranial traumas are seen in decreasing frequency with increasing heights. The aim of this retrospective analysis is to present injury patterns and influencing factors like fall heights and alcohol for the different kinds of falls on the basis of our collective and to demonstrate similarities and differences between the subgroups. PMID:20176452

  12. The Scale of Self-Efficacy Expectations of Adherence to Antiretroviral Treatment: A Tool for Identifying Risk for Non-Adherence to Treatment for HIV

    PubMed Central

    Drachler, Maria de Lourdes; Drachler, Carlos Wietzke; Teixeira, Luciana Barcellos; de Carvalho Leite, José Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Background Identification of risk for non-adherence to treatment is a challenge for personalized care for people living with HIV. Standardized questionnaires of patients’ expectations of their capability to overcome obstacles for treatment adherence may be used as a pre-screening for risk identification. A scale of self-efficacy expectations of adherence to antiretroviral treatment (SEA-ART scale) was previously developed. This study assesses the scale validity in predicting non-adherence to ART in adults living with HIV. Methods and Findings A prospective cohort study applied a 21-item SEA-ART scale to 275 adults in ART treatment at an outpatient public service for HIV in Southern Brazil. ART medications taken were assessed at one-month follow-up; ART adherence was devised as an intake of 95% and more of the prescribed medication. A SEA-ART score was calculated by adding up the scores of all items. Multivariable logistic regression and the Area Under the Receiver-Operating-Characteristic Curve (AUROC) were applied to examine the ability of the SEA-ART score to predict non-adherence at follow-up. The SEA-ART score varied from 21 to 105; mean 93.9; median 103.0. Non-adherence was 30.3% (n = 81/267). The odds of non-adherence was 8% lower for each unit increase of the SEA-ART score; after adjustment for age, sex, formal education and time in treatment (OR = 0.92; 95%CI 0.90–0.95; LRT for linear trend, p = 0.002). The AUROC was 0.80 (95%CI 0.73–0.87; p<0.001). The SEA-ART optimal cut-off value was 101, providing a sensitivity of 76.5%, a specificity of 73.1%, a positive predictive value of 55.4% and a negative predictive value of 87.7%. There was no evidence of difference in sensitivity, and specificity among groups organized by age, gender, formal education and time in treatment. Conclusions The SEA-ART scale appears to have a good capacity to discriminate between adherents and non-adherents at one-month follow-up. Further studies should confirm these results

  13. Gait characteristics of patients with phobic postural vertigo: effects of fear of falling, attention, and visual input.

    PubMed

    Schniepp, Roman; Wuehr, Max; Huth, Sabrina; Pradhan, Cauchy; Brandt, Thomas; Jahn, Klaus

    2014-04-01

    Phobic postural vertigo (PPV) is the most common cause of chronic dizziness in middle-aged patients. Many patients report symptoms involving gait. We investigated the gait performance and its relationship to the fear of falling and attention of PPV patients in a prospective study of 24 patients with PPV and 24 healthy subjects (HS) using a pressure-sensitive mat (GAITRite(®)). Subjects walked at three different speeds (slow, preferred, fast), both during cognitive dual tasks (DTc) and with eyes closed (EC). Falls efficacy and balance confidence were rated by the Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I) and the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC). PPV patients walked slower, with reduced cadence (all p < 0.01), stride length (p < 0.05), and increased double support (p < 0.01) compared to HS. These changes correlated with FES-I (R = -0.528, p < 0.001) and ABC (R = 0.481, p < 0.01). Walking deterioration under DTc did not differ between PPV patients and HS, but patients showed a reduced cognitive processing speed (p < 0.05). When walking with EC, gait speed decreased more in PPV patients compared to HS (p < 0.05). Patients with PPV show gait changes which correlate with their fear of falling and balance confidence. Absent visual feedback leads to more pronounced gait deteriorations in PPV patients than in HS, indicating a higher reliance of patients on visual information during walking. These findings support the view that the gait characteristics of PPV can be attributed to an inadequate, cautious gait control. PMID:24519356

  14. Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2009-01-01

    The common approach to scaling, according to Christopher Dede, a professor of learning technologies at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, is to jump in and say, "Let's go out and find more money, recruit more participants, hire more people. Let's just keep doing the same thing, bigger and bigger." That, he observes, "tends to fail, and fail…

  15. The Effects of an Education Program on Home Renovation for Fall Prevention of Korean Older People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Miseon; Lee, Yeunsook

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to verify the effects of an education program on home renovation for fall prevention among older people, more specifically fall efficacy and home renovation intentions. A quasiexperimental study with nonequivalent control and comparative groups was conducted to demonstrate the effects of the education. A total of 51 older people…

  16. How Can Older Adults Prevent Falls?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Falls and Older Adults How Can Older Adults Prevent Falls? Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table of Contents ... healthy and happy. There are simple ways to prevent most falls. "Injuries from falls are a major ...

  17. 1991 Fall Meeting Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, David S.

    The AGU 1991 Fall Meeting, held in San Francisco December 9-13, was the largest national AGU meeting ever held. Meeting participation continued the steady growth trend set throughout the previous decade. A total of 4,037 papers and posters were presented, and by Friday noon of the meeting over 5,500 members had registered.Several special events were scheduled to inform and engage members on societal and programmatic aspects of our science. AGU's Committee on Education and Human Resources sponsored an open forum that addressed opportunities and problems associated with dual-career couples. A discussion of NASA's strategic plan by Berrien Moore and Joseph Alexander drew a large audience, and a special session on societal aspects of the Mt. Pinatubo eruption drew an overflow crowd. Two special lectures— “Plumes, Plates, and Deep Earth Structure” by Don L. Anderson and “New Frontiers in Aeronomy: Effects of Global Atmospheric Change” by P. M. Banks-also drew overflow crowds.

  18. Klamath Falls geothermal field, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Lienau, P.J.; Culver, G.; Lund, J.W.

    1989-09-01

    Klamath Falls, Oregon, is located in a Known Geothermal Resource Area which has been used by residents, principally to obtain geothermal fluids for space heating, at least since the turn of the century. Over 500 shallow-depth wells ranging from 90 to 2,000 ft (27 to 610 m) in depth are used to heat (35 MWt) over 600 structures. This utilization includes the heating of homes, apartments, schools, commercial buildings, hospital, county jail, YMCA, and swimming pools by individual wells and three district heating systems. Geothermal well temperatures range from 100 to 230{degree}F (38 to 110{degree}C) and the most common practice is to use downhole heat exchangers with city water as the circulating fluid. Larger facilities and district heating systems use lineshaft vertical turbine pumps and plate heat exchangers. Well water chemistry indicates approximately 800 ppM dissolved solids, with sodium sulfate having the highest concentration. Some scaling and corrosion does occur on the downhole heat exchangers (black iron pipe) and on heating systems where the geo-fluid is used directly. 73 refs., 49 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Catching a Falling Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-07-01

    -8, or nearly as bright as the first-quarter Moon. Although it is not possible to be sure from which shower this meteor belongs, a possible candidate is the Southern May Ophiuchid shower which appears from a direction just east of the bright star Antares. The shower contributes only one or two meteors per hour but was one of the stronger showers of that night. Telltale emissions ESO PR Photo 22b/04 ESO PR Photo 22b/04 Spectrum of a Meteor (FORS1/VLT) [Preview - JPEG: 426 x 400 pix - 91k] [Normal - JPEG: 851 x 800 pix - 232k] [Full Res - JPEG: 2567 x 2413 pix - 2.1M] ESO PR Photo 22c/04 ESO PR Photo 22c/04 Details of the Meteor Spectrum (FORS1/VLT) [Preview - JPEG: 1006 x 400 pix - 122k] [Normal - JPEG: 2011 x 800 pix - 236k] [Full Res - JPEG: 3414 x 1358 pix - 957k] Captions: ESO PR Photo 22b/04 shows the spectrum of a bright meteor, as observed serendipitously by the multi-mode FORS 1 instrument on the ESO Very Large Telescope during the night of May 12-13, 2002, in front of a photo of the VLT enclosures and with a meteor trail inserted in the sky (montage). The position of the meteor trail on the narrow slit of FORS (not to scale) is also indicated. The lower panel shows the spectrum of the meteor, following removal of the supernova spectrum and before (up) and after (down) removal of the spectrum of the night sky by image processing. Several emission lines from colliding Oxygen and Nitrogen atoms (sharp emissions) and molecules (broad emissions) are visible. ESO PR Photo 22c/04 illustrates details of the extracted VLT meteor spectrum (solid line): the intensity (in arbitrary units) is shown as a function of the wavelength. The dashed line is a theoretical model of the spectrum of air heated to a temperature of 4600 degrees at an altitude of 95 km. "At first, the bright trace across the supernova spectrum was a puzzle, but then I realized that the spectroscopic signature was that of our atmosphere being bombarded," says astronomer Remi Cabanac of the Catholic

  20. Scales

    ScienceCinema

    Murray Gibson

    2010-01-08

    Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain ? a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

  1. Scales

    SciTech Connect

    Murray Gibson

    2007-04-27

    Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain — a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

  2. Not Just a Fall Tree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller-Hewes, Kathy A.

    2004-01-01

    Trees burst with color in the northern states. Autumn leaves dust the ground. Painting the fall landscape is nothing new. Teachers have been doing it in classrooms for decades. The approach, however, can make the difference between whether the fall landscape is simply painting for fun, or a real learning experience. Students learn best when they…

  3. Automatic Fall Monitoring: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Pannurat, Natthapon; Thiemjarus, Surapa; Nantajeewarawat, Ekawit

    2014-01-01

    Falls and fall-related injuries are major incidents, especially for elderly people, which often mark the onset of major deterioration of health. More than one-third of home-dwelling people aged 65 or above and two-thirds of those in residential care fall once or more each year. Reliable fall detection, as well as prevention, is an important research topic for monitoring elderly living alone in residential or hospital units. The aim of this study is to review the existing fall detection systems and some of the key research challenges faced by the research community in this field. We categorize the existing platforms into two groups: wearable and ambient devices; the classification methods are divided into rule-based and machine learning techniques. The relative merit and potential drawbacks are discussed, and we also outline some of the outstanding research challenges that emerging new platforms need to address. PMID:25046016

  4. Teachers' instructional efficacy and teachers' efficacy toward integration of information technologies in the classroom.

    PubMed

    Dussault, Marc; Deaudelin, Colette; Brodeur, Monique

    2004-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between teachers' instructional efficacy and their efficacy toward integration of technologies in the classroom. A sample of 309 French Canadian elementary school teachers volunteered and were administered a French Canadian version of the Teacher Efficacy Scale and Teachers' efficacy scale toward integration of technologies in the classroom. Analysis yielded, as expected, a positive and significant partial correlation between the two types of self-efficacy beliefs (.27 and .36). PMID:15362419

  5. The efficacy of a commercial competitive exclusion product on Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens in a 5-week pilot-scale study

    PubMed Central

    Schneitz, C.; Hakkinen, M.

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of the commercial competitive exclusion product Broilact against Campylobacter jejuni was evaluated in broiler chickens in a 5-week pilot-scale study. Newly-hatched broiler chicks were brought from a commercial hatchery. After arrival 50 seeder chicks were challenged orally with approximately 103 cfu of C. jejuni, wing marked, and placed back in a delivery box and moved to a separate room. The rest of the chicks (contact chicks) were placed in floor pens, 100 chicks per pen. Birds in two pens were treated orally on the day of hatch with the commercial competitive exclusion (CE) product Broilact, and three pens were left untreated. The following day 10 seeder chicks were introduced into the Broilact treated and untreated control pens. One pen was left both untreated and unchallenged (0-control). Each week the ceca of 10 contact chicks and one seeder chick were examined quantitatively for Campylobacter. The treatment prevented or significantly reduced the colonization of the challenge organism in the ceca during the two first weeks; the percentage of colonized birds being 0% after the first week and 30% after the second week in the Broilact treated groups but was 100% in the control groups the entire 5-week rearing period. During the third rearing week the proportion of Campylobacter positive birds started to increase in the treated pens, being 80% after the third week and 95 and 90% after the fourth and fifth rearing weeks, respectively. Similarly the average count of Campylobacter in the cecal contents of the Broilact treated chicks started to increase, the difference between the treated and control chicks being 1.4 logs at the end of the rearing period. Although the protective effect was temporary and occurred only during the first two weeks of the rearing period, the results of this study support the earlier observations that CE flora designed to protect chicks from Salmonella may also reduce Campylobacter colonization of broiler chickens. PMID

  6. Preclinical Efficacy and Safety Profile of Allometrically Scaled Doses of Doxycycline Used to Turn "On" Therapeutic Transgene Expression from High-Capacity Adenoviral Vectors in a Glioma Model.

    PubMed

    VanderVeen, Nathan; Raja, Nicholas; Yi, Elizabeth; Appelman, Henry; Ng, Philip; Palmer, Donna; Zamler, Daniel; Dzaman, Marta; Lowenstein, Pedro R; Castro, Maria G

    2016-06-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most commonly occurring primary brain cancer in adults, in whom its highly infiltrative cells prevent total surgical resection, often leading to tumor recurrence and patient death. Our group has discovered a gene therapy approach for GBM that utilizes high-capacity "gutless" adenoviral vectors encoding regulatable therapeutic transgenes. The herpes simplex type 1-thymidine kinase (TK) actively kills dividing tumor cells in the brain when in the presence of the prodrug, ganciclovir (GCV), whereas the FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L) is an immune-stimulatory molecule under tight regulation by a tetracycline-inducible "Tet-On" activation system that induces anti-GBM immunity. As a prelude to a phase I clinical trial, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved doses of the tetracycline doxycycline (DOX) allometrically scaled for rats. DOX initiates the expression of Flt3L, which has been shown to recruit dendritic cells to the brain tumor microenvironment-an integral first step in the development of antitumor immunity. The data revealed a highly safe profile surrounding these human-equivalent doses of DOX under an identical therapeutic window as proposed in the clinical trial. This was confirmed through a neuropathological analysis, liver and kidney histopathology, detection of neutralizing antibodies, and systemic toxicities in the blood. Interestingly, we observed a significant survival advantage in rats with GBM receiving the 300 mg/day equivalent dosage of DOX versus the 200 mg/day equivalent. Additionally, rats rejected "recurrent" brain tumor threats implanted 90 days after their primary brain tumors. We also show that DOX detection within the plasma can be an indicator of optimal dosing of DOX to attain therapeutic levels. This work has significant clinical relevance for an ongoing phase I clinical trial in humans with primary GBM and for other therapeutic approaches using

  7. Efficacy of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation of upper-room air in inactivating airborne bacterial spores and mycobacteria in full-scale studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Peng; Peccia, Jordan; Fabian, Patricia; Martyny, John W.; Fennelly, Kevin P.; Hernandez, Mark; Miller, Shelly L.

    The efficacy of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) for inactivating airborne bacterial spores and vegetative mycobacteria cells was evaluated under full-scale conditions. Airborne bacteria inactivation experiments were conducted in a test room (87 m 3), fitted with a modern UVGI system (216 W all lamps operating, average upper zone UV irradiance 42±19 μW cm -2) and maintained at 25°C and 50% relative humidity, at two ventilation rates (0 and 6 air changes per hour). Bacillus subtilis (spores), Mycobacterium parafortuitum, and Mycobacterium bovis BCG cells were aerosolized continuously into the room such that their numbers and physiologic state were comparable both with and without the UVGI and ventilation system operating. Air samples were collected using glass impingers (9 breathing-zone locations) and multi-stage impactors, and collected bacteria were quantified using direct microscopy and standard culturing assays. UVGI reduced the room-average concentration of culturable airborne bacteria between 46% and 80% for B. subtilis spores, between 83% and 98% for M. parafortuitum, and 96-97% for M. bovis BCG cells, depending on the ventilation rate. An additional set of experiments, in which M. parafortuitum was aerosolized into the test room and then allowed to decay under varying UVGI and ventilation rates, yielded an inactivation rate of 16±1.2 h -1 for the UVGI system, all lamps operating. The Z value (inactivation rate normalized to UVGI irradiance) was estimated to be 1.2±0.15×10 -3 cm 2 μW -1 s -1 for aerosolized M. parafortuitum at 50% relative humidity.

  8. The efficacy of a commercial competitive exclusion product on Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens in a 5-week pilot-scale study.

    PubMed

    Schneitz, C; Hakkinen, M

    2016-05-01

    The efficacy of the commercial competitive exclusion product Broilact against Campylobacter jejuni was evaluated in broiler chickens in a 5-week pilot-scale study. Newly-hatched broiler chicks were brought from a commercial hatchery. After arrival 50 seeder chicks were challenged orally with approximately 10(3) cfu of C. jejuni, wing marked, and placed back in a delivery box and moved to a separate room. The rest of the chicks (contact chicks) were placed in floor pens, 100 chicks per pen. Birds in two pens were treated orally on the day of hatch with the commercial competitive exclusion (CE) product Broilact, and three pens were left untreated. The following day 10 seeder chicks were introduced into the Broilact treated and untreated control pens. One pen was left both untreated and unchallenged (0-control). Each week the ceca of 10 contact chicks and one seeder chick were examined quantitatively for Campylobacter The treatment prevented or significantly reduced the colonization of the challenge organism in the ceca during the two first weeks; the percentage of colonized birds being 0% after the first week and 30% after the second week in the Broilact treated groups but was 100% in the control groups the entire 5-week rearing period. During the third rearing week the proportion of Campylobacter positive birds started to increase in the treated pens, being 80% after the third week and 95 and 90% after the fourth and fifth rearing weeks, respectively. Similarly the average count of Campylobacter in the cecal contents of the Broilact treated chicks started to increase, the difference between the treated and control chicks being 1.4 logs at the end of the rearing period. Although the protective effect was temporary and occurred only during the first two weeks of the rearing period, the results of this study support the earlier observations that CE flora designed to protect chicks from Salmonella may also reduce Campylobacter colonization of broiler chickens. PMID

  9. Is the General Self-Efficacy Scale a Reliable Measure to be used in Cross-Cultural Studies? Results from Brazil, Germany and Colombia.

    PubMed

    Damásio, Bruno F; Valentini, Felipe; Núñes-Rodriguez, Susana I; Kliem, Soeren; Koller, Sílvia H; Hinz, Andreas; Brähler, Elmar; Finck, Carolyn; Zenger, Markus

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated cross-cultural measurement invariance for the General Self-efficacy Scale (GSES) in a large Brazilian (N = 2.394) and representative German (N = 2.046) and Colombian (N = 1.500) samples. Initially, multiple-indicators multiple-causes (MIMIC) analyses showed that sex and age were biasing items responses on the total sample (2 and 10 items, respectively). After controlling for these two covariates, a multigroup confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA) was employed. Configural invariance was attested. However, metric invariance was not supported for five items, in a total of 10, and scalar invariance was not supported for all items. We also evaluated the differences between the latent scores estimated by two models: MIMIC and MGCFA unconstraining the non-equivalent parameters across countries. The average difference was equal to |.07| on the estimation of the latent scores, and 22.8% of the scores were biased in at least .10 standardized points. Bias effects were above the mean for the German group, which the average difference was equal to |.09|, and 33.7% of the scores were biased in at least .10. In synthesis, the GSES did not provide evidence of measurement invariance to be employed in this cross-cultural study. More than that, our results showed that even when controlling for sex and age effects, the absence of control on items parameters in the MGCFA analyses across countries would implicate in bias of the latent scores estimation, with a higher effect for the German population. PMID:27225231

  10. Efficacy of local use of probiotics as an adjunct to scaling and root planing in chronic periodontitis and halitosis: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Penala, Soumya; Kalakonda, Butchibabu; Pathakota, Krishnajaneya Reddy; Jayakumar, Avula; Koppolu, Pradeep; Lakshmi, Bolla Vijaya; Pandey, Ruchi; Mishra, Ashank

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Periodontitis is known to have multifactorial etiology, involving interplay between environmental, host and microbial factors. The current treatment approaches are aimed at reducing the pathogenic microorganisms. Administration of beneficial bacteria (probiotics) has emerged as a promising concept in the prevention and treatment of periodontitis. Thus, the aim of the present study is to evaluate the efficacy of the local use of probiotics as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) in the treatment of patients with chronic periodontitis and halitosis. Methods: This is a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded trial involving 32 systemically healthy chronic periodontitis patients. After SRP, the subjects were randomly assigned into the test and control groups. Test group (SRP + probiotics) received subgingival delivery of probiotics and probiotic mouthwash, and control group (SRP + placebo) received subgingival delivery of placebo and placebo mouthwash for 15 days. Plaque index (PI), modified gingival index (MGI), and bleeding index (BI) were assessed at baseline, 1 and 3 months thereafter, whereas probing depth (PD) and clinical attachment level were assessed at baseline and after 3 months. Microbial assessment using N-benzoyl-DL-arginine-naphthylamide (BANA) and halitosis assessment using organoleptic scores (ORG) was done at baseline, 1 and 3 months. Findings: All the clinical and microbiological parameters were significantly reduced in both groups at the end of the study. Inter-group comparison of PD reduction (PDR) and clinical attachment gain (CAG) revealed no statistical significance except for PDR in moderate pockets for the test group. Test group has shown statistically significant improvement in PI, MGI, and BI at 3 months compared to control group. Inter-group comparison revealed a significant reduction in BANA in test group at 1 month. ORG were significantly reduced in test group when compared to control group. Conclusion: Within

  11. Evaluations of Bollgard, Bollgard II, and Widestrike technologies against beet and fall armyworm larvae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic cottons containing the Bollgard®, Bollgard II® and WideStrike® traits were grown in 2005 and 2007 to examine the efficacy against beet [Spodoptera exigua (Hübner)] and fall armyworms [S. frugiperda (J. E. Smith)]. Results suggest that both dual-gene traits are more efficacious against th...

  12. Cowlitz Falls Fish Passage.

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The upper Cowlitz was once home to native salmon and steelhead. But the combined impacts of overharvest, farming, logging and road building hammered fish runs. And in the 1960s, a pair of hydroelectric dams blocked the migration path of ocean-returning and ocean-going fish. The lower Cowlitz still supports hatchery runs of chinook, coho and steelhead. But some 200 river miles in the upper river basin--much of it prime spawning and rearing habitat--have been virtually cut off from the ocean for over 26 years. Now the idea is to trap-and-haul salmon and steelhead both ways and bypass previously impassable obstacles in the path of anadromous fish. The plan can be summarized, for the sake of explanation, in three steps: (1) trap and haul adult fish--collect ocean-returning adult fish at the lowermost Cowlitz dam, and truck them upstream; (2) reseed--release the ripe adults above the uppermost dam, and let them spawn naturally, at the same time, supplement these runs with hatchery born fry that are reared and imprinted in ponds and net pens in the watershed; (3) trap and haul smolts--collection the new generation of young fish as they arrive at the uppermost Cowlitz dam, truck them past the three dams, and release them to continue their downstream migration to the sea. The critical part of any fish-collection system is the method of fish attraction. Scientists have to find the best combination of attraction system and screens that will guide young fish to the right spot, away from the turbine intakes. In the spring of 1994 a test was made of a prototype system of baffles and slots on the upriver face of the Cowlitz Falls Dam. The prototype worked at 90% efficiency in early tests, and it worked without the kind of expensive screening devices that have been installed on other dams. Now that the success of the attraction system has been verified, Harza engineers and consultants will design and build the appropriate collection part of the system.

  13. Radar fall detectors: a comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erol, Baris; Amin, Moeness; Ahmad, Fauzia; Boashash, Boualem

    2016-05-01

    Falls are a major cause of accidents in elderly people. Even simple falls can lead to severe injuries, and sometimes result in death. Doppler fall detection has drawn much attention in recent years. Micro-Doppler signatures play an important role for the Doppler-based radar systems. Numerous studies have demonstrated the offerings of micro-Doppler characteristics for fall detection. In this respect, a plethora of micro-Doppler signature features have been proposed, including those stemming from speech recognition and wavelet decomposition. In this work, we consider four different sets of features for fall detection. These can be categorized as spectrogram based features, wavelet based features, mel-frequency cepstrum coefficients, and power burst curve features. Support vector machine is employed as the classifier. Performance of the respective fall detectors is investigated using real data obtained with the same radar operating resources and under identical sensing conditions. For the considered data, the spectrogram based feature set is shown to provide superior fall detection performance.

  14. Mobility, Balance and Falls in Persons with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Sosnoff, Jacob J.; Socie, Michael J.; Boes, Morgan K.; Sandroff, Brian M.; Pula, John H.; Suh, Yoojin; Weikert, Madeline; Balantrapu, Swathi; Morrison, Steven; Motl, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    Background There is a lack of information concerning the relation between objective measures of gait and balance and fall history in persons with MS (PwMS). This investigation assessed the relation between demographic, clinical, mobility and balance metrics and falls history in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods 52 ambulatory persons with MS (PwMS) participated in the investigation. All persons provided demographic information including fall history over the last 12 months. Disease status was assessed with Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). Walking speed, coordination, endurance and postural control were quantified with a multidimensional mobility battery. Results Over 51% of the participants fell in the previous year with 79% of these people being suffering recurrent falls. Overall, fallers were older, had a greater prevalence of assistive devices use, worse disability, decreased walking endurance, and greater postural sway velocity with eyes closed compared to non-fallers. Additionally, fallers had greater impairment in cerebellar, sensory, pyramidal, and bladder/bowel subscales of the EDSS. Conclusions The current observations suggest that PwMS who are older, more disabled, utilize an assistive device, have decreased walking coordination and endurance and have diminished balance have fallen in the previous year. This suggests that individuals who meet these criteria need to be carefully monitored for future falls. Future research is needed to determine a prospective model of falls specific to PwMS. Additionally, the utility of interventions aimed at reducing falls and fall risk in PwMS needs to be established. PMID:22132196

  15. Highlights of 2012 Fall Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finn, Carol

    2013-01-01

    This past December the streets of San Francisco, Calif., surrounding the Moscone Center were awash with a sea of Earth and space scientists attending the 45th consecutive AGU Fall Meeting, eager to share and expand their knowledge "for the benefit of humanity." As it has for many years, attendance at AGU's Fall Meeting—the largest gathering of Earth and space scientists in the world—continued to increase, this year passing the 24,000 mark. Attendees at the meeting, which took place on 3-7 December 2012, hailed from 97 countries; nearly 7000 of them were students. News from the Fall Meeting was carried in newspapers and on Web sites around the world, and the social media sphere lit up with talk of AGU and the Fall Meeting. It's even reported that for a short time we were a trending topic on Twitter.

  16. Exercises to help prevent falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000493.htm Exercises to help prevent falls To use the sharing ... and easily. Do not hold your breath. Balance exercises You can do some balance exercises during everyday ...

  17. Community College Estimated Growth: Fall 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillippe, Kent; Mullin, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    A survey from the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) found that enrollment growth in fall 2010 slowed its pace at community colleges, increasing 3.2% from the previous year. This contrasts with more dramatic increases in recent years: more than 11% between fall 2008 and fall 2009, and nearly 17% between fall 2007 and fall 2009,…

  18. Fall Frequency and Risk Assessment in Early Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Voss, TS; Elm, JJ; Wielinski, CL; Aminoff, MJ; Bandyopadhyay, D; Chou, KL; Sudarsky, LR; Tilley, BC

    2012-01-01

    Background We sought to define the frequency of falls in early PD and assess potential risk factors for falls in this population. Methods We analyzed the data from two randomized, placebo controlled trials (NET-PD FS1 and FS-TOO) of 413 individuals with early PD over 18 months of follow-up in FS1 and 12 months in FS-TOO. Falls were defined as any report of falls on the UPDRS or the adverse event log. We assessed the frequency of falls overall and by age. The relationship between prespecified fall risk markers and the probability of falling was assessed using logistic and multiple logistic regression. A hurdle Poisson model was used to jointly model the probability of remaining fall-free and the number of falls. Results During the follow-up period, 23% of participants fell, and 11% were habitual fallers. In a multiple logistic regression model, age, baseline UPDRS Falling score, and baseline PDQ-39 scores were associated with subsequent fall risk (P <0.001). Similarly, in a hurdle Poisson regression model, age, baseline UPDRS falling item, and baseline PDQ-39 were all significantly related to the probability of falling, but only UPDRS falling >0 was associated with the number of falls. Conclusion Falls are frequent and are associated with impaired quality of life, even in early PD. Current standard rating scales do not sufficiently explain future fall risk in the absence of a prior fall history. New assessment methods for falls and postural instability are required to better evaluate this important problem in clinical trials and clinical practice. PMID:22542094

  19. Fall prevention in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Ungar, Andrea; Rafanelli, Martina; Iacomelli, Iacopo; Brunetti, Maria Angela; Ceccofiglio, Alice; Tesi, Francesca; Marchionni, Niccolò

    2013-01-01

    Summary Falls are frequent in the elderly and affect mortality, morbidity, loss of functional capacity and institutionalization. In the older patient the incidence of falls can sometimes be underestimated, even in the absence of a clear cognitive impairment, because it is often difficult to reconstruct the dynamics. It is quite common that forms due to syncope are associated with retrograde amnesia and in 40 to 60% of the cases falls happen in the absence of witnesses. The pathogenesis of falls is often multifactorial, due to physiological age-related changes or more properly pathological factors, or due to the environment. The identification of risk factors is essential in the planning of preventive measures. Syncope is one of major causes of falls. About 20% of cardiovascular syncope in patients older than 70 appears as a fall and more than 20% of older people with Carotid Sinus Syndrome complain of falls as well as syncope. These data clearly state that older patients with history of falls should undergo a cardiovascular and neuroautonomic assessment besides the survey of other risk factors. Multifactorial assessment requires a synergy of various specialists. The geriatrician coordinates the multidisciplinary intervention in order to make the most effective evaluation of the risk of falling, searching for all predisposing factors, aiming towards a program of prevention. In clear pathological conditions it is possible to enact a specific treatment. Particular attention must indeed be paid to the re-evaluation of drug therapy, with dose adjustments or withdrawal especially for antihypertensive, diuretics and benzodiazepines. The Guidelines of the American Geriatrics Society recommend modification of environmental hazards, training paths, hip protectors and appropriate use of support tools (sticks, walkers), which can be effective elements of a multifactorial intervention program. Balance exercises are also recommended. In conclusion, an initial assessment

  20. Falls in ambulatory non-demented patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Rascol, Olivier; Perez-Lloret, Santiago; Damier, Philippe; Delval, Arnaud; Derkinderen, Pascal; Destée, Alain; Meissner, Wassilios G; Tison, Francois; Negre-Pages, Laurence

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed at determining the prevalence of falling in PD patients, to assess generic and disease-specific clinical and pharmacological factors, relationship with health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) and changes in falls from OFF to ON in patients with motor fluctuations. Six-hundred and eighty-three PD patients of the COPARK survey were evaluated (11 had missing data and were excluded from the analysis). Patients with falls were identified as those with a UPDRS Item 13 ≥ 1 in the ON condition. All patients were assessed in a standardized manner [demographics, treatments, Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Pittsburg questionnaire and HR-QoL scales (SF36, PDQ39)]. Falling was reported by 108/672 (16%) PD patients during the ON state and prevalence increased according to PD severity, from 5% in Hoehn and Yahr stage 1-60% in stage 4. Falling was significantly related to lower HR-QoL. Falling correlated with (1) generic factors such as female gender, age at the end of academic studies and diuretics consumption, (2) motor PD-specific factors including disease severity, frozen gait, difficulties when arising from a chair, dyskinesia and higher levodopa daily equivalent dose and (3) non-motor PD-specific factors such as orthostatic hypotension and hallucinations. Falling was more frequent in OFF than in ON in 48/74 (64%) patients with motor fluctuations and remained unchanged in 27 patients (36%). In summary, falling affected a significant proportion of PD patients, especially in advanced stages. It was associated with a variety of generic and PD-specific factors and was related to reduced HR-QoL. PMID:25845678

  1. Modeling seasonal migration of fall armyworm moths.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, J K; Nagoshi, R N; Meagher, R L; Fleischer, S J; Jairam, S

    2016-02-01

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), is a highly mobile insect pest of a wide range of host crops. However, this pest of tropical origin cannot survive extended periods of freezing temperature but must migrate northward each spring if it is to re-infest cropping areas in temperate regions. The northward limit of the winter-breeding region for North America extends to southern regions of Texas and Florida, but infestations are regularly reported as far north as Québec and Ontario provinces in Canada by the end of summer. Recent genetic analyses have characterized migratory pathways from these winter-breeding regions, but knowledge is lacking on the atmosphere's role in influencing the timing, distance, and direction of migratory flights. The Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model was used to simulate migratory flight of fall armyworm moths from distinct winter-breeding source areas. Model simulations identified regions of dominant immigration from the Florida and Texas source areas and overlapping immigrant populations in the Alabama-Georgia and Pennsylvania-Mid-Atlantic regions. This simulated migratory pattern corroborates a previous migratory map based on the distribution of fall armyworm haplotype profiles. We found a significant regression between the simulated first week of moth immigration and first week of moth capture (for locations which captured ≥ 10 moths), which on average indicated that the model simulated first immigration 2 weeks before first captures in pheromone traps. The results contribute to knowledge of fall armyworm population ecology on a continental scale and will aid in the prediction and interpretation of inter-annual variability of insect migration patterns including those in response to climatic change and adoption rates of transgenic cultivars. PMID:26045330

  2. Modeling seasonal migration of fall armyworm moths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westbrook, J. K.; Nagoshi, R. N.; Meagher, R. L.; Fleischer, S. J.; Jairam, S.

    2016-02-01

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), is a highly mobile insect pest of a wide range of host crops. However, this pest of tropical origin cannot survive extended periods of freezing temperature but must migrate northward each spring if it is to re-infest cropping areas in temperate regions. The northward limit of the winter-breeding region for North America extends to southern regions of Texas and Florida, but infestations are regularly reported as far north as Québec and Ontario provinces in Canada by the end of summer. Recent genetic analyses have characterized migratory pathways from these winter-breeding regions, but knowledge is lacking on the atmosphere's role in influencing the timing, distance, and direction of migratory flights. The Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model was used to simulate migratory flight of fall armyworm moths from distinct winter-breeding source areas. Model simulations identified regions of dominant immigration from the Florida and Texas source areas and overlapping immigrant populations in the Alabama-Georgia and Pennsylvania-Mid-Atlantic regions. This simulated migratory pattern corroborates a previous migratory map based on the distribution of fall armyworm haplotype profiles. We found a significant regression between the simulated first week of moth immigration and first week of moth capture (for locations which captured ≥10 moths), which on average indicated that the model simulated first immigration 2 weeks before first captures in pheromone traps. The results contribute to knowledge of fall armyworm population ecology on a continental scale and will aid in the prediction and interpretation of inter-annual variability of insect migration patterns including those in response to climatic change and adoption rates of transgenic cultivars.

  3. [Effect of a large scale community-based distribution of artemether-lumefantrine on its therapeutic efficacy among children living in a rural area of Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Siribié, M; Diarra, A; Tiono, A B; Soulama, I; Sirima, S B

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to assess the effect of an integrated community case management of malaria and pneumonia programme (iCCMmp) on the efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine (AL). Thus, we carried out two open label and unique centre clinical trials, before and after the iCCMmp, on the therapeutic efficacy of AL. A total of 210 children aged 6-59 months, were included in the study, 105 before and 105 after the iCCMmp. The adequate clinical and parasitological response was 90.5% and 86.7% respectively before and after the iCCMmp (p value = 0.516). Our findings reported no effect of iCCMmp on the therapeutic efficacy of the AL. PMID:25925810

  4. Child Adjustment and Parent Efficacy Scale-Developmental Disability (CAPES-DD): First psychometric evaluation of a new child and parenting assessment tool for children with a developmental disability.

    PubMed

    Emser, Theresa S; Mazzucchelli, Trevor G; Christiansen, Hanna; Sanders, Matthew R

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Child Adjustment and Parent Efficacy Scale-Developmental Disability (CAPES-DD), a brief inventory for assessing emotional and behavioral problems of children with developmental disabilities aged 2- to 16-years, as well as caregivers' self-efficacy in managing these problems. A sample of 636 parents participated in the study. Children's ages ranged from 2 to 15. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a 21-item, three-factor model of CAPES-DD child adjustment with 13 items describing behavioral (10 items) and emotional (3 items) problems and 8 items describing prosocial behavior. Three additional items were included due to their clinical usefulness and contributed to a Total Problem Score. Factor analyses also supported a 16-item, one factor model of CAPES-DD self-efficacy. Psychometric evaluation of the CAPES-DD revealed scales had satisfactory to very good internal consistency, as well as very good convergent and predictive validity. The instrument is to be in the public domain and free for practitioners and researchers to use. Potential uses of the measure and implications for future validation studies are discussed. PMID:26921524

  5. Clinical Prediction of Fall Risk and White Matter Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Bang-Bon; Bergethon, Peter; Qiu, Wei Qiao; Scott, Tammy; Hussain, Mohammed; Rosenberg, Irwin; Caplan, Louis R.; Bhadelia, Rafeeque A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Tinetti scale is a simple clinical tool designed to predict risk of falling by focusing on gait and stance impairment in elderly persons. Gait impairment is also associated with white matter (WM) abnormalities. Objective To test the hypothesis that elderly subjects at risk for falling, as determined by the Tinetti scale, have specific patterns of WM abnormalities on diffusion tensor imaging. Design, Setting, and Patients Community-based cohort of 125 homebound elderly individuals. Main Outcome Measures Diffusion tensor imaging scans were analyzed using tract-based spatial statistics analysis to determine the location of WM abnormalities in subjects with Tinetti scale scores of 25 or higher (without risk of falls) and lower than 25 (with risk of falls). Multivariate linear least squares correlation analysis was performed to determine the association between Tinetti scale scores and local fractional anisotropy values on each skeletal voxel controlling for possible confounders. Results In subjects with risk of falls (Tinetti scale score <25), clusters of abnormal WM were seen in the medial frontal and parietal subcortical pathways, genu and splenium of corpus callosum, posterior cingulum, prefrontal and orbitofrontal pathways, and longitudinal pathways that connect frontal-parietal-temporal lobes. Among these abnormalities, those in medial frontal and parietal subcortical pathways correlated with Mini-Mental State Examination scores, while the other locations were unrelated to these scores. Conclusions Elderly individuals at risk for falls as determined by the Tinetti scale have WM abnormalities in specific locations on diffusion tensor imaging, some of which correlate with cognitive function scores. PMID:22332181

  6. A Report of the Responses of Botswana Junior Secondary School Teachers on the Three Subscales of the Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dibapile, Waitshega Tefo Smitta

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to present the findings of the study on teacher efficacy and classroom management. To collect data a survey was administered to 1006 Botswana participants. Out of 1006 participants only 6 did not complete the survey. Pearson-product moment correlation was computed to analyze the data using Statistical Package of Social…

  7. Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Self-Efficacy Scale (TPACK-SeS) for Pre-Service Science Teachers: Construction, Validation, and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilici, Sedef Canbazoglu; Yamak, Havva; Kavak, Nusret; Guzey, S. Selcen

    2013-01-01

    Problem Statement: Based on developments in the 21st century technology has become a large part of the classroom experience. Teachers need to have an understanding of how technology can be coordinated with pedagogy and content knowledge in order to integrate technology effectively into classroom instruction. Self-efficacy beliefs toward technology…

  8. Yale FICSIT: risk factor abatement strategy for fall prevention.

    PubMed

    Tinetti, M E; Baker, D I; Garrett, P A; Gottschalk, M; Koch, M L; Horwitz, R I

    1993-03-01

    Based on finding a strong association between number of impairments and risk of falling in earlier studies, Yale FICSIT investigators are conducting an intervention trial comparing the effectiveness of usual care plus social visits (SV) and a targeted risk abatement intervention (TI) strategy in reducing falls among at risk community elderly persons. Subjects include members of a participating HMO who are > or = 70 years of age, cognitively intact, not terminally ill, not too physically active, and possess at least one fall risk factor. The targeted risk factors include postural hypotension; sedative use; at least four targeted medications; upper and lower extremity strength and range of motion impairments; foot problems; and balance, gait, and transfer dysfunctions. The interventions include medication adjustments, behavioral change recommendations, education and training, and home-based exercise regimens targeting the identified risk factors. The interventions are carried out by the study nurse practitioner and physical therapist in TI subjects' homes. The SV subjects receive a comparable number of home visits as the TI subjects during which a structured life review is performed by social work students. The primary outcome is occurrence of falls during the 12-month followup. Secondary outcomes include change in mobility performance and fall-related efficacy. PMID:8440856

  9. [Accidental falls in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Heinimann, Niklas B; Kressig, Reto W

    2014-06-18

    Falls in the elderly are common with consecutive high mortality and morbidity. Recent consecutive data focus on identification and therapy of intrinsic risk factors. Sarcopenia, imbalance and gait disorders represent the major risk factors. Sarcopenia is caused by a disequilibrium of protein synthesis and breakdown, probably in consequence of age-related changes in protein metabolism. Protein supplements in combination with strength training shows the best benefit. Disorders in balance and gait are caused by age-related or pathologic changes in a complex regulation system of gait. The individual fall risk correlates with the gait variability and even increases with bad dual task performance. Activities with high requirements of attention and body awareness are the most effective prevention for falls in the elderly (-50%). PMID:24938159

  10. A Piece of Paper Falling Faster than Free Fall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vera, F.; Rivera, R.

    2011-01-01

    We report a simple experiment that clearly demonstrates a common error in the explanation of the classic experiment where a small piece of paper is put over a book and the system is let fall. This classic demonstration is used in introductory physics courses to show that after eliminating the friction force with the air, the piece of paper falls…