Science.gov

Sample records for false alarm mitigation

  1. False alarm mitigation techniques for hyperspectral target detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieper, M. L.; Manolakis, D.; Truslow, E.; Cooley, T.; Brueggeman, M.

    2013-05-01

    A challenging problem of major importance in hyperspectral imaging applications is the detection of subpixel objects of military and civilian interest. High false alarm thresholds are required to detect subpixel objects due to the large amount of surrounding background clutter. These high false alarm rates are unacceptable for military purposes, requiring the need for false alarm mitigation (FAM) techniques to weed out the objects of interest. The objective of this paper is to provide a comparison of the implementation of these FAM techniques and their inherent benefits in the whitened detection space. The widely utilized matched filter (MF) and adaptive cosine estimator (ACE) are both based on a linear mixing model (LMM) between a background and object class. The matched filter approximates the object abundance, and the ACE measures the model error. Each of these measurements provides inadequate object separation alone, but by using both the object abundance and model error, the objects can be separated from the false alarms.

  2. Sun-glint false alarm mitigation in a maritime scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Alessandro; Riccobono, Aldo; Landini, Stefano

    2014-10-01

    Airborne hyperspectral imaging can be exploited to detect anomalous objects in the maritime scenario. Due to the objects high contrast with respect to the sea surface, detection can be easily accomplished by means of local anomaly detectors, such as the well-known Reed-Xiaoli (RX) algorithm. During the development of a real-time system for the detection of anomalous pixels, it has been noticed that the performance of detection is deeply affected by the presence of sun-glint. The reflection on the sea surface of the solar radiation produces a high density of alarms, that makes challenging the task of detecting the objects of interest. In this paper, it is introduced a strategy aimed at discriminating the sun-glint false alarms from the effective alarms related to targets of potential interest. False alarms due to glint are mitigated performing a local spatio-spectral analysis on each alarm furnished by the anomaly detector. The technique has been tested on hyperspectral images collected during a measurement campaign carried out near Pisa, Italy. The Selex ES SIMGA hyperspectral sensor was mounted on board of an airplane to collect high spectral resolution images in both the VNIR and SWIR spectral channels. Several experiments were carried out, setting up scenarios with small man-made objects deployed on the sea surface, so as to simulate search and rescue operations. The results have highlighted the effectiveness of the proposed solution in terms of mitigation of false alarms due to sun-glints on the maritime scenario.

  3. Control of ELT false alarms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toth, S.; Gershkoff, I.

    1979-01-01

    The statistics of emergency locator transmitter (ELT) alarms are presented. The primary sources of data include ELT Incident Logs, Service Difficulty Reports, and Frequency Interference Reports. The number of reported and unreported alarms is discussed, as are seasonal variations, duration of ELT transmissions, and cost of silencing. Origin, causes, and possible strategies for reducing the impact of alarms on the aviation community are considered.

  4. False-alarm characterization in hyperspectral gas-detection applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiPietro, Robert S.; Truslow, Eric; Manolakis, Dimitris G.; Golowich, Steven E.; Lockwood, Ronald B.

    2012-09-01

    Chemical cloud detection using long-wave infrared (LWIR) hyperspectral-imaging sensors has many civilian and military applications, including chemical warfare threat mitigation, environmental monitoring, and emergency response. Current capabilities are limited by variation in background clutter as opposed to the physics of photon detection, and this makes the statistical characterization of clutter and clutter-induced false alarms essential to the design of practical systems. In this exploratory work, we use hyperspectral data collected both on the ground and in the air to spectrally and spatially characterize false alarms. Focusing on two widely-used detectors, the matched filter (MF) and the adaptive cosine estimator (ACE), we compare empirical false-alarm rates to their theoretical counterparts - detector output under Gaussian, t and t-mixture distributed data - and show that these models often underestimate false-alarm rates. Next, we threshold real detection maps and show that true detections and false alarms often exhibit very different spatial behavior. To exploit this difference and understand how spatial processing affects performance, the spatial behavior of false alarms must be understood. We take a first step in this direction by showing that, although the behavior may `look' quite random, it is not well captured by the complete-spatial-randomness model. Finally, we describe how our findings impact the design of real detection systems.

  5. HOME INSECURITY: NO ALARMS, FALSE ALARMS, AND SIGINT

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, Logan M

    2014-01-01

    The market share of home security systems has substantially increased as vendors incorporate more desirable features: intrusion detection, automation, wireless, and LCD touch panel controls. Wireless connectivity allows vendors to manufacture cheaper, more featureful products that require little to no home modification to install. Consumer win, since adding devices is easier. The result: an ostensibly more secure, convenient, and connected home for a larger number of citizens. Sadly, this hypothesis is flawed; the idea of covering a home with more security sensors does not translate into a more secure home. Additionally, the number of homes using these vulnerable systems is large, and the growth rate is increasing producing a even larger problem. In this talk, I will demonstrate a generalized approach for compromising three systems: ADT, the largest home security dealer in North America; Honeywell, one of the largest manufacturers of security devices; and Vivint, a top 5 security dealer. We will suppress alarms, create false alarms, and collect artifacts that facilitate tracking the movements of individuals in their homes.

  6. Multiple pass collaborative search in the presence of false alarms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baylog, John G.; Wettergren, Thomas A.

    2015-05-01

    This paper addresses the planning of multiple collaborative searchers that are seeking to find hidden objects (i.e. mines) in environments where the sensor detection process is prone to false alarms. In such situations it is anticipated that collaboration between searchers that are examining the same sub-regions may be used to mitigate the impact of false alarms. A standard Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) analysis is conducted and the mapping between a single search pass ROC curve and an equivalent multiple search pass representation within a cumulative probability space is discussed. This mapping produces an analogous family of ROC curves for an increasing number of search passes using either a first detection or multiple occurrence performance criteria. The migration of ROC operating points is analyzed as additional search passes are included within a search plan and suggests the need to coordinate search effort with operating point selection. The mapping from waiting time event probabilities to a total error performance criterion weighted according to the cumulative probabilities of missed detection and false alarm is developed. Details of its application for threshold optimization within search planning is discussed and numerical results are provided to demonstrate the usefulness of the models in evaluating performance trade-offs.

  7. Frog Swarms: Earthquake Precursors or False Alarms?

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Rachel A.; Conlan, Hilary

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Media reports linking unusual animal behaviour with earthquakes can potentially create false alarms and unnecessary anxiety among people that live in earthquake risk zones. Recently large frog swarms in China and elsewhere have been reported as earthquake precursors in the media. By examining international media reports of frog swarms since 1850 in comparison to earthquake data, it was concluded that frog swarms are naturally occurring dispersal behaviour of juveniles and are not associated with earthquakes. However, the media in seismic risk areas may be more likely to report frog swarms, and more likely to disseminate reports on frog swarms after earthquakes have occurred, leading to an apparent link between frog swarms and earthquakes. Abstract In short-term earthquake risk forecasting, the avoidance of false alarms is of utmost importance to preclude the possibility of unnecessary panic among populations in seismic hazard areas. Unusual animal behaviour prior to earthquakes has been reported for millennia but has rarely been scientifically documented. Recently large migrations or unusual behaviour of amphibians have been linked to large earthquakes, and media reports of large frog and toad migrations in areas of high seismic risk such as Greece and China have led to fears of a subsequent large earthquake. However, at certain times of year large migrations are part of the normal behavioural repertoire of amphibians. News reports of “frog swarms” from 1850 to the present day were examined for evidence that this behaviour is a precursor to large earthquakes. It was found that only two of 28 reported frog swarms preceded large earthquakes (Sichuan province, China in 2008 and 2010). All of the reported mass migrations of amphibians occurred in late spring, summer and autumn and appeared to relate to small juvenile anurans (frogs and toads). It was concluded that most reported “frog swarms” are actually normal behaviour, probably caused by juvenile animals migrating away from their breeding pond, after a fruitful reproductive season. As amphibian populations undergo large fluctuations in numbers from year to year, this phenomenon will not occur on a yearly basis but will depend on successful reproduction, which is related to numerous climatic and geophysical factors. Hence, most large swarms of amphibians, particularly those involving very small frogs and occurring in late spring or summer, are not unusual and should not be considered earthquake precursors. In addition, it is likely that reports of several mass migration of small toads prior to the Great Sichuan Earthquake in 2008 were not linked to the subsequent M = 7.9 event (some occurred at a great distance from the epicentre), and were probably co-incidence. Statistical analysis of the data indicated frog swarms are unlikely to be connected with earthquakes. Reports of unusual behaviour giving rise to earthquake fears should be interpreted with caution, and consultation with experts in the field of earthquake biology is advised. PMID:26479746

  8. Frog Swarms: Earthquake Precursors or False Alarms?

    PubMed

    Grant, Rachel A; Conlan, Hilary

    2013-01-01

    In short-term earthquake risk forecasting, the avoidance of false alarms is of utmost importance to preclude the possibility of unnecessary panic among populations in seismic hazard areas. Unusual animal behaviour prior to earthquakes has been reported for millennia but has rarely been scientifically documented. Recently large migrations or unusual behaviour of amphibians have been linked to large earthquakes, and media reports of large frog and toad migrations in areas of high seismic risk such as Greece and China have led to fears of a subsequent large earthquake. However, at certain times of year large migrations are part of the normal behavioural repertoire of amphibians. News reports of "frog swarms" from 1850 to the present day were examined for evidence that this behaviour is a precursor to large earthquakes. It was found that only two of 28 reported frog swarms preceded large earthquakes (Sichuan province, China in 2008 and 2010). All of the reported mass migrations of amphibians occurred in late spring, summer and autumn and appeared to relate to small juvenile anurans (frogs and toads). It was concluded that most reported "frog swarms" are actually normal behaviour, probably caused by juvenile animals migrating away from their breeding pond, after a fruitful reproductive season. As amphibian populations undergo large fluctuations in numbers from year to year, this phenomenon will not occur on a yearly basis but will depend on successful reproduction, which is related to numerous climatic and geophysical factors. Hence, most large swarms of amphibians, particularly those involving very small frogs and occurring in late spring or summer, are not unusual and should not be considered earthquake precursors. In addition, it is likely that reports of several mass migration of small toads prior to the Great Sichuan Earthquake in 2008 were not linked to the subsequent M = 7.9 event (some occurred at a great distance from the epicentre), and were probably co-incidence. Statistical analysis of the data indicated frog swarms are unlikely to be connected with earthquakes. Reports of unusual behaviour giving rise to earthquake fears should be interpreted with caution, and consultation with experts in the field of earthquake biology is advised. PMID:26479746

  9. Simulation study to characterize thermal infrared sensor false alarms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabol, Bruce M.; Mixon, Harold D.

    1991-07-01

    That smart munitions false alarms result from randomly spaced fixed position discrete physical objects within the background is the standard assumption for false target treatment in several smart munitions performance and effectiveness models. This premise is tested in a simulation study which identifies specific terrain features causing a hypothetical thermal infrared smart munitions sensor to false alarm. The sensor configuration and the target detection algorithms are input to the Waterways Experiment Station (WES) smart munitions sensor model which is 'flown' over high resolution calibrated thermal imagery of several test sites for which there is ground truth. Target detection decisions in these target-free backgrounds are mapped into large-scale color aerial photographs taken simultaneously with the thermal imagery. False alarm-causing terrain features are identified from the aerial photographs and are characterized as a function of test site, time of day, and target acquisition algorithm used. Several important characteristics of thermal false alarms are formulated.

  10. Panic, suffocation false alarms, separation anxiety and endogenous opioids.

    PubMed

    Preter, Maurice; Klein, Donald F

    2008-04-01

    This review paper presents an amplification of the suffocation false alarm theory (SFA) of spontaneous panic [Klein DF (1993). False suffocation alarms, spontaneous panics, and related conditions. An integrative hypothesis. Arch Gen Psychiatry; 50:306-17.]. SFA postulates the existence of an evolved physiologic suffocation alarm system that monitors information about potential suffocation. Panic attacks maladaptively occur when the alarm is erroneously triggered. That panic is distinct from Cannon's emergency fear response and Selye's General Alarm Syndrome is shown by the prominence of intense air hunger during these attacks. Further, panic sufferers have chronic sighing abnormalities outside of the acute attack. Another basic physiologic distinction between fear and panic is the counter-intuitive lack of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activation in panic. Understanding panic as provoked by indicators of potential suffocation, such as fluctuations in pCO(2) and brain lactate, as well as environmental circumstances fits the observed respiratory abnormalities. However, that sudden loss, bereavement and childhood separation anxiety are also antecedents of "spontaneous" panic requires an integrative explanation. Because of the opioid system's central regulatory role in both disordered breathing and separation distress, we detail the role of opioidergic dysfunction in decreasing the suffocation alarm threshold. We present results from our laboratory where the naloxone-lactate challenge in normals produces supportive evidence for the endorphinergic defect hypothesis in the form of a distress episode of specific tidal volume hyperventilation paralleling challenge-produced and clinical panic. PMID:17765379

  11. False fire alarms have a negative impact on UW operations False (or nuisance) alarms are very disruptive to UW operations. The alarms

    E-print Network

    Sniadecki, Nathan J.

    recorded by any single business/company within the city limits. Of those 161 alarms, 90 alarms (manual pull attributed to construction projects. Dust, steam and other airborne particles are the leading cause of false partitions and dust barriers ­ Review bid documents and specifications to establish what types of temporary

  12. Alarms in the intensive care unit: how can the number of false alarms be reduced?

    PubMed Central

    Chambrin, Marie-Christine

    2001-01-01

    Many alarms, as they now exist in most monitoring systems, are not usually perceived as helpful by the medical staff because of the high incidence of false alarms. This paper gives an overview of the problems related to their current design and the objectives of monitoring. The current approaches used to improve the situation are then presented from two main standpoints: organizational and behavioural on the one hand, and technical on the other. PMID:11511330

  13. Gunshot acoustic signature specific features and false alarms reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donzier, Alain; Millet, Joel

    2005-05-01

    This paper provides a detailed analysis of the most specific parameters of gunshot signatures through models as well as through real data. The models for the different contributions to gunshot typical signature (shock and muzzle blast) are presented and used to discuss the variation of measured signatures over the different environmental conditions and shot configurations. The analysis is followed by a description of the performance requirements for gunshot detection systems, from sniper detection that was the main concern 10 years ago, to the new and more challenging conditions faced in today operations. The work presented examines the process of how systems are deployed and used as well as how the operational environment has changed. The main sources of false alarms and new threats such as RPGs and mortars that acoustic gunshot detection systems have to face today are also defined and discussed. Finally, different strategies for reducing false alarms are proposed based on the acoustic signatures. Different strategies are presented through various examples of specific missions ranging from vehicle protection to area protection. These strategies not only include recommendation on how to handle acoustic information for the best efficiency of the acoustic detector but also recommends some add-on sensors to enhance system overall performance.

  14. False alarm recognition in hyperspectral gas plume identification

    DOEpatents

    Conger, James L. (San Ramon, CA); Lawson, Janice K. (Tracy, CA); Aimonetti, William D. (Livermore, CA)

    2011-03-29

    According to one embodiment, a method for analyzing hyperspectral data includes collecting first hyperspectral data of a scene using a hyperspectral imager during a no-gas period and analyzing the first hyperspectral data using one or more gas plume detection logics. The gas plume detection logic is executed using a low detection threshold, and detects each occurrence of an observed hyperspectral signature. The method also includes generating a histogram for all occurrences of each observed hyperspectral signature which is detected using the gas plume detection logic, and determining a probability of false alarm (PFA) for all occurrences of each observed hyperspectral signature based on the histogram. Possibly at some other time, the method includes collecting second hyperspectral data, and analyzing the second hyperspectral data using the one or more gas plume detection logics and the PFA to determine if any gas is present. Other systems and methods are also included.

  15. How Distinctive Processing Enhances Hits and Reduces False Alarms

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, R. Reed; Smith, Rebekah E.

    2015-01-01

    Distinctive processing is a concept designed to account for precision in memory, both correct responses and avoidance of errors. The principal question addressed in two experiments is how distinctive processing of studied material reduces false alarms to familiar distractors. Jacoby (Jacoby, Kelley, & McElree, 1999) has used the metaphors early selection and late correction to describe two different types of control processes. Early selection refers to limitations on access whereas late correction describes controlled monitoring of accessed information. The two types of processes are not mutually exclusive, and previous research has provided evidence for the operation of both. The data reported here extend previous work to a criterial recollection paradigm and to a recognition memory test. The results of both experiments show that variables that reduce false memory for highly familiar distracters continue to exert their effect under conditions of minimal post-access monitoring. Level of monitoring was reduced in the first experiment through test instructions and in the second experiment through speeded test responding. The results were consistent with the conclusion that both early selection and late correction operate to control accuracy in memory. PMID:26034343

  16. How the Sausage is Made: Kepler's False Alarms, False Positives, and Planet Candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughlin, J.

    2014-04-01

    The Kepler mission has now designated over 7,000 Kepler objects of interest (KOIs), or transit-like signatures, utilizing up to four years of data. The number of potentially habitable planet candidates (PCs) among this sample has risen significantly over time. However, starting with Kepler threshold crossing events (TCEs), there are initially about as many false alarms (FAs) detected as there are KOIs. Furthermore, due to its design, contamination from eclipsing binaries, variable stars, and other transiting planets result in a significant number of KOIs being designated as false positives (FPs). Many of these FAs and FPs occur at long orbital periods, where habitable planets are typically found. I will review the process of how an initial TCE becomes a KOI, and then is ultimately classified as a FA, FP, or PC, along with the various vetting tools employed. The understanding of this process is crucial to performing accurate statistical analyses on populations of habitable planet candidates discovered by Kepler.

  17. False Alarms and Close Calls: A Conceptual Model of Warning Accuracy LINDSEY R. BARNES*

    E-print Network

    Schultz, David

    of actual false alarms or the forecasters' abilities because current metrics categorize events as hit FAR is measured, how humans respond to warnings, and what are alternative approaches to measure FAR

  18. Neural Network Target Identification System for False Alarm Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ye, David; Edens, Weston; Lu, Thomas T.; Chao, Tien-Hsin

    2009-01-01

    A multi-stage automated target recognition (ATR) system has been designed to perform computer vision tasks with adequate proficiency in mimicking human vision. The system is able to detect, identify, and track targets of interest. Potential regions of interest (ROIs) are first identified by the detection stage using an Optimum Trade-off Maximum Average Correlation Height (OT-MACH) filter combined with a wavelet transform. False positives are then eliminated by the verification stage using feature extraction methods in conjunction with neural networks. Feature extraction transforms the ROIs using filtering and binning algorithms to create feature vectors. A feed forward back propagation neural network (NN) is then trained to classify each feature vector and remove false positives. This paper discusses the test of the system performance and parameter optimizations process which adapts the system to various targets and datasets. The test results show that the system was successful in substantially reducing the false positive rate when tested on a sonar image dataset.

  19. False Alarm Reduction in BSN-Based Cardiac Monitoring Using Signal Quality and Activity Type Information

    PubMed Central

    Tanantong, Tanatorn; Nantajeewarawat, Ekawit; Thiemjarus, Surapa

    2015-01-01

    False alarms in cardiac monitoring affect the quality of medical care, impacting on both patients and healthcare providers. In continuous cardiac monitoring using wireless Body Sensor Networks (BSNs), the quality of ECG signals can be deteriorated owing to several factors, e.g., noises, low battery power, and network transmission problems, often resulting in high false alarm rates. In addition, body movements occurring from activities of daily living (ADLs) can also create false alarms. This paper presents a two-phase framework for false arrhythmia alarm reduction in continuous cardiac monitoring, using signals from an ECG sensor and a 3D accelerometer. In the first phase, classification models constructed using machine learning algorithms are used for labeling input signals. ECG signals are labeled with heartbeat types and signal quality levels, while 3D acceleration signals are labeled with ADL types. In the second phase, a rule-based expert system is used for combining classification results in order to determine whether arrhythmia alarms should be accepted or suppressed. The proposed framework was validated on datasets acquired using BSNs and the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. For the BSN dataset, acceleration and ECG signals were collected from 10 young and 10 elderly subjects while they were performing ADLs. The framework reduced the false alarm rate from 9.58% to 1.43% in our experimental study, showing that it can potentially assist physicians in diagnosing a vast amount of data acquired from wireless sensors and enhance the performance of continuous cardiac monitoring. PMID:25671512

  20. Negative feedback from maternal signals reduces false alarms by collectively signalling offspring

    PubMed Central

    Hamel, Jennifer A.; Cocroft, Reginald B.

    2012-01-01

    Within animal groups, individuals can learn of a predator's approach by attending to the behaviour of others. This use of social information increases an individual's perceptual range, but can also lead to the propagation of false alarms. Error copying is especially likely in species that signal collectively, because the coordination required for collective displays relies heavily on social information. Recent evidence suggests that collective behaviour in animals is, in part, regulated by negative feedback. Negative feedback may reduce false alarms by collectively signalling animals, but this possibility has not yet been tested. We tested the hypothesis that negative feedback increases the accuracy of collective signalling by reducing the production of false alarms. In the treehopper Umbonia crassicornis, clustered offspring produce collective signals during predator attacks, advertising the predator's location to the defending mother. Mothers signal after evicting the predator, and we show that this maternal communication reduces false alarms by offspring. We suggest that maternal signals elevate offspring signalling thresholds. This is, to our knowledge, the first study to show that negative feedback can reduce false alarms by collectively behaving groups. PMID:22787019

  1. Constant false alarm rate algorithm for the dim-small target detection based on the distribution characteristics of target coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Xiao-Liang; Ren, Kan; Qian, Wei-xian; Wang, Peng-cheng

    2015-10-01

    CFAR (Constant False Alarm Rate) is a key technology in Infrared dim-small target detection system. Because the traditional constant false alarm rate detection algorithm gets the probability density distribution which is based on the pixel information of each area in the whole image and calculates the target segmentation threshold of each area by formula of Constant false alarm rate, the problems including the difficulty of probability distribution statistics and large amount of algorithm calculation and long delay time are existing. In order to solve the above problems effectively, a formula of Constant false alarm rate based on target coordinates distribution is presented. Firstly, this paper proposes a new formula of Constant false alarm rate by improving the traditional formula of Constant false alarm rate based on the single grayscale distribution which objective statistical distribution features are introduced. So the control of false alarm according to the target distribution information is implemented more accurately and the problem of high false alarm that is caused of the complex background in local area as the cloud reflection and the ground clutter interference is solved. At the same time, in order to reduce the amount of algorithm calculation and improve the real-time characteristics of algorithm, this paper divides the constant false-alarm statistical area through two-dimensional probability density distribution of target number adaptively which is different from the general identifying methods of constant false-alarm statistical area. Finally, the target segmentation threshold of next frame is calculated by iteration based on the function of target distribution probability density in image sequence which can achieve the purpose of controlling the false alarm until the false alarm is down to the upper limit. The experiment results show that the proposed method can significantly improve the operation time and meet the real-time requirements on condition of keeping the target detection performance.

  2. Reducing False Alarms in Searches for Gravitational Waves from Coalescing Binary Systems

    E-print Network

    Andres Rodriguez

    2008-02-10

    LIGO observatories in Livingston, LA and Hanford, WA may detect gravitational waves emitted from coalescing binary systems composed of two compact objects. In order to detect compact binary coalescence (CBC) events, LIGO searches utilize matched filtering techniques. Matched filtering is the optimal detection strategy for stationary, Gaussian noise, however, LIGO noise is often non-stationary, non-Gaussian. Non-stationary noise result in an excess of false candidate events, commonly known as false alarms. This thesis develops the r^2 test to reduce the false alarm rate for LIGO CBC searches. Results of the search for primordial black hole binary systems (where each object has less than 1M_solar), in LIGO's Third Science Run (S3) is also presented. Results of the r^2 test are shown for several LIGO CBC searches, including the binary neutron star searches in the Third and Fourth Science Runs (S3/S4), the S3/S4 primordial black hole searches, and the binary black hole search in the first three months of the Fifth Science Run (S5). The r^2 test significantly reduces the false alarm rate in these searches, while only falsely dismissing a small fraction of simulated events.

  3. Multiple-Parameter, Low-False-Alarm Fire-Detection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Greensburg, Paul; McKnight, Robert; Xu, Jennifer C.; Liu, C. C.; Dutta, Prabir; Makel, Darby; Blake, D.; Sue-Antillio, Jill

    2007-01-01

    Fire-detection systems incorporating multiple sensors that measure multiple parameters are being developed for use in storage depots, cargo bays of ships and aircraft, and other locations not amenable to frequent, direct visual inspection. These systems are intended to improve upon conventional smoke detectors, now used in such locations, that reliably detect fires but also frequently generate false alarms: for example, conventional smoke detectors based on the blockage of light by smoke particles are also affected by dust particles and water droplets and, thus, are often susceptible to false alarms. In contrast, by utilizing multiple parameters associated with fires, i.e. not only obscuration by smoke particles but also concentrations of multiple chemical species that are commonly generated in combustion, false alarms can be significantly decreased while still detecting fires as reliably as older smoke-detector systems do. The present development includes fabrication of sensors that have, variously, micrometer- or nanometer-sized features so that such multiple sensors can be integrated into arrays that have sizes, weights, and power demands smaller than those of older macroscopic sensors. The sensors include resistors, electrochemical cells, and Schottky diodes that exhibit different sensitivities to the various airborne chemicals of interest. In a system of this type, the sensor readings are digitized and processed by advanced signal-processing hardware and software to extract such chemical indications of fires as abnormally high concentrations of CO and CO2, possibly in combination with H2 and/or hydrocarbons. The system also includes a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)-based particle detector and classifier device to increase the reliability of measurements of chemical species and particulates. In parallel research, software for modeling the evolution of a fire within an aircraft cargo bay has been developed. The model implemented in the software can describe the concentrations of chemical species and of particulate matter as functions of time. A system of the present developmental type and a conventional fire detector were tested under both fire and false-alarm conditions in a Federal Aviation Administration cargo-compartment- testing facility. Both systems consistently detected fires. However, the conventional fire detector consistently generated false alarms, whereas the developmental system did not generate any false alarms.

  4. A radar unattended ground sensor with micro-Doppler capabilities for false alarm reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahmoush, Dave; Silvious, Jerry; Burke, Ed

    2010-10-01

    Unattended ground sensors (UGS) provide the capability to inexpensively secure remote borders and other areas of interest. However, the presence of normal animal activity can often trigger a false alarm. Accurately detecting humans and distinguishing them from natural fauna is an important issue in security applications to reduce false alarm rates and improve the probability of detection. In particular, it is important to detect and classify people who are moving in remote locations and transmit back detections and analysis over extended periods at a low cost and with minimal maintenance. We developed and demonstrate a compact radar technology that is scalable to a variety of ultra-lightweight and low-power platforms for wide area persistent surveillance as an unattended, unmanned, and man-portable ground sensor. The radar uses micro-Doppler processing to characterize the tracks of moving targets and to then eliminate unimportant detections due to animals as well as characterize the activity of human detections. False alarms from sensors are a major liability that hinders widespread use. Incorporating rudimentary intelligence into sensors can reduce false alarms but can also result in a reduced probability of detection. Allowing an initial classification that can be updated with new observations and tracked over time provides a more robust framework for false alarm reduction at the cost of additional sensor observations. This paper explores these tradeoffs with a small radar sensor for border security. Multiple measurements were done to try to characterize the micro-Doppler of human versus animal and vehicular motion across a range of activities. Measurements were taken at the multiple sites with realistic but low levels of clutter. Animals move with a quadrupedal motion, which can be distinguished from the bipedal human motion. The micro-Doppler of a vehicle with rotating parts is also shown, along with ground truth images. Comparisons show large variations for different types of motion by the same type of animal. This paper presents the system and data on humans, vehicles, and animals at multiple angles and directions of motion, demonstrates the signal processing approach that makes the targets visually recognizable, verifies that the UGS radar has enough micro-Doppler capability to distinguish between humans, vehicles, and animals, and analyzes the probability of correct classification.

  5. Controlling misses and false alarms in a machine learning framework for predicting uniformity of printed pages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Minh Q.; Allebach, Jan P.

    2015-01-01

    In our previous work1 , we presented a block-based technique to analyze printed page uniformity both visually and metrically. The features learned from the models were then employed in a Support Vector Machine (SVM) framework to classify the pages into one of the two categories of acceptable and unacceptable quality. In this paper, we introduce a set of tools for machine learning in the assessment of printed page uniformity. This work is primarily targeted to the printing industry, specifically the ubiquitous laser, electrophotographic printer. We use features that are well-correlated with the rankings of expert observers to develop a novel machine learning framework that allows one to achieve the minimum "false alarm" rate, subject to a chosen "miss" rate. Surprisingly, most of the research that has been conducted on machine learning does not consider this framework. During the process of developing a new product, test engineers will print hundreds of test pages, which can be scanned and then analyzed by an autonomous algorithm. Among these pages, most may be of acceptable quality. The objective is to find the ones that are not. These will provide critically important information to systems designers, regarding issues that need to be addressed in improving the printer design. A "miss" is defined to be a page that is not of acceptable quality to an expert observer that the prediction algorithm declares to be a "pass". Misses are a serious problem, since they represent problems that will not be seen by the systems designers. On the other hand, "false alarms" correspond to pages that an expert observer would declare to be of acceptable quality, but which are flagged by the prediction algorithm as "fails". In a typical printer testing and development scenario, such pages would be examined by an expert, and found to be of acceptable quality after all. "False alarm" pages result in extra pages to be examined by expert observers, which increases labor cost. But "false alarms" are not nearly as catastrophic as "misses", which represent potentially serious problems that are never seen by the systems developers. This scenario motivates us to develop a machine learning framework that will achieve the minimum "false alarm" rate subject to a specified "miss" rate. In order to construct such a set of receiver operating characteristic2 (ROC) curves, we examine various tools for the prediction, ranging from an exhaustive search over the space of the nonlinear discriminants to a Cost-Sentitive SVM3 framework. We then compare the curves gained from those methods. Our work shows promise for applying a standard framework to obtain a full ROC curve when it comes to tackling other machine learning problems in industry.

  6. Global parameter optimization for maximizing radioisotope detection probabilities at fixed false alarm rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portnoy, David; Feuerbach, Robert; Heimberg, Jennifer

    2011-10-01

    Today there is a tremendous amount of interest in systems that can detect radiological or nuclear threats. Many of these systems operate in extremely high throughput situations where delays caused by false alarms can have a significant negative impact. Thus, calculating the tradeoff between detection rates and false alarm rates is critical for their successful operation. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves have long been used to depict this tradeoff. The methodology was first developed in the field of signal detection. In recent years it has been used increasingly in machine learning and data mining applications. It follows that this methodology could be applied to radiological/nuclear threat detection systems. However many of these systems do not fit into the classic principles of statistical detection theory because they tend to lack tractable likelihood functions and have many parameters, which, in general, do not have a one-to-one correspondence with the detection classes. This work proposes a strategy to overcome these problems by empirically finding parameter values that maximize the probability of detection for a selected number of probabilities of false alarm. To find these parameter values a statistical global optimization technique that seeks to estimate portions of a ROC curve is proposed. The optimization combines elements of simulated annealing with elements of genetic algorithms. Genetic algorithms were chosen because they can reduce the risk of getting stuck in local minima. However classic genetic algorithms operate on arrays of Booleans values or bit strings, so simulated annealing is employed to perform mutation in the genetic algorithm. The presented initial results were generated using an isotope identification algorithm developed at Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. The algorithm has 12 parameters: 4 real-valued and 8 Boolean. A simulated dataset was used for the optimization study; the "threat" set of spectra contained 540 SNM and industrial signatures, and the "benign" set of spectra contained 240 NORM and medical signatures. As compared to a random parameter search, the statistical optimization was able to able to find parameters that yield significantly higher probabilities of detection for all probabilities of false alarm from 0 to 0.1 (and equal to for probabilities of false alarm greater than 0.1), in a relatively small number of iterations. The number of iterations used, 1000, is also many fewer than would be required for a reasonable systematic search of the parameter space.

  7. Proximate Factors Underpinning Receiver Responses to Deceptive False Alarm Calls in Wild Tufted Capuchin Monkeys: Is It Counterdeception?

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Brandon C; Hammerschmidt, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that tufted capuchin monkeys use terrestrial predator alarm calls in a functionally deceptive manner to distract conspecifics when feeding on contestable resources, although the success of this tactic is limited because listeners frequently ignore these calls when given in such situations. While this decreased response rate is suggestive of a counterstrategy to deception by receivers, the proximate factors underpinning the behavior are unclear. The current study aims to test if the decreased response rate to alarm calls in competitive contexts is better explained by the perception of subtle acoustic differences between predator-elicited and deceptive false alarms, or by receivers varying their responses based on the context in which the signal is received. This was tested by first examining the acoustic structure of predator-elicited and deceptive false alarms for any potentially perceptible acoustic differences, and second by comparing the responses of capuchins to playbacks of each of predator-elicited and false alarms, played back in noncompetitive contexts. The results indicate that deceptive false alarms and predator-elicited alarms show, at best, minimal acoustic differences based on the structural features measured. Likewise, playbacks of deceptive false alarms elicited antipredator reactions at the same rate as did predator-elicited alarms, although there was a nonsignificant tendency for false alarms to be more likely to elicit escape reactions. The lack of robust acoustic differences together with the high response rate to false alarms in noncompetitive contexts suggests that the context in which the signal is received best explains receiver responses. It remains unclear, however, if listeners ascribe different meanings to the calls based on context, or if they generally ignore all signals in competitive contexts. Whether or not the decreased response rate of receivers directly stems from the deceptive use of the calls cannot be determined until these latter possibilities are rigorously tested. Am. J. Primatol. 75:715-725, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23184736

  8. Rational therapy for diabetes: early recognition of adverse effects and avoidance of disruptive false alarms.

    PubMed

    Raz, Itamar; Eldor, Roy

    2012-05-01

    Corresponding to the uncontrolled diabetes pandemic, significant effort has been invested in developing new therapeutic options. Nevertheless, all medicines have possible adverse effects. Recently, a trend of 'scrutinizing' novel hypoglycaemic drug side effects based on scant scientific data has emerged. With recent publications highlighting possible dangers of rosiglitazone, insulin glargine, sitagliptin, exenatide and, most recently, pioglitazone, it seems that all means are valid and that every database is suitable, even if specifically defined as inadequate for the purpose of data analysis. The use of such data may lead authors to draw erroneous conclusions that may be granted unwarranted impact upon publication in leading scientific journals and eventually lead patients and misinformed physicians to wrongly change beneficial medication regimes. Adherence to strict scientific methodology, ongoing large clinical trials and creating adjudicated patient databases may facilitate early recognition of adverse effects while avoiding disruptive false alarms. PMID:22173845

  9. Building Ultra-Low False Alarm Rate Support Vector Classifier Ensembles Using Random Subspaces

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, B Y; Lemmond, T D; Hanley, W G

    2008-10-06

    This paper presents the Cost-Sensitive Random Subspace Support Vector Classifier (CS-RS-SVC), a new learning algorithm that combines random subspace sampling and bagging with Cost-Sensitive Support Vector Classifiers to more effectively address detection applications burdened by unequal misclassification requirements. When compared to its conventional, non-cost-sensitive counterpart on a two-class signal detection application, random subspace sampling is shown to very effectively leverage the additional flexibility offered by the Cost-Sensitive Support Vector Classifier, yielding a more than four-fold increase in the detection rate at a false alarm rate (FAR) of zero. Moreover, the CS-RS-SVC is shown to be fairly robust to constraints on the feature subspace dimensionality, enabling reductions in computation time of up to 82% with minimal performance degradation.

  10. Semantic similarity between old and new items produces false alarms in recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Montefinese, Maria; Zannino, Gian Daniele; Ambrosini, Ettore

    2015-09-01

    In everyday life, human beings can report memories of past events that did not occur or that occurred differently from the way they remember them because memory is an imperfect process of reconstruction and is prone to distortion and errors. In this recognition study using word stimuli, we investigated whether a specific operationalization of semantic similarity among concepts can modulate false memories while controlling for the possible effect of associative strength and word co-occurrence in an old-new recognition task. The semantic similarity value of each new concept was calculated as the mean cosine similarity between pairs of vectors representing that new concept and each old concept belonging to the same semantic category. Results showed that, compared with (new) low-similarity concepts, (new) high-similarity concepts had significantly higher probability of being falsely recognized as old, even after partialling out the effect of confounding variables, including associative relatedness and lexical co-occurrence. This finding supports the feature-based view of semantic memory, suggesting that meaning overlap and sharing of semantic features (which are greater when more similar semantic concepts are being processed) have an influence on recognition performance, resulting in more false alarms for new high-similarity concepts. We propose that the associative strength and word co-occurrence among concepts are not sufficient to explain illusory memories but is important to take into account also the effects of feature-based semantic relations, and, in particular, the semantic similarity among concepts. PMID:25267547

  11. Objective verifications and false alarm analyses of western North Pacific tropical cyclone event forecasts by the ECMWF 32-day ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Hsiao-Chung; Elsberry, Russell L.; Jordan, Mary S.; Vitart, Frédéric

    2013-08-01

    An objective tropical cyclone (TC) track analog verification technique has been developed to select all ensemble storm tracks predicted by the ECMWF 32-day ensemble that match the overall Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) post-season best-tracks. Ensemble storms within specified time and space differences of each JTWC track are first extracted as potential analogs, and four metrics of shortest distance, average distance, distance at formation time, and distance at ending time are calculated. An objective quality measure that assesses the overall track similarity between the potential analogs and each JTWC track is calculated in terms of membership functions for the four track metrics. Weighting factors multiplying these membership functions are adjusted to match with the quality measures for the ECMWF ensemble storm forecasts in a previous subjective evaluation. Objective verifications for the 2009 and 2010 seasons have been summarized in terms of Hits, Misses, False Alarms, and Correct Negatives that no TC would be present in the western North Pacific. The most important result is that the ECMWF ensemble was able to predict nearly all of the TCs in both seasons with only a small number of Misses that generally were short-lived tropical depressions. Good performance in terms of Correct Negatives was achieved during the 2010 season. False alarms are defined to be all ensemble storms that could not be matched any JTWC tracks within the specified thresholds. Evaluations of the characteristics of the false alarms indicate seasonal and geographic biases and that about 50% of the false alarm in the Week 1 forecasts originate from the initial the initial conditions in the model. A minimum of false alarms created in Week 2 forecasts is attributed to the decrease in horizontal resolution in the model that occurs at day 10. A steady and nearly uniform increase in false alarms in the Week 3 and Week 4 forecasts may be attributed to net convective heating in response to persistent environmental forcing in the tropics.

  12. Looped back fiber mode for reduction of false alarm in leak detection using distributed optical fiber sensor.

    PubMed

    Chelliah, Pandian; Murgesan, Kasinathan; Samvel, Sosamma; Chelamchala, Babu Rao; Tammana, Jayakumar; Nagarajan, Murali; Raj, Baldev

    2010-07-10

    Optical-fiber-based sensors have inherent advantages, such as immunity to electromagnetic interference, compared to the conventional sensors. Distributed optical fiber sensor (DOFS) systems, such as Raman and Brillouin distributed temperature sensors are used for leak detection. The inherent noise of fiber-based systems leads to occasional false alarms. In this paper, a methodology is proposed to overcome this. This uses a looped back fiber mode in DOFS and voting logic is employed to considerably reduce the false alarm rate. PMID:20648159

  13. Detection of exudates in fundus imagery using a constant false-alarm rate (CFAR) detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanna, Manish; Kapoor, Elina

    2014-05-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness in adults in the United States. The presence of exudates in fundus imagery is the early sign of diabetic retinopathy so detection of these lesions is essential in preventing further ocular damage. In this paper we present a novel technique to automatically detect exudates in fundus imagery that is robust against spatial and temporal variations of background noise. The detection threshold is adjusted dynamically, based on the local noise statics around the pixel under test in order to maintain a pre-determined, constant false alarm rate (CFAR). The CFAR detector is often used to detect bright targets in radar imagery where the background clutter can vary considerably from scene to scene and with angle to the scene. Similarly, the CFAR detector addresses the challenge of detecting exudate lesions in RGB and multispectral fundus imagery where the background clutter often exhibits variations in brightness and texture. These variations present a challenge to common, global thresholding detection algorithms and other methods. Performance of the CFAR algorithm is tested against a publicly available, annotated, diabetic retinopathy database and preliminary testing suggests that performance of the CFAR detector proves to be superior to techniques such as Otsu thresholding.

  14. Method and apparatus for distinguishing actual sparse events from sparse event false alarms

    DOEpatents

    Spalding, Richard E. (Albuquerque, NM); Grotbeck, Carter L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01

    Remote sensing method and apparatus wherein sparse optical events are distinguished from false events. "Ghost" images of actual optical phenomena are generated using an optical beam splitter and optics configured to direct split beams to a single sensor or segmented sensor. True optical signals are distinguished from false signals or noise based on whether the ghost image is presence or absent. The invention obviates the need for dual sensor systems to effect a false target detection capability, thus significantly reducing system complexity and cost.

  15. Statistical Considerations in Designing Tests of Mine Detection Systems: II - Measures Related to the False Alarm Rate

    SciTech Connect

    Simonson, K.M.

    1998-08-01

    The rate at which a mine detection system falsely identifies man-made or natural clutter objects as mines is referred to as the system's false alarm rate (FAR). Generally expressed as a rate per unit area or time, the FAR is one of the primary metrics used to gauge system performance. In this report, an overview is given of statistical methods appropriate for the analysis of data relating to FAR. Techniques are presented for determining a suitable size for the clutter collection area, for summarizing the performance of a single sensor, and for comparing different sensors. For readers requiring more thorough coverage of the topics discussed, references to the statistical literature are provided. A companion report addresses statistical issues related to the estimation of mine detection probabilities.

  16. Finding The Needle: Suppression of False Alarms in Large Intrusion Detection Data Sets

    E-print Network

    Thurimella, Ramki

    and software version, making the problem of creating generalized tools to separate true attacks from false have a high probability of being artifacts of genuine attacks. We evaluate a set of time the existence of all attacks which were manually identified by security personnel, drastically reduce the number

  17. Challenge of false alarms in nitroaromatic explosive detection--a detection device based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wackerbarth, Hainer; Gundrum, Lars; Salb, Christian; Christou, Konstantin; Viöl, Wolfgang

    2010-08-10

    A challenge in the detection of explosives is the differentiation between explosives and contaminants. Synthetic musk-containing perfumes can cause false alarms, as these perfumes are nitroaromatic compounds, which can be mistaken for trinitro toluene (TNT) by some detectors. We present a detection principle based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). A stream of the airborne compounds is focused and resublimated on a cooled nanostructured gold surface. We recorded high-resolution SERS spectra of TNT, musk xylene, and musk ketone. The nitroaromatic compounds can be identified unambiguously by their SERS spectra. Even the dominant bands containing nitro-group scissoring and symmetric stretching modes are significantly shifted by the difference in molecular structure. PMID:20697438

  18. Characteristics of optical fire detector false alarm sources and qualification test procedures to prove immunity, phase 2, volume 3: Appendix 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goedeke, A. D.; Gross, H. G.

    1995-05-01

    This study identified possible sources of UV, IR and visible radiations that may cause an optical fire detector to false alarm and/or affect its fire detection performance. The spectral irradiances of JP-4 pan fires and a multitude of lamps, hot bodies, and other of radiation stimuli that an optical detector may be exposed to in any type of aircraft shelter, hanger, facility, or ground location, were determined. Knowing the spectral irradiances of the required fire size and distance to be detected, it was then possible to determine at what distances would the potential false alarm source have to be to equal or exceed the fire's spectral irradiances in the 185nm - 250nm and 4.4lm bands. Considering the possible distance from detector to source, candidate false alarm sources were selected for detector immunity testing. Qualification test procedures were developed and tested. It was concluded that there are many possible false alarm sources and, if located too close to a detector, and the stimuli are modulated, most optical fire detectors would alarm.

  19. False alarms and mine seismicity: An example from the Gentry Mountain mining region, Utah. Los Alamos Source Region Project

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, S.R.

    1992-09-23

    Mining regions are a cause of concern for monitoring of nuclear test ban treaties because they present the opportunity for clandestine nuclear tests (i.e. decoupled explosions). Mining operations are often characterized by high seismicity rates and can provide the cover for excavating voids for decoupling. Chemical explosions (seemingly as part of normal mining activities) can be used to complicate the signals from a simultaneous decoupled nuclear explosion. Thus, most concern about mines has dealt with the issue of missed violations to a test ban treaty. In this study, we raise the diplomatic concern of false alarms associated with mining activities. Numerous reports and papers have been published about anomalous seismicity associated with mining activities. As part of a large discrimination study in the western US (Taylor et al., 1989), we had one earthquake that was consistently classified as an explosion. The magnitude 3.5 disturbance occurred on May 14, 1981 and was conspicuous in its lack of Love waves, relative lack of high- frequency energy, low Lg/Pg ratio, and high m{sub b} {minus} M{sub s}. A moment-tensor solution by Patton and Zandt (1991) indicated the event had a large implosional component. The event occurred in the Gentry Mountain coal mining region in the eastern Wasatch Plateau, Utah. Using a simple source representation, we modeled the event as a tabular excavation collapse that occurred as a result of normal mining activities. This study raises the importance of having a good catalogue of seismic data and information about mining activities from potential proliferant nations.

  20. False-alarm probability in relation to over-sampled power spectra, with application to Super-Kamiokande solar neutrino data

    E-print Network

    Peter A. Sturrock; Jeffrey D. Scargle

    2010-06-03

    The term "false-alarm probability" denotes the probability that at least one out of M independent power values in a prescribed search band of a power spectrum computed from a white-noise time series is expected to be as large as or larger than a given value. The usual formula is based on the assumption that powers are distributed exponentially, as one expects for power measurements of normally distributed random noise. However, in practice one typically examines peaks in an over-sampled power spectrum. It is therefore more appropriate to compare the strength of a particular peak with the distribution of peaks in over-sampled power spectra derived from normally distributed random noise. We show that this leads to a formula for the false-alarm probability that is more conservative than the familiar formula. We also show how to combine these results with a Bayesian method for estimating the probability of the null hypothesis (that there is no oscillation in the time series), and we discuss as an example the application of these procedures to Super-Kamiokande solar neutrino data.

  1. Statistical learning with imbalanced training set in a machine vision application: improve the false alarm rate and sensitivity simultaneously

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jonathan Qiang

    2006-02-01

    We studied the statistical learning methods with imbalanced training data sets. Imbalanced training sets are very common in industrial machine vision applications. The minority class contains the defects or anomalies we try to catch. The majority class contains the "regular" objects. We need a method that performs well at both false positive and false negative error rates. Traditional methods such as classification tree yield unsatisfactory results. We propose a two-stage classification scheme. We first use a subset selection method to remove redundant examples from the majority class. As a result, the training sample becomes more balanced without losing critical boundary information. The computation-intensive methods such as boosted classification trees are then applied to further improve both error rates.

  2. 21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment...Diagnostic Devices § 870.1025 Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment...alarm). (a) Identification. The arrhythmia detector and alarm device...

  3. 21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment...Diagnostic Devices § 870.1025 Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment...alarm). (a) Identification. The arrhythmia detector and alarm device...

  4. 21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment...Diagnostic Devices § 870.1025 Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment...alarm). (a) Identification. The arrhythmia detector and alarm device...

  5. 21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment...Diagnostic Devices § 870.1025 Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment...alarm). (a) Identification. The arrhythmia detector and alarm device...

  6. 21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment...Diagnostic Devices § 870.1025 Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment...alarm). (a) Identification. The arrhythmia detector and alarm device...

  7. Techniques to alleviate nuisance alarms observed by PCMs following 222Rn-progeny deposition on clothing.

    PubMed

    Justus, Alan L

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents technically-based techniques to deal with nuisance personnel contamination monitor (PCM) alarms. The techniques derive from the fundamental physical characteristics of radon progeny. Some PCM alarms, although valid alarms and not actually "false," could be due to nuisance naturally-occurring radionuclides (i.e., radon progeny). Based on certain observed characteristics of the radon progeny, several prompt techniques are discussed that could either remediate or at least mitigate the problem of nuisance alarms. Examples are provided which demonstrate the effective use of the techniques. PMID:25811253

  8. Fire Alarm Pull Fire Alarm Pull Fire Alarm Pull

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    .39 1610A MECH 267.14 MECH 42.16 1727 CIRC 40.84 Fire Alarm Pull Fire Alarm Pull Fire Alarm Pull Fire Alarm Pull Fire Alarm Pull Fire Alarm Pull Fire Alarm Pull Fire Alarm Pull DN. UP. STAIRS 136.84 SHAFT 2 50.09 1821 ELEV 50.09 Fire Extinguisher Fire Extinguisher Fire Extinguisher Fire Extinguisher North

  9. 21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST... Diagnostic Devices § 870.1025 Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm). (a) Identification. The arrhythmia detector and alarm device monitors an electrocardiogram and is designed to...

  10. 21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST... Diagnostic Devices § 870.1025 Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm). (a) Identification. The arrhythmia detector and alarm device monitors an electrocardiogram and is designed to...

  11. 21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST... Diagnostic Devices § 870.1025 Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm). (a) Identification. The arrhythmia detector and alarm device monitors an electrocardiogram and is designed to...

  12. 21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST... Diagnostic Devices § 870.1025 Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm). (a) Identification. The arrhythmia detector and alarm device monitors an electrocardiogram and is designed to...

  13. 21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST... Diagnostic Devices § 870.1025 Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm). (a) Identification. The arrhythmia detector and alarm device monitors an electrocardiogram and is designed to...

  14. 46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 108.627 Section 108.627...Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.627 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be identified by...

  15. 46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 108.627 Section 108.627...Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.627 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be identified by...

  16. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870...Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts...

  17. 46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 169.732 Section 169.732 Shipping...Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.732 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be conspicuously identified:...

  18. 46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 169.732 Section 169.732 Shipping...Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.732 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be conspicuously identified:...

  19. 46 CFR 113.43-3 - Alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alarm system. 113.43-3 Section 113.43-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Steering Failure Alarm Systems § 113.43-3 Alarm system. (a) Each vessel must have a steering failure alarm system that actuates...

  20. 46 CFR 113.25-12 - Alarm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alarm signals. 113.25-12 Section 113.25-12 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-12 Alarm signals. (a) Each general emergency alarm signal must be...

  1. 46 CFR 78.47-13 - Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler.... § 78.47-13 Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells. (a) The fire detecting and manual alarm automatic sprinklers, and smoke detecting alarm bells in...

  2. 46 CFR 78.47-13 - Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler.... § 78.47-13 Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells. (a) The fire detecting and manual alarm automatic sprinklers, and smoke detecting alarm bells in...

  3. 46 CFR 78.47-13 - Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler.... § 78.47-13 Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells. (a) The fire detecting and manual alarm automatic sprinklers, and smoke detecting alarm bells in...

  4. 46 CFR 78.47-13 - Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler.... § 78.47-13 Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells. (a) The fire detecting and manual alarm automatic sprinklers, and smoke detecting alarm bells in...

  5. 46 CFR 78.47-13 - Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler.... § 78.47-13 Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells. (a) The fire detecting and manual alarm automatic sprinklers, and smoke detecting alarm bells in...

  6. Wasabi Alarm

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi

    2011-11-23

    . The chemists invented an alarm that harnesses the power of wasabi fumes to alert people to fire. It seems the fumes contain an irritant active enough to work even when you're asleep. Plus the food/warning system fusion has the advantage of being effective even...

  7. 10 CFR 74.57 - Alarm resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alarm resolution. 74.57 Section 74.57 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Formula Quantities of Strategic Special Nuclear Material § 74.57 Alarm resolution. (a) Licensees subject to § 74.51 shall provide the MC&A alarm...

  8. 46 CFR 162.050-33 - Bilge alarm: Design specification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bilge alarm: Design specification. 162.050-33 Section....050-33 Bilge alarm: Design specification. (a) This section contains requirements that apply to bilge alarms. (b) Each bilge alarm must be designed to meet the requirements for an oil content meter in §...

  9. 46 CFR 162.050-33 - Bilge alarm: Design specification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bilge alarm: Design specification. 162.050-33 Section....050-33 Bilge alarm: Design specification. (a) This section contains requirements that apply to bilge alarms. (b) Each bilge alarm must be designed to meet the requirements for an oil content meter in §...

  10. 46 CFR 162.050-33 - Bilge alarm: Design specification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bilge alarm: Design specification. 162.050-33 Section....050-33 Bilge alarm: Design specification. (a) This section contains requirements that apply to bilge alarms. (b) Each bilge alarm must be designed to meet the requirements for an oil content meter in §...

  11. 46 CFR 97.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 97.37-9 Section 97.37-9 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE...

  12. 46 CFR 78.47-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 78.47-9 Section 78.47-9 Shipping... and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED.” (b)...

  13. 46 CFR 196.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 196.37-9 Section 196.37-9 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE...

  14. 46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 169.732 Section 169.732 Shipping... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.732 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED.”...

  15. 46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 108.627 Section 108.627 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.627 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be identified by marking: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED” next...

  16. 46 CFR 113.43-3 - Alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alarm system. 113.43-3 Section 113.43-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Steering Failure Alarm Systems § 113.43-3 Alarm system. (a) Each vessel must have...

  17. 46 CFR 113.43-3 - Alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alarm system. 113.43-3 Section 113.43-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Steering Failure Alarm Systems § 113.43-3 Alarm system. (a) Each vessel must have...

  18. 46 CFR 113.20-1 - Sprinkler alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sprinkler alarm system. 113.20-1 Section 113.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkler Systems § 113.20-1 Sprinkler alarm system. Each sprinkler alarm system, including annunciator,...

  19. 46 CFR 113.43-3 - Alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alarm system. 113.43-3 Section 113.43-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Steering Failure Alarm Systems § 113.43-3 Alarm system. (a) Each vessel must have...

  20. 46 CFR 113.43-3 - Alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alarm system. 113.43-3 Section 113.43-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Steering Failure Alarm Systems § 113.43-3 Alarm system. (a) Each vessel must have...

  1. 46 CFR 78.47-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 78.47-9 Section 78.47-9 Shipping... and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED.” (b)...

  2. 46 CFR 97.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 97.37-9 Section 97.37-9 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE...

  3. 46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 108.627 Section 108.627 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.627 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be identified by marking: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED” next...

  4. 21 CFR 870.2640 - Portable leakage current alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Portable leakage current alarm. 870.2640 Section... leakage current alarm. (a) Identification. A portable leakage current alarm is a device used to measure the electrical leakage current between any two points of an electrical system and to sound an alarm...

  5. 21 CFR 870.2640 - Portable leakage current alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Portable leakage current alarm. 870.2640 Section... leakage current alarm. (a) Identification. A portable leakage current alarm is a device used to measure the electrical leakage current between any two points of an electrical system and to sound an alarm...

  6. 21 CFR 870.2640 - Portable leakage current alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Portable leakage current alarm. 870.2640 Section... leakage current alarm. (a) Identification. A portable leakage current alarm is a device used to measure the electrical leakage current between any two points of an electrical system and to sound an alarm...

  7. 21 CFR 870.2640 - Portable leakage current alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Portable leakage current alarm. 870.2640 Section... leakage current alarm. (a) Identification. A portable leakage current alarm is a device used to measure the electrical leakage current between any two points of an electrical system and to sound an alarm...

  8. 21 CFR 870.2640 - Portable leakage current alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Portable leakage current alarm. 870.2640 Section... leakage current alarm. (a) Identification. A portable leakage current alarm is a device used to measure the electrical leakage current between any two points of an electrical system and to sound an alarm...

  9. False recognition of instruction-set lures.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Evan T; Chubala, Chrissy M; Spear, Jackie; Jamieson, Randall K; Hockley, William E; Crump, Matthew J C

    2016-01-01

    False remembering has been examined using a variety of procedures, including the Deese-Roediger-McDermott procedure, the false fame procedure and the two-list recognition procedure. We present six experiments in a different empirical framework examining false recognition of words included in the experimental instructions (instruction-set lures). The data show that participants' false alarm rate to instruction-set lures was twice their false alarm rate to standard lures. That result was statistically robust even when (1) the relative strength of targets to instruction-set lures was increased, (2) participants were warned about the instruction-set lures, (3) the instruction-set lures were camouflaged in the study instructions and (4) the instruction-set lures were presented verbally at study but visually at test. False recognition of instruction-set lures was only mitigated when participants were distracted between encountering the instruction-set lures and studying the training list. The results confirm the ease with which recognition succumbs to familiarity and demonstrate the robustness of false recognition. PMID:25438094

  10. 46 CFR 161.002-12 - Manual fire alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Manual fire alarm systems. 161.002-12 Section...SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Fire-Protective Systems § 161.002-12 Manual fire alarm systems. (a) General. A...

  11. 46 CFR 161.002-12 - Manual fire alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Manual fire alarm systems. 161.002-12 Section...SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Fire-Protective Systems § 161.002-12 Manual fire alarm systems. (a) General. A...

  12. 46 CFR 161.002-12 - Manual fire alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Manual fire alarm systems. 161.002-12 Section...SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Fire-Protective Systems § 161.002-12 Manual fire alarm systems. (a) General. A...

  13. 46 CFR 161.002-12 - Manual fire alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manual fire alarm systems. 161.002-12 Section...SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Fire-Protective Systems § 161.002-12 Manual fire alarm systems. (a) General. A...

  14. 46 CFR 161.002-12 - Manual fire alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Manual fire alarm systems. 161.002-12 Section...SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Fire-Protective Systems § 161.002-12 Manual fire alarm systems. (a) General. A...

  15. 46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 108.627...Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.627 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be identified by...

  16. 46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 108.627...Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.627 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be identified by...

  17. 46 CFR 109.201 - Steering gear, whistles, general alarm, and means of communication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Steering gear, whistles, general alarm, and means of communication...Inspections § 109.201 Steering gear, whistles, general alarm, and means of communication...ensure that— (a) Steering gear, whistles, general alarm bells, and means...

  18. 46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 108.627 ...Markings and Instructions § 108.627 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be identified by...

  19. 46 CFR 130.470 - Fire alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire alarms. 130.470 Section 130.470 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.470 Fire alarms. (a)...

  20. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms....

  1. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms....

  2. 46 CFR 130.470 - Fire alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire alarms. 130.470 Section 130.470 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.470 Fire alarms. (a)...

  3. 46 CFR 130.470 - Fire alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire alarms. 130.470 Section 130.470 Shipping COAST... MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.470 Fire alarms. (a) Each fire detector and control unit must be of a type specifically approved by the Commandant (CG-ENG)....

  4. 46 CFR 130.470 - Fire alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire alarms. 130.470 Section 130.470 Shipping COAST... MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.470 Fire alarms. (a) Each fire detector and control unit must be of a type specifically approved by the Commandant (CG-ENG)....

  5. 46 CFR 130.470 - Fire alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire alarms. 130.470 Section 130.470 Shipping COAST... MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.470 Fire alarms. (a) Each fire detector and control unit must be of a type specifically approved by the Commandant (CG-ENG)....

  6. 46 CFR 193.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alarms. 193.15-30 Section 193.15-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-30 Alarms. (a) Space normally accessible to persons on board while the vessel is...

  7. 46 CFR 193.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alarms. 193.15-30 Section 193.15-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide and Clean Agent Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-30 Alarms. (a) Space normally accessible to persons on board while...

  8. 46 CFR 95.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alarms. 95.15-30 Section 95.15-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-30 Alarms. (a) Spaces which are protected by a carbon dioxide extinguishing system and...

  9. Remote Monitor Alarm System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stute, Robert A. (Inventor); Galloway, F. Houston (Inventor); Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor); Swindle, Robert W. (Inventor); Bierman, Tracy A. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A remote monitor alarm system monitors discrete alarm and analog power supply voltage conditions at remotely located communications terminal equipment. A central monitoring unit (CMU) is connected via serial data links to each of a plurality of remote terminal units (RTUS) that monitor the alarm and power supply conditions of the remote terminal equipment. Each RTU can monitor and store condition information of both discrete alarm points and analog power supply voltage points in its associated communications terminal equipment. The stored alarm information is periodically transmitted to the CMU in response to sequential polling of the RTUS. The number of monitored alarm inputs and permissible voltage ranges for the analog inputs can be remotely configured at the CMU and downloaded into programmable memory at each RTU. The CMU includes a video display, a hard disk memory, a line printer and an audio alarm for communicating and storing the alarm information received from each RTU.

  10. 46 CFR 78.47-5 - General alarm contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm contact makers. 78.47-5 Section 78.47-5...Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-5 General alarm contact makers. Each general alarm contact maker must be marked in accordance with...

  11. 46 CFR 161.002-12 - Manual fire alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Manual fire alarm systems. 161.002-12 Section 161.002-12...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Fire-Protective Systems § 161.002-12 Manual fire alarm systems. (a) General. A manual fire alarm system shall consist of a power supply, a control unit on which...

  12. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood...

  13. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood...

  14. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 119.530 Section 119.530... Bilge and Ballast Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must be provided with a visual and audible alarm at the operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the...

  15. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 119.530 Section 119.530... Bilge and Ballast Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must be provided with a visual and audible alarm at the operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the...

  16. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 119.530 Section 119.530... Bilge and Ballast Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must be provided with a visual and audible alarm at the operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the...

  17. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 119.530 Section 119.530... Bilge and Ballast Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must be provided with a visual and audible alarm at the operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the...

  18. 46 CFR 113.20-1 - Sprinkler alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sprinkler alarm system. 113.20-1 Section 113.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkler Systems § 113.20-1 Sprinkler alarm system....

  19. 46 CFR 113.20-1 - Sprinkler alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sprinkler alarm system. 113.20-1 Section 113.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkler Systems § 113.20-1 Sprinkler alarm system....

  20. 46 CFR 113.20-1 - Sprinkler alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sprinkler alarm system. 113.20-1 Section 113.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkler Systems § 113.20-1 Sprinkler alarm system....

  1. 46 CFR 113.20-1 - Sprinkler alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sprinkler alarm system. 113.20-1 Section 113.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkler Systems § 113.20-1 Sprinkler alarm system....

  2. 46 CFR 78.47-5 - General alarm contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General alarm contact makers. 78.47-5 Section 78.47-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-5 General alarm contact makers. Each general alarm contact maker must be marked in accordance...

  3. 46 CFR 97.37-50 - Ventilation alarm failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 97.37-50 Section...Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-50 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm...which indicates the loss of required ventilation in spaces specially suitable for...

  4. 46 CFR 97.37-50 - Ventilation alarm failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 97.37-50 Section...Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-50 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm...which indicates the loss of required ventilation in spaces specially suitable for...

  5. 46 CFR 78.47-75 - Ventilation alarm failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 78.47-75 Section...Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-75 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm...which indicates the loss of required ventilation in spaces specially suitable for...

  6. 46 CFR 78.47-75 - Ventilation alarm failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 78.47-75 Section...Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-75 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm...which indicates the loss of required ventilation in spaces specially suitable for...

  7. 46 CFR 78.47-75 - Ventilation alarm failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 78.47-75 Section...Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-75 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm...which indicates the loss of required ventilation in spaces specially suitable for...

  8. 46 CFR 97.37-50 - Ventilation alarm failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 97.37-50 Section...Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-50 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm...which indicates the loss of required ventilation in spaces specially suitable for...

  9. 46 CFR 97.37-50 - Ventilation alarm failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 97.37-50 Section...Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-50 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm...which indicates the loss of required ventilation in spaces specially suitable for...

  10. 46 CFR 78.47-75 - Ventilation alarm failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 78.47-75 Section...Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-75 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm...which indicates the loss of required ventilation in spaces specially suitable for...

  11. 46 CFR 97.37-50 - Ventilation alarm failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 97.37-50 Section...Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-50 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm...which indicates the loss of required ventilation in spaces specially suitable for...

  12. 46 CFR 78.47-75 - Ventilation alarm failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 78.47-75 Section...Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-75 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm...which indicates the loss of required ventilation in spaces specially suitable for...

  13. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood...

  14. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood...

  15. 33 CFR 157.440 - Autopilot alarm or indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Autopilot alarm or indicator. 157... § 157.440 Autopilot alarm or indicator. (a) A tankship owner or operator shall ensure that each installed autopilot unit without automatic manual override has an audible and visual alarm, which...

  16. 46 CFR 196.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 196.37-9 Section 196.37-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified:...

  17. 46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 169.732 Section 169.732 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.732 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be conspicuously...

  18. Alarm points for fixed oxygen monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G.C.

    1987-05-01

    Oxygen concentration monitors were installed in a vault where numerous pipes carried inert cryogens and gases to the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) experimental vessel at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The problems associated with oxygen-monitoring systems and the reasons why such monitors were installed were reviewed. As a result of this review, the MFTF-B monitors were set to sound an evacuation alarm when the oxygen concentration fell below 18%. We chose the 18% alarm criterion to minimize false alarms and to allow time for personnel to escape in an oxygen-deficient environment.

  19. Fire alarm system improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, S.G.

    1994-10-01

    This document contains the Fire Alarm System Test Procedure for Building 234-5Z, 200-West Area on the Hanford Reservation, Richland, Washington. This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the modifications to the Fire Protection systems function as required by project criteria. The ATP will test the Fire Alarm Control Panels, Flow Alarm Pressure Switch, Heat Detectors, Smoke Detectors, Flow Switches, Manual Pull Stations, and Gong/Door by Pass Switches.

  20. 46 CFR 113.27-1 - Engineers' assistance-needed alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Engineers' assistance-needed alarm. 113.27-1 Section 113.27-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Engineers' Assistance-Needed Alarm § 113.27-1 Engineers' assistance-needed alarm. Each self-propelled...

  1. 46 CFR 113.25-9 - Location of general emergency alarm signal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Location of general emergency alarm signal. 113.25-9 Section 113.25-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-9 Location of general emergency alarm signal....

  2. 46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 108.627 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.627 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be identified by marking: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS VACATE AT...

  3. 46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 108.627 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.627 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be identified by marking: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS VACATE AT...

  4. False track discrimination in a 3D signal/track processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attili, Joseph B.; Fries, Robert W.; Chan, Cheuk L.; Blackman, Samuel S.; Singer, Paul F.; Dempster, Robert J.

    1996-05-01

    Long range detection and tracking of moving targets against clutter requires advanced signal and track processing techniques in order to exploit the ultimate capabilities of modern electro-optical sensors. These include three- dimensional filtering and multiple hypothesis tracking. Unfortunately, features present in real backgrounds can lead to false alarms which must be recognized in order to achieve a low false track rate. This paper describes one approach which was successful at mitigating clutter-induced false tracks while maintaining the low thresholds necessary for the detection of weak targets. This technique uses information derived in the signal processor describing the local background as additional discriminants in the track processor to identify false tracks caused by clutter leakage. We present an overview of the 3D signal track/processor, the false track mitigation methodology, and experimental results against real background data.

  5. Improved correlation analysis and visualization of industrial alarm data.

    PubMed

    Yang, F; Shah, S L; Xiao, D; Chen, T

    2012-07-01

    The problem of multivariate alarm analysis and rationalization is complex and important in the area of smart alarm management due to the interrelationships between variables. The technique of capturing and visualizing the correlation information, especially from historical alarm data directly, is beneficial for further analysis. In this paper, the Gaussian kernel method is applied to generate pseudo continuous time series from the original binary alarm data. This can reduce the influence of missed, false, and chattering alarms. By taking into account time lags between alarm variables, a correlation color map of the transformed or pseudo data is used to show clusters of correlated variables with the alarm tags reordered to better group the correlated alarms. Thereafter correlation and redundancy information can be easily found and used to improve the alarm settings; and statistical methods such as singular value decomposition techniques can be applied within each cluster to help design multivariate alarm strategies. Industrial case studies are given to illustrate the practicality and efficacy of the proposed method. This improved method is shown to be better than the alarm similarity color map when applied in the analysis of industrial alarm data. PMID:22503464

  6. Giving radioiodine? Think about airport security alarms.

    PubMed

    Kaniuka-Jakubowska, S; Lewczuk, A; Mizan-Gross, K; Obo?o?czyk, L; Lass, P; Sworczak, K

    2012-01-01

    An increased sensitivity of airport detectors, a growing number of isotopic tests, and globalization of the society have raised a number of false positive radioactive alarms at airports and public places. This paper presents two new cases of patients who triggered airport security alarms after receiving 740MBq of (131)I for non-toxic goitre and attempts to compare surprisingly limited literature concerning this problem. A 57-year-old man triggered a security alarm at three different airports on the 17th, 28th, and 31st day after radioiodine exposure. Interestingly enough, in the meantime, on the 18th and 22nd day, no radiation was detected in him at the airport where he was twice detained as a source of radiation later on. The second case presents a 45-year-old woman who activated security alarm detectors while crossing a border on her coach trip 28 days after radioiodine administration. PMID:22226338

  7. Alarm mistrust in automobiles: how collision alarm reliability affects driving.

    PubMed

    Bliss, James P; Acton, Sarah A

    2003-11-01

    As roadways become more congested, there is greater potential for automobile accidents and incidents. To improve roadway safety, automobile manufacturers are now designing and incorporating collision avoidance warning systems; yet, there has been little investigation of how the reliability of alarm signals might impact driver performance. We measured driving and alarm reaction performances following alarms of various reliability levels. In Experiment One, 70 participants operated a driving simulator while being presented console emitted collision alarms that were 50%, 75%, or 100% reliable. In Experiment Two, the same participants were presented spatially generated collision alarms of the same reliability levels. The results were similar in both experiments: alarm and automobile swerving reactions were significantly better when alarms were more reliable; however, drivers still failed to avoid collisions following reliable alarms. These results emphasize that alarm designers should maximize alarm reliability while minimizing alarm invasiveness. PMID:14559409

  8. Sounding the Alarm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordasco, Jerry M.

    2000-01-01

    Explains the use of alarms and other early-detection devices to effectively protect students in life-threatening fire situations. Ohio State University's multidiscipline approach to life safety is illustrated. (GR)

  9. 46 CFR 113.25-25 - General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...false General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. 113.25-25 Section...25-25 General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. A manned ocean or coastwise barge of more than 100...

  10. 46 CFR 113.25-25 - General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...false General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. 113.25-25 Section...25-25 General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. A manned ocean or coastwise barge of more than 100...

  11. 46 CFR 113.25-25 - General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...false General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. 113.25-25 Section...25-25 General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. A manned ocean or coastwise barge of more than 100...

  12. 46 CFR 113.25-25 - General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...false General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. 113.25-25 Section...25-25 General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. A manned ocean or coastwise barge of more than 100...

  13. 46 CFR 113.25-25 - General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...false General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. 113.25-25 Section...25-25 General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. A manned ocean or coastwise barge of more than 100...

  14. 46 CFR 97.37-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 97.37-9...Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing...

  15. 46 CFR 97.37-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 97.37-9...Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing...

  16. 46 CFR 78.47-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 78.47-9...Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing...

  17. 46 CFR 196.37-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 196...Equipment, etc. § 196.37-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each extinguishing system using carbon dioxide or clean agent complying...

  18. 46 CFR 78.47-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 78.47-9...Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing...

  19. 46 CFR 78.47-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 78.47-9...Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing...

  20. 46 CFR 131.815 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 131.815...Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.815 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing...

  1. 46 CFR 196.37-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 196...Equipment, etc. § 196.37-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each extinguishing system using carbon dioxide or clean agent complying...

  2. 46 CFR 97.37-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 97.37-9...Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing...

  3. 46 CFR 153.438 - Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. 153.438 Section...MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.438 Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. (a) Each...

  4. 46 CFR 153.438 - Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. 153.438 Section...MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.438 Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. (a) Each...

  5. 46 CFR 153.438 - Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. 153.438 Section...MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.438 Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. (a) Each...

  6. 46 CFR 153.438 - Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. 153.438 Section...MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.438 Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. (a) Each...

  7. 46 CFR 153.438 - Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. 153.438 Section...MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.438 Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. (a) Each...

  8. 46 CFR 196.37-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 196...Equipment, etc. § 196.37-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each extinguishing system using carbon dioxide or clean agent complying...

  9. 46 CFR 131.815 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 131.815 ...and Emergency Equipment § 131.815 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing...

  10. 46 CFR 131.815 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 131.815 ...and Emergency Equipment § 131.815 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing...

  11. Sensor fusion for intelligent alarm analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, C.L.; Fitzgerald, D.S.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of an intelligent alarm analysis system is to provide complete and manageable information to a central alarm station operator by applying alarm processing and fusion techniques to sensor information. This paper discusses the sensor fusion approach taken to perform intelligent alarm analysis for the Advanced Exterior Sensor (AES). The AES is an intrusion detection and assessment system designed for wide-area coverage, quick deployment, low false/nuisance alarm operation, and immediate visual assessment. It combines three sensor technologies (visible, infrared, and millimeter wave radar) collocated on a compact and portable remote sensor module. The remote sensor module rotates at a rate of 1 revolution per second to detect and track motion and provide assessment in a continuous 360` field-of-regard. Sensor fusion techniques are used to correlate and integrate the track data from these three sensors into a single track for operator observation. Additional inputs to the fusion process include environmental data, knowledge of sensor performance under certain weather conditions, sensor priority, and recent operator feedback. A confidence value is assigned to the track as a result of the fusion process. This helps to reduce nuisance alarms and to increase operator confidence in the system while reducing the workload of the operator.

  12. 46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alarms and shutdowns. 111.33-7 Section 111.33-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power...

  13. 46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alarms and shutdowns. 111.33-7 Section 111.33-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power...

  14. 46 CFR 108.445 - Alarm and means of escape.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alarm and means of escape. 108.445 Section 108.445 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.445 Alarm and means of escape. (a) Each CO2...

  15. 46 CFR 167.40-5 - Alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alarm bells. 167.40-5 Section 167.40-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Certain Equipment Requirements § 167.40-5 Alarm bells. All nautical school ships over 100 gross tons shall have all sleeping accommodations, public...

  16. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 182.530 Section 182.530... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On a... operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (1)...

  17. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 182.530 Section 182.530... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On a... operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (1)...

  18. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 182.530 Section 182.530... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On a... operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (1)...

  19. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 182.530 Section 182.530... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On a... operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (1)...

  20. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 182.530 Section 182.530... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On a... operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (1)...

  1. 46 CFR 28.250 - High water alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false High water alarms. 28.250 Section 28.250 Shipping COAST... Individuals On Board, or for Fish Tender Vessels Engaged in the Aleutian Trade § 28.250 High water alarms. On... operating station to indicate high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (a)...

  2. 46 CFR 28.250 - High water alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false High water alarms. 28.250 Section 28.250 Shipping COAST... Individuals On Board, or for Fish Tender Vessels Engaged in the Aleutian Trade § 28.250 High water alarms. On... operating station to indicate high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (a)...

  3. 46 CFR 28.250 - High water alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false High water alarms. 28.250 Section 28.250 Shipping COAST... Individuals On Board, or for Fish Tender Vessels Engaged in the Aleutian Trade § 28.250 High water alarms. On... operating station to indicate high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (a)...

  4. 46 CFR 28.250 - High water alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false High water alarms. 28.250 Section 28.250 Shipping COAST... Individuals On Board, or for Fish Tender Vessels Engaged in the Aleutian Trade § 28.250 High water alarms. On... operating station to indicate high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (a)...

  5. 46 CFR 28.250 - High water alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false High water alarms. 28.250 Section 28.250 Shipping COAST... Individuals On Board, or for Fish Tender Vessels Engaged in the Aleutian Trade § 28.250 High water alarms. On... operating station to indicate high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (a)...

  6. 46 CFR 113.25-12 - Alarm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alarm signals. 113.25-12 Section 113.25-12 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM... underway in moderate weather unless flashing red lights are used in accordance with 46 CFR 113.25-10(b)....

  7. 46 CFR 113.25-12 - Alarm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alarm signals. 113.25-12 Section 113.25-12 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM... underway in moderate weather unless flashing red lights are used in accordance with 46 CFR 113.25-10(b)....

  8. 46 CFR 113.25-12 - Alarm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alarm signals. 113.25-12 Section 113.25-12 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM... underway in moderate weather unless flashing red lights are used in accordance with 46 CFR 113.25-10(b)....

  9. 46 CFR 113.25-12 - Alarm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alarm signals. 113.25-12 Section 113.25-12 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM... underway in moderate weather unless flashing red lights are used in accordance with 46 CFR 113.25-10(b)....

  10. 46 CFR 130.460 - Placement of machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Placement of machinery alarms. 130.460 Section 130.460 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.460 Placement of machinery alarms. (a) Visible...

  11. 46 CFR 162.050-35 - Bilge alarm: Approval tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bilge alarm: Approval tests. 162.050-35 Section 162.050-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Pollution Prevention Equipment § 162.050-35 Bilge alarm: Approval tests. This...

  12. 46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alarms and shutdowns. 111.33-7 Section 111.33-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power...

  13. 46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alarms and shutdowns. 111.33-7 Section 111.33-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power...

  14. 46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alarms and shutdowns. 111.33-7 Section 111.33-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power...

  15. 46 CFR 162.050-35 - Bilge alarm: Approval tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bilge alarm: Approval tests. 162.050-35 Section 162.050-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Pollution Prevention Equipment § 162.050-35 Bilge alarm: Approval tests. This...

  16. 46 CFR 108.445 - Alarm and means of escape.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alarm and means of escape. 108.445 Section 108.445 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.445 Alarm and means of escape. (a) Each CO2...

  17. Repetition increases false recollection in older people.

    PubMed

    Pitarque, Alfonso; Sales, Alicia; Meléndez, Juan Carlos; Algarabel, Salvador

    2015-02-01

    Aging is accompanied by an increase in false alarms on recognition tasks, and these false alarms increase with repetition in older people (but not in young people). Traditionally, this increase was thought to be due to a greater use of familiarity in older people, but it was recently pointed out that false alarms also have a clear recollection component in these people. The main objective of our study is to analyze whether the expected increase in the rate of false alarms in older people due to stimulus repetition is produced by an inadequate use of familiarity, recollection, or both processes. To do so, we carried out an associative recognition experiment using pairs of words and pairs of images (faces associated with everyday contexts), in which we analyzed whether the repetition of some of the pairs increases the rate of false alarms in older people (compared to what was found in a sample of young people), and whether this increase is due to familiarity or recollection (using a remember-know paradigm). Our results show that the increase in false alarms in older people due to repetition is produced by false recollection, calling into question both dual and single-process models of recognition. Also, older people falsely recollect details of never studied stimuli, a clear case of perceptual illusions. These results are better explained in terms of source-monitoring errors, mediated by people's retrieval expectations. PMID:25330138

  18. The Distinctions of False and Fuzzy Memories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schooler, Jonathan W.

    1998-01-01

    Notes that fuzzy-trace theory has been used to understand false memories of children. Demonstrates the irony imbedded in the theory, maintaining that a central implication of fuzzy-trace theory is that some errors characterized as false memories are not really false at all. These errors, when applied to false alarms to related lures, are best…

  19. The Strategic Nature of False Recognition in the DRM Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael B.; Guerin, Scott A.; Wolford, George L.

    2011-01-01

    The false memory effect produced by the Deese/Roediger & McDermott (DRM) paradigm is reportedly impervious to warnings to avoid false alarming to the critical lures (D. A. Gallo, H. L. Roediger III, & K. B. McDermott, 2001). This finding has been used as strong evidence against models that attribute the false alarms to a decision process…

  20. False arrhythmia alarm suppression using ECG, ABP, and photoplethysmogram

    E-print Network

    Deshmane, Anagha Vishwas

    2009-01-01

    A signal quality assessment scheme for the photoplethysmogram waveform recorded by a pulse oximeter has been created. The signal quality algorithm uses statistical methods on time-series and spectral analysis to locate ...

  1. FIRE ALARM SYSTEM OUTDATED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHANDLER, L.T.

    AN EFFICIENT FIRE ALARM SYSTEM SHOULD--(1) PROVIDE WARNING OF FIRES THAT START IN HIDDEN OR UNOCCUPIED LOCATIONS, (2) INDICATE WHERE THE FIRE IS, (3) GIVE ADVANCE WARNING TO FACULTY AND ADMINISTRATION SO THAT PANIC AND CONFUSION CAN BE AVOIDED AND ORDERLY EVACUATION OCCUR, (4) AUTOMATICALLY NOTIFY CITY FIRE HEADQUARTERS OF THE FIRE, (5) OPERATE BY…

  2. 46 CFR 35.40-1 - General alarm contact maker-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm contact maker-TB/ALL. 35.40-1 Section...Requirements-TB/ALL. § 35.40-1 General alarm contact maker—TB/ALL. Each general alarm contact maker must be marked in accordance...

  3. 46 CFR 196.37-5 - General alarm bell contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false General alarm bell contact makers. 196.37-5 Section 196.37-5...etc. § 196.37-5 General alarm bell contact makers. (a) Each general alarm contact maker must be marked in accordance with...

  4. 46 CFR 153.438 - Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... vapor pressure described in § 153.371(b); or (2) An alarm that operates when the cargo's temperature... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. 153.438... Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.438 Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required....

  5. 46 CFR 153.438 - Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... vapor pressure described in § 153.371(b); or (2) An alarm that operates when the cargo's temperature... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. 153.438... Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.438 Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required....

  6. 46 CFR 153.438 - Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... vapor pressure described in § 153.371(b); or (2) An alarm that operates when the cargo's temperature... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. 153.438... Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.438 Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required....

  7. 46 CFR 153.438 - Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... vapor pressure described in § 153.371(b); or (2) An alarm that operates when the cargo's temperature... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. 153.438... Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.438 Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required....

  8. 46 CFR 153.438 - Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... vapor pressure described in § 153.371(b); or (2) An alarm that operates when the cargo's temperature... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. 153.438... Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.438 Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required....

  9. 46 CFR 154.1325 - Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks...Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1325 Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks...1330, each cargo tank must have a high liquid level alarm system that: (a) Is...

  10. 46 CFR 154.1325 - Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks...Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1325 Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks...1330, each cargo tank must have a high liquid level alarm system that: (a) Is...

  11. 46 CFR 154.1325 - Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks...Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1325 Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks...1330, each cargo tank must have a high liquid level alarm system that: (a) Is...

  12. 46 CFR 154.1325 - Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks...Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1325 Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks...1330, each cargo tank must have a high liquid level alarm system that: (a) Is...

  13. 46 CFR 154.1325 - Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks...Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1325 Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks...1330, each cargo tank must have a high liquid level alarm system that: (a) Is...

  14. 46 CFR 113.25-9 - Location of general emergency alarm signal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Location of general emergency alarm signal. 113.25-9 Section 113.25-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-9 Location of...

  15. 46 CFR 113.25-9 - Location of general emergency alarm signal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Location of general emergency alarm signal. 113.25-9 Section 113.25-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-9 Location of...

  16. 46 CFR 113.25-9 - Location of general emergency alarm signal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Location of general emergency alarm signal. 113.25-9 Section 113.25-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-9 Location of...

  17. 46 CFR 113.27-1 - Engineers' assistance-needed alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Engineers' assistance-needed alarm. 113.27-1 Section 113.27-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Engineers' Assistance-Needed Alarm § 113.27-1...

  18. 46 CFR 113.27-1 - Engineers' assistance-needed alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Engineers' assistance-needed alarm. 113.27-1 Section 113.27-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Engineers' Assistance-Needed Alarm § 113.27-1...

  19. 46 CFR 113.25-9 - Location of general emergency alarm signal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Location of general emergency alarm signal. 113.25-9 Section 113.25-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-9 Location of...

  20. 46 CFR 113.27-1 - Engineers' assistance-needed alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Engineers' assistance-needed alarm. 113.27-1 Section 113.27-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Engineers' Assistance-Needed Alarm § 113.27-1...

  1. 46 CFR 113.27-1 - Engineers' assistance-needed alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Engineers' assistance-needed alarm. 113.27-1 Section 113.27-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Engineers' Assistance-Needed Alarm § 113.27-1...

  2. 46 CFR 113.25-25 - General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. 113.25-25 Section 113.25-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-25 General emergency...

  3. 46 CFR 113.25-8 - Distribution of general emergency alarm system feeders and branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Distribution of general emergency alarm system feeders and branch circuits. 113.25-8 Section 113.25-8 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-8 Distribution of...

  4. 46 CFR 196.37-5 - General alarm bell contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General alarm bell contact makers. 196.37-5 Section 196.37-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-5 General alarm bell contact makers. (a) Each general alarm contact maker...

  5. 46 CFR 196.37-5 - General alarm bell contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bell contact makers. 196.37-5 Section 196.37-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-5 General alarm bell contact makers. (a) Each general alarm contact maker...

  6. 46 CFR 196.37-5 - General alarm bell contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General alarm bell contact makers. 196.37-5 Section 196.37-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-5 General alarm bell contact makers. (a) Each general alarm contact maker...

  7. 46 CFR 78.47-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 78.47-9 Section... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing alarm must be conspicuously marked: “WHEN...

  8. 46 CFR 131.815 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 131.815 Section... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.815 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing alarm must be conspicuously marked:...

  9. 46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 108.627 Section 108.627 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.627 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide alarm must...

  10. 46 CFR 78.47-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 78.47-9 Section... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing alarm must be conspicuously marked: “WHEN...

  11. 46 CFR 131.815 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 131.815 Section... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.815 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing alarm must be conspicuously marked:...

  12. 46 CFR 97.37-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 97.37-9 Section... VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing alarm must be conspicuously...

  13. 46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 169.732 Section... SCHOOL VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.732 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. (a) Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing alarm must...

  14. 46 CFR 78.47-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 78.47-9 Section... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing alarm must be conspicuously marked: “WHEN...

  15. 46 CFR 97.37-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 97.37-9 Section... VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing alarm must be conspicuously...

  16. 46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 169.732 Section... SCHOOL VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.732 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. (a) Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing alarm must...

  17. Functional relationship-based alarm processing

    DOEpatents

    Corsberg, D.R.

    1987-04-13

    A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously updated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on causal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). 11 figs.

  18. False names.

    PubMed Central

    Rendleman, N

    1998-01-01

    A patient's unique, personal name is fundamental in medical relationships. Sometimes, patients may use false names, which obscure family, ethnic, sexual, or billing identities. The means and motivations involved--fraud, concealment, gaining financial or personal advantage, gratifying a psychic need, or changing group assignment--produce a variety of distinct clinical manifestations of false name use. These may be classified as alias, pseudonym, manipulator, fraud, psychotic, amnestic, medical factitioner, and renamed. The identification of falsely named patients enables clinicians to improve care for these types of patients. Individual cases are briefly described and a discussion of naming in society and medicine follows. This preliminary discussion may serve to fuel further refinement. PMID:9830369

  19. Speech Alarms Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, A.; Moses, H. R.

    2016-01-01

    Currently on the International Space Station (ISS) and other space vehicles Caution & Warning (C&W) alerts are represented with various auditory tones that correspond to the type of event. This system relies on the crew's ability to remember what each tone represents in a high stress, high workload environment when responding to the alert. Furthermore, crew receive a year or more in advance of the mission that makes remembering the semantic meaning of the alerts more difficult. The current system works for missions conducted close to Earth where ground operators can assist as needed. On long duration missions, however, they will need to work off-nominal events autonomously. There is evidence that speech alarms may be easier and faster to recognize, especially during an off-nominal event. The Information Presentation Directed Research Project (FY07-FY09) funded by the Human Research Program included several studies investigating C&W alerts. The studies evaluated tone alerts currently in use with NASA flight deck displays along with candidate speech alerts. A follow-on study used four types of speech alerts to investigate how quickly various types of auditory alerts with and without a speech component - either at the beginning or at the end of the tone - can be identified. Even though crew were familiar with the tone alert from training or direct mission experience, alerts starting with a speech component were identified faster than alerts starting with a tone. The current study replicated the results from the previous study in a more rigorous experimental design to determine if the candidate speech alarms are ready for transition to operations or if more research is needed. Four types of alarms (caution, warning, fire, and depressurization) were presented to participants in both tone and speech formats in laboratory settings and later in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA). In the laboratory study, the alerts were presented by software and participants were asked to identify the alert as quickly and as accurately as possible. Reaction time and accuracy were measured. Participants identified speech alerts significantly faster than tone alerts. The HERA study investigated the performance of participants in a flight-like environment. Participants were instructed to complete items on a task list and respond to C&W alerts as they occurred. Reaction time and accuracy were measured to determine if the benefits of speech alarms are still present in an applied setting.

  20. Alarm toe switch

    DOEpatents

    Ganyard, Floyd P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1982-01-01

    An alarm toe switch inserted within a shoe for energizing an alarm circuit n a covert manner includes an insole mounting pad into which a miniature reed switch is fixedly molded. An elongated slot perpendicular to the reed switch is formed in the bottom surface of the mounting pad. A permanent cylindrical magnet positioned in the forward portion of the slot with a diameter greater than the pad thickness causes a bump above the pad. A foam rubber block is also positioned in the slot rearwardly of the magnet and holds the magnet in normal inoperative relation. A non-magnetic support plate covers the slot and holds the magnet and foam rubber in the slot. The plate minimizes bending and frictional forces to improve movement of the magnet for reliable switch activation. The bump occupies the knuckle space beneath the big toe. When the big toe is scrunched rearwardly the magnet is moved within the slot relative to the reed switch, thus magnetically activating the switch. When toe pressure is released the foam rubber block forces the magnet back into normal inoperative position to deactivate the reed switch. The reed switch is hermetically sealed with the magnet acting through the wall so the switch assembly S is capable of reliable operation even in wet and corrosive environments.

  1. Stereotypes influence false memories for imagined events.

    PubMed

    Kleider, Heather M; Goldinger, Stephen D; Knuycky, Leslie

    2008-02-01

    Two experiments tested the influences of vivid imagery and person schemata on eyewitness accuracy. Participants watched an event sequence including actors performing stereotype-consistent and inconsistent actions. Additionally, participants either read descriptions of actions (Experiment 1) or vividly imagined actions (Experiment 2). After either 30 minutes or 2 days, recognition memory, source memory, and remember/know judgements were made. After 2 days, false alarms to imagined events increased, relative to the 30-minute test; those false alarms were more often misattributed to stereotype-consistent actors, relative to the same actions in the reading condition. In addition, the accompanying remember judgements were higher for false alarms to imagined events, relative to read events, regardless of stereotype consistency. Overall the results suggest that, over time, vivid imagery reinforces schema activation, increasing stereotype-consistent false memories. PMID:18286415

  2. Fork-tailed drongos use deceptive mimicked alarm calls to steal food.

    PubMed

    Flower, Tom

    2011-05-22

    Despite the prevalence of vocal mimicry in animals, few functions for this behaviour have been shown. I propose a novel hypothesis that false mimicked alarm calls could be used deceptively to scare other species and steal their food. Studies have previously suggested that animals use their own species-specific alarm calls to steal food. However none have shown conclusively that these false alarms are deceptive, or that mimicked alarm calls are used in this manner. Here, I show that wild fork-tailed drongos (Dicrurus adsimilis) make both drongo-specific and mimicked false alarm calls when watching target species handling food, in response to which targets flee to cover abandoning their food. The drongo-specific and mimicked calls made in false alarms were structurally indistinguishable from calls made during true alarms at predators by drongos and other species. Furthermore, I demonstrate by playback experiments that two of these species, meerkats (Suricata suricatta) and pied babblers (Turdoides bicolor), are deceived by both drongo-specific and mimicked false alarm calls. These results provide the first conclusive evidence that false alarm calls are deceptive and demonstrate a novel function for vocal mimicry. This work also provides valuable insight into the benefits of deploying variable mimetic signals in deceptive communication. PMID:21047861

  3. Fork-tailed drongos use deceptive mimicked alarm calls to steal food

    PubMed Central

    Flower, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of vocal mimicry in animals, few functions for this behaviour have been shown. I propose a novel hypothesis that false mimicked alarm calls could be used deceptively to scare other species and steal their food. Studies have previously suggested that animals use their own species-specific alarm calls to steal food. However none have shown conclusively that these false alarms are deceptive, or that mimicked alarm calls are used in this manner. Here, I show that wild fork-tailed drongos (Dicrurus adsimilis) make both drongo-specific and mimicked false alarm calls when watching target species handling food, in response to which targets flee to cover abandoning their food. The drongo-specific and mimicked calls made in false alarms were structurally indistinguishable from calls made during true alarms at predators by drongos and other species. Furthermore, I demonstrate by playback experiments that two of these species, meerkats (Suricata suricatta) and pied babblers (Turdoides bicolor), are deceived by both drongo-specific and mimicked false alarm calls. These results provide the first conclusive evidence that false alarm calls are deceptive and demonstrate a novel function for vocal mimicry. This work also provides valuable insight into the benefits of deploying variable mimetic signals in deceptive communication. PMID:21047861

  4. Talking Fire Alarms Calm Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Executive Educator, 1984

    1984-01-01

    The new microprocessor-based fire alarm systems can help to control smoke movement throughout school buildings by opening vents and doors, identify the burning section, activate voice alarms, provide firefighters with telephone systems during the fire, and release fire-preventing gas. (KS)

  5. Substation alarm multiplexing system (SAMS)

    SciTech Connect

    ElBadaly, H.; Gaughan, J.; Ward, G.; Amengual, S.

    1996-03-01

    This paper describes an on going R&D project to develop, design, install, and assess the field performance of an advanced substation alarm system. SAMS provides a highly fault-tolerant system for the reporting of equipment alarms. SAMS separates and identifies each of the multiple alarm contacts, transmits an alarm condition over existing substation two-wire system, and displays the alarm source, and its associated technical information, on a touch-screen monitor inside the substation control room, and a remote central location and on a hand held terminal which may be carried anywhere within the substation. SAMS is currently installed at the Sherman Creek substation in the Bronx for the purpose of a three month field evaluation.

  6. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...other audible alarm from sounding. (e) Each OSV must be provided with means for testing each visible and audible alarm. (f) Each OSV must provide battery power for the alarm required by § 130.460(a)(8) of this...

  7. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...other audible alarm from sounding. (e) Each OSV must be provided with means for testing each visible and audible alarm. (f) Each OSV must provide battery power for the alarm required by § 130.460(a)(8) of this...

  8. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...other audible alarm from sounding. (e) Each OSV must be provided with means for testing each visible and audible alarm. (f) Each OSV must provide battery power for the alarm required by § 130.460(a)(8) of this...

  9. 10 CFR 34.75 - Records of alarm system and entrance control checks at permanent radiographic installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Records of alarm system and entrance control checks at... Requirements § 34.75 Records of alarm system and entrance control checks at permanent radiographic installations. Each licensee shall maintain records of alarm system and entrance control device tests...

  10. 10 CFR 34.75 - Records of alarm system and entrance control checks at permanent radiographic installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of alarm system and entrance control checks at... Requirements § 34.75 Records of alarm system and entrance control checks at permanent radiographic installations. Each licensee shall maintain records of alarm system and entrance control device tests...

  11. 10 CFR 34.75 - Records of alarm system and entrance control checks at permanent radiographic installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Records of alarm system and entrance control checks at... Requirements § 34.75 Records of alarm system and entrance control checks at permanent radiographic installations. Each licensee shall maintain records of alarm system and entrance control device tests...

  12. 10 CFR 34.75 - Records of alarm system and entrance control checks at permanent radiographic installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Records of alarm system and entrance control checks at... Requirements § 34.75 Records of alarm system and entrance control checks at permanent radiographic installations. Each licensee shall maintain records of alarm system and entrance control device tests...

  13. Development of a GLE Alarm System Based Upon Neutron Monitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwabara, T.; Bieber, J. W.; Clem, J.; Evenson, P.; Pyle, R.

    2005-12-01

    We have developed a system that watches for count rate increases recorded in real time by eight neutron monitors, and gives an alarm when a Ground Level Enhancement (GLE) is detected. In this work, we determine optimal strategies for detecting the GLE event at a very early stage, while still keeping the false alarm rate from glitches at a very low level. The January 20, 2005 event will be used to illustrate our methods. A reliable system is developed with an algorithm that produces alarms in three levels according to the number of stations showing an increase. We study past events to optimize appropriate intensity threshold values and a baseline to determine the intensity increase. At the highest level alarm produced by the three stations increase, a false alarm rate expected from the observed data during the past five years become zero. Alarm times of GLEs examined from the most recent nine events are compared with satellite proton data. The GLE alert would precede the earliest alert from GOES (100 MeV or 10 MeV protons) by ~10-20 minutes. For the January 20 event, the GLE alert (3 stations) was generated 12 minutes prior to the earliest GOES alert. The realtime GLE data may be viewed at http://neutronm.bartol.udel.edu/spaceweather. An automated e-mail alert system is under development. Supported by NSF grants ATM-0207196 and ATM-0000315.

  14. A High-confidence Cyber-Physical Alarm System: Design and Implementation

    E-print Network

    Ma, Longhua; Xia, Feng; Xu, Ming; Yao, Jun; Shao, Meng

    2010-01-01

    Most traditional alarm systems cannot address security threats in a satisfactory manner. To alleviate this problem, we developed a high-confidence cyber-physical alarm system (CPAS), a new kind of alarm systems. This system establishes the connection of the Internet (i.e. TCP/IP) through GPRS/CDMA/3G. It achieves mutual communication control among terminal equipments, human machine interfaces and users by using the existing mobile communication network. The CPAS will enable the transformation in alarm mode from traditional one-way alarm to two-way alarm. The system has been successfully applied in practice. The results show that the CPAS could avoid false alarms and satisfy residents' security needs.

  15. Ultrasonic Technology in Duress Alarms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Martha A.

    2000-01-01

    Provides the pros and cons of the most commonly used technologies in personal duress alarm systems in the school environment. Discussed are radio frequency devices, infrared systems, and ultrasonic technology. (GR)

  16. Functional relationship-based alarm processing system

    DOEpatents

    Corsberg, Daniel R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1989-01-01

    A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the functional relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated or deactivated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously updated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on causal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). The alarm processing system and method is sensitive to the dynamic nature of the process being monitored and is capable of changing the relative importance of each alarm as necessary.

  17. Functional relationship-based alarm processing

    DOEpatents

    Corsberg, Daniel R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1988-01-01

    A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously oupdated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on caussal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action) expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). The alarm processing system and method is sensitive to the dynamic nature of the process being monitored and is capable of changing the relative importance of each alarm as necessary.

  18. Functional relationship-based alarm processing system

    DOEpatents

    Corsberg, D.R.

    1988-04-22

    A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the functional relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated or deactivated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously updated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on causal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). The alarm processing system and method is sensitive to the dynamic nature of the process being monitored and is capable of changing the relative importance of each alarm as necessary. 12 figs.

  19. Recent Results on "Approximations to Optimal Alarm Systems for Anomaly Detection"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Rodney Alexander

    2009-01-01

    An optimal alarm system and its approximations may use Kalman filtering for univariate linear dynamic systems driven by Gaussian noise to provide a layer of predictive capability. Predicted Kalman filter future process values and a fixed critical threshold can be used to construct a candidate level-crossing event over a predetermined prediction window. An optimal alarm system can be designed to elicit the fewest false alarms for a fixed detection probability in this particular scenario.

  20. Perimeter security alarm system based on fiber Bragg grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cui; Wang, Lixin

    2010-11-01

    With the development of the society and economy and the improvement of living standards, people need more and more pressing security. Perimeter security alarm system is widely regarded as the first line of defense. A highly sensitive Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) vibration sensor based on the theory of the string vibration, combined with neural network adaptive dynamic programming algorithm for the perimeter security alarm system make the detection intelligently. Intelligent information processing unit identify the true cause of the vibration of the invasion or the natural environment by analyzing the frequency of vibration signals, energy, amplitude and duration. Compared with traditional perimeter security alarm systems, such as infrared perimeter security system and electric fence system, FBG perimeter security alarm system takes outdoor passive structures, free of electromagnetic interference, transmission distance through optical fiber can be as long as 20 km It is able to detect the location of event within short period of time (high-speed response, less than 3 second).This system can locate the fiber cable's breaking sites and alarm automatically if the cable were be cut. And the system can prevent effectively the false alarm from small animals, birds, strong wind, scattering things, snowfalls and vibration of sensor line itself. It can also be integrated into other security systems. This system can be widely used in variety fields such as military bases, nuclear sites, airports, warehouses, prisons, residence community etc. It will be a new force of perimeter security technology.

  1. CERN Alarms Data Management: State And Improvements

    E-print Network

    Zaharieva, Z

    2011-01-01

    The CERN Alarms System - LASER is a centralized service ensuring the capturing, storing and notification of anomalies for the whole accelerator chain, including the technical infrastructure at CERN. The underlying database holds the pre-defined configuration data for the alarm definitions, for the Operators alarms consoles as well as the time-stamped, run-time alarm events, propagated through the Alarms Systems. The article will discuss the current state of the Alarms database and recent improvements that have been introduced. It will look into the data management challenges related to the alarms configuration data that is taken from numerous sources. Specially developed Extract-Transform-Load (ETL) processes must be applied to this data in order to transform it into an appropriate format and load it into the Alarms database. The recorded alarms events together with some additional data, necessary for providing events statistics to users, are transferred to the long-term alarms archive.The article will cover...

  2. 46 CFR 27.201 - What are the requirements for general alarms on towing vessels?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What are the requirements for general alarms on towing vessels? 27.201 Section 27.201 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS TOWING VESSELS Fire-Protection Measures for Towing Vessels § 27.201 What are the requirements for general alarms on towing vessels? (a) You...

  3. 46 CFR 35.40-7 - Carbon dioxide alarm-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm-T/ALL. 35.40-7 Section 35.40-7... Requirements-TB/ALL. § 35.40-7 Carbon dioxide alarm—T/ALL. Adjacent to all carbon dioxide fire extinguishing... AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED.”...

  4. 46 CFR 113.25-8 - Distribution of general emergency alarm system feeders and branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Distribution of general emergency alarm system feeders and branch circuits. 113.25-8 Section 113.25-8 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency...

  5. 46 CFR 113.25-8 - Distribution of general emergency alarm system feeders and branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Distribution of general emergency alarm system feeders and branch circuits. 113.25-8 Section 113.25-8 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency...

  6. 46 CFR 113.25-8 - Distribution of general emergency alarm system feeders and branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Distribution of general emergency alarm system feeders and branch circuits. 113.25-8 Section 113.25-8 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency...

  7. 46 CFR 113.25-8 - Distribution of general emergency alarm system feeders and branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Distribution of general emergency alarm system feeders and branch circuits. 113.25-8 Section 113.25-8 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency...

  8. 46 CFR 113.25-25 - General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. 113.25-25 Section 113.25-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency...

  9. 46 CFR 113.25-25 - General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. 113.25-25 Section 113.25-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency...

  10. 46 CFR 113.25-25 - General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. 113.25-25 Section 113.25-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency...

  11. 46 CFR 113.25-25 - General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. 113.25-25 Section 113.25-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency...

  12. 46 CFR 196.37-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each extinguishing system using carbon dioxide or clean agent complying with 46 CFR... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 196.37-9...

  13. 46 CFR 196.37-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 196.37-9 Section 196.37-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each extinguishing system...

  14. 46 CFR 97.37-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 97.37-9 Section 97.37-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean...

  15. 46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 169.732 Section 169.732 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.732 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. (a) Each carbon dioxide...

  16. 46 CFR 196.37-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each extinguishing system using carbon dioxide or clean agent complying with 46 CFR... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 196.37-9...

  17. 46 CFR 35.40-7 - Carbon dioxide alarm-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm-T/ALL. 35.40-7 Section 35.40-7... Requirements-TB/ALL. § 35.40-7 Carbon dioxide alarm—T/ALL. Adjacent to all carbon dioxide fire extinguishing... AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED.”...

  18. 46 CFR 35.40-7 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms-T/ALL. 35.40-7 Section 35.40-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Posting and Marking Requirements-TB/ALL § 35.40-7 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms—T/ALL. Each carbon dioxide...

  19. 46 CFR 131.815 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 131.815 Section 131.815 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.815 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent...

  20. 46 CFR 35.40-7 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms-T/ALL. 35.40-7 Section 35.40-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Posting and Marking Requirements-TB/ALL § 35.40-7 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms—T/ALL. Each carbon dioxide...

  1. 46 CFR 35.40-7 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms-T/ALL. 35.40-7 Section 35.40-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Posting and Marking Requirements-TB/ALL § 35.40-7 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms—T/ALL. Each carbon dioxide...

  2. 46 CFR 78.47-13 - Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...fire detecting and manual alarm automatic sprinklers, and smoke detecting alarm bells in the engine room shall be identified by at least 1 inch red lettering “FIRE ALARM”, “SPRINKLER ALARM” or “SMOKE DETECTING ALARM” as appropriate....

  3. 46 CFR 78.47-13 - Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...fire detecting and manual alarm automatic sprinklers, and smoke detecting alarm bells in the engine room shall be identified by at least 1 inch red lettering “FIRE ALARM”, “SPRINKLER ALARM” or “SMOKE DETECTING ALARM” as appropriate....

  4. 46 CFR 78.47-13 - Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...fire detecting and manual alarm automatic sprinklers, and smoke detecting alarm bells in the engine room shall be identified by at least 1 inch red lettering “FIRE ALARM”, “SPRINKLER ALARM” or “SMOKE DETECTING ALARM” as appropriate....

  5. 46 CFR 78.47-13 - Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...fire detecting and manual alarm automatic sprinklers, and smoke detecting alarm bells in the engine room shall be identified by at least 1 inch red lettering “FIRE ALARM”, “SPRINKLER ALARM” or “SMOKE DETECTING ALARM” as appropriate....

  6. 46 CFR 78.47-13 - Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...fire detecting and manual alarm automatic sprinklers, and smoke detecting alarm bells in the engine room shall be identified by at least 1 inch red lettering “FIRE ALARM”, “SPRINKLER ALARM” or “SMOKE DETECTING ALARM” as appropriate....

  7. 46 CFR 130.460 - Placement of machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Placement of machinery alarms. 130.460 Section 130.460 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.460...

  8. 46 CFR 130.460 - Placement of machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Placement of machinery alarms. 130.460 Section 130.460 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.460...

  9. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 119.530 Section 119.530 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 119.530 Bilge...

  10. 30 CFR 57.4360 - Underground alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Underground alarm systems. 57.4360 Section 57.4360 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting...

  11. 30 CFR 57.4360 - Underground alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Underground alarm systems. 57.4360 Section 57.4360 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting...

  12. 46 CFR 108.445 - Alarm and means of escape.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alarm and means of escape. 108.445 Section 108.445 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems §...

  13. The Best Ever Alarm System Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Kasemir, Kay; Chen, Xihui; Danilova, Katia

    2009-01-01

    Learning from our experience with the standard Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) alarm handler (ALH) as well as a similar intermediate approach based on script-generated operator screens, we developed the Best Ever Alarm System Toolkit (BEAST). It is based on Java and Eclipse on the Control System Studio (CSS) platform, using a relational database (RDB) to store the configuration and log actions. It employs a Java Message Service (JMS) for communication between the modular pieces of the toolkit, which include an Alarm Server to maintain the current alarm state, an arbitrary number of Alarm Client user interfaces (GUI), and tools to annunciate alarms or log alarm related actions. Web reports allow us to monitor the alarm system performance and spot deficiencies in the alarm configuration. The Alarm Client GUI not only gives the end users various ways to view alarms in tree and table, but also makes it easy to access the guidance information, the related operator displays and other CSS tools. It also allows online configuration to be simply modified from the GUI. Coupled with a good "alarm philosophy" on how to provide useful alarms, we can finally improve the configuration to achieve an effective alarm system.

  14. The False Memory and the Mirror Effects: The Role of Familiarity and Backward Association in Creating False Recollections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anaki, D.; Faran, Y.; Ben-Shalom, D.; Henik, A.

    2005-01-01

    The mirror effect refers to a phenomenon where the hit rate is higher for low frequency words while the false alarm rate is higher for high frequency distractors. Using a false memory paradigm (Roediger & McDermott, 1995), we examined whether false memory for non-presented lures would be influenced by the lure's familiarity. The results revealed…

  15. 46 CFR 95.05-1 - Fire detecting, manual alarm, and supervised patrol systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire detecting, manual alarm, and supervised patrol...CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Detecting and Extinguishing Equipment, Where...

  16. Integrating Multiple Alarms & Driver Situation Awareness

    E-print Network

    Cummings, M. L.

    2006-01-01

    This study addresses this gap in CAS and intelligent alarm research by examining whether or not a single master alarm warning versus multiple warnings for the different collision warning systems conveys adequate information ...

  17. 30 CFR 77.311 - Alarm devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.311 Alarm devices. Thermal dryer systems shall be equipped with both audible and visual alarm devices which are set to...

  18. 30 CFR 77.311 - Alarm devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.311 Alarm devices. Thermal dryer systems shall be equipped with both audible and visual alarm devices which are set to...

  19. 30 CFR 77.311 - Alarm devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.311 Alarm devices. Thermal dryer systems shall be equipped with both audible and visual alarm devices which are set to...

  20. 30 CFR 77.311 - Alarm devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.311 Alarm devices. Thermal dryer systems shall be equipped with both audible and visual alarm devices which are set to...

  1. 30 CFR 77.311 - Alarm devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.311 Alarm devices. Thermal dryer systems shall be equipped with both audible and visual alarm devices which are set to...

  2. Priority coding for control room alarms

    DOEpatents

    Scarola, Kenneth (Windsor, CT); Jamison, David S. (Windsor, CT); Manazir, Richard M. (North Canton, CT); Rescorl, Robert L. (Vernon, CT); Harmon, Daryl L. (Enfield, CT)

    1994-01-01

    Indicating the priority of a spatially fixed, activated alarm tile on an alarm tile array by a shape coding at the tile, and preferably using the same shape coding wherever the same alarm condition is indicated elsewhere in the control room. The status of an alarm tile can change automatically or by operator acknowledgement, but tones and/or flashing cues continue to provide status information to the operator.

  3. Make an Alarm! Grades 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, Erik; Ryan, Emily; Swift, Charles

    After reading the story "Dear Mr. Henshaw" by Beverly Cleary, students build an alarm system for something in the classroom as the main character, Leigh, does to protect his lunchbox from thieves. Students learn about alarms and use their creativity to create an alarm system to protect their lockers, desk, or classroom door. This activity uses a…

  4. 46 CFR 63.15-7 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... periodically unattended machinery space, the auxiliary boiler trip alarm required by 46 CFR 62.35-50, Table 62... Requirements § 63.15-7 Alarms. (a) An audible alarm must automatically sound when a flame safety system shutdown occurs. A visible indicator must indicate that the shutdown was caused by the flame safety...

  5. Improved alarm tracking for better accountability

    SciTech Connect

    Nemesure, S.; Marr, G.; Shrey, T.; Kling, N.; Hammons, L.; Ingrassia, P.; D'Ottavio, T.

    2011-03-28

    An alarm system is a vital component of any accelerator, as it provides a warning that some element of the system is not functioning properly. The severity and age of the alarm may sometimes signify whether urgent or deferred attention is required. For example, older alarms may be given a lower priority if an assumption is made that someone else is already investigating it, whereas those of higher severity or alarms that are more current may indicate the need for an immediate response. The alarm history also provides valuable information regarding the functionality of the overall system, thus careful tracking of these data is likely to improve response time, remove uncertainty about the current status and assist in the ability to promptly respond to the same warning/trigger in the future. Since one goal of every alarm display is to be free of alarms, a clear and concise presentation of an alarm along with useful historic annotations can help the end user address the warning more quickly, thus expediting the elimination of such alarm conditions. By defining a discrete set of very specific alarm management states and by utilizing database resources to maintain a complete and easily accessible alarm history, we anticipate facilitated work flow due to more efficient operator response and management of alarms.

  6. Directions for Bay Alarm Services If you have an existing alarm system

    E-print Network

    Directions for Bay Alarm Services If you have an existing alarm system: As a reminder, Facilities Management will pay for the transition costs from Safecom to Bay Alarm. Your department will pay for the Monthly Alarm Monitoring Fee ($48.00/month). To facilitate this process, your department

  7. INEL central alarm monitoring and assessment system

    SciTech Connect

    Niper, E.D.

    1983-07-01

    This paper concerns the design and development of a centrally located security monitoring and assessment system for processing alarms at several remote facilities. The system provides both live and recorded CCTV assessment of alarmed areas. Computer controlled video disc recordings are made at the time the alarm is activated. Alarming areas are displayed on a color graphics monitor and an operator interacts through an overlying transparent touch panel. Computer-generated messages are also displayed to assist and inform the operator. A bidirectional, frequency-multiplexed cable system provides digital alarm information, video control commands, and several channels of video from each remote facility.

  8. [Analysis of alarm management and alarm information integration technology for ICU's medical device].

    PubMed

    Shen, Yunming; Zheng, Kun; Wu, Sheng; Wang, Lin; Chen, Long

    2014-07-01

    This paper analyzed current problems and challenges facing hospitals in alarm management both abroad and at home. Based on a survey conducted on alarm management in hospitals, plus an analysis on different kinds of data interfaces and data exchange protocols of the medical equipment used in ICUs, a solution of alarm management is put forwarded which is based on alarm information integration and processing. It aims at improving medical equipment alarm management and reducing relevant adverse events. PMID:25330608

  9. SUBSURFACE VISUAL ALARM SYSTEM ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    D.W. Markman

    2001-08-06

    The ''Subsurface Fire Hazard Analysis'' (CRWMS M&O 1998, page 61), and the document, ''Title III Evaluation Report for the Surface and Subsurface Communication System'', (CRWMS M&O 1999a, pages 21 and 23), both indicate the installed communication system is adequate to support Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) activities with the exception of the mine phone system for emergency notification purposes. They recommend the installation of a visual alarm system to supplement the page/party phone system The purpose of this analysis is to identify data communication highway design approaches, and provide justification for the selected or recommended alternatives for the data communication of the subsurface visual alarm system. This analysis is being prepared to document a basis for the design selection of the data communication method. This analysis will briefly describe existing data or voice communication or monitoring systems within the ESF, and look at how these may be revised or adapted to support the needed data highway of the subsurface visual alarm. system. The existing PLC communication system installed in subsurface is providing data communication for alcove No.5 ventilation fans, south portal ventilation fans, bulkhead doors and generator monitoring system. It is given that the data communication of the subsurface visual alarm system will be a digital based system. It is also given that it is most feasible to take advantage of existing systems and equipment and not consider an entirely new data communication system design and installation. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Briefly review and describe existing available data communication highways or systems within the ESF. (2) Examine technical characteristics of an existing system to disqualify a design alternative is paramount in minimizing the number of and depth of a system review. (3) Apply general engineering design practices or criteria such as relative cost, and degree of difficulty and complexity in determining requirements in adapting existing data communication highways to support the subsurface visual alarm system. These requirements would include such things as added or new communication cables, added Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), Inputs and Outputs (I/O), and communication hardware components, and human machine interfaces and their software operating system. (4) Select the best data communication highway system based on this review of adapting or integrating with existing data communication systems.

  10. HYBRID ALARM SYSTEMS: COMBINING SPATIAL ALARMS AND ALARM LISTS FOR OPTIMIZED CONTROL ROOM OPERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring; J.J. Persensky

    2012-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research, development, and deployment on Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS), in which the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is working closely with nuclear utilities to develop technologies and solutions to help ensure the safe operational life extension of current nuclear power plants. One of the main areas of focus is control room modernization. Within control room modernization, alarm system upgrades present opportunities to meet the broader goals of the LWRS project in demonstrating the use and safety of the advanced instrumentation and control (I&C) technologies and the short-term and longer term objectives of the plant. In this paper, we review approaches for and human factors issues behind upgrading alarms in the main control room of nuclear power plants.

  11. 23 CFR 710.513 - Environmental mitigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... wetland mitigation sites and other mitigation banks is governed by 23 CFR part 777. (b) Environmental... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental mitigation. 710.513 Section 710.513...-WAY AND REAL ESTATE Property Acquisition Alternatives § 710.513 Environmental mitigation. (a)...

  12. Alarm sensor apparatus for closures

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, James A. (Thornton, CO); Stoddard, Lawrence M. (Arvada, CO)

    1986-01-01

    An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or frame work and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

  13. Alarm sensor apparatus for closures

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, J.A.; Stoddard, L.M.

    1984-01-31

    An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or framework and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

  14. Video systems for alarm assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwoll, D.A.; Matter, J.C. ); Ebel, P.E. )

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing closed-circuit television systems for video alarm assessment. There is a section on each of the major components in a video system: camera, lens, lighting, transmission, synchronization, switcher, monitor, and recorder. Each section includes information on component selection, procurement, installation, test, and maintenance. Considerations for system integration of the components are contained in each section. System emphasis is focused on perimeter intrusion detection and assessment systems. A glossary of video terms is included. 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  15. Development of real time alarm/surveillance system

    SciTech Connect

    Kajiyoshi, M.; Uchida, S.; Suenaga, S.; Iwabuchi, M.; Fujimoto, T.; Yoshimura, A.

    1987-07-01

    PNC has carried out real time alarm/surveillance system as a part of its r and d programs on the physical protection systems for its nuclear facilities from 1984 to 1986. The guard operates a closed circuit television (CCTV) camera to see whether the alarms are caused from intruders or from accident in the existing physical protection systems. But it is very difficult to assess rapidly moving objects using such a TV system. Monitor images are used to be continuously recorded by VTR, but it does not seem to be very suitable or it takes quite a long time to play back. Aiming at more effective and reliable physical protection systems, a new alarm/surveillance system was developed, the system detects persons entering into the surveillance zone and provides effective means to confirm. The system detects moving persons in a double fenced zone using image processing technique. Detection information such as time, position, detected images are displayed, printed and recorded, so that cause of false alarms, if occurred can be found easily.

  16. Alarm toe switch. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Ganyard, F.P.

    1980-11-18

    An alarm toe switch inserted within a shoe for energizing an alarm circuit in a covert manner includes an insole mounting pad into which a miniature reed switch is fixedly molded. An elongated slot perpendicular to the reed switch is formed in the bottom surface of the mounting pad. A permanent cylindrical magnet positioned in the forward portion of the slot with a diameter greater than the pad thickness causes a bump above the pad. A foam rubber block is also positioned in the slot rearwardly of the magnet and holds the magnet in normal inoperative relation. A non-magnetic support plate covers the slot and holds the magnet and foam rubber in the slot. The plate minimizes bending and frictional forces to improve movement of the magnet for reliable switch activation. The bump occupies the knuckle space beneath the big toe. When the big toe is scrunched rearwardly the magnet is moved within the slot relative to the reed switch, thus magnetically activating the switch. When toe pressure is released the foam rubber block forces the magnet back into normal inoperative position to deactivate the reed switch.

  17. D0 Cryogenic Auto Dialing Alarm System

    SciTech Connect

    Markely, D.; /Fermilab

    1992-08-03

    The Automatic Dialing system purchased by D0 is intended to help make the D0 cryogenic system operate unattended by cryogenic operating personnel. The auto dialer is completely programmable and is voice synthesized. The auto dialer was purchased with 32 bistable inputs, but is expandable to 64 bistable inputs with the purchase of more electronic cards at an approximate cost of $260 per card (8 bistable inputs). The auto dialer also has the capability for analog inputs, analog outputs, and bistable outputs none of which D0 uses or intends to use. The auto dialer can be called on its operating phone line to describe current alarms with the proper password. The Auto Dialer can dial lab extensions, lab pagers, and any number outside the lab. It cannot dial a long distance pager. The auto dialer monitors alarms and alarm conditions via the T1565 PLC, upon an alarm condition it initiates a phone calling sequence of preprogrammed lists with assigned priorities. When someone is reached, the auto dialer describes the individual alarm it is calling for, by a preprogrammed set of words for that individual alarm, spoken by a female voice. The called person then has a chance to acknowledge the alarm over the telephone, if the alarm is not acknowledged the auto dialer will disconnect and call the next person on the list. The auto dialer will continue to cycle through the list until it is acknowledged, reset, or the alarm condition no longer exists.

  18. Advanced alarm systems: Display and processing issues

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.M.; Wachtel, J.; Perensky, J.

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes a research program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to address the human factors engineering (HFE) deficiencies associated with nuclear power plant alarm systems. The overall objective of the study is to develop HFE review guidance for alarm systems. In support of this objective, human performance issues needing additional research were identified. Among the important issues were alarm processing strategies and alarm display techniques. This paper will discuss these issues and briefly describe our current research plan to address them.

  19. Earthquake alarm system for the Maui-A offshore platform, New Zealand

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, R.G.; Beck, J.L.

    1983-02-01

    Situated in the Tasman Sea, the Maui A offshore gas production platform has an earthquake alarm system that gives immediate warning when the seismic accelerations reach half the platform's design level. The system monitors only the response of the lower modes of the platform, as these make the major contribution to the stresses in the structure. In order to reduce the risk of false alarms, a radio link with similar detectors on shore confirms that an earthquake has occurred.

  20. 44 CFR 78.6 - Flood Mitigation Plan approval process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flood Mitigation Plan approval process. 78.6 Section...SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION ASSISTANCE § 78.6 Flood...

  1. 44 CFR 78.6 - Flood Mitigation Plan approval process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flood Mitigation Plan approval process. 78.6 Section...SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION ASSISTANCE § 78.6 Flood...

  2. 44 CFR 78.6 - Flood Mitigation Plan approval process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flood Mitigation Plan approval process. 78.6 Section...SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION ASSISTANCE § 78.6 Flood...

  3. 44 CFR 78.5 - Flood Mitigation Plan development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flood Mitigation Plan development. 78.5 Section...SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION ASSISTANCE § 78.5 Flood...

  4. 44 CFR 78.5 - Flood Mitigation Plan development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flood Mitigation Plan development. 78.5 Section...SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION ASSISTANCE § 78.5 Flood...

  5. 44 CFR 78.5 - Flood Mitigation Plan development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flood Mitigation Plan development. 78.5 Section...SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION ASSISTANCE § 78.5 Flood...

  6. 44 CFR 78.6 - Flood Mitigation Plan approval process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood Mitigation Plan approval process. 78.6 Section...SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION ASSISTANCE § 78.6 Flood...

  7. 44 CFR 78.5 - Flood Mitigation Plan development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood Mitigation Plan development. 78.5 Section...SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION ASSISTANCE § 78.5 Flood...

  8. 43 CFR 46.130 - Mitigation measures in analyses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Mitigation measures in analyses. 46.130 Section 46...Environmental Quality § 46.130 Mitigation measures in analyses. (a) Bureau proposed...effects of any appropriate mitigation measures or best management practices that...

  9. 43 CFR 46.130 - Mitigation measures in analyses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 false Mitigation measures in analyses. 46.130 Section 46...Environmental Quality § 46.130 Mitigation measures in analyses. (a) Bureau proposed...effects of any appropriate mitigation measures or best management practices that...

  10. Development of medical equipment alarm monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Yoshinori; Ogaito, Tatoku; Kasamatsu, Shingo

    2013-01-01

    In a hospital, we use a large number of medical equipment. In these use, I support the safe use by the alarm such as errors from medical equipment. There is the instrument notifying of alarm in communication, but there is the instrument by a sound and the light. For the medical safety management, confirmation of the alarm is important. We thought that stability was improved by integrating alarm from the instrument of the different type. Therefore, we thought that we integrated alarm from medical equipment. We decided to transmit an alarm signal from medical equipment by adding radio module program unit. The type of the radio used IEEE 802.15.4 (ZigBee) at a point of view of low power, International Standard, simple radio equipment. This system deals with only alarm information from medical equipment and does not handle the data. However, we understood that we were helpful very much even if it was only alarm information. We were able to in this way reduce the number of incidents. PMID:23920969

  11. 46 CFR 95.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-30 Alarms. (a) Spaces which are protected by a carbon... audible alarm in such spaces which will be automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to... sound during the 20 second delay period prior to the discharge of carbon dioxide into the space, and...

  12. 10 CFR 74.57 - Alarm resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Formula Quantities of Strategic Special Nuclear Material § 74.57 Alarm resolution. (a) Licensees subject to § 74.51... section. (b) Licensees shall resolve the nature and cause of any MC&A alarm within approved time...

  13. 10 CFR 74.57 - Alarm resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Formula Quantities of Strategic Special Nuclear Material § 74.57 Alarm resolution. (a) Licensees subject to § 74.51... section. (b) Licensees shall resolve the nature and cause of any MC&A alarm within approved time...

  14. Alarming features: birds use specific acoustic properties to identify heterospecific alarm calls

    PubMed Central

    Fallow, Pamela M.; Pitcher, Benjamin J.; Magrath, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    Vertebrates that eavesdrop on heterospecific alarm calls must distinguish alarms from sounds that can safely be ignored, but the mechanisms for identifying heterospecific alarm calls are poorly understood. While vertebrates learn to identify heterospecific alarms through experience, some can also respond to unfamiliar alarm calls that are acoustically similar to conspecific alarm calls. We used synthetic calls to test the role of specific acoustic properties in alarm call identification by superb fairy-wrens, Malurus cyaneus. Individuals fled more often in response to synthetic calls with peak frequencies closer to those of conspecific calls, even if other acoustic features were dissimilar to that of fairy-wren calls. Further, they then spent more time in cover following calls that had both peak frequencies and frequency modulation rates closer to natural fairy-wren means. Thus, fairy-wrens use similarity in specific acoustic properties to identify alarms and adjust a two-stage antipredator response. Our study reveals how birds respond to heterospecific alarm calls without experience, and, together with previous work using playback of natural calls, shows that both acoustic similarity and learning are important for interspecific eavesdropping. More generally, this study reconciles contrasting views on the importance of alarm signal structure and learning in recognition of heterospecific alarms. PMID:23303539

  15. Alarming features: birds use specific acoustic properties to identify heterospecific alarm calls.

    PubMed

    Fallow, Pamela M; Pitcher, Benjamin J; Magrath, Robert D

    2013-03-01

    Vertebrates that eavesdrop on heterospecific alarm calls must distinguish alarms from sounds that can safely be ignored, but the mechanisms for identifying heterospecific alarm calls are poorly understood. While vertebrates learn to identify heterospecific alarms through experience, some can also respond to unfamiliar alarm calls that are acoustically similar to conspecific alarm calls. We used synthetic calls to test the role of specific acoustic properties in alarm call identification by superb fairy-wrens, Malurus cyaneus. Individuals fled more often in response to synthetic calls with peak frequencies closer to those of conspecific calls, even if other acoustic features were dissimilar to that of fairy-wren calls. Further, they then spent more time in cover following calls that had both peak frequencies and frequency modulation rates closer to natural fairy-wren means. Thus, fairy-wrens use similarity in specific acoustic properties to identify alarms and adjust a two-stage antipredator response. Our study reveals how birds respond to heterospecific alarm calls without experience, and, together with previous work using playback of natural calls, shows that both acoustic similarity and learning are important for interspecific eavesdropping. More generally, this study reconciles contrasting views on the importance of alarm signal structure and learning in recognition of heterospecific alarms. PMID:23303539

  16. 44 CFR 78.5 - Flood Mitigation Plan development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood Mitigation Plan..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION ASSISTANCE § 78.5 Flood Mitigation Plan development. A Flood Mitigation Plan will articulate...

  17. 44 CFR 78.5 - Flood Mitigation Plan development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flood Mitigation Plan..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION ASSISTANCE § 78.5 Flood Mitigation Plan development. A Flood Mitigation Plan will articulate...

  18. 44 CFR 78.5 - Flood Mitigation Plan development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flood Mitigation Plan..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION ASSISTANCE § 78.5 Flood Mitigation Plan development. A Flood Mitigation Plan will articulate...

  19. 44 CFR 78.5 - Flood Mitigation Plan development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flood Mitigation Plan..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION ASSISTANCE § 78.5 Flood Mitigation Plan development. A Flood Mitigation Plan will articulate...

  20. COMPARISON OF RADIO-FREQUENCY INTERFERENCE MITIGATION STRATEGIES FOR DISPERSED PULSE DETECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Hogden, John; Vander Wiel, Scott; Michalak, Sarah; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Siemion, Andrew; Werthimer, Daniel

    2012-03-10

    Impulsive radio-frequency signals from astronomical sources are dispersed by the frequency-dependent index of refraction of the interstellar media and so appear as chirped signals when they reach Earth. Searches for dispersed impulses have been limited by false detections due to radio-frequency interference (RFI) and, in some cases, artifacts of the instrumentation. Many authors have discussed techniques to excise or mitigate RFI in searches for fast transients, but comparisons between different approaches are lacking. This work develops RFI mitigation techniques for use in searches for dispersed pulses, employing data recorded in a 'Fly's Eye' mode of the Allen Telescope Array as a test case. We gauge the performance of several RFI mitigation techniques by adding dispersed signals to data containing RFI and comparing false alarm rates at the observed signal-to-noise ratios of the added signals. We find that Huber filtering is most effective at removing broadband interferers, while frequency centering is most effective at removing narrow frequency interferers. Neither of these methods is effective over a broad range of interferers. A method that combines Huber filtering and adaptive interference cancelation provides the lowest number of false positives over the interferers considered here. The methods developed here have application to other searches for dispersed pulses in incoherent spectra, especially those involving multiple beam systems.

  1. Development of a ground level enhancement alarm system based upon neutron monitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwabara, T.; Bieber, J. W.; Clem, J.; Evenson, P.; Pyle, R.

    2006-10-01

    We have developed a system that watches for count rate increases recorded in real time by eight neutron monitors, which triggers an alarm if a ground level enhancement (GLE) is detected. In this work, we determine optimal strategies for detecting the GLE event at a very early stage, while still keeping the false alarm rate at a very low level. We study past events to optimize appropriate intensity threshold values and a baseline to determine the intensity increase. The highest-level alarm, which we term an "alert," is generated when a 4% increase is recorded at three stations in 3 min averaged data. At this level, the false alarm rate obtained by backtesting over the past 4.4 years is zero. Ten GLEs occurred in this period, and our system produced GLE alarms for nine events. Alarm times for these nine events are compared with satellite proton data. The GLE alert precedes the earliest alert from GOES (100 MeV or 10 MeV protons) by ˜10-30 min. Real-time GLE data may be viewed at http://neutronm.bartol.udel.edu/spaceweather. An automated e-mail alert system is under development.

  2. The false classification of extinction risk in noisy environments

    PubMed Central

    Connors, B. M.; Cooper, A. B.; Peterman, R. M.; Dulvy, N. K.

    2014-01-01

    Abundance trends are the basis for many classifications of threat and recovery status, but they can be a challenge to interpret because of observation error, stochastic variation in abundance (process noise) and temporal autocorrelation in that process noise. To measure the frequency of incorrectly detecting a decline (false-positive or false alarm) and failing to detect a true decline (false-negative), we simulated stable and declining abundance time series across several magnitudes of observation error and autocorrelated process noise. We then empirically estimated the magnitude of observation error and autocorrelated process noise across a broad range of taxa and mapped these estimates onto the simulated parameter space. Based on the taxa we examined, at low classification thresholds (30% decline in abundance) and short observation windows (10 years), false alarms would be expected to occur, on average, about 40% of the time assuming density-independent dynamics, whereas false-negatives would be expected to occur about 60% of the time. However, false alarms and failures to detect true declines were reduced at higher classification thresholds (50% or 80% declines), longer observation windows (20, 40, 60 years), and assuming density-dependent dynamics. The lowest false-positive and false-negative rates are likely to occur for large-bodied, long-lived animal species. PMID:24898368

  3. Specificity improvement for network distributed physiologic alarms based on a simple deterministic reactive intelligent agent in the critical care environment.

    PubMed

    Blum, James M; Kruger, Grant H; Sanders, Kathryn L; Gutierrez, Jorge; Rosenberg, Andrew L

    2009-02-01

    Automated physiologic alarms are available in most commercial physiologic monitors. However, due to the variability of data coming from the physiologic sensors describing the state of patients, false positive alarms frequently occur. Each alarm requires review and documentation, which consumes clinicians' time, may reduce patient safety through 'alert fatigue' and makes automated physician paging infeasible. To address these issues a computerized architecture based on simple reactive intelligent agent technology has been developed and implemented in a live critical care unit to facilitate the investigation of deterministic algorithms for the improvement of the sensitivity and specificity of physiologic alarms. The initial proposed algorithm uses a combination of median filters and production rules to make decisions about what alarms to generate. The alarms are used to classify the state of patients and alerts can be easily viewed and distributed using standard network, SQL database and Internet technologies. To evaluate the proposed algorithm, a 28 day study was conducted in the University of Michigan Medical Center's 14 bed Cardiothoracic Intensive Care Unit. Alarms generated by patient monitors, the intelligent agent and alerts documented on patient flow sheets were compared. Significant improvements in the specificity of the physiologic alarms based on systolic and mean blood pressure was found on average to be 99% and 88% respectively. Even through significant improvements were noted based on this algorithm much work still needs to be done to ensure the sensitivity of alarms and methods to handle spurious sensor data due to patient or sensor movement and other influences. PMID:19169835

  4. INEL central alarm monitoring and assessment system

    SciTech Connect

    Niper, E.D.

    1983-01-01

    This paper concerns the design and development of a centrally located security monitoring and assessment system for processing alarms at several remote facilities. The system provides both live and recorded CCTV assessment of alarmed areas. Computer controlled video disc recordings are displayed on a color graphics monitor and an operator interacts through an overlying transparent touch panel. Computer generated messages are also displayed to assist and inform the operator. A bidirectional, frequency-multiplexed cable system provides digital alarm information, video control commands, and several channels of video from each remote facility.

  5. Insights into the Problem of Alarm Fatigue with Physiologic Monitor Devices: A Comprehensive Observational Study of Consecutive Intensive Care Unit Patients

    PubMed Central

    Drew, Barbara J.; Harris, Patricia; Zègre-Hemsey, Jessica K.; Mammone, Tina; Schindler, Daniel; Salas-Boni, Rebeca; Bai, Yong; Tinoco, Adelita; Ding, Quan; Hu, Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Physiologic monitors are plagued with alarms that create a cacophony of sounds and visual alerts causing “alarm fatigue” which creates an unsafe patient environment because a life-threatening event may be missed in this milieu of sensory overload. Using a state-of-the-art technology acquisition infrastructure, all monitor data including 7 ECG leads, all pressure, SpO2, and respiration waveforms as well as user settings and alarms were stored on 461 adults treated in intensive care units. Using a well-defined alarm annotation protocol, nurse scientists with 95% inter-rater reliability annotated 12,671 arrhythmia alarms. Results A total of 2,558,760 unique alarms occurred in the 31-day study period: arrhythmia, 1,154,201; parameter, 612,927; technical, 791,632. There were 381,560 audible alarms for an audible alarm burden of 187/bed/day. 88.8% of the 12,671 annotated arrhythmia alarms were false positives. Conditions causing excessive alarms included inappropriate alarm settings, persistent atrial fibrillation, and non-actionable events such as PVC's and brief spikes in ST segments. Low amplitude QRS complexes in some, but not all available ECG leads caused undercounting and false arrhythmia alarms. Wide QRS complexes due to bundle branch block or ventricular pacemaker rhythm caused false alarms. 93% of the 168 true ventricular tachycardia alarms were not sustained long enough to warrant treatment. Discussion The excessive number of physiologic monitor alarms is a complex interplay of inappropriate user settings, patient conditions, and algorithm deficiencies. Device solutions should focus on use of all available ECG leads to identify non-artifact leads and leads with adequate QRS amplitude. Devices should provide prompts to aide in more appropriate tailoring of alarm settings to individual patients. Atrial fibrillation alarms should be limited to new onset and termination of the arrhythmia and delays for ST-segment and other parameter alarms should be configurable. Because computer devices are more reliable than humans, an opportunity exists to improve physiologic monitoring and reduce alarm fatigue. PMID:25338067

  6. Source Injection Distribution Functions for Alarm Algorithm Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Sean M.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Schweppe, John E.

    2008-05-15

    The development and testing of improved alarm algorithms is an ongoing priority of the Radiation Portal Monitor Project (RPMP) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Improved algorithms have the potential to reduce the impediments that radiation screening presents to the flow of commerce, without affecting the detection sensitivity to sources of interest. However, assessing alarm-algorithm performance involves careful calculation of detection probabilities and nuisance/false alarm rates for any algorithm that may be used in the field. To establish statistical confidence, such a task requires a large amount of data from drive-through (or “dynamic”) scenarios both with, and without, radioactive sources of interest present; but obtaining actual field data to meet this need is not feasible. Instead, an “injection-study” procedure is being used to approximate how the profiles of actual drive-through commercial data would change with the presence of sources of interest. This procedure adds net-counts from a pre-defined set of simulated sources to raw, gross-count drive-through data randomly selected from archived cargo data collected from deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs). (PIET-43741-TM-480)

  7. 46 CFR 95.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... conspicuously and centrally located and be marked as required by 46 CFR 97.37-9; and (3) Use stored gas power... approved audible alarm if: (1) The space is normally accessible to persons onboard while the vessel...

  8. Alarm Systems: Library Confounds Criminal Capers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gjettum, Pamela

    1978-01-01

    Tells the story of a small town library faced with the problem of preventing nuisance burglaries of the type becoming more and more common. The problems of selecting the right type of alarm system are discussed. (JPF)

  9. The strategic nature of false recognition in the DRM paradigm.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michael B; Guerin, Scott A; Wolford, George L

    2011-09-01

    The false memory effect produced by the Deese/Roediger & McDermott (DRM) paradigm is reportedly impervious to warnings to avoid false alarming to the critical lures (D. A. Gallo, H. L. Roediger III, & K. B. McDermott, 2001). This finding has been used as strong evidence against models that attribute the false alarms to a decision process (e.g., M. B. Miller & G. L. Wolford, 1999). In this report, the authors clarify their earlier article and suggest that subjects establish only 2 underlying criteria for a recognition judgment, a liberal criterion for items that seem to be related to 1 of the study list themes and a conservative criterion for items that do not seem to be related. They demonstrate that warnings designed on the basis of these underlying criteria are effective in significantly suppressing the false recognition effect, suggesting that strategic control of the retrieval response does play a role in the DRM paradigm. PMID:21767060

  10. Low Power Wireless Smoke Alarm System in Home Fires

    PubMed Central

    Luis, Juan Aponte; Galán, Juan Antonio Gómez; Espigado, Javier Alcina

    2015-01-01

    A novel sensing device for fire detection in domestic environments is presented. The fire detector uses a combination of several sensors that not only detect smoke, but discriminate between different types of smoke. This feature avoids false alarms and warns of different situations. Power consumption is optimized both in terms of hardware and software, providing a high degree of autonomy of almost five years. Data gathered from the device are transmitted through a wireless communication to a base station. The low cost and compact design provides wide application prospects. PMID:26307994

  11. Low Power Wireless Smoke Alarm System in Home Fires.

    PubMed

    Aponte Luis, Juan; Gómez Galán, Juan Antonio; Alcina Espigado, Javier

    2015-01-01

    A novel sensing device for fire detection in domestic environments is presented. The fire detector uses a combination of several sensors that not only detect smoke, but discriminate between different types of smoke. This feature avoids false alarms and warns of different situations. Power consumption is optimized both in terms of hardware and software, providing a high degree of autonomy of almost five years. Data gathered from the device are transmitted through a wireless communication to a base station. The low cost and compact design provides wide application prospects. PMID:26307994

  12. MSPI False Indication Probability Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Dana Kelly; Kurt Vedros; Robert Youngblood

    2011-03-01

    This paper examines false indication probabilities in the context of the Mitigating System Performance Index (MSPI), in order to investigate the pros and cons of different approaches to resolving two coupled issues: (1) sensitivity to the prior distribution used in calculating the Bayesian-corrected unreliability contribution to the MSPI, and (2) whether (in a particular plant configuration) to model the fuel oil transfer pump (FOTP) as a separate component, or integrally to its emergency diesel generator (EDG). False indication probabilities were calculated for the following situations: (1) all component reliability parameters at their baseline values, so that the true indication is green, meaning that an indication of white or above would be false positive; (2) one or more components degraded to the extent that the true indication would be (mid) white, and “false” would be green (negative) or yellow (negative) or red (negative). In key respects, this was the approach taken in NUREG-1753. The prior distributions examined were the constrained noninformative (CNI) prior used currently by the MSPI, a mixture of conjugate priors, the Jeffreys noninformative prior, a nonconjugate log(istic)-normal prior, and the minimally informative prior investigated in (Kelly et al., 2010). The mid-white performance state was set at ?CDF = ?10 ? 10-6/yr. For each simulated time history, a check is made of whether the calculated ?CDF is above or below 10-6/yr. If the parameters were at their baseline values, and ?CDF > 10-6/yr, this is counted as a false positive. Conversely, if one or all of the parameters are set to values corresponding to ?CDF > 10-6/yr but that time history’s ?CDF < 10-6/yr, this is counted as a false negative indication. The false indication (positive or negative) probability is then estimated as the number of false positive or negative counts divided by the number of time histories (100,000). Results are presented for a set of base case parameter values, and three sensitivity cases in which the number of FOTP demands was reduced, along with the Birnbaum importance of the FOTP.

  13. 46 CFR 154.1365 - Audible and visual alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... alarm's actuation by other faults. (b) Each visual alarm must be one that can be turned off only after the fault that actuated it is corrected. (c) Each visual alarm must be marked to show the type and, except for remote group alarms, the location of each fault that actuates it. (d) Each vessel must...

  14. 46 CFR 154.1365 - Audible and visual alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... alarm's actuation by other faults. (b) Each visual alarm must be one that can be turned off only after the fault that actuated it is corrected. (c) Each visual alarm must be marked to show the type and, except for remote group alarms, the location of each fault that actuates it. (d) Each vessel must...

  15. 46 CFR 154.1365 - Audible and visual alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... alarm's actuation by other faults. (b) Each visual alarm must be one that can be turned off only after the fault that actuated it is corrected. (c) Each visual alarm must be marked to show the type and, except for remote group alarms, the location of each fault that actuates it. (d) Each vessel must...

  16. 46 CFR 154.1365 - Audible and visual alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... alarm's actuation by other faults. (b) Each visual alarm must be one that can be turned off only after the fault that actuated it is corrected. (c) Each visual alarm must be marked to show the type and, except for remote group alarms, the location of each fault that actuates it. (d) Each vessel must...

  17. 46 CFR 154.1365 - Audible and visual alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... alarm's actuation by other faults. (b) Each visual alarm must be one that can be turned off only after the fault that actuated it is corrected. (c) Each visual alarm must be marked to show the type and, except for remote group alarms, the location of each fault that actuates it. (d) Each vessel must...

  18. Alarm acknowledgement in a nuclear plant control room

    DOEpatents

    Scarola, Kenneth (Windsor, CT); Jamison, David S. (Windsor, CT); Manazir, Richard M. (North Canton, CT); Rescorl, Robert L. (Vernon, CT); Harmon, Daryl L. (Enfield, CT)

    1994-01-01

    Alarm acknowledgment can be made not only at the alarm tile array of a given console but via other touch sensitive alarm indications in the screen displays of the monitoring system at the same or other consoles; also, touching one tile can acknowledge multiple alarm sources.

  19. Low Voltage Alarm Apprenticeship. Related Training Modules. 7.1-26.10 Alarm Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This packet of 70 learning modules on alarm basics is 1 of 8 such packets developed for apprenticeship training for low voltage alarm. Introductory materials are a complete listing of all available modules and a supplementary reference list. Each module contains some or all of these components: goal, performance indicators, study guide (a check…

  20. False alarms and missed events: the impact and origins of perceived inaccuracy in tornado warning systems.

    PubMed

    Ripberger, Joseph T; Silva, Carol L; Jenkins-Smith, Hank C; Carlson, Deven E; James, Mark; Herron, Kerry G

    2015-01-01

    Theory and conventional wisdom suggest that errors undermine the credibility of tornado warning systems and thus decrease the probability that individuals will comply (i.e., engage in protective action) when future warnings are issued. Unfortunately, empirical research on the influence of warning system accuracy on public responses to tornado warnings is incomplete and inconclusive. This study adds to existing research by analyzing two sets of relationships. First, we assess the relationship between perceptions of accuracy, credibility, and warning response. Using data collected via a large regional survey, we find that trust in the National Weather Service (NWS; the agency responsible for issuing tornado warnings) increases the likelihood that an individual will opt for protective action when responding to a hypothetical warning. More importantly, we find that subjective perceptions of warning system accuracy are, as theory suggests, systematically related to trust in the NWS and (by extension) stated responses to future warnings. The second half of the study matches survey data against NWS warning and event archives to investigate a critical follow-up question--Why do some people perceive that their warning system is accurate, whereas others perceive that their system is error prone? We find that subjective perceptions are--in part-a function of objective experience, knowledge, and demographic characteristics. When considered in tandem, these findings support the proposition that errors influence perceptions about the accuracy of warning systems, which in turn impact the credibility that people assign to information provided by systems and, ultimately, public decisions about how to respond when warnings are issued. PMID:25082540

  1. Biochemical Detection and Identification False Alarm Rate Dependence on Wavelength Using Laser Induced Fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhartia, R.; Hug, W. F.; Sala, E. C.; Sijapati, K.; Lane, A. L.; Reid, R. D.; Conrad, P. G.

    2006-01-01

    Most organic and many inorganic materials absorb strongly in specific wavelength ranges in the deep UV between about 220nm and 300nm. Excitation within these absorption bands results in native fluorescence emission. Each compound or composite material, such as a bacterial spore, has a unique excitation-emission fingerprint that can be used to provide information about the material. The sensitivity and specificity with which these materials can be detected and identified depends on the excitation wavelength and the number and location of observation wavelengths.We will present data on our deep ultraviolet Targeted Ultraviolet Chemical Sensors that demonstrate the sensitivity and specificity of the sensors. In particular, we will demonstrate the ability to quantitatively differentiate a wide range of biochemical agent targets against a wide range of background materials. We will describe the relationship between spectral resolution and specificity in target identification, as well as simple, fast, algorithms to identify materials.Hand-held, battery operated instruments using a deep UV laser and multi-band detection have been developed and deployed on missions to the Antarctic, the Arctic, and the deep ocean with the capability of detecting a single bacterial spore and to differentiate a wide range of organic and biological compounds.

  2. 46 CFR 113.25-30 - General emergency alarm systems for barges of 300 or more gross tons with sleeping accommodations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General emergency alarm systems for barges of 300 or more gross tons with sleeping accommodations for more than six persons. 113.25-30 Section 113.25-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General...

  3. 30 CFR 75.352 - Actions in response to AMS malfunction, alert, or alarm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actions in response to AMS malfunction, alert, or alarm signals. 75.352 Section 75.352 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.352 Actions in response to...

  4. 30 CFR 75.352 - Actions in response to AMS malfunction, alert, or alarm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Actions in response to AMS malfunction, alert, or alarm signals. 75.352 Section 75.352 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.352 Actions in response to...

  5. False call rate estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldrin, John C.; Knopp, Jeremy S.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, several approaches are presented for the estimation of false call rate including confidence bounds during an NDE reliability study. Bootstrapping methods are applied to nonparametric models (for hit-miss data) and several noise distribution models. By applying bootstrapping with a student t-distribution used to address the "heavy tail" behavior of the data, the estimated false call rate with confidence bounds was found to be in good agreement with the observed data.

  6. 44 CFR 78.6 - Flood Mitigation Plan approval process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood Mitigation Plan..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION ASSISTANCE § 78.6 Flood Mitigation Plan approval process. The State POC will forward all...

  7. 44 CFR 78.6 - Flood Mitigation Plan approval process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flood Mitigation Plan..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION ASSISTANCE § 78.6 Flood Mitigation Plan approval process. The State POC will forward all...

  8. 44 CFR 78.6 - Flood Mitigation Plan approval process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flood Mitigation Plan..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION ASSISTANCE § 78.6 Flood Mitigation Plan approval process. The State POC will forward all...

  9. 44 CFR 78.6 - Flood Mitigation Plan approval process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flood Mitigation Plan..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION ASSISTANCE § 78.6 Flood Mitigation Plan approval process. The State POC will forward all...

  10. 44 CFR 201.6 - Local Mitigation Plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Local Mitigation Plans. 201.6 Section 201.6 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE MITIGATION PLANNING § 201.6 Local Mitigation Plans. The local mitigation plan is the representation of...

  11. 44 CFR 201.7 - Tribal Mitigation Plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tribal Mitigation Plans. 201.7 Section 201.7 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE MITIGATION PLANNING § 201.7 Tribal Mitigation Plans. The Indian Tribal Mitigation Plan is the...

  12. 44 CFR 201.7 - Tribal Mitigation Plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tribal Mitigation Plans. 201.7 Section 201.7 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE MITIGATION PLANNING § 201.7 Tribal Mitigation Plans. The Indian Tribal Mitigation Plan is the...

  13. 44 CFR 201.6 - Local Mitigation Plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Local Mitigation Plans. 201.6 Section 201.6 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE MITIGATION PLANNING § 201.6 Local Mitigation Plans. The local mitigation plan is the representation of...

  14. Pressurized security barrier and alarm system

    DOEpatents

    Carver, Don W. (Knoxville, TN)

    1995-01-01

    A security barrier for placement across a passageway is made up of interconnected pressurized tubing made up in a grid pattern with openings too small to allow passage. The tubing is connected to a pressure switch, located away from the barrier site, which activates an alarm upon occurrence of a pressure drop. A reinforcing bar is located inside and along the length of the tubing so as to cause the tubing to rupture and set off the alarm upon an intruder's making an attempt to crimp and seal off a portion of the tubing by application of a hydraulic tool. Radial and rectangular grid patterns are disclosed.

  15. Pressurized security barrier and alarm system

    DOEpatents

    Carver, D.W.

    1995-04-11

    A security barrier for placement across a passageway is made up of interconnected pressurized tubing made up in a grid pattern with openings too small to allow passage. The tubing is connected to a pressure switch, located away from the barrier site, which activates an alarm upon occurrence of a pressure drop. A reinforcing bar is located inside and along the length of the tubing so as to cause the tubing to rupture and set off the alarm upon an intruder`s making an attempt to crimp and seal off a portion of the tubing by application of a hydraulic tool. Radial and rectangular grid patterns are disclosed. 7 figures.

  16. Fuel Handling Exclusion Zone Established to Prevent Spurious Alarms to CAS Neutron Detectors in the IFSF

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Soon Sam; Sterbentz, James William

    2000-09-01

    An experimental and calculational study has been performed to understand and prevent inadvertent activation of the criticality alarm system (CAS) from fuel-handling operations at the Irradiated Fuel Storage Facility. In conjunction with the study, the CAS neutron detectors were tested to verify the design specifications for gamma rejection capability and zero response limit. A minimum physical restrictive boundary around the CAS location was established based on a gamma ray dose rate limit of 10 rad/hr. The canister loaded with spent nuclear fuel must be moved in the area outside the exclusion zone so as not to trigger a false alarm from the CAS detectors.

  17. Fuel handling exclusion zone established to prevent spurious alarms to CAS neutron detectors in the IFSF

    SciTech Connect

    S. S. Kim; J. W. Sterbentz

    2000-09-17

    An experimental and calculational study has been performed to understand and prevent inadvertent activation of the criticality alarm system (CAS) from fuel-handling operations at the Irradiated Fuel Storage Facility. In conjunction with the study, the CAS neutron detectors were tested to verify the design specifications for gamma rejection capability and zero response limit. A minimum physical restrictive boundary around the CAS location was established based on a gamma ray dose rate limit of 10 rad/hr. The canister loaded with spent nuclear fuel must be moved in the area outside the exclusion zone so as not to trigger a false alarm from the CAS detectors.

  18. Detecting Alarm Sounds Dan Ellis Columbia University dpwe@ee.columbia.edu

    E-print Network

    Ellis, Dan

    alarms. · Three different alarms are added to a pop music background. · The third alarm is not detected-separation approach that tries to isolate alarms from background noise Alarm sound corpus · A set of 50 short alarm was trained by back-propagation on alarm examples artificially mixed with a range of background noises

  19. 46 CFR 76.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-30 Alarms. (a) Spaces which are protected by a carbon dioxide... such spaces which will be automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space....

  20. 46 CFR 76.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-30 Alarms. (a) Spaces which are protected by a carbon dioxide... such spaces which will be automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space....

  1. 46 CFR 76.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-30 Alarms. (a) Spaces which are protected by a carbon dioxide... such spaces which will be automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space....

  2. 46 CFR 193.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... to persons on board while the vessel is being navigated which are protected by a carbon dioxide... automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space. The alarm shall be conspicuously and... arranged as to sound during the 20-second delay period prior to the discharge of carbon dioxide into...

  3. 46 CFR 76.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-30 Alarms. (a) Spaces which are protected by a carbon dioxide... such spaces which will be automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space....

  4. 46 CFR 193.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... board while the vessel is being navigated which are protected by a carbon dioxide extinguishing system... when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space. The alarm shall be conspicuously and centrally... as to sound during the 20-second delay period prior to the discharge of carbon dioxide into the...

  5. 46 CFR 76.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-30 Alarms. (a) Spaces which are protected by a carbon dioxide... such spaces which will be automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space....

  6. Combating Nuisance Alarms Caused by the Ship Effect in 3He Based Neutron Detection Radiation Portal Monitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveri, A.; Buckley, E.; Borgardt, J.; Kouzes, R.; Siciliano, E.; Seifert, A.; Windsor, L.

    2007-10-01

    Ship effect neutrons can present unique challenges in ongoing efforts to interdict illicit nuclear trafficking at border crossings. 3He neutron proportional counters can generate false positives due to these neutron spikes, leading to cumbersome secondary radiation scans. This work explores methods to mitigate these nuisance alarms through a better understanding of how this effect is manifested in different materials, the role of a target's neutron density, and data analysis techniques to account for its effects. We used a mobile RPM equipped with 3He tubes to detect the neutron flux from several commercial products containing NORM. While neutrons from illicit nuclear sources are Poisson in their frequency distribution, those from background are not. Ship effect neutrons deviated from a Poisson distribution when binned over 0.1 sec time intervals, however when averaged over 2.0 sec intervals the ship effect neutron spikes were washed out, recovering a Poisson distribution. These findings provide underlying knowledge regarding ship effect neutrons emanating from some common bulk materials, and suggest a data analysis algorithm to distinguish between innocent ship effect neutrons and neutron-emitting illegal sources.

  7. Chair alarm for patient fall prevention based on gesture recognition and interactivity.

    PubMed

    Knight, Heather; Lee, Jae-Kyu; Ma, Hongshen

    2008-01-01

    The Gesture Recognition Interactive Technology (GRiT) Chair Alarm aims to prevent patient falls from chairs and wheelchairs by recognizing the gesture of a patient attempting to stand. Patient falls are one of the greatest causes of injury in hospitals. Current chair and bed exit alarm systems are inadequate because of insufficient notification, high false-alarm rate, and long trigger delays. The GRiT chair alarm uses an array of capacitive proximity sensors and pressure sensors to create a map of the patient's sitting position, which is then processed using gesture recognition algorithms to determine when a patient is attempting to stand and to alarm the care providers. This system also uses a range of voice and light feedback to encourage the patient to remain seated and/or to make use of the system's integrated nurse-call function. This system can be seamlessly integrated into existing hospital WiFi networks to send notifications and approximate patient location through existing nurse call systems. PMID:19163515

  8. Alarm guided critical function and success path monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Scarola, Kenneth (Windsor, CT); Jamison, David S. (Windsor, CT); Manazir, Richard M. (North Canton, CT); Rescorl, Robert L. (Vernon, CT); Harmon, Daryl L. (Enfield, CT)

    1994-01-01

    The use of alarm indication on the overview (IPSO) display to initiate diagnosis of challenges to critical functions or unavailability of success paths, and further alarm-based guidance toward ultimate diagnosis.

  9. 30 CFR 57.4360 - Underground alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures...Underground alarm systems. (a) Fire alarm systems capable of promptly...their safe evacuation in the event of a...

  10. 30 CFR 57.4360 - Underground alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures...Underground alarm systems. (a) Fire alarm systems capable of promptly...their safe evacuation in the event of a...

  11. 8. INTERIOR, FIRE ALARM CONTROL ROOM (NORTH OF MAIN GARAGE), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR, FIRE ALARM CONTROL ROOM (NORTH OF MAIN GARAGE), FROM ENTRYWAY, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING ADDITIONAL 'GAMEWELL' FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Firehouse, East of Fourth Street, between A & B Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  12. 30 CFR 56.14132 - Horns and backup alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Alarms shall be audible above the surrounding noise level. (3) An automatic reverse-activated strobe light may be used at night in lieu of an audible reverse alarm. (c) This standard does not apply to rail equipment. Safety...

  13. 30 CFR 56.14132 - Horns and backup alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Alarms shall be audible above the surrounding noise level. (3) An automatic reverse-activated strobe light may be used at night in lieu of an audible reverse alarm. (c) This standard does not apply to rail equipment. Safety...

  14. 30 CFR 56.14132 - Horns and backup alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Alarms shall be audible above the surrounding noise level. (3) An automatic reverse-activated strobe light may be used at night in lieu of an audible reverse alarm. (c) This standard does not apply to rail equipment. Safety...

  15. 30 CFR 56.14132 - Horns and backup alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Alarms shall be audible above the surrounding noise level. (3) An automatic reverse-activated strobe light may be used at night in lieu of an audible reverse alarm. (c) This standard does not apply to rail equipment. Safety...

  16. 30 CFR 56.14132 - Horns and backup alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Alarms shall be audible above the surrounding noise level. (3) An automatic reverse-activated strobe light may be used at night in lieu of an audible reverse alarm. (c) This standard does not apply to rail equipment. Safety...

  17. Criticality accident alarm system at the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    SciTech Connect

    Marble, R.C.; Brown, T.D.; Wooldridge, J.C.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes the staus of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) criticality alarm system. A new radiation detection alarm system was installed in 1990. The anunciation system, calibration and maintenance, and detector placement is described.

  18. 46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power semiconductor rectifier must have a high temperature alarm or shutdown, except as...

  19. 46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power semiconductor rectifier must have a high temperature alarm or shutdown, except as...

  20. 46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power semiconductor rectifier must have a high temperature alarm or shutdown, except as...

  1. 46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power semiconductor rectifier must have a high temperature alarm or shutdown, except as...

  2. 46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power semiconductor rectifier must have a high temperature alarm or shutdown, except as...

  3. Remembering words not presented in lists: Can we avoid creating false memories?

    PubMed

    Gallo, D A; Roberts, M J; Seamon, J G

    1997-06-01

    Can subjects avoid creating false memories as outlined in Roediger and McDermott's (1995) false recognition paradigm if they are forewarned about this memory illusion? We presented subjects with semantically related word lists, followed by a recognition test. The test was composed of studied words, semantically related nonstudied words (critical lures), and unrelated nonstudied words. One group of subjects was uninformed about the false recognition effect, a second group was urged to minimize all false alarms, and a third group was forewarned about falsely recognizing critical lures. Compared with the uninformed and cautious subjects, the forewarned subjects reduced their false alarm rate for critical lures, and they made remember and know judgments equally often for recognized studied words and critical lures. But forewarning did not eliminate the false recognition effect, as these subjects and those in the other groups made numerous false recognitions in this task. PMID:21331837

  4. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood pressure transducer amplifier, processes the signal, and emits an alarm when the blood pressure falls outside a pre-set upper or lower limit....

  5. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood pressure transducer amplifier, processes the signal, and emits an alarm when the blood pressure falls outside a pre-set upper or lower limit....

  6. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood pressure transducer amplifier, processes the signal, and emits an alarm when the blood pressure falls outside a pre-set upper or lower limit....

  7. 46 CFR 162.050-35 - Bilge alarm: Approval tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...pressure. If the alarm has a centrifugal mixture pump or is not equipped with a mixture...positive displacement mixture pump, the influent pressure is...pressure. If the alarm has a centrifugal mixture pump or if the alarm is not...

  8. The Roles of Spreading Activation and Retrieval Mode in Producing False Recognition in the DRM Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meade, Michelle L.; Watson, Jason M.; Balota, David A.; Roediger, Henry L., III

    2007-01-01

    The nature of persisting spreading activation from list presentation in eliciting false recognition in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm was examined in two experiments. We compared the time course of semantic priming in the lexical decision task (LDT) and false alarms in speeded recognition under identical study and test conditions. The…

  9. Automated Information System (AIS) Alarm System

    SciTech Connect

    Hunteman, W.

    1997-05-01

    The Automated Information Alarm System is a joint effort between Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratory to demonstrate and implement, on a small-to-medium sized local area network, an automated system that detects and automatically responds to attacks that use readily available tools and methodologies. The Alarm System will sense or detect, assess, and respond to suspicious activities that may be detrimental to information on the network or to continued operation of the network. The responses will allow stopping, isolating, or ejecting the suspicious activities. The number of sensors, the sensitivity of the sensors, the assessment criteria, and the desired responses may be set by the using organization to meet their local security policies.

  10. False Memory in Aging Resulting From Self-Referential Processing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Referencing the self is known to enhance accurate memory, but less is known about how the strategy affects false memory, particularly for highly self-relevant information. Because older adults are more prone to false memories, we tested whether self-referencing increased false memories with age. Method. In 2 studies, older and younger adults rated adjectives for self-descriptiveness and later completed a surprise recognition test comprised of words rated previously for self-descriptiveness and novel lure words. Lure words were subsequently rated for self-descriptiveness in order to assess the impact of self-relevance on false memory. Study 2 introduced commonness judgments as a control condition, such that participants completed a recognition test on adjectives rated for commonness in addition to adjectives in the self-descriptiveness condition. Results. Across both studies, findings indicate an increased response bias to self-referencing that increased hit rates for both older and younger adults but also increased false alarms as information became more self-descriptive, particularly for older adults. Discussion. Although the present study supports previous literature showing a boost in memory for self-referenced information, the increase in false alarms, especially in older adults, highlights the potential for memory errors, particularly for information that is strongly related to the self. PMID:23576449

  11. False color viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-10-20

    A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage. 7 figs.

  12. False color viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W. (108 Independent Blvd., Aiken, SC 29801)

    1992-01-01

    A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage.

  13. False color viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-05-08

    This invention consists of a viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching, the user`s eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage.

  14. Moon - False Color Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This false-color mosaic was constructed from a series of 53 images taken through three spectral filters by Galileo's imaging system as the spacecraft flew over the northern regions of the Moon on December 7, 1992. The part of the Moon visible from Earth is on the left side in this view. The color mosaic shows compositional variations in parts of the Moon's northern hemisphere. Bright pinkish areas are highlands materials, such as those surrounding the oval lava-filled Crisium impact basin toward the bottom of the picture. Blue to orange shades indicate volcanic lava flows. To the left of Crisium, the dark blue Mare Tranquillitatis is richer in titanium than the green and orange maria above it. Thin mineral-rich soils associated with relatively recent impacts are represented by light blue colors; the youngest craters have prominent blue rays extending from them. The Galileo project, whose primary mission is the exploration of the Jupiter system in 1995-97, is managed for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  15. Misremembering What You See or Hear: Dissociable Effects of Modality on Short- and Long-Term False Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olszewska, Justyna M.; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A.; Munier, Emily; Bendler, Sara A.

    2015-01-01

    False working memories readily emerge using a visual item-recognition variant of the converging associates task. Two experiments, manipulating study and test modality, extended prior working memory results by demonstrating a reliable false recognition effect (more false alarms to associatively related lures than to unrelated lures) within seconds…

  16. Smart container UWB sensor system for situational awareness of intrusion alarms

    DOEpatents

    Romero, Carlos E.; Haugen, Peter C.; Zumstein, James M.; Leach, Jr., Richard R.; Vigars, Mark L.

    2013-06-11

    An in-container monitoring sensor system is based on an UWB radar intrusion detector positioned in a container and having a range gate set to the farthest wall of the container from the detector. Multipath reflections within the container make every point on or in the container appear to be at the range gate, allowing intrusion detection anywhere in the container. The system also includes other sensors to provide false alarm discrimination, and may include other sensors to monitor other parameters, e.g. radiation. The sensor system also includes a control subsystem for controlling system operation. Communications and information extraction capability may also be included. A method of detecting intrusion into a container uses UWB radar, and may also include false alarm discrimination. A secure container has an UWB based monitoring system

  17. Technical aspects of the sigma factor alarm method in alpha CAMs

    SciTech Connect

    Justus, Alan Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    Some test must be applied to the low-level count data from alpha continuous air monitors (CAMs) to determine if the count is statistically significant (i.e., different from background). The test should also automatically account for different levels of background (i.e., ambient radon progeny concentrations). The method should, in other words, be as sensitive as possible, automatically desensitize when required, but in such a manner as to not exceed a previously-chosen acceptable false-alarm rate.

  18. [Improvements in alarm care speed for the clinical monitor system].

    PubMed

    Lin, Shao; Wu, Min-Fang; Guo, Bi-Hui

    2005-10-01

    Hypoxia often occurs in the course of emergency treatment the monitoring systems alarm is not heard promptly by the nurses in attendance. In this study, nurses were monitored for the speed of their reactions to such alarms in 326 clinical instances. In 128 instances (39 percent) the nurses reacted immediately (within ten seconds), and in 198 instances (61 percent) the nurses took more than ten seconds to react. In relation to the reactions that took longer than ten seconds, it was discovered that there was: a lack of alertness about dealing with alarms, insufficient knowledge about setting alarms, no coordinated response mechanism, a failure to hear the alarm, limitations affecting the equipment and difficulty detecting the direction of origin of the alarm sound. For these reasons the hospital implemented briefings about alarms during morning meetings, a coordinated response mechanism, improvements in standards concerning the setting and inspection of alarms, the setting of limits on the frequency of patient's visits and the numbers of visitors, and the setting of a standard alarm volume level. As a result, the percentage of nurses responding to alarms within ten seconds increased to eighty percent, raising standards of nursing care, medical treatment and patient safety. PMID:16222639

  19. Alarm handler for the advanced photon source control system

    SciTech Connect

    Kraimer, M.R.; Cha, B.K.; Anderson, M.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS), now under construction at Argonne National Laboratory, will have a control system employing graphics workstations at the operator interface level and VME-based microprocessors operating with a distributed database at the field level. The alarm handler is an application utilizing X-Windows running on one or more operator interface workstations which monitors alarms generated by the VME-based microprocessors. Alarms can be grouped in a hierarchical manner. The operator can monitor, acknowledge, and mask alarms either individually or aggregately. Alarm changes of state and all operator modifications are logged. When alarms occur, display windows are automatically generated conveying system and subsystem relationships and severity. Menus are used to modify the alarm action configuration files and to obtain help. Since alarm groups are defined via an alarm configuration file, the alarm handler is a general purpose application which can be customized to monitor a single subsystem or configured to monitor the entire accelerator complex. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Smoke Alarm Giveaway and Installation Programs

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Mack, Karin A.; Diekman, Shane T.

    2015-01-01

    Background The burden of residential fire injury and death is substantial. Targeted smoke alarm giveaway and installation programs are popular interventions used to reduce residential fire mortality and morbidity. Purpose To evaluate the cost effectiveness and cost benefit of implementing a giveaway or installation program in a small hypothetic community with a high risk of fire death and injury through a decision-analysis model. Methods Model inputs included program costs; program effectiveness (life-years and quality-adjusted life-years saved); and monetized program benefits (medical cost, productivity, property loss and quality-of-life losses averted) and were identified through structured reviews of existing literature (done in 2011) and supplemented by expert opinion. Future costs and effectiveness were discounted at a rate of 3% per year. All costs were expressed in 2011 U.S. dollars. Results Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) resulted in anaverage cost-effectiveness ratio (ACER) of $51,404 per quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) saved and $45,630 per QALY for the giveaway and installation programs, respectively. Cost–benefit analysis (CBA) showed that both programs were associated with a positive net benefit with a benefit–cost ratio of 2.1 and 2.3, respectively. Smoke alarm functional rate, baseline prevalence of functional alarms, and baseline home fire death rate were among the most influential factors for the CEA and CBA results. Conclusions Both giveaway and installation programs have an average cost-effectiveness ratio similar to or lower than the median cost-effectiveness ratio reported for other interventionsto reduce fatal injuries in homes. Although more effort is required, installation programs result in lower cost per outcome achieved compared with giveaways. PMID:22992356

  1. Hypo- and Hyperglycemic Alarms: Devices and Algorithms.

    PubMed

    Howsmon, Daniel; Bequette, B Wayne

    2015-09-01

    Soon after the discovery that insulin regulates blood glucose by Banting and Best in 1922, the symptoms and risks associated with hypoglycemia became widely recognized. This article reviews devices to warn individuals of impending hypo- and hyperglycemia; biosignals used by these devices include electroencephalography, electrocardiography, skin galvanic resistance, diabetes alert dogs, and continuous glucose monitors (CGMs). While systems based on other technology are increasing in performance and decreasing in size, CGM technology remains the best method for both reactive and predictive alarming of hypo- or hyperglycemia. PMID:25931581

  2. Diabetes: What's True and False?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Your Best Self Smart Snacking Losing Weight Safely Diabetes: What's True and False? KidsHealth > Teens > Diabetes Center > ... which are false. Eating too much sugar causes diabetes. False: Type 1 diabetes happens when the cells ...

  3. Diabetes: What's True and False?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Digestive System How the Body Works Main Page Diabetes: What's True and False? KidsHealth > Kids > Diabetes Center > ... True or False: Eating Too Much Sugar Causes Diabetes False: When kids get type 1 diabetes , it's ...

  4. Early warning, warning or alarm systems for natural hazards? A generic classification.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sättele, Martina; Bründl, Michael; Straub, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Early warning, warning and alarm systems have gained popularity in recent years as cost-efficient measures for dangerous natural hazard processes such as floods, storms, rock and snow avalanches, debris flows, rock and ice falls, landslides, flash floods, glacier lake outburst floods, forest fires and even earthquakes. These systems can generate information before an event causes loss of property and life. In this way, they mainly mitigate the overall risk by reducing the presence probability of endangered objects. These systems are typically prototypes tailored to specific project needs. Despite their importance there is no recognised system classification. This contribution classifies warning and alarm systems into three classes: i) threshold systems, ii) expert systems and iii) model-based expert systems. The result is a generic classification, which takes the characteristics of the natural hazard process itself and the related monitoring possibilities into account. The choice of the monitoring parameters directly determines the system's lead time. The classification of 52 active systems moreover revealed typical system characteristics for each system class. i) Threshold systems monitor dynamic process parameters of ongoing events (e.g. water level of a debris flow) and incorporate minor lead times. They have a local geographical coverage and a predefined threshold determines if an alarm is automatically activated to warn endangered objects, authorities and system operators. ii) Expert systems monitor direct changes in the variable disposition (e.g crack opening before a rock avalanche) or trigger events (e.g. heavy rain) at a local scale before the main event starts and thus offer extended lead times. The final alarm decision incorporates human, model and organisational related factors. iii) Model-based expert systems monitor indirect changes in the variable disposition (e.g. snow temperature, height or solar radiation that influence the occurrence probability of snow avalanches) or trigger events (e.g. heavy snow fall) to predict spontaneous hazard events in advance. They encompass regional or national measuring networks and satisfy additional demands such as the standardisation of the measuring stations. The developed classification and the characteristics, which were revealed for each class, yield a valuable input to quantifying the reliability of warning and alarm systems. Importantly, this will facilitate to compare them with well-established standard mitigation measures such as dams, nets and galleries within an integrated risk management approach.

  5. 12 CFR 702.108 - Risk mitigation credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk mitigation credit. 702.108 Section 702.108... CORRECTIVE ACTION Net Worth Classification § 702.108 Risk mitigation credit. (a) Who may apply. A credit union may apply for a risk mitigation credit if on any of the current or three preceding effective...

  6. 44 CFR 201.6 - Local Mitigation Plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Local Mitigation Plans. 201.6 Section 201.6 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE MITIGATION PLANNING § 201.6 Local Mitigation Plans. The...

  7. 14 CFR 1216.309 - Mitigation and monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mitigation and monitoring. 1216.309 Section 1216.309 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY... Mitigation and monitoring. When the analysis proceeds to an EA or EIS and mitigation measures are selected...

  8. 14 CFR 1216.309 - Mitigation and monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mitigation and monitoring. 1216.309 Section 1216.309 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY... Mitigation and monitoring. When the analysis proceeds to an EA or EIS and mitigation measures are selected...

  9. 44 CFR 201.5 - Enhanced State Mitigation Plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Enhanced State Mitigation Plans. 201.5 Section 201.5 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE MITIGATION PLANNING § 201.5 Enhanced State Mitigation Plans. (a) A State with a FEMA...

  10. 44 CFR 201.4 - Standard State Mitigation Plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard State Mitigation Plans. 201.4 Section 201.4 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE MITIGATION PLANNING § 201.4 Standard State Mitigation Plans. (a) Plan requirement. States must...

  11. 44 CFR 201.4 - Standard State Mitigation Plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard State Mitigation Plans. 201.4 Section 201.4 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE MITIGATION PLANNING § 201.4 Standard State Mitigation Plans. (a) Plan requirement. States must...

  12. Classification of alarm processing techniques and human performance issues

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, I.S.; O`Hara, J.M.

    1993-05-01

    Human factors reviews indicate that conventional alarm systems based on the one sensor, one alarm approach, have many human engineering deficiencies, a paramount example being too many alarms during major disturbances. As an effort to resolve these deficiencies, various alarm processing systems have been developed using different techniques. To ensure their contribution to operational safety, the impacts of those systems on operating crew performance should be carefully evaluated. This paper briefly reviews some of the human factors research issues associated with alarm processing techniques and then discusses a framework with which to classify the techniques. The dimensions of this framework can be used to explore the effects of alarm processing systems on human performance.

  13. Classification of alarm processing techniques and human performance issues

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, I.S.; O'Hara, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Human factors reviews indicate that conventional alarm systems based on the one sensor, one alarm approach, have many human engineering deficiencies, a paramount example being too many alarms during major disturbances. As an effort to resolve these deficiencies, various alarm processing systems have been developed using different techniques. To ensure their contribution to operational safety, the impacts of those systems on operating crew performance should be carefully evaluated. This paper briefly reviews some of the human factors research issues associated with alarm processing techniques and then discusses a framework with which to classify the techniques. The dimensions of this framework can be used to explore the effects of alarm processing systems on human performance.

  14. Alarm Management System for the D/3 Distributed Control System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1997-03-19

    As industrial processes continue to grow in size and complexity, the Distrubuted Control Systems that automate and monitor these processes expand in a like manner. This increase in control system complexity has resulted in ever increasing numbers of alarms presented to the operator. The challenge for today's control system designer is to find innovative ways to present alarm information to the operator such that despite the large number of alarms, the operator is able tomore »quickly assess the status of the plant and immediately respond to the most critical alarms in a timely manner. This software package, designed and developed for the Savannah River Site Replacement High Level Waste Evaporator/Waste Removal Distributed Control System installed on the H-Area Tank Farm, provides an alarm system which utilizes the annunciator (SKID) panel as a means of statusing the plant and providing single keystroke access to the display on which an alarm resides.« less

  15. Alarm system for a nuclear control complex

    DOEpatents

    Scarola, Kenneth (Windsor, CT); Jamison, David S. (Windsor, CT); Manazir, Richard M. (North Canton, CT); Rescorl, Robert L. (Vernon, CT); Harmon, Daryl L. (Enfield, CT)

    1994-01-01

    An advanced control room complex for a nuclear power plant, including a discrete indicator and alarm system (72) which is nuclear qualified for rapid response to changes in plant parameters and a component control system (64) which together provide a discrete monitoring and control capability at a panel (14-22, 26, 28) in the control room (10). A separate data processing system (70), which need not be nuclear qualified, provides integrated and overview information to the control room and to each panel, through CRTs (84) and a large, overhead integrated process status overview board (24). The discrete indicator and alarm system (72) and the data processing system (70) receive inputs from common plant sensors and validate the sensor outputs to arrive at a representative value of the parameter for use by the operator during both normal and accident conditions, thereby avoiding the need for him to assimilate data from each sensor individually. The integrated process status board (24) is at the apex of an information hierarchy that extends through four levels and provides access at each panel to the full display hierarchy. The control room panels are preferably of a modular construction, permitting the definition of inputs and outputs, the man machine interface, and the plant specific algorithms, to proceed in parallel with the fabrication of the panels, the installation of the equipment and the generic testing thereof.

  16. 10 CFR 34.75 - Records of alarm system and entrance control checks at permanent radiographic installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Records of alarm system and entrance control checks at permanent radiographic installations. 34.75 Section 34.75 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements § 34.75 Records...

  17. Realization of time keeping alarming system based on CTI technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Cheng-Lin; Dong, Shao-Wu

    2003-12-01

    An application of CTI (Computer Telephone Integration) technique to fault alarming in time keeping system is presented in this paper. Two key parts of this alarming system, telephone phonic card and TTS (Text To Speech) are briefly introduced. A series of events and methods for programming interface based on ActiveX control (phonic.OCX) is discussed, and an alarming program module is developed. The alarming program module can be used in reporting accidents for time keeping system, and can also be applied to power supply system and environmental monitoring system.

  18. Structural Damage Alarm Utilizing Modified Back-Propagation Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xiaoma

    Damage alarm is an important step among structure damage identification. Its objective is to evaluate the structure health. The existing damage alarm methods are mostly based on Back-Propagation Neural Networks without thinking over testing noise. Therefore, in order to avoid the disadvantages of conventional Back-Propagation Neural Networks, a modified Back-Propagation Neural Networks was proposed for structure damage alarm system in this paper. The experiment results of steel truss girder bridge show that the improved method is better than BPNN for structural damage alarm.

  19. 21 CFR 870.2640 - Portable leakage current alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2640 Portable leakage current alarm. (a)...

  20. False Position, Double False Position and Cramer's Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boman, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    We state and prove the methods of False Position (Regula Falsa) and Double False Position (Regula Duorum Falsorum). The history of both is traced from ancient Egypt and China through the work of Fibonacci, ending with a connection between Double False Position and Cramer's Rule.

  1. Component Structure of Individual Differences in True and False Recognition of Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, James C.; Shastri, Kalyan K.; Abdi, Herve; Neville-Smith, Marsha

    2009-01-01

    Principal-component analyses of 4 face-recognition studies uncovered 2 independent components. The first component was strongly related to false-alarm errors with new faces as well as to facial "conjunctions" that recombine features of previously studied faces. The second component was strongly related to hits as well as to the conjunction/new…

  2. Male monkeys remember which group members have given alarm calls

    E-print Network

    de Vries, Han

    , unanswered question is why animals stop their alarm calls and whether this depends on non-social (e's behaviour influences how long the male will continue his alarm calling. We tested three hypotheses. There could be several non-social and social expla- nations for why primates confronted with a predator stop

  3. 1. Photographic copy of fire alarm plan for Control and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photographic copy of fire alarm plan for Control and Recording Center Building 4221/E-22, showing layout of rooms. California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Plant Engineering 'Edwards Test Station, Fire Alarm Plan, Bldg. E-22,' drawing no. EFA/11-1, December 15, 1961. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Control & Recording Center, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  4. Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory long-range alarm system

    SciTech Connect

    DesJardin, R.; Machanik, J.

    1980-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) Long-Range Alarm System is described. The last few years have brought significant changes in the Department of Energy regulations for protection of classified documents and special nuclear material. These changes in regulations have forced a complete redesign of the LASL security alarm system. LASL covers many square miles of varying terrain and consists of separate technical areas connected by public roads and communications. A design study over a period of 2 years produced functional specifications for a distributed intelligence, expandable alarm system that will handle 30,000 alarm points from hundreds of data concentrators spread over a 250-km/sup 2/ area. Emphasis in the design was on nonstop operation, data security, data communication, and upward expandability to incorporate fire alarms and the computer-aided dispatching of security and fire vehicles. All aspects of the alarm system were to be fault tolerant from the central computer system down to but not including the individual data concentrators. Redundant communications lines travel over public domain from the alarmed area to the central alarm station.

  5. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On...station to indicate a high water level in each of the following...subject to flooding from sea water piping within the space...paragraph (a), provide bilge level alarms in all...

  6. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On...station to indicate a high water level in each of the following...subject to flooding from sea water piping within the space...paragraph (a), provide bilge level alarms in all...

  7. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On...station to indicate a high water level in each of the following...subject to flooding from sea water piping within the space...paragraph (a), provide bilge level alarms in all...

  8. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On...station to indicate a high water level in each of the following...subject to flooding from sea water piping within the space...paragraph (a), provide bilge level alarms in all...

  9. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On...station to indicate a high water level in each of the following...subject to flooding from sea water piping within the space...paragraph (a), provide bilge level alarms in all...

  10. Evaluating Injury Prevention Programs: The Oklahoma City Smoke Alarm Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallonee, Sue

    2000-01-01

    Illustrates how evaluating the Oklahoma City Smoke Alarm Project increased its success in reducing residential fire-related injuries and deaths. The program distributed and tested smoke alarms in residential dwellings and offered educational materials on fire prevention and safety. Evaluation provided sound data on program processes and outcomes,…

  11. 46 CFR 162.050-35 - Bilge alarm: Approval tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (5) The bilge alarm is fed for 5 minutes with a 10 ppm mixture of Test Fluid B and fresh water with 6 percent sodium chloride. Any change in the bilge alarm reading is recorded. (d) Test No. 3A Sample Pressure or Flow Test....

  12. False memories for aggressive acts.

    PubMed

    Laney, Cara; Takarangi, Melanie K T

    2013-06-01

    Can people develop false memories for committing aggressive acts? How does this process compare to developing false memories for victimhood? In the current research we used a simple false feedback procedure to implant false memories for committing aggressive acts (causing a black eye or spreading malicious gossip) or for victimhood (receiving a black eye). We then compared these false memories to other subjects' true memories for equivalent events. False aggressive memories were all too easy to implant, particularly in the minds of individuals with a proclivity towards aggression. Once implanted, the false memories were indistinguishable from true memories for the same events, on several dimensions, including emotional content. Implications for aggression-related memory more generally as well as false confessions are discussed. PMID:23639921

  13. Reduced False Memory after Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenn, Kimberly M.; Gallo, David A.; Margoliash, Daniel; Roediger, Henry L., III; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have shown that sleep contributes to the successful maintenance of previously encoded information. This research has focused exclusively on memory for studied events, as opposed to false memories. Here we report three experiments showing that sleep reduces false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) memory illusion. False

  14. The persistence of false beliefs.

    PubMed

    Laney, Cara; Fowler, Nicci Bowman; Nelson, Kally J; Bernstein, Daniel M; Loftus, Elizabeth F

    2008-09-01

    Do false beliefs last? To explore this question, this study planted false beliefs or memories of a childhood experience with asparagus. We found that these false beliefs had consequences for subjects, when assessed directly after the suggestive manipulation. Moreover, subjects were brought back two weeks later to see if their false beliefs persisted. After two weeks, subjects' confidence in their new memories, and the consequences of those memories were diminished, but not extinguished. These false beliefs were found to be somewhat weaker than other subjects' true beliefs for the same events. Another novel finding was that the manipulation was sufficiently powerful to affect actual food choices. PMID:18620329

  15. Sleep deprivation and false memories.

    PubMed

    Frenda, Steven J; Patihis, Lawrence; Loftus, Elizabeth F; Lewis, Holly C; Fenn, Kimberly M

    2014-09-01

    Many studies have investigated factors that affect susceptibility to false memories. However, few have investigated the role of sleep deprivation in the formation of false memories, despite overwhelming evidence that sleep deprivation impairs cognitive function. We examined the relationship between self-reported sleep duration and false memories and the effect of 24 hr of total sleep deprivation on susceptibility to false memories. We found that under certain conditions, sleep deprivation can increase the risk of developing false memories. Specifically, sleep deprivation increased false memories in a misinformation task when participants were sleep deprived during event encoding, but did not have a significant effect when the deprivation occurred after event encoding. These experiments are the first to investigate the effect of sleep deprivation on susceptibility to false memories, which can have dire consequences. PMID:25031301

  16. 78 FR 21567 - Installation of Radiation Alarms for Rooms Housing Neutron Sources

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ...of Radiation Alarms for Rooms Housing Neutron Sources AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...of radiation alarms for rooms housing neutron sources. DATES: The docket for the petition...of radiation alarms for rooms housing neutron sources. The petitioner stated that...

  17. The distinctiveness heuristic in false recognition and false recall.

    PubMed

    McCabe, David P; Smith, Anderson D

    2006-07-01

    The effects of generative processing on false recognition and recall were examined in four experiments using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott false memory paradigm (Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995). In each experiment, a Generate condition in which subjects generated studied words from audio anagrams was compared to a Control condition in which subjects simply listened to studied words presented normally. Rates of false recognition and false recall were lower for critical lures associated with generated lists, than for critical lures associated with control lists, but only in between-subjects designs. False recall and recognition did not differ when generate and control conditions were manipulated within-subjects. This pattern of results is consistent with the distinctiveness heuristic (Schacter, Israel, & Racine, 1999), a metamemorial decision-based strategy whereby global changes in decision criteria lead to reductions of false memories. This retrieval-based monitoring mechanism appears to operate in a similar fashion in reducing false recognition and false recall. PMID:16754242

  18. [The alarming increase of incapacity for work].

    PubMed

    Thibaut, P

    2013-09-01

    The alarming increase of incapacity for work The increase of incapacity for work in Belgium and in Europe is not a new phenomenon but only the transposition of an experience already lived on others continents (Canada--USA). The bio-psycho-social model proves to be, on the international level, as the more efficient view for the understanding of the mechanisms production of the disability and therefore of the incapacity for work. Following this approach, the chronic pain is the result of the dynamic interaction between physiological, psychological and social factors. It mentions also an existing link between the pain and the depression itself being a determining factor in the persistence of the incapacity for work. The bio-psycho-social model can only be conceived in the interdisciplinary approach, and will for sure allow to optimize the support and the use of medicines with a painkiller and depressive aim. The socio-economic impact created represents actually a real health problem. PMID:24195251

  19. Computational Human Performance Modeling For Alarm System Design

    SciTech Connect

    Jacques Hugo

    2012-07-01

    The introduction of new technologies like adaptive automation systems and advanced alarms processing and presentation techniques in nuclear power plants is already having an impact on the safety and effectiveness of plant operations and also the role of the control room operator. This impact is expected to escalate dramatically as more and more nuclear power utilities embark on upgrade projects in order to extend the lifetime of their plants. One of the most visible impacts in control rooms will be the need to replace aging alarm systems. Because most of these alarm systems use obsolete technologies, the methods, techniques and tools that were used to design the previous generation of alarm system designs are no longer effective and need to be updated. The same applies to the need to analyze and redefine operators’ alarm handling tasks. In the past, methods for analyzing human tasks and workload have relied on crude, paper-based methods that often lacked traceability. New approaches are needed to allow analysts to model and represent the new concepts of alarm operation and human-system interaction. State-of-the-art task simulation tools are now available that offer a cost-effective and efficient method for examining the effect of operator performance in different conditions and operational scenarios. A discrete event simulation system was used by human factors researchers at the Idaho National Laboratory to develop a generic alarm handling model to examine the effect of operator performance with simulated modern alarm system. It allowed analysts to evaluate alarm generation patterns as well as critical task times and human workload predicted by the system.

  20. Positive consequences of false memories.

    PubMed

    Howe, Mark L; Garner, Sarah R; Patel, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Previous research is replete with examples of the negative consequences of false memories. In the current research, we provide a different perspective on false memories and their development and demonstrate that false memories can have positive consequences. Specifically, we examined the role false memories play in subsequent problem-solving tasks. Children and adults studied and recalled neutral or survival-relevant lists of associated words. They then solved age-normed compound remote associates, some of whose solutions had been primed by false memories created when studying the previous lists. The results showed that regardless of age: (a) survival-related words were not only better recollected but were also more susceptible than neutral words to false memory illusions; and (b) survival-related false memories were better than neutral false memories as primes for problem-solving. These findings are discussed in the context of recent speculation concerning the positive consequences of false memories, and the adaptive nature of reconstructive memory. PMID:23843125

  1. Estimating Alarm Thresholds for Process Monitoring Data under Different Assumptions about the Data Generating Mechanism

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Burr, Tom; Hamada, Michael S.; Howell, John; Skurikhin, Misha; Ticknor, Larry; Weaver, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Process monitoring (PM) for nuclear safeguards sometimes requires estimation of thresholds corresponding to small false alarm rates. Threshold estimation dates to the 1920s with the Shewhart control chart; however, because possible new roles for PM are being evaluated in nuclear safeguards, it is timely to consider modern model selection options in the context of threshold estimation. One of the possible new PM roles involves PM residuals, where a residual is defined as residual = data ? prediction. This paper reviews alarm threshold estimation, introduces model selection options, and considers a range of assumptions regarding the data-generating mechanism for PM residuals.more »Two PM examples from nuclear safeguards are included to motivate the need for alarm threshold estimation. The first example involves mixtures of probability distributions that arise in solution monitoring, which is a common type of PM. The second example involves periodic partial cleanout of in-process inventory, leading to challenging structure in the time series of PM residuals.« less

  2. Study modality and false recall.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rebekah E; Engle, Randall W

    2011-01-01

    False memories occur when individuals mistakenly report an event as having taken place when that event did not in fact occur. The DRM (Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) paradigm provides an effective technique for creating and investigating false memories. In this paradigm participants study a list of words (e.g., SOUR, CANDY,…) that are highly associated to a non-presented critical item (e.g., SWEET). The study phase is followed by a test of memory for the study list words. Researchers typically find very high levels of false recall of the critical non-presented item. However, the likelihood of falsely remembering the non-presented critical items can be reduced by presenting studied associates visually rather than auditorally (e.g., Smith & Hunt, 1998). This is referred to as the modality effect in false memory. The current study investigated the role of resource availability in the expression of this modality effect in false recall. In Experiment 1 false recall was reduced in the visual study presentation condition relative to the auditory condition for participants with higher working memory capacity, but not for participants with lower working memory capacity. In Experiment 2 the effect of study modality on false recall was eliminated by the addition of a divided attention task at encoding. Both studies support the proposal that resource availability plays a role in the expression of the modality effect in the DRM paradigm (Smith, Lozito, & Bayen, 2005). PMID:20494859

  3. 46 CFR 169.731 - General alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...169.731 Section 169.731 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.731 General alarm...

  4. 46 CFR 169.731 - General alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...169.731 Section 169.731 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.731 General alarm...

  5. 46 CFR 169.730 - General alarm bell switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...169.730 Section 169.730 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.730 General alarm bell...

  6. 46 CFR 169.730 - General alarm bell switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...169.730 Section 169.730 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.730 General alarm bell...

  7. 46 CFR 169.730 - General alarm bell switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...169.730 Section 169.730 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.730 General alarm bell...

  8. 46 CFR 130.460 - Placement of machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...the following: (1) Loss of power for propulsion control. (2) Loss of power to the steering motor or for control of the main steering gear. (3) Engine-room...temperature. (8) Loss of normal power for the alarms listed in...

  9. 46 CFR 130.460 - Placement of machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...the following: (1) Loss of power for propulsion control. (2) Loss of power to the steering motor or for control of the main steering gear. (3) Engine-room...temperature. (8) Loss of normal power for the alarms listed in...

  10. 46 CFR 162.050-35 - Bilge alarm: Approval tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Pollution Prevention Equipment § 162.050-35... section, the supply voltage to the alarm is returned to its design value. (4) The steps described...

  11. Experience with neutron criticality alarm systems at Westinghouse Hanford Company

    SciTech Connect

    Paglieri, J.N.; Conner, R.P.

    1988-09-01

    The neutron-sensitive criticality alarm system developed at the Hanford Site was installed in a number of buildings and has demonstrated satisfactory performance during approximately 20 yr of operation. Neutron detection is provided by a boron-10 trifluoride (BR/sub 3/) tube in each detector. A description of the criticality alarm system is provided and the results of testing with short duration radiation pulses are discussed. Early and long-term operating experience is addressed including resolution of operating problems, spurious alarms, and trip levels. Modification, testing, and maintenance of the system is discussed including lessons learned. The commercial neutron-sensitive criticality alarm system was recently installed in a large facility is also described. Important aspects of installing/testing the system and operating experience are discussed. 1 ref., 3 figs.

  12. 46 CFR 153.409 - High level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS...gives an audible and visual alarm before the tank fills to 97 percent of its capacity; (b)...

  13. 33 CFR 157.440 - Autopilot alarm or indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Interim Measures for Certain Tank Vessels Without Double Hulls Carrying Petroleum Oils § 157.440 Autopilot alarm or indicator....

  14. 33 CFR 157.440 - Autopilot alarm or indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Interim Measures for Certain Tank Vessels Without Double Hulls Carrying Petroleum Oils § 157.440 Autopilot alarm or indicator....

  15. 33 CFR 157.440 - Autopilot alarm or indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Interim Measures for Certain Tank Vessels Without Double Hulls Carrying Petroleum Oils § 157.440 Autopilot alarm or indicator....

  16. 33 CFR 157.440 - Autopilot alarm or indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Interim Measures for Certain Tank Vessels Without Double Hulls Carrying Petroleum Oils § 157.440 Autopilot alarm or indicator....

  17. 33 CFR 157.440 - Autopilot alarm or indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Interim Measures for Certain Tank Vessels Without Double Hulls Carrying Petroleum Oils § 157.440 Autopilot alarm or indicator....

  18. Nuthatches eavesdrop on variations in heterospecific chickadee mobbing alarm calls

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, Christopher N.; Greene, Erick

    2007-01-01

    Many animals recognize the alarm calls produced by other species, but the amount of information they glean from these eavesdropped signals is unknown. We previously showed that black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) have a sophisticated alarm call system in which they encode complex information about the size and risk of potential predators in variations of a single type of mobbing alarm call. Here we show experimentally that red-breasted nuthatches (Sitta canadensis) respond appropriately to subtle variations of these heterospecific “chick-a-dee” alarm calls, thereby evidencing that they have gained important information about potential predators in their environment. This study demonstrates a previously unsuspected level of discrimination in intertaxon eavesdropping. PMID:17372225

  19. 46 CFR 28.250 - High water alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Aleutian Trade § 28.250 High water alarms. On a vessel 36 feet...operating station to indicate high water level in each of the following normally...space subject to flooding from sea water piping within the space; and...

  20. 46 CFR 28.250 - High water alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Aleutian Trade § 28.250 High water alarms. On a vessel 36 feet...operating station to indicate high water level in each of the following normally...space subject to flooding from sea water piping within the space; and...

  1. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must...operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally...spaces subject to flooding from sea water piping within the space; and...

  2. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must...operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally...spaces subject to flooding from sea water piping within the space; and...

  3. 46 CFR 28.250 - High water alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Aleutian Trade § 28.250 High water alarms. On a vessel 36 feet...operating station to indicate high water level in each of the following normally...space subject to flooding from sea water piping within the space; and...

  4. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must...operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally...spaces subject to flooding from sea water piping within the space; and...

  5. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must...operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally...spaces subject to flooding from sea water piping within the space; and...

  6. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must...operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally...spaces subject to flooding from sea water piping within the space; and...

  7. 46 CFR 28.250 - High water alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    Requirements for Documented Vessels That Operate Beyond the Boundary Lines or With More Than 16 Individuals On Board, or for Fish Tender Vessels Engaged in the Aleutian Trade § 28.250 High water alarms. On a vessel 36 feet...

  8. 46 CFR 28.250 - High water alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    Requirements for Documented Vessels That Operate Beyond the Boundary Lines or With More Than 16 Individuals On Board, or for Fish Tender Vessels Engaged in the Aleutian Trade § 28.250 High water alarms. On a vessel 36 feet...

  9. Measurement of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant criticality accident alarm

    SciTech Connect

    Tayloe, R.W. Jr. ); McGinnis, B. )

    1990-08-31

    Measurements of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant's nuclear criticality accident radiation alarm signal response time, sound wave frequency, and sound volume levels were made to demonstrate compliance with ANSI/ANS-8.3-1986. A steady-state alarm signal is produced within one-half second of obtaining a two-out-of-three detector trip. The fundamental alarm sound wave frequency is 440 hertz. The sound volume levels are greater than 10 decibels above background and ranged from 100 to 125 A-weighted decibels. The requirements of the standard were met; however the recommended maximum sound volume level of 115 dBA was exceeded. Emergency procedures require immediate evacuation upon initiation of a facility's radiation alarm. Comparison with standards for allowable time of exposure at different noise levels indicate that the elevated noise level at this location does not represent an occupational injury hazard. 8 refs., 5 figs.

  10. 46 CFR 108.445 - Alarm and means of escape.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.445 Alarm and means of escape. (a) Each CO2 system that has a...

  11. 24 CFR 3280.208 - Smoke alarm requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Fire Safety § 3280.208 Smoke alarm requirements. (a...see § 3280.4), or UL 268, Smoke Detectors for Fire Protective Signaling Systems, dated January...

  12. 24 CFR 3280.208 - Smoke alarm requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Fire Safety § 3280.208 Smoke alarm requirements. (a...see § 3280.4), or UL 268, Smoke Detectors for Fire Protective Signaling Systems, dated January...

  13. 24 CFR 3280.208 - Smoke alarm requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Fire Safety § 3280.208 Smoke alarm requirements. (a...see § 3280.4), or UL 268, Smoke Detectors for Fire Protective Signaling Systems, dated January...

  14. 24 CFR 3280.208 - Smoke alarm requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Fire Safety § 3280.208 Smoke alarm requirements. Link...see § 3280.4), or UL 268, Smoke Detectors for Fire Protective Signaling Systems, dated January...

  15. 24 CFR 3280.208 - Smoke alarm requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Fire Safety § 3280.208 Smoke alarm requirements. (a...see § 3280.4), or UL 268, Smoke Detectors for Fire Protective Signaling Systems, dated January...

  16. 15 CFR 971.604 - Best available technologies (BAT) and mitigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Best available technologies (BAT) and mitigation. 971.604...Effects § 971.604 Best available technologies (BAT) and mitigation. ...permits, the use of the best available technologies for the protection of...

  17. 15 CFR 971.604 - Best available technologies (BAT) and mitigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Best available technologies (BAT) and mitigation. 971.604...Effects § 971.604 Best available technologies (BAT) and mitigation. ...permits, the use of the best available technologies for the protection of...

  18. 15 CFR 971.604 - Best available technologies (BAT) and mitigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Best available technologies (BAT) and mitigation. 971.604...Effects § 971.604 Best available technologies (BAT) and mitigation. ...permits, the use of the best available technologies for the protection of...

  19. 15 CFR 971.604 - Best available technologies (BAT) and mitigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... false Best available technologies (BAT) and mitigation. 971.604 Section...971.604 Best available technologies (BAT) and mitigation. (a) The...particular equipment or procedures comprising BAT or to define performance standards....

  20. 15 CFR 971.604 - Best available technologies (BAT) and mitigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... false Best available technologies (BAT) and mitigation. 971.604 Section...971.604 Best available technologies (BAT) and mitigation. (a) The...particular equipment or procedures comprising BAT or to define performance standards....