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1

False alarm mitigation techniques for hyperspectral target detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A challenging problem of major importance in hyperspectral imaging applications is the detection of subpixel objects of military and civilian interest. High false alarm thresholds are required to detect subpixel objects due to the large amount of surrounding background clutter. These high false alarm rates are unacceptable for military purposes, requiring the need for false alarm mitigation (FAM) techniques to weed out the objects of interest. The objective of this paper is to provide a comparison of the implementation of these FAM techniques and their inherent benefits in the whitened detection space. The widely utilized matched filter (MF) and adaptive cosine estimator (ACE) are both based on a linear mixing model (LMM) between a background and object class. The matched filter approximates the object abundance, and the ACE measures the model error. Each of these measurements provides inadequate object separation alone, but by using both the object abundance and model error, the objects can be separated from the false alarms.

Pieper, M. L.; Manolakis, D.; Truslow, E.; Cooley, T.; Brueggeman, M.

2013-05-01

2

Hyperspectral matched filter with false-alarm mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the fundamental challenges for a hyperspectral imaging surveillance system is the detection of sub-pixel objects in background clutter. The background surrounding the object, which acts as interference, provides the major obstacle to successful detection. One algorithm that is widely used in hyperspectral detection and successfully suppresses the background in many situations is the matched filter detector. However, the matched filter also produces false alarms in many situations. We use three simple and well-established concepts--the target-background replacement model, the matched filter, and Mahalanobis distance--to develop the matched filter with false alarm mitigation (MF-FAM), a dual-threshold detector capable of eliminating many matched filter false alarms. We compare this algorithm to the mixture tuned matched filter (MTMF), a popular approach to matched filter false alarm mitigation found in the ENVI® software environment. The two algorithms are shown to produce nearly identical results using real hyperspectral data, but the MF-FAM is shown to be operationally, computationally, and theoretically simpler than the MTMF.

Dipietro, Robert S.; Manolakis, Dimitris G.; Lockwood, Ronald B.; Cooley, Thomas; Jacobson, John

2012-01-01

3

Simultaneous Multitarget Detection and False Alarm Mitigation Algorithm for the Predator UAV TESAR ATR System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a technique recently developed for target detection and false alarm reduction for the Predator unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) tactical endurance synthetic aperture radar (TESAR) automatic target recognition (ATR) system. The approach does not attempt to label various objects in the SAR image (e.g., buildings, trees, roads); instead, it finds target-like characteristics in the image and compares their

Dalton S. Rosario

1999-01-01

4

Control of ELT false alarms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The statistics of emergency locator transmitter (ELT) alarms are presented. The primary sources of data include ELT Incident Logs, Service Difficulty Reports, and Frequency Interference Reports. The number of reported and unreported alarms is discussed, as are seasonal variations, duration of ELT transmissions, and cost of silencing. Origin, causes, and possible strategies for reducing the impact of alarms on the aviation community are considered.

Toth, S.; Gershkoff, I.

1979-01-01

5

False-alarm characterization in hyperspectral gas-detection applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical cloud detection using long-wave infrared (LWIR) hyperspectral-imaging sensors has many civilian and military applications, including chemical warfare threat mitigation, environmental monitoring, and emergency response. Current capabilities are limited by variation in background clutter as opposed to the physics of photon detection, and this makes the statistical characterization of clutter and clutter-induced false alarms essential to the design of practical systems. In this exploratory work, we use hyperspectral data collected both on the ground and in the air to spectrally and spatially characterize false alarms. Focusing on two widely-used detectors, the matched filter (MF) and the adaptive cosine estimator (ACE), we compare empirical false-alarm rates to their theoretical counterparts - detector output under Gaussian, t and t-mixture distributed data - and show that these models often underestimate false-alarm rates. Next, we threshold real detection maps and show that true detections and false alarms often exhibit very different spatial behavior. To exploit this difference and understand how spatial processing affects performance, the spatial behavior of false alarms must be understood. We take a first step in this direction by showing that, although the behavior may `look' quite random, it is not well captured by the complete-spatial-randomness model. Finally, we describe how our findings impact the design of real detection systems.

DiPietro, Robert S.; Truslow, Eric; Manolakis, Dimitris G.; Golowich, Steven E.; Lockwood, Ronald B.

2012-09-01

6

HOME INSECURITY: NO ALARMS, FALSE ALARMS, AND SIGINT  

SciTech Connect

The market share of home security systems has substantially increased as vendors incorporate more desirable features: intrusion detection, automation, wireless, and LCD touch panel controls. Wireless connectivity allows vendors to manufacture cheaper, more featureful products that require little to no home modification to install. Consumer win, since adding devices is easier. The result: an ostensibly more secure, convenient, and connected home for a larger number of citizens. Sadly, this hypothesis is flawed; the idea of covering a home with more security sensors does not translate into a more secure home. Additionally, the number of homes using these vulnerable systems is large, and the growth rate is increasing producing a even larger problem. In this talk, I will demonstrate a generalized approach for compromising three systems: ADT, the largest home security dealer in North America; Honeywell, one of the largest manufacturers of security devices; and Vivint, a top 5 security dealer. We will suppress alarms, create false alarms, and collect artifacts that facilitate tracking the movements of individuals in their homes.

Lamb, Logan M [ORNL

2014-01-01

7

False fire alarms have a negative impact on UW operations False (or nuisance) alarms are very disruptive to UW operations. The alarms  

E-print Network

False fire alarms have a negative impact on UW operations False (or nuisance) alarms are very emergency. False alarms also have a negative impact on the community. Because police and fire departments vehicles out of service. This negatively impacts the City's ability to service their citizens. False fire

Wilcock, William

8

Panic, Suffocation False Alarms, Separation Anxiety and Endogenous Opioids  

PubMed Central

This review paper presents an amplification of the suffocation false alarm theory (SFA) of spontaneous panic (Klein, 1993). SFA postulates the existence of an evolved physiologic suffocation alarm system that monitors information about potential suffocation. Panic attacks maladaptively occur when the alarm is erroneously triggered. That panic is distinct from Cannon’s emergency fear response and Selye’s General Alarm Syndrome is shown by the prominence of intense air hunger during these attacks. Further, panic sufferers have chronic sighing abnormalities outside of the acute attack. Another basic physiologic distinction between fear and panic is the counter-intuitive lack of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activation in panic. Understanding panic as provoked by indicators of potential suffocation, such as fluctuations in pCO2 and brain lactate, as well as environmental circumstances fits the observed respiratory abnormalities. However, that sudden loss, bereavement and childhood separation anxiety are also antecedents of “spontaneous” panic requires an integrative explanation. Because of the opioid system’s central regulatory role in both disordered breathing and separation distress, we detail the role of opioidergic dysfunction in decreasing the suffocation alarm threshold. We present results from our laboratory where the naloxone-lactate challenge in normals produces supportive evidence for the endorphinergic defect hypothesis in the form of a distress episode of specific tidal volume hyperventilation paralleling challenge-produced and clinical panic. PMID:17765379

Preter, Maurice; Klein, Donald F.

2008-01-01

9

SETI Pulse Detection Algorithm: Analysis of False-alarm Rates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some earlier work by the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Science Working Group (SWG) on the derivation of spectrum analyzer thresholds for a pulse detection algorithm based on an analysis of false alarm rates is extended. The algorithm previously analyzed was intended to detect a finite sequence of i periodically spaced pulses that did not necessarily occupy the entire observation interval. This algorithm would recognize the presence of such a signal only if all i-received pulse powers exceeded a threshold T(i): these thresholds were selected to achieve a desired false alarm rate, independent of i. To simplify the analysis, it was assumed that the pulses were synchronous with the spectrum sample times. This analysis extends the earlier effort to include infinite and/or asynchronous pulse trains. Furthermore, to decrease the possibility of missing an extraterrestrial intelligence signal, the algorithm was modified to detect a pulse train even if some of the received pulse powers fall below the threshold. The analysis employs geometrical arguments that make it conceptually easy to incorporate boundary conditions imposed on the derivation of the false alarm rates. While the exact results can be somewhat complex, simple closed form approximations are derived that produce a negligible loss of accuracy.

Levitt, B. K.

1983-01-01

10

False alarm recognition in hyperspectral gas plume identification  

DOEpatents

According to one embodiment, a method for analyzing hyperspectral data includes collecting first hyperspectral data of a scene using a hyperspectral imager during a no-gas period and analyzing the first hyperspectral data using one or more gas plume detection logics. The gas plume detection logic is executed using a low detection threshold, and detects each occurrence of an observed hyperspectral signature. The method also includes generating a histogram for all occurrences of each observed hyperspectral signature which is detected using the gas plume detection logic, and determining a probability of false alarm (PFA) for all occurrences of each observed hyperspectral signature based on the histogram. Possibly at some other time, the method includes collecting second hyperspectral data, and analyzing the second hyperspectral data using the one or more gas plume detection logics and the PFA to determine if any gas is present. Other systems and methods are also included.

Conger, James L. (San Ramon, CA); Lawson, Janice K. (Tracy, CA); Aimonetti, William D. (Livermore, CA)

2011-03-29

11

Empirical mode decomposition based reducing false alarm filter for built-in test signal  

Microsoft Academic Search

False alarm is the phenomenon that built-in test or other detection module indicates fault problem but actually no fault exists. High false alarm rate severely restricts the development of built-in test system. This paper reveals that doing extra processing on the intrinsic mode functions obtained from empirical mode decomposition, we can establish a filter with good performance in reducing false

Miao Zhang; Yi Shen; Xin Li; Zhibo Wang; Xiaolei Zhang; Yanchao Gao; Yanju Ji

2011-01-01

12

False-Alarm Regulation in Log-Normal and Weibull Clutter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic detection radars require some method of adapting to variations in the background clutter in order to control their false-alarm rate. Conventional cell-averaging techniques designed to maintain a constant false-alarm rate in Rayleigh clutter will fail to control the false-alarm rate in more severe clutter environments such as log-normal or Weibull clutter. A processor is described which is capable of

G. B. Goldstein

1973-01-01

13

Reduction of false alarm rate in automatic forest fire infrared surveillance systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main problems related to infrared remote sensing of forest fires by automatic systems concerns the rejection of false alarms. The study of the infrared spectral radiance emitted by a biomass fire has been used to define spectral algorithms that permit to separate fires from other sources considered as false alarms. The different behaviour of the medium (3–5

S Briz; A. J. de Castro; J. M. Aranda; J. Melendez; F. Lopez

2003-01-01

14

False Alarm Reduction in BSN-Based Cardiac Monitoring Using Signal Quality and Activity Type Information.  

PubMed

False alarms in cardiac monitoring affect the quality of medical care, impacting on both patients and healthcare providers. In continuous cardiac monitoring using wireless Body Sensor Networks (BSNs), the quality of ECG signals can be deteriorated owing to several factors, e.g., noises, low battery power, and network transmission problems, often resulting in high false alarm rates. In addition, body movements occurring from activities of daily living (ADLs) can also create false alarms. This paper presents a two-phase framework for false arrhythmia alarm reduction in continuous cardiac monitoring, using signals from an ECG sensor and a 3D accelerometer. In the first phase, classification models constructed using machine learning algorithms are used for labeling input signals. ECG signals are labeled with heartbeat types and signal quality levels, while 3D acceleration signals are labeled with ADL types. In the second phase, a rule-based expert system is used for combining classification results in order to determine whether arrhythmia alarms should be accepted or suppressed. The proposed framework was validated on datasets acquired using BSNs and the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. For the BSN dataset, acceleration and ECG signals were collected from 10 young and 10 elderly subjects while they were performing ADLs. The framework reduced the false alarm rate from 9.58% to 1.43% in our experimental study, showing that it can potentially assist physicians in diagnosing a vast amount of data acquired from wireless sensors and enhance the performance of continuous cardiac monitoring. PMID:25671512

Tanantong, Tanatorn; Nantajeewarawat, Ekawit; Thiemjarus, Surapa

2015-01-01

15

Negative feedback from maternal signals reduces false alarms by collectively signalling offspring  

PubMed Central

Within animal groups, individuals can learn of a predator's approach by attending to the behaviour of others. This use of social information increases an individual's perceptual range, but can also lead to the propagation of false alarms. Error copying is especially likely in species that signal collectively, because the coordination required for collective displays relies heavily on social information. Recent evidence suggests that collective behaviour in animals is, in part, regulated by negative feedback. Negative feedback may reduce false alarms by collectively signalling animals, but this possibility has not yet been tested. We tested the hypothesis that negative feedback increases the accuracy of collective signalling by reducing the production of false alarms. In the treehopper Umbonia crassicornis, clustered offspring produce collective signals during predator attacks, advertising the predator's location to the defending mother. Mothers signal after evicting the predator, and we show that this maternal communication reduces false alarms by offspring. We suggest that maternal signals elevate offspring signalling thresholds. This is, to our knowledge, the first study to show that negative feedback can reduce false alarms by collectively behaving groups. PMID:22787019

Hamel, Jennifer A.; Cocroft, Reginald B.

2012-01-01

16

Improved detection and false alarm rejection for chemical vapors using passive hyperspectral imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two AIRIS sensors were tested at Dugway Proving Grounds against chemical agent vapor simulants. The primary objectives of the test were to: 1) assess performance of algorithm improvements designed to reduce false alarm rates with a special emphasis on solar effects, and 3) evaluate performance in target detection at 5 km. The tests included 66 total releases comprising alternating 120 kg glacial acetic acid (GAA) and 60 kg triethyl phosphate (TEP) events. The AIRIS sensors had common algorithms, detection thresholds, and sensor parameters. The sensors used the target set defined for the Joint Service Lightweight Chemical Agent Detector (JSLSCAD) with TEP substituted for GA and GAA substituted for VX. They were exercised at two sites located at either 3 km or 5 km from the release point. Data from the tests will be presented showing that: 1) excellent detection capability was obtained at both ranges with significantly shorter alarm times at 5 km, 2) inter-sensor comparison revealed very comparable performance, 3) false alarm rates < 1 incident per 10 hours running time over 143 hours of sensor operations were achieved, 4) algorithm improvements eliminated both solar and cloud false alarms. The algorithms enabling the improved false alarm rejection will be discussed. The sensor technology has recently been extended to address the problem of detection of liquid and solid chemical agents and toxic industrial chemical on surfaces. The phenomenology and applicability of passive infrared hyperspectral imaging to this problem will be discussed and demonstrated.

Marinelli, William J.; Miyashiro, Rex; Gittins, Christopher M.; Konno, Daisei; Chang, Shing; Farr, Matt; Perkins, Brad

2013-05-01

17

False alarm.  

PubMed

It says in the Scottish Play that Macbeth does murder sleep. He is not alone. The NHS has its own ways of destroying that balm of hurt minds and chief nourisher in life's feast, as Shakespeare went on to describe it. Our beloved Mother Ship is quite adept at ruining a good night's kip. PMID:25605092

Bates, Jane

2015-01-21

18

DISCOUNTING THE ERROR COSTS: Cross-Racial False Alarms in the Culture of Contemporary Criminal Justice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research regarding own-race bias (ORB) is examined by focusing on results that indicate that Whites may apply more lenient criteria to the recognition or identification of Blacks, resulting in a higher rate of false-alarm responses. The practical context of the forensic identification task is reviewed to assess whether the more lenient criteria applied by witnesses who are attempting identifications of

James M. Doyle

2001-01-01

19

Reduction of false alarms in forest fire surveillance using water vapour concentration measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work a theoretical model to evaluate the capabilities of our lidar system in forest fire detection is reported. In particular, a new idea of minimization of false alarm is shown. In a forest fire, in fact, a lot of ashes and in the first stage a large amount of water vapour are emitted. Measurements of water vapour increase

C. Bellecci; L. De Leo; P. Gaudio; M. Gelfusa; T. Lo Feudo; S. Martellucci; M. Richetta

2009-01-01

20

THE BOY WHO CRIED WOLF REVISITED: THE IMPACT OF FALSE ALARM INTOLERANCE ON  

E-print Network

THE BOY WHO CRIED WOLF REVISITED: THE IMPACT OF FALSE ALARM INTOLERANCE ON COST-LOSS SCENARIOS M's fable about the "The Boy who Cried Wolf", a young shepherd boy guarding the village flock cries. This event is repeated two or three times before a wolf actually does show up on the hillside. The boy cries

Stevenson, Paul

21

Techniques for reducing false alarms in infrared forest-fire automatic detection systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents techniques to reduce false alarms in forest-fire detection systems based on infrared cameras. Several software components to implement these techniques are discussed. The components are based on thresholds, oscillation detection, matching of visual and infrared images, memory, meteorological information, motion, size, shape, solar conditions and location. The paper includes a description of experiments in two forest environments,

A. Ollero; B. C. Arrue; J. R. Martinez; J. J. Murillo

1999-01-01

22

New methods for reducing the number of false alarms in fire detection systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present new methods of reducing the number of false alarms in smoke detectors and apply these methods to an ionization smoke detector. The detector is able to diagnose its working condition and its environment very precisely. When the detector's environment changes, the detector can automatically determine the cause, whether the change is fire-related or not. This

M. Thuillard

1994-01-01

23

A new approach to importance sampling for the simulation of false alarms. [in radar systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper a modified importance sampling technique for improving the convergence of Importance Sampling is given. By using this approach to estimate low false alarm rates in radar simulations, the number of Monte Carlo runs can be reduced significantly. For one-dimensional exponential, Weibull, and Rayleigh distributions, a uniformly minimum variance unbiased estimator is obtained. For Gaussian distribution the estimator in this approach is uniformly better than that of previously known Importance Sampling approach. For a cell averaging system, by combining this technique and group sampling, the reduction of Monte Carlo runs for a reference cell of 20 and false alarm rate of lE-6 is on the order of 170 as compared to the previously known Importance Sampling approach.

Lu, D.; Yao, K.

1987-01-01

24

Electromagnetic interference may cause false asystole alarms in certain Philips IntelliVue monitoring products.  

PubMed

Electromagnetic interference (EMI) may cause some Philips Healthcare IntelliVue MMS, MP2, MP5, and X2 patient monitoring products to incorrectly display a flat electrocardiogram (ECG) waveform and generate a false asystole alarm. This occurs while the devices' pace pulse rejection feature is enabled. Facilities that suspect such behavior in their inventories should contact Philips to discuss whether installation of firmware version D.02.05 will help address the problem. PMID:23444578

2011-09-01

25

False ventricular tachycardia alarm suppression in the ICU based on the discrete wavelet transform in the ECG signal.  

PubMed

Over the past few years, reducing the number of false positive cardiac monitor alarms (FA) in the intensive care unit (ICU) has become an issue of the utmost importance. In our work, we developed a robust methodology that, without the need for additional non-ECG waveforms, suppresses false positive ventricular tachycardia (VT) alarms without resulting in false negative alarms. Our approach is based on features extracted from the ECG signal 20 seconds prior to a triggered alarm. We applied a multi resolution wavelet transform to the ECG data 20seconds prior to the alarm trigger, extracted features from appropriately chosen scales and combined them across all available leads. These representations are presented to a L1-regularized logistic regression classifier. Results are shown in two datasets of physiological waveforms with manually assessed cardiac monitor alarms: the MIMIC II dataset, where we achieved a false alarm (FA) suppression of 21% with zero true alarm (TA) suppression; and a dataset compiled by UCSF and General Electric, where a 36% FA suppression was achieved with a zero TA suppression. The methodology described in this work could be implemented to reduce the number of false monitor alarms in other arrhythmias. PMID:25172188

Salas-Boni, Rebeca; Bai, Yong; Harris, Patricia Rae Eileen; Drew, Barbara J; Hu, Xiao

2014-01-01

26

Proximate Factors Underpinning Receiver Responses to Deceptive False Alarm Calls in Wild Tufted Capuchin Monkeys: Is It Counterdeception?  

PubMed Central

Previous research demonstrates that tufted capuchin monkeys use terrestrial predator alarm calls in a functionally deceptive manner to distract conspecifics when feeding on contestable resources, although the success of this tactic is limited because listeners frequently ignore these calls when given in such situations. While this decreased response rate is suggestive of a counterstrategy to deception by receivers, the proximate factors underpinning the behavior are unclear. The current study aims to test if the decreased response rate to alarm calls in competitive contexts is better explained by the perception of subtle acoustic differences between predator-elicited and deceptive false alarms, or by receivers varying their responses based on the context in which the signal is received. This was tested by first examining the acoustic structure of predator-elicited and deceptive false alarms for any potentially perceptible acoustic differences, and second by comparing the responses of capuchins to playbacks of each of predator-elicited and false alarms, played back in noncompetitive contexts. The results indicate that deceptive false alarms and predator-elicited alarms show, at best, minimal acoustic differences based on the structural features measured. Likewise, playbacks of deceptive false alarms elicited antipredator reactions at the same rate as did predator-elicited alarms, although there was a nonsignificant tendency for false alarms to be more likely to elicit escape reactions. The lack of robust acoustic differences together with the high response rate to false alarms in noncompetitive contexts suggests that the context in which the signal is received best explains receiver responses. It remains unclear, however, if listeners ascribe different meanings to the calls based on context, or if they generally ignore all signals in competitive contexts. Whether or not the decreased response rate of receivers directly stems from the deceptive use of the calls cannot be determined until these latter possibilities are rigorously tested. Am. J. Primatol. 75:715-725, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23184736

Wheeler, Brandon C; Hammerschmidt, Kurt

2013-01-01

27

Global parameter optimization for maximizing radioisotope detection probabilities at fixed false alarm rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today there is a tremendous amount of interest in systems that can detect radiological or nuclear threats. Many of these systems operate in extremely high throughput situations where delays caused by false alarms can have a significant negative impact. Thus, calculating the tradeoff between detection rates and false alarm rates is critical for their successful operation. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves have long been used to depict this tradeoff. The methodology was first developed in the field of signal detection. In recent years it has been used increasingly in machine learning and data mining applications. It follows that this methodology could be applied to radiological/nuclear threat detection systems. However many of these systems do not fit into the classic principles of statistical detection theory because they tend to lack tractable likelihood functions and have many parameters, which, in general, do not have a one-to-one correspondence with the detection classes. This work proposes a strategy to overcome these problems by empirically finding parameter values that maximize the probability of detection for a selected number of probabilities of false alarm. To find these parameter values a statistical global optimization technique that seeks to estimate portions of a ROC curve is proposed. The optimization combines elements of simulated annealing with elements of genetic algorithms. Genetic algorithms were chosen because they can reduce the risk of getting stuck in local minima. However classic genetic algorithms operate on arrays of Booleans values or bit strings, so simulated annealing is employed to perform mutation in the genetic algorithm. The presented initial results were generated using an isotope identification algorithm developed at Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. The algorithm has 12 parameters: 4 real-valued and 8 Boolean. A simulated dataset was used for the optimization study; the "threat" set of spectra contained 540 SNM and industrial signatures, and the "benign" set of spectra contained 240 NORM and medical signatures. As compared to a random parameter search, the statistical optimization was able to able to find parameters that yield significantly higher probabilities of detection for all probabilities of false alarm from 0 to 0.1 (and equal to for probabilities of false alarm greater than 0.1), in a relatively small number of iterations. The number of iterations used, 1000, is also many fewer than would be required for a reasonable systematic search of the parameter space.

Portnoy, David; Feuerbach, Robert; Heimberg, Jennifer

2011-10-01

28

A radar unattended ground sensor with micro-Doppler capabilities for false alarm reduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unattended ground sensors (UGS) provide the capability to inexpensively secure remote borders and other areas of interest. However, the presence of normal animal activity can often trigger a false alarm. Accurately detecting humans and distinguishing them from natural fauna is an important issue in security applications to reduce false alarm rates and improve the probability of detection. In particular, it is important to detect and classify people who are moving in remote locations and transmit back detections and analysis over extended periods at a low cost and with minimal maintenance. We developed and demonstrate a compact radar technology that is scalable to a variety of ultra-lightweight and low-power platforms for wide area persistent surveillance as an unattended, unmanned, and man-portable ground sensor. The radar uses micro-Doppler processing to characterize the tracks of moving targets and to then eliminate unimportant detections due to animals as well as characterize the activity of human detections. False alarms from sensors are a major liability that hinders widespread use. Incorporating rudimentary intelligence into sensors can reduce false alarms but can also result in a reduced probability of detection. Allowing an initial classification that can be updated with new observations and tracked over time provides a more robust framework for false alarm reduction at the cost of additional sensor observations. This paper explores these tradeoffs with a small radar sensor for border security. Multiple measurements were done to try to characterize the micro-Doppler of human versus animal and vehicular motion across a range of activities. Measurements were taken at the multiple sites with realistic but low levels of clutter. Animals move with a quadrupedal motion, which can be distinguished from the bipedal human motion. The micro-Doppler of a vehicle with rotating parts is also shown, along with ground truth images. Comparisons show large variations for different types of motion by the same type of animal. This paper presents the system and data on humans, vehicles, and animals at multiple angles and directions of motion, demonstrates the signal processing approach that makes the targets visually recognizable, verifies that the UGS radar has enough micro-Doppler capability to distinguish between humans, vehicles, and animals, and analyzes the probability of correct classification.

Tahmoush, Dave; Silvious, Jerry; Burke, Ed

2010-10-01

29

Validity of anecdotal reports of suspected adverse drug reactions: the problem of false alarms  

PubMed Central

Suspected adverse drug reactions first reported in 1963 in the “British Medical Journal,” the “Lancet,” the “Journal of the American Medical Association,” and the “New England Journal of Medicine” were reviewed 18 years later to assess their initial validity and subsequent verification. Of 52 first reports, five were deliberate investigations into potential or predictable reactions, and in each case causality was reasonably established; the other 47 reports were essentially anecdotal. Of these 47 reports, 14 related to categories of adverse reaction where false-positive reports were unlikely: immediate reactions, local reactions, and known reactions caused by a different mode of administration or a brand previously thought or claimed to be safe. The problem of false alarms rose in the remaining types of reactions: general reactions that did not occur immediately after administration and arose for the first time with a new chemical entity. Of 33 reports of such suspected adverse reactions, validity was satisfactorily established in 14 cases on the basis of rechallenge, predictability from known pharmacology, or the unique nature of the reaction. Of the remaining 19 reports, further verification still has not been satisfactorily established in 12. Seven of these possible false alarms were haematological reactions. Although 35 of the 47 anecdotal reports were clearly correct, of the 19 reports that were not reasonably validated at the time of the report, only seven were subsequently verified. This suggests that agencies monitoring adverse drug reactions should adopt criteria for assessing the validity of first reports of suspected adverse reactions. Such criteria should include: reactions on rechallenge, a pharmacological basis for the adverse reaction, immediate acute reactions, local reactions at the site of administration, reactions with a new route of administration of a drug known to provoke such reactions by another route, and the repeated occurrence of very rare events. PMID:6799125

Venning, G R

1982-01-01

30

ECG signal quality during arrhythmia and its application to false alarm reduction.  

PubMed

An automated algorithm to assess electrocardiogram (ECG) quality for both normal and abnormal rhythms is presented for false arrhythmia alarm suppression of intensive care unit (ICU) monitors. A particular focus is given to the quality assessment of a wide variety of arrhythmias. Data from three databases were used: the Physionet Challenge 2011 dataset, the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database, and the MIMIC II database. The quality of more than 33 000 single-lead 10 s ECG segments were manually assessed and another 12 000 bad-quality single-lead ECG segments were generated using the Physionet noise stress test database. Signal quality indices (SQIs) were derived from the ECGs segments and used as the inputs to a support vector machine classifier with a Gaussian kernel. This classifier was trained to estimate the quality of an ECG segment. Classification accuracies of up to 99% on the training and test set were obtained for normal sinus rhythm and up to 95% for arrhythmias, although performance varied greatly depending on the type of rhythm. Additionally, the association between 4050 ICU alarms from the MIMIC II database and the signal quality, as evaluated by the classifier, was studied. Results suggest that the SQIs should be rhythm specific and that the classifier should be trained for each rhythm call independently. This would require a substantially increased set of labeled data in order to train an accurate algorithm. PMID:23335659

Behar, Joachim; Oster, Julien; Li, Qiao; Clifford, Gari D

2013-06-01

31

Semantic similarity between old and new items produces false alarms in recognition memory.  

PubMed

In everyday life, human beings can report memories of past events that did not occur or that occurred differently from the way they remember them because memory is an imperfect process of reconstruction and is prone to distortion and errors. In this recognition study using word stimuli, we investigated whether a specific operationalization of semantic similarity among concepts can modulate false memories while controlling for the possible effect of associative strength and word co-occurrence in an old-new recognition task. The semantic similarity value of each new concept was calculated as the mean cosine similarity between pairs of vectors representing that new concept and each old concept belonging to the same semantic category. Results showed that, compared with (new) low-similarity concepts, (new) high-similarity concepts had significantly higher probability of being falsely recognized as old, even after partialling out the effect of confounding variables, including associative relatedness and lexical co-occurrence. This finding supports the feature-based view of semantic memory, suggesting that meaning overlap and sharing of semantic features (which are greater when more similar semantic concepts are being processed) have an influence on recognition performance, resulting in more false alarms for new high-similarity concepts. We propose that the associative strength and word co-occurrence among concepts are not sufficient to explain illusory memories but is important to take into account also the effects of feature-based semantic relations, and, in particular, the semantic similarity among concepts. PMID:25267547

Montefinese, Maria; Zannino, Gian Daniele; Ambrosini, Ettore

2014-09-30

32

Detection of exudates in fundus imagery using a constant false-alarm rate (CFAR) detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness in adults in the United States. The presence of exudates in fundus imagery is the early sign of diabetic retinopathy so detection of these lesions is essential in preventing further ocular damage. In this paper we present a novel technique to automatically detect exudates in fundus imagery that is robust against spatial and temporal variations of background noise. The detection threshold is adjusted dynamically, based on the local noise statics around the pixel under test in order to maintain a pre-determined, constant false alarm rate (CFAR). The CFAR detector is often used to detect bright targets in radar imagery where the background clutter can vary considerably from scene to scene and with angle to the scene. Similarly, the CFAR detector addresses the challenge of detecting exudate lesions in RGB and multispectral fundus imagery where the background clutter often exhibits variations in brightness and texture. These variations present a challenge to common, global thresholding detection algorithms and other methods. Performance of the CFAR algorithm is tested against a publicly available, annotated, diabetic retinopathy database and preliminary testing suggests that performance of the CFAR detector proves to be superior to techniques such as Otsu thresholding.

Khanna, Manish; Kapoor, Elina

2014-05-01

33

Both differences in encoding processes and monitoring at retrieval reduce false alarms when distinctive information is studied.  

PubMed

A reduction in false alarms to critical lures is observed in the DRM paradigm (Roediger & McDermott, 1995) when distinctive information is presented at encoding. Two mechanisms have been proposed to account for this reduction. According to the monitoring theory (e.g., the distinctiveness heuristic), lack of diagnostic recollection serves as a basis for discarding non-presented lures. According to the encoding theory, presenting distinctive information at study leads to impoverished relational processing, which results in a reduction in memorial information elicited by critical lures. In the present study a condition was created in which the use of the distinctiveness heuristic was precluded by associating, within the same study, lures with distinctive information in a context different from the study session. Under that condition reduction in false alarms to distinctive critical lures was still observed. This result supports the predictions of the encoding theory. However, when in the same study the use of the distinctiveness heuristic was not precluded, reductions in false alarms to unrelated lures were also observed when distinctive information was presented at study, indicating that both mechanisms are likely to contribute to the rejection of false memories. PMID:21500088

Hanczakowski, Maciej; Mazzoni, Giuliana

2011-04-01

34

Method and apparatus for distinguishing actual sparse events from sparse event false alarms  

DOEpatents

Remote sensing method and apparatus wherein sparse optical events are distinguished from false events. "Ghost" images of actual optical phenomena are generated using an optical beam splitter and optics configured to direct split beams to a single sensor or segmented sensor. True optical signals are distinguished from false signals or noise based on whether the ghost image is presence or absent. The invention obviates the need for dual sensor systems to effect a false target detection capability, thus significantly reducing system complexity and cost.

Spalding, Richard E. (Albuquerque, NM); Grotbeck, Carter L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2000-01-01

35

Statistical Considerations in Designing Tests of Mine Detection Systems: II - Measures Related to the False Alarm Rate  

SciTech Connect

The rate at which a mine detection system falsely identifies man-made or natural clutter objects as mines is referred to as the system's false alarm rate (FAR). Generally expressed as a rate per unit area or time, the FAR is one of the primary metrics used to gauge system performance. In this report, an overview is given of statistical methods appropriate for the analysis of data relating to FAR. Techniques are presented for determining a suitable size for the clutter collection area, for summarizing the performance of a single sensor, and for comparing different sensors. For readers requiring more thorough coverage of the topics discussed, references to the statistical literature are provided. A companion report addresses statistical issues related to the estimation of mine detection probabilities.

Simonson, K.M.

1998-08-01

36

FALSE-ALARM PROBABILITY IN RELATION TO OVERSAMPLED POWER SPECTRA, WITH APPLICATION TO SUPER-KAMIOKANDE SOLAR NEUTRINO DATA  

SciTech Connect

The term 'false-alarm probability' denotes the probability that at least one out of M independent power values in a prescribed search band of a power spectrum computed from a white-noise time series is expected to be as large as or larger than a given value. The usual formula is based on the assumption that powers are distributed exponentially, as one expects for power measurements of normally distributed random noise. However, in practice, one typically examines peaks in an oversampled power spectrum. It is therefore more appropriate to compare the strength of a particular peak with the distribution of peaks in oversampled power spectra derived from normally distributed random noise. We show that this leads to a formula for the false-alarm probability that is rather more conservative than the familiar formula. We also show how to combine these results with a Bayesian method for estimating the probability of the null hypothesis (that there is no oscillation in the time series), and we discuss as an example the application of these procedures to Super-Kamiokande solar neutrino data.

Sturrock, Peter A. [Center for Space Science and Astrophysics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Scargle, Jeffrey D. [NASA/Ames Research Center, MS 245-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

2010-07-20

37

Biological aerosol warning sensor model: an approach to model architecture and accelerated false-alarm prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Models of optically-based biological aerosol sensors may help to predict baseline performance and support efficient sensor optimization. Reducing a sensor"s false positive rate while maintaining sensitivity is an important performance goal that must be optimized. To that end, the capacity to theoretically test environmental backgrounds, in an accelerated fashion, would be valuable. Sensor false positives are presumed to occur as a result of complicated transient fluctuations in the environmental aerosol background. Simulating a sensor"s response to such naturally occurring transients, with an appropriate model, is a mechanism for accelerating sensor characterization. These models complement and reduce the need for experimentally challenging interferant tests. Additionally, validated models include the ability to characterize sensor responses to harmful agents or rare materials while simultaneously adjusting many transient parameters. We describe a model of the Lincoln Laboratory Biological Agent Warning Sensor (BAWS), highlighting our general approach to sensor model architecture. The resulting model was utilized to simulate the sensor"s response to a variety of individual background constituents as well as to time varying backgrounds with multiple constituents. The result of the simulation predicts the sensor"s false positive rate to a simulated indoor and outdoor aerosol background, which can be compared to experimental data. Model applications and improvements will be discussed.

Pitts, Jonathan D.; Cousins, Daniel; Goyette, Amanda

2004-12-01

38

Application of a CO2 dial system for infrared detection of forest fire and reduction of false alarm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fires can be the cause of serious environmental and economic damages. For this reason considerable effort has been directed toward forest protection and fire fighting. The means traditionally used for early fire detection mainly consist in human observers dispersed over forest regions. A significant improvement in early warning capabilities could be obtained by using automatic detection apparatus. In order to early detect small forest fires and minimize false alarms, the use of a lidar system and dial technique will be considered. A first evaluation of the lowest detectable concentration will be estimated by numerical simulation. The theoretical model will also be used to get the capability of the dial system to control wooded areas. Fixing the burning rate for several fuels, the maximum range of detection will be evaluated. Finally results of simulations will be reported.

Bellecci, C.; Francucci, M.; Gaudio, P.; Gelfusa, M.; Martellucci, S.; Richetta, M.; Lo Feudo, T.

2007-04-01

39

Over-reassurance and undersupport after a ‘false alarm’: a systematic review of the impact on subsequent cancer symptom attribution and help seeking  

PubMed Central

Objectives This literature review examined research into the impact of a previous ‘all-clear’ or non-cancer diagnosis following symptomatic presentation (‘false alarm’) on symptom attribution and delays in help seeking for subsequent possible cancer symptoms. Design and setting The comprehensive literature review included original research based on quantitative, qualitative and mixed data collection methods. We used a combination of search strategies, including in-depth searches of electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, PsychInfo), searching key authors and articles listed as ‘related’ in PubMed, and reference lists. We performed a narrative synthesis of key themes shared across studies. Participants The review included studies published after 1990 and before February 2014 reporting information on adult patients having experienced a false alarm following symptomatic presentation. We excluded false alarms in the context of screening. Primary and secondary outcome measures We evaluated the effect of a ‘false alarm’ on symptom attribution and help seeking for new or recurrent possible cancer symptoms. Results Overall, 1442 papers were screened and 121 retrieved for full-text evaluation. Among them, 19 reported on false alarms and subsequent symptom attribution or help seeking. They used qualitative (n=14), quantitative (n=3) and mixed methods (n=2). Breast (n=7), gynaecological (n=3), colorectal (n=2), testicular (n=2), and head and neck cancers (n=2) were the most studied. Two broad themes emerged underlying delays in help seeking: (1) over-reassurance from the previous ‘all-clear’ diagnosis leading to subsequent symptoms being interpreted as benign, and (2) unsupportive healthcare experiences in which symptoms were dismissed, leaving patients concerned about appearing hypochondriacal or uncertain about the appropriate next actions. The evidence suggested that the effect of a false alarm can persist for months and even years. Conclusions In conclusion, over-reassurance and undersupport of patients after a false alarm can undermine help seeking in the case of new or recurrent potential cancer symptoms, highlighting the need for appropriate patient information when investigations rule out cancer. PMID:25652803

Renzi, Cristina; Whitaker, Katriina L; Wardle, Jane

2015-01-01

40

AMETHYST: automatic alarm assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the AMETHYST (AutoMatic Event auTHentication sYSTem) project is to encourage the development of a high-performance, perimeter-alarm verification system that, using computer-vision, automatically rejects false alarms. AMETHYST will pass to an operator only those alarms that are caused by an intruder.

S. Mockler; N. Clarke

2002-01-01

41

Medical audible alarms: a review  

PubMed Central

Objectives This paper summarizes much of the research that is applicable to the design of auditory alarms in a medical context. It also summarizes research that demonstrates that false alarm rates are unacceptably high, meaning that the proper application of auditory alarm design principles are compromised. Target audience Designers, users, and manufacturers of medical information and monitoring systems that indicate when medical or other parameters are exceeded and that are indicated by an auditory signal or signals. Scope The emergence of alarms as a ‘hot topic’; an outline of the issues and design principles, including IEC 60601-1-8; the high incidence of false alarms and its impact on alarm design and alarm fatigue; approaches to reducing alarm fatigue; alarm philosophy explained; urgency in audible alarms; different classes of sound as alarms; heterogeneity in alarm set design; problems with IEC 60601-1-8 and ways of approaching this design problem. PMID:23100127

Edworthy, Judy

2013-01-01

42

Video methods for evaluating physiologic monitor alarms and alarm responses.  

PubMed

False physiologic monitor alarms are extremely common in the hospital environment. High false alarm rates have the potential to lead to alarm fatigue, leading nurses to delay their responses to alarms, ignore alarms, or disable them entirely. Recent evidence from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and The Joint Commission has demonstrated a link between alarm fatigue and patient deaths. Yet, very little scientific effort has focused on the rigorous quantitative measurement of alarms and responses in the hospital setting. We developed a system using multiple temporarily mounted, minimally obtrusive video cameras in hospitalized patients' rooms to characterize physiologic monitor alarms and nurse responses as a proxy for alarm fatigue. This allowed us to efficiently categorize each alarm's cause, technical validity, actionable characteristics, and determine the nurse's response time. We describe and illustrate the methods we used to acquire the video, synchronize and process the video, manage the large digital files, integrate the video with data from the physiologic monitor alarm network, archive the video to secure servers, and perform expert review and annotation using alarm "bookmarks." We discuss the technical and logistical challenges we encountered, including the root causes of hardware failures as well as issues with consent, confidentiality, protection of the video from litigation, and Hawthorne-like effects. The description of this video method may be useful to multidisciplinary teams interested in evaluating physiologic monitor alarms and alarm responses to better characterize alarm fatigue and other patient safety issues in clinical settings. PMID:24847936

Bonafide, Christopher P; Zander, Miriam; Graham, Christian Sarkis; Weirich Paine, Christine M; Rock, Whitney; Rich, Andrew; Roberts, Kathryn E; Fortino, Margaret; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Lin, Richard; Keren, Ron

2014-01-01

43

21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870...Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts...

2012-04-01

44

21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870...Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts...

2013-04-01

45

21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870...Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts...

2010-04-01

46

21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the...

2014-04-01

47

46 CFR 113.25-9 - Location of general emergency alarm signal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Location of general emergency alarm signal. 113...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-9 Location of general emergency alarm signal....

2011-10-01

48

46 CFR 113.25-9 - Location of general emergency alarm signal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Location of general emergency alarm signal. 113...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-9 Location of general emergency alarm signal....

2013-10-01

49

46 CFR 113.25-9 - Location of general emergency alarm signal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Location of general emergency alarm signal. 113...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-9 Location of general emergency alarm signal....

2012-10-01

50

46 CFR 113.25-9 - Location of general emergency alarm signal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Location of general emergency alarm signal. 113...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-9 Location of general emergency alarm signal....

2014-10-01

51

False recognition of instruction-set lures.  

PubMed

False remembering has been examined using a variety of procedures, including the Deese-Roediger-McDermott procedure, the false fame procedure and the two-list recognition procedure. We present six experiments in a different empirical framework examining false recognition of words included in the experimental instructions (instruction-set lures). The data show that participants' false alarm rate to instruction-set lures was twice their false alarm rate to standard lures. That result was statistically robust even when (1) the relative strength of targets to instruction-set lures was increased, (2) participants were warned about the instruction-set lures, (3) the instruction-set lures were camouflaged in the study instructions and (4) the instruction-set lures were presented verbally at study but visually at test. False recognition of instruction-set lures was only mitigated when participants were distracted between encountering the instruction-set lures and studying the training list. The results confirm the ease with which recognition succumbs to familiarity and demonstrate the robustness of false recognition. PMID:25438094

Curtis, Evan T; Chubala, Chrissy M; Spear, Jackie; Jamieson, Randall K; Hockley, William E; Crump, Matthew J C

2014-12-01

52

Hidden Alarm  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this design challenge activity, learners invent a device that will make their friends and family ask, "What's buzzing?" Learners design an alarm with an on/off switch that is small enough to hide. This activity is a fun, hands-on way for learners to get a taste for the design process and experiment with circuitry.

WGBH

2010-01-01

53

46 CFR 161.002-12 - Manual fire alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Manual fire alarm systems. 161.002-12 Section...SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Fire-Protective Systems § 161.002-12 Manual fire alarm systems. (a) General. A...

2014-10-01

54

47 CFR 80.307 - Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm. 80.307 Section 80.307 Telecommunication... § 80.307 Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm. The radiotelegraph auto alarm required on a cargo ship subject to the...

2010-10-01

55

47 CFR 80.307 - Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm. 80.307 Section 80.307 Telecommunication... § 80.307 Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm. The radiotelegraph auto alarm required on a cargo ship subject to the...

2011-10-01

56

46 CFR 153.438 - Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. 153...Control Systems § 153.438 Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. ...alarm that operates when the cargo's pressure exceeds the vapor pressure described...

2014-10-01

57

An Expert System for Monitor Alarm Integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Intensive care and operating room monitors generate data that are not fully utilized. False alarms are so frequent that attending personnel tends to disconnect them. We developed an expert system that could select and validate alarms by integration of seven vital signs monitored on-line from cardiac surgical patients. Methods. The system uses fuzzy logic and is able to work

Christian Oberli; Jorge Urzua; Claudia Saez; Marcello Guarini; Aldo Cipriano; Bernardita Garayar; Guillermo Lema; Roberto Canessa; Carla Sacco; Manuel Irarrazaval

1999-01-01

58

46 CFR 113.25-30 - General emergency alarm systems for barges of 300 or more gross tons with sleeping accommodations...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false General emergency alarm systems for barges... ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-30 General emergency alarm systems for...

2013-10-01

59

46 CFR 113.25-30 - General emergency alarm systems for barges of 300 or more gross tons with sleeping accommodations...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false General emergency alarm systems for barges... ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-30 General emergency alarm systems for...

2014-10-01

60

46 CFR 113.25-30 - General emergency alarm systems for barges of 300 or more gross tons with sleeping accommodations...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false General emergency alarm systems for barges... ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-30 General emergency alarm systems for...

2012-10-01

61

46 CFR 113.25-30 - General emergency alarm systems for barges of 300 or more gross tons with sleeping accommodations...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false General emergency alarm systems for barges... ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-30 General emergency alarm systems for...

2010-10-01

62

46 CFR 113.25-30 - General emergency alarm systems for barges of 300 or more gross tons with sleeping accommodations...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false General emergency alarm systems for barges... ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-30 General emergency alarm systems for...

2011-10-01

63

46 CFR 78.47-75 - Ventilation alarm failure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 78.47-75 Section...Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-75 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm...which indicates the loss of required ventilation in spaces specially suitable for...

2012-10-01

64

46 CFR 78.47-75 - Ventilation alarm failure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 78.47-75 Section...Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-75 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm...which indicates the loss of required ventilation in spaces specially suitable for...

2011-10-01

65

46 CFR 78.47-75 - Ventilation alarm failure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 78.47-75 Section...Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-75 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm...which indicates the loss of required ventilation in spaces specially suitable for...

2010-10-01

66

46 CFR 97.37-50 - Ventilation alarm failure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 97.37-50 Section...Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-50 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm...which indicates the loss of required ventilation in spaces specially suitable for...

2012-10-01

67

46 CFR 97.37-50 - Ventilation alarm failure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 97.37-50 Section...Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-50 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm...which indicates the loss of required ventilation in spaces specially suitable for...

2010-10-01

68

46 CFR 97.37-50 - Ventilation alarm failure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 97.37-50 Section...Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-50 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm...which indicates the loss of required ventilation in spaces specially suitable for...

2013-10-01

69

46 CFR 78.47-75 - Ventilation alarm failure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 78.47-75 Section...Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-75 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm...which indicates the loss of required ventilation in spaces specially suitable for...

2013-10-01

70

46 CFR 97.37-50 - Ventilation alarm failure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 97.37-50 Section...Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-50 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm...which indicates the loss of required ventilation in spaces specially suitable for...

2011-10-01

71

46 CFR 78.47-75 - Ventilation alarm failure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 78.47-75 Section...Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-75 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm...which indicates the loss of required ventilation in spaces specially suitable for...

2014-10-01

72

30 CFR 57.4360 - Underground alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground alarm systems. 57.4360 Section...HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention...Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4360 Underground alarm systems. (a) Fire...

2010-07-01

73

30 CFR 57.4360 - Underground alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Underground alarm systems. 57.4360 Section...HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention...Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4360 Underground alarm systems. (a) Fire...

2014-07-01

74

30 CFR 57.4360 - Underground alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Underground alarm systems. 57.4360 Section...HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention...Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4360 Underground alarm systems. (a) Fire...

2011-07-01

75

30 CFR 57.4360 - Underground alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Underground alarm systems. 57.4360 Section...HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention...Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4360 Underground alarm systems. (a) Fire...

2012-07-01

76

30 CFR 57.4360 - Underground alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Underground alarm systems. 57.4360 Section...HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention...Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4360 Underground alarm systems. (a) Fire...

2013-07-01

77

Remote Monitor Alarm System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A remote monitor alarm system monitors discrete alarm and analog power supply voltage conditions at remotely located communications terminal equipment. A central monitoring unit (CMU) is connected via serial data links to each of a plurality of remote terminal units (RTUS) that monitor the alarm and power supply conditions of the remote terminal equipment. Each RTU can monitor and store condition information of both discrete alarm points and analog power supply voltage points in its associated communications terminal equipment. The stored alarm information is periodically transmitted to the CMU in response to sequential polling of the RTUS. The number of monitored alarm inputs and permissible voltage ranges for the analog inputs can be remotely configured at the CMU and downloaded into programmable memory at each RTU. The CMU includes a video display, a hard disk memory, a line printer and an audio alarm for communicating and storing the alarm information received from each RTU.

Stute, Robert A. (Inventor); Galloway, F. Houston (Inventor); Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor); Swindle, Robert W. (Inventor); Bierman, Tracy A. (Inventor)

1996-01-01

78

The Distinctions of False and Fuzzy Memories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that fuzzy-trace theory has been used to understand false memories of children. Demonstrates the irony imbedded in the theory, maintaining that a central implication of fuzzy-trace theory is that some errors characterized as false memories are not really false at all. These errors, when applied to false alarms to related lures, are best…

Schooler, Jonathan W.

1998-01-01

79

Fire alarm system improvement  

SciTech Connect

This document contains the Fire Alarm System Test Procedure for Building 234-5Z, 200-West Area on the Hanford Reservation, Richland, Washington. This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the modifications to the Fire Protection systems function as required by project criteria. The ATP will test the Fire Alarm Control Panels, Flow Alarm Pressure Switch, Heat Detectors, Smoke Detectors, Flow Switches, Manual Pull Stations, and Gong/Door by Pass Switches.

Hodge, S.G.

1994-10-01

80

46 CFR 153.438 - Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. 153.438 Section...MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.438 Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. (a) Each...

2011-10-01

81

46 CFR 153.438 - Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. 153.438 Section...MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.438 Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. (a) Each...

2013-10-01

82

46 CFR 153.438 - Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. 153.438 Section...MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.438 Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. (a) Each...

2012-10-01

83

46 CFR 153.438 - Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. 153.438 Section...MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.438 Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. (a) Each...

2010-10-01

84

46 CFR 113.25-25 - General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. 113.25-25 Section...25-25 General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. A manned ocean or coastwise barge of more than 100...

2014-10-01

85

46 CFR 113.25-25 - General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. 113.25-25 Section...25-25 General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. A manned ocean or coastwise barge of more than 100...

2013-10-01

86

46 CFR 113.25-25 - General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. 113.25-25 Section...25-25 General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. A manned ocean or coastwise barge of more than 100...

2011-10-01

87

46 CFR 113.25-25 - General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. 113.25-25 Section...25-25 General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. A manned ocean or coastwise barge of more than 100...

2012-10-01

88

46 CFR 113.25-25 - General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. 113.25-25 Section...25-25 General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. A manned ocean or coastwise barge of more than 100...

2010-10-01

89

46 CFR 97.37-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 97.37-9...Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing...

2014-10-01

90

46 CFR 196.37-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 196...Equipment, etc. § 196.37-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each extinguishing system using carbon dioxide or clean agent complying...

2014-10-01

91

46 CFR 78.47-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 78.47-9...Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing...

2014-10-01

92

46 CFR 78.47-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 78.47-9...Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing...

2012-10-01

93

46 CFR 131.815 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 131.815...Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.815 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing...

2013-10-01

94

Repetition increases false recollection in older people.  

PubMed

Aging is accompanied by an increase in false alarms on recognition tasks, and these false alarms increase with repetition in older people (but not in young people). Traditionally, this increase was thought to be due to a greater use of familiarity in older people, but it was recently pointed out that false alarms also have a clear recollection component in these people. The main objective of our study is to analyze whether the expected increase in the rate of false alarms in older people due to stimulus repetition is produced by an inadequate use of familiarity, recollection, or both processes. To do so, we carried out an associative recognition experiment using pairs of words and pairs of images (faces associated with everyday contexts), in which we analyzed whether the repetition of some of the pairs increases the rate of false alarms in older people (compared to what was found in a sample of young people), and whether this increase is due to familiarity or recollection (using a remember-know paradigm). Our results show that the increase in false alarms in older people due to repetition is produced by false recollection, calling into question both dual and single-process models of recognition. Also, older people falsely recollect details of never studied stimuli, a clear case of perceptual illusions. These results are better explained in terms of source-monitoring errors, mediated by people's retrieval expectations. PMID:25330138

Pitarque, Alfonso; Sales, Alicia; Meléndez, Juan Carlos; Algarabel, Salvador

2015-02-01

95

The Strategic Nature of False Recognition in the DRM Paradigm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The false memory effect produced by the Deese/Roediger & McDermott (DRM) paradigm is reportedly impervious to warnings to avoid false alarming to the critical lures (D. A. Gallo, H. L. Roediger III, & K. B. McDermott, 2001). This finding has been used as strong evidence against models that attribute the false alarms to a decision process…

Miller, Michael B.; Guerin, Scott A.; Wolford, George L.

2011-01-01

96

33 CFR 401.16 - Propeller direction alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Propeller direction alarms. 401.16 Section... Condition of Vessels § 401.16 Propeller direction alarms. Every vessel...more shall be equipped with— (a) Propeller direction and shaft r.p.m....

2011-07-01

97

33 CFR 401.16 - Propeller direction alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Propeller direction alarms. 401.16 Section... Condition of Vessels § 401.16 Propeller direction alarms. Every vessel...more shall be equipped with— (a) Propeller direction and shaft r.p.m....

2014-07-01

98

33 CFR 401.16 - Propeller direction alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Propeller direction alarms. 401.16 Section... Condition of Vessels § 401.16 Propeller direction alarms. Every vessel...more shall be equipped with— (a) Propeller direction and shaft r.p.m....

2012-07-01

99

33 CFR 401.16 - Propeller direction alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Propeller direction alarms. 401.16 Section... Condition of Vessels § 401.16 Propeller direction alarms. Every vessel...more shall be equipped with— (a) Propeller direction and shaft r.p.m....

2013-07-01

100

33 CFR 401.16 - Propeller direction alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Propeller direction alarms. 401.16 Section... Condition of Vessels § 401.16 Propeller direction alarms. Every vessel...more shall be equipped with— (a) Propeller direction and shaft r.p.m....

2010-07-01

101

Sensor fusion for intelligent alarm analysis  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of an intelligent alarm analysis system is to provide complete and manageable information to a central alarm station operator by applying alarm processing and fusion techniques to sensor information. This paper discusses the sensor fusion approach taken to perform intelligent alarm analysis for the Advanced Exterior Sensor (AES). The AES is an intrusion detection and assessment system designed for wide-area coverage, quick deployment, low false/nuisance alarm operation, and immediate visual assessment. It combines three sensor technologies (visible, infrared, and millimeter wave radar) collocated on a compact and portable remote sensor module. The remote sensor module rotates at a rate of 1 revolution per second to detect and track motion and provide assessment in a continuous 360` field-of-regard. Sensor fusion techniques are used to correlate and integrate the track data from these three sensors into a single track for operator observation. Additional inputs to the fusion process include environmental data, knowledge of sensor performance under certain weather conditions, sensor priority, and recent operator feedback. A confidence value is assigned to the track as a result of the fusion process. This helps to reduce nuisance alarms and to increase operator confidence in the system while reducing the workload of the operator.

Nelson, C.L.; Fitzgerald, D.S.

1995-03-01

102

FundAlarm  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

FundAlarm is a "a free, non-commercial Website [which provides] objective information to help individual investors make the mutual fund 'sell' decision." Highlighted on this site is the FundAlarm database, which contains over 3,400 stock and balanced mutual funds. The database may be browsed by name of fund, or users can browse only fidelity and Vanguard funds, as well as search by up to five ticker symbols. The site also explains its benchmarking system of ranking funds, offers shop talk in its Highlights and Commentary section, and includes a discussion board. Interested users may sign up for free email notification of FundAlarm updates.

103

Alarm effectiveness in driver-centred collision-warning R. PARASURAMAN, P. A. HANCOCK and O. OLOFINBOBA  

E-print Network

rate and experience with other technologies con® rms driver aversion to false warnings. Although sensitive alarm systems with high detection rates and low false alarm rates have been developed, the posterior probability of a collision given an alarm can be quite low because of the low base rate

Parasuraman, Raja

104

46 CFR 35.40-1 - General alarm contact maker-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false General alarm contact maker-TB/ALL. 35.40-1 Section 35.40-1 Shipping...OPERATIONS Posting and Marking Requirements-TB/ALL. § 35.40-1 General alarm contact maker—TB/ALL. Each general alarm contact maker...

2010-10-01

105

46 CFR 35.40-5 - General alarm bells-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false General alarm bells-TB/ALL. 35.40-5 Section 35.40-5 Shipping...OPERATIONS Posting and Marking Requirements-TB/ALL. § 35.40-5 General alarm bells—TB/ALL. General alarm bells must be marked...

2010-10-01

106

Design of the Intelligent Test Equipment of Airplane Fire Alarm System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The airplane fire alarm system is a piece of the most important equipment influencing the flight security. Due to the factors of design and working condition, the reliability of the system is poor, especially the high rate of false alarm. So the test equipment of airplane fire alarm system, an intelligent synthesis test system allowing multiple parameters and digital data

Xu Hengcheng; Zeng Xianlin; Liu Xiangqun

2010-01-01

107

False recognition without intentional learning.  

PubMed

Asked to memorize a list of semantically related words, participants often falsely recall or recognize a highly related semantic associate that has not been presented (the critical lure). Does this false memory phenomenon depend on intentional word reading and learning? In Experiment 1, participants performed a color identification task on distractor words from typical false memory lists. In Experiment 2, participants read the same words. In both experiments, the primary task was followed by a surprise recognition test for actually presented and unpresented words, including the critical lures. False alarms to critical lures were robust and quite equivalent across the two experiments. These results are consistent with an activation/monitoring account of false memory, in which processing of semantic associates can evoke false memories even when that processing is incidental. PMID:15116999

Dodd, Michael D; MacLeod, Colin M

2004-02-01

108

Munchausen Stridor-A Strong False Alarm of Anaphylaxis  

PubMed Central

The diagnosis of anaphylaxis is often based on reported symptoms which may not be accurate and lead to major psychosocial and financial impacts. We describe two adult patients who were diagnosed as having recurrent anaphylaxis witnessed by multiple physicians based on recurrent laryngeal symptoms. The claimed cause was foods in one and drugs in the other. We questioned the diagnosis because of absent documentation of objective findings to support anaphylaxis, and the symptoms occurred during skin testing though the test sites were not reactive. Our initial skin testing with placebos reproduced the symptoms without objective findings. Subsequent skin tests with the suspected allergens were negative yet reproduced the symptoms without objective findings. Disclosing the test results markedly displeased one patient but reassured the other who subsequently tolerated the suspected allergen. In conclusion, these 2 patients' symptoms and evaluation were not supportive of their initial diagnosis of recurrent anaphylaxis. The compatible diagnosis was Munchausen stridor which requires psychiatric evaluation and behavior modification, but often rejected by patients. PMID:25374759

Oldham, Jennifer L.

2014-01-01

109

False Alarm: A Reply to Over and Evans. Discussion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses Over and Evans' alternative interpretations to Kris N. Kirby's card-selection tasks and finds empirical difficulties. Cites the potentially important contribution of Over and Evans to understanding of the card-selection task by applying the notion of epistemic utility. (DR)

Kirby, Kris N.

1994-01-01

110

Parallax mitigation for hyperspectral change detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A pixel-level Generalized Likelihood Ratio Test (GLRT) statistic for hyperspectral change detection is developed to mitigate false change caused by image parallax. Change detection, in general, represents the difficult problem of discriminating significant changes opposed to insignificant changes caused by radiometric calibration, image registration issues, and varying view geometries. We assume that the images have been registered, and each pixel pair provides a measurement from the same spatial region in the scene. Although advanced image registration methods exist that can reduce mis-registration to subpixel levels; residual spatial mis-registration can still be incorrectly detected as significant changes. Similarly, changes in sensor viewing geometry can lead to parallax error in an urban cluttered scene where height structures, such as buildings, appear to move. Our algorithm looks to the inherent relationship between the image views and the theory of stereo vision to perform parallax mitigation leading to a search result in the assumed parallax direction. Mitigation of the parallax-induced false alarms is demonstrated using hyperspectral data in the experimental analysis. The algorithm is examined and compared to the existing chronochrome anomalous change detection algorithm to assess performance.

Vongsy, Karmon; Eismann, Michael T.; Mendenhall, Michael J.; Velten, Vincent J.

2014-06-01

111

FIRE ALARM SYSTEM OUTDATED.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

AN EFFICIENT FIRE ALARM SYSTEM SHOULD--(1) PROVIDE WARNING OF FIRES THAT START IN HIDDEN OR UNOCCUPIED LOCATIONS, (2) INDICATE WHERE THE FIRE IS, (3) GIVE ADVANCE WARNING TO FACULTY AND ADMINISTRATION SO THAT PANIC AND CONFUSION CAN BE AVOIDED AND ORDERLY EVACUATION OCCUR, (4) AUTOMATICALLY NOTIFY CITY FIRE HEADQUARTERS OF THE FIRE, (5) OPERATE BY…

CHANDLER, L.T.

112

Fork-tailed drongos use deceptive mimicked alarm calls to steal food.  

PubMed

Despite the prevalence of vocal mimicry in animals, few functions for this behaviour have been shown. I propose a novel hypothesis that false mimicked alarm calls could be used deceptively to scare other species and steal their food. Studies have previously suggested that animals use their own species-specific alarm calls to steal food. However none have shown conclusively that these false alarms are deceptive, or that mimicked alarm calls are used in this manner. Here, I show that wild fork-tailed drongos (Dicrurus adsimilis) make both drongo-specific and mimicked false alarm calls when watching target species handling food, in response to which targets flee to cover abandoning their food. The drongo-specific and mimicked calls made in false alarms were structurally indistinguishable from calls made during true alarms at predators by drongos and other species. Furthermore, I demonstrate by playback experiments that two of these species, meerkats (Suricata suricatta) and pied babblers (Turdoides bicolor), are deceived by both drongo-specific and mimicked false alarm calls. These results provide the first conclusive evidence that false alarm calls are deceptive and demonstrate a novel function for vocal mimicry. This work also provides valuable insight into the benefits of deploying variable mimetic signals in deceptive communication. PMID:21047861

Flower, Tom

2011-05-22

113

Dynamic alarm response procedures  

SciTech Connect

The Dynamic Alarm Response Procedure (DARP) system provides a robust, Web-based alternative to existing hard-copy alarm response procedures. This paperless system improves performance by eliminating time wasted looking up paper procedures by number, looking up plant process values and equipment and component status at graphical display or panels, and maintenance of the procedures. Because it is a Web-based system, it is platform independent. DARP's can be served from any Web server that supports CGI scripting, such as Apache{sup R}, IIS{sup R}, TclHTTPD, and others. DARP pages can be viewed in any Web browser that supports Javascript and Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG), such as Netscape{sup R}, Microsoft Internet Explorer{sup R}, Mozilla Firefox{sup R}, Opera{sup R}, and others. (authors)

Martin, J.; Gordon, P.; Fitch, K. [Westinghouse Electric Company, P. O. Box 355, Pittsburgh, PA 15230-0355 (United States)

2006-07-01

114

The Kepler False Positive Table  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kepler Space Telescope has detected thousands of candidate exoplanets by observing transit signals in a sample of more than 190,000 stars. Many of these transit signals are false positives, defined as a transit-like signal that is not due to a planet orbiting the target star (or a bound companion if the target is a multiple-star system). Astrophysical causes of false positives include background eclipsing binaries, planetary transits not associated with the target star, and non-planetary eclipses of the target star by stellar companions. The fraction of Kepler planet candidates that are false positives ranges from about 10% at high Galactic latitudes to 40% at low Galactic latitudes. Creating a high-reliability planet candidate catalog for statistical studies such as occurrence rate calculations requires removing clearly identified false positives.The Kepler Object of Interest (KOI) catalog at the NExScI NASA Exoplanet Archive flags false positives, and will soon provide a high-level classification of false positives, but lacks detailed description of why a KOI was determined to be a false positive. The Kepler False Positive Working Group (FPWG) examines each false positive in detail to certify that it is correctly identified as a false positive, and determines the primary reason(s) a KOI is classified as a false positive. The work of the FPWG will be published as the Kepler False Positive Table, hosted at the NExScI NASA Exoplanet Archive.The Kepler False Positive Table provides detailed information on the evidence for background binaries, transits caused by stellar companions, and false alarms. In addition to providing insight into the Kepler false positive population, the false positive table gives information about the background binary population and other areas of astrophysical interest. Because a planet around a star not associated with the target star is considered a false positive, the false positive table likely contains further planet candidates. This poster describes the creation of the false positive table, how false positives are certified, and the logical relationship between the various types of evidence and the final false positive determination.

Bryson, Steve; Kepler False Positive Working Group

2015-01-01

115

Functional relationship-based alarm processing  

DOEpatents

A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously updated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on causal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). 11 figs.

Corsberg, D.R.

1987-04-13

116

Development of a GLE Alarm System Based Upon Neutron Monitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a system that watches for count rate increases recorded in real time by eight neutron monitors, and gives an alarm when a Ground Level Enhancement (GLE) is detected. In this work, we determine optimal strategies for detecting the GLE event at a very early stage, while still keeping the false alarm rate from glitches at a very low level. The January 20, 2005 event will be used to illustrate our methods. A reliable system is developed with an algorithm that produces alarms in three levels according to the number of stations showing an increase. We study past events to optimize appropriate intensity threshold values and a baseline to determine the intensity increase. At the highest level alarm produced by the three stations increase, a false alarm rate expected from the observed data during the past five years become zero. Alarm times of GLEs examined from the most recent nine events are compared with satellite proton data. The GLE alert would precede the earliest alert from GOES (100 MeV or 10 MeV protons) by ~10-20 minutes. For the January 20 event, the GLE alert (3 stations) was generated 12 minutes prior to the earliest GOES alert. The realtime GLE data may be viewed at http://neutronm.bartol.udel.edu/spaceweather. An automated e-mail alert system is under development. Supported by NSF grants ATM-0207196 and ATM-0000315.

Kuwabara, T.; Bieber, J. W.; Clem, J.; Evenson, P.; Pyle, R.

2005-12-01

117

A High-confidence Cyber-Physical Alarm System: Design and Implementation  

E-print Network

Most traditional alarm systems cannot address security threats in a satisfactory manner. To alleviate this problem, we developed a high-confidence cyber-physical alarm system (CPAS), a new kind of alarm systems. This system establishes the connection of the Internet (i.e. TCP/IP) through GPRS/CDMA/3G. It achieves mutual communication control among terminal equipments, human machine interfaces and users by using the existing mobile communication network. The CPAS will enable the transformation in alarm mode from traditional one-way alarm to two-way alarm. The system has been successfully applied in practice. The results show that the CPAS could avoid false alarms and satisfy residents' security needs.

Ma, Longhua; Xia, Feng; Xu, Ming; Yao, Jun; Shao, Meng

2010-01-01

118

The False Memory and the Mirror Effects: The Role of Familiarity and Backward Association in Creating False Recollections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The mirror effect refers to a phenomenon where the hit rate is higher for low frequency words while the false alarm rate is higher for high frequency distractors. Using a false memory paradigm (Roediger & McDermott, 1995), we examined whether false memory for non-presented lures would be influenced by the lure's familiarity. The results revealed…

Anaki, D.; Faran, Y.; Ben-Shalom, D.; Henik, A.

2005-01-01

119

Recent Results on "Approximations to Optimal Alarm Systems for Anomaly Detection"  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optimal alarm system and its approximations may use Kalman filtering for univariate linear dynamic systems driven by Gaussian noise to provide a layer of predictive capability. Predicted Kalman filter future process values and a fixed critical threshold can be used to construct a candidate level-crossing event over a predetermined prediction window. An optimal alarm system can be designed to elicit the fewest false alarms for a fixed detection probability in this particular scenario.

Martin, Rodney Alexander

2009-01-01

120

Line supervision of alarm communications  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this paper is to explain the role and application of alarm communication link supervision in security systems such as for nuclear facilities. The vulnerabilities of the various types of alarm communication links will be presented. Throughout the paper, an effort has been made to describe only those technologies commercially available and to avoid speculative theoretical solutions.

Chritton, M.R. (BE, Inc., Barnwell, SC (United States))

1991-01-01

121

Talking Fire Alarms Calm Kids.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The new microprocessor-based fire alarm systems can help to control smoke movement throughout school buildings by opening vents and doors, identify the burning section, activate voice alarms, provide firefighters with telephone systems during the fire, and release fire-preventing gas. (KS)

Executive Educator, 1984

1984-01-01

122

Substation alarm multiplexing system (SAMS)  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an on going R&D project to develop, design, install, and assess the field performance of an advanced substation alarm system. SAMS provides a highly fault-tolerant system for the reporting of equipment alarms. SAMS separates and identifies each of the multiple alarm contacts, transmits an alarm condition over existing substation two-wire system, and displays the alarm source, and its associated technical information, on a touch-screen monitor inside the substation control room, and a remote central location and on a hand held terminal which may be carried anywhere within the substation. SAMS is currently installed at the Sherman Creek substation in the Bronx for the purpose of a three month field evaluation.

ElBadaly, H.; Gaughan, J.; Ward, G.; Amengual, S.

1996-03-01

123

46 CFR 162.050-19 - Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig. 162.050-19...Equipment § 162.050-19 Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig. (a) This...used in approval testing of oil content meters and meter. A typical test rig is...

2013-10-01

124

46 CFR 162.050-19 - Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig. 162.050-19...Equipment § 162.050-19 Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig. (a) This...used in approval testing of oil content meters and meter. A typical test rig is...

2011-10-01

125

46 CFR 162.050-19 - Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig. 162.050-19...Equipment § 162.050-19 Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig. (a) This...used in approval testing of oil content meters and meter. A typical test rig is...

2012-10-01

126

46 CFR 162.050-19 - Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig. 162.050-19...Equipment § 162.050-19 Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig. (a) This...used in approval testing of oil content meters and meter. A typical test rig is...

2010-10-01

127

MAPPING IT OUT: REPEAT-ADDRESS BURGLAR ALARMS AND BURGLARIES1  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the police are trying to cope with large volumes of false- alarm calls, a new direction in crime prevention asserts that preventing repeat victimization of people, property, places, and situations might be more efficient than other traditional crime prevention doctrines. Using graduated circle maps, this study compares the spatial distributions of alarm calls and burglary incidents across Charlotte, NC,

James L. LeBeau; Karen L. Vincent

128

46 CFR 35.40-7 - Carbon dioxide alarm-T/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm-T/ALL. 35.40-7 Section 35.40-7 Shipping...OPERATIONS Posting and Marking Requirements-TB/ALL. § 35.40-7 Carbon dioxide alarm—T/ALL. Adjacent to all carbon dioxide fire...

2010-10-01

129

46 CFR 196.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

46 ? Shipping ? 7 ? 2010-10-01 ? 2010-10-01 ? false ? Carbon dioxide alarm. ? 196.37-9 ? Section 196.37-9 ? Shipping ? COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ? OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS ? OPERATIONS ? Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. ? § 196.37-9 ?...

2010-10-01

130

46 CFR 196.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

46 ? Shipping ? 7 ? 2011-10-01 ? 2011-10-01 ? false ? Carbon dioxide alarm. ? 196.37-9 ? Section 196.37-9 ? Shipping ? COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ? OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS ? OPERATIONS ? Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. ? § 196.37-9 ?...

2011-10-01

131

Filtering False Positives Based on Server-Side Behaviors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reducing the rate of false positives is of vital importance in enhancing the usefulness of signature-based network intrusion detection systems (NIDSs). To reduce the number of false positives, a network administrator must thoroughly investigate a lengthy list of signatures and carefully disable the ones that detect attacks that are not harmful to the administrator's environment. This is a daunting task; if some signatures are disabled by mistake, the NIDS fails to detect critical remote attacks. We designed a NIDS, TrueAlarm, to reduce the rate of false positives. Conventional NIDSs alert administrators that a malicious message has been detected, regardless of whether the message actually attempts to compromise the protected server. In contrast, TrueAlarm delays the alert until it has confirmed that an attempt has been made. The TrueAlarm NIDS cooperates with a server-side monitor that observes the protected server's behavior. TrueAlarm only alerts administrators when a server-side monitor has detected deviant server behavior that must have been caused by a message detected by a NIDS. Our experimental results revealed that TrueAlarm reduces the rate of false positives. Using actual network traffic collected over 14 days, TrueAlarm produced 46 false positives, while Snort, a conventional NIDS, produced 818.

Shimamura, Makoto; Hanaoka, Miyuki; Kono, Kenji

132

Perimeter security alarm system based on fiber Bragg grating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the development of the society and economy and the improvement of living standards, people need more and more pressing security. Perimeter security alarm system is widely regarded as the first line of defense. A highly sensitive Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) vibration sensor based on the theory of the string vibration, combined with neural network adaptive dynamic programming algorithm for the perimeter security alarm system make the detection intelligently. Intelligent information processing unit identify the true cause of the vibration of the invasion or the natural environment by analyzing the frequency of vibration signals, energy, amplitude and duration. Compared with traditional perimeter security alarm systems, such as infrared perimeter security system and electric fence system, FBG perimeter security alarm system takes outdoor passive structures, free of electromagnetic interference, transmission distance through optical fiber can be as long as 20 km It is able to detect the location of event within short period of time (high-speed response, less than 3 second).This system can locate the fiber cable's breaking sites and alarm automatically if the cable were be cut. And the system can prevent effectively the false alarm from small animals, birds, strong wind, scattering things, snowfalls and vibration of sensor line itself. It can also be integrated into other security systems. This system can be widely used in variety fields such as military bases, nuclear sites, airports, warehouses, prisons, residence community etc. It will be a new force of perimeter security technology.

Zhang, Cui; Wang, Lixin

2010-11-01

133

Automated detection of alarm sounds  

PubMed Central

Two approaches to the automated detection of alarm sounds are compared, one based on a change in overall sound level (RMS), the other a change in periodicity, as given by the power of the normalized autocorrelation function (PNA). Receiver operating characteristics in each case were obtained for different exemplars of four classes of alarm sounds (bells/chimes, buzzers/beepers, horns/whistles, and sirens) embedded in four noise backgrounds (cafeteria, park, traffic, and music). The results suggest that PNA combined with RMS may be used to improve current alarm-sound alerting technologies for the hard-of-hearing. PMID:22894310

Lutfi, Robert A.; Heo, Inseok

2012-01-01

134

Automated detection of alarm sounds.  

PubMed

Two approaches to the automated detection of alarm sounds are compared, one based on a change in overall sound level (RMS), the other a change in periodicity, as given by the power of the normalized autocorrelation function (PNA). Receiver operating characteristics in each case were obtained for different exemplars of four classes of alarm sounds (bells/chimes, buzzers/beepers, horns/whistles, and sirens) embedded in four noise backgrounds (cafeteria, park, traffic, and music). The results suggest that PNA combined with RMS may be used to improve current alarm-sound alerting technologies for the hard-of-hearing. PMID:22894310

Lutfi, Robert A; Heo, Inseok

2012-08-01

135

46 CFR 95.05-1 - Fire detecting, manual alarm, and supervised patrol systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire detecting, manual alarm, and supervised patrol...CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Detecting and Extinguishing Equipment, Where...

2014-10-01

136

Functional relationship-based alarm processing system  

DOEpatents

A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the functional relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated or deactivated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously updated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on causal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). The alarm processing system and method is sensitive to the dynamic nature of the process being monitored and is capable of changing the relative importance of each alarm as necessary.

Corsberg, Daniel R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1989-01-01

137

Functional relationship-based alarm processing  

DOEpatents

A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously oupdated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on caussal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action) expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). The alarm processing system and method is sensitive to the dynamic nature of the process being monitored and is capable of changing the relative importance of each alarm as necessary.

Corsberg, Daniel R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1988-01-01

138

Functional relationship-based alarm processing system  

DOEpatents

A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the functional relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated or deactivated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously updated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on causal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). The alarm processing system and method is sensitive to the dynamic nature of the process being monitored and is capable of changing the relative importance of each alarm as necessary. 12 figs.

Corsberg, D.R.

1988-04-22

139

Composition of aphid alarm pheromones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of single cornicle droplets from six species of aphid showed the presence of volatile components in addition to (E)-ß-farnesene. Compounds identified included (Z,E)-a- and (E,E)-a-farnesene forMyzus persicae and a- and ß-pinene forMegoura viciae. WithMegoura viciae, (-)-a-pinene was most important for alarm activity. The major component of the alarm pheromone ofPhorodon humuli was (E)-ß-farnesene even though farnesenes are present in

J. A. Pickett; D. C. Griffiths

1980-01-01

140

[Home cardio-respiratory monitoring with alarm record system in infants at risk of life-threatening events].  

PubMed

In few infants, home monitoring is useful to prevent recurrent apparently life-threatening events. Some devices have an alarm record system. We report our experience of home monitoring with such a device in 22 infants. 43.3% of the recorded events were considered as false alarms and 56.7% as true alarms. Among the alarms relative to abnormal respiratory events (38%), more than half occurred after two min of very low impedance thoracic signal. Among the true alarms relative to cardiac abnormalities (18.7%) more than half occurred during high amplitude fluctuations of the thoracic impedance signal and were relative to obstructive apnea or hypertonic vagal reactivity. Three infants presented an apparent life threatening event during an alarm, and two of them were hospitalized. These results indicate that it is important to define precisely the significance of the alarms during the survey of home monitoring of infants at risk for sudden infant death. PMID:1337780

de Broca, A; Zenatti, I; Dorival, D; Kremp, O; Faltaous, S; Risbourg, B

1992-01-01

141

The Best Ever Alarm System Toolkit  

SciTech Connect

Learning from our experience with the standard Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) alarm handler (ALH) as well as a similar intermediate approach based on script-generated operator screens, we developed the Best Ever Alarm System Toolkit (BEAST). It is based on Java and Eclipse on the Control System Studio (CSS) platform, using a relational database (RDB) to store the configuration and log actions. It employs a Java Message Service (JMS) for communication between the modular pieces of the toolkit, which include an Alarm Server to maintain the current alarm state, an arbitrary number of Alarm Client user interfaces (GUI), and tools to annunciate alarms or log alarm related actions. Web reports allow us to monitor the alarm system performance and spot deficiencies in the alarm configuration. The Alarm Client GUI not only gives the end users various ways to view alarms in tree and table, but also makes it easy to access the guidance information, the related operator displays and other CSS tools. It also allows online configuration to be simply modified from the GUI. Coupled with a good "alarm philosophy" on how to provide useful alarms, we can finally improve the configuration to achieve an effective alarm system.

Kasemir, Kay [ORNL; Chen, Xihui [ORNL; Danilova, Katia [ORNL

2009-01-01

142

Is alarm calling risky? Marmots avoid calling from risky places.  

PubMed

Alarm calling is common in many species. A prevalent assumption is that calling puts the vocalizing individual at increased risk of predation. If calling is indeed costly, we need special explanations for its evolution and maintenance. In some, but not all species, callers vocalize away from safety and thus may be exposed to an increased risk of predation. However, for species that emit bouts with one or a few calls, it is often difficult to identify the caller and find the precise location where a call was produced. We analyzed the spatial dynamics of yellow-bellied marmot (Marmota flaviventris) alarm calling using an acoustic localization system to determine the location from which calls were emitted. Marmots almost always called from positions close to the safety of their burrows, and, if they produced more than one alarm call, tended to end their calling bouts closer to safety than they started them. These results suggest that for this species, potential increased predation risk from alarm calling is greatly mitigated and indeed calling may have limited predation costs. PMID:21116460

Collier, Travis C; Blumstein, Daniel T; Girod, Lewis; Taylor, Charles E

2010-12-01

143

Structural damage alarming using auto-associative neural network technique: Exploration of environment-tolerant capacity and setup of alarming threshold  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the intention of avoiding false-positive and false-negative alarms in structural damage alarming using the auto-associative neural network (AANN) technique, two issues pertaining to this technique are addressed in this study. The first issue explored is the environment-tolerant capacity of the AANN. Efforts have been made to seek a generalization technique to enhance the environment-tolerant capacity. First, a baseline AANN model is formulated using the conventional training algorithm. Generalization techniques including AIC and FPE, early stopping, and Bayesian regularization are then investigated, resulting in three new AANN models. Their environment-tolerant capacity is evaluated as per their capability to avoid false-positive and false-negative alarms. The other issue addressed is the setup of alarming threshold, with intent to reduce the uncertainty in AANN-based structural damage alarming. A procedure based on the probability analysis of the novelty index is proposed for this purpose. First, the novelty index characterizing the intact structure is analyzed by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit test to obtain its best-fit continuous probability distribution. A confidence interval is then defined in consideration of the compromise between type I and type II errors. The alarming threshold of the novelty index is consequently set at the upper limit of the confidence interval. The above explorations are examined by using the long-term monitoring data on modal properties of the cable-stayed Ting Kau Bridge. The capability to eliminate false-positive alarm is verified by using unseen testing data which were not used in formulating the AANN models, while the capability to alleviate false-negative alarm is examined by using simulated data from the 'damaged' bridge with the help of a precise finite element model. The study indicates that the early stopping technique performs best in improving the environment-tolerant capacity of the AANN, and the alarming threshold set by the proposed procedure helps to reduce the uncertainty in AANN-based structural damage alarming.

Zhou, H. F.; Ni, Y. Q.; Ko, J. M.

2011-07-01

144

Security and Fire Alarm Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This PowerPoint from the Convergence Technology Center presents information on security and fire alarm systems. This material would be useful for students learning these concepts for the first time, or as an overview. Topics include home security, zones, subzones, smoke detectors, wireless systems and more.

Carranza, Julian; Harsh, Mike

2013-07-18

145

Integrating Multiple Alarms & Driver Situation Awareness  

E-print Network

This study addresses this gap in CAS and intelligent alarm research by examining whether or not a single master alarm warning versus multiple warnings for the different collision warning systems conveys adequate information ...

Cummings, M. L.

2006-01-01

146

Priority coding for control room alarms  

DOEpatents

Indicating the priority of a spatially fixed, activated alarm tile on an alarm tile array by a shape coding at the tile, and preferably using the same shape coding wherever the same alarm condition is indicated elsewhere in the control room. The status of an alarm tile can change automatically or by operator acknowledgement, but tones and/or flashing cues continue to provide status information to the operator.

Scarola, Kenneth (Windsor, CT); Jamison, David S. (Windsor, CT); Manazir, Richard M. (North Canton, CT); Rescorl, Robert L. (Vernon, CT); Harmon, Daryl L. (Enfield, CT)

1994-01-01

147

FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES FOR  

E-print Network

of the Fire Alarm Systems 8 Automatic Activation 8 Manual Activation 9 Results of Fire Systems' Activations 10FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES FOR BUILDING EVACUATION FRED C. FREY COMPUTING SERVICES CENTER CLAIRE M. MOREAU #12;i Table of Contents Page Introduction 1 Fire Alarm Systems B Simplex and FM-200 2

Ullmer, Brygg

148

About automatic fire alarm systems research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fires continue to occur in modern architecture, the people's lives and property has brought huge losses. In order to reduce the fire in the building automatic fire alarm equipment placed into a necessity. This paper discusses the automatic fire alarm system, the composition and working principle. The system will be collected through the fire alarm detector to the fire, fault

Huide Liu; Lili Gao; Suwei Li; Tao Wu

2010-01-01

149

Alarms and their limits in monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need to incorporate alarms in monitoring systems is related to the growing complexity of monitoring and the large number of variables. For sophisticated alarms, information about the inputs to the patient is of importance; for example, clinical interventions such as drug administration and ventilation readjustment need to be known to the monitoring system. Alarms are triggered by signals or

Jan E. W. Beneken; Jan J. van der Aa

1988-01-01

150

Subversion of alarm communication: Do plants habituate aphids to their own alarm signals?  

E-print Network

NOTE Subversion of alarm communication: Do plants habituate aphids to their own alarm signals? Anca aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum, emit an alarm pheromone, (E)--farnesene, which causes nearby conspecifics that plants release farnesene to habituate aphids, i.e., to disrupt their alarm-pheromone re- sponses, perhaps

Mondor, Ed

151

46 CFR 113.25-12 - Alarm signals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113... (a) Each general emergency alarm signal must...to produce the general emergency alarm signal must...

2014-10-01

152

SUBSURFACE VISUAL ALARM SYSTEM ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

The ''Subsurface Fire Hazard Analysis'' (CRWMS M&O 1998, page 61), and the document, ''Title III Evaluation Report for the Surface and Subsurface Communication System'', (CRWMS M&O 1999a, pages 21 and 23), both indicate the installed communication system is adequate to support Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) activities with the exception of the mine phone system for emergency notification purposes. They recommend the installation of a visual alarm system to supplement the page/party phone system The purpose of this analysis is to identify data communication highway design approaches, and provide justification for the selected or recommended alternatives for the data communication of the subsurface visual alarm system. This analysis is being prepared to document a basis for the design selection of the data communication method. This analysis will briefly describe existing data or voice communication or monitoring systems within the ESF, and look at how these may be revised or adapted to support the needed data highway of the subsurface visual alarm. system. The existing PLC communication system installed in subsurface is providing data communication for alcove No.5 ventilation fans, south portal ventilation fans, bulkhead doors and generator monitoring system. It is given that the data communication of the subsurface visual alarm system will be a digital based system. It is also given that it is most feasible to take advantage of existing systems and equipment and not consider an entirely new data communication system design and installation. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Briefly review and describe existing available data communication highways or systems within the ESF. (2) Examine technical characteristics of an existing system to disqualify a design alternative is paramount in minimizing the number of and depth of a system review. (3) Apply general engineering design practices or criteria such as relative cost, and degree of difficulty and complexity in determining requirements in adapting existing data communication highways to support the subsurface visual alarm system. These requirements would include such things as added or new communication cables, added Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), Inputs and Outputs (I/O), and communication hardware components, and human machine interfaces and their software operating system. (4) Select the best data communication highway system based on this review of adapting or integrating with existing data communication systems.

D.W. Markman

2001-08-06

153

Plant experience with an expert system for alarm diagnosis  

SciTech Connect

An expert system called Diagnosis of Multiple Alarms (DMA) is in routine use at four nuclear reactors operated by the DuPont Company. The system is wired to plant alarm annunciators and does event-tree analysis to see if a pattern exists. Any diagnosis is displayed to the plant operator and the corrective procedure to be followed is also identified. The display is automatically superseded if a higher priority diagnosis is made. The system is integrated with operator training and procedures. Operating results have been positive. DMA has diagnosed several hard-to-locate small leaks. There have been some false diagnosis, and realistic plant environments must be considered in such expert systems. 2 refs., 5 figs.

Gimmy, K.L.

1986-01-01

154

Alarm sensor apparatus for closures  

DOEpatents

An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or frame work and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

Carlson, James A. (Thornton, CO); Stoddard, Lawrence M. (Arvada, CO)

1986-01-01

155

Alarm sensor apparatus for closures  

DOEpatents

An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or framework and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

Carlson, J.A.; Stoddard, L.M.

1984-01-31

156

MSPI False Indication Probability Simulations  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines false indication probabilities in the context of the Mitigating System Performance Index (MSPI), in order to investigate the pros and cons of different approaches to resolving two coupled issues: (1) sensitivity to the prior distribution used in calculating the Bayesian-corrected unreliability contribution to the MSPI, and (2) whether (in a particular plant configuration) to model the fuel oil transfer pump (FOTP) as a separate component, or integrally to its emergency diesel generator (EDG). False indication probabilities were calculated for the following situations: (1) all component reliability parameters at their baseline values, so that the true indication is green, meaning that an indication of white or above would be false positive; (2) one or more components degraded to the extent that the true indication would be (mid) white, and “false” would be green (negative) or yellow (negative) or red (negative). In key respects, this was the approach taken in NUREG-1753. The prior distributions examined were the constrained noninformative (CNI) prior used currently by the MSPI, a mixture of conjugate priors, the Jeffreys noninformative prior, a nonconjugate log(istic)-normal prior, and the minimally informative prior investigated in (Kelly et al., 2010). The mid-white performance state was set at ?CDF = ?10 ? 10-6/yr. For each simulated time history, a check is made of whether the calculated ?CDF is above or below 10-6/yr. If the parameters were at their baseline values, and ?CDF > 10-6/yr, this is counted as a false positive. Conversely, if one or all of the parameters are set to values corresponding to ?CDF > 10-6/yr but that time history’s ?CDF < 10-6/yr, this is counted as a false negative indication. The false indication (positive or negative) probability is then estimated as the number of false positive or negative counts divided by the number of time histories (100,000). Results are presented for a set of base case parameter values, and three sensitivity cases in which the number of FOTP demands was reduced, along with the Birnbaum importance of the FOTP.

Dana Kelly; Kurt Vedros; Robert Youngblood

2011-03-01

157

Alarm toe switch. [Patent application  

DOEpatents

An alarm toe switch inserted within a shoe for energizing an alarm circuit in a covert manner includes an insole mounting pad into which a miniature reed switch is fixedly molded. An elongated slot perpendicular to the reed switch is formed in the bottom surface of the mounting pad. A permanent cylindrical magnet positioned in the forward portion of the slot with a diameter greater than the pad thickness causes a bump above the pad. A foam rubber block is also positioned in the slot rearwardly of the magnet and holds the magnet in normal inoperative relation. A non-magnetic support plate covers the slot and holds the magnet and foam rubber in the slot. The plate minimizes bending and frictional forces to improve movement of the magnet for reliable switch activation. The bump occupies the knuckle space beneath the big toe. When the big toe is scrunched rearwardly the magnet is moved within the slot relative to the reed switch, thus magnetically activating the switch. When toe pressure is released the foam rubber block forces the magnet back into normal inoperative position to deactivate the reed switch.

Ganyard, F.P.

1980-11-18

158

13 CFR 123.21 - What is a mitigation measure?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false What is a mitigation measure? 123.21 Section 123.21 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION DISASTER LOAN PROGRAM Overview § 123.21 What is a mitigation measure? A...

2011-01-01

159

13 CFR 123.21 - What is a mitigation measure?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false What is a mitigation measure? 123.21 Section 123.21 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION DISASTER LOAN PROGRAM Overview § 123.21 What is a mitigation measure? A...

2010-01-01

160

T-Farm complex alarm upgrades  

SciTech Connect

The alarm and controls associated with the T, TX, and TY farms are located in the 242-T control room. The design data for replacement and upgrades of the alarm panels is in this document. This task was canceled previous to the 90% design review point.

Roberts, J.B.

1995-01-01

161

LASL upgraded alarm system functional requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document defines and describes the functional requirements to successfully provide Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory with a combined security and fire alarm system that will satisfy the operational needs of various users and provide compliance with applicable codes and Energy Research and Development Administration security and fire protection requirements. The four major subsystems of the upgraded Laboratory alarm system are

B. L. Hartway; E. N. Shaskey

1977-01-01

162

AMETHYST: automatic alarm assessment: becoming a reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the AMETHYST (AutoMatic Event auTHentication SYSTems) project is to encourage the development of a high performance perimeter detection system which combines Video Motion Detection (VMD) technology with another type of Perimeter Intrusion Detection System (PIDS). AMETHYST will automatically assess the cause of all PIDS alarms and pass to an operator only those alarms which are likely to

M. Horner; K. Sage; G. Leach

1997-01-01

163

AMETHYST: automatic alarm assessment becoming a reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the AMETHYST (AutoMatic Event auTHentication SYSTems) project is to encourage the development of a high performance perimeter detection system which combines Video Motion Detection (VMD) technology with another type of Perimeter Intrusion Detection System (PIDS). AMETHYST will automatically assess the cause of PIDS alarms and pass to an operator those alarms likely to be caused by an

M. Horner; H. Sage; G. Leach

1998-01-01

164

AMETHYST: automatic alarm assessment: operational experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the AMETHYST (Automatic Event Authentication Systems) project is to encourage the development of a high-performance perimeter detection system by using video assessment to enhance the Perimeter Intrusion Detection System (PIDS). AMETHYST will automatically assess the cause of all PIDS alarms and pass to an operator only those alarms that are likely to be caused by an intruder.

Michael Horner; Graham Leach; T. O'Dwyer

2000-01-01

165

A prison guard Duress alarm location system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors discuss concepts used in developing the CSC (Correctional Services Canada) Duress Alarm Location System (DALS). A block diagram and theory of operation for the system are presented. A sample data and test results for an actual test installation are presented and analyzed. It is concluded that the DALS is able to acknowledge and locate a duress alarm within

T. W. Christ; P. A. Godwin; R. E. Lavigne

1993-01-01

166

Alarming features: birds use specific acoustic properties to identify heterospecific alarm calls  

PubMed Central

Vertebrates that eavesdrop on heterospecific alarm calls must distinguish alarms from sounds that can safely be ignored, but the mechanisms for identifying heterospecific alarm calls are poorly understood. While vertebrates learn to identify heterospecific alarms through experience, some can also respond to unfamiliar alarm calls that are acoustically similar to conspecific alarm calls. We used synthetic calls to test the role of specific acoustic properties in alarm call identification by superb fairy-wrens, Malurus cyaneus. Individuals fled more often in response to synthetic calls with peak frequencies closer to those of conspecific calls, even if other acoustic features were dissimilar to that of fairy-wren calls. Further, they then spent more time in cover following calls that had both peak frequencies and frequency modulation rates closer to natural fairy-wren means. Thus, fairy-wrens use similarity in specific acoustic properties to identify alarms and adjust a two-stage antipredator response. Our study reveals how birds respond to heterospecific alarm calls without experience, and, together with previous work using playback of natural calls, shows that both acoustic similarity and learning are important for interspecific eavesdropping. More generally, this study reconciles contrasting views on the importance of alarm signal structure and learning in recognition of heterospecific alarms. PMID:23303539

Fallow, Pamela M.; Pitcher, Benjamin J.; Magrath, Robert D.

2013-01-01

167

Alarming features: birds use specific acoustic properties to identify heterospecific alarm calls.  

PubMed

Vertebrates that eavesdrop on heterospecific alarm calls must distinguish alarms from sounds that can safely be ignored, but the mechanisms for identifying heterospecific alarm calls are poorly understood. While vertebrates learn to identify heterospecific alarms through experience, some can also respond to unfamiliar alarm calls that are acoustically similar to conspecific alarm calls. We used synthetic calls to test the role of specific acoustic properties in alarm call identification by superb fairy-wrens, Malurus cyaneus. Individuals fled more often in response to synthetic calls with peak frequencies closer to those of conspecific calls, even if other acoustic features were dissimilar to that of fairy-wren calls. Further, they then spent more time in cover following calls that had both peak frequencies and frequency modulation rates closer to natural fairy-wren means. Thus, fairy-wrens use similarity in specific acoustic properties to identify alarms and adjust a two-stage antipredator response. Our study reveals how birds respond to heterospecific alarm calls without experience, and, together with previous work using playback of natural calls, shows that both acoustic similarity and learning are important for interspecific eavesdropping. More generally, this study reconciles contrasting views on the importance of alarm signal structure and learning in recognition of heterospecific alarms. PMID:23303539

Fallow, Pamela M; Pitcher, Benjamin J; Magrath, Robert D

2013-03-01

168

46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

46 ? Shipping ? 4 ? 2013-10-01 ? 2013-10-01 ? false ? Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. ? 108.627 ? Section 108.627 ? Shipping ? COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ? A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS ? DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT ? Equipment Markings and Instructions ? §...

2013-10-01

169

Vision based Fire\\/Flood Alarm Surveillance System via Robust Detection Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an intelligent and robust event detection method on visual surveillance system. Based on real time video content analysis, potential dangerous events such as fire and flood can be detected automatically in the early stage thus to prevent from damage. Moreover, to improve the correct detection rate, a robust strategy is included to reduce the false alarm rate

J. C. Yang; C. L. Lai

2008-01-01

170

False memories in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

In prior studies, it was observed that patients with schizophrenia show abnormally high knowledge corruption (i.e., high-confident errors expressed as a percentage of all high-confident responses were increased for schizophrenic patients relative to controls). The authors examined the conditions under which excessive knowledge corruption occurred using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm. Whereas knowledge corruption in schizophrenia was significantly greater for false-negative errors relative to controls, no group difference occurred for false-positive errors. The groups showed a comparable high degree of confidence for false-positive recognition of critical lure items. Similar to findings collected in elderly participants, patients, but not controls, showed a strong positive correlation between the number of recognized studied items and false-positive recognition of the critical lure. PMID:15099150

Moritz, Steffen; Woodward, Todd S; Cuttler, Carrie; Whitman, Jennifer C; Watson, Jason M

2004-04-01

171

30 CFR 77.311 - Alarm devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.311...Thermal dryer systems shall be equipped with both audible and visual alarm devices which are set to operate when safe dryer...

2012-07-01

172

30 CFR 77.311 - Alarm devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.311...Thermal dryer systems shall be equipped with both audible and visual alarm devices which are set to operate when safe dryer...

2013-07-01

173

30 CFR 77.311 - Alarm devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.311...Thermal dryer systems shall be equipped with both audible and visual alarm devices which are set to operate when safe dryer...

2014-07-01

174

30 CFR 77.311 - Alarm devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.311...Thermal dryer systems shall be equipped with both audible and visual alarm devices which are set to operate when safe dryer...

2011-07-01

175

30 CFR 77.311 - Alarm devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.311...Thermal dryer systems shall be equipped with both audible and visual alarm devices which are set to operate when safe dryer...

2010-07-01

176

Alarm Systems: Library Confounds Criminal Capers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tells the story of a small town library faced with the problem of preventing nuisance burglaries of the type becoming more and more common. The problems of selecting the right type of alarm system are discussed. (JPF)

Gjettum, Pamela

1978-01-01

177

46 CFR 63.15-7 - Alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...reset. (c) For steam boilers, operation of the lower low water cutoff must automatically sound an audible alarm. A visual indicator must indicate that the shutdown was caused by low water. (d) For a periodically unattended machinery...

2010-10-01

178

Fuel Handling Exclusion Zone Established to Prevent Spurious Alarms to CAS Neutron Detectors in the IFSF  

SciTech Connect

An experimental and calculational study has been performed to understand and prevent inadvertent activation of the criticality alarm system (CAS) from fuel-handling operations at the Irradiated Fuel Storage Facility. In conjunction with the study, the CAS neutron detectors were tested to verify the design specifications for gamma rejection capability and zero response limit. A minimum physical restrictive boundary around the CAS location was established based on a gamma ray dose rate limit of 10 rad/hr. The canister loaded with spent nuclear fuel must be moved in the area outside the exclusion zone so as not to trigger a false alarm from the CAS detectors.

Kim, Soon Sam; Sterbentz, James William

2000-09-01

179

Fuel handling exclusion zone established to prevent spurious alarms to CAS neutron detectors in the IFSF  

SciTech Connect

An experimental and calculational study has been performed to understand and prevent inadvertent activation of the criticality alarm system (CAS) from fuel-handling operations at the Irradiated Fuel Storage Facility. In conjunction with the study, the CAS neutron detectors were tested to verify the design specifications for gamma rejection capability and zero response limit. A minimum physical restrictive boundary around the CAS location was established based on a gamma ray dose rate limit of 10 rad/hr. The canister loaded with spent nuclear fuel must be moved in the area outside the exclusion zone so as not to trigger a false alarm from the CAS detectors.

S. S. Kim; J. W. Sterbentz

2000-09-17

180

Alarm acknowledgement in a nuclear plant control room  

DOEpatents

Alarm acknowledgment can be made not only at the alarm tile array of a given console but via other touch sensitive alarm indications in the screen displays of the monitoring system at the same or other consoles; also, touching one tile can acknowledge multiple alarm sources.

Scarola, Kenneth (Windsor, CT); Jamison, David S. (Windsor, CT); Manazir, Richard M. (North Canton, CT); Rescorl, Robert L. (Vernon, CT); Harmon, Daryl L. (Enfield, CT)

1994-01-01

181

Empirical bioethics research is a winner, but bioethics mission creep is a false alarm.  

PubMed

While we do not share Evans's view that social science research is needed to shield bioethics from competitive threat, we incorporate and engage in social science research to inform our knowledge base, our clinical practice, and our contributions to the ongoing development of the field. PMID:25192342

Flamm, Anne Lederman; Kodish, Eric

2014-01-01

182

Biochemical detection and identification false alarm rate dependence on wavelength using laser induced native fluorescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most organic and many inorganic materials absorb strongly in specific wavelength ranges in the deep UV between about 220nm and 300nm. Excitation within these absorption bands results in native fluorescence emission. Each compound or composite material, such as a bacterial spore, has a unique excitation-emission fingerprint that can be used to provide information about the material. The sensitivity and specificity with which these materials can be detected and identified depends on the excitation wavelength and the number and location of observation wavelengths. We will present data on our deep ultraviolet Targeted Ultraviolet Chemical Sensors that demonstrate the sensitivity and specificity of the sensors. In particular, we will demonstrate the ability to quantitatively differentiate a wide range of biochemical agent targets against a wide range of background materials. We will describe the relationship between spectral resolution and specificity in target identification, as well as simple, fast, algorithms to identify materials. Hand-held, battery operated instruments using a deep UV laser and multi-band detection have been developed and deployed on missions to the Antarctic, the Arctic, and the deep ocean with the capability of detecting a single bacterial spore and to differentiate a wide range of organic and biological compounds.

Bhartia, R.; Hug, W. F.; Salas, E. C.; Sijapati, K.; Lane, A. L.; Reid, R. D.; Conrad, P. G.

2006-05-01

183

False Alarms and Missed Events: The Impact and Origins of Perceived Inaccuracy in Tornado Warning Systems.  

PubMed

Theory and conventional wisdom suggest that errors undermine the credibility of tornado warning systems and thus decrease the probability that individuals will comply (i.e., engage in protective action) when future warnings are issued. Unfortunately, empirical research on the influence of warning system accuracy on public responses to tornado warnings is incomplete and inconclusive. This study adds to existing research by analyzing two sets of relationships. First, we assess the relationship between perceptions of accuracy, credibility, and warning response. Using data collected via a large regional survey, we find that trust in the National Weather Service (NWS; the agency responsible for issuing tornado warnings) increases the likelihood that an individual will opt for protective action when responding to a hypothetical warning. More importantly, we find that subjective perceptions of warning system accuracy are, as theory suggests, systematically related to trust in the NWS and (by extension) stated responses to future warnings. The second half of the study matches survey data against NWS warning and event archives to investigate a critical follow-up question-Why do some people perceive that their warning system is accurate, whereas others perceive that their system is error prone? We find that subjective perceptions are-in part-a function of objective experience, knowledge, and demographic characteristics. When considered in tandem, these findings support the proposition that errors influence perceptions about the accuracy of warning systems, which in turn impact the credibility that people assign to information provided by systems and, ultimately, public decisions about how to respond when warnings are issued. PMID:25082540

Ripberger, Joseph T; Silva, Carol L; Jenkins-Smith, Hank C; Carlson, Deven E; James, Mark; Herron, Kerry G

2014-07-31

184

Biochemical Detection and Identification False Alarm Rate Dependence on Wavelength Using Laser Induced Fluorescence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most organic and many inorganic materials absorb strongly in specific wavelength ranges in the deep UV between about 220nm and 300nm. Excitation within these absorption bands results in native fluorescence emission. Each compound or composite material, such as a bacterial spore, has a unique excitation-emission fingerprint that can be used to provide information about the material. The sensitivity and specificity with which these materials can be detected and identified depends on the excitation wavelength and the number and location of observation wavelengths.We will present data on our deep ultraviolet Targeted Ultraviolet Chemical Sensors that demonstrate the sensitivity and specificity of the sensors. In particular, we will demonstrate the ability to quantitatively differentiate a wide range of biochemical agent targets against a wide range of background materials. We will describe the relationship between spectral resolution and specificity in target identification, as well as simple, fast, algorithms to identify materials.Hand-held, battery operated instruments using a deep UV laser and multi-band detection have been developed and deployed on missions to the Antarctic, the Arctic, and the deep ocean with the capability of detecting a single bacterial spore and to differentiate a wide range of organic and biological compounds.

Bhartia, R.; Hug, W. F.; Sala, E. C.; Sijapati, K.; Lane, A. L.; Reid, R. D.; Conrad, P. G.

2006-01-01

185

Internet-based Security Incidents and the Potential for False Alarms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the background to experimental work intended to measure aspects of the World Wide Web, which inadvertently caused two perceived security breaches on remote systems. Describes the nature of these incidents and considers why, when over 700,000 addresses were sampled, only two sites considered the activity to be an attempt to breach their…

Evans, M. P.; Furnell, S. M.

2000-01-01

186

An intelligent system for false alarm reduction in infrared forest-fire detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest fires cause many environmental disasters, creating economical and ecological damage as well as endangering people's lives. Heightened interest in automatic surveillance and early forest-fire detection has taken precedence over traditional human surveillance because the latter's subjectivity affects detection reliability, which is the main issue for forest-fire detection systems. In current systems, the process is tedious, and human operators must

Begoña C. Arrue; Aníbal Ollero; J. R. Matinez de Dios

2000-01-01

187

Reducing False Alarms with Multi-modal Sensing for Pipeline Blockage (Extended)  

E-print Network

pumpjacks, gathers the oil for measurement and accounting, and ultimately sends it to refineries. Distribu Industrial sensing applications place a premium on cost- effectiveness and accuracy. Traditional approaches by studying a specific application: blockages in oil flowline common in cold weather. We use pipe skin

Heidemann, John

188

Diabetes: What's True and False?  

MedlinePLUS

... which are false. Eating too much sugar causes diabetes. False: Type 1 diabetes happens when the cells ... person's risk for developing the disease. People with diabetes can never eat sweets. False: You can have ...

189

Diabetes: What's True and False?  

MedlinePLUS

... Body Works Main Page The Pink Locker Society Diabetes: What's True and False? KidsHealth > Kids > Diabetes Center > ... True or False: Eating Too Much Sugar Causes Diabetes False: When kids get type 1 diabetes , it's ...

190

Pressurized security barrier and alarm system  

DOEpatents

A security barrier for placement across a passageway is made up of interconnected pressurized tubing made up in a grid pattern with openings too small to allow passage. The tubing is connected to a pressure switch, located away from the barrier site, which activates an alarm upon occurrence of a pressure drop. A reinforcing bar is located inside and along the length of the tubing so as to cause the tubing to rupture and set off the alarm upon an intruder's making an attempt to crimp and seal off a portion of the tubing by application of a hydraulic tool. Radial and rectangular grid patterns are disclosed.

Carver, Don W. (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01

191

ALARM STRATEGY AND COMPLEXITY: PREDICTIONS OF OPERATOR RESPONSE  

SciTech Connect

Decision support for operators is not new, and much has been written regarding the potential usefulness of digital support systems and alarm filtering strategies. However, determining the appropriate characteristics of decision support tools is difficult, especially when alarms can vary in the manner which diagnostic information is formulated and displayed and when event scenario types are complex and numerous. When first reviewed, the advantages or disadvantages of a particular alarm approach may not be apparent to the designer or analyst. The present research focuses on the review of two particular alarm strategies, binary alarm type (BAT) and likelihood alarm type (LAT), and reviews their influence upon accuracy, bias, and trust for tasks performed at a computer workstation capable of replicating a series of control-room-like alarms. The findings are discussed in terms of the of the performance advantages of likelihood alarm technology and related research as an aid to the alarm design process.

Austin Ragsdale; Roger Lew; Brian Dyre; Ronald Boring; David Gertman

2012-07-01

192

Smart container UWB sensor system for situational awareness of intrusion alarms  

DOEpatents

An in-container monitoring sensor system is based on an UWB radar intrusion detector positioned in a container and having a range gate set to the farthest wall of the container from the detector. Multipath reflections within the container make every point on or in the container appear to be at the range gate, allowing intrusion detection anywhere in the container. The system also includes other sensors to provide false alarm discrimination, and may include other sensors to monitor other parameters, e.g. radiation. The sensor system also includes a control subsystem for controlling system operation. Communications and information extraction capability may also be included. A method of detecting intrusion into a container uses UWB radar, and may also include false alarm discrimination. A secure container has an UWB based monitoring system

Romero, Carlos E.; Haugen, Peter C.; Zumstein, James M.; Leach, Jr., Richard R.; Vigars, Mark L.

2013-06-11

193

Nuclear power plant alarm systems: Problems and issues  

SciTech Connect

Despite the incorporation of advanced technology into nuclear power plant alarm systems, human factors problems remain. This paper identifies to be addressed in order to allow advanced technology to be used effectively in the design of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The operator's use and processing of alarm system information will be considered. Based upon a review of alarm system research, issues related to general system design, alarm processing, display and control are discussed. It is concluded that the design of effective alarm systems depends on an understanding of the information processing capabilities and limitations of the operator. 39 refs.

O'Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.

1991-01-01

194

An Undergraduate Experiment in Alarm System Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an experiment involving data acquisition by a computer, digital signal transmission from the computer to a digital logic circuit and signal interpretation by this circuit. The system is being used at the Illinois Institute of Technology. Discusses the fundamental concepts involved. Demonstrates the alarm experiment as it is used in…

Martini, R. A.; And Others

1988-01-01

195

Automatic Fire Alarm System Based on MCU  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper introduced an automatic warehouse fire a1arm system based on MCU. The system was mainly made up of ATmega16, temperature sensors, smoke sensors, and EX-1 auto dialed alarm module. In the system, temperature signals were transformed to serial data, and smoke signals were transformed to voltage signals. All the data were processed by MCU. When the surveillance system checked

Zhang Kun; Hu Shunbin; Li Jinfang

2010-01-01

196

Security alarm communication and display systems development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has, as lead Department of Energy (DOE) physical security laboratory, developed a variety of alarm communication and display systems for DOE and Department of Defense (DOD) facilities. This paper briefly describes some of the systems developed and concludes with a discussion of technology relevant to those currently designing, developing, implementing, or procuring such a system. Development

Waddoups

1990-01-01

197

Object-oriented alarm-filtering system  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses an alarm-filtering system (AFS) being developed by EG and G Idaho, Inc. for the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The ultimate goal of this project is to place AFS into ATR's reactor control room to act as an aid during major plant transients. In addition, methods of alarm analysis are investigated based on functional relationships rather than on a historical approach utilizing cause-consequence trees. Artificial intelligence techniques, including object-oriented programming, are also demonstrated as useful in analyzing alarms and alarm sequences. After a brief description of the problem AFS addresses, this paper discusses the design constraints and human factors that influenced the development of the system. The reader is then presented with operational and architectural descriptions of the system as well as what directions the future development of AFS may take. The fact that AFS is being considered as a partial solution to the problems discussed in the next section demonstrates the viability of its underlying technology and approach. 10 refs.

Corsberg, D.R.; Wilkie, D.

1986-01-01

198

Intelligent residential security alarm and remote control system based on single chip computer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents intelligent residential burglar alarm, emergency alarm, fire alarm, toxic gas leakage remote automatic sound alarm and remote control system, which is based on 89C51 single chip computer. The system can be automatic alarm, automatic calling the police hotline number. It can be used voice alarm and show alarm occurred address. It can set up and modify user

Liu Zhen-ya; Wang Zhen-dong; Chen Rong; Wu Xiao-feng

2008-01-01

199

False color viewing device  

DOEpatents

A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage. 7 figs.

Kronberg, J.W.

1992-10-20

200

False color viewing device  

DOEpatents

A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage.

Kronberg, James W. (108 Independent Blvd., Aiken, SC 29801)

1992-01-01

201

Technical aspects of the sigma factor alarm method in alpha CAMs  

SciTech Connect

Some test must be applied to the low-level count data from alpha continuous air monitors (CAMs) to determine if the count is statistically significant (i.e., different from background). The test should also automatically account for different levels of background (i.e., ambient radon progeny concentrations). The method should, in other words, be as sensitive as possible, automatically desensitize when required, but in such a manner as to not exceed a previously-chosen acceptable false-alarm rate.

Justus, Alan Lawrence [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

202

21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1025 Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment...

2014-04-01

203

21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1025 Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment...

2013-04-01

204

21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1025 Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment...

2010-04-01

205

40 CFR 267.34 - When must personnel have access to communication equipment or an alarm system?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

40 ? Protection of Environment ? 26 ? 2010-07-01 ? 2010-07-01 ? false ? When must personnel have access to communication equipment or an alarm system? ? 267.34 ? Section 267.34 ? Protection of Environment ? ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ? SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) ? STANDARDS...

2010-07-01

206

Advanced Alarm Processing Facilities Installed on Eskom's Energy Management System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eskom's Transmission division is commissioning a new Energy Management System (EMS) known as TEMSE. This EMS included requirements for advanced alarm processing facilities and enhanced Human Machine Interface functionality. The requirements covered alarm data reduction and the provision of \\

Richard Candy; J. Taisne

2007-01-01

207

46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power semiconductor rectifier must have a high temperature alarm or shutdown, except as...

2013-10-01

208

46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power semiconductor rectifier must have a high temperature alarm or shutdown, except as...

2011-10-01

209

46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power semiconductor rectifier must have a high temperature alarm or shutdown, except as...

2014-10-01

210

46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power semiconductor rectifier must have a high temperature alarm or shutdown, except as...

2012-10-01

211

46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power semiconductor rectifier must have a high temperature alarm or shutdown, except as...

2010-10-01

212

Alarm guided critical function and success path monitoring  

DOEpatents

The use of alarm indication on the overview (IPSO) display to initiate diagnosis of challenges to critical functions or unavailability of success paths, and further alarm-based guidance toward ultimate diagnosis.

Scarola, Kenneth (Windsor, CT); Jamison, David S. (Windsor, CT); Manazir, Richard M. (North Canton, CT); Rescorl, Robert L. (Vernon, CT); Harmon, Daryl L. (Enfield, CT)

1994-01-01

213

29 CFR 1910.165 - Employee alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...sounding emergency alarms in the workplace. For those employers with 10 or fewer employees in a particular workplace, direct voice communication is an acceptable procedure for sounding the alarm provided all...

2012-07-01

214

29 CFR 1910.165 - Employee alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...sounding emergency alarms in the workplace. For those employers with 10 or fewer employees in a particular workplace, direct voice communication is an acceptable procedure for sounding the alarm provided all...

2011-07-01

215

29 CFR 1910.165 - Employee alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...sounding emergency alarms in the workplace. For those employers with 10 or fewer employees in a particular workplace, direct voice communication is an acceptable procedure for sounding the alarm provided all...

2013-07-01

216

29 CFR 1910.165 - Employee alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...sounding emergency alarms in the workplace. For those employers with 10 or fewer employees in a particular workplace, direct voice communication is an acceptable procedure for sounding the alarm provided all...

2014-07-01

217

8. INTERIOR, FIRE ALARM CONTROL ROOM (NORTH OF MAIN GARAGE), ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. INTERIOR, FIRE ALARM CONTROL ROOM (NORTH OF MAIN GARAGE), FROM ENTRYWAY, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING ADDITIONAL 'GAMEWELL' FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Firehouse, East of Fourth Street, between A & B Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

218

47 CFR 80.317 - Radiotelegraph and radiotelephone alarm signals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...special signal is the actuation of automatic devices giving the alarm to attract the attention of the operator when there is no listening watch on the distress frequency. (b) The international radiotelephone alarm signal consists of two substantially...

2010-10-01

219

46 CFR 161.002-12 - Manual fire alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...circuit wiring of an automatic fire detection system. (2) Electrical...manually operated fire alarm boxes. (3) Other...unit. The manual fire alarm system control unit shall be as specified for automatic fire detecting systems...

2011-10-01

220

46 CFR 161.002-12 - Manual fire alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...circuit wiring of an automatic fire detection system. (2) Electrical...manually operated fire alarm boxes. (3) Other...unit. The manual fire alarm system control unit shall be as specified for automatic fire detecting systems...

2012-10-01

221

46 CFR 161.002-12 - Manual fire alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...circuit wiring of an automatic fire detection system. (2) Electrical...manually operated fire alarm boxes. (3) Other...unit. The manual fire alarm system control unit shall be as specified for automatic fire detecting systems...

2010-10-01

222

46 CFR 161.002-12 - Manual fire alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...circuit wiring of an automatic fire detection system. (2) Electrical...manually operated fire alarm boxes. (3) Other...unit. The manual fire alarm system control unit shall be as specified for automatic fire detecting systems...

2013-10-01

223

Moon - False Color Mosaic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This false-color mosaic was constructed from a series of 53 images taken through three spectral filters by Galileo's imaging system as the spacecraft flew over the northern regions of the Moon on December 7, 1992. The part of the Moon visible from Earth is on the left side in this view. The color mosaic shows compositional variations in parts of the Moon's northern hemisphere. Bright pinkish areas are highlands materials, such as those surrounding the oval lava-filled Crisium impact basin toward the bottom of the picture. Blue to orange shades indicate volcanic lava flows. To the left of Crisium, the dark blue Mare Tranquillitatis is richer in titanium than the green and orange maria above it. Thin mineral-rich soils associated with relatively recent impacts are represented by light blue colors; the youngest craters have prominent blue rays extending from them. The Galileo project, whose primary mission is the exploration of the Jupiter system in 1995-97, is managed for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

1992-01-01

224

Fire Alarm Control Panel is located in Switchgear  

E-print Network

KEY: NORTH CHDD-South Floor 1 Fire Alarm Control Panel is located in Switchgear Room #CD11A on Basement Level Evacuation Route Exit Restroom Fire Extinguisher Fire Alarm Fire Alarm Control Panel Symbol of Accessibility L A K E WA S H I N G T O N S H I P C A N A L IF THERE IS AN EMERGENCY: · Sound fire alarm

225

Auditory alarms during anesthesia monitoring with an integrated monitoring system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alarms in the operating room remain a major source of annoyance and confusion. A previous study by Kestin et al. utilized\\u000a a specific combination of distinct, separate monitors in 50 pediatric patients. He reported a mean of 10 alarms per case with\\u000a a mean frequency of one alarm every 4.5 minutes. The alarms were classified as spurious (75%), change outside

Frank E. Block; Carl Schaaf

1996-01-01

226

46 CFR 154.1365 - Audible and visual alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...interrupt the alarm's actuation by other faults. (b) Each visual alarm must be one that can be turned off only after the fault that actuated it is corrected. (c...remote group alarms, the location of each fault that actuates it. (d) Each...

2014-10-01

227

An Online Intelligent Alarm-Processing System for Digital Substations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flood of alarm messages in an automatic digital substation makes the monitoring task a significant challenge for the operators in a remote control center, especially under fault scenarios. An online intelligent alarm-processing system is developed based on the architecture of the digital substation. First, real-time alarms are classified according to the IEC 61850 standard in order to provide synthesized

Liuhong Wei; Wenxin Guo; Fushuan Wen; Gerard Ledwich; Zhiwei Liao; Jianbo Xin

2011-01-01

228

Major reduction in alarm frequency with a new pulse oximeter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sir: Intensive care monitor alarms are a major burden on both nurses and patients. Between 44 and 63 % of alarms are caused by pulse oximeters, with 94 % of these being non-significant [1, 2]. Pulse oximeters should, therefore, be the prime target when aiming to reduce alarm rates in the intensive care unit (]CU), Recently, a new technique for

B. Bohnhorst; C. F. Poets

1998-01-01

229

15 CFR 971.604 - Best available technologies (BAT) and mitigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Best available technologies (BAT) and mitigation. 971.604 Section...971.604 Best available technologies (BAT) and mitigation. (a) The...particular equipment or procedures comprising BAT or to define performance standards....

2011-01-01

230

15 CFR 971.604 - Best available technologies (BAT) and mitigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Best available technologies (BAT) and mitigation. 971.604...Effects § 971.604 Best available technologies (BAT) and mitigation. ...permits, the use of the best available technologies for the protection of...

2010-01-01

231

False Position, Double False Position and Cramer's Rule  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We state and prove the methods of False Position (Regula Falsa) and Double False Position (Regula Duorum Falsorum). The history of both is traced from ancient Egypt and China through the work of Fibonacci, ending with a connection between Double False Position and Cramer's Rule.

Boman, Eugene

2009-01-01

232

North Polar False Color  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

The theme for the weeks of 1/17 and 1/24 is the north polar region of Mars as seen in false color THEMIS images. Ice/frost will typically appear as bright blue in color; dust mantled ice will appear in tones of red/orange.

This full resolution image contains dunes, and small areas of 'blue' which may represent fresh (ie. not dust covered) frost or ice.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 85, Longitude 235.8 East (124.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2005-01-01

233

Automated Information System (AIS) Alarm System  

SciTech Connect

The Automated Information Alarm System is a joint effort between Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratory to demonstrate and implement, on a small-to-medium sized local area network, an automated system that detects and automatically responds to attacks that use readily available tools and methodologies. The Alarm System will sense or detect, assess, and respond to suspicious activities that may be detrimental to information on the network or to continued operation of the network. The responses will allow stopping, isolating, or ejecting the suspicious activities. The number of sensors, the sensitivity of the sensors, the assessment criteria, and the desired responses may be set by the using organization to meet their local security policies.

Hunteman, W.

1997-05-01

234

Component Structure of Individual Differences in True and False Recognition of Faces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Principal-component analyses of 4 face-recognition studies uncovered 2 independent components. The first component was strongly related to false-alarm errors with new faces as well as to facial "conjunctions" that recombine features of previously studied faces. The second component was strongly related to hits as well as to the conjunction/new…

Bartlett, James C.; Shastri, Kalyan K.; Abdi, Herve; Neville-Smith, Marsha

2009-01-01

235

Reduced False Memory after Sleep  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several studies have shown that sleep contributes to the successful maintenance of previously encoded information. This research has focused exclusively on memory for studied events, as opposed to false memories. Here we report three experiments showing that sleep reduces false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) memory illusion. False

Fenn, Kimberly M.; Gallo, David A.; Margoliash, Daniel; Roediger, Henry L., III; Nusbaum, Howard C.

2009-01-01

236

Sleep deprivation and false memories.  

PubMed

Many studies have investigated factors that affect susceptibility to false memories. However, few have investigated the role of sleep deprivation in the formation of false memories, despite overwhelming evidence that sleep deprivation impairs cognitive function. We examined the relationship between self-reported sleep duration and false memories and the effect of 24 hr of total sleep deprivation on susceptibility to false memories. We found that under certain conditions, sleep deprivation can increase the risk of developing false memories. Specifically, sleep deprivation increased false memories in a misinformation task when participants were sleep deprived during event encoding, but did not have a significant effect when the deprivation occurred after event encoding. These experiments are the first to investigate the effect of sleep deprivation on susceptibility to false memories, which can have dire consequences. PMID:25031301

Frenda, Steven J; Patihis, Lawrence; Loftus, Elizabeth F; Lewis, Holly C; Fenn, Kimberly M

2014-09-01

237

False memory in bilinguals: does switching languages increase false memories?  

PubMed

People often receive and recount information in different languages. This experiment examined the impact of switching languages on false recall, recognition, and recognition confidence. We presented Spanish-English bilinguals with 10 lists of words associated to a critical non-presented lure, either in English or in Spanish. Each list was followed by free recall either in English or in Spanish. The final stage was a recognition test in either language. Results showed a higher proportion of veridical and false recall in English, the more dominant language, than in Spanish, the native language. Noncritical intrusions were equivalent in both languages. More importantly, false recall, false recognition, and false recognition confidence were higher across languages than within languages. The results are examined in relation to current research and interpretations of bilingual false memory. PMID:19353928

Marmolejo, Gloria; Diliberto-Macaluso, Kristen A; Altarriba, Jean Ette

2009-01-01

238

NATO Advanced Study Institute Unexploded Ordnance Detection and Mitigation  

E-print Network

is a detector, which maintains a constant false alarm probability in the process of target detection. In such a detector, target detection is declared if the signal sample x 0 exceeds a preliminary determined adaptive: There are different geo-radar algorithms for object or layer detection. In the presented work we consider a known

Borissova, Daniela

239

Early warning, warning or alarm systems for natural hazards? A generic classification.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early warning, warning and alarm systems have gained popularity in recent years as cost-efficient measures for dangerous natural hazard processes such as floods, storms, rock and snow avalanches, debris flows, rock and ice falls, landslides, flash floods, glacier lake outburst floods, forest fires and even earthquakes. These systems can generate information before an event causes loss of property and life. In this way, they mainly mitigate the overall risk by reducing the presence probability of endangered objects. These systems are typically prototypes tailored to specific project needs. Despite their importance there is no recognised system classification. This contribution classifies warning and alarm systems into three classes: i) threshold systems, ii) expert systems and iii) model-based expert systems. The result is a generic classification, which takes the characteristics of the natural hazard process itself and the related monitoring possibilities into account. The choice of the monitoring parameters directly determines the system's lead time. The classification of 52 active systems moreover revealed typical system characteristics for each system class. i) Threshold systems monitor dynamic process parameters of ongoing events (e.g. water level of a debris flow) and incorporate minor lead times. They have a local geographical coverage and a predefined threshold determines if an alarm is automatically activated to warn endangered objects, authorities and system operators. ii) Expert systems monitor direct changes in the variable disposition (e.g crack opening before a rock avalanche) or trigger events (e.g. heavy rain) at a local scale before the main event starts and thus offer extended lead times. The final alarm decision incorporates human, model and organisational related factors. iii) Model-based expert systems monitor indirect changes in the variable disposition (e.g. snow temperature, height or solar radiation that influence the occurrence probability of snow avalanches) or trigger events (e.g. heavy snow fall) to predict spontaneous hazard events in advance. They encompass regional or national measuring networks and satisfy additional demands such as the standardisation of the measuring stations. The developed classification and the characteristics, which were revealed for each class, yield a valuable input to quantifying the reliability of warning and alarm systems. Importantly, this will facilitate to compare them with well-established standard mitigation measures such as dams, nets and galleries within an integrated risk management approach.

Sättele, Martina; Bründl, Michael; Straub, Daniel

2013-04-01

240

Male topi antelopes alarm snort deceptively to retain females for mating.  

PubMed

Despite intense interest in the role of deception in animal communication, empirical evidence is wanting that nonhuman animals are capable of actively falsifying signals to manipulate mates for reproductive benefits. Tactical use of false positive signals has thus been documented mainly where interests are consistently opposed, such as between predator and prey and between competitors for food and for mates. Here we report that male topi antelopes alarm snort deceptively to retain receptive females in their territories and thereby secure mating opportunities. The finding reveals that sexual conflict over mating, which is known to promote various forms of coercion and sensory bias exploitation, can also lead to active signal falsification. However, because honesty in sexual signals is generally assured by physical or cost-enforced constraints on signal production, sexually selected mate deception is likely to target mainly signals, such as alarm calls, that were originally not under sexual selection. PMID:20477537

Bro-Jørgensen, Jakob; Pangle, Wiline M

2010-07-01

241

15 CFR 923.25 - Shoreline erosion/mitigation planning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Shoreline erosion/mitigation planning. 923.25 Section...Management Areas § 923.25 Shoreline erosion/mitigation planning. (a) The...control, or lessen the impact of, shoreline erosion, including potential impacts of...

2014-01-01

242

15 CFR 923.25 - Shoreline erosion/mitigation planning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Shoreline erosion/mitigation planning. 923.25 Section...Management Areas § 923.25 Shoreline erosion/mitigation planning. (a) The...control, or lessen the impact of, shoreline erosion, including potential impacts of...

2013-01-01

243

15 CFR 923.25 - Shoreline erosion/mitigation planning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shoreline erosion/mitigation planning. 923.25 Section...Management Areas § 923.25 Shoreline erosion/mitigation planning. (a) The...control, or lessen the impact of, shoreline erosion, including potential impacts of...

2010-01-01

244

15 CFR 923.25 - Shoreline erosion/mitigation planning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Shoreline erosion/mitigation planning. 923.25 Section...Management Areas § 923.25 Shoreline erosion/mitigation planning. (a) The...control, or lessen the impact of, shoreline erosion, including potential impacts of...

2012-01-01

245

15 CFR 923.25 - Shoreline erosion/mitigation planning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Shoreline erosion/mitigation planning. 923.25 Section...Management Areas § 923.25 Shoreline erosion/mitigation planning. (a) The...control, or lessen the impact of, shoreline erosion, including potential impacts of...

2011-01-01

246

Parental alarm calls suppress nestling vocalization.  

PubMed Central

Evolutionary models suggest that the cost of a signal can ensure its honesty. Empirical studies of nestling begging imply that predator attraction can impose such a cost. However, parents might reduce or abolish this cost by warning young of the presence of danger. We tested, in a controlled field playback experiment, whether alarm calls cause 5-, 8- and 11-day-old nestlings of the white-browed scrubwren, Sericornis frontalis, to suppress vocalization. In this species, nestlings vocalize when parents visit the nest ('begging') and when they are absent ('non-begging'), so we measured effects on both types of vocalization. Playback of parental alarm calls suppressed non-begging vocalization almost completely but only slightly reduced begging calls during a playback of parental feeding calls that followed. The reaction of nestlings was largely independent of age. Our results suggest two reasons why experiments ignoring the role of parents probably overestimate the real cost of nestling vocalizations. Parents can warn young from a distance about the presence of danger and so suppress non-begging vocalizations that might otherwise be overheard, and a parent's presence at the nest presumably indicates when it is safe to beg. PMID:15306351

Platzen, Dirk; Magrath, Robert D.

2004-01-01

247

Alarm system for a nuclear control complex  

DOEpatents

An advanced control room complex for a nuclear power plant, including a discrete indicator and alarm system (72) which is nuclear qualified for rapid response to changes in plant parameters and a component control system (64) which together provide a discrete monitoring and control capability at a panel (14-22, 26, 28) in the control room (10). A separate data processing system (70), which need not be nuclear qualified, provides integrated and overview information to the control room and to each panel, through CRTs (84) and a large, overhead integrated process status overview board (24). The discrete indicator and alarm system (72) and the data processing system (70) receive inputs from common plant sensors and validate the sensor outputs to arrive at a representative value of the parameter for use by the operator during both normal and accident conditions, thereby avoiding the need for him to assimilate data from each sensor individually. The integrated process status board (24) is at the apex of an information hierarchy that extends through four levels and provides access at each panel to the full display hierarchy. The control room panels are preferably of a modular construction, permitting the definition of inputs and outputs, the man machine interface, and the plant specific algorithms, to proceed in parallel with the fabrication of the panels, the installation of the equipment and the generic testing thereof.

Scarola, Kenneth (Windsor, CT); Jamison, David S. (Windsor, CT); Manazir, Richard M. (North Canton, CT); Rescorl, Robert L. (Vernon, CT); Harmon, Daryl L. (Enfield, CT)

1994-01-01

248

Development of net cage acoustic alarm system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, the fishery production has been drastically decreased in Taiwan, mainly due to overfishing and coast pollution; therefore, fishermen and corporations are encouraged by government to invest in ocean net cage aquaculture. However, the high-price fishes in the net cage are often coveted, so incidences of fish stealing and net cage breaking were found occasionally, which cause great economical loss. Security guards or a visual monitoring system has limited effect, especially in the night when these intrusions occur. This study is based on acoustic measure to build a net cage alarm system, which includes the sonobuoy and monitor station on land. The sonobuoy is a passive sonar that collects the sounds near the net cage and transmits the suspected signal to the monitor station. The signals are analyzed by the control program on the personal computer in the monitor station, and the alarms at different stages could be activated by the sound levels and durations of the analyzed data. To insure long hours of surveillance, a solar panel is applied to charge the battery, and a photodetector is used to activate the system.

Hong, Shih-Wei; Wei, Ruey-Chang

2001-05-01

249

Classification of alarm processing techniques and human performance issues  

SciTech Connect

Human factors reviews indicate that conventional alarm systems based on the one sensor, one alarm approach, have many human engineering deficiencies, a paramount example being too many alarms during major disturbances. As an effort to resolve these deficiencies, various alarm processing systems have been developed using different techniques. To ensure their contribution to operational safety, the impacts of those systems on operating crew performance should be carefully evaluated. This paper briefly reviews some of the human factors research issues associated with alarm processing techniques and then discusses a framework with which to classify the techniques. The dimensions of this framework can be used to explore the effects of alarm processing systems on human performance.

Kim, I.S.; O'Hara, J.M.

1993-01-01

250

Classification of alarm processing techniques and human performance issues  

SciTech Connect

Human factors reviews indicate that conventional alarm systems based on the one sensor, one alarm approach, have many human engineering deficiencies, a paramount example being too many alarms during major disturbances. As an effort to resolve these deficiencies, various alarm processing systems have been developed using different techniques. To ensure their contribution to operational safety, the impacts of those systems on operating crew performance should be carefully evaluated. This paper briefly reviews some of the human factors research issues associated with alarm processing techniques and then discusses a framework with which to classify the techniques. The dimensions of this framework can be used to explore the effects of alarm processing systems on human performance.

Kim, I.S.; O`Hara, J.M.

1993-05-01

251

Measurement of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant criticality accident alarm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant's nuclear criticality accident radiation alarm signal response time, sound wave frequency, and sound volume levels were made to demonstrate compliance with ANSI\\/ANS-8.3-1986. A steady-state alarm signal is produced within one-half second of obtaining a two-out-of-three detector trip. The fundamental alarm sound wave frequency is 440 hertz. The sound volume levels are greater than

R. W. Jr. Tayloe; B. McGinnis

1990-01-01

252

True, False, and Open Sentences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Students first explore arithmetic sentences to decide whether they are true or false. The lesson then introduces students to sentences that are neither true nor false but are algebraic equations, also called open sentences, such as x + 3 = 7 or 2 x = 12." from Math Solutions.

Math Solutions Professional Development

2009-09-01

253

21 CFR 870.2640 - Portable leakage current alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2640 Portable leakage current alarm. (a)...

2013-04-01

254

21 CFR 870.2640 - Portable leakage current alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2640 Portable leakage current alarm. (a)...

2014-04-01

255

Lupus nephritis - alarmins may sound the alarm?  

PubMed Central

A growing body of literature has documented the elevated levels of the alarmin HMGB1 in lupus skin and serum. Two recent reports highlight the increased expression of HMGB1 in lupus nephritis, within the diseased kidneys or in the urine. Taken together with previous reports, these findings suggest that the interaction of HMGB1 with a variety of receptors, including receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and Toll-like receptors, might play a role in the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis. These studies introduce urinary HMGB1 as a novel biomarker candidate in lupus nephritis. Whether alarmins would be effective in sounding the alarm at the incipience of renal damage remains to be ascertained. PMID:23270666

2012-01-01

256

Nonlinear dynamics of false bottoms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nansen from his observations in the Beaufort Sea published in 1897 noted that heat transfer from the fresh water to the arctic salt water is the only source of ice accretion during the polar summer. This transfer mechanism, unusual at first sight, is responsible for the initiation and evolution of a false bottom ice, changing ice properties to a great extent and affecting various processes while interacting with the ocean and the atmosphere. A false bottom represents a thin layer of ice which forms in summer underneath the floe where fresh water lies between the salt water and the ice. Details of how this process occurs in nature are now emerging from different laboratory and field experiments. The false bottoms appearing at the interface between the fresh and salt water as a result of double-diffusive convection normally lie below surface and under-ice melt ponds. Such false bottoms represent the only significant source of ice growth in the Arctic during the spring-summer period. Their evolution influences the mass balance of the Arctic sea-ice cover recognized as an indicator of climate change. However, the quantity, aerial extent and other properties of false bottoms are difficult to measure because coring under the surface melt ponds leads to direct mixing of surface and under-ice water. This explains why their aerial extent and overall volume is still not known despite the fact that the upper limit of the ice coverage by the false bottom is approximately half of the ice surface. The growth of false bottoms also leads to other important consequences for different physical, chemical and biological processes associated with their dynamics. This study addressed to a broad community of readers is concerned with non-linear behavior of false bottoms including their stochastic dynamics due to possible fluctuations of the main process parameters in the ocean and the atmosphere.

Nizovtseva, Irina; Alexandrov, Dmitri; Ryashko, Lev

2014-05-01

257

29 CFR 1910.165 - Employee alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...promptly as possible after each test or alarm. Spare alarm devices and components subject to wear or destruction shall be available...employer shall assure that a test of the reliability and adequacy...device shall be used in each test of a multi-actuation...

2010-07-01

258

Nuthatches eavesdrop on variations in heterospecific chickadee mobbing alarm calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many animals recognize the alarm calls produced by other species, but the amount of information they glean from these eaves- dropped signals is unknown. We previously showed that black- capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) have a sophisticated alarm call system in which they encode complex information about the size and risk of potential predators in variations of a single type of

C. N. Templeton; Erick Greene

2007-01-01

259

Reliability and the adaptive utility of discrimination among alarm callers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike individually distinctive contact calls, or calls that aid in the recognition of young by their parents, the function or functions of individually distinctive alarm calls is less obvious. We conducted three experiments to study the importance of caller reliability in explaining individual-discriminative abilities in the alarm calls of yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris). In our first two experiments, we found

Daniel T. Blumstein; Laure Verneyre; Janice C. Daniel

2004-01-01

260

1. Photographic copy of fire alarm plan for Control and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Photographic copy of fire alarm plan for Control and Recording Center Building 4221/E-22, showing layout of rooms. California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Plant Engineering 'Edwards Test Station, Fire Alarm Plan, Bldg. E-22,' drawing no. EFA/11-1, December 15, 1961. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Control & Recording Center, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

261

“When true is false, and false is true” [Column  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many insects and other organisms are called “false” as a common name or the Latin equivalent “pseudo-“ in their scientific names. The column explores the details of and the reasons why so many insects are given such names. Reasons include the vast biodiversity of certain groups, the historical typ...

262

Effects of presentation mode on veridical and false memory in individuals with intellectual disability.  

PubMed

In the present study the effects of visual, auditory, and audio-visual presentation formats on memory for thematically constructed lists were assessed in individuals with intellectual disability and mental age-matched children. The auditory recognition test included target items, unrelated foils, and two types of semantic lures: critical related foils and related foils. The audio-visual format led to better recognition of old items and lower false-alarm rates for all foil types. Those with intellectual disability had higher false-alarm rates for all foil types and experienced particular difficulty discriminating presented items from those most strongly activated internally during acquisition (i.e., critical foils). Results are consistent with the activation-monitoring framework and fuzzy-trace theory and inform best practices for designing visual supports to maximize performance in educational and work environments. PMID:22716261

Carlin, Michael; Toglia, Michael P; Belmonte, Colleen; DiMeglio, Chiara

2012-05-01

263

Repeated Measures GLMM Estimation of Subject-Related and False Positive Threshold Effects on Human Face Verification Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subject covariate data were collected on 1, 072 pairs of FERET images for analysis in a human face verification experiment. The subject data included information about facial hair, bangs, eyes, gender, and age. The verification experiment was replicated at seven different false alarm rates ranging from 1\\/10, 000 to 1\\/100. A generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) was fit to the

Geof H. Givens; J. Ross Beveridge; Bruce A. Draper; P. J. Phillips

2005-01-01

264

78 FR 21567 - Installation of Radiation Alarms for Rooms Housing Neutron Sources  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Radiation Alarms for Rooms Housing Neutron Sources AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...of radiation alarms for rooms housing neutron sources. DATES: The docket for the petition...of radiation alarms for rooms housing neutron sources. The petitioner stated that...

2013-04-11

265

Acoustic structures in the alarm calls of Gunnison's prairie dogs.  

PubMed

Acoustic structures of sound in Gunnison's prairie dog alarm calls are described, showing how these acoustic structures may encode information about three different predator species (red-tailed hawk-Buteo jamaicensis; domestic dog-Canis familaris; and coyote-Canis latrans). By dividing each alarm call into 25 equal-sized partitions and using resonant frequencies within each partition, commonly occurring acoustic structures were identified as components of alarm calls for the three predators. Although most of the acoustic structures appeared in alarm calls elicited by all three predator species, the frequency of occurrence of these acoustic structures varied among the alarm calls for the different predators, suggesting that these structures encode identifying information for each of the predators. A classification analysis of alarm calls elicited by each of the three predators showed that acoustic structures could correctly classify 67% of the calls elicited by domestic dogs, 73% of the calls elicited by coyotes, and 99% of the calls elicited by red-tailed hawks. The different distributions of acoustic structures associated with alarm calls for the three predator species suggest a duality of function, one of the design elements of language listed by Hockett [in Animal Sounds and Communication, edited by W. E. Lanyon and W. N. Tavolga (American Institute of Biological Sciences, Washington, DC, 1960), pp. 392-430]. PMID:16708970

Slobodchikoff, C N; Placer, J

2006-05-01

266

Computational Human Performance Modeling For Alarm System Design  

SciTech Connect

The introduction of new technologies like adaptive automation systems and advanced alarms processing and presentation techniques in nuclear power plants is already having an impact on the safety and effectiveness of plant operations and also the role of the control room operator. This impact is expected to escalate dramatically as more and more nuclear power utilities embark on upgrade projects in order to extend the lifetime of their plants. One of the most visible impacts in control rooms will be the need to replace aging alarm systems. Because most of these alarm systems use obsolete technologies, the methods, techniques and tools that were used to design the previous generation of alarm system designs are no longer effective and need to be updated. The same applies to the need to analyze and redefine operators’ alarm handling tasks. In the past, methods for analyzing human tasks and workload have relied on crude, paper-based methods that often lacked traceability. New approaches are needed to allow analysts to model and represent the new concepts of alarm operation and human-system interaction. State-of-the-art task simulation tools are now available that offer a cost-effective and efficient method for examining the effect of operator performance in different conditions and operational scenarios. A discrete event simulation system was used by human factors researchers at the Idaho National Laboratory to develop a generic alarm handling model to examine the effect of operator performance with simulated modern alarm system. It allowed analysts to evaluate alarm generation patterns as well as critical task times and human workload predicted by the system.

Jacques Hugo

2012-07-01

267

75 FR 6345 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh False Coriander From...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...designated phytosanitary measures will be sufficient to mitigate the risks of introducing or disseminating plant pests or noxious weeds via the importation of fresh false coriander from Panama. We are making the pest risk analysis available to the public...

2010-02-09

268

75 FR 34687 - Notice of Decision to Issue Permits for the Importation of Fresh False Coriander From Panama Into...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...designated phytosanitary measures will be sufficient to mitigate the risks of introducing or disseminating plant pests or noxious weeds via the importation of fresh false coriander from Panama. EFFECTIVE DATE: June 18, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

2010-06-18

269

The Psychology of False Confessions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obtaining a confession is one of the most important aims of police interro- gation, and it is estimated that more than 80% of solved criminal cases are solved by a confession. However, a significant number of confessions that result in wrongful convictions are obtained through coercive questioning. This paper examines false con- fessions and discusses the psychological and social factors

Richard P. Conti

270

Tunneling decay of false vortices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the decay of vortices trapped in the false vacuum of a theory of scalar electrodynamics in 2+1 dimensions. The potential is inspired by models with intermediate symmetry breaking to a metastable vacuum that completely breaks a U(1) symmetry, while in the true vacuum, the symmetry is unbroken. The false vacuum is unstable through the formation of true vacuum bubbles; however, the rate of decay can be extremely long. On the other hand, the false vacuum can contain metastable vortex solutions. These vortices contain the true vacuum inside in addition to a unit of magnetic flux and the appropriate topologically nontrivial false vacuum outside. We numerically establish the existence of vortex solutions which are classically stable; however, they can decay via tunneling. In general terms, they tunnel to a configuration which is a large, thin-walled vortex configuration that is now classically unstable to the expansion of its radius. We compute an estimate for the tunneling amplitude in the semiclassical approximation. We believe our analysis would be relevant to superconducting thin films or superfluids.

Lee, Bum-Hoon; Lee, Wonwoo; MacKenzie, Richard; Paranjape, M. B.; Yajnik, U. A.; Yeom, Dong-han

2013-10-01

271

24 CFR 3280.208 - Smoke alarm requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Fire Safety § 3280.208 Smoke alarm...UL 268, Smoke Detectors for Fire Protective Signaling Systems...protect both the living area and kitchen space. Manufacturers are...

2012-04-01

272

24 CFR 3280.208 - Smoke alarm requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Fire Safety § 3280.208 Smoke alarm...UL 268, Smoke Detectors for Fire Protective Signaling Systems...protect both the living area and kitchen space. Manufacturers are...

2011-04-01

273

24 CFR 3280.208 - Smoke alarm requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Fire Safety § 3280.208 Smoke alarm...UL 268, Smoke Detectors for Fire Protective Signaling Systems...protect both the living area and kitchen space. Manufacturers are...

2010-04-01

274

24 CFR 3280.208 - Smoke alarm requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Fire Safety § 3280.208 Smoke alarm...UL 268, Smoke Detectors for Fire Protective Signaling Systems...protect both the living area and kitchen space. Manufacturers are...

2014-04-01

275

24 CFR 3280.208 - Smoke alarm requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Fire Safety § 3280.208 Smoke alarm...UL 268, Smoke Detectors for Fire Protective Signaling Systems...protect both the living area and kitchen space. Manufacturers are...

2013-04-01

276

46 CFR 108.623 - General alarm bell switch.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...108.623 Section 108.623 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.623 General alarm bell switch....

2010-10-01

277

46 CFR 108.625 - General alarm bell.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...108.625 Section 108.625 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.625 General alarm bell. Each...

2011-10-01

278

46 CFR 108.623 - General alarm bell switch.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...108.623 Section 108.623 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.623 General alarm bell switch....

2013-10-01

279

46 CFR 108.623 - General alarm bell switch.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...108.623 Section 108.623 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.623 General alarm bell switch....

2011-10-01

280

46 CFR 113.20-1 - Sprinkler alarm system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...113.20-1 Section 113.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkler Systems § 113.20-1 Sprinkler...

2013-10-01

281

46 CFR 28.250 - High water alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

Requirements for Documented Vessels That Operate Beyond the Boundary Lines or With More Than 16 Individuals On Board, or for Fish Tender Vessels Engaged in the Aleutian Trade § 28.250 High water alarms. On a vessel 36 feet...

2014-10-01

282

46 CFR 28.250 - High water alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

Requirements for Documented Vessels That Operate Beyond the Boundary Lines or With More Than 16 Individuals On Board, or for Fish Tender Vessels Engaged in the Aleutian Trade § 28.250 High water alarms. On a vessel 36 feet...

2011-10-01

283

Nuthatches eavesdrop on variations in heterospecific chickadee mobbing alarm calls  

PubMed Central

Many animals recognize the alarm calls produced by other species, but the amount of information they glean from these eavesdropped signals is unknown. We previously showed that black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) have a sophisticated alarm call system in which they encode complex information about the size and risk of potential predators in variations of a single type of mobbing alarm call. Here we show experimentally that red-breasted nuthatches (Sitta canadensis) respond appropriately to subtle variations of these heterospecific “chick-a-dee” alarm calls, thereby evidencing that they have gained important information about potential predators in their environment. This study demonstrates a previously unsuspected level of discrimination in intertaxon eavesdropping. PMID:17372225

Templeton, Christopher N.; Greene, Erick

2007-01-01

284

Nuthatches eavesdrop on variations in heterospecific chickadee mobbing alarm calls.  

PubMed

Many animals recognize the alarm calls produced by other species, but the amount of information they glean from these eavesdropped signals is unknown. We previously showed that black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) have a sophisticated alarm call system in which they encode complex information about the size and risk of potential predators in variations of a single type of mobbing alarm call. Here we show experimentally that red-breasted nuthatches (Sitta canadensis) respond appropriately to subtle variations of these heterospecific "chick-a-dee" alarm calls, thereby evidencing that they have gained important information about potential predators in their environment. This study demonstrates a previously unsuspected level of discrimination in intertaxon eavesdropping. PMID:17372225

Templeton, Christopher N; Greene, Erick

2007-03-27

285

A distributed approach to alarm management in chronic kidney disease.  

PubMed

This paper presents the feasibility study of using a distributed approach for the management of alarms from chronic kidney disease patients. In a first place, the key issues regarding alarm definition, classification, and prioritization according to available normalization efforts are analyzed for the main scenarios addressed in hemodialysis. Then, the middleware proposed for alarm management is described, which follows the publish/subscribe pattern, and supports the Object Management Group data distribution service (DDS) standard. This standard facilitates the real-time monitoring of the exchanged information, as well as the scalability and interoperability of the solution developed regarding the different stakeholders and resources involved. Finally, the results section shows, through the proof of concept studied, the viability of DDS for the activation of emergency protocols in terms of alarm prioritization and personalization, as well as some remarks about security, privacy, and real-time communication performance. PMID:25014977

Estudillo-Valderrama, Miguel A; Talaminos-Barroso, Alejandro; Roa, Laura M; Naranjo-Hernández, David; Reina-Tosina, Javier; Aresté-Fosalba, Nuria; Milán-Martín, José A

2014-11-01

286

Wireless intelligent alarm technology with pyroelectric infrared sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aiming at the defects of monitoring conducted by man in the conventional practice, we study the passive intelligent automatic alarm technology based on the pyroelectric infrared sensor and wireless communication technology. The designed passive infrared wireless alarm is composed of pyroelectric infrared sensors, infrared special chip BISS0001 and their peripheral circuits. When someone enters into the detecting and monitoring range, the alarm will detect the infrared ray of the human radiation by the contactless form and detect the signals of circuit output. Then it translates them into low frequency signals relative with human sports speed, distance and direction, produce corresponding output signals through amplifying by the back state controller, switch on the work power of the wireless transmitting circuit and make it emit the alarm signals. The system enhances the monitoring level and effects and possesses many advantages such as wide detecting range, long detecting distance and high reliability.

Chen, Xiao

2009-07-01

287

Research on the fire alarming system of fiber grating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of fiber grating sensing technology in fire alarming based on temperature detection has the advantages of high accuracy, high reliability and strong immunity from electronic and magnetic fields. It is especially advantageous to use this system in the petroleum and chemistry industry because it can provide an extraordinary safe means for the fire alarm. But due to the traditional optical Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) technology is limited by the optic source bandwidth, the number of its multiplexing points is few. In this paper WDM technology will be developed mixing with Identified Bragg, which is called Identified and Wavelength Multiplexing, to build the Fiber Grating (FBG) fire alarm system integrated with computers. Some technologies applied in fire alarming system of fiber grating such as the transmission of test signals which pass through modulate and demodulate, the disposal of software system, the output of control signal and the strong ability of anti-disturbance have been studied and discussed.

Qi, Yaobin

2007-09-01

288

Chandra Images and False Color  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the Chandra X-ray Observatory photo album website. It begins with an introduction on the electromagnetic spectrum, focusing on X-rays in particular. It also contains information on false color images. The images in this photo gallery were taken between 1999 and 2004 by the Chandra telescope. Each image includes a description and a link to more information about the object.

Lestition, Kathy

2004-07-14

289

Prairie dog alarm calls encode labels about predator colors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some animals have the cognitive capacity to differentiate between different species of predators and generate different alarm\\u000a calls in response. However, the presence of any addition information that might be encoded into alarm calls has been largely\\u000a unexplored. In the present study, three similar-sized human females walked through a Gunnison’s prairie dog (Cynomys gunnisoni) colony wearing each of three different-colored

C. N. Slobodchikoff; Andrea Paseka; Jennifer L. Verdolin

2009-01-01

290

How Drivers Respond to Alarms Adapted to Their Braking Behaviour?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determining appropriate alarm timing for Forward Collision Warning Systems (FCWS) may play an important role in enhancing system acceptance by drivers. It is not always true that a common alarm trigger logic is suitable for all drivers, because presented alarms may be differently viewed for each driver, i.e., paying attention or requiring appropriate actions. The current study focused on adaptive alarm timing which was adjusted in response to braking behaviour for collision avoidance for the individual. In Experiment I, the braking performance of individual driver was measured repeatedly to assess the variation of each performance. We utilised the following two indices: elapsed time from the deceleration of the lead car to release of the accelerator (accelerator release time) and elapsed time to application of the brakes (braking response time). Two alarm timings were then determined based on these two indices: (i) the median of the accelerator release time of the driver and (ii) the median of the braking response time of the driver. Experiment II compared the two alarm timings for each driver in order to investigate which timing is more appropriate for enhancing driver trust in the driver-adaptive FCWS and the system effectiveness. The results showed that the timing of the accelerator release time increased the trust ratings more than the timing of braking response. The timing of the braking response time induced a longer response time to application of the brakes. Moreover, the degree to which the response time was longer depended on alarm timing preference of the driver. The possible benefit and drawback of driver-adaptive alarm timing are discussed.

Abe, Genya; Itoh, Makoto

291

Alarm responses in the crayfish Orconectes virilis and Orconectes propinquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals of two species of crayfish (Orconectes virilis andO. propinquus) were tested in the laboratory for responses to chemicals released from physically damaged conspecifics. Individuals ofO. propinquus did not show an alarm response to crushed conspecifics. Individuals ofO. virilis responded to a water-borne substance released from crushed conspecifics by assuming an intermediate posture and ceasing movement. Similar alarm responses were

Brian A. Hazlett

1994-01-01

292

Organic Contaminants from Sewage Sludge Applied to Agricultural Soils. False Alarm Regarding Possible Problems for Food Safety? (8 pp)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goal, Scope and Background   Sewage sludge produced in wastewater treatment contains large amounts of organic matter and nutrients and could, therefore,\\u000a be suitable as fertiliser. However, with the sludge, besides heavy metals and pathogenic bacteria, a variety of organic contaminants\\u000a can be added to agricultural fields. Whether the organic contaminants from the sludge can have adverse effects on human health

Christian Grøn; Karin von Arnold

2007-01-01

293

Application of a CO 2 dial system for infrared detection of forest fire and reduction of false alarm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest fires can be the cause of serious environmental and economic damages. For this reason considerable effort has been\\u000a directed toward forest protection and fire fighting.\\u000a \\u000a The means traditionally used for early fire detection mainly consist in human observers dispersed over forest regions. A significant\\u000a improvement in early warning capabilities could be obtained by using automatic detection apparatus.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a In order

C. Bellecci; M. Francucci; P. Gaudio; M. Gelfusa; S. Martellucci; M. Richetta; T. Lo Feudo

2007-01-01

294

19 CFR Appendix D to Part 171 - Guidelines for the Imposition and Mitigation of Penalties for Violations of 19 U.S.C. 1593a  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 false Guidelines for the Imposition and Mitigation of Penalties...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) FINES, PENALTIES... Appendix D to Part 171—Guidelines for the Imposition and Mitigation of...

2014-04-01

295

Epidermal ‘alarm substance’ cells of fishes maintained by non-alarm functions: possible defence against pathogens, parasites and UVB radiation  

PubMed Central

Many fishes possess specialized epidermal cells that are ruptured by the teeth of predators, thus reliably indicating the presence of an actively foraging predator. Understanding the evolution of these cells has intrigued evolutionary ecologists because the release of these alarm chemicals is not voluntary. Here, we show that predation pressure does not influence alarm cell production in fishes. Alarm cell production is stimulated by exposure to skin-penetrating pathogens (water moulds: Saprolegnia ferax and Saprolegnia parasitica), skin-penetrating parasites (larval trematodes: Teleorchis sp. and Uvulifer sp.) and correlated with exposure to UV radiation. Suppression of the immune system with environmentally relevant levels of Cd inhibits alarm cell production of fishes challenged with Saprolegnia. These data are the first evidence that alarm substance cells have an immune function against ubiquitous environmental challenges to epidermal integrity. Our results indicate that these specialized cells arose and are maintained by natural selection owing to selfish benefits unrelated to predator–prey interactions. Cell contents released when these cells are damaged in predator attacks have secondarily acquired an ecological role as alarm cues because selection favours receivers to detect and respond adaptively to public information about predation. PMID:17686729

Chivers, Douglas P; Wisenden, Brian D; Hindman, Carrie J; Michalak, Tracy A; Kusch, Robin C; Kaminskyj, Susan G.W; Jack, Kristin L; Ferrari, Maud C.O; Pollock, Robyn J; Halbgewachs, Colin F; Pollock, Michael S; Alemadi, Shireen; James, Clayton T; Savaloja, Rachel K; Goater, Cameron P; Corwin, Amber; Mirza, Reehan S; Kiesecker, Joseph M; Brown, Grant E; Adrian, James C; Krone, Patrick H; Blaustein, Andrew R; Mathis, Alicia

2007-01-01

296

Reciprocal recognition of sifaka ( Propithecus verreauxi verreauxi ) and redfronted lemur ( Eulemur fulvus rufus ) alarm calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Redfronted lemurs ( Eulemur fulvus rufus) and Verreaux's sifakas ( Propithecus verreauxi verreauxi) occur sympatrically in western Madagascar. Both species exhibit a so-called mixed alarm call system with functionally referential alarm calls for raptors and general alarm calls for carnivores and raptors. General alarm calls also occur in other contexts associated with high arousal, such as inter-group encounters. Field playback

Claudia Fichtel

2004-01-01

297

Development strategies of an expert system for multiple alarm processing and diagnosis in nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development strategies of a prototype expert system, called ESAPD, for multiple alarm processing and diagnosis in nuclear power plants are described. The main objectives of the system are to assist operators in identifying a primary causal alarm among multiple fired alarms and to diagnose the plant malfunction quickly. The overall plant-wide diagnosis is performed at the alarm processing stage

Se Woo Cheon; Soon Heung Chang; Hak Yeong Chung

1993-01-01

298

CRT graphic display system of automatic fire alarm system based on GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the fire alarm system and the problems that the CRT, puts forward the automatic fire alarm system based on GIS graphic display CRT and discusses its implementation process. Firstly introduces the CRT graphic display system, expounds the necessity and feasibility of CRT graphic display system of automatic fire alarm system based on GIS design. Automatic fire alarm system

Huide Liu; Lili Gao; Suwei Li; Junfu Li

2010-01-01

299

FAULT DIAGNOSIS WITH MULTI-STATE ALARMS IN A NUCLEAR POWER CONTROL SIMULATOR  

SciTech Connect

This research addresses how alarm systems can increase operator performance within nuclear power plant operations. The experiment examined the effect of two types of alarm systems (two-state and three-state alarms) on alarm compliance and diagnosis for two types of faults differing in complexity. We hypothesized three-state alarms would improve performance in alarm recognition and fault diagnoses over that of two-state alarms. We used sensitivity and criterion based on Signal Detection Theory to measure performance. We further hypothesized that operator trust would be highest when using three-state alarms. The findings from this research showed participants performed better and had more trust in three-state alarms compared to two-state alarms. Furthermore, these findings have significant theoretical implications and practical applications as they apply to improving the efficiency and effectiveness of nuclear power plant operations.

Austin Ragsdale; Roger Lew; Brian P. Dyre; Ronald L. Boring

2012-10-01

300

An Analytical Alarm Flood Reduction to Reduce Operator’s Workload  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In the domain of process control, an alarm flood is a situation when there are more alarms generated by the automation system\\u000a than can be physically addressed by a single operator. To reduce alarm floods an analytical approach, so called AADA (Automatic\\u000a Alarm Data Analyzer), has been developed to learn these alarm floods by itself. Finally, this behavior can be

Jens Folmer; Dorothea Pantförder; Birgit Vogel-Heuser

301

Alarm calls elicit predator-specific physiological responses.  

PubMed

Glucocorticoids regulate glucose concentrations and responses to unpredictable events, while also modulating cognition. Juvenile Belding's ground squirrels (Urocitellus beldingi) learn to respond to whistle and trill alarm calls, warning of aerial and terrestrial predators, respectively, shortly after emerging from natal burrows at one month of age. Alarm calls can cause physiological reactions and arousal, and this arousal, coupled with watching adult responses, might help juveniles learn associations between calls and behavioural responses. I studied whether young show differential cortisol responses to alarm and non-alarm calls, using playbacks of U. beldingi whistles, trills, squeals (a conspecific control vocalization) and silent controls. Trills elicited very high cortisol responses, and, using an individual's response to the silent control as baseline, only their response to a trill was significantly higher than baseline. This cortisol increase would provide glucose for extended vigilance and escape efforts, which is appropriate for evading terrestrial predators which hunt for long periods. Although whistles do not elicit a cortisol response, previous research has shown that they do result in bradycardia, which enhances attention and information processing. This is a novel demonstration of two physiological responses to two alarm calls, each appropriate to the threats represented by the calls. PMID:20236965

Mateo, Jill M

2010-10-23

302

Mitigation Monitoring Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Report (SEIR) (September 1992) for the Proposed Renewal of the Contract between the United States Department of Energy and The Regents of the University of California for the Operation and Management of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory identifies the environmental impacts associated with renewing the contract and specifies a series of measures designed to mitigate adverse impacts to the environment. This Mitigation Monitoring Plan describes the procedures the University will use to implement the mitigation measures adopted in connection with the approval of the Contract.

Not Available

1992-09-01

303

The function of nonlinear phenomena in meerkat alarm calls.  

PubMed

Nonlinear vocal phenomena are a ubiquitous feature of human and non-human animal vocalizations. Although we understand how these complex acoustic intrusions are generated, it is not clear whether they function adaptively for the animals producing them. One explanation is that nonlinearities make calls more unpredictable, increasing behavioural responses and ultimately reducing the chances of habituation to these call types. Meerkats (Suricata suricatta) exhibit nonlinear subharmonics in their predator alarm calls. We specifically tested the 'unpredictability hypothesis' by playing back naturally occurring nonlinear and linear medium-urgency alarm call bouts. Results indicate that subjects responded more strongly and foraged less after hearing nonlinear alarm calls. We argue that these findings support the unpredictability hypothesis and suggest this is the first study in animals or humans to show that nonlinear vocal phenomena function adaptively. PMID:20659926

Townsend, Simon W; Manser, Marta B

2011-02-23

304

Dust Mitigation Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A document describes the development and demonstration of an apparatus, called a dust mitigation vehicle, for reducing the amount of free dust on the surface of the Moon. The dust mitigation vehicle would be used to pave surfaces on the Moon to prevent the dust from levitating or adhering to surfaces. The basic principle of operation of these apparatuses is to use a lens or a dish mirror to concentrate solar thermal radiation onto a small spot to heat lunar regolith. In the case of the prototype dust mitigation vehicle, a Fresnel lens was used to heat a surface layer of regolith sufficiently to sinter or melt dust grains into a solid mass. The prototype vehicle has demonstrated paving rates up to 1.8 square meters per day. The proposed flight design of the dust mitigation vehicle is also described.

Cardiff, Eric H.

2011-01-01

305

Orbital Debris Mitigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Policies on limiting orbital debris are found throughout the US Government, many foreign space agencies, and as adopted guidelines in the United Nations. The underlying purpose of these policies is to ensure the environment remains safe for the operation of robotic and human spacecraft in near- Earth orbit. For this reason, it is important to consider orbital debris mitigation during the design of all space vehicles. Documenting compliance with the debris mitigation guidelines occurs after the vehicle has already been designed and fabricated for many CubeSats, whereas larger satellites are evaluated throughout the design process. This paper will provide a brief explanation of the US Government Orbital Debris Mitigation Standard Practices, a discussion of international guidelines, as well as NASA's process for compliance evaluation. In addition, it will discuss the educational value of considering orbital debris mitigation requirements as a part of student built satellite design.

Kelley, R. L.; Jarkey, D. R.; Stansbery, G.

2014-01-01

306

Evaluation of fire-safety programs that use 10-year smoke alarms.  

PubMed

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention began funding a Smoke Alarm Installation and Fire Safety Education (SAIFE) program in 1998. This program involves the installation of lithium-powered "10-year" smoke alarms in homes at high risk for fires and injuries. This study aimed to (1) determine among original SAIFE homes if the lithium-powered alarms were still present and functional 8-10 years after installation and (2) understand factors related to smoke alarm presence and functionality. Data on a total of 384 homes and 601 smoke alarms in five states were collected and analyzed. Only one-third of alarms were still functional; 37% of installed alarms were missing; and 30% of alarms were present, but not functioning. Alarms were less likely to be functioning if they were installed in the kitchen and if homes had a different resident at follow-up. Of the 351 alarms that were present and had a battery at the time of the evaluation, only 21% contained lithium-powered batteries. Of these, 78% were still functioning. Programs that install lithium-powered alarms should use units that have sealed-in batteries and "hush" buttons. Additionally, education should be given on smoke alarm maintenance that includes a message that batteries in these alarms should not be replaced. Lithium-powered smoke alarms should last up to 10 years if maintained properly. PMID:20177753

Jackson, Mark; Wilson, Jonathan; Akoto, Judith; Dixon, Sherry; Jacobs, David E; Ballesteros, Michael F

2010-10-01

307

13 CFR 123.204 - How much can your business borrow for post-disaster mitigation?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How much can your business borrow for post-disaster mitigation? 123.204 Section 123.204 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS...

2010-01-01

308

12 CFR 3.45 - Recognition of credit risk mitigants for securitization exposures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Recognition of credit risk mitigants for securitization exposures. 3...THE TREASURY CAPITAL ADEQUACY STANDARDS Risk-Weighted Assets-Standardized Approach Risk-Weighted Assets for Securitization...

2014-01-01

309

12 CFR 324.145 - Recognition of credit risk mitigants for securitization exposures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Recognition of credit risk mitigants for securitization exposures...ADEQUACY OF FDIC-SUPERVISED INSTITUTIONS Risk-Weighted Assets-Internal Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches Risk-Weighted Assets for Securitization...

2014-01-01

310

12 CFR 217.145 - Recognition of credit risk mitigants for securitization exposures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Recognition of credit risk mitigants for securitization exposures...ADEQUACY OF BOARD-REGULATED INSTITUTIONS Risk-Weighted Assets-Internal Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches Risk-Weighted Assets for Securitization...

2014-01-01

311

12 CFR 3.145 - Recognition of credit risk mitigants for securitization exposures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Recognition of credit risk mitigants for securitization exposures...TREASURY CAPITAL ADEQUACY STANDARDS Risk-Weighted Assets-Internal Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches Risk-Weighted Assets for Securitization...

2014-01-01

312

12 CFR 324.45 - Recognition of credit risk mitigants for securitization exposures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Recognition of credit risk mitigants for securitization exposures. 324...ADEQUACY OF FDIC-SUPERVISED INSTITUTIONS Risk-Weighted Assets-Standardized Approach Risk-Weighted Assets for Securitization...

2014-01-01

313

12 CFR 217.45 - Recognition of credit risk mitigants for securitization exposures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Recognition of credit risk mitigants for securitization exposures. 217...ADEQUACY OF BOARD-REGULATED INSTITUTIONS Risk-Weighted Assets-Standardized Approach Risk-Weighted Assets for Securitization...

2014-01-01

314

42 CFR 93.408 - Mitigating and aggravating factors in HHS administrative actions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mitigating and...in HHS administrative actions. 93.408 Section 93.408 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH...

2013-10-01

315

42 CFR 93.408 - Mitigating and aggravating factors in HHS administrative actions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mitigating and...in HHS administrative actions. 93.408 Section 93.408 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH...

2014-10-01

316

42 CFR 93.408 - Mitigating and aggravating factors in HHS administrative actions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mitigating and...in HHS administrative actions. 93.408 Section 93.408 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH...

2012-10-01

317

42 CFR 93.408 - Mitigating and aggravating factors in HHS administrative actions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mitigating and...in HHS administrative actions. 93.408 Section 93.408 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH...

2010-10-01

318

42 CFR 93.408 - Mitigating and aggravating factors in HHS administrative actions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mitigating and...in HHS administrative actions. 93.408 Section 93.408 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH...

2011-10-01

319

Description of ALARMA: the alarm algorithm developed for the Nuclear Car Wash  

SciTech Connect

The goal of any alarm algorithm should be that it provide the necessary tools to derive confidence limits on whether the existence of fissile materials is present in cargo containers. It should be able to extract these limits from (usually) noisy and/or weak data while maintaining a false alarm rate (FAR) that is economically suitable for port operations. It should also be able to perform its analysis within a reasonably short amount of time (i.e. {approx} seconds). To achieve this, it is essential that the algorithm be able to identify and subtract any interference signature that might otherwise be confused with a fissile signature. Lastly, the algorithm itself should be user-intuitive and user-friendly so that port operators with little or no experience with detection algorithms may use it with relative ease. In support of the Nuclear Car Wash project at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, we have developed an alarm algorithm that satisfies the above requirements. The description of the this alarm algorithm, dubbed ALARMA, is the purpose of this technical report. The experimental setup of the nuclear car wash has been well documented [1, 2, 3]. The presence of fissile materials is inferred by examining the {beta}-delayed gamma spectrum induced after a brief neutron irradiation of cargo, particularly in the high-energy region above approximately 2.5 MeV. In this region naturally occurring gamma rays are virtually non-existent. Thermal-neutron induced fission of {sup 235}U and {sup 239}P, on the other hand, leaves a unique {beta}-delayed spectrum [4]. This spectrum comes from decays of fission products having half-lives as large as 30 seconds, many of which have high Q-values. Since high-energy photons penetrate matter more freely, it is natural to look for unique fissile signatures in this energy region after neutron irradiation. The goal of this interrogation procedure is a 95% success rate of detection of as little as 5 kilograms of fissile material while retaining at most .1% false alarm rate. Plywood is used to simulate hydrogenous cargo material and steel (pipes) is used to simulate metallic cargo. The wood consists of 120 x 240 cm sheets and has approximately .65 g/cm{sup 3}. The steel pipes have approximately 10 cm diameters x 6.4 mm wall thickness are .6 g/cm{sup 3}. Fissile sources consist of a ''large'' (380 g) and ''small'' (250 g) sample of HEU (U{sub 3}O{sub 8} 94% enriched). Note that the masses of the HEU sources used in our experimental runs are at least an order of magnitude smaller than 5 kilograms. Runs are done with either wood or steel cargoes stacked at various heights and the HEU sources placed at various depths within the cargo.

Luu, T; Biltoft, P; Church, J; Descalle, M; Hall, J; Manatt, D; Mauger, J; Norman, E; Petersen, D; Pruet, J; Prussin, S; Slaughter, D

2006-11-28

320

ORIGINAL PAPER Sound the alarm: learned association of predation risk  

E-print Network

Ã? Lucia Bonacci Ã? Adam Schumacher Ã? Allison Willett Received: 24 June 2006 / Accepted: 17 November, fishes in the superorder Ostariophysi have been the focus of intense study (Smith 1992; Chivers and Smith the probability of predation (Mathis and Smith 1993a). Prey species use the presence of injury-released alarm cues

Wisenden, Brian D.

321

Integrated alarm annunciation and entry control systems -- Survey results  

SciTech Connect

This report provides the results and analyses of a detailed survey undertaken in Summer 1993 to address integrated intrusion detection alarm annunciation and entry control system issues. This survey was undertaken as a first attempt toward beginning to answer questions about integrated systems and commercial capabilities to meet or partially meet US Department of Energy (DOE) site needs.

Clever, J.J.; Arakaki, L.H.; Monaco, F.M.; Juarros, L.E.; Quintana, G.R.

1993-10-01

322

47 CFR 80.318 - Use of alarm signals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...only be used to announce: (1) That a distress call or message is about to follow; (2) The transmission of an urgent cyclone warning. In this case the alarm signal may only be used by coast stations authorized by the Commission to do so;...

2010-10-01

323

47 CFR 80.318 - Use of alarm signals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...only be used to announce: (1) That a distress call or message is about to follow; (2) The transmission of an urgent cyclone warning. In this case the alarm signal may only be used by coast stations authorized by the Commission to do so;...

2013-10-01

324

47 CFR 80.318 - Use of alarm signals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...only be used to announce: (1) That a distress call or message is about to follow; (2) The transmission of an urgent cyclone warning. In this case the alarm signal may only be used by coast stations authorized by the Commission to do so;...

2012-10-01

325

47 CFR 80.318 - Use of alarm signals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...only be used to announce: (1) That a distress call or message is about to follow; (2) The transmission of an urgent cyclone warning. In this case the alarm signal may only be used by coast stations authorized by the Commission to do so;...

2011-10-01

326

Intelligent alarm processing and fault diagnosis in digital substations  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the present situation of the traditional substation has many drawbacks, a system of intelligent alarm and fault diagnosis for transmission and transformation equipments in the digital substation is proposed in this work based on the multi-agents structure. According to the architecture of the digital substation, the characteristic of information flow and data flow, the accident handling process, the layered

Jianbo Xin; Zhiwei Liao; Fushuan Wen

2010-01-01

327

Prototype ventilator and alarm algorithm for the NASA space station  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alarm algorithm was developed to monitor the ventilator on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration space station. The algorithm automatically identifies and interprets critical events so that an untrained user can manage the mechanical ventilation of a critically injured crew member. The algorithm was tested in two healthy volunteers by simulating 260 critical events in each volunteer while the

Josef X. Brunner; Dwayne R. Westenskow; Paul Zelenkov

1988-01-01

328

Please do not smoke on the These premises are alarmed  

E-print Network

-55 Philpot Street D College Buildings Garrod Building 1 Library 2 Students' Union Griff Inn 3 AbernethyPlease do not smoke on the campus. These premises are alarmed and monitored by CCTV, please call Post Room 4 Security 1 Students' Union 3 Bicycle parking Whitechapel campus #12;

Chittka, Lars

329

Original article Effects of honey-bee alarm pheromone compounds  

E-print Network

Original article Effects of honey-bee alarm pheromone compounds on the behaviour of Varroa) Summary — In a simultaneous choice test, bees killed by freezing were more attractive to Varroa than bees stung to death by other bees. The smell of the sting apparatus proved to be repellent for Varroa

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

330

FALCON: Fault Management via Alarm Warehousing and Mining  

E-print Network

FALCON: Fault Management via Alarm Warehousing and Mining Matt Grossglauser AT&T Labs network management operations. In this paper, we describe FALCON, a project underway at AT&T Labs­Research focusing on fault management in IP networks. FALCON's goal is to automate various fault management tasks

Grossglauser, Matthias

331

46 CFR 162.050-35 - Bilge alarm: Approval tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2) of this section are repeated seven additional times. During the last hour, the alarm must be inclined at an angle of 22.5° with the plane of its normal operating position. [USCG-2004-18939, 74 FR 3391, Jan. 16,...

2014-10-01

332

46 CFR 162.050-35 - Bilge alarm: Approval tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2) of this section are repeated seven additional times. During the last hour, the alarm must be inclined at an angle of 22.5° with the plane of its normal operating position. [USCG-2004-18939, 74 FR 3391, Jan. 16,...

2013-10-01

333

46 CFR 162.050-35 - Bilge alarm: Approval tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2) of this section are repeated seven additional times. During the last hour, the alarm must be inclined at an angle of 22.5° with the plane of its normal operating position. [USCG-2004-18939, 74 FR 3391, Jan. 16,...

2011-10-01

334

46 CFR 162.050-35 - Bilge alarm: Approval tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2) of this section are repeated seven additional times. During the last hour, the alarm must be inclined at an angle of 22.5° with the plane of its normal operating position. [USCG-2004-18939, 74 FR 3391, Jan. 16,...

2012-10-01

335

46 CFR 162.050-35 - Bilge alarm: Approval tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2) of this section are repeated seven additional times. During the last hour, the alarm must be inclined at an angle of 22.5° with the plane of its normal operating position. [USCG-2004-18939, 74 FR 3391, Jan. 16,...

2010-10-01

336

Intelligent Fire Alarm System Based on Fuzzy Neural Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire is a kind of disaster threatening the social wealth and humanity's safety. The fire detection is the special type signal's detection, system must have the ability of automatic adjust the operational parameters to adapt to the environment change. Traditional fire detection systems' intellectualized degree are low, the error alarm and the leakage take place frequently. In order to reduce

Yu Qiongfang; Zheng Dezhong; Fu Yongli; Dong Aihua

2009-01-01

337

Detection system ensures positive alarm activation in digital message loss  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lost Word Detection System /LOWDS/ provides special identification for each error detection message transmitted from receiver to transmitter. The message is identified as an original message or an n-times retransmitted message so the receiver can detect where a retransmission request was not fulfilled and activate an alarm.

Bokros, P.; Burstein, A.; Hewitt, E. D.

1966-01-01

338

46 CFR 28.250 - High water alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Aleutian Trade § 28.250 High water alarms. On a vessel 36...operating station to indicate high water level in each of the following...subject to flooding from sea water piping within the space; and...non-watertight hatch on the main...

2013-10-01

339

46 CFR 28.250 - High water alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Aleutian Trade § 28.250 High water alarms. On a vessel 36...operating station to indicate high water level in each of the following...subject to flooding from sea water piping within the space; and...non-watertight hatch on the main...

2012-10-01

340

46 CFR 28.250 - High water alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Aleutian Trade § 28.250 High water alarms. On a vessel 36...operating station to indicate high water level in each of the following...subject to flooding from sea water piping within the space; and...non-watertight hatch on the main...

2010-10-01

341

The irrelevance of individual discrimination in meerkat alarm calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual discrimination is an important element in the evolution of social behaviour and is particularly important in social living species which show intense intragroup interactions. Numerous previous studies, particularly with nonhuman primates, ground squirrels and marmots, demonstrate the widespread ability of various species to signal and perceive individual identity from vocalizations. The function of individu- ally different alarm calls is

Fabian Schibler; Marta B. Manser

2007-01-01

342

15 CFR 80.6 - False statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.6 False statements. Any false... (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0607-0117) [40 FR 53232, Nov. 17,...

2013-01-01

343

15 CFR 80.6 - False statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.6 False statements. Any false... (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0607-0117) [40 FR 53232, Nov. 17,...

2010-01-01

344

15 CFR 80.6 - False statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.6 False statements. Any false... (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0607-0117) [40 FR 53232, Nov. 17,...

2012-01-01

345

15 CFR 80.6 - False statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.6 False statements. Any false... (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0607-0117) [40 FR 53232, Nov. 17,...

2011-01-01

346

15 CFR 80.6 - False statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.6 False statements. Any false... (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0607-0117) [40 FR 53232, Nov. 17,...

2014-01-01

347

Southern Spring in False Color  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

The Odyssey spacecraft has completed a full Mars year of observations of the red planet. For the next several weeks the Image of the Day will look back over this first mars year. It will focus on four themes: 1) the poles - with the seasonal changes seen in the retreat and expansion of the caps; 2) craters - with a variety of morphologies relating to impact materials and later alteration, both infilling and exhumation; 3) channels - the clues to liquid surface flow; and 4) volcanic flow features. While some images have helped answer questions about the history of Mars, many have raised new questions that are still being investigated as Odyssey continues collecting data as it orbits Mars.

This image was collected June 25, 2003 during the southern spring season. This false color image shows both the layered ice cap and darker 'spots' that are seen only when the sun first lights the polar surface.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -82.3, Longitude 306 East (54 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2004-01-01

348

Mimas Showing False Colors #2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This false color image of Saturn's moon Mimas reveals variation in either the composition or texture across its surface.

During its approach to Mimas on Aug. 2, 2005, the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera obtained multi-spectral views of the moon from a range of 228,000 kilometers (142,500 miles).

This image is a color composite of narrow-angle ultraviolet, green, infrared and clear filter images, which have been specially processed to accentuate subtle changes in the spectral properties of Mimas' surface materials. To create this view, three color images (ultraviolet, green and infrared) were combined with a single black and white picture that isolates and maps regional color differences to create the final product.

Shades of blue and violet in the image at the right are used to identify surface materials that are bluer in color and have a weaker infrared brightness than average Mimas materials, which are represented by green.

Herschel crater, a 140-kilometer-wide (88-mile) impact feature with a prominent central peak, is visible in the upper right of the image. The unusual bluer materials are seen to broadly surround Herschel crater. However, the bluer material is not uniformly distributed in and around the crater. Instead, it appears to be concentrated on the outside of the crater and more to the west than to the north or south. The origin of the color differences is not yet understood. It may represent ejecta material that was excavated from inside Mimas when the Herschel impact occurred. The bluer color of these materials may be caused by subtle differences in the surface composition or the sizes of grains making up the icy soil.

This image was obtained when the Cassini spacecraft was above 25 degrees south, 134 degrees west latitude and longitude. The Sun-Mimas-spacecraft angle was 45 degrees and north is at the top.

The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging operations center is based at the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colo.

For more information about the Cassini-Huygens mission visit http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov . The Cassini imaging team homepage is at http://ciclops.org .

2005-01-01

349

An Association Account of False Belief Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The elicited-response false belief task has traditionally been considered as reliably indicating that children acquire an understanding of false belief around 4 years of age. However, recent investigations using spontaneous-response tasks suggest that false belief understanding emerges much earlier. This leads to a developmental paradox: if young…

De Bruin, L. C.; Newen, A.

2012-01-01

350

Mimas Showing False Colors #1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

False color images of Saturn's moon, Mimas, reveal variation in either the composition or texture across its surface.

During its approach to Mimas on Aug. 2, 2005, the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera obtained multi-spectral views of the moon from a range of 228,000 kilometers (142,500 miles).

The image at the left is a narrow angle clear-filter image, which was separately processed to enhance the contrast in brightness and sharpness of visible features. The image at the right is a color composite of narrow-angle ultraviolet, green, infrared and clear filter images, which have been specially processed to accentuate subtle changes in the spectral properties of Mimas' surface materials. To create this view, three color images (ultraviolet, green and infrared) were combined into a single black and white picture that isolates and maps regional color differences. This 'color map' was then superimposed over the clear-filter image at the left.

The combination of color map and brightness image shows how the color differences across the Mimas surface materials are tied to geological features. Shades of blue and violet in the image at the right are used to identify surface materials that are bluer in color and have a weaker infrared brightness than average Mimas materials, which are represented by green.

Herschel crater, a 140-kilometer-wide (88-mile) impact feature with a prominent central peak, is visible in the upper right of each image. The unusual bluer materials are seen to broadly surround Herschel crater. However, the bluer material is not uniformly distributed in and around the crater. Instead, it appears to be concentrated on the outside of the crater and more to the west than to the north or south. The origin of the color differences is not yet understood. It may represent ejecta material that was excavated from inside Mimas when the Herschel impact occurred. The bluer color of these materials may be caused by subtle differences in the surface composition or the sizes of grains making up the icy soil.

The images were obtained when the Cassini spacecraft was above 25 degrees south, 134 degrees west latitude and longitude. The Sun-Mimas-spacecraft angle was 45 degrees and north is at the top.

The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging operations center is based at the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colo.

For more information about the Cassini-Huygens mission visit http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov . The Cassini imaging team homepage is at http://ciclops.org .

2005-01-01

351

MTS in false positive reduction for multi-sensor fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mahalanobis Taguchi System (MTS) is a relatively new tool in the vehicle health maintenance domain, but has some distinct advantages in current multi-sensor implementations. The use of Mahalanobis Spaces (MS) allows the algorithm to identify characteristics of sensor signals to identify behaviors in machines. MTS is extremely powerful with the caveat that the correct variables are selected to form the MS. In this research work, 56 sensors monitor various aspects of the vehicles. Typically, using the MTS process, identification of useful variables is preceded by validation of the measurements scale. However, the MTS approach doesn't directly include any mitigating steps should the measurement scale not be validated. Existing work has performed outlier removal in construction of the MS, which can lead to better validation. In our approach, we modify the outlier removal process with more liberal definitions of outliers to better identify variables' impact prior to identification of useful variables. This subtle change substantially lowered the false positive rate due to the fact that additional variables were retained. Traditional MTS approaches identify useful variables only to the extent they provide usefulness in identifying the positive (abnormal) condition. The impact of removing false negatives is not included. Initial results show our approach can reduce false positive values while still maintaining complete fault identification for this vehicle data set.

Woodley, Robert; Gosnell, Michael; Cudney, Elizabeth

2014-05-01

352

46 CFR 95.16-45 - Pre-discharge alarms and time delay devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Pre-discharge alarms and time delay devices. 95.16-45 Section...Pre-discharge alarms and time delay devices. (a) Each system...the protected space to the primary exit. (2) The time delay device must be pneumatically...

2012-10-01

353

46 CFR 95.16-45 - Pre-discharge alarms and time delay devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Pre-discharge alarms and time delay devices. 95.16-45 Section...Pre-discharge alarms and time delay devices. (a) Each system...the protected space to the primary exit. (2) The time delay device must be pneumatically...

2013-10-01

354

46 CFR 113.27-1 - Engineers' assistance-needed alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...113.27-1 Section 113.27-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Engineers' Assistance-Needed Alarm § 113.27-1...

2012-10-01

355

76 FR 76327 - Installation of Radiation Alarms for Rooms Housing Neutron Sources  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Radiation Alarms for Rooms Housing Neutron Sources AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...installation of radiation alarms in rooms housing neutron sources. DATES: Submit comments by February...Hamawy is concerned about the security of neutron sources. III. Petition The...

2011-12-07

356

33 CFR 149.665 - What are the requirements for a general alarm system?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...a general alarm system? Each pumping platform complex must have a general alarm system...Is audible in all parts of the pumping platform complex, except in areas of high ambient noise levels where hearing protection is required...

2010-07-01

357

33 CFR 149.414 - What are the requirements for a fire detection and alarm system?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...requirements for a fire detection and alarm system? (a) All accommodation...deepwater port, and all spaces or systems on a manned or unmanned deepwater...natural gas, must have an automatic fire detection and alarm system that: (1) Either...

2014-07-01

358

33 CFR 149.414 - What are the requirements for a fire detection and alarm system?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...requirements for a fire detection and alarm system? (a) All accommodation...deepwater port, and all spaces or systems on a manned or unmanned deepwater...natural gas, must have an automatic fire detection and alarm system that: (1) Either...

2012-07-01

359

46 CFR 62.25-20 - Instrumentation, alarms, and centralized stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...general or fire alarm purposes. (3) Automatic transfer to...or redundant systems or power sources...Flooding safety, fire, loss of power... (i) The fire detection and alarm systems. (ii...Failure of an automatic control,...

2013-10-01

360

33 CFR 149.414 - What are the requirements for a fire detection and alarm system?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirements for a fire detection and alarm system? (a) All accommodation...deepwater port, and all spaces or systems on a manned or unmanned deepwater...natural gas, must have an automatic fire detection and alarm system that: (1) Either...

2010-07-01

361

33 CFR 149.414 - What are the requirements for a fire detection and alarm system?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...requirements for a fire detection and alarm system? (a) All accommodation...deepwater port, and all spaces or systems on a manned or unmanned deepwater...natural gas, must have an automatic fire detection and alarm system that: (1) Either...

2013-07-01

362

33 CFR 149.414 - What are the requirements for a fire detection and alarm system?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...requirements for a fire detection and alarm system? (a) All accommodation...deepwater port, and all spaces or systems on a manned or unmanned deepwater...natural gas, must have an automatic fire detection and alarm system that: (1) Either...

2011-07-01

363

46 CFR 62.25-20 - Instrumentation, alarms, and centralized stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...general or fire alarm purposes. (3) Automatic transfer to...or redundant systems or power sources...Flooding safety, fire, loss of power... (i) The fire detection and alarm systems. (ii...Failure of an automatic control,...

2012-10-01

364

40 CFR 265.34 - Access to communications or alarm system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Prevention § 265.34 Access to communications or alarm system. (a...access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or...capable of summoning external emergency assistance, unless...

2011-07-01

365

40 CFR 264.34 - Access to communications or alarm system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Prevention § 264.34 Access to communications or alarm system. (a...access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or...capable of summoning external emergency assistance, unless...

2012-07-01

366

40 CFR 264.34 - Access to communications or alarm system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Prevention § 264.34 Access to communications or alarm system. (a...access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or...capable of summoning external emergency assistance, unless...

2014-07-01

367

40 CFR 265.34 - Access to communications or alarm system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Prevention § 265.34 Access to communications or alarm system. (a...access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or...capable of summoning external emergency assistance, unless...

2012-07-01

368

40 CFR 265.34 - Access to communications or alarm system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Prevention § 265.34 Access to communications or alarm system. (a...access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or...capable of summoning external emergency assistance, unless...

2014-07-01

369

40 CFR 264.34 - Access to communications or alarm system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Prevention § 264.34 Access to communications or alarm system. (a...access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or...capable of summoning external emergency assistance, unless...

2010-07-01

370

40 CFR 264.34 - Access to communications or alarm system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Prevention § 264.34 Access to communications or alarm system. (a...access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or...capable of summoning external emergency assistance, unless...

2013-07-01

371

40 CFR 265.34 - Access to communications or alarm system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Prevention § 265.34 Access to communications or alarm system. (a...access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or...capable of summoning external emergency assistance, unless...

2010-07-01

372

40 CFR 264.34 - Access to communications or alarm system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Prevention § 264.34 Access to communications or alarm system. (a...access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or...capable of summoning external emergency assistance, unless...

2011-07-01

373

40 CFR 265.34 - Access to communications or alarm system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Prevention § 265.34 Access to communications or alarm system. (a...access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or...capable of summoning external emergency assistance, unless...

2013-07-01

374

Satellite Breakup Risk Mitigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many satellite breakups occur as a result of an explosion of stored energy on-board spacecraft or rocket-bodies. These breakups generate a cloud of tens or possibly hundreds of thousands of debris fragments which may pose a transient elevated threat to spaceflight crews and vehicles. Satellite breakups pose a unique threat because the majority of the debris fragments are too small to be tracked from the ground. The United States Human Spaceflight Program is currently implementing a risk mitigation strategy that includes modeling breakup events, establishing action thresholds, and prescribing corresponding mitigation actions in response to satellite breakups.

Leleux, Darrin P.; Smith, Jason T.

2006-01-01

375

Audibility and identification of auditory alarms in the operating room and intensive care unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The audibility and the identification of 23 auditory alarms in the intensive care unit (ICU) and 26 auditory alarms in the operating rooms (ORs) of a 214-bed Canadian teaching hospital were investigated. Digital tape recordings of the alarms were made and analysed using masked-threshold software developed at the Université de Montréal. The digital recordings were also presented to the hospital

KATHRYN MOMTAHAN; RAYMOND HÉTU; BRIAN TANSLEY

1993-01-01

376

33 CFR 149.130 - What are the requirements for the cargo transfer system alarm?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirements for the cargo transfer system alarm? (a) Each cargo transfer system must have an alarm to signal a malfunction or failure in the system. (b) The alarm must sound...activated at the pumping platform complex; (2) Have a signal...

2010-07-01

377

Design of large space fire alarm controller based on intelligent video surveillance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the ARM embedded fire alarm controller is designed and applied to the fire intelligent video surveillance system of large space. Based on the Modbus communication protocol, the fire alarm controller receive the information from video surveillance platform, sending out alarm signal of voice and light when fire happened, and then the fire sprinkler system are controlled to

Shuangye Chen; Chen Luo; Yawei Chen; Weijing Zhang; Jie Hou; Jiaru Qian

2011-01-01

378

Door Placard for No Automatic Fire Alarm and No Sprinkler System  

E-print Network

Door Placard for No Automatic Fire Alarm and No Sprinkler System Fire Code Compliance Form Approved by: Ron Flynn Last Revised by: Ron Flynn Revision date: 10/15/2013 FCC_FRM_Door_Placard_No_Automatic_Fire_Alarm_No_Sprinkler_System-code- compliance/Documents/FCC_FRM_Door_Placard_No_Automatic_Fire_Alarm_No_Sprinkler_System_IPDF.pdf Building Name

Pawlowski, Wojtek

379

Design and Implementation of Automatic Fire Alarm System based on Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Fire disaster is a ,great threat to lives and property. Automatic fire alarm system provides real-time surveillance, monitoring and automatic alarm. It sends early alarm when the fire occurs and helps to reduce the fire damage. Wireless sensor network has become the most important technology in environmental monitoring and home or factory automation in recent years. In this paper, anautomatic

Lei Zhang; Gaofeng Wang

2009-01-01

380

Door Placard for No Automatic Fire Alarm and No Sprinkler System  

E-print Network

Door Placard for No Automatic Fire Alarm and No Sprinkler System Fire Code Compliance Form Building with functional Fire Alarm Smoke Detection and there is no Automatic Fire Sprinkler System Annual Fire Safety-8200 Approved by: Ron Flynn Last Revised by: Ron Flynn Revision date: 10/15/2013 FRM_Door_Placard_No_Automatic_Fire_Alarm_No_Sprinkler_System

Pawlowski, Wojtek

381

Door Placard for Fire Alarm and No Sprinkler System Fire Code Compliance  

E-print Network

with a fully functional Fire Alarm System and there is no Automatic Fire Sprinkler System Annual Fire SafetyDoor Placard for Fire Alarm and No Sprinkler System Fire Code Compliance Form Approved by: Ron Flynn Last Revised by: Ron Flynn Revision date: 10/15/2013 FCC_FRM_Door_Placard_Fire_Alarm

Pawlowski, Wojtek

382

Project 93L-EWL-097, fire alarm system improvements, 300 Area  

SciTech Connect

This document contains the Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) which will demonstrate that the modifications to the Fire Protection systems in the 338 Building function as intended. The ATP will test the fire alarm control panel, flow alarm pressure switch, post indicator valve tamper switch, heat detectors, flow switches, and fire alarm signaling devices.

Scott, M.V.

1995-01-01

383

Online root-cause analysis of alarms in discrete Bayesian networks with known structures  

E-print Network

Online root-cause analysis of alarms in discrete Bayesian networks with known structures Jiandong to analyze the root cause of alarms arisen in industrial process variables. The relation among alarm one child node exits so that its abnormal state is caused by one or multiple parent nodes. The root

Wang, Jiandong

384

Willamette Wildlife Mitigation Program  

E-print Network

Willamette Wildlife Mitigation Program Michael Pope Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife #12 Creek Cougar Dexter Lookout Point #12;#12;Impact Assessment Results Willamette River Dams-94,306 HU 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 Cougar Lookout Pt. D etroit G reen Peter HUs Lost H ills Creek D

385

MITIGATION: CONCEPT TO REALITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1987, the Port of Los Angeles entered into an interagency agreement to restore Batiquitos Lagoon in Carlsbad, California as mitigation for the construction of cargo terminals in the Outer Los Angeles Harbor. After ten years of planning, environmental review, design and permitting, the restoration was completed and the lagoon was opened to the Pacific Ocean. The $57 million project

Ralph G. Appy

386

13 CFR 123.407 - When does your business apply for a pre-disaster mitigation loan and where does your business get...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false When does your business apply for a pre-disaster mitigation loan and where does...ADMINISTRATION DISASTER LOAN PROGRAM Pre-Disaster Mitigation Loans § 123.407 When does your business apply for a pre-disaster mitigation loan and where...

2010-01-01

387

The information that receivers extract from alarm calls in suricates.  

PubMed Central

Field observations and acoustic analyses have shown that suricate (Suricata suricatta) alarm calls vary in their acoustic structure depending on predator type. In this study, we tested whether receivers respond appropriately when hearing a call in the absence of a predator. Although the only way for suricates to escape from predators is to retreat to boltholes, responses to playbacks could be divided into distinct categories. The subjects responded differently to alarm calls given in response to aerial or terrestrial predators and to recruitment calls emitted in response to snakes and deposits on the ground. Suricates also showed rather distinct responses to low, medium and high urgency aerial calls. Differences in the responses were less obvious for different levels of urgency in the terrestrial and recruitment calls. Suricate receivers thus gain information about both the predator type and level of urgency from the acoustic structures of their calls. PMID:11747568

Manser, M B; Bell, M B; Fletcher, L B

2001-01-01

388

ZoneAlarm Free Firewall 9.2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This latest version of ZoneAlarm Free Firewall 9.2 will help keep users' computers free from phishing devices and other such pesky intruders. The application takes about 5 minutes to setup, and it can now also stop program spoofing, which is when a malicious program pretends to be a good one. The program also has an extensive interactive help feature, which can be useful for new users. This version is compatible with computers running Windows XP, Vista, and 7.

2010-01-01

389

Chemical alarm in the termite Termitogeton planus (Rhinotermitidae).  

PubMed

Effective defense is a common characteristic of insect societies. Indeed, the occurrence of specialized defenders, soldiers, has been the first step toward eusociality in several independent lineages, including termites. Among the multitude of defensive strategies used by termite soldiers, defense by chemicals plays a crucial role. It has evolved with complexity in advanced isopteran lineages, whose soldiers are equipped with a unique defensive organ, the frontal gland. Besides direct defense against predators, competitors, and pathogens, the chemicals emitted by soldiers from the frontal gland are used as signals of alarm. In this study, we investigated the chemical composition of the defensive secretion produced by soldiers of the termite Termitogeton planus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae), from West Papua, and the effects of this secretion on the behavior of termite groups. Detailed two-dimensional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses of the soldier defensive secretion revealed the presence of four linear and nine monoterpene hydrocarbons. Soldier head extracts, as well as synthetic mixtures of the monoterpenes found in these extracts, elicited alarm behavior in both soldiers and pseudergates. Our results suggest that the alarm is not triggered by a single monoterpene from the defensive blend, but by a multi-component signal combining quantitatively major and minor compounds. PMID:25355635

Dolejšová, Klára; Krasulová, Jana; Kutalová, Kate?ina; Hanus, Robert

2014-12-01

390

A Closer Look at Self-Reported Suicide Attempts: False Positives and False Negatives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The validity of self-reported suicide attempt information is undermined by false positives (e.g., incidences without intent to die), or by unreported suicide attempts, referred to as false negatives. In a sample of 1,385 Austrian adults, we explored the occurrence of false positives and false negatives with detailed, probing questions. Removing…

Ploderl, Martin; Kralovec, Karl; Yazdi, Kurosch; Fartacek, Reinhold

2011-01-01

391

wind engineering & natural disaster mitigation  

E-print Network

wind engineering & natural disaster mitigation #12;wind engineering & natural disaster mitigation Investment WindEEE Dome at Advanced Manufacturing Park $31million Insurance Research Lab for Better Homes $8million Advanced Facility for Avian Research $9million #12;wind engineering & natural disaster mitigation

Denham, Graham

392

19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13...descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. (a) Articles which...Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys thereof...

2013-04-01

393

19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13...descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. (a) Articles which...Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys thereof...

2011-04-01

394

19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13...descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. (a) Articles which...Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys thereof...

2012-04-01

395

19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13...descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. (a) Articles which...Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys thereof...

2010-04-01

396

19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13...descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. (a) Articles which...Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys thereof...

2014-04-01

397

False vs True rupture of membranes.  

PubMed

New medical nomenclature: False rupture of membranes or False ROM and Double rupture of membranes or Double ROM are being introduced into the English language. A single caregiver found about 1% of term births and 10% of term PROM involved False ROM, in which the chorion breaks while the amnion remains intact. Diagnostically, if meconium or vernix is observed, then both the chorionic and amniotic sacs have broken. In the absence of detection of vernix or meconium, an immediate accurate diagnostic test for False ROM is lacking and differentiating between True ROM from False ROM is possible only after leaking stops, which takes hours to days. The obvious benefit of differentiating between 'True' and 'False' ROM, is that in the case of False ROM, the amnion is intact and ascending infections are likely not at increased risk, although research is lacking as to whether False ROM is associated with an increased rate of ascending infection. Three cases of False ROM are presented and avenues for future research are enumerated. PMID:25279443

Cohain, J S

2014-10-01

398

Masters Thesis- Criticality Alarm System Design Guide with Accompanying Alarm System Development for the Radioisotope Production Laboratory in Richland, Washington  

SciTech Connect

A detailed instructional manual was created to guide criticality safety engineers through the process of designing a criticality alarm system (CAS) for Department of Energy (DOE) hazard class 1 and 2 facilities. Regulatory and technical requirements were both addressed. A list of design tasks and technical subtasks are thoroughly analyzed to provide concise direction for how to complete the analysis. An example of the application of the design methodology, the Criticality Alarm System developed for the Radioisotope Production Laboratory (RPL) of Richland, Washington is also included. The analysis for RPL utilizes the Monte Carlo code MCNP5 for establishing detector coverage in the facility. Significant improvements to the existing CAS were made that increase the reliability, transparency, and coverage of the system.

Greenfield, Bryce A.

2009-12-20

399

False recognition of incidentally learned pictures and words in primary progressive aphasia?  

PubMed Central

Recognition memory was tested in patients with primary progressive aphasia (PPA), a language based dementia with relative preservation of memory for at least the first 2 years. The goal of the study was two-fold: (1) to compare true and false recognition rates for words versus pictures in patients with PPA and cognitively intact controls and (2) to determine if the semantic relatedness of distracters-to-targets influences recognition memory performance. Overall, performance of PPA patients was worse for words than pictures. PPA patients and healthy elderly controls showed similar recognition rates for studied items. However, the patients had significantly more false alarms than controls, particularly to semantically related items. This suggests that the aphasia in PPA patients contributes to their difficulty in selecting among items within a semantic class. PMID:16905162

Rogalski, Emily; Blum, Diana; Rademaker, Alfred; Weintraub, Sandra

2010-01-01

400

Mitigating ground-based sensor failures with video motion detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) systems typically employ distributed sensor nodes utilizing seismic, magnetic or passive IR sensing modalities to alarm if activity is present. The use of an imaging component to verify sensor events is beneficial to create actionable intelligence. Integration of the ground-based images with other ISR data requires that the images contain valid activity and are appropriately formatted, such as prescribed by Standard NATO Agreement (STANAG) 4545 or the National Imagery Transmission Format, version 2.1 (NITF 2.1). Ground activity sensors suffer from false alarms due to meteorological or biological activity. The addition of imaging allows the analyst to differentiate valid threats from nuisance alarms. Images are prescreened based on target size and temperature difference relative to the background. The combination of video motion detection based on thermal imaging with seismic, magnetic or passive IR sensing modalities improves data quality through multi-phenomenon combinatorial logic. The ground-based images having a nominally vertical aspect are transformed to the horizontal geospatial domain for exploitation and correlation of UGS imagery with other ISR data and for efficient archive and retrieval purposes. The description of an UGS system utilized and solutions that were developed and implemented during an experiment to correlate and fuse IR still imagery with ground moving target information, forming real-time, actionable, coalition intelligence, are presented.

Macior, Robert E.; Knauth, Jonathan P.; Walter, Sharon M.; Evans, Richard

2008-10-01

401

The effect of warnings on false memories in young and older adults.  

PubMed

In the present experiments, we examined adult age differences in the ability to suppress false memories, using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm (Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995). Participants studied lists of words (e.g., bed, rest, awake, etc.), each related to a nonpresented critical lure word (e.g., sleep). Typically, recognition tests reveal false alarms to critical lures at rates comparable to those for hits for studied words. In two experiments, separate groups of young and older adults were unwarned about the false memory effect, warned before studying the lists, or warned after study and before test. Lists were presented at either a slow rate (4 sec/word) or a faster rate (2 sec/word). Young adults were better able to discriminate between studied words and critical lures when warned about the DRM effect either before study or after study but before retrieval, and their performance improved with a slower presentation rate. Older adults were able to discriminate between studied words and critical lures when given warnings before study, but not when given warnings after study but before retrieval. Performance on a working memory capacity measure predicted false recognition following study and retrieval warnings. The results suggest that effective use of warnings to reduce false memories is contingent on the quality and type of encoded information, as well as on whether that information is accessed at retrieval. Furthermore, discriminating between similar sources of activation is dependent on working memory capacity, which declines with advancing age. PMID:12507371

McCabe, David P; Smith, Anderson D

2002-10-01

402

Can False Memories Prime Problem Solutions?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research has suggested that false memories can prime performance on related implicit and explicit memory tasks. The present research examined whether false memories can also be used to prime higher order cognitive processes, namely, insight-based problem solving. Participants were asked to solve a number of compound remote associate task…

Howe, Mark L.; Garner, Sarah R.; Dewhurst, Stephen A.; Ball, Linden J.

2010-01-01

403

LVIS Tree Height Cross Section (false color)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation starts with a false-color map of tree heights north of San Jose, Costa Rica, and changes to a close-up 3D cut-away of a section of the forest, also in false color. Data from LVIS observations taken in March, 1998.

Jones, Randall; Blair, Bryan

1999-09-17

404

How Does Distinctive Processing Reduce False Recall?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

False memories arising from associatively related lists are a robust phenomenon that resists many efforts to prevent it. However, a few variables have been shown to reduce this form of false memory. Explanations for how the reduction is accomplished have focused on either output monitoring processes or constraints on access, but neither idea alone…

Hunt, R. Reed; Smith, Rebekah E.; Dunlap, Kathryn R.

2011-01-01

405

Explaining the Development of False Memories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews explanatory dimensions of children's false memory relevant to forensic practice: measurement, development, social factors, individual differences, varieties of memories and memory judgments, and varieties of procedures inducing false memories. Asserts that recent studies fail to use techniques that separate acquiescence from memory…

Reyna, Valerie F.; Holliday, Robyn; Marche, Tammy

2002-01-01

406

Viscoelastic properties of the false vocal fold  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biomechanical properties of vocal fold tissues have been the focus of many previous studies, as vocal fold viscoelasticity critically dictates the acoustics and biomechanics of phonation. However, not much is known about the viscoelastic response of the ventricular fold or false vocal fold. It has been shown both clinically and in computer simulations that the false vocal fold may

Roger W. Chan

2001-01-01

407

Krohne Flow Indicator and High Flow Alarm Local Indicator and High Flow Alarm of Helium Flow from the SCHe Purge Lines C and D to the Process Vent  

SciTech Connect

Flow Indicators/alarms FI/FSH-5*52 and -5*72 are located in the process vent lines connected to the 2 psig SCHe purge lines C and D. They monitor the flow from the 2 psig SCHe purge going to the process vent. The switch/alarm is non-safety class GS.

MISKA, C.R.

2000-09-03

408

Viscoelastic properties of the false vocal fold  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biomechanical properties of vocal fold tissues have been the focus of many previous studies, as vocal fold viscoelasticity critically dictates the acoustics and biomechanics of phonation. However, not much is known about the viscoelastic response of the ventricular fold or false vocal fold. It has been shown both clinically and in computer simulations that the false vocal fold may contribute significantly to the aerodynamics and sound generation processes of human voice production, with or without flow-induced oscillation of the false fold. To better understand the potential role of the false fold in phonation, this paper reports some preliminary measurements on the linear and nonlinear viscoelastic behavior of false vocal fold tissues. Linear viscoelastic shear properties of human false fold tissue samples were measured by a high-frequency controlled-strain rheometer as a function of frequency, and passive uniaxial tensile stress-strain response of the tissue samples was measured by a muscle lever system as a function of strain and loading rate. Elastic moduli (Young's modulus and shear modulus) of the false fold tissues were calculated from the measured data. [Work supported by NIH.

Chan, Roger W.

2001-05-01

409

The role of the superior temporal lobe in auditory false perceptions: A transcranial direct current stimulation study  

PubMed Central

Neuroimaging has shown that a network of cortical areas, which includes the superior temporal gyrus, is active during auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs). In the present study, healthy, non-hallucinating participants (N=30) completed an auditory signal detection task, in which participants were required to detect a voice in short bursts of white noise, with the variable of interest being the rate of false auditory verbal perceptions. This paradigm was coupled with transcranial direct current stimulation, a noninvasive brain stimulation technique, to test the involvement of the left posterior superior temporal gyrus in the creation of auditory false perceptions. The results showed that increasing the levels of excitability in this region led to a higher rate of ‘false alarm’ responses than when levels of excitability were decreased, with false alarm responses under a sham stimulation condition lying at a mid-point between anodal and cathodal stimulation conditions. There were also corresponding changes in signal detection parameters. These results are discussed in terms of prominent cognitive neuroscientific theories of AVHs, and potential future directions for research are outlined. PMID:25107678

Moseley, Peter; Fernyhough, Charles; Ellison, Amanda

2014-01-01

410

Accuracy, alarm limits and rise times of 12 oxygen analysers.  

PubMed

The Comité Européen de Normalisation recently proposed a new standard for 'the particular requirements of oxygen monitors for medical use'. The feasibility of this proposed standard was tested in respect of (1) accuracy of alarm activation (2) accuracy of oxygen display value during both continuous and cyclical gas flows (3) rise time during rapid changes in oxygen concentration in the following 12 analysers: Datex Capnomac II and Servomex 570A (paramagnetic); Brüel & Kjaer 1304 (magnetoacoustic); Criticare Poet II, Multinex, Dräger Oxydig, Dräger PM 8030, Megamed 046A (part of the Megamed 700 ventilator), Ohmeda 5120, Spacelabs Multigas, Teledyne TED 200 (galvanic); Kontron OM 810 (polarographic). All the analysers tested displayed an oxygen reading which was within +/- 3 vol% of the actual oxygen concentrations of the test gases (15, 21, 40, 60 and 100 vol%). A cyclical pressure of between -1.5 to +8 kPa did not affect the measured oxygen concentration as displayed by the Brüel & Kjaer 1304, Datex Capnomac II and Servomex 570A analysers. The remainder, however, showed, depending on their measuring principle, a display error of between -1 and +6 vol%. After exposure to high pressure all the oximeters functioned normally. Some of the tested devices showed more than 2% of deviation between their alarm activation and the preset alarm limits. Only the Kontron OM 810, the Megamed 046A and the Spacelabs Multigas monitors satisfied the requirements at all the tested oxygen concentrations. The time required by the oxygen analyser to display the rise from 29 to 92 vol % after a sudden change of concentration from 21 to 100 vol % O2 is defined as "rise time" and must not, according to the Comité Européen de Normalisation standard proposal, exceed the manufacturers' specification by more than a factor of 1.15.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7864324

Lauber, R; Steiner, A; Zbinden, A M

1994-12-01

411

Adaptive differences in response to two types of parental alarm call in altricial nestlings  

PubMed Central

Vertebrate alarm calls can contain information about the type of predator and the degree of danger, but young animals often respond to alarm calls differently from adults. The distinct behaviour of young may reflect an imperfect stage in the gradual development of the adult response, or a response adapted to specific risks faced by young. In this study, we tested whether nestling white-browed scrubwrens, Sericornis frontalis, responded to different alarm calls according to their specific risks of predation. As predators on the ground pose a danger to scrubwren nestlings, whereas flying predators do not, we predicted that they would respond to ground alarm calls but not to aerial alarm calls. In a field playback experiment, we tested the response of young to aerial and ground alarm calls, each presented in a shorter (less urgent) and longer (more urgent) form. We found that both 5- and 11-day-old nestlings responded to ground alarm calls, and did so more strongly to the more urgent playback. By contrast, the response to aerial alarm calls started to develop only towards the end of the nestling stage. Thus, scrubwren nestlings can distinguish between different types of alarm calls and react more strongly to calls warning of a predator posing greater danger, appropriate to the nestling stage of development. Furthermore, they use the length of ground alarm calls as an indicator of the degree of danger. PMID:16024370

Platzen, Dirk; Magrath, Robert D

2005-01-01

412

13 CFR 123.408 - How does your business apply for a pre-disaster mitigation loan?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How does your business apply for a pre-disaster mitigation loan? 123.408 Section 123.408 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS...

2010-01-01

413

19 CFR Appendix C to Part 171 - Customs Regulations Guidelines for the Imposition and Mitigation of Penalties for Violations of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Customs Regulations Guidelines for the Imposition and Mitigation of Penalties for Violations of 19 U.S.C. 1641 C Appendix C to Part 171 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY;...

2014-04-01

414

19 CFR Appendix C to Part 171 - Customs Regulations Guidelines for the Imposition and Mitigation of Penalties for Violations of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Customs Regulations Guidelines for the Imposition and Mitigation of Penalties for Violations of 19 U.S.C. 1641 C Appendix C to Part 171 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY;...

2012-04-01

415

19 CFR Appendix C to Part 171 - Customs Regulations Guidelines for the Imposition and Mitigation of Penalties for Violations of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Customs Regulations Guidelines for the Imposition and Mitigation of Penalties for Violations of 19 U.S.C. 1641 C Appendix C to Part 171 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY;...

2013-04-01

416

Mitigating lightning hazards  

SciTech Connect

A new draft document provides guidance for assessing and mitigating the effects of lightning hazards on a Department of Energy (or any other) facility. Written by two Lawrence Livermore Engineers, the document combines lightning hazard identification and facility categorization with a new concept, the Lightning Safety System, to help dispel the confusion and mystery surrounding lightning and its effects. The guidance is of particular interest to DOE facilities storing and handling nuclear and high-explosive materials. The concepts presented in the document were used to evaluate the lightning protection systems of the Device Assembly Facility at the Nevada Test Site.

Hasbrouck, R.

1996-05-01

417

Not All False Memories Are Created Equal: The Neural Basis of False Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

False recognition, a type of memory distortion where one claims to remember something that never happened, can occur in response to items that are similar but not identical to previously seen items (i.e., related false recognition) or in response to novel items (i.e., unrelated false recognition). It is unknown whether these 2 types of memory errors arise from the same

Rachel J. Garoff-Eaton; Scott D. Slotnick; Daniel L. Schacter

2006-01-01

418

Hypnotizability, not suggestion, influences false memory development.  

PubMed

Hypnotizability influences the development of false memories. In Experiment 1, participants heard a positive or negative suggestion regarding hypnosis and then listened to 8 Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm lists in a hypnotic state. Neither hypnosis nor prehypnotic suggestion affected memory. Highly hypnotizable participants were more accurate in recall and recognition. In Experiment 2, suggestions were delivered in the form of feedback. Participants heard a positive or negative suggestion about their performance prior to either the encoding or retrieval of 8 DRM lists. Neither accurate nor false memories were affected by the suggestion. Highly hypnotizable individuals recognized fewer critical lures if they received a negative suggestion about their performance. These results highlight the unusual role of hypnotizability in the creation of false memories. PMID:25365130

Dasse, Michelle N; Elkins, Gary R; Weaver, Charles A

2015-01-01

419

20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31 U.S.C. 3729 based on actions...

2013-04-01

420

20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31 U.S.C. 3729 based on actions...

2010-04-01

421

20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31 U.S.C. 3729 based on actions...

2011-04-01

422

20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31 U.S.C. 3729 based on actions...

2012-04-01

423

20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31 U.S.C. 3729 based on actions...

2014-04-01

424

13 CFR 123.107 - How much can I borrow for post-disaster mitigation for my home?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false How much can I borrow for post-disaster mitigation...Disaster Loans § 123.107 How much can I borrow for post-disaster mitigation...implemented after a disaster has occurred, you can request that the approved home...

2012-01-01

425

Review article: the false-bottom ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nansen from his observations in the Beaufort Sea published in 1897 noted that heat transfer from the fresh water (with a~temperature of 0 °C) to the arctic salt water (with a temperature of -1.6 °C) is the only source of ice accretion during the polar summer. This transfer mechanism, unusual at first sight, is responsible for the initiation and evolution of a false bottom ice, changing ice properties to a great extent and affecting various processes while interacting with the ocean and the atmosphere. The processes of false bottom ice growth from below (i.e. from the ocean to the atmosphere) become of prime importance in the era of global warming and climate change. In this review, we summarize the theoretical approaches, field and laboratory observations, conducted during more than 100 yr, in order to address the problem of false bottoms to a broad community of readers. We also discuss the recent modeling advances to which we have contributed. A "false bottom" is a thin layer of ice which forms in summer underneath the floe, where fresh water lies between the salt water and the ice. Such false bottoms represent the only significant source of ice growth in the Arctic during the spring-summer period. Their evolution influences the mass balance of the Arctic sea-ice cover, which is recognized as an indicator of climate change. However, the quantity, aerial extent and other properties of false bottoms are difficult to measure because coring under the surface melt ponds leads to direct mixing of surface and under-ice water. This explains why their aerial extent and overall volume is still not known despite the fact that the upper limit of the present-day estimate of the false bottom ice coverage is approximately half of the sea ice surface. The growth of false bottoms also leads to other important consequences for various physical, chemical and biological processes associated with their dynamics.

Alexandrov, D. V.; Jouzel, J.; Nizovtseva, I.; Ryashko, L. B.

2013-11-01

426

Apparatus and Methods for Mitigating Electromagnetic Emissions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparatus, methods, and other embodiments associated with mitigation of magnetic fields are described herein. In an embodiment, a method for mitigating an electromagnetic field includes positioning a mitigating coil around a linear alternator of linear motor so that the mitigating coil is coaxially located with an alternator coil; arranging the mitigating coil to generate a field to mitigate an electromagnetic field generated by the alternator coil; and passing an induced current from the alternator coil through the mitigating coil.

Geng, Steven M. (Inventor); Niedra, Janis M. (Inventor)

2013-01-01

427

Orthos, an alarm system for the ALICE DAQ operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is the heavy-ion detector studying the physics of strongly interacting matter and the quark-gluon plasma at the CERN LHC (Large Hadron Collider). The DAQ (Data Acquisition System) facilities handle the data flow from the detectors electronics up to the mass storage. The DAQ system is based on a large farm of commodity hardware consisting of more than 600 devices (Linux PCs, storage, network switches), and controls hundreds of distributed hardware and software components interacting together. This paper presents Orthos, the alarm system used to detect, log, report, and follow-up abnormal situations on the DAQ machines at the experimental area. The main objective of this package is to integrate alarm detection and notification mechanisms with a full-featured issues tracker, in order to prioritize, assign, and fix system failures optimally. This tool relies on a database repository with a logic engine, SQL interfaces to inject or query metrics, and dynamic web pages for user interaction. We describe the system architecture, the technologies used for the implementation, and the integration with existing monitoring tools.

Chapeland, Sylvain; Carena, Franco; Carena, Wisla; Chibante Barroso, Vasco; Costa, Filippo; Denes, Ervin; Divia, Roberto; Fuchs, Ulrich; Grigore, Alexandru; Simonetti, Giuseppe; Soos, Csaba; Telesca, Adriana; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; von Haller, Barthelemy

2012-12-01

428

Reliability and the adaptive utility of discrimination among alarm callers.  

PubMed

Unlike individually distinctive contact calls, or calls that aid in the recognition of young by their parents, the function or functions of individually distinctive alarm calls is less obvious. We conducted three experiments to study the importance of caller reliability in explaining individual-discriminative abilities in the alarm calls of yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris). In our first two experiments, we found that calls from less reliable individuals and calls from individuals calling from a greater simulated distance were more evocative than calls from reliable individuals or nearby callers. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that marmots assess the reliability of callers to help them decide how much time to allocate to independent vigilance. The third experiment demonstrated that the number of callers influenced responsiveness, probably because situations where more than a single caller calls, are those when there is certain to be a predator present. Taken together, the results from all three experiments demonstrate the importance of reliability in explaining individual discrimination abilities in yellow-bellied marmots. Marmots' assessment of reliability acts by influencing the time allocated to individual assessment and thus the time not allocated to other activities. PMID:15315902

Blumstein, Daniel T; Verneyre, Laure; Daniel, Janice C

2004-09-01

429

Reliability and the adaptive utility of discrimination among alarm callers.  

PubMed Central

Unlike individually distinctive contact calls, or calls that aid in the recognition of young by their parents, the function or functions of individually distinctive alarm calls is less obvious. We conducted three experiments to study the importance of caller reliability in explaining individual-discriminative abilities in the alarm calls of yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris). In our first two experiments, we found that calls from less reliable individuals and calls from individuals calling from a greater simulated distance were more evocative than calls from reliable individuals or nearby callers. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that marmots assess the reliability of callers to help them decide how much time to allocate to independent vigilance. The third experiment demonstrated that the number of callers influenced responsiveness, probably because situations where more than a single caller calls, are those when there is certain to be a predator present. Taken together, the results from all three experiments demonstrate the importance of reliability in explaining individual discrimination abilities in yellow-bellied marmots. Marmots' assessment of reliability acts by influencing the time allocated to individual assessment and thus the time not allocated to other activities. PMID:15315902

Blumstein, Daniel T.; Verneyre, Laure; Daniel, Janice C.

2004-01-01

430

Application of neural networks to multiple alarm processing and diagnosis in nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

The authors present the feasibility study of multiple alarm processing and diagnosis using neural networks. The back-propagation network (BPN) algorithm is applied to the training of multiple alarm patterns for the identification of faults in a reactor coolant pump (RCP) system. The general mapping capability of the neural network enables one to identify a fault easily. A number of case studies are performed with emphasis on the applicability of the neural network to the pattern recognition of multiple alarms. Based on the case studies, the neural network can identify the cause of multiple alarms well, although untrained, incomplete/sensor-failed or time-varying alarm symptoms are given. Also, multiple faults are easily identified with a given alarm pattern.

Se Woo Cheon; Soon Heung Chang (Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)); Hak Yeong Chung; Zeung Nam Bien

1993-02-01

431

Noise Mitigation Controller Tools  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the past decade, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been developing and evaluating a suite of decision support tools (DSTs) to aid the air traffic controller in the management of traffic. These tools are known collectively as the Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS). The primary focus of CTAS is increased capacity. As part of a new NASA program called Quiet Aircraft Technology (QAT), the following question is being addressed: Can CTAS technology also support the noise mitigation requirements imposed by the community? Controllers currently support a variety of low noise procedures in low traffic densities but, as traffic increases, these must be abandoned due to excessive spacing requirements for vectoring or inter-arrival spacing requirements needed to handle a spectrum of low noise procedures. NASA is currently investigating how to provide controllers with noise-mitigation-based advisories which address these issues without negatively impacting capacity. These issues are of global concern which must be addressed as the demand for air travel continues to increase.

Tobias, Leonard

2001-01-01

432

Evaluation of Fire-Safety Programs that use 10Year Smoke Alarms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention began funding a Smoke Alarm Installation and Fire Safety Education (SAIFE)\\u000a program in 1998. This program involves the installation of lithium-powered “10-year” smoke alarms in homes at high risk for\\u000a fires and injuries. This study aimed to (1) determine among original SAIFE homes if the lithium-powered alarms were still\\u000a present and functional 8–10 years

Mark Jackson; Jonathan Wilson; Judith Akoto; Sherry Dixon; David E. Jacobs; Michael F. Ballesteros

2010-01-01

433

Construction of Wireless Fire Alarm System Based on ZigBee Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper points out the defect of wired automatic fire alarm system in used, and the necessity and possibility of constructing wireless fire alarm system. ZigBee technology based on IEEE802.15.4 and its characteristics are introduced. We also give out a method of constructing wireless fire alarm system based on ZigBee, including the design of construction, hardware and software.

MA Shu-guang

2011-01-01

434

The impact of recent changes in smoke alarm legislation on residential fire injuries and smoke alarm ownership in New South Wales, Australia.  

PubMed

In 2006, New South Wales (NSW) state legislation changed from requiring smoke alarms in new houses only to all houses. We evaluated the impact of this legislative change on residential fire injury and smoke alarm ownership characteristics. Residential fire injuries for 2002 to 2010 were identified from hospitalization data for all hospitals in NSW. Data relating to smoke alarm ownership and demographic factors were obtained from the NSW Population Health Survey. Negative binomial regression analysis was used to analyze trends over time. Prior to the introduction of universal legislation, hospitalization rates were increasing slightly; however, following the introduction of legislation, hospitalization rates decreased by an estimated 36.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 16.7-55.8) annually. Smoke alarm ownership increased from 73.3% (95% CI, 72.5-74.2) prelegislation to 93.6% (95% CI, 93.1-94.2) 18 months postlegislation. Thirty percent of households reported testing their alarms regularly. Speaking a language other than English (relative risks [RRs], 1.82; 95% CI, 1.44-2.99), allowing smoking in the home (RR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.31-2.27), and being part of the most disadvantaged socioeconomic group (RR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.14-1.91) remain major risk factors for nonownership. Broadening the scope of state legislation has had a positive impact on residential fire-related hospitalizations and smoke alarm ownership. However, it is of concern that the legislation has been the least effective in increasing smoke alarm ownership among non-English-speaking households, in households where smoking is allowed, in low socioeconomic households, and that a high proportion of householders do not test their smoke alarms regularly. Targeted campaigns are needed to reach these high-risk groups and to ensure that smoke alarms are functional. PMID:22955160

Harvey, Lara A; Poulos, Roslyn G; Sherker, Shauna

2013-01-01

435

A Human Factors Perspective on Alarm System Research and Development 2000 to 2010  

SciTech Connect

By definition, alarms serve to notify human operators of out-of-parameter conditions that could threaten equipment, the environment, product quality and, of course, human life. Given the complexities of industrial systems, human machine interfaces, and the human operator, the understanding of how alarms and humans can best work together to prevent disaster is continually developing. This review examines advances in alarm research and development from 2000 to 2010 and includes the writings of trade professionals, engineering and human factors researchers, and standards organizations with the goal of documenting advances in alarms system design, research, and implementation.

Curt Braun; John Grimes; Eric Shaver; Ronald Boring (Principal Investigator)

2011-09-01

436

Field verification of the use of chemical alarm cues in a coral reef fish  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical alarm cues function as early indicators of a predation threat and influence the outcome of predator-prey interactions in the favour of the prey animal. The tropical goby, Asterropteryx semipunctatus, responded with a stereotypical alarm response, including reduced movement and feeding, following exposure to water that contained chemical cues from injured conspecifics under natural field conditions. Gobies did not exhibit an alarm response when challenged with extracts from damaged fish from a different taxonomic family. The behavioural response in the field was similar to that observed in laboratory experiments. This study verifies the use of chemical alarm cues in a marine fish in their natural environment.

McCormick, M. I.; Larson, J. K.

2007-09-01

437

Mother knows best: functionally referential alarm calling in white-tailed ptarmigan.  

PubMed

Functionally referential alarm calls have stimulus specificity, distinct acoustic structure, and elicit different escape responses that are appropriate to the threat. The mechanisms by which escape responses are evoked are not fully understood and may range from eliciting innate responses to conveying representational information. White-tailed ptarmigan (Lagopus leucurus) are a long-lived alpine tundra grouse, which are preyed upon by aerial and terrestrial predators. We investigated the hypothesis that alarm calls of ptarmigan hens with chicks are functionally referential. We recorded hens' alarm calls in response to naturally occurring and model predators in California's Sierra Nevada alpine tundra for two summer seasons. We conducted playback experiments in the field to determine chick responses to alarm calls. Alarm calls commenced with an extended 'alerting' note followed by a series of staccato notes grouped into elements. Fundamental and dominant frequencies in element notes were significantly higher in terrestrial compared to aerial threat alarm calls. Playbacks of terrestrial threat alarm calls elicited an upright/alert position by chicks (75 % of responses). In response to aerial threat alarm call playbacks, chicks flattened to the ground and froze (80 % of responses). To our knowledge, this study provides the first empirical evidence of functionally referential alarm calling, including the responses of the receivers, in an avian species in the wild. PMID:24132414

Ausmus, Desa M; Clarke, Jennifer A

2014-05-01

438

The research of highway traffic accident management and pre-alarm system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the rigorous traffic safety issues resulting from rapid transportation development, as well as the more and more attention paid to the traffic accidents dynamic analysis and pre-alarm methods, combined with the practical needs of the highway safety management, this paper summarizes the experience of traffic safety pre-alarm research both in domestic and abroad, designs the frame of highway traffic accident management and pre-alarm system from the function and software engineering requirement, and refines kernel modules such as accident prone section judgement, traffic safety pre-alarm analysis and perfecting safety measures analysis, in order to guide the exploitation and application of the system.

Xu, Jianping; Zhang, Tiejun; Wan, Jiaonan; Zhang, Juwen; Wang, Rui

439

Alarm substance from adult zebrafish alters early embryonic development in offspring  

PubMed Central

Alarm substances elicit behavioural responses in a wide range of animals but effects on early embryonic development are virtually unknown. Here we investigated whether skin injury-induced alarm substances caused physiological responses in embryos produced by two Danio species (Danio rerio and Danio albolineatus). Both species showed more rapid physiological development in the presence of alarm substance, although there were subtle differences between them: D. rerio had advanced muscle contraction and heart function, whereas D. albolineatus had advanced heart function only. Hence, alarm cues from injured or dying fish may be of benefit to their offspring, inducing physiological responses and potentially increasing their inclusive fitness. PMID:20071391

Mourabit, S.; Rundle, S. D.; Spicer, J. I.; Sloman, K. A.

2010-01-01

440

RADON DIAGNOSTICS AND MITIGATION IN A DIFFICULT TO MITIGATE SCHOOL  

E-print Network

This paper describes radon diagnostics and mitigation in a school the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency classified "difficult to mitigate! ' The school had a utility tunnel beneath corridors that served as the outside air and return air mixing chamber for the heating and ventilation (HV) system. The HV system depressurized the tunnel, sucked radon from the soil, and distributed it to school rooms. An initial radon reduction effort using block wall depressurization did not reduce radon concentrations below four picocuries per liter. Extensive diagnostics, including continuous measurements of building and environmental variables, were conducted to test mitigation options and to provide design parameters for additional mitigation. The final radon mitigation technique involved pressurizing the utility tunnel. The findings indicate that: active soil depressurization systems can be overpowered by HV operations; in some cases, increased ventilation can increase radon entry and indoor concentrations; and, if properly implemented, additional ventilation can reduce indoor radon concentrations without significant energy penalties.

William J. Angell; Barry B. Bridges; Mike Clarkin; Terry Brennan

441

Can false memories prime problem solutions?  

PubMed

Previous research has suggested that false memories can prime performance on related implicit and explicit memory tasks. The present research examined whether false memories can also be used to prime higher order cognitive processes, namely, insight-based problem solving. Participants were asked to solve a number of compound remote associate task (CRAT) problems, half of which had been primed by the presentation of Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) lists whose critical lure was also the solution to the problem. The results showed that when the critical lure: (a) was falsely recalled, CRAT problems were solved more often and significantly faster than problems that were not primed by a DRM list and (b) was not falsely recalled, CRAT problem solution rates and times were no different than when there was no DRM priming. A second experiment demonstrated that these outcomes were not a simple artifact of the inclusion of a recall test prior to the problem solving task. The implications of these results are discussed with regard to the previous literature on priming and the adaptive function of false memories. PMID:20813356

Howe, Mark L; Garner, Sarah R; Dewhurst, Stephen A; Ball, Linden J

2010-11-01

442

27 CFR 478.128 - False statement or representation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false False statement or representation. 478.128 Section 478...478.128 False statement or representation. (a) Any person who knowingly makes any false statement or representation in applying for any...

2010-04-01

443

27 CFR 478.128 - False statement or representation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false False statement or representation. 478.128 Section 478...478.128 False statement or representation. (a) Any person who knowingly makes any false statement or representation in applying for any...

2013-04-01

444

27 CFR 478.128 - False statement or representation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false False statement or representation. 478.128 Section 478...478.128 False statement or representation. (a) Any person who knowingly makes any false statement or representation in applying for any...

2014-04-01

445

False memory for face in short-term memory and neural activity in human amygdala.  

PubMed

Human memory is often inaccurate. Similar to words and figures, new faces are often recognized as seen or studied items in long- and short-term memory tests; however, the neural mechanisms underlying this false memory remain elusive. In a previous fMRI study using morphed faces and a standard false memory paradigm, we found that there was a U-shaped response curve of the amygdala to old, new, and lure items. This indicates that the amygdala is more active in response to items that are salient (hit and correct rejection) compared to items that are less salient (false alarm), in terms of memory retrieval. In the present fMRI study, we determined whether the false memory for faces occurs within the short-term memory range (a few seconds), and assessed which neural correlates are involved in veridical and illusory memories. Nineteen healthy participants were scanned by 3T MRI during a short-term memory task using morphed faces. The behavioral results indicated that the occurrence of false memories was within the short-term range. We found that the amygdala displayed a U-shaped response curve to memory items, similar to those observed in our previous study. These results suggest that the amygdala plays a common role in both long- and short-term false memory for faces. We made the following conclusions: First, the amygdala is involved in detecting the saliency of items, in addition to fear, and supports goal-oriented behavior by modulating memory. Second, amygdala activity and response time might be related with a subject's response criterion for similar faces. PMID:25307137

Iidaka, Tetsuya; Harada, Tokiko; Sadato, Norihiro

2014-12-01

446

Wind Engineering & Natural Disaster Mitigation  

E-print Network

Wind Engineering & Natural Disaster Mitigation For more than 45 years, Western University has been internationally recognized as the leading university for wind engineering and wind- related research. Its of environmental disaster mitigation, with specific strengths in wind and earthquake research. Boundary Layer Wind

Denham, Graham

447

Power Mitigation For Nanometer FPGAs  

E-print Network

1 Power Mitigation For Nanometer FPGAs (ISLPED 2005 Tutorial) Mike Hutton Altera San Jose Power Mitigation For Nanometer FPGAs (ISLPED 2005 Tutorial) Mike Hutton Altera San Jose 2 © 2005 Altera Corporation-size 4 (area) to 6 (speed) [Betz, TVLSI 2000] [Lewis, FPGA03] [Hutton, FPGA02] [Lewis, FPGA05] [Hutton

He, Lei

448

Thermoelectric Generator Used in Fire-Alarm Temperature Sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we present a thermoelectric (TE) generator used in fire-alarm temperature sensing. The TE module, a core component of this generator, has a sandwich-like structure consisting of a Cu/Sn95Ag5/coated Ni/sprayed Ni/TE/sprayed Ni/coated Ni/Sn95Ag5/Cu multilayer that exhibits a low internal resistance of 5.5 ? to 5.9 ? and a contact resistance of 0.51 ? to 0.91 ? at room temperature (RT), enabling the TE generator to attain an open-circuit voltage (V op) of 1.50 V at RT and 2.97 V at ~90°C. Moreover, its maximum output power (p max) was estimated to be 11.6 mW and 428.7 mW, respectively, for a temperature difference (?T) of 9.3°C and 52.9°C. These values are comparable to those for the bulk TE generator developed by Thermonamic. According to these figures, we obtain corresponding power densities of ~7.25 × 103 nW/mm2 and 2.68 × 105 nW/mm2, respectively. Although there is still much room to improve the performance of the generator when the source temperature rises above 90°C, the output voltages and maximum output powers attained in the current testing conditions are large enough to drive small electronic devices such as fire-alarm systems etc. Therefore, it is believed that the fabrication technology and designed structure of the generator are appropriate for such applications.

Wu, Wenchang; Du, Zhengliang; Cui, Jiaolin; Shi, Zhongtao; Deng, Yuan

2015-01-01

449

Mitigation techniques for severe narrowband interference  

E-print Network

Narrowband Interference Mitigation in OFDM systems using the Prediction-Error Filter,”Narrowband Interference Mitigation in OFDM systems us- ing the Prediction-Error Filter,”Narrowband Interference Mitigation in OFDM systems us- ing the Prediction-Error Filter,”

Batra, Arun

2009-01-01

450

Analysis of False Starts in Spontaneous Speech.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A primary difference between spontaneous speech and read speech concerns the use of false starts, where a speaker interrupts the flow of speech to restart his or her utterance. A study examined the acoustic aspects of such restarts in a widely-used speech database, examining approximately 1000 utterances, about 10% of which contained a restart.…

O'Shaughnessy, Douglas

451

Infants' Reasoning about Others' False Perceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prior research suggests that children younger than age 3 or 4 do not understand that an agent may be deceived by an object's misleading appearance. The authors asked whether 14.5-month-olds would give evidence in a violation-of-expectation task that they understand that agents may form false perceptions. Infants first watched events in which an…

Song, Hyun-joo; Baillargeon, Renee

2008-01-01

452

Development of the False-Memory Illusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The counterintuitive developmental trend in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) illusion (that false-memory responses increase with age) was investigated in learning-disabled and nondisabled children from the 6- to 14-year-old age range. Fuzzy-trace theory predicts that because there are qualitative differences in how younger versus older children…

Brainerd, C. J.; Forrest, T. J.; Karibian, D.; Reyna, V. F.

2006-01-01

453

When Distinctiveness Fails, False Memories Prevail.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that fuzzy-trace theory provides a link between indices of memory performance and the theoretical processes that underlie that performance. Author argues false memories can arise because of processes that normally affect forgetting. Maintains that, to the extent that memories lose their distinctive properties, such memories may become…

Howe, Mark L.

1998-01-01

454

A Synchronization Account of False Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We describe a computational model to explain a variety of results in both standard and false recognition. A key attribute of the model is that it uses plausible semantic representations for words, built through exposure to a linguistic corpus. A study list is encoded in the model as a gist trace, similar to the proposal of fuzzy trace theory…

Johns, Brendan T.; Jones, Michael N.; Mewhort, Douglas J. K.

2012-01-01

455

How to Justify Teaching False Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We often knowingly teach false science. Such a practice conflicts with a prima facie pedagogical value placed on teaching only what is true. I argue that only a partial dissolution of the conflict is possible: the proper aim of instruction in science is not to provide an armory of facts about what things the world contains, how they interact, and…

Slater, Matthew H.

2008-01-01

456

Avoidance response of a terrestrial salamander ( Ambystoma macrodactylum ) to chemical alarm cues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organisms from a wide variety of taxonomic groups possess chemical alarm cues that are important in mediating predator avoidance. However, little is known about the presence of such alarm cues in most amphibians, and in particular terrestrial salamanders. In this study we tested whether adult long-toed salamanders (Ambystoma macrodactylum) showed an avoidance response to stimuli from injured conspecifics. Avoidance of

Douglas P. Chivers; Joseph M. Kiesecker; Michael T. Anderson; Erica L. Wildy; Andrew R. Blaustein

1996-01-01

457

Production of chemical alarm cues in convict cichlids: the effects of diet, body condition and ontogeny  

Microsoft Academic Search

While much is known regarding the role of chemical alarm cues in the mediation of predator-prey dynamics within aquatic ecosystems, little is known regarding the production of these critically important information sources. In a series of labora- tory experiments, we tested the possible effects of diet, body condition and ontogeny on the production of chemical alarm cues in juvenile convict

Grant E. Brown; Patricia E. Foam; Hilary E. Cowell; Palestina Guevara Fiore; Douglas P. Chivers

458

46 CFR 35.40-7 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms-T/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing alarm installed after November 19, 1952, must be conspicuously marked: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS VACATE AT ONCE. [CARBON DIOXIDE/CLEAN AGENT—as appropriate] BEING RELEASED.” [USCG-2006-24797, 77 FR 33874, June 7,...

2012-10-01

459

Ontogeny of Alarm pheromone production in the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Alarm pheromones are an essential part of a complex of pheromone interactions that contribute to the maintenance of colony integrity and sociality in social insects. Recently, we identified 2-ethyl-3,6-dimethylpyrazine as an alarm pheromone component of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. We continued...

460

Modelling and Application of Secondary Circuit Signals for Power Grid Intelligent Alarm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power grid intelligent alarm and fault diagnosis program mainly use breaker and relay action alarms. However, there may be misoperations existed in relays, which could leads to incorrect diagnosis results. With the development of digital substation and application of IEC61850, the secondary circuit signals are available from integrated automation system in substation. These signals may imply control or interlock relationship

Kang Taifeng; Wu Wenchuan; Sun Hongbin; Zhang Boming; Li Jingxiong

2010-01-01

461

Probabilistic forecasts of (severe) thunderstorms for the purpose of issuing a weather alarm  

E-print Network

1 Probabilistic forecasts of (severe) thunderstorms for the purpose of issuing a weather alarm: Weather alarm for severe thunderstorms Method: Model output statistics (MOS) Data used in MOS system for (severe) thunderstorms Illustration of statistical method Definitions of predictands Case (8 June 2007

Schmeits, Maurice

462

Reed warblers discriminate cuckoos from sparrowhawks with graded alarm signals that attract mates and neighbours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brood parasites and predators pose unique threats that may favour the evolution of enemy-specific defence strategies. We considered whether reed warblers, Acrocephalus scirpaceus, have a specific alarm call for com- mon cuckoos, Cuculus canorus, and whether their alarms attract mates and neighbours. Mounts of cuckoos (threat to nest but harmless to adults) were significantly more likely to be mobbed and

J. A. Welbergen; N. B. Davies

2008-01-01

463

Radiation Belt Activity Indices and Solar Proton Event Alarm on the CRATERRE Project Web Site  

E-print Network

Radiation Belt Activity Indices and Solar Proton Event Alarm on the CRATERRE Project Web Site D--Two Radiation Belt Activity Indices, based on electron flux measurement >300 keV and >1.6 MeV, and one Solar Proton Event Alarm, based on proton flux measurement >75 MeV, are developed for post events analysis

464

Dine or Dash?: Ontogenetic Shift in the Response of Yellow Perch to Conspecific Alarm Cues  

Microsoft Academic Search

During their first year of growth yellow perch, Perca flavescens, undergo an ontogenetic niche shift from invertebrate feeding to piscivory. They also undergo a similar shift in their response to heterospecific alarm cues, switching from anti-predator to foraging behaviour. We conducted laboratory trials to determine whether yellow perch experience a comparable ontogenetic shift in their response to conspecific alarm cues.

Mark C. Harvey; Grant E. Brown

2004-01-01

465

Door Placard for No Automatic Fire Alarm with Automatic Fire Sprinkler Protection System  

E-print Network

Door Placard for No Automatic Fire Alarm with Automatic Fire Sprinkler Protection System Fire Code: ______________________ _____________________________ Fire Alarm System Monitored by: _____________________________ Fire and Life Safety Systems Your facility is equipped with functional Fire Smoke Detection and an Automatic Fire Sprinkler System Annual

Pawlowski, Wojtek

466

Detecting Alarm Sounds Dan Ellis Columbia University dpwe@ee.columbia.edu  

E-print Network

, sirens etc.) carry important information. Automatic systems to detect them in high-noise conditions would · Examples include: Car horns, emergency sirens, fire alarms, doorbells, mechanical and electronic telephones-net system · In this example, 3 randomly-chosen alarm sounds (top panel) are mixed with restaurant noise

Ellis, Dan

467

46 CFR 113.25-8 - Distribution of general emergency alarm system feeders and branch circuits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...emergency alarm system feeders and branch circuits. 113.25-8 Section 113.25-8...emergency alarm system feeders and branch circuits. (a) Each system must have a...zone feeder is necessary; then a branch circuit distribution panel or feeder...

2012-10-01

468

46 CFR 113.25-8 - Distribution of general emergency alarm system feeders and branch circuits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...emergency alarm system feeders and branch circuits. 113.25-8 Section 113.25-8...emergency alarm system feeders and branch circuits. (a) Each system must have a...zone feeder is necessary; then a branch circuit distribution panel or feeder...

2014-10-01

469

46 CFR 113.25-8 - Distribution of general emergency alarm system feeders and branch circuits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...emergency alarm system feeders and branch circuits. 113.25-8 Section 113.25-8...emergency alarm system feeders and branch circuits. (a) Each system must have a...zone feeder is necessary; then a branch circuit distribution panel or feeder...

2013-10-01

470

46 CFR 113.25-8 - Distribution of general emergency alarm system feeders and branch circuits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...emergency alarm system feeders and branch circuits. 113.25-8 Section 113.25-8...emergency alarm system feeders and branch circuits. (a) Each system must have a...zone feeder is necessary; then a branch circuit distribution panel or feeder...

2011-10-01

471

Alarm symptoms of soft-tissue and bone sarcoma in patients referred to a specialist center  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose — The Danish Cancer Patient Pathway for sarcoma defines a set of alarm symptoms as criteria for referral to a sarcoma center. This may exclude cancer patients without alarm symptoms, so we investigated the presence of alarm symptoms (defined as being indicative of a sarcoma) in patients who had been referred to the Aarhus Sarcoma Center. Patients and methods — We reviewed the medical records of all 1,126 patients who had been referred, with suspected sarcoma, from other hospitals in the period 2007–2010 for information on symptoms, clinical findings, and diagnosis. Alarm symptoms were analyzed for predictive values in diagnosing sarcoma. Results — 179 (69%) of 258 sarcoma patients were referred with alarm symptoms (soft-tissue tumor > 5 cm or deep-seated, fast-growing soft-tissue tumor, palpable bone tumor, or deep persisting bone pain). The remaining 79 sarcomas were found accidentally. “Size over 5 cm” for soft-tissue tumors, and “deep persisting bone pain” for bone tumors had the highest sensitivity and positive predictive value. Of the 79 sarcoma patients who were referred without alarm symptoms, 7 were found accidentally on imaging, 5 were referred with suspected recurrence of a sarcoma, 64 were referred with a confirmed histological diagnosis, and 3 were referred for other reasons. Interpretation — Defined alarm symptoms are predictive of sarcoma, but one-third of the patients were found accidentally. Further studies on presenting symptoms in primary care are needed to assess the true value of alarm symptoms. PMID:25175662

Dyrop, Heidi B; Vedsted, Peter; Safwat, Akmal; Maretty-Nielsen, Katja; Hansen, Bjarne H; Jørgensen, Peter H; Baad-Hansen, Thomas; Keller, Johnny

2014-01-01

472

The design and implementation of MDF incoming power disturbance alarm system  

Microsoft Academic Search

To solve the problems of MDF incoming power disturbance and the redundancy of management personnel in communication computer rooms, the author designed an incoming power disturbance alarm system applied to the computer rooms where nobody is on duty. The system adopts a tertiary host\\/slave structure of the monitoring center, monitoring unit and alarm collectors on each distributing frame. Through the

Li Yang; Changyin Liang; Linfang Yang

2011-01-01

473

Using LabVIEW software for a fire and alarm technology lab  

Microsoft Academic Search

The University of Houston Downtown in Houston, Texas has a four-year safety and fire engineering technology program with a fire protection course, which in the catalog is the Fire Suppression & Detection Systems. The course is often referred to as the fire alarm system course. The fire alarm system course includes the design and use of detection, signaling and suppression

H. Franz

2005-01-01

474

Red squirrels, Tamiasciurus hudsonicus , produce predator-class specific alarm calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red squirrels, can produce alarm calls when they detect a potential predator. Observations of natural interactions between red squirrels and large birds, and predator-presentation experiments in the field, showed that red squirrels produce acoustically different alarm calls in response to aerial danger (live birds and a model hawk flown towards them) versus danger approaching from the ground (dogs and humans).

ERICK GREENE; TOM MEAGHER

1998-01-01

475

LEARNED RECOGNITION OF HETEROSPECIFIC ALARM CUES ENHANCES SURVIVAL DURING ENCOUNTERS WITH PREDATORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Numerous species of aquatic animals release chemical cues when attacked by a predator. These chemicals serve to warn other conspecié cs, and in some cases heterospecié cs, of danger, and hence have been termed alarm cues. Responses of animals to alarm cues produced by other species often need to be learned, yet mechanisms of learned recognition of heterospecié c

Douglas P. Chivers; Reehan S. Mirza; Jeffery G. Johnston

2002-01-01

476

Underwater Video Reveals Strong Avoidance of Chemical Alarm Cues by Prey Fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A diversity of fishes release chemical cues upon being attacked by a pre- dator. These cues, commonly termed alarm cues, act as sources of public information warning conspecifics of predation risk. Species which are members of the same prey guild (i.e. syntopic and share predators) often respond to one another's alarm cues. The purpose of this study was to discriminate

Robert G. Friesen; Douglas P. Chivers

2006-01-01

477

Fire Alarm Testing and Inspection Planning and Vendor Check In/Check Out Process  

E-print Network

Fire Alarm Testing and Inspection Planning and Vendor Check In/Check Out Process DOCUMENT PURPOSE This process is used for fire alarm testing and inspection pre-work planning and vendor check in and check out. BUILDING NAME/#: ___________________/_____ VENDOR: ________________________ TECHNICIAN

Webb, Peter

478

Radar Ionospheric Impact Mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New ionospheric modeling technology is being developed to improve correction of ionospheric impacts on the performance of ground-based space-surveillance radars (SSRs) in near-real-time. These radars, which detect and track space objects, can experience significant target location errors due to ionospheric delay and refraction of the radar signals. Since these radars must detect and track targets essentially to the radar horizon, it is necessary to accurately model the ionosphere as the radar would observe it, down to the local horizon. To correct for spatial and temporal changes in the ionosphere the model must be able to update in near-real-time using ionospheric sensor data. Since many radars are in isolated locations, or may have requirements to operate autonomously, an additional required capability is to provide accurate ionospheric mitigation by exploiting only sensor data from the radar site. However, the model must also be able to update using additional data from other types of sensors that may be available. The original radar ionospheric mitigation approach employed the Bent climatological model. This 35-year-old technology is still the means employed in the many DoD SSRs today. One more recent approach used capabilities from the PRISM model. PRISM technology has today been surpassed by `assimilative models' which employ better physics and Kalman filtering techniques. These models are not necessarily tailored for SSR application which needs to optimize modeling of very small regions using only data from a single sensor, or very few. The goal is to develop and validate the performance of innovative and efficient ionospheric modeling approaches that are optimized for the small regions applicable to ground-based radar coverage (radius of ~2000 km at ionospheric altitudes) and somewhat beyond. These approaches must adapt a continuous modeling scheme in near-real-time to be consistent with all observational data that may become available, and degrade gracefully toward a climatological representation in the absence of data. In this presentation we will discuss the issues for improving correction of ionospheric impacts on SSRs, some of the capabilities and limitations of current models, and the requirements and goals for new modeling technologies.

Bishop, G.; Decker, D.; Baker, C.

2006-12-01

479

Albeni Falls Wildlife Mitigation Project : Annual Report of Mitigation Activities.  

SciTech Connect

The Albeni Falls Interagency Work Group was actively involved in implementing wildlife mitigation activities in 2000. The Work Group met each quarter to discuss management and budget issues affecting Albeni Falls wildlife mitigation. Members of the Work Group protected a total of 1,242 acres of wetland habitat in 2000. The total amount of wildlife habitat protected for Albeni Falls mitigation is approximately 4,190 acres (4,630 Habitat Units). Approximately 16% of the total wildlife habitat lost has been mitigated. Land management activities were limited in 2000 as protection opportunities took up most staff time. Administrative activities increased in 2000 as funding was more evenly distributed among Work Group members. As a result, implementation is expected to continue to increase in the coming year. Land management and monitoring and evaluation activities will increase in 2001 as site-specific management plans are completed and implemented.

Entz, Ray D.

2001-04-01

480

Space Debris & its Mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space debris has become a growing concern in recent years, since collisions at orbital velocities can be highly damaging to functioning satellites and can also produce even more space debris in the process. Some spacecraft, like the International Space Station, are now armored to deal with this hazard but armor and mitigation measures can be prohibitively costly when trying to protect satellites or human spaceflight vehicles like the shuttle. This paper describes the current orbital debris environment, outline its main sources, and identify mitigation measures to reduce orbital debris growth by controlling these sources. We studied the literature on the topic Space Debris. We have proposed some methods to solve this problem of space debris. We have also highlighted the shortcomings of already proposed methods by space experts and we have proposed some modification in those methods. Some of them can be very effective in the process of mitigation of space debris, but some of them need some modification. Recently proposed methods by space experts are maneuver, shielding of space elevator with the foil, vaporizing or redirecting of space debris back to earth with the help of laser, use of aerogel as a protective layer, construction of large junkyards around international space station, use of electrodynamics tether & the latest method proposed is the use of nano satellites in the clearing of the space debris. Limitations of the already proposed methods are as follows: - Maneuvering can't be the final solution to our problem as it is the act of self-defence. - Shielding can't be done on the parts like solar panels and optical devices. - Vaporizing or redirecting of space debris can affect the human life on earth if it is not done in proper manner. - Aerogel has a threshold limit up to which it can bear (resist) the impact of collision. - Large junkyards can be effective only for large sized debris. In this paper we propose: A. The Use of Nano Tubes by creating a mesh: In this technique we will use the nano tubes. We will create a mesh that will act as a touch panel of the touch screen cell phone. When any small or tiny particle will come on this mesh and touch it then the mesh will act as a touch panel and so that the corresponding processor or sensor will come to know the co-ordinates of it then further by using Destructive laser beam we can destroy that particle. B. Use of the Nano tubes and Nano Bots for the collection of the Space Debris: In this method also we will use a nano mesh which is made up of the nano tubes and the corresponding arrangement will be done so that that mesh will act as a touch panel same as that of the touch screen phones. So when tiny particles will dash on the nano mesh then the Nano Bots which will be at the specific co-ordinates collect the particles and store them into the garbage storage. C. Further the space Debris can be use for the other purposes too:- As we know that the space debris can be any tiny particle in the space. So instead of decomposing that particles or destroying it we can use those particles for the purpose of energy production by using the fuel cells, but for this the one condition is that the particle material should be capable of forming the ionize liquid or solution which can be successfully use in the fuel cell for energy production. But this is useful for only the big projects where in smallest amount of energy has also the great demand or value. D. RECYCLING OF SPACE DEBRIS The general idea of making space structures by recycling space debris is to capture the aluminum of the upper stages, melt it, and form it into new aluminum structures, perhaps by coating the inside of inflatable balloons, to make very large structures of thin aluminum shells. CONCLUSION Space debris has become the topic of great concern in recent years. Space debris creation can't be stopped completely but it can be minimized by adopting some measures. Many methods of space debris mitigation have been proposed earlier by many space experts, but some of them have limitations in them. After some

Kaushal, Sourabh; Arora, Nishant

2012-07-01

481

Creating a false memory in the hippocampus.  

PubMed

Memories can be unreliable. We created a false memory in mice by optogenetically manipulating memory engram-bearing cells in the hippocampus. Dentate gyrus (DG) or CA1 neurons activated by exposure to a particular context were labeled with channelrhodopsin-2. These neurons were later optically reactivated during fear conditioning in a different context. The DG experimental group showed increased freezing in the original context, in which a foot shock was never delivered. The recall of this false memory was context-specific, activated similar downstream regions engaged during natural fear memory recall, and was also capable of driving an active fear response. Our data demonstrate that it is possible to generate an internally represented and behaviorally expressed fear memory via artificial means. PMID:23888038

Ramirez, Steve; Liu, Xu; Lin, Pei-Ann; Suh, Junghyup; Pignatelli, Michele; Redondo, Roger L; Ryan, Tomás J; Tonegawa, Susumu

2013-07-26

482

Constrained potential method for false vacuum decays  

SciTech Connect

A procedure is reported for numerical analysis of false vacuum transition in a model with multiple scalar fields. It is a refined version of the approach by Konstandin and Huber. The alteration makes it possible to tackle a class of problems that was difficult or unsolvable with the original method, i.e. those with a distant or nonexistent true vacuum. An example with an unbounded-from-below direction is presented.

Park, Jae-hyeon, E-mail: jae-hyeon.park@desy.de [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)

2011-02-01

483

Reducing false positives in molecular pattern recognition.  

PubMed

In the search for new cancer subtypes by gene expression profiling, it is essential to avoid misclassifying samples of unknown subtypes as known ones. In this paper, we evaluated the false positive error rates of several classification algorithms through a 'null test' by presenting classifiers a large collection of independent samples that do not belong to any of the tumor types in the training dataset. The benchmark dataset is available at www2.genome.rcast.u-tokyo.ac.jp/pm/. We found that k-nearest neighbor (KNN) and support vector machine (SVM) have very high false positive error rates when fewer genes (<100) are used in prediction. The error rate can be partially reduced by including more genes. On the other hand, prototype matching (PM) method has a much lower false positive error rate. Such robustness can be achieved without loss of sensitivity by introducing suitable measures of prediction confidence. We also proposed a cluster-and-select technique to select genes for classification. The nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis H test is employed to select genes differentially expressed in multiple tumor types. To reduce the redundancy, we then divided these genes into clusters with similar expression patterns and selected a given number of genes from each cluster. The reliability of the new algorithm is tested on three public datasets. PMID:15706518

Ge, Xijin; Tsutsumi, Shuichi; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Iwata, Shuichi

2003-01-01

484

A synchronization account of false recognition.  

PubMed

We describe a computational model to explain a variety of results in both standard and false recognition. A key attribute of the model is that it uses plausible semantic representations for words, built through exposure to a linguistic corpus. A study list is encoded in the model as a gist trace, similar to the proposal of fuzzy trace theory (Brainerd & Reyna, 2002), but based on realistically structured semantic representations of the component words. The model uses a decision process based on the principles of neural synchronization and information accumulation. The decision process operates by synchronizing a probe with the gist trace of a study context, allowing information to be accumulated about whether the word did or did not occur on the study list, and the efficiency of synchronization determines recognition. We demonstrate that the model is capable of accounting for standard recognition results that are challenging for classic global memory models, and can also explain a wide variety of false recognition effects and make item-specific predictions for critical lures. The model demonstrates that both standard and false recognition results may be explained within a single formal framework by integrating realistic representation assumptions with a simple processing mechanism. PMID:22884279

Johns, Brendan T; Jones, Michael N; Mewhort, Douglas J K

2012-12-01

485

The false enforcement of unpopular norms.  

PubMed

Prevailing theory assumes that people enforce norms in order to pressure others to act in ways that they approve. Yet there are numerous examples of "unpopular norms" in which people compel each other to do things that they privately disapprove. While peer sanctioning suggests a ready explanation for why people conform to unpopular norms, it is harder to understand why they would enforce a norm they privately oppose. The authors argue that people enforce unpopular norms to show that they have complied out of genuine conviction and not because of social pressure. They use laboratory experiments to demonstrate this "false enforcement" in the context of a wine tasting and an academic text evaluation. Both studies find that participants who conformed to a norm due to social pressure then falsely enforced the norm by publicly criticizing a lone deviant. A third study shows that enforcement of a norm effectively signals the enforcer's genuine support for the norm. These results demonstrate the potential for a vicious cycle in which perceived pressures to conform to and falsely enforce an unpopular norm reinforce one another. PMID:20614762

Willer, Robb; Kuwabara, Ko; Macy, Michael W

2009-09-01

486

40 CFR 267.34 - When must personnel have access to communication equipment or an alarm system?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...must personnel have access to communication equipment or an alarm system...access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or...capable of summoning external emergency assistance, unless not...

2012-07-01

487

40 CFR 267.34 - When must personnel have access to communication equipment or an alarm system?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...must personnel have access to communication equipment or an alarm system...access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or...capable of summoning external emergency assistance, unless not...

2011-07-01

488

40 CFR 267.34 - When must personnel have access to communication equipment or an alarm system?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...must personnel have access to communication equipment or an alarm system...access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or...capable of summoning external emergency assistance, unless not...

2013-07-01

489

40 CFR 267.34 - When must personnel have access to communication equipment or an alarm system?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...must personnel have access to communication equipment or an alarm system...access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or...capable of summoning external emergency assistance, unless not...

2014-07-01

490

Lunar Dust Mitigation Screens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With plans for the United States to return to the moon, and establish a sustainable human presence on the lunar surface many issues must be successfully overcome. Lunar dust is one of a number of issues with the potential to create a myriad of problems if not adequately addressed. Samples of dust brought back from Apollo missions show it to be soft, yet sharp and abrasive. The dust consists of a variety of morphologies including spherical, angular blocks, shards, and a number of irregular shapes. One of the main issues with lunar dust is its attraction to stick to anything it comes in contact with (i.e. astronauts, equipment, habitats, etc.). Ionized radiation from the sun strikes the moon's surface and creates an electrostatic charge on the dust. Further, the dust harbors van der Waals forces making it especially difficult to separate once it sticks to a surface. During the Apollo missions, it was discovered that trying to brush the lunar dust from spacesuits was not effective, and rubbing it caused degradation of the suit material. Further, when entering the lunar module after moonwalks, the astronauts noted that the dust was so prolific inside the cabin that they inhaled and ingested it, causing at least one of them, Harrison "Jack" Schmidt, to report irritation of the throat and lungs. It is speculated that the dust could also harm an astronaut's nervous and cardiovascular systems, especially during an extended stay. In addition to health issues, the dust can also cause problems by scouring reflective coatings off of thermal blankets, and roughening surfaces of windows and optics. Further, panels on solar cells and photovoltaics can also be compromised due to dust sticking on the surfaces. Lunar dust has the capacity to penetrate seals, interfere with connectors, as well as mechanisms on digging machines, all of which can lead to problems and failure. To address lunar dust issues, development of electrostatic screens to mitigate dust on sur-faces is currently being developed in a collaborative effort between Langley Research Center and Kennedy Space Center. The screens typically consist of spiral shaped conductive traces patterned on high dielectric substrates (i.e. glass, quartz, polyimide film, etc.). Two broad categories of substrate materials are being investigated for the screens. One category consists of transparent substrates (i.e. glass, quartz, sapphire, etc.), and the other non-transparent sub-strates (Kapton, polyimide films, metals, etc.). The transparent screens utilize patterns made from indium tin oxide (ITO), a transparent conductive material, on clear substrates while the non-transparent screens use copper patterns on a transluscent or opaque substrates. Further, the screen is coated with a high dielectric polyimide cover layer to protect the screen pattern. One promising cover layer material that is currently being investigated is Langley Research Center-Soluble Imide (LaRC-SI), a NASA LaRC developed polyimide. Lastly, a top-coat of hard, inorganic material is evaporated onto the cover layer for protection from scratches due to abrasive nature of the dust. Of note, several top-coat materials are under investigation and include: aluminum oxide, silicon dioxide, titanium oxide, yttrium oxide, zirconium oxide, and zinc sulfide. The electrostatic dust mitigation screens function when a high voltage (700V or greater) is applied to the screen electrodes, thus creating an electromagnetic wave across the surface of the screen that repels the dust. Lunar dust typically contains a high positive charge; therefore, the screens are charged with a higher positive charge that effectively repels dust from the surface (i.e. like charges repel, unlike charges attract). It is anticipated that full development and maturation of this technology will enable humans to sustain a long term presence on the moon, and other planets where dust may have negative implications.

Knutson, Shawn; Holloway, Nancy

491

DHS Regional Reachback: Rapid Expert Radiation Alarm Assistance.  

SciTech Connect

Following assessments that attacks with radiological and nuclear weapons are possible, detection system deployments are being supported at national and local levels. Detection systems include both, highly sensitive but non-discriminating detectors, as well as detectors and algorithms capable of distinguishing and identifying gamma rays by energy. The latter systems, usually handheld systems based on sodium iodide detectors, also provide analysis of the specific radionuclides present and are referred to as radioisotope identifiers (RIIDs). Studies have shown that sodium iodide based RIIDs fall far short of 100% accurate identifications. The U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) initiated the Regional Reachback (RRB) Program in 2006 to provide rapid expert interpretation of gamma spectroscopic data from radiation alarms from detection systems deployed by state and local authorities. With expert specialists on call 24/7, RRB provides an avenue for local and state authorities to verify routine results, interpret unknown identifications, and notify national response assets if needed. This paper will provide details of the RRE3 program, an outline of the analysis process, a description of the drills and training systems used to maintain specialists response performance, and examples of drills and incidents from the first full year of operation.

Bowerman,B.; Archer, D.; Young, J.; Monetti, M.; Savage, B.

2008-07-13

492

Isolation and characterization of alarm pheromone from electric shock-induced earthworm secretion.  

PubMed

Electric stimulation of earthworms, Lumbricus terrestris, causes secretion of a yellow mucus which has alarm properties for conspecifics and chemoattractive properties for garter snakes. An alarm pheromone was isolated and purified to homogeneity from the mucus by means of permeation, thin-layer and high performance liquid chromatographies. The purified substance was highly active as an alarm chemosignal to earthworms (L. terrestris), but it did not elicit alarm responses from either sandworms (Nereis virens) or bloodworms (Glycera debranciata). It was not a snake chemoattractant. The alarm pheromone could not be retained with 1 kDa cut-off dialysis tubing, and it was eluted from a Bio-gel P2 column ahead of p-nitrophenol. These data suggest an apparent mass greater than 139 Da but less than 1 kDa. The order of solubility of this alarm pheromone is H2O greater than DMSO greater than MeOH greater than 2-propanol greater than acetone. It was thermostable, and it fully retained activity after heating at 100 degrees C for 1 hour. This alarm pheromone fluoresced under u.v. light, and it showed an optimal excitation wavelength of 420 nm and emission wavelength of 465 nm. PMID:2622977

Jiang, X C; Wang, D; Halpern, M

1989-10-01

493

A passive positioning alarm used by persons with dementia and their spouses – a qualitative intervention study  

PubMed Central

Background Increasingly, information and communication technology is being used to support persons with dementia living at home and their relatives. The aim of the present intervention study was to describe and explore the use and experiences of using a passive positioning alarm, over time, in daily life among persons with dementia and their spouses. Methods Using an ethnographically inspired approach, five couples, each including a person with Alzheimer´ s disease and his/her spouse living in their own home, were repeatedly observed and interviewed regarding their experiences of using a passive positioning alarm. Interview text transcripts and field notes were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results The main findings show changes over time, where testing and checking the passive positioning alarm successively led to trust in the alarm and in one own´s ability to use it. These components were a prerequisite for the couples to perceive the value of the alarm. Conclusions A passive positioning alarm for persons with dementia and their spouses needs to be packaged as a “service” with flexibility for each user and based on user needs, abilities, knowledge and skills. Using a passive positioning alarm can be a valuable support that allows persons with dementia to be alone outdoors and can increase safety and security for them and their spouses. The present study contributes to our understanding of what prerequisites need to be in place and what barriers need to be dealt with before successful implementation can occur. PMID:23384329

2013-01-01

494

Using the exhibited generalization approach to evaluate a carbon monoxide alarm ordinance.  

PubMed

Current interests in enhancing the focus of external validity or transferability call for developing practical evaluation approaches and illustrating their applications in this area for meeting the need. This study takes the challenge by introducing an innovative evaluation approach, named the exhibited generalization approach, and applying it in evaluating the carbon monoxide (CO) alarm ordinance passed by Mecklenburg County, North Carolina. The stakeholders specifically asked evaluators to determine the answers to the following two questions: (1) Does the alarm ordinance work? (2) What generalizable information can the Mecklenburg experience provide to other jurisdictions trying to decide if the alarm ordinance's planning, implementation, adoption, and outcomes are transferable to their communities? This study illustrates how to apply the exhibited generalization approach to provide the stakeholders with answers to these questions. Our results indicate that the alarm ordinance was effective in increasing CO alarm ownerships and reducing CO poisoning cases. The evaluation provides potential users and other interested parties with the necessary information on contextual factors and the causal mechanism underlying the CO alarm ordinance, so that these parties and users could decide whether the Mecklenburg alarm ordinance would be transferable to their own communities. Discussions include implications of this study for contributing in further advancing evaluation theory in addressing transferability or external validity issues. PMID:25105583

Chen, Huey T; Yip, Fuyuen; Lavonas, Eric J; Iqbal, Shahed; Turner, Nannette; Cobb, Bobby; Garbe, Paul

2014-12-01

495

A Retrospective Analysis to Validate the Alarm Signs Used in the CEDAP-Plus Study  

PubMed Central

Background and Study Aim. This study aimed to validate the alarm signs used in the 2007 German CEDAP-Plus study for indicating capsule endoscopy in patients who have idiopathic chronic abdominal pain. Patients and Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the cases of all patients who underwent capsule endoscopy at our institution between August 2007 and August 2009 for chronic hitherto undiagnosed abdominal pain, despite previous investigations. The demographic data, indications, findings, and diagnoses were recorded, as were the alarm signs (i.e., 10% loss of weight within 3 months, suspected small intestinal bleed or chronic anemia, and laboratory indications of inflammation). Results. Alarm signs were found in only 4 of the 62 included patients. Capsule endoscopy revealed findings that led to diagnoses of Crohn's disease (n = 4), tuberculosis (n = 1), gastrointestinal stromal tumors (n = 3), and hookworm (n = 1); these diagnoses included 100% (4/4) of the patients with alarm signs, but only 8.6% (5/58) of patients without them. However, 55.6% (5/9) of patients with clinically capsule endoscopy findings reported no alarm signs. Conclusions. Although selecting patients based on the alarm signs may increase the yield of capsule endoscopy, the alarm sign criteria appear to have low sensitivity. PMID:21991500

Zhang, Hou-De; Lin, Mu-Xian; Zhang, Qu

2011-01-01

496

The evolution of urgency-based and functionally referential alarm calls in ground-dwelling species.  

PubMed

A major evolutionary force driving functionally referential alarm calls is the need for different strategies to escape various predator types in complex structured habitats. In contrast, a single escape strategy appears to be sufficient in less-structured open habitats, and under such conditions urgency-dependent alarm calls may be favored. Nevertheless, some species, such as meerkats (Suricata suricatta), have evolved functionally referential alarm calls despite living in open areas, using only bolt-holes for retreat. To understand the evolution of different alarm call systems, we investigated the calls of sympatric Cape ground squirrels (Xerus inauris) and compared their antipredator and foraging behavior with that of meerkats. Cape ground squirrels emitted urgency-dependent alarm calls and responded to playbacks depending on urgency, not predator type. Vigilance behavior and habitat use differed between the two species. Meerkats roam widely to find prey and for efficient foraging depend on coordinated predator vigilance and escape behavior. As herbivores with smaller territories, Cape ground squirrels depend less on coordinated antipredator behavior, and urgency-dependent alarm calls encode all essential information. We conclude that habitat complexity does not explain the evolution of functionally referential alarm calls in all species, and other constraints, such as the need to coordinate group movements to maintain foraging efficiency, could be more relevant. PMID:19199527

Furrer, Roman D; Manser, Marta B

2009-03-01

497

African Elephant Alarm Calls Distinguish between Threats from Humans and Bees  

PubMed Central

The Samburu pastoralists of Northern Kenya co-exist with African elephants, Loxodonta africana, and compete over resources such as watering holes. Audio playback experiments demonstrate that African elephants produce alarm calls in response to the voices of Samburu tribesmen. When exposed to adult male Samburu voices, listening elephants exhibited vigilance behavior, flight behavior, and produced vocalizations (rumbles, roars and trumpets). Rumble vocalizations were most common and were characterized by increased and more variable fundamental frequencies, and an upward shift in the first [F1] and second [F2] formant locations, compared to control rumbles. When exposed to a sequence of these recorded rumbles, roars and trumpets, listening elephants also exhibited vigilance and flight behavior. The same behavior was observed, in lesser degrees, both when the roars and trumpets were removed, and when the second formants were artificially lowered to levels typical of control rumbles. The “Samburu alarm rumble” is acoustically distinct from the previously described “bee alarm rumble.” The bee alarm rumbles exhibited increased F2, while Samburu alarm rumbles exhibited increased F1 and F2, compared to controls. Moreover, the behavioral reactions to the two threats were different. Elephants exhibited vigilance and flight behavior in response to Samburu and bee stimuli and to both alarm calls, but headshaking behavior only occurred in response to bee sounds and bee alarm calls. In general, increasingly threatening stimuli elicited alarm calls with increases in F0 and in formant locations, and increasing numbers of these acoustic cues in vocal stimuli elicited increased vigilance and flight behavior in listening elephants. These results show that African elephant alarm calls differentiate between two types of threat and reflect the level of urgency of threats. PMID:24586753

Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Vollrath, Fritz; Savage, Anne

2014-01-01

498

The neural network models for IDS based on the asymmetric costs of false negative errors and false positive errors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the asymmetric costs of false positive and negative errors to enhance the IDS performance. The proposed method utilizes the neural network model to consider the cost ratio of false negative errors to false positive errors. Compared with false positive errors, false negative errors incur a greater loss to organizations which are connected to the systems by networks.

Daejoon Joo; Taeho Hong; Ingoo Han

499

27 CFR 478.128 - False statement or representation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... true False statement or representation. 478.128 Section 478...478.128 False statement or representation. (a) Any person who knowingly makes any false statement or representation in applying for any...

2012-04-01

500

27 CFR 478.128 - False statement or representation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... true False statement or representation. 478.128 Section 478...478.128 False statement or representation. (a) Any person who knowingly makes any false statement or representation in applying for any...

2011-04-01