Science.gov

Sample records for false alarm mitigation

  1. False alarm mitigation techniques for hyperspectral target detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieper, M. L.; Manolakis, D.; Truslow, E.; Cooley, T.; Brueggeman, M.

    2013-05-01

    A challenging problem of major importance in hyperspectral imaging applications is the detection of subpixel objects of military and civilian interest. High false alarm thresholds are required to detect subpixel objects due to the large amount of surrounding background clutter. These high false alarm rates are unacceptable for military purposes, requiring the need for false alarm mitigation (FAM) techniques to weed out the objects of interest. The objective of this paper is to provide a comparison of the implementation of these FAM techniques and their inherent benefits in the whitened detection space. The widely utilized matched filter (MF) and adaptive cosine estimator (ACE) are both based on a linear mixing model (LMM) between a background and object class. The matched filter approximates the object abundance, and the ACE measures the model error. Each of these measurements provides inadequate object separation alone, but by using both the object abundance and model error, the objects can be separated from the false alarms.

  2. Control of ELT false alarms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toth, S.; Gershkoff, I.

    1979-01-01

    The statistics of emergency locator transmitter (ELT) alarms are presented. The primary sources of data include ELT Incident Logs, Service Difficulty Reports, and Frequency Interference Reports. The number of reported and unreported alarms is discussed, as are seasonal variations, duration of ELT transmissions, and cost of silencing. Origin, causes, and possible strategies for reducing the impact of alarms on the aviation community are considered.

  3. 25 CFR 11.430 - False alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false False alarms. 11.430 Section 11.430 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses 11.430 False alarms. A person who knowingly causes a false alarm of fire or...

  4. 25 CFR 11.430 - False alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false False alarms. 11.430 Section 11.430 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses 11.430 False alarms. A person who knowingly causes a false alarm of fire or...

  5. 25 CFR 11.430 - False alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false False alarms. 11.430 Section 11.430 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses 11.430 False alarms. A person who knowingly causes a false alarm of fire or...

  6. 25 CFR 11.430 - False alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false False alarms. 11.430 Section 11.430 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses 11.430 False alarms. A person who knowingly causes a false alarm of fire or...

  7. 25 CFR 11.430 - False alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true False alarms. 11.430 Section 11.430 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses 11.430 False alarms. A person who knowingly causes a false alarm of fire or...

  8. Counting the cost of false alarms.

    PubMed

    2013-05-01

    While fire and rescue service personnel, the Government, those responsible for fire safety in the healthcare sector, the Health and Safety Executive, fire and rescue services, and indeed fire alarm and detection equipment manufacturers, must be pleased that the number of false fire alarms continues to fall, fire services still attended just under 585,000 fires or false alarm incidents across Great Britain in 2011/12. Of this total, 272,000 were actual fires, of which around 24,000 were in premises classified by the Department for Communities and Local Government (DCLG) as 'other buildings', i.e. not 'dwellings', a category that includes healthcare facilities (representing a 4% fall on 2010-2011). HEJ looks behind the statistics, and at the possibility that some fire services could, in future, charge healthcare providers that persistently report incidents that turn out to be false alarms. PMID:23763089

  9. False-alarm characterization in hyperspectral gas-detection applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiPietro, Robert S.; Truslow, Eric; Manolakis, Dimitris G.; Golowich, Steven E.; Lockwood, Ronald B.

    2012-09-01

    Chemical cloud detection using long-wave infrared (LWIR) hyperspectral-imaging sensors has many civilian and military applications, including chemical warfare threat mitigation, environmental monitoring, and emergency response. Current capabilities are limited by variation in background clutter as opposed to the physics of photon detection, and this makes the statistical characterization of clutter and clutter-induced false alarms essential to the design of practical systems. In this exploratory work, we use hyperspectral data collected both on the ground and in the air to spectrally and spatially characterize false alarms. Focusing on two widely-used detectors, the matched filter (MF) and the adaptive cosine estimator (ACE), we compare empirical false-alarm rates to their theoretical counterparts - detector output under Gaussian, t and t-mixture distributed data - and show that these models often underestimate false-alarm rates. Next, we threshold real detection maps and show that true detections and false alarms often exhibit very different spatial behavior. To exploit this difference and understand how spatial processing affects performance, the spatial behavior of false alarms must be understood. We take a first step in this direction by showing that, although the behavior may `look' quite random, it is not well captured by the complete-spatial-randomness model. Finally, we describe how our findings impact the design of real detection systems.

  10. Expert system constant false alarm rate processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldygo, William J., Jr.; Wicks, Michael C.

    1993-10-01

    The requirements for high detection probability and low false alarm probability in modern wide area surveillance radars are rarely met due to spatial variations in clutter characteristics. Many filtering and CFAR detection algorithms have been developed to effectively deal with these variations; however, any single algorithm is likely to exhibit excessive false alarms and intolerably low detection probabilities in a dynamically changing environment. A great deal of research has led to advances in the state of the art in Artificial Intelligence (AI) and numerous areas have been identified for application to radar signal processing. The approach suggested here, discussed in a patent application submitted by the authors, is to intelligently select the filtering and CFAR detection algorithms being executed at any given time, based upon the observed characteristics of the interference environment. This approach requires sensing the environment, employing the most suitable algorithms, and applying an appropriate multiple algorithm fusion scheme or consensus algorithm to produce a global detection decision.

  11. HOME INSECURITY: NO ALARMS, FALSE ALARMS, AND SIGINT

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, Logan M

    2014-01-01

    The market share of home security systems has substantially increased as vendors incorporate more desirable features: intrusion detection, automation, wireless, and LCD touch panel controls. Wireless connectivity allows vendors to manufacture cheaper, more featureful products that require little to no home modification to install. Consumer win, since adding devices is easier. The result: an ostensibly more secure, convenient, and connected home for a larger number of citizens. Sadly, this hypothesis is flawed; the idea of covering a home with more security sensors does not translate into a more secure home. Additionally, the number of homes using these vulnerable systems is large, and the growth rate is increasing producing a even larger problem. In this talk, I will demonstrate a generalized approach for compromising three systems: ADT, the largest home security dealer in North America; Honeywell, one of the largest manufacturers of security devices; and Vivint, a top 5 security dealer. We will suppress alarms, create false alarms, and collect artifacts that facilitate tracking the movements of individuals in their homes.

  12. False alarm reduction during landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prado, P. J.; Chongpison, A.; Doraisamy, L.

    2007-04-01

    Quadrupole Resonance sensors have the unique capability of detecting explosives from buried, plastic-cased antipersonnel and antitank landmines. The chemical specificity of this radio-frequency technique provides the potential to deliver remarkably low false alarm rates during landmine detection. This is of particular importance to deminers, who frequently come across numerous clutter items before uncovering a mine. Quadrupole Resonance is typically utilized in a confirmation mode; preceded by rapid primary scans carried out by, for example, metal detectors, ground penetrating radars or a fusion of these. Significant technical and scientific advances have resulted in the fabrication of handheld and vehicle mounted Quadrupole Resonance landmine detectors in compact, power-efficient configurations. The development work is focused on baseline sensitivity increase, as well as the achievement of high detection performance under field conditions. The mine detection capability of Quadrupole Resonance detectors has been evaluated during various blind tests. A modular handheld unit, combining primary and confirmation sensors, was designed to be operated by a single person. A series of field tests demonstrate the unique capability of Quadrupole Resonance for significant false alarm reduction.

  13. False Fire Alarms: A Deviant Pattern of Seeking Help.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camblin, Louise; Weinland, Laura

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the phenomenon of false fire alarms, the deliberate, intentional false reporting of fires, by mentally troubled persons as a primitive kind of help-seeking behavior. Several common themes found by reviewing false alarm cases are presented. Suggests that identifying the intrapsychic dynamics of false alarm reporters could be useful in

  14. Multiple pass collaborative search in the presence of false alarms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baylog, John G.; Wettergren, Thomas A.

    2015-05-01

    This paper addresses the planning of multiple collaborative searchers that are seeking to find hidden objects (i.e. mines) in environments where the sensor detection process is prone to false alarms. In such situations it is anticipated that collaboration between searchers that are examining the same sub-regions may be used to mitigate the impact of false alarms. A standard Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) analysis is conducted and the mapping between a single search pass ROC curve and an equivalent multiple search pass representation within a cumulative probability space is discussed. This mapping produces an analogous family of ROC curves for an increasing number of search passes using either a first detection or multiple occurrence performance criteria. The migration of ROC operating points is analyzed as additional search passes are included within a search plan and suggests the need to coordinate search effort with operating point selection. The mapping from waiting time event probabilities to a total error performance criterion weighted according to the cumulative probabilities of missed detection and false alarm is developed. Details of its application for threshold optimization within search planning is discussed and numerical results are provided to demonstrate the usefulness of the models in evaluating performance trade-offs.

  15. Frog Swarms: Earthquake Precursors or False Alarms?

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Rachel A.; Conlan, Hilary

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Media reports linking unusual animal behaviour with earthquakes can potentially create false alarms and unnecessary anxiety among people that live in earthquake risk zones. Recently large frog swarms in China and elsewhere have been reported as earthquake precursors in the media. By examining international media reports of frog swarms since 1850 in comparison to earthquake data, it was concluded that frog swarms are naturally occurring dispersal behaviour of juveniles and are not associated with earthquakes. However, the media in seismic risk areas may be more likely to report frog swarms, and more likely to disseminate reports on frog swarms after earthquakes have occurred, leading to an apparent link between frog swarms and earthquakes. Abstract In short-term earthquake risk forecasting, the avoidance of false alarms is of utmost importance to preclude the possibility of unnecessary panic among populations in seismic hazard areas. Unusual animal behaviour prior to earthquakes has been reported for millennia but has rarely been scientifically documented. Recently large migrations or unusual behaviour of amphibians have been linked to large earthquakes, and media reports of large frog and toad migrations in areas of high seismic risk such as Greece and China have led to fears of a subsequent large earthquake. However, at certain times of year large migrations are part of the normal behavioural repertoire of amphibians. News reports of “frog swarms” from 1850 to the present day were examined for evidence that this behaviour is a precursor to large earthquakes. It was found that only two of 28 reported frog swarms preceded large earthquakes (Sichuan province, China in 2008 and 2010). All of the reported mass migrations of amphibians occurred in late spring, summer and autumn and appeared to relate to small juvenile anurans (frogs and toads). It was concluded that most reported “frog swarms” are actually normal behaviour, probably caused by juvenile animals migrating away from their breeding pond, after a fruitful reproductive season. As amphibian populations undergo large fluctuations in numbers from year to year, this phenomenon will not occur on a yearly basis but will depend on successful reproduction, which is related to numerous climatic and geophysical factors. Hence, most large swarms of amphibians, particularly those involving very small frogs and occurring in late spring or summer, are not unusual and should not be considered earthquake precursors. In addition, it is likely that reports of several mass migration of small toads prior to the Great Sichuan Earthquake in 2008 were not linked to the subsequent M = 7.9 event (some occurred at a great distance from the epicentre), and were probably co-incidence. Statistical analysis of the data indicated frog swarms are unlikely to be connected with earthquakes. Reports of unusual behaviour giving rise to earthquake fears should be interpreted with caution, and consultation with experts in the field of earthquake biology is advised. PMID:26479746

  16. Frog Swarms: Earthquake Precursors or False Alarms?

    PubMed

    Grant, Rachel A; Conlan, Hilary

    2013-01-01

    In short-term earthquake risk forecasting, the avoidance of false alarms is of utmost importance to preclude the possibility of unnecessary panic among populations in seismic hazard areas. Unusual animal behaviour prior to earthquakes has been reported for millennia but has rarely been scientifically documented. Recently large migrations or unusual behaviour of amphibians have been linked to large earthquakes, and media reports of large frog and toad migrations in areas of high seismic risk such as Greece and China have led to fears of a subsequent large earthquake. However, at certain times of year large migrations are part of the normal behavioural repertoire of amphibians. News reports of "frog swarms" from 1850 to the present day were examined for evidence that this behaviour is a precursor to large earthquakes. It was found that only two of 28 reported frog swarms preceded large earthquakes (Sichuan province, China in 2008 and 2010). All of the reported mass migrations of amphibians occurred in late spring, summer and autumn and appeared to relate to small juvenile anurans (frogs and toads). It was concluded that most reported "frog swarms" are actually normal behaviour, probably caused by juvenile animals migrating away from their breeding pond, after a fruitful reproductive season. As amphibian populations undergo large fluctuations in numbers from year to year, this phenomenon will not occur on a yearly basis but will depend on successful reproduction, which is related to numerous climatic and geophysical factors. Hence, most large swarms of amphibians, particularly those involving very small frogs and occurring in late spring or summer, are not unusual and should not be considered earthquake precursors. In addition, it is likely that reports of several mass migration of small toads prior to the Great Sichuan Earthquake in 2008 were not linked to the subsequent M = 7.9 event (some occurred at a great distance from the epicentre), and were probably co-incidence. Statistical analysis of the data indicated frog swarms are unlikely to be connected with earthquakes. Reports of unusual behaviour giving rise to earthquake fears should be interpreted with caution, and consultation with experts in the field of earthquake biology is advised. PMID:26479746

  17. Reducing false intracranial pressure alarms using morphological waveform features.

    PubMed

    Scalzo, Fabien; Liebeskind, David; Hu, Xiao

    2013-01-01

    False alarms produced by patient monitoring systems in intensive care units are a major issue that causes alarm fatigue, waste of human resources, and increased patient risks. While alarms are typically triggered by manually adjusted thresholds, the trend and patterns observed prior to threshold crossing are generally not used by current systems. This study introduces and evaluates, a smart alarm detection system for intracranial pressure signal (ICP) that is based on advanced pattern recognition methods. Models are trained in a supervised fashion from a comprehensive dataset of 4791 manually labeled alarm episodes extracted from 108 neurosurgical patients. The comparative analysis provided between spectral regression, kernel spectral regression, and support vector machines indicates the significant improvement of the proposed framework in detecting false ICP alarms in comparison to a threshold-based technique that is conventionally used. Another contribution of this work is to exploit an adaptive discretization to reduce the dimensionality of the input features. The resulting features lead to a decrease of 30% of false ICP alarms without compromising sensitivity. PMID:22851230

  18. What can be done to reduce false alarms?

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2013-05-01

    Although (the Department for Communities and Local Government's 'Fire statistics' reveal) the number of such incidents has fallen every year since 2006/07, UK fire and rescue services still attended over 312,400 'false fire alarms,' i.e. instances where, on arriving at a site, they found no fire, in 2011/12. Such incidents have been a significant concern for healthcare facilities teams, and for the fire and rescue services serving them, for many years, and, although the past decade has seen determined efforts to substantially reduce the number bearing fruit, many believe far too many still occur. HEJ editor, Jonathan Baillie, reports on a recent London roundtable discussion staged by two leading fire detection and alarm equipment specialists, Apollo Fire Detectors, and Static Systems Group, with IHEEM, which brought together experts to discuss what more can be done to minimise false fire alarms. PMID:23763086

  19. SETI Pulse Detection Algorithm: Analysis of False-alarm Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levitt, B. K.

    1983-01-01

    Some earlier work by the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Science Working Group (SWG) on the derivation of spectrum analyzer thresholds for a pulse detection algorithm based on an analysis of false alarm rates is extended. The algorithm previously analyzed was intended to detect a finite sequence of i periodically spaced pulses that did not necessarily occupy the entire observation interval. This algorithm would recognize the presence of such a signal only if all i-received pulse powers exceeded a threshold T(i): these thresholds were selected to achieve a desired false alarm rate, independent of i. To simplify the analysis, it was assumed that the pulses were synchronous with the spectrum sample times. This analysis extends the earlier effort to include infinite and/or asynchronous pulse trains. Furthermore, to decrease the possibility of missing an extraterrestrial intelligence signal, the algorithm was modified to detect a pulse train even if some of the received pulse powers fall below the threshold. The analysis employs geometrical arguments that make it conceptually easy to incorporate boundary conditions imposed on the derivation of the false alarm rates. While the exact results can be somewhat complex, simple closed form approximations are derived that produce a negligible loss of accuracy.

  20. False alarm recognition in hyperspectral gas plume identification

    DOEpatents

    Conger, James L. (San Ramon, CA); Lawson, Janice K. (Tracy, CA); Aimonetti, William D. (Livermore, CA)

    2011-03-29

    According to one embodiment, a method for analyzing hyperspectral data includes collecting first hyperspectral data of a scene using a hyperspectral imager during a no-gas period and analyzing the first hyperspectral data using one or more gas plume detection logics. The gas plume detection logic is executed using a low detection threshold, and detects each occurrence of an observed hyperspectral signature. The method also includes generating a histogram for all occurrences of each observed hyperspectral signature which is detected using the gas plume detection logic, and determining a probability of false alarm (PFA) for all occurrences of each observed hyperspectral signature based on the histogram. Possibly at some other time, the method includes collecting second hyperspectral data, and analyzing the second hyperspectral data using the one or more gas plume detection logics and the PFA to determine if any gas is present. Other systems and methods are also included.

  1. How the Sausage is Made: Kepler's False Alarms, False Positives, and Planet Candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughlin, J.

    2014-04-01

    The Kepler mission has now designated over 7,000 Kepler objects of interest (KOIs), or transit-like signatures, utilizing up to four years of data. The number of potentially habitable planet candidates (PCs) among this sample has risen significantly over time. However, starting with Kepler threshold crossing events (TCEs), there are initially about as many false alarms (FAs) detected as there are KOIs. Furthermore, due to its design, contamination from eclipsing binaries, variable stars, and other transiting planets result in a significant number of KOIs being designated as false positives (FPs). Many of these FAs and FPs occur at long orbital periods, where habitable planets are typically found. I will review the process of how an initial TCE becomes a KOI, and then is ultimately classified as a FA, FP, or PC, along with the various vetting tools employed. The understanding of this process is crucial to performing accurate statistical analyses on populations of habitable planet candidates discovered by Kepler.

  2. False alarms: How early warning signals falsely predict abrupt sea ice loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Till J. W.; Eisenman, Ian

    2015-12-01

    Uncovering universal early warning signals for critical transitions has become a coveted goal in diverse scientific disciplines, ranging from climate science to financial mathematics. There has been a flurry of recent research proposing such signals, with increasing autocorrelation and increasing variance being among the most widely discussed candidates. A number of studies have suggested that increasing autocorrelation alone may suffice to signal an impending transition, although some others have questioned this. Here we consider variance and autocorrelation in the context of sea ice loss in an idealized model of the global climate system. The model features no bifurcation, nor increased rate of retreat, as the ice disappears. Nonetheless, the autocorrelation of summer sea ice area is found to increase in a global warming scenario. The variance, by contrast, decreases. A simple physical mechanism is proposed to explain the occurrence of increasing autocorrelation but not variance when there is no approaching bifurcation. Additionally, a similar mechanism is shown to allow an increase in both indicators with no physically attainable bifurcation. This implies that relying on autocorrelation and variance as early warning signals can raise false alarms in the climate system, warning of "tipping points" that are not actually there.

  3. Neural Network Target Identification System for False Alarm Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ye, David; Edens, Weston; Lu, Thomas T.; Chao, Tien-Hsin

    2009-01-01

    A multi-stage automated target recognition (ATR) system has been designed to perform computer vision tasks with adequate proficiency in mimicking human vision. The system is able to detect, identify, and track targets of interest. Potential regions of interest (ROIs) are first identified by the detection stage using an Optimum Trade-off Maximum Average Correlation Height (OT-MACH) filter combined with a wavelet transform. False positives are then eliminated by the verification stage using feature extraction methods in conjunction with neural networks. Feature extraction transforms the ROIs using filtering and binning algorithms to create feature vectors. A feed forward back propagation neural network (NN) is then trained to classify each feature vector and remove false positives. This paper discusses the test of the system performance and parameter optimizations process which adapts the system to various targets and datasets. The test results show that the system was successful in substantially reducing the false positive rate when tested on a sonar image dataset.

  4. False alarm reduction in BSN-based cardiac monitoring using signal quality and activity type information.

    PubMed

    Tanantong, Tanatorn; Nantajeewarawat, Ekawit; Thiemjarus, Surapa

    2015-01-01

    False alarms in cardiac monitoring affect the quality of medical care, impacting on both patients and healthcare providers. In continuous cardiac monitoring using wireless Body Sensor Networks (BSNs), the quality of ECG signals can be deteriorated owing to several factors, e.g., noises, low battery power, and network transmission problems, often resulting in high false alarm rates. In addition, body movements occurring from activities of daily living (ADLs) can also create false alarms. This paper presents a two-phase framework for false arrhythmia alarm reduction in continuous cardiac monitoring, using signals from an ECG sensor and a 3D accelerometer. In the first phase, classification models constructed using machine learning algorithms are used for labeling input signals. ECG signals are labeled with heartbeat types and signal quality levels, while 3D acceleration signals are labeled with ADL types. In the second phase, a rule-based expert system is used for combining classification results in order to determine whether arrhythmia alarms should be accepted or suppressed. The proposed framework was validated on datasets acquired using BSNs and the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. For the BSN dataset, acceleration and ECG signals were collected from 10 young and 10 elderly subjects while they were performing ADLs. The framework reduced the false alarm rate from 9.58% to 1.43% in our experimental study, showing that it can potentially assist physicians in diagnosing a vast amount of data acquired from wireless sensors and enhance the performance of continuous cardiac monitoring. PMID:25671512

  5. False Alarm Reduction in BSN-Based Cardiac Monitoring Using Signal Quality and Activity Type Information

    PubMed Central

    Tanantong, Tanatorn; Nantajeewarawat, Ekawit; Thiemjarus, Surapa

    2015-01-01

    False alarms in cardiac monitoring affect the quality of medical care, impacting on both patients and healthcare providers. In continuous cardiac monitoring using wireless Body Sensor Networks (BSNs), the quality of ECG signals can be deteriorated owing to several factors, e.g., noises, low battery power, and network transmission problems, often resulting in high false alarm rates. In addition, body movements occurring from activities of daily living (ADLs) can also create false alarms. This paper presents a two-phase framework for false arrhythmia alarm reduction in continuous cardiac monitoring, using signals from an ECG sensor and a 3D accelerometer. In the first phase, classification models constructed using machine learning algorithms are used for labeling input signals. ECG signals are labeled with heartbeat types and signal quality levels, while 3D acceleration signals are labeled with ADL types. In the second phase, a rule-based expert system is used for combining classification results in order to determine whether arrhythmia alarms should be accepted or suppressed. The proposed framework was validated on datasets acquired using BSNs and the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. For the BSN dataset, acceleration and ECG signals were collected from 10 young and 10 elderly subjects while they were performing ADLs. The framework reduced the false alarm rate from 9.58% to 1.43% in our experimental study, showing that it can potentially assist physicians in diagnosing a vast amount of data acquired from wireless sensors and enhance the performance of continuous cardiac monitoring. PMID:25671512

  6. Improved detection and false alarm rejection for chemical vapors using passive hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinelli, William J.; Miyashiro, Rex; Gittins, Christopher M.; Konno, Daisei; Chang, Shing; Farr, Matt; Perkins, Brad

    2013-05-01

    Two AIRIS sensors were tested at Dugway Proving Grounds against chemical agent vapor simulants. The primary objectives of the test were to: 1) assess performance of algorithm improvements designed to reduce false alarm rates with a special emphasis on solar effects, and 3) evaluate performance in target detection at 5 km. The tests included 66 total releases comprising alternating 120 kg glacial acetic acid (GAA) and 60 kg triethyl phosphate (TEP) events. The AIRIS sensors had common algorithms, detection thresholds, and sensor parameters. The sensors used the target set defined for the Joint Service Lightweight Chemical Agent Detector (JSLSCAD) with TEP substituted for GA and GAA substituted for VX. They were exercised at two sites located at either 3 km or 5 km from the release point. Data from the tests will be presented showing that: 1) excellent detection capability was obtained at both ranges with significantly shorter alarm times at 5 km, 2) inter-sensor comparison revealed very comparable performance, 3) false alarm rates < 1 incident per 10 hours running time over 143 hours of sensor operations were achieved, 4) algorithm improvements eliminated both solar and cloud false alarms. The algorithms enabling the improved false alarm rejection will be discussed. The sensor technology has recently been extended to address the problem of detection of liquid and solid chemical agents and toxic industrial chemical on surfaces. The phenomenology and applicability of passive infrared hyperspectral imaging to this problem will be discussed and demonstrated.

  7. Constant false alarm rate algorithm for the dim-small target detection based on the distribution characteristics of target coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Xiao-Liang; Ren, Kan; Qian, Wei-xian; Wang, Peng-cheng

    2015-10-01

    CFAR (Constant False Alarm Rate) is a key technology in Infrared dim-small target detection system. Because the traditional constant false alarm rate detection algorithm gets the probability density distribution which is based on the pixel information of each area in the whole image and calculates the target segmentation threshold of each area by formula of Constant false alarm rate, the problems including the difficulty of probability distribution statistics and large amount of algorithm calculation and long delay time are existing. In order to solve the above problems effectively, a formula of Constant false alarm rate based on target coordinates distribution is presented. Firstly, this paper proposes a new formula of Constant false alarm rate by improving the traditional formula of Constant false alarm rate based on the single grayscale distribution which objective statistical distribution features are introduced. So the control of false alarm according to the target distribution information is implemented more accurately and the problem of high false alarm that is caused of the complex background in local area as the cloud reflection and the ground clutter interference is solved. At the same time, in order to reduce the amount of algorithm calculation and improve the real-time characteristics of algorithm, this paper divides the constant false-alarm statistical area through two-dimensional probability density distribution of target number adaptively which is different from the general identifying methods of constant false-alarm statistical area. Finally, the target segmentation threshold of next frame is calculated by iteration based on the function of target distribution probability density in image sequence which can achieve the purpose of controlling the false alarm until the false alarm is down to the upper limit. The experiment results show that the proposed method can significantly improve the operation time and meet the real-time requirements on condition of keeping the target detection performance.

  8. Multiple-Parameter, Low-False-Alarm Fire-Detection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Greensburg, Paul; McKnight, Robert; Xu, Jennifer C.; Liu, C. C.; Dutta, Prabir; Makel, Darby; Blake, D.; Sue-Antillio, Jill

    2007-01-01

    Fire-detection systems incorporating multiple sensors that measure multiple parameters are being developed for use in storage depots, cargo bays of ships and aircraft, and other locations not amenable to frequent, direct visual inspection. These systems are intended to improve upon conventional smoke detectors, now used in such locations, that reliably detect fires but also frequently generate false alarms: for example, conventional smoke detectors based on the blockage of light by smoke particles are also affected by dust particles and water droplets and, thus, are often susceptible to false alarms. In contrast, by utilizing multiple parameters associated with fires, i.e. not only obscuration by smoke particles but also concentrations of multiple chemical species that are commonly generated in combustion, false alarms can be significantly decreased while still detecting fires as reliably as older smoke-detector systems do. The present development includes fabrication of sensors that have, variously, micrometer- or nanometer-sized features so that such multiple sensors can be integrated into arrays that have sizes, weights, and power demands smaller than those of older macroscopic sensors. The sensors include resistors, electrochemical cells, and Schottky diodes that exhibit different sensitivities to the various airborne chemicals of interest. In a system of this type, the sensor readings are digitized and processed by advanced signal-processing hardware and software to extract such chemical indications of fires as abnormally high concentrations of CO and CO2, possibly in combination with H2 and/or hydrocarbons. The system also includes a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)-based particle detector and classifier device to increase the reliability of measurements of chemical species and particulates. In parallel research, software for modeling the evolution of a fire within an aircraft cargo bay has been developed. The model implemented in the software can describe the concentrations of chemical species and of particulate matter as functions of time. A system of the present developmental type and a conventional fire detector were tested under both fire and false-alarm conditions in a Federal Aviation Administration cargo-compartment- testing facility. Both systems consistently detected fires. However, the conventional fire detector consistently generated false alarms, whereas the developmental system did not generate any false alarms.

  9. A new approach to importance sampling for the simulation of false alarms. [in radar systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, D.; Yao, K.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper a modified importance sampling technique for improving the convergence of Importance Sampling is given. By using this approach to estimate low false alarm rates in radar simulations, the number of Monte Carlo runs can be reduced significantly. For one-dimensional exponential, Weibull, and Rayleigh distributions, a uniformly minimum variance unbiased estimator is obtained. For Gaussian distribution the estimator in this approach is uniformly better than that of previously known Importance Sampling approach. For a cell averaging system, by combining this technique and group sampling, the reduction of Monte Carlo runs for a reference cell of 20 and false alarm rate of lE-6 is on the order of 170 as compared to the previously known Importance Sampling approach.

  10. Reduction of false alarms in forest fire surveillance using water vapour concentration measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellecci, C.; De Leo, L.; Gaudio, P.; Gelfusa, M.; Lo Feudo, T.; Martellucci, S.; Richetta, M.

    2009-06-01

    In this work a theoretical model to evaluate the capabilities of our lidar system in forest fire detection is reported. In particular, a new idea of minimization of false alarm is shown. In a forest fire, in fact, a lot of ashes and in the first stage a large amount of water vapour are emitted. Measurements of water vapour increase with respect to standard humidity in the atmosphere due to a forest fire event, by means of Raman analysis, permit to minimize the false alarm. A simulation of one case of study permits to estimate the maximum range of detection and minimum sensibility of our lidar system. In this paper the theoretical results are shown.

  11. Analysis of false alarm for imaging space-based laser warning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Hong-jun; Zhou, Zhong-liang; Huang, Fu-yu

    2012-03-01

    In view of the problem of false alarm in imaging space-based laser warning system, the effects of sunlight and lightning on the threaten laser detection and attack event determination are studied by analyzing and calculating the radiant energy density and space-time feature of imaging spot, respectively. The results show that the main false alarm resourses of spacebased laser warning system are sunlight and lightning. The sunlight should exposure the detector directly in one ninth of the satillite orbital period, and the imaging spot of sun is similar to the attack laser. The lightning imaging spot is similar to the illumination laser. About 1.4 lightning events can occur in the field of view (FOV) of the warning system per second. It could not discriminate spots of sun, lightning and threaten laser by the frame subtraction technology.

  12. Deep belief networks for false alarm rejection in forward-looking ground-penetrating radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, John; Havens, Timothy C.; Pinar, Anthony; Schulz, Timothy J.

    2015-05-01

    Explosive hazards are one of the most deadly threats in modern conflicts. The U.S. Army is interested in a reliable way to detect these hazards at range. A promising way of accomplishing this task is using a forward-looking ground-penetrating radar (FLGPR) system. Recently, the Army has been testing a system that utilizes both L-band and X-band radar arrays on a vehicle mounted platform. Using data from this system, we sought to improve the performance of a constant false-alarm-rate (CFAR) prescreener through the use of a deep belief network (DBN). DBNs have also been shown to perform exceptionally well at generalized anomaly detection. They combine unsupervised pre-training with supervised fine-tuning to generate low-dimensional representations of high-dimensional input data. We seek to take advantage of these two properties by training a DBN on the features of the CFAR prescreener's false alarms (FAs) and then use that DBN to separate FAs from true positives. Our analysis shows that this method improves the detection statistics significantly. By training the DBN on a combination of image features, we were able to significantly increase the probability of detection while maintaining a nominal number of false alarms per square meter. Our research shows that DBNs are a good candidate for improving detection rates in FLGPR systems.

  13. Controlling misses and false alarms in a machine learning framework for predicting uniformity of printed pages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Minh Q.; Allebach, Jan P.

    2015-01-01

    In our previous work1 , we presented a block-based technique to analyze printed page uniformity both visually and metrically. The features learned from the models were then employed in a Support Vector Machine (SVM) framework to classify the pages into one of the two categories of acceptable and unacceptable quality. In this paper, we introduce a set of tools for machine learning in the assessment of printed page uniformity. This work is primarily targeted to the printing industry, specifically the ubiquitous laser, electrophotographic printer. We use features that are well-correlated with the rankings of expert observers to develop a novel machine learning framework that allows one to achieve the minimum "false alarm" rate, subject to a chosen "miss" rate. Surprisingly, most of the research that has been conducted on machine learning does not consider this framework. During the process of developing a new product, test engineers will print hundreds of test pages, which can be scanned and then analyzed by an autonomous algorithm. Among these pages, most may be of acceptable quality. The objective is to find the ones that are not. These will provide critically important information to systems designers, regarding issues that need to be addressed in improving the printer design. A "miss" is defined to be a page that is not of acceptable quality to an expert observer that the prediction algorithm declares to be a "pass". Misses are a serious problem, since they represent problems that will not be seen by the systems designers. On the other hand, "false alarms" correspond to pages that an expert observer would declare to be of acceptable quality, but which are flagged by the prediction algorithm as "fails". In a typical printer testing and development scenario, such pages would be examined by an expert, and found to be of acceptable quality after all. "False alarm" pages result in extra pages to be examined by expert observers, which increases labor cost. But "false alarms" are not nearly as catastrophic as "misses", which represent potentially serious problems that are never seen by the systems developers. This scenario motivates us to develop a machine learning framework that will achieve the minimum "false alarm" rate subject to a specified "miss" rate. In order to construct such a set of receiver operating characteristic2 (ROC) curves, we examine various tools for the prediction, ranging from an exhaustive search over the space of the nonlinear discriminants to a Cost-Sentitive SVM3 framework. We then compare the curves gained from those methods. Our work shows promise for applying a standard framework to obtain a full ROC curve when it comes to tackling other machine learning problems in industry.

  14. A radar unattended ground sensor with micro-Doppler capabilities for false alarm reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahmoush, Dave; Silvious, Jerry; Burke, Ed

    2010-10-01

    Unattended ground sensors (UGS) provide the capability to inexpensively secure remote borders and other areas of interest. However, the presence of normal animal activity can often trigger a false alarm. Accurately detecting humans and distinguishing them from natural fauna is an important issue in security applications to reduce false alarm rates and improve the probability of detection. In particular, it is important to detect and classify people who are moving in remote locations and transmit back detections and analysis over extended periods at a low cost and with minimal maintenance. We developed and demonstrate a compact radar technology that is scalable to a variety of ultra-lightweight and low-power platforms for wide area persistent surveillance as an unattended, unmanned, and man-portable ground sensor. The radar uses micro-Doppler processing to characterize the tracks of moving targets and to then eliminate unimportant detections due to animals as well as characterize the activity of human detections. False alarms from sensors are a major liability that hinders widespread use. Incorporating rudimentary intelligence into sensors can reduce false alarms but can also result in a reduced probability of detection. Allowing an initial classification that can be updated with new observations and tracked over time provides a more robust framework for false alarm reduction at the cost of additional sensor observations. This paper explores these tradeoffs with a small radar sensor for border security. Multiple measurements were done to try to characterize the micro-Doppler of human versus animal and vehicular motion across a range of activities. Measurements were taken at the multiple sites with realistic but low levels of clutter. Animals move with a quadrupedal motion, which can be distinguished from the bipedal human motion. The micro-Doppler of a vehicle with rotating parts is also shown, along with ground truth images. Comparisons show large variations for different types of motion by the same type of animal. This paper presents the system and data on humans, vehicles, and animals at multiple angles and directions of motion, demonstrates the signal processing approach that makes the targets visually recognizable, verifies that the UGS radar has enough micro-Doppler capability to distinguish between humans, vehicles, and animals, and analyzes the probability of correct classification.

  15. Global parameter optimization for maximizing radioisotope detection probabilities at fixed false alarm rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portnoy, David; Feuerbach, Robert; Heimberg, Jennifer

    2011-10-01

    Today there is a tremendous amount of interest in systems that can detect radiological or nuclear threats. Many of these systems operate in extremely high throughput situations where delays caused by false alarms can have a significant negative impact. Thus, calculating the tradeoff between detection rates and false alarm rates is critical for their successful operation. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves have long been used to depict this tradeoff. The methodology was first developed in the field of signal detection. In recent years it has been used increasingly in machine learning and data mining applications. It follows that this methodology could be applied to radiological/nuclear threat detection systems. However many of these systems do not fit into the classic principles of statistical detection theory because they tend to lack tractable likelihood functions and have many parameters, which, in general, do not have a one-to-one correspondence with the detection classes. This work proposes a strategy to overcome these problems by empirically finding parameter values that maximize the probability of detection for a selected number of probabilities of false alarm. To find these parameter values a statistical global optimization technique that seeks to estimate portions of a ROC curve is proposed. The optimization combines elements of simulated annealing with elements of genetic algorithms. Genetic algorithms were chosen because they can reduce the risk of getting stuck in local minima. However classic genetic algorithms operate on arrays of Booleans values or bit strings, so simulated annealing is employed to perform mutation in the genetic algorithm. The presented initial results were generated using an isotope identification algorithm developed at Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. The algorithm has 12 parameters: 4 real-valued and 8 Boolean. A simulated dataset was used for the optimization study; the "threat" set of spectra contained 540 SNM and industrial signatures, and the "benign" set of spectra contained 240 NORM and medical signatures. As compared to a random parameter search, the statistical optimization was able to able to find parameters that yield significantly higher probabilities of detection for all probabilities of false alarm from 0 to 0.1 (and equal to for probabilities of false alarm greater than 0.1), in a relatively small number of iterations. The number of iterations used, 1000, is also many fewer than would be required for a reasonable systematic search of the parameter space.

  16. Proximate Factors Underpinning Receiver Responses to Deceptive False Alarm Calls in Wild Tufted Capuchin Monkeys: Is It Counterdeception?

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Brandon C; Hammerschmidt, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that tufted capuchin monkeys use terrestrial predator alarm calls in a functionally deceptive manner to distract conspecifics when feeding on contestable resources, although the success of this tactic is limited because listeners frequently ignore these calls when given in such situations. While this decreased response rate is suggestive of a counterstrategy to deception by receivers, the proximate factors underpinning the behavior are unclear. The current study aims to test if the decreased response rate to alarm calls in competitive contexts is better explained by the perception of subtle acoustic differences between predator-elicited and deceptive false alarms, or by receivers varying their responses based on the context in which the signal is received. This was tested by first examining the acoustic structure of predator-elicited and deceptive false alarms for any potentially perceptible acoustic differences, and second by comparing the responses of capuchins to playbacks of each of predator-elicited and false alarms, played back in noncompetitive contexts. The results indicate that deceptive false alarms and predator-elicited alarms show, at best, minimal acoustic differences based on the structural features measured. Likewise, playbacks of deceptive false alarms elicited antipredator reactions at the same rate as did predator-elicited alarms, although there was a nonsignificant tendency for false alarms to be more likely to elicit escape reactions. The lack of robust acoustic differences together with the high response rate to false alarms in noncompetitive contexts suggests that the context in which the signal is received best explains receiver responses. It remains unclear, however, if listeners ascribe different meanings to the calls based on context, or if they generally ignore all signals in competitive contexts. Whether or not the decreased response rate of receivers directly stems from the deceptive use of the calls cannot be determined until these latter possibilities are rigorously tested. Am. J. Primatol. 75:715-725, 2013. 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23184736

  17. False alarm reduction by the And-ing of multiple multivariate Gaussian classifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobeck, Gerald J.; Cobb, J. Tory

    2003-09-01

    The high-resolution sonar is one of the principal sensors used by the Navy to detect and classify sea mines in minehunting operations. For such sonar systems, substantial effort has been devoted to the development of automated detection and classification (D/C) algorithms. These have been spurred by several factors including (1) aids for operators to reduce work overload, (2) more optimal use of all available data, and (3) the introduction of unmanned minehunting systems. The environments where sea mines are typically laid (harbor areas, shipping lanes, and the littorals) give rise to many false alarms caused by natural, biologic, and man-made clutter. The objective of the automated D/C algorithms is to eliminate most of these false alarms while still maintaining a very high probability of mine detection and classification (PdPc). In recent years, the benefits of fusing the outputs of multiple D/C algorithms have been studied. We refer to this as Algorithm Fusion. The results have been remarkable, including reliable robustness to new environments. This paper describes a method for training several multivariate Gaussian classifiers such that their And-ing dramatically reduces false alarms while maintaining a high probability of classification. This training approach is referred to as the Focused- Training method. This work extends our 2001-2002 work where the Focused-Training method was used with three other types of classifiers: the Attractor-based K-Nearest Neighbor Neural Network (a type of radial-basis, probabilistic neural network), the Optimal Discrimination Filter Classifier (based linear discrimination theory), and the Quadratic Penalty Function Support Vector Machine (QPFSVM). Although our experience has been gained in the area of sea mine detection and classification, the principles described herein are general and can be applied to a wide range of pattern recognition and automatic target recognition (ATR) problems.

  18. Raman water vapour concentration measurements for reduction of false alarms in forest fire detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellecci, C.; Gaudio, P.; Gelfusa, M.; Lo Feudo, T.; Malizia, A.; Richetta, M.; Ventura, P.

    2009-09-01

    Forest fires can be the cause of environmental catastrophe, with the natural outcomes of serious ecological and economic damages, together with the possibility to endanger human safety. At the aim to reduce this catastrophe several author have been shown that the Laser light scattering can be uses to reveals the particulate emitted in the smoke. Infact experimental and theoretical investigations have shown that lidar is a powerful tool to detect the tenuous smoke plumes produced by forest fires at an early stage. In early 90's Arbolino and Andreucci have shown the theoretical possibility to detect the particulate emitted in atmosphere from smoke forest fire. Vilar at all have shown experimentally the possibility to measure the density variation in atmosphere due to plume emitted in forest fire event. Gaudio at all. have already shown that it is possible to evaluate water vapor emitted in smoke of vegetable fuel using a CO2 dial system. In this paper a theoretical model to evaluate the capabilities of a lidar system in fire surveillance of wooded areas will be presented. In particular we intend propose a technique to minimizing the false alarm in the detection of forest fire by lidar based on a measurement of second components emitted in a combustion process. Usually to detect a fire alarm a rapid increase of aerosol amount is measured. If the backscattering signal report a peak, the presences of a forest fire will be probable. Our idea to confirm this hypothesis is measure the second components emitted in a forest fire at the aim to minimize the false alarm. The simulated measurements of the humidity amount within the smoke plume will be carried out by means of Raman analysis. Fixing the burning rate of the vegetable-fuels, the maximum range of detection will be evaluated.

  19. Upper bound on false alarm rate for landmine detection and classification using syntactic pattern recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasif, Ahmed O.; Mark, Brian L.; Hintz, Kenneth J.; Peixoto, Nathalia

    2010-04-01

    Recently, there has been considerable interest in the development of robust, cost-effective and high performance non-metallic landmine detection systems using ground penetrating radar (GPR). Many of the available solutions try to discriminate landmines from clutter by extracting some form of statistical or geometrical information from the raw GPR data, and oftentimes, it is difficult to assess the performance of such systems without performing extensive field experiments. In our approach, a landmine is characterized by a binary-valued string corresponding to its impedance discontinuity profile in the depth direction. This profile can be detected very quickly utilizing syntactic pattern recognition. Such an approach is expected to be very robust in terms of probability of detection (Pd) and low false alarm rates (FAR), since it exploits the inner structure of a landmine. In this paper, we develop a method to calculate an upper bound on the FAR, which is the probability of false alarm per unit area. First, we parameterize the number of possible mine patterns in terms of the number of impedance discontinuities, dither and noise. Then, a combinatorial enumeration technique is used to quantify the number of admissible strings. The upper bound on FAR is given as the ratio of an upper bound on the number of possible mine pattern strings to the number of admissible strings per unit area. The numerical results show that the upper bound is smaller than the FAR reported in the literature for a wide range of parameter choices.

  20. Building Ultra-Low False Alarm Rate Support Vector Classifier Ensembles Using Random Subspaces

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, B Y; Lemmond, T D; Hanley, W G

    2008-10-06

    This paper presents the Cost-Sensitive Random Subspace Support Vector Classifier (CS-RS-SVC), a new learning algorithm that combines random subspace sampling and bagging with Cost-Sensitive Support Vector Classifiers to more effectively address detection applications burdened by unequal misclassification requirements. When compared to its conventional, non-cost-sensitive counterpart on a two-class signal detection application, random subspace sampling is shown to very effectively leverage the additional flexibility offered by the Cost-Sensitive Support Vector Classifier, yielding a more than four-fold increase in the detection rate at a false alarm rate (FAR) of zero. Moreover, the CS-RS-SVC is shown to be fairly robust to constraints on the feature subspace dimensionality, enabling reductions in computation time of up to 82% with minimal performance degradation.

  1. A fixed false alarm probability figure of merit for gravitational wave detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    W?s, M.; Kalmus, P.; Leong, J. R.; Adams, T.; Leroy, N.; Macleod, D. M.; Pankow, C.; Robinet, F.

    2014-04-01

    Performance of gravitational wave (GW) detectors can be characterized by several figures of merit (FOMs) which are used to guide the detectors commissioning and operations, and to gauge astrophysical sensitivity. One key FOM is the range in Mpc, averaged over orientation and sky location, at which a GW signal from binary neutron star inspiral and coalescence would have a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 8 in a single detector. This fixed-SNR approach does not accurately reflect the effects of transient noise (glitches), which can severely limit the detectability of transient GW signals expected from a variety of astrophysical sources. We propose a FOM based instead on a fixed false-alarm probability (FAP). This is intended to give a more realistic estimate of the detectable GW transient range including the effect of glitches. Our approach applies equally to individual interferometers or a network of interferometers. We discuss the advantages of the fixed-FAP approach, present examples from a prototype implementation, and discuss the impact it has had on the recent commissioning of the GW detector GEO?600.

  2. Detection of exudates in fundus imagery using a constant false-alarm rate (CFAR) detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanna, Manish; Kapoor, Elina

    2014-05-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness in adults in the United States. The presence of exudates in fundus imagery is the early sign of diabetic retinopathy so detection of these lesions is essential in preventing further ocular damage. In this paper we present a novel technique to automatically detect exudates in fundus imagery that is robust against spatial and temporal variations of background noise. The detection threshold is adjusted dynamically, based on the local noise statics around the pixel under test in order to maintain a pre-determined, constant false alarm rate (CFAR). The CFAR detector is often used to detect bright targets in radar imagery where the background clutter can vary considerably from scene to scene and with angle to the scene. Similarly, the CFAR detector addresses the challenge of detecting exudate lesions in RGB and multispectral fundus imagery where the background clutter often exhibits variations in brightness and texture. These variations present a challenge to common, global thresholding detection algorithms and other methods. Performance of the CFAR algorithm is tested against a publicly available, annotated, diabetic retinopathy database and preliminary testing suggests that performance of the CFAR detector proves to be superior to techniques such as Otsu thresholding.

  3. Looped back fiber mode for reduction of false alarm in leak detection using distributed optical fiber sensor.

    PubMed

    Chelliah, Pandian; Murgesan, Kasinathan; Samvel, Sosamma; Chelamchala, Babu Rao; Tammana, Jayakumar; Nagarajan, Murali; Raj, Baldev

    2010-07-10

    Optical-fiber-based sensors have inherent advantages, such as immunity to electromagnetic interference, compared to the conventional sensors. Distributed optical fiber sensor (DOFS) systems, such as Raman and Brillouin distributed temperature sensors are used for leak detection. The inherent noise of fiber-based systems leads to occasional false alarms. In this paper, a methodology is proposed to overcome this. This uses a looped back fiber mode in DOFS and voting logic is employed to considerably reduce the false alarm rate. PMID:20648159

  4. Multi-temporal change image inference towards false alarms reduction for an operational photogrammetric rockfall detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partsinevelos, Panagiotis; Kallimani, Christina; Tripolitsiotis, Achilleas

    2015-06-01

    Rockfall incidents affect civil security and hamper the sustainable growth of hard to access mountainous areas due to casualties, injuries and infrastructure loss. Rockfall occurrences cannot be easily prevented, whereas previous studies for rockfall multiple sensor early detection systems have focused on large scale incidents. However, even a single rock may cause the loss of a human life along transportation routes thus, it is highly important to establish methods for the early detection of small-scale rockfall incidents. Terrestrial photogrammetric techniques are prone to a series of errors leading to false alarm incidents, including vegetation, wind, and non relevant change in the scene under consideration. In this study, photogrammetric monitoring of rockfall prone slopes is established and the resulting multi-temporal change imagery is processed in order to minimize false alarm incidents. Integration of remote sensing imagery analysis techniques is hereby applied to enhance early detection of a rockfall. Experimental data demonstrated that an operational system able to identify a 10-cm rock movement within a 10% false alarm rate is technically feasible.

  5. Method and apparatus for distinguishing actual sparse events from sparse event false alarms

    DOEpatents

    Spalding, Richard E. (Albuquerque, NM); Grotbeck, Carter L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01

    Remote sensing method and apparatus wherein sparse optical events are distinguished from false events. "Ghost" images of actual optical phenomena are generated using an optical beam splitter and optics configured to direct split beams to a single sensor or segmented sensor. True optical signals are distinguished from false signals or noise based on whether the ghost image is presence or absent. The invention obviates the need for dual sensor systems to effect a false target detection capability, thus significantly reducing system complexity and cost.

  6. Statistical Considerations in Designing Tests of Mine Detection Systems: II - Measures Related to the False Alarm Rate

    SciTech Connect

    Simonson, K.M.

    1998-08-01

    The rate at which a mine detection system falsely identifies man-made or natural clutter objects as mines is referred to as the system's false alarm rate (FAR). Generally expressed as a rate per unit area or time, the FAR is one of the primary metrics used to gauge system performance. In this report, an overview is given of statistical methods appropriate for the analysis of data relating to FAR. Techniques are presented for determining a suitable size for the clutter collection area, for summarizing the performance of a single sensor, and for comparing different sensors. For readers requiring more thorough coverage of the topics discussed, references to the statistical literature are provided. A companion report addresses statistical issues related to the estimation of mine detection probabilities.

  7. False Alarm Rate Reduction in the Interpretation of Acoustic to Seismic Landmine Data using Mathematical Morphology and the Wavelet Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasban, H.; Zahran, O.; El-Kordy, M.; Elaraby, Sayed M. S.; Abd El-Samie, F. E.

    2010-09-01

    This paper presents a new technique for false alarm rate reduction to improve the performance of automatic object detection systems that operate on digital images. The proposed technique is applied to the images obtained by a Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) based acoustic to seismic (A/S) system. This technique is based on morphological image processing and the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) of the image data. It begins with a color image transformation to obtain a grayscale image and then a closing operation that enhances the larger objects in the image. After that, the DWT is applied to the closed image. The decimation effect of this DWT helps in the removal of small clutter objects the image. The approximation component resulting from the DWT is used in the detection process. Results from the proposed technique are compared to those obtained using traditional detection techniques.

  8. Application of a CO2 dial system for infrared detection of forest fire and reduction of false alarm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellecci, C.; Francucci, M.; Gaudio, P.; Gelfusa, M.; Martellucci, S.; Richetta, M.; Lo Feudo, T.

    2007-04-01

    Forest fires can be the cause of serious environmental and economic damages. For this reason considerable effort has been directed toward forest protection and fire fighting. The means traditionally used for early fire detection mainly consist in human observers dispersed over forest regions. A significant improvement in early warning capabilities could be obtained by using automatic detection apparatus. In order to early detect small forest fires and minimize false alarms, the use of a lidar system and dial technique will be considered. A first evaluation of the lowest detectable concentration will be estimated by numerical simulation. The theoretical model will also be used to get the capability of the dial system to control wooded areas. Fixing the burning rate for several fuels, the maximum range of detection will be evaluated. Finally results of simulations will be reported.

  9. False alarms and mine seismicity: An example from the Gentry Mountain mining region, Utah. Los Alamos Source Region Project

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, S.R.

    1992-09-23

    Mining regions are a cause of concern for monitoring of nuclear test ban treaties because they present the opportunity for clandestine nuclear tests (i.e. decoupled explosions). Mining operations are often characterized by high seismicity rates and can provide the cover for excavating voids for decoupling. Chemical explosions (seemingly as part of normal mining activities) can be used to complicate the signals from a simultaneous decoupled nuclear explosion. Thus, most concern about mines has dealt with the issue of missed violations to a test ban treaty. In this study, we raise the diplomatic concern of false alarms associated with mining activities. Numerous reports and papers have been published about anomalous seismicity associated with mining activities. As part of a large discrimination study in the western US (Taylor et al., 1989), we had one earthquake that was consistently classified as an explosion. The magnitude 3.5 disturbance occurred on May 14, 1981 and was conspicuous in its lack of Love waves, relative lack of high- frequency energy, low Lg/Pg ratio, and high m{sub b} {minus} M{sub s}. A moment-tensor solution by Patton and Zandt (1991) indicated the event had a large implosional component. The event occurred in the Gentry Mountain coal mining region in the eastern Wasatch Plateau, Utah. Using a simple source representation, we modeled the event as a tabular excavation collapse that occurred as a result of normal mining activities. This study raises the importance of having a good catalogue of seismic data and information about mining activities from potential proliferant nations.

  10. Over-reassurance and undersupport after a false alarm: a systematic review of the impact on subsequent cancer symptom attribution and help seeking

    PubMed Central

    Renzi, Cristina; Whitaker, Katriina L; Wardle, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This literature review examined research into the impact of a previous all-clear or non-cancer diagnosis following symptomatic presentation (false alarm) on symptom attribution and delays in help seeking for subsequent possible cancer symptoms. Design and setting The comprehensive literature review included original research based on quantitative, qualitative and mixed data collection methods. We used a combination of search strategies, including in-depth searches of electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, PsychInfo), searching key authors and articles listed as related in PubMed, and reference lists. We performed a narrative synthesis of key themes shared across studies. Participants The review included studies published after 1990 and before February 2014 reporting information on adult patients having experienced a false alarm following symptomatic presentation. We excluded false alarms in the context of screening. Primary and secondary outcome measures We evaluated the effect of a false alarm on symptom attribution and help seeking for new or recurrent possible cancer symptoms. Results Overall, 1442 papers were screened and 121 retrieved for full-text evaluation. Among them, 19 reported on false alarms and subsequent symptom attribution or help seeking. They used qualitative (n=14), quantitative (n=3) and mixed methods (n=2). Breast (n=7), gynaecological (n=3), colorectal (n=2), testicular (n=2), and head and neck cancers (n=2) were the most studied. Two broad themes emerged underlying delays in help seeking: (1) over-reassurance from the previous all-clear diagnosis leading to subsequent symptoms being interpreted as benign, and (2) unsupportive healthcare experiences in which symptoms were dismissed, leaving patients concerned about appearing hypochondriacal or uncertain about the appropriate next actions. The evidence suggested that the effect of a false alarm can persist for months and even years. Conclusions In conclusion, over-reassurance and undersupport of patients after a false alarm can undermine help seeking in the case of new or recurrent potential cancer symptoms, highlighting the need for appropriate patient information when investigations rule out cancer. PMID:25652803

  11. Regionally based alarm index to mitigate ionospheric scintillation effects for GNSS receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, R.; Strangeways, H. J.

    2015-01-01

    An approach to mitigate the effect of ionospheric scintillation on GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) users in the European region using TEC (total electron content) at 1 Hz rate is presented. The TEC in the study is derived using raw GPS (Global Positioning System) observations obtained from the EUREF networks. The study also presents derivation of a geographic mesh-map warning of the expected standard deviation of phase jitter in receiver carrier tracking loops, information which would help to mitigate scintillation effects in GPS software receivers.

  12. The problem of alarm fatigue.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Tanya

    2013-01-01

    Up to 99 percent of alarms sounding on hospital units are false alarms signaling no real danger to patients. These false alarms can lead to alarm fatigue and alarm burden, and may divert health care providers' attention away from significant alarms heralding actual or impending harm. As the health care environment continues to become more dependent upon technological monitoring devices used for patient care, nurses must become aware of the possibility and consequences of alarm fatigue and ways to prevent it from negatively affecting their practice, as well as the possible consequences for patient care. PMID:23594329

  13. Clinical Alarms in Intensive Care Units: Perceived Obstacles of Alarm Management and Alarm Fatigue in Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Ok Min; Lee, Young Whee; Cho, Insook

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this descriptive study was to investigate the current situation of clinical alarms in intensive care unit (ICU), nurses' recognition of and fatigue in relation to clinical alarms, and obstacles in alarm management. Methods Subjects were ICU nurses and devices from 48 critically ill patient cases. Data were collected through direct observation of alarm occurrence and questionnaires that were completed by the ICU nurses. The observation time unit was one hour block. One bed out of 56 ICU beds was randomly assigned to each observation time unit. Results Overall 2,184 clinical alarms were counted for 48 hours of observation, and 45.5 clinical alarms occurred per hour per subject. Of these, 1,394 alarms (63.8%) were categorized as false alarms. The alarm fatigue score was 24.3 ± 4.0 out of 35. The highest scoring item was "always get bothered due to clinical alarms". The highest scoring item in obstacles was "frequent false alarms, which lead to reduced attention or response to alarms". Conclusions Nurses reported that they felt some fatigue due to clinical alarms, and false alarms were also obstacles to proper management. An appropriate hospital policy should be developed to reduce false alarms and nurses' alarm fatigue. PMID:26893950

  14. Video methods for evaluating physiologic monitor alarms and alarm responses.

    PubMed

    Bonafide, Christopher P; Zander, Miriam; Graham, Christian Sarkis; Weirich Paine, Christine M; Rock, Whitney; Rich, Andrew; Roberts, Kathryn E; Fortino, Margaret; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Lin, Richard; Keren, Ron

    2014-01-01

    False physiologic monitor alarms are extremely common in the hospital environment. High false alarm rates have the potential to lead to alarm fatigue, leading nurses to delay their responses to alarms, ignore alarms, or disable them entirely. Recent evidence from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and The Joint Commission has demonstrated a link between alarm fatigue and patient deaths. Yet, very little scientific effort has focused on the rigorous quantitative measurement of alarms and responses in the hospital setting. We developed a system using multiple temporarily mounted, minimally obtrusive video cameras in hospitalized patients' rooms to characterize physiologic monitor alarms and nurse responses as a proxy for alarm fatigue. This allowed us to efficiently categorize each alarm's cause, technical validity, actionable characteristics, and determine the nurse's response time. We describe and illustrate the methods we used to acquire the video, synchronize and process the video, manage the large digital files, integrate the video with data from the physiologic monitor alarm network, archive the video to secure servers, and perform expert review and annotation using alarm "bookmarks." We discuss the technical and logistical challenges we encountered, including the root causes of hardware failures as well as issues with consent, confidentiality, protection of the video from litigation, and Hawthorne-like effects. The description of this video method may be useful to multidisciplinary teams interested in evaluating physiologic monitor alarms and alarm responses to better characterize alarm fatigue and other patient safety issues in clinical settings. PMID:24847936

  15. Rockfall hazard assessment, risk quantification, and mitigation options for reef cove resort development, False Cape, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlotfeldt, P.

    2009-04-01

    GIS and 2-D rock fall simulations were used as the primary tools during a rock fall hazard assessment and analyses for a major resort and township development near Cairns, Queensland in Australia. The methods used included 1) the development of a digital elevation model (DEM); undertaking rock fall trajectory analyses to determine the end points of rockfalls, the distribution of kinetic energy for identified rock fall runout Zones, and 3) undertaking event tree analyses based on a synthesis of all data in order to establish Zones with the highest risk of fatalities. This paper describes the methodology used and the results of this work. Recommendations to mitigate the hazard included having exclusions zones with no construction, scaling (including trim blasting), construction of berms and rockfall catch fences. Keywords: GIS, rockfall simulation, rockfall runout Zones, mitigation options INTRODUCTION False Cape is located on the east side of the Trinity inlet near Cairns (Figure 1). Construction is underway for a multi-million dollar development close the beach front. The development will ultimately cover about 1.5 km of prime coast line. The granite slopes above the development are steep and are covered with a number of large, potentially unstable boulders. Sheet jointing is present in the in-situ bedrock and these combined with other tectonic joint sets have provided a key mechanism for large side down slope on exposed bedrock. With each rock fall (evidence by boulders strew in gullies, over the lower parts of the slope, and on the beach) the failure mechanism migrates upslope. In order for the Developer to proceed with construction he needs to mitigate the identified rock fall hazard. The method used to study the hazard and key finding are presented in this paper. Discussion is provided in the conclusion on mitigation options. KEY METHODS USED TO STUDY THE HAZARD In summary the methods used to study the hazard for the False Cape project include; 1. The development of a digital elevation model (DEM) used to delineate rock fall runout Zones [1] that included the spatial location of boulder fields mapped within Zones(Figure 2). A Zone is defined as an area above the development on steep sided slopes where falling rocks are channeled into gullies / and or are contained between topographic features such as ridges and spurs that extend down the mountainside. These natural barriers generally ensure that falling rocks do not fall or roll into adjacent Zones; 2. The use of ‘Flow Path Tracing Tool' in Arc GIS spatial analyst to confirm typical descents of boulders in Zones. These were shown to correlated strongly with the endpoints of boulders observed within the development and major clusters of boulders on the beach front; 3. The use of 2-D rockfall trajectory analyses [2] using sections cut along typical 3-D trajectory paths mapped out in ARC GIS per Zone. Sections along typical paths in Zones simulated, to some degree, the 3-D affect or path of rocks as they bounce roll down slope (Figure 3); 4. The calibration of rockfall input parameters (coefficients of normal and tangential restitution, slope roughness, friction angle, etc.) using field identified endpoints and size of fallen rock and boulder; and 5. Undertaking risk evolutions in order to quantify the potential risk for each independent rockfall Zone. KEY FINDINGS FROM THE STUDIES The key findings from the study include; 1. Multiple potentially unstable in-situ boulders (some in excess of several thousand tonnes) are present above the development. 2. Similar geological structures (dykes, jointing, etc.) are present in the boulders on the beach front and within the development exposed in-situ bedrock located above the development. Measurement and comparison of the orientation of these geological structures present in boulders with that observed in the in-situ bedrock provided strong evidence that that the boulders have mitigated down slope. 3. Eight discrete Rockfall Runout Zones were identified using the digital elevation model set up in ARC GIS (Figure 4). The boundaries were field verified as far as possible. The identified Zones formed the basis of all subsequent work. 4. Once calibrated the rockfall trajectory modeling showed that only between 1% and in the worst case 28% of falling rocks (percentage of 1000 seeding events) per Zones would actually reach the development. While this indicated a reduced likelihood of an incident and hence the risk, the kinetic energy in the case of an impact in most Zones was so high (for the given design block size) that the consequence would be untenable without some form of mitigation. 5. An event tree analysis showed that five out of the eight Zones identified had risk profiles that fell above or very close to what was considered to be an acceptable annual probability of occurrence of a fatality or fatalities. CONCLUSIONS Each Zone has unique characteristics that influence the risk profile associated with the rock fall hazard to the development. Mitigation options and recommendations needed to be adjusted accordingly to fit the physical characteristics and assessed risk profile of each Zone. These included: 1. The possible implantation of exclusion zones (no build areas); 2. Scaling (including controlled blasting) to reduce the potential kinetic energy associated with identified potentially unstable boulders; and 3. The design and construction of Berms and rockfall catch fences.

  16. Alarm Processing System

    SciTech Connect

    Di Domenico, P.; Mah, E. ); Corsberg, D. ); Somsel, J. ); Chan, J.K. ); Naser, J. ); Scarl, E. )

    1989-01-01

    During power plant transients, a control room operator is deluged with large amounts of diverse information of varying degrees of importance and in different format. Control room operators are sometimes overwhelmed. They are required to make quick decisions based on operating procedures thereby bypassing most deep-level reasoning. The application of expert systems to process alarms and to perform diagnosis can substantially improve the quality of information presented to operators. The high-level goal of the Alarm Processing System is for operators to enthusiastically accept a new technology that will improve their response to alarms during plant transient conditions. The Alarm Processing System dynamically prioritizes alarms based on the state of the plant; reduces the amount of information presented to the operator by grouping and displaying alarms in accordance with the present state of the plant; and allows nuisance alarms to be suppressed. Object-oriented programming techniques are used to describe plant analog and binary sensors, alarms, and plant states. The system reasons about nuisance signals taken off-line by using logic system that has three states: true, false, and null. A null or invalid state is propagated through the logic until the operator can assign a derived value for the signal. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Multi-Layer Perceptrons and Support Vector Machines for Detection Problems with Low False Alarm Requirements: an Eight-Month Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, B; Hickling, T; Krnjajic, M; Hanley, W; Clark, G; Nitao, J; Knapp, D; Hiller, L; Mugge, M

    2007-01-09

    In this project, the basic problem is to automatically separate test samples into one of two categories: clean or corrupt. This type of classification problem is known as a two-class classification problem or detection problem. In what follows, we refer to clean examples as negative examples and corrupt examples as positive examples. In a detection problem, a classifier decision on any one sample can be grouped into one of four decision categories: true negative, true positive, false negative and false positive. These four categories are illustrated by Table 1. True negatives and true positives are cases where the classifier has made the correct decision. False positives are cases where the classifier decides positive when the true nature of the sample was negative, and false negatives are cases where the classifier decides negative when the sample was actually positive. To evaluate the performance of a classifier, we run the classifier on all the samples of a data set and then count all the instances of true negatives, true positives, false negatives, and false positives. All of the performance metrics in this report are then formed from a combination of these four basic decision categories.

  18. 46 CFR 113.20-1 - Sprinkler alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkler Systems 113.20-1 Sprinkler alarm system. Each sprinkler alarm system, including annunciator, power supply, alarm switches, and bells, must meet Subpart 76... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sprinkler alarm system. 113.20-1 Section...

  19. 10 CFR 74.57 - Alarm resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alarm resolution. 74.57 Section 74.57 Energy NUCLEAR... Quantities of Strategic Special Nuclear Material 74.57 Alarm resolution. (a) Licensees subject to 74.51 shall provide the MC&A alarm resolution capabilities described in paragraphs (b) through (f) of...

  20. 10 CFR 74.57 - Alarm resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Alarm resolution. 74.57 Section 74.57 Energy NUCLEAR... Quantities of Strategic Special Nuclear Material 74.57 Alarm resolution. (a) Licensees subject to 74.51 shall provide the MC&A alarm resolution capabilities described in paragraphs (b) through (f) of...

  1. 10 CFR 74.57 - Alarm resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Alarm resolution. 74.57 Section 74.57 Energy NUCLEAR... Quantities of Strategic Special Nuclear Material 74.57 Alarm resolution. (a) Licensees subject to 74.51 shall provide the MC&A alarm resolution capabilities described in paragraphs (b) through (f) of...

  2. 10 CFR 74.57 - Alarm resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alarm resolution. 74.57 Section 74.57 Energy NUCLEAR... Quantities of Strategic Special Nuclear Material 74.57 Alarm resolution. (a) Licensees subject to 74.51 shall provide the MC&A alarm resolution capabilities described in paragraphs (b) through (f) of...

  3. 10 CFR 74.57 - Alarm resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alarm resolution. 74.57 Section 74.57 Energy NUCLEAR... Quantities of Strategic Special Nuclear Material 74.57 Alarm resolution. (a) Licensees subject to 74.51 shall provide the MC&A alarm resolution capabilities described in paragraphs (b) through (f) of...

  4. 24 CFR 3285.703 - Smoke alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Smoke alarms. 3285.703 Section 3285... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Electrical Systems and Equipment 3285.703 Smoke alarms. Smoke alarms must be functionally tested in accordance with applicable requirements of the...

  5. 24 CFR 3285.703 - Smoke alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Smoke alarms. 3285.703 Section 3285... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Electrical Systems and Equipment 3285.703 Smoke alarms. Smoke alarms must be functionally tested in accordance with applicable requirements of the...

  6. 24 CFR 3285.703 - Smoke alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Smoke alarms. 3285.703 Section 3285... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Electrical Systems and Equipment 3285.703 Smoke alarms. Smoke alarms must be functionally tested in accordance with applicable requirements of the...

  7. 24 CFR 3285.703 - Smoke alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Smoke alarms. 3285.703 Section 3285... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Electrical Systems and Equipment 3285.703 Smoke alarms. Smoke alarms must be functionally tested in accordance with applicable requirements of the...

  8. 24 CFR 3285.703 - Smoke alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Smoke alarms. 3285.703 Section 3285... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Electrical Systems and Equipment 3285.703 Smoke alarms. Smoke alarms must be functionally tested in accordance with applicable requirements of the...

  9. 30 CFR 77.311 - Alarm devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alarm devices. 77.311 Section 77.311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY....311 Alarm devices. Thermal dryer systems shall be equipped with both audible and visual alarm...

  10. 30 CFR 77.311 - Alarm devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alarm devices. 77.311 Section 77.311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY....311 Alarm devices. Thermal dryer systems shall be equipped with both audible and visual alarm...

  11. 21 CFR 870.2640 - Portable leakage current alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Portable leakage current alarm. 870.2640 Section... leakage current alarm. (a) Identification. A portable leakage current alarm is a device used to measure the electrical leakage current between any two points of an electrical system and to sound an alarm...

  12. 21 CFR 870.2640 - Portable leakage current alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Portable leakage current alarm. 870.2640 Section... leakage current alarm. (a) Identification. A portable leakage current alarm is a device used to measure the electrical leakage current between any two points of an electrical system and to sound an alarm...

  13. 21 CFR 870.2640 - Portable leakage current alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Portable leakage current alarm. 870.2640 Section... leakage current alarm. (a) Identification. A portable leakage current alarm is a device used to measure the electrical leakage current between any two points of an electrical system and to sound an alarm...

  14. 21 CFR 870.2640 - Portable leakage current alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Portable leakage current alarm. 870.2640 Section... leakage current alarm. (a) Identification. A portable leakage current alarm is a device used to measure the electrical leakage current between any two points of an electrical system and to sound an alarm...

  15. 46 CFR 113.43-3 - Alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alarm system. 113.43-3 Section 113.43-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Steering Failure Alarm Systems 113.43-3 Alarm system. (a) Each vessel must have...

  16. 46 CFR 113.43-3 - Alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alarm system. 113.43-3 Section 113.43-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Steering Failure Alarm Systems 113.43-3 Alarm system. (a) Each vessel must have...

  17. 30 CFR 57.4360 - Underground alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills 57.4360 Underground alarm systems. (a) Fire alarm... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Underground alarm systems. 57.4360 Section...

  18. 30 CFR 57.4360 - Underground alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills 57.4360 Underground alarm systems. (a) Fire alarm... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Underground alarm systems. 57.4360 Section...

  19. 30 CFR 57.4360 - Underground alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills 57.4360 Underground alarm systems. (a) Fire alarm... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Underground alarm systems. 57.4360 Section...

  20. 46 CFR 131.810 - General alarm bell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment 131.810 General alarm bell. Each general alarm bell must be identified by red letters at least 13 millimeters (1/2-inch) high that state the following: GENERAL ALARM... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General alarm bell. 131.810 Section 131.810...

  1. 46 CFR 131.810 - General alarm bell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment 131.810 General alarm bell. Each general alarm bell must be identified by red letters at least 13 millimeters (1/2-inch) high that state the following: GENERAL ALARM... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General alarm bell. 131.810 Section 131.810...

  2. 30 CFR 57.4360 - Underground alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills 57.4360 Underground alarm systems. (a) Fire alarm... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Underground alarm systems. 57.4360 Section...

  3. 30 CFR 57.4360 - Underground alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills 57.4360 Underground alarm systems. (a) Fire alarm... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground alarm systems. 57.4360 Section...

  4. 46 CFR 131.810 - General alarm bell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment 131.810 General alarm bell. Each general alarm bell must be identified by red letters at least 13 millimeters (1/2-inch) high that state the following: GENERAL ALARM... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General alarm bell. 131.810 Section 131.810...

  5. 46 CFR 131.810 - General alarm bell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment 131.810 General alarm bell. Each general alarm bell must be identified by red letters at least 13 millimeters (1/2-inch) high that state the following: GENERAL ALARM... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General alarm bell. 131.810 Section 131.810...

  6. 46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 169.732 Section 169.732 Shipping... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.732 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED.”...

  7. 46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 108.627 Section 108.627 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.627 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be identified by marking: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED” next...

  8. 46 CFR 97.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 97.37-9 Section 97.37-9 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE...

  9. 46 CFR 196.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 196.37-9 Section 196.37-9 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE...

  10. 46 CFR 78.47-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 78.47-9 Section 78.47-9 Shipping... and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED.” (b)...

  11. 46 CFR 113.43-3 - Alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alarm system. 113.43-3 Section 113.43-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Steering Failure Alarm Systems 113.43-3 Alarm system. (a) Each vessel must have...

  12. 46 CFR 113.43-3 - Alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alarm system. 113.43-3 Section 113.43-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Steering Failure Alarm Systems 113.43-3 Alarm system. (a) Each vessel must have...

  13. 46 CFR 113.43-3 - Alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alarm system. 113.43-3 Section 113.43-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Steering Failure Alarm Systems 113.43-3 Alarm system. (a) Each vessel must have...

  14. Practical alarm filtering

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, M.; Corsberg, D. )

    1994-02-01

    An expert system-based alarm filtering method is described which prioritizes and reduces the number of alarms facing an operator. This patented alarm filtering methodology was originally developed and implemented in a pressurized water reactor, and subsequently in a chemical processing facility. Both applications were in LISP and both were successful. In the chemical processing facility, for instance, alarm filtering reduced the quantity of alarm messages by 90%. 6 figs.

  15. 46 CFR 63.15-7 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... periodically unattended machinery space, the auxiliary boiler trip alarm required by 46 CFR 62.35-50, Table 62... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alarms. 63.15-7 Section 63.15-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING AUTOMATIC AUXILIARY BOILERS...

  16. 46 CFR 63.15-7 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... periodically unattended machinery space, the auxiliary boiler trip alarm required by 46 CFR 62.35-50, Table 62... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alarms. 63.15-7 Section 63.15-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING AUTOMATIC AUXILIARY BOILERS...

  17. 46 CFR 63.15-7 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... periodically unattended machinery space, the auxiliary boiler trip alarm required by 46 CFR 62.35-50, Table 62... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alarms. 63.15-7 Section 63.15-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING AUTOMATIC AUXILIARY BOILERS...

  18. 46 CFR 63.15-7 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... periodically unattended machinery space, the auxiliary boiler trip alarm required by 46 CFR 62.35-50, Table 62... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alarms. 63.15-7 Section 63.15-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING AUTOMATIC AUXILIARY BOILERS...

  19. 46 CFR 63.15-7 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... periodically unattended machinery space, the auxiliary boiler trip alarm required by 46 CFR 62.35-50, Table 62... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alarms. 63.15-7 Section 63.15-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING AUTOMATIC AUXILIARY BOILERS...

  20. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces 130.450 Machinery alarms....

  1. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces 130.450 Machinery alarms....

  2. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces 130.450 Machinery alarms....

  3. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces 130.450 Machinery alarms....

  4. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces 130.450 Machinery alarms....

  5. 46 CFR 130.470 - Fire alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire alarms. 130.470 Section 130.470 Shipping COAST... MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces 130.470 Fire alarms. (a) Each fire detector and control unit must be of a type specifically approved by the Commandant (CG-521)....

  6. 46 CFR 130.470 - Fire alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire alarms. 130.470 Section 130.470 Shipping COAST... MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces 130.470 Fire alarms. (a) Each fire detector and control unit must be of a type specifically approved by the Commandant (CG-ENG)....

  7. 46 CFR 130.470 - Fire alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire alarms. 130.470 Section 130.470 Shipping COAST... MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces 130.470 Fire alarms. (a) Each fire detector and control unit must be of a type specifically approved by the Commandant (CG-ENG)....

  8. 46 CFR 130.470 - Fire alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire alarms. 130.470 Section 130.470 Shipping COAST... MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces 130.470 Fire alarms. (a) Each fire detector and control unit must be of a type specifically approved by the Commandant (CG-ENG)....

  9. 46 CFR 130.470 - Fire alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire alarms. 130.470 Section 130.470 Shipping COAST... MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces 130.470 Fire alarms. (a) Each fire detector and control unit must be of a type specifically approved by the Commandant (CG-521)....

  10. Remote Monitor Alarm System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stute, Robert A. (Inventor); Galloway, F. Houston (Inventor); Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor); Swindle, Robert W. (Inventor); Bierman, Tracy A. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A remote monitor alarm system monitors discrete alarm and analog power supply voltage conditions at remotely located communications terminal equipment. A central monitoring unit (CMU) is connected via serial data links to each of a plurality of remote terminal units (RTUS) that monitor the alarm and power supply conditions of the remote terminal equipment. Each RTU can monitor and store condition information of both discrete alarm points and analog power supply voltage points in its associated communications terminal equipment. The stored alarm information is periodically transmitted to the CMU in response to sequential polling of the RTUS. The number of monitored alarm inputs and permissible voltage ranges for the analog inputs can be remotely configured at the CMU and downloaded into programmable memory at each RTU. The CMU includes a video display, a hard disk memory, a line printer and an audio alarm for communicating and storing the alarm information received from each RTU.

  11. 46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 169.732 Section 169.732 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.732 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be conspicuously...

  12. 46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 108.627 Section 108.627 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.627 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be identified by marking: “WHEN...

  13. 46 CFR 97.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 97.37-9 Section 97.37-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified:...

  14. 46 CFR 196.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 196.37-9 Section 196.37-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified:...

  15. 46 CFR 78.47-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 78.47-9 Section 78.47-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN...

  16. 46 CFR 78.47-75 - Ventilation alarm failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 78.47-75 Section 78.47-75... Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. 78.47-75 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm required by 72... FAILURE IN VEHICULAR SPACE. (b)...

  17. 46 CFR 78.47-75 - Ventilation alarm failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 78.47-75 Section 78.47-75... Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. 78.47-75 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm required by 72... FAILURE IN VEHICULAR SPACE. (b)...

  18. 46 CFR 78.47-5 - General alarm contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm contact makers. 78.47-5 Section 78.47-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-5 General alarm contact makers. Each general alarm...

  19. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 119.530 Section 119.530... Bilge and Ballast Systems 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must be provided with a visual and audible alarm at the operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the...

  20. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 119.530 Section 119.530... Bilge and Ballast Systems 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must be provided with a visual and audible alarm at the operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the...

  1. 46 CFR 153.409 - High level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false High level alarms. 153.409 Section 153.409 Shipping... Systems 153.409 High level alarms. When Table 1 refers to this section or requires a cargo to have a closed gauging system, the cargo's containment system must have a high level alarm: (a) That gives...

  2. 46 CFR 153.409 - High level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false High level alarms. 153.409 Section 153.409 Shipping... Systems 153.409 High level alarms. When Table 1 refers to this section or requires a cargo to have a closed gauging system, the cargo's containment system must have a high level alarm: (a) That gives...

  3. 46 CFR 161.002-12 - Manual fire alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Manual fire alarm systems. 161.002-12 Section 161.002-12...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Fire-Protective Systems 161.002-12 Manual fire alarm systems. (a) General. A manual fire alarm system shall consist of a power supply, a control unit on which...

  4. 46 CFR 113.20-1 - Sprinkler alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sprinkler alarm system. 113.20-1 Section 113.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkler Systems 113.20-1 Sprinkler alarm system....

  5. 46 CFR 113.20-1 - Sprinkler alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sprinkler alarm system. 113.20-1 Section 113.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkler Systems 113.20-1 Sprinkler alarm system....

  6. 46 CFR 131.805 - General alarm bell, switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment 131.805 General alarm bell, switch. The switch in the pilothouse that activates the general alarm bell must be clearly and permanently identified either by letters... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General alarm bell, switch. 131.805 Section...

  7. 46 CFR 78.47-75 - Ventilation alarm failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 78.47-75 Section 78.47-75 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. 78.47-75 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm required by ...

  8. 46 CFR 78.47-75 - Ventilation alarm failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 78.47-75 Section 78.47-75 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. 78.47-75 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm required by ...

  9. 46 CFR 97.37-50 - Ventilation alarm failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. 97.37-50 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm required by 92.15-10(d)(4) of this subchapter, which indicates the loss of required ventilation... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 97.37-50 Section...

  10. 46 CFR 78.47-75 - Ventilation alarm failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 78.47-75 Section 78.47-75 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. 78.47-75 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm required by ...

  11. 46 CFR 78.47-7 - General alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General alarm bells. 78.47-7 Section 78.47-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. 78.47-7 General alarm bells. (a) All general alarm bells shall...

  12. 46 CFR 78.47-5 - General alarm contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General alarm contact makers. 78.47-5 Section 78.47-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. 78.47-5 General alarm contact makers. Each general alarm...

  13. 46 CFR 97.37-50 - Ventilation alarm failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. 97.37-50 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm required by 92.15-10(d)(4) of this subchapter, which indicates the loss of required ventilation... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 97.37-50 Section...

  14. 46 CFR 78.47-7 - General alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General alarm bells. 78.47-7 Section 78.47-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. 78.47-7 General alarm bells. (a) All general alarm bells shall...

  15. 46 CFR 131.805 - General alarm bell, switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment 131.805 General alarm bell, switch. The switch in the pilothouse that activates the general alarm bell must be clearly and permanently identified either by letters... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General alarm bell, switch. 131.805 Section...

  16. 46 CFR 78.47-5 - General alarm contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General alarm contact makers. 78.47-5 Section 78.47-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. 78.47-5 General alarm contact makers. Each general alarm...

  17. 46 CFR 78.47-10 - Manual alarm boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... alarm boxes shall be clearly and permanently marked IN CASE OF FIRE BREAK GLASS. Existing boxes not so... at least 1/2 inch letters IN CASE OF FIRE BREAK GLASS. All manual alarm boxes shall be numbered in... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Manual alarm boxes. 78.47-10 Section 78.47-10...

  18. 46 CFR 78.47-10 - Manual alarm boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... alarm boxes shall be clearly and permanently marked IN CASE OF FIRE BREAK GLASS. Existing boxes not so... at least 1/2 inch letters IN CASE OF FIRE BREAK GLASS. All manual alarm boxes shall be numbered in... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Manual alarm boxes. 78.47-10 Section 78.47-10...

  19. 46 CFR 78.47-10 - Manual alarm boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... alarm boxes shall be clearly and permanently marked IN CASE OF FIRE BREAK GLASS. Existing boxes not so... at least 1/2 inch letters IN CASE OF FIRE BREAK GLASS. All manual alarm boxes shall be numbered in... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Manual alarm boxes. 78.47-10 Section 78.47-10...

  20. 46 CFR 78.47-5 - General alarm contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General alarm contact makers. 78.47-5 Section 78.47-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. 78.47-5 General alarm contact makers. Each general alarm...

  1. 46 CFR 131.805 - General alarm bell, switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment 131.805 General alarm bell, switch. The switch in the pilothouse that activates the general alarm bell must be clearly and permanently identified either by letters... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General alarm bell, switch. 131.805 Section...

  2. 46 CFR 78.47-5 - General alarm contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General alarm contact makers. 78.47-5 Section 78.47-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. 78.47-5 General alarm contact makers. Each general alarm...

  3. 46 CFR 78.47-10 - Manual alarm boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... alarm boxes shall be clearly and permanently marked IN CASE OF FIRE BREAK GLASS. Existing boxes not so... at least 1/2 inch letters IN CASE OF FIRE BREAK GLASS. All manual alarm boxes shall be numbered in... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manual alarm boxes. 78.47-10 Section 78.47-10...

  4. 46 CFR 78.47-7 - General alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General alarm bells. 78.47-7 Section 78.47-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. 78.47-7 General alarm bells. (a) All general alarm bells shall...

  5. 46 CFR 131.805 - General alarm bell, switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment 131.805 General alarm bell, switch. The switch in the pilothouse that activates the general alarm bell must be clearly and permanently identified either by letters... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General alarm bell, switch. 131.805 Section...

  6. 46 CFR 78.47-10 - Manual alarm boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... alarm boxes shall be clearly and permanently marked IN CASE OF FIRE BREAK GLASS. Existing boxes not so... at least 1/2 inch letters IN CASE OF FIRE BREAK GLASS. All manual alarm boxes shall be numbered in... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Manual alarm boxes. 78.47-10 Section 78.47-10...

  7. 46 CFR 78.47-7 - General alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General alarm bells. 78.47-7 Section 78.47-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. 78.47-7 General alarm bells. (a) All general alarm bells shall...

  8. 46 CFR 97.37-50 - Ventilation alarm failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. 97.37-50 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm required by 92.15-10(d)(4) of this subchapter, which indicates the loss of required ventilation... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 97.37-50 Section...

  9. 46 CFR 131.805 - General alarm bell, switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bell, switch. 131.805 Section 131.805... Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.805 General alarm bell, switch. The switch in the pilothouse that activates the general alarm bell must be clearly and permanently identified either by...

  10. 46 CFR 131.810 - General alarm bell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bell. 131.810 Section 131.810 Shipping... Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.810 General alarm bell. Each general alarm bell must be...—WHEN BELL RINGS GO TO YOUR STATION.”...

  11. 46 CFR 169.730 - General alarm bell switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bell switch. 169.730 Section 169.730... Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.730 General alarm bell switch. On vessels of 100 gross tons and over there must be a general alarm bell switch in the pilothouse,...

  12. 46 CFR 108.625 - General alarm bell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bell. 108.625 Section 108.625 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.625 General alarm bell. Each general alarm bell must be identified by marking “GENERAL ALARM—WHEN BELL RINGS GO TO YOUR STATION” next to the bell....

  13. 46 CFR 169.731 - General alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bells. 169.731 Section 169.731 Shipping... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.731 General alarm bells. On vessels of 100 gross tons and over each general alarm bell must be identified by red lettering at least 1/2 inch...

  14. 46 CFR 108.623 - General alarm bell switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bell switch. 108.623 Section 108.623... AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.623 General alarm bell switch. Each general alarm bell switch must be marked “GENERAL ALARM” on a plate or other firm noncorrosive backing....

  15. 46 CFR 113.20-1 - Sprinkler alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sprinkler alarm system. 113.20-1 Section 113.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkler Systems 113.20-1 Sprinkler alarm system....

  16. 46 CFR 113.20-1 - Sprinkler alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sprinkler alarm system. 113.20-1 Section 113.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkler Systems 113.20-1 Sprinkler alarm system....

  17. 46 CFR 78.47-13 - Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-13 Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells....

  18. 46 CFR 78.47-13 - Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-13 Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells....

  19. 46 CFR 78.47-13 - Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-13 Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells....

  20. 46 CFR 78.47-13 - Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-13 Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells....

  1. 46 CFR 97.37-7 - General alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. 97.37-7 General alarm bells. (a) All general alarm bells shall be identified by red lettering at least 1/2 inch high: GENERAL ALARMWHEN BELL RINGS GO TO YOUR... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General alarm bells. 97.37-7 Section 97.37-7...

  2. 46 CFR 97.37-7 - General alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. 97.37-7 General alarm bells. (a) All general alarm bells shall be identified by red lettering at least 1/2 inch high: GENERAL ALARMWHEN BELL RINGS GO TO YOUR... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General alarm bells. 97.37-7 Section 97.37-7...

  3. 46 CFR 196.37-7 - General alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. 196.37-7 General alarm bells. (a) All general alarm bells shall be identified by red lettering at least 1/2 inch high: GENERAL ALARMWHEN BELL RINGS GO TO YOUR... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General alarm bells. 196.37-7 Section 196.37-7...

  4. 46 CFR 196.37-7 - General alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. 196.37-7 General alarm bells. (a) All general alarm bells shall be identified by red lettering at least 1/2 inch high: GENERAL ALARMWHEN BELL RINGS GO TO YOUR... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General alarm bells. 196.37-7 Section 196.37-7...

  5. 46 CFR 97.37-7 - General alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. 97.37-7 General alarm bells. (a) All general alarm bells shall be identified by red lettering at least 1/2 inch high: GENERAL ALARMWHEN BELL RINGS GO TO YOUR... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General alarm bells. 97.37-7 Section 97.37-7...

  6. 46 CFR 196.37-7 - General alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. 196.37-7 General alarm bells. (a) All general alarm bells shall be identified by red lettering at least 1/2 inch high: GENERAL ALARMWHEN BELL RINGS GO TO YOUR... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General alarm bells. 196.37-7 Section 196.37-7...

  7. 46 CFR 196.37-7 - General alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. 196.37-7 General alarm bells. (a) All general alarm bells shall be identified by red lettering at least 1/2 inch high: GENERAL ALARMWHEN BELL RINGS GO TO YOUR... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General alarm bells. 196.37-7 Section 196.37-7...

  8. 46 CFR 97.37-7 - General alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. 97.37-7 General alarm bells. (a) All general alarm bells shall be identified by red lettering at least 1/2 inch high: GENERAL ALARMWHEN BELL RINGS GO TO YOUR... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General alarm bells. 97.37-7 Section 97.37-7...

  9. 21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm). 870.1025 Section 870.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES...

  10. 21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm). 870.1025 Section 870.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES...

  11. 21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm). 870.1025 Section 870.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES...

  12. 21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm). 870.1025 Section 870.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES...

  13. 21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm). 870.1025 Section 870.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES...

  14. Fire alarm system improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, S.G.

    1994-10-01

    This document contains the Fire Alarm System Test Procedure for Building 234-5Z, 200-West Area on the Hanford Reservation, Richland, Washington. This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the modifications to the Fire Protection systems function as required by project criteria. The ATP will test the Fire Alarm Control Panels, Flow Alarm Pressure Switch, Heat Detectors, Smoke Detectors, Flow Switches, Manual Pull Stations, and Gong/Door by Pass Switches.

  15. Alarm points for fixed oxygen monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G.C.

    1987-05-01

    Oxygen concentration monitors were installed in a vault where numerous pipes carried inert cryogens and gases to the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) experimental vessel at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The problems associated with oxygen-monitoring systems and the reasons why such monitors were installed were reviewed. As a result of this review, the MFTF-B monitors were set to sound an evacuation alarm when the oxygen concentration fell below 18%. We chose the 18% alarm criterion to minimize false alarms and to allow time for personnel to escape in an oxygen-deficient environment.

  16. 46 CFR 113.27-1 - Engineers' assistance-needed alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Engineers' assistance-needed alarm. 113.27-1 Section 113.27-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Engineers' Assistance-Needed Alarm 113.27-1 Engineers' assistance-needed alarm. Each self-propelled...

  17. 46 CFR 113.27-1 - Engineers' assistance-needed alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Engineers' assistance-needed alarm. 113.27-1 Section 113.27-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Engineers' Assistance-Needed Alarm 113.27-1 Engineers' assistance-needed alarm. Each self-propelled...

  18. 46 CFR 113.27-1 - Engineers' assistance-needed alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Engineers' assistance-needed alarm. 113.27-1 Section 113.27-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Engineers' Assistance-Needed Alarm 113.27-1 Engineers' assistance-needed alarm. Each self-propelled...

  19. 46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 108.627 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.627 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be identified by marking: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS VACATE AT...

  20. 46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 108.627 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.627 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be identified by marking: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS VACATE AT...

  1. 46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 108.627 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.627 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be identified by marking: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS VACATE AT...

  2. 46 CFR 113.27-1 - Engineers' assistance-needed alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Engineers' assistance-needed alarm. 113.27-1 Section 113.27-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Engineers' Assistance-Needed Alarm 113.27-1 Engineers' assistance-needed alarm. Each self-propelled...

  3. Smart smoke alarm

    SciTech Connect

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A; Frank, Steven Shane

    2015-04-28

    Methods and apparatus for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a smoke detector uses linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to determine whether observed conditions indicate that an alarm is warranted.

  4. Alarm Notification System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1995-03-12

    AN/EMS, the Alarm Notification Energy Management System, is used to monitor digital sensors in PETC buildings and to notify the safety/security operator by both a video and an audio system when a possibly hazardous condition arises.

  5. Fire alarm system

    SciTech Connect

    Koehling, E.

    1995-01-01

    This test procedure is the documentation for the testing of the 4 fire alarm bells which rewired during the remodeling of the Emergency Operations Center in the Richland, Washington, Federal Office Building.

  6. Sounding the Alarm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordasco, Jerry M.

    2000-01-01

    Explains the use of alarms and other early-detection devices to effectively protect students in life-threatening fire situations. Ohio State University's multidiscipline approach to life safety is illustrated. (GR)

  7. Speech Alarms Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, Aniko; Moses, Haifa

    2016-01-01

    Speech alarms have been used extensively in aviation and included in International Building Codes (IBC) and National Fire Protection Association's (NFPA) Life Safety Code. However, they have not been implemented on space vehicles. Previous studies conducted at NASA JSC showed that speech alarms lead to faster identification and higher accuracy. This research evaluated updated speech and tone alerts in a laboratory environment and in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) in a realistic setup.

  8. False track discrimination in a 3D signal/track processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attili, Joseph B.; Fries, Robert W.; Chan, Cheuk L.; Blackman, Samuel S.; Singer, Paul F.; Dempster, Robert J.

    1996-05-01

    Long range detection and tracking of moving targets against clutter requires advanced signal and track processing techniques in order to exploit the ultimate capabilities of modern electro-optical sensors. These include three- dimensional filtering and multiple hypothesis tracking. Unfortunately, features present in real backgrounds can lead to false alarms which must be recognized in order to achieve a low false track rate. This paper describes one approach which was successful at mitigating clutter-induced false tracks while maintaining the low thresholds necessary for the detection of weak targets. This technique uses information derived in the signal processor describing the local background as additional discriminants in the track processor to identify false tracks caused by clutter leakage. We present an overview of the 3D signal track/processor, the false track mitigation methodology, and experimental results against real background data.

  9. Smoke alarm tests may not adequately indicate smoke alarm function.

    PubMed

    Peek-Asa, Corinne; Yang, Jingzhen; Hamann, Cara; Young, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Smoke alarms are one of the most promoted prevention strategies to reduce residential fire deaths, and they can reduce residential fire deaths by half. Smoke alarm function can be measured by two tests: the smoke alarm button test and the chemical smoke test. Using results from a randomized trial of smoke alarms, we compared smoke alarm response to the button test and the smoke test. The smoke alarms found in the study homes at baseline were tested, as well as study alarms placed into homes as part of the randomized trial. Study alarms were tested at 12 and 42 months postinstallation. The proportion of alarms that passed the button test but not the smoke test ranged from 0.5 to 5.8% of alarms; this result was found most frequently among ionization alarms with zinc or alkaline batteries. These alarms would indicate to the owner (through the button test) that the smoke alarm was working, but the alarm would not actually respond in the case of a fire (as demonstrated by failing the smoke test). The proportion of alarms that passed the smoke test but not the button test ranged from 1.0 to 3.0%. These alarms would appear nonfunctional to the owner (because the button test failed), even though the alarm would operate in response to a fire (as demonstrated by passing the smoke test). The general public is not aware of the potential for inaccuracy in smoke alarm tests, and burn professionals can advocate for enhanced testing methods. The optimal test to determine smoke alarm function is the chemical smoke test. PMID:21747329

  10. Munchausen Stridor-A Strong False Alarm of Anaphylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Oldham, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of anaphylaxis is often based on reported symptoms which may not be accurate and lead to major psychosocial and financial impacts. We describe two adult patients who were diagnosed as having recurrent anaphylaxis witnessed by multiple physicians based on recurrent laryngeal symptoms. The claimed cause was foods in one and drugs in the other. We questioned the diagnosis because of absent documentation of objective findings to support anaphylaxis, and the symptoms occurred during skin testing though the test sites were not reactive. Our initial skin testing with placebos reproduced the symptoms without objective findings. Subsequent skin tests with the suspected allergens were negative yet reproduced the symptoms without objective findings. Disclosing the test results markedly displeased one patient but reassured the other who subsequently tolerated the suspected allergen. In conclusion, these 2 patients' symptoms and evaluation were not supportive of their initial diagnosis of recurrent anaphylaxis. The compatible diagnosis was Munchausen stridor which requires psychiatric evaluation and behavior modification, but often rejected by patients. PMID:25374759

  11. Four False Alarms and Two Beams of Light. Review Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lawrence H.

    1996-01-01

    The alarmist tone of four of these books is consistent with the surging anti-immigration sentiment of the mid-1990s. None is a serious effort to analyze the complex effects of immigration in the United States. The other two books reviewed present thoughtful and carefully researched examinations of immigration questions. (SLD)

  12. Sensor fusion for intelligent alarm analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, C.L.; Fitzgerald, D.S.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of an intelligent alarm analysis system is to provide complete and manageable information to a central alarm station operator by applying alarm processing and fusion techniques to sensor information. This paper discusses the sensor fusion approach taken to perform intelligent alarm analysis for the Advanced Exterior Sensor (AES). The AES is an intrusion detection and assessment system designed for wide-area coverage, quick deployment, low false/nuisance alarm operation, and immediate visual assessment. It combines three sensor technologies (visible, infrared, and millimeter wave radar) collocated on a compact and portable remote sensor module. The remote sensor module rotates at a rate of 1 revolution per second to detect and track motion and provide assessment in a continuous 360` field-of-regard. Sensor fusion techniques are used to correlate and integrate the track data from these three sensors into a single track for operator observation. Additional inputs to the fusion process include environmental data, knowledge of sensor performance under certain weather conditions, sensor priority, and recent operator feedback. A confidence value is assigned to the track as a result of the fusion process. This helps to reduce nuisance alarms and to increase operator confidence in the system while reducing the workload of the operator.

  13. 46 CFR 196.37-7 - General alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bells. 196.37-7 Section 196.37-7 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-7 General alarm bells. (a) All general alarm bells shall be identified by red lettering at least 1/2 inch high: “GENERAL ALARM—WHEN BELL RINGS GO TO...

  14. 46 CFR 97.37-7 - General alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bells. 97.37-7 Section 97.37-7 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-7 General alarm bells. (a) All general alarm bells shall be identified by red lettering at least 1/2 inch high: “GENERAL ALARM—WHEN BELL RINGS GO TO...

  15. 46 CFR 78.47-7 - General alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bells. 78.47-7 Section 78.47-7 Shipping... and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-7 General alarm bells. (a) All general alarm bells shall be identified by red lettering at least 1/2 inch high: “GENERAL ALARM—WHEN BELL RINGS GO TO YOUR STATION.” (b)...

  16. Criticality accident alarm system

    SciTech Connect

    Malenfant, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The American National Standard ANSI/ANS-8.3-1986, Criticality Accident Alarm System provides guidance for the establishment and maintenance of an alarm system to initiate personnel evacuation in the event of inadvertent criticality. In addition to identifying the physical features of the components of the system, the characteristics of accidents of concern are carefully delineated. Unfortunately, this ANSI Standard has led to considerable confusion in interpretation, and there is evidence that the minimum accident of concern'' may not be appropriate. Furthermore, although intended as a guide, the provisions of the standard are being rigorously applied, sometimes with interpretations that are not consistent. Although the standard is clear in the use of absorbed dose in free air of 20 rad, at least one installation has interpreted the requirement to apply to dose in soft tissue. The standard is also clear in specifying the response to both neutrons and gamma rays. An assembly of uranyl fluoride enriched to 5% {sup 235}U was operated to simulate a potential accident. The dose, delivered in a free run excursion 2 m from the surface of the vessel, was greater than 500 rad, without ever exceeding a rate of 20 rad/min, which is the set point for activating an alarm that meets the standard. The presence of an alarm system would not have prevented any of the five major accidents in chemical operations nor is it absolutely certain that the alarms were solely responsible for reducing personnel exposures following the accident. Nevertheless, criticality alarm systems are now the subject of great effort and expense. 13 refs.

  17. New solutions for alarm problems

    SciTech Connect

    Larsson, J. E.; Oehman, B.; Calzada, A.; DeBor, J.

    2006-07-01

    Alarm problems have been around since the move towards computerized, control systems and. control rooms. They have been surprisingly hard to solve, and are still here today. In fact, it seems that modern control systems produce more alarm data, and that alarm problems become worse with new systems, not better. We contend that there are two separate reasons for why alarm problems are still largely unsolved today. First, there are different kinds of alarm problems, and each kind demands a different kind of solution. Thus, no single technology will suffice to solve all alarm problems. Secondly, some alarm problems have so far lacked viable technical solutions. The hardest problem is that of consequential alarm cascades. However, we can now present an efficient and industrially proven method for handling large alarm cascades through automated root cause analysis. (authors)

  18. FIRE ALARM SYSTEM OUTDATED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHANDLER, L.T.

    AN EFFICIENT FIRE ALARM SYSTEM SHOULD--(1) PROVIDE WARNING OF FIRES THAT START IN HIDDEN OR UNOCCUPIED LOCATIONS, (2) INDICATE WHERE THE FIRE IS, (3) GIVE ADVANCE WARNING TO FACULTY AND ADMINISTRATION SO THAT PANIC AND CONFUSION CAN BE AVOIDED AND ORDERLY EVACUATION OCCUR, (4) AUTOMATICALLY NOTIFY CITY FIRE HEADQUARTERS OF THE FIRE, (5) OPERATE BY

  19. Evaluation of nine different types of enuresis alarms.

    PubMed

    Goel, K M; Thomson, R B; Gibb, E M; McAinsh, T F

    1984-08-01

    One hundred enuretic children were treated in closely supervised trial conditions with nine commonly used enuresis alarm systems available commercially in the United Kingdom. Although there was little difference between the systems in terms of their effectiveness in stopping bed wetting, parents preferred the Eastleigh and Urilarm De-Luxe models which had distinct advantages in respect of false alarms, breakdowns, and durability of pads. Enuresis alarms that perform poorly in these respects may lead to loss of enthusiasm and non-compliance. The systems vary widely in price, but a private buyer may find a cheaper alarm just as effective. PMID:6476872

  20. 21 CFR 870.2640 - Portable leakage current alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Portable leakage current alarm. 870.2640 Section 870.2640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2640 Portable leakage current alarm. (a) Identification....

  1. 46 CFR 162.050-35 - Bilge alarm: Approval tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bilge alarm: Approval tests. 162.050-35 Section 162.050-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Pollution Prevention Equipment § 162.050-35 Bilge alarm: Approval tests. This...

  2. 46 CFR 162.050-35 - Bilge alarm: Approval tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bilge alarm: Approval tests. 162.050-35 Section 162.050-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Pollution Prevention Equipment § 162.050-35 Bilge alarm: Approval tests. This...

  3. 46 CFR 162.050-35 - Bilge alarm: Approval tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bilge alarm: Approval tests. 162.050-35 Section 162.050-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Pollution Prevention Equipment § 162.050-35 Bilge alarm: Approval tests. This...

  4. 46 CFR 162.050-35 - Bilge alarm: Approval tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bilge alarm: Approval tests. 162.050-35 Section 162.050-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Pollution Prevention Equipment § 162.050-35 Bilge alarm: Approval tests. This...

  5. 46 CFR 97.37-50 - Ventilation alarm failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 97.37-50 Section 97.37-50... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. 97.37-50 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The...-inch letters VENTILATION FAILURE IN VEHICULAR SPACE. (b)...

  6. 46 CFR 97.37-50 - Ventilation alarm failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 97.37-50 Section 97.37-50... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. 97.37-50 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The...-inch letters VENTILATION FAILURE IN VEHICULAR SPACE. (b)...

  7. 47 CFR 80.318 - Use of alarm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of alarm signals. 80.318 Section 80.318 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety...

  8. 47 CFR 80.318 - Use of alarm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Use of alarm signals. 80.318 Section 80.318 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety...

  9. 47 CFR 80.318 - Use of alarm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Use of alarm signals. 80.318 Section 80.318 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety...

  10. 47 CFR 80.318 - Use of alarm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Use of alarm signals. 80.318 Section 80.318 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety...

  11. 47 CFR 80.318 - Use of alarm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of alarm signals. 80.318 Section 80.318 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety...

  12. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 182.530 Section 182.530... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems 182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On a... operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (1)...

  13. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 182.530 Section 182.530... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems 182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On a... operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (1)...

  14. 33 CFR 401.16 - Propeller direction alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Propeller direction alarms. 401.16 Section 401.16 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels 401.16 Propeller direction alarms. Every vessel of 1600...

  15. 33 CFR 401.16 - Propeller direction alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Propeller direction alarms. 401.16 Section 401.16 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels 401.16 Propeller direction alarms. Every vessel of 1600...

  16. 33 CFR 401.17 - Pitch indicators and alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pitch indicators and alarms. 401.17 Section 401.17 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels 401.17 Pitch indicators and alarms. Every vessel of...

  17. 33 CFR 401.17 - Pitch indicators and alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pitch indicators and alarms. 401.17 Section 401.17 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels 401.17 Pitch indicators and alarms. Every vessel of...

  18. 33 CFR 401.17 - Pitch indicators and alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pitch indicators and alarms. 401.17 Section 401.17 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels 401.17 Pitch indicators and alarms. Every vessel of...

  19. 33 CFR 401.16 - Propeller direction alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Propeller direction alarms. 401.16 Section 401.16 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels 401.16 Propeller direction alarms. Every vessel of 1600...

  20. 33 CFR 401.16 - Propeller direction alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Propeller direction alarms. 401.16 Section 401.16 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels 401.16 Propeller direction alarms. Every vessel of 1600...

  1. 33 CFR 401.16 - Propeller direction alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Propeller direction alarms. 401.16 Section 401.16 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels 401.16 Propeller direction alarms. Every vessel of 1600...

  2. 46 CFR 76.05-5 - Manual alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Manual alarm system. 76.05-5 Section 76.05-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Detecting and Extinguishing Equipment, Where Required 76.05-5 Manual alarm system. (a)...

  3. 46 CFR 76.05-5 - Manual alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Manual alarm system. 76.05-5 Section 76.05-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Detecting and Extinguishing Equipment, Where Required 76.05-5 Manual alarm system. (a)...

  4. 29 CFR 1910.165 - Employee alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Employee alarm systems. 1910.165 Section 1910.165 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Fire Protection Other Fire Protection Systems 1910.165 Employee alarm systems. (a) Scope and application. (1) This section applies to all emergency employee...

  5. 46 CFR 76.05-5 - Manual alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Manual alarm system. 76.05-5 Section 76.05-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Detecting and Extinguishing Equipment, Where Required 76.05-5 Manual alarm system. (a)...

  6. 29 CFR 1910.165 - Employee alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Employee alarm systems. 1910.165 Section 1910.165 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Fire Protection Other Fire Protection Systems 1910.165 Employee alarm systems. (a) Scope and application. (1) This section applies to all emergency employee...

  7. 46 CFR 76.05-5 - Manual alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manual alarm system. 76.05-5 Section 76.05-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Detecting and Extinguishing Equipment, Where Required 76.05-5 Manual alarm system. (a)...

  8. 46 CFR 76.05-5 - Manual alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Manual alarm system. 76.05-5 Section 76.05-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Detecting and Extinguishing Equipment, Where Required 76.05-5 Manual alarm system. (a)...

  9. 29 CFR 1910.165 - Employee alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employee alarm systems. 1910.165 Section 1910.165 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Fire Protection Other Fire Protection Systems 1910.165 Employee alarm systems. (a) Scope and application. (1) This section applies to all emergency employee...

  10. 46 CFR 167.40-5 - Alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alarm bells. 167.40-5 Section 167.40-5 Shipping COAST... Equipment Requirements § 167.40-5 Alarm bells. All nautical school ships over 100 gross tons shall have all... bells so located as to warn all occupants. The system shall operate from a continuous source of...

  11. 46 CFR 28.250 - High water alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false High water alarms. 28.250 Section 28.250 Shipping COAST... Individuals On Board, or for Fish Tender Vessels Engaged in the Aleutian Trade § 28.250 High water alarms. On... operating station to indicate high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (a)...

  12. 46 CFR 28.250 - High water alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false High water alarms. 28.250 Section 28.250 Shipping COAST... Individuals On Board, or for Fish Tender Vessels Engaged in the Aleutian Trade § 28.250 High water alarms. On... operating station to indicate high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (a)...

  13. 46 CFR 28.250 - High water alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false High water alarms. 28.250 Section 28.250 Shipping COAST... Individuals On Board, or for Fish Tender Vessels Engaged in the Aleutian Trade § 28.250 High water alarms. On... operating station to indicate high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (a)...

  14. 46 CFR 28.250 - High water alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false High water alarms. 28.250 Section 28.250 Shipping COAST... Individuals On Board, or for Fish Tender Vessels Engaged in the Aleutian Trade § 28.250 High water alarms. On... operating station to indicate high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (a)...

  15. 46 CFR 28.250 - High water alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false High water alarms. 28.250 Section 28.250 Shipping COAST... Individuals On Board, or for Fish Tender Vessels Engaged in the Aleutian Trade § 28.250 High water alarms. On... operating station to indicate high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (a)...

  16. 46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alarms and shutdowns. 111.33-7 Section 111.33-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power...

  17. 46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alarms and shutdowns. 111.33-7 Section 111.33-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power...

  18. 46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alarms and shutdowns. 111.33-7 Section 111.33-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power...

  19. 46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alarms and shutdowns. 111.33-7 Section 111.33-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power...

  20. 46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alarms and shutdowns. 111.33-7 Section 111.33-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power...

  1. "False" hope.

    PubMed

    Snyder, C R; Rand, Kevin L; King, Elisa A; Feldman, David B; Woodward, Julia T

    2002-09-01

    "False" hope is condemned in the literature on the grounds that it reflects the counterproductive use of: (a) expectations based on illusions rather than reality, (b) inappropriate goals, and (c) poor strategies to reach desired goals. Snyder, Harris, et al.'s (1991) hope theory involving self-referential thoughts about finding routes to desired goals (pathways) and the motivation to use those routes (agency) is used as a framework for examining these three criticisms of false hope. It is concluded that the presently available evidence does not support any of the false-hope criticisms. The implications of hope-related issues for the applied clinical arena are discussed. PMID:12209861

  2. 46 CFR 78.47-13 - Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells. 78.47-13 Section 78.47-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-13 Fire detecting and manual...

  3. Dynamic alarm response procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.; Gordon, P.; Fitch, K.

    2006-07-01

    The Dynamic Alarm Response Procedure (DARP) system provides a robust, Web-based alternative to existing hard-copy alarm response procedures. This paperless system improves performance by eliminating time wasted looking up paper procedures by number, looking up plant process values and equipment and component status at graphical display or panels, and maintenance of the procedures. Because it is a Web-based system, it is platform independent. DARP's can be served from any Web server that supports CGI scripting, such as Apache{sup R}, IIS{sup R}, TclHTTPD, and others. DARP pages can be viewed in any Web browser that supports Javascript and Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG), such as Netscape{sup R}, Microsoft Internet Explorer{sup R}, Mozilla Firefox{sup R}, Opera{sup R}, and others. (authors)

  4. Deception by flexible alarm mimicry in an African bird.

    PubMed

    Flower, Tom P; Gribble, Matthew; Ridley, Amanda R

    2014-05-01

    Deception is common in nature, but victims of deception discriminate against and ultimately ignore deceptive signals when they are produced too frequently. Flexible variation of signals could allow evasion of such constraints. Fork-tailed drongos (Dicrurus adsimilis) use false alarm calls to scare other species away from food that they then steal. We show that drongos mimic the alarms of targeted species. Further, target species reduce their response to false alarm calls when they are repeated. However, the fear response is maintained when the call is varied. Drongos exploit this propensity by changing their alarm-call type when making repeated theft attempts on a particular species. Our results show that drongos can evade the frequency-dependent constraints that typically limit deception payoffs through flexible variation of their alarm calls. PMID:24786078

  5. Nurses' Perceptions and Practices Toward Clinical Alarms in a Transplant Cardiac Intensive Care Unit: Exploring Key Issues Leading to Alarm Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Tarriela, Albert Fajardo; Gomez, Tiffany Michelle; Reed, Charles Calhoun; Rapp, Kami Marie

    2015-01-01

    Background Intensive care units (ICUs) are complex work environments where false alarms occur more frequently than on non-critical care units. The Joint Commission National Patient Safety Goal .06.01.01 targeted improving the safety of clinical alarm systems and required health care facilities to establish alarm systems safety as a hospital priority by July 2014. An important initial step toward this requirement is identifying ICU nurses’ perceptions and common clinical practices toward clinical alarms, where little information is available. Objective Our aim was to determine perceptions and practices of transplant/cardiac ICU (TCICU) nurses toward clinical alarms and benchmark the results against the 2011 Healthcare Technology Foundation’s (HTF) Clinical Alarms Committee Survey. Methods A quality improvement project was conducted on a 20-bed TCICU with 39 full- and part-time nurses. Nurses were surveyed about their perceptions and attitudes toward and practices on clinical alarms using an adapted HTF clinical alarms survey. Results were compared to the 2011 HTF data. Correlations among variables were examined. Results All TCICU nurses provided usable responses (N=39, 100%). Almost all nurses (95%-98%) believed that false alarms are frequent, disrupt care, and reduce trust in alarm systems, causing nurses to inappropriately disable them. Unlike the 2011 HTF clinical alarms survey results, a significantly higher percentage of our TCICU nurses believed that existing devices are complex, questioned the ability and adequacy of the new monitoring systems to solve alarm management issues, pointed to the lack of prompt response to alarms, and indicated the lack of clinical policy on alarm management (P<.01). Major themes in the narrative data focused on nurses’ frustration related to the excessive number of alarms and poor usability of the cardiac monitors. A lack of standardized approaches exists in changing patients’ electrodes and individualizing parameters. Around 60% of nurses indicated they received insufficient training on bedside and central cardiac monitors. A correlation also showed the need for training on cardiac monitors, specifically for older nurses (P=.01). Conclusions False and non-actionable alarms continue to desensitize TCICU nurses, perhaps resulting in missing fatal alarms. Nurses’ attitudes and practices related to clinical alarms are key elements for designing contextually sensitive quality initiatives to fight alarm fatigue. Alarm management in ICUs is a multidimensional complex process involving usability of monitoring devices, and unit, clinicians, training, and policy-related factors. This indicates the need for a multi-method approach to decrease alarm fatigue and improve alarm systems safety.

  6. 46 CFR 113.25-9 - Location of general emergency alarm signal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Location of general emergency alarm signal. 113.25-9 Section 113.25-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems 113.25-9 Location of...

  7. 46 CFR 97.37-5 - General alarm bell contact maker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bell contact maker. 97.37-5 Section 97.37... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-5 General alarm bell contact maker. Each general alarm contact maker must be marked in accordance with requirements in subchapter J...

  8. 46 CFR 196.37-5 - General alarm bell contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bell contact makers. 196.37-5 Section 196... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-5 General alarm bell contact makers. (a) Each general alarm contact maker must be marked in accordance with requirements in Subpchapter...

  9. 46 CFR 35.40-1 - General alarm contact maker-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm contact maker-TB/ALL. 35.40-1 Section 35.40-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Posting and Marking Requirements-TB/ALL. § 35.40-1 General alarm contact maker—TB/ALL. Each general alarm...

  10. 46 CFR 153.438 - Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. 153.438... Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.438 Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. (a... vapor pressure described in § 153.371(b); or (2) An alarm that operates when the cargo's...

  11. 46 CFR 153.438 - Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. 153.438... Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.438 Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. (a... vapor pressure described in § 153.371(b); or (2) An alarm that operates when the cargo's...

  12. 46 CFR 153.438 - Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. 153.438... Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.438 Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. (a... vapor pressure described in § 153.371(b); or (2) An alarm that operates when the cargo's...

  13. 46 CFR 153.438 - Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. 153.438... Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.438 Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. (a... vapor pressure described in § 153.371(b); or (2) An alarm that operates when the cargo's...

  14. 46 CFR 153.438 - Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. 153.438... Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.438 Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. (a... vapor pressure described in § 153.371(b); or (2) An alarm that operates when the cargo's...

  15. 46 CFR 113.25-9 - Location of general emergency alarm signal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Location of general emergency alarm signal. 113.25-9 Section 113.25-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems 113.25-9 Location of...

  16. 46 CFR 113.27-1 - Engineers' assistance-needed alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Engineers' assistance-needed alarm. 113.27-1 Section 113.27-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Engineers' Assistance-Needed Alarm 113.27-1...

  17. 46 CFR 113.25-9 - Location of general emergency alarm signal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Location of general emergency alarm signal. 113.25-9 Section 113.25-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems 113.25-9 Location of...

  18. 46 CFR 113.25-9 - Location of general emergency alarm signal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Location of general emergency alarm signal. 113.25-9 Section 113.25-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems 113.25-9 Location of...

  19. 46 CFR 76.35-10 - Location and spacing of manual alarm boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Location and spacing of manual alarm boxes. 76.35-10 Section 76.35-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Manual Alarm System, Details 76.35-10 Location and spacing of manual alarm boxes....

  20. 46 CFR 76.35-10 - Location and spacing of manual alarm boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Location and spacing of manual alarm boxes. 76.35-10 Section 76.35-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Manual Alarm System, Details 76.35-10 Location and spacing of manual alarm boxes....

  1. 46 CFR 76.35-10 - Location and spacing of manual alarm boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Location and spacing of manual alarm boxes. 76.35-10 Section 76.35-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Manual Alarm System, Details 76.35-10 Location and spacing of manual alarm boxes....

  2. 46 CFR 76.35-10 - Location and spacing of manual alarm boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Location and spacing of manual alarm boxes. 76.35-10 Section 76.35-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Manual Alarm System, Details 76.35-10 Location and spacing of manual alarm boxes....

  3. 46 CFR 196.37-5 - General alarm bell contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. 196.37-5 General alarm bell contact makers. (a) Each general alarm contact maker must be marked in accordance with requirements in Subpchapter J... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General alarm bell contact makers. 196.37-5 Section...

  4. 46 CFR 97.37-5 - General alarm bell contact maker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. 97.37-5 General alarm bell contact maker. Each general alarm contact maker must be marked in accordance with requirements in subchapter J (Electrical... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General alarm bell contact maker. 97.37-5 Section...

  5. 46 CFR 196.37-5 - General alarm bell contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. 196.37-5 General alarm bell contact makers. (a) Each general alarm contact maker must be marked in accordance with requirements in Subchapter J... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General alarm bell contact makers. 196.37-5 Section...

  6. 46 CFR 196.37-5 - General alarm bell contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. 196.37-5 General alarm bell contact makers. (a) Each general alarm contact maker must be marked in accordance with requirements in Subpchapter J... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General alarm bell contact makers. 196.37-5 Section...

  7. 46 CFR 97.37-5 - General alarm bell contact maker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. 97.37-5 General alarm bell contact maker. Each general alarm contact maker must be marked in accordance with requirements in subchapter J (Electrical... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General alarm bell contact maker. 97.37-5 Section...

  8. 46 CFR 196.37-5 - General alarm bell contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. 196.37-5 General alarm bell contact makers. (a) Each general alarm contact maker must be marked in accordance with requirements in Subpchapter J... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General alarm bell contact makers. 196.37-5 Section...

  9. 46 CFR 97.37-5 - General alarm bell contact maker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. 97.37-5 General alarm bell contact maker. Each general alarm contact maker must be marked in accordance with requirements in subchapter J (Electrical... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General alarm bell contact maker. 97.37-5 Section...

  10. 46 CFR 131.815 - Alarm for fixed gaseous fire-extinguishing system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alarm for fixed gaseous fire-extinguishing system. 131... VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment 131.815 Alarm for fixed gaseous fire-extinguishing system. Each alarm for a fixed gaseous fire-extinguishing system must...

  11. 46 CFR 97.37-5 - General alarm bell contact maker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. 97.37-5 General alarm bell contact maker. Each general alarm contact maker must be marked in accordance with requirements in subchapter J (Electrical... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General alarm bell contact maker. 97.37-5 Section...

  12. 46 CFR 76.35-10 - Location and spacing of manual alarm boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Location and spacing of manual alarm boxes. 76.35-10 Section 76.35-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Manual Alarm System, Details 76.35-10 Location and spacing of manual alarm boxes....

  13. 46 CFR 131.815 - Alarm for fixed gaseous fire-extinguishing system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alarm for fixed gaseous fire-extinguishing system. 131... VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment 131.815 Alarm for fixed gaseous fire-extinguishing system. Each alarm for a fixed gaseous fire-extinguishing system must...

  14. 46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 169.732 Section... SCHOOL VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.732 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. (a) Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing alarm must...

  15. 46 CFR 78.47-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 78.47-9 Section... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing alarm must be conspicuously marked: “WHEN...

  16. 46 CFR 97.37-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 97.37-9 Section... VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing alarm must be conspicuously...

  17. 46 CFR 97.37-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 97.37-9 Section... VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing alarm must be conspicuously...

  18. 46 CFR 97.37-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 97.37-9 Section... VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing alarm must be conspicuously...

  19. 46 CFR 131.815 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 131.815 Section... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.815 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing alarm must be conspicuously marked:...

  20. 46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 169.732 Section... SCHOOL VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.732 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. (a) Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing alarm must...

  1. 46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 169.732 Section... SCHOOL VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.732 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. (a) Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing alarm must...

  2. 46 CFR 78.47-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 78.47-9 Section... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing alarm must be conspicuously marked: “WHEN...

  3. 46 CFR 131.815 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 131.815 Section... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.815 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing alarm must be conspicuously marked:...

  4. 46 CFR 131.815 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 131.815 Section... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.815 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing alarm must be conspicuously marked:...

  5. 46 CFR 78.47-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 78.47-9 Section... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing alarm must be conspicuously marked: “WHEN...

  6. 46 CFR 35.40-5 - General alarm bells-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bells-TB/ALL. 35.40-5 Section 35.40-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Posting and Marking Requirements-TB/ALL. § 35.40-5 General alarm bells—TB/ALL. General alarm bells must be marked in...

  7. Speech Alarms Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, A.; Moses, H. R.

    2016-01-01

    Currently on the International Space Station (ISS) and other space vehicles Caution & Warning (C&W) alerts are represented with various auditory tones that correspond to the type of event. This system relies on the crew's ability to remember what each tone represents in a high stress, high workload environment when responding to the alert. Furthermore, crew receive a year or more in advance of the mission that makes remembering the semantic meaning of the alerts more difficult. The current system works for missions conducted close to Earth where ground operators can assist as needed. On long duration missions, however, they will need to work off-nominal events autonomously. There is evidence that speech alarms may be easier and faster to recognize, especially during an off-nominal event. The Information Presentation Directed Research Project (FY07-FY09) funded by the Human Research Program included several studies investigating C&W alerts. The studies evaluated tone alerts currently in use with NASA flight deck displays along with candidate speech alerts. A follow-on study used four types of speech alerts to investigate how quickly various types of auditory alerts with and without a speech component - either at the beginning or at the end of the tone - can be identified. Even though crew were familiar with the tone alert from training or direct mission experience, alerts starting with a speech component were identified faster than alerts starting with a tone. The current study replicated the results from the previous study in a more rigorous experimental design to determine if the candidate speech alarms are ready for transition to operations or if more research is needed. Four types of alarms (caution, warning, fire, and depressurization) were presented to participants in both tone and speech formats in laboratory settings and later in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA). In the laboratory study, the alerts were presented by software and participants were asked to identify the alert as quickly and as accurately as possible. Reaction time and accuracy were measured. Participants identified speech alerts significantly faster than tone alerts. The HERA study investigated the performance of participants in a flight-like environment. Participants were instructed to complete items on a task list and respond to C&W alerts as they occurred. Reaction time and accuracy were measured to determine if the benefits of speech alarms are still present in an applied setting.

  8. Functional relationship-based alarm processing

    DOEpatents

    Corsberg, D.R.

    1987-04-13

    A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously updated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on causal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). 11 figs.

  9. Alarm toe switch

    DOEpatents

    Ganyard, Floyd P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1982-01-01

    An alarm toe switch inserted within a shoe for energizing an alarm circuit n a covert manner includes an insole mounting pad into which a miniature reed switch is fixedly molded. An elongated slot perpendicular to the reed switch is formed in the bottom surface of the mounting pad. A permanent cylindrical magnet positioned in the forward portion of the slot with a diameter greater than the pad thickness causes a bump above the pad. A foam rubber block is also positioned in the slot rearwardly of the magnet and holds the magnet in normal inoperative relation. A non-magnetic support plate covers the slot and holds the magnet and foam rubber in the slot. The plate minimizes bending and frictional forces to improve movement of the magnet for reliable switch activation. The bump occupies the knuckle space beneath the big toe. When the big toe is scrunched rearwardly the magnet is moved within the slot relative to the reed switch, thus magnetically activating the switch. When toe pressure is released the foam rubber block forces the magnet back into normal inoperative position to deactivate the reed switch. The reed switch is hermetically sealed with the magnet acting through the wall so the switch assembly S is capable of reliable operation even in wet and corrosive environments.

  10. False assumptions.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, M

    1997-01-01

    Indian women do not have to be told the benefits of breast feeding or "rescued from the clutches of wicked multinational companies" by international agencies. There is no proof that breast feeding has declined in India; in fact, a 1987 survey revealed that 98% of Indian women breast feed. Efforts to promote breast feeding among the middle classes rely on such initiatives as the "baby friendly" hospital where breast feeding is promoted immediately after birth. This ignores the 76% of Indian women who give birth at home. Blaming this unproved decline in breast feeding on multinational companies distracts attention from more far-reaching and intractable effects of social change. While the Infant Milk Substitutes Act is helpful, it also deflects attention from more pressing issues. Another false assumption is that Indian women are abandoning breast feeding to comply with the demands of employment, but research indicates that most women give up employment for breast feeding, despite the economic cost to their families. Women also seek work in the informal sector to secure the flexibility to meet their child care responsibilities. Instead of being concerned about "teaching" women what they already know about the benefits of breast feeding, efforts should be made to remove the constraints women face as a result of their multiple roles and to empower them with the support of families, governmental policies and legislation, employers, health professionals, and the media. PMID:12321627

  11. Stereotypes influence false memories for imagined events.

    PubMed

    Kleider, Heather M; Goldinger, Stephen D; Knuycky, Leslie

    2008-02-01

    Two experiments tested the influences of vivid imagery and person schemata on eyewitness accuracy. Participants watched an event sequence including actors performing stereotype-consistent and inconsistent actions. Additionally, participants either read descriptions of actions (Experiment 1) or vividly imagined actions (Experiment 2). After either 30 minutes or 2 days, recognition memory, source memory, and remember/know judgements were made. After 2 days, false alarms to imagined events increased, relative to the 30-minute test; those false alarms were more often misattributed to stereotype-consistent actors, relative to the same actions in the reading condition. In addition, the accompanying remember judgements were higher for false alarms to imagined events, relative to read events, regardless of stereotype consistency. Overall the results suggest that, over time, vivid imagery reinforces schema activation, increasing stereotype-consistent false memories. PMID:18286415

  12. Integrating monitor alarms with laboratory test results to enhance patient deterioration prediction.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yong; Do, Duc H; Harris, Patricia Rae Eileen; Schindler, Daniel; Boyle, Noel G; Drew, Barbara J; Hu, Xiao

    2015-02-01

    Patient monitors in modern hospitals have become ubiquitous but they generate an excessive number of false alarms causing alarm fatigue. Our previous work showed that combinations of frequently co-occurring monitor alarms, called SuperAlarm patterns, were capable of predicting in-hospital code blue events at a lower alarm frequency. In the present study, we extend the conceptual domain of a SuperAlarm to incorporate laboratory test results along with monitor alarms so as to build an integrated data set to mine SuperAlarm patterns. We propose two approaches to integrate monitor alarms with laboratory test results and use a maximal frequent itemsets mining algorithm to find SuperAlarm patterns. Under an acceptable false positive rate FPRmax, optimal parameters including the minimum support threshold and the length of time window for the algorithm to find the combinations of monitor alarms and laboratory test results are determined based on a 10-fold cross-validation set. SuperAlarm candidates are generated under these optimal parameters. The final SuperAlarm patterns are obtained by further removing the candidates with false positive rate>FPRmax. The performance of SuperAlarm patterns are assessed using an independent test data set. First, we calculate the sensitivity with respect to prediction window and the sensitivity with respect to lead time. Second, we calculate the false SuperAlarm ratio (ratio of the hourly number of SuperAlarm triggers for control patients to that of the monitor alarms, or that of regular monitor alarms plus laboratory test results if the SuperAlarm patterns contain laboratory test results) and the work-up to detection ratio, WDR (ratio of the number of patients triggering any SuperAlarm patterns to that of code blue patients triggering any SuperAlarm patterns). The experiment results demonstrate that when varying FPRmax between 0.02 and 0.15, the SuperAlarm patterns composed of monitor alarms along with the last two laboratory test results are triggered at least once for [56.7-93.3%] of code blue patients within an 1-h prediction window before code blue events and for [43.3-90.0%] of code blue patients at least 1-h ahead of code blue events. However, the hourly number of these SuperAlarm patterns occurring in control patients is only [2.0-14.8%] of that of regular monitor alarms with WDR varying between 2.1 and 6.5 in a 12-h window. For a given FPRmax threshold, the SuperAlarm set generated from the integrated data set has higher sensitivity and lower WDR than the SuperAlarm set generated from the regular monitor alarm data set. In addition, the McNemar's test also shows that the performance of the SuperAlarm set from the integrated data set is significantly different from that of the SuperAlarm set from the regular monitor alarm data set. We therefore conclude that the SuperAlarm patterns generated from the integrated data set are better at predicting code blue events. PMID:25240252

  13. Talking Fire Alarms Calm Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Executive Educator, 1984

    1984-01-01

    The new microprocessor-based fire alarm systems can help to control smoke movement throughout school buildings by opening vents and doors, identify the burning section, activate voice alarms, provide firefighters with telephone systems during the fire, and release fire-preventing gas. (KS)

  14. Substation alarm multiplexing system (SAMS)

    SciTech Connect

    ElBadaly, H.; Gaughan, J.; Ward, G.; Amengual, S.

    1996-03-01

    This paper describes an on going R&D project to develop, design, install, and assess the field performance of an advanced substation alarm system. SAMS provides a highly fault-tolerant system for the reporting of equipment alarms. SAMS separates and identifies each of the multiple alarm contacts, transmits an alarm condition over existing substation two-wire system, and displays the alarm source, and its associated technical information, on a touch-screen monitor inside the substation control room, and a remote central location and on a hand held terminal which may be carried anywhere within the substation. SAMS is currently installed at the Sherman Creek substation in the Bronx for the purpose of a three month field evaluation.

  15. Alarm system advances and innovations

    SciTech Connect

    Saklad, D.

    2006-07-01

    Alarm: 'a signal (as a loud noise or flashing light) that warns or alerts; also: a device that signals... '. This statement, this definition as simple as it is sums up every alarm system for every control system that has ever existed, but what it's missing from it is the complexity and uniqueness required by a Nuclear Power Plant. With advances in computerized control and engineering technologies within these plants, the need for more comprehensive alarm control and monitoring systems is as critical as the operation itself. (authors)

  16. Automated detection of alarm sounds.

    PubMed

    Lutfi, Robert A; Heo, Inseok

    2012-08-01

    Two approaches to the automated detection of alarm sounds are compared, one based on a change in overall sound level (RMS), the other a change in periodicity, as given by the power of the normalized autocorrelation function (PNA). Receiver operating characteristics in each case were obtained for different exemplars of four classes of alarm sounds (bells/chimes, buzzers/beepers, horns/whistles, and sirens) embedded in four noise backgrounds (cafeteria, park, traffic, and music). The results suggest that PNA combined with RMS may be used to improve current alarm-sound alerting technologies for the hard-of-hearing. PMID:22894310

  17. Fork-tailed drongos use deceptive mimicked alarm calls to steal food

    PubMed Central

    Flower, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of vocal mimicry in animals, few functions for this behaviour have been shown. I propose a novel hypothesis that false mimicked alarm calls could be used deceptively to scare other species and steal their food. Studies have previously suggested that animals use their own species-specific alarm calls to steal food. However none have shown conclusively that these false alarms are deceptive, or that mimicked alarm calls are used in this manner. Here, I show that wild fork-tailed drongos (Dicrurus adsimilis) make both drongo-specific and mimicked false alarm calls when watching target species handling food, in response to which targets flee to cover abandoning their food. The drongo-specific and mimicked calls made in false alarms were structurally indistinguishable from calls made during true alarms at predators by drongos and other species. Furthermore, I demonstrate by playback experiments that two of these species, meerkats (Suricata suricatta) and pied babblers (Turdoides bicolor), are deceived by both drongo-specific and mimicked false alarm calls. These results provide the first conclusive evidence that false alarm calls are deceptive and demonstrate a novel function for vocal mimicry. This work also provides valuable insight into the benefits of deploying variable mimetic signals in deceptive communication. PMID:21047861

  18. Fork-tailed drongos use deceptive mimicked alarm calls to steal food.

    PubMed

    Flower, Tom

    2011-05-22

    Despite the prevalence of vocal mimicry in animals, few functions for this behaviour have been shown. I propose a novel hypothesis that false mimicked alarm calls could be used deceptively to scare other species and steal their food. Studies have previously suggested that animals use their own species-specific alarm calls to steal food. However none have shown conclusively that these false alarms are deceptive, or that mimicked alarm calls are used in this manner. Here, I show that wild fork-tailed drongos (Dicrurus adsimilis) make both drongo-specific and mimicked false alarm calls when watching target species handling food, in response to which targets flee to cover abandoning their food. The drongo-specific and mimicked calls made in false alarms were structurally indistinguishable from calls made during true alarms at predators by drongos and other species. Furthermore, I demonstrate by playback experiments that two of these species, meerkats (Suricata suricatta) and pied babblers (Turdoides bicolor), are deceived by both drongo-specific and mimicked false alarm calls. These results provide the first conclusive evidence that false alarm calls are deceptive and demonstrate a novel function for vocal mimicry. This work also provides valuable insight into the benefits of deploying variable mimetic signals in deceptive communication. PMID:21047861

  19. Ultrasonic Technology in Duress Alarms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Martha A.

    2000-01-01

    Provides the pros and cons of the most commonly used technologies in personal duress alarm systems in the school environment. Discussed are radio frequency devices, infrared systems, and ultrasonic technology. (GR)

  20. Parallax mitigation for hyperspectral change detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vongsy, Karmon; Eismann, Michael T.; Mendenhall, Michael J.; Velten, Vincent J.

    2014-06-01

    A pixel-level Generalized Likelihood Ratio Test (GLRT) statistic for hyperspectral change detection is developed to mitigate false change caused by image parallax. Change detection, in general, represents the difficult problem of discriminating significant changes opposed to insignificant changes caused by radiometric calibration, image registration issues, and varying view geometries. We assume that the images have been registered, and each pixel pair provides a measurement from the same spatial region in the scene. Although advanced image registration methods exist that can reduce mis-registration to subpixel levels; residual spatial mis-registration can still be incorrectly detected as significant changes. Similarly, changes in sensor viewing geometry can lead to parallax error in an urban cluttered scene where height structures, such as buildings, appear to move. Our algorithm looks to the inherent relationship between the image views and the theory of stereo vision to perform parallax mitigation leading to a search result in the assumed parallax direction. Mitigation of the parallax-induced false alarms is demonstrated using hyperspectral data in the experimental analysis. The algorithm is examined and compared to the existing chronochrome anomalous change detection algorithm to assess performance.

  1. Fire alarm system. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, S.G.

    1994-12-05

    This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the modifications to the Fire Protection systems function as required by project criteria. The ATP will test the Fire Alarm Control Panels, Flow Alarm Pressure Switch, Heat Detectors, Smoke Detectors, Flow Switches, Manual Pull Stations, and Gong/Door By-Pass Switches. This equipment is part of the Plutonium Finishing Plant life safety upgrade.

  2. Functional relationship-based alarm processing system

    DOEpatents

    Corsberg, Daniel R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1989-01-01

    A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the functional relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated or deactivated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously updated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on causal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). The alarm processing system and method is sensitive to the dynamic nature of the process being monitored and is capable of changing the relative importance of each alarm as necessary.

  3. Functional relationship-based alarm processing

    DOEpatents

    Corsberg, Daniel R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1988-01-01

    A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously oupdated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on caussal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action) expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). The alarm processing system and method is sensitive to the dynamic nature of the process being monitored and is capable of changing the relative importance of each alarm as necessary.

  4. Functional relationship-based alarm processing system

    DOEpatents

    Corsberg, D.R.

    1988-04-22

    A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the functional relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated or deactivated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously updated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on causal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). The alarm processing system and method is sensitive to the dynamic nature of the process being monitored and is capable of changing the relative importance of each alarm as necessary. 12 figs.

  5. Citing reports of alarm-related deaths, the Joint Commission issues a sentinel event alert for hospitals to improve medical device alarm safety.

    PubMed

    2013-06-01

    As medical devices become more widely used in hospitals, there is evidence that providers are becoming overwhelmed by the alarms that emanate from these machines. Experts link the problem with 566 alarm-related deaths reported in an FDA database between January 2005 and June 2010, and 80 alarm-related deaths reported in The Joint Commission's (TJC) own sentinel event database between January 2009 and June 2012. The ED is among the hospital sites where the adverse events reported to TJC most often occurred. Providers in some hospital units have to deal with thousands of alarm signals every day, and an estimated 85% to 95% of these alerts don't require any intervention, according to TJC. Experts say with so much noise and so many false alarms, clinicians can become desensitized to the medical-device alarms. The types of alarms that administrators should be most concerned about in the ED are dysrhythmia alarms on heart monitors, oxygen saturation alarms, and signals that a patient has a low respiratory rate. Experts urge hospitals to develop cross-disciplinary teams to address alarm safety on an ongoing basis, and to assemble action plans for improvement that contain baseline metrics that can be used to chart progress. PMID:23776996

  6. The Kepler False Positive Table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryson, Steve; Kepler False Positive Working Group

    2015-01-01

    The Kepler Space Telescope has detected thousands of candidate exoplanets by observing transit signals in a sample of more than 190,000 stars. Many of these transit signals are false positives, defined as a transit-like signal that is not due to a planet orbiting the target star (or a bound companion if the target is a multiple-star system). Astrophysical causes of false positives include background eclipsing binaries, planetary transits not associated with the target star, and non-planetary eclipses of the target star by stellar companions. The fraction of Kepler planet candidates that are false positives ranges from about 10% at high Galactic latitudes to 40% at low Galactic latitudes. Creating a high-reliability planet candidate catalog for statistical studies such as occurrence rate calculations requires removing clearly identified false positives.The Kepler Object of Interest (KOI) catalog at the NExScI NASA Exoplanet Archive flags false positives, and will soon provide a high-level classification of false positives, but lacks detailed description of why a KOI was determined to be a false positive. The Kepler False Positive Working Group (FPWG) examines each false positive in detail to certify that it is correctly identified as a false positive, and determines the primary reason(s) a KOI is classified as a false positive. The work of the FPWG will be published as the Kepler False Positive Table, hosted at the NExScI NASA Exoplanet Archive.The Kepler False Positive Table provides detailed information on the evidence for background binaries, transits caused by stellar companions, and false alarms. In addition to providing insight into the Kepler false positive population, the false positive table gives information about the background binary population and other areas of astrophysical interest. Because a planet around a star not associated with the target star is considered a false positive, the false positive table likely contains further planet candidates. This poster describes the creation of the false positive table, how false positives are certified, and the logical relationship between the various types of evidence and the final false positive determination.

  7. Perimeter security alarm system based on fiber Bragg grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cui; Wang, Lixin

    2010-11-01

    With the development of the society and economy and the improvement of living standards, people need more and more pressing security. Perimeter security alarm system is widely regarded as the first line of defense. A highly sensitive Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) vibration sensor based on the theory of the string vibration, combined with neural network adaptive dynamic programming algorithm for the perimeter security alarm system make the detection intelligently. Intelligent information processing unit identify the true cause of the vibration of the invasion or the natural environment by analyzing the frequency of vibration signals, energy, amplitude and duration. Compared with traditional perimeter security alarm systems, such as infrared perimeter security system and electric fence system, FBG perimeter security alarm system takes outdoor passive structures, free of electromagnetic interference, transmission distance through optical fiber can be as long as 20 km It is able to detect the location of event within short period of time (high-speed response, less than 3 second).This system can locate the fiber cable's breaking sites and alarm automatically if the cable were be cut. And the system can prevent effectively the false alarm from small animals, birds, strong wind, scattering things, snowfalls and vibration of sensor line itself. It can also be integrated into other security systems. This system can be widely used in variety fields such as military bases, nuclear sites, airports, warehouses, prisons, residence community etc. It will be a new force of perimeter security technology.

  8. Recent Results on "Approximations to Optimal Alarm Systems for Anomaly Detection"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Rodney Alexander

    2009-01-01

    An optimal alarm system and its approximations may use Kalman filtering for univariate linear dynamic systems driven by Gaussian noise to provide a layer of predictive capability. Predicted Kalman filter future process values and a fixed critical threshold can be used to construct a candidate level-crossing event over a predetermined prediction window. An optimal alarm system can be designed to elicit the fewest false alarms for a fixed detection probability in this particular scenario.

  9. The Best Ever Alarm System Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Kasemir, Kay; Chen, Xihui; Danilova, Katia

    2009-01-01

    Learning from our experience with the standard Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) alarm handler (ALH) as well as a similar intermediate approach based on script-generated operator screens, we developed the Best Ever Alarm System Toolkit (BEAST). It is based on Java and Eclipse on the Control System Studio (CSS) platform, using a relational database (RDB) to store the configuration and log actions. It employs a Java Message Service (JMS) for communication between the modular pieces of the toolkit, which include an Alarm Server to maintain the current alarm state, an arbitrary number of Alarm Client user interfaces (GUI), and tools to annunciate alarms or log alarm related actions. Web reports allow us to monitor the alarm system performance and spot deficiencies in the alarm configuration. The Alarm Client GUI not only gives the end users various ways to view alarms in tree and table, but also makes it easy to access the guidance information, the related operator displays and other CSS tools. It also allows online configuration to be simply modified from the GUI. Coupled with a good "alarm philosophy" on how to provide useful alarms, we can finally improve the configuration to achieve an effective alarm system.

  10. 46 CFR 58.25-25 - Indicating and alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Indicating and alarm systems. 58.25-25 Section 58.25-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY... accordance with 112.15-5(h) of this chapter, draw its power from the source of emergency power. (c) On...

  11. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure...

  12. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure...

  13. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure...

  14. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure...

  15. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure...

  16. 46 CFR 154.1842 - Cargo system: Controls and alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo system: Controls and alarms. 154.1842 Section 154.1842 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations 154.1842...

  17. 33 CFR 401.17 - Pitch indicators and alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pitch indicators and alarms. 401..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.17 Pitch... tug and barge unit of combined 1600 gross registered tons or more equipped with a variable...

  18. 33 CFR 401.17 - Pitch indicators and alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pitch indicators and alarms. 401..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.17 Pitch... tug and barge unit of combined 1600 gross registered tons or more equipped with a variable...

  19. 46 CFR 108.445 - Alarm and means of escape.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alarm and means of escape. 108.445 Section 108.445 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems §...

  20. 46 CFR 108.445 - Alarm and means of escape.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alarm and means of escape. 108.445 Section 108.445 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems §...

  1. 46 CFR 108.445 - Alarm and means of escape.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alarm and means of escape. 108.445 Section 108.445 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems §...

  2. 24 CFR 3280.208 - Smoke alarm requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Smoke alarm requirements. 3280.208 Section 3280.208 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED...

  3. 33 CFR 157.440 - Autopilot alarm or indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Autopilot alarm or indicator. 157.440 Section 157.440 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... autopilot status and warns personnel of the requirement to disengage the autopilot if positive...

  4. 46 CFR 27.201 - What are the requirements for general alarms on towing vessels?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What are the requirements for general alarms on towing vessels? 27.201 Section 27.201 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS TOWING VESSELS Fire-Protection Measures for Towing Vessels § 27.201 What are the requirements for general alarms on towing vessels? (a) You...

  5. 46 CFR 162.050-20 - Separator and bilge alarm test fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... § 162.050-20 Separator and bilge alarm test fluids. (a) Tests required in §§ 162.050-23 and 162.050-35 must be performed using the following three types of test fluids: (1) Test Fluid A, which is a marine... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Separator and bilge alarm test fluids....

  6. 30 CFR 57.14132 - Horns and backup alarms for surface equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Horns and backup alarms for surface equipment... NONMETAL MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14132 Horns and backup alarms for surface equipment. (a) Manually-operated horns or other audible warning...

  7. 30 CFR 57.14132 - Horns and backup alarms for surface equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Horns and backup alarms for surface equipment... NONMETAL MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14132 Horns and backup alarms for surface equipment. (a) Manually-operated horns or other audible warning...

  8. 30 CFR 57.14132 - Horns and backup alarms for surface equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Horns and backup alarms for surface equipment... NONMETAL MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14132 Horns and backup alarms for surface equipment. (a) Manually-operated horns or other audible warning...

  9. 30 CFR 57.14132 - Horns and backup alarms for surface equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Horns and backup alarms for surface equipment... NONMETAL MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14132 Horns and backup alarms for surface equipment. (a) Manually-operated horns or other audible warning...

  10. 30 CFR 57.14132 - Horns and backup alarms for surface equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Horns and backup alarms for surface equipment... NONMETAL MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14132 Horns and backup alarms for surface equipment. (a) Manually-operated horns or other audible warning...

  11. 46 CFR 113.25-8 - Distribution of general emergency alarm system feeders and branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Distribution of general emergency alarm system feeders and branch circuits. 113.25-8 Section 113.25-8 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency...

  12. 46 CFR 113.25-8 - Distribution of general emergency alarm system feeders and branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Distribution of general emergency alarm system feeders and branch circuits. 113.25-8 Section 113.25-8 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency...

  13. 46 CFR 113.25-8 - Distribution of general emergency alarm system feeders and branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Distribution of general emergency alarm system feeders and branch circuits. 113.25-8 Section 113.25-8 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency...

  14. 46 CFR 113.25-8 - Distribution of general emergency alarm system feeders and branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Distribution of general emergency alarm system feeders and branch circuits. 113.25-8 Section 113.25-8 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency...

  15. 46 CFR 113.25-8 - Distribution of general emergency alarm system feeders and branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Distribution of general emergency alarm system feeders and branch circuits. 113.25-8 Section 113.25-8 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency...

  16. 46 CFR 95.05-1 - Fire detecting, manual alarm, and supervised patrol systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire detecting, manual alarm, and supervised patrol... AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Detecting and Extinguishing Equipment, Where Required 95.05-1 Fire detecting, manual alarm, and supervised patrol systems. (a) Fire detecting,...

  17. 46 CFR 193.05-1 - Fire detecting, manual alarm, and supervised patrol systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire detecting, manual alarm, and supervised patrol...) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Detecting and Extinguishing Equipment, Where Required 193.05-1 Fire detecting, manual alarm, and supervised patrol systems. (a) Fire detecting,...

  18. 46 CFR 193.05-1 - Fire detecting, manual alarm, and supervised patrol systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire detecting, manual alarm, and supervised patrol...) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Detecting and Extinguishing Equipment, Where Required 193.05-1 Fire detecting, manual alarm, and supervised patrol systems. (a) Fire detecting,...

  19. 46 CFR 193.05-1 - Fire detecting, manual alarm, and supervised patrol systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire detecting, manual alarm, and supervised patrol...) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Detecting and Extinguishing Equipment, Where Required 193.05-1 Fire detecting, manual alarm, and supervised patrol systems. (a) Fire detecting,...

  20. 46 CFR 95.05-1 - Fire detecting, manual alarm, and supervised patrol systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire detecting, manual alarm, and supervised patrol... AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Detecting and Extinguishing Equipment, Where Required 95.05-1 Fire detecting, manual alarm, and supervised patrol systems. (a) Fire detecting,...

  1. 46 CFR 95.05-1 - Fire detecting, manual alarm, and supervised patrol systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire detecting, manual alarm, and supervised patrol... AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Detecting and Extinguishing Equipment, Where Required 95.05-1 Fire detecting, manual alarm, and supervised patrol systems. (a) Fire detecting,...

  2. 46 CFR 95.05-1 - Fire detecting, manual alarm, and supervised patrol systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire detecting, manual alarm, and supervised patrol... AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Detecting and Extinguishing Equipment, Where Required 95.05-1 Fire detecting, manual alarm, and supervised patrol systems. (a) Fire detecting,...

  3. 46 CFR 95.05-1 - Fire detecting, manual alarm, and supervised patrol systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire detecting, manual alarm, and supervised patrol... AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Detecting and Extinguishing Equipment, Where Required 95.05-1 Fire detecting, manual alarm, and supervised patrol systems. (a) Fire detecting,...

  4. 46 CFR 193.05-1 - Fire detecting, manual alarm, and supervised patrol systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire detecting, manual alarm, and supervised patrol...) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Detecting and Extinguishing Equipment, Where Required 193.05-1 Fire detecting, manual alarm, and supervised patrol systems. (a) Fire detecting,...

  5. 46 CFR 196.37-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each extinguishing system using carbon dioxide or clean agent complying with 46 CFR... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 196.37-9...

  6. 46 CFR 196.37-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each extinguishing system using carbon dioxide or clean agent complying with 46 CFR... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 196.37-9...

  7. 46 CFR 196.37-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each extinguishing system using carbon dioxide or clean agent complying with 46 CFR... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 196.37-9...

  8. 46 CFR 113.25-25 - General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. 113.25-25 Section 113.25-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Systems § 113.25-25 General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. A manned...

  9. 46 CFR 113.25-25 - General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. 113.25-25 Section 113.25-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Systems § 113.25-25 General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. A manned...

  10. 46 CFR 113.25-25 - General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. 113.25-25 Section 113.25-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Systems § 113.25-25 General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. A manned...

  11. 46 CFR 113.25-25 - General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. 113.25-25 Section 113.25-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Systems § 113.25-25 General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. A manned...

  12. 46 CFR 113.25-25 - General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. 113.25-25 Section 113.25-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Systems § 113.25-25 General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. A manned...

  13. Priority coding for control room alarms

    DOEpatents

    Scarola, Kenneth (Windsor, CT); Jamison, David S. (Windsor, CT); Manazir, Richard M. (North Canton, CT); Rescorl, Robert L. (Vernon, CT); Harmon, Daryl L. (Enfield, CT)

    1994-01-01

    Indicating the priority of a spatially fixed, activated alarm tile on an alarm tile array by a shape coding at the tile, and preferably using the same shape coding wherever the same alarm condition is indicated elsewhere in the control room. The status of an alarm tile can change automatically or by operator acknowledgement, but tones and/or flashing cues continue to provide status information to the operator.

  14. Make an Alarm! Grades 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, Erik; Ryan, Emily; Swift, Charles

    After reading the story "Dear Mr. Henshaw" by Beverly Cleary, students build an alarm system for something in the classroom as the main character, Leigh, does to protect his lunchbox from thieves. Students learn about alarms and use their creativity to create an alarm system to protect their lockers, desk, or classroom door. This activity uses a

  15. SUBSURFACE VISUAL ALARM SYSTEM ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    D.W. Markman

    2001-08-06

    The ''Subsurface Fire Hazard Analysis'' (CRWMS M&O 1998, page 61), and the document, ''Title III Evaluation Report for the Surface and Subsurface Communication System'', (CRWMS M&O 1999a, pages 21 and 23), both indicate the installed communication system is adequate to support Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) activities with the exception of the mine phone system for emergency notification purposes. They recommend the installation of a visual alarm system to supplement the page/party phone system The purpose of this analysis is to identify data communication highway design approaches, and provide justification for the selected or recommended alternatives for the data communication of the subsurface visual alarm system. This analysis is being prepared to document a basis for the design selection of the data communication method. This analysis will briefly describe existing data or voice communication or monitoring systems within the ESF, and look at how these may be revised or adapted to support the needed data highway of the subsurface visual alarm. system. The existing PLC communication system installed in subsurface is providing data communication for alcove No.5 ventilation fans, south portal ventilation fans, bulkhead doors and generator monitoring system. It is given that the data communication of the subsurface visual alarm system will be a digital based system. It is also given that it is most feasible to take advantage of existing systems and equipment and not consider an entirely new data communication system design and installation. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Briefly review and describe existing available data communication highways or systems within the ESF. (2) Examine technical characteristics of an existing system to disqualify a design alternative is paramount in minimizing the number of and depth of a system review. (3) Apply general engineering design practices or criteria such as relative cost, and degree of difficulty and complexity in determining requirements in adapting existing data communication highways to support the subsurface visual alarm system. These requirements would include such things as added or new communication cables, added Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), Inputs and Outputs (I/O), and communication hardware components, and human machine interfaces and their software operating system. (4) Select the best data communication highway system based on this review of adapting or integrating with existing data communication systems.

  16. INEL central alarm monitoring and assessment system

    SciTech Connect

    Niper, E.D.

    1983-07-01

    This paper concerns the design and development of a centrally located security monitoring and assessment system for processing alarms at several remote facilities. The system provides both live and recorded CCTV assessment of alarmed areas. Computer controlled video disc recordings are made at the time the alarm is activated. Alarming areas are displayed on a color graphics monitor and an operator interacts through an overlying transparent touch panel. Computer-generated messages are also displayed to assist and inform the operator. A bidirectional, frequency-multiplexed cable system provides digital alarm information, video control commands, and several channels of video from each remote facility.

  17. HYBRID ALARM SYSTEMS: COMBINING SPATIAL ALARMS AND ALARM LISTS FOR OPTIMIZED CONTROL ROOM OPERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring; J.J. Persensky

    2012-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research, development, and deployment on Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS), in which the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is working closely with nuclear utilities to develop technologies and solutions to help ensure the safe operational life extension of current nuclear power plants. One of the main areas of focus is control room modernization. Within control room modernization, alarm system upgrades present opportunities to meet the broader goals of the LWRS project in demonstrating the use and safety of the advanced instrumentation and control (I&C) technologies and the short-term and longer term objectives of the plant. In this paper, we review approaches for and human factors issues behind upgrading alarms in the main control room of nuclear power plants.

  18. [Analysis of alarm management and alarm information integration technology for ICU's medical device].

    PubMed

    Shen, Yunming; Zheng, Kun; Wu, Sheng; Wang, Lin; Chen, Long

    2014-07-01

    This paper analyzed current problems and challenges facing hospitals in alarm management both abroad and at home. Based on a survey conducted on alarm management in hospitals, plus an analysis on different kinds of data interfaces and data exchange protocols of the medical equipment used in ICUs, a solution of alarm management is put forwarded which is based on alarm information integration and processing. It aims at improving medical equipment alarm management and reducing relevant adverse events. PMID:25330608

  19. Smoke alarm use: prevalence and household predictors.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, I.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of smoke alarm use among families with children and to identify household factors that predict the absence of a smoke alarm. DESIGN: Cross sectional analysis of data collected in the September and November 1995 Omnibus Survey, conducted by the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys in the UK. SUBJECTS: A random sample of British households. Interviews were completed with 4,043 householders. The response rate was 78%. RESULTS: 29% of British households do not have a smoke alarm and smoke alarms were absent in 20% of households with children under 15 years. A smoke alarm was absent in 41% of privately rented homes compared with 17% of owner occupied homes. Living in private rental accommodation was the strongest household predictor of the absence of a smoke alarm (odds ratio = 3.25, 95% confidence interval 1.94 to 5.42). Householders who had heard of National Fire Safety Week or the TV smoke alarm advertising campaign were significantly more likely to have a smoke alarm. The apparent effect of these campaigns was greatest in families with children. CONCLUSIONS: Smoke alarm use has continued to increase but a substantial proportion of British homes still do not have smoke alarms. Homes at greatest risk of residential fire are the least likely to have an alarm. Health professionals may be able to increase smoke alarm use among families with children, by counselling families about the benefits of smoke alarms. They may also be effective in this regard by lobbying local councils, houseing associations, or private landlords to install alarms in all properties and by advocating for national legislation. PMID:9346105

  20. Alarm sensor apparatus for closures

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, J.A.; Stoddard, L.M.

    1984-01-31

    An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or framework and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

  1. Alarm sensor apparatus for closures

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, James A.; Stoddard, Lawrence M.

    1986-01-01

    An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or frame work and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

  2. MRDIS Standalone Central Alarm Station

    SciTech Connect

    2012-09-12

    The MRDIS Standalone Central Alarm Station(MRDIS-CAS} is a software system for receiving, storing, and reviewing radiation data collected by the Mobile Radiation Detection and Identification System (MRDIS}, a mobile radiation scanning system developed for use in foreign ports for the DOE Megaports Initiative. It is designed to run on one of the on board computers in the MRDIS cab. It will collect, store, and display data from the MRDIS without the need for wireless communications or centralized server technology. It is intended to be a lightweight replacement for a distributed Megaports communication system in ports where the necessary communications infrastructure does not exist for a full Megaports communications system.

  3. Video systems for alarm assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwoll, D.A.; Matter, J.C. ); Ebel, P.E. )

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing closed-circuit television systems for video alarm assessment. There is a section on each of the major components in a video system: camera, lens, lighting, transmission, synchronization, switcher, monitor, and recorder. Each section includes information on component selection, procurement, installation, test, and maintenance. Considerations for system integration of the components are contained in each section. System emphasis is focused on perimeter intrusion detection and assessment systems. A glossary of video terms is included. 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  4. Alarm toe switch. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Ganyard, F.P.

    1980-11-18

    An alarm toe switch inserted within a shoe for energizing an alarm circuit in a covert manner includes an insole mounting pad into which a miniature reed switch is fixedly molded. An elongated slot perpendicular to the reed switch is formed in the bottom surface of the mounting pad. A permanent cylindrical magnet positioned in the forward portion of the slot with a diameter greater than the pad thickness causes a bump above the pad. A foam rubber block is also positioned in the slot rearwardly of the magnet and holds the magnet in normal inoperative relation. A non-magnetic support plate covers the slot and holds the magnet and foam rubber in the slot. The plate minimizes bending and frictional forces to improve movement of the magnet for reliable switch activation. The bump occupies the knuckle space beneath the big toe. When the big toe is scrunched rearwardly the magnet is moved within the slot relative to the reed switch, thus magnetically activating the switch. When toe pressure is released the foam rubber block forces the magnet back into normal inoperative position to deactivate the reed switch.

  5. D0 Cryogenic Auto Dialing Alarm System

    SciTech Connect

    Markely, D.; /Fermilab

    1992-08-03

    The Automatic Dialing system purchased by D0 is intended to help make the D0 cryogenic system operate unattended by cryogenic operating personnel. The auto dialer is completely programmable and is voice synthesized. The auto dialer was purchased with 32 bistable inputs, but is expandable to 64 bistable inputs with the purchase of more electronic cards at an approximate cost of $260 per card (8 bistable inputs). The auto dialer also has the capability for analog inputs, analog outputs, and bistable outputs none of which D0 uses or intends to use. The auto dialer can be called on its operating phone line to describe current alarms with the proper password. The Auto Dialer can dial lab extensions, lab pagers, and any number outside the lab. It cannot dial a long distance pager. The auto dialer monitors alarms and alarm conditions via the T1565 PLC, upon an alarm condition it initiates a phone calling sequence of preprogrammed lists with assigned priorities. When someone is reached, the auto dialer describes the individual alarm it is calling for, by a preprogrammed set of words for that individual alarm, spoken by a female voice. The called person then has a chance to acknowledge the alarm over the telephone, if the alarm is not acknowledged the auto dialer will disconnect and call the next person on the list. The auto dialer will continue to cycle through the list until it is acknowledged, reset, or the alarm condition no longer exists.

  6. Advanced alarm systems: Display and processing issues

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.M.; Wachtel, J.; Perensky, J.

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes a research program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to address the human factors engineering (HFE) deficiencies associated with nuclear power plant alarm systems. The overall objective of the study is to develop HFE review guidance for alarm systems. In support of this objective, human performance issues needing additional research were identified. Among the important issues were alarm processing strategies and alarm display techniques. This paper will discuss these issues and briefly describe our current research plan to address them.

  7. Development of real time alarm/surveillance system

    SciTech Connect

    Kajiyoshi, M.; Uchida, S.; Suenaga, S.; Iwabuchi, M.; Fujimoto, T.; Yoshimura, A.

    1987-07-01

    PNC has carried out real time alarm/surveillance system as a part of its r and d programs on the physical protection systems for its nuclear facilities from 1984 to 1986. The guard operates a closed circuit television (CCTV) camera to see whether the alarms are caused from intruders or from accident in the existing physical protection systems. But it is very difficult to assess rapidly moving objects using such a TV system. Monitor images are used to be continuously recorded by VTR, but it does not seem to be very suitable or it takes quite a long time to play back. Aiming at more effective and reliable physical protection systems, a new alarm/surveillance system was developed, the system detects persons entering into the surveillance zone and provides effective means to confirm. The system detects moving persons in a double fenced zone using image processing technique. Detection information such as time, position, detected images are displayed, printed and recorded, so that cause of false alarms, if occurred can be found easily.

  8. MRDIS Standalone Central Alarm Station

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-09-12

    The MRDIS Standalone Central Alarm Station(MRDIS-CAS} is a software system for receiving, storing, and reviewing radiation data collected by the Mobile Radiation Detection and Identification System (MRDIS}, a mobile radiation scanning system developed for use in foreign ports for the DOE Megaports Initiative. It is designed to run on one of the on board computers in the MRDIS cab. It will collect, store, and display data from the MRDIS without the need for wireless communicationsmore » or centralized server technology. It is intended to be a lightweight replacement for a distributed Megaports communication system in ports where the necessary communications infrastructure does not exist for a full Megaports communications system.« less

  9. 23 CFR 710.513 - Environmental mitigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... wetland mitigation sites and other mitigation banks is governed by 23 CFR part 777. (b) Environmental... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Environmental mitigation. 710.513 Section 710.513...-WAY AND REAL ESTATE Property Acquisition Alternatives 710.513 Environmental mitigation. (a)...

  10. 23 CFR 710.513 - Environmental mitigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... wetland mitigation sites and other mitigation banks is governed by 23 CFR part 777. (b) Environmental... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental mitigation. 710.513 Section 710.513...-WAY AND REAL ESTATE Property Acquisition Alternatives 710.513 Environmental mitigation. (a)...

  11. Development of medical equipment alarm monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Yoshinori; Ogaito, Tatoku; Kasamatsu, Shingo

    2013-01-01

    In a hospital, we use a large number of medical equipment. In these use, I support the safe use by the alarm such as errors from medical equipment. There is the instrument notifying of alarm in communication, but there is the instrument by a sound and the light. For the medical safety management, confirmation of the alarm is important. We thought that stability was improved by integrating alarm from the instrument of the different type. Therefore, we thought that we integrated alarm from medical equipment. We decided to transmit an alarm signal from medical equipment by adding radio module program unit. The type of the radio used IEEE 802.15.4 (ZigBee) at a point of view of low power, International Standard, simple radio equipment. This system deals with only alarm information from medical equipment and does not handle the data. However, we understood that we were helpful very much even if it was only alarm information. We were able to in this way reduce the number of incidents. PMID:23920969

  12. 46 CFR 193.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon... lockers and similar small spaces, shall be fitted with an approved audible alarm which will be automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space. The alarm shall be conspicuously...

  13. 46 CFR 95.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-30 Alarms. (a) Spaces which are protected by a carbon... audible alarm in such spaces which will be automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to... sound during the 20 second delay period prior to the discharge of carbon dioxide into the space, and...

  14. 46 CFR 95.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-30 Alarms. (a) Spaces which are protected by a carbon... audible alarm in such spaces which will be automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to... sound during the 20 second delay period prior to the discharge of carbon dioxide into the space, and...

  15. T-Farm complex alarm upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    The alarm and controls associated with the T, TX, and TY farms are located in the 242-T control room. The design data for replacement and upgrades of the alarm panels is in this document. This task was canceled previous to the 90% design review point.

  16. 46 CFR 31.35-5 - Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc.-TB/ALL. 31.35-5 Section 31.35-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc.TB/ALL. All...

  17. 46 CFR 31.35-5 - Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc.-TB/ALL. 31.35-5 Section 31.35-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc.TB/ALL. All...

  18. 46 CFR 31.35-5 - Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc.-TB/ALL. 31.35-5 Section 31.35-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Electrical Engineering § 31.35-5 Communications; alarm systems, telephone...

  19. 46 CFR 35.40-7 - Carbon dioxide alarm-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm-T/ALL. 35.40-7 Section 35.40-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Posting and Marking Requirements-TB/ALL. § 35.40-7 Carbon dioxide alarm—T/ALL. Adjacent to all carbon dioxide fire extinguishing alarms installed after November 19, 1952,...

  20. Earthquake alarm system for the Maui-A offshore platform, New Zealand

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, R.G.; Beck, J.L.

    1983-02-01

    Situated in the Tasman Sea, the Maui A offshore gas production platform has an earthquake alarm system that gives immediate warning when the seismic accelerations reach half the platform's design level. The system monitors only the response of the lower modes of the platform, as these make the major contribution to the stresses in the structure. In order to reduce the risk of false alarms, a radio link with similar detectors on shore confirms that an earthquake has occurred.

  1. Aquarius RFI Detection and Mitigation Algorithm: Assessment and Examples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Vine, David M.; De Matthaeis, P.; Ruf, Christopher S.; Chen, D. D.

    2013-01-01

    Aquarius is an L-band radiometer system designed to map sea surface salinity from space. This is a sensitive measurement, and protection from radio frequency interference (RFI) is important for success. An initial look at the performance of the Aquarius RFI detection and mitigation algorithm is reported together with examples of the global distribution of RFI at the L-band. To protect against RFI, Aquarius employs rapid sampling (10 ms) and a "glitch" detection algorithm that looks for outliers among the samples. Samples identified as RFI are removed, and the remainder is averaged to produce an RFI-free signal for the salinity retrieval algorithm. The RFI detection algorithm appears to work well over the ocean with modest rates for false alarms (5%) and missed detection. The global distribution of RFI coincides well with population centers and is consistent with observations reported by the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity mission.

  2. Alarming features: birds use specific acoustic properties to identify heterospecific alarm calls

    PubMed Central

    Fallow, Pamela M.; Pitcher, Benjamin J.; Magrath, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    Vertebrates that eavesdrop on heterospecific alarm calls must distinguish alarms from sounds that can safely be ignored, but the mechanisms for identifying heterospecific alarm calls are poorly understood. While vertebrates learn to identify heterospecific alarms through experience, some can also respond to unfamiliar alarm calls that are acoustically similar to conspecific alarm calls. We used synthetic calls to test the role of specific acoustic properties in alarm call identification by superb fairy-wrens, Malurus cyaneus. Individuals fled more often in response to synthetic calls with peak frequencies closer to those of conspecific calls, even if other acoustic features were dissimilar to that of fairy-wren calls. Further, they then spent more time in cover following calls that had both peak frequencies and frequency modulation rates closer to natural fairy-wren means. Thus, fairy-wrens use similarity in specific acoustic properties to identify alarms and adjust a two-stage antipredator response. Our study reveals how birds respond to heterospecific alarm calls without experience, and, together with previous work using playback of natural calls, shows that both acoustic similarity and learning are important for interspecific eavesdropping. More generally, this study reconciles contrasting views on the importance of alarm signal structure and learning in recognition of heterospecific alarms. PMID:23303539

  3. Alarming features: birds use specific acoustic properties to identify heterospecific alarm calls.

    PubMed

    Fallow, Pamela M; Pitcher, Benjamin J; Magrath, Robert D

    2013-03-01

    Vertebrates that eavesdrop on heterospecific alarm calls must distinguish alarms from sounds that can safely be ignored, but the mechanisms for identifying heterospecific alarm calls are poorly understood. While vertebrates learn to identify heterospecific alarms through experience, some can also respond to unfamiliar alarm calls that are acoustically similar to conspecific alarm calls. We used synthetic calls to test the role of specific acoustic properties in alarm call identification by superb fairy-wrens, Malurus cyaneus. Individuals fled more often in response to synthetic calls with peak frequencies closer to those of conspecific calls, even if other acoustic features were dissimilar to that of fairy-wren calls. Further, they then spent more time in cover following calls that had both peak frequencies and frequency modulation rates closer to natural fairy-wren means. Thus, fairy-wrens use similarity in specific acoustic properties to identify alarms and adjust a two-stage antipredator response. Our study reveals how birds respond to heterospecific alarm calls without experience, and, together with previous work using playback of natural calls, shows that both acoustic similarity and learning are important for interspecific eavesdropping. More generally, this study reconciles contrasting views on the importance of alarm signal structure and learning in recognition of heterospecific alarms. PMID:23303539

  4. Comprehensive smoke alarm coverage in lower economic status homes: alarm presence, functionality, and placement.

    PubMed

    Sidman, Elanor A; Grossman, David C; Mueller, Beth A

    2011-08-01

    The objectives of this study are to estimate smoke alarm coverage and adherence with national guidelines in low- to mid-value owner-occupied residences, and to identify resident demographic, behavioral, and building characteristics and other fire and burn safety practices associated with smoke alarm utilization. Baseline visits were conducted with 779 households in King County, Washington, for a randomized trial of smoke alarm functionality. Presence, functionality, features, and location of pre-existing smoke alarms were ascertained by staff observation and testing. Household and building descriptors were collected using questionnaires. Households were classified by presence of smoke alarms, functional alarms, and functional and properly mounted alarms placed in hallways and on each floor but not in recommended avoidance locations. Smoke alarms were present in 89%, and functional units in 78%, of households. Only 6-38% met all assessed functionality and placement recommendations. Homes frequently lacked alarms in any bedrooms or on each floor. Building age, but not renovation status, was associated with all dimensions of smoke alarm coverage; post-1980 constructions were 1.7 times more likely to comply with placement recommendations than were pre-1941 homes (95% CI: 1.1-2.6). Respondent education and race/ethnicity, children <5years, residency duration, number of floors, wood stoves and fireplaces, number of smoke alarms, recency of smoke alarm testing, carbon monoxide monitors, and fire ladders displayed varying relationships with alarm presence, functionality, and placement. Strategies for maintaining smoke alarms in functional condition and improving compliance with placement recommendations are necessary to achieve universal coverage, and will benefit the majority of households. PMID:21107891

  5. INEL central alarm monitoring and assessment system

    SciTech Connect

    Niper, E.D.

    1983-01-01

    This paper concerns the design and development of a centrally located security monitoring and assessment system for processing alarms at several remote facilities. The system provides both live and recorded CCTV assessment of alarmed areas. Computer controlled video disc recordings are displayed on a color graphics monitor and an operator interacts through an overlying transparent touch panel. Computer generated messages are also displayed to assist and inform the operator. A bidirectional, frequency-multiplexed cable system provides digital alarm information, video control commands, and several channels of video from each remote facility.

  6. [False recognition in visual short-term memory of the elderly is affected by test methods].

    PubMed

    Kunimi, Mitsunobu; Matsukawa, Junko

    2011-10-01

    We confirmed an increase in false recognition for visual short-term memory of the elderly using a recognition task, which was affected by the test method. Old/new judgments and a forced-choice task were used as the recognition tasks and the hit rate, false alarm rate, and d' for each task were compared across age groups. The results indicated that there were significant differences in the hit rate, false alarm rate and d' across age groups for both recognition tasks. However, in the forced-choice task, where judgments could depend on familiarity, the false alarm rate among the elderly group decreased and differences in d' across age groups became smaller. The elderly could input sight information, but had more difficulty to input the geometric details. We concluded that the false alarm rate for short term visual memory increases in the elderly, but it decreases when recognition judgments can be made based on familiarity. PMID:22117305

  7. The false classification of extinction risk in noisy environments

    PubMed Central

    Connors, B. M.; Cooper, A. B.; Peterman, R. M.; Dulvy, N. K.

    2014-01-01

    Abundance trends are the basis for many classifications of threat and recovery status, but they can be a challenge to interpret because of observation error, stochastic variation in abundance (process noise) and temporal autocorrelation in that process noise. To measure the frequency of incorrectly detecting a decline (false-positive or false alarm) and failing to detect a true decline (false-negative), we simulated stable and declining abundance time series across several magnitudes of observation error and autocorrelated process noise. We then empirically estimated the magnitude of observation error and autocorrelated process noise across a broad range of taxa and mapped these estimates onto the simulated parameter space. Based on the taxa we examined, at low classification thresholds (30% decline in abundance) and short observation windows (10 years), false alarms would be expected to occur, on average, about 40% of the time assuming density-independent dynamics, whereas false-negatives would be expected to occur about 60% of the time. However, false alarms and failures to detect true declines were reduced at higher classification thresholds (50% or 80% declines), longer observation windows (20, 40, 60 years), and assuming density-dependent dynamics. The lowest false-positive and false-negative rates are likely to occur for large-bodied, long-lived animal species. PMID:24898368

  8. The false classification of extinction risk in noisy environments.

    PubMed

    Connors, B M; Cooper, A B; Peterman, R M; Dulvy, N K

    2014-07-22

    Abundance trends are the basis for many classifications of threat and recovery status, but they can be a challenge to interpret because of observation error, stochastic variation in abundance (process noise) and temporal autocorrelation in that process noise. To measure the frequency of incorrectly detecting a decline (false-positive or false alarm) and failing to detect a true decline (false-negative), we simulated stable and declining abundance time series across several magnitudes of observation error and autocorrelated process noise. We then empirically estimated the magnitude of observation error and autocorrelated process noise across a broad range of taxa and mapped these estimates onto the simulated parameter space. Based on the taxa we examined, at low classification thresholds (30% decline in abundance) and short observation windows (10 years), false alarms would be expected to occur, on average, about 40% of the time assuming density-independent dynamics, whereas false-negatives would be expected to occur about 60% of the time. However, false alarms and failures to detect true declines were reduced at higher classification thresholds (50% or 80% declines), longer observation windows (20, 40, 60 years), and assuming density-dependent dynamics. The lowest false-positive and false-negative rates are likely to occur for large-bodied, long-lived animal species. PMID:24898368

  9. 46 CFR 95.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... conspicuously and centrally located and be marked as required by 46 CFR 97.37-9; and (3) Use stored gas power... approved audible alarm if: (1) The space is normally accessible to persons onboard while the vessel...

  10. Alarm Systems: Library Confounds Criminal Capers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gjettum, Pamela

    1978-01-01

    Tells the story of a small town library faced with the problem of preventing nuisance burglaries of the type becoming more and more common. The problems of selecting the right type of alarm system are discussed. (JPF)

  11. 46 CFR 95.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... conspicuously and centrally located and be marked as required by 46 CFR 97.37-9; and (3) Use stored gas power... approved audible alarm if: (1) The space is normally accessible to persons onboard while the vessel...

  12. New cases of HIV among people who inject drugs in Hungary: False alarm or early warning?

    PubMed

    Rcz, Jzsef; Gyarmathy, V Anna; Csk, Rbert

    2016-01-01

    Between 2009 and the first quarter of 2014, only one case of HIV (contracted outside Hungary) was detected among PWIDs in Hungary. However, more recent evidence suggests increased sharing of injecting paraphernalia among PWIDs. This is linked to the emergence of new designer drugs that require frequent injection, alongside funding cuts to the Hungarian needle exchange program (NEP) which has reduced access to sterile injecting equipment. During the past five years in Hungary, drug use has become increasingly discussed in moral as opposed to public health terms, and drug consumption has been re-criminalized. The largest NEP in Hungary was closed because of political pressure and government funding for regular HCV/HIV testing/counselling and seroprevalence studies among PWIDs has been stopped. This paper describes the detection of two new cases of HIV infection in PWIDs attending two NEPs in Budapest in May 2014. These new cases may indicate an unfolding HIV outbreak among PWIDs-similar to those reported in Greece and Romania. Yet the question remains: If no further HIV cases are detected, is this because there are no new cases or because there are no testing facilities for PWID? PMID:26251353

  13. False alarms and missed events: the impact and origins of perceived inaccuracy in tornado warning systems.

    PubMed

    Ripberger, Joseph T; Silva, Carol L; Jenkins-Smith, Hank C; Carlson, Deven E; James, Mark; Herron, Kerry G

    2015-01-01

    Theory and conventional wisdom suggest that errors undermine the credibility of tornado warning systems and thus decrease the probability that individuals will comply (i.e., engage in protective action) when future warnings are issued. Unfortunately, empirical research on the influence of warning system accuracy on public responses to tornado warnings is incomplete and inconclusive. This study adds to existing research by analyzing two sets of relationships. First, we assess the relationship between perceptions of accuracy, credibility, and warning response. Using data collected via a large regional survey, we find that trust in the National Weather Service (NWS; the agency responsible for issuing tornado warnings) increases the likelihood that an individual will opt for protective action when responding to a hypothetical warning. More importantly, we find that subjective perceptions of warning system accuracy are, as theory suggests, systematically related to trust in the NWS and (by extension) stated responses to future warnings. The second half of the study matches survey data against NWS warning and event archives to investigate a critical follow-up question--Why do some people perceive that their warning system is accurate, whereas others perceive that their system is error prone? We find that subjective perceptions are--in part-a function of objective experience, knowledge, and demographic characteristics. When considered in tandem, these findings support the proposition that errors influence perceptions about the accuracy of warning systems, which in turn impact the credibility that people assign to information provided by systems and, ultimately, public decisions about how to respond when warnings are issued. PMID:25082540

  14. Biochemical Detection and Identification False Alarm Rate Dependence on Wavelength Using Laser Induced Fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhartia, R.; Hug, W. F.; Sala, E. C.; Sijapati, K.; Lane, A. L.; Reid, R. D.; Conrad, P. G.

    2006-01-01

    Most organic and many inorganic materials absorb strongly in specific wavelength ranges in the deep UV between about 220nm and 300nm. Excitation within these absorption bands results in native fluorescence emission. Each compound or composite material, such as a bacterial spore, has a unique excitation-emission fingerprint that can be used to provide information about the material. The sensitivity and specificity with which these materials can be detected and identified depends on the excitation wavelength and the number and location of observation wavelengths.We will present data on our deep ultraviolet Targeted Ultraviolet Chemical Sensors that demonstrate the sensitivity and specificity of the sensors. In particular, we will demonstrate the ability to quantitatively differentiate a wide range of biochemical agent targets against a wide range of background materials. We will describe the relationship between spectral resolution and specificity in target identification, as well as simple, fast, algorithms to identify materials.Hand-held, battery operated instruments using a deep UV laser and multi-band detection have been developed and deployed on missions to the Antarctic, the Arctic, and the deep ocean with the capability of detecting a single bacterial spore and to differentiate a wide range of organic and biological compounds.

  15. The FDA alert on suicidality and antiepileptic drugs: Fire or false alarm?

    PubMed

    Hesdorffer, Dale C; Kanner, Andres M

    2009-05-01

    In January 2008, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an alert about an increased risk for suicidality in 199 clinical trials of 11 antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) for three different indications, including epilepsy. An advisory panel voted against a black-box warning on AED labels, and the FDA has accepted this recommendation. We discuss three potential problems with the alert. First, adverse event data were used rather than systematically collected data. Second, the 11 drugs grouped together as a single class of AEDs have different mechanisms of action and very different relative risks, many of which were not statistically significant and some of which were smaller than one. These facts suggest that they should not be grouped as a class. Third, the risk of adverse effects from uncontrolled seizures almost certainly outweighs the small risk of suicidality. We place our comments in the context of a review of the literature on suicidality and depression in epilepsy and the sparse literature on AEDs and suicidality. We recommend that all patients with epilepsy be routinely evaluated for depression, anxiety, and suicidality, and that future clinical trials include validated instruments to systematically assess these conditions to determine whether the possible signal observed by the FDA is real. PMID:19496806

  16. False alarms, real challenges--one university's communication response to the 2001 anthrax crisis.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Christopher E; Chess, Caron

    2006-01-01

    Considerable research exists on how government agencies at the federal, state, and local levels communicated during the fall 2001 anthrax attacks. However, there is little research on how other institutions handled this crisis, in terms of their response to potential anthrax contamination (aka "white powder scares") and their approach to disseminating important health and safety information. In this article, we investigate a major university's communication response to the anthrax crisis. First, we describe its communication experiences relating to a large white powder scare that occurred in October 2001. Second, we describe the university's broader communication efforts in terms of several important elements of risk communication research, including influence of source attributes, key messages, preferred channels, responses to information requests, and organizational influences. This study underlines that an institution does not have to be directly affected by a crisis to find itself on the communication "front lines." Moreover, other institutions may find it useful to learn from the experiences of this university, so that they may communicate more effectively during future crises. PMID:16545026

  17. 44 CFR 78.5 - Flood Mitigation Plan development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flood Mitigation Plan..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION ASSISTANCE § 78.5 Flood Mitigation Plan development. A Flood Mitigation Plan will articulate...

  18. 44 CFR 78.5 - Flood Mitigation Plan development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flood Mitigation Plan..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION ASSISTANCE § 78.5 Flood Mitigation Plan development. A Flood Mitigation Plan will articulate...

  19. MSPI False Indication Probability Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Dana Kelly; Kurt Vedros; Robert Youngblood

    2011-03-01

    This paper examines false indication probabilities in the context of the Mitigating System Performance Index (MSPI), in order to investigate the pros and cons of different approaches to resolving two coupled issues: (1) sensitivity to the prior distribution used in calculating the Bayesian-corrected unreliability contribution to the MSPI, and (2) whether (in a particular plant configuration) to model the fuel oil transfer pump (FOTP) as a separate component, or integrally to its emergency diesel generator (EDG). False indication probabilities were calculated for the following situations: (1) all component reliability parameters at their baseline values, so that the true indication is green, meaning that an indication of white or above would be false positive; (2) one or more components degraded to the extent that the true indication would be (mid) white, and “false” would be green (negative) or yellow (negative) or red (negative). In key respects, this was the approach taken in NUREG-1753. The prior distributions examined were the constrained noninformative (CNI) prior used currently by the MSPI, a mixture of conjugate priors, the Jeffreys noninformative prior, a nonconjugate log(istic)-normal prior, and the minimally informative prior investigated in (Kelly et al., 2010). The mid-white performance state was set at ?CDF = ?10 ? 10-6/yr. For each simulated time history, a check is made of whether the calculated ?CDF is above or below 10-6/yr. If the parameters were at their baseline values, and ?CDF > 10-6/yr, this is counted as a false positive. Conversely, if one or all of the parameters are set to values corresponding to ?CDF > 10-6/yr but that time history’s ?CDF < 10-6/yr, this is counted as a false negative indication. The false indication (positive or negative) probability is then estimated as the number of false positive or negative counts divided by the number of time histories (100,000). Results are presented for a set of base case parameter values, and three sensitivity cases in which the number of FOTP demands was reduced, along with the Birnbaum importance of the FOTP.

  20. Insights into the Problem of Alarm Fatigue with Physiologic Monitor Devices: A Comprehensive Observational Study of Consecutive Intensive Care Unit Patients

    PubMed Central

    Drew, Barbara J.; Harris, Patricia; Zgre-Hemsey, Jessica K.; Mammone, Tina; Schindler, Daniel; Salas-Boni, Rebeca; Bai, Yong; Tinoco, Adelita; Ding, Quan; Hu, Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Physiologic monitors are plagued with alarms that create a cacophony of sounds and visual alerts causing alarm fatigue which creates an unsafe patient environment because a life-threatening event may be missed in this milieu of sensory overload. Using a state-of-the-art technology acquisition infrastructure, all monitor data including 7 ECG leads, all pressure, SpO2, and respiration waveforms as well as user settings and alarms were stored on 461 adults treated in intensive care units. Using a well-defined alarm annotation protocol, nurse scientists with 95% inter-rater reliability annotated 12,671 arrhythmia alarms. Results A total of 2,558,760 unique alarms occurred in the 31-day study period: arrhythmia, 1,154,201; parameter, 612,927; technical, 791,632. There were 381,560 audible alarms for an audible alarm burden of 187/bed/day. 88.8% of the 12,671 annotated arrhythmia alarms were false positives. Conditions causing excessive alarms included inappropriate alarm settings, persistent atrial fibrillation, and non-actionable events such as PVC's and brief spikes in ST segments. Low amplitude QRS complexes in some, but not all available ECG leads caused undercounting and false arrhythmia alarms. Wide QRS complexes due to bundle branch block or ventricular pacemaker rhythm caused false alarms. 93% of the 168 true ventricular tachycardia alarms were not sustained long enough to warrant treatment. Discussion The excessive number of physiologic monitor alarms is a complex interplay of inappropriate user settings, patient conditions, and algorithm deficiencies. Device solutions should focus on use of all available ECG leads to identify non-artifact leads and leads with adequate QRS amplitude. Devices should provide prompts to aide in more appropriate tailoring of alarm settings to individual patients. Atrial fibrillation alarms should be limited to new onset and termination of the arrhythmia and delays for ST-segment and other parameter alarms should be configurable. Because computer devices are more reliable than humans, an opportunity exists to improve physiologic monitoring and reduce alarm fatigue. PMID:25338067

  1. Low Power Wireless Smoke Alarm System in Home Fires.

    PubMed

    Aponte Luis, Juan; Gómez Galán, Juan Antonio; Alcina Espigado, Javier

    2015-01-01

    A novel sensing device for fire detection in domestic environments is presented. The fire detector uses a combination of several sensors that not only detect smoke, but discriminate between different types of smoke. This feature avoids false alarms and warns of different situations. Power consumption is optimized both in terms of hardware and software, providing a high degree of autonomy of almost five years. Data gathered from the device are transmitted through a wireless communication to a base station. The low cost and compact design provides wide application prospects. PMID:26307994

  2. Low Power Wireless Smoke Alarm System in Home Fires

    PubMed Central

    Luis, Juan Aponte; Galán, Juan Antonio Gómez; Espigado, Javier Alcina

    2015-01-01

    A novel sensing device for fire detection in domestic environments is presented. The fire detector uses a combination of several sensors that not only detect smoke, but discriminate between different types of smoke. This feature avoids false alarms and warns of different situations. Power consumption is optimized both in terms of hardware and software, providing a high degree of autonomy of almost five years. Data gathered from the device are transmitted through a wireless communication to a base station. The low cost and compact design provides wide application prospects. PMID:26307994

  3. COMPARISON OF RADIO-FREQUENCY INTERFERENCE MITIGATION STRATEGIES FOR DISPERSED PULSE DETECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Hogden, John; Vander Wiel, Scott; Michalak, Sarah; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Siemion, Andrew; Werthimer, Daniel

    2012-03-10

    Impulsive radio-frequency signals from astronomical sources are dispersed by the frequency-dependent index of refraction of the interstellar media and so appear as chirped signals when they reach Earth. Searches for dispersed impulses have been limited by false detections due to radio-frequency interference (RFI) and, in some cases, artifacts of the instrumentation. Many authors have discussed techniques to excise or mitigate RFI in searches for fast transients, but comparisons between different approaches are lacking. This work develops RFI mitigation techniques for use in searches for dispersed pulses, employing data recorded in a 'Fly's Eye' mode of the Allen Telescope Array as a test case. We gauge the performance of several RFI mitigation techniques by adding dispersed signals to data containing RFI and comparing false alarm rates at the observed signal-to-noise ratios of the added signals. We find that Huber filtering is most effective at removing broadband interferers, while frequency centering is most effective at removing narrow frequency interferers. Neither of these methods is effective over a broad range of interferers. A method that combines Huber filtering and adaptive interference cancelation provides the lowest number of false positives over the interferers considered here. The methods developed here have application to other searches for dispersed pulses in incoherent spectra, especially those involving multiple beam systems.

  4. 46 CFR 161.002-12 - Manual fire alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... (a) General. A manual fire alarm system shall consist of a power supply, a control unit on which are... separately housed from the control unit and may be combined with other power failure alarm systems when... alarm system control unit. The manual fire alarm system control unit shall be as specified for...

  5. 46 CFR 161.002-12 - Manual fire alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... (a) General. A manual fire alarm system shall consist of a power supply, a control unit on which are... separately housed from the control unit and may be combined with other power failure alarm systems when... alarm system control unit. The manual fire alarm system control unit shall be as specified for...

  6. 46 CFR 161.002-12 - Manual fire alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... (a) General. A manual fire alarm system shall consist of a power supply, a control unit on which are... separately housed from the control unit and may be combined with other power failure alarm systems when... alarm system control unit. The manual fire alarm system control unit shall be as specified for...

  7. Alarm acknowledgement in a nuclear plant control room

    DOEpatents

    Scarola, Kenneth (Windsor, CT); Jamison, David S. (Windsor, CT); Manazir, Richard M. (North Canton, CT); Rescorl, Robert L. (Vernon, CT); Harmon, Daryl L. (Enfield, CT)

    1994-01-01

    Alarm acknowledgment can be made not only at the alarm tile array of a given console but via other touch sensitive alarm indications in the screen displays of the monitoring system at the same or other consoles; also, touching one tile can acknowledge multiple alarm sources.

  8. 46 CFR 154.1365 - Audible and visual alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... alarm's actuation by other faults. (b) Each visual alarm must be one that can be turned off only after the fault that actuated it is corrected. (c) Each visual alarm must be marked to show the type and, except for remote group alarms, the location of each fault that actuates it. (d) Each vessel must...

  9. 46 CFR 154.1365 - Audible and visual alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... alarm's actuation by other faults. (b) Each visual alarm must be one that can be turned off only after the fault that actuated it is corrected. (c) Each visual alarm must be marked to show the type and, except for remote group alarms, the location of each fault that actuates it. (d) Each vessel must...

  10. 46 CFR 154.1365 - Audible and visual alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... alarm's actuation by other faults. (b) Each visual alarm must be one that can be turned off only after the fault that actuated it is corrected. (c) Each visual alarm must be marked to show the type and, except for remote group alarms, the location of each fault that actuates it. (d) Each vessel must...

  11. 46 CFR 154.1365 - Audible and visual alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... alarm's actuation by other faults. (b) Each visual alarm must be one that can be turned off only after the fault that actuated it is corrected. (c) Each visual alarm must be marked to show the type and, except for remote group alarms, the location of each fault that actuates it. (d) Each vessel must...

  12. 46 CFR 154.1365 - Audible and visual alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... alarm's actuation by other faults. (b) Each visual alarm must be one that can be turned off only after the fault that actuated it is corrected. (c) Each visual alarm must be marked to show the type and, except for remote group alarms, the location of each fault that actuates it. (d) Each vessel must...

  13. 46 CFR 162.050-33 - Bilge alarm: Design specification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... bilge alarm exceeds 15 ppm 5 ppm, and (2) malfunction, breakdown, or other failure of the bilge alarm occurs. (d) Each bilge alarm must have a ppm display. Emulsions and/or the type of oil must not affect the ppm display. Calibrating the bilge alarm must not be necessary once installed on board the...

  14. Low Voltage Alarm Apprenticeship. Related Training Modules. 7.1-26.10 Alarm Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This packet of 70 learning modules on alarm basics is 1 of 8 such packets developed for apprenticeship training for low voltage alarm. Introductory materials are a complete listing of all available modules and a supplementary reference list. Each module contains some or all of these components: goal, performance indicators, study guide (a check

  15. Detection of false transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galleani, Lorenzo; Cohen, Leon; Nelson, Douglas J.

    2005-08-01

    When one calculates a time-frequency distribution of white noise there sometimes appear transients of short duration. Superficially, these transients appear to be real signals but they are not. This comes about by random chance in the noise and also because particular types of distributions do not resolve components well in time. These fictitious signals can be misclassified by detectors and hence it is important to understand their origin and statistical properties. We present experimental studies regarding these false transients, and by simulation we statistically quantify their duration for various distributions. We compare the number and duration of the false transients when different distributions are used.

  16. 40 CFR 1508.20 - Mitigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mitigation. 1508.20 Section 1508.20 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX 1508.20 Mitigation. Mitigation includes: (a) Avoiding the impact altogether by not taking a certain action or parts of an...

  17. 18 CFR 35.38 - Mitigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mitigation. 35.38... Sales of Electric Energy, Capacity and Ancillary Services at Market-Based Rates 35.38 Mitigation. (a... in 35.37(c), may adopt the default mitigation detailed in paragraph (b) of this section or...

  18. 50 CFR 216.204 - Mitigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mitigation. 216.204 Section 216.204... U.S. Beaufort Sea 216.204 Mitigation. The activity identified in 216.200(a) must be conducted in... their habitats. When conducting operations identified in 216.200, the mitigation measures contained...

  19. Pressurized security barrier and alarm system

    DOEpatents

    Carver, Don W. (Knoxville, TN)

    1995-01-01

    A security barrier for placement across a passageway is made up of interconnected pressurized tubing made up in a grid pattern with openings too small to allow passage. The tubing is connected to a pressure switch, located away from the barrier site, which activates an alarm upon occurrence of a pressure drop. A reinforcing bar is located inside and along the length of the tubing so as to cause the tubing to rupture and set off the alarm upon an intruder's making an attempt to crimp and seal off a portion of the tubing by application of a hydraulic tool. Radial and rectangular grid patterns are disclosed.

  20. Pressurized security barrier and alarm system

    DOEpatents

    Carver, D.W.

    1995-04-11

    A security barrier for placement across a passageway is made up of interconnected pressurized tubing made up in a grid pattern with openings too small to allow passage. The tubing is connected to a pressure switch, located away from the barrier site, which activates an alarm upon occurrence of a pressure drop. A reinforcing bar is located inside and along the length of the tubing so as to cause the tubing to rupture and set off the alarm upon an intruder`s making an attempt to crimp and seal off a portion of the tubing by application of a hydraulic tool. Radial and rectangular grid patterns are disclosed. 7 figures.

  1. The effects of mediated word lists on false recall and recognition.

    PubMed

    Huff, Mark J; Hutchison, Keith A

    2011-08-01

    False memory effects were explored using unrelated list items (e.g., slope, reindeer, corn) that were related to mediators (e.g., ski, sleigh, flake) that all converged upon a single nonpresented critical item (CI; e.g., snow). In Experiment 1, participants completed either an initial recall test or arithmetic problems after study, followed by a final recognition test. Participants did not falsely recall CIs on the initial test; however, false alarms to CIs did occur in recognition, but only following an initial recall test. In Experiment 2, participants were instructed to guess the CI, followed by a recognition test. The results replicated Experiment 1, with an increase in CI false alarms. Experiment 3 controlled for item effects by replacing unrelated recognition items from Experiment 1 with both CIs and list items from nonpresented lists. Once again, CI false alarms were found when controlling for lexical characteristics, demonstrating that mediated false memory is not due simply to item differences. PMID:21336675

  2. Optimizing clutter mitigation for automated feature extraction in multi-spectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Neal R.; Perkins, Simon J.

    2006-08-01

    Accurate and robust techniques for automated feature extraction (AFE) from remotely-sensed imagery are an important area of research, having many applications in the civilian and military/intelligence arenas. Much work has been undertaken in developing sophisticated tools for performing these tasks. However, while many of these tools have been shown to perform quite well (such as the GENIE and Genie Pro software developed at LANL), these tools are not perfect. The classification algorithms produced often have significant errors, such as false-alarms and missed detections. We describe some efforts at improving this situation in which we add a clutter mitigation layer to our existing AFE software (Genie Pro). This clutter mitigation layer takes as input the output from the previous feature extraction (classification) layer and, using the same training data (pixels providing examples of the classes of interest), uses similar machine-learning techniques to those used in the previous AFE layer to optimise an image-processing pipeline aimed at improving any errors existing in the AFE output. While the AFE layer optimises an image processing pipeline that can combine spectral, logical, textural, morphological and other spatial operators, etc., the clutter mitigation layer is limited to a pool of morphological operators. The resulting clutter mitigation algorithm will not only be optimized for the particular feature of interest but will also be co-optimized with the preceding feature extraction algorithm. We demonstrate these techniques on several feature extraction problems in various multi-spectral, remotely-sensed images.

  3. ALARM STRATEGY AND COMPLEXITY: PREDICTIONS OF OPERATOR RESPONSE

    SciTech Connect

    Austin Ragsdale; Roger Lew; Brian Dyre; Ronald Boring; David Gertman

    2012-07-01

    Decision support for operators is not new, and much has been written regarding the potential usefulness of digital support systems and alarm filtering strategies. However, determining the appropriate characteristics of decision support tools is difficult, especially when alarms can vary in the manner which diagnostic information is formulated and displayed and when event scenario types are complex and numerous. When first reviewed, the advantages or disadvantages of a particular alarm approach may not be apparent to the designer or analyst. The present research focuses on the review of two particular alarm strategies, binary alarm type (BAT) and likelihood alarm type (LAT), and reviews their influence upon accuracy, bias, and trust for tasks performed at a computer workstation capable of replicating a series of control-room-like alarms. The findings are discussed in terms of the of the performance advantages of likelihood alarm technology and related research as an aid to the alarm design process.

  4. False pop out.

    PubMed

    Orsten-Hooge, Kimberley D; Portillo, Mary C; Pomerantz, James R

    2015-12-01

    A single, unique target often pops out quickly and efficiently from a field of homogenous distractors in visual search. Pop out has helped shape theories of visual attention and feature integration as well as to identify basic features in human vision. Here we report a new phenomenon, false pop out, wherein one of the homogenous distractors competes with the singleton target to pop out, perhaps by breaking an overall grouping or pattern emerging from the display. We show the effect occurs with more than 1 type of stimulus, and we discuss the implications of such a counterintuitive finding for theories of visual search. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26214500

  5. Adjustable electronic load-alarm relay

    DOEpatents

    Mason, Charles H.; Sitton, Roy S.

    1976-01-01

    This invention is an improved electronic alarm relay for monitoring the current drawn by an AC motor or other electrical load. The circuit is designed to measure the load with high accuracy and to have excellent alarm repeatability. Chattering and arcing of the relay contacts are minimal. The operator can adjust the set point easily and can re-set both the high and the low alarm points by means of one simple adjustment. The relay includes means for generating a signal voltage proportional to the motor current. In a preferred form of the invention a first operational amplifier is provided to generate a first constant reference voltage which is higher than a preselected value of the signal voltage. A second operational amplifier is provided to generate a second constant reference voltage which is lower than the aforementioned preselected value of the signal voltage. A circuit comprising a first resistor serially connected to a second resistor is connected across the outputs of the first and second amplifiers, and the junction of the two resistors is connected to the inverting terminal of the second amplifier. Means are provided to compare the aforementioned signal voltage with both the first and second reference voltages and to actuate an alarm if the signal voltage is higher than the first reference voltage or lower than the second reference voltage.

  6. 46 CFR 95.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... conspicuously and centrally located and be marked as required by 46 CFR 97.37-9; and (3) Use stored gas power..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon... approved audible alarm if: (1) The space is normally accessible to persons onboard while the vessel...

  7. 46 CFR 76.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-30 Alarms. (a) Spaces which are protected by a carbon dioxide... such spaces which will be automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space....

  8. 46 CFR 76.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-30 Alarms. (a) Spaces which are protected by a carbon dioxide... such spaces which will be automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space....

  9. 46 CFR 193.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... board while the vessel is being navigated which are protected by a carbon dioxide extinguishing system... when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space. The alarm shall be conspicuously and centrally... as to sound during the 20-second delay period prior to the discharge of carbon dioxide into the...

  10. 46 CFR 193.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... board while the vessel is being navigated which are protected by a carbon dioxide extinguishing system... when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space. The alarm shall be conspicuously and centrally... as to sound during the 20-second delay period prior to the discharge of carbon dioxide into the...

  11. 46 CFR 193.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... to persons on board while the vessel is being navigated which are protected by a carbon dioxide... automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space. The alarm shall be conspicuously and... arranged as to sound during the 20-second delay period prior to the discharge of carbon dioxide into...

  12. 46 CFR 193.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... to persons on board while the vessel is being navigated which are protected by a carbon dioxide... automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space. The alarm shall be conspicuously and... arranged as to sound during the 20-second delay period prior to the discharge of carbon dioxide into...

  13. 46 CFR 76.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-30 Alarms. (a) Spaces which are protected by a carbon dioxide... such spaces which will be automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space....

  14. 46 CFR 76.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-30 Alarms. (a) Spaces which are protected by a carbon dioxide... such spaces which will be automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space....

  15. 46 CFR 76.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-30 Alarms. (a) Spaces which are protected by a carbon dioxide... such spaces which will be automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space....

  16. Moon - False Color Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This false-color photograph is a composite of 15 images of the Moon taken through three color filters by Galileo's solid-state imaging system during the spacecraft's passage through the Earth-Moon system on December 8, 1992. When this view was obtained, the spacecraft was 425,000 kilometers (262,000 miles) from the Moon and 69,000 kilometers (43,000 miles) from Earth. The false-color processing used to create this lunar image is helpful for interpreting the surface soil composition. Areas appearing red generally correspond to the lunar highlands, while blue to orange shades indicate the ancient volcanic lava flow of a mare, or lunar sea. Bluer mare areas contain more titanium than do the orange regions. Mare Tranquillitatis, seen as a deep blue patch on the right, is richer in titanium than Mare Serenitatis, a slightly smaller circular area immediately adjacent to the upper left of Mare Tranquillitatis. Blue and orange areas covering much of the left side of the Moon in this view represent many separate lava flows in Oceanus Procellarum. The small purple areas found near the center are pyroclastic deposits formed by explosive volcanic eruptions. The fresh crater Tycho, with a diameter of 85 kilometers (53 miles), is prominent at the bottom of the photograph, where part of the Moon's disk is missing.

  17. 40 CFR 264.34 - Access to communications or alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Access to communications or alarm system. 264.34 Section 264.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Preparedness and Prevention...

  18. 40 CFR 265.34 - Access to communications or alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Access to communications or alarm system. 265.34 Section 265.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Preparedness...

  19. 46 CFR 109.201 - Steering gear, whistles, general alarm, and means of communication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steering gear, whistles, general alarm, and means of communication. 109.201 Section 109.201 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections 109.201 Steering...

  20. 46 CFR 109.201 - Steering gear, whistles, general alarm, and means of communication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steering gear, whistles, general alarm, and means of communication. 109.201 Section 109.201 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections 109.201 Steering...

  1. 46 CFR 109.201 - Steering gear, whistles, general alarm, and means of communication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steering gear, whistles, general alarm, and means of communication. 109.201 Section 109.201 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections 109.201 Steering...

  2. 46 CFR 109.201 - Steering gear, whistles, general alarm, and means of communication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steering gear, whistles, general alarm, and means of communication. 109.201 Section 109.201 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections 109.201 Steering...

  3. 46 CFR 109.201 - Steering gear, whistles, general alarm, and means of communication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steering gear, whistles, general alarm, and means of communication. 109.201 Section 109.201 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections 109.201 Steering...

  4. 46 CFR 162.050-19 - Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig. 162.050-19 Section 162.050-19 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Pollution Prevention...

  5. 46 CFR 113.25-9 - Location of general emergency alarm signal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Location of general emergency alarm signal. 113.25-9 Section 113.25-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING... operating equipment, stowing or drawing stores or equipment, or transiting, such as public spaces,...

  6. 46 CFR 193.05-1 - Fire detecting, manual alarm, and supervised patrol systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire detecting, manual alarm, and supervised patrol systems. 193.05-1 Section 193.05-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Detecting and Extinguishing Equipment, Where Required 193.05-1 Fire detecting,...

  7. 46 CFR 35.40-7 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms-T/ALL. 35.40-7 Section 35.40-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Posting and Marking Requirements-TB/ALL § 35.40-7 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms—T/ALL. Each carbon dioxide...

  8. 46 CFR 35.40-7 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms-T/ALL. 35.40-7 Section 35.40-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Posting and Marking Requirements-TB/ALL § 35.40-7 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms—T/ALL. Each carbon dioxide...

  9. 46 CFR 35.40-7 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms-T/ALL. 35.40-7 Section 35.40-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Posting and Marking Requirements-TB/ALL § 35.40-7 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms—T/ALL. Each carbon dioxide...

  10. 46 CFR 35.40-7 - Carbon dioxide alarm-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm-T/ALL. 35.40-7 Section 35.40-7... Requirements-TB/ALL. § 35.40-7 Carbon dioxide alarm—T/ALL. Adjacent to all carbon dioxide fire extinguishing... AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED.”...

  11. False color viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-05-08

    This invention consists of a viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching, the user`s eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage.

  12. False color viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1992-01-01

    A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage.

  13. False color viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-10-20

    A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage. 7 figs.

  14. A Model of Clinical Alarm Errors in Hospital.

    PubMed

    Busch-Vishniac, Ilene

    2015-01-01

    Although there has been much attention paid recently to clinical alarms, research has primarily focused on particular aspects of the clinical alarm problem, such as how to reduce nuisance alarms. This paper takes a broad view of clinical alarms and develops a model of errors in alarm handling and how they affect patients directly. Based on reports in the literature, I estimate that alarms that should sound by current standards do not sound about 9% of the time. Additionally, about 3% of alarms that are clinically significant are ignored, either intentionally or because they were inaudible. However, these errors produce a very low rate of reported alarm-related deaths and other adverse effects (on the order of a couple adverse effects per 10 million alarm errors). While it is not yet possible to estimate the probabilities of clinical alarms having an adverse impact on patients other than the patient whose alarm is sounding, such indirect adverse effects likely occur at a low level as a result of disruption of staff workflow, creation of a noisy hospital environment, and contribution to communication difficulties. Consideration of alarms should include not only the patient connected to the device that is sounding, but also the impact of the alarm on other patients in the vicinity. PMID:26196919

  15. Alarm system using pyroelectric infrared sensors for measuring distance and alarming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haiyang; Yin, Qiang; Yang, Wei; Xian, Hao; Sun, Qiao; Liu, Jun

    2011-06-01

    A novel and reliable alarm system consists of a pyroelectric sensor, an infrared len, amplified module, microcontroller and alarm module. According to different signal peak-to-peak values which person at different distances causes the system, the system can get the distance of the person and decide whether the system sends the information to computer. Before working the system needs to calibrate the person's characteristic values at different distances using the method described in this paper.

  16. Moon - False Color Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This false-color mosaic was constructed from a series of 53 images taken through three spectral filters by Galileo's imaging system as the spacecraft flew over the northern regions of the Moon on December 7, 1992. The part of the Moon visible from Earth is on the left side in this view. The color mosaic shows compositional variations in parts of the Moon's northern hemisphere. Bright pinkish areas are highlands materials, such as those surrounding the oval lava-filled Crisium impact basin toward the bottom of the picture. Blue to orange shades indicate volcanic lava flows. To the left of Crisium, the dark blue Mare Tranquillitatis is richer in titanium than the green and orange maria above it. Thin mineral-rich soils associated with relatively recent impacts are represented by light blue colors; the youngest craters have prominent blue rays extending from them. The Galileo project, whose primary mission is the exploration of the Jupiter system in 1995-97, is managed for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  17. 46 CFR 28.240 - General alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... noise makes a general alarm system difficult to hear, a flashing red light must also be installed. (d) Each general alarm bell and flashing red light must be identified with red lettering at least 1/2...

  18. Alarm guided critical function and success path monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Scarola, Kenneth (Windsor, CT); Jamison, David S. (Windsor, CT); Manazir, Richard M. (North Canton, CT); Rescorl, Robert L. (Vernon, CT); Harmon, Daryl L. (Enfield, CT)

    1994-01-01

    The use of alarm indication on the overview (IPSO) display to initiate diagnosis of challenges to critical functions or unavailability of success paths, and further alarm-based guidance toward ultimate diagnosis.

  19. 8. INTERIOR, FIRE ALARM CONTROL ROOM (NORTH OF MAIN GARAGE), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR, FIRE ALARM CONTROL ROOM (NORTH OF MAIN GARAGE), FROM ENTRYWAY, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING ADDITIONAL 'GAMEWELL' FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Firehouse, East of Fourth Street, between A & B Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  20. Criticality accident alarm system at the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    SciTech Connect

    Marble, R.C.; Brown, T.D.; Wooldridge, J.C.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes the staus of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) criticality alarm system. A new radiation detection alarm system was installed in 1990. The anunciation system, calibration and maintenance, and detector placement is described.

  1. North Polar False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The theme for the weeks of 1/17 and 1/24 is the north polar region of Mars as seen in false color THEMIS images. Ice/frost will typically appear as bright blue in color; dust mantled ice will appear in tones of red/orange.

    This full resolution image contains dunes, and small areas of 'blue' which may represent fresh (ie. not dust covered) frost or ice.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 85, Longitude 235.8 East (124.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  2. 44 CFR 201.5 - Enhanced State Mitigation Plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Enhanced State Mitigation..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE MITIGATION PLANNING § 201.5 Enhanced State Mitigation Plans. (a) A State with a FEMA approved Enhanced State Mitigation Plan at the time of a...

  3. 44 CFR 201.5 - Enhanced State Mitigation Plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Enhanced State Mitigation..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE MITIGATION PLANNING § 201.5 Enhanced State Mitigation Plans. (a) A State with a FEMA approved Enhanced State Mitigation Plan at the time of a...

  4. 44 CFR 201.5 - Enhanced State Mitigation Plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Enhanced State Mitigation..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE MITIGATION PLANNING § 201.5 Enhanced State Mitigation Plans. (a) A State with a FEMA approved Enhanced State Mitigation Plan at the time of a...

  5. 44 CFR 201.5 - Enhanced State Mitigation Plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Enhanced State Mitigation..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE MITIGATION PLANNING § 201.5 Enhanced State Mitigation Plans. (a) A State with a FEMA approved Enhanced State Mitigation Plan at the time of a...

  6. 44 CFR 78.6 - Flood Mitigation Plan approval process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flood Mitigation Plan..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION ASSISTANCE § 78.6 Flood Mitigation Plan approval process. The State POC will forward all...

  7. 44 CFR 78.6 - Flood Mitigation Plan approval process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flood Mitigation Plan..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION ASSISTANCE § 78.6 Flood Mitigation Plan approval process. The State POC will forward all...

  8. 44 CFR 78.6 - Flood Mitigation Plan approval process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood Mitigation Plan..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION ASSISTANCE § 78.6 Flood Mitigation Plan approval process. The State POC will forward all...

  9. 44 CFR 78.6 - Flood Mitigation Plan approval process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flood Mitigation Plan..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION ASSISTANCE § 78.6 Flood Mitigation Plan approval process. The State POC will forward all...

  10. 8 CFR 280.5 - Mitigation or remission of fines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mitigation or remission of fines. 280.5... AND COLLECTION OF FINES 280.5 Mitigation or remission of fines. In any case in which mitigation or... Examinations, or the Director for the National Fines Office for such mitigation or remission....

  11. 44 CFR 78.5 - Flood Mitigation Plan development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood Mitigation Plan development. 78.5 Section 78.5 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION ASSISTANCE § 78.5 Flood Mitigation...

  12. 44 CFR 78.5 - Flood Mitigation Plan development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flood Mitigation Plan development. 78.5 Section 78.5 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION ASSISTANCE § 78.5 Flood Mitigation...

  13. Automated Information System (AIS) Alarm System

    SciTech Connect

    Hunteman, W.

    1997-05-01

    The Automated Information Alarm System is a joint effort between Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratory to demonstrate and implement, on a small-to-medium sized local area network, an automated system that detects and automatically responds to attacks that use readily available tools and methodologies. The Alarm System will sense or detect, assess, and respond to suspicious activities that may be detrimental to information on the network or to continued operation of the network. The responses will allow stopping, isolating, or ejecting the suspicious activities. The number of sensors, the sensitivity of the sensors, the assessment criteria, and the desired responses may be set by the using organization to meet their local security policies.

  14. 46 CFR 162.050-35 - Bilge alarm: Approval tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... alarm is calibrated and zeroed to manufacturer's instructions. (2) It is then fed with water for 15 minutes and then with a mixture of Test Fluid A and water in the following concentrations: 0 ppm, 15 ppm... actuation of the alarm is taken. The alarm is then fed with water for 15 minutes. (3) Repeat steps...

  15. Multiple meter monitoring circuits served by single alarm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandini, U.

    1967-01-01

    Circuitry for multiple meter relay circuits provides complete isolation for each circuit served by a single alarm and permits alarm reset after an out-of-tolerance event in one relay circuit so that the remaining relay circuits continue to be alarm protected.

  16. 46 CFR 108.445 - Alarm and means of escape.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Alarm and means of escape. (a) Each CO2 system that has a supply of more than 136 kilograms (300 pounds) of CO2, except a system that protects a tank, must have an alarm that sounds for at least 20 seconds before the CO2 is released into the space. (b) Each audible alarm for a CO2 system must have the...

  17. 46 CFR 108.445 - Alarm and means of escape.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Alarm and means of escape. (a) Each CO2 system that has a supply of more than 136 kilograms (300 pounds) of CO2, except a system that protects a tank, must have an alarm that sounds for at least 20 seconds before the CO2 is released into the space. (b) Each audible alarm for a CO2 system must have the...

  18. 29 CFR 1910.165 - Employee alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... employer shall assure that a test of the reliability and adequacy of non-supervised employee alarm systems is made every two months. A different actuation device shall be used in each test of a multi... operating condition as promptly as possible after each test or alarm. Spare alarm devices and...

  19. 29 CFR 1910.165 - Employee alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... employer shall assure that a test of the reliability and adequacy of non-supervised employee alarm systems is made every two months. A different actuation device shall be used in each test of a multi... operating condition as promptly as possible after each test or alarm. Spare alarm devices and...

  20. Combating Nuisance Alarms Caused by the Ship Effect in 3He Based Neutron Detection Radiation Portal Monitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveri, A.; Buckley, E.; Borgardt, J.; Kouzes, R.; Siciliano, E.; Seifert, A.; Windsor, L.

    2007-10-01

    Ship effect neutrons can present unique challenges in ongoing efforts to interdict illicit nuclear trafficking at border crossings. 3He neutron proportional counters can generate false positives due to these neutron spikes, leading to cumbersome secondary radiation scans. This work explores methods to mitigate these nuisance alarms through a better understanding of how this effect is manifested in different materials, the role of a target's neutron density, and data analysis techniques to account for its effects. We used a mobile RPM equipped with 3He tubes to detect the neutron flux from several commercial products containing NORM. While neutrons from illicit nuclear sources are Poisson in their frequency distribution, those from background are not. Ship effect neutrons deviated from a Poisson distribution when binned over 0.1 sec time intervals, however when averaged over 2.0 sec intervals the ship effect neutron spikes were washed out, recovering a Poisson distribution. These findings provide underlying knowledge regarding ship effect neutrons emanating from some common bulk materials, and suggest a data analysis algorithm to distinguish between innocent ship effect neutrons and neutron-emitting illegal sources.

  1. The Roles of Spreading Activation and Retrieval Mode in Producing False Recognition in the DRM Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meade, Michelle L.; Watson, Jason M.; Balota, David A.; Roediger, Henry L., III

    2007-01-01

    The nature of persisting spreading activation from list presentation in eliciting false recognition in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm was examined in two experiments. We compared the time course of semantic priming in the lexical decision task (LDT) and false alarms in speeded recognition under identical study and test conditions. The

  2. Creative mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Ayer, F.; Lagassa, G.

    1989-10-01

    On May 9, 1989, in front of a small but enthusiastic group composed of residents of Columbia Falls, Maine, Downeast fisherman and a crew of Bangor Hydro-Electric employees removed some of the wooden sections of the Columbia Falls dam. The dam is located at the mouth of the Pleasant River on the Maine seacoast, only thirty miles from the border between Maine and New Brunswick, Canada. In so doing, they provided unobstructed access by Atlantic salmon to crucial upstream aquatic habitat for the first time since the day was constructed in 1981. At the same time they made possible the efficient operation of a 13 MW hydroelectric facility some 75 miles inland at West Enfield, Maine, on the Penobscot River. This article describes the creative strategies used by Bangor Pacific Hydro Associated to satisfy environmental mitigation requirements at West Enfield, Maine.

  3. Diabetes: What's True and False?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Diabetes: What's True and False? KidsHealth > For Kids > Diabetes: ... True or False: Eating Too Much Sugar Causes Diabetes False: When kids get type 1 diabetes , it's ...

  4. Diabetes: What's True and False?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Diabetes: What's True and False? KidsHealth > For Teens > Diabetes: ... which are false. Eating too much sugar causes diabetes. False: Type 1 diabetes happens when the cells ...

  5. Diabetes: What's True and False?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Digestive System How the Body Works Main Page Diabetes: What's True and False? KidsHealth > Kids > Diabetes Center > ... True or False: Eating Too Much Sugar Causes Diabetes False: When kids get type 1 diabetes , it's ...

  6. Smoke Alarm Giveaway and Installation Programs

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Mack, Karin A.; Diekman, Shane T.

    2015-01-01

    Background The burden of residential fire injury and death is substantial. Targeted smoke alarm giveaway and installation programs are popular interventions used to reduce residential fire mortality and morbidity. Purpose To evaluate the cost effectiveness and cost benefit of implementing a giveaway or installation program in a small hypothetic community with a high risk of fire death and injury through a decision-analysis model. Methods Model inputs included program costs; program effectiveness (life-years and quality-adjusted life-years saved); and monetized program benefits (medical cost, productivity, property loss and quality-of-life losses averted) and were identified through structured reviews of existing literature (done in 2011) and supplemented by expert opinion. Future costs and effectiveness were discounted at a rate of 3% per year. All costs were expressed in 2011 U.S. dollars. Results Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) resulted in anaverage cost-effectiveness ratio (ACER) of $51,404 per quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) saved and $45,630 per QALY for the giveaway and installation programs, respectively. Costbenefit analysis (CBA) showed that both programs were associated with a positive net benefit with a benefitcost ratio of 2.1 and 2.3, respectively. Smoke alarm functional rate, baseline prevalence of functional alarms, and baseline home fire death rate were among the most influential factors for the CEA and CBA results. Conclusions Both giveaway and installation programs have an average cost-effectiveness ratio similar to or lower than the median cost-effectiveness ratio reported for other interventionsto reduce fatal injuries in homes. Although more effort is required, installation programs result in lower cost per outcome achieved compared with giveaways. PMID:22992356

  7. Security alarm communication and display systems development

    SciTech Connect

    Waddoups, I.G.

    1990-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a variety of alarm communication and display systems for a broad spectrum of users. This paper will briefly describe the latest systems developed for the Department of Energy (DOE), the Department of Defense (DoD), and the Department of State (DOS) applications. Applications covered will vary from relatively small facilities to large complex sites. Ongoing system developments will also be discussed. The concluding section will summarize the practical, implementable state-of-the-art features available in new systems. 6 figs.

  8. Hypo- and Hyperglycemic Alarms: Devices and Algorithms.

    PubMed

    Howsmon, Daniel; Bequette, B Wayne

    2015-09-01

    Soon after the discovery that insulin regulates blood glucose by Banting and Best in 1922, the symptoms and risks associated with hypoglycemia became widely recognized. This article reviews devices to warn individuals of impending hypo- and hyperglycemia; biosignals used by these devices include electroencephalography, electrocardiography, skin galvanic resistance, diabetes alert dogs, and continuous glucose monitors (CGMs). While systems based on other technology are increasing in performance and decreasing in size, CGM technology remains the best method for both reactive and predictive alarming of hypo- or hyperglycemia. PMID:25931581

  9. On Alarm Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicho?, Jacek; Kapelko, Rafa?; Lemiesz, Jakub; Zawada, Marcin

    We consider the problem of efficient alarm protocol for ad-hoc radio networks consisting of devices that try to gain access for transmission through a shared radio communication channel. The problem arise in tasks that sensors have to quickly inform the target user about an alert situation such as presence of fire, dangerous radiation, seismic vibrations, and more. In this paper, we present a protocol which uses O(logn) time slots and show that ?(logn/loglogn) is a lower bound for used time slots.

  10. Alarm handler for the advanced photon source control system

    SciTech Connect

    Kraimer, M.R.; Cha, B.K.; Anderson, M.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS), now under construction at Argonne National Laboratory, will have a control system employing graphics workstations at the operator interface level and VME-based microprocessors operating with a distributed database at the field level. The alarm handler is an application utilizing X-Windows running on one or more operator interface workstations which monitors alarms generated by the VME-based microprocessors. Alarms can be grouped in a hierarchical manner. The operator can monitor, acknowledge, and mask alarms either individually or aggregately. Alarm changes of state and all operator modifications are logged. When alarms occur, display windows are automatically generated conveying system and subsystem relationships and severity. Menus are used to modify the alarm action configuration files and to obtain help. Since alarm groups are defined via an alarm configuration file, the alarm handler is a general purpose application which can be customized to monitor a single subsystem or configured to monitor the entire accelerator complex. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Context-dependent alarm signalling in an insect.

    PubMed

    de Bruijn, P J A; Egas, M; Sabelis, M W; Groot, A T

    2016-03-01

    Animals often respond to danger by raising alarm to inform others. Alarm signals come in many different forms, such as visual or mechanical display, sound or odour. Some animals produce vocal alarm signals that vary with the level of danger. For chemical alarm signals, virtually nothing is known about such context-dependent signalling due to a general notion that alarm pheromones have fixed compositions. Here, we show that larvae of the Western Flower Thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) produce an alarm pheromone whose composition varies with the level of danger they face: the presence of a relatively harmless predator or a very dangerous predator, that is either actually attacking or not. The frequency of alarm pheromone excretion increases with the level of danger. Moreover, the composition of excreted alarm pheromone varies in the relationship between total and relative amount of the putative two components, decyl acetate (DAc) and dodecyl acetate (DDAc). When pheromone is excreted with a predator present but not attacking, the percentage DDAc increases with the total amount of pheromone. When a predator does attack, however, the relationship between percentage DDAc and total amount of pheromone is reversed. Taken together, the alarm signal of thrips larvae appears to be context dependent, which to our knowledge is the first report of context-dependent composition of an alarm pheromone. PMID:26688127

  12. Indoor and outdoor social alarms: understanding users' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Sjlinder, Marie; Avatare Nu, Anneli

    2014-01-01

    The elderly population is increasing and there is a need to provide care and safety at a high level with limited resources. New social alarm solutions may contribute to safety and independence for many elderly. However, it is important to understand the needs within the user group. This work studied social alarms in a broad sense and from several user perspectives. In the first study, social alarm use and its aspects were investigated. To understand where there may be problems and weaknesses, users, caregivers, managers of municipalities, and personnel at alarm centers were interviewed. The interviews helped identify a number of problems. For municipalities, the processes of procuring new alarms and managing their organization were found to be complex. The effect of this was that the same social alarm systems had been ordered over and over again without taking into account new user needs or new technical solutions. For alarm users, one large problem was that the alarms had very limited reach and were designed for indoor use only. This has resulted in users hesitating to leave their homes, which in turn has negative effects due to lack of physical activity and fewer social contacts. One important result from the first study was the need for a social alarm solution that worked outdoors. In a second study, needs regarding outdoor social alarms were investigated. The results from this study showed that wearable outdoor alarms must be easy to use, provide communication, and be well designed. Finally, these alarms must work both indoors and outdoors, and the user should not have to worry about where he/she is or who is acting on an alarm. PMID:25099060

  13. Hypoxia: an alarm signal during intestinal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Colgan, Sean P; Taylor, Cormac T

    2010-05-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells that line the mucosal surface of the gastrointestinal tract are positioned between an anaerobic lumen and a highly metabolic lamina propria. As a result of this unique anatomy, intestinal epithelial cells function within a steep physiologic oxygen gradient relative to other cell types. Furthermore, during active inflammatory disease such as IBD, metabolic shifts towards hypoxia are severe. Studies in vitro and in vivo have shown that the activation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) serves as an alarm signal to promote the resolution of inflammation in various mouse models of disease. Amelioration of disease occurs, at least in part, through transcriptional upregulation of nonclassic epithelial barrier genes. There is much interest in harnessing hypoxia-inducible pathways, including stabilizing HIF directly or via inhibition of prolyl hydroxylase enzymes, for therapy of IBD. In this Review, we discuss the signaling pathways involved in the regulation of hypoxia and discuss how hypoxia may serve as an endogenous alarm signal for the presence of mucosal inflammatory disease. We also discuss the pros and cons of targeting these pathways to treat patients with IBD. PMID:20368740

  14. Alarm system for a nuclear control complex

    DOEpatents

    Scarola, Kenneth; Jamison, David S.; Manazir, Richard M.; Rescorl, Robert L.; Harmon, Daryl L.

    1994-01-01

    An advanced control room complex for a nuclear power plant, including a discrete indicator and alarm system (72) which is nuclear qualified for rapid response to changes in plant parameters and a component control system (64) which together provide a discrete monitoring and control capability at a panel (14-22, 26, 28) in the control room (10). A separate data processing system (70), which need not be nuclear qualified, provides integrated and overview information to the control room and to each panel, through CRTs (84) and a large, overhead integrated process status overview board (24). The discrete indicator and alarm system (72) and the data processing system (70) receive inputs from common plant sensors and validate the sensor outputs to arrive at a representative value of the parameter for use by the operator during both normal and accident conditions, thereby avoiding the need for him to assimilate data from each sensor individually. The integrated process status board (24) is at the apex of an information hierarchy that extends through four levels and provides access at each panel to the full display hierarchy. The control room panels are preferably of a modular construction, permitting the definition of inputs and outputs, the man machine interface, and the plant specific algorithms, to proceed in parallel with the fabrication of the panels, the installation of the equipment and the generic testing thereof.

  15. 40 CFR 1508.20 - Mitigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mitigation. 1508.20 Section 1508.20 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX 1508.20 Mitigation... eliminating the impact over time by preservation and maintenance operations during the life of the action....

  16. 40 CFR 1508.20 - Mitigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mitigation. 1508.20 Section 1508.20 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX 1508.20 Mitigation... eliminating the impact over time by preservation and maintenance operations during the life of the action....

  17. 40 CFR 1508.20 - Mitigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mitigation. 1508.20 Section 1508.20 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX 1508.20 Mitigation... eliminating the impact over time by preservation and maintenance operations during the life of the action....

  18. 40 CFR 1508.20 - Mitigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mitigation. 1508.20 Section 1508.20 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX 1508.20 Mitigation... eliminating the impact over time by preservation and maintenance operations during the life of the action....

  19. 24 CFR 203.501 - Loss mitigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Loss mitigation. 203.501 Section... FAMILY MORTGAGE INSURANCE Servicing Responsibilities General Requirements 203.501 Loss mitigation... appropriate actions which can reasonably be expected to generate the smallest financial loss to the...

  20. Classification of alarm processing techniques and human performance issues

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, I.S.; O`Hara, J.M.

    1993-05-01

    Human factors reviews indicate that conventional alarm systems based on the one sensor, one alarm approach, have many human engineering deficiencies, a paramount example being too many alarms during major disturbances. As an effort to resolve these deficiencies, various alarm processing systems have been developed using different techniques. To ensure their contribution to operational safety, the impacts of those systems on operating crew performance should be carefully evaluated. This paper briefly reviews some of the human factors research issues associated with alarm processing techniques and then discusses a framework with which to classify the techniques. The dimensions of this framework can be used to explore the effects of alarm processing systems on human performance.