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1

False alarm mitigation techniques for hyperspectral target detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A challenging problem of major importance in hyperspectral imaging applications is the detection of subpixel objects of military and civilian interest. High false alarm thresholds are required to detect subpixel objects due to the large amount of surrounding background clutter. These high false alarm rates are unacceptable for military purposes, requiring the need for false alarm mitigation (FAM) techniques to weed out the objects of interest. The objective of this paper is to provide a comparison of the implementation of these FAM techniques and their inherent benefits in the whitened detection space. The widely utilized matched filter (MF) and adaptive cosine estimator (ACE) are both based on a linear mixing model (LMM) between a background and object class. The matched filter approximates the object abundance, and the ACE measures the model error. Each of these measurements provides inadequate object separation alone, but by using both the object abundance and model error, the objects can be separated from the false alarms.

Pieper, M. L.; Manolakis, D.; Truslow, E.; Cooley, T.; Brueggeman, M.

2013-05-01

2

Determinants of false alarms in staging flocks of semipalmated sandpipers  

Microsoft Academic Search

False alarms occur when animals flee abruptly upon detection of a threat that subsequently proved harmless. False alarms are common in many species of birds and mammals and account for a surprisingly high proportion of all alarms. False alarms are expected to be more frequent in larger groups, where the odds of misclassifying threats are higher, and under environmental conditions

Guy Beauchamp

2010-01-01

3

False alarm reduction during landmine detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quadrupole Resonance sensors have the unique capability of detecting explosives from buried, plastic-cased antipersonnel and antitank landmines. The chemical specificity of this radio-frequency technique provides the potential to deliver remarkably low false alarm rates during landmine detection. This is of particular importance to deminers, who frequently come across numerous clutter items before uncovering a mine. Quadrupole Resonance is typically utilized in a confirmation mode; preceded by rapid primary scans carried out by, for example, metal detectors, ground penetrating radars or a fusion of these. Significant technical and scientific advances have resulted in the fabrication of handheld and vehicle mounted Quadrupole Resonance landmine detectors in compact, power-efficient configurations. The development work is focused on baseline sensitivity increase, as well as the achievement of high detection performance under field conditions. The mine detection capability of Quadrupole Resonance detectors has been evaluated during various blind tests. A modular handheld unit, combining primary and confirmation sensors, was designed to be operated by a single person. A series of field tests demonstrate the unique capability of Quadrupole Resonance for significant false alarm reduction.

Prado, P. J.; Chongpison, A.; Doraisamy, L.

2007-04-01

4

Reducing false intracranial pressure alarms using morphological waveform features.  

PubMed

False alarms produced by patient monitoring systems in intensive care units are a major issue that causes alarm fatigue, waste of human resources, and increased patient risks. While alarms are typically triggered by manually adjusted thresholds, the trend and patterns observed prior to threshold crossing are generally not used by current systems. This study introduces and evaluates, a smart alarm detection system for intracranial pressure signal (ICP) that is based on advanced pattern recognition methods. Models are trained in a supervised fashion from a comprehensive dataset of 4791 manually labeled alarm episodes extracted from 108 neurosurgical patients. The comparative analysis provided between spectral regression, kernel spectral regression, and support vector machines indicates the significant improvement of the proposed framework in detecting false ICP alarms in comparison to a threshold-based technique that is conventionally used. Another contribution of this work is to exploit an adaptive discretization to reduce the dimensionality of the input features. The resulting features lead to a decrease of 30% of false ICP alarms without compromising sensitivity. PMID:22851230

Scalzo, Fabien; Liebeskind, David; Hu, Xiao

2013-01-01

5

Soundness by Static Analysis and False-alarm Removal by Statistical Analysis  

E-print Network

and their credible sets. Depending on the user- provided ratio of the risk of silencing true alarms to that of false of Information and Communication. 1 Buffer overruns happen when an index value is out of the target buffer size-provided ratio of the risk of silencing true alarms to that of raising false alarms. 2. Airac, a Sound Analyzer

Yi, Kwangkeun "Kwang"

6

You Cannot Always Blame the Equipment for False Alarms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the need for school administrators to establish definite security objectives before shopping for an electronic alarm system and points out that most problems with alarm systems result from people problems, rather than faulty equipment. (For availability see EA 507 081.) (JG)

Smith, Ray T.

1976-01-01

7

False fire alarms have a negative impact on UW operations False (or nuisance) alarms are very disruptive to UW operations. The alarms  

E-print Network

disruptive to UW operations. The alarms interrupt classes and lab experiments causing the occupants to stop protection devices and upgrading old fire protection equipment with current technology. How construction

Wilcock, William

8

Negative feedback from maternal signals reduces false alarms by collectively signalling offspring  

PubMed Central

Within animal groups, individuals can learn of a predator's approach by attending to the behaviour of others. This use of social information increases an individual's perceptual range, but can also lead to the propagation of false alarms. Error copying is especially likely in species that signal collectively, because the coordination required for collective displays relies heavily on social information. Recent evidence suggests that collective behaviour in animals is, in part, regulated by negative feedback. Negative feedback may reduce false alarms by collectively signalling animals, but this possibility has not yet been tested. We tested the hypothesis that negative feedback increases the accuracy of collective signalling by reducing the production of false alarms. In the treehopper Umbonia crassicornis, clustered offspring produce collective signals during predator attacks, advertising the predator's location to the defending mother. Mothers signal after evicting the predator, and we show that this maternal communication reduces false alarms by offspring. We suggest that maternal signals elevate offspring signalling thresholds. This is, to our knowledge, the first study to show that negative feedback can reduce false alarms by collectively behaving groups. PMID:22787019

Hamel, Jennifer A.; Cocroft, Reginald B.

2012-01-01

9

Optimal Sensor Location Design for Reliable Fault Detection in Presence of False Alarms  

PubMed Central

To improve fault detection reliability, sensor location should be designed according to an optimization criterion with constraints imposed by issues of detectability and identifiability. Reliability requires the minimization of undetectability and false alarm probability due to random factors on sensor readings, which is not only related with sensor readings but also affected by fault propagation. This paper introduces the reliability criteria expression based on the missed/false alarm probability of each sensor and system topology or connectivity derived from the directed graph. The algorithm for the optimization problem is presented as a heuristic procedure. Finally, a boiler system is illustrated using the proposed method. PMID:22291524

Yang, Fan; Xiao, Deyun; Shah, Sirish L.

2009-01-01

10

A switching constant false alarm rate technique for high frequency surface wave radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel constant false alarm rate (CFAR) technique is proposed as a near optimal solution for detection in mixed homogeneous and nonhomogeneous environments. This CFAR technique explores both the advantages of cell averaging CFAR and order statistics CFAR detectors. We introduce a criterion to derive a near-optimal target detector for high frequency surface wave radar. The effectiveness of the new

X. Lu; J. Wang; R. Dizaji; Z. Ding; A. M. Ponsford

2004-01-01

11

Detecting false alarms in transit data from space: Rejection methods tested in Corot Blind Test 2  

E-print Network

Transit searches provide a large number of planet candidates. Before attempting follow-up observations, the best effort should be spent in classifying the light-curves, rejecting false alarms and selecting the most likely ones for real planets. A number of analysis tools has been developed with these objectives. Here, we apply such tools to 237 simulated multi-color light-curves from CoRoT Blind Test 2, which contain simulated planet transits and several configurations of impostors. Their comparison gives indications of the various tools' classification and false-alarm rejection capabilities. In order to arrive at the candidate identifications, we used an automated scheme of weighted punctuations assigned to the individual tests, which avoids that results from a single test dominate a candidate's classification.

J. M. Almenara; H. J. Deeg; C. Regulo; R. Alonso

2006-12-13

12

Global parameter optimization for maximizing radioisotope detection probabilities at fixed false alarm rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today there is a tremendous amount of interest in systems that can detect radiological or nuclear threats. Many of these systems operate in extremely high throughput situations where delays caused by false alarms can have a significant negative impact. Thus, calculating the tradeoff between detection rates and false alarm rates is critical for their successful operation. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves have long been used to depict this tradeoff. The methodology was first developed in the field of signal detection. In recent years it has been used increasingly in machine learning and data mining applications. It follows that this methodology could be applied to radiological/nuclear threat detection systems. However many of these systems do not fit into the classic principles of statistical detection theory because they tend to lack tractable likelihood functions and have many parameters, which, in general, do not have a one-to-one correspondence with the detection classes. This work proposes a strategy to overcome these problems by empirically finding parameter values that maximize the probability of detection for a selected number of probabilities of false alarm. To find these parameter values a statistical global optimization technique that seeks to estimate portions of a ROC curve is proposed. The optimization combines elements of simulated annealing with elements of genetic algorithms. Genetic algorithms were chosen because they can reduce the risk of getting stuck in local minima. However classic genetic algorithms operate on arrays of Booleans values or bit strings, so simulated annealing is employed to perform mutation in the genetic algorithm. The presented initial results were generated using an isotope identification algorithm developed at Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. The algorithm has 12 parameters: 4 real-valued and 8 Boolean. A simulated dataset was used for the optimization study; the "threat" set of spectra contained 540 SNM and industrial signatures, and the "benign" set of spectra contained 240 NORM and medical signatures. As compared to a random parameter search, the statistical optimization was able to able to find parameters that yield significantly higher probabilities of detection for all probabilities of false alarm from 0 to 0.1 (and equal to for probabilities of false alarm greater than 0.1), in a relatively small number of iterations. The number of iterations used, 1000, is also many fewer than would be required for a reasonable systematic search of the parameter space.

Portnoy, David; Feuerbach, Robert; Heimberg, Jennifer

2011-10-01

13

A radar unattended ground sensor with micro-Doppler capabilities for false alarm reduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unattended ground sensors (UGS) provide the capability to inexpensively secure remote borders and other areas of interest. However, the presence of normal animal activity can often trigger a false alarm. Accurately detecting humans and distinguishing them from natural fauna is an important issue in security applications to reduce false alarm rates and improve the probability of detection. In particular, it is important to detect and classify people who are moving in remote locations and transmit back detections and analysis over extended periods at a low cost and with minimal maintenance. We developed and demonstrate a compact radar technology that is scalable to a variety of ultra-lightweight and low-power platforms for wide area persistent surveillance as an unattended, unmanned, and man-portable ground sensor. The radar uses micro-Doppler processing to characterize the tracks of moving targets and to then eliminate unimportant detections due to animals as well as characterize the activity of human detections. False alarms from sensors are a major liability that hinders widespread use. Incorporating rudimentary intelligence into sensors can reduce false alarms but can also result in a reduced probability of detection. Allowing an initial classification that can be updated with new observations and tracked over time provides a more robust framework for false alarm reduction at the cost of additional sensor observations. This paper explores these tradeoffs with a small radar sensor for border security. Multiple measurements were done to try to characterize the micro-Doppler of human versus animal and vehicular motion across a range of activities. Measurements were taken at the multiple sites with realistic but low levels of clutter. Animals move with a quadrupedal motion, which can be distinguished from the bipedal human motion. The micro-Doppler of a vehicle with rotating parts is also shown, along with ground truth images. Comparisons show large variations for different types of motion by the same type of animal. This paper presents the system and data on humans, vehicles, and animals at multiple angles and directions of motion, demonstrates the signal processing approach that makes the targets visually recognizable, verifies that the UGS radar has enough micro-Doppler capability to distinguish between humans, vehicles, and animals, and analyzes the probability of correct classification.

Tahmoush, Dave; Silvious, Jerry; Burke, Ed

2010-10-01

14

Target attribute-based false alarm rejection in small infrared target detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrared search and track is an important research area in military applications. Although there are a lot of works on small infrared target detection methods, we cannot apply them in real field due to high false alarm rate caused by clutters. This paper presents a novel target attribute extraction and machine learning-based target discrimination method. Eight kinds of target features are extracted and analyzed statistically. Learning-based classifiers such as SVM and Adaboost are developed and compared with conventional classifiers for real infrared images. In addition, the generalization capability is also inspected for various infrared clutters.

Kim, Sungho

2012-11-01

15

Effect Of False Alarm Rate On Pilot Use And Trust Of Automation Under Conditions Of Simulated High Risk  

E-print Network

An experimental study was conducted to investigate the relationships between automation false alarm rate, human trust in automation, and human use of automation, specifically under conditions of simulated high risk. The ...

Cafarelli, Deborah

2010-11-05

16

Speed-accuracy tradeoffs and false alarms in bee responses to cryptic predators.  

PubMed

Learning plays a crucial role in predator avoidance [1-3], but little is known about how the type of experience with predators molds future prey behavior. Specifically, is predator-avoidance learning and memory retention disrupted by cryptic coloration of predators, such as crab spiders [4, 5]? How does experience with different predators affect foraging decisions? We evaluated these questions by exposing foraging bumblebees to controlled predation risk from predators (robotic crab spiders) that were either cryptic or highly contrasting, as assessed by a quantitative model of bee color perception [6]. Our results from 3D tracking software reveal a speed-accuracy tradeoff [7]: Bees slow their inspection flights after learning that there is a risk from cryptic spiders. The adjustment of inspection effort results in accurate predator detection, leveling out predation risk at the expense of foraging time. Overnight-retention tests reveal no decline in performance, but bees that had experienced cryptic predators are more prone to "false alarms" (rejection of foraging opportunities on safe flowers) than those that had experienced conspicuous predators. Therefore, bees in the cryptic-spider treatment made a functional decision to trade off reduced foraging efficiency via increased inspection times and false-alarm rates against higher potential fitness loss from being injured or eaten. PMID:18771920

Ings, Thomas C; Chittka, Lars

2008-10-14

17

Building Ultra-Low False Alarm Rate Support Vector Classifier Ensembles Using Random Subspaces  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the Cost-Sensitive Random Subspace Support Vector Classifier (CS-RS-SVC), a new learning algorithm that combines random subspace sampling and bagging with Cost-Sensitive Support Vector Classifiers to more effectively address detection applications burdened by unequal misclassification requirements. When compared to its conventional, non-cost-sensitive counterpart on a two-class signal detection application, random subspace sampling is shown to very effectively leverage the additional flexibility offered by the Cost-Sensitive Support Vector Classifier, yielding a more than four-fold increase in the detection rate at a false alarm rate (FAR) of zero. Moreover, the CS-RS-SVC is shown to be fairly robust to constraints on the feature subspace dimensionality, enabling reductions in computation time of up to 82% with minimal performance degradation.

Chen, B Y; Lemmond, T D; Hanley, W G

2008-10-06

18

A fixed false alarm probability figure of merit for gravitational wave detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Performance of gravitational wave (GW) detectors can be characterized by several figures of merit (FOMs) which are used to guide the detector’s commissioning and operations, and to gauge astrophysical sensitivity. One key FOM is the range in Mpc, averaged over orientation and sky location, at which a GW signal from binary neutron star inspiral and coalescence would have a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 8 in a single detector. This fixed-SNR approach does not accurately reflect the effects of transient noise (glitches), which can severely limit the detectability of transient GW signals expected from a variety of astrophysical sources. We propose a FOM based instead on a fixed false-alarm probability (FAP). This is intended to give a more realistic estimate of the detectable GW transient range including the effect of glitches. Our approach applies equally to individual interferometers or a network of interferometers. We discuss the advantages of the fixed-FAP approach, present examples from a prototype implementation, and discuss the impact it has had on the recent commissioning of the GW detector GEO?600.

W?s, M.; Kalmus, P.; Leong, J. R.; Adams, T.; Leroy, N.; Macleod, D. M.; Pankow, C.; Robinet, F.

2014-04-01

19

Constant false alarm rate target detection in clutter: a neural processing algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A serious degradation in detection probability of conventional Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) processors used in the automatic detection of radar targets results from a reduction in the number of available reference cells. Several factors such as any constraints on the radar system used (in terms of resolution and sampling time), presence of interfering targets and nonstationary clutter may contribute to the reduction in the number of reference cells. This paper presents a novel neural network-based CFAR detection scheme (referred to as NN- CFAR scheme) that offers robust performance in the face of loss of reference cells. This scheme employs a multilayer feedforward neural network trained by error backpropagation approach using the optimal detector as the teacher. The excellent pattern classification capabilities of trained neural networks are exploited in this application to effectively counter performance degradations due to reduced reference window sizes. In particular it is demonstrated that a neural network implementation of the CFAR detection scheme provides an efficient approach for accommodating more input parameters without increasing design complexity for countering the information loss due to reduced reference window size. Precise quantitative performance evaluation of the NN-CFAR scheme are conducted in a variety of situations that include both homogeneous and nonhomogeneous clutter backgrounds and the target detection performance is compared with that of the traditional CA-CFAR scheme to highlight the benefits.

Amoozegar, Farid; Sundareshan, Malur K.

1994-03-01

20

Adaptive beam pointing control of a phased array radar in the presence of ECM and false alarms using IMMPDAF  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the use of the interacting multiple model (IMM) estimation algorithm combined with the probabilistic data association filter (PDAF) for adaptive beam pointing control of a phased array radar to track maneuvering targets in the presence of false alarms and electronic counter measures (ECM) is presented. The tracking algorithm includes target track formation and maintenance using IMMPDAF, jammer

T. Kirubarajan; Y. Bar-Shalom; E. Daeipour

1995-01-01

21

Statistical Considerations in Designing Tests of Mine Detection Systems: II - Measures Related to the False Alarm Rate  

SciTech Connect

The rate at which a mine detection system falsely identifies man-made or natural clutter objects as mines is referred to as the system's false alarm rate (FAR). Generally expressed as a rate per unit area or time, the FAR is one of the primary metrics used to gauge system performance. In this report, an overview is given of statistical methods appropriate for the analysis of data relating to FAR. Techniques are presented for determining a suitable size for the clutter collection area, for summarizing the performance of a single sensor, and for comparing different sensors. For readers requiring more thorough coverage of the topics discussed, references to the statistical literature are provided. A companion report addresses statistical issues related to the estimation of mine detection probabilities.

Simonson, K.M.

1998-08-01

22

Improved detection and false alarm rejection using FLGPR and color imagery in a forward-looking system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forward-looking ground-penetrating radar (FLGPR) has received a significant amount of attention for use in explosivehazards detection. A drawback to FLGPR is that it results in an excessive number of false detections. This paper presents our analysis of the explosive-hazards detection system tested by the U.S. Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD). The NVESD system combines an FLGPR with a visible-spectrum color camera. We present a target detection algorithm that uses a locally-adaptive detection scheme with spectrum-based features. The remaining FLGPR detections are then projected into the camera imagery and image-based features are collected. A one-class classifier is then used to reduce the number of false detections. We show that our proposed FLGPR target detection algorithm, coupled with our camera-based false alarm (FA) reduction method, is effective at reducing the number of FAs in test data collected at a US Army test facility.

Havens, Timothy C.; Spain, Christopher J.; Ho, K. C.; Keller, James M.; Ton, Tuan T.; Wong, David C.; Soumekh, Mehrdad

2010-04-01

23

A Measurement Framework of Alert Characteristics for False Positive Mitigation Models  

E-print Network

A Measurement Framework of Alert Characteristics for False Positive Mitigation Models Sarah Heckman in the software process that could lead to field failures. However, only a small portion of static analysis alerts). Static analysis tools may generate an overwhelming number of alerts, the majority of which are likely

Young, R. Michael

24

Do Pseudoword False Alarm Rates and Overestimation Rates in Yes/No Vocabulary Tests Change with Japanese University Students' English Ability Levels?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Pseudowords", or non-real words, were introduced to the Yes/No (YN) vocabulary test format to provide a means of checking for overestimation of word knowledge by test takers. The purpose of this study is to assess the assumption that more pseudoword checks (false alarms) indicate more instances of overestimation of word knowledge in YN tests.…

Stubbe, Raymond

2012-01-01

25

Benchmark problem for beam pointing control of phased array radar against maneuvering targets in the presence of ECM and false alarms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper extends an earlier benchmark problem for beam pointing control of a phased array radar to include the effects of false alarms and ECM. Multiple waveforms are included in the benchmark problem so that the radar energy can be coordinated with the tracking algorithm. The ECM includes a standoff jammer broadcasting wideband noise and targets attempting range gate pull

W. D. Blair; Watson G. L. Gentry; G. L. Gentry; S. A. Hoffman

1995-01-01

26

False alarms and mine seismicity: An example from the Gentry Mountain mining region, Utah. Los Alamos Source Region Project  

SciTech Connect

Mining regions are a cause of concern for monitoring of nuclear test ban treaties because they present the opportunity for clandestine nuclear tests (i.e. decoupled explosions). Mining operations are often characterized by high seismicity rates and can provide the cover for excavating voids for decoupling. Chemical explosions (seemingly as part of normal mining activities) can be used to complicate the signals from a simultaneous decoupled nuclear explosion. Thus, most concern about mines has dealt with the issue of missed violations to a test ban treaty. In this study, we raise the diplomatic concern of false alarms associated with mining activities. Numerous reports and papers have been published about anomalous seismicity associated with mining activities. As part of a large discrimination study in the western US (Taylor et al., 1989), we had one earthquake that was consistently classified as an explosion. The magnitude 3.5 disturbance occurred on May 14, 1981 and was conspicuous in its lack of Love waves, relative lack of high- frequency energy, low Lg/Pg ratio, and high m{sub b} {minus} M{sub s}. A moment-tensor solution by Patton and Zandt (1991) indicated the event had a large implosional component. The event occurred in the Gentry Mountain coal mining region in the eastern Wasatch Plateau, Utah. Using a simple source representation, we modeled the event as a tabular excavation collapse that occurred as a result of normal mining activities. This study raises the importance of having a good catalogue of seismic data and information about mining activities from potential proliferant nations.

Taylor, S.R.

1992-09-23

27

False-alarm probability in relation to over-sampled power spectra, with application to Super-Kamiokande solar neutrino data  

E-print Network

The term "false-alarm probability" denotes the probability that at least one out of M independent power values in a prescribed search band of a power spectrum computed from a white-noise time series is expected to be as large as or larger than a given value. The usual formula is based on the assumption that powers are distributed exponentially, as one expects for power measurements of normally distributed random noise. However, in practice one typically examines peaks in an over-sampled power spectrum. It is therefore more appropriate to compare the strength of a particular peak with the distribution of peaks in over-sampled power spectra derived from normally distributed random noise. We show that this leads to a formula for the false-alarm probability that is more conservative than the familiar formula. We also show how to combine these results with a Bayesian method for estimating the probability of the null hypothesis (that there is no oscillation in the time series), and we discuss as an example the application of these procedures to Super-Kamiokande solar neutrino data.

Peter A. Sturrock; Jeffrey D. Scargle

2010-06-03

28

Is it time to sound an alarm about false-positive cell-free DNA testing for fetal aneuploidy?  

PubMed

Testing cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in maternal blood samples has been shown to have very high sensitivity for the detection of fetal aneuploidy with very low false-positive results in high-risk patients who undergo invasive prenatal diagnosis. Recent observation in clinical practice of several cases of positive cfDNA tests for trisomy 18 and trisomy 13, which were not confirmed by cytogenetic testing of the pregnancy, may reflect a limitation of the positive predictive value of this quantitative testing, particularly when it is used to detect rare aneuploidies. Analysis of a larger number of false-positive cases is needed to evaluate whether these observations reflect the positive predictive value that should be expected. Infrequently, mechanisms (such as low percentage mosaicism or confined placental mosaicism) might also lead to positive cfDNA testing that is not concordant with standard prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis. The need to explore these and other possible causes of false-positive cfDNA testing is exemplified by 2 of these cases. Additional evaluation of cfDNA testing in clinical practice and a mechanism for the systematic reporting of false-positive and false-negative cases will be important before this test is offered widely to the general population of low-risk obstetric patients. In the meantime, incorporating information about the positive predictive value in pretest counseling and in clinical laboratory reports is recommended. These experiences reinforce the importance of offering invasive testing to confirm cfDNA results before parental decision-making. PMID:23529082

Mennuti, Michael T; Cherry, Athena M; Morrissette, Jennifer J D; Dugoff, Lorraine

2013-11-01

29

Sentinel alert sounds the alarm on worker fatigue; hospitals urged to mitigate risks.  

PubMed

Noting that there is a documented link between worker fatigue and adverse events, the Joint Commission has issued a Sentinel Alert, urging health care organizations to focus on the issue and make sure that policies and procedures are in place to mitigate risks. Experts advise hospital leaders to monitor worker shifts and make sure that people are able to leave work as scheduled when their shifts have concluded. Limit health care workers to no more than three consecutive days of 12-hour shifts, especially if these shifts are at night. Scrutinize handoff procedures so that worker fatigue does not lead to errors during this potentially hazardous time. Make sure that distractions are at a minimum during these transitions, and that patient information is conveyed in both verbal and in written form. PMID:23687738

2012-03-01

30

Medical audible alarms: a review  

PubMed Central

Objectives This paper summarizes much of the research that is applicable to the design of auditory alarms in a medical context. It also summarizes research that demonstrates that false alarm rates are unacceptably high, meaning that the proper application of auditory alarm design principles are compromised. Target audience Designers, users, and manufacturers of medical information and monitoring systems that indicate when medical or other parameters are exceeded and that are indicated by an auditory signal or signals. Scope The emergence of alarms as a ‘hot topic’; an outline of the issues and design principles, including IEC 60601-1-8; the high incidence of false alarms and its impact on alarm design and alarm fatigue; approaches to reducing alarm fatigue; alarm philosophy explained; urgency in audible alarms; different classes of sound as alarms; heterogeneity in alarm set design; problems with IEC 60601-1-8 and ways of approaching this design problem. PMID:23100127

Edworthy, Judy

2013-01-01

31

46 CFR 78.47-13 - Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm...47-13 Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm...The fire detecting and manual alarm automatic sprinklers, and smoke detecting...

2010-10-01

32

Rockfall hazard assessment, risk quantification, and mitigation options for reef cove resort development, False Cape, Queensland, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GIS and 2-D rock fall simulations were used as the primary tools during a rock fall hazard assessment and analyses for a major resort and township development near Cairns, Queensland in Australia. The methods used included 1) the development of a digital elevation model (DEM); undertaking rock fall trajectory analyses to determine the end points of rockfalls, the distribution of kinetic energy for identified rock fall runout Zones, and 3) undertaking event tree analyses based on a synthesis of all data in order to establish Zones with the highest risk of fatalities. This paper describes the methodology used and the results of this work. Recommendations to mitigate the hazard included having exclusions zones with no construction, scaling (including trim blasting), construction of berms and rockfall catch fences. Keywords: GIS, rockfall simulation, rockfall runout Zones, mitigation options INTRODUCTION False Cape is located on the east side of the Trinity inlet near Cairns (Figure 1). Construction is underway for a multi-million dollar development close the beach front. The development will ultimately cover about 1.5 km of prime coast line. The granite slopes above the development are steep and are covered with a number of large, potentially unstable boulders. Sheet jointing is present in the in-situ bedrock and these combined with other tectonic joint sets have provided a key mechanism for large side down slope on exposed bedrock. With each rock fall (evidence by boulders strew in gullies, over the lower parts of the slope, and on the beach) the failure mechanism migrates upslope. In order for the Developer to proceed with construction he needs to mitigate the identified rock fall hazard. The method used to study the hazard and key finding are presented in this paper. Discussion is provided in the conclusion on mitigation options. KEY METHODS USED TO STUDY THE HAZARD In summary the methods used to study the hazard for the False Cape project include; 1. The development of a digital elevation model (DEM) used to delineate rock fall runout Zones [1] that included the spatial location of boulder fields mapped within Zones(Figure 2). A Zone is defined as an area above the development on steep sided slopes where falling rocks are channeled into gullies / and or are contained between topographic features such as ridges and spurs that extend down the mountainside. These natural barriers generally ensure that falling rocks do not fall or roll into adjacent Zones; 2. The use of ‘Flow Path Tracing Tool' in Arc GIS spatial analyst to confirm typical descents of boulders in Zones. These were shown to correlated strongly with the endpoints of boulders observed within the development and major clusters of boulders on the beach front; 3. The use of 2-D rockfall trajectory analyses [2] using sections cut along typical 3-D trajectory paths mapped out in ARC GIS per Zone. Sections along typical paths in Zones simulated, to some degree, the 3-D affect or path of rocks as they bounce roll down slope (Figure 3); 4. The calibration of rockfall input parameters (coefficients of normal and tangential restitution, slope roughness, friction angle, etc.) using field identified endpoints and size of fallen rock and boulder; and 5. Undertaking risk evolutions in order to quantify the potential risk for each independent rockfall Zone. KEY FINDINGS FROM THE STUDIES The key findings from the study include; 1. Multiple potentially unstable in-situ boulders (some in excess of several thousand tonnes) are present above the development. 2. Similar geological structures (dykes, jointing, etc.) are present in the boulders on the beach front and within the development exposed in-situ bedrock located above the development. Measurement and comparison of the orientation of these geological structures present in boulders with that observed in the in-situ bedrock provided strong evidence that that the boulders have mitigated down slope. 3. Eight discrete Rockfall Runout Zones were identified using the digital elevation model set up in ARC GIS (Figure 4). The bound

Schlotfeldt, P.

2009-04-01

33

21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870...Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts...

2010-04-01

34

46 CFR 97.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 97.37-9 Section 97.37-9...Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified:...

2010-10-01

35

46 CFR 97.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 97.37-9 Section 97.37-9...Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified:...

2011-10-01

36

46 CFR 113.25-9 - Location of general emergency alarm signal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Location of general emergency alarm signal. 113...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-9 Location of general emergency alarm signal....

2010-10-01

37

46 CFR 113.25-25 - General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false General emergency alarm systems for manned... ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-25 General emergency alarm systems for...

2011-10-01

38

46 CFR 113.25-25 - General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false General emergency alarm systems for manned... ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-25 General emergency alarm systems for...

2013-10-01

39

46 CFR 113.25-25 - General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false General emergency alarm systems for manned... ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-25 General emergency alarm systems for...

2012-10-01

40

46 CFR 113.25-25 - General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false General emergency alarm systems for manned... ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-25 General emergency alarm systems for...

2010-10-01

41

46 CFR 113.25-9 - Location of general emergency alarm signal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Location of general emergency alarm signal. 113...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-9 Location of general emergency alarm signal....

2012-10-01

42

46 CFR 113.25-9 - Location of general emergency alarm signal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Location of general emergency alarm signal. 113...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-9 Location of general emergency alarm signal....

2011-10-01

43

46 CFR 113.25-9 - Location of general emergency alarm signal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Location of general emergency alarm signal. 113...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-9 Location of general emergency alarm signal....

2013-10-01

44

Hidden Alarm  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this design challenge activity, learners invent a device that will make their friends and family ask, "What's buzzing?" Learners design an alarm with an on/off switch that is small enough to hide. This activity is a fun, hands-on way for learners to get a taste for the design process and experiment with circuitry.

Wgbh

2010-01-01

45

Wasabi Alarm  

E-print Network

. The chemists invented an alarm that harnesses the power of wasabi fumes to alert people to fire. It seems the fumes contain an irritant active enough to work even when you're asleep. Plus the food/warning system fusion has the advantage of being effective even...

Hacker, Randi

2011-11-23

46

29 CFR 1910.165 - Employee alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Employee alarm systems. 1910.165 Section 1910.165 Labor...STANDARDS Fire Protection Other Fire Protection Systems § 1910.165 Employee alarm systems. (a) Scope and application....

2012-07-01

47

29 CFR 1910.165 - Employee alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Employee alarm systems. 1910.165 Section 1910.165 Labor...STANDARDS Fire Protection Other Fire Protection Systems § 1910.165 Employee alarm systems. (a) Scope and application....

2013-07-01

48

46 CFR 161.002-12 - Manual fire alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Manual fire alarm systems. 161.002-12 Section...SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Fire-Protective Systems § 161.002-12 Manual fire alarm systems. (a) General. A...

2012-10-01

49

46 CFR 161.002-12 - Manual fire alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Manual fire alarm systems. 161.002-12 Section...SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Fire-Protective Systems § 161.002-12 Manual fire alarm systems. (a) General. A...

2011-10-01

50

46 CFR 161.002-12 - Manual fire alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Manual fire alarm systems. 161.002-12 Section...SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Fire-Protective Systems § 161.002-12 Manual fire alarm systems. (a) General. A...

2013-10-01

51

46 CFR 120.550 - General alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false General alarm systems. 120.550 Section 120...ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Miscellaneous Systems and Requirements § 120.550 General alarm systems. (a) All vessels with...

2010-10-01

52

46 CFR 183.550 - General alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false General alarm systems. 183.550 Section 183...VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Miscellaneous Systems and Requirements § 183.550 General alarm systems. All vessels with...

2010-10-01

53

46 CFR 113.20-1 - Sprinkler alarm system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Sprinkler alarm system. 113.20-1 Section 113...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkler Systems § 113.20-1 Sprinkler...

2010-10-01

54

Learn about Smoke Alarms  

MedlinePLUS

... volt battery or a non-replaceable 10-year lithium (“long-life”) battery. Alarms that get power from ... years. Smoke alarm powered by a 10-year lithium (or “long-life”) battery Test the alarm monthly. ...

55

An Expert System for Monitor Alarm Integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Intensive care and operating room monitors generate data that are not fully utilized. False alarms are so frequent that attending personnel tends to disconnect them. We developed an expert system that could select and validate alarms by integration of seven vital signs monitored on-line from cardiac surgical patients. Methods. The system uses fuzzy logic and is able to work

Christian Oberli; Jorge Urzua; Claudia Saez; Marcello Guarini; Aldo Cipriano; Bernardita Garayar; Guillermo Lema; Roberto Canessa; Carla Sacco; Manuel Irarrazaval

1999-01-01

56

46 CFR 113.25-30 - General emergency alarm systems for barges of 300 or more gross tons with sleeping accommodations...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false General emergency alarm systems for barges... ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-30 General emergency alarm systems for...

2013-10-01

57

46 CFR 113.25-30 - General emergency alarm systems for barges of 300 or more gross tons with sleeping accommodations...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false General emergency alarm systems for barges... ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-30 General emergency alarm systems for...

2011-10-01

58

46 CFR 113.25-30 - General emergency alarm systems for barges of 300 or more gross tons with sleeping accommodations...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false General emergency alarm systems for barges... ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-30 General emergency alarm systems for...

2012-10-01

59

46 CFR 113.25-30 - General emergency alarm systems for barges of 300 or more gross tons with sleeping accommodations...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false General emergency alarm systems for barges... ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-30 General emergency alarm systems for...

2010-10-01

60

Real-time noise mitigation algorithms for space and nuclear radiation environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses small targets and signal processing from the perspective of rejecting radiation noise spikes. Nuclear and space radiation create noise spikes inside infrared detectors causing an overwhelming number of false alarms, if steps are not taken to mitigate the radiation noise spikes. Traditional radiation device\\/circuit hardening methods are effective, but must be reapplied to each new technology forcing

Neal J. Redmond; Janeil Hill; Robert Lowell; Wheaton Byers; John P. Retzler; Allen R. Andrews; Paul Mackin

1997-01-01

61

Remote Monitor Alarm System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A remote monitor alarm system monitors discrete alarm and analog power supply voltage conditions at remotely located communications terminal equipment. A central monitoring unit (CMU) is connected via serial data links to each of a plurality of remote terminal units (RTUS) that monitor the alarm and power supply conditions of the remote terminal equipment. Each RTU can monitor and store condition information of both discrete alarm points and analog power supply voltage points in its associated communications terminal equipment. The stored alarm information is periodically transmitted to the CMU in response to sequential polling of the RTUS. The number of monitored alarm inputs and permissible voltage ranges for the analog inputs can be remotely configured at the CMU and downloaded into programmable memory at each RTU. The CMU includes a video display, a hard disk memory, a line printer and an audio alarm for communicating and storing the alarm information received from each RTU.

Stute, Robert A. (Inventor); Galloway, F. Houston (Inventor); Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor); Swindle, Robert W. (Inventor); Bierman, Tracy A. (Inventor)

1996-01-01

62

Multisensor Fireproof Alarm System  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to present situation and unsaved problems of home fireproof alarm system, the intelligent fireproof alarm system based on public telephone net is introduced. In the system, flammable gas sensor, temperature sensor and smoke sensor are used as the detection devices; the Single Chip Microprocessor (SCM) is used as the control core unit; and the intelligent alarm function is accomplished

Lin Jiang; Jian Xun Jin; Yan Xia Wang

2011-01-01

63

Decision-making and response strategies in interaction with alarms: the impact of alarm reliability, availability of alarm validity information and workload.  

PubMed

Responding to alarm systems which usually commit a number of false alarms and/or misses involves decision-making under uncertainty. Four laboratory experiments including a total of 256 participants were conducted to gain comprehensive insight into humans' dealing with this uncertainty. Specifically, it was investigated how responses to alarms/non-alarms are affected by the predictive validities of these events, and to what extent response strategies depend on whether or not the validity of alarms/non-alarms can be cross-checked against other data. Among others, the results suggest that, without cross-check possibility (experiment 1), low levels of predictive validity of alarms ( ? 0.5) led most participants to use one of two different strategies which both involved non-responding to a significant number of alarms (cry-wolf effect). Yet, providing access to alarm validity information reduced this effect dramatically (experiment 2). This latter result emerged independent of the effort needed for cross-checkings of alarms (experiment 3), but was affected by the workload imposed by concurrent tasks (experiment 4). Theoretical and practical consequences of these results for decision-making and response selection in interaction with alarm systems, as well as the design of effective alarm systems, are discussed. PMID:25224606

Manzey, Dietrich; Gérard, Nina; Wiczorek, Rebecca

2014-12-01

64

Make an Alarm!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After reading the story "Dear Mr. Henshaw" by Beverly Cleary, student groups create alarm systems to protect something in the classroom, just as the main character Leigh does to protect his lunchbox from thieves. Students learn about alarms and use their creativity to devise multi-step alarm systems to protect their lockers, desk, pets or classroom door. Note: This activity can also be done without reading the Cleary book.

Center For Engineering Educational Outreach

65

Giving radioiodine? Think about airport security alarms.  

PubMed

An increased sensitivity of airport detectors, a growing number of isotopic tests, and globalization of the society have raised a number of false positive radioactive alarms at airports and public places. This paper presents two new cases of patients who triggered airport security alarms after receiving 740MBq of (131)I for non-toxic goitre and attempts to compare surprisingly limited literature concerning this problem. A 57-year-old man triggered a security alarm at three different airports on the 17th, 28th, and 31st day after radioiodine exposure. Interestingly enough, in the meantime, on the 18th and 22nd day, no radiation was detected in him at the airport where he was twice detained as a source of radiation later on. The second case presents a 45-year-old woman who activated security alarm detectors while crossing a border on her coach trip 28 days after radioiodine administration. PMID:22226338

Kaniuka-Jakubowska, S; Lewczuk, A; Mizan-Gross, K; Obo?o?czyk, L; Lass, P; Sworczak, K

2012-01-01

66

How Safe Is Our Campus? Does every student's room have a smoke alarm?  

E-print Network

to the University Emergency Communications Center. How many false alarms have occurred in the residence halls? We is activated? Yes, the alarm systems are tied into the Emergency Communications Center and the University Fire

Wagner, Diane

67

33 CFR 149.414 - What are the requirements for a fire detection and alarm system?  

...false What are the requirements for a fire detection and alarm system? 149.414...CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment Firefighting Requirements...414 What are the requirements for a fire detection and alarm system?...

2014-07-01

68

FundAlarm  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

FundAlarm is a "a free, non-commercial Website [which provides] objective information to help individual investors make the mutual fund 'sell' decision." Highlighted on this site is the FundAlarm database, which contains over 3,400 stock and balanced mutual funds. The database may be browsed by name of fund, or users can browse only fidelity and Vanguard funds, as well as search by up to five ticker symbols. The site also explains its benchmarking system of ranking funds, offers shop talk in its Highlights and Commentary section, and includes a discussion board. Interested users may sign up for free email notification of FundAlarm updates.

69

33 CFR 127.201 - Sensing and alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sensing and alarm systems. 127.201 Section 127.201 Navigation...Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Equipment § 127.201 Sensing and alarm systems. (a) Fixed sensors must have...

2010-07-01

70

46 CFR 34.15-30 - Alarms-T/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alarms-T/ALL. 34.15-30 Section 34.15-30 Shipping COAST...Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 34.15-30 Alarms—T/ALL. (a) Spaces required to have a delayed discharge...

2011-10-01

71

Sensor fusion for intelligent alarm analysis  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of an intelligent alarm analysis system is to provide complete and manageable information to a central alarm station operator by applying alarm processing and fusion techniques to sensor information. This paper discusses the sensor fusion approach taken to perform intelligent alarm analysis for the Advanced Exterior Sensor (AES). The AES is an intrusion detection and assessment system designed for wide-area coverage, quick deployment, low false/nuisance alarm operation, and immediate visual assessment. It combines three sensor technologies (visible, infrared, and millimeter wave radar) collocated on a compact and portable remote sensor module. The remote sensor module rotates at a rate of 1 revolution per second to detect and track motion and provide assessment in a continuous 360` field-of-regard. Sensor fusion techniques are used to correlate and integrate the track data from these three sensors into a single track for operator observation. Additional inputs to the fusion process include environmental data, knowledge of sensor performance under certain weather conditions, sensor priority, and recent operator feedback. A confidence value is assigned to the track as a result of the fusion process. This helps to reduce nuisance alarms and to increase operator confidence in the system while reducing the workload of the operator.

Nelson, C.L.; Fitzgerald, D.S.

1995-03-01

72

False arrhythmia alarm suppression using ECG, ABP, and photoplethysmogram  

E-print Network

A signal quality assessment scheme for the photoplethysmogram waveform recorded by a pulse oximeter has been created. The signal quality algorithm uses statistical methods on time-series and spectral analysis to locate ...

Deshmane, Anagha Vishwas

2009-01-01

73

Munchausen stridor-a strong false alarm of anaphylaxis.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of anaphylaxis is often based on reported symptoms which may not be accurate and lead to major psychosocial and financial impacts. We describe two adult patients who were diagnosed as having recurrent anaphylaxis witnessed by multiple physicians based on recurrent laryngeal symptoms. The claimed cause was foods in one and drugs in the other. We questioned the diagnosis because of absent documentation of objective findings to support anaphylaxis, and the symptoms occurred during skin testing though the test sites were not reactive. Our initial skin testing with placebos reproduced the symptoms without objective findings. Subsequent skin tests with the suspected allergens were negative yet reproduced the symptoms without objective findings. Disclosing the test results markedly displeased one patient but reassured the other who subsequently tolerated the suspected allergen. In conclusion, these 2 patients' symptoms and evaluation were not supportive of their initial diagnosis of recurrent anaphylaxis. The compatible diagnosis was Munchausen stridor which requires psychiatric evaluation and behavior modification, but often rejected by patients. PMID:25374759

Bahna, Sami L; Oldham, Jennifer L

2014-11-01

74

BIT false alarms - An important factor in operational readiness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The premise of this paper is that current avionic systems are inherently reliable and potentially maintainable at high rates of operational readiness (OR). OR rates are frequently less than anticipated because of excessive maintenance. That much maintenance is unnecessary is evidenced in part by the problem of high removal rate of fault-free units reported by military test and evaluation organizations.

J. G. Malcolm

1982-01-01

75

Design of the Intelligent Test Equipment of Airplane Fire Alarm System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The airplane fire alarm system is a piece of the most important equipment influencing the flight security. Due to the factors of design and working condition, the reliability of the system is poor, especially the high rate of false alarm. So the test equipment of airplane fire alarm system, an intelligent synthesis test system allowing multiple parameters and digital data

Xu Hengcheng; Zeng Xianlin; Liu Xiangqun

2010-01-01

76

46 CFR 154.1325 - Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks...Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1325 Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks...1330, each cargo tank must have a high liquid level alarm system that: (a) Is...

2010-10-01

77

46 CFR 154.1325 - Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks...Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1325 Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks...1330, each cargo tank must have a high liquid level alarm system that: (a) Is...

2011-10-01

78

46 CFR 154.1325 - Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks...Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1325 Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks...1330, each cargo tank must have a high liquid level alarm system that: (a) Is...

2012-10-01

79

46 CFR 154.1325 - Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks...Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1325 Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks...1330, each cargo tank must have a high liquid level alarm system that: (a) Is...

2013-10-01

80

46 CFR 154.1325 - Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks...Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1325 Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks...1330, each cargo tank must have a high liquid level alarm system that: (a) Is...

2014-10-01

81

Chair Alarm for patient fall prevention based on Gesture Recognition and Interactivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gesture Recognition Interactive Technology (GRiT) Chair Alarm aims to prevent patient falls from chairs and wheelchairs by recognizing the gesture of a patient attempting to stand. Patient falls are one of the greatest causes of injury in hospitals. Current chair and bed exit alarm systems are inadequate because of insufficient notification, high false-alarm rate, and long trigger delays. The

Heather Knight; Jae-Kyu Lee; Hongshen Ma

2008-01-01

82

46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 169.732 Section...Equipment Markings § 169.732 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. (a) Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing alarm...

2012-10-01

83

46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 169.732 Section...Equipment Markings § 169.732 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. (a) Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing alarm...

2013-10-01

84

FIRE ALARM SYSTEM OUTDATED.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

AN EFFICIENT FIRE ALARM SYSTEM SHOULD--(1) PROVIDE WARNING OF FIRES THAT START IN HIDDEN OR UNOCCUPIED LOCATIONS, (2) INDICATE WHERE THE FIRE IS, (3) GIVE ADVANCE WARNING TO FACULTY AND ADMINISTRATION SO THAT PANIC AND CONFUSION CAN BE AVOIDED AND ORDERLY EVACUATION OCCUR, (4) AUTOMATICALLY NOTIFY CITY FIRE HEADQUARTERS OF THE FIRE, (5) OPERATE BY…

CHANDLER, L.T.

85

Dynamic alarm response procedures  

SciTech Connect

The Dynamic Alarm Response Procedure (DARP) system provides a robust, Web-based alternative to existing hard-copy alarm response procedures. This paperless system improves performance by eliminating time wasted looking up paper procedures by number, looking up plant process values and equipment and component status at graphical display or panels, and maintenance of the procedures. Because it is a Web-based system, it is platform independent. DARP's can be served from any Web server that supports CGI scripting, such as Apache{sup R}, IIS{sup R}, TclHTTPD, and others. DARP pages can be viewed in any Web browser that supports Javascript and Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG), such as Netscape{sup R}, Microsoft Internet Explorer{sup R}, Mozilla Firefox{sup R}, Opera{sup R}, and others. (authors)

Martin, J.; Gordon, P.; Fitch, K. [Westinghouse Electric Company, P. O. Box 355, Pittsburgh, PA 15230-0355 (United States)

2006-07-01

86

Hospital Study Offers Solutions to 'Alarm Fatigue'  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hospital Study Offers Solutions to 'Alarm Fatigue' 2.5 ... million alarms in one month at a U.S. hospital, a new study of "alarm fatigue" shows. Alarm ...

87

Statistical En-route Filtering of Injected False Data in Sensor Networks  

E-print Network

cause not only false alarms but also the depletion of the finite amount of energy in a battery powered. In addition to causing false alarms that can waste real-world response effort, false reports can drain out the finite amount of energy resource in a battery-powered network. A few recent research efforts [1], [2], [3

Lu, Songwu

88

Functional relationship-based alarm processing  

DOEpatents

A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously updated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on causal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). 11 figs.

Corsberg, D.R.

1987-04-13

89

Alarm toe switch  

DOEpatents

An alarm toe switch inserted within a shoe for energizing an alarm circuit n a covert manner includes an insole mounting pad into which a miniature reed switch is fixedly molded. An elongated slot perpendicular to the reed switch is formed in the bottom surface of the mounting pad. A permanent cylindrical magnet positioned in the forward portion of the slot with a diameter greater than the pad thickness causes a bump above the pad. A foam rubber block is also positioned in the slot rearwardly of the magnet and holds the magnet in normal inoperative relation. A non-magnetic support plate covers the slot and holds the magnet and foam rubber in the slot. The plate minimizes bending and frictional forces to improve movement of the magnet for reliable switch activation. The bump occupies the knuckle space beneath the big toe. When the big toe is scrunched rearwardly the magnet is moved within the slot relative to the reed switch, thus magnetically activating the switch. When toe pressure is released the foam rubber block forces the magnet back into normal inoperative position to deactivate the reed switch. The reed switch is hermetically sealed with the magnet acting through the wall so the switch assembly S is capable of reliable operation even in wet and corrosive environments.

Ganyard, Floyd P. (Albuquerque, NM)

1982-01-01

90

Development of a GLE Alarm System Based Upon Neutron Monitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a system that watches for count rate increases recorded in real time by eight neutron monitors, and gives an alarm when a Ground Level Enhancement (GLE) is detected. In this work, we determine optimal strategies for detecting the GLE event at a very early stage, while still keeping the false alarm rate from glitches at a very low level. The January 20, 2005 event will be used to illustrate our methods. A reliable system is developed with an algorithm that produces alarms in three levels according to the number of stations showing an increase. We study past events to optimize appropriate intensity threshold values and a baseline to determine the intensity increase. At the highest level alarm produced by the three stations increase, a false alarm rate expected from the observed data during the past five years become zero. Alarm times of GLEs examined from the most recent nine events are compared with satellite proton data. The GLE alert would precede the earliest alert from GOES (100 MeV or 10 MeV protons) by ~10-20 minutes. For the January 20 event, the GLE alert (3 stations) was generated 12 minutes prior to the earliest GOES alert. The realtime GLE data may be viewed at http://neutronm.bartol.udel.edu/spaceweather. An automated e-mail alert system is under development. Supported by NSF grants ATM-0207196 and ATM-0000315.

Kuwabara, T.; Bieber, J. W.; Clem, J.; Evenson, P.; Pyle, R.

2005-12-01

91

Talking Fire Alarms Calm Kids.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The new microprocessor-based fire alarm systems can help to control smoke movement throughout school buildings by opening vents and doors, identify the burning section, activate voice alarms, provide firefighters with telephone systems during the fire, and release fire-preventing gas. (KS)

Executive Educator, 1984

1984-01-01

92

Lower thermocouple estimation Alarm signal  

E-print Network

Lower thermocouple estimation +_ Model Alarm signal Algorithm Casting speed Alarm signal in continuous casting L. Bazart (ArcelorMittal R&D), A. Khelassi (ArcelorMittal R&D), D. Maquin (Centre de advanced diagnosis tools for the detection of abnormal events and operating mode changing in steel

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

93

Recent Results on "Approximations to Optimal Alarm Systems for Anomaly Detection"  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optimal alarm system and its approximations may use Kalman filtering for univariate linear dynamic systems driven by Gaussian noise to provide a layer of predictive capability. Predicted Kalman filter future process values and a fixed critical threshold can be used to construct a candidate level-crossing event over a predetermined prediction window. An optimal alarm system can be designed to elicit the fewest false alarms for a fixed detection probability in this particular scenario.

Martin, Rodney Alexander

2009-01-01

94

Mobilising around a risk : from alarm raisers to alarm carriers  

E-print Network

the question of alarm raisers. We have been able to show how the configuration that we have labelled "vigilance French agency for food safety. #12;risk (BSE, GMO), previously "political" dangers are re

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

95

46 CFR 108.625 - General alarm bell.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

46 ? Shipping ? 4 ? 2010-10-01 ? 2010-10-01 ? false ? General alarm bell. ? 108.625 ? Section 108.625 ? Shipping ? COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ? A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS ? DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT ? Equipment Markings and Instructions ? § 108.625 ? General...

2010-10-01

96

46 CFR 35.40-7 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms-T/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms-T/ALL. 35.40-7 Section 35.40-7 Shipping COAST...ALL § 35.40-7 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms—T/ALL. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire...

2012-10-01

97

Perimeter security alarm system based on fiber Bragg grating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the development of the society and economy and the improvement of living standards, people need more and more pressing security. Perimeter security alarm system is widely regarded as the first line of defense. A highly sensitive Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) vibration sensor based on the theory of the string vibration, combined with neural network adaptive dynamic programming algorithm for the perimeter security alarm system make the detection intelligently. Intelligent information processing unit identify the true cause of the vibration of the invasion or the natural environment by analyzing the frequency of vibration signals, energy, amplitude and duration. Compared with traditional perimeter security alarm systems, such as infrared perimeter security system and electric fence system, FBG perimeter security alarm system takes outdoor passive structures, free of electromagnetic interference, transmission distance through optical fiber can be as long as 20 km It is able to detect the location of event within short period of time (high-speed response, less than 3 second).This system can locate the fiber cable's breaking sites and alarm automatically if the cable were be cut. And the system can prevent effectively the false alarm from small animals, birds, strong wind, scattering things, snowfalls and vibration of sensor line itself. It can also be integrated into other security systems. This system can be widely used in variety fields such as military bases, nuclear sites, airports, warehouses, prisons, residence community etc. It will be a new force of perimeter security technology.

Zhang, Cui; Wang, Lixin

2010-11-01

98

Functional relationship-based alarm processing system  

DOEpatents

A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the functional relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated or deactivated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously updated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on causal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). The alarm processing system and method is sensitive to the dynamic nature of the process being monitored and is capable of changing the relative importance of each alarm as necessary. 12 figs.

Corsberg, D.R.

1988-04-22

99

Functional relationship-based alarm processing system  

DOEpatents

A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the functional relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated or deactivated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously updated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on causal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). The alarm processing system and method is sensitive to the dynamic nature of the process being monitored and is capable of changing the relative importance of each alarm as necessary.

Corsberg, Daniel R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1989-01-01

100

33 CFR 155.380 - Oily water separating equipment and bilge alarm approval standards.  

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oily water separating equipment and bilge alarm approval...Section 155.380 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

2014-07-01

101

Knowledge Discovery from Telecommunication Network Alarm Databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

A telecommunication network produces daily large amounts of alarm data. The data contains hidden valuable knowledge about the behavior of the network. This knowledge can be used in filtering redundant alarms, locating problems in, the network, and possibly in predicting severe faults. We describe the TASA (Telecommunication Network Alarm Sequence Analyzer) system for discovering and browsing knowledge from large alarm

Kimmo Hätönen; Mika Klemettinen; Heikki Mannila; Pirjo Ronkainen; Hannu Toivonen

1996-01-01

102

Making ICU alarms meaningful: a comparison of traditional vs. trend-based algorithms.  

PubMed Central

Much of the work in the ICU revolves around information that is recorded by electronic devices. Such devices typically incorporate simple alarm functions that trigger when a value exceeds predefined limits. Depending on the parameter followed, these "boundary based" alarms tend to produce vast numbers of false alarms. Some are the result of false reading and some the result of true but clinically insignificant readings. We present a computerized module that analyzes real-time data from multiple monitoring devices using a customizable logic engine. The module was tested on 6 intensive care unit patients over 5 days, running alarm algorithms for heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure as well as arterial oxygen saturation. Results show a ten-fold increase in positive predictive value of alarms from 3% using monitor alarms to 32% using the module. The module's overall sensitivity was 82%, failing to detect 18% of significant alarms as defined by the ICU staff. The results suggests that implementation of such methodology may assist in filtering false and insignificant alarms in the ICU setting. PMID:10566385

Schoenberg, R.; Sands, D. Z.; Safran, C.

1999-01-01

103

The Best Ever Alarm System Toolkit  

SciTech Connect

Learning from our experience with the standard Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) alarm handler (ALH) as well as a similar intermediate approach based on script-generated operator screens, we developed the Best Ever Alarm System Toolkit (BEAST). It is based on Java and Eclipse on the Control System Studio (CSS) platform, using a relational database (RDB) to store the configuration and log actions. It employs a Java Message Service (JMS) for communication between the modular pieces of the toolkit, which include an Alarm Server to maintain the current alarm state, an arbitrary number of Alarm Client user interfaces (GUI), and tools to annunciate alarms or log alarm related actions. Web reports allow us to monitor the alarm system performance and spot deficiencies in the alarm configuration. The Alarm Client GUI not only gives the end users various ways to view alarms in tree and table, but also makes it easy to access the guidance information, the related operator displays and other CSS tools. It also allows online configuration to be simply modified from the GUI. Coupled with a good "alarm philosophy" on how to provide useful alarms, we can finally improve the configuration to achieve an effective alarm system.

Kasemir, Kay [ORNL; Chen, Xihui [ORNL; Danilova, Katia [ORNL

2009-01-01

104

Security and Fire Alarm Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This PowerPoint from the Convergence Technology Center presents information on security and fire alarm systems. This material would be useful for students learning these concepts for the first time, or as an overview. Topics include home security, zones, subzones, smoke detectors, wireless systems and more.

Carranza, Julian; Harsh, Mike

2013-07-18

105

Is alarm calling risky? Marmots avoid calling from risky places  

PubMed Central

Alarm calling is common in many species. A prevalent assumption is that calling puts the vocalizing individual at increased risk of predation. If calling is indeed costly, we need special explanations for its evolution and maintenance. In some, but not all species, callers vocalize away from safety and thus may be exposed to an increased risk of predation. However, for species that emit bouts with one or a few calls, it is often difficult to identify the caller and find the precise location where a call was produced. We analyzed the spatial dynamics of yellow-bellied marmot (Marmota flaviventris) alarm calling using an acoustic localization system to determine the location from which calls were emitted. Marmots almost always called from positions close to the safety of their burrows, and, if they produced more than one alarm call, tended to end their calling bouts closer to safety than they started them. These results suggest that for this species, potential increased predation risk from alarm calling is greatly mitigated and indeed calling may have limited predation costs. PMID:21116460

Collier, Travis C.; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Girod, Lewis; Taylor, Charles E.

2010-01-01

106

Is alarm calling risky? Marmots avoid calling from risky places.  

PubMed

Alarm calling is common in many species. A prevalent assumption is that calling puts the vocalizing individual at increased risk of predation. If calling is indeed costly, we need special explanations for its evolution and maintenance. In some, but not all species, callers vocalize away from safety and thus may be exposed to an increased risk of predation. However, for species that emit bouts with one or a few calls, it is often difficult to identify the caller and find the precise location where a call was produced. We analyzed the spatial dynamics of yellow-bellied marmot (Marmota flaviventris) alarm calling using an acoustic localization system to determine the location from which calls were emitted. Marmots almost always called from positions close to the safety of their burrows, and, if they produced more than one alarm call, tended to end their calling bouts closer to safety than they started them. These results suggest that for this species, potential increased predation risk from alarm calling is greatly mitigated and indeed calling may have limited predation costs. PMID:21116460

Collier, Travis C; Blumstein, Daniel T; Girod, Lewis; Taylor, Charles E

2010-12-01

107

The false classification of extinction risk in noisy environments.  

PubMed

Abundance trends are the basis for many classifications of threat and recovery status, but they can be a challenge to interpret because of observation error, stochastic variation in abundance (process noise) and temporal autocorrelation in that process noise. To measure the frequency of incorrectly detecting a decline (false-positive or false alarm) and failing to detect a true decline (false-negative), we simulated stable and declining abundance time series across several magnitudes of observation error and autocorrelated process noise. We then empirically estimated the magnitude of observation error and autocorrelated process noise across a broad range of taxa and mapped these estimates onto the simulated parameter space. Based on the taxa we examined, at low classification thresholds (30% decline in abundance) and short observation windows (10 years), false alarms would be expected to occur, on average, about 40% of the time assuming density-independent dynamics, whereas false-negatives would be expected to occur about 60% of the time. However, false alarms and failures to detect true declines were reduced at higher classification thresholds (50% or 80% declines), longer observation windows (20, 40, 60 years), and assuming density-dependent dynamics. The lowest false-positive and false-negative rates are likely to occur for large-bodied, long-lived animal species. PMID:24898368

Connors, B M; Cooper, A B; Peterman, R M; Dulvy, N K

2014-07-22

108

Automated alarm to detect antigen excess in serum free immunoglobulin light chain kappa and lambda assays.  

PubMed

Abstract Background. Antigen excess causing a falsely low concentration result may occur when measuring serum free immunoglobulin light chains (SFLC). Automated antigen excess detection methods are available only with some analyzers. We have now developed and verified such a method. Methods. Residuals of sera with known SFLC-? and -? concentrations were analyzed using Binding Site reagents and methods adapted to the Roche Cobas(®) c.501 analyzer. Results. We analyzed 117 sera for SFLC-? and -? and examined how the absorbance increased with time during the 7 minutes of reaction (absorbance reading points 12-70). From this an antigen excess alarm factor (ratio of absorbance increases between reading points 68-60 and 20-12, multiplied by 100) was defined. Upon our request, Roche added to our two SFLC assays a program which calculated this antigen excess alarm factor and triggered an alarm when the factor was below a defined value. We verified this antigen excess alarm function by analyzing serum from 325 persons of whom 143 were multiple myeloma patients. All samples with a known concentration above 30 mg/L triggered either an antigen excess alarm, an 'above test' alarm or both. Also, all samples above 200 mg/L (SFLC-?) and 300 mg/L (SFLC-?) triggered the antigen excess alarm and all but one triggered the above test alarm. Conclusions. The antigen excess alarm function presented here detected all known antigen excess samples at no increased time of analysis, a reduced workload and reduced reagent cost. PMID:25007050

Urdal, Petter; Amundsen, Erik K; Toska, Karin; Klingenberg, Olav

2014-10-01

109

21 CFR 876.2040 - Enuresis alarm.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 876.2040 Enuresis alarm. (a) Identification. An enuresis alarm is a...

2014-04-01

110

21 CFR 876.2040 - Enuresis alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 876.2040 Enuresis alarm. (a) Identification. An enuresis alarm is a...

2011-04-01

111

21 CFR 876.2040 - Enuresis alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 876.2040 Enuresis alarm. (a) Identification. An enuresis alarm is a...

2012-04-01

112

21 CFR 876.2040 - Enuresis alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 876.2040 Enuresis alarm. (a) Identification. An enuresis alarm is a...

2010-04-01

113

21 CFR 876.2040 - Enuresis alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 876.2040 Enuresis alarm. (a) Identification. An enuresis alarm is a...

2013-04-01

114

Integrating Multiple Alarms & Driver Situation Awareness  

E-print Network

This study addresses this gap in CAS and intelligent alarm research by examining whether or not a single master alarm warning versus multiple warnings for the different collision warning systems conveys adequate information ...

Cummings, M. L.

2006-01-01

115

46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms. (a) Each alarm required by § 130.460 of this...

2012-10-01

116

46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms. (a) Each alarm required by § 130.460 of this...

2013-10-01

117

46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms. (a) Each alarm required by § 130.460 of this...

2011-10-01

118

46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms. (a) Each alarm required by § 130.460 of this...

2010-10-01

119

MSPI False Indication Probability Simulations  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines false indication probabilities in the context of the Mitigating System Performance Index (MSPI), in order to investigate the pros and cons of different approaches to resolving two coupled issues: (1) sensitivity to the prior distribution used in calculating the Bayesian-corrected unreliability contribution to the MSPI, and (2) whether (in a particular plant configuration) to model the fuel oil transfer pump (FOTP) as a separate component, or integrally to its emergency diesel generator (EDG). False indication probabilities were calculated for the following situations: (1) all component reliability parameters at their baseline values, so that the true indication is green, meaning that an indication of white or above would be false positive; (2) one or more components degraded to the extent that the true indication would be (mid) white, and “false” would be green (negative) or yellow (negative) or red (negative). In key respects, this was the approach taken in NUREG-1753. The prior distributions examined were the constrained noninformative (CNI) prior used currently by the MSPI, a mixture of conjugate priors, the Jeffreys noninformative prior, a nonconjugate log(istic)-normal prior, and the minimally informative prior investigated in (Kelly et al., 2010). The mid-white performance state was set at ?CDF = ?10 ? 10-6/yr. For each simulated time history, a check is made of whether the calculated ?CDF is above or below 10-6/yr. If the parameters were at their baseline values, and ?CDF > 10-6/yr, this is counted as a false positive. Conversely, if one or all of the parameters are set to values corresponding to ?CDF > 10-6/yr but that time history’s ?CDF < 10-6/yr, this is counted as a false negative indication. The false indication (positive or negative) probability is then estimated as the number of false positive or negative counts divided by the number of time histories (100,000). Results are presented for a set of base case parameter values, and three sensitivity cases in which the number of FOTP demands was reduced, along with the Birnbaum importance of the FOTP.

Dana Kelly; Kurt Vedros; Robert Youngblood

2011-03-01

120

SUBSURFACE VISUAL ALARM SYSTEM ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

The ''Subsurface Fire Hazard Analysis'' (CRWMS M&O 1998, page 61), and the document, ''Title III Evaluation Report for the Surface and Subsurface Communication System'', (CRWMS M&O 1999a, pages 21 and 23), both indicate the installed communication system is adequate to support Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) activities with the exception of the mine phone system for emergency notification purposes. They recommend the installation of a visual alarm system to supplement the page/party phone system The purpose of this analysis is to identify data communication highway design approaches, and provide justification for the selected or recommended alternatives for the data communication of the subsurface visual alarm system. This analysis is being prepared to document a basis for the design selection of the data communication method. This analysis will briefly describe existing data or voice communication or monitoring systems within the ESF, and look at how these may be revised or adapted to support the needed data highway of the subsurface visual alarm. system. The existing PLC communication system installed in subsurface is providing data communication for alcove No.5 ventilation fans, south portal ventilation fans, bulkhead doors and generator monitoring system. It is given that the data communication of the subsurface visual alarm system will be a digital based system. It is also given that it is most feasible to take advantage of existing systems and equipment and not consider an entirely new data communication system design and installation. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Briefly review and describe existing available data communication highways or systems within the ESF. (2) Examine technical characteristics of an existing system to disqualify a design alternative is paramount in minimizing the number of and depth of a system review. (3) Apply general engineering design practices or criteria such as relative cost, and degree of difficulty and complexity in determining requirements in adapting existing data communication highways to support the subsurface visual alarm system. These requirements would include such things as added or new communication cables, added Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), Inputs and Outputs (I/O), and communication hardware components, and human machine interfaces and their software operating system. (4) Select the best data communication highway system based on this review of adapting or integrating with existing data communication systems.

D.W. Markman

2001-08-06

121

INEL central alarm monitoring and assessment system  

SciTech Connect

This paper concerns the design and development of a centrally located security monitoring and assessment system for processing alarms at several remote facilities. The system provides both live and recorded CCTV assessment of alarmed areas. Computer controlled video disc recordings are made at the time the alarm is activated. Alarming areas are displayed on a color graphics monitor and an operator interacts through an overlying transparent touch panel. Computer-generated messages are also displayed to assist and inform the operator. A bidirectional, frequency-multiplexed cable system provides digital alarm information, video control commands, and several channels of video from each remote facility.

Niper, E.D.

1983-07-01

122

46 CFR 154.1365 - Audible and visual alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...1365 Audible and visual alarms. (a) Each audible alarm must have an arrangement that allows it to be turned off after sounding. For remote group alarms this arrangement must not interrupt the alarm's actuation by other faults. (b) Each...

2010-10-01

123

46 CFR 113.25-12 - Alarm signals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113... (a) Each general emergency alarm signal must...to produce the general emergency alarm signal must...

2010-10-01

124

46 CFR 113.25-12 - Alarm signals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113... (a) Each general emergency alarm signal must...to produce the general emergency alarm signal must...

2012-10-01

125

46 CFR 113.25-12 - Alarm signals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113... (a) Each general emergency alarm signal must...to produce the general emergency alarm signal must...

2013-10-01

126

46 CFR 113.25-12 - Alarm signals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113... (a) Each general emergency alarm signal must...to produce the general emergency alarm signal must...

2011-10-01

127

Development of real time alarm/surveillance system  

SciTech Connect

PNC has carried out real time alarm/surveillance system as a part of its r and d programs on the physical protection systems for its nuclear facilities from 1984 to 1986. The guard operates a closed circuit television (CCTV) camera to see whether the alarms are caused from intruders or from accident in the existing physical protection systems. But it is very difficult to assess rapidly moving objects using such a TV system. Monitor images are used to be continuously recorded by VTR, but it does not seem to be very suitable or it takes quite a long time to play back. Aiming at more effective and reliable physical protection systems, a new alarm/surveillance system was developed, the system detects persons entering into the surveillance zone and provides effective means to confirm. The system detects moving persons in a double fenced zone using image processing technique. Detection information such as time, position, detected images are displayed, printed and recorded, so that cause of false alarms, if occurred can be found easily.

Kajiyoshi, M.; Uchida, S.; Suenaga, S.; Iwabuchi, M.; Fujimoto, T.; Yoshimura, A.

1987-07-01

128

COMPARISON OF RADIO-FREQUENCY INTERFERENCE MITIGATION STRATEGIES FOR DISPERSED PULSE DETECTION  

SciTech Connect

Impulsive radio-frequency signals from astronomical sources are dispersed by the frequency-dependent index of refraction of the interstellar media and so appear as chirped signals when they reach Earth. Searches for dispersed impulses have been limited by false detections due to radio-frequency interference (RFI) and, in some cases, artifacts of the instrumentation. Many authors have discussed techniques to excise or mitigate RFI in searches for fast transients, but comparisons between different approaches are lacking. This work develops RFI mitigation techniques for use in searches for dispersed pulses, employing data recorded in a 'Fly's Eye' mode of the Allen Telescope Array as a test case. We gauge the performance of several RFI mitigation techniques by adding dispersed signals to data containing RFI and comparing false alarm rates at the observed signal-to-noise ratios of the added signals. We find that Huber filtering is most effective at removing broadband interferers, while frequency centering is most effective at removing narrow frequency interferers. Neither of these methods is effective over a broad range of interferers. A method that combines Huber filtering and adaptive interference cancelation provides the lowest number of false positives over the interferers considered here. The methods developed here have application to other searches for dispersed pulses in incoherent spectra, especially those involving multiple beam systems.

Hogden, John; Vander Wiel, Scott; Michalak, Sarah [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, NM (United States); Bower, Geoffrey C.; Siemion, Andrew; Werthimer, Daniel [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States)

2012-03-10

129

The effects of mediated word lists on false recall and recognition.  

PubMed

False memory effects were explored using unrelated list items (e.g., slope, reindeer, corn) that were related to mediators (e.g., ski, sleigh, flake) that all converged upon a single nonpresented critical item (CI; e.g., snow). In Experiment 1, participants completed either an initial recall test or arithmetic problems after study, followed by a final recognition test. Participants did not falsely recall CIs on the initial test; however, false alarms to CIs did occur in recognition, but only following an initial recall test. In Experiment 2, participants were instructed to guess the CI, followed by a recognition test. The results replicated Experiment 1, with an increase in CI false alarms. Experiment 3 controlled for item effects by replacing unrelated recognition items from Experiment 1 with both CIs and list items from nonpresented lists. Once again, CI false alarms were found when controlling for lexical characteristics, demonstrating that mediated false memory is not due simply to item differences. PMID:21336675

Huff, Mark J; Hutchison, Keith A

2011-08-01

130

Alarm sensor apparatus for closures  

DOEpatents

An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or framework and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

Carlson, J.A.; Stoddard, L.M.

1984-01-31

131

Video systems for alarm assessment  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing closed-circuit television systems for video alarm assessment. There is a section on each of the major components in a video system: camera, lens, lighting, transmission, synchronization, switcher, monitor, and recorder. Each section includes information on component selection, procurement, installation, test, and maintenance. Considerations for system integration of the components are contained in each section. System emphasis is focused on perimeter intrusion detection and assessment systems. A glossary of video terms is included. 13 figs., 9 tabs.

Greenwoll, D.A.; Matter, J.C. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Ebel, P.E. (BE, Inc., Barnwell, SC (United States))

1991-09-01

132

Neural Mechanisms of Alarm Pheromone Signaling  

PubMed Central

Alarm pheromones are important semiochemicals used by many animal species to alert conspecifics or other related species of impending danger. In this review, we describe recent developments in our understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying the ability of fruit flies, zebrafish and mice to mediate the detection of alarm pheromones. Specifically, alarm pheromones are detected in these species through specialized olfactory subsystems that are unique to the chemosensitive receptors, second messenger-signaling and physiology. Thus, the alarm pheromones appear to be detected by signaling mechanisms that are distinct from those seen in the canonical olfactory system. PMID:23471444

Enjin, Anders; Suh, Greg Seong-Bae

2013-01-01

133

Intelligent Economic Alarm Processor (IEAP)  

E-print Network

and market operation management. The task of fault section estimation is difficult when multiple faults, failures of protection devices, and false data are involved. A Fuzzy Reasoning Petri-nets approach has been proposed to tackle the complexities...

Guan, Yufan

2013-08-06

134

Mars Rotate (False Color)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center features an animation of Mars rotating. The visualization was created using data collected by the Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter (MOLA) on board the Mars Global Surveyor. The animation uses false color to highlight topography, specifically the Hellas Basin, Terra Meridiani, the Tharsis rise, and Lucus Planum. The site also provides still images of the same features.

Studio, Nasa/goddard S.

135

ABCDE - Alarm Basic Correlations Discovery Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alarms generated by telecommunication network are processed by network personnel who are required to respond within a reasonable time interval. When a global network problem occurs, it is represented as a sequence of alarms coming from one or more different network elements. That sequence is typically not recognized as a global problem, or the presence of global problem is detected,

Oliver Jukic; Marijan Kunstic

2010-01-01

136

Development of medical equipment alarm monitoring system.  

PubMed

In a hospital, we use a large number of medical equipment. In these use, I support the safe use by the alarm such as errors from medical equipment. There is the instrument notifying of alarm in communication, but there is the instrument by a sound and the light. For the medical safety management, confirmation of the alarm is important. We thought that stability was improved by integrating alarm from the instrument of the different type. Therefore, we thought that we integrated alarm from medical equipment. We decided to transmit an alarm signal from medical equipment by adding radio module program unit. The type of the radio used IEEE 802.15.4 (ZigBee) at a point of view of low power, International Standard, simple radio equipment. This system deals with only alarm information from medical equipment and does not handle the data. However, we understood that we were helpful very much even if it was only alarm information. We were able to in this way reduce the number of incidents. PMID:23920969

Yamashita, Yoshinori; Ogaito, Tatoku; Kasamatsu, Shingo

2013-01-01

137

ICE Pulse Oximeter Smart Alarm App Requirements  

E-print Network

ICE Pulse Oximeter Smart Alarm App Requirements 6 March 2012 Revision 0-5 sentences stating the nature of the app (e.g., MDDS, derived alarm, app panel of the app and the functionality that the app provides that advances the current

Huth, Michael

138

CFN Bldg 735 Safety Awareness Fire Alarms  

E-print Network

being the normal ringing in the event of a fire. The second one is a temporal 3 (distinct ring) followedCFN Bldg 735 Safety Awareness Fire Alarms: There are 2 different fire alarms in the CFN. The first, Pyrophoric gases, flammable gases #12;CFN Bldg 735 Safety Awareness If you discover a fire, you should

Ohta, Shigemi

139

T-Farm complex alarm upgrades  

SciTech Connect

The alarm and controls associated with the T, TX, and TY farms are located in the 242-T control room. The design data for replacement and upgrades of the alarm panels is in this document. This task was canceled previous to the 90% design review point.

Roberts, J.B.

1995-01-01

140

Insights into the Problem of Alarm Fatigue with Physiologic Monitor Devices: A Comprehensive Observational Study of Consecutive Intensive Care Unit Patients  

PubMed Central

Purpose Physiologic monitors are plagued with alarms that create a cacophony of sounds and visual alerts causing “alarm fatigue” which creates an unsafe patient environment because a life-threatening event may be missed in this milieu of sensory overload. Using a state-of-the-art technology acquisition infrastructure, all monitor data including 7 ECG leads, all pressure, SpO2, and respiration waveforms as well as user settings and alarms were stored on 461 adults treated in intensive care units. Using a well-defined alarm annotation protocol, nurse scientists with 95% inter-rater reliability annotated 12,671 arrhythmia alarms. Results A total of 2,558,760 unique alarms occurred in the 31-day study period: arrhythmia, 1,154,201; parameter, 612,927; technical, 791,632. There were 381,560 audible alarms for an audible alarm burden of 187/bed/day. 88.8% of the 12,671 annotated arrhythmia alarms were false positives. Conditions causing excessive alarms included inappropriate alarm settings, persistent atrial fibrillation, and non-actionable events such as PVC's and brief spikes in ST segments. Low amplitude QRS complexes in some, but not all available ECG leads caused undercounting and false arrhythmia alarms. Wide QRS complexes due to bundle branch block or ventricular pacemaker rhythm caused false alarms. 93% of the 168 true ventricular tachycardia alarms were not sustained long enough to warrant treatment. Discussion The excessive number of physiologic monitor alarms is a complex interplay of inappropriate user settings, patient conditions, and algorithm deficiencies. Device solutions should focus on use of all available ECG leads to identify non-artifact leads and leads with adequate QRS amplitude. Devices should provide prompts to aide in more appropriate tailoring of alarm settings to individual patients. Atrial fibrillation alarms should be limited to new onset and termination of the arrhythmia and delays for ST-segment and other parameter alarms should be configurable. Because computer devices are more reliable than humans, an opportunity exists to improve physiologic monitoring and reduce alarm fatigue. PMID:25338067

Drew, Barbara J.; Harris, Patricia; Zegre-Hemsey, Jessica K.; Mammone, Tina; Schindler, Daniel; Salas-Boni, Rebeca; Bai, Yong; Tinoco, Adelita; Ding, Quan; Hu, Xiao

2014-01-01

141

Alarming features: birds use specific acoustic properties to identify heterospecific alarm calls  

PubMed Central

Vertebrates that eavesdrop on heterospecific alarm calls must distinguish alarms from sounds that can safely be ignored, but the mechanisms for identifying heterospecific alarm calls are poorly understood. While vertebrates learn to identify heterospecific alarms through experience, some can also respond to unfamiliar alarm calls that are acoustically similar to conspecific alarm calls. We used synthetic calls to test the role of specific acoustic properties in alarm call identification by superb fairy-wrens, Malurus cyaneus. Individuals fled more often in response to synthetic calls with peak frequencies closer to those of conspecific calls, even if other acoustic features were dissimilar to that of fairy-wren calls. Further, they then spent more time in cover following calls that had both peak frequencies and frequency modulation rates closer to natural fairy-wren means. Thus, fairy-wrens use similarity in specific acoustic properties to identify alarms and adjust a two-stage antipredator response. Our study reveals how birds respond to heterospecific alarm calls without experience, and, together with previous work using playback of natural calls, shows that both acoustic similarity and learning are important for interspecific eavesdropping. More generally, this study reconciles contrasting views on the importance of alarm signal structure and learning in recognition of heterospecific alarms. PMID:23303539

Fallow, Pamela M.; Pitcher, Benjamin J.; Magrath, Robert D.

2013-01-01

142

Conditioned Alarm Behavior in Fathead Minnows ( Pimephales promelas ) Resulting from Association of Chemical Alarm Pheromone with a Nonbiological Visual Stimulus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) adopt antipredator (alarm) behavior when they detect alarm pheromone released from an injured conspecific. This is an adaptive response since alarm pheromone is generally released only in the context of a predation event. Alarm reactions may also occur in response to chemical and visual stimuli that minnows learn to associate with release of alarm pheromone. Here,

Warren K. Yunker; Dan E. Wein; Brian D. Wisenden

1999-01-01

143

46 CFR 113.43-3 - Alarm system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...113.43-3 Section 113.43-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Steering Failure Alarm Systems § 113.43-3 Alarm...

2010-10-01

144

Finding The Needle: Suppression of False Alarms in Large Intrusion Detection Data Sets  

E-print Network

in their signature database. On the other hand, anomaly detection systems define a baseline profile for a system sensor detects deviations from normal user or system behavior, we establish the baseline behavior of a sensor and detect deviations from this baseline. We show that departures from this profile by a sensor

Thurimella, Ramki

145

Validity of anecdotal reports of suspected adverse drug reactions: the problem of false alarms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suspected adverse drug reactions first reported in 1963 in the “British Medical Journal,” the “Lancet,” the “Journal of the American Medical Association,” and the “New England Journal of Medicine” were reviewed 18 years later to assess their initial validity and subsequent verification. Of 52 first reports, five were deliberate investigations into potential or predictable reactions, and in each case causality

G R Venning

1982-01-01

146

Internet-based Security Incidents and the Potential for False Alarms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the background to experimental work intended to measure aspects of the World Wide Web, which inadvertently caused two perceived security breaches on remote systems. Describes the nature of these incidents and considers why, when over 700,000 addresses were sampled, only two sites considered the activity to be an attempt to breach their…

Evans, M. P.; Furnell, S. M.

2000-01-01

147

Managing the false alarms: A framework for assurance and verification of surveillance monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses methods to support assurance of surveillance monitoring and compliance verification knowledge management\\u000a (CV-KM). The discussion includes aspects of primary monitoring systems, the different environments in which they operate,\\u000a the verification problem solving and decision making tasks, the problem structure, and the coordination of the review process\\u000a to facilitate truth maintenance and regulatory Meta rules. Based on the

Peter Goldschmidt

2007-01-01

148

An acoustic fall detector system that uses sound height information to reduce the false alarm rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than one third of about 38 million adults 65 and older fall each year in the United States. To address the above problem we propose to develop an acoustic fall detection system (FADE) that will automatically signal a fall to the monitoring caregiver. As opposed to many existent fall detection systems that require the monitored person to wear devices

Mihail Popescu; Yun Li; Marjorie Skubic; Marilyn Rantz

2008-01-01

149

False Memory in Aging Resulting From Self-Referential Processing  

PubMed Central

Objectives. Referencing the self is known to enhance accurate memory, but less is known about how the strategy affects false memory, particularly for highly self-relevant information. Because older adults are more prone to false memories, we tested whether self-referencing increased false memories with age. Method. In 2 studies, older and younger adults rated adjectives for self-descriptiveness and later completed a surprise recognition test comprised of words rated previously for self-descriptiveness and novel lure words. Lure words were subsequently rated for self-descriptiveness in order to assess the impact of self-relevance on false memory. Study 2 introduced commonness judgments as a control condition, such that participants completed a recognition test on adjectives rated for commonness in addition to adjectives in the self-descriptiveness condition. Results. Across both studies, findings indicate an increased response bias to self-referencing that increased hit rates for both older and younger adults but also increased false alarms as information became more self-descriptive, particularly for older adults. Discussion. Although the present study supports previous literature showing a boost in memory for self-referenced information, the increase in false alarms, especially in older adults, highlights the potential for memory errors, particularly for information that is strongly related to the self. PMID:23576449

2013-01-01

150

INEL central alarm monitoring and assessment system  

SciTech Connect

This paper concerns the design and development of a centrally located security monitoring and assessment system for processing alarms at several remote facilities. The system provides both live and recorded CCTV assessment of alarmed areas. Computer controlled video disc recordings are displayed on a color graphics monitor and an operator interacts through an overlying transparent touch panel. Computer generated messages are also displayed to assist and inform the operator. A bidirectional, frequency-multiplexed cable system provides digital alarm information, video control commands, and several channels of video from each remote facility.

Niper, E.D.

1983-01-01

151

False memories and confabulation.  

PubMed

Memory distortions range from the benign (thinking you mailed a check that you only thought about mailing), to the serious (confusing what you heard after a crime with what you actually saw), to the fantastic (claiming you piloted a spaceship). We review theoretical ideas and empirical evidence about the source monitoring processes underlying both true and false memories. Neuropsychological studies show that certain forms of brain damage (such as combined frontal and medial-temporal lesions) might result in profound source confusions, called confabulations. Neuroimaging techniques provide new evidence regarding more specific links between underlying brain mechanisms and the normal cognitive processes involved in evaluating memories. One hypothesis is that the right prefrontal cortex (PFC) subserves heuristic judgments based on easily assessed qualities (such as familiarity or perceptual detail) and the left PFC (or the right and left PFC together) subserves more systematic judgments requiring more careful analysis of memorial qualities or retrieval and evaluation of additional supporting or disconfirming information. Such heuristic and systematic processes can be disrupted not only by brain damage but also, for example, by hypnosis, social demands and motivational factors, suggesting caution in the methods used by `memory exploring' professions (therapists, police officers, lawyers, etc.) in order to avoid inducing false memories. PMID:21227110

Johnson, M K; Raye, C L

1998-04-01

152

Enzyme Immobilization Alternatives for the Enzyme Alarm.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this research program was to investigate new methods for immobilizing the enzyme, acetylcholinesterase, on selected supports suitable for use in enzyme alarms. Various coupling procedures were developed for glass, nylon and urethane suppo...

H. W. Levin, E. S. Erenrich

1976-01-01

153

LASL Upgraded Alarm System Functional Requirements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document defines and describes the functional requirements to successfully provide Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory with a combined security and fire alarm system that will satisfy the operational needs of various users and provide compliance with ap...

B. L. Hartway, E. N. Shaskey

1977-01-01

154

46 CFR 130.470 - Fire alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.470 Fire alarms. (a) Each fire detector and control unit must be of a...

2010-10-01

155

46 CFR 130.470 - Fire alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.470 Fire alarms. (a) Each fire detector and control unit must be of a...

2012-10-01

156

46 CFR 130.470 - Fire alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.470 Fire alarms. (a) Each fire detector and control unit must be of a...

2011-10-01

157

46 CFR 130.470 - Fire alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.470 Fire alarms. (a) Each fire detector and control unit must be of a...

2013-10-01

158

False color viewing device  

DOEpatents

A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage.

Kronberg, James W. (108 Independent Blvd., Aiken, SC 29801)

1992-01-01

159

False color viewing device  

DOEpatents

A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage. 7 figs.

Kronberg, J.W.

1992-10-20

160

False color viewing device  

DOEpatents

This invention consists of a viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching, the user`s eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage.

Kronberg, J.W.

1991-05-08

161

Subversion of alarm communication: Do plants habituate aphids to their own alarm signals?  

E-print Network

NOTE Subversion of alarm communication: Do plants habituate aphids to their own alarm signals? Anca S. Petrescu, Edward B. Mondor, and Bernard D. Roitberg Abstract: When attacked by a predator, pea to disperse from the area. However, herbivore-damaged plants also emit (E)-- farnesene. We hypothesized

Mondor, Ed

162

Encountering bird alarms in full-stare IRSTs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Birds are a potential source of frequent false alarms in Infrared Search and Track (IRST) systems. One reason is that the signals, generated by birds at short ranges (1-2 km) in IR sensors may be of the same magnitude as the signals generated by real targets (missiles) at long ranges (10-20 km). Another reason is that new generations of IRSTs have more sensitivity which brings more birds within the detection range. Furthermore military operations tend to be held more and more in coastal zones, where the frequency of occurrence of birds is greater than in the open ocean. Finally, the variety in type of birds and their flight characteristics and signature is larger. In the paper attention is spent on the IR signatures of birds in various backgrounds, including rapid variations in signature due to wing motions. Basically, these fluctuations and the flight pattern of a bird provide opportunities to encounter bird alarms in next generation IRSTs, using multiple Focal Plan Array cameras with high frame rates. One has to take into account in this process the difference between signal variations due to wing motions and scintillation for long range targets above the horizon.

de Jong, Arie N.; Winkel, Hans; Kemp, Rob A. W.

2000-12-01

163

Pressurized security barrier and alarm system  

SciTech Connect

A security barrier for placement across a passageway is made up of interconnected pressurized tubing made up in a grid pattern with openings too small to allow passage. The tubing is connected to a pressure switch, located away from the barrier site, which activates an alarm upon occurrence of a pressure drop. A reinforcing bar is located inside and along the length of the tubing so as to cause the tubing to rupture and set off the alarm upon an intruder`s making an attempt to crimp and seal off a portion of the tubing by application of a hydraulic tool. Radial and rectangular grid patterns are disclosed.

Carver, D.W.

1994-12-31

164

Chair alarm for patient fall prevention based on gesture recognition and interactivity.  

PubMed

The Gesture Recognition Interactive Technology (GRiT) Chair Alarm aims to prevent patient falls from chairs and wheelchairs by recognizing the gesture of a patient attempting to stand. Patient falls are one of the greatest causes of injury in hospitals. Current chair and bed exit alarm systems are inadequate because of insufficient notification, high false-alarm rate, and long trigger delays. The GRiT chair alarm uses an array of capacitive proximity sensors and pressure sensors to create a map of the patient's sitting position, which is then processed using gesture recognition algorithms to determine when a patient is attempting to stand and to alarm the care providers. This system also uses a range of voice and light feedback to encourage the patient to remain seated and/or to make use of the system's integrated nurse-call function. This system can be seamlessly integrated into existing hospital WiFi networks to send notifications and approximate patient location through existing nurse call systems. PMID:19163515

Knight, Heather; Lee, Jae-Kyu; Ma, Hongshen

2008-01-01

165

ALARM STRATEGY AND COMPLEXITY: PREDICTIONS OF OPERATOR RESPONSE  

SciTech Connect

Decision support for operators is not new, and much has been written regarding the potential usefulness of digital support systems and alarm filtering strategies. However, determining the appropriate characteristics of decision support tools is difficult, especially when alarms can vary in the manner which diagnostic information is formulated and displayed and when event scenario types are complex and numerous. When first reviewed, the advantages or disadvantages of a particular alarm approach may not be apparent to the designer or analyst. The present research focuses on the review of two particular alarm strategies, binary alarm type (BAT) and likelihood alarm type (LAT), and reviews their influence upon accuracy, bias, and trust for tasks performed at a computer workstation capable of replicating a series of control-room-like alarms. The findings are discussed in terms of the of the performance advantages of likelihood alarm technology and related research as an aid to the alarm design process.

Austin Ragsdale; Roger Lew; Brian Dyre; Ronald Boring; David Gertman

2012-07-01

166

Enzyme Immobilization Alternatives For the Enzyme Alarm.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Samples of glass beads, modified starch urethane pads, nylon and urethane enzyme products which passed wash-out resistance were sent to Edgewood Arsenal. Glass bead products and nylon products do not seem suitable for the alarm. Urethane pads including ch...

H. W. Levin, E. S. Erenrich

1975-01-01

167

Nuclear power plant alarm systems: Problems and issues  

SciTech Connect

Despite the incorporation of advanced technology into nuclear power plant alarm systems, human factors problems remain. This paper identifies to be addressed in order to allow advanced technology to be used effectively in the design of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The operator's use and processing of alarm system information will be considered. Based upon a review of alarm system research, issues related to general system design, alarm processing, display and control are discussed. It is concluded that the design of effective alarm systems depends on an understanding of the information processing capabilities and limitations of the operator. 39 refs.

O'Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.

1991-01-01

168

46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power semiconductor rectifier must have a high temperature alarm or shutdown, except as...

2011-10-01

169

46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power semiconductor rectifier must have a high temperature alarm or shutdown, except as...

2013-10-01

170

46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power semiconductor rectifier must have a high temperature alarm or shutdown, except as...

2012-10-01

171

29 CFR 1910.165 - Employee alarm systems.  

...means of reporting emergencies. Where a communication system also serves...alarm system, all emergency messages shall have...procedures for sounding emergency alarms in the workplace...workplace, direct voice communication is an...

2014-07-01

172

Bonneville Power Administration Communication Alarm Processor expert system:  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the Communications Alarm Processor (CAP), a prototype expert system developed for the Bonneville Power Administration by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The system is designed to receive and diagnose alarms from Bonneville's Microwave Communications System (MCS). The prototype encompasses one of seven branches of the communications network and a subset of alarm systems and alarm types from each system. The expert system employs a backward chaining approach to diagnosing alarms. Alarms are fed into the expert system directly from the communication system via RS232 ports and sophisticated alarm filtering and mailbox software. Alarm diagnoses are presented to operators for their review and concurrence before the diagnoses are archived. Statistical software is incorporated to allow analysis of archived data for report generation and maintenance studies. The delivered system resides on a Digital Equipment Corporation VAX 3200 workstation and utilizes Nexpert Object and SAS for the expert system and statistical analysis, respectively. 11 refs., 23 figs., 7 tabs.

Goeltz, R.; Purucker, S.; Tonn, B. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Wiggen, T. (Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (USA)); MacGregor, D. (MacGregor-Bates, Inc., Eugene, OR (USA))

1990-06-01

173

8. INTERIOR, FIRE ALARM CONTROL ROOM (NORTH OF MAIN GARAGE), ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. INTERIOR, FIRE ALARM CONTROL ROOM (NORTH OF MAIN GARAGE), FROM ENTRYWAY, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING ADDITIONAL 'GAMEWELL' FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Firehouse, East of Fourth Street, between A & B Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

174

47 CFR 80.318 - Use of alarm signals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.318 Use of alarm signals....

2011-10-01

175

47 CFR 80.318 - Use of alarm signals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.318 Use of alarm signals....

2010-10-01

176

46 CFR 161.002-12 - Manual fire alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Fire-Protective Systems § 161.002-12 Manual fire alarm...wiring of an automatic fire detection system. (2) Electrical system using manually operated fire alarm...

2010-10-01

177

Alarm guided critical function and success path monitoring  

DOEpatents

The use of alarm indication on the overview (IPSO) display to initiate diagnosis of challenges to critical functions or unavailability of success paths, and further alarm-based guidance toward ultimate diagnosis.

Scarola, Kenneth (Windsor, CT); Jamison, David S. (Windsor, CT); Manazir, Richard M. (North Canton, CT); Rescorl, Robert L. (Vernon, CT); Harmon, Daryl L. (Enfield, CT)

1994-01-01

178

46 CFR 78.47-7 - General alarm bells.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-7 General alarm...lettering at least 1/2 inch high: “GENERAL ALARM—WHEN BELL RINGS GO TO YOUR STATION.” (b)...

2013-10-01

179

46 CFR 97.37-7 - General alarm bells.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-7 General alarm...lettering at least 1/2 inch high: “GENERAL ALARM—WHEN BELL RINGS GO TO YOUR STATION.” (b)...

2010-10-01

180

46 CFR 97.37-7 - General alarm bells.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-7 General alarm...lettering at least 1/2 inch high: “GENERAL ALARM—WHEN BELL RINGS GO TO YOUR STATION.” (b)...

2013-10-01

181

46 CFR 78.47-7 - General alarm bells.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-7 General alarm...lettering at least 1/2 inch high: “GENERAL ALARM—WHEN BELL RINGS GO TO YOUR STATION.” (b)...

2011-10-01

182

46 CFR 97.37-7 - General alarm bells.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-7 General alarm...lettering at least 1/2 inch high: “GENERAL ALARM—WHEN BELL RINGS GO TO YOUR STATION.” (b)...

2011-10-01

183

46 CFR 78.47-7 - General alarm bells.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-7 General alarm...lettering at least 1/2 inch high: “GENERAL ALARM—WHEN BELL RINGS GO TO YOUR STATION.” (b)...

2010-10-01

184

46 CFR 97.37-7 - General alarm bells.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-7 General alarm...lettering at least 1/2 inch high: “GENERAL ALARM—WHEN BELL RINGS GO TO YOUR STATION.” (b)...

2012-10-01

185

46 CFR 78.47-7 - General alarm bells.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-7 General alarm...lettering at least 1/2 inch high: “GENERAL ALARM—WHEN BELL RINGS GO TO YOUR STATION.” (b)...

2012-10-01

186

46 CFR 130.460 - Placement of machinery alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.460 Placement of machinery alarms. (a) Visible and audible alarms must...

2013-10-01

187

46 CFR 130.460 - Placement of machinery alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.460 Placement of machinery alarms. (a) Visible and audible alarms must...

2011-10-01

188

46 CFR 130.460 - Placement of machinery alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.460 Placement of machinery alarms. (a) Visible and audible alarms must...

2010-10-01

189

46 CFR 130.460 - Placement of machinery alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.460 Placement of machinery alarms. (a) Visible and audible alarms must...

2012-10-01

190

Functional Alarms for Systems of Interoperable Medical Devices  

PubMed Central

Alarms are essential for medical systems in order to ensure patient safety during deteriorating clinical situations and inevitable device malfunction. As medical devices are connected together to become interoperable, alarms become crucial part in making them high-assurance, in nature. Traditional alarm systems for interoperable medical devices have been patientcentric. In this paper, we introduce the need for an alarm system that focuses on the correct functionality of the interoperability architecture itself, along with several considerations and design challenges in enabling them.

Venkatasubramanian, Krishna K.; Vasserman, Eugene Y.; Sokolsky, Oleg; Lee, Insup

2014-01-01

191

Fire Alarm Control Panel is located in Switchgear  

E-print Network

KEY: NORTH CHDD-South Floor 1 Fire Alarm Control Panel is located in Switchgear Room #CD11A on Basement Level Evacuation Route Exit Restroom Fire Extinguisher Fire Alarm Fire Alarm Control Panel Symbol of Accessibility L A K E WA S H I N G T O N S H I P C A N A L IF THERE IS AN EMERGENCY: · Sound fire alarm

192

Evaluation criteria for Security Alarm Monitoring System software  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project is to evaluate the software for three alarm monitoring systems (AMSs) that have been developed by SNL: the Security Alarm Control System (SACS), Safeguards Control and Communication System (SCCS), and Site Independent Configurable Alarm Display System (SICADS). This report provides the basis to perform independent evaluation of the three AMSs. 6 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

DeLisle, G.V.; Acree, C.D.; Johnson, L.E.

1988-12-01

193

Automated Information System (AIS) Alarm System  

SciTech Connect

The Automated Information Alarm System is a joint effort between Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratory to demonstrate and implement, on a small-to-medium sized local area network, an automated system that detects and automatically responds to attacks that use readily available tools and methodologies. The Alarm System will sense or detect, assess, and respond to suspicious activities that may be detrimental to information on the network or to continued operation of the network. The responses will allow stopping, isolating, or ejecting the suspicious activities. The number of sensors, the sensitivity of the sensors, the assessment criteria, and the desired responses may be set by the using organization to meet their local security policies.

Hunteman, W.

1997-05-01

194

False Killer Whale Pseudorca crassidens  

E-print Network

405 False Killer Whale Pseudorca crassidens ROBIN W. BAIRD I. Characteristics and Taxonomy T he false killer whale is one of the larger members of the fam- ily Delphinidae, with adult males reaching appearance to the killer whale (Orcinus orca) but rather in skull morphology of these two species. In fact

Baird, Robin W.

195

A SCINTILLATION NUCLEAR INCIDENT ALARM MONITOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of a scintillation nuclear incident alarming gamma field ; intensity from one mr\\/hr to greater than ten r\\/hr is described. Aa inexpensive ; high-voltage supply, an inexpensive terphenyl-in-Wlyvinyltoluene crystal, a ; multiplier phototube, and a meter relay are the basic components. An addenda two-; transistor booster amplifler can be used if necessary for very low-level ; triggering. The

1959-01-01

196

Alarm pheromone in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris.  

PubMed

Noxious stimulation of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris elicits secretion of a mucus that is aversive to other members of the species, as well as to the stimulated animal when it is encountered later. This alarm pheromone is not readily soluble in water and retains its aversive properties for at least several months if not disturbed. Its influence may be responsible for some features of the data on instrumental learning in earthworms. PMID:5663305

Ressler, R H; Cialdini, R B; Ghoca, M L; Kleist, S M

1968-08-01

197

Executive Functioning and Preschoolers' Understanding of False Beliefs, False Photographs, and False Signs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies were conducted to investigate the specificity of the relationship between preschoolers' emerging executive functioning skills and false belief understanding. Study 1 (N=44) showed that 3- to 5-year-olds' performance on an executive functioning task that required selective suppression of actions predicted performance on false belief…

Sabbagh, Mark A.; Moses, Louis J.; Shiverick, Sean

2006-01-01

198

Human Factors in Annunciator/Alarm Systems: Annunciator Experiment Plan 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents a plan for the experimental evaluation of alarm reduction techniques include suppression of irrelevant alarms based on plant mode, time delay of alarm groups, and separation of component status annunciators from alarms. The performance...

B. J. Roscoe, L. M. Weston

1986-01-01

199

Journal of Chemical Ecology, Vol. 25, No. 12, 1999 CONDITIONED ALARM BEHAVIOR IN FATHEAD  

E-print Network

(Pimephales promelas) RESULTING FROM ASSOCIATION OF CHEMICAL ALARM PHEROMONE WITH A NONBIOLOGICAL VISUAL--Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) adopt antipredator (alarm) behavior when they detect alarm pheromone, Pimephales promelas, alarm pheromone, Schreckstoff, learned recognition of predation risk, red light. #12

Wisenden, Brian D.

200

A false sense of security  

PubMed Central

Some journals are using ineffective software to screen images for manipulation. In doing so, they are creating a false sense of security in the research community about the integrity of the image data they publish. PMID:19001132

Rossner, Mike

2008-01-01

201

Children's false memories: different false memory paradigms reveal different results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to examine whether two different false memory paradigms (DRM vs suggestion) produce similar results. In Experiment 1, 100 children from four age groups (5\\/6-year-olds, 7\\/8-year-olds, 9\\/10-year-olds, and 11\\/12-year-olds) were instructed to remember lists of semantically related words (DRM paradigm) and to complete a children's suggestibility measure (i.e. BTSS-NL). Results showed that children's false

Henry Otgaar; Ingrid Candel

2011-01-01

202

Alarm handler for the advanced photon source control system  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Photon Source (APS), now under construction at Argonne National Laboratory, will have a control system employing graphics workstations at the operator interface level and VME-based microprocessors operating with a distributed database at the field level. The alarm handler is an application utilizing X-Windows running on one or more operator interface workstations which monitors alarms generated by the VME-based microprocessors. Alarms can be grouped in a hierarchical manner. The operator can monitor, acknowledge, and mask alarms either individually or aggregately. Alarm changes of state and all operator modifications are logged. When alarms occur, display windows are automatically generated conveying system and subsystem relationships and severity. Menus are used to modify the alarm action configuration files and to obtain help. Since alarm groups are defined via an alarm configuration file, the alarm handler is a general purpose application which can be customized to monitor a single subsystem or configured to monitor the entire accelerator complex. 2 refs., 2 figs.

Kraimer, M.R.; Cha, B.K.; Anderson, M.

1991-01-01

203

Indoor and Outdoor Social Alarms: Understanding Users' Perspectives  

PubMed Central

The elderly population is increasing and there is a need to provide care and safety at a high level with limited resources. New social alarm solutions may contribute to safety and independence for many elderly. However, it is important to understand the needs within the user group. This work studied social alarms in a broad sense and from several user perspectives. In the first study, social alarm use and its aspects were investigated. To understand where there may be problems and weaknesses, users, caregivers, managers of municipalities, and personnel at alarm centers were interviewed. The interviews helped identify a number of problems. For municipalities, the processes of procuring new alarms and managing their organization were found to be complex. The effect of this was that the same social alarm systems had been ordered over and over again without taking into account new user needs or new technical solutions. For alarm users, one large problem was that the alarms had very limited reach and were designed for indoor use only. This has resulted in users hesitating to leave their homes, which in turn has negative effects due to lack of physical activity and fewer social contacts. One important result from the first study was the need for a social alarm solution that worked outdoors. In a second study, needs regarding outdoor social alarms were investigated. The results from this study showed that wearable outdoor alarms must be easy to use, provide communication, and be well designed. Finally, these alarms must work both indoors and outdoors, and the user should not have to worry about where he/she is or who is acting on an alarm. PMID:25099060

2014-01-01

204

Bubbling the False Vacuum Away  

E-print Network

We investigate the role of nonperturbative, bubble-like inhomogeneities on the decay rate of false-vacuum states in two and three-dimensional scalar field theories. The inhomogeneities are induced by setting up large-amplitude oscillations of the field about the false vacuum as, for example, after a rapid quench or in certain models of cosmological inflation. We show that, for a wide range of parameters, the presence of large-amplitude bubble-like inhomogeneities greatly accelerates the decay rate, changing it from the well-known exponential suppression of homogeneous nucleation to a power-law suppression. It is argued that this fast, power-law vacuum decay -- known as resonant nucleation -- is promoted by the presence of long-lived oscillons among the nonperturbative fluctuations about the false vacuum. A phase diagram is obtained distinguishing three possible mechanisms for vacuum decay: homogeneous nucleation, resonant nucleation, and cross-over. Possible applications are briefly discussed.

Marcelo Gleiser; Barrett Rogers; Joel Thorarinson

2007-08-28

205

Alarm system for a nuclear control complex  

DOEpatents

An advanced control room complex for a nuclear power plant, including a discrete indicator and alarm system (72) which is nuclear qualified for rapid response to changes in plant parameters and a component control system (64) which together provide a discrete monitoring and control capability at a panel (14-22, 26, 28) in the control room (10). A separate data processing system (70), which need not be nuclear qualified, provides integrated and overview information to the control room and to each panel, through CRTs (84) and a large, overhead integrated process status overview board (24). The discrete indicator and alarm system (72) and the data processing system (70) receive inputs from common plant sensors and validate the sensor outputs to arrive at a representative value of the parameter for use by the operator during both normal and accident conditions, thereby avoiding the need for him to assimilate data from each sensor individually. The integrated process status board (24) is at the apex of an information hierarchy that extends through four levels and provides access at each panel to the full display hierarchy. The control room panels are preferably of a modular construction, permitting the definition of inputs and outputs, the man machine interface, and the plant specific algorithms, to proceed in parallel with the fabrication of the panels, the installation of the equipment and the generic testing thereof.

Scarola, Kenneth (Windsor, CT); Jamison, David S. (Windsor, CT); Manazir, Richard M. (North Canton, CT); Rescorl, Robert L. (Vernon, CT); Harmon, Daryl L. (Enfield, CT)

1994-01-01

206

Development of net cage acoustic alarm system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, the fishery production has been drastically decreased in Taiwan, mainly due to overfishing and coast pollution; therefore, fishermen and corporations are encouraged by government to invest in ocean net cage aquaculture. However, the high-price fishes in the net cage are often coveted, so incidences of fish stealing and net cage breaking were found occasionally, which cause great economical loss. Security guards or a visual monitoring system has limited effect, especially in the night when these intrusions occur. This study is based on acoustic measure to build a net cage alarm system, which includes the sonobuoy and monitor station on land. The sonobuoy is a passive sonar that collects the sounds near the net cage and transmits the suspected signal to the monitor station. The signals are analyzed by the control program on the personal computer in the monitor station, and the alarms at different stages could be activated by the sound levels and durations of the analyzed data. To insure long hours of surveillance, a solar panel is applied to charge the battery, and a photodetector is used to activate the system.

Hong, Shih-Wei; Wei, Ruey-Chang

2001-05-01

207

33 CFR 20.1315 - Submission of prior records and evidence in aggravation or mitigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Submission of prior records and evidence in aggravation or mitigation. 20... RULES OF PRACTICE, PROCEDURE, AND EVIDENCE FOR FORMAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS...1315 Submission of prior records and evidence in aggravation or mitigation....

2010-07-01

208

Early warning, warning or alarm systems for natural hazards? A generic classification.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early warning, warning and alarm systems have gained popularity in recent years as cost-efficient measures for dangerous natural hazard processes such as floods, storms, rock and snow avalanches, debris flows, rock and ice falls, landslides, flash floods, glacier lake outburst floods, forest fires and even earthquakes. These systems can generate information before an event causes loss of property and life. In this way, they mainly mitigate the overall risk by reducing the presence probability of endangered objects. These systems are typically prototypes tailored to specific project needs. Despite their importance there is no recognised system classification. This contribution classifies warning and alarm systems into three classes: i) threshold systems, ii) expert systems and iii) model-based expert systems. The result is a generic classification, which takes the characteristics of the natural hazard process itself and the related monitoring possibilities into account. The choice of the monitoring parameters directly determines the system's lead time. The classification of 52 active systems moreover revealed typical system characteristics for each system class. i) Threshold systems monitor dynamic process parameters of ongoing events (e.g. water level of a debris flow) and incorporate minor lead times. They have a local geographical coverage and a predefined threshold determines if an alarm is automatically activated to warn endangered objects, authorities and system operators. ii) Expert systems monitor direct changes in the variable disposition (e.g crack opening before a rock avalanche) or trigger events (e.g. heavy rain) at a local scale before the main event starts and thus offer extended lead times. The final alarm decision incorporates human, model and organisational related factors. iii) Model-based expert systems monitor indirect changes in the variable disposition (e.g. snow temperature, height or solar radiation that influence the occurrence probability of snow avalanches) or trigger events (e.g. heavy snow fall) to predict spontaneous hazard events in advance. They encompass regional or national measuring networks and satisfy additional demands such as the standardisation of the measuring stations. The developed classification and the characteristics, which were revealed for each class, yield a valuable input to quantifying the reliability of warning and alarm systems. Importantly, this will facilitate to compare them with well-established standard mitigation measures such as dams, nets and galleries within an integrated risk management approach.

Sättele, Martina; Bründl, Michael; Straub, Daniel

2013-04-01

209

Classification of alarm processing techniques and human performance issues  

SciTech Connect

Human factors reviews indicate that conventional alarm systems based on the one sensor, one alarm approach, have many human engineering deficiencies, a paramount example being too many alarms during major disturbances. As an effort to resolve these deficiencies, various alarm processing systems have been developed using different techniques. To ensure their contribution to operational safety, the impacts of those systems on operating crew performance should be carefully evaluated. This paper briefly reviews some of the human factors research issues associated with alarm processing techniques and then discusses a framework with which to classify the techniques. The dimensions of this framework can be used to explore the effects of alarm processing systems on human performance.

Kim, I.S.; O'Hara, J.M.

1993-01-01

210

Classification of alarm processing techniques and human performance issues  

SciTech Connect

Human factors reviews indicate that conventional alarm systems based on the one sensor, one alarm approach, have many human engineering deficiencies, a paramount example being too many alarms during major disturbances. As an effort to resolve these deficiencies, various alarm processing systems have been developed using different techniques. To ensure their contribution to operational safety, the impacts of those systems on operating crew performance should be carefully evaluated. This paper briefly reviews some of the human factors research issues associated with alarm processing techniques and then discusses a framework with which to classify the techniques. The dimensions of this framework can be used to explore the effects of alarm processing systems on human performance.

Kim, I.S.; O`Hara, J.M.

1993-05-01

211

False Excuses and Moral Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, many philosophers and psychologists have adopted a surprisingly positive view of dishonesty, arguing that lying to oneself and others is a necessary, healthy, and moral strategy of everyday life. This paper examines the morality of one form of dishonesty: the false excuse, understood as deception of self or others disavowing wrongdoing so as to avoid harm to

Diana Mertz Hsieh

2004-01-01

212

The Psychology of False Confessions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obtaining a confession is one of the most important aims of police interro- gation, and it is estimated that more than 80% of solved criminal cases are solved by a confession. However, a significant number of confessions that result in wrongful convictions are obtained through coercive questioning. This paper examines false con- fessions and discusses the psychological and social factors

Richard P. Conti

213

Measurement of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant criticality accident alarm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant's nuclear criticality accident radiation alarm signal response time, sound wave frequency, and sound volume levels were made to demonstrate compliance with ANSI\\/ANS-8.3-1986. A steady-state alarm signal is produced within one-half second of obtaining a two-out-of-three detector trip. The fundamental alarm sound wave frequency is 440 hertz. The sound volume levels are greater than

R. W. Jr. Tayloe; B. McGinnis

1990-01-01

214

5. CABLE STRAND ALARM: Photocopy of December 1966 photograph showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. CABLE STRAND ALARM: Photocopy of December 1966 photograph showing cable strand alarm located at Beach and Hyde Streets. A strand in the cable (see CA-12-7) forces the fork forward, alerting the powerhouse to the strand by means of an electrical warning device. This strand alarm operates in essentially the same manner as those first used in the 1880s. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

215

Northwest side, northeast part, looking southeast, note fire alarm box ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Northwest side, northeast part, looking southeast, note fire alarm box at right - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Guard House & Barracks, Railroad Avenue near Eighteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

216

The chemistry of eavesdropping, alarm, and deceit.  

PubMed Central

Arthropods that prey on or parasitize other arthropods frequently employ those chemical cues that reliably indicate the presence of their prey or hosts. Eavesdropping on the sex pheromone signals emitted to attract mates allows many predators and parasitoids to find and attack adult insects. The sex pheromones are also useful signals for egg parasitoids since eggs are frequently deposited on nearby plants soon after mating. When the larval stages of insects or other arthropods are the targets, a different foraging strategy is employed. The larvae are often chemically inconspicuous, but when they feed on plants the injured plants respond by producing and releasing defensive chemicals. These plant chemicals may also serve as "alarm signals" that are exploited by predators and parasitoids to locate their victims. There is considerable evidence that the volatile "alarm signals" are induced by interactions of substances from the herbivore with the damaged plant tissue. A very different strategy is employed by several groups of spiders that remain stationary and send out chemical signals that attract prey. Some of these spiders prey exclusively on male moths. They attract the males by emitting chemicals identical to the sex pheromones emitted by female moths. These few examples indicate the diversity of foraging strategies of arthropod predators and parasitoids. It is likely that many other interesting chemically mediated interactions between arthropod hunters and their victims remain to be discovered. Increased understanding of these systems will enable us to capitalize on natural interactions to develop more ecologically sound, environmentally safe methods for biological control of insect pests of agriculture. PMID:7816823

Stowe, M K; Turlings, T C; Loughrin, J H; Lewis, W J; Tumlinson, J H

1995-01-01

217

Does sleep promote false memories?  

PubMed

Memory is constructive in nature so that it may sometimes lead to the retrieval of distorted or illusory information. Sleep facilitates accurate declarative memory consolidation but might also promote such memory distortions. We examined the influence of sleep and lack of sleep on the cerebral correlates of accurate and false recollections using fMRI. After encoding lists of semantically related word associates, half of the participants were allowed to sleep, whereas the others were totally sleep deprived on the first postencoding night. During a subsequent retest fMRI session taking place 3 days later, participants made recognition memory judgments about the previously studied associates, critical theme words (which had not been previously presented during encoding), and new words unrelated to the studied items. Sleep, relative to sleep deprivation, enhanced accurate and false recollections. No significant difference was observed in brain responses to false or illusory recollection between sleep and sleep deprivation conditions. However, after sleep but not after sleep deprivation (exclusive masking), accurate and illusory recollections were both associated with responses in the hippocampus and retrosplenial cortex. The data suggest that sleep does not selectively enhance illusory memories but rather tends to promote systems-level consolidation in hippocampo-neocortical circuits of memories subsequently associated with both accurate and illusory recollections. We further observed that during encoding, hippocampal responses were selectively larger for items subsequently accurately retrieved than for material leading to illusory memories. The data indicate that the early organization of memory during encoding is a major factor influencing subsequent production of accurate or false memories. PMID:20146605

Darsaud, Annabelle; Dehon, Hedwige; Lahl, Olaf; Sterpenich, Virginie; Boly, Mélanie; Dang-Vu, Thanh; Desseilles, Martin; Gais, Stephen; Matarazzo, Luca; Peters, Frédéric; Schabus, Manuel; Schmidt, Christina; Tinguely, Gilberte; Vandewalle, Gilles; Luxen, André; Maquet, Pierre; Collette, Fabienne

2011-01-01

218

Reliability and the adaptive utility of discrimination among alarm callers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike individually distinctive contact calls, or calls that aid in the recognition of young by their parents, the function or functions of individually distinctive alarm calls is less obvious. We conducted three experiments to study the importance of caller reliability in explaining individual-discriminative abilities in the alarm calls of yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris). In our first two experiments, we found

Daniel T. Blumstein; Laure Verneyre; Janice C. Daniel

2004-01-01

219

Criticality accident alarm system at the Fernald Environmental Management Project  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to give a description of the Criticality Accident Alarm System (CAAS) presently installed at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) for monitoring areas requiring criticality controls, and some of the concerns associated with the operation of this system. The system at the FEMP is known as the Radiation Detection Alarm (RDA) System.

Marble, R.C.; Brown, T.D.; Wooldridge, J.C.

1994-06-01

220

Design change No. 3418 Criticality Alarm System (CAS) 105 N  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changes, within the last ten years, in regulatory criteria for concept and design of a Criticality Alarm System (CAS) mandates the installation of a new measurement and alarm system to replace those channels previously assigned to the N-Reactor Tracerlab Area Radiation Monitoring System. The areas to be monitored for a criticality event will be the green fuel storage area,

Blackaby

1976-01-01

221

MULTIPLE ALARMS AND DRIVING SITUATIONAL ANGELA W.L. HO  

E-print Network

.1.1 MULTIPLE VS. SINGLE MASTER WARNING ALARM 19 4.1.2 DRIVING UNDER DISTRACTION 20 4.1.3 DIFFERENT WARNINGMULTIPLE ALARMS AND DRIVING SITUATIONAL AWARENESS ANGELA W.L. HO MARY L. CUMMINGS MASSACHUSETTS IMPRESSION 23 4.3 EFFECTIVENESS OF THE COGNITIVE LOAD TASK AS A DISTRACTION TOOL 23 5 FUTURE WORK 24 5

Cummings, Mary "Missy"

222

Developing an Alarm Manager Based on Web Services 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an alarm manager aimed at monitoring students' activities in online courses over the Internet. The goal is to show an alarm manager to give more support to distance teaching, and help the teacher to have a thorough follow-up of distance students, thus minimizing the teacher's task of looking for information in long reports or complex graphs. Besides,

Daniela Leal Musa; Marcel Weschenfelder; José Palazzo; Moreira de Oliveira

223

Nuthatches eavesdrop on variations in heterospecific chickadee mobbing alarm calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many animals recognize the alarm calls produced by other species, but the amount of information they glean from these eaves- dropped signals is unknown. We previously showed that black- capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) have a sophisticated alarm call system in which they encode complex information about the size and risk of potential predators in variations of a single type of

C. N. Templeton; Erick Greene

2007-01-01

224

Fire alarm system based-on video processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire is one of the disasters that often occur in everyday life and causing losses both in terms of material and non-material. There has been much research done to build a field alarm system. One way to build a fire alarm system is base on fire detection on video data; this is done with digital image processing techniques and machine-

W. Tjokorda Agung Budi; Iping Supriana Suwardi

2011-01-01

225

D0 Cryo System ODH and Cryo Alarm System Response  

SciTech Connect

The D0 Cryo System is monitored by a computerized process control system and an ODH safety system. During steady state operations the cryo system will be unmanned and system experts will depend on communication systems for notification of system problems. The FIRUS system meets the minimum communication requirement and is supplemented with an autodialer which attempts to contact cryo operators by pager or phone. The RD/Safety Department requires the ODH monitor system to be connected to the labwide FIRUS system. which enables the Communications Center to receive alarms and notify the proper experts of the condition. The ODH system will have two alarm points. One for an ODH alarm and one for a system trouble alarm. The autodialer system has replaced a former cryo operations summation alarm point in the FIRUS system. This has freed space on the FIRUS system and has allowed the cryo experts more flexibility in setting up their own communication link. The FIRUS and the autodialer systems receive alarms and access lists of experts to call for notification of problems. Attempts to contact these experts will continue until the alarm or alarms is acknowledged.

Urbin, J.; Dixon, K.; /Fermilab

1990-04-05

226

Spiny lobsters detect conspecific blood-borne alarm cues exclusively through olfactory sensilla  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY When attacked by predators, diverse animals actively or passively release molecules that evoke alarm and related anti-predatory behavior by nearby conspecifics. The actively released molecules are alarm pheromones, whereas the passively released molecules are alarm cues. For example, many insects have alarm-signaling systems that involve active release of alarm pheromones from specialized glands and detection of these signals using

Shkelzen Shabani; Michiya Kamio; Charles D. Derby

2008-01-01

227

Building false memories without suggestions.  

PubMed

People can come to remember doing things they have never done. The question we asked in this study is whether people can systematically come to remember performing actions they never really did, in the absence of any suggestion from the experimenter. People built LEGO vehicles, performing some steps but not others. For half the people, all the pieces needed to assemble each vehicle were laid out in order in front of them while they did the building; for the other half, the pieces were hidden from view. The next day, everyone returned for a surprise recognition test. People falsely and confidently remembered having carried out steps they did not; those who saw all the pieces while they built each vehicle were more likely to correctly remember performing steps they did perform but equally likely to falsely remember performing steps they did not. We explain our results using the source monitoring framework: People used the relationships between actions to internally generate the missing, related actions, later mistaking that information for genuine experience. PMID:22774684

Foster, Jeffrey L; Garry, Maryanne

2012-01-01

228

Cape Verde in False Color  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A promontory nicknamed 'Cape Verde' can be seen jutting out from the walls of Victoria Crater in this false-color picture taken by the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The rover took this picture on martian day, or sol, 1329 (Oct. 20, 2007), more than a month after it began descending down the crater walls -- and just 9 sols shy of its second Martian birthday on sol 1338 (Oct. 29, 2007). Opportunity landed on the Red Planet on Jan. 25, 2004. That's nearly four years ago on Earth, but only two on Mars because Mars takes longer to travel around the sun than Earth. One Martian year equals 687 Earth days.

This view was taken using three panoramic-camera filters, admitting light with wavelengths centered at 750 nanometers (near infrared), 530 nanometers (green) and 430 nanometers (violet).

2007-01-01

229

Acoustic structures in the alarm calls of Gunnison's prairie dogs.  

PubMed

Acoustic structures of sound in Gunnison's prairie dog alarm calls are described, showing how these acoustic structures may encode information about three different predator species (red-tailed hawk-Buteo jamaicensis; domestic dog-Canis familaris; and coyote-Canis latrans). By dividing each alarm call into 25 equal-sized partitions and using resonant frequencies within each partition, commonly occurring acoustic structures were identified as components of alarm calls for the three predators. Although most of the acoustic structures appeared in alarm calls elicited by all three predator species, the frequency of occurrence of these acoustic structures varied among the alarm calls for the different predators, suggesting that these structures encode identifying information for each of the predators. A classification analysis of alarm calls elicited by each of the three predators showed that acoustic structures could correctly classify 67% of the calls elicited by domestic dogs, 73% of the calls elicited by coyotes, and 99% of the calls elicited by red-tailed hawks. The different distributions of acoustic structures associated with alarm calls for the three predator species suggest a duality of function, one of the design elements of language listed by Hockett [in Animal Sounds and Communication, edited by W. E. Lanyon and W. N. Tavolga (American Institute of Biological Sciences, Washington, DC, 1960), pp. 392-430]. PMID:16708970

Slobodchikoff, C N; Placer, J

2006-05-01

230

Nuclear Power Plant Alarm Prioritization (NPPAP) Program Status Report, January 1, 1983 to September 31, 1983.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the status of a research project directed toward nuclear power plant alarm prioritization. Criteria for modified alarm activation are being developed and studied. Also being developed are measures to regulate the alarm rate at some d...

B. J. Roscoe

1984-01-01

231

30 CFR 75.352 - Actions in response to AMS malfunction, alert, or alarm signals.  

... Actions in response to AMS malfunction, alert, or alarm signals. 75.352 Section... Actions in response to AMS malfunction, alert, or alarm signals. (a) When a malfunction, alert, or alarm signal is received at the...

2014-07-01

232

Computational Human Performance Modeling For Alarm System Design  

SciTech Connect

The introduction of new technologies like adaptive automation systems and advanced alarms processing and presentation techniques in nuclear power plants is already having an impact on the safety and effectiveness of plant operations and also the role of the control room operator. This impact is expected to escalate dramatically as more and more nuclear power utilities embark on upgrade projects in order to extend the lifetime of their plants. One of the most visible impacts in control rooms will be the need to replace aging alarm systems. Because most of these alarm systems use obsolete technologies, the methods, techniques and tools that were used to design the previous generation of alarm system designs are no longer effective and need to be updated. The same applies to the need to analyze and redefine operators’ alarm handling tasks. In the past, methods for analyzing human tasks and workload have relied on crude, paper-based methods that often lacked traceability. New approaches are needed to allow analysts to model and represent the new concepts of alarm operation and human-system interaction. State-of-the-art task simulation tools are now available that offer a cost-effective and efficient method for examining the effect of operator performance in different conditions and operational scenarios. A discrete event simulation system was used by human factors researchers at the Idaho National Laboratory to develop a generic alarm handling model to examine the effect of operator performance with simulated modern alarm system. It allowed analysts to evaluate alarm generation patterns as well as critical task times and human workload predicted by the system.

Jacques Hugo

2012-07-01

233

Results of security alarm monitoring system software evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project is to present the results of an evaluation of software requested for three alarm monitoring systems (AMS) that were developed by SNL; the security alarm control system (SACS), safeguards control and communications system (SCCS), and site-independent configurable alarm display system (SICADS). The evaluation was conducted by using the results of studying three different user types: operator, system engineer, and system analyst. The evaluations are based on field experience and ``hands on`` exercising of the systems. 2 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

DeLisle, G.V.; Acree, C.D.; Johnson, L.E.

1988-12-01

234

Recall-to-reject: The effect of category cues on false recognition.  

PubMed

Four experiments examined the effect of category cueing on recall-to-reject, one of the central memory-editing mechanisms thought to prevent the occurrence of false memories. When category names were used as retrieval cues, the typically observed false recognition effect was eliminated for semantically associated distractors (Experiment 1a) and, moreover, a reduction in the absolute level of the false alarm rate was found for phonologically associated distractors (Experiment 2a). In addition to the old/new-recognition data, analyses using multinomial models support the interpretation that category cueing was successful in increasing the probability of recall-to-reject (Experiments 1b and 2b). The results are in line with dual-process theories of recognition memory and provide further evidence for recall-to-reject in single item recognition. They demonstrate its potential to reduce false recognition even when explicit instructions are not given. In addition, the results demonstrate that the paradigm can give rise to side effects that oppose recall-to-reject. A simultaneous familiarity increase can explain why many studies failed to find evidence for recall-to-reject in terms of false alarm rates. PMID:21108106

Schmid, Juliane; Herholz, Sibylle C; Brandt, Martin; Buchner, Axel

2010-11-01

235

Draft False Killer Whale Take Reduction Plan  

E-print Network

Draft False Killer Whale Take Reduction Plan Submitted on behalf of the False Killer Whale Take Street Berkeley, CA 94710 concur@concurinc.net www.concurinc.com July 19, 2010 #12;False Killer Whale Take Reduction Team Statement of Consensus July 16, 2010 We, the members of the False Killer Whale Take

236

Research on the fire alarming system of fiber grating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of fiber grating sensing technology in fire alarming based on temperature detection has the advantages of high accuracy, high reliability and strong immunity from electronic and magnetic fields. It is especially advantageous to use this system in the petroleum and chemistry industry because it can provide an extraordinary safe means for the fire alarm. But due to the traditional optical Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) technology is limited by the optic source bandwidth, the number of its multiplexing points is few. In this paper WDM technology will be developed mixing with Identified Bragg, which is called Identified and Wavelength Multiplexing, to build the Fiber Grating (FBG) fire alarm system integrated with computers. Some technologies applied in fire alarming system of fiber grating such as the transmission of test signals which pass through modulate and demodulate, the disposal of software system, the output of control signal and the strong ability of anti-disturbance have been studied and discussed.

Qi, Yaobin

2007-09-01

237

29 CFR 1910.165 - Employee alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...alarm system shall provide warning for necessary emergency action as called for in the emergency action plan, or for reaction time for safe escape of employees from the workplace or the immediate work area, or both. (2) The employee...

2011-07-01

238

29 CFR 1910.165 - Employee alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...alarm system shall provide warning for necessary emergency action as called for in the emergency action plan, or for reaction time for safe escape of employees from the workplace or the immediate work area, or both. (2) The employee...

2010-07-01

239

18. DETAIL VIEW OF FIRE ALARM SYSTEM BOARD THAT LISTS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. DETAIL VIEW OF FIRE ALARM SYSTEM BOARD THAT LISTS AREAS IN SHOPS COMPLEX. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Shops, South side of Pratt Street between Carey & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

240

Wireless intelligent alarm technology with pyroelectric infrared sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aiming at the defects of monitoring conducted by man in the conventional practice, we study the passive intelligent automatic alarm technology based on the pyroelectric infrared sensor and wireless communication technology. The designed passive infrared wireless alarm is composed of pyroelectric infrared sensors, infrared special chip BISS0001 and their peripheral circuits. When someone enters into the detecting and monitoring range, the alarm will detect the infrared ray of the human radiation by the contactless form and detect the signals of circuit output. Then it translates them into low frequency signals relative with human sports speed, distance and direction, produce corresponding output signals through amplifying by the back state controller, switch on the work power of the wireless transmitting circuit and make it emit the alarm signals. The system enhances the monitoring level and effects and possesses many advantages such as wide detecting range, long detecting distance and high reliability.

Chen, Xiao

2009-07-01

241

Nuthatches eavesdrop on variations in heterospecific chickadee mobbing alarm calls.  

PubMed

Many animals recognize the alarm calls produced by other species, but the amount of information they glean from these eavesdropped signals is unknown. We previously showed that black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) have a sophisticated alarm call system in which they encode complex information about the size and risk of potential predators in variations of a single type of mobbing alarm call. Here we show experimentally that red-breasted nuthatches (Sitta canadensis) respond appropriately to subtle variations of these heterospecific "chick-a-dee" alarm calls, thereby evidencing that they have gained important information about potential predators in their environment. This study demonstrates a previously unsuspected level of discrimination in intertaxon eavesdropping. PMID:17372225

Templeton, Christopher N; Greene, Erick

2007-03-27

242

46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...111.33-7 Section 111.33-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms...

2010-10-01

243

46 CFR 113.20-1 - Sprinkler alarm system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...113.20-1 Section 113.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkler Systems § 113.20-1 Sprinkler...

2013-10-01

244

46 CFR 196.37-7 - General alarm bells.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Section 196.37-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-7 General alarm bells. (a)...

2010-10-01

245

Measurement of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant criticality accident alarm  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant's nuclear criticality accident radiation alarm signal response time, sound wave frequency, and sound volume levels were made to demonstrate compliance with ANSI/ANS-8.3-1986. A steady-state alarm signal is produced within one-half second of obtaining a two-out-of-three detector trip. The fundamental alarm sound wave frequency is 440 hertz. The sound volume levels are greater than 10 decibels above background and ranged from 100 to 125 A-weighted decibels. The requirements of the standard were met; however the recommended maximum sound volume level of 115 dBA was exceeded. Emergency procedures require immediate evacuation upon initiation of a facility's radiation alarm. Comparison with standards for allowable time of exposure at different noise levels indicate that the elevated noise level at this location does not represent an occupational injury hazard. 8 refs., 5 figs.

Tayloe, R.W. Jr. (Battelle Columbus (USA)); McGinnis, B. (Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Piketon, OH (USA))

1990-08-31

246

Nuthatches eavesdrop on variations in heterospecific chickadee mobbing alarm calls  

PubMed Central

Many animals recognize the alarm calls produced by other species, but the amount of information they glean from these eavesdropped signals is unknown. We previously showed that black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) have a sophisticated alarm call system in which they encode complex information about the size and risk of potential predators in variations of a single type of mobbing alarm call. Here we show experimentally that red-breasted nuthatches (Sitta canadensis) respond appropriately to subtle variations of these heterospecific “chick-a-dee” alarm calls, thereby evidencing that they have gained important information about potential predators in their environment. This study demonstrates a previously unsuspected level of discrimination in intertaxon eavesdropping. PMID:17372225

Templeton, Christopher N.; Greene, Erick

2007-01-01

247

46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...constructed of wood must, in addition to paragraph (a), provide bilge level alarms in all watertight compartments except small buoyancy chambers. (c) A visual indicator must be provided at the operating station to indicate when any automatic bilge pump...

2013-10-01

248

46 CFR 28.240 - General alarm system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...individual in any accommodation space or work space where they may normally be employed. (c) In a work space where background noise makes a general alarm system difficult to hear, a flashing red light must also be installed. (d) Each...

2010-10-01

249

Detail of fire alarm boxes located adjacent to the entrance ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail of fire alarm boxes located adjacent to the entrance of the northwest wing - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Guard House & Barracks, Railroad Avenue near Eighteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

250

Alarm responses in the crayfish Orconectes virilis and Orconectes propinquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals of two species of crayfish (Orconectes virilis andO. propinquus) were tested in the laboratory for responses to chemicals released from physically damaged conspecifics. Individuals ofO. propinquus did not show an alarm response to crushed conspecifics. Individuals ofO. virilis responded to a water-borne substance released from crushed conspecifics by assuming an intermediate posture and ceasing movement. Similar alarm responses were

Brian A. Hazlett

1994-01-01

251

Alarm communications for a FITL system remote power source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bellcore has worked with its clients to define a cost-effective solution for providing an alarm capability for centralized power sources not co-located with host digital terminals (HDTs). This capability considered several constraints (simplicity, economics, and mix-and-match capability). After evaluating several possible methods, it was proposed that a remote centralized power source should communicate alarms to the “closest” optical network unit

H. R. Salloum; M. A. Seely; R. E. Willis

1993-01-01

252

Do Aphid Colonies Amplify their Emission of Alarm Pheromone?  

PubMed Central

When aphids are attacked by natural enemies, they emit alarm pheromone to alert conspecifics. For most aphids tested, (E)-?-farnesene (EBF) is the main, or only, constituent of the alarm pheromone. In response to alarm pheromone, alerted aphids drop off the plant, walk away, or attempt to elude predators. However, under natural conditions, EBF concentration might be low due to the low amounts emitted, to rapid air movement, or to oxidative degradation. To ensure that conspecifics are warned, aphids might conceivably amplify the alarm signal by emitting EBF in response to EBF emitted by other aphids. To examine whether such amplification occurs, we synthesized deuterated EBF (DEBF), which allowed us to differentiate between applied and aphid-derived chemical. Colonies of Acyrthosiphon pisum were treated with DEBF, and headspace volatiles were collected and analyzed for evidence of aphid-derived EBF. No aphid-derived EBF was detected, suggesting that amplification of the alarm signal does not occur. We discuss the disadvantages of alarm signal reinforcement. PMID:18704588

Hatano, Eduardo; Kunert, Grit; Bartram, Stefan; Boland, Wilhelm; Gershenzon, Jonathan

2008-01-01

253

Alarm Pheromone Processing in the Ant Brain: An Evolutionary Perspective  

PubMed Central

Social insects exhibit sophisticated communication by means of pheromones, one example of which is the use of alarm pheromones to alert nestmates for colony defense. We review recent advances in the understanding of the processing of alarm pheromone information in the ant brain. We found that information about formic acid and n-undecane, alarm pheromone components, is processed in a set of specific glomeruli in the antennal lobe of the ant Camponotus obscuripes. Alarm pheromone information is then transmitted, via projection neurons (PNs), to the lateral horn and the calyces of the mushroom body of the protocerebrum. In the lateral horn, we found a specific area where terminal boutons of alarm pheromone-sensitive PNs are more densely distributed than in the rest of the lateral horn. Some neurons in the protocerebrum responded specifically to formic acid or n-undecane and they may participate in the control of behavioral responses to each pheromone component. Other neurons, especially those originating from the mushroom body lobe, responded also to non-pheromonal odors and may play roles in integration of pheromonal and non-pheromonal signals. We found that a class of neurons receive inputs in the lateral horn and the mushroom body lobe and terminate in a variety of premotor areas. These neurons may participate in the control of aggressive behavior, which is sensitized by alarm pheromones and is triggered by non-pheromonal sensory stimuli associated with a potential enemy. We propose that the alarm pheromone processing system has evolved by differentiation of a part of general odor processing system. PMID:20676235

Mizunami, Makoto; Yamagata, Nobuhiro; Nishino, Hiroshi

2010-01-01

254

A mutual understanding? Interspecific responses by birds to each other's aerial alarm calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals are likely to benefit from responding to the alarm signals of other species with similar predators, and mutual interspecific responses to aerial (hawk) alarms are thought to be common in birds, in part because similarity in alarm call structure among species might facilitate detection or interpretation. However, there has been no test of whether interspecific responses to aerial alarm

Robert D. Magrath; Benjamin J. Pitcher; Janet L. Gardner

2007-01-01

255

Reciprocal recognition of sifaka ( Propithecus verreauxi verreauxi ) and redfronted lemur ( Eulemur fulvus rufus ) alarm calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Redfronted lemurs ( Eulemur fulvus rufus) and Verreaux's sifakas ( Propithecus verreauxi verreauxi) occur sympatrically in western Madagascar. Both species exhibit a so-called mixed alarm call system with functionally referential alarm calls for raptors and general alarm calls for carnivores and raptors. General alarm calls also occur in other contexts associated with high arousal, such as inter-group encounters. Field playback

Claudia Fichtel

2004-01-01

256

15 CFR 80.6 - False statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.6 False statements. Any false statement or forgery on the application or supporting papers...

2013-01-01

257

15 CFR 80.6 - False statements.  

...Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.6 False statements. Any false statement or forgery on the application or supporting papers...

2014-01-01

258

15 CFR 80.6 - False statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.6 False statements. Any false statement or forgery on the application or supporting papers...

2010-01-01

259

15 CFR 80.6 - False statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.6 False statements. Any false statement or forgery on the application or supporting papers...

2011-01-01

260

15 CFR 80.6 - False statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.6 False statements. Any false statement or forgery on the application or supporting papers...

2012-01-01

261

Pathways to False Allegations of Sexual Assault  

Microsoft Academic Search

Not all allegations of sexual assault are true. Unfortunately, there has been little work on understanding the prevalence of false allegations or pathways to these. This paper proposes 11 pathways to false allegations of sexual assault: (a) lying, (b) implied consent, (c) false memories, (d) intoxication, (e) antisocial personality disorder, (f) borderline personality disorder, (g) histrionic personality disorder, (h) delirium,

Jessica Engle; William ODonohue

2012-01-01

262

Explaining the development of false memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review six explanatory dimensions of false memory in children that are relevant to forensic practice: measurement, development, social factors, individual differences, varieties of memories and memory judgments, and varieties of procedures that induce false memories. We conclude that, despite greater fidelity to real-world false memory contexts, recent studies fail to use known techniques that separate mere acquiescence from memory

Valerie F. Reyna; Robyn Holliday; Tammy Marche

2002-01-01

263

Lasting false beliefs and their behavioral consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

False beliefs and memories can affect people's attitudes, at least in the short term. But can they produce real changes in behavior? This study explored whether falsely suggesting to subjects that they had experienced a food-related event in their childhood would lead to a change in their behavior shortly after the suggestion and up to 4 months later. We falsely

Elke Geraerts; Daniel M. Bernstein; Harald Merckelbach; Christel Linders; Linsey Raymaekers; Elizabeth F. Loftus

2008-01-01

264

FAULT DIAGNOSIS WITH MULTI-STATE ALARMS IN A NUCLEAR POWER CONTROL SIMULATOR  

SciTech Connect

This research addresses how alarm systems can increase operator performance within nuclear power plant operations. The experiment examined the effect of two types of alarm systems (two-state and three-state alarms) on alarm compliance and diagnosis for two types of faults differing in complexity. We hypothesized three-state alarms would improve performance in alarm recognition and fault diagnoses over that of two-state alarms. We used sensitivity and criterion based on Signal Detection Theory to measure performance. We further hypothesized that operator trust would be highest when using three-state alarms. The findings from this research showed participants performed better and had more trust in three-state alarms compared to two-state alarms. Furthermore, these findings have significant theoretical implications and practical applications as they apply to improving the efficiency and effectiveness of nuclear power plant operations.

Austin Ragsdale; Roger Lew; Brian P. Dyre; Ronald L. Boring

2012-10-01

265

Alarm substance induced behavioral responses in zebrafish (Danio rerio)  

PubMed Central

Zebrafish (zebra danio) are becoming increasingly popular in behavioral neuroscience and behavior genetics. This small vertebrate may be utilized in modeling human brain disorders. One of the major neuropsychiatric conditions still not well understood is abnormally increased fear and anxiety. Zebrafish may be an appropriate organism with which these human diseases can be modeled and their biological mechanisms investigated. Predator induced anxiety paradigms have been suggested as useful methods in translational research. Shoaling fish, such as zebrafish, are known to respond to alarm substances with antipredatory or alarm reactions. However, these responses are not well characterized in zebrafish. In the current paper, we investigate the behavioral responses of zebrafish elicited by its alarm substance. Using observation-based as well as video-tracking aided behavior quantification methods we demonstrate significant alarm substance-induced behavioral changes that are independent of the presence of a predatory fish stimulus. The results suggest that, once refined, the use of alarm substance with zebrafish will allow the development of high throughput behavioral paradigms for drug and mutation screening aimed at the analysis of the biological mechanisms of fear in vertebrates. PMID:18054804

Speedie, Natasha; Gerlai, Robert

2009-01-01

266

Nuclear-power-plant perimeter-intrusion alarm systems  

SciTech Connect

Timely intercept of an intruder requires the examination of perimeter barriers and sensors in terms of reliable detection, immediate assessment and prompt response provisions. Perimeter security equipment and operations must at the same time meet the requirements of the Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR 73.55 with some attention to the performance and testing figures of Nuclear Regulatory Guide 5.44, Revision 2, May 1980. A baseline system is defined which recommends a general approach to implementing perimeter security elements: barriers, lighting, intrusion detection, alarm assessment. The baseline approach emphasizes cost/effectiveness achieved by detector layering and logic processing of alarm signals to produce reliable alarms and low nuisance alarm rates. A cost benefit of layering along with video assessment is reduction in operating expense. The concept of layering is also shown to minimize testing costs where detectability performance as suggested by Regulatory Guide 5.44 is to be performed. Synthesis of the perimeter intrusion alarm system and limited testing of CCTV and Video Motion Detectors (VMD), were performed at E-Systems, Greenville Division, Greenville, Texas during 1981.

Halsey, D.J.

1982-04-01

267

Mitigation Action Plan  

SciTech Connect

This Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) focuses on mitigation commitments stated in the Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) and the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1). Specific commitments and mitigation implementation actions are listed in Appendix A-Mitigation Actions, and form the central focus of this MAP. They will be updated as needed to allow for organizational, regulatory, or policy changes. It is the intent of DOE to comply with all applicable federal, state, and local environmental, safety, and health laws and regulations. Eighty-six specific commitments were identified in the SEIS and associated ROD which pertain to continued operation of NPR-1 with petroleum production at the Maximum Efficient Rate (MER). The mitigation measures proposed are expected to reduce impacts as much as feasible, however, as experience is gained in actual implementation of these measures, some changes may be warranted.

Not Available

1994-02-01

268

[Remote sensing monitoring and pre-alarming of algal blooms in Taihu Lake].  

PubMed

The explosive growth of algae in inland water bodies is one of the major water environmental problems in China, and it's very important to monitor the dynamic of algae in both temporal and spatial scales. In the present paper, a model, which was used to extract the algae information from the water body of Taihu Lake using MODIS data, was established based on the remote sensing index and image false color composite methods. Using this model, we studied the algae explosive growth formation process between March and May in 2007. Through the analysis of the temporal and spatial distribution features of the algae outbreak between the spring and summer seasons, an early warning method of algal blooms was proposed, that is, when the MODIS green index mainly concentrated in the range between 0. 6 and 0. 8, the water body of Taihu Lake can be considered to have been in the early alarming stage of algal blooms. PMID:21595233

Song, Yu; Song, Xiao-dong; Guo, Qing-hai; Tang, Li-na

2011-03-01

269

19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13...descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. (a) Articles which...Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys thereof...

2011-04-01

270

19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13...descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. (a) Articles which...Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys thereof...

2012-04-01

271

19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13...descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. (a) Articles which...Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys thereof...

2013-04-01

272

19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13...descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. (a) Articles which...Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys thereof...

2010-04-01

273

19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.  

...descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13...descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. (a) Articles which...Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys thereof...

2014-04-01

274

Spam Filtering Issue: FPD Research between False Positive and False Negative  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the fact that false positive is more serious than false negative while doing spam filtering, novel email filter with feature of partial dependency (FPD) is asked urgently. This paper investigates the FPD between false positive and false negative comprehensively and proposes an advanced fitted logistic regression model for spam discrimination by introducing a coefficient function involved with the

Liu Zhen; Zhou Ming-tian

2007-01-01

275

A Closer Look at Self-Reported Suicide Attempts: False Positives and False Negatives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The validity of self-reported suicide attempt information is undermined by false positives (e.g., incidences without intent to die), or by unreported suicide attempts, referred to as false negatives. In a sample of 1,385 Austrian adults, we explored the occurrence of false positives and false negatives with detailed, probing questions. Removing…

Ploderl, Martin; Kralovec, Karl; Yazdi, Kurosch; Fartacek, Reinhold

2011-01-01

276

Effect of fire and high temperatures on alarm signals.  

PubMed

Firefighters use an acoustic alarm to recognize and locate other firefighters that need rescue. The alarm, codified under NFPA 1982 : Standard for Personal Alert Safety System (PASS), is typically implemented in firefighter's SCBA (self-contained breathing apparatus) and is carried by a majority of firefighter in the United States. In the past, the standard specified certain frequency tones and other parameters and left implementation up to manufacturers, leading to an infinite number of possibilities that could satisfy the standard. However, there is a move to converge the standard to a single alarm sound. The research presented provides science-based guidance for the next generation of PASS signal. In the two previous ASA meetings, a number of experimental and numerical studies were presented regarding the effect of temperature stratification on room acoustics. The present work uses models developed under those studies to quantify the effect of various signal parameters (frequency ranges, time delay between successive alarms, temporal envelope etc.) on the signal heard by a firefighter. Understanding the effect of these parameters will allow us to formulate a signal more resistant to distortion caused by the fire. [Work supported by U.S. Department of Homeland Security Assistance to Firefighters Grants Program.]. PMID:25235893

Abbasi, Mustafa Z; Wilson, Preston S; Ezekoye, Ofodike A

2014-04-01

277

FIRE & BUILDING EVACUATION Activate the nearest fire alarm  

E-print Network

FIRE & BUILDING EVACUATION PROCEDURES Activate the nearest fire alarm and call 911. Confine ECU Police (Health Sciences) at 744-2246. Notify your supervisor and/or your Safety Representative. Stay in the area until released. Emergency Procedures Quick Reference Health Science Division at East

278

RIS-M-2511 FUNCTIONAL ALARMING AND INFORMATION RETRIEVAL  

E-print Network

RISÃ?-M-2511 FUNCTIONAL ALARMING AND INFORMATION RETRIEVAL L . P . G o o d s t e i n A b s t r a c PLANTS; INFORMATION NEEDS; INFORMATION RETRIEVAL; MAN-MACHINE SYSTEMS; MONITORING; POWER PLANTS. August DISPLAY 11 INFORMATION RETRIEVAL 13 EVALUATION 14 CONCLUDING REMARKS 14 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 17 REFERENCES 17

279

Verification of criticality accident alarm system for environmental restoration activities  

SciTech Connect

This work analyzes the optimal placement of a criticality accident alarm system (CAAS) necessitated by an unexpected accumulation of fissile materials in the filtration system of an idled experimental nuclear reactor. Results using multidimensional deterministic and Monte Carlo methods confirmed the suitability of an existing CAAS placement located in the adjacent reactor building.

Broadhead, B.L.; Childs, R.L.; Hopper, C.M.

1995-09-01

280

Tinnitus as an Alarm Bell: Stress Reaction Tinnitus Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress is a significant factor influencing the clinical course of tinnitus. Auditory system is particularly sensitive to the effects of different stress factors (chemical, oxidative, emotional, etc.). Different stages of reaction (alarm, resistance, exhaustion) lead to different characteristics of tinnitus and different therapeutic approaches. Individual characteristics of stress reaction may explain different aspects of tinnitus in various patients with different

D. Alpini; A. Cesarani

2006-01-01

281

46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

(a) Each vessel must be provided with a visual and audible alarm at the operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (1) A space with a through-hull fitting below the deepest load waterline, such as a...

2010-10-01

282

Rawls' Fairness, Income Distribution and Alarming Level of Gini Coefficient  

E-print Network

The argument that the alarming level of Gini coefficient is 0.4 is very popular, especially in the media industry, all around the world for a long time. Although the 0.4 standard is widely accepted, the derivation of the value lacks rigid theoretical foundations. In fact, to the best of our knowledge, it is not based on any prevalent and convincing economic theories. In this paper, we incorporate Rawls' principle of fair equality of opportunity into Arrow-Debreu's framework of general equilibrium theory with heterogeneous agents, and derive the alarming level of Gini coefficient formally. Our theory reveals that the exponential distribution of income not only satisfies Pareto optimality, but also obeys social fairness in Rawls' sense. Therefore, we specify the maximal value of the Gini coefficient when income follows exponential distribution as a possible alarming level. Our computations show that the alarming level should be specified at least equal or larger than 0.5 rather than 0.4. We empirically investig...

Tao, Yong; Li, Changshuai

2014-01-01

283

A Fire-Alarming Method Based on Video Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a fire-alarming method based on video processing. We propose a system that uses color and motion information extracted from video sequences to detect fire. Flame can be recognized according to its color which is a primary element of fire images. Thus choosing a suitable color model is the key to detect flames from fire images. An effective

Ping-He Huang; Jing-Yong Su; Zhe-Ming Lu; Jeng-Shyang Pan

2006-01-01

284

Original article Effects of honey-bee alarm pheromone compounds  

E-print Network

Original article Effects of honey-bee alarm pheromone compounds on the behaviour of Varroa pheromone / repellen / compound / Varroa jacobsonl INTRODUCTION Several honey bee hormones and phero- mones trigger for the mite to start egg laying (Hänel, 1983). Honey bee Nasonov pheromone decreas- es

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

285

Automatic diagnosis of multiple alarms for reactor-control rooms  

SciTech Connect

A system has been developed at the Savannah River Plant to help reactor operators respond to multiple alarms in a developing incident situation. The need for such systems has become evident in recent years, particularly after the three Mile Island incident.

Gimmy, K.L.; Nomm, E.

1981-01-01

286

Integrated alarm annunciation and entry control systems -- Survey results  

SciTech Connect

This report provides the results and analyses of a detailed survey undertaken in Summer 1993 to address integrated intrusion detection alarm annunciation and entry control system issues. This survey was undertaken as a first attempt toward beginning to answer questions about integrated systems and commercial capabilities to meet or partially meet US Department of Energy (DOE) site needs.

Clever, J.J.; Arakaki, L.H.; Monaco, F.M.; Juarros, L.E.; Quintana, G.R.

1993-10-01

287

Mitigation Monitoring Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Report (SEIR) (September 1992) for the Proposed Renewal of the Contract between the United States Department of Energy and The Regents of the University of California for the Operation and Management of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory identifies the environmental impacts associated with renewing the contract and specifies a series of measures designed to mitigate adverse impacts to the environment. This Mitigation Monitoring Plan describes the procedures the University will use to implement the mitigation measures adopted in connection with the approval of the Contract.

Not Available

1992-09-01

288

Poor working memory predicts false memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies investigated whether individual differences in simple span verbal working memory and complex working memory capacity are related to memory accuracy and susceptibility to false memory development. In Study 1, undergraduate students (N=60) were given two simple span working memory tests: forward and backward digit span. They also underwent a memory task that is known to elicit false memories

Maarten J. V. Peters; Marko Jelicic; Hilde Verbeek; Harald Merckelbach

2007-01-01

289

Illusions of Gender: Stereotypes Evoke False Memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments examined whether false memories can arise from indirect stereotype associations, as revealed by the Deese–Roediger–McDermott (DRM) paradigm. As predicted, exposure to either a list of stereotypically female roles or a list of stereotypically male roles resulted in an increase in the false recognition of stereotypically consistent roles and traits. In both of the experiments, the participants were shown

Alison P. Lenton; Irene V. Blair; Reid Hastie

2001-01-01

290

Caffeine increases false memory in nonhabitual consumers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insight into caffeine's equivocal effects on memory can be derived from work suggesting both emotional arousal and psychosocial stress increase false memory rates without increasing veridical memory. This study investigated how a range of caffeine doses affect veridical and false memory formation in nonhabitual consumers. A double-blind, repeated-measures design with caffeine (0 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg, 400 mg caffeine)

Caroline R. Mahoney; Tad T. Brunyé; Grace E. Giles; Tali Ditman; Harris R. Lieberman; Holly A. Taylor

2012-01-01

291

Emotional content of true and false memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many people believe that emotional memories (including those that arise in therapy) are particularly likely to represent true events because of their emotional content. But is emotional content a reliable indicator of memory accuracy? The current research assessed the emotional content of participants’ pre-existing (true) and manipulated (false) memories for childhood events. False memories for one of three emotional childhood

Cara Laney; Elizabeth F. Loftus

2008-01-01

292

Mitigation win-win  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Win-win messages regarding climate change mitigation policies in agriculture tend to oversimplify farmer motivation. Contributions from psychology, cultural evolution and behavioural economics should help to design more effective policy.

Moran, Dominic; Lucas, Amanda; Barnes, Andrew

2013-07-01

293

Dust Mitigation Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A document describes the development and demonstration of an apparatus, called a dust mitigation vehicle, for reducing the amount of free dust on the surface of the Moon. The dust mitigation vehicle would be used to pave surfaces on the Moon to prevent the dust from levitating or adhering to surfaces. The basic principle of operation of these apparatuses is to use a lens or a dish mirror to concentrate solar thermal radiation onto a small spot to heat lunar regolith. In the case of the prototype dust mitigation vehicle, a Fresnel lens was used to heat a surface layer of regolith sufficiently to sinter or melt dust grains into a solid mass. The prototype vehicle has demonstrated paving rates up to 1.8 square meters per day. The proposed flight design of the dust mitigation vehicle is also described.

Cardiff, Eric H.

2011-01-01

294

40 CFR 264.34 - Access to communications or alarm system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Prevention § 264.34 Access to communications or alarm system. (a...access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or...capable of summoning external emergency assistance, unless...

2013-07-01

295

40 CFR 265.34 - Access to communications or alarm system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Prevention § 265.34 Access to communications or alarm system. (a...access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or...capable of summoning external emergency assistance, unless...

2012-07-01

296

40 CFR 264.34 - Access to communications or alarm system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Prevention § 264.34 Access to communications or alarm system. (a...access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or...capable of summoning external emergency assistance, unless...

2012-07-01

297

40 CFR 265.34 - Access to communications or alarm system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Prevention § 265.34 Access to communications or alarm system. (a...access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or...capable of summoning external emergency assistance, unless...

2010-07-01

298

40 CFR 265.34 - Access to communications or alarm system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Prevention § 265.34 Access to communications or alarm system. (a...access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or...capable of summoning external emergency assistance, unless...

2013-07-01

299

40 CFR 264.34 - Access to communications or alarm system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Prevention § 264.34 Access to communications or alarm system. (a...access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or...capable of summoning external emergency assistance, unless...

2011-07-01

300

40 CFR 264.34 - Access to communications or alarm system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Prevention § 264.34 Access to communications or alarm system. (a...access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or...capable of summoning external emergency assistance, unless...

2010-07-01

301

40 CFR 265.34 - Access to communications or alarm system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Prevention § 265.34 Access to communications or alarm system. (a...access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or...capable of summoning external emergency assistance, unless...

2011-07-01

302

46 CFR 113.27-1 - Engineers' assistance-needed alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...113.27-1 Section 113.27-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Engineers' Assistance-Needed Alarm § 113.27-1...

2012-10-01

303

46 CFR 113.27-1 - Engineers' assistance-needed alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...113.27-1 Section 113.27-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Engineers' Assistance-Needed Alarm § 113.27-1...

2010-10-01

304

76 FR 76327 - Installation of Radiation Alarms for Rooms Housing Neutron Sources  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...NRC-2011-0251] Installation of Radiation Alarms for Rooms Housing...Neutron Sources AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...require installation of radiation alarms for rooms housing...December 2011. For the Nuclear Regulatory...

2011-12-07

305

False localizing signs in traumatic brain injury  

PubMed Central

Background Hemiparesis ipsilateral to a mass-occupying lesion can be due to Kernohan-Woltman Notch Phenomenon (KWNP). This syndrome implies a false-localizing sign because clinical findings lead the examiner to an incorrect neuroanatomical diagnosis. The contralateral crus cerebri (pyramidal tract) is pressed against the tentorial incisum and a resultant hemiparesis is found on the same side of the lesion. Review A detailed literature search of false-localizing signs is presented. Conclusions Not infrequently, patients presenting to a physiatrist may have incomplete records. The existence of false localizing signs may point the physician towards the wrong underlying pathology. PMID:19557561

MCKENNA, CRISTIN; FELLUS, JONATHAN; BARRETT, ANNA M.

2010-01-01

306

Creating a False Memory in the Hippocampus  

E-print Network

Memories can be unreliable. We created a false memory in mice by optogenetically manipulating memory engram–bearing cells in the hippocampus. Dentate gyrus (DG) or CA1 neurons activated by exposure to a particular context ...

Ramirez Moreno, Steve

307

The U's Facilities Management Department (FM) conducted an internal review of its fire alarm testing  

E-print Network

alarm testing. Moving to standardized testing methods and record keeping, along with inspections alarm testing process in 2009 that resulted in annual savings of approximately $578,000. The fire alarm systems, which cover the vast majority of campus buildings, were traditionally tested, maintained

Webb, Peter

308

Spiny lobsters detect conspecific blood-borne alarm cues exclusively through olfactory sensilla.  

PubMed

When attacked by predators, diverse animals actively or passively release molecules that evoke alarm and related anti-predatory behavior by nearby conspecifics. The actively released molecules are alarm pheromones, whereas the passively released molecules are alarm cues. For example, many insects have alarm-signaling systems that involve active release of alarm pheromones from specialized glands and detection of these signals using specific sensors. Many crustaceans passively release alarm cues, but the nature of the cues, sensors and responses is poorly characterized. Here we show in laboratory and field experiments that injured Caribbean spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, passively release alarm cues via blood (hemolymph) that induce alarm responses in the form of avoidance and suppression of feeding. These cues are detected exclusively through specific olfactory chemosensors, the aesthetasc sensilla. The alarm cues for Caribbean spiny lobsters are not unique to the species but do show some phylogenetic specificity: P. argus responds primarily with alarm behavior to conspecific blood, but with mixed alarm and appetitive behaviors to blood from the congener Panulirus interruptus, or with appetitive behaviors to blood from the blue crab Callinectes sapidus. This study lays the foundation for future neuroethological studies of alarm cue systems in this and other decapod crustaceans. PMID:18689413

Shabani, Shkelzen; Kamio, Michiya; Derby, Charles D

2008-08-01

309

46 CFR 27.201 - What are the requirements for general alarms on towing vessels?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...engine room. (3) Has installed, in the engine room and any other area where background noise makes a general alarm hard to hear, a supplemental flashing red light that is identified with a sign that reads: Attention General Alarm—When Alarm...

2010-10-01

310

Chimpanzee alarm call production meets key criteria for intentionality.  

PubMed

Determining the intentionality of primate communication is critical to understanding the evolution of human language. Although intentional signalling has been claimed for some great ape gestural signals, comparable evidence is currently lacking for their vocal signals. We presented wild chimpanzees with a python model and found that two of three alarm call types exhibited characteristics previously used to argue for intentionality in gestural communication. These alarm calls were: (i) socially directed and given to the arrival of friends, (ii) associated with visual monitoring of the audience and gaze alternations, and (iii) goal directed, as calling only stopped when recipients were safe from the predator. Our results demonstrate that certain vocalisations of our closest living relatives qualify as intentional signals, in a directly comparable way to many great ape gestures. We conclude that our results undermine a central argument of gestural theories of language evolution and instead support a multimodal origin of human language. PMID:24146908

Schel, Anne Marijke; Townsend, Simon W; Machanda, Zarin; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Slocombe, Katie E

2013-01-01

311

Credible suggestions affect false autobiographical beliefs.  

PubMed

False memory implantation studies are characterised by suggestions indicating that specific unremembered events occurred, attributing suggested events to a knowledgeable source (e.g., parents), and including true events that provide evidence that this source was consulted. These characteristics create a particular retrieval context that influences how individuals come to believe that false events occurred. Two studies used a variant of implantation methods to vary the proportion of events attributed to parents and the presence of true events within the suggestion. In Study 1 participants received six false events, and were told that all or some events came from parents. Participants told that all of the events came from parents formed more and stronger false beliefs. In Study 2 participants also received two true events, and a third group was told that half of the events came from their parents. Participants given the specific ratio ("half") endorsed more false beliefs, and beliefs between the other groups no longer differed. Across both studies participants told that some events came from parents reported stronger memory phenomenology. The effect of suggestions on false beliefs in implantation studies depends partly on the credibility of suggestions derived from providing information about the source of suggested events. PMID:22537029

Scoboria, Alan; Wysman, Lauren; Otgaar, Henry

2012-07-01

312

Language Promotes False-Belief Understanding  

PubMed Central

Developmental studies have identified a strong correlation in the timing of language development and false-belief understanding. However, the nature of this relationship remains unresolved. Does language promote false-belief understanding, or does it merely facilitate development that could occur independently, albeit on a delayed timescale? We examined language development and false-belief understanding in deaf learners of an emerging sign language in Nicaragua. The use of mental-state vocabulary and performance on a low-verbal false-belief task were assessed, over 2 years, in adult and adolescent users of Nicaraguan Sign Language. Results show that those adults who acquired a nascent form of the language during childhood produce few mental-state signs and fail to exhibit false-belief understanding. Furthermore, those whose language developed over the period of the study correspondingly developed in false-belief understanding. Thus, language learning, over and above social experience, drives the development of a mature theory of mind. PMID:19515119

Pyers, Jennie E.; Senghas, Ann

2010-01-01

313

Social enviroment influences aphid production of alarm pheromone  

Microsoft Academic Search

In most aphid species, the volatile sesquiterpene (E)-?-farnesene (E?f) is released as an alarm pheromone in response to predation and is also emitted continuously at low levels. Some aphid predators use E?f as a foraging cue, suggesting that the benefits to aphids of signaling via E?f must be weighed against the cost of increasing apparency to natural enemies. To determine

François J. Verheggen; Eric Haubruge; Consuelo M. De Moraes; Mark C. Mescher

2009-01-01

314

ZoneAlarm Free Firewall 9.2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This latest version of ZoneAlarm Free Firewall 9.2 will help keep users' computers free from phishing devices and other such pesky intruders. The application takes about 5 minutes to setup, and it can now also stop program spoofing, which is when a malicious program pretends to be a good one. The program also has an extensive interactive help feature, which can be useful for new users. This version is compatible with computers running Windows XP, Vista, and 7.

2010-01-01

315

Evaluation of criticality alarm response at the WEMCO Fernald site  

SciTech Connect

This work quantifies the expected dose rates at a series of criticality alarm locations due to several postulated criticality accidents at the Westinghouse Environmental MANAGEMENT COMPANY OF OHIO (WEMCO) Fernald site. One- and two-dimensional discrete- ordinates calculations were performed for seven different shielding configurations using leakage spectra corresponding to two specific postulated critical events. In addition, an estimate of the gaseous fission products released during the hypothetical accident was made using ORIGEN-S point-depletion code.

Broadhead, B.L.; Childs, R.L.; Westfall, R.M.; Parks, C.V.

1992-11-01

316

Results of security alarm monitoring system software evaluation: Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This report was prepared at the request of the Hanford Site Security Applications Center (SAC) in conjunction with Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) at Albuquerque, New Mexico. An independent evaluation of software was requested for three Alarm Monitoring Systems (AMS) that were developed by SNL; the Security Alarm Control System (SACS), Safeguards Control and Communications System (SCCS), and Site-Independent Configurable Alarm Display System (SICADS). This report contains the results of the evaluation based on criteria established in DeLisle et al. (1988). The SICADS system was not thoroughly evaluated due to the unavailability of information at the time the evaluations were conducted. The evaluation consists of the results of studies by three different user types: operator, system engineer, and system analyst. The results are treated separately within this report. Each evaluator contributed unique experiences with operating, maintaining, and developing systems of a similar type and complexity. The evolutions are based on field experience, ``hands on`` exercising of the systems and modern industry accepted practices. 3 refs.

DeLisle, G.V.; Acree, C.D.; Johnson, L.E.; Winkelman, W.D.

1989-04-01

317

Spacecraft operations automation: Automatic alarm notification and web telemetry display  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In these times of Faster, Better, Cheaper (FBC) spacecraft, Spacecraft Operations Automation is an area that is targeted by many Operations Teams. To meet the challenges of the FBC environment, the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Operations Team designed and quickly implemented two new low-cost technologies: one which monitors spacecraft telemetry, checks the status of the telemetry, and contacts technical experts by pager when any telemetry datapoints exceed alarm limits, and a second which allows quick and convenient remote access to data displays. The first new technology is Automatic Alarm Notification (AAN). AAN monitors spacecraft telemetry and will notify engineers automatically if any telemetry is received which creates an alarm condition. The second new technology is Web Telemetry Display (WTD). WTD captures telemetry displays generated by the flight telemetry system and makes them available to the project web server. This allows engineers to check the health and status of the spacecraft from any computer capable of connecting to the global internet, without needing normally-required specialized hardware and software. Both of these technologies have greatly reduced operations costs by alleviating the need to have operations engineers monitor spacecraft performance on a 24 hour per day, 7 day per week basis from a central Mission Support Area. This paper gives details on the design and implementation of AAN and WTD, discusses their limitations, and lists the ongoing benefits which have accrued to MGS Flight Operations since their implementation in late 1996.

Short, Owen G.; Leonard, Robert E.; Bucher, Allen W.; Allen, Bryan

1999-11-01

318

13 CFR 123.204 - How much can your business borrow for post-disaster mitigation?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How much can your business borrow for post-disaster mitigation? 123.204 Section 123.204 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS...

2010-01-01

319

13 CFR 123.204 - How much can your business borrow for post-disaster mitigation?  

13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false How much can your business borrow for post-disaster mitigation? 123.204 Section 123.204 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS...

2014-01-01

320

42 CFR 93.408 - Mitigating and aggravating factors in HHS administrative actions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mitigating and...in HHS administrative actions. 93.408 Section 93.408 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH...

2013-10-01

321

42 CFR 93.408 - Mitigating and aggravating factors in HHS administrative actions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mitigating and...in HHS administrative actions. 93.408 Section 93.408 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH...

2011-10-01

322

42 CFR 93.408 - Mitigating and aggravating factors in HHS administrative actions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mitigating and...in HHS administrative actions. 93.408 Section 93.408 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH...

2012-10-01

323

Masters Thesis- Criticality Alarm System Design Guide with Accompanying Alarm System Development for the Radioisotope Production Laboratory in Richland, Washington  

SciTech Connect

A detailed instructional manual was created to guide criticality safety engineers through the process of designing a criticality alarm system (CAS) for Department of Energy (DOE) hazard class 1 and 2 facilities. Regulatory and technical requirements were both addressed. A list of design tasks and technical subtasks are thoroughly analyzed to provide concise direction for how to complete the analysis. An example of the application of the design methodology, the Criticality Alarm System developed for the Radioisotope Production Laboratory (RPL) of Richland, Washington is also included. The analysis for RPL utilizes the Monte Carlo code MCNP5 for establishing detector coverage in the facility. Significant improvements to the existing CAS were made that increase the reliability, transparency, and coverage of the system.

Greenfield, Bryce A.

2009-12-20

324

Human factors engineering guidance for the review of advanced alarm systems  

SciTech Connect

This report provides guidance to support the review of the human factors aspects of advanced alarm system designs in nuclear power plants. The report is organized into three major sections. The first section describes the methodology and criteria that were used to develop the design review guidelines. Also included is a description of the scope, organization, and format of the guidelines. The second section provides a systematic review procedure in which important characteristics of the alarm system are identified, described, and evaluated. The third section provides the detailed review guidelines. The review guidelines are organized according to important characteristics of the alarm system including: alarm definition; alarm processing and reduction; alarm prioritization and availability; display; control; automated; dynamic, and modifiable characteristics; reliability, test, maintenance, and failure indication; alarm response procedures; and control-display integration and layout.

O`Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.; Higgins, J.C.; Stubler, W.F. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1994-09-01

325

The role of the superior temporal lobe in auditory false perceptions: A transcranial direct current stimulation study  

PubMed Central

Neuroimaging has shown that a network of cortical areas, which includes the superior temporal gyrus, is active during auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs). In the present study, healthy, non-hallucinating participants (N=30) completed an auditory signal detection task, in which participants were required to detect a voice in short bursts of white noise, with the variable of interest being the rate of false auditory verbal perceptions. This paradigm was coupled with transcranial direct current stimulation, a noninvasive brain stimulation technique, to test the involvement of the left posterior superior temporal gyrus in the creation of auditory false perceptions. The results showed that increasing the levels of excitability in this region led to a higher rate of ‘false alarm’ responses than when levels of excitability were decreased, with false alarm responses under a sham stimulation condition lying at a mid-point between anodal and cathodal stimulation conditions. There were also corresponding changes in signal detection parameters. These results are discussed in terms of prominent cognitive neuroscientific theories of AVHs, and potential future directions for research are outlined. PMID:25107678

Moseley, Peter; Fernyhough, Charles; Ellison, Amanda

2014-01-01

326

A direct approach to false discovery rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple-hypothesis testing involves guarding against much more complicated errors than single-hypothesis testing. Whereas we typically control the type I error rate for a single-hypothesis test, a compound error rate is controlled for multiple-hypothesis tests. For example, controlling the false discovery rate FDR traditionally involves intricate sequential \\

John D. Storey

2002-01-01

327

Infants' Reasoning about Others' False Perceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prior research suggests that children younger than age 3 or 4 do not understand that an agent may be deceived by an object's misleading appearance. The authors asked whether 14.5-month-olds would give evidence in a violation-of-expectation task that they understand that agents may form false perceptions. Infants first watched events in which an…

Song, Hyun-joo; Baillargeon, Renee

2008-01-01

328

A Synchronization Account of False Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We describe a computational model to explain a variety of results in both standard and false recognition. A key attribute of the model is that it uses plausible semantic representations for words, built through exposure to a linguistic corpus. A study list is encoded in the model as a gist trace, similar to the proposal of fuzzy trace theory…

Johns, Brendan T.; Jones, Michael N.; Mewhort, Douglas J. K.

2012-01-01

329

Diseases of Camelina sativa (false flax)  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is renewed interest in the crucifer Camelina sativa (false flax, camelina, gold of pleasure) as an alternative oilseed crop because of its potential value for food, feed, and industrial applications. This species is adapted to canola-growing areas in many regions of the world and is generally considered to be resistant to many diseases. A review of the literature indicates

G. Séguin-Swartz; C. Eynck; R. K. Gugel; S. E. Strelkov; C. Y. Olivier; J. L. Li; H. Klein-Gebbinck; H. Borhan; C. D. Caldwell; K. C. Falk

2009-01-01

330

Vendor cited for false PFC savings claim  

SciTech Connect

A Cynex power factor controller (PFC) vendor claiming a 60% saving was cited by the Better Business Bureau for false advertising after a user survey revealed that savings were only 20% at best. The company plans no future advertising claims, although it insists that 60% savings are possible. The inventor disagrees. (DCK)

Greenstein, I.

1983-08-29

331

Intelligent hybrid approach to false identity detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combating identity fraud is prominent and urgent since false identity has become the common denominator of all serious crime. Among many identified identity attributes, personal names are commonly falsified or aliased by most criminals and terrorists. Typical approaches to such name disambiguation rely on the text-based similarity measures, which are efficient to some extent, but severely fail to handle highly

Tossapon Boongoen; Qiang Shen

2009-01-01

332

Analysis of False Starts in Spontaneous Speech.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A primary difference between spontaneous speech and read speech concerns the use of false starts, where a speaker interrupts the flow of speech to restart his or her utterance. A study examined the acoustic aspects of such restarts in a widely-used speech database, examining approximately 1000 utterances, about 10% of which contained a restart.…

O'Shaughnessy, Douglas

333

False positive reduction for lung nodule CAD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computer-aided detection (CAD) algorithms 'automatically' identify lung nodules on thoracic multi-slice CT scans (MSCT) thereby providing physicians with a computer-generated 'second opinion'. While CAD systems can achieve high sensitivity, their limited specificity has hindered clinical acceptance. To overcome this problem, we propose a false positive reduction (FPR) system based on image processing and machine learning to reduce the number of false positive lung nodules identified by CAD algorithms and thereby improve system specificity. To discriminate between true and false nodules, twenty-three 3D features were calculated from each candidate nodule's volume of interest (VOI). A genetic algorithm (GA) and support vector machine (SVM) were then used to select an optimal subset of features from this pool of candidate features. Using this feature subset, we trained an SVM classifier to eliminate as many false positives as possible while retaining all the true nodules. To overcome the imbalanced nature of typical datasets (significantly more false positives than true positives), an intelligent data selection algorithm was designed and integrated into the machine learning framework, thus further improving the FPR rate. Three independent datasets were used to train and validate the system. Using two datasets for training and the third for validation, we achieved a 59.4% FPR rate while removing one true nodule on the validation datasets. In a second experiment, 75% of the cases were randomly selected from each of the three datasets and the remaining cases were used for validation. A similar FPR rate and true positive retention rate was achieved. Additional experiments showed that the GA feature selection process integrated with the proposed data selection algorithm outperforms the one without it by 5%-10% FPR rate. The methods proposed can be also applied to other application areas, such as computer-aided diagnosis of lung nodules.

Zhao, Luyin; Boroczky, Lilla; Drysdale, Jeremy; Agnihotri, Lalitha; Lee, Michael C.

2007-03-01

334

Interference Mitigation Where We Stand,  

E-print Network

Interference Mitigation ­ Where We Stand, Where We Might Go Steve Ellingson & Kyehun Lee Virginia Mitigation · Haystack Deuterium Array / 327 MHz Line Detection · Combination of techniques (See Rogers talk

Ellingson, Steven W.

335

Flights of fear: a mechanical wing whistle sounds the alarm in a flocking bird  

PubMed Central

Animals often form groups to increase collective vigilance and allow early detection of predators, but this benefit of sociality relies on rapid transfer of information. Among birds, alarm calls are not present in all species, while other proposed mechanisms of information transfer are inefficient. We tested whether wing sounds can encode reliable information on danger. Individuals taking off in alarm fly more quickly or ascend more steeply, so may produce different sounds in alarmed than in routine flight, which then act as reliable cues of alarm, or honest ‘index’ signals in which a signal's meaning is associated with its method of production. We show that crested pigeons, Ocyphaps lophotes, which have modified flight feathers, produce distinct wing ‘whistles’ in alarmed flight, and that individuals take off in alarm only after playback of alarmed whistles. Furthermore, amplitude-manipulated playbacks showed that response depends on whistle structure, such as tempo, not simply amplitude. We believe this is the first demonstration that flight noise can send information about alarm, and suggest that take-off noise could provide a cue of alarm in many flocking species, with feather modification evolving specifically to signal alarm in some. Similar reliable cues or index signals could occur in other animals. PMID:19726481

Hingee, Mae; Magrath, Robert D.

2009-01-01

336

Adaptive differences in response to two types of parental alarm call in altricial nestlings  

PubMed Central

Vertebrate alarm calls can contain information about the type of predator and the degree of danger, but young animals often respond to alarm calls differently from adults. The distinct behaviour of young may reflect an imperfect stage in the gradual development of the adult response, or a response adapted to specific risks faced by young. In this study, we tested whether nestling white-browed scrubwrens, Sericornis frontalis, responded to different alarm calls according to their specific risks of predation. As predators on the ground pose a danger to scrubwren nestlings, whereas flying predators do not, we predicted that they would respond to ground alarm calls but not to aerial alarm calls. In a field playback experiment, we tested the response of young to aerial and ground alarm calls, each presented in a shorter (less urgent) and longer (more urgent) form. We found that both 5- and 11-day-old nestlings responded to ground alarm calls, and did so more strongly to the more urgent playback. By contrast, the response to aerial alarm calls started to develop only towards the end of the nestling stage. Thus, scrubwren nestlings can distinguish between different types of alarm calls and react more strongly to calls warning of a predator posing greater danger, appropriate to the nestling stage of development. Furthermore, they use the length of ground alarm calls as an indicator of the degree of danger. PMID:16024370

Platzen, Dirk; Magrath, Robert D

2005-01-01

337

wind engineering & natural disaster mitigation  

E-print Network

wind engineering & natural disaster mitigation #12;wind engineering & natural disaster mitigation Investment WindEEE Dome at Advanced Manufacturing Park $31million Insurance Research Lab for Better Homes $8million Advanced Facility for Avian Research $9million #12;wind engineering & natural disaster mitigation

Denham, Graham

338

Statistical inference for false positive and false negative error rates in mastery testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an asymptotic inferential procedure for the estimates of the false positive and false negative error rates. Formulas and tables are described for the computations of the standard errors. A simulation study indicates that the asymptotic standard errors may be used even with samples of 25 cases as long as the Kuder-Richardson Formula 21 reliability is reasonably large.

Huynh Huynh

1980-01-01

339

Maximum Margin Classifiers with Specified False Positive and False Negative Error Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the problem of maximum mar- gin classification given the moments of class conditional densities and the false positive and false negative error rates. Using Chebyshev inequalities, the problem can be posed as a second order cone programming prob- lem. The dual of the formulation leads to a geometric optimization problem, that of computing the distance between two

J. Saketha Nath; Chiranjib Bhattacharyya

2007-01-01

340

Reliability and the adaptive utility of discrimination among alarm callers.  

PubMed Central

Unlike individually distinctive contact calls, or calls that aid in the recognition of young by their parents, the function or functions of individually distinctive alarm calls is less obvious. We conducted three experiments to study the importance of caller reliability in explaining individual-discriminative abilities in the alarm calls of yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris). In our first two experiments, we found that calls from less reliable individuals and calls from individuals calling from a greater simulated distance were more evocative than calls from reliable individuals or nearby callers. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that marmots assess the reliability of callers to help them decide how much time to allocate to independent vigilance. The third experiment demonstrated that the number of callers influenced responsiveness, probably because situations where more than a single caller calls, are those when there is certain to be a predator present. Taken together, the results from all three experiments demonstrate the importance of reliability in explaining individual discrimination abilities in yellow-bellied marmots. Marmots' assessment of reliability acts by influencing the time allocated to individual assessment and thus the time not allocated to other activities. PMID:15315902

Blumstein, Daniel T.; Verneyre, Laure; Daniel, Janice C.

2004-01-01

341

Reliability and the adaptive utility of discrimination among alarm callers.  

PubMed

Unlike individually distinctive contact calls, or calls that aid in the recognition of young by their parents, the function or functions of individually distinctive alarm calls is less obvious. We conducted three experiments to study the importance of caller reliability in explaining individual-discriminative abilities in the alarm calls of yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris). In our first two experiments, we found that calls from less reliable individuals and calls from individuals calling from a greater simulated distance were more evocative than calls from reliable individuals or nearby callers. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that marmots assess the reliability of callers to help them decide how much time to allocate to independent vigilance. The third experiment demonstrated that the number of callers influenced responsiveness, probably because situations where more than a single caller calls, are those when there is certain to be a predator present. Taken together, the results from all three experiments demonstrate the importance of reliability in explaining individual discrimination abilities in yellow-bellied marmots. Marmots' assessment of reliability acts by influencing the time allocated to individual assessment and thus the time not allocated to other activities. PMID:15315902

Blumstein, Daniel T; Verneyre, Laure; Daniel, Janice C

2004-09-01

342

Measuring the performance of audible alarms for anaesthesia.  

PubMed

The ergonomic performance of an integrated set of 17 audible alarm sounds, divided into low, medium and high priority classes has been undertaken. The sounds were tested for their ease of learning/recall, and how closely their intrinsic perceived urgency matched to a clinical assessment of urgency. The tests were computer-administered and performed on 21 volunteers aged from 18 to 52, in two sessions a few days apart. Session 1 taught the meanings of the alarm sounds and session 2 measured the performance of the sounds. The mean correct identification rate for the sounds was 48.4% (range 10.3-90.0%) with 97.5% of misidentifications within sound priority class. The urgency correlation was statistically significant (r=0.85, p<0.001) with all priority classes included but within priority class correlations were not statistically significant. Poor within priority class performances were ascribable to a priori aspects of the design of the sound system. PMID:16127831

Williams, Sarah; Beatty, Paul C W

2005-08-01

343

Disclosing false identity through hybrid link analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combating the identity problem is crucial and urgent as false identity has become a common denominator of many serious crimes,\\u000a including mafia trafficking and terrorism. Without correct identification, it is very difficult for law enforcement authority\\u000a to intervene, or even trace terrorists’ activities. Amongst several identity attributes, personal names are commonly, and\\u000a effortlessly, falsified or aliased by most criminals. Typical

Tossapon Boongoen; Qiang Shen; Chris Price

2010-01-01

344

New false color mapping for image fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pixel-based color-mapping algorithm is presented that produces a fused false color rendering of two gray-level images representing different sensor modalities. The resulting images have a higher information content than each of the original images and retain sensor-specific image information. The unique component of each image modality is enhanced in the resulting fused color image representation. First, the common component

Alexander Toet; Jan Walraven

1996-01-01

345

Evoking false beliefs about autobiographical experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two experiments, we demonstrate that laboratory procedures can evoke false beliefs about autobiographical experience. After\\u000a shallowly processing photographs of real-world locations, participants returned 1 week (Experiments 1 and 2) or 3 weeks (Experiment\\u000a 2) later to evaluate whether they had actually visited each of a series of new and old pictured locations. Mundane and unique\\u000a scenes from an unfamiliar

Alan S. Brown; Elizabeth J. Marsh

2008-01-01

346

The False Recognition Effect in Criminal Profiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to examine the false recognition effect in criminal profiling. Participants (N?=?83) were presented with a crime scene description and a criminal profile made up of semantically related statements. After\\u000a a one week delay, the task for each participant was to recognize statements from a suspect description that were included\\u000a in the profile, either with or without

Craig Bennell; Rebecca Mugford; Alyssa Taylor; Sarah Bloomfield; Catherine M. Wilson

2008-01-01

347

Evaluating promotional claims as false or misleading.  

PubMed

In light of the "false or misleading" standard resulting from the recent legal ruling, it can be concluded that a true claim is one that is both factually and analytically true. Factual truth could be based on the accuracy of the information and the sufficiency of the information. Analytical truth could be based on the scientific foundation for the claim and whether the information within the claim is presented in a balanced way. Regarding the assessment of whether a truthful claim is misleading, the evaluator could consider the relevance, consistency, and context of the information. Standards are important in medication use and medication regulation. Health care professionals who must decide whether a claim is truthful and not misleading will rely on guidance from FDA in determining how to evaluate promotional claims. As the court suggested in the case reviewed here, FDA could take the lead and provide guidance "in differentiating between misleading and false promotion, exaggerations and embellishments, and truthful or non-misleading information." Existing FDA regulations provide a foundation for such guidance. The next step for the agency would be to expand existing guidance to specifically describe how an off-label claim can be identified as either false or misleading. PMID:24128969

Brushwood, David B; Knox, Caitlin A; Liu, Wei; Jenkins, Kevin A

2013-11-01

348

Characteristics of false allegation adult crimes.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to identify common factors in false allegation adult crimes, by examining the dynamics involved in 30 confirmed false allegation cases. The authors conducted a comprehensive review of these adjudicated cases and then completed a collection instrument to capture offender demographics, offense characteristics, and motive. The results indicated that most false allegation crimes were committed by women (73.3%) and Caucasians (93.3%). Data indicated that more interpersonally violent allegations were primarily motivated by attention/sympathy needs (50.0%), whereas more impersonal offenses involved other motivations such as providing an alibi (16.7%) or profit (13.3%). Offenders tended to be younger, high school graduates with no higher education (43.3%). A total of 23.3% of offenders had a prior criminal history. Male offenders appeared as likely as women to be motivated by attention/sympathy; however, men tended to select more violent, nonsexual offenses (e.g., attempted murder) than women. PMID:22236499

McNamara, James J; McDonald, Sean; Lawrence, Jennifer M

2012-05-01

349

43 CFR 10005.8 - Mitigation obligations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...COMMISSION'S MITIGATION AND CONSERVATION PLAN § 10005.8 Mitigation...undertake a wide range of general planning and mitigation activities...components of the mitigation and conservation plan and of the planning process used to...

2011-10-01

350

43 CFR 10005.8 - Mitigation obligations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...COMMISSION'S MITIGATION AND CONSERVATION PLAN § 10005.8 Mitigation...undertake a wide range of general planning and mitigation activities...components of the mitigation and conservation plan and of the planning process used to...

2012-10-01

351

43 CFR 10005.8 - Mitigation obligations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...COMMISSION'S MITIGATION AND CONSERVATION PLAN § 10005.8 Mitigation...undertake a wide range of general planning and mitigation activities...components of the mitigation and conservation plan and of the planning process used to...

2013-10-01

352

Psychoactive drugs and false memory: comparison of dextroamphetamine and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on false recognition  

PubMed Central

Rationale Several psychoactive drugs are known to influence episodic memory. However, these drugs’ effects on false memory, or the tendency to incorrectly remember nonstudied information, remain poorly understood. Objectives Here, we examined the effects of two commonly used psychoactive drugs, one with memory-enhancing properties (dextroamphetamine; AMP), and another with memory-impairing properties (?9-tetrahydrocannabinol; THC), on false memory using the Deese/Roediger–McDermott (DRM) illusion. Methods Two parallel studies were conducted in which healthy volunteers received either AMP (0, 10, and 20 mg) or THC (0, 7.5, and 15 mg) in within-subjects, randomized, double-blind designs. Participants studied DRM word lists under the influence of the drugs, and their recognition memory for the studied words was tested 2 days later, under sober conditions. Results As expected, AMP increased memory of studied words relative to placebo, and THC reduced memory of studied words. Although neither drug significantly affected false memory relative to placebo, AMP increased false memory relative to THC. Across participants, both drugs’ effects on true memory were positively correlated with their effects on false memory. Conclusions Our results indicate that AMP and THC have opposing effects on true memory, and these effects appear to correspond to similar, albeit more subtle, effects on false memory. These findings are consistent with previous research using the DRM illusion and provide further evidence that psychoactive drugs can affect the encoding processes that ultimately result in the creation of false memories. PMID:21647577

Ballard, Michael E.; Gallo, David A.; de Wit, Harriet

2014-01-01

353

A knowledge-based approach to automatic alarm interpretation using computer vision, on image sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development of a knowledge- based system which will be used to automate the interpretation of an alarm event resulting from a perimeter intrusion detection system. The knowledge-based system analyses a sequence of digital images captured before, during and after the alarm is generated. Additional data, pertaining to the alarm sensor, prevailing weather conditions and time-of-day are

T. J. Ellis; P. Rosin; P. Moukas; P. Golton

1989-01-01

354

Contributions of familiarity and recollection rejection to recognition: Evidence from the time course of false recognition for semantic and conjunction lures  

PubMed Central

It has been suggested that both familiarity and recollection contribute to the recognition decision process. In this paper, we leverage the form of false alarm rate functions—in which false-alarm rates describe an inverted U-shaped function as the time between study and test increases—to assess how these processes support retention of semantic and surface form information from previously studied words. We directly compare the maxima of these functions for lures that are semantically related and lures that are related by surface form to previously studied material. This analysis reveals a more rapid loss of access to surface form than to semantic information. To separate the contributions of item familiarity and reminding-induced recollection rejection to this effect, we use a simple multinomial process model; this analysis reveals that this loss of access reflects both a more rapid loss of familiarity and lower rates of recollection for surface form information. PMID:21240745

Matzen, Laura E.; Taylor, Eric G.; Benjamin, Aaron S.

2010-01-01

355

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 9, NO. 5, MAY 2010 1661 Mitigating Selective Forwarding Attacks with a  

E-print Network

forwarding attacks focus on attack detection under the assumption of an error-free wireless channel, we aware detection (CAD) algorithm that can effectively identify the selective forwarding misbehavior from the optimal detection thresholds that minimize the summation of false alarm and missed detection probabilities

Anjali, Tricha

356

Mother knows best: functionally referential alarm calling in white-tailed ptarmigan.  

PubMed

Functionally referential alarm calls have stimulus specificity, distinct acoustic structure, and elicit different escape responses that are appropriate to the threat. The mechanisms by which escape responses are evoked are not fully understood and may range from eliciting innate responses to conveying representational information. White-tailed ptarmigan (Lagopus leucurus) are a long-lived alpine tundra grouse, which are preyed upon by aerial and terrestrial predators. We investigated the hypothesis that alarm calls of ptarmigan hens with chicks are functionally referential. We recorded hens' alarm calls in response to naturally occurring and model predators in California's Sierra Nevada alpine tundra for two summer seasons. We conducted playback experiments in the field to determine chick responses to alarm calls. Alarm calls commenced with an extended 'alerting' note followed by a series of staccato notes grouped into elements. Fundamental and dominant frequencies in element notes were significantly higher in terrestrial compared to aerial threat alarm calls. Playbacks of terrestrial threat alarm calls elicited an upright/alert position by chicks (75 % of responses). In response to aerial threat alarm call playbacks, chicks flattened to the ground and froze (80 % of responses). To our knowledge, this study provides the first empirical evidence of functionally referential alarm calling, including the responses of the receivers, in an avian species in the wild. PMID:24132414

Ausmus, Desa M; Clarke, Jennifer A

2014-05-01

357

The research of highway traffic accident management and pre-alarm system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the rigorous traffic safety issues resulting from rapid transportation development, as well as the more and more attention paid to the traffic accidents dynamic analysis and pre-alarm methods, combined with the practical needs of the highway safety management, this paper summarizes the experience of traffic safety pre-alarm research both in domestic and abroad, designs the frame of highway traffic accident management and pre-alarm system from the function and software engineering requirement, and refines kernel modules such as accident prone section judgement, traffic safety pre-alarm analysis and perfecting safety measures analysis, in order to guide the exploitation and application of the system.

Xu, Jianping; Zhang, Tiejun; Wan, Jiaonan; Zhang, Juwen; Wang, Rui

358

Evidence of a suffocation alarm system sensitive to clinically-effective treatments with the panicolytics clonazepam and fluoxetine.  

PubMed

Dyspnea, 'hunger for air', and the urge to flee are the cardinal symptoms of respiratory-type panic attacks. Patients also show baseline respiratory abnormalities and a higher rate of comorbid and antecedent respiratory diseases. Panic attacks are also precipitated by both the infusion of 0.5 M sodium lactate and the inhalation of 5-7% carbon dioxide (CO2) in predisposed patients, but not in healthy volunteers nor patients without panic disorder. Further studies show that patients with panic are also hyper-responsive to hypoxia. These and other observations led Klein (1993) to suggest that clinical panic is the misfiring of a suffocation alarm system. In rats, cytotoxic hypoxia of chemoreceptor cells by intravenous injection of potassium cyanide (KCN) produces short-lasting flight behaviors reminiscent of panic attacks. KCN-induced flight behaviors are blocked both by denervation of chemoreceptor cells and lesion of dorsal periaqueductal gray matter, a likely substrate of panic. Herein, we show that KCN-evoked flight behaviors are also attenuated by both acute and chronic treatment with clonazepam (0.01-0.3 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)) and fluoxetine (1-4 mg/kg/day, i.p. for 21 days), respectively. Attenuation of KCN-evoked panic-like behaviors by clinically-effective treatment with panicolytics adds fresh evidence to the false suffocation alarm theory of panic disorder. PMID:25277323

Schimitel, Fagna Giacomin; Müller, Cláudia Janaina Torres; Tufik, Sérgio; Schenberg, Luiz Carlos

2014-12-01

359

Mitigation of chemical attacks in enclosed public transportation facilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Public transportation facilities in the United States are vulnerable to attack by terrorists using chemical agents. This paper focuses on the problem of protecting the people in underground subway stations, which are among the most difficult facilities to protect. A nerve agent can produce symptoms in seconds to minutes, so immediate triggering of evacuation alarms and initiation of mitigation measures is necessary to minimize casualties in the station. The question of whether currently available chemical detectors are sufficiently capable and reliable to enable an automated response is addressed and augmentation possibilities are discussed. A number of concepts for mitigating chemical attacks are explored and their applicability to other transportation facilities is discussed. A possible near-term mitigation measure that is reviewed in some detail is the use of water sprays to scrub gasses and aerosols from the air. This technique may have applicability in the station at the point of agent release, as well as for detoxification of the air stream if selective venting is employed. Calculations show that with proper spray nozzle selection, the water pressure and flow rate available at some subway stations for fire suppression is sufficient for effective removal of Sarin from an air stream.

Swansiger, William A.; Brockmann, John E.

1998-12-01

360

Is the truth in the details? Extended narratives help distinguishing false "memories" from false "reports".  

PubMed

The present study examined the effects of fantasy proneness on false "reports" and false "memories", of existent and non-existent footage of a public event. We predicted that highly fantasy prone individuals would be more likely to stand by their initial claim of having seen a film of the event than low fantasy prone participants when prompted for more details about their experiences. Eighty creative arts students and 80 other students were asked whether they had seen CCTV footage preceding the attack on Swedish foreign minister Anna Lindh up to, and including, non-existent footage of the actual moment of the attack. If affirmative, they were probed for extended narratives of what they claimed to have seen. Overall, 64% of participants provided a false "report" by answering yes to the initial question. Of these, 30% provided no explicit details of the attack, and a further 15% retracted their initial answer in their narratives. This left 19% of the sample who appeared to have false "memories" because they provided explicit details of the actual moment of the attack. Women scored higher than men and art students scored higher than other students on fantasy proneness, but there was no effect on levels of false reporting or false "memory". Memories were rated more vivid and clear for existent compared to non-existent aspects of the event. In sum, these data suggest a more complex relationship between memory distortions and fantasy proneness than previously observed. PMID:19000104

Sjödén, Björn; Granhag, Pär Anders; Ost, James; Roos Af Hjelmsäter, Emma

2009-06-01

361

Generalized site occupancy models allowing for false positive and false negative errors  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Site occupancy models have been developed that allow for imperfect species detection or ?false negative? observations. Such models have become widely adopted in surveys of many taxa. The most fundamental assumption underlying these models is that ?false positive? errors are not possible. That is, one cannot detect a species where it does not occur. However, such errors are possible in many sampling situations for a number of reasons, and even low false positive error rates can induce extreme bias in estimates of site occupancy when they are not accounted for. In this paper, we develop a model for site occupancy that allows for both false negative and false positive error rates. This model can be represented as a two-component finite mixture model and can be easily fitted using freely available software. We provide an analysis of avian survey data using the proposed model and present results of a brief simulation study evaluating the performance of the maximum-likelihood estimator and the naive estimator in the presence of false positive errors.

Royle, J. A.; Link, W. A.

2006-01-01

362

False belief in infancy: a fresh look.  

PubMed

Can infants appreciate that others have false beliefs? Do they have a theory of mind? In this article I provide a detailed review of more than 20 experiments that have addressed these questions, and offered an affirmative answer, using nonverbal 'violation of expectation' and 'anticipatory looking' procedures. Although many of these experiments are both elegant and ingenious, I argue that their results can be explained by the operation of domain-general processes and in terms of 'low-level novelty'. This hypothesis suggests that the infants' looking behaviour is a function of the degree to which the observed (perceptual novelty) and remembered or expected (imaginal novelty) low-level properties of the test stimuli - their colours, shapes and movements - are novel with respect to events encoded by the infants earlier in the experiment. If the low-level novelty hypothesis is correct, research on false belief in infancy currently falls short of demonstrating that infants have even an implicit theory of mind. However, I suggest that the use of two experimental strategies - inanimate control procedures, and self-informed belief induction - could be used in combination with existing methods to bring us much closer to understanding the evolutionary and developmental origins of theory of mind. PMID:24666559

Heyes, Cecilia

2014-09-01

363

When one is not enough: prevalence and characteristics of homes not adequately protected by smoke alarms  

PubMed Central

Objective: The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has specific recommendations about the number, location, and type of smoke alarms that are needed to provide maximum protection for a household. No previous studies have examined whether or not homes are completely protected according to these guidelines. The authors describe the prevalence and home characteristics associated with compliance to recommendations for smoke alarm installation by the NFPA. Design, setting, and subjects: Data are from the baseline on-site survey of a randomized trial to measure smoke alarm effectiveness. The trial was housed in a longitudinal cohort study in a rural Iowa county. Of 1005 homes invited, 691 (68.8%) participated. Main outcome measures: Information about smoke alarm type, placement, and function, as well as home and occupant characteristics, was collected through an on-site household survey. Results: Although 86.0% of homes had at least one smoke alarm, only 22.3% of homes (approximately one in five) were adequately protected according to NFPA guidelines. Fourteen percent of homes had no functioning smoke alarms. More than half of the homes with smoke alarms did not have enough of them or had installed them incorrectly, and 42.4% of homes with alarms had at least one alarm that did not operate. Homes with at least one high school graduate were nearly four times more likely to be fully protected. Homes that had multiple levels, a basement, or were cluttered or poorly cleaned were significantly less likely to be fully protected. Conclusion: These findings indicate that consumers may not be knowledgeable about the number of alarms they need or how to properly install them. Occupants are also not adequately maintaining the alarms that are installed. PMID:16326772

Peek-Asa, C; Allareddy, V; Yang, J; Taylor, C; Lundell, J; Zwerling, C

2005-01-01

364

Testing Jumps via False Discovery Rate Control  

PubMed Central

Many recently developed nonparametric jump tests can be viewed as multiple hypothesis testing problems. For such multiple hypothesis tests, it is well known that controlling type I error often makes a large proportion of erroneous rejections, and such situation becomes even worse when the jump occurrence is a rare event. To obtain more reliable results, we aim to control the false discovery rate (FDR), an efficient compound error measure for erroneous rejections in multiple testing problems. We perform the test via the Barndorff-Nielsen and Shephard (BNS) test statistic, and control the FDR with the Benjamini and Hochberg (BH) procedure. We provide asymptotic results for the FDR control. From simulations, we examine relevant theoretical results and demonstrate the advantages of controlling the FDR. The hybrid approach is then applied to empirical analysis on two benchmark stock indices with high frequency data. PMID:23573190

Yen, Yu-Min

2013-01-01

365

Opportunity View of 'Lyell' Layer (False Color)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This view from NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows bedrock within a stratigraphic layer informally named 'Lyell,' which is the lowermost of three layers the rover has examined at a bright band around the inside of Victoria Crater.

Opportunity used its panoramic camera (Pancam) to capture this image with low-sun angle at a local solar time of 3:21 p.m. during the rover's 1,433rd Martian day, of sol (Feb. 4, 2008).

This view combines separate images taken through the Pancam filters centered on wavelengths of 753 nanometers, 535 nanometers and 432 nanometers. It is presented in a false-color stretch to bring out subtle color differences in the scene.

2008-01-01

366

View from Spirit's Overwintering Position (False Color)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has this view northward from the position at the north edge of the 'Home Plate' plateau where the rover will spend its third Martian winter.

Husband Hill is on the horizon. The dark area in the middle distance is 'El Dorado' sand dune field.

Spirit used its panoramic camera (Pancam) to capture this image during the rover's 1,448th Martian day, of sol (Jan. 29, 2008).

This view combines separate images taken through the Pancam filters centered on wavelengths of 753 nanometers, 535 nanometers and 432 nanometers. It is presented in a false-color stretch to bring out subtle color differences in the scene.

2008-01-01

367

Opportunity View of 'Gilbert' Layer (False Color)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This view from NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows bedock within a stratigraphic layer informally named 'Gilbert,' which is the rover's next target after completing an examination of three stratigtaphic layers forming a bright band around the inside of Victoria Crater. The rover will descend deeper into the crater to reach the Gilbert layer.

Opportunity used its panoramic camera (Pancam) to capture this image with low-sun angle at a local solar time of 3:30 p.m. during the rover's 1,429th Martian day, of sol (Jan. 31, 2008).

This view combines separate images taken through the Pancam filters centered on wavelengths of 753 nanometers, 535 nanometers and 432 nanometers. It is presented in a false-color stretch to bring out subtle color differences in the scene.

2008-01-01

368

Expert-control accident mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author discusses how failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) aids in pattern recognition. Failure modes can be identified from patterns (symptoms) that they produce within a plant. These patterns are combinations of alarms and instrument readings. The patterns exhibited by failure modes must be documented in advance and stored to use the approach described here. Failures during plant operation

Stacklin

1989-01-01

369

Avoidance response of a terrestrial salamander ( Ambystoma macrodactylum ) to chemical alarm cues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organisms from a wide variety of taxonomic groups possess chemical alarm cues that are important in mediating predator avoidance. However, little is known about the presence of such alarm cues in most amphibians, and in particular terrestrial salamanders. In this study we tested whether adult long-toed salamanders (Ambystoma macrodactylum) showed an avoidance response to stimuli from injured conspecifics. Avoidance of

Douglas P. Chivers; Joseph M. Kiesecker; Michael T. Anderson; Erica L. Wildy; Andrew R. Blaustein

1996-01-01

370

21 CFR 870.2300 - Cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...cardiotachometer and rate alarm) is a device used to measure the heart rate from an analog signal produced by an electrocardiograph...blood pressure monitor. This device may sound an alarm when the heart rate falls outside preset upper and lower limits. (b)...

2010-04-01

371

Information use by an Invading Species: Do Invaders Respond More to Alarm Odors than Native Species?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two species of crayfish were tested in the laboratory to evaluate the hypothesis that successful invaders use a broader range of chemical information than do displaced native species. The invasive species Orconectes rusticus reduced responses to food odors just as strongly when heterospecific (O. propinquus, O. virilis) alarm odors were introduced with food odors as they did when conspecific alarm

Brian A. Hazlett

2000-01-01

372

Reed warblers discriminate cuckoos from sparrowhawks with graded alarm signals that attract mates and neighbours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brood parasites and predators pose unique threats that may favour the evolution of enemy-specific defence strategies. We considered whether reed warblers, Acrocephalus scirpaceus, have a specific alarm call for com- mon cuckoos, Cuculus canorus, and whether their alarms attract mates and neighbours. Mounts of cuckoos (threat to nest but harmless to adults) were significantly more likely to be mobbed and

J. A. Welbergen; N. B. Davies

2008-01-01

373

21 CFR 870.2300 - Cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm) is a device used to measure the heart rate from an analog signal produced by an electrocardiograph...monitor. This device may sound an alarm when the heart rate falls outside preset upper and lower...

2013-04-01

374

21 CFR 870.2300 - Cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm) is a device used to measure the heart rate from an analog signal produced by an electrocardiograph...monitor. This device may sound an alarm when the heart rate falls outside preset upper and lower...

2012-04-01

375

21 CFR 870.2300 - Cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm).  

...cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm) is a device used to measure the heart rate from an analog signal produced by an electrocardiograph...monitor. This device may sound an alarm when the heart rate falls outside preset upper and lower...

2014-04-01

376

21 CFR 870.2300 - Cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm) is a device used to measure the heart rate from an analog signal produced by an electrocardiograph...monitor. This device may sound an alarm when the heart rate falls outside preset upper and lower...

2011-04-01

377

Dine or Dash?: Ontogenetic Shift in the Response of Yellow Perch to Conspecific Alarm Cues  

Microsoft Academic Search

During their first year of growth yellow perch, Perca flavescens, undergo an ontogenetic niche shift from invertebrate feeding to piscivory. They also undergo a similar shift in their response to heterospecific alarm cues, switching from anti-predator to foraging behaviour. We conducted laboratory trials to determine whether yellow perch experience a comparable ontogenetic shift in their response to conspecific alarm cues.

Mark C. Harvey; Grant E. Brown

2004-01-01

378

Production of chemical alarm cues in convict cichlids: the effects of diet, body condition and ontogeny  

Microsoft Academic Search

While much is known regarding the role of chemical alarm cues in the mediation of predator-prey dynamics within aquatic ecosystems, little is known regarding the production of these critically important information sources. In a series of labora- tory experiments, we tested the possible effects of diet, body condition and ontogeny on the production of chemical alarm cues in juvenile convict

Grant E. Brown; Patricia E. Foam; Hilary E. Cowell; Palestina Guevara Fiore; Douglas P. Chivers

379

Alarm calling behavior of the thirteen-lined ground squirrel, Spermophilus tridecemlineatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alarm calling in a population of thirteenlined ground squirrels, Spermophilus tridecemlineatus, was studied over a three-year period. Data on ground squirrel reactions to human and canine approaches and to the approach or presence of avian predators were used to quantify alarm calling behavior.

P. L. Schwagmeyer

1980-01-01

380

On correlation analysis of bivariate alarm signals Zijiang Yang and Jiandong Wang.  

E-print Network

@ece.ualberta.ca Abstract-- This paper studies the correlation analysis for bivariate alarm signals in order to indicate and distribution of the correlation delay. An industrial case study is provided to illustrate the proposed sequential alarms and unneces- sary operations. Yang et al. [12] generated pseudo continuous time series from

Wang, Jiandong

381

Response of pumpkinseed sunfish to conspecific chemical alarm cues: an interaction between ontogeny and stimulus concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have shown that juvenile centrachids undergo ontogenetic shifts in their behavioural response towards conspecific and heterospecific chemical alarm cues based on threat-sensitive trade-offs between the benefits as - sociated with predator avoidance and foraging. We conducted laboratory studies to test the hypothesis that the relative concentration of conspecific alarm cues provides relevant information, allowing individuals to maximize these

Jason P. Marcus; Grant E. Brown

2003-01-01

382

Chemical labeling of northern pike ( Esox lucius ) by the alarm pheromone of fathead minnows ( Pimephales promelas )  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous experiments, chemical stimuli from northern pike (Esox lucius) elicited fright responses from pike-naive fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) only if the pike had recently eaten conspecific minnows. We used a behavioral assay to determine if the fright response is the result of the incorporation of the minnow alarm pheromone into the chemical signature of the pike. Because the alarm

Alicia Mathis; R. Jan F. Smith

1993-01-01

383

Probabilistic forecasts of (severe) thunderstorms for the purpose of issuing a weather alarm  

E-print Network

1 Probabilistic forecasts of (severe) thunderstorms for the purpose of issuing a weather alarm: Weather alarm for severe thunderstorms Method: Model output statistics (MOS) Data used in MOS system for (severe) thunderstorms Illustration of statistical method Definitions of predictands Case (8 June 2007

Schmeits, Maurice

384

Red squirrels, Tamiasciurus hudsonicus , produce predator-class specific alarm calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red squirrels, can produce alarm calls when they detect a potential predator. Observations of natural interactions between red squirrels and large birds, and predator-presentation experiments in the field, showed that red squirrels produce acoustically different alarm calls in response to aerial danger (live birds and a model hawk flown towards them) versus danger approaching from the ground (dogs and humans).

ERICK GREENE; TOM MEAGHER

1998-01-01

385

Evaluation and comparison of alarm reset modes in advanced control room of nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automation function has been widely applied in main control room of nuclear power plants (NPPs). The alarm system of fourth nuclear power plant (FNPP) in Taiwan is also going to be developed with automatic technology that is expected to support the operators’ performance and reduce the number of alarms. In this study, an experiment with a training simulator as

Fei-Hui Huang; Sheue-Ling Hwang; Tzu-Chung Yenn; Yuan-Chang Yu; Chong-Cheng Hsu; Hao-Wu Huang

2006-01-01

386

Investigation of hearing protection effects in an extreme noise environment with an alarm location problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to determine optimum locations of alarm devices and the effects of hearing protection in an extremely noisy environment. A machining facility has been selected as a working environment because it usually generates extremely high noise level. First, an analytical model is presented for predicting the optimal number of alarm devices, their locations, and their

Jun-Seok Lee; Dongjoon Kong

2006-01-01

387

Alarm symptoms of soft-tissue and bone sarcoma in patients referred to a specialist center.  

PubMed

Background and purpose - The Danish Cancer Patient Pathway for sarcoma defines a set of alarm symptoms as criteria for referral to a sarcoma center. This may exclude cancer patients without alarm symptoms, so we investigated the presence of alarm symptoms (defined as being indicative of a sarcoma) in patients who had been referred to the Aarhus Sarcoma Center. Patients and methods - We reviewed the medical records of all 1,126 patients who had been referred, with suspected sarcoma, from other hospitals in the period 2007-2010 for information on symptoms, clinical findings, and diagnosis. Alarm symptoms were analyzed for predictive values in diagnosing sarcoma. Results - 179 (69%) of 258 sarcoma patients were referred with alarm symptoms (soft-tissue tumor > 5 cm or deep-seated, fast-growing soft-tissue tumor, palpable bone tumor, or deep persisting bone pain). The remaining 79 sarcomas were found accidentally. "Size over 5 cm" for soft-tissue tumors, and "deep persisting bone pain" for bone tumors had the highest sensitivity and positive predictive value. Of the 79 sarcoma patients who were referred without alarm symptoms, 7 were found accidentally on imaging, 5 were referred with suspected recurrence of a sarcoma, 64 were referred with a confirmed histological diagnosis, and 3 were referred for other reasons. Interpretation - Defined alarm symptoms are predictive of sarcoma, but one-third of the patients were found accidentally. Further studies on presenting symptoms in primary care are needed to assess the true value of alarm symptoms. PMID:25175662

Dyrop, Heidi B; Vedsted, Peter; Safwat, Akmal; Maretty-Nielsen, Katja; Hansen, Bjarne H; Jørgensen, Peter H; Baad-Hansen, Thomas; Keller, Johnny

2014-12-01

388

Alarm calls as costly signals of antipredator vigilance: the watchful babbler game  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alarm-calling behaviour is common in many species that suffer from predation. While kin selection or reciprocal altruism are typically invoked to explain such behaviours, several authors have conjectured that some alarm calls may instead be costly signals sent by prey to inform approaching predators that they have been detected. We develop a general game-theoretical model, the watchful babbler game, in

CARL T. BERGSTROM; MICHAEL LACHMANN

2000-01-01

389

ED accreditation update. Hospitals put on notice: alarm management is a top priority for 2014.  

PubMed

Establishing alarm management as a new National Patient Safety Goal (NPSG), The Joint Commission (TJC) is calling on hospitals to make the issue a safety priority, and to begin establishing policies and procedures designed to minimize alarm fatigue among clinical staff. Beginning on January 1,2014, hospitals need to begin identifying the most important alarm signals to manage based on input from staff as well as factors such as patient risk, and the potential for harm as demonstrated by the device's history. By January 1,2016, hospitals need to have policies and procedures in place for managing alarms identified in the first phase of the NPSG's requirements. Also, staff and independent licensed practitioners need to be educated about the purpose and proper operation of alarm systems that they are responsible for. PMID:24058949

2013-09-01

390

Spacecraft Charging and Mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellites and spacecraft materials can become charged to tens or even thousands of volts when ions in the space environment collide with spacecraft. This can sometimes cause electrical discharge of differentially or internally charged spacecraft materials, which can adversely affect satellite operations. Additionally, high-energy ions can penetrate spacecraft materials and deposit their energy within sensitive electronics, causing component damage or failure. To consider various approaches for spacecraft charge mitigation, 150 technologists from around the world representing government, academia, and industry met at the 11th Spacecraft Charging Technology Conference (SCTC) in Albuquerque, N. M., on 20-24 September 2010. The conference was held against the backdrop of the apparent charging event of the Galaxy 15 satellite, which some speculate triggered this geosynchronous communications satellite to cease operations, thereby adversely affecting related satellite-reliant communities (see J. Allen, Space Weather, 8, S06008, doi:10.1029/2010SW000588, 2010)

Denig, William; Cooke, David; Ferguson, Dale

2010-10-01

391

Interrogation and false confessions among adolescents in seven European countries. What background and psychological variables best discriminate between false confessors and non-false confessors?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main aim of the study was to investigate the rate of claimed false confession during police questioning and identify variables that best discriminate between false confessors and non-false confessors. The participants were 24 627 high school students in seven countries in Europe. Out of 2726 who had been interrogated by the police as a suspect, 375 (13.8%) claimed to

Gisli Hannes Gudjonsson; Jon Fridrik Sigurdsson; Inga Dora Sigfusdottir

2009-01-01

392

Mitigation against extreme windstorms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper treats various manifestations of atmospheric wind in relation to the effects these have on human safety and comfort. We concentrate on more recent advances in our knowledge of the geophysical structure and behavior of extreme windstorms. Particular attention is given to severe thunderstorms and their attendant mesoscale offspring, tornadoes and downbursts, as well as the extratropical and tropical cyclones. It appears that the highest credible wind speed estimates in any of these windstorms so far are for tornadoes, about 135 m s-1; these have been derived from photogrammetric analyses of eyewitness photography and remote sensing from in situ and portable Doppler radars. On the other hand, it is found from extensive aerial and ground poststorm damage surveys that the vast majority of all tornadoes have peak wind speeds no higher than those measured by sparse surface networks and reconnaissance aircraft in mature hurricanes. New in situ and remote sensing (Doppler radars) weather observing networks currently being deployed across the United States and other countries, combined with greater public awareness, may significantly alter our current assessment of the climatology of extreme windstorms in these areas. Advances in the field of wind engineering are shown to afford cost-effective techniques for mitigating against extreme windstorms, including tornadoes. However, the rather unique sociopolitical framework of building codes and practices in the United States presently hinders effective technology transfer and mitigation practice. Important implications of these findings accrue to forecasts and warnings of forest fires and airborne dispersal (loss of containment) of toxic materials, including nuclear processing by-products.

Golden, Joseph H.; Snow, John T.

1991-11-01

393

[False diagnosis of tuberculosis by culture].  

PubMed

A remarkable input to the epidemiology of tuberculosis was not the only benefit of the molecular tools developed in the early nineties for Mycobacterium tuberculosis intra-species differentiation. These genotyping methods served also to unveil specimen cross-contamination, which was until then overlooked in laboratories culturing mycobacteria. This error consists in the accidental carry-over of bacilli from a specimen with high bacterial load to that, or those, processed subsequently. The ensuing detection of falsely positive cultures can result in a wrong diagnosis of tuberculosis and the initiation of a long-lasting treatment with potentially toxic drugs. This series of errors implies the mismanagement of patients, the distraction of public health system resources, and the distortion of epidemiological data. M. tuberculosis laboratory cross-contamination was detected wherever investigated systematically, with a median rate of 3% of all positive cultures. The confirmation of this error requires a critical appraisal of bacteriological, clinical, epidemiological and genotyping results. We present here a review of national and international information on laboratory cross-contamination and describe measures recommended for minimizing the risk, surveying the occurrence, and avoiding clinical consequences of this laboratory error that raises a question on the reliability of a positive culture. PMID:17628920

Alonso, Valeria; Paul, Roxana; Barrera, Lucia; Ritacco, Viviana

2007-01-01

394

Band of Bright Rock (False Color)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image captured by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows 'Cape St. Vincent,' one of the many promontories that jut out from the walls of Victoria Crater, Mars. The material at the top of the promontory consists of loose, jumbled rock, then a bit further down into the crater, abruptly transitions to solid bedrock. This transition point is marked by a bright band of rock, visible around the entire crater.

Scientists say this bright band represents what used to be the surface of Mars just before an impact formed Victoria Crater. After Opportunity begins to descend into the crater in early July 2007, it will examine the band carefully at an accessible location with a gentle slope. These investigations might help determine if the band's brighter appearance is the result of ancient interactions with the Martian atmosphere.

This image was taken by Opportunity's panoramic camera on sol 1167 (May 6, 2007). It is presented in false color to accentuate differences in surface materials.

2007-01-01

395

Earth - False Color Mosaic of the Andes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This false-color mosaic of the central part of the Andes mountains of South America (70 degrees west longitude, 19 degrees south latitude) is made up of 42 images acquired by the Galileo spacecraft from an altitude of about 25,000 kilometers (15,000 miles). A combination of visible (green) and near-infrared (0.76 and 1.0-micron) filters was chosen for this view to separate regions with distinct vegetation and soil types. The mosaic shows the area where Chile, Peru and Bolivia meet. The Pacific Coast appears at the left of the image-- Galileo captured this view as it traveled west over the Pacific Ocean, looking back at the Andes. Lakes Titicaca and Poopo are nearly black patches at the top and center, respectively; a large light-blue area below and to the left of Lake Poopo is Salar de Uyuni, a dry salt lake some 120 kilometers (75 miles) across. These lakes lie in the Altiplano, a region between the western and eastern Andes, which are covered by clouds. The vegetation-bearing Gran Chaco plains east of the Andes appear pale green. Light-blue patches in the mountains to the north are glaciers.

1992-01-01

396

Avoiding the False Peaks in Correlation Discrimination  

SciTech Connect

Fiducials imprinted on laser beams are used to perform video image based alignment of the 192 laser beams in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In many video images, matched filtering is used to detect the location of these fiducials. Generally, the highest correlation peak is used to determine the position of the fiducials. However, when the signal to-be-detected is very weak compared to the noise, this approach totally breaks down. The highest peaks act as traps for false detection. The active target images used for automatic alignment in the National Ignition Facility are examples of such images. In these images, the fiducials of interest exhibit extremely low intensity and contrast, surrounded by high intensity reflection from metallic objects. Consequently, the highest correlation peaks are caused by these bright objects. In this work, we show how the shape of the correlation is exploited to isolate the valid matches from hundreds of invalid correlation peaks, and therefore identify extremely faint fiducials under very challenging imaging conditions.

Awwal, A S

2009-07-31

397

Triton - False Color of 'Cantaloupe' Terrain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Voyager violet, green, and ultraviolet images of Triton were map projected into cylindrical coordinates and combined to produce this false color terrain map. Several compositionally distinct terrain and geologic features are portrayed. At center is a gray blue unit referred to as 'cantaloupe' terrain because of its unusual topographic texture. The unit appears to predate other units to the left. Immediately adjacent to the cantaloupe terrain, is a smoother unit, represented by a reddish color, that has been dissected by a prominent fault system. This unit apparently overlies a much higher albedo material, seen farther left. A prominent angular albedo boundary separates relatively undisturbed smooth terrain from irregular patches which have been derived from breakup of the same material. Also visible at the far left are diffuse, elongated streaks, which seem to emanate from circular, often bright centered features. The parallel streaks may represent vented particulate materials blown in the same direction by winds in Triton's thin atmosphere. The Voyager Mission is conducted by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications.

1989-01-01

398

47 CFR 80.334 - False distress alerts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false False distress alerts. 80.334 Section 80.334 Telecommunication...and Safety Procedures § 80.334 False distress alerts. A distress alert is false if it was transmitted without any...

2013-10-01

399

47 CFR 80.334 - False distress alerts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false False distress alerts. 80.334 Section 80.334 Telecommunication...and Safety Procedures § 80.334 False distress alerts. A distress alert is false if it was transmitted without any...

2012-10-01

400

47 CFR 80.1114 - False distress alerts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false False distress alerts. 80.1114 Section 80.1114...Communications § 80.1114 False distress alerts. The provisions of §§ 80.334 and 80.335 apply to false distress alerts. [68 FR 46980, Aug. 7,...

2012-10-01

401

47 CFR 80.1114 - False distress alerts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false False distress alerts. 80.1114 Section 80.1114...Communications § 80.1114 False distress alerts. The provisions of §§ 80.334 and 80.335 apply to false distress alerts. [68 FR 46980, Aug. 7,...

2011-10-01

402

47 CFR 80.334 - False distress alerts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false False distress alerts. 80.334 Section 80.334 Telecommunication...and Safety Procedures § 80.334 False distress alerts. A distress alert is false if it was transmitted without any...

2011-10-01

403

47 CFR 80.1114 - False distress alerts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false False distress alerts. 80.1114 Section 80.1114...Communications § 80.1114 False distress alerts. The provisions of §§ 80.334 and 80.335 apply to false distress alerts. [68 FR 46980, Aug. 7,...

2010-10-01

404

47 CFR 80.1114 - False distress alerts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false False distress alerts. 80.1114 Section 80.1114...Communications § 80.1114 False distress alerts. The provisions of §§ 80.334 and 80.335 apply to false distress alerts. [68 FR 46980, Aug. 7,...

2013-10-01

405

47 CFR 80.334 - False distress alerts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false False distress alerts. 80.334 Section 80.334 Telecommunication...and Safety Procedures § 80.334 False distress alerts. A distress alert is false if it was transmitted without any...

2010-10-01

406

Wind Engineering & Natural Disaster Mitigation  

E-print Network

Wind Engineering & Natural Disaster Mitigation For more than 45 years, Western University has been internationally recognized as the leading university for wind engineering and wind- related research. Its of environmental disaster mitigation, with specific strengths in wind and earthquake research. Boundary Layer Wind

Denham, Graham

407

Turbulence Detection and Mitigation Element  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents viewgraphs on turbulence detection and mitigation technologies in weather accident prevention. The topics include: 1) Organization; 2) Scope of Turbulence Effort; 3) Background; 4) Turbulence Detection and Mitigation Program Metrics; 5) Approach; 6) Turbulence Team Relationships; 7) WBS Structure; 8) Deliverables; 9) TDAM Changes; 10) FY-01 Results/Accomplishments; 11) Out-year Plans; and 12) Element Status.

Bogue, Rod

2003-01-01

408

MITIGATION IMPACT SCREENING TOOL (MIST)  

EPA Science Inventory

MIST is intended to provide a back of the envelope, qualitative indication of the likely impacts of heat island mitigation strategies averaged at the city-scale. To run MIST, users follow three basic steps: 1. Select the city to model (240 available) 2. Define the mitigation ...

409

False memory for idiomatic expressions in younger and older adults: evidence for indirect activation of figurative meanings  

PubMed Central

Idiomatic expressions can be interpreted literally or figuratively. These two meanings are often processed in parallel or very rapidly, as evidenced by online measures of idiomatic processing. Because in many cases the figurative meaning cannot be derived from the component lexical elements and because of the speed with which this meaning is accessed, it is assumed such meanings are stored in semantic memory. In the present study, we examined how literal equivalents and intact idiomatic expressions are stored in memory and whether episodic memory traces interact or interfere with semantic-level representations and vice versa. To examine age-invariance, younger and older adults studied lists of idioms and literal equivalents. On a recognition test, some studied items were presented in the alternative form (e.g., if the idiom was studied, its literal equivalent was tested). False alarms to these critical items suggested that studying literal equivalents activates the idiom from which they are derived, presumably due to spreading activation in lexical/semantic networks, and results in high rates of errors. Importantly, however, the converse (false alarms to literal equivalents after studying the idiom) were significantly lower, suggesting an advantage in storage for idioms. The results are consistent with idiom processing models that suggest obligatory access to figurative meanings and that this access can also occur indirectly, through literal equivalents. PMID:25101030

Coane, Jennifer H.; Sanchez-Gutierrez, Claudia; Stillman, Chelsea M.; Corriveau, Jennifer A.

2014-01-01

410

Coaching, Truth Induction, and Young Maltreated Children's False Allegations and False Denials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of coaching (encouragement and rehearsal of false reports) and truth induction (a child-friendly version of the oath or general reassurance about the consequences of disclosure) on 4- to 7-year-old maltreated children's reports (N = 198). Children were questioned using free recall, repeated yes-no questions, and…

Lyon, Thomas D.; Malloy, Lindsay C.; Quas, Jodi A.; Talwar, Victoria A.

2008-01-01

411

False Positives, False Negatives, and the Validity of the Diagnosis of Major Depression in Primary Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results: Physician identification of depression was strongly associated with increased familiarity with the patient and the presence of suggestive clinical cues, such as history of or treatment for depression, patient distress, and presence of vegetative symptoms. Patients in the false-positive group displayed significantly higher levels of distress and impairment and were sig- nificantly more likely to have a history of

Michael S. Klinkman; James C. Coyne; Susan Gallo; Thomas L. Schwenk

1998-01-01

412

40 CFR 267.34 - When must personnel have access to communication equipment or an alarm system?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...must personnel have access to communication equipment or an alarm system...access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or...capable of summoning external emergency assistance, unless not...

2010-07-01

413

40 CFR 267.34 - When must personnel have access to communication equipment or an alarm system?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...must personnel have access to communication equipment or an alarm system...access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or...capable of summoning external emergency assistance, unless not...

2013-07-01

414

40 CFR 267.34 - When must personnel have access to communication equipment or an alarm system?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...must personnel have access to communication equipment or an alarm system...access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or...capable of summoning external emergency assistance, unless not...

2012-07-01

415

40 CFR 267.34 - When must personnel have access to communication equipment or an alarm system?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...must personnel have access to communication equipment or an alarm system...access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or...capable of summoning external emergency assistance, unless not...

2011-07-01

416

Geophysics Fatally Flawed by False Fundamental Philosophy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For two centuries scientists have failed to realize Laplace's nebular hypothesis \\(1796\\) of Earth's creation is false. As a consequence, geophysicists today are misinterpreting and miscalculating many fundamental aspects of the Earth and Solar System. Why scientists have deluded themselves for so long is a mystery. The greatest error is the assumption Earth was created 4.6 billion years ago as a molten protoplanet in its present size, shape and composition. This assumption ignores daily accretion of more than 200 tons/day of meteorites and dust, plus unknown volumes of solar insolation that created coal beds and other biomass that increased Earth's mass and diameter over time! Although the volume added daily is minuscule compared with Earth's total mass, logic and simple addition mandates an increase in mass, diameter and gravity. Increased diameter from accretion is proved by Grand Canyon stratigraphy that shows a one kilometer increase in depth and planetary radius at a rate exceeding three meters \\(10 ft\\) per Ma from start of the Cambrian \\(540 Ma\\) to end of the Permian \\(245 Ma\\)-each layer deposited onto Earth's surface. This is unequivocal evidence of passive external growth by accretion, part of a dual growth and expansion process called "Accreation" \\(creation by accretion\\). Dynamic internal core expansion, the second stage of Accreation, did not commence until the protoplanet reached spherical shape at 500-600 km diameter. At that point, gravity-powered compressive heating initiated core melting and internal expansion. Expansion quickly surpassed the external accretion growth rate and produced surface volcanoes to relieve explosive internal tectonic pressure and transfer excess mass (magma)to the surface. Then, 200-250 Ma, expansion triggered Pangaea's breakup, first sundering Asia and Australia to form the Pacific Ocean, followed by North and South America to form the Atlantic Ocean, by the mechanism of midocean ridges, linear underwater volcanoes, that enable planetary expansion the same way cranial sutures permit human skulls to grow to maturity. Expansion is shown by the Asian and Australian trenches, from Kamchatka to the Marianas, and from Samoa to the tip of Macquarie Ridge south of New Zealand, that are mirror images of the western coasts of North and South America. This is clear evidence neither the Atlantic nor the Pacific Ocean existed 250 Ma when Earth was much smaller. In just 250 Ma external accretion and internal core expansion increased Earth's diameter from 7640 km to 12,735 km and increased total surface area to 361,060,000 sq. km, the area occupied by today's oceans-oceans that did not exist 250 Ma when Earth was slightly larger than Mars is today \\(6787 km\\). The fallacy of the nebular hypothesis did not become apparent until after Oliver and Isacks introduced the concept of subduction in 1967. Subduction was based on the false assumption that Earth's diameter is constant and unchanging, and spawned the theory of Plate Tectonics that "revolutionized" geophysics in a short period of time-a "revolution" destined for failure. Evidence is presented showing all solar bodies originate as comets \\(fragments of supernovae explosions\\) captured by the Sun that become meteoroids or asteroids by external accretion of meteorites and dust from over 370 known meteor streams.\\(Terentjeva, 1964\\) Accreation replaces the nebular hypothesis and rejuvenates Carey's Earth Expansion theory that, unfortunately, was pushed aside by plate tectonics because it lacked a plausible mechanism. However, expansion carries an ultimate threat to Mankind's tenure on Earth and exploration of Mars as the future home of Mankind takes on added significance.

Myers, L. S.

2004-05-01

417

Constraining Oxygen False Positives in Planetary Atmospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxygen (O2) and ozone (O3) in the present Earth's atmosphere are byproducts of oxygenic photosynthesis coupled with organic carbon burial. On Earth, no known abiotic surface process would be able to generate such an atmosphere, and by extension, lifeless exoplanets are expected to be devoid of O2. As a result, molecular oxygen and ozone are often seen as convincing signposts for life. Recently, however, a number of authors have demonstrated the abiotic generation of molecular oxygen in a planetary atmosphere, either under oxidizing conditions (Hu et al., 2013) or around an M star (Tian et al., 2013). This èfalse positive', if verified, would remove oxygen and ozone from an already short list of easily detectable biosignatures. We explore oxygen false positives with our 1-D photochemical model, updated from Segura et al. (2007). Preliminary results show that if water vapor photolysis longward of ~200 nm is neglected, substantial amounts of CO and O2 can build up in the lower part of the atmosphere. Additionally, the ultimate fate of CO and O2 produced in such atmospheres is strongly dependent on the imposed lower boundary condition, with low depositional velocities corresponding to higher mixing ratios in the lower atmosphere. The deposition velocity of a gas depends on it dissolved concentration, however, and so one needs to consider the chemistry of these gases in solution. Ongoing work seeks to test the conclusions of Tian et al., (2013) by exploring this dependence on ocean chemistry and by including spectra from AD Leo (an active M-dwarf, used by Domagal-Goldman et al., (2011)) to compare with the M-dwarf spectra used by Tian et al.

Harman, C. E.; Schottelkotte, J. C.; Kasting, J. F.

2014-03-01

418

Natural and False Color Views of Europa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image shows two views of the trailing hemisphere of Jupiter's ice-covered satellite, Europa. The left image shows the approximate natural color appearance of Europa. The image on the right is a false-color composite version combining violet, green and infrared images to enhance color differences in the predominantly water-ice crust of Europa. Dark brown areas represent rocky material derived from the interior, implanted by impact, or from a combination of interior and exterior sources. Bright plains in the polar areas (top and bottom) are shown in tones of blue to distinguish possibly coarse-grained ice (dark blue) from fine-grained ice (light blue). Long, dark lines are fractures in the crust, some of which are more than 3,000 kilometers (1,850 miles) long. The bright feature containing a central dark spot in the lower third of the image is a young impact crater some 50 kilometers (31 miles) in diameter. This crater has been provisionally named 'Pwyll' for the Celtic god of the underworld.

Europa is about 3,160 kilometers (1,950 miles) in diameter, or about the size of Earth's moon. This image was taken on September 7, 1996, at a range of 677,000 kilometers (417,900 miles) by the solid state imaging television camera onboard the Galileo spacecraft during its second orbit around Jupiter. The image was processed by Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luftund Raumfahrt e.V., Berlin, Germany.

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the Galileo mission home page on the World Wide Web at http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

1996-01-01

419

Using the exhibited generalization approach to evaluate a carbon monoxide alarm ordinance.  

PubMed

Current interests in enhancing the focus of external validity or transferability call for developing practical evaluation approaches and illustrating their applications in this area for meeting the need. This study takes the challenge by introducing an innovative evaluation approach, named the exhibited generalization approach, and applying it in evaluating the carbon monoxide (CO) alarm ordinance passed by Mecklenburg County, North Carolina. The stakeholders specifically asked evaluators to determine the answers to the following two questions: (1) Does the alarm ordinance work? (2) What generalizable information can the Mecklenburg experience provide to other jurisdictions trying to decide if the alarm ordinance's planning, implementation, adoption, and outcomes are transferable to their communities? This study illustrates how to apply the exhibited generalization approach to provide the stakeholders with answers to these questions. Our results indicate that the alarm ordinance was effective in increasing CO alarm ownerships and reducing CO poisoning cases. The evaluation provides potential users and other interested parties with the necessary information on contextual factors and the causal mechanism underlying the CO alarm ordinance, so that these parties and users could decide whether the Mecklenburg alarm ordinance would be transferable to their own communities. Discussions include implications of this study for contributing in further advancing evaluation theory in addressing transferability or external validity issues. PMID:25105583

Chen, Huey T; Yip, Fuyuen; Lavonas, Eric J; Iqbal, Shahed; Turner, Nannette; Cobb, Bobby; Garbe, Paul

2014-12-01

420

A passive positioning alarm used by persons with dementia and their spouses - a qualitative intervention study  

PubMed Central

Background Increasingly, information and communication technology is being used to support persons with dementia living at home and their relatives. The aim of the present intervention study was to describe and explore the use and experiences of using a passive positioning alarm, over time, in daily life among persons with dementia and their spouses. Methods Using an ethnographically inspired approach, five couples, each including a person with Alzheimer´ s disease and his/her spouse living in their own home, were repeatedly observed and interviewed regarding their experiences of using a passive positioning alarm. Interview text transcripts and field notes were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results The main findings show changes over time, where testing and checking the passive positioning alarm successively led to trust in the alarm and in one own´s ability to use it. These components were a prerequisite for the couples to perceive the value of the alarm. Conclusions A passive positioning alarm for persons with dementia and their spouses needs to be packaged as a “service” with flexibility for each user and based on user needs, abilities, knowledge and skills. Using a passive positioning alarm can be a valuable support that allows persons with dementia to be alone outdoors and can increase safety and security for them and their spouses. The present study contributes to our understanding of what prerequisites need to be in place and what barriers need to be dealt with before successful implementation can occur. PMID:23384329

2013-01-01

421

PLANNING FOR QUALITY IN RADON MITIGATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes the integration of quality assurance (QA) intoeach phase of radon mitigation: initial problem assessment,premitigation diagnostics, mitigation system specification andinstallation diagnostics, and post-mitigation diagnostics. uringeach phase, the interests and...

422

African elephant alarm calls distinguish between threats from humans and bees.  

PubMed

The Samburu pastoralists of Northern Kenya co-exist with African elephants, Loxodonta africana, and compete over resources such as watering holes. Audio playback experiments demonstrate that African elephants produce alarm calls in response to the voices of Samburu tribesmen. When exposed to adult male Samburu voices, listening elephants exhibited vigilance behavior, flight behavior, and produced vocalizations (rumbles, roars and trumpets). Rumble vocalizations were most common and were characterized by increased and more variable fundamental frequencies, and an upward shift in the first [F1] and second [F2] formant locations, compared to control rumbles. When exposed to a sequence of these recorded rumbles, roars and trumpets, listening elephants also exhibited vigilance and flight behavior. The same behavior was observed, in lesser degrees, both when the roars and trumpets were removed, and when the second formants were artificially lowered to levels typical of control rumbles. The "Samburu alarm rumble" is acoustically distinct from the previously described "bee alarm rumble." The bee alarm rumbles exhibited increased F2, while Samburu alarm rumbles exhibited increased F1 and F2, compared to controls. Moreover, the behavioral reactions to the two threats were different. Elephants exhibited vigilance and flight behavior in response to Samburu and bee stimuli and to both alarm calls, but headshaking behavior only occurred in response to bee sounds and bee alarm calls. In general, increasingly threatening stimuli elicited alarm calls with increases in F0 and in formant locations, and increasing numbers of these acoustic cues in vocal stimuli elicited increased vigilance and flight behavior in listening elephants. These results show that African elephant alarm calls differentiate between two types of threat and reflect the level of urgency of threats. PMID:24586753

Soltis, Joseph; King, Lucy E; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Vollrath, Fritz; Savage, Anne

2014-01-01

423

Panorama from 'Cape Verde' (False Color)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity captured this vista of 'Victoria Crater' from the viewpoint of 'Cape Verde,' one of the promontories that are part of the scalloped rim of the crater. Opportunity drove onto Cape Verde shortly after arriving at the rim of Victoria in September 2006. The view combines hundreds of exposures taken by the rover's panoramic camera (Pancam). The camera began taking the component images during Opportunity's 970th Martian day, or sol, on Mars (Oct. 16, 2006). Work on the panorama continued through the solar conjunction period, when Mars was nearly behind the sun from Earth's perspective and communications were minimized. Acquisition of images for this panorama was completed on Opportunity's 991st sol (Nov. 7, 2006).

The top of Cape Verde is in the immediate foreground at the center of the image. To the left and right are two of the more gradually sloped bays that alternate with the cliff-faced capes or promontories around the rim of the crater. 'Duck Bay,' where Opportunity first reached the rim, is to the right. Beyond Duck Bay counterclockwise around the rim, the next promontory is 'Cabo Frio,' about 150 meters (500 feet) from the rover. On the left side of the panorama is 'Cape St. Mary,' the next promontory clockwise from Cape Verde and about 40 meters (130 feet) from the rover. The vantage point atop Cape Verde offered a good view of the rock layers in the cliff face of Cape St. Mary, which is about 15 meters or 50 feet tall. By about two weeks after the Pancam finished collecting the images for this panorama, Opportunity had driven to Cape St. Mary and was photographing Cape Verde's rock layers.

The far side of the crater lies about 800 meters (half a mile) away, toward the southeast.

This view combines images taken through three of the Pancam's filters, admitting light with wavelengths centered at 750 nanometers (near infrared), 530 nanometers (green) and 430 nanometers (violet). It is presented in false color to emphasize differences among materials in the rocks and soils.

2007-01-01

424

Spirit's West Valley Panorama (False Color)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA'S Mars Exploration Rover Spirit captured this westward view from atop a low plateau where Sprit spent the closing months of 2007.

After several months near the base of the plateau called 'Home Plate' in the inner basin of the Columbia Hills range inside Gusev Crater, Spirit climbed onto the eastern edge of the plateau during the rover's 1,306th Martian day, or sol, (Sept. 5, 2007). It examined rocks and soils at several locations on the southern half of Home Plate during September and October. It was perched near the western edge of Home Plate when it used its panoramic camera (Pancam) to take the images used in this view on sols 1,366 through 1,369 (Nov. 6 through Nov. 9, 2007). With its daily solar-energy supply shrinking as Martian summer turned to fall, Spirit then drove to the northern edge of Home Plate for a favorable winter haven. The rover reached that northward-tilting site in December, in time for the fourth Earth-year anniversary of its landing on Mars. Spirit reached Mars on Jan. 4, 2004, Universal Time (Jan. 3, 2004, Pacific Standard Time). It landed at a site at about the center of the horizon in this image.

This panorama covers a scene spanning left to right from southwest to northeast. The western edge of Home Plate is in the foreground, generally lighter in tone than the more distant parts of the scene. A rock-dotted hill in the middle distance across the left third of the image is 'Tsiolkovski Ridge,' about 30 meters or 100 feet from the edge of Home Plate and about that same distance across. A bump on the horizon above the left edge of Tsiolkovski Ridge is 'Grissom Hill,' about 8 kilometers or 5 miles away. At right, the highest point of the horizon is 'Husband Hill,' to the north and about 800 meters or half a mile away.

This view combines separate images taken through Pancam filters centered on wavelengths of 753 nanometers, 535 nanometers and 432 nanometers. It is presented in a false-color stretch to bring out subtle color differences in the scene.

2008-01-01

425

False discovery rate: setting the probability of false claim of detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When testing multiple hypotheses in a survey—e.g. many different source locations, template waveforms, and so on—the final result consists of a set of confidence intervals, each one at a desired confidence level. But the probability that at least one of these intervals does not cover the true value increases with the number of trials. With a sufficiently large array of confidence intervals, one can be sure that at least one is missing the true value. In particular, the probability of false claim of detection becomes non-negligible. In order to compensate for this, one should increase the confidence level, at the price of reduced detection power. False discovery rate control (Benjamini Y and Hochberg Y 1995 J. R. Stat. Soc. B 57 289 300) is a relatively new statistical procedure that bounds the number of mistakes made when performing multiple hypothesis tests. We shall review this method, discussing exercise applications to the field of gravitational wave surveys.

Baggio, L.; Prodi, G. A.

2005-09-01

426

Expert-control accident mitigation  

SciTech Connect

The author discusses how failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) aids in pattern recognition. Failure modes can be identified from patterns (symptoms) that they produce within a plant. These patterns are combinations of alarms and instrument readings. The patterns exhibited by failure modes must be documented in advance and stored to use the approach described here. Failures during plant operation can be identified (diagnosed) from the stored patterns. This method is an artificial technique called pattern recognition.

Stacklin, C.A. (Fluor Daniel, Inc., Irvine, CA (US))

1989-11-01

427

False memory ? false memory: DRM errors are unrelated to the misinformation effect.  

PubMed

The DRM method has proved to be a popular and powerful, if controversial, way to study 'false memories'. One reason for the controversy is that the extent to which the DRM effect generalises to other kinds of memory error has been neither satisfactorily established nor subject to much empirical attention. In the present paper we contribute data to this ongoing debate. One hundred and twenty participants took part in a standard misinformation effect experiment, in which they watched some CCTV footage, were exposed to misleading post-event information about events depicted in the footage, and then completed free recall and recognition tests. Participants also completed a DRM test as an ostensibly unrelated filler task. Despite obtaining robust misinformation and DRM effects, there were no correlations between a broad range of misinformation and DRM effect measures (mean r ?=?-.01). This was not due to reliability issues with our measures or a lack of power. Thus DRM 'false memories' and misinformation effect 'false memories' do not appear to be equivalent. PMID:23573186

Ost, James; Blank, Hartmut; Davies, Joanna; Jones, Georgina; Lambert, Katie; Salmon, Kelly

2013-01-01

428

False Memory ? False Memory: DRM Errors Are Unrelated to the Misinformation Effect  

PubMed Central

The DRM method has proved to be a popular and powerful, if controversial, way to study ‘false memories’. One reason for the controversy is that the extent to which the DRM effect generalises to other kinds of memory error has been neither satisfactorily established nor subject to much empirical attention. In the present paper we contribute data to this ongoing debate. One hundred and twenty participants took part in a standard misinformation effect experiment, in which they watched some CCTV footage, were exposed to misleading post-event information about events depicted in the footage, and then completed free recall and recognition tests. Participants also completed a DRM test as an ostensibly unrelated filler task. Despite obtaining robust misinformation and DRM effects, there were no correlations between a broad range of misinformation and DRM effect measures (mean r ?=??.01). This was not due to reliability issues with our measures or a lack of power. Thus DRM ‘false memories’ and misinformation effect ‘false memories’ do not appear to be equivalent. PMID:23573186

Ost, James; Blank, Hartmut; Davies, Joanna; Jones, Georgina; Lambert, Katie; Salmon, Kelly

2013-01-01

429

Albeni Falls Wildlife Mitigation Project : Annual Report of Mitigation Activities.  

SciTech Connect

The Albeni Falls Interagency Work Group was actively involved in implementing wildlife mitigation activities in 2000. The Work Group met each quarter to discuss management and budget issues affecting Albeni Falls wildlife mitigation. Members of the Work Group protected a total of 1,242 acres of wetland habitat in 2000. The total amount of wildlife habitat protected for Albeni Falls mitigation is approximately 4,190 acres (4,630 Habitat Units). Approximately 16% of the total wildlife habitat lost has been mitigated. Land management activities were limited in 2000 as protection opportunities took up most staff time. Administrative activities increased in 2000 as funding was more evenly distributed among Work Group members. As a result, implementation is expected to continue to increase in the coming year. Land management and monitoring and evaluation activities will increase in 2001 as site-specific management plans are completed and implemented.

Entz, Ray D.

2001-04-01

430

Cutaneous factitia in elderly patients: alarm signal for psychiatric disorders  

PubMed Central

Background The factitious disorders, more commonly known in daily practice as pathomimia, are expressed in dermatology units by skin lesions induced voluntarily by the patient, in order to draw attention of the medical staff and/or the family members. The disorder is often challenging to diagnose and even more difficult to document in front of the patient or relatives. It represents a challenge for the physician, and any attempt at treatment may be followed by recurrence of the self-mutilation. This paper describes two cases of pathomimia diagnosed by dermatologists and treated in a psychiatry unit, highlighting the importance of collaboration in these situations. Patients and methods Two case reports, describing old female patients with pathomimia, hospitalized in a department of dermatology for bizarre skin lesions. Results The first case was a 77-year-old female with unknown psychiatric problems and atrophic skin lesions on the face, self-induced for many months, with multiple hospitalizations in dermatology units, with no response to different therapeutic patterns, and full recovery after psychiatric treatment for a major depressive syndrome. The second case was a 61-year-old female patient with disseminated atrophic scars on the face, trunk, and limbs. She raised our interest because of possible psychiatric issues, as she had attempted to commit suicide. The prescription of antidepressants led to a significant clinical improvement. Conclusion These cases indicate that a real psychiatric disease may be recorded in patients suffering from pathomimia. Therefore, complete psychiatric evaluation in order to choose the proper therapy is mandatory for all these cases. Dermatologists and all physicians who take care of old patients must recognize the disorder in order to provide optimum care for this chronic condition. We emphasize therefore the importance of psychiatric evaluation and treatment to avoid the major risk of suicide. Skin lesions must be regarded as an alarm signal in critical cases, especially in senior people. PMID:24648724

Chiriac, Anca; Foia, Liliana; Birsan, Cristina; Goriuc, Ancuta; Solovan, Caius

2014-01-01

431

Faecal glucocorticoid metabolites and alarm calling in free-living yellow-bellied marmots.  

PubMed

When individuals of a variety of species encounter a potential predator, some, but not all, emit alarm calls. To explain the proximate basis of this variation, we compared faecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations in live-trapped yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) between occasions when they did and did not emit alarm calls. We found that marmots had significantly higher glucocorticoid levels when they called than when they did not call, suggesting that stress or arousal may play an important role in potentiating alarm calls. Marmots are sensitive to variation in the reliability of callers. The present finding provides one possible mechanism underlying caller variation: physiological arousal influences the propensity to emit alarm calls. PMID:17148318

Blumstein, Daniel T; Patton, Marilyn L; Saltzman, Wendy

2006-03-22

432

Faecal glucocorticoid metabolites and alarm calling in free-living yellow-bellied marmots  

PubMed Central

When individuals of a variety of species encounter a potential predator, some, but not all, emit alarm calls. To explain the proximate basis of this variation, we compared faecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations in live-trapped yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) between occasions when they did and did not emit alarm calls. We found that marmots had significantly higher glucocorticoid levels when they called than when they did not call, suggesting that stress or arousal may play an important role in potentiating alarm calls. Marmots are sensitive to variation in the reliability of callers. The present finding provides one possible mechanism underlying caller variation: physiological arousal influences the propensity to emit alarm calls. PMID:17148318

Blumstein, Daniel T; Patton, Marilyn L; Saltzman, Wendy

2005-01-01

433

S&E Ph.D. Unemployment Trends: Cause for Alarm?  

NSF Publications Database

... Trends: Cause For Alarm? (August 14, 1997) This Issue Brief compares information trends in the ... and engineering population with similar trends in the unemployment rates for other segments of the U ...

434

Individual acoustic variation in Belding's ground squirrel alarm chirps in the High Sierra Nevada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The acoustic structure of calls within call types can vary as function of individual identity, sex, and social group membership and is important in kin and social group recognition. Belding's ground squirrels (Spermophilus beldingi) produce alarm chirps that function in predator avoidance but little is known about the acoustic variability of these alarm chirps. The purpose of this preliminary study was to analyze the acoustic structure of alarm chirps with respect to individual differences (e.g., signature information) from eight Belding's ground squirrels from four different lakes in the High Sierra Nevada. Results demonstrate that alarm chirps are individually distinctive, and that acoustic similarity among individuals may correspond to genetic similarity and thus dispersal patterns in this species. These data suggest, on a preliminary basis, that the acoustic structure of calls might be used as a bioacoustic tool for tracking individuals, dispersal, and other population dynamics in Belding's ground squirrels, and perhaps other vocal species.

McCowan, Brenda; Hooper, Stacie L.

2002-03-01

435

Alarm communication and display systems for high security department of energy facilities  

SciTech Connect

An Alarm Communication and Display System collects alarm data, presents information to security operators, and enables the operators to enter commands affecting security operations; the ultimate goal of the system is to provide rapid assessment of alarms. This paper presents an overview of the architecture and operating principles used for alarm communication and display systems developed for application at several Department of Energy facilities. Although facilities have unique requirements and procedures, the architecture and operating principles of the ACDS presented in this paper have allowed site-specific implementations at several Department of Energy facilities. In addition, this technology has been transferred to other DOE facilities for adaptation to their requirements. Further efforts to enhance ACDS technology include the use of local area network technology to assist in peripheral switching, a distributed CCTV video switching system, and state-of-the-art hardware changes which improve system performance and effectiveness.

Williams, J.S.

1987-01-01

436

46 CFR 62.25-20 - Instrumentation, alarms, and centralized stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...iv) Provide for normal equipment starting and operating transients and vessel motions, as applicable, without actuating the...devices and instrumentation to allow visual assessment of system response to control input. (2) Visual alarms and...

2011-10-01

437

46 CFR 109.201 - Steering gear, whistles, general alarm, and means of communication.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

(a) Steering gear, whistles, general alarm bells, and means of communication between the bridge or control room and the engine room on self propelled units are inspected and tested— (1) Within 12 hours before getting under way;...

2011-10-01

438

46 CFR 109.201 - Steering gear, whistles, general alarm, and means of communication.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

(a) Steering gear, whistles, general alarm bells, and means of communication between the bridge or control room and the engine room on self propelled units are inspected and tested— (1) Within 12 hours before getting under way;...

2010-10-01

439

Coupling of H1 to a central laboratory computer, automated evaluation of instrument alarms.  

PubMed

Everyone who has worked with an H1 from Technicon knows that it pours out a vast number of asterisks and error flags and that the same information is hidden in different places. After comparing a great number of samples from H1 with manual methods, we found that we could reduce the number of alarms of medical significance to about 20. So we built a microcomputer which sends the test results, the asterisks and 20 user defined alarm flags to the host computer where the verification takes place. The verification program automatically approves of tests where no alarms, asterisks or high or low values occur. Tests with any kind of alarm or asterisk are displayed. Doubtful results are automatically deleted following specified rules, the meaning of the asterisks can be studied on a switch-screen like on H1, and the technician can take the appropriate action, microscopy, rerun or checking H1. PMID:2279557

Barth-Magnus, K

1990-01-01

440

Alarm responses in the crayfishOrconectes virilis andOrconectes propinquus.  

PubMed

Individuals of two species of crayfish (Orconectes virilis andO. propinquus) were tested in the laboratory for responses to chemicals released from physically damaged conspecifics. Individuals ofO. propinquus did not show an alarm response to crushed conspecifics. Individuals ofO. virilis responded to a water-borne substance released from crushed conspecifics by assuming an intermediate posture and ceasing movement. Similar alarm responses were shown by individuals ofO. virilis to crushed congeneric individuals (O. propinquus), and these responses were not eliminated by either freeze-thawing the crayfish used to prepare the signal or by treating freshly crushed crayfish with the enzyme trypsin. Individuals ofO. virilis showed strong feeding responses to solutions prepared from frozen fish flesh but showed a mixture of alarm and feeding responses to freshly killed fish. These results indicate that the alarm substance used byO. virilis is widespread. PMID:24242649

Hazlett, B A

1994-07-01

441

47 CFR 80.307 - Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches § 80.307 Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm. The radiotelegraph auto...

2010-10-01

442

47 CFR 80.307 - Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches § 80.307 Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm. The radiotelegraph auto...

2011-10-01

443

46 CFR 196.37-5 - General alarm bell contact makers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Section 196.37-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-5 General alarm bell contact...

2010-10-01

444

Advances in software development for intelligent interfaces for alarm and emergency management consoles  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in technology allow features like voice synthesis, voice and speech recognition, image understanding, and intelligent data base management to be incorporated in computer driven alarm and emergency management information systems. New software development environments make it possible to do rapid prototyping of custom applications. Three examples using these technologies are discussed. 1) Maximum use is made of high-speed graphics and voice synthesis to implement a state-of-the-art alarm processing and display system with features that make the operator-machine interface efficient and accurate. 2) An application generator which has the capability of ''building'' a specific alarm processing and display application in a matter of a few hours, using the site definition developed in the security planning phase to produce the custom application. 3) A software tool, is described which permits rapid prototyping of human-machine interfaces for a variety of applications including emergency management, alarm display and process information display.

Moseley, M.R.; Olson, C.E.

1986-01-01

445

46 CFR 62.25-20 - Instrumentation, alarms, and centralized stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION General Requirements for All Automated Vital Systems ...such a selector, provided there is no off position. (5) Automation alarms must be separate and independent of the...

2012-10-01

446

46 CFR 62.25-20 - Instrumentation, alarms, and centralized stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION General Requirements for All Automated Vital Systems ...such a selector, provided there is no off position. (5) Automation alarms must be separate and independent of the...

2013-10-01

447

Yellow-bellied marmot and golden-mantled ground squirrel responses to heterospecific alarm calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

When two species have predators in common, animals might be able to obtain important information about predation risk from the alarm calls produced by the other species. The behavioural responses of adult yellow-bellied marmots,Marmota flaviventris, and golden-mantled ground squirrels,Spermophilus lateralis, to conspecific and heterospecific alarm calls were studied to determine whether interspecific call recognition occurs in sympatric species that rarely

WALTER McKEE SHRINER

1998-01-01

448

Fathead Minnows, Pimephales promelas , Learn to Recognize Chemical Alarm Cues of Introduced Brook Stickleback, Culaea inconstans  

Microsoft Academic Search

In four experiments conducted over a 6-year period, we investigated whether fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, could acquire the ability to recognize chemical alarm cues of introduced brook stickleback, Culaea inconstans. A laboratory experiment documented that stickleback-naïve minnows did not exhibit an anti-predator response when exposed to the chemical alarm cues of stickleback. In a laboratory experiment conducted 5 years after

Michael S. Pollock; Douglas P. Chivers; Reehan S. Mirza; Brian D. Wisenden

2003-01-01

449

NEW PROCEDURES FOR FALSE DISCOVERY CONTROL Christopher R. Genovese #  

E-print Network

NEW PROCEDURES FOR FALSE DISCOVERY CONTROL Christopher R. Genovese # Department of Statistics of Pittsburgh ABSTRACT Following Benjamini and Hochberg [2], the False Discovery Rate has emerged as a viable in functional neuroimaging. This paper reports on new methods for false discov­ ery control that can usefully

Genovese, Christopher

450

False discovery rate, sensitivity and sample size for microarray studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation: In microarray data studies most researchers are keenly aware of the potentially high rate of false positives and the need to control it. One key statistical shift is the move away from the well- known P-value to false discovery rate (FDR). Less discussion perhaps has been spent on the sensitivity or the associated false negative rate (FNR). The purpose

Yudi Pawitan; Stefan Michiels; Serge Koscielny; Arief Gusnanto; Alexander Ploner

2005-01-01

451

Virtually True: Children's Acquisition of False Memories in Virtual Reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous work on human memory has shown that prompting participants with false events and self-relevant information via different types of media such as narratives, edited 2-dimensional images, and mental imagery creates false memories. This study tested a new form of media for studying false memory formation: Immersive Virtual Environment Technology (IVET). Using this tool, we examined how memory was affected

Kathryn Y. Segovia; Jeremy N. Bailenson

2009-01-01

452

Avoidance response of a terrestrial salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum) to chemical alarm cues.  

PubMed

Organisms from a wide variety of taxonomic groups possess chemical alarm cues that are important in mediating predator avoidance. However, little is known about the presence of such alarm cues in most amphibians, and in particular terrestrial salamanders. In this study we tested whether adult long-toed salamanders (Ambystoma macrodactylum) showed an avoidance response to stimuli from injured conspecifics. Avoidance of stimuli from injured conspecifics could represent avoidance of a chemical alarm cue or, alternatively, avoidance of a territorial pheromone or conspecific predator odor. Consequently, we also tested whether salamanders avoided stimuli from noninjured conspecifics. Salamanders avoided stimuli from injured but not from noninjured conspecifics. Therefore, we concluded that the response to injured conspecifics represents avoidance of a chemical alarm cue and not avoidance of a territorial pheromone or predator cue. This is the first clear demonstration of chemical alarm signaling by a terrestrial amphibian and the first report of chemical alarm signaling in an ambystomatid salamander. By avoiding an area containing stimuli from injured conspecifics, long-toed salamanders may lower their risk of predation by avoiding areas where predators are foraging. PMID:24226482

Chivers, D P; Kiesecker, J M; Anderson, M T; Wildy, E L; Blaustein, A R

1996-09-01

453

Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) spontaneously associate alarm calls with snakes appearing in the left visual field.  

PubMed

Many socially living animals are sensitive to a potential predator as part of their antipredator strategy. Alarm calls function to deter predators and to help other group members detect danger. The left visual field is involved in detection of potential threats or predators in many vertebrates, but it is unclear how alarm calls influence visual detection of a potential predator. Here, we experimentally examined how alarm calls spontaneously influence the search for pictures of a potential predator in captive Japanese macaques. We used an audiovisual preferential-looking paradigm by presenting pictures of a snake and a flower simultaneous with either a recording of alarm calls or contact calls. We found no difference in gaze duration between the 2 picture types when playing back contact calls. Monkeys looked significantly longer at pictures of snakes than at those of flowers when alarm calls were played back if the snake pictures were presented on the left side of the monkey's visual field, indicating right hemispheric bias during processing of predator representations. This is the first laboratory demonstration of auditory enhancement of visual detection of predators in the left visual field in animals, which will contribute to a better understanding of alarm call studies conducted in the wild. PMID:24611644

Shibasaki, Masahiro; Nagumo, Sumiharu; Koda, Hiroki

2014-08-01

454

Red squirrels, Tamiasciurus hudsonicus, produce predator-class specific alarm calls  

PubMed

Red squirrels, can produce alarm calls when they detect a potential predator. Observations of natural interactions between red squirrels and large birds, and predator-presentation experiments in the field, showed that red squirrels produce acoustically different alarm calls in response to aerial danger (live birds and a model hawk flown towards them) versus danger approaching from the ground (dogs and humans). The alarm call produced in response to aerial danger is acoustically convergent on the 'seet' alarm call produced by many species of passerine birds in response to raptors. The squirrels' 'seet' alarm is a short, low-amplitude, high-frequency call. These characteristics make the call difficult to localize, and is in a frequency range that is poorly perceived by raptors. Red squirrels produce much louder, wide-bandwidth bark calls in response to terrestrial danger. This is the first demonstration of predator-class specific alarm calls of red squirrels. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9514668

Greene; Meagher

1998-03-01

455

A micro-geography of fear: learning to eavesdrop on alarm calls of neighbouring heterospecifics  

PubMed Central

Many vertebrates eavesdrop on alarm calls of other species, which is a remarkable ability, given geographical variation in community composition and call diversity within and among species. We used micro-geographical variation in community composition to test whether individuals recognize heterospecific alarm calls by: (i) responding to acoustic features shared among alarm calls; (ii) having innate responses to particular heterospecific calls; or (iii) learning specific alarm calls. We found that superb fairy-wrens (Malurus cyaneus) fled to cover to playback of noisy miner (Manorina melanocephala) aerial predator alarm calls only in locations where miners were present, suggesting that learning rather than acoustic structure determines response. Sites with and without miners were well within the dispersal distance of fairy-wrens, and philopatric males and dispersing females showed the same pattern, so that local genetic adaptation is extremely unlikely. Furthermore, where miners were present, fairy-wrens responded appropriately to different miner calls, implying eavesdropping on their signalling system rather than fleeing from miners themselves. Learned eavesdropping on alarm calls enables individuals to harvest ecologically relevant information from heterospecifics on an astonishingly fine spatial scale. Such phenotypic plasticity is valuable in a changing world, where individuals can be exposed to new species. PMID:21849313

Magrath, Robert D.; Bennett, Thomas H.

2012-01-01

456

SILENE Benchmark Critical Experiments for Criticality Accident Alarm Systems  

SciTech Connect

In October 2010 a series of benchmark experiments was conducted at the Commissariat a Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA) Valduc SILENE [1] facility. These experiments were a joint effort between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the French CEA. The purpose of these experiments was to create three benchmarks for the verification and validation of radiation transport codes and evaluated nuclear data used in the analysis of criticality accident alarm systems (CAASs). This presentation will discuss the geometric configuration of these experiments and the quantities that were measured and will present some preliminary comparisons between the measured data and calculations. This series consisted of three single-pulsed experiments with the SILENE reactor. During the first experiment the reactor was bare (unshielded), but during the second and third experiments it was shielded by lead and polyethylene, respectively. During each experiment several neutron activation foils and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were placed around the reactor, and some of these detectors were themselves shielded from the reactor by high-density magnetite and barite concrete, standard concrete, and/or BoroBond. All the concrete was provided by CEA Saclay, and the BoroBond was provided by Y-12 National Security Complex. Figure 1 is a picture of the SILENE reactor cell configured for pulse 1. Also included in these experiments were measurements of the neutron and photon spectra with two BICRON BC-501A liquid scintillators. These two detectors were provided and operated by CEA Valduc. They were set up just outside the SILENE reactor cell with additional lead shielding to prevent the detectors from being saturated. The final detectors involved in the experiments were two different types of CAAS detectors. The Babcock International Group provided three CIDAS CAAS detectors, which measured photon dose and dose rate with a Geiger-Mueller tube. CIDAS detectors are currently in use at Y-12 in the newly constructed Highly Enriched Uranium Materials Facility. The second CAAS detector used a {sup 6}LiF TLD to absorb neutrons and a silicon detector to count the charge particles released by these absorption events. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory provided four of these detectors, which had formerly been used at the Rocky Flats facility in the United States.

Miller, Thomas Martin [ORNL] [ORNL; Reynolds, Kevin H. [Y-12 National Security Complex] [Y-12 National Security Complex

2011-01-01

457

Mitigation Evaluations: A Survey of Current Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the scope and components of mitigation assessments in a first effort to develop some guidelines for conducting mitigation evaluations. Using the mitigation evaluations survey (MES) we developed for this research, we surveyed 266 psychologists about the characteristics and content of mitigation evaluations. A high percentage of participants endorsed each of the 14 content areas presented in the

Michelle E. Barnett; Stanley L. Brodsky; Tess M. S. Neal

2011-01-01

458

Industry initiatives in impact mitigation  

SciTech Connect

The author concludes that mitigation is the focus of conflicting opinions regarding responsibility, strategy, and effort. There are no hard, fast, or tried and true rules for company involvement in mitigation efforts. Each mitigation effort must be tailored and negotiated to match the unique characteristics of individual projects and circumstances of specific locales. Companies must assume financial responsibility for the temporary impacts and area needs created by their projects. They must also offer financial and technical assistance to impact areas, not just the host political jurisdiction, when local, state, federal, and special fund sources of revenue or technical assistance are not available or insufficient. But, local, state, and federal governments must also recognize their responsibilities and make adjustments in tax jurisdiction boundaries and disbursement formulas so that impacted areas are properly defined and receive an adequate share of lease, royalty, severance tax, permit fee, special use and service charges, and sales tax payments. Laws need to allow innovative uses of tax pre-payments, housing mortgage bonds, changeable debt and bounding limits, industrial loans with delayed prepayment, and revised revenue assistance formulas. Enabling legislation is required in most states to allow impact areas to negotiate the mitigation efforts. A review of 7 types of mitigation effort is presented: transportation; housing; public utilities; health, public safety and recreation; miscellaneous; and company-community interaction. (PBS)

Metz, W.C.

1982-08-01

459

Interspecific Semantic Alarm Call Recognition in the Solitary Sahamalaza Sportive Lemur, Lepilemur sahamalazensis  

PubMed Central

As alarm calls indicate the presence of predators, the correct interpretation of alarm calls, including those of other species, is essential for predator avoidance. Conversely, communication calls of other species might indicate the perceived absence of a predator and hence allow a reduction in vigilance. This “eavesdropping” was demonstrated in birds and mammals, including lemur species. Interspecific communication between taxonomic groups has so far been reported in some reptiles and mammals, including three primate species. So far, neither semantic nor interspecific communication has been tested in a solitary and nocturnal lemur species. The aim of this study was to investigate if the nocturnal and solitary Sahamalaza sportive lemur, Lepilemur sahamalazensis, is able to access semantic information of sympatric species. During the day, this species faces the risk of falling prey to aerial and terrestrial predators and therefore shows high levels of vigilance. We presented alarm calls of the crested coua, the Madagascar magpie-robin and aerial, terrestrial and agitation alarm calls of the blue-eyed black lemur to 19 individual Sahamalaza sportive lemurs resting in tree holes. Songs of both bird species’ and contact calls of the blue-eyed black lemur were used as a control. After alarm calls of crested coua, Madagascar magpie-robin and aerial alarm of the blue-eyed black lemur, the lemurs scanned up and their vigilance increased significantly. After presentation of terrestrial alarm and agitation calls of the blue-eyed black lemur, the animals did not show significant changes in scanning direction or in the duration of vigilance. Sportive lemur vigilance decreased after playbacks of songs of the bird species and contact calls of blue-eyed black lemurs. Our results indicate that the Sahamalaza sportive lemur is capable of using information on predator presence as well as predator type of different sympatric species, using their referential signals to detect predators early, and that the lemurs’ reactions are based on experience and learning. PMID:23825658

Seiler, Melanie; Schwitzer, Christoph; Gamba, Marco; Holderied, Marc W.

2013-01-01

460

Arrangements of the intravenous parallel infusions with anti-reflux valves decreasing occlusion alarm delay  

PubMed Central

Background The methods of arrangement of combined intravenous parallel infusions using anti-reflux valve (ARV), with and without anti-syphon valve (ASV) that could decrease occlusion alarm delay were investigated. Methods Occlusion challenge tests were mainly performed as bench experiments of four kinds of multiple parallel infusions (10 ml/h and 50 ml/h infusions), which were connected at the proximal or distal portion of ARV, with or without ASV. Alarm threshold was set to 1000 mmHg. Occlusion alarm delays and the compliances of the infusion systems were compared among groups. Results Without ASV, compared to 10 ml/h infusion alone distal to anti-reflux valve, 50 ml/h infusion distal to anti-reflux valve reduced the mean alarm delay from 416 ± 7 s to 81 ± 3 s (P < 0.001). Compared to 50 ml/h infusion alone, combined 10 ml/h and 50 ml/h infusion distal to ARV prolonged the alarm delay from 81 ± 3 s to 133 ± 6 s (P < 0.001). However, combined infusions distal to ARV with ASV significantly reduced the alarm delay from 133 ± 6 s to 74 ± 5 s (P < 0.001), and also reduced the compliance of the infusion system from 2.31 ± 0.12 to 1.20 ± 0.08 µl/mmHg (P < 0.001). Conclusions The infusion setup of faster infusion rate, lower compliant system using ASV could effectively decrease occlusion alarm delay during multiple intravenous parallel infusions using ARV. PMID:24851166

Joe, Han Bum; Moon, Bong-Ki; Lee, Yeon-Ju

2014-01-01

461

A technical approach for determining the importance of information in computerized alarm systems  

SciTech Connect

Computerized alarm and access control systems must be treated as special entities rather than as generic automated information systems. This distinction arises due to the real-time control and monitoring functions performed by these systems at classified facilities and the degree of centralization of a site`s safeguards system information in the associated databases. As an added requirement for these systems, DOE safeguards and security classification policy is to protect information whose dissemination has the potential for significantly increasing the probability of successful adversary action against the facility, or lowering adversary resources needed for a successful attack. Thus at issue is just how valuable would specific alarm system information be to an adversary with a higher order objective. We have developed and applied a technical approach for determining the importance of information contained in computerized alarm and access control systems. The methodology is based on vulnerability assessment rather than blanket classification rules. This method uses a system architecture diagram to guide the analysis and to develop adversary defeat methods for each node and link. These defeat methods are evaluated with respect to required adversary resources, technical difficulty, and detection capability. Then they are incorporated into site vulnerability assessments to determine the significance of alarm system information in the context of a facility attack. This methodology was successfully applied to the Argus alarm, access control, and assessment system developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Lab. Argus is software-driven, contains interrelated databases, shares host computers, and communicates with field processors and alarms through a common network. The evaluation results provided insights into the importance of alarm system information while the methodology itself provided a framework for addressing associated information protection issues.

Fortney, D.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Lim, J.J. [Lim and Orzechowski Associates, Alamo, CA (United States)

1994-06-10

462

Can Reinforcement Induce Children to Falsely Incriminate Themselves?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined whether reinforcement can induce children to falsely incriminate themselves. Ninety-nine children in kindergarten\\u000a through third grade were questioned regarding the staged theft of a toy. Half received reinforcement for self-incriminating\\u000a responses. Within 4 min reinforced children made 52% false admissions of guilty knowledge concerning the theft, and 30% false\\u000a admissions of having witnessed it. Corresponding figures for controls

F. James Billings; Tanya Taylor; James Burns; Deb L. Corey; Sena Garven; James M. Wood

2007-01-01

463

Yellow-bellied marmot and golden-mantled ground squirrel responses to heterospecific alarm calls  

PubMed

When two species have predators in common, animals might be able to obtain important information about predation risk from the alarm calls produced by the other species. The behavioural responses of adult yellow-bellied marmots, Marmota flaviventris, and golden-mantled ground squirrels, Spermophilus lateralis, to conspecific and heterospecific alarm calls were studied to determine whether interspecific call recognition occurs in sympatric species that rarely interact. In a crossed design, marmot and squirrel alarm calls were broadcast to individuals of both species, using the song of a sympatric bird as a control. Individuals of both species responded similarly to conspecific and heterospecific anti-predator calls, and distinguished both types of alarms from the bird song. These results indicate that both marmots and squirrels recognized not only their own species' anti-predator vocalizations, but also the alarm calls of another species, and that these vocalizations were discriminated from an equally loud non-threatening sound. These findings suggest that researchers ought to think broadly when considering the sources of information available to animals in their natural environment. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9514669

Shriner

1998-03-01

464

Alarm calls modulate the spatial structure of a breeding owl community  

PubMed Central

Animals should continuously assess the threat of predation. Alarm calls inform on predation risk and are often used as cues to shape behavioural responses in birds and mammals. Hitherto, however, the ecological consequences of alarm calls in terms of organization of animal communities have been neglected. Here, we show experimentally that calls of a resident nocturnal raptor, the little owl Athene noctua, triggered a response in terms of breeding habitat selection and investment in current reproduction in conspecifics and heterospecifics. Little owls preferred to settle in territories where calls of conspecifics, irrespective of their type (i.e. alarm versus contact calls), were broadcasted, indicating that either conspecific attraction exists or calls are interpreted as foreign calls, eliciting settlement as a mode of defence against competitors. Also, we found that little owls seemed to invest more in current reproduction in safe territories as revealed by conspecific calls. Innovatively, we reported that a second owl species, the migratory scops owl Otus scops, preferred to breed in safe territories as indicated by little owls' calls. These results evidence that the emission of alarm calls may have, apart from well-known behavioural effects, ecological consequences in natural communities by inducing species-specific biases in breeding habitat selection. This study demonstrates a previously unsuspected informative role of avian alarm calls which may modulate the spatial structure of species within communities. PMID:22279165

Parejo, Deseada; Aviles, Jesus M.; Rodriguez, Juan

2012-01-01

465

The Sound of Danger: Threat Sensitivity to Predator Vocalizations, Alarm Calls, and Novelty in Gulls  

PubMed Central

The threat sensitivity hypothesis predicts that organisms will evaluate the relative danger of and respond differentially to varying degrees of predation threat. Doing so allows potential prey to balance the costs and benefits of anti-predator behaviors. Threat sensitivity has undergone limited testing in the auditory modality, and the relative threat level of auditory cues from different sources is difficult to infer across populations when variables such as background risk and experience are not properly controlled. We experimentally exposed a single population of two sympatric gull species to auditory stimuli representing a range of potential threats in order to compare the relative threat of heterospecific alarm calls, conspecific alarms calls, predator vocalizations, and novel auditory cues. Gulls were able to discriminate among a diverse set of threat indicators and respond in a graded manner commensurate with the level of threat. Vocalizations of two potential predators, the human voice and bald eagle call, differed in their threat level compared to each other and to alarm calls. Conspecific alarm calls were more threatening than heterospecfic alarm calls to the larger great black-backed gull, but the smaller herring gull weighed both equally. A novel cue elicited a response intermediate between known threats and a known non-threat in herring gulls, but not great black-backed gulls. Our results show that the relative threat level of auditory cues from different sources is highly species-dependent, and that caution should be exercised when comparing graded and threshold threat sensitive responses. PMID:24324780

MacLean, Sarah A.; Bonter, David N.

2013-01-01

466

Dynamics of false vacuum bubbles in Brans-Dicke theory  

SciTech Connect

We study the dynamics of false vacuum bubbles in the Brans-Dicke theory of gravity by using the thin shell or thin wall approximation. We consider a false vacuum bubble that has a different value for the Brans-Dicke field between the inside false vacuum region and the outside true vacuum region. Within a certain limit of field values, the difference of field values makes the effective tension of the shell negative. This allows new expanding false vacuum bubbles to be seen by the outside observer, which are disallowed in Einstein gravity.

Lee, Bum-Hoon; Lee, Wonwoo [Department of Physics and BK21 Division and Center for Quantum Spacetime, Sogang University, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Yeom, Dong-han, E-mail: bhl@sogang.ac.kr, E-mail: warrior@sogang.ac.kr, E-mail: innocent@muon.kaist.ac.kr [Department of Physics, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-01-01

467

MITIGATION OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communities of Rock Springs, Glenrock, and Hanna, Wyoming were built over abandoned coal mines. Over time, the rock comprising the roof of the mine begins to fracture and collapse into the open mine. This process continues until the space is either occupied by rubble or the caving reaches the surface, threatening public health and safety. To successfully mitigate the potential

Darrel V. Holmquist; Damon B. Thomas; Kent Simon

468

Expert-control accident mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effective accident mitigation system (AMS) combines technologies from several different areas. The end product allows the operator to select a rational course of action in a limited time. The system is comparable to having process, cost and maintenance engineers observing the process 24 hours a day. By implementing an AMS, operators will be able to reduce accidents and plant

Stacklin

1989-01-01

469

[Development of a wrist wearing and remote heart rate alarm apparatus].  

PubMed

We have developed a new wrist wearing heart rate monitoring alarm apparatus, which can detect the patients' real-time pulse waves. When the abnormal heart rate appears or pulse disappears, the monitoring alarm will sound and dial the remote telephone for help simultaneously. This apparatus uses the switch circuit to control the keyboard of mobile phone, and dials remote telephone in the help of mature technology and communication platform of mobile phones. The intelligent program can distinguish digital pulse signal, pick out the correct cycle of heartbeat intelligently. The new wrist wearing heart rate monitoring alarm apparatus will calculate an average heart rate when it captures consecutively five correct electrocardiograph waveforms. It really provides a simple, inexpensive and effective way for the patients with heart disease. PMID:23858750

Zhao, Ruibin; Meng, Yanjun; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Yanru; Zhang, Jingjing; Fan, Zhenzhong

2013-04-01

470

Rockfall hazard alarm strategy based on FBG smart passive net structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to realize working state remote monitoring for a passive net, alarm timely and correctly for the rockfall invasion, and solve the disadvantages in the existing means, such as needing power supply in situ, vulnerability to electromagnetic interference and environmental climate impact, a smart passive net structure based on the optical fiber sensing technology was designed which equipped with intercepting and sensing functions. The wire rope net as one part of the smart passive net was weaved with two kinds of optical fiber sensing elements, namely, fiber Bragg grating (FBG) perimeter severity sensors and optical fiber monitoring net with each end of the tail fiber containing an FBG probe. Based on the proposed smart structure, a combination alarm strategy for rockfall was proposed, which can distinguish transmission bug, whether the rockfall invasion or net broken occurs. Through a designed simulation test, the effectiveness of the proposed alarm strategy was certificated.

Li, Sheng; Ma, Junjie; Hu, Jun

2014-09-01

471

Survey of the reliability of carbon monoxide alarms deployed in domestic homes and efficacy of use by consumers.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide (CO) alarms are extensively used in domestic premises in the UK to help protect against CO poisoning. Their expected lifetime has been increasing, and some current models now have a replacement period of more than 6 years under normal operation. However, concerns have been expressed as to the reliability of alarms over an extended period. In this study, 110 households with a CO alarm were surveyed, during which the alarm was uninstalled and replaced and a household survey questionnaire administered. Alarm reliability was assessed under laboratory conditions by testing conformity to the alarm condition gas tests in either the British (European) standard, BS EN 50291 for UK certified models, or the US standard, UL 2034 for US certified models. The questionnaire recorded the alarm make and model, its age, its location, whether it was correctly sited, and how often it was tested. General information on the property was also collected. Results of laboratory testing suggest that the reliability of the most common models of CO alarms used by UK consumers has improved over the last 7 years. However, findings from the household survey suggest that the way alarms are used in many homes may not maximize their ability to detect abnormal levels CO. PMID:23227910

Naylor, S; Walsh, P T; Dowker, K P

2013-08-01

472

Creating false memories: Remembering words not presented in lists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments (modeled after J. Deese's 1959 study) revealed remarkable levels of false recall and false recognition in a list learning paradigm. In Experiment 1, subjects studied lists of 12 words (e.g., bed, rest, awake); each list was composed of associates of 1 nonpresented word (e.g., sleep). On immediate free recall tests, the nonpresented associates were recalled 40% of the

Henry L. Roediger; Kathleen B. McDermott

1995-01-01

473

Ice formation in the Arctic during summer: false-bottoms  

E-print Network

. The ablation of the sea-ice interface is caused by dissolution rather than by melting. Note that salt water hasIce formation in the Arctic during summer: false-bottoms Phan Thanh Nama,b , Pham Ngoc Dinh Alaina The only source of ice formation in the Arctic during summer is a layer of ice called false-bottoms between

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

474

[Iatrogenic false aneurysm of the splenic artery after cephalic duodenopancreatectomy].  

PubMed

Splenic artery aneurysms are rare entities with many causes. Rupture can be fatal and usually occurs when the aneurismal diameter is greater than 2 cm. Nevertheless, smaller aneurysms, especially false aneurysms, can also rupture. We report a case of iatrogenic, false aneurysm of the splenic artery subsequent to percutaneous drainage of a retrogastric collection after cephalic duodenopancreatectomy. Splenectomy enabled favorable recovery. PMID:22197585

Michel, P; Jarry, J; Pagliano, G

2012-02-01

475

False Belief Understanding in Cantonese-Speaking Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigates the performance of 96 Cantonese-speaking three- to five-year-old preschoolers on three false belief tasks--a deceptive object, a change of location, and an unexpected contents task encompassing a variety of task factors. Most importantly, the research examines the possibility that false belief performance depends on…

Tardif, Twila; Wellman, Henry M.; Cheung, Kar Man

2004-01-01

476

False belief understanding in Cantonese-speaking children.  

PubMed

The present study investigates the performance of 96 Cantonese-speaking three- to five-year-old preschoolers on three false belief tasks - a deceptive object, a change of location, and an unexpected contents task encompassing a variety of task factors. Most importantly, the research examines the possibility that false belief performance depends on specific linguistic factors such as the type of verb used in the test question--an explicitly false vs. a neutral belief verb. Cantonese was chosen as particularly useful for examining this question because it explicitly codes belief status as either neutral (nam5) or false (ji5wai4), and because it offers additional linguistic and cultural contrasts to research conducted on false belief with children learning English and other Indo-European languages. As expected, a strong age effect was found, as well as a significant advantage for children who received the explicit false belief (ji5wai4) wording and for those who were asked to explain rather than predict the protagonist's actions. Interestingly, there was also a strong task difference with children performing better on the deceptive object task than on the other two false belief tasks. We argue that these results point both to universal trajectories in theory of mind development and to interesting, but localized, effects of language and culture on children's false belief understanding. PMID:15658745

Tardif, Twila; Wellman, Henry M; Cheung, Kar Man

2004-11-01

477

False aneurysm of the femoral artery due to an osteochondroma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two cases of primary misdiagnosis of a posttraumatic false aneurysm are reported. In the first case a twenty-year-old patient was hospitalized under the diagnosis of a malignant soft tissue tumor five weeks after a kick against the right distal thigh. Diagnostic procedures performed in our clinic, however, led to the expectation of a false aneurysm of the femoral artery, caused

J. Ennker; J. Freyschmidt; H. Refmann; D. Dimovski

1984-01-01

478

Developing Biased Social Judgments: The False-Consensus Effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research with adults has demonstrated a false consensus bias, a tendency to overestimate peer agreement with one's own choices and or behaviors. Summer campers aged 7, 9, and 10 voted for their favorite camp activities and then guessed how the vote would turn out for either same-age, younger, or older peers. The results indicated a strong false consensus bias, which

Christopher G. Wetzel; Marsha D. Walton

1985-01-01

479

Asystole detected by implantable loop recorders: true or false?  

PubMed

We report a case of a false asystole detected by an implantable loop recorder a few days after its implantation. In the discussion section we try to give some hints to help cardiac electrophysiologists in distinguish true from false asystoles, in order to avoid unuseful and potentially dangerous implantations of pacemakers. PMID:24533648

Ali, Hussam; Sorgente, Antonio; Daleffe, Elisabetta; Cappato, Riccardo

2014-11-01

480

44 CFR 78.5 - Flood Mitigation Plan development.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION ASSISTANCE § 78.5 Flood Mitigation Plan development. A...

2010-10-01

481

44 CFR 78.5 - Flood Mitigation Plan development.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION ASSISTANCE § 78.5 Flood Mitigation Plan development. A...

2011-10-01

482

44 CFR 78.5 - Flood Mitigation Plan development.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION ASSISTANCE § 78.5 Flood Mitigation Plan development. A...

2012-10-01

483

44 CFR 78.5 - Flood Mitigation Plan development.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION ASSISTANCE § 78.5 Flood Mitigation Plan development. A...

2013-10-01

484

Gain-Scheduled Fault Tolerance Control Under False Identification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An active fault tolerant control (FTC) law is generally sensitive to false identification since the control gain is reconfigured for fault occurrence. In the conventional FTC law design procedure, dynamic variations due to false identification are not considered. In this paper, an FTC synthesis method is developed in order to consider possible variations of closed-loop dynamics under false identification into the control design procedure. An active FTC synthesis problem is formulated into an LMI optimization problem to minimize the upper bound of the induced-L2 norm which can represent the worst-case performance degradation due to false identification. The developed synthesis method is applied for control of the longitudinal motions of FASER (Free-flying Airplane for Subscale Experimental Research). The designed FTC law of the airplane is simulated for pitch angle command tracking under a false identification case.

Shin, Jong-Yeob; Belcastro, Christine (Technical Monitor)

2006-01-01

485

An evaluation of various types of fire detection alarm systems to awaken the elderly  

E-print Network

AN EVALUATION OF VARIOUS TYPES OF FIRE DETECTION ALARM SYSTEMS TO AWAKEN THE ELDERLY A Thesis by 1'IMOTHY EDWARD TOWNLEY Submitted to the Graduate Co11ege of Texas ASM University in partia1 fu1fi1 1ment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 198S major Sub?'ect: Safety Engineering AN EVALUATION OF VARIOUS TYPES Of FIRE DETECTION ALARM SYSTEMS TO AWAKEN THE ELDERLY A Thesis by TIMOTHY EDWARD TOWNLEY Approved as to style and content by: (Chairm n of Committee...

Townley, Timothy Edward

2012-06-07

486

7 CFR 652.39 - Mitigating factors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

In considering whether to decertify, the period of decertification, and scope of decertification, the deciding official will take into consideration any mitigating factors. Examples of mitigating factors include, but are not limited to the...

2010-01-01

487

Arbitrary Death: An Empirical Study of Mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Supreme Court has long viewed mitigation evidence as key to saving the death penalty from constitutional challenge. Mitigation evidence about a capital defendant’s life history, combined with other procedural protections, is thought to alleviate arbitrariness in juries’ decisions of whether a defendant deserves to die. This Article presents original empirical research studying that hypothesis. Interviews with thirty mitigation specialists

Emily Hughes

2012-01-01

488

False recall and recognition of brand names increases over time.  

PubMed

Using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, participants are presented with lists of associated words (e.g., bed, awake, night). Subsequently, they reliably have false memories for related but nonpresented words (e.g., SLEEP). Previous research has found that false memories can be created for brand names (e.g., Morrisons, Sainsbury's, Waitrose, and TESCO). The present study investigates the effect of a week's delay on false memories for brand names. Participants were presented with lists of brand names followed by a distractor task. In two between-subjects experiments, participants completed a free recall task or a recognition task either immediately or a week later. In two within-subjects experiments, participants completed a free recall task or a recognition task both immediately and a week later. Correct recall for presented list items decreased over time, whereas false recall for nonpresented lure items increased. For recognition, raw scores revealed an increase in false memory across time reflected in an increase in Remember responses. Analysis of Pr scores revealed that false memory for lures stayed constant over a week, but with an increase in Remember responses in the between-subjects experiment and a trend in the same direction in the within-subjects experiment. Implications for theories of false memory are discussed. PMID:22963741

Sherman, Susan M

2013-01-01

489

Ego depletion results in an increase in spontaneous false memories.  

PubMed

The primary aim of the current study was to examine whether depleted cognitive resources might have ramifications for the formation of neutral and negative spontaneous false memories. To examine this, participants received neutral and negative Deese/Roediger-McDermott false memory wordlists. Also, for half of the participants, cognitive resources were depleted by use of an ego depletion manipulation (solving difficult calculations while being interfered with auditory noise). Our chief finding was that depleted cognitive resources made participants more vulnerable for the production of false memories. Our results shed light on how depleted cognitive resources affect neutral and negative correct and errant memories. PMID:23085670

Otgaar, Henry; Alberts, Hugo; Cuppens, Lesly

2012-12-01

490

The synthetic substance hypoxanthine 3-N-oxide elicits alarm reactions in zebrafish (Danio rerio)  

PubMed Central

Zebrafish, one of the preferred study species of geneticists, is gaining increasing popularity in behavioral neuroscience. This small and prolific species may be an excellent tool with which the biological mechanisms of vertebrate brain function and behavior are investigated. Zebrafish has been proposed as a model organism in the analysis of fear responses and human anxiety disorders. Species-specific cues signaling the presence of predators have been successfully utilized in such research. Zebrafish has been shown to respond to its natural alarm substance with species-typical fear reactions. However, the extraction of this alarm substance and ascertaining its consistent dosing has been problematic. A synthetic substance with a known chemical identity and molecular weight would allow precise dosing and experimental control. Previously, the chemical component, hypoxanthine 3-N-oxide, common to several fish alarm substances has been identified and has been shown to elicit alarm reactions in fish species belonging to the Osteriophysan superorder. In the current study we investigate the effect of hypoxanthine 3-N-oxide by exposing zebrafish to three different concentrations of this synthetic substance. Our results show that the substance efficaciously induces species-typical fear reactions increasing the number of erratic movement episodes and jumps in zebrafish. We discuss the translational relevance of our findings and conclude that hypoxanthine 3-N-oxide will have utility to elicit fear responses in the laboratory in a precisely controlled manner in zebrafish. PMID:19583985

Parra, Kevin V.; Adrian, James C.; Gerlai, Robert

2009-01-01

491

CURRENT ISSUES -PERSPECTIVES AND REVIEWS Ontogenetic and Sex Differences Influence Alarm Call  

E-print Network

responses and the develop- ment of alarm calling behavior (reviewed in Hollen & Radford 2009). Young experience and phys- iological development to attain appropriate, adult- like responses, and differences between adults and juveniles are owing to errors that juveniles make while developing their antipredator

Blumstein, Daniel T.

492

Recognition of other species' aerial alarm calls: speaking the same language or learning another?  

PubMed Central

Alarm calls given by other species potentially provide a network of information about danger, but little is known about the role of acoustic similarity compared with learning in recognition of heterospecific calls. In particular, the aerial ‘hawk’ alarm calls of passerines provide a textbook example of signal design because many species have converged on a design that thwarts eavesdropping by hawks, and call similarity might therefore allow recognition. We measured the response of fairy-wrens (Malurus cyaneus) to playback of acoustically similar scrubwren (Sericornis frontalis) aerial alarm calls. First, if call similarity prompts escape independent of learning, then fairy-wrens should flee to playback of scrubwren calls outside their geographical range. However, fairy-wrens fled only in sympatry. Second, if call similarity is necessary for learning heterospecific calls, then fairy-wrens should not respond to sympatric species with different calls. We found, on the contrary, that fairy-wrens fled to the very different aerial alarm calls of a honeyeater (Phylidonyris novaehollandiae). Furthermore, response to the honeyeater depended on the specific structure of the call, not acoustic similarity. Overall, call similarity was neither sufficient nor necessary for interspecific recognition, implying learning is essential in the complex task of sifting the acoustic world for cues about danger. PMID:19004753

Magrath, Robert D.; Pitcher, Benjamin J.; Gardner, Janet L.

2008-01-01

493

From Alarm-Based to Rate-Based Earthquake Forecast Models by Peter Shebalin,*  

E-print Network

the opportunity to perform all the standard evalua- tion tests of the earthquake testing centers on alarm concern rate-based models with a time step of one day, three months, or fiveyears, a testing region reference model. We consider that this differential probability gain is constant over time. Its value

Narteau, Clément

494

Department of Biological Sciences, Eastern Illinois University, Charleston Alarm Calls Aect Foraging Behavior in Eastern Chipmunks  

E-print Network

often carries with it a danger of predation. Predation risk is charac- terized by the probability items, may alter classical predictions of foraging behavior. Thus, animals face a trade-o in which of alarm calls to signal potential danger (Dunford 1970; Lishak 1984; Thompson & Liebreich 1987; Blumstein

Switzer, Paul

495

Using agents to build a practical implementation of the INCA (intelligent community alarm) system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an agent system to demonstrate the practically of the INCA (Intelligent Community Support for the Elderly) architecture. This architecture is intended to integrate a number of autonomous systems; home monitoring, community alarms, care management systems and emergency systems command and control systems using agent technology to build effective coordinated care systems. A range of different autonomous bodies

Martin D. Beer; Iain Anderson; Wei Huang

2001-01-01

496

Damage, digestion, and defence: the roles of alarm cues and kairomones for inducing prey defences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inducible defences are widely used for studying phenotypic plasticity, yet frequently we know little about the cues that induce these defences. For aquatic prey, defences are induced by chemical cues from predators (kairomones) and injured prey (alarm cues). Rarely has anyone determined the separate and combined effects of these cues, particularly across phylogenetically diverse prey types. We examined how tadpoles

Nancy M. Schoeppner; A. Relyea

2005-01-01

497

Anim. Behav., 1997, 54, 509524 Development of alarm-call responses in Belding's ground squirrels  

E-print Network

Anim. Behav., 1997, 54, 509­524 Development of alarm-call responses in Belding's ground squirrels to describe the effect of adult behaviours on juvenile development. In Belding's ground squirrels to captive ground squirrels. Juveniles were more likely to respond to auditory stimuli if their dam responded

Mateo, Jill M.

498

Individual acoustic variation in Belding's ground squirrel alarm chirps in the High Sierra Nevada (L)  

E-print Network

Individual acoustic variation in Belding's ground squirrel alarm chirps in the High Sierra Nevada (L) Brenda McCowan and Stacie L. Hooper Behavioral Biology Laboratory, Veterinary Medicine Teaching membership and is important in kin and social group recognition. Belding's ground squirrels Spermophilus

Patricelli, Gail

499

Effects of alarm substance on schooling in the common shiner ( Notropis cornutus , Cyprinidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavioral responses of common shiners (Notropis cornutus) to ‘Schreckstoff’ (alarm pheromone produced in the epidermis) were quantified in laboratory experiments. Schreckstoff increased cohesion and polarization, and decreased the variability in overall school dimensions. There was also a positive correlation between size of fish and their distance to the center of the school. Furthermore, the tendency to seek cover increased

Eva J. Heczko; Benoni H. Seghers

1981-01-01

500

IE 361 Module 14 Patterns on Control Charts and "Special Checks"/Extra Alarm Rules  

E-print Network

IE 361 Module 14 Patterns on Control Charts and "Special Checks"/Extra Alarm Rules Reading: Section on Control Charts (and Other Time Plots) To this point, we've spoken as if the only use one makes of a Shewhart chart is to compare values of a summary statistic Q to control limits. If that were true

Vardeman, Stephen B.