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1

False-alarm characterization in hyperspectral gas-detection applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical cloud detection using long-wave infrared (LWIR) hyperspectral-imaging sensors has many civilian and military applications, including chemical warfare threat mitigation, environmental monitoring, and emergency response. Current capabilities are limited by variation in background clutter as opposed to the physics of photon detection, and this makes the statistical characterization of clutter and clutter-induced false alarms essential to the design of practical systems. In this exploratory work, we use hyperspectral data collected both on the ground and in the air to spectrally and spatially characterize false alarms. Focusing on two widely-used detectors, the matched filter (MF) and the adaptive cosine estimator (ACE), we compare empirical false-alarm rates to their theoretical counterparts - detector output under Gaussian, t and t-mixture distributed data - and show that these models often underestimate false-alarm rates. Next, we threshold real detection maps and show that true detections and false alarms often exhibit very different spatial behavior. To exploit this difference and understand how spatial processing affects performance, the spatial behavior of false alarms must be understood. We take a first step in this direction by showing that, although the behavior may `look' quite random, it is not well captured by the complete-spatial-randomness model. Finally, we describe how our findings impact the design of real detection systems.

DiPietro, Robert S.; Truslow, Eric; Manolakis, Dimitris G.; Golowich, Steven E.; Lockwood, Ronald B.

2012-09-01

2

Expert system constant false alarm rate processor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The requirements for high detection probability and low false alarm probability in modern wide area surveillance radars are rarely met due to spatial variations in clutter characteristics. Many filtering and CFAR detection algorithms have been developed to effectively deal with these variations; however, any single algorithm is likely to exhibit excessive false alarms and intolerably low detection probabilities in a dynamically changing environment. A great deal of research has led to advances in the state of the art in Artificial Intelligence (AI) and numerous areas have been identified for application to radar signal processing. The approach suggested here, discussed in a patent application submitted by the authors, is to intelligently select the filtering and CFAR detection algorithms being executed at any given time, based upon the observed characteristics of the interference environment. This approach requires sensing the environment, employing the most suitable algorithms, and applying an appropriate multiple algorithm fusion scheme or consensus algorithm to produce a global detection decision.

Baldygo, William J.; Wicks, Michael C.

1993-10-01

3

False Alarm Probability in the Multiperiodicity Search  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply the False Alarm Probability analysis, (FAP), to the multiperiodicity search. Then we show the necessity of using the FAP method in the analysis of the astronomical time-series. We present the results obtained for 153 stars supposed or known to be pulsating variables. We examine the statistical properties of the excited frequencies and find a relation between the parameters of the fitted sine-curves and the FAP. Finally we show the application of our results to the individual stars and large samples of stars.

Molenda-?akowicz, J.

2001-12-01

4

Neural network false alarm filter, volume 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This effort identified, developed, and demonstrated a set of approaches for applying neural network learning techniques to the development of a real-time built-in test (BIT) capability to filter out false-alarms from the BIT output. Following a state-of-the-art assessment, a decision space of 19 neural network models, 9 fault report causes, and 12 common groups of BIT techniques was identified. From this space, four unique, high-potential combinations were selected for further investigation. These techniques were subsequently simulated for application to a MILSATCOM system. Detailed analyses of their strengths and weaknesses were performed along with cost/benefit analyses. This study concluded that the best candidates for neural network insertion are new systems where neural network requirements can be included in the initial system design and that a major challenge is the availability of real data for training of the networks. Volume 1 of this report documents the activities and findings of the effort, including an extensive, annotated bibliography. Volume 2 contains a tutorial overview of the neural networks, BIT techniques, and false alarm causes utilized in the final phases of this study.

Aylstock, F.; Elerin, L.; Hintz, J.; Learoyd, C.; Press, R.

1994-12-01

5

Analysis of constant false alarm rate sidelobe canceller criterion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this final report, the constant false alarm rate (CFAR) detection criterion for a sidelobe canceller (SLC) system, introduced in the last quarterly progress report, is found completely and analyzed. This new detection test for radar exhibits the desirable CFAR property that its probability of a false alarm (PFA) is functionally independent of the covariance of the actual noise field encountered. As a consequence, such a CFAR SLC system is ideally suited to cope with the newly evolving smart jammer threat to radar. An important objective, set in the last quarterly progress report, was to find both the false alarm and signal detection probabilities of this test. The first and most important of these two goals has been met. The probability of a false alarm (or PFA) of this CFAR SLC detection criterion is derived in closed form in this report. The success in finding the PFA is due primarily to the use of a generalization of Cochran's theorem.

Reed, I. S.; Brennan, L. E.

1985-05-01

6

False alarm analysis (preliminary) horizon infrared surveillance sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A brief overview of the HISS (horizon infrared surveillance sensor) program and signal processing are given. The false alarm rate (FAR) is defined. A summary of the statistics for all the data analyzed, is presented. An examination of parts of the image that caused the most significant false alarms is provided. For each clutter type, the steps that could be taken to further reduce the FAR, are discussed. Clutter cases considered included sky with and without clouds, solar sea glint ranging from mild to moderate, land with structures, and a flock of birds. A summary of the impact of the clutter observed during testing is provided.

Hepfer, Kenneth

1994-09-01

7

Improved Variable Index constant false alarm rate radar processors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the cases when the statistical distribution of range return samples are not known, constant false alarm rate (CFAR) processors can be used. Cell Averaging (CA) CFAR radar processors which have the best performance in Gaussian homogeneous environments, exhibits performance degradation in the presence of an interfering target or in regions of abrupt change in the backround clutter power. The

Y. C. U?n; K. M. U?ner

2010-01-01

8

False alarm recognition in hyperspectral gas plume identification  

SciTech Connect

According to one embodiment, a method for analyzing hyperspectral data includes collecting first hyperspectral data of a scene using a hyperspectral imager during a no-gas period and analyzing the first hyperspectral data using one or more gas plume detection logics. The gas plume detection logic is executed using a low detection threshold, and detects each occurrence of an observed hyperspectral signature. The method also includes generating a histogram for all occurrences of each observed hyperspectral signature which is detected using the gas plume detection logic, and determining a probability of false alarm (PFA) for all occurrences of each observed hyperspectral signature based on the histogram. Possibly at some other time, the method includes collecting second hyperspectral data, and analyzing the second hyperspectral data using the one or more gas plume detection logics and the PFA to determine if any gas is present. Other systems and methods are also included.

Conger, James L. (San Ramon, CA); Lawson, Janice K. (Tracy, CA); Aimonetti, William D. (Livermore, CA)

2011-03-29

9

Economic justification of tsunami research: A specific example based on reduction of false alarms in Hawaii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most significant potential improvement to the Tsunami Warning System, at least as it affects Hawaii, and one of the more important practical justifications of tsunami research, is the reduction in false alarms. There are both immediate and deferred costs of tsunami false alarms. The immediate costs are the costs of responding to tsunami warnings, false or not. The deferred

Doak C. Cox

1979-01-01

10

Empirical mode decomposition based reducing false alarm filter for built-in test signal  

Microsoft Academic Search

False alarm is the phenomenon that built-in test or other detection module indicates fault problem but actually no fault exists. High false alarm rate severely restricts the development of built-in test system. This paper reveals that doing extra processing on the intrinsic mode functions obtained from empirical mode decomposition, we can establish a filter with good performance in reducing false

Miao Zhang; Yi Shen; Xin Li; Zhibo Wang; Xiaolei Zhang; Yanchao Gao; Yanju Ji

2011-01-01

11

False alarm control of CFAR algorithms with experimental bistatic radar data  

Microsoft Academic Search

False alarm control performance of different constant false alarm rate (CFAR) algorithms is experimentally investigated using bistatic radar data. The CFARs under investigation include cell-averaging (CA-CFAR), smaller-of (SO-CFAR), greater-of (GO-CFAR), ordered-statistic (OS-CFAR), censored cell-averaging (CCA-CFAR), and the homogeneity detector mean-to-mean ratio (MMR) test. The experimental data was collected using an Illuminator of Opportunity (IOO) bistatic radar that is under ongoing

Tri-Tan V. Cao; James Palmer; Paul E. Berry

2010-01-01

12

Hormone replacement therapy: real concerns and false alarms.  

PubMed

From 2002 to 2008, reports from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) claimed that hormone replacement therapy (HRT) significantly increased the risks of breast cancer development, cardiac events, Alzheimer disease, and stroke. These claims alarmed the public and health professionals alike, causing an almost immediate and sharp decline in the numbers of women receiving HRT. However, the actual data in the published WHI articles reveal that the findings reported in press releases and interviews of the principal investigators were often distorted, oversimplified, or wrong. This review highlights the history of research on HRT, including a timeline of studies that have or have not found a link between HRT and breast cancer; discusses how to distinguish important, robust findings from those that are trivial; closely examines the WHI findings on HRT and breast cancer, most of which are weak or statistically insignificant; reviews the current thinking about possible links of HRT with cardiovascular disease and cognitive functioning; and reports research on the benefits of HRT, notably relief of menopausal symptoms, that affect a woman's quality of life. On these complicated matters, physicians and the public must be cautious about accepting "findings by press release" in determining whether to prescribe or take HRT. PMID:19390302

Bluming, Avrum Z; Tavris, Carol

13

Negative feedback from maternal signals reduces false alarms by collectively signalling offspring  

PubMed Central

Within animal groups, individuals can learn of a predator's approach by attending to the behaviour of others. This use of social information increases an individual's perceptual range, but can also lead to the propagation of false alarms. Error copying is especially likely in species that signal collectively, because the coordination required for collective displays relies heavily on social information. Recent evidence suggests that collective behaviour in animals is, in part, regulated by negative feedback. Negative feedback may reduce false alarms by collectively signalling animals, but this possibility has not yet been tested. We tested the hypothesis that negative feedback increases the accuracy of collective signalling by reducing the production of false alarms. In the treehopper Umbonia crassicornis, clustered offspring produce collective signals during predator attacks, advertising the predator's location to the defending mother. Mothers signal after evicting the predator, and we show that this maternal communication reduces false alarms by offspring. We suggest that maternal signals elevate offspring signalling thresholds. This is, to our knowledge, the first study to show that negative feedback can reduce false alarms by collectively behaving groups.

Hamel, Jennifer A.; Cocroft, Reginald B.

2012-01-01

14

Negative feedback from maternal signals reduces false alarms by collectively signalling offspring.  

PubMed

Within animal groups, individuals can learn of a predator's approach by attending to the behaviour of others. This use of social information increases an individual's perceptual range, but can also lead to the propagation of false alarms. Error copying is especially likely in species that signal collectively, because the coordination required for collective displays relies heavily on social information. Recent evidence suggests that collective behaviour in animals is, in part, regulated by negative feedback. Negative feedback may reduce false alarms by collectively signalling animals, but this possibility has not yet been tested. We tested the hypothesis that negative feedback increases the accuracy of collective signalling by reducing the production of false alarms. In the treehopper Umbonia crassicornis, clustered offspring produce collective signals during predator attacks, advertising the predator's location to the defending mother. Mothers signal after evicting the predator, and we show that this maternal communication reduces false alarms by offspring. We suggest that maternal signals elevate offspring signalling thresholds. This is, to our knowledge, the first study to show that negative feedback can reduce false alarms by collectively behaving groups. PMID:22787019

Hamel, Jennifer A; Cocroft, Reginald B

2012-07-11

15

Software algorithms for false alarm reduction in LWIR hyperspectral chemical agent detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long-wave infrared (LWIR) hyperpectral sensing modality is one that is often used for the problem of detection and identification of chemical warfare agents (CWA) which apply to both military and civilian situations. The inherent nature and complexity of background clutter dictates a need for sophisticated and robust statistical models which are then used in the design of optimum signal processing algorithms that then provide the best exploitation of hyperspectral data to ultimately make decisions on the absence or presence of potentially harmful CWAs. This paper describes the basic elements of an automated signal processing pipeline developed at MIT Lincoln Laboratory. In addition to describing this signal processing architecture in detail, we briefly describe the key signal models that form the foundation of these algorithms as well as some spatial processing techniques used for false alarm mitigation. Finally, we apply this processing pipeline to real data measured by the Telops FIRST hyperspectral (FIRST) sensor to demonstrate its practical utility for the user community.

Manolakis, D.; Model, J.; Rossacci, M.; Zhang, D.; Ontiveros, E.; Pieper, M.; Seeley, J.; Weitz, D.

2008-05-01

16

Improved detection and false alarm rejection for chemical vapors using passive hyperspectral imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two AIRIS sensors were tested at Dugway Proving Grounds against chemical agent vapor simulants. The primary objectives of the test were to: 1) assess performance of algorithm improvements designed to reduce false alarm rates with a special emphasis on solar effects, and 3) evaluate performance in target detection at 5 km. The tests included 66 total releases comprising alternating 120 kg glacial acetic acid (GAA) and 60 kg triethyl phosphate (TEP) events. The AIRIS sensors had common algorithms, detection thresholds, and sensor parameters. The sensors used the target set defined for the Joint Service Lightweight Chemical Agent Detector (JSLSCAD) with TEP substituted for GA and GAA substituted for VX. They were exercised at two sites located at either 3 km or 5 km from the release point. Data from the tests will be presented showing that: 1) excellent detection capability was obtained at both ranges with significantly shorter alarm times at 5 km, 2) inter-sensor comparison revealed very comparable performance, 3) false alarm rates < 1 incident per 10 hours running time over 143 hours of sensor operations were achieved, 4) algorithm improvements eliminated both solar and cloud false alarms. The algorithms enabling the improved false alarm rejection will be discussed. The sensor technology has recently been extended to address the problem of detection of liquid and solid chemical agents and toxic industrial chemical on surfaces. The phenomenology and applicability of passive infrared hyperspectral imaging to this problem will be discussed and demonstrated.

Marinelli, William J.; Miyashiro, Rex; Gittins, Christopher M.; Konno, Daisei; Chang, Shing; Farr, Matt; Perkins, Brad

2013-05-01

17

False Alarm Study of Smoke Detectors in Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCS),  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study of 133 VA Medical Centers (VAMC) out of a total of 172 throughout the U.S. coupled with visits to 20 facilities was conducted to gather data on false alarms of smoke detectors. Data collected included name of the detector manufacturer and model nu...

P. M. Dubivsky R. W. Bukowski

1989-01-01

18

False alarm or real warning? Implications for China of teaching English  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the cultural impact of teaching the English language with particular reference to China. It deals with the following questions: (1) It is said that English is threatening other languages and cultures. For China, is this a false alarm or a real warning? (2) The fact that China has entered the world of English teaching has accelerated the

Du Hui

2005-01-01

19

Estimation of a Constant False Alarm Rate Processing Loss for a High- Resolution Maritime Radar System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report addresses a problem of estimation of a constant false alarm rate (CFAR) processing loss for a high-resolution maritime radar system on an example of a generic radar system Anti-Submarine Warfare mode and discusses approaches to modelling of th...

I. Antipov J. Baldwinson

2008-01-01

20

On adaptive cell-averaging CFAR (Constant False-Alarm Rate) radar signal detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In radar signal detection, the problem is to automatically detect a target in a nonstationary noise and clutter background while maintaining a constant probability of false alarm. Classical detection using a matched filter receiver and a fixed threshold is not applicable due to the nonstationary nature of the background noise. Therefore, adaptive threshold techniques are needed to maintain a constant

Mourad Barkat; Pramod K. Varshney

1987-01-01

21

Taming False Alarms from a Domain-Unaware C Analyzer by a Bayesian Statistical Post Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present our experience of combining, in a realistic set- ting, a static analyzer with a statistical analysis. This combination is in order to reduce the inevitable false alarms from a domain-unaware static analyzer. Our analyzer named Airac(Array Index Range Analyzer for C) collects all the true bufier-overrun points in ANSI C programs. The soundness is maintained, and the analysis'

Yungbum Jung; Jaehwang Kim; Jaeho Shin; Kwangkeun Yi

2005-01-01

22

Proximate factors underpinning receiver responses to deceptive false alarm calls in wild tufted capuchin monkeys: is it counterdeception?  

PubMed

Previous research demonstrates that tufted capuchin monkeys use terrestrial predator alarm calls in a functionally deceptive manner to distract conspecifics when feeding on contestable resources, although the success of this tactic is limited because listeners frequently ignore these calls when given in such situations. While this decreased response rate is suggestive of a counterstrategy to deception by receivers, the proximate factors underpinning the behavior are unclear. The current study aims to test if the decreased response rate to alarm calls in competitive contexts is better explained by the perception of subtle acoustic differences between predator-elicited and deceptive false alarms, or by receivers varying their responses based on the context in which the signal is received. This was tested by first examining the acoustic structure of predator-elicited and deceptive false alarms for any potentially perceptible acoustic differences, and second by comparing the responses of capuchins to playbacks of each of predator-elicited and false alarms, played back in noncompetitive contexts. The results indicate that deceptive false alarms and predator-elicited alarms show, at best, minimal acoustic differences based on the structural features measured. Likewise, playbacks of deceptive false alarms elicited antipredator reactions at the same rate as did predator-elicited alarms, although there was a nonsignificant tendency for false alarms to be more likely to elicit escape reactions. The lack of robust acoustic differences together with the high response rate to false alarms in noncompetitive contexts suggests that the context in which the signal is received best explains receiver responses. It remains unclear, however, if listeners ascribe different meanings to the calls based on context, or if they generally ignore all signals in competitive contexts. Whether or not the decreased response rate of receivers directly stems from the deceptive use of the calls cannot be determined until these latter possibilities are rigorously tested. PMID:23184736

Wheeler, Brandon C; Hammerschmidt, Kurt

2012-11-26

23

Proximate Factors Underpinning Receiver Responses to Deceptive False Alarm Calls in Wild Tufted Capuchin Monkeys: Is It Counterdeception?  

PubMed Central

Previous research demonstrates that tufted capuchin monkeys use terrestrial predator alarm calls in a functionally deceptive manner to distract conspecifics when feeding on contestable resources, although the success of this tactic is limited because listeners frequently ignore these calls when given in such situations. While this decreased response rate is suggestive of a counterstrategy to deception by receivers, the proximate factors underpinning the behavior are unclear. The current study aims to test if the decreased response rate to alarm calls in competitive contexts is better explained by the perception of subtle acoustic differences between predator-elicited and deceptive false alarms, or by receivers varying their responses based on the context in which the signal is received. This was tested by first examining the acoustic structure of predator-elicited and deceptive false alarms for any potentially perceptible acoustic differences, and second by comparing the responses of capuchins to playbacks of each of predator-elicited and false alarms, played back in noncompetitive contexts. The results indicate that deceptive false alarms and predator-elicited alarms show, at best, minimal acoustic differences based on the structural features measured. Likewise, playbacks of deceptive false alarms elicited antipredator reactions at the same rate as did predator-elicited alarms, although there was a nonsignificant tendency for false alarms to be more likely to elicit escape reactions. The lack of robust acoustic differences together with the high response rate to false alarms in noncompetitive contexts suggests that the context in which the signal is received best explains receiver responses. It remains unclear, however, if listeners ascribe different meanings to the calls based on context, or if they generally ignore all signals in competitive contexts. Whether or not the decreased response rate of receivers directly stems from the deceptive use of the calls cannot be determined until these latter possibilities are rigorously tested. Am. J. Primatol. 75:715-725, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Wheeler, Brandon C; Hammerschmidt, Kurt

2013-01-01

24

False alarm reduction by the And-ing of multiple multivariate Gaussian classifiers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high-resolution sonar is one of the principal sensors used by the Navy to detect and classify sea mines in minehunting operations. For such sonar systems, substantial effort has been devoted to the development of automated detection and classification (D/C) algorithms. These have been spurred by several factors including (1) aids for operators to reduce work overload, (2) more optimal use of all available data, and (3) the introduction of unmanned minehunting systems. The environments where sea mines are typically laid (harbor areas, shipping lanes, and the littorals) give rise to many false alarms caused by natural, biologic, and man-made clutter. The objective of the automated D/C algorithms is to eliminate most of these false alarms while still maintaining a very high probability of mine detection and classification (PdPc). In recent years, the benefits of fusing the outputs of multiple D/C algorithms have been studied. We refer to this as Algorithm Fusion. The results have been remarkable, including reliable robustness to new environments. This paper describes a method for training several multivariate Gaussian classifiers such that their And-ing dramatically reduces false alarms while maintaining a high probability of classification. This training approach is referred to as the Focused- Training method. This work extends our 2001-2002 work where the Focused-Training method was used with three other types of classifiers: the Attractor-based K-Nearest Neighbor Neural Network (a type of radial-basis, probabilistic neural network), the Optimal Discrimination Filter Classifier (based linear discrimination theory), and the Quadratic Penalty Function Support Vector Machine (QPFSVM). Although our experience has been gained in the area of sea mine detection and classification, the principles described herein are general and can be applied to a wide range of pattern recognition and automatic target recognition (ATR) problems.

Dobeck, Gerald J.; Cobb, J. Tory

2003-09-01

25

Raman water vapour concentration measurements for reduction of false alarms in forest fire detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fires can be the cause of environmental catastrophe, with the natural outcomes of serious ecological and economic damages, together with the possibility to endanger human safety. At the aim to reduce this catastrophe several author have been shown that the Laser light scattering can be uses to reveals the particulate emitted in the smoke. Infact experimental and theoretical investigations have shown that lidar is a powerful tool to detect the tenuous smoke plumes produced by forest fires at an early stage. In early 90's Arbolino and Andreucci have shown the theoretical possibility to detect the particulate emitted in atmosphere from smoke forest fire. Vilar at all have shown experimentally the possibility to measure the density variation in atmosphere due to plume emitted in forest fire event. Gaudio at all. have already shown that it is possible to evaluate water vapor emitted in smoke of vegetable fuel using a CO2 dial system. In this paper a theoretical model to evaluate the capabilities of a lidar system in fire surveillance of wooded areas will be presented. In particular we intend propose a technique to minimizing the false alarm in the detection of forest fire by lidar based on a measurement of second components emitted in a combustion process. Usually to detect a fire alarm a rapid increase of aerosol amount is measured. If the backscattering signal report a peak, the presences of a forest fire will be probable. Our idea to confirm this hypothesis is measure the second components emitted in a forest fire at the aim to minimize the false alarm. The simulated measurements of the humidity amount within the smoke plume will be carried out by means of Raman analysis. Fixing the burning rate of the vegetable-fuels, the maximum range of detection will be evaluated.

Bellecci, C.; Gaudio, P.; Gelfusa, M.; Lo Feudo, T.; Malizia, A.; Richetta, M.; Ventura, P.

2009-09-01

26

False alarm analysis of the envelope detection GO-CFAR processor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The greatest of constant false alarm rate processor (GO CFAR) is a useful architecture for adaptively setting a radar detection threshold in the presence of clutter edges. The GO CFAR input is often the envelope detected in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) channels of the baseband signal (x(sub e) = square root of I(exp 2) + Q(exp 2)). This envelope detection can also be approximated using x = a max(absolute value of I, absolute value of Q) + b min(absolute value of I, absolute value of Q) which requires less complex hardware (a and b are simple multiplying coefficients). The envelope GO CFAR processor and several envelope approximation GO CFAR processors are compared in terms of the probability of false alarm (PFA) performance. Closed-form expressions which describe the PFA performance are given and their accuracy evaluated. It is shown that for all cases, the PFA is proportional to the number of reference cells n for small threshold multiplier T and inversely proportional to n for large T. A region of intersection occurs where the PFA is the same for two different values of n. For example, at T' = 1.68 in the absolute value of I + absolute value of Q GO CFAR (a = 1, b = 1) the PFA for n = 1 is equal to the optimal n = infinity fixed-threshold PFA (PFA = 0.112).

Pace, Phillip E.; Taylor, L. Lamoyne

1994-07-01

27

Reducing False Alarms of Intensive Care Online-Monitoring Systems: An Evaluation of Two Signal Extraction Algorithms  

PubMed Central

Online-monitoring systems in intensive care are affected by a high rate of false threshold alarms. These are caused by irrelevant noise and outliers in the measured time series data. The high false alarm rates can be lowered by separating relevant signals from noise and outliers online, in such a way that signal estimations, instead of raw measurements, are compared to the alarm limits. This paper presents a clinical validation study for two recently developed online signal filters. The filters are based on robust repeated median regression in moving windows of varying width. Validation is done offline using a large annotated reference database. The performance criteria are sensitivity and the proportion of false alarms suppressed by the signal filters.

Borowski, M.; Siebig, S.; Wrede, C.; Imhoff, M.

2011-01-01

28

Objective verifications and false alarm analyses of western North Pacific tropical cyclone event forecasts by the ECMWF 32-day ensemble  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An objective tropical cyclone (TC) track analog verification technique has been developed to select all ensemble storm tracks predicted by the ECMWF 32-day ensemble that match the overall Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) post-season best-tracks. Ensemble storms within specified time and space differences of each JTWC track are first extracted as potential analogs, and four metrics of shortest distance, average distance, distance at formation time, and distance at ending time are calculated. An objective quality measure that assesses the overall track similarity between the potential analogs and each JTWC track is calculated in terms of membership functions for the four track metrics. Weighting factors multiplying these membership functions are adjusted to match with the quality measures for the ECMWF ensemble storm forecasts in a previous subjective evaluation. Objective verifications for the 2009 and 2010 seasons have been summarized in terms of Hits, Misses, False Alarms, and Correct Negatives that no TC would be present in the western North Pacific. The most important result is that the ECMWF ensemble was able to predict nearly all of the TCs in both seasons with only a small number of Misses that generally were short-lived tropical depressions. Good performance in terms of Correct Negatives was achieved during the 2010 season. False alarms are defined to be all ensemble storms that could not be matched any JTWC tracks within the specified thresholds. Evaluations of the characteristics of the false alarms indicate seasonal and geographic biases and that about 50% of the false alarm in the Week 1 forecasts originate from the initial the initial conditions in the model. A minimum of false alarms created in Week 2 forecasts is attributed to the decrease in horizontal resolution in the model that occurs at day 10. A steady and nearly uniform increase in false alarms in the Week 3 and Week 4 forecasts may be attributed to net convective heating in response to persistent environmental forcing in the tropics.

Tsai, Hsiao-Chung; Elsberry, Russell L.; Jordan, Mary S.; Vitart, Frédéric

2013-08-01

29

Adaptive beam pointing control of a phased array radar in the presence of ECM and false alarms using IMMPDAF  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the use of the interacting multiple model (IMM) estimation algorithm combined with the probabilistic data association filter (PDAF) for adaptive beam pointing control of a phased array radar to track maneuvering targets in the presence of false alarms and electronic counter measures (ECM) is presented. The tracking algorithm includes target track formation and maintenance using IMMPDAF, jammer

T. Kirubarajan; Y. Bar-Shalom; E. Daeipour

1995-01-01

30

Constant false alarm rate target detection in clutter: a neural processing algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A serious degradation in detection probability of conventional Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) processors used in the automatic detection of radar targets results from a reduction in the number of available reference cells. Several factors such as any constraints on the radar system used (in terms of resolution and sampling time), presence of interfering targets and nonstationary clutter may contribute to the reduction in the number of reference cells. This paper presents a novel neural network-based CFAR detection scheme (referred to as NN- CFAR scheme) that offers robust performance in the face of loss of reference cells. This scheme employs a multilayer feedforward neural network trained by error backpropagation approach using the optimal detector as the teacher. The excellent pattern classification capabilities of trained neural networks are exploited in this application to effectively counter performance degradations due to reduced reference window sizes. In particular it is demonstrated that a neural network implementation of the CFAR detection scheme provides an efficient approach for accommodating more input parameters without increasing design complexity for countering the information loss due to reduced reference window size. Precise quantitative performance evaluation of the NN-CFAR scheme are conducted in a variety of situations that include both homogeneous and nonhomogeneous clutter backgrounds and the target detection performance is compared with that of the traditional CA-CFAR scheme to highlight the benefits.

Amoozegar, Farid; Sundareshan, Malur K.

1994-03-01

31

Adaptive constant false alarm rate (CFAR) test for detection of targets in clutter using radar with multiple resolution elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a parameter-free procedure applicable to the detection of a signal in some element of a multiple-resolution- element radar is described. The procedure is based on parameter- free statistics obtained from the generalized maximum likelihood ratio and allows one to eliminate the unknown parameters from the problem. This procedure can be employed whenever the parameters of the distribution of the signal data and no-signal data are unknown. It allows one to find an adaptive test that adjusts itself to the level of the recent clutter and to improve target detectability over various clutter, such as ground, sea and weather clutter. One advantage of the adaptive test is that, over a wide class of no-signal environments, the false alarm rate remains the same. In other words, the adaptive test is able to achieve a fixed probability of a false alarm, which is invariant to intensity changes in the noise background. Also, no learning process is necessary in order to achieve the constant false alarm rate.

Nechval, Nicholas A.

1994-06-01

32

Statistical Considerations in Designing Tests of Mine Detection Systems: II - Measures Related to the False Alarm Rate  

SciTech Connect

The rate at which a mine detection system falsely identifies man-made or natural clutter objects as mines is referred to as the system's false alarm rate (FAR). Generally expressed as a rate per unit area or time, the FAR is one of the primary metrics used to gauge system performance. In this report, an overview is given of statistical methods appropriate for the analysis of data relating to FAR. Techniques are presented for determining a suitable size for the clutter collection area, for summarizing the performance of a single sensor, and for comparing different sensors. For readers requiring more thorough coverage of the topics discussed, references to the statistical literature are provided. A companion report addresses statistical issues related to the estimation of mine detection probabilities.

Simonson, K.M.

1998-08-01

33

False Alarms About False Memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

M. B. Miller and G. L. Wolford (1999) make two contributions. First, they add conditions to the basic Roediger–McDermott (1995) procedure and find that critical items are recalled and recognized more often if they are presented in the list than if they are not presented. These results agree with our own, which are briefly reviewed. Second, they apply signal detection

Henry L. Roediger; Kathleen B. McDermott

1999-01-01

34

Improved detection and false alarm rejection using FLGPR and color imagery in a forward-looking system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forward-looking ground-penetrating radar (FLGPR) has received a significant amount of attention for use in explosivehazards detection. A drawback to FLGPR is that it results in an excessive number of false detections. This paper presents our analysis of the explosive-hazards detection system tested by the U.S. Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD). The NVESD system combines an FLGPR with a visible-spectrum color camera. We present a target detection algorithm that uses a locally-adaptive detection scheme with spectrum-based features. The remaining FLGPR detections are then projected into the camera imagery and image-based features are collected. A one-class classifier is then used to reduce the number of false detections. We show that our proposed FLGPR target detection algorithm, coupled with our camera-based false alarm (FA) reduction method, is effective at reducing the number of FAs in test data collected at a US Army test facility.

Havens, Timothy C.; Spain, Christopher J.; Ho, K. C.; Keller, James M.; Ton, Tuan T.; Wong, David C.; Soumekh, Mehrdad

2010-04-01

35

Adaptive multiple-band CFAR (Constant-False-Alarm-Rate) detection of an optical pattern with unknown spectral distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A generalized constant false-alarm rate (CFAR) algorithm is developed for detecting the presence of an optical signal of non-zero intensity in J signal-plus-noise bands or channels. For many applications this new algorithm is more flexible and practical than previous ones. If J=1, the resulting test reduces to the standard normalized matched filter test for finding a signal in clutter of unknown and varying intensity. Both theoretical and computer simulation results show that the SNR improvement gain of this new algorithm using multiple band scenes over the single scene of maximum SNR is always greater than one and in some cases it can be substantial. The data base used to simulate this new adaptive CFAR test are actual LANDSAT image scenes. The present results for optical detection are extendable to radar target detection and to other related detection problems.

Gagliardi, Robert; Reed, Irving S.

1989-06-01

36

Application of a CO2 dial system for infrared detection of forest fire and reduction of false alarm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fires can be the cause of serious environmental and economic damages. For this reason considerable effort has been directed toward forest protection and fire fighting. The means traditionally used for early fire detection mainly consist in human observers dispersed over forest regions. A significant improvement in early warning capabilities could be obtained by using automatic detection apparatus. In order to early detect small forest fires and minimize false alarms, the use of a lidar system and dial technique will be considered. A first evaluation of the lowest detectable concentration will be estimated by numerical simulation. The theoretical model will also be used to get the capability of the dial system to control wooded areas. Fixing the burning rate for several fuels, the maximum range of detection will be evaluated. Finally results of simulations will be reported.

Bellecci, C.; Francucci, M.; Gaudio, P.; Gelfusa, M.; Martellucci, S.; Richetta, M.; Lo Feudo, T.

2007-04-01

37

Measures of sensitivity based on a single hit rate and false alarm rate: the accuracy, precision, and robustness of d', Az, and A'.  

PubMed

Signal detection theory offers several indexes of sensitivity (d', Az, and A') that are appropriate for two-choice discrimination when data consist of one hit rate and one false alarm rate per condition. These measures require simplifying assumptions about how target and lure evidence is distributed. We examine three statistical properties of these indexes: accuracy (good agreement between the parameter and the sampling distribution mean), precision (small variance of the sampling distribution), and robustness (small influence of violated assumptions on accuracy). We draw several conclusions from the results. First, a variety of parameters (sample size, degree of discriminability, and magnitude of hits and false alarms) influence statistical bias in these indexes. Comparing conditions that differ in these parameters entails discrepancies that can be reduced by increasing N. Second, unequal variance of the evidence distributions produces significant bias that cannot be reduced by increasing N-a serious drawback to the use of these sensitivity indexes when variance is unknown. Finally, their relative statistical performances suggest that Az is preferable to A'. PMID:16933428

Verde, Michael E; MacMillan, Neil A; Rotello, Caren M

2006-05-01

38

Improved Detection and False Alarm Rejection Using FLGPR and Color Imagery in a Forward-Looking System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Forward-looking ground-penetrating radar (FLGPR) has received a significant amount of attention for use in explosive-hazards detection. A drawback to FLGPR is that it results in an excessive number of false detections. This paper presents our analysis of ...

C. J. Spain J. M. Keller K. C. Ho T. C. Havens T. T. Ton

2010-01-01

39

Is it time to sound an alarm about false-positive cell-free DNA testing for fetal aneuploidy?  

PubMed

Testing cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in maternal blood samples has been shown to have very high sensitivity for the detection of fetal aneuploidy with very low false-positive results in high-risk patients who undergo invasive prenatal diagnosis. Recent observation in clinical practice of several cases of positive cfDNA tests for trisomy 18 and trisomy 13, which were not confirmed by cytogenetic testing of the pregnancy, may reflect a limitation of the positive predictive value of this quantitative testing, particularly when it is used to detect rare aneuploidies. Analysis of a larger number of false-positive cases is needed to evaluate whether these observations reflect the positive predictive value that should be expected. Infrequently, mechanisms (such as low percentage mosaicism or confined placental mosaicism) might also lead to positive cfDNA testing that is not concordant with standard prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis. The need to explore these and other possible causes of false-positive cfDNA testing is exemplified by 2 of these cases. Additional evaluation of cfDNA testing in clinical practice and a mechanism for the systematic reporting of false-positive and false-negative cases will be important before this test is offered widely to the general population of low-risk obstetric patients. In the meantime, incorporating information about the positive predictive value in pretest counseling and in clinical laboratory reports is recommended. These experiences reinforce the importance of offering invasive testing to confirm cfDNA results before parental decision-making. PMID:23529082

Mennuti, Michael T; Cherry, Athena M; Morrissette, Jennifer J D; Dugoff, Lorraine

2013-03-22

40

Improved detection and false alarm rejection using FLGPR and color imagery in a forward-looking system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forward-looking ground-penetrating radar (FLGPR) has received a significant amount of attention for use in explosivehazards detection. A drawback to FLGPR is that it results in an excessive number of false detections. This paper presents our analysis of the explosive-hazards detection system tested by the U.S. Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD). The NVESD system combines an FLGPR with

Timothy C. Havens; Christopher J. Spain; K. C. Ho; James M. Keller; Tuan T. Ton; David C. Wong; Mehrdad Soumekh

2010-01-01

41

Evaluation of minimum detectable activity and false alarm rate relationships for the eberline alpha-6 continuous air monitors at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy rule for Occupational Radiation Protection and the DOE Radiological Control Manual (the RCM) (DOE/EH-0256T, Rev 1, April 1994) require the use of continuous air monitors (CAMs) in normally occupied areas there an individual is likely to be exposed to a concentration of airborne radioactivity exceeding the derived air concentration (DAC) or where there is need to alert potentially exposed individuals to unexpected increases in airborne radioactivity levels. The DAC is the airborne concentration that equals the annual limit on intake divided by the volume of air breathed by an average worker for a working year of 2,000 h (assuming a breathing volume of 2,400 m{sup 3}). It is equivalent to the airborne concentration to which a worker could be exposed for an entire year (2,000 h) without exceeding the annual limit on intake. The rule and the RCM further require that real-time air monitors have an alarm capability and sufficient sensitivity to alert potentially exposed individuals that immediate action is necessary in order to minimize or terminate inhalation exposures. The RCM also recommends that real-time air monitors should be capable of measuring 1 DAC when averaged over 8 h (8 DAC) under laboratory conditions. This report was prepared jointly with actual data from the CAMs in use at the WIPP by ITRI, WID, and EEG and provides an evaluation of minimum detectable activity (MDA) or concentration and false alarm rate relationships. The methodology used in this report is adapted from Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute Annual Report for 1993-1994, ITRI-144, pp 18-22, December 1994.

Cox, M. [Westinghouse Waste Isolation Division, Santa Fe, NM (United States); Hoover, M.D.; Newton, G. [Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst., Santa Fe, NM (United States); Walker, B.A. [Environmental Evaluation Group, Santa Fe, NM (United States)

1996-06-01

42

Alarm fatigue: a patient safety concern.  

PubMed

Research has demonstrated that 72% to 99% of clinical alarms are false. The high number of false alarms has led to alarm fatigue. Alarm fatigue is sensory overload when clinicians are exposed to an excessive number of alarms, which can result in desensitization to alarms and missed alarms. Patient deaths have been attributed to alarm fatigue. Patient safety and regulatory agencies have focused on the issue of alarm fatigue, and it is a 2014 Joint Commission National Patient Safety Goal. Quality improvement projects have demonstrated that strategies such as daily electrocardiogram electrode changes, proper skin preparation, education, and customization of alarm parameters have been able to decrease the number of false alarms. These and other strategies need to be tested in rigorous clinical trials to determine whether they reduce alarm burden without compromising patient safety. PMID:24153215

Sendelbach, Sue; Funk, Marjorie

43

Detection and false alarm probabilities of IR-UWB Chip-Time Differential Transmitted-Reference receivers: A framework for performance analysis and optimization over multipath fading channels with tone interference  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we will propose a framework for computing detection (Pd) and false alarm (Pfa) probabilities for chip-time differential transmitted-reference (Tc-DTR) receivers over frequency-selective multipath fading channels further impaired by narrow-band interference (NBI). We will show that, when compared to similar non-coherent receiver architectures, Tc-DTR offers an intrinsic robustness to NBI, provided that the direct sequence (DS) signature code

M. Di Renzo; D. De Leonardis; F. Graziosi; F. Santucci

2009-01-01

44

Monitor alarm fatigue: an integrative review.  

PubMed

Alarm fatigue is a national problem and the number one medical device technology hazard in 2012. The problem of alarm desensitization is multifaceted and related to a high false alarm rate, poor positive predictive value, lack of alarm standardization, and the number of alarming medical devices in hospitals today. This integrative review synthesizes research and non-research findings published between 1/1/2000 and 10/1/2011 using The Johns Hopkins Nursing Evidence-Based Practice model. Seventy-two articles were included. Research evidence was organized into five main themes: excessive alarms and effects on staff; nurse's response to alarms; alarm sounds and audibility; technology to reduce false alarms; and alarm notification systems. Non-research evidence was divided into two main themes: strategies to reduce alarm desensitization, and alarm priority and notification systems. Evidence-based practice recommendations and gaps in research are summarized. PMID:22839984

Cvach, Maria

45

Rockfall hazard assessment, risk quantification, and mitigation options for reef cove resort development, False Cape, Queensland, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GIS and 2-D rock fall simulations were used as the primary tools during a rock fall hazard assessment and analyses for a major resort and township development near Cairns, Queensland in Australia. The methods used included 1) the development of a digital elevation model (DEM); undertaking rock fall trajectory analyses to determine the end points of rockfalls, the distribution of kinetic energy for identified rock fall runout Zones, and 3) undertaking event tree analyses based on a synthesis of all data in order to establish Zones with the highest risk of fatalities. This paper describes the methodology used and the results of this work. Recommendations to mitigate the hazard included having exclusions zones with no construction, scaling (including trim blasting), construction of berms and rockfall catch fences. Keywords: GIS, rockfall simulation, rockfall runout Zones, mitigation options INTRODUCTION False Cape is located on the east side of the Trinity inlet near Cairns (Figure 1). Construction is underway for a multi-million dollar development close the beach front. The development will ultimately cover about 1.5 km of prime coast line. The granite slopes above the development are steep and are covered with a number of large, potentially unstable boulders. Sheet jointing is present in the in-situ bedrock and these combined with other tectonic joint sets have provided a key mechanism for large side down slope on exposed bedrock. With each rock fall (evidence by boulders strew in gullies, over the lower parts of the slope, and on the beach) the failure mechanism migrates upslope. In order for the Developer to proceed with construction he needs to mitigate the identified rock fall hazard. The method used to study the hazard and key finding are presented in this paper. Discussion is provided in the conclusion on mitigation options. KEY METHODS USED TO STUDY THE HAZARD In summary the methods used to study the hazard for the False Cape project include; 1. The development of a digital elevation model (DEM) used to delineate rock fall runout Zones [1] that included the spatial location of boulder fields mapped within Zones(Figure 2). A Zone is defined as an area above the development on steep sided slopes where falling rocks are channeled into gullies / and or are contained between topographic features such as ridges and spurs that extend down the mountainside. These natural barriers generally ensure that falling rocks do not fall or roll into adjacent Zones; 2. The use of ‘Flow Path Tracing Tool' in Arc GIS spatial analyst to confirm typical descents of boulders in Zones. These were shown to correlated strongly with the endpoints of boulders observed within the development and major clusters of boulders on the beach front; 3. The use of 2-D rockfall trajectory analyses [2] using sections cut along typical 3-D trajectory paths mapped out in ARC GIS per Zone. Sections along typical paths in Zones simulated, to some degree, the 3-D affect or path of rocks as they bounce roll down slope (Figure 3); 4. The calibration of rockfall input parameters (coefficients of normal and tangential restitution, slope roughness, friction angle, etc.) using field identified endpoints and size of fallen rock and boulder; and 5. Undertaking risk evolutions in order to quantify the potential risk for each independent rockfall Zone. KEY FINDINGS FROM THE STUDIES The key findings from the study include; 1. Multiple potentially unstable in-situ boulders (some in excess of several thousand tonnes) are present above the development. 2. Similar geological structures (dykes, jointing, etc.) are present in the boulders on the beach front and within the development exposed in-situ bedrock located above the development. Measurement and comparison of the orientation of these geological structures present in boulders with that observed in the in-situ bedrock provided strong evidence that that the boulders have mitigated down slope. 3. Eight discrete Rockfall Runout Zones were identified using the digital elevation model set up in ARC GIS (Figure 4). The bound

Schlotfeldt, P.

2009-04-01

46

Short-term event recording as a measure to rule out false alarms and to shorten the duration of home monitoring in infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Zusammenfassung  Apnoe- und Herzatem-Monitore werden häufig zur Überwachung von Säuglingen verwendet. Diese Monitore neigen zu häufigen Fehlalarmen\\u000a und verursachen dadurch Stress bei Eltern und führen häufig zu einer unnötigen Verlängerung des Heimmonitorings im Säuglingsalter.\\u000a \\u000a Für den ambulanten Einsatz stehen Geräte zur Verfügung (Eventmonitore), mit denen solche Alarme retrospektiv analysiert und\\u000a objektiviert werden können.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Ziel der Studie war es, durch den Kurzeinsatz

Heinz Zotter; Renate Schenkeli; Ronald Kurz; Reinhold Kerbl

2003-01-01

47

Bed-exit alarm effectiveness.  

PubMed

This study describes the accuracy of two types of bed-exit alarms to detect bed-exiting body movements: pressure-sensitive and a pressure-sensitive combined with infrared (IR) beam detectors (dual sensor system). We also evaluated the occurrence of nuisance alarms, or alarms that are activated when a participant does not attempt to get out of bed. Fourteen nursing home residents were directly observed for a total of 256 nights or 1636.5h; an average of 18.3+/-22.3 (+/-S.D.) nights/participant for an average of 6.4+/-1.2 h/night. After adjusting for body movements via repeated measures, Poisson regression modeling, the least squares adjusted means (LSM) show a marginally significant difference between the type of alarm groups on the number of true positives (NTP) (mean/S.E.M.=0.086/1.617) for pressure-sensitive versus dual sensor alarm (0.593/1.238; p=0.0599) indicating that the dual sensor alarm may have a higher NTP. While the dual sensor bed-exit alarm was more accurate than the pressure-sensitive alarm in identifying bed-exiting body movements and reducing the incidence of false alarms, false alarms were not eliminated altogether. Alarms are not a substitute for staff; adequate staff availability is still necessary when residents need or wish to exit bed. PMID:18508138

Capezuti, Elizabeth; Brush, Barbara L; Lane, Stephen; Rabinowitz, Hannah U; Secic, Michelle

2008-06-03

48

Combating Nuisance Alarms Caused by the Ship Effect in 3He Based Neutron Detection Radiation Portal Monitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ship effect neutrons can present unique challenges in ongoing efforts to interdict illicit nuclear trafficking at border crossings. 3He neutron proportional counters can generate false positives due to these neutron spikes, leading to cumbersome secondary radiation scans. This work explores methods to mitigate these nuisance alarms through a better understanding of how this effect is manifested in different materials, the

A. Oliveri; E. Buckley; J. Borgardt; R. Kouzes; E. Siciliano; A. Seifert; L. Windsor

2007-01-01

49

Mitigation techniques for non-Gaussian sea clutter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the problem of coherent radar detection of targets embedded in clutter modeled as a compound-Gaussian process. We first provide a survey on clutter mitigation techniques with a particular emphasis on adaptive detection schemes ensuring the constant false-alarm rate (CFAR) property with respect to all of the clutter parameters. Thus, we propose a novel decision rule based

Ernesto Conte; Antonio De Maio

2004-01-01

50

Eyewitness Testimony: False Alarms on Biased Instructions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two experiments we investigated the effects of biased instructions on the accuracy of eyewitness identification in a field setting in which some of the subjects were unaware of their participation in an experiment. In Experiment 1, 76 students observed a theft and were later asked to identify the perpetrator from a target-absent lineup, receiving either unbiased or biased instructions.

Günter Köhnken; Anne Maass

1988-01-01

51

Hidden Alarm  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this design challenge activity, learners invent a device that will make their friends and family ask, "What's buzzing?" Learners design an alarm with an on/off switch that is small enough to hide. This activity is a fun, hands-on way for learners to get a taste for the design process and experiment with circuitry.

Wgbh

2010-01-01

52

21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement...Diagnostic Devices § 870.1025 Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement...a) Identification. The arrhythmia detector and alarm device monitors an...

2013-04-01

53

46 CFR 153.409 - High level alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false High level alarms. 153.409 Section 153.409...Cargo Gauging Systems § 153.409 High level alarms. When Table 1 refers to this...cargo's containment system must have a high level alarm: (a) That gives an...

2012-10-01

54

46 CFR 153.409 - High level alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false High level alarms. 153.409 Section 153.409...Cargo Gauging Systems § 153.409 High level alarms. When Table 1 refers to this...cargo's containment system must have a high level alarm: (a) That gives an...

2011-10-01

55

46 CFR 108.623 - General alarm bell switch.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false General alarm bell switch. 108.623 Section 108.623 Shipping...Instructions § 108.623 General alarm bell switch. Each general alarm bell switch must be marked âGENERAL ALARMâ on a...

2012-10-01

56

Evaluation of automatically learned intelligent alarm systems.  

PubMed

In this contribution it is investigated whether a combination of mathematical simulation and inductive machine learning can replace the usual knowledge elicitation techniques. To test this a domain was selected for which knowledge based systems had a high performance: intelligent alarm systems. A mathematical model of a breathing circuit and ventilated patient was implemented in PSpice. Airway pressure, gas flows and CO2 concentration were simulated with this model, during normal functioning of the breathing circuit and during several mishaps, for a wide range of simulated patients. With an inductive machine learning program, classification trees were created from the simulated patient data. The classification trees described each breathing circuit mishap in terms of changes in signal feature values with respect to the normal situation and were implemented as alarm system knowledge bases. The alarm systems were tested with data measured at 17 mechanically ventilated animals. During ventilation of the animals several mishaps were introduced. For each animal, 93-100% of all mishaps could be detected correctly by the alarm systems. The false alarm rate ranged on average from one false alarm per h to one false alarm every 2.5 h. It was concluded that the suggested approach to knowledge elicitation was successful. PMID:9421666

Müller, B; Hasman, A; Blom, J A

1997-11-01

57

Alarm points for fixed oxygen monitors  

SciTech Connect

Oxygen concentration monitors were installed in a vault where numerous pipes carried inert cryogens and gases to the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) experimental vessel at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The problems associated with oxygen-monitoring systems and the reasons why such monitors were installed were reviewed. As a result of this review, the MFTF-B monitors were set to sound an evacuation alarm when the oxygen concentration fell below 18%. We chose the 18% alarm criterion to minimize false alarms and to allow time for personnel to escape in an oxygen-deficient environment.

Miller, G.C.

1987-05-01

58

The Strategic Nature of False Recognition in the DRM Paradigm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The false memory effect produced by the Deese/Roediger & McDermott (DRM) paradigm is reportedly impervious to warnings to avoid false alarming to the critical lures (D. A. Gallo, H. L. Roediger III, & K. B. McDermott, 2001). This finding has been used as strong evidence against models that attribute the false alarms to a decision process…

Miller, Michael B.; Guerin, Scott A.; Wolford, George L.

2011-01-01

59

Clinically Relevant Hypoglycemia Prediction Metrics for Event Mitigation  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to develop a method to compare hypoglycemia prediction algorithms and choose parameter settings for different applications, such as triggering insulin pump suspension or alerting for rescue carbohydrate treatment. Materials and Methods Hypoglycemia prediction algorithms with different parameter settings were implemented on an ambulatory dataset containing 490 days from 30 subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus using the Dexcom™ (San Diego, CA) SEVEN™ continuous glucose monitoring system. The performance was evaluated using a proposed set of metrics representing the true-positive ratio, false-positive rate, and distribution of warning times. A prospective, in silico study was performed to show the effect of using different parameter settings to prevent or rescue from hypoglycemia. Results The retrospective study results suggest the parameter settings for different methods of hypoglycemia mitigation. When rescue carbohydrates are used, a high true-positive ratio, a minimal false-positive rate, and alarms with short warning time are desired. These objectives were met with a 30-min prediction horizon and two successive flags required to alarm: 78% of events were detected with 3.0 false alarms/day and 66% probability of alarms occurring within 30?min of the event. This parameter setting selection was confirmed in silico: treating with rescue carbohydrates reduced the duration of hypoglycemia from 14.9% to 0.5%. However, for a different method, such as pump suspension, this parameter setting only reduced hypoglycemia to 8.7%, as can be expected by the low probability of alarming more than 30?min ahead. Conclusions The proposed metrics allow direct comparison of hypoglycemia prediction algorithms and selection of parameter settings for different types of hypoglycemia mitigation, as shown in the prospective in silico study in which hypoglycemia was alerted or treated with rescue carbohydrates.

Harvey, Rebecca A.; Dassau, Eyal; Zisser, Howard C.; Bevier, Wendy; Seborg, Dale E.; Jovanovic, Lois

2012-01-01

60

46 CFR 153.438 - Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. 153.438...COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.438 Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. (a)...

2012-10-01

61

46 CFR 153.438 - Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. 153.438...COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.438 Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. (a)...

2011-10-01

62

46 CFR 153.438 - Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. 153.438 Section...MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.438 Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. (a) Each...

2010-10-01

63

46 CFR 153.438 - Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. 153.438 Section...MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.438 Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. (a) Each...

2009-10-01

64

Improved correlation analysis and visualization of industrial alarm data.  

PubMed

The problem of multivariate alarm analysis and rationalization is complex and important in the area of smart alarm management due to the interrelationships between variables. The technique of capturing and visualizing the correlation information, especially from historical alarm data directly, is beneficial for further analysis. In this paper, the Gaussian kernel method is applied to generate pseudo continuous time series from the original binary alarm data. This can reduce the influence of missed, false, and chattering alarms. By taking into account time lags between alarm variables, a correlation color map of the transformed or pseudo data is used to show clusters of correlated variables with the alarm tags reordered to better group the correlated alarms. Thereafter correlation and redundancy information can be easily found and used to improve the alarm settings; and statistical methods such as singular value decomposition techniques can be applied within each cluster to help design multivariate alarm strategies. Industrial case studies are given to illustrate the practicality and efficacy of the proposed method. This improved method is shown to be better than the alarm similarity color map when applied in the analysis of industrial alarm data. PMID:22503464

Yang, F; Shah, S L; Xiao, D; Chen, T

2012-04-12

65

Giving radioiodine? Think about airport security alarms.  

PubMed

An increased sensitivity of airport detectors, a growing number of isotopic tests, and globalization of the society have raised a number of false positive radioactive alarms at airports and public places. This paper presents two new cases of patients who triggered airport security alarms after receiving 740MBq of (131)I for non-toxic goitre and attempts to compare surprisingly limited literature concerning this problem. A 57-year-old man triggered a security alarm at three different airports on the 17th, 28th, and 31st day after radioiodine exposure. Interestingly enough, in the meantime, on the 18th and 22nd day, no radiation was detected in him at the airport where he was twice detained as a source of radiation later on. The second case presents a 45-year-old woman who activated security alarm detectors while crossing a border on her coach trip 28 days after radioiodine administration. PMID:22226338

Kaniuka-Jakubowska, S; Lewczuk, A; Mizan-Gross, K; Obo?o?czyk, L; Lass, P; Sworczak, K

2012-01-04

66

Make an Alarm!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After reading the story "Dear Mr. Henshaw" by Beverly Cleary, students create an alarm system for something in the classroom, just as the main character Leigh does to protect his lunchbox from thieves. Students learn about alarms and use their creativity to devise an alarm system to protect their lockers, desk, or classroom door. Note: this activity can also be done without reading "Dear Mr. Henshaw."

Center For Engineering Educational Outreach

67

Advanced fire detection using multi-signature alarm algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work was to assess the feasibility of reducing false alarms while increasing sensitivity through the use of combined conventional smoke detectors with carbon monoxide (CO) sensors. This was accomplished through an experimental program using both real (fire) and nuisance alarm sources. A broad selection of sources was used ranging from smoldering wood and flaming fabric to

Daniel T. Gottuk; Michelle J. Peatross; Richard J. Roby; Craig L. Beyler

2002-01-01

68

46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 182.530 Section 182.530...Ballast Systems § 182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On a vessel of at...operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally...

2011-10-01

69

46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 182.530 Section 182.530...Ballast Systems § 182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On a vessel of at...operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally...

2012-10-01

70

46 CFR 108.445 - Alarm and means of escape.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alarm and means of escape. 108.445 Section 108...EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.445 Alarm and means of escape. (a) Each CO2...

2010-10-01

71

46 CFR 108.445 - Alarm and means of escape.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Alarm and means of escape. 108.445 Section 108...EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.445 Alarm and means of escape. (a) Each CO2...

2009-10-01

72

46 CFR 28.250 - High water alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false High water alarms. 28.250 Section 28.250...the Aleutian Trade § 28.250 High water alarms. On a vessel 36 feet (11...at the operating station to indicate high water level in each of the following...

2012-10-01

73

33 CFR 401.16 - Propeller direction alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Propeller direction alarms. 401.16 Section... Condition of Vessels § 401.16 Propeller direction alarms. Every vessel...more shall be equipped withâ (a) Propeller direction and shaft r.p.m....

2013-07-01

74

Firearm safety with alarm  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A safety device for cooperation with the internal safety mechanism of a firearm to provide an audible signal to the shooter when the safety is off and the weapon is ready to fire. A main body member located adjacent the firearm trigger guard at the location of the conventional safety defines a chamber within which an alarm system is housed including a power source as well as signal generating means. A switch closing member is disposed so as to contact the trigger guard when the safety is off to close a signal generating circuit of the alarm. The alarm system is of modular construction for removable disposition within the main body chamber.

Laing; Jerry R. (Eugene, OR)

1984-10-16

75

FundAlarm  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

FundAlarm is a "a free, non-commercial Website [which provides] objective information to help individual investors make the mutual fund 'sell' decision." Highlighted on this site is the FundAlarm database, which contains over 3,400 stock and balanced mutual funds. The database may be browsed by name of fund, or users can browse only fidelity and Vanguard funds, as well as search by up to five ticker symbols. The site also explains its benchmarking system of ranking funds, offers shop talk in its Highlights and Commentary section, and includes a discussion board. Interested users may sign up for free email notification of FundAlarm updates.

76

46 CFR 154.1325 - Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks...Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1325 Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks...1330, each cargo tank must have a high liquid level alarm system that: (a) Is...

2012-10-01

77

46 CFR 154.1325 - Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks...Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1325 Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks...1330, each cargo tank must have a high liquid level alarm system that: (a) Is...

2011-10-01

78

46 CFR 154.1330 - Liquid level alarm system: Independent tank type C.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Liquid level alarm system: Independent tank...Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1330 Liquid level alarm system: Independent tank...Independent tanks type C need not have the high liquid level alarm system under §...

2012-10-01

79

46 CFR 154.1330 - Liquid level alarm system: Independent tank type C.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liquid level alarm system: Independent tank...Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1330 Liquid level alarm system: Independent tank...Independent tanks type C need not have the high liquid level alarm system under §...

2011-10-01

80

47 CFR 80.307 - Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm. 80.307 Section 80.307 Telecommunication... § 80.307 Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm. The radiotelegraph auto alarm required on a cargo ship subject to the...

2009-10-01

81

47 CFR 80.307 - Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm. 80.307 Section 80.307 Telecommunication... § 80.307 Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm. The radiotelegraph auto alarm required on a cargo ship subject to the...

2010-10-01

82

47 CFR 80.335 - Procedures for canceling false distress alerts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Procedures for canceling false distress alerts. 80.335 Section 80.335...Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures...335 Procedures for canceling false distress alerts. If a distress alert is...

2010-10-01

83

47 CFR 80.335 - Procedures for canceling false distress alerts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Procedures for canceling false distress alerts. 80.335 Section 80.335...Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures...335 Procedures for canceling false distress alerts. If a distress alert is...

2009-10-01

84

The Strategic Nature of False Recognition in the DRM Paradigm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The false memory effect produced by the Deese\\/Roediger & McDermott (DRM) paradigm is reportedly impervious to warnings to avoid false alarming to the critical lures (D. A. Gallo, H. L. Roediger III, & K. B. McDermott, 2001). This finding has been used as strong evidence against models that attribute the false alarms to a decision process (e.g., M. B. Miller

Michael B. Miller; Scott A. Guerin; George L. Wolford

2011-01-01

85

Burning questions and false alarms about wildfires at Yellowstone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fires of 1988 have inspired a barrage of editorials, conferences, review panels, public forums, and just plain second-guessing. While consensus grows that the fires reflected a breakdown in how America copes with fire, it is not clear what exactly broke down - whether there was a failure in policy, in programs, in field operations, or in all three. Any

Pyne

2009-01-01

86

Fork-tailed drongos use deceptive mimicked alarm calls to steal food  

PubMed Central

Despite the prevalence of vocal mimicry in animals, few functions for this behaviour have been shown. I propose a novel hypothesis that false mimicked alarm calls could be used deceptively to scare other species and steal their food. Studies have previously suggested that animals use their own species-specific alarm calls to steal food. However none have shown conclusively that these false alarms are deceptive, or that mimicked alarm calls are used in this manner. Here, I show that wild fork-tailed drongos (Dicrurus adsimilis) make both drongo-specific and mimicked false alarm calls when watching target species handling food, in response to which targets flee to cover abandoning their food. The drongo-specific and mimicked calls made in false alarms were structurally indistinguishable from calls made during true alarms at predators by drongos and other species. Furthermore, I demonstrate by playback experiments that two of these species, meerkats (Suricata suricatta) and pied babblers (Turdoides bicolor), are deceived by both drongo-specific and mimicked false alarm calls. These results provide the first conclusive evidence that false alarm calls are deceptive and demonstrate a novel function for vocal mimicry. This work also provides valuable insight into the benefits of deploying variable mimetic signals in deceptive communication.

Flower, Tom

2011-01-01

87

Predictive combinations of monitor alarms preceding in-hospital code blue events.  

PubMed

Bedside monitors are ubiquitous in acute care units of modern healthcare enterprises. However, they have been criticized for generating an excessive number of false positive alarms causing alarm fatigue among care givers and potentially compromising patient safety. We hypothesize that combinations of regular monitor alarms denoted as SuperAlarm set may be more indicative of ongoing patient deteriorations and hence predictive of in-hospital code blue events. The present work develops and assesses an alarm mining approach based on finding frequent combinations of single alarms that are also specific to code blue events to compose a SuperAlarm set. We use 4-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to investigate the influence of four algorithm parameters on the performance of the data mining approach. The results are obtained from millions of monitor alarms from a cohort of 223 adult code blue and 1768 control patients using a multiple 10-fold cross-validation experiment setup. Using the optimal setting of parameters determined in the cross-validation experiment, final SuperAlarm sets are mined from the training data and used on an independent test data set to simulate running a SuperAlarm set against live regular monitor alarms. The ANOVA shows that the content of a SuperAlarm set is influenced by a subset of key algorithm parameters. Simulation of the extracted SuperAlarm set shows that it can predict code blue events one hour ahead with sensitivity between 66.7% and 90.9% while producing false SuperAlarms for control patients that account for between 2.2% and 11.2% of regular monitor alarms depending on user-supplied acceptable false positive rate. We conclude that even though the present work is still preliminary due to the usage of a moderately-sized database to test our hypothesis it represents an effort to develop algorithms to alleviate the alarm fatigue issue in a unique way. PMID:22465785

Hu, Xiao; Sapo, Monica; Nenov, Val; Barry, Tod; Kim, Sunghan; Do, Duc H; Boyle, Noel; Martin, Neil

2012-03-24

88

Burglar and Fire Alarms.: Costs and Benefits to the Locality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alarm industry has been estimated at 8-11 billion dollars in 1993. There are approximately 17 million alarms installed nationwide. The annual growth of installations has been 8 percent over the last five years. At the same time, the number of false activations per system is 1.1 to 1.4 per year, with 20 to 30 percent of police manpower devoted

Simon Hakim; George F. Rengert; Yochanan Shachmurove

1995-01-01

89

When false recognition is unopposed by true recognition: Gist-based memory distortion in Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examined false recognition of semantic associates in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD), older adults, and young adults using a paradigm that provided rates of false recognition after single and multiple exposures to word lists. Using corrected false recognition scores to control for unrelated false alarms, the authors found that (a) the level of false recognition after a

Andrew E. Budson; Kirk R. Daffner; Rahul Desikan; Daniel L. Schacter

2000-01-01

90

46 CFR 162.050-19 - Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Oil content meter and bilge alarm...APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Pollution Prevention Equipment § 162.050-19 Oil content meter and bilge alarm...used in approval testing of oil content meters and...

2011-10-01

91

46 CFR 162.050-19 - Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Oil content meter and bilge alarm...APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Pollution Prevention Equipment § 162.050-19 Oil content meter and bilge alarm...used in approval testing of oil content meters and...

2012-10-01

92

A methodology of alarm filtering using dynamic fault tree  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a new approach for filtering the faults, thanks to the defined dynamic fault tree (DFT). The proposed methodology includes the dependencies between fault events in the models. Two problems must thus be solved: they relate to the filtering of false alarms, and the reduction of the size of the ambiguity of fault isolation related to the occurrence

Zineb Simeu-Abazi; Arnaud Lefebvre; Jean-Pierre Derain

2011-01-01

93

21 CFR 870.2300 - Cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and...Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2300 Cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm). (a) Identification. A cardiac monitor (including...

2010-04-01

94

Development of Radiation Alarm Monitors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

KEPRI developed a portable (gamma) radiation alarm monitor with a measuring range of 0.01-100 mR/h, which can give off both audible and visible alarm signal at a preset level. Dose rate, accumulated dose, etc can be retrieved at a personal computer for th...

C. Y. Lee D. W. Kang M. J. Song S. J. Maeng S. W. Son

1996-01-01

95

Telephone alarm ASIC CTH936  

Microsoft Academic Search

CTH936 is a n-well CMOS LSI which is specifically designed for alarming automatically by telephone. When one needs help in an emergency, CTH936 dials out the telephone number of the police and transmits speech alarm information automatically that was stored in the EPROM. It can be used in banks, jewelry shops etc. for safety or in a health environment such

Zhi-Liang Chen; Jian-Ren Zhang; Yong-Feng Wang

1995-01-01

96

Talking Fire Alarms Calm Kids.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The new microprocessor-based fire alarm systems can help to control smoke movement throughout school buildings by opening vents and doors, identify the burning section, activate voice alarms, provide firefighters with telephone systems during the fire, and release fire-preventing gas. (KS)

Executive Educator, 1984

1984-01-01

97

40 CFR 93.160 - Mitigation of air quality impacts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Mitigation of air quality impacts. 93.160 Section...Plans § 93.160 Mitigation of air quality impacts. (a) Any measures that are intended to mitigate air quality impacts must be identified...

2012-07-01

98

50 CFR 665.35 - Pelagic longline seabird mitigation measures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-10-01 false Pelagic longline seabird mitigation measures. 665.35 Section 665...Pelagic Fisheries § 665.35 Pelagic longline seabird mitigation measures. (a) Seabird mitigation techniques. When...

2009-10-01

99

50 CFR 665.815 - Pelagic longline seabird mitigation measures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Pelagic longline seabird mitigation measures. 665.815 Section...Pelagic Fisheries § 665.815 Pelagic longline seabird mitigation measures. (a) Seabird mitigation techniques. When...

2010-10-01

100

43 CFR 46.130 - Mitigation measures in analyses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Mitigation measures in analyses. 46.130 Section 46...Environmental Quality § 46.130 Mitigation measures in analyses. (a) Bureau proposed...effects of any appropriate mitigation measures or best management practices that...

2011-10-01

101

46 CFR 78.47-13 - Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells...detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells...fire detecting and manual alarm automatic sprinklers, and smoke detecting alarm bells in...

2012-10-01

102

44 CFR 9.11 - Mitigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Mitigation. 9.11 Section 9.11 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY...FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.11 Mitigation. (a) Purpose. The purpose of...

2009-10-01

103

44 CFR 9.11 - Mitigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mitigation. 9.11 Section 9.11 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY...FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.11 Mitigation. (a) Purpose. The purpose of...

2010-10-01

104

Perimeter security alarm system based on fiber Bragg grating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the development of the society and economy and the improvement of living standards, people need more and more pressing security. Perimeter security alarm system is widely regarded as the first line of defense. A highly sensitive Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) vibration sensor based on the theory of the string vibration, combined with neural network adaptive dynamic programming algorithm for the perimeter security alarm system make the detection intelligently. Intelligent information processing unit identify the true cause of the vibration of the invasion or the natural environment by analyzing the frequency of vibration signals, energy, amplitude and duration. Compared with traditional perimeter security alarm systems, such as infrared perimeter security system and electric fence system, FBG perimeter security alarm system takes outdoor passive structures, free of electromagnetic interference, transmission distance through optical fiber can be as long as 20 km It is able to detect the location of event within short period of time (high-speed response, less than 3 second).This system can locate the fiber cable's breaking sites and alarm automatically if the cable were be cut. And the system can prevent effectively the false alarm from small animals, birds, strong wind, scattering things, snowfalls and vibration of sensor line itself. It can also be integrated into other security systems. This system can be widely used in variety fields such as military bases, nuclear sites, airports, warehouses, prisons, residence community etc. It will be a new force of perimeter security technology.

Zhang, Cui; Wang, Lixin

2010-11-01

105

Item method directed forgetting diminishes false memory.  

PubMed

Directed forgetting may reduce DRM false memory illusion by interfering with meaning processing. Participants were presented with a list composed of six 10-word semantically associated sub-lists, and they were either (a) asked to remember all list items of (b) asked to remember all associates from sub-lists and to forget all associates from other sub-lists. All participants were requested to recall and recognise list items. Although directed forgetting effects have been previously reported only for true responses in the DRM paradigm with the list method, we also found directed forgetting for false responses with the item method. Such forgetting instructions reduced both verbatim and meaning processing, decreasing both the intrusion and the false alarm rate. These results are consistent with two-process explanations of DRM false memories, such as fuzzy-trace theory, and add to our understanding of false memory editing. PMID:16261695

Marche, Tammy A; Brainerd, Charles J; Lane, David G; Loehr, Janeen D

2005-10-01

106

Aging reduces veridical remembering but increases false remembering: Neuropsychological test correlates of remember-know judgments  

PubMed Central

In 1985 Tulving introduced the remember–know procedure, whereby subjects are asked to distinguish between memories that involve retrieval of contextual details (remembering) and memories that do not (knowing). Several studies have been reported showing age-related declines in remember hits, which has typically been interpreted as supporting dual-process theories of cognitive aging that align remembering with a recollection process and knowing with a familiarity process. Less attention has been paid to remember false alarms, or their relation to age. We reviewed the literature examining aging and remember/know judgments and show that age-related increases in remember false alarms, i.e., false remembering, are as reliable as age-related decreases in remember hits, i.e., veridical remembering. Moreover, a meta-analysis showed that the age effect size for remember hits and false alarms are similar, and larger than age effects on know hits and false alarms. We also show that the neuropsychological correlates of remember hits and false alarms differ. Neuropsychological tests of medial-temporal lobe functioning were related to remember hits, but tests of frontal-lobe functioning and age were not. By contrast, age and frontal-lobe functioning predicted unique variance in remember false alarms, but MTL functioning did not. We discuss various explanations for these findings and conclude that any comprehensive explanation of recollective experience will need to account for the processes underlying both remember hits and false alarms.

McCabe, David P.; Roediger, Henry L.; McDaniel, Mark A.; Balota, David A.

2011-01-01

107

Ultrasonic Technology in Duress Alarms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides the pros and cons of the most commonly used technologies in personal duress alarm systems in the school environment. Discussed are radio frequency devices, infrared systems, and ultrasonic technology. (GR)|

Lee, Martha A.

2000-01-01

108

Functional relationship-based alarm processing system  

DOEpatents

A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the functional relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated or deactivated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously updated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on causal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). The alarm processing system and method is sensitive to the dynamic nature of the process being monitored and is capable of changing the relative importance of each alarm as necessary.

Corsberg, Daniel R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1989-01-01

109

Functional relationship-based alarm processing  

DOEpatents

A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously oupdated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on caussal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action) expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). The alarm processing system and method is sensitive to the dynamic nature of the process being monitored and is capable of changing the relative importance of each alarm as necessary.

Corsberg, Daniel R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1988-01-01

110

COMPARISON OF RADIO-FREQUENCY INTERFERENCE MITIGATION STRATEGIES FOR DISPERSED PULSE DETECTION  

SciTech Connect

Impulsive radio-frequency signals from astronomical sources are dispersed by the frequency-dependent index of refraction of the interstellar media and so appear as chirped signals when they reach Earth. Searches for dispersed impulses have been limited by false detections due to radio-frequency interference (RFI) and, in some cases, artifacts of the instrumentation. Many authors have discussed techniques to excise or mitigate RFI in searches for fast transients, but comparisons between different approaches are lacking. This work develops RFI mitigation techniques for use in searches for dispersed pulses, employing data recorded in a 'Fly's Eye' mode of the Allen Telescope Array as a test case. We gauge the performance of several RFI mitigation techniques by adding dispersed signals to data containing RFI and comparing false alarm rates at the observed signal-to-noise ratios of the added signals. We find that Huber filtering is most effective at removing broadband interferers, while frequency centering is most effective at removing narrow frequency interferers. Neither of these methods is effective over a broad range of interferers. A method that combines Huber filtering and adaptive interference cancelation provides the lowest number of false positives over the interferers considered here. The methods developed here have application to other searches for dispersed pulses in incoherent spectra, especially those involving multiple beam systems.

Hogden, John; Vander Wiel, Scott; Michalak, Sarah [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, NM (United States); Bower, Geoffrey C.; Siemion, Andrew; Werthimer, Daniel [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States)

2012-03-10

111

Knowledge Discovery from Telecommunication Network Alarm Databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

A telecommunication network produces daily large amounts of alarm data. The data contains hidden valuable knowledge about the behavior of the network. This knowledge can be used in filtering redundant alarms, locating problems in, the network, and possibly in predicting severe faults. We describe the TASA (Telecommunication Network Alarm Sequence Analyzer) system for discovering and browsing knowledge from large alarm

Kimmo Hätönen; Mika Klemettinen; Heikki Mannila; Pirjo Ronkainen; Hannu Toivonen

1996-01-01

112

A novel portable seizure detection alarm system: preliminary results.  

PubMed

The unpredictable and random occurrence of seizures is of the most distressful issue affecting patients and their families. Unattended seizures can have serious consequences including injury or death. The objective of this study is to develop a small, portable, wearable device capable of detecting seizures and alerting patients and families on recognition of specific seizures' motor activity. Ictal data were prospectively obtained in consecutive patients admitted to two video-EEG units. This study included patients with a history of motor seizures, clonic or tonic, or tonic-clonic seizures or patients with complex partial seizures with frequent secondary generalization. A "Motion Sensor" unit mounted on a bracelet was attached to one wrist. The "Sensor" contains a three-axis accelerometer and a transmitter. The three-axis movements' data were transmitted to a portable computer. Algorithm specially developed for this purpose analyzed the recorded data. Seizures' alerts were compared with the video-EEG data. Ictal data were acquired in 15 of the 31 recruited patients. The algorithm correctly identified 20 of 22 (91%) captured seizures and generated an alarm within a median period of 17 seconds. All events lasting >30 seconds (i.e., 19 events) were identified. The system failed to identify 2 of 22 seizures (9%). There were eight false alarms during 1,692 hours of monitoring. Preliminary data suggest that this motion detection device/alarm system can identify most motor seizures with high sensitivity and with a low false alarm rate. PMID:21221012

Kramer, Uri; Kipervasser, Svetlana; Shlitner, Arie; Kuzniecky, Ruben

2011-02-01

113

Alarms and Alarm Systems: Audible, Visual, Specialized and Sensory, and Personal Signalling Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information is summarized on alarms and alarm systems in four areas: auditory, visual, sensory, and other specialized equipment, and personal signaling. The paper concludes that it is more technologically feasible to provide information by means of alarm ...

F. Bowe

1984-01-01

114

Is alarm calling risky? Marmots avoid calling from risky places  

PubMed Central

Alarm calling is common in many species. A prevalent assumption is that calling puts the vocalizing individual at increased risk of predation. If calling is indeed costly, we need special explanations for its evolution and maintenance. In some, but not all species, callers vocalize away from safety and thus may be exposed to an increased risk of predation. However, for species that emit bouts with one or a few calls, it is often difficult to identify the caller and find the precise location where a call was produced. We analyzed the spatial dynamics of yellow-bellied marmot (Marmota flaviventris) alarm calling using an acoustic localization system to determine the location from which calls were emitted. Marmots almost always called from positions close to the safety of their burrows, and, if they produced more than one alarm call, tended to end their calling bouts closer to safety than they started them. These results suggest that for this species, potential increased predation risk from alarm calling is greatly mitigated and indeed calling may have limited predation costs.

Collier, Travis C.; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Girod, Lewis; Taylor, Charles E.

2010-01-01

115

Xcel Energy implements an alarm management strategy  

SciTech Connect

Not so long ago, Xcel Energy's Pawnee Station, a 505 MW coal-fired generating station in Brush, Colorado, USA was commonly generating 300 to 400 alarms per 8-hour shift. The article describes how the alarm system was revised and improved by tackling alarm dead-bands, and rationalising alarms for routine events. Operators are trained to understand the functions of alarm management components, their use and response, and obtain feedback. Today the power station reports about one alarm per hour. 3 photos.

Bass, J.; Abreu, G. [Xcel Energy (United States)

2007-11-15

116

Security and Fire Alarm Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This PowerPoint from the Convergence Technology Center presents information on security and fire alarm systems. This material would be useful for students learning these concepts for the first time, or as an overview. Topics include home security, zones, subzones, smoke detectors, wireless systems and more.

Carranza, Julian; Harsh, Mike

2013-07-18

117

PC Based Alarm System for the HERA machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new HERA Alarm System is based on the TINE data exchange protocol, and consists of three levels: the Local Alarm Server (LAS), a Central Alarm Server (CAS) and an Alarm Console. Alarms are generated by the Local Alarm Server running on each of the approximately 50 front-end computers used for machine control. The CAS gathers and filters the alarms

M. Bieler; P. Duval; S. Herb; F. Willeke; Germany A. Kurakin; V. Soloviev; V. Yarygin

118

True or False  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Update introduces students to a study suggests that correcting false information can sometimes make matters worse. The researchers found that when people were told a statement was false, they remembered the statement itself much better than the warning.

Science Update (;)

2005-04-18

119

MSPI False Indication Probability Simulations  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines false indication probabilities in the context of the Mitigating System Performance Index (MSPI), in order to investigate the pros and cons of different approaches to resolving two coupled issues: (1) sensitivity to the prior distribution used in calculating the Bayesian-corrected unreliability contribution to the MSPI, and (2) whether (in a particular plant configuration) to model the fuel oil transfer pump (FOTP) as a separate component, or integrally to its emergency diesel generator (EDG). False indication probabilities were calculated for the following situations: (1) all component reliability parameters at their baseline values, so that the true indication is green, meaning that an indication of white or above would be false positive; (2) one or more components degraded to the extent that the true indication would be (mid) white, and “false” would be green (negative) or yellow (negative) or red (negative). In key respects, this was the approach taken in NUREG-1753. The prior distributions examined were the constrained noninformative (CNI) prior used currently by the MSPI, a mixture of conjugate priors, the Jeffreys noninformative prior, a nonconjugate log(istic)-normal prior, and the minimally informative prior investigated in (Kelly et al., 2010). The mid-white performance state was set at ?CDF = ?10 ? 10-6/yr. For each simulated time history, a check is made of whether the calculated ?CDF is above or below 10-6/yr. If the parameters were at their baseline values, and ?CDF > 10-6/yr, this is counted as a false positive. Conversely, if one or all of the parameters are set to values corresponding to ?CDF > 10-6/yr but that time history’s ?CDF < 10-6/yr, this is counted as a false negative indication. The false indication (positive or negative) probability is then estimated as the number of false positive or negative counts divided by the number of time histories (100,000). Results are presented for a set of base case parameter values, and three sensitivity cases in which the number of FOTP demands was reduced, along with the Birnbaum importance of the FOTP.

Dana Kelly; Kurt Vedros; Robert Youngblood

2011-03-01

120

Statistical Enroute Filtering of Injected False Data in Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

ó In a large-scale sensor network individual sensors are subject to security compromises. A compromised node can be used to inject bogus sensing reports. If undetected, these bogus reports would be forwarded to the data collection point (i.e. the sink). Such attacks by compromised nodes can result in not only false alarms but also the depletion of the nite amount

Fan Ye; Haiyun Luo; Songwu Lu; Lixia Zhang

2004-01-01

121

46 CFR 63.15-7 - Alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Alarms. (a) An audible alarm must automatically sound when a flame safety system shutdown occurs. A visible indicator must indicate that the shutdown was caused by the flame safety system. (b) Means must be provided to silence the...

2012-10-01

122

46 CFR 63.15-7 - Alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Alarms. (a) An audible alarm must automatically sound when a flame safety system shutdown occurs. A visible indicator must indicate that the shutdown was caused by the flame safety system. (b) Means must be provided to silence the...

2011-10-01

123

Hornbills can distinguish between primate alarm calls.  

PubMed Central

Some mammals distinguish between and respond appropriately to the alarm calls of other mammal and bird species. However, the ability of birds to distinguish between mammal alarm calls has not been investigated. Diana monkeys (Cercopithecus diana) produce different alarm calls to two predators: crowned eagles (Stephanoaetus coronatus) and leopards (Panthera pardus). Yellow-casqued hornbills (Ceratogymna elata) are vulnerable to predation by crowned eagles but are not preyed on by leopards and might therefore be expected to respond to the Diana monkey eagle alarm call but not to the leopard alarm call. We compared responses of hornbills to playback of eagle shrieks, leopard growls, Diana monkey eagle alarm calls and Diana monkey leopard alarm calls and found that they distinguished appropriately between the two predator vocalizations as well as between the two Diana monkey alarm calls. We discuss possible mechanisms leading to these responses.

Rainey, Hugo J; Zuberbuhler, Klaus; Slater, Peter J B

2004-01-01

124

21 CFR 876.2040 - Enuresis alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 876.2040 Enuresis alarm. (a) Identification. An enuresis alarm is a...

2013-04-01

125

Locating Fire Alarm Sounders for Audibility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Methods are provided for calculating sound levels from fire alarm sounders (bells and sirens) at various positions within a building. The simple estimating procedure enables the optimum positioning of fire alarms, based on specifications given in British ...

H. Butler A. Bowyer J. Kew

1981-01-01

126

Knowledge-based alarm surveillance for TMN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alarm surveillance (AS) and alarm correlation (AC) are important functions in telecommunications management network (TMN) especially in heterogeneous communication networks such as public switching systems. This paper focuses on a new methodology for alarm correlation and alarm surveillance by using the deductive model-based and the inductive case-based reasoning technique. This approach is based on the object-oriented description of a network

A. Lehmannl; T. Diessell; C. Seiboldi; R. Deters; M. Sevcik; H. Uhde; D. Schmid; Mutter-Feldbusch; K. P. Huber; H. Szczerbicka; M. Syrjakow; P. Ziegler

1996-01-01

127

Fuzzy-trace theory and children's false memories.  

PubMed

Fuzzy-trace theory's concepts of identity judgment, nonidentity judgment, and similarity judgment provide a unified account of the false-memory phenomena that have been most commonly studied in children: false-recognition effects and misinformation effects. False-recognition effects (elevated false-alarm rates for unpresented distractors that preserve the meanings of presented targets) are due to increased rates of similarity or false identity judgment about distractors or to decreased rates of nonidentity judgment. Misinformation effects (erroneous acceptance of misleading postevent information and erroneous rejection of actual events) are also due to variability in rates of similarity, identity, and nonidentity judgment. Two experimental paradigms are presented, one for false recognition (conjoint recognition) and one for misinformation (conjoint misinformation), that allow investigators to tease apart the contributions of these processes to children's false-memory reports. Each paradigm is implemented in a mathematical model that provides numerical estimates of the processes. PMID:9843617

Brainerd, C J; Reyna, V F

1998-11-01

128

Neurodevelopmental correlates of true and false recognition.  

PubMed

The Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false-memory effect has been extensively documented in psychological research. People falsely recognize critical lures or nonstudied items that are semantically associated with studied items. Behavioral research has provided evidence for age-related increases in the DRM false-recognition effect. The present event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study was aimed at investigating neurodevelopmental changes in brain regions associated with true- and false-memory recognition in 8-year olds, 12-year olds, and adults. Relative to 8-year olds, adults correctly endorsed more studied items as "old" but also mistakenly endorsed more critical lures. Age-related increases in recollection were associated with changes in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) activation profile. Additionally, age-related increases in false alarms (FAs) to semantically related lures were associated with changes in the activation profile of left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, a region associated with semantic processing. Additional regions exhibiting age-related changes include posterior parietal and anterior prefrontal cortices. In summary, concomitant changes in the MTL, prefrontal cortex, and parietal cortex underlie developmental increases in true and false recognition during childhood and adolescence. PMID:18203693

Paz-Alonso, Pedro M; Ghetti, Simona; Donohue, Sarah E; Goodman, Gail S; Bunge, Silvia A

2008-01-17

129

Alarm criteria in radiation portal monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gamma detectors at border crossings are intended to detect illicit nuclear material. These detectors collect counts that are used to determine whether to trigger an alarm. Several candidate alarm rules are evaluated, with attention to background suppression caused by the vehicle. Because the count criterion leads to many nuisance alarms and because background suppression by the vehicle is smaller for

Tom Burr; James R. Gattiker; Kary Myers; George Tompkins

2007-01-01

130

Anesthesia Alarms in Context: An Observational Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper surveys current work on the design of alarms for anesthesia environments and notes some of the problems arising from the need to interpret alarms in context. Anesthetists' responses to audible alarms in the operating room were observed across four types of surgical procedure (laparoscopic, arthroscopic, cardiac, and intracranial) and across three phases of a procedure (induction, maintenance, and

F. Jacob Seagull; Penelope M. Sanderson

2001-01-01

131

Insider tamper detection; Alarm communications  

SciTech Connect

There are many areas within our security systems where an insider can tamper with the components of the system and cause a deficiency. A survey conducted of some DOE facilities identified several types of deficiencies associated with the alarm communications system. The seriousness of these deficiencies depends to a large extent on the total security system. Sandia has initiated an effort to identify systems and concepts which appear promising for protection against insider tampering. An area of particular attention is in the development of techniques to increase the protection of information within the alarm communications system. In particular, techniques are being evaluated to provide enhanced line security (ELS) between the sensors and the multiplexers (MUX). A technique that appears to be particularly promising and which will be discussed in more detail in this paper utilizes modules at the sensors and MUXs.

Jaeger, C.D. (Facility Systems Engineering Div., Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (US))

1991-01-01

132

Rocky Flats Criticality Alarm Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rocky Flats Criticality Alarm Systems consist of neutron-sensitive detectors coupled to individual building central logic and display systems. A new detector design is described. This detector includes a ⁶LiF neutron alpha particle converter, as in previous units, but uses ion-implanted silicon devices for the alpha particle sensor. A thick-film hybrd, low-input impedance, bipolar amplifier with CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide

Tyree

1985-01-01

133

SUBSURFACE VISUAL ALARM SYSTEM ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

The ''Subsurface Fire Hazard Analysis'' (CRWMS M&O 1998, page 61), and the document, ''Title III Evaluation Report for the Surface and Subsurface Communication System'', (CRWMS M&O 1999a, pages 21 and 23), both indicate the installed communication system is adequate to support Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) activities with the exception of the mine phone system for emergency notification purposes. They recommend the installation of a visual alarm system to supplement the page/party phone system The purpose of this analysis is to identify data communication highway design approaches, and provide justification for the selected or recommended alternatives for the data communication of the subsurface visual alarm system. This analysis is being prepared to document a basis for the design selection of the data communication method. This analysis will briefly describe existing data or voice communication or monitoring systems within the ESF, and look at how these may be revised or adapted to support the needed data highway of the subsurface visual alarm. system. The existing PLC communication system installed in subsurface is providing data communication for alcove No.5 ventilation fans, south portal ventilation fans, bulkhead doors and generator monitoring system. It is given that the data communication of the subsurface visual alarm system will be a digital based system. It is also given that it is most feasible to take advantage of existing systems and equipment and not consider an entirely new data communication system design and installation. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Briefly review and describe existing available data communication highways or systems within the ESF. (2) Examine technical characteristics of an existing system to disqualify a design alternative is paramount in minimizing the number of and depth of a system review. (3) Apply general engineering design practices or criteria such as relative cost, and degree of difficulty and complexity in determining requirements in adapting existing data communication highways to support the subsurface visual alarm system. These requirements would include such things as added or new communication cables, added Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), Inputs and Outputs (I/O), and communication hardware components, and human machine interfaces and their software operating system. (4) Select the best data communication highway system based on this review of adapting or integrating with existing data communication systems.

D.W. Markman

2001-08-06

134

The False Aneurysm  

PubMed Central

The clinical course of 18 patients with 25 false aneurysms is reviewed. In recent years false aneurysm has been most commonly seen as a complication of arterioplastic procedures in which prosthetic arterial grafts were used. The use of indwelling needles or cannulae, particularly in patients with a wide arterial pulse pressure, can also lead to the formation of false aneurysms. In the groin, a false aneurysm is frequently mistaken for an abscess. Early diagnosis and operative repair are essential to reduce the incidence of further complications.

Baird, R. J.; Doran, M. L.

1964-01-01

135

40 CFR 93.164 - Inter-precursor mitigation measures and offsets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Inter-precursor mitigation measures and offsets. 93.164 Section 93...164 Inter-precursor mitigation measures and offsets. Federal agencies must...Tribe may approve offsets or mitigation measures of different precursors of the...

2012-07-01

136

Video systems for alarm assessment  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing closed-circuit television systems for video alarm assessment. There is a section on each of the major components in a video system: camera, lens, lighting, transmission, synchronization, switcher, monitor, and recorder. Each section includes information on component selection, procurement, installation, test, and maintenance. Considerations for system integration of the components are contained in each section. System emphasis is focused on perimeter intrusion detection and assessment systems. A glossary of video terms is included. 13 figs., 9 tabs.

Greenwoll, D.A.; Matter, J.C. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Ebel, P.E. (BE, Inc., Barnwell, SC (United States))

1991-09-01

137

Alarm sensor apparatus for closures  

DOEpatents

An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or frame work and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

Carlson, James A. (Thornton, CO); Stoddard, Lawrence M. (Arvada, CO)

1986-01-01

138

Alarm sensor apparatus for closures  

DOEpatents

An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or framework and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

Carlson, J.A.; Stoddard, L.M.

1984-01-31

139

False Recognition and Source Attribution for Actions of an Emotional Event in Older and Younger Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two experiments recognition of actions of a robbery presented in a video was examined in older and younger adults. In both experiments older adults had more false alarms and showed less accurate recognition than younger adults. In addition, when participants were asked in Experiment 1 to indicate Remember\\/Know\\/Guess judgments for actions they considered true, older adults accepted more false

Alaitz Aizpurua; Elvira Garcia-Bajos; Malen Migueles

2011-01-01

140

D0 Cryogenic Auto Dialing Alarm System  

SciTech Connect

The Automatic Dialing system purchased by D0 is intended to help make the D0 cryogenic system operate unattended by cryogenic operating personnel. The auto dialer is completely programmable and is voice synthesized. The auto dialer was purchased with 32 bistable inputs, but is expandable to 64 bistable inputs with the purchase of more electronic cards at an approximate cost of $260 per card (8 bistable inputs). The auto dialer also has the capability for analog inputs, analog outputs, and bistable outputs none of which D0 uses or intends to use. The auto dialer can be called on its operating phone line to describe current alarms with the proper password. The Auto Dialer can dial lab extensions, lab pagers, and any number outside the lab. It cannot dial a long distance pager. The auto dialer monitors alarms and alarm conditions via the T1565 PLC, upon an alarm condition it initiates a phone calling sequence of preprogrammed lists with assigned priorities. When someone is reached, the auto dialer describes the individual alarm it is calling for, by a preprogrammed set of words for that individual alarm, spoken by a female voice. The called person then has a chance to acknowledge the alarm over the telephone, if the alarm is not acknowledged the auto dialer will disconnect and call the next person on the list. The auto dialer will continue to cycle through the list until it is acknowledged, reset, or the alarm condition no longer exists.

Markely, D.; /Fermilab

1992-08-03

141

Advanced alarm systems: Display and processing issues  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a research program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to address the human factors engineering (HFE) deficiencies associated with nuclear power plant alarm systems. The overall objective of the study is to develop HFE review guidance for alarm systems. In support of this objective, human performance issues needing additional research were identified. Among the important issues were alarm processing strategies and alarm display techniques. This paper will discuss these issues and briefly describe our current research plan to address them.

O`Hara, J.M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Wachtel, J.; Perensky, J. [US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

1995-05-01

142

Source Injection Distribution Functions for Alarm Algorithm Testing  

SciTech Connect

The development and testing of improved alarm algorithms is an ongoing priority of the Radiation Portal Monitor Project (RPMP) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Improved algorithms have the potential to reduce the impediments that radiation screening presents to the flow of commerce, without affecting the detection sensitivity to sources of interest. However, assessing alarm-algorithm performance involves careful calculation of detection probabilities and nuisance/false alarm rates for any algorithm that may be used in the field. To establish statistical confidence, such a task requires a large amount of data from drive-through (or “dynamic”) scenarios both with, and without, radioactive sources of interest present; but obtaining actual field data to meet this need is not feasible. Instead, an “injection-study” procedure is being used to approximate how the profiles of actual drive-through commercial data would change with the presence of sources of interest. This procedure adds net-counts from a pre-defined set of simulated sources to raw, gross-count drive-through data randomly selected from archived cargo data collected from deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs). (PIET-43741-TM-480)

Robinson, Sean M.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Schweppe, John E.

2008-05-15

143

Alarm management : mining for groups of co-occuring alarm tags  

Microsoft Academic Search

The safety and profitability of chemical plants depend on the performance of alarm systems. However, a variety of contributing factors such as over-alarming, a lack of configuration management practices and a reduction in staffing levels due to budget constraints, has often led to the degradation of these systems. Consequently, in many emergency situations excessive numbers of inappropriate alarms are generated,

Savo Kordic

2011-01-01

144

24 CFR 51.205 - Mitigating measures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mitigating measures. 51.205 Section 51.205 Housing and Urban Development...an Explosive or Flammable Nature § 51.205 Mitigating measures. Application of the standards for determining an...

2013-04-01

145

Adjustable Electronic Load-Alarm Relay.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An improved electronic alarm relay for monitoring the current drawn by an ac motor or other electrical load is described. The circuit is designed to measure the load with high accuracy and to have excellent alarm repeatability. Chattering and arcing of th...

C. H. Mason R. S. Sitton

1974-01-01

146

IDS RainStorm: Visualizing IDS Alarms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The massive amount of alarm data generated from intrusion detec- tion systems is cumbersome for network system administrators to analyze. Often, important details are overlooked and it is difficult to get an overall picture of what is occurring in the network by man- ually traversing textual alarm logs. We have designed a novel visu- alization to address this problem by

Kulsoom Abdullah; Christopher P. Lee; Gregory J. Conti; John A. Copeland; John T. Stasko

2005-01-01

147

The new climate discourse: Alarmist or alarming?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discourse on climate change is in part divided between a sense of alarm and a sense of alarmism in assessments of the magnitude and urgency of the problem. The divide in the discourse among climatologists relates to tensions in the use of key phrases to describe climate change. This article reviews evidence to support claims that climate change can

James S. Risbey

2008-01-01

148

AUDITORY ALARMS: FROM ALERTING TO INFORMING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current alarm and warning systems in medical domains are integrated into patient monitoring devices and are centered around the concept of alerting operators to potential problems without specifying the specific nature of the problem. In contrast, informative auditory alarms and warning systems have been proposed for next-generation monitoring equipment, These \\

F. Jacob Seagull; Yan Xiao; Cohn F. Mackenzie; Christopher D. Wickens

2000-01-01

149

A pan-European social alarm system.  

PubMed

SAFE 21 is a pan-European research and development project which will take social alarms into the twenty-first century. It is run by a consortium of eight organizations, with financial support from the European Commission. SAFE 21 will use existing infrastructure to deliver a much broader range of services and extend availability to users who are currently excluded. The project aims: to develop a social alarm that will work from anywhere inside the home, using a neck-worn speech-pendant and outside the home making use of radio cellphone and global positioning technology; to demonstrate how telemedicine can be incorporated at marginal costs, by exploiting the existing social alarm infrastructure; to demonstrate a shared control centre that facilitates emergency services, medical, welfare and social professionals working together to support a broad-based social alarm system; to provide access to social alarms for deaf users, who are currently excluded. PMID:9640739

Thie, J

1998-01-01

150

Mars Rotate (False Color)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center features an animation of Mars rotating. The visualization was created using data collected by the Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter (MOLA) on board the Mars Global Surveyor. The animation uses false color to highlight topography, specifically the Hellas Basin, Terra Meridiani, the Tharsis rise, and Lucus Planum. The site also provides still images of the same features.

Studio, Nasa/goddard S.

151

46 CFR 113.25-12 - Alarm signals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...25-12 Section 113.25-12 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-12 Alarm...

2012-10-01

152

13 CFR 123.21 - What is a mitigation measure?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false What is a mitigation measure? 123.21 Section 123.21 Business Credit...PROGRAM Overview § 123.21 What is a mitigation measure? A mitigation measure is something done for the purpose of...

2013-01-01

153

Triggering of systolic arterial pressure alarms using statistics-based versus threshold alarms.  

PubMed

Threshold systolic arterial pressure alarms often use pre-operative values as a guide for intra-operative values. Recently, two systems (normalisation and principal component analysis) have been described that use the 'current' systolic arterial pressure and the change in systolic arterial pressure over a preceding time interval to generate an alarm based on units of standard deviation. Normalisation and principal component analysis techniques should prioritize alarms for clinically significant changes and hence reduce overall activation of alarms. Our aim was to measure the change in alarm activation using these techniques compared with standard threshold alarms. Systolic blood pressure data, collected from 10 patients (a total of 2177 min at 100 Hz), were cleaned and submitted to analysis using threshold alarms, normalisation and principal component analysis. With the threshold alarms set at 100 mmHg (low) and 140 mmHg (high), and a 5-min window, the alarms were activated for 557 min; using statistics-based thresholds the alarms were activated for 169 min (normalisation) and 155 min (principal component analysis), a reduction of approximately 70-72%. PMID:19143688

Connor, C W; Gohil, B; Harrison, M J

2009-02-01

154

46 CFR 162.050-33 - Bilge alarm: Design specification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Bilge alarm: Design specification. 162.050-33 Section...CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Pollution Prevention... Bilge alarm: Design specification. (a) This...

2011-10-01

155

10 CFR 74.57 - Alarm resolution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Formula Quantities of Strategic Special Nuclear Material § 74.57 Alarm...licensee's fundamental nuclear material control plan...operations will adversely affect the ability to...

2013-01-01

156

True or False  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you're told that a particular drug doesn't cure arthritis, there's a good chance you'll start to think it does. That's according to Ian Skurnik at the University of Toronto and Carolyn Yoon at the University of Michigan. They found that when people were told a statement was false, they remembered the statement itself much better than the warning. This Science Update looks at the research, which leads to these findings and offers links to other resources for further inquiry. There are also links to Science Netlinks Lesson plans for use at the 9-12 grade level.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)

2005-04-18

157

An intelligent system for false alarm reduction in infrared forest-fire detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest fires cause many environmental disasters, creating economical and ecological damage as well as endangering people's lives. Heightened interest in automatic surveillance and early forest-fire detection has taken precedence over traditional human surveillance because the latter's subjectivity affects detection reliability, which is the main issue for forest-fire detection systems. In current systems, the process is tedious, and human operators must

Begoña C. Arrue; Aníbal Ollero; J. R. Matinez de Dios

2000-01-01

158

Clostridium difficile-associated disease in human stem cell transplant recipients: coming epidemic or false alarm?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of nosocomial diarrhea in the United States and Europe, and is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients. A newly identified epidemic strain has been associated with many hospital outbreaks of C. difficile-associated disease (CDAD), raising the concern of an escalating burden of CDAD among at-risk patients. Hematopoietic SCT (HSCT)

D Bobak; L M Arfons; R J Creger; H M Lazarus

2008-01-01

159

?-Adrenergic receptors in auditory cue detection: ?2 receptor blockade suppresses false alarm responding in the rat.  

PubMed

Numerous studies have suggested a facilitatory role of the noradrenergic system in attention. Cognitive functions relating to attentive states--arousal, motivation, behavioral flexibility, and working memory--are enhanced by norepinephrine release throughout the brain. The present study addresses the role of the adrenergic system on stimulus validity and sustained attention within the auditory system. We examined the effects of adrenoceptor stimulation via systemic injection of ?1 and ?2-adrenoceptor antagonist and agonist drugs, prazosin (1 mg/kg), phenylephrine (0.1 mg/kg), yohimbine (1 mg/kg), and clonidine (0.0375 mg/kg), respectively. Our results indicate that ?1-adrenergic stimulation is ineffective in modulating the biological assessment of auditory signal validity in the non-stressed rat, while ?2-adrenoceptor antagonist and agonist drugs were effective in modulating both accuracy and response latencies in the habituated animal. Remarkably, blockade of ?2-adrenoceptors significantly improved the animal's ability to correctly reject non-signal events. These findings indicate not only a state dependent noradrenergic component of auditory attentional processing, but a potential therapeutic use for drugs targeting norepinephrine release in neurological disorders ranging from Alzheimer's disease to schizophrenia. PMID:22277718

Brown, Dewey C; Co, Marissa S; Wolff, Ruben C; Atzori, Marco

2012-01-02

160

Multiple inspection modelling for decision making and management of jacket offshore platforms: effect of False Alarms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insertion of inspection results into decision scheme is still a challenge for structural analysis. Methods are generally named Risk Based Inspection. They aimed to provide aid tools to operators of marine structures which have to ensure that structural integrity is maintained at a sufficient level during in- service life or in case of reassessment. The objective is a global optimization

Franck SCHOEFS; Alexandre CLEMENT

161

False Memories and Persuasion Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on false memories, which has increased drastically in the past decade, has mainly focused on the cognitive influences that lead to the creation of false memories, such as the theoretical causes of decreased memory strength and source confusion. Although there is certainly a cognitive component to false memories, in this article, I argue that false memories are more likely

Juliana K. Leding

2012-01-01

162

Disease Mitigation Measures in the Control of Pandemic Influenza  

Microsoft Academic Search

The threat of an influenza pandemic has alarmed countries around the globe and given rise to an in- tense interest in disease mitigation measures. This article reviews what is known about the effective- ness and practical feasibility of a range of actions that might be taken in attempts to lessen the num- ber of cases and deaths resulting from an

Thomas V. Inglesby; Jennifer B. Nuzzo; Tara O'Toole; D. A. Henderson

2006-01-01

163

Age-dependent fitness costs of alarm signaling in aphids  

Microsoft Academic Search

For an alarm signal to evolve, the benefits to the signaler must outweigh the costs of sending the signal. Research has largely focused on the benefits of alarm signaling, and the costs to an organism of sending an alarm signal are not well known. When attacked by a predator, aphids secrete cornicle droplets, containing an alarm pheromone, for individual protection

Edward B. Mondor; Bernard D. Roitberg

2003-01-01

164

Nurses' reactions to alarms in a neonatal intensive care unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), like other intensive care units, are intended to provide immediate responses to any change in the patient’s condition. Patient-monitoring alarms and alarms from other medical equipment are very common in these units, and most alarms have no clinical significance. This study addresses the question of how alarms affect nurses’ actions by measuring the occurrence of

Yuval Bitan; Joachim Meyer; David Shinar; Ehud Zmora

2004-01-01

165

False color viewing device  

DOEpatents

This invention consists of a viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching, the user`s eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage.

Kronberg, J.W.

1991-05-08

166

False color viewing device  

DOEpatents

A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage.

Kronberg, James W. (108 Independent Blvd., Aiken, SC 29801)

1992-01-01

167

False color viewing device  

DOEpatents

A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage. 7 figs.

Kronberg, J.W.

1992-10-20

168

Low Voltage Alarm Apprenticeship. Related Training Modules. 7.1-26.10 Alarm Basics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This packet of 70 learning modules on alarm basics is 1 of 8 such packets developed for apprenticeship training for low voltage alarm. Introductory materials are a complete listing of all available modules and a supplementary reference list. Each module contains some or all of these components: goal, performance indicators, study guide (a check…

Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

169

False Position, Double False Position and Cramer's Rule  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We state and prove the methods of False Position (Regula Falsa) and Double False Position (Regula Duorum Falsorum). The history of both is traced from ancient Egypt and China through the work of Fibonacci, ending with a connection between Double False Position and Cramer's Rule.|

Boman, Eugene

2009-01-01

170

15 CFR 971.604 - Best available technologies (BAT) and mitigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Best available technologies (BAT) and mitigation... NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...971.604 Best available technologies (BAT) and mitigation...use of the best available technologies for the protection...

2010-01-01

171

15 CFR 971.604 - Best available technologies (BAT) and mitigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Best available technologies (BAT) and mitigation... NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...971.604 Best available technologies (BAT) and mitigation...use of the best available technologies for the protection...

2009-01-01

172

15 CFR 971.604 - Best available technologies (BAT) and mitigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Best available technologies (BAT) and mitigation. 971.604 Section...971.604 Best available technologies (BAT) and mitigation. (a) The...particular equipment or procedures comprising BAT or to define performance standards....

2013-01-01

173

Veridical and false pictorial memory in individuals with and without mental retardation.  

PubMed

Veridical and false pictorial recognition were assessed in individuals with mental retardation; groups were matched for MA and CA. Pictures were viewed in either a generative or static format at acquisition. The individuals with mental retardation and those in the MA-matched group had higher rates of false memories for critical items and lower hit rates than did their CA-matched peers. The mental retardation group demonstrated an acquiescent response bias (i.e., high novel false-alarm rate). When data were corrected for this bias, those with mental retardation had significantly lower hit rates but equivalent false-alarm rates to the MA-matched participants. Results are discussed in terms of pictorial distinctiveness and within the frameworks of activation monitoring and fuzzy trace theory. PMID:18407722

Carlin, Michael T; Toglia, Michael P; Wakeford, Yvonne; Jakway, Allison; Sullivan, Kate; Hasel, Lisa

2008-05-01

174

False feedback increases detection of low-prevalence targets in visual search.  

PubMed

Many critical search tasks, such as airport and medical screening, involve searching for targets that are rarely present. These low-prevalence targets are associated with extremely high miss rates Wolfe, Horowitz, & Kenner (Nature, 435, 439-440, 2005). The inflated miss rates are caused by a criterion shift, likely due to observers attempting to equate the numbers of misses and false alarms. This equalizing strategy results in a neutral criterion at 50 % target prevalence, but leads to a higher proportion of misses for low-prevalence targets. In the present study, we manipulated participants' perceived number of misses through explicit false feedback. As predicted, the participants in the false-feedback condition committed a higher number of false alarms due to a shifted criterion. Importantly, the participants in this condition were also more successful in detecting targets. These results highlight the importance of perceived prevalence in target search tasks. PMID:22864899

Schwark, Jeremy; Sandry, Joshua; Macdonald, Justin; Dolgov, Igor

2012-11-01

175

False assumptions [letter].  

PubMed

Indian women do not have to be told the benefits of breast feeding or "rescued from the clutches of wicked multinational companies" by international agencies. There is no proof that breast feeding has declined in India; in fact, a 1987 survey revealed that 98% of Indian women breast feed. Efforts to promote breast feeding among the middle classes rely on such initiatives as the "baby friendly" hospital where breast feeding is promoted immediately after birth. This ignores the 76% of Indian women who give birth at home. Blaming this unproved decline in breast feeding on multinational companies distracts attention from more far-reaching and intractable effects of social change. While the Infant Milk Substitutes Act is helpful, it also deflects attention from more pressing issues. Another false assumption is that Indian women are abandoning breast feeding to comply with the demands of employment, but research indicates that most women give up employment for breast feeding, despite the economic cost to their families. Women also seek work in the informal sector to secure the flexibility to meet their child care responsibilities. Instead of being concerned about "teaching" women what they already know about the benefits of breast feeding, efforts should be made to remove the constraints women face as a result of their multiple roles and to empower them with the support of families, governmental policies and legislation, employers, health professionals, and the media. PMID:12321627

Swaminathan, M

176

False memories for aggressive acts.  

PubMed

Can people develop false memories for committing aggressive acts? How does this process compare to developing false memories for victimhood? In the current research we used a simple false feedback procedure to implant false memories for committing aggressive acts (causing a black eye or spreading malicious gossip) or for victimhood (receiving a black eye). We then compared these false memories to other subjects' true memories for equivalent events. False aggressive memories were all too easy to implant, particularly in the minds of individuals with a proclivity towards aggression. Once implanted, the false memories were indistinguishable from true memories for the same events, on several dimensions, including emotional content. Implications for aggression-related memory more generally as well as false confessions are discussed. PMID:23639921

Laney, Cara; Takarangi, Melanie K T

2013-04-29

177

Technical aspects of the sigma factor alarm method in alpha CAMs  

SciTech Connect

Some test must be applied to the low-level count data from alpha continuous air monitors (CAMs) to determine if the count is statistically significant (i.e., different from background). The test should also automatically account for different levels of background (i.e., ambient radon progeny concentrations). The method should, in other words, be as sensitive as possible, automatically desensitize when required, but in such a manner as to not exceed a previously-chosen acceptable false-alarm rate.

Justus, Alan Lawrence [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

178

The effect of warnings on false memories in young and older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present experiments , we examined adult age differences in the ability to suppress false memories, using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott\\u000a (DRM) paradigm (Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995). Participants studied lists of words (e.g.,bed, rest, awake, etc.), each related to a nonpresented critical lure word (e.g.,sleep). Typically, recognition tests reveal false alarms to critical lures at rates comparable to those

David P. McCabe; Anderson D. Smith

2002-01-01

179

Coincidence logic modules for criticality alarming  

SciTech Connect

A coincidence Logic Module and a companion contact closure Relay Module utilizing the NIM Standard have been developed for criticality alarming. The units provide an ALARM whenever two or more out of N detectors become activated. In addition, an ALERT is generated whenever one or more detectors is activated or when certain electronic component failures occur. The number of detector inputs (N) can be expanded in groups of six by adding modules. Serial and parallel redundancy were used to reduce the probability of system failure.

Schaief, C.C. III

1977-04-01

180

A temperature off-limit alarm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of a battery operated temperature alarm which senses any departure beyond preset high or low temperature limits and sounds an audible warning is discussed. Current drain is very small, so a battery life of at least two years is predicted. Low battery voltage triggers a special warning signal. The device is built around a national semiconductor LM1801, and contains a high input impedance operational amplifier, a regulator for controlling the voltage supplied to a thermistor bridge, a low battery voltage detector and warning circuit, provision for signalling to other alarms and a current consumption guaranteed to be 9 microamps or less.

Knight, R. B. D.

1980-05-01

181

Reduced False Memory after Sleep  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several studies have shown that sleep contributes to the successful maintenance of previously encoded information. This research has focused exclusively on memory for studied events, as opposed to false memories. Here we report three experiments showing that sleep reduces false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) memory illusion. False…

Fenn, Kimberly M.; Gallo, David A.; Margoliash, Daniel; Roediger, Henry L., III; Nusbaum, Howard C.

2009-01-01

182

Reduced False Memory after Sleep  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Several studies have shown that sleep contributes to the successful maintenance of previously encoded information. This research has focused exclusively on memory for studied events, as opposed to false memories. Here we report three experiments showing that sleep reduces false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) memory illusion. False…

Fenn, Kimberly M.; Gallo, David A.; Margoliash, Daniel; Roediger, Henry L., III; Nusbaum, Howard C.

2009-01-01

183

Statistical en-route filtering of injected false data in sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: In a large-scale sensor network individual sensorsare subject to security compromises. A compromised node caninject into the network large quantities of bogus sensing reportswhich, if undetected, would be forwarded to the data collectionpoint (i.e. the sink). Such attacks by compromised sensors cancause not only false alarms but also the depletion of the finiteamount of energy in a battery powered

Fan Ye; Haiyun Luo; Songwu Lu; Lixia Zhang

2005-01-01

184

Statistical Enroute Detection and Filtering of Injected False Data in Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a large-scale sensor network individual sen- sors are subject to security compromises. A compromised node can inject bogus sensing reports into the network. If undetected, these bogus reports would be forwarded to the data collection point (i.e. the sink). Such attacks by compro- mised sensors can cause not only false alarms but also the depletion of the finite amount

Fan Ye; Haiyun Luo; Songwu Lu; Lixia Zhang

2004-01-01

185

Component Structure of Individual Differences in True and False Recognition of Faces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Principal-component analyses of 4 face-recognition studies uncovered 2 independent components. The first component was strongly related to false-alarm errors with new faces as well as to facial "conjunctions" that recombine features of previously studied faces. The second component was strongly related to hits as well as to the conjunction/new…

Bartlett, James C.; Shastri, Kalyan K.; Abdi, Herve; Neville-Smith, Marsha

2009-01-01

186

Nuclear power plant alarm systems: Problems and issues  

SciTech Connect

Despite the incorporation of advanced technology into nuclear power plant alarm systems, human factors problems remain. This paper identifies to be addressed in order to allow advanced technology to be used effectively in the design of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The operator's use and processing of alarm system information will be considered. Based upon a review of alarm system research, issues related to general system design, alarm processing, display and control are discussed. It is concluded that the design of effective alarm systems depends on an understanding of the information processing capabilities and limitations of the operator. 39 refs.

O'Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.

1991-01-01

187

46 CFR 130.470 - Fire alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...470 Fire alarms. (a) Each fire detector and control unit must be of a type...for the engine room may contain a fire detector for any other space. (c) The number and placement of fire detectors must be approved by the cognizant...

2012-10-01

188

Automatic Fire Alarm System Based on MCU  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper introduced an automatic warehouse fire a1arm system based on MCU. The system was mainly made up of ATmega16, temperature sensors, smoke sensors, and EX-1 auto dialed alarm module. In the system, temperature signals were transformed to serial data, and smoke signals were transformed to voltage signals. All the data were processed by MCU. When the surveillance system checked

Zhang Kun; Hu Shunbin; Li Jinfang

2010-01-01

189

CPS (Collective Protective System) Alarm System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An improved collective protection system (CPS) alarm is generally comprised of an electronic circuit board terminal box that is readily connectable to any selected point of a ship power bus system. The system is provided with a plurality of pressure trans...

B. A. Repp A. M. Wurm A. J. Simonoff S. R. Courtney

1988-01-01

190

Adjustable electronic load-alarm relay  

DOEpatents

This invention is an improved electronic alarm relay for monitoring the current drawn by an AC motor or other electrical load. The circuit is designed to measure the load with high accuracy and to have excellent alarm repeatability. Chattering and arcing of the relay contacts are minimal. The operator can adjust the set point easily and can re-set both the high and the low alarm points by means of one simple adjustment. The relay includes means for generating a signal voltage proportional to the motor current. In a preferred form of the invention a first operational amplifier is provided to generate a first constant reference voltage which is higher than a preselected value of the signal voltage. A second operational amplifier is provided to generate a second constant reference voltage which is lower than the aforementioned preselected value of the signal voltage. A circuit comprising a first resistor serially connected to a second resistor is connected across the outputs of the first and second amplifiers, and the junction of the two resistors is connected to the inverting terminal of the second amplifier. Means are provided to compare the aforementioned signal voltage with both the first and second reference voltages and to actuate an alarm if the signal voltage is higher than the first reference voltage or lower than the second reference voltage.

Mason, Charles H. (Paducah, KY); Sitton, Roy S. (Kevil, KY)

1976-01-01

191

Intelligent residential security alarm and remote control system based on single chip computer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents intelligent residential burglar alarm, emergency alarm, fire alarm, toxic gas leakage remote automatic sound alarm and remote control system, which is based on 89C51 single chip computer. The system can be automatic alarm, automatic calling the police hotline number. It can be used voice alarm and show alarm occurred address. It can set up and modify user

Liu Zhen-ya; Wang Zhen-dong; Chen Rong; Wu Xiao-feng

2008-01-01

192

Alerting the apathetic and reassuring the alarmed: communicating about radon risk in three communities. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Public reaction to the risk from radon varied widely in three communities chosen for qualitative analysis. In Boyertown, PA, some residents were very alarmed, but most were apathetic toward this newly identified environmental risk. In Clinton, NJ, residents were concerned and worked with the mayor and the state to determine whether they were at risk and to disseminate information about mitigation of high indoor radon levels. Residents in Vernon, New Jersey were very alarmed and actively opposed the state's decision to site low-level radium wastes there. The qualitative study examines why reactions differed among the three communities, and extracts lessons for communicating about the risk from radon. These lessons should apply to communicating about other environmental hazards to individuals and communities.

Chess, C.; Hance, B.J.

1988-08-01

193

46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power semiconductor rectifier must have a high temperature alarm or shutdown, except as...

2012-10-01

194

46 CFR 161.002-12 - Manual fire alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...audible fire and trouble alarms, and fire alarm circuits as required originating from the control unit...stations superimposed on and connected as an integral part of the fire detector circuit wiring of an automatic fire detection...

2011-10-01

195

29 CFR 1910.165 - Employee alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...means of reporting emergencies. Where a communication system also serves...alarm system, all emergency messages shall have...procedures for sounding emergency alarms in the workplace...workplace, direct voice communication is an...

2013-07-01

196

Bonneville Power Administration Communication Alarm Processor expert system:  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the Communications Alarm Processor (CAP), a prototype expert system developed for the Bonneville Power Administration by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The system is designed to receive and diagnose alarms from Bonneville's Microwave Communications System (MCS). The prototype encompasses one of seven branches of the communications network and a subset of alarm systems and alarm types from each system. The expert system employs a backward chaining approach to diagnosing alarms. Alarms are fed into the expert system directly from the communication system via RS232 ports and sophisticated alarm filtering and mailbox software. Alarm diagnoses are presented to operators for their review and concurrence before the diagnoses are archived. Statistical software is incorporated to allow analysis of archived data for report generation and maintenance studies. The delivered system resides on a Digital Equipment Corporation VAX 3200 workstation and utilizes Nexpert Object and SAS for the expert system and statistical analysis, respectively. 11 refs., 23 figs., 7 tabs.

Goeltz, R.; Purucker, S.; Tonn, B. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Wiggen, T. (Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (USA)); MacGregor, D. (MacGregor-Bates, Inc., Eugene, OR (USA))

1990-06-01

197

Advanced Alarm Processing Facilities Installed on Eskom's Energy Management System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eskom's Transmission division is commissioning a new Energy Management System (EMS) known as TEMSE. This EMS included requirements for advanced alarm processing facilities and enhanced Human Machine Interface functionality. The requirements covered alarm data reduction and the provision of \\

Richard Candy; J. Taisne

2007-01-01

198

Nesting Habit and Alarm Pheromones in Polistes gallicus (Hymenoptera, Vespidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alarm pheromones are used in many social insects to elicit an alarm response of nestmates towards disturbances. This chemical\\u000a alarm channel is especially used by species nesting in closed environments. Polistes gallicus paper wasps typically found their nests on open substrates where visual and vibrational stimuli could be more important than\\u000a the chemical one to alarm the colony. We investigated,

C. Bruschini; R. Cervo; S. Turillazzi

2008-01-01

199

Communicating about danger: urgency alarm calling in a bird  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertebrate flee alarm calls can provide information about the type of predator, and some mammalian alarm calls also appear to communicate the degree of danger and therefore urgency of escape. However, because predators are usually rare, it has proved difficult to obtain observations differing only in the degree of danger, or to record sufficient naturally provoked alarm calls for fully

Adam J. Leavesley; Robert D. Magrath

2005-01-01

200

Major reduction in alarm frequency with a new pulse oximeter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sir: Intensive care monitor alarms are a major burden on both nurses and patients. Between 44 and 63 % of alarms are caused by pulse oximeters, with 94 % of these being non-significant [1, 2]. Pulse oximeters should, therefore, be the prime target when aiming to reduce alarm rates in the intensive care unit (]CU), Recently, a new technique for

B. Bohnhorst; C. F. Poets

1998-01-01

201

ANESTHESIA MONITORING, ALARM PROLIFERATION, AND ECOLOGICAL INTERFACE DESIGN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The operating theatre is a noisy place with many un informative and redundant alarms. Using data from a recent observational study, we demonstrate that anaestheti sts actively respond to only 3.4% of all alarms. We outline a range of possible solutions to the alarm problem. E cological Interface Design (EID) helps to outline t he requirements for an information environment

Marcus Watson; John Russell; MBBS FRANZCA; Penelope Sanderson

202

Automated Information System (AIS) Alarm System  

SciTech Connect

The Automated Information Alarm System is a joint effort between Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratory to demonstrate and implement, on a small-to-medium sized local area network, an automated system that detects and automatically responds to attacks that use readily available tools and methodologies. The Alarm System will sense or detect, assess, and respond to suspicious activities that may be detrimental to information on the network or to continued operation of the network. The responses will allow stopping, isolating, or ejecting the suspicious activities. The number of sensors, the sensitivity of the sensors, the assessment criteria, and the desired responses may be set by the using organization to meet their local security policies.

Hunteman, W.

1997-05-01

203

Bulimia: A false self identity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is based on the author's clinical experience with fifteen bulimic women over the past five years. It covers the family origins, unique characteristics, internal dynamics, and treatment of bulimia. Bulimics have a cohesive, albeit pathological, identity based on the False Self. Relying on D.W. Winnicott's theory of ego splitting between the True Self and False Self, the author

Dorothy M. Jones

1985-01-01

204

Can false memories spontaneously recover?  

PubMed

Can false memories that were suppressed at one time spontaneously recover at a later time? Fuzzy trace theory and activation-monitoring theory predict that false memories in the Deese, Roediger, and McDermott (DRM) procedure become substantially reduced as list learning progresses because participants employ a memory-editing process. It follows that if the editing process is rendered less effective, false memories should spontaneously recover. We found that after DRM lists were well learned and false recognition to critical words was substantially reduced by multiple study-test trials, those false memories spontaneously recovered when participants were either rushed or delayed on a retest. We attributed the reduction in false recognition over trials to a memory-editing process that suppresses false recognition as participants gradually learn which words were in the lists and which words, though similar, were not. Rushing or delaying the participants on a retest made it more difficult for them to edit their memory, and false memories spontaneously returned. PMID:16766445

Seamon, John G; Berko, Jeffrey R; Sahlin, Brooke; Yu, Yi-Lo; Colker, Jennifer M; Gottfried, David H

2006-05-01

205

False positives in imaging genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imaging genetics provides an enormous amount of functional–structural data on gene effects in living brain, but the sheer quantity of potential phenotypes raises concerns about false discovery. Here, we provide the first empirical results on false positive rates in imaging genetics.We analyzed 720 frequent coding SNPs without significant association with schizophrenia and a subset of 492 of these without association

Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg; Kristin K. Nicodemus; Michael F. Egan; Joseph H. Callicott; Venkata Mattay; Daniel R. Weinberger

2008-01-01

206

Alarm annunciation in a graphical environment  

SciTech Connect

Well-designed graphical user interfaces, such as Microsoft Windows{trademark} or UNIX{trademark} -- based X-Windows, provide a capability for enhanced display of security alarm information. Conversely, a poorly designed interface can quickly overwhelm an operator. This paper describes types of graphical information that can be displayed and offers guidance on how to best display that information. Limits are proposed for the complexity of the user interface, and guidelines are suggested for the display of maps and sensors.

Adams, D.G.

1994-08-01

207

ZoneAlarm 8.0.065  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

ZoneAlarm is a piece of firewall software designed to protect computers from hackers. It features four interlocking security services, including an application control, an Internet lock, and a firewall. The program also includes an easy-to-use wizard device which will help less-experienced users with setting up the program. This version is compatible with computers running Windows XP and newer.

2009-01-01

208

False recognition with the Deese-Roediger-McDermott-Reid-Solso procedure: a quantitative summary.  

PubMed

In the Deese-Roediger-McDermott-Read-Solso (DRMRS) procedure, participants study lists of words associated with central concepts (critical themes) that are not on the lists, then their memory is tested. Based on 224 estimates, the rate of False Recognition of the nonstudied critical themes was .59 (95% confidence interval of .56 to .61), which is smaller than the Hit rate of .75 for correct recognition of studied items (95% confidence interval of .73 to .77) but greater than various rates of False Alarms for other nonstudied items (ranging from .13 to .19). Ratings of subjective confidence were similar on Hits and on False Recognitions but higher than on False Alarms, confirming that false recognition was more like correct recognition than like other errors. The results from judgments of feeling of remembering or knowing, from the effects of intervening activities (particularly recall) between study and test, and from the effects of age suggest that False Recognition occurs because the critical theme is activated along with studied items during list presentation and perhaps also during recall. Invoking fuzzy trace theory, it is argued Hits are based on verbatim traces whereas False Recognition is based on gist traces and a failure of source memory. Proposals are made for research. PMID:15291231

McKelvie, Stuart J

2004-06-01

209

Male topi antelopes alarm snort deceptively to retain females for mating.  

PubMed

Despite intense interest in the role of deception in animal communication, empirical evidence is wanting that nonhuman animals are capable of actively falsifying signals to manipulate mates for reproductive benefits. Tactical use of false positive signals has thus been documented mainly where interests are consistently opposed, such as between predator and prey and between competitors for food and for mates. Here we report that male topi antelopes alarm snort deceptively to retain receptive females in their territories and thereby secure mating opportunities. The finding reveals that sexual conflict over mating, which is known to promote various forms of coercion and sensory bias exploitation, can also lead to active signal falsification. However, because honesty in sexual signals is generally assured by physical or cost-enforced constraints on signal production, sexually selected mate deception is likely to target mainly signals, such as alarm calls, that were originally not under sexual selection. PMID:20477537

Bro-Jørgensen, Jakob; Pangle, Wiline M

2010-07-01

210

A novel FBG-based fence with high sensitivity and low nuisance alarm rate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A quasi-distributed FBG-based fiber-optic fence is investigated in this paper. A novel intrusion detection method is proposed based on the autocorrelation characteristics of the signal with and without disturbances, which is very effective to detect extremely weak signals even from nonequivalent sensor nodes in a large sensor network. When analyzing the intrusion signal's characteristics and excluding the false alarm sources, such as environmental interferences and others, Nuisance Alarm Rate (NAR) is well controlled while extremely high Probability of Detection (PD) is assured. The experimental results show that the PD of the fiber fence using these methods for detecting the single and multiple events can be both higher than 99.5%, while the NAR can be controlled well below 0.5%.

Wu, Huijuan; Rao, Yunjiang; Li, Shanshan; Lu, Xianglin; Wu, Yu

2011-05-01

211

Development of quick and accurate automatic hypocenter location system for the earthquake alarm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most earthquake damage occurs after arrival of the S wave, whose amplitude is about five times larger than the P wave. Because the P wave travels faster than the S wave, the interval between their arrival times creates an opportunity to activate an earthquake alarm and take preemptive safety measures. We developed an automatic system which transmits the earthquake shaking intensity before S wave arrival. Since the alarm system is used to control transportation, industry, business, etc, at a time of a large earthquake occurrence, false alarms cost huge. We solved the technical difficulty of determining earthquake parameters very quickly and without errors, by developing a novel method using not only P wave arrival times but also time data of P wave not yet arrived. We also developed filters which can distinguish seismic signal from large amplitude noise generated by many kinds of reasons. The system can eliminate extraneous arrival-time readings during the process of hypocenter location by checking automatically measured readings, P wave not yet arrived data, and their station distribution. We use waveform data of Hi-net (High Sensitivity Seismograph Network Japan, National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention) composed of ca. 700 very high quality stations covering whole Japan with space density of 20 to 30 km. All seismometers are installed on observation wells deeper than 100m. Our system can locate precise hypocenters for 97 % felt events occurring in and near Japan Islands within a few seconds and transmits earthquake alarm information before most of seismic energy has arrived even to the station closest to the hypocenter. We are broadcasting earthquake alarm information for all destructive earthquakes by using the satellite system developed by ERI (Earthquake Research Institute, Univ. of Tokyo), and hoping to promote the development of many kinds of automatic control systems which stop cars, factories, etc to protect people from earthquake damage.

Horiuchi, S.; Kamimura, A.; Negishi, H.; Yamamoto, S.

2003-12-01

212

False allegation of child abduction.  

PubMed

Cases in which a child has been falsely reported as missing or abducted can be extremely challenging to the law enforcement agencies responsible for their investigation. In the absence of a witnessed abduction or an obvious crime scene, it is difficult to determine whether a child has actually been abducted or has become a victim of a homicide and a false allegation. The purpose of this study was to examine falsely alleged kidnapping cases and identify successful investigative strategies. Sixty-one adjudicated false allegation cases involving 66 victims were analyzed. The mean age of the victim was 5 years. Victims came from generally unstable, high-risk family situations and were killed primarily by biological parents. Victims were killed because they were unwanted or viewed as an obstacle to a desired goal, or they were victims of abuse or maltreatment that ended in fatality. PMID:21361941

Canning, Kathleen E; Hilts, Mark A; Muirhead, Yvonne E

2011-03-01

213

Do smoke alarms still function a year after installation? A follow-up of the get-alarmed campaign.  

PubMed

The Get-Alarmed Campaign Follow-up Study was the second phase of an initiative to assure that homes of families at high risk of fire-related injury and death had functioning smoke alarms. Smoke alarms and/or batteries were installed in over 94 percent of 454 participating households in Schley and Henry Counties, Georgia, in 2000. Before the study began, 60.6 percent of these homes had smoke alarms, but only 36.6 percent had functioning smoke alarms. The follow-up study was designed to determine the experiences of participants with smoke alarms and whether participating households had functioning smoke alarms a year after baseline. Participants were phoned or visited and asked about their experiences with smoke alarms since the baseline study. During the interview, they were asked to test a smoke alarm, the results of which could frequently be heard. Respondents included 237 from Schley County and 113 from Henry County, for an overall 77.1 percent response rate. While 80.3 percent of respondents had a smoke alarm that was heard by the interviewer when it was tested, 6.6 percent reported that their smoke alarm had been disabled or had a dead battery. Over 75 percent of respondents had smoke alarm sound offs in the prior year, predominately due to cooking smoke, but only about 5 percent reported removing the battery or otherwise disabling it to prevent sound offs. However, the measures taken may render a household unprotected at a critical time. Efforts to increase protection with smoke alarms should be augmented with programs to insure adequate and timely testing and maintenance of existing smoke alarms. PMID:15065735

Thompson, Corleen J; Jones, Alma R; Davis, Mary Kidd; Caplan, Lee S

2004-04-01

214

Alarm system for a nuclear control complex  

DOEpatents

An advanced control room complex for a nuclear power plant, including a discrete indicator and alarm system (72) which is nuclear qualified for rapid response to changes in plant parameters and a component control system (64) which together provide a discrete monitoring and control capability at a panel (14-22, 26, 28) in the control room (10). A separate data processing system (70), which need not be nuclear qualified, provides integrated and overview information to the control room and to each panel, through CRTs (84) and a large, overhead integrated process status overview board (24). The discrete indicator and alarm system (72) and the data processing system (70) receive inputs from common plant sensors and validate the sensor outputs to arrive at a representative value of the parameter for use by the operator during both normal and accident conditions, thereby avoiding the need for him to assimilate data from each sensor individually. The integrated process status board (24) is at the apex of an information hierarchy that extends through four levels and provides access at each panel to the full display hierarchy. The control room panels are preferably of a modular construction, permitting the definition of inputs and outputs, the man machine interface, and the plant specific algorithms, to proceed in parallel with the fabrication of the panels, the installation of the equipment and the generic testing thereof.

Scarola, Kenneth (Windsor, CT); Jamison, David S. (Windsor, CT); Manazir, Richard M. (North Canton, CT); Rescorl, Robert L. (Vernon, CT); Harmon, Daryl L. (Enfield, CT)

1994-01-01

215

Classification of alarm processing techniques and human performance issues  

SciTech Connect

Human factors reviews indicate that conventional alarm systems based on the one sensor, one alarm approach, have many human engineering deficiencies, a paramount example being too many alarms during major disturbances. As an effort to resolve these deficiencies, various alarm processing systems have been developed using different techniques. To ensure their contribution to operational safety, the impacts of those systems on operating crew performance should be carefully evaluated. This paper briefly reviews some of the human factors research issues associated with alarm processing techniques and then discusses a framework with which to classify the techniques. The dimensions of this framework can be used to explore the effects of alarm processing systems on human performance.

Kim, I.S.; O`Hara, J.M.

1993-05-01

216

Classification of alarm processing techniques and human performance issues  

SciTech Connect

Human factors reviews indicate that conventional alarm systems based on the one sensor, one alarm approach, have many human engineering deficiencies, a paramount example being too many alarms during major disturbances. As an effort to resolve these deficiencies, various alarm processing systems have been developed using different techniques. To ensure their contribution to operational safety, the impacts of those systems on operating crew performance should be carefully evaluated. This paper briefly reviews some of the human factors research issues associated with alarm processing techniques and then discusses a framework with which to classify the techniques. The dimensions of this framework can be used to explore the effects of alarm processing systems on human performance.

Kim, I.S.; O'Hara, J.M.

1993-01-01

217

Framework for analyzing safeguards alarms and response decisions  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a quantitative approach to help evaluate and respond to safeguards alarms. These alrms may be generated internally by a facility's safeguards systems or externally by individuals claiming to possess stolen Special Nuclear Material (SNM). This approach can be used to identify the most likely cause of an alarm - theft, hoax, or error - and to evaluate alternative responses to alarms. Possible responses include conducting investigations, initiating measures to recover stolen SNM, and replying to external threats. Based on the results of each alarm investigation step, the evaluation revises the likelihoods of possible causes of an alarm, and uses this information to determine the optimal sequence of further responses. The choice of an optimal sequence of responses takes into consideration the costs and benefits of successful thefts or hoaxes. These results provide an analytical basis for setting priorities and developing contingency plans for responding to safeguards alarms.

Al-Ayat, R.A.; Judd, B.R.; McCord, R.K.

1982-06-11

218

An Experimental Examination of Dead Air Space for Smoke Alarms  

Microsoft Academic Search

North American smoke-alarm installation standards and manufacturer’s recommendations require that smoke alarms be installed\\u000a not less than 100 mm from any adjoining wall if mounted on a flat ceiling, and not closer than 100 mm and not farther than\\u000a 300 mm from the adjoining ceiling surface if mounted on walls. The aim of this prescriptive rule is to avoid installation\\u000a of smoke alarms

Joseph Z. Su; George P. Crampton

2009-01-01

219

Learnability and discriminability of melodic medical equipment alarms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Melodic alarms proposed in the IEC 60601-1-8 standard for medical electrical equipment were tested for learnability and discriminability. Thirty-three non-anaesthetist participants learned the alarms over two sessions of practice, with or without mnemonics suggested in the standard. Fewer than 30% of participants could identify the alarms with 100% accuracy at the end of practice. Confusions persisted between pairs of

P. M. Sanderson; A. Wee; P. Lacherez

2006-01-01

220

Repeated Measures GLMM Estimation of Subject-Related and False Positive Threshold Effects on Human Face Verification Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subject covariate data were collected on 1, 072 pairs of FERET images for analysis in a human face verification experiment. The subject data included information about facial hair, bangs, eyes, gender, and age. The verification experiment was replicated at seven different false alarm rates ranging from 1\\/10, 000 to 1\\/100. A generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) was fit to the

Geof H. Givens; J. Ross Beveridge; Bruce A. Draper; P. J. Phillips

2005-01-01

221

Structural Damage Alarm Utilizing Modified Back-Propagation Neural Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Damage alarm is an important step among structure damage identification. Its objective is to evaluate the structure health. The existing damage alarm methods are mostly based on Back-Propagation Neural Networks without thinking over testing noise. Therefore, in order to avoid the disadvantages of conventional Back-Propagation Neural Networks, a modified Back-Propagation Neural Networks was proposed for structure damage alarm system in this paper. The experiment results of steel truss girder bridge show that the improved method is better than BPNN for structural damage alarm.

Dong, Xiaoma

222

False advertising in the greenhouse?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most scientists are convinced of the importance of their own research subjects. Broecker [1991] has deplored the temptation, if not the tendency, to go overboard and exaggerate this importance once funding enters the mind. In particular, he alleges inflated or even false claims by biological (and other) oceanographers regarding the relevance of their research to the “greenhouse effect,” caused by

K. Banse

1991-01-01

223

Vesta - False Color Shape Model  

NASA Video Gallery

This false-color video of the giant asteroid Vesta was created from images taken by the framing camera aboard NASA's Dawn spacecraft. The colors show the elevation of surface structures with a horizontal resolution of about 750 meters per pixel. › Asteroid and Comet Watch site › Dawn mission site

Anthony Greicius

2011-09-15

224

Tunneling decay of false vortices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the decay of vortices trapped in the false vacuum of a theory of scalar electrodynamics in 2+1 dimensions. The potential is inspired by models with intermediate symmetry breaking to a metastable vacuum that completely breaks a U(1) symmetry, while in the true vacuum, the symmetry is unbroken. The false vacuum is unstable through the formation of true vacuum bubbles; however, the rate of decay can be extremely long. On the other hand, the false vacuum can contain metastable vortex solutions. These vortices contain the true vacuum inside in addition to a unit of magnetic flux and the appropriate topologically nontrivial false vacuum outside. We numerically establish the existence of vortex solutions which are classically stable; however, they can decay via tunneling. In general terms, they tunnel to a configuration which is a large, thin-walled vortex configuration that is now classically unstable to the expansion of its radius. We compute an estimate for the tunneling amplitude in the semiclassical approximation. We believe our analysis would be relevant to superconducting thin films or superfluids.

Lee, Bum-Hoon; Lee, Wonwoo; MacKenzie, Richard; Paranjape, M. B.; Yajnik, U. A.; Yeom, Dong-han

2013-10-01

225

Sleep Loss Produces False Memories  

PubMed Central

People sometimes claim with high confidence to remember events that in fact never happened, typically due to strong semantic associations with actually encoded events. Sleep is known to provide optimal neurobiological conditions for consolidation of memories for long-term storage, whereas sleep deprivation acutely impairs retrieval of stored memories. Here, focusing on the role of sleep-related memory processes, we tested whether false memories can be created (a) as enduring memory representations due to a consolidation-associated reorganization of new memory representations during post-learning sleep and/or (b) as an acute retrieval-related phenomenon induced by sleep deprivation at memory testing. According to the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm, subjects learned lists of semantically associated words (e.g., “night”, “dark”, “coal”,…), lacking the strongest common associate or theme word (here: “black”). Subjects either slept or stayed awake immediately after learning, and they were either sleep deprived or not at recognition testing 9, 33, or 44 hours after learning. Sleep deprivation at retrieval, but not sleep following learning, critically enhanced false memories of theme words. This effect was abolished by caffeine administration prior to retrieval, indicating that adenosinergic mechanisms can contribute to the generation of false memories associated with sleep loss.

Diekelmann, Susanne; Landolt, Hans-Peter; Lahl, Olaf; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich

2008-01-01

226

Does Sleep Promote False Memories?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memory is constructive in nature so that it may sometimes lead to the retrieval of distorted or illusory information. Sleep facilitates accurate declarative memory consolidation but might also promote such memory distortions. We examined the influence of sleep and lack of sleep on the cerebral correlates of accurate and false recollections using fMRI. After encoding lists of semantically related word

Annabelle Darsaud; Hedwige Dehon; Olaf Lahl; Virginie Sterpenich; Mélanie Boly; Thanh Dang-Vu; Martin Desseilles; Stephen Gais; Luca Matarazzo; Frédéric Peters; Manuel Schabus; Christina Schmidt; Gilberte Tinguely; Gilles Vandewalle; André Luxen; Pierre Maquet; Fabienne Collette

2011-01-01

227

Does Sleep Promote False Memories?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memory is constructive in nature so that it may sometimes lead to the retrieval of distorted or illusory information. Sleep facilitates accurate declarative memory consolidation but might also promote such memory distortions. We examined the influence of sleep and lack of sleep on the cerebral correlates of accurate and false recollections using fMRI. After encoding lists of semantically related word

Annabelle Darsaud; Hedwige Dehon; Olaf Lahl; Virginie Sterpenich; Mélanie Boly; Thanh Dang-Vu; Martin Desseilles; Stephen Gais; Luca Matarazzo; Frédéric Peters; Manuel Schabus; Christina Schmidt; Gilberte Tinguely; Gilles Vandewalle; André Luxen; Pierre Maquet; Fabienne Collette

2010-01-01

228

The Psychology of False Confessions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obtaining a confession is one of the most important aims of police interro- gation, and it is estimated that more than 80% of solved criminal cases are solved by a confession. However, a significant number of confessions that result in wrongful convictions are obtained through coercive questioning. This paper examines false con- fessions and discusses the psychological and social factors

Richard P. Conti

229

Mitigating ground clutter effects for mine detection with lightweight artificial dielectrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground surface roughness is problematic when using a radar impulse to detect and locate land mines. Waves scatter from a random rough ground surface in unpredictable ways, contributing to clutter that is particularly hard to suppress. This clutter has proven experimentally and computationally to distort and obscure the desired scattered field from a buried target. To overcome this effect we have developed a lightweight, artificial dielectric that can be placed over a chosen area that will mimic flat ground and mitigate clutter effects. An artificial dielectric of close-packed array of small insulated metal-coated plastic spheres and lossless uniform plastic spheres can be formulated to match the dielectric properties soil. The ratio of these two spheres in the collection is adjusted to match a particular soil type and the moisture content. Placing them in a conformable bag and ensuring a flat upper interface with the air, ground reflections from an impulse radar can effectively be removed to reveal a target scattering signature. Furthermore, a matched filter can be used to distinguish between a landmine and a false alarm (such as a rock) The artificial dielectric was matched by running experiments in the frequency and time domains. A 1 GHz center frequency impulse ground penetrating radar was used to collect time signals and compare different cases: flat ground, rough ground and rough ground with artificial dielectric. Results indicate excellent rough surface reflection removal and target signal enhancement.

Linnehan, Robert; Rappaport, Carey M.

2002-08-01

230

Smoke alarm installation and function in inner London council housing  

PubMed Central

AIM—To determine the prevalence of and predictors for installed, functioning smoke alarms in council (public) housing in a low income, multi-ethnic urban area.?DESIGN—Cross sectional study.?SETTING—40 materially deprived electoral wards in two inner London boroughs.?PARTICIPANTS—Occupants of 315 addresses randomly selected from council housing lists, with 75% response rate.?MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Installation and function of smoke alarms based on inspection and testing.?RESULTS—39% (95% confidence interval (CI) 33% to 46%) of council tenants owned a smoke alarm, 31% (95% CI 25% to 38%) had an installed alarm (of which 54% were correctly installed), and 16% (95% CI 12% to 22%) had at least one installed, functioning alarm. Alarms most commonly failed because they lacked batteries (72%). In multivariate modelling, having an installed, functioning alarm was most strongly associated with living in a house versus a flat (apartment) (odds ratio (OR) 3.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 10.0), having two resident adults versus one (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.2 to 6.5), and recognising stills from a Home Office television smoke alarm campaign (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 5.5).?CONCLUSIONS—Fires are a leading cause of child injury and death, particularly among those younger than 5 years of age and those in social classes IV and V. Smoke alarms are associated with a significantly reduced risk of death in residential fires, and are more protective in households with young children. Few council properties in a multi-ethnic, materially deprived urban area had any installed, functioning smoke alarms, despite a high risk of residential fires and fire related injuries in such areas. Effective methods to increase the prevalence of installed and functioning alarms must be identified.??

DiGuiseppi, C.; Roberts, I.; Speirs, N.

1999-01-01

231

Successful Use of the Nocturnal Urine Alarm for Diurnal Enuresis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A urine alarm, typically used to treat nocturnal enuresis, was effectively used to treat diurnal enuresis in a 15-year-old female with depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and conduct disorder. The study indicated that the alarm eliminated wetting in both treatment phases and that continence was maintained at three-month and…

Friman, Patrick C.; Vollmer, Dennis

1995-01-01

232

Associative Data Mining for Alarm Groupings in Chemical Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex industrial processes such as nuclear power plants, chemical plants and petroleum refineries are usually equipped with alarm systems capable of monitoring thousands of process variables and generating tens of thousands of alarms which are used as mechanisms for alerting operators to take actions to alleviate or prevent an abnormal situation. Overalarming and a lack of configuration management practices have

Savo Kordic; Chiou Peng Lam; Jitian Xiao; Huaizhong Li

2007-01-01

233

Inducible defenses: The relevance of chemical alarm cues in Daphnia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many aquatic organisms use chemical cues to recognize predators and to activate inducible defenses. In zooplankton, most of these cues are thought to be kairomones released by specific predators. However, in several other organisms, e.g., fish and amphibians, alarm signals from conspecifics also provide reliable cues. We tested whether alarm substances also act as chemical cues in Daphnia and assessed

Christian Laforsch; Laura Beccara; Ralph Tollrian

2006-01-01

234

Plant Experience with an Expert System for Alarm Diagnosis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An expert system called Diagnosis of Multiple Alarms (DMA) is in routine use at four nuclear reactors operated by the DuPont Company. The system is wired to plant alarm annunciators and does event-tree analysis to see if a pattern exists. Any diagnosis is...

K. L. Gimmy

1986-01-01

235

Oral contraceptives and compliance: reaction to cardiovascular alarm among users  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of oral contraceptives (OC) is dependent on correct daily intake as well as continuous use. The latest cardiovascular alarm in 1995 led to discontinuations, presumably due to concerns about the long-term safety of OCs. The aim of this study was to investigate women's experiences and concerns about OCs in general as well as after the latest cardiovascular alarm.

T. Tydén; K. Bingefors; V. Odlind

1999-01-01

236

Successful use of the nocturnal urine alarm for diurnal enuresis.  

PubMed Central

We report the effects of using a urine alarm, typically employed for nocturnal enuresis, to treat chronic diurnal enuresis in a 15-year-old female resident at Boys' Town. The results of an ABAB reversal design indicate that the alarm eliminated wetting in both treatment phases and that continence was maintained at 3- and 6-month follow-up.

Friman, P C; Vollmer, D

1995-01-01

237

Fire alarm system based-on video processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire is one of the disasters that often occur in everyday life and causing losses both in terms of material and non-material. There has been much research done to build a field alarm system. One way to build a fire alarm system is base on fire detection on video data; this is done with digital image processing techniques and machine-

W. Tjokorda Agung Budi; Iping Supriana Suwardi

2011-01-01

238

46 CFR 28.240 - General alarm system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...system difficult to hear, a flashing red light must also be installed. (d) Each general alarm bell and flashing red light must be identified with red lettering...Attention General AlarmâWhen Alarm Sounds Go to Your Station. (e) A...

2011-10-01

239

Criticality accident alarm system at the Fernald Environmental Management Project  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to give a description of the Criticality Accident Alarm System (CAAS) presently installed at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) for monitoring areas requiring criticality controls, and some of the concerns associated with the operation of this system. The system at the FEMP is known as the Radiation Detection Alarm (RDA) System.

Marble, R.C.; Brown, T.D.; Wooldridge, J.C.

1994-06-01

240

Industry Sector Analysis, Hong Kong: Electrical Burglar Alarm.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Demand for sophisticated burglar alarm systems increases as crime rate in both Hong Kong and China has reached a record high. The industry as a whole will grow at 20-25% annually for the next three years. US-made alarm systems are well received and compet...

1993-01-01

241

Burglar Alarm Design. USMES Teacher's Resource Book, Preliminary Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This USMES unit challenges students to build a burglar alarm which will give adequate warning. The teacher resource book for the Burglar Alarm Design unit contains five sections. The first section describes the USMES approach to student-initiated investigations of real problems, including a discussion of the nature of the USMES "challenges" and…

Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA.

242

Uranyl nitrate source characterization for criticality alarm placement analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work concerns the development of an equivalent point source to represent the radiation release from a highly enriched uranyl nitrate criticality accident. This source will be used in a subsequent deep penetration criticality alarm placement analysis. It is more efficient to separate the source characterization analysis from the alarm placement analysis because (a) the industry standard tools for doing

C. T. Scott; R. E. Pevey; P. L. Angelo

2000-01-01

243

1. Photographic copy of fire alarm plan for Control and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Photographic copy of fire alarm plan for Control and Recording Center Building 4221/E-22, showing layout of rooms. California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Plant Engineering 'Edwards Test Station, Fire Alarm Plan, Bldg. E-22,' drawing no. EFA/11-1, December 15, 1961. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Control & Recording Center, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

244

Nuthatches eavesdrop on variations in heterospecific chickadee mobbing alarm calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many animals recognize the alarm calls produced by other species, but the amount of information they glean from these eaves- dropped signals is unknown. We previously showed that black- capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) have a sophisticated alarm call system in which they encode complex information about the size and risk of potential predators in variations of a single type of

C. N. Templeton; Erick Greene

2007-01-01

245

A Standards-Based Alarms Service for Monitoring Federated Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operators of federated networks require timely detection and diagnosis of networking problems. For detection of such problems, access to monitoring data that exists in multiple organisations is necessary. This paper presents an ongoing work on an Alarms Service which uses a standards-based access mechanism to obtain monitoring data from multiple organisations and then raises alarms based on pre-defined conditions. It

Charaka Palansuriya; Jeremy Nowell; Florian Scharinger; Kostas Kavoussanakis; Arthur Trew

2009-01-01

246

33 CFR 157.440 - Autopilot alarm or indicator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...without automatic manual override has an audible and visual alarm, which is distinct from other required bridge alarms, that will activate if the helm is manually moved while the autopilot is engaged. (b) A tank barge owner or operator shall ensure...

2013-07-01

247

46 CFR 162.050-33 - Bilge alarm: Design specification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...record date, time, alarm status, and operating status of the 15 ppm bilge separator. The recording device must also store data for at least 18 months and be able to display or print a protocol. In the event the 15 ppm bilge alarm is...

2009-10-01

248

46 CFR 162.050-33 - Bilge alarm: Design specification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...record date, time, alarm status, and operating status of the 15 ppm bilge separator. The recording device must also store data for at least 18 months and be able to display or print a protocol. In the event the 15 ppm bilge alarm is...

2010-10-01

249

30 CFR 75.352 - Actions in response to AMS malfunction, alert, or alarm signals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Actions in response to AMS malfunction, alert, or alarm signals. 75.352 Section... Actions in response to AMS malfunction, alert, or alarm signals. (a) When a malfunction, alert, or alarm signal is received at the...

2013-07-01

250

False advertising in the greenhouse?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most scientists are convinced of the importance of their own research subjects. Broecker [1991] has deplored the temptation, if not the tendency, to go overboard and exaggerate this importance once funding enters the mind. In particular, he alleges inflated or even false claims by biological (and other) oceanographers regarding the relevance of their research to the "greenhouse effect," caused by the anthropogenic enhancement of the atmospheric CO2 content. He writes [Broecker, 1991, p. 191]: "In my estimation, on any list of subjects requiring intense study with regard to the prediction of the consequences of CO2 buildup in the atmosphere, I would place marine biological cycles near the bottom."

Banse, K.

1991-12-01

251

Acoustic structures in the alarm calls of Gunnison's prairie dogs.  

PubMed

Acoustic structures of sound in Gunnison's prairie dog alarm calls are described, showing how these acoustic structures may encode information about three different predator species (red-tailed hawk-Buteo jamaicensis; domestic dog-Canis familaris; and coyote-Canis latrans). By dividing each alarm call into 25 equal-sized partitions and using resonant frequencies within each partition, commonly occurring acoustic structures were identified as components of alarm calls for the three predators. Although most of the acoustic structures appeared in alarm calls elicited by all three predator species, the frequency of occurrence of these acoustic structures varied among the alarm calls for the different predators, suggesting that these structures encode identifying information for each of the predators. A classification analysis of alarm calls elicited by each of the three predators showed that acoustic structures could correctly classify 67% of the calls elicited by domestic dogs, 73% of the calls elicited by coyotes, and 99% of the calls elicited by red-tailed hawks. The different distributions of acoustic structures associated with alarm calls for the three predator species suggest a duality of function, one of the design elements of language listed by Hockett [in Animal Sounds and Communication, edited by W. E. Lanyon and W. N. Tavolga (American Institute of Biological Sciences, Washington, DC, 1960), pp. 392-430]. PMID:16708970

Slobodchikoff, C N; Placer, J

2006-05-01

252

Field verification of predator attraction to minnow alarm substance.  

PubMed

Fishes such as minnows in the superorder Ostariophysi possess specialized alarm substance cells (ASC) that contain an alarm cue. Alarm substance can only be released by damage to the epidermis; thus, the release of alarm substance is a reliable indicator of predation risk. When nearby minnows detect the cue, they adopt a range of antipredator behaviors that reduce their probability of predation. Predator-predator interactions afford prey an opportunity to escape and, thus, a fitness benefit that maintains alarm substance calls over evolutionary time. Here, we present data from a simple field experiment verifying that nearby predators are attracted to minnow alarm substance because it signals an opportunity to pirate a meal. Fishing lures were baited with sponge blocks scented with either (1) water (control for sponge odor and appearance), (2) skin extract from non-ostariophysan convict cichlids (superorder Acanthopterygii, Archocentrus "Cichlasoma" nigrofasciatus) to control for general injury-released cues from fish, or (3) skin extract from fathead minnows (superorder Ostariophysi, Pimephales promelas). Predator strike frequency on each sponge type was 1, 1, and 7 for water, cichlid, and minnow cues, respectively. These data provide the first field test using fish predators of the predator-attraction hypothesis for the evolution of Ostariophysan alarm substance cells. PMID:11925077

Wisenden, Brian D; Thiel, Travis A

2002-02-01

253

The volatility of an alarm pheromone in male rats.  

PubMed

The volatility of an alarm pheromone in male rats. PHYSIOL BEHAV 00(0) 000-000, 2008. We previously reported that an alarm pheromone released from the perianal region of male rats is perceived by the vomeronasal organ and evokes stress-induced hyperthermia and defensive and risk assessment behavior. In addition, we recently reported that the alarm pheromone enhances the acoustic startle reflex (ASR). However, in contrast to our knowledge about such biological aspects of the pheromone, information concerning the physical character of the alarm pheromone is extremely limited. In this study, we investigated the volatility of the alarm pheromone using enhancement of the ASR as an index of the pheromone effect. The alarm pheromone enhanced the ASR when it was presented at a distance of 10 mm but not at 200 mm. In addition, the pheromone effect was observed even after the pheromone was trapped in the adsorbent (Tenax) and then extracted using purified water. These results suggest that the alarm pheromone is both volatile and water soluble. PMID:19135073

Inagaki, Hideaki; Nakamura, Kayo; Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Kikusui, Takefumi; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

2008-12-24

254

Engineering Aviation Security Environments: Reduction of False Alarms in Computed Tomography-Based Screening of Checked Baggage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Aviation and Transportation Security Act (Public Law 170-71) of November 19, 2001, mandated that as of December 31, 2002, all checked baggage on U.S. flights be scanned by explosive detection systems (EDSs) for the presence of potential explosives thr...

2013-01-01

255

A neural network-based passive sonar detection and classification design with a low false alarm rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Standard Transient Data Set (STDS) Phase 1 data were used to design detection and classification algorithms. Two separate processing chains were constructed, using neural networks for the short-duration transients and conventional processing for tonals. The design activity emphasized the judicious matching of acoustic digital signal processing (DSP) and neural networks, plus the construction of optimized training sets. The resulting

F. L. Casselman; D. F. Freeman; D. A. Kerrigan; N. H. Millstrom

1991-01-01

256

Organic Contaminants from Sewage Sludge Applied to Agricultural Soils. False Alarm Regarding Possible Problems for Food Safety? (8 pp)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goal, Scope and Background   Sewage sludge produced in wastewater treatment contains large amounts of organic matter and nutrients and could, therefore,\\u000a be suitable as fertiliser. However, with the sludge, besides heavy metals and pathogenic bacteria, a variety of organic contaminants\\u000a can be added to agricultural fields. Whether the organic contaminants from the sludge can have adverse effects on human health

Christian Grøn; Karin von Arnold

2007-01-01

257

Reliable likelihood ratios for statistical model-based voice activity detector with low false-alarm rate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of the statistical model-based voice activity detector (SMVAD) is to detect speech regions from input signals using the statistical models of noise and noisy speech. The decision rule of SMVAD is based on the likelihood ratio test (LRT). The LRT-based decision rule may cause detection errors because of statistical properties of noise and speech signals. In this article, we first analyze the reasons why the detection errors occur and then propose two modified decision rules using reliable likelihood ratios (LRs). We also propose an effective weighting scheme considering spectral characteristics of noise and speech signals. In the experiments proposed in this study, with almost no additional computations, the proposed methods show significant performance improvement in various noise conditions. Experimental results also show that the proposed weighting scheme provides additional performance improvement over the two proposed SMVADs.

Kim, Younggwan; Suh, Youngjoo; Kim, Hoirin

2011-12-01

258

Time-frequency analysis as a tool for improving neural detectors for low probability of false alarm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the application of time-frequency analysis for transforming the received radar echoes in order to facilitate a neural network classification task. So as to compress the time-frequency representations maintaining most of the information, a feature extractor is designed. The proposed detector is compared with a single Multilayer Perceptron (MLP). The results show that time-frequency decompositions improve the

Pilar Jarabo Amores; Manuel Rosa Zurera; F. L. Ferreras; M. U. Manso

2001-01-01

259

46 CFR 162.050-35 - Bilge alarm: Approval tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...not equipped with a mixture pump, the mixture flow rate is reduced to one-half of the alarm's maximum design flow rate. After reduction of pressure or flow rate, the oil content in the mixture is...

2011-10-01

260

46 CFR 169.730 - General alarm bell switch.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...over there must be a general alarm bell switch in the pilothouse, clearly and permanently identified by lettering on a metal plate or with a sign in red letters on a suitable background: âGENERAL...

2011-10-01

261

46 CFR 169.730 - General alarm bell switch.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...over there must be a general alarm bell switch in the pilothouse, clearly and permanently identified by lettering on a metal plate or with a sign in red letters on a suitable background: âGENERAL...

2012-10-01

262

46 CFR 131.805 - General alarm bell, switch.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...in the pilothouse that activates the general alarm bell must be clearly and permanently identified either by letters on a metal plate or with a sign in red letters on a suitable background that state the following: âGENERAL...

2012-10-01

263

46 CFR 78.47-5 - General alarm contact makers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...makers. Each general alarm contact maker must be marked in accordance with the requirements in subchapter J (Electrical Engineering Regulations) of this chapter. [CGD 74-125A, 47 FR 15232, Apr. 4,...

2011-10-01

264

How to design plant evacuation alarms: Part 1  

SciTech Connect

Using new guidelines, safety managers can evaluate plant emergency alarms and decide if their systems meet OSHA requirements. Under OSHA's CFR 1910.119 Process Safety Management (PSM) and 29 CFR 1910.120 Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response (HAZWOPER) directives, employers must develop, implement and maintain alarm systems to protect and evacuate all employees during an emergency. The paper discusses OSHA requirements; information sources and availability; and performance over time. Part 2 will examine how alarm signals are interpreted by workers. Using the Do's and Don'ts for alarms, safety engineers can effectively design around signaling problems so that employees are able to see, hear or feel emergency signals and respond quickly and correctly.

Kruger, D.A. (Webb, Murray and Associates, Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

1994-10-01

265

46 CFR 167.40-5 - Alarm bells.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Certain Equipment Requirements § 167...40-5 Alarm bells. All nautical school ships over 100 gross tons shall have all...operate from a continuous source of electric energy capable of supplying the...

2012-10-01

266

46 CFR 167.40-5 - Alarm bells.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Certain Equipment Requirements § 167...40-5 Alarm bells. All nautical school ships over 100 gross tons shall have all...operate from a continuous source of electric energy capable of supplying the...

2011-10-01

267

Industry Sector Analysis Canada: Residential Security Alarm Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report analyzes the residential security alarm systems market in Canada. It contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Canadian consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation (Canadian p...

A. D. George

1992-01-01

268

21 CFR 870.2640 - Portable leakage current alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2640 Portable...current between any two points of an electrical system and to sound an alarm if the current...

2013-04-01

269

Nuthatches eavesdrop on variations in heterospecific chickadee mobbing alarm calls.  

PubMed

Many animals recognize the alarm calls produced by other species, but the amount of information they glean from these eavesdropped signals is unknown. We previously showed that black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) have a sophisticated alarm call system in which they encode complex information about the size and risk of potential predators in variations of a single type of mobbing alarm call. Here we show experimentally that red-breasted nuthatches (Sitta canadensis) respond appropriately to subtle variations of these heterospecific "chick-a-dee" alarm calls, thereby evidencing that they have gained important information about potential predators in their environment. This study demonstrates a previously unsuspected level of discrimination in intertaxon eavesdropping. PMID:17372225

Templeton, Christopher N; Greene, Erick

2007-03-19

270

47 CFR 80.317 - Radiotelegraph and radiotelephone alarm signals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.317 Radiotelegraph...attention of the operator when there is no listening watch on the distress frequency. (b) The international radiotelephone...

2012-10-01

271

Male rats respond to their own alarm pheromone.  

PubMed

Pheromones are defined as substances released from an individual (donor) that influence a second individual (recipient) of the same species. However, it is unclear whether mammalian pheromones can affect the donor itself. To address this question, the effect of self-exposure to an alarm pheromone was examined. Exposure to the alarm pheromone resulted in an enhanced anxiety response, which was not different between recipients that perceived their own pheromone and those that perceived another individual's pheromone. The present results suggest that the alarm pheromone influences the emotional system of the recipient as well as induces similar anxiogenic effects on the donor rat that released the alarm pheromone. This is the first evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of mammalian pheromone self-exposure. PMID:21836378

Inagaki, Hideaki; Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

2011-08-12

272

Air pollution monitoring for on-line warning and alarm.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The publication deals with a concept on air pollution monitoring. The Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU) has been involved in the establishment of air pollution monitoring and modeling for warning and alarm systems during accidental releases and ...

B. Sivertsen

1994-01-01

273

Analysis of Alarm Sequences in a Chemical Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil and gas industries need secure and cost-effective alarm systems to meet safety requirements and to avoid problems that\\u000a lead to plant shutdowns, production losses, accidents and associated lawsuit costs. Although most current distributed control\\u000a systems (DCS) collect and archive alarm event logs, the extensive quantity and complexity of such data make identification\\u000a of the problem a very labour-intensive and

Savo Kordic; Peng Lam; Jitian Xiao; Huaizhong Li

2008-01-01

274

User-oriented approach to improving alarm annunciation  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive R&D program to improve CANDU alarm annunciation has been established. The project has reached the stage where improvements to alarm processing, presentation, and human-system interaction are being evaluated by station staff. Based on the initial evaluations, these staff indicate that the implementation of the concepts could result in potential savings of over $2 million a year per unit in reduced unplanned outages and improved equipment protection.

Feher, M.P.; Davey, E.C.; Lupton, L.R.

1994-12-31

275

Heterospecific alarm call recognition in a non-vocal reptile.  

PubMed

The ability to recognize and respond to the alarm calls of heterospecifics has previously been described only in species with vocal communication. Here we provide evidence that a non-vocal reptile, the Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus), can eavesdrop on the alarm call of the Galápagos mockingbird (Nesomimus parvulus) and respond with anti-predator behaviour. Eavesdropping on complex heterospecific communications demonstrates a remarkable degree of auditory discrimination in a non-vocal species. PMID:17911047

Vitousek, Maren N; Adelman, James S; Gregory, Nathan C; Clair, James J H St

2007-12-22

276

Do aphid colonies amplify their emission of alarm pheromone?  

PubMed

When aphids are attacked by natural enemies, they emit alarm pheromone to alert conspecifics. For most aphids tested, (E)-beta-farnesene (EBF) is the main, or only, constituent of the alarm pheromone. In response to alarm pheromone, alerted aphids drop off the plant, walk away, or attempt to elude predators. However, under natural conditions, EBF concentration might be low due to the low amounts emitted, to rapid air movement, or to oxidative degradation. To ensure that conspecifics are warned, aphids might conceivably amplify the alarm signal by emitting EBF in response to EBF emitted by other aphids. To examine whether such amplification occurs, we synthesized deuterated EBF (DEBF), which allowed us to differentiate between applied and aphid-derived chemical. Colonies of Acyrthosiphon pisum were treated with DEBF, and headspace volatiles were collected and analyzed for evidence of aphid-derived EBF. No aphid-derived EBF was detected, suggesting that amplification of the alarm signal does not occur. We discuss the disadvantages of alarm signal reinforcement. PMID:18704588

Hatano, Eduardo; Kunert, Grit; Bartram, Stefan; Boland, Wilhelm; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Weisser, Wolfgang W

2008-08-14

277

False recognition and source attribution for actions of an emotional event in older and younger adults.  

PubMed

In two experiments recognition of actions of a robbery presented in a video was examined in older and younger adults. In both experiments older adults had more false alarms and showed less accurate recognition than younger adults. In addition, when participants were asked in Experiment 1 to indicate Remember/Know/Guess judgments for actions they considered true, older adults accepted more false actions with Remember judgments. And when participants were asked in Experiment 2 to attribute the source (i.e., perpetrator), the older adults were less able to attribute actions that occurred during the robbery to their correct sources. Furthermore, we found a robust positive correlation between source attribution ability and recognition accuracy. Thus, source-memory deficits may contribute to older adults' false memories in real-life eyewitness situations. PMID:21534031

Aizpurua, Alaitz; Garcia-Bajos, Elvira; Migueles, Malen

2011-05-01

278

13 CFR 123.204 - How much can your business borrow for post-disaster mitigation?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false How much can your business borrow for post-disaster mitigation? 123.204 Section 123.204 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS...

2013-01-01

279

42 CFR 93.408 - Mitigating and aggravating factors in HHS administrative actions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mitigating and...in HHS administrative actions. 93.408 Section 93.408 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH...

2012-10-01

280

15 CFR 80.6 - False statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.6 False statements. Any false statement or forgery on the application or supporting papers...

2012-01-01

281

15 CFR 80.6 - False statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.6 False statements. Any false statement or forgery on the application or supporting papers...

2013-01-01

282

Visual and Olfactory Stimuli in Learned Release of Alarm Reactions by Zebra Danio Fish ( Brachydanio rerio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alarm reactions, innately organized antipredator defensive behavior, are precipitated in zebra danio fish (Brachydanio rerio) by a pheromone, alarm substance, passively exuded from injured skin of conspecific fish. Control over inducement of alarm reactions from fish can be transferred to other stimuli that do not initially provoke alarm. This was first found when an olfactory stimulus (morpholine) presented to fish

D. Hall; M. D. Suboski

1995-01-01

283

A mutual understanding? Interspecific responses by birds to each other's aerial alarm calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals are likely to benefit from responding to the alarm signals of other species with similar predators, and mutual interspecific responses to aerial (hawk) alarms are thought to be common in birds, in part because similarity in alarm call structure among species might facilitate detection or interpretation. However, there has been no test of whether interspecific responses to aerial alarm

Robert D. Magrath; Benjamin J. Pitcher; Janet L. Gardner

2007-01-01

284

Mitigation Monitoring Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Report (SEIR) (September 1992) for the Proposed Renewal of the Contract between the United States Department of Energy and The Regents of the University of California for the Operation and Management of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory identifies the environmental impacts associated with renewing the contract and specifies a series of measures designed to mitigate adverse impacts to the environment. This Mitigation Monitoring Plan describes the procedures the University will use to implement the mitigation measures adopted in connection with the approval of the Contract.

Not Available

1992-09-01

285

False identification of advertisements in recognition tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The false identification of advertisements which have not before been published averages about 20% and ranges from a few to over 50%. Thus no general formula can be used to correct for false identification in recognition tests. In some cases false identification scores run higher than do the recognition scores of the same advertisements after they have been published.

D. B. Lucas; M. J. Murphy

1939-01-01

286

Pathways to False Allegations of Sexual Assault  

Microsoft Academic Search

Not all allegations of sexual assault are true. Unfortunately, there has been little work on understanding the prevalence of false allegations or pathways to these. This paper proposes 11 pathways to false allegations of sexual assault: (a) lying, (b) implied consent, (c) false memories, (d) intoxication, (e) antisocial personality disorder, (f) borderline personality disorder, (g) histrionic personality disorder, (h) delirium,

Jessica Engle; William ODonohue

2012-01-01

287

Can fabricated evidence induce false eyewitness testimony?  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY False information can influence people's beliefs and memories. But can fabricated evidence induce individuals to accuse another person of doing something they never did? We examined whether exposure to a fabricated video could produce false eyewitness testimony. Subjects completed a gambling task alongside a confederate subject, and later we falsely told subjects that their partner had cheated on the

Kimberley A. Wade; Sarah L. Green; Robert A. Nash

2009-01-01

288

An Association Account of False Belief Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The elicited-response false belief task has traditionally been considered as reliably indicating that children acquire an understanding of false belief around 4 years of age. However, recent investigations using spontaneous-response tasks suggest that false belief understanding emerges much earlier. This leads to a developmental paradox: if young…

De Bruin, L. C.; Newen, A.

2012-01-01

289

Creating false memories for visual scenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creating false memories has become an important tool to investigate the processes underlying true memories. In the course of investigating the constructive and\\\\or reconstructive processes underlying the formation of false memories, it has become clear that paradigms are needed that can create false memories reliably in a variety of laboratory settings. In particular, neuroimaging techniques present certain constraints in terms

Michael B. Miller; Michael S. Gazzaniga

1998-01-01

290

An Association Account of False Belief Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The elicited-response false belief task has traditionally been considered as reliably indicating that children acquire an understanding of false belief around 4 years of age. However, recent investigations using spontaneous-response tasks suggest that false belief understanding emerges much earlier. This leads to a developmental paradox: if young…

De Bruin, L. C.; Newen, A.

2012-01-01

291

Removing False Paths from Combinational Modules 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence of false paths complicates the task of accurate tim- ing analysis significantly. A technique to remove false paths from a combinational circuit without degrading its performance h as a prac- tical value since topological timing analysis is then good e nough to estimate the performance of false-path-free circuits accu rately. One can think of the KMS algorithm (1)

Yuji Kukimoto; Robert K. Brayton

292

Alarm pheromone processing in the ant brain: an evolutionary perspective.  

PubMed

Social insects exhibit sophisticated communication by means of pheromones, one example of which is the use of alarm pheromones to alert nestmates for colony defense. We review recent advances in the understanding of the processing of alarm pheromone information in the ant brain. We found that information about formic acid and n-undecane, alarm pheromone components, is processed in a set of specific glomeruli in the antennal lobe of the ant Camponotus obscuripes. Alarm pheromone information is then transmitted, via projection neurons (PNs), to the lateral horn and the calyces of the mushroom body of the protocerebrum. In the lateral horn, we found a specific area where terminal boutons of alarm pheromone-sensitive PNs are more densely distributed than in the rest of the lateral horn. Some neurons in the protocerebrum responded specifically to formic acid or n-undecane and they may participate in the control of behavioral responses to each pheromone component. Other neurons, especially those originating from the mushroom body lobe, responded also to non-pheromonal odors and may play roles in integration of pheromonal and non-pheromonal signals. We found that a class of neurons receive inputs in the lateral horn and the mushroom body lobe and terminate in a variety of premotor areas. These neurons may participate in the control of aggressive behavior, which is sensitized by alarm pheromones and is triggered by non-pheromonal sensory stimuli associated with a potential enemy. We propose that the alarm pheromone processing system has evolved by differentiation of a part of general odor processing system. PMID:20676235

Mizunami, Makoto; Yamagata, Nobuhiro; Nishino, Hiroshi

2010-06-08

293

30 CFR 550.254 - What mitigation measures information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false What mitigation measures information must accompany the DPP or...docd) § 550.254 What mitigation measures information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? (a) If you propose to use any measures beyond those required by the...

2013-07-01

294

Radon mitigation in schools  

SciTech Connect

This article reports on radon mitigation in school buildings. Subslab depressurization (SSD) has been the most successful and widely used radon reduction method in houses. Thus far, it has also substantially reduced radon levels in a number of schools. Schools often have interior footings or thickened slabs that may create barriers for subslab air flow if a SSD system is the mitigation option. Review of foundation plans and subslab air flow testing will help to determine the presence and effect of such barriers. HVAC systems in schools vary considerable and tend to have a greater influence on pressure differentials (and consequently radon levels) than do heating and air-conditioning systems encountered in the radon mitigation of houses. As part of any radon mitigation method, ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 should be consulted to determine if the installed HVAC system is designed and operated to achieve minimum ventilation standards for indoor air quality.

Leovic, K.W.; Craig, A.B. (EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab., Triangle Park, NC (US)); Saum, D.W. (Infiltec, Falls Church, VA (US))

1990-01-01

295

Postattack Mitigation Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this research was to evaluate ways of reducing the severity of the firefighters' postattack environment and to define fire mitigation measures that will increase fire protection's contributions to aircraft sortie generation. This document...

H. Pike J. H. Storm

1988-01-01

296

Water Quality Mitigation Banking.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Current practice in New Jersey for mitigating stormwater impacts caused by transportation infrastructure projects is established by NJDEP Stormwater Regulations (N.J.A.C. 7:8). These rules outline specific processes to offset impacts to water quality, gro...

A. Fekete A. K. Agrawal B. VanderGheynst F. Scherrer

2009-01-01

297

Mitigation Strategies Database  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Mitigation strategies may be implemented all along the food production process, from basic agriculture, to food processing, distribution, and retail. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/fooddefense/toolseducationalmaterials

298

A model of the influence of false-positive mammography screening results on subsequent screening  

PubMed Central

Decades of empirical research have demonstrated psychological and behavioural consequences of false-positive medical tests. To organise this literature and offer novel predictions, we propose a model of how false-positive mammography results affect return for subsequent mammography screening. We propose that false-positive mammography results alter how women think about themselves (e.g., increasing their perceived likelihood of getting breast cancer) and the screening test (e.g., believing mammography test results are less accurate). We further hypothesise that thoughts elicited by the false-positive experience will, in turn, affect future use of screening mammography. In addition, we discuss methodological considerations for statistical analyses of these mediational pathways and propose two classes of potential moderators. While our model focuses on mammography screening, it may be applicable to psychological and behavioural responses to other screening tests. The model is especially timely as false-positive medical test results are increasingly common, due to efforts to increase uptake of cancer screening, new technologies that improve existing tests’ ability to detect disease at the cost of increased false alarms, and growing numbers of new medical tests.

DeFrank, Jessica T.; Brewer, Noel

2011-01-01

299

Nuclear-power-plant perimeter-intrusion alarm systems  

SciTech Connect

Timely intercept of an intruder requires the examination of perimeter barriers and sensors in terms of reliable detection, immediate assessment and prompt response provisions. Perimeter security equipment and operations must at the same time meet the requirements of the Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR 73.55 with some attention to the performance and testing figures of Nuclear Regulatory Guide 5.44, Revision 2, May 1980. A baseline system is defined which recommends a general approach to implementing perimeter security elements: barriers, lighting, intrusion detection, alarm assessment. The baseline approach emphasizes cost/effectiveness achieved by detector layering and logic processing of alarm signals to produce reliable alarms and low nuisance alarm rates. A cost benefit of layering along with video assessment is reduction in operating expense. The concept of layering is also shown to minimize testing costs where detectability performance as suggested by Regulatory Guide 5.44 is to be performed. Synthesis of the perimeter intrusion alarm system and limited testing of CCTV and Video Motion Detectors (VMD), were performed at E-Systems, Greenville Division, Greenville, Texas during 1981.

Halsey, D.J.

1982-04-01

300

[Digital acoustic burglar alarm system using infrared radio remote control].  

PubMed

Using butt emission infrared sensors, radio receiving and sending modules, double function integrated circuit with code and code translation, LED etc, a digital acoustic burglar alarm system using infrared radio to realize remote control was designed. It uses infrared ray invisible to eyes, composing area of radio distance. Once people and objects shelter the infrared ray, a testing signal will be output by the tester, and the sender will be triggered to work. The radio coding signal that sender sent is received by the receiver, then processed by a serial circuit. The control signal is output to trigger the sounder to give out an alarm signal, and the operator will be cued to notice this variation. At the same time, the digital display will be lighted and the alarm place will be watched. Digital coding technology is used, and a number of sub alarm circuits can joint the main receiver, so a lot of places can be monitored. The whole system features a module structure, with the property of easy alignment, stable operation, debug free and so on. The system offers an alarm range reaching 1 000 meters in all directions, and can be widely used in family, shop, storehouse, orchard and so on. PMID:19455843

Wang, Song-De; Zhao, Yan; Yao, Li-Ping; Zhang, Shuan-Ji

2009-03-01

301

Real-time distributed fiber optic sensor for security systems: Performance, event classification and nuisance mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The success of any perimeter intrusion detection system depends on three important performance parameters: the probability of detection (POD), the nuisance alarm rate (NAR), and the false alarm rate (FAR). The most fundamental parameter, POD, is normally related to a number of factors such as the event of interest, the sensitivity of the sensor, the installation quality of the system, and the reliability of the sensing equipment. The suppression of nuisance alarms without degrading sensitivity in fiber optic intrusion detection systems is key to maintaining acceptable performance. Signal processing algorithms that maintain the POD and eliminate nuisance alarms are crucial for achieving this. In this paper, a robust event classification system using supervised neural networks together with a level crossings (LCs) based feature extraction algorithm is presented for the detection and recognition of intrusion and non-intrusion events in a fence-based fiber-optic intrusion detection system. A level crossings algorithm is also used with a dynamic threshold to suppress torrential rain-induced nuisance alarms in a fence system. Results show that rain-induced nuisance alarms can be suppressed for rainfall rates in excess of 100 mm/hr with the simultaneous detection of intrusion events. The use of a level crossing based detection and novel classification algorithm is also presented for a buried pipeline fiber optic intrusion detection system for the suppression of nuisance events and discrimination of intrusion events. The sensor employed for both types of systems is a distributed bidirectional fiber-optic Mach-Zehnder (MZ) interferometer.

Mahmoud, Seedahmed S.; Visagathilagar, Yuvaraja; Katsifolis, Jim

2012-09-01

302

Pulse register phonation in Diana monkey alarm calls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adult male Diana monkeys (Cercopithecus diana) produce predator-specific alarm calls in response to two of their predators, the crowned eagles and the leopards. The acoustic structure of these alarm calls is remarkable for a number of theoretical and empirical reasons. First, although pulsed phonation has been described in a variety of mammalian vocalizations, very little is known about the underlying production mechanism. Second, Diana monkey alarm calls are based almost exclusively on this vocal production mechanism to an extent that has never been documented in mammalian vocal behavior. Finally, the Diana monkeys' pulsed phonation strongly resembles the pulse register in human speech, where fundamental frequency is mainly controlled by subglottal pressure. Here, we report the results of a detailed acoustic analysis to investigate the production mechanism of Diana monkey alarm calls. Within calls, we found a positive correlation between the fundamental frequency and the pulse amplitude, suggesting that both humans and monkeys control fundamental frequency by subglottal pressure. While in humans pulsed phonation is usually considered pathological or artificial, male Diana monkeys rely exclusively on pulsed phonation, suggesting a functional adaptation. Moreover, we were unable to document any nonlinear phenomena, despite the fact that they occur frequently in the vocal repertoire of humans and nonhumans, further suggesting that the very robust Diana monkey pulse production mechanism has evolved for a particular functional purpose. We discuss the implications of these findings for the structural evolution of Diana monkey alarm calls and suggest that the restricted variability in fundamental frequency and robustness of the source signal gave rise to the formant patterns observed in Diana monkey alarm calls, used to convey predator information.

Riede, Tobias; Zuberbühler, Klaus

2003-05-01

303

Description of ALARMA: the alarm algorithm developed for the Nuclear Car Wash  

SciTech Connect

The goal of any alarm algorithm should be that it provide the necessary tools to derive confidence limits on whether the existence of fissile materials is present in cargo containers. It should be able to extract these limits from (usually) noisy and/or weak data while maintaining a false alarm rate (FAR) that is economically suitable for port operations. It should also be able to perform its analysis within a reasonably short amount of time (i.e. {approx} seconds). To achieve this, it is essential that the algorithm be able to identify and subtract any interference signature that might otherwise be confused with a fissile signature. Lastly, the algorithm itself should be user-intuitive and user-friendly so that port operators with little or no experience with detection algorithms may use it with relative ease. In support of the Nuclear Car Wash project at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, we have developed an alarm algorithm that satisfies the above requirements. The description of the this alarm algorithm, dubbed ALARMA, is the purpose of this technical report. The experimental setup of the nuclear car wash has been well documented [1, 2, 3]. The presence of fissile materials is inferred by examining the {beta}-delayed gamma spectrum induced after a brief neutron irradiation of cargo, particularly in the high-energy region above approximately 2.5 MeV. In this region naturally occurring gamma rays are virtually non-existent. Thermal-neutron induced fission of {sup 235}U and {sup 239}P, on the other hand, leaves a unique {beta}-delayed spectrum [4]. This spectrum comes from decays of fission products having half-lives as large as 30 seconds, many of which have high Q-values. Since high-energy photons penetrate matter more freely, it is natural to look for unique fissile signatures in this energy region after neutron irradiation. The goal of this interrogation procedure is a 95% success rate of detection of as little as 5 kilograms of fissile material while retaining at most .1% false alarm rate. Plywood is used to simulate hydrogenous cargo material and steel (pipes) is used to simulate metallic cargo. The wood consists of 120 x 240 cm sheets and has approximately .65 g/cm{sup 3}. The steel pipes have approximately 10 cm diameters x 6.4 mm wall thickness are .6 g/cm{sup 3}. Fissile sources consist of a ''large'' (380 g) and ''small'' (250 g) sample of HEU (U{sub 3}O{sub 8} 94% enriched). Note that the masses of the HEU sources used in our experimental runs are at least an order of magnitude smaller than 5 kilograms. Runs are done with either wood or steel cargoes stacked at various heights and the HEU sources placed at various depths within the cargo.

Luu, T; Biltoft, P; Church, J; Descalle, M; Hall, J; Manatt, D; Mauger, J; Norman, E; Petersen, D; Pruet, J; Prussin, S; Slaughter, D

2006-11-28

304

A Closer Look at Self-Reported Suicide Attempts: False Positives and False Negatives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The validity of self-reported suicide attempt information is undermined by false positives (e.g., incidences without intent to die), or by unreported suicide attempts, referred to as false negatives. In a sample of 1,385 Austrian adults, we explored the occurrence of false positives and false negatives with detailed, probing questions. Removing…

Ploderl, Martin; Kralovec, Karl; Yazdi, Kurosch; Fartacek, Reinhold

2011-01-01

305

Alarm timing, trust and driver expectation for forward collision warning systems.  

PubMed

In order to improve road safety, automobile manufacturers are now developing Forward Collision Warning Systems (FCWS). However, there has been insufficient consideration of how drivers may respond to FCWS. This driving simulator study focused on alarm timing and its impact on driver response to alarm. The experimental investigation considered driver perception of alarm timings and its influence on trust at three driving speeds (40, 60 and 70 mile/h) and two time headways (1.7 and 2.2 s). The results showed that alarm effectiveness varied in response to driving conditions. Alarm promptness had a greater influence on ratings of trust than improvements in braking performance enabled by the alarm system. Moreover, alarms which were presented after braking actions had been initiated were viewed as late alarms. It is concluded that drivers typically expect alarms to be presented before they initiate braking actions and when this does not happen driver trust in the system is substantially decreased. PMID:16364231

Abe, Genya; Richardson, John

2005-12-20

306

13 CFR 123.401 - What types of mitigation measures can your business include in an application for a pre-disaster...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false What types of mitigation measures can your business include in an application...123.401 What types of mitigation measures can your business include in an application...application, each of your business' mitigation measures must satisfy the following...

2012-01-01

307

Neurodevelopmental Correlates of True and False Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Deese\\/Roediger--McDermott (DRM) false-memory effect has been extensively documented in psychological research. People falsely recognize critical lures or nonstudied items that are semantically associated with studied items. Behavioral research has provided evidence for age-related increases in the DRM false- recognition effect. The present event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study was aimed at investigating neuro- developmental changes in brain regions associated

Pedro M. Paz-Alonso; Simona Ghetti; Sarah E. Donohue; Gail S. Goodman; Silvia A. Bunge

2008-01-01

308

Gender differences in false memory production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated differences in false memory production between men and women, using the Deese\\/Roedgier McDermott\\u000a (DRM) paradigm. Five word lists were used (MAN, GIRL, BREAD, BLACK, HIGH) and it was predicted that males would produce more\\u000a false memories for the MAN word list while females will produce more false memories for the GIRL word list. Results did not

Grant Bauste; F. Richard Ferraro

2004-01-01

309

19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13...descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. (a) Articles which...Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys thereof...

2013-04-01

310

A remote sleep-monitoring medical alarm system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring sleep state and sending out alarm signal according to the state and the acute disease belong to the area of sleep basic research and prediction of outbreaks of diseases. The system includes: monitoring and analyzing the sleeper pulse's physiological parameters, the embedded computer judge whether or not the sleeper suffers acute disease(heart disease, cerebral haemorrhage, etc). If so, the

Panfeng Zhang; Kaisheng Zhang

2010-01-01

311

Reduction of nuisance alarms in exterior sensors using ESP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rain has always been a big problem for outdoor intrusion systems, making it necessary to choose between nuisance alarms and poor detection. The author reports on extensive environmental tests and describes a signal processing technique called ESP (enhanced signature processing). This effort produced a detection improvement of approximately 10 dB while suppressing the effects of rain-induced noise by an additional

E. J. Foley

1993-01-01

312

Personal miner's carbon monoxide alarm. Information Circular/1989  

SciTech Connect

Underground miners may be exposed to hazardous quantities of toxic gases, such as carbon monoxide (CO), generated from mine fires or explosions. Every underground miner is required to carry a filter self-rescuer (FSR), which when operated will remove CO from the miner's breathing air. In addition, every underground miner must have a self-contained self-rescuer (SCSR) near the worksite that will supply breathing oxygen. In many situations, miners do not know when to do either rescuer since they do not know if there is a fire in the mine nor do they carry instrumentation necessary for the detection of the toxic, colorless, and odorless fire product CO. If each miner carried a personal CO alarm, which would respond to high concentrations of CO, the miner would then be alerted when to do either the FSR or SCSR and exit the mine. A prototype personal miner's CO alarm called PEMCOAL unit is small enough to be carried on a miner's belt, has a flash lamp visual alarm, requires no calibration for use, and uses a chemical sensor that changes color by reaction with trace quantities of CO. The chemical sensor was tested at concentrations of CO from 10 to 1,000 ppm, at temperatures from 5 to 40 C, and with several potential mine gas interferents. The PEMCOAL alarm times were sufficiently fast to warn miners before they are exposed to hazardous quantities of CO.

Chilton, J.E.; Carpenter, C.R.

1989-01-01

313

Tinnitus as an Alarm Bell: Stress Reaction Tinnitus Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress is a significant factor influencing the clinical course of tinnitus. Auditory system is particularly sensitive to the effects of different stress factors (chemical, oxidative, emotional, etc.). Different stages of reaction (alarm, resistance, exhaustion) lead to different characteristics of tinnitus and different therapeutic approaches. Individual characteristics of stress reaction may explain different aspects of tinnitus in various patients with different

D. Alpini; A. Cesarani

2006-01-01

314

Designing Effective Alarms for Radiation Detection in Homeland Security Screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this correspondence, the human factors involved in the de- sign of effective homeland security threat detection systems are described and illustrated for radiation portal monitor (RPM) systems deployed at U.S. ports of entry. Due to the occurrence of nuisance alarms based on naturally occurring radioactive material and the low base rate of nu- clear smuggling incidents, it is shown

Thomas F. Sanquist; Raja Parasuraman

2008-01-01

315

A Fire-Alarming Method Based on Video Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a fire-alarming method based on video processing. We propose a system that uses color and motion information extracted from video sequences to detect fire. Flame can be recognized according to its color which is a primary element of fire images. Thus choosing a suitable color model is the key to detect flames from fire images. An effective

Ping-He Huang; Jing-Yong Su; Zhe-Ming Lu; Jeng-Shyang Pan

2006-01-01

316

24 CFR 3280.208 - Smoke alarm requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...designed for sleeping. (iii) On the ceiling of the upper level near the top or above each stairway, other than a basement...3282 of this chapter. The alarm must be located so that smoke rising in the stairway cannot be prevented from reaching the...

2013-04-01

317

MULTIPLE FUNCTIONS OF THE FIRE ANT, SOLENOPSIS INVICTA, ALARM PHEROMONE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As with most social insects, the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, utilizes complex chemical signals to regulate the activities of the colony. Several of these pheromones, including the trail pheromone and queen recognition pheromones, have been identified. However, the alarm pheromone has ...

318

Mouse alarm pheromone shares structural similarity with predator scents.  

PubMed

Sensing the chemical warnings present in the environment is essential for species survival. In mammals, this form of danger communication occurs via the release of natural predator scents that can involuntarily warn the prey or by the production of alarm pheromones by the stressed prey alerting its conspecifics. Although we previously identified the olfactory Grueneberg ganglion as the sensory organ through which mammalian alarm pheromones signal a threatening situation, the chemical nature of these cues remains elusive. We here identify, through chemical analysis in combination with a series of physiological and behavioral tests, the chemical structure of a mouse alarm pheromone. To successfully recognize the volatile cues that signal danger, we based our selection on their activation of the mouse olfactory Grueneberg ganglion and the concomitant display of innate fear reactions. Interestingly, we found that the chemical structure of the identified mouse alarm pheromone has similar features as the sulfur-containing volatiles that are released by predating carnivores. Our findings thus not only reveal a chemical Leitmotiv that underlies signaling of fear, but also point to a double role for the olfactory Grueneberg ganglion in intraspecies as well as interspecies communication of danger. PMID:23487748

Brechbühl, Julien; Moine, Fabian; Klaey, Magali; Nenniger-Tosato, Monique; Hurni, Nicolas; Sporkert, Frank; Giroud, Christian; Broillet, Marie-Christine

2013-03-04

319

46 CFR 78.47-10 - Manual alarm boxes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FIRE BREAK GLASS.â Existing boxes not so marked with the same or...shall be identified either on the box or adjacent bulkhead in at least...BREAK GLASS.â All manual alarm boxes shall be numbered in red on the adjacent bulkhead with...

2012-10-01

320

46 CFR 78.47-10 - Manual alarm boxes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FIRE BREAK GLASS.â Existing boxes not so marked with the same or...shall be identified either on the box or adjacent bulkhead in at least...BREAK GLASS.â All manual alarm boxes shall be numbered in red on the adjacent bulkhead with...

2011-10-01

321

Mouse alarm pheromone shares structural similarity with predator scents  

PubMed Central

Sensing the chemical warnings present in the environment is essential for species survival. In mammals, this form of danger communication occurs via the release of natural predator scents that can involuntarily warn the prey or by the production of alarm pheromones by the stressed prey alerting its conspecifics. Although we previously identified the olfactory Grueneberg ganglion as the sensory organ through which mammalian alarm pheromones signal a threatening situation, the chemical nature of these cues remains elusive. We here identify, through chemical analysis in combination with a series of physiological and behavioral tests, the chemical structure of a mouse alarm pheromone. To successfully recognize the volatile cues that signal danger, we based our selection on their activation of the mouse olfactory Grueneberg ganglion and the concomitant display of innate fear reactions. Interestingly, we found that the chemical structure of the identified mouse alarm pheromone has similar features as the sulfur-containing volatiles that are released by predating carnivores. Our findings thus not only reveal a chemical Leitmotiv that underlies signaling of fear, but also point to a double role for the olfactory Grueneberg ganglion in intraspecies as well as interspecies communication of danger.

Brechbuhl, Julien; Moine, Fabian; Klaey, Magali; Nenniger-Tosato, Monique; Hurni, Nicolas; Sporkert, Frank; Giroud, Christian; Broillet, Marie-Christine

2013-01-01

322

Nurses’ compliance with alarm limits for pulse oximetry: qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Monthly audits for the multicenter Canadian Oxygen Trial have shown that our neonatal team has consistently maintained study participants within the intended pulse oximetry alarm limits between 68 and 79% of the time during the first 3 days of life while infants were receiving supplemental oxygen. This good performance prompted us to explore our nurses’ perceptions of what makes them

J Armbruster; B Schmidt; C F Poets; D Bassler

2010-01-01

323

Substance Use by Adolescents on an Average Day Is Alarming  

MedlinePLUS

... 2130 Substance use by adolescents on an average day is alarming On an average day, 881,684 teenagers aged 12 to 17 smoked ... SAMHSA). The report also says that on average day 646,707 adolescents smoked marijuana and 457,672 ...

324

Emotional content of true and false memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many people believe that emotional memories (including those that arise in therapy) are particularly likely to represent true events because of their emotional content. But is emotional content a reliable indicator of memory accuracy? The current research assessed the emotional content of participants’ pre-existing (true) and manipulated (false) memories for childhood events. False memories for one of three emotional childhood

Cara Laney; Elizabeth F. Loftus

2008-01-01

325

A Connectionist Model of False Memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a connectionist model of false memories called the Associative Self-Organizing Network (ASON) model. Four mechanisms underlying the Constructive Memory Framework (CMF) guide the design of the ASON model, a connectionist operationalisation of the CMF. Simulation studies of experiments in the DRM paradigm reveal the ASON model to exhibit false memories. In addition, the effects of Mean Backward Associative

Saskia van Dantzig

326

Poor working memory predicts false memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies investigated whether individual differences in simple span verbal working memory and complex working memory capacity are related to memory accuracy and susceptibility to false memory development. In Study 1, undergraduate students (N=60) were given two simple span working memory tests: forward and backward digit span. They also underwent a memory task that is known to elicit false memories

Maarten J. V. Peters; Marko Jelicic; Hilde Verbeek; Harald Merckelbach

2007-01-01

327

Supply Chain Coordination for False Failure Returns  

Microsoft Academic Search

False failure returns are products that are returned by consumers to retailers with no functional or cosmetic defect. The cost of a false failure return includes the processing actions of testing, refurbishing (if necessary), repackaging, the loss in value during the time the product spends in the reverse supply chain (a time that can exceed several months for many firms),

Mark Ferguson; Gilvan C. Souza

2006-01-01

328

ARE FALSE MEMORIES PSI-CONDUCIVE?  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 ABSTRACT: S. J. Blackmore and N. J. Rose (1997) reported an experiment that used false memory creation to generate a significant psi effect. This article reports a series of 3 experiments that attempted to replicate this effect and examines the relationship between false memory creation and paranormal belief. Experiment 1 is a faithful replication of the original. Experiment 2

Nicholas Rose; Susan Blackmore

2001-01-01

329

Creating false memories for visual scenes.  

PubMed

Creating false memories has become an important tool to investigate the processes underlying true memories. In the course of investigating the constructive and/or reconstructive processes underlying the formation of false memories, it has become clear that paradigms are needed that can create false memories reliably in a variety of laboratory settings. In particular, neuroimaging techniques present certain constraints in terms of subject response and timing of stimuli that a false memory paradigm needs to comply with. We have developed a picture paradigm which results in the false recognition of items of a scene which did not occur almost as often as the true recognition of items that did occur. It uses a single presentation of pictures with thematic, stereotypical scenes (e.g. a beach scene). Some of the exemplars from the scene were removed (e.g. a beach ball) and used as lures during an auditory recognition test. Subjects' performance on this paradigm was compared with their performance on the word paradigm reintroduced by Roediger and McDermott. The word paradigm has been useful in creating false memories in several neuroimaging studies because of the high frequency of false recognition for critical lures (words not presented but closely associated with lists of words that were presented) and the strong subjective sense of remembering accompanying these false recognitions. However, it has several limitations including small numbers of lures and a particular source confusion. The picture paradigm avoids these limitations and produces identical effects on normal subjects. PMID:9705061

Miller, M B; Gazzaniga, M S

1998-06-01

330

Do instructional warnings reduce false recognition?  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY After previously encoding lists of related words (e.g. bed, rest, awake, etc.) associated with one critical word (e.g. sleep), participants frequently falsely recognize critical words as having been previously presented. Past research indicates that warning participants of this memory illusion can reduce false recognition of critical words. However, the memory processes responsible for this reduction are not known. We

Carmen E. Westerberg; Chad J. Marsolek

2006-01-01

331

Effects of Instructions on False Recognition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four experiments were conducted to examine the effects of various processing instructions on the rate of false recognition. The continuous single-item procedure was used, and false recognitions of four types were examined: synonyms, antonyms, nonsemantic associates, and homonyms. The instructions encouraged subjects to think of associates, usages…

Mueller, John H.; And Others

332

Illusions of Gender: Stereotypes Evoke False Memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments examined whether false memories can arise from indirect stereotype associations, as revealed by the Deese–Roediger–McDermott (DRM) paradigm. As predicted, exposure to either a list of stereotypically female roles or a list of stereotypically male roles resulted in an increase in the false recognition of stereotypically consistent roles and traits. In both of the experiments, the participants were shown

Alison P. Lenton; Irene V. Blair; Reid Hastie

2001-01-01

333

Radon mitigation in schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on radon mitigation in school buildings. Subslab depressurization (SSD) has been the most successful and widely used radon reduction method in houses. Thus far, it has also substantially reduced radon levels in a number of schools. Schools often have interior footings or thickened slabs that may create barriers for subslab air flow if a SSD system is

K. W. Leovic; A. B. Craig; D. W. Saum

1990-01-01

334

FIRE MITIGATION MEASURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of fire scenarios and conditions for evaluati on of fire mitigation systems to be used in tunnels are proposed. These scenarios are used for evolution of water spraying systems as part of the UPTUN project. A large number of fire tests have been carried out with water curtains, high and low pressure water mist systems. Currently limited data

K. Opstad

2006-01-01

335

Status of Traffic Mitigation Ordinances.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report discusses how traffic mitigation ordinances are being used to reduce automobile congestion related to commuting. It is based on a review of traffic mitigation ordinances drafted or adopted in 20 selected local jurisdictions throughout the Unite...

1989-01-01

336

Space Debris Mitigation CONOPS Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Space debris remains an unsolved hazard for space operators and astronomers alike. Passive debris mitigation techniques have been enumerated and codified by the UNCOPUOS and IADC and several proposals for actively mitigating space debris have been present...

E. B. Alejandro

2013-01-01

337

46 CFR 113.25-9 - Location of general emergency alarm signal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT...loudspeaker installation. Other audible devices, such as electronic alarm transducers, are permitted. [CGD 74-125A,...

2012-10-01

338

33 CFR 149.130 - What are the requirements for the cargo transfer system alarm?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...protection is required under § 150.615 of this chapter; and (4) Be distinguishable from the general alarm. (c) Tankers calling on unmanned deepwater ports must be equipped with a transfer system alarm described in this...

2013-07-01

339

46 CFR 113.25-25 - General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...25-25 Section 113.25-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-25...

2012-10-01

340

40 CFR 264.34 - Access to communications or alarm system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Prevention § 264.34 Access to communications or alarm system. (a...access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or...capable of summoning external emergency assistance, unless...

2013-07-01

341

40 CFR 265.34 - Access to communications or alarm system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Prevention § 265.34 Access to communications or alarm system. (a...access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or...capable of summoning external emergency assistance, unless...

2013-07-01

342

Trail-Marking and Alarm Pheromones of Some Ants of the Genus Atta.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Laboratory studies on two ant species of the Genus Atta, Atta texana and Atta cephalotes have resulted in the isolation and identification of several organic compounds which demonstrate either trail-marking or alarm activity. The alarm pheromones of Atta ...

R. G. Riley R. M. Silverstein

1973-01-01

343

Vocal Emergency Alarms in Hospitals and Nursing Facilities: Practice and Potential.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report reviews current usage of voice emergency alarms in nursing homes and hospitals, and recommends guidelines for the development of alarm messages, which should facilitate effective personnel response to fires in health care facilities. The seven ...

J. P. Keating E. F. Loftus

1977-01-01

344

Viscoelastic properties of the false vocal fold  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biomechanical properties of vocal fold tissues have been the focus of many previous studies, as vocal fold viscoelasticity critically dictates the acoustics and biomechanics of phonation. However, not much is known about the viscoelastic response of the ventricular fold or false vocal fold. It has been shown both clinically and in computer simulations that the false vocal fold may contribute significantly to the aerodynamics and sound generation processes of human voice production, with or without flow-induced oscillation of the false fold. To better understand the potential role of the false fold in phonation, this paper reports some preliminary measurements on the linear and nonlinear viscoelastic behavior of false vocal fold tissues. Linear viscoelastic shear properties of human false fold tissue samples were measured by a high-frequency controlled-strain rheometer as a function of frequency, and passive uniaxial tensile stress-strain response of the tissue samples was measured by a muscle lever system as a function of strain and loading rate. Elastic moduli (Young's modulus and shear modulus) of the false fold tissues were calculated from the measured data. [Work supported by NIH.

Chan, Roger W.

2001-05-01

345

Word frequency effect in false memories.  

PubMed

Fuzzy Trace Theory argues that false memories arise from a weak verbatim memory along with strong encoding of the meaning (gist). The present study simultaneously investigated the effects of the strength of both the gist and the verbatim information on false memories. Exp. 1 was carried out to compare false memories for common and rare words in recall and recognition. In Exp. 2 a control for possible testing effects was added, and participants were given a recognition test with no preceding recall test. Qualitative judgements (Remember vs Know) regarding words judged as old on the recognition test were also collected in Exp. 2. Both experiments showed that false memories were more likely when weak verbatim items occurred along with strong gist (as with common words) than only with weak gist encoding (as with rare words). Moreover, participants were more likely to choose falsely physically similar distractors for rare words than for common words. Semantically similar distractors, on the other hand, were more likely to be selected for common than for rare words. These results provide further support for the fuzzy trace theory explanation of false memories. However, some weaknesses of this model regarding false memories are also discussed. PMID:16175668

Göz, Ilyas

2005-06-01

346

13 CFR 123.408 - How does your business apply for a pre-disaster mitigation loan?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false How does your business apply for a pre-disaster mitigation loan? 123.408 Section 123.408 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS...

2013-01-01

347

13 CFR 123.405 - How much can your business borrow with a pre-disaster mitigation loan?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01...2013-01-01 false How much can your business borrow with a pre-disaster mitigation loan? 123.405 Section 123.405 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL...

2013-01-01

348

13 CFR 123.412 - What happens if SBA declines your business' pre-disaster mitigation loan request?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01...false What happens if SBA declines your business' pre-disaster mitigation loan request? 123.412 Section 123.412 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS...

2013-01-01

349

19 CFR Appendix C to Part 171 - Customs Regulations Guidelines for the Imposition and Mitigation of Penalties for Violations of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Customs Regulations Guidelines for the Imposition and Mitigation of Penalties for Violations of 19 U.S.C. 1641 C Appendix C to Part 171 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY;...

2013-04-01

350

19 CFR Appendix C to Part 171 - Customs Regulations Guidelines for the Imposition and Mitigation of Penalties for Violations of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Customs Regulations Guidelines for the Imposition and Mitigation of Penalties for Violations of 19 U.S.C. 1641 C Appendix C to Part 171 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY;...

2010-04-01

351

19 CFR Appendix C to Part 171 - Customs Regulations Guidelines for the Imposition and Mitigation of Penalties for Violations of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Customs Regulations Guidelines for the Imposition and Mitigation of Penalties for Violations of 19 U.S.C. 1641 C Appendix C to Part 171 Customs Duties BUREAU OF CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY;...

2009-04-01

352

Alarm and status processing and display in the Nuplex 80+ Advanced Control Complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a nuclear power advanced control room includes the improvement of previous generation alarm system designs. The Nuplex 80+ Advanced Control Complex alarm methodology utilizes redundant and diverse fixed-location and CRT alarms. These alarms are grouped by panels and presented on system and function display pages to support operator tasks. Plant operational mode-dependency, prioritization, signal-validation and equipment status

D. L. Harmon; T. M. Starr

1992-01-01

353

False localizing signs in traumatic brain injury  

PubMed Central

Background Hemiparesis ipsilateral to a mass-occupying lesion can be due to Kernohan-Woltman Notch Phenomenon (KWNP). This syndrome implies a false-localizing sign because clinical findings lead the examiner to an incorrect neuroanatomical diagnosis. The contralateral crus cerebri (pyramidal tract) is pressed against the tentorial incisum and a resultant hemiparesis is found on the same side of the lesion. Review A detailed literature search of false-localizing signs is presented. Conclusions Not infrequently, patients presenting to a physiatrist may have incomplete records. The existence of false localizing signs may point the physician towards the wrong underlying pathology.

MCKENNA, CRISTIN; FELLUS, JONATHAN; BARRETT, ANNA M.

2010-01-01

354

Not All False Memories Are Created Equal: The Neural Basis of False Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

False recognition, a type of memory distortion where one claims to remember something that never happened, can occur in response to items that are similar but not identical to previously seen items (i.e., related false recognition) or in response to novel items (i.e., unrelated false recognition). It is unknown whether these 2 types of memory errors arise from the same

Rachel J. Garoff-Eaton; Scott D. Slotnick; Daniel L. Schacter

2006-01-01

355

Design and Implementation of Automatic Fire Alarm System based on Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Fire disaster is a ,great threat to lives and property. Automatic fire alarm system provides real-time surveillance, monitoring and automatic alarm. It sends early alarm when the fire occurs and helps to reduce the fire damage. Wireless sensor network has become the most important technology in environmental monitoring and home or factory automation in recent years. In this paper, anautomatic

Lei Zhang; Gaofeng Wang

2009-01-01

356

Performance Evaluation of Two Data Mining Techniques of Network Alarms Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In large telecommunication networks, alarms are usually useful for identifying faults and, therefore solving them. However, for large systems the number of alarms produced is so large that the current management systems are overloaded. One way of overcoming this problem is to analyse and interpret these alarms before faults can be located. Two different techniques were developed and setup to

Jacques-H. Bellec; M. Tahar Kechadi; Joe Carthy

2006-01-01

357

Is there a Fish Alarm Pheromone? A Wild Study and Critique  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1938 von Frisch reported that European minnows, Phoxinus phoxinus, displayed a marked fright reaction to conspecific skin extract. This was attributed to the presence of an alarm substance or Schreckstoff. Later, Schreckstoff was viewed as a classic example of an alarm pheromone. However, Williams (1964, 1992) argued that there are considerable problems in explaining the evolution of an alarm

A. E. Magurran; P. W. Irving; P. A. Henderson

1996-01-01

358

Alarm response to venom by social wasps Polistes exclamans and P. fuscatus (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The venoms ofPolistes exclamans andP. fuscatus elicit alarm behavior and attract attacking wasps. The response is not species specific, for both hetero- and conspecific venoms elicit similar responses in both species. A test in a wind tunnel provided no support for the hypothesis that alarmed wasps release an alarm pheromone on the nest.

David C. Post; Holly A. Downing; Robert L. Jeanne

1984-01-01

359

Project 93L-EWL-097, fire alarm system improvements, 300 Area  

SciTech Connect

This document contains the Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) which will demonstrate that the modifications to the Fire Protection systems in the 338 Building function as intended. The ATP will test the fire alarm control panel, flow alarm pressure switch, post indicator valve tamper switch, heat detectors, flow switches, and fire alarm signaling devices.

Scott, M.V.

1995-01-01

360

Family guard against theft and alarm system based on GSM Modem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The System is made up of MCU and GSM Modem. It will display the alarm content in Chinese directly at your mobile screen, and it recurs to the most reliable GSM mobile network. The system adopted initiative infrared sensor to detect, and it turned the traditional alarm net and alarm windows to immateriality. Besides, the system equipped the smog sensor

Zhou Yu; Zhisong Hou; Gaoli Zhao; Xiangang Zuo

2011-01-01

361

33 CFR 149.135 - What should be marked on the cargo transfer system alarm switch?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...should be marked on the cargo transfer system alarm switch? 149.135 Section 149.135 Navigation and...should be marked on the cargo transfer system alarm switch? Each switch for activating an alarm, and each audio or visual...

2013-07-01

362

False Assumptions Can Get You in Trouble  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, short deceptive problem stories are presented to the class and students are challenged to solve each problem by asking only yes/no questions. The key is for students to recognize: what the False Assumption is that makes the solution tricky; that many common problems are difficult to solve because we tend to assume a particular paradigm; and that science is a way to work around or through those false assumptions.

Randak, Steve

363

Bonneville Power Administration Communication Alarm Processor (CAP). Final report  

SciTech Connect

Power systems operations and maintenance currently face an ever-increasing need for a high level of computerized support. This paper is the final report of a research and development effort undertaken by the Bonneville Power Administration to develop a computerized decision support system to aid operations and maintenance personnel isolate and diagnose faults on a microwave communication system used for centralized dispatch operations. The system, called CAP for Communication Alarm Processor, provides statistical analysis of microwave communication system alarms, as well as an expert system capability for fault isolation and diagnosis. CAP is implemented on a DEC VAX Station 3100 computer, utilizing both knowledge-based programming principles as well as conventional programming techniques.

MacGregor, D.G. [MacGregor-Bates, Inc., Eugene, OR (United States); Goeltz, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-01-01

364

Chimpanzee Alarm Call Production Meets Key Criteria for Intentionality  

PubMed Central

Determining the intentionality of primate communication is critical to understanding the evolution of human language. Although intentional signalling has been claimed for some great ape gestural signals, comparable evidence is currently lacking for their vocal signals. We presented wild chimpanzees with a python model and found that two of three alarm call types exhibited characteristics previously used to argue for intentionality in gestural communication. These alarm calls were: (i) socially directed and given to the arrival of friends, (ii) associated with visual monitoring of the audience and gaze alternations, and (iii) goal directed, as calling only stopped when recipients were safe from the predator. Our results demonstrate that certain vocalisations of our closest living relatives qualify as intentional signals, in a directly comparable way to many great ape gestures. We conclude that our results undermine a central argument of gestural theories of language evolution and instead support a multimodal origin of human language.

Schel, Anne Marijke; Townsend, Simon W.; Machanda, Zarin; Zuberbuhler, Klaus; Slocombe, Katie E.

2013-01-01

365

Uranyl nitrate source characterization for criticality alarm placement analysis  

SciTech Connect

This work concerns the development of an equivalent point source to represent the radiation release from a highly enriched uranyl nitrate criticality accident. This source will be used in a subsequent deep penetration criticality alarm placement analysis. It is more efficient to separate the source characterization analysis from the alarm placement analysis because (a) the industry standard tools for doing the two analyses are different (criticality safety code versus deep penetration shielding code), (b) the industry standard libraries commonly used for the two analyses are different (neutron library versus coupled neutron/photon library), and (c) the calculational approaches for the two analyses are different (neutronic critical {kappa}{sub eff} eigenvalue search versus deep penetration dose determination).

Scott, C.T.; Pevey, R.E.; Angelo, P.L.

2000-07-01

366

["Alarm substances" as biological markers indicating emotional state before death].  

PubMed

This scientific project presents the results of preliminary examinations aimed to identify alarm pheromones secreted by mammals. Wistar male rats were used for the experiment. Animals were treated by aversive sensoric stimuli and fear conditioning procedures. The animals' behaviour was registered. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of air samples taken from their environment was conducted with the use of GC-FID and GC-MSD technics. In the rhinocephalon structures (olfactory bulb, olfactory tract) the concentration of glutamate was measured. During the progress of the experiment increasing behavioral reactions of anxiety were observed in the rats. In their atmosphere organic compounds were identified. Some of them can be considered to be alarm substances. In the examined structures of the rhinocephalon on increased concentration of glutamate in each individual was revealed. PMID:14669674

Hauser, Roman; Gos, Tomasz; Marczak, Marcin; Janicki, Jerzy; Wiergowski, Marek; Jankowski, Zbigniew; Karaszewski, Bartosz; ?uczak, Natalia; Krzyzanowski, Maciej; Wodniak-Ochoci?ska, ?ucja

367

Chimpanzee alarm call production meets key criteria for intentionality.  

PubMed

Determining the intentionality of primate communication is critical to understanding the evolution of human language. Although intentional signalling has been claimed for some great ape gestural signals, comparable evidence is currently lacking for their vocal signals. We presented wild chimpanzees with a python model and found that two of three alarm call types exhibited characteristics previously used to argue for intentionality in gestural communication. These alarm calls were: (i) socially directed and given to the arrival of friends, (ii) associated with visual monitoring of the audience and gaze alternations, and (iii) goal directed, as calling only stopped when recipients were safe from the predator. Our results demonstrate that certain vocalisations of our closest living relatives qualify as intentional signals, in a directly comparable way to many great ape gestures. We conclude that our results undermine a central argument of gestural theories of language evolution and instead support a multimodal origin of human language. PMID:24146908

Schel, Anne Marijke; Townsend, Simon W; Machanda, Zarin; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Slocombe, Katie E

2013-10-16

368

Grueneberg ganglion cells mediate alarm pheromone detection in mice.  

PubMed

Alarm pheromones (APs) are widely used throughout the plant and animal kingdoms. Species such as fish, insects, and mammals signal danger to conspecifics by releasing volatile alarm molecules. Thus far, neither the chemicals, their bodily source, nor the sensory system involved in their detection have been isolated or identified in mammals. We found that APs are recognized by the Grueneberg ganglion (GG), a recently discovered olfactory subsystem. We showed with electron microscopy that GG neurons bear primary cilia, with cell bodies ensheathed by glial cells. APs evoked calcium responses in GG neurons in vitro and induced freezing behavior in vivo, which completely disappeared when the GG degenerated after axotomy. We conclude that mice detect APs through the activation of olfactory GG neurons. PMID:18719286

Brechbühl, Julien; Klaey, Magali; Broillet, Marie-Christine

2008-08-22

369

A novel embedded sleep-monitoring alarm equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel sleep-monitoring alarm equip-ment based on embedded technology and ARM chips is designed in this paper. The data of sphygmic signal was measured by piezo-film sphygmo-transducers and processed by an embedded microcontroller. The sphygmic data of a person's sleeping in normal case is compared with those detected by the transducer designed in this paper to judge whether the person's

Kaisheng Zhang; Jiaan Zhang

2009-01-01

370

Recent and proposed changes in criticality alarm system requirements  

SciTech Connect

Various changes in criticality alarm system (CAS) requirements of American Nuclear Society (ANS) standards, US Department of Energy (DOE) orders, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations and guidance, and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards or regulations were approved or proposed in the last 5 yr. Many changes interpreted or clarified existing requirements or accommodated technological or organizational developments. However, some changes could substantively affect CAS programs, including several changes originally thought to be editorial. These changes are discussed here.

Putman, V.L. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies, Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

1998-09-01

371

ZoneAlarm 5.5.094.000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This latest application from ZoneLabs is intended to assist users who wish to protect their DSL- or cable-connected personal computer from marauding hackers. The program includes four interlocking security services, including a firewall and Internet lock, and an application control. The Interlock is particularly handy, as it effectively blocks Internet traffic while your computer is unattended. This version of ZoneAlarm is compatible with Windows 98 or newer.

372

ZoneAlarm Free Firewall 9.2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This latest version of ZoneAlarm Free Firewall 9.2 will help keep users' computers free from phishing devices and other such pesky intruders. The application takes about 5 minutes to setup, and it can now also stop program spoofing, which is when a malicious program pretends to be a good one. The program also has an extensive interactive help feature, which can be useful for new users. This version is compatible with computers running Windows XP, Vista, and 7.

2010-01-01

373

An Alarms Service for Monitoring Multi-domain Grid Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Effective monitoring of multi-domain Grid networks is essential to support large operational Grid infrastructures. Timely\\u000a detection of network problems is an essential part of this monitoring. In order to detect the problems, access to network\\u000a monitoring data that exists in multiple organisations is necessary. This paper presents an Alarms Service that supports monitoring\\u000a of such multi-domain Grid networks. The service

Charaka Palansuriya; Jeremy Nowell; Florian Scharinger; Kostas Kavoussanakis; Arthur S. Trew

2010-01-01

374

Integrated approach to urban facilities maintenance and alarm management  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated approach to the development of a computer system for urban facilities maintenance is proposed. In this paper we consider every-day operations and alarm management for gas-, heat-, water-supply and sewage urban networks. Growth of towns results in the necessity for computer-aided processing of the geographical and attributive information, facilities networks simulations and simulation results analysis, real-time process monitoring.

L. Berner; N. Bogoyavlenskaya; S. A. Iliushin; E. Kitaitseva; A. Kovalev; A. Rochtchin

1995-01-01

375

False Belief vs. False Photographs: A Test of Theory of Mind or Working Memory?  

PubMed Central

Theory of mind (ToM), the ability to reason about other people’s thoughts and beliefs, has been traditionally studied in behavioral and neuroimaging experiments by comparing performance in “false belief” and “false photograph” (control) stories. However, some evidence suggests that these stories are not matched in difficulty, complicating the interpretation of results. Here, we more fully evaluated the relative difficulty of comprehending these stories and drawing inferences from them. Subjects read false belief and false photograph stories followed by comprehension questions that probed true (“reality” questions) or false beliefs (“representation” questions) appropriate to the stories. Stories and comprehension questions were read and answered, respectively, more slowly in the false photograph than false belief conditions, indicating their greater difficulty. Interestingly, accuracy on representation questions for false photograph stories was significantly lower than for all other conditions and correlated positively with participants’ working memory span scores. These results suggest that drawing representational inferences from false photo stories is particularly difficult and places heavy demands on working memory. Extensive naturalistic practice with ToM reasoning may enable a more flexible and efficient mental representation of false belief stories, resulting in lower memory load requirements. An important implication of these results is that the differential modulation of right temporal–parietal junction (RTPJ) during ToM and “false photo” control conditions may reflect the documented negative correlation of RTPJ activity with working memory load rather than a specialized involvement in ToM processes.

Callejas, Alicia; Shulman, Gordon L.; Corbetta, Maurizio

2011-01-01

376

Spacecraft operations automation: Automatic alarm notification and web telemetry display  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In these times of Faster, Better, Cheaper (FBC) spacecraft, Spacecraft Operations Automation is an area that is targeted by many Operations Teams. To meet the challenges of the FBC environment, the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Operations Team designed and quickly implemented two new low-cost technologies: one which monitors spacecraft telemetry, checks the status of the telemetry, and contacts technical experts by pager when any telemetry datapoints exceed alarm limits, and a second which allows quick and convenient remote access to data displays. The first new technology is Automatic Alarm Notification (AAN). AAN monitors spacecraft telemetry and will notify engineers automatically if any telemetry is received which creates an alarm condition. The second new technology is Web Telemetry Display (WTD). WTD captures telemetry displays generated by the flight telemetry system and makes them available to the project web server. This allows engineers to check the health and status of the spacecraft from any computer capable of connecting to the global internet, without needing normally-required specialized hardware and software. Both of these technologies have greatly reduced operations costs by alleviating the need to have operations engineers monitor spacecraft performance on a 24 hour per day, 7 day per week basis from a central Mission Support Area. This paper gives details on the design and implementation of AAN and WTD, discusses their limitations, and lists the ongoing benefits which have accrued to MGS Flight Operations since their implementation in late 1996.

Short, Owen G.; Leonard, Robert E.; Bucher, Allen W.; Allen, Bryan

1999-11-01

377

Masters Thesis- Criticality Alarm System Design Guide with Accompanying Alarm System Development for the Radioisotope Production Laboratory in Richland, Washington  

SciTech Connect

A detailed instructional manual was created to guide criticality safety engineers through the process of designing a criticality alarm system (CAS) for Department of Energy (DOE) hazard class 1 and 2 facilities. Regulatory and technical requirements were both addressed. A list of design tasks and technical subtasks are thoroughly analyzed to provide concise direction for how to complete the analysis. An example of the application of the design methodology, the Criticality Alarm System developed for the Radioisotope Production Laboratory (RPL) of Richland, Washington is also included. The analysis for RPL utilizes the Monte Carlo code MCNP5 for establishing detector coverage in the facility. Significant improvements to the existing CAS were made that increase the reliability, transparency, and coverage of the system.

Greenfield, Bryce A.

2009-12-20

378

Human probability matching behaviour in response to alarms of varying reliability.  

PubMed

The goals of this research were to substantiate the existence of the cry-wolf effect for alarm responses, quantifying its effect on operator performance. A total of 138 undergraduate students performed two blocks of a cognitively demanding psychomotor primary task; at the same time, they were presented with alarms of varying reliabilities (25, 50 and 75% true alarms) and urgencies (green, yellow and red visual alarms presented concurrently with low-, medium- and high-urgency auditory civilian aircraft cockpit alarms). Alarm response frequencies were observed and analysed, and t-tests and repeated-measures MANOVAs were used to assess the effects of increasing alarm reliability on alarm response frequencies, speed and accuracy. The results indicate that most subjects (about 90%) do not respond to all alarms but match their response rates to the expected probability of true alarms (probability matching). About 10% of the subjects responded in the extreme, utilizing an all-or-none strategy. Implications of these results for alarm design instruction and further research are discussed. PMID:7498189

Bliss, J P; Gilson, R D; Deaton, J E

1995-11-01

379

Human factors engineering guidance for the review of advanced alarm systems  

SciTech Connect

This report provides guidance to support the review of the human factors aspects of advanced alarm system designs in nuclear power plants. The report is organized into three major sections. The first section describes the methodology and criteria that were used to develop the design review guidelines. Also included is a description of the scope, organization, and format of the guidelines. The second section provides a systematic review procedure in which important characteristics of the alarm system are identified, described, and evaluated. The third section provides the detailed review guidelines. The review guidelines are organized according to important characteristics of the alarm system including: alarm definition; alarm processing and reduction; alarm prioritization and availability; display; control; automated; dynamic, and modifiable characteristics; reliability, test, maintenance, and failure indication; alarm response procedures; and control-display integration and layout.

O`Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.; Higgins, J.C.; Stubler, W.F. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1994-09-01

380

Mitigation of chemical attacks in enclosed public transportation facilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Public transportation facilities in the United States are vulnerable to attack by terrorists using chemical agents. This paper focuses on the problem of protecting the people in underground subway stations, which are among the most difficult facilities to protect. A nerve agent can produce symptoms in seconds to minutes, so immediate triggering of evacuation alarms and initiation of mitigation measures is necessary to minimize casualties in the station. The question of whether currently available chemical detectors are sufficiently capable and reliable to enable an automated response is addressed and augmentation possibilities are discussed. A number of concepts for mitigating chemical attacks are explored and their applicability to other transportation facilities is discussed. A possible near-term mitigation measure that is reviewed in some detail is the use of water sprays to scrub gasses and aerosols from the air. This technique may have applicability in the station at the point of agent release, as well as for detoxification of the air stream if selective venting is employed. Calculations show that with proper spray nozzle selection, the water pressure and flow rate available at some subway stations for fire suppression is sufficient for effective removal of Sarin from an air stream.

Swansiger, William A.; Brockmann, John E.

1998-12-01

381

Remedies by competitors for false advertising.  

PubMed

Patients who are victimized as a consequence of false medical advertising are not the only ones who can sue for damages. Under section 43(a) of the Lanham Act, effective November 17, 1989, anyone "who believes that he or she is or is likely to be damaged" by deceptive advertising may bring a civil action for damages (1). Competing physicians may sue other physicians who falsely advertise that they possess unique skills and achieve better results than other physicians because they employ exclusive methods of treatment or claim that certain surgical procedures they perform in the office are absolutely safe and without risk or who advertise false professional credentials to lure patients. Voluntary informed consent excludes the use of deceit. Misrepresentation through advertising deprives a patient of the right to exercise an informed consent (2). A patient who relies on a doctor's false advertising in agreeing to a procedure that causes the patient injury may sue for malpractice even if the procedure was performed without negligence. False medical advertising also exposes the advertiser to litigation by competitors for unfair competition. This article is concerned with the remedy that may be available for instituting private litigation against physicians and other health care providers who engage in untruthful advertising. PMID:2343426

Hirsch, B D; Wilcox, D P

1990-05-01

382

Dynamics of false-vacuum bubbles  

SciTech Connect

The possibility of localized inflation is investigated by calculating the dynamics of a spherically symmetric region of false vacuum which is separated by a domain wall from an infinite region of true vacuum. For a range of initial conditions, the false-vacuum region will undergo inflation. An observer in the exterior true-vacuum region will describe the system as a black hole, while an observer in the interior will describe a closed universe which completely disconnects from the original spacetime. We suggest that this mechanism is likely to lead to an instability of Minkowski space: a region of space might undergo a quantum fluctuation into the false-vacuum state, evolving into an isolated closed universe; the black hole which remains in the original space would disappear by quantum evaporation. The formation of these isolated closed universes may also be relevant to the question of information loss in black-hole formation.

Blau, S.K.; Guendelman, E.I.; Guth, A.H.

1987-03-15

383

The impersistence of false memory persistence.  

PubMed

When subjects study lists of thematically related words they sometimes falsely recognise non-presented words related to the theme. The gist extraction account of these findings provided by fuzzy trace theory suggests that false recognition should decline substantially more slowly than true recognition across a delay. In two experiments we demonstrated that corrected recognition of targets and critical lures can decrease by equivalent amounts across a 48-hour delay. However the results for uncorrected recognition were mixed. In Experiment 1 we found evidence that uncorrected recognition of targets declined more rapidly than uncorrected recognition of critical lures. In Experiment 2, we found evidence that uncorrected recognition of targets and critical lures declined at equivalent rates. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for fuzzy trace and source monitoring accounts of false memories. PMID:11145070

Lampinen, J M; Schwartz, R M

2000-11-01

384

An investigation of false positive dosimetry results  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a facility designed for the demonstration of the safe disposal of transuranic waste. Currently, the radiation source term is confined to sealed calibration and check sources since WIPP has not received waste for disposal. For several years the WIPP Dosimetry Group has operated a Harshaw Model 8800C reader to analyze Harshaw 8801-7776 thermoluminescent cards (3 TLD-700 and 1 TLD-600) with 8805 holder. The frequency of false positive results for quarterly dosimeter exchanges is higher than desired by the Dosimetry Group management. Initial observations suggested that exposure to intense ambient sunlight may be responsible for the majority of the false positive readings for element 3. A study was designed to investigate the possibility of light leaking through the holder and inducing a signal in element 3. This paper discusses the methods and results obtained, with special emphasis placed on recommendations to reduce the frequency of light-induced false positive readings.

Lewandowski, M.A.; Davis, S.A.; Goff, T.E.; Wu, C.F.

1996-12-31

385

A picture is worth a thousand lies: Using false photographs to create false childhood memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because image-enhancing technology is readily available, people are frequently exposed to doctored images. However, in prior\\u000a research on how adults can be led to report false childhood memories, subjects have typically been exposed to personalized\\u000a and detailed narratives describing false events. Instead, we exposed 20 subjects to a false childhood event via a fake photograph\\u000a and imagery instructions. Over three

Kimberley A. Wade; Maryanne Garry; J. Don Read; D. Stephen Lindsay

2002-01-01

386

Contributions of familiarity and recollection rejection to recognition: Evidence from the time course of false recognition for semantic and conjunction lures  

PubMed Central

It has been suggested that both familiarity and recollection contribute to the recognition decision process. In this paper, we leverage the form of false alarm rate functions—in which false-alarm rates describe an inverted U-shaped function as the time between study and test increases—to assess how these processes support retention of semantic and surface form information from previously studied words. We directly compare the maxima of these functions for lures that are semantically related and lures that are related by surface form to previously studied material. This analysis reveals a more rapid loss of access to surface form than to semantic information. To separate the contributions of item familiarity and reminding-induced recollection rejection to this effect, we use a simple multinomial process model; this analysis reveals that this loss of access reflects both a more rapid loss of familiarity and lower rates of recollection for surface form information.

Matzen, Laura E.; Taylor, Eric G.; Benjamin, Aaron S.

2010-01-01

387

Platform noise estimation and mitigation  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method and apparatus for platform noise estimation and mitigation are provided. An embodiment of a method for mitigating noise may include receiving a data signal in a system platform, where the data signal includes a received pseudo noise sequence. Noise on the system platform may be estimated based on the received pseudo noise sequence. In some embodiments the noise on the system platform may be mitigated based on the noise estimate for the system platform.

Guo; Yongfang (Sunnyvale, CA); Tsui; Ernest T. (Cupertino, CA)

2011-05-03

388

RFI Mitigation / Excision techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio frequency interference (RFI) is increasingly affecting radio astronomy research. A few years ago, active research to investigate the possibility of observing in the presence of interference using RFI mitigation techniques was initiated. In this paper, I briefly discuss four RFI mitigation/excision projects. These projects are:- (1) A technique to suppress double sideband amplitude modulated interference in which I show that an astronomical signal in the presence of a DSB interference can be observed with a signal-to-noise ratio factor of 2 less compared to observations if the RFI were not present. (2) Techniques to suppress interference due to synchronization signals in composite video signals are presented. A combination of noise-free modelling of the synchronization signals and adaptive filtering is used for suppressing the interference. (3) Design techniques to minimize spurious pick-up at the analog input of an analog-to-digital converter are discussed. (4) Spectral RFI excision using a spectral channel weighted scheme and its application to Green Bank telescope observations are also presented.

Roshi, D. A.

2004-06-01

389

Isolation of a pyrazine alarm pheromone component from the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta.  

PubMed

Alarm pheromones in social insects are an essential part of a complex of pheromone interactions that contribute to the maintenance of colony integrity and sociality. The alarm pheromones of ants were among the first examples of animal pheromones identified, primarily because of the large amount of chemical produced and the distinctive responses of ants to the pheromone. However, the alarm pheromone of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, eluded identification for over four decades. We identified 2-ethyl-3,6-dimethylpyrazine as an alarm pheromone component of S. invicta. Worker fire ants detect the pyrazine alarm pheromone at 30 pg/ml, which is comparable to alarm pheromone sensitivities reported for other ant species. The source of this alarm pheromone are the mandibular glands, which, in fire ants, are not well developed and contain only about 300 pg of the compound, much less than the microgram quantities of alarm pheromones reported for several other ant species. Female and male sexuals and workers produce the pyrazine, which suggests that it may be involved in fire ant mating flight initiation, as well as the typical worker alarm response. This is the first report of 2-ethyl-3,6-dimethylpyrazine from a Solenopsis species and the first example of this alkaloid functioning as an alarm pheromone. PMID:20145982

Vander Meer, Robert K; Preston, Catherine A; Choi, Man-Yeon

2010-02-10

390

Vendor cited for false PFC savings claim  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Cynex power factor controller (PFC) vendor claiming a 60% saving was cited by the Better Business Bureau for false advertising after a user survey revealed that savings were only 20% at best. The company plans no future advertising claims, although it insists that 60% savings are possible. The inventor disagrees. (DCK)

Greenstein

1983-01-01

391

A Synchronization Account of False Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We describe a computational model to explain a variety of results in both standard and false recognition. A key attribute of the model is that it uses plausible semantic representations for words, built through exposure to a linguistic corpus. A study list is encoded in the model as a gist trace, similar to the proposal of fuzzy trace theory…

Johns, Brendan T.; Jones, Michael N.; Mewhort, Douglas J. K.

2012-01-01

392

False Consciousness and Ideology in Marxist Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article discusses the concepts of false consciousness and ideology and the relation between them as they have been used in the development of a particular aspect of Marxist theory. I trace the development from the writings of Marx and Engels to the early Frankfurt School. My aim is to underline a separation and a distinction between the use of

Ron Eyerman

1981-01-01

393

False Spider Mites of Mexico ('Tenuipalpidae: Acari').  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The bulletin includes descriptions and figures for 165 species of plant-feeding false spider mites (Tenuipalpidae) of Mexico, of which 65 are described as new to science. Less than one-third (48) of the Mexican tenuipalpids are distributed in 8 genera (Ae...

D. M. Tuttle E. W. Baker

1987-01-01

394

A direct approach to false discovery rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple-hypothesis testing involves guarding against much more complicated errors than single-hypothesis testing. Whereas we typically control the type I error rate for a single-hypothesis test, a compound error rate is controlled for multiple-hypothesis tests. For example, controlling the false discovery rate FDR traditionally involves intricate sequential \\

John D. Storey

2002-01-01

395

Official English: A False Policy Issue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Making English the official language of the United States is a false policy issue. The evidence does not support arguments that the use of English is declining or that the use of other languages debilitates the social fabric of the United States. On the contrary, attempts to impose English on the U.S. population have served historically to divide the nation.

Arturo Madrid

1990-01-01

396

False Information in Internet Auction Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

As one of the most important features, the Internet enables individuals to make their personal thoughts and opinions easily accessible to the global community of Internet users. Numerous studies have shown that the Internet's anonymity can result in a high rate of false information, which may lead to suboptimal decisions by deceived users. Little is known what drives users to

Oliver Hinz

2007-01-01

397

Detecting false intent using eye blink measures  

PubMed Central

Eye blink measures have been shown to be diagnostic in detecting deception regarding past acts. Here we examined—across two experiments with increasing degrees of ecological validity—whether changes in eye blinking can be used to determine false intent regarding future actions. In both experiments, half of the participants engaged in a mock crime and then transported an explosive device with the intent of delivering it to a “contact” that would use it to cause a disturbance. Eye blinking was measured for all participants when presented with three types of questions: relevant to intent to transport an explosive device, relevant to intent to engage in an unrelated illegal act, and neutral questions. Experiment 1 involved standing participants watching a video interviewer with audio presented ambiently. Experiment 2 involved standing participants questioned by a live interviewer. Across both experiments, changes in blink count during and immediately following individual questions, total number of blinks, and maximum blink time length differentiated those with false intent from truthful intent participants. In response to questions relevant to intent to deliver an explosive device vs. questions relevant to intent to deliver illegal drugs, those with false intent showed a suppression of blinking during the questions when compared to the 10 s period after the end of the questions, a lower number of blinks, and shorter maximum blink duration. The results are discussed in relation to detecting deception about past activities as well as to the similarities and differences to detecting false intent as described by prospective memory and arousal.

Marchak, Frank M.

2013-01-01

398

Fate of the false vacuum: Semiclassical theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is possible for a classical field theory to have two homogeneous stable equilibrium states with different energy densities. In the quantum version of the theory, the state of higher-energy density becomes unstable through barrier penetration; it is false vacuum. This is a the first of two papers developing the qualitative and quantitative semiclassical theory of the decay of such

Sidney Coleman

1977-01-01

399

Development of the False-Memory Illusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The counterintuitive developmental trend in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) illusion (that false-memory responses increase with age) was investigated in learning-disabled and nondisabled children from the 6- to 14-year-old age range. Fuzzy-trace theory predicts that because there are qualitative differences in how younger versus older children…

Brainerd, C. J.; Forrest, T. J.; Karibian, D.; Reyna, V. F.

2006-01-01

400

Gamma Oscillations Distinguish True From False Memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test whether distinct patterns of electro- physiological activity prior to a response can distinguish true from false memories, we analyzed intracranial elec- troencephalographic recordings while 52 patients under- going treatment for epilepsy performed a verbal free- recall task. These analyses revealed that the same pattern of gamma-band (28-100 Hz) oscillatory activity that pre- dicts successful memory formation at item

Per B. Sederberg; Andreas Schulze-Bonhage; Joseph R. Madsen; Edward B. Bromfield; Brian Litt; Armin Brandt; Michael J. Kahana

2007-01-01

401

Vendor cited for false PFC savings claim  

SciTech Connect

A Cynex power factor controller (PFC) vendor claiming a 60% saving was cited by the Better Business Bureau for false advertising after a user survey revealed that savings were only 20% at best. The company plans no future advertising claims, although it insists that 60% savings are possible. The inventor disagrees. (DCK)

Greenstein, I.

1983-08-29

402

False positive tuberculosis skin test results.  

PubMed Central

The re-emergence of tuberculosis as a significant public health threat has led to greatly renewed activity in tuberculin skin testing to identify infected persons. However, even use of the preferred skin test technique (intradermal injection of purified protein derivative via the Mantoux method) can lead to either false positive or false negative results. Interpretation of a Mantoux test can be influenced by cross reactions with other mycobacteria, intertester variation, host-response variation, and product related problems. At least 25 apparent false positive purified protein derivative skin test reactions in New York State in 1992 appeared to be associated with lots of the derivative produced by one manufacturer. These unexpected skin test results led to examination of a product with an altered appearance that may have caused the unanticipated responses. After announcement of these false positive results to the press, the company removed the product from the market. Food and Drug Administration analysis later revealed particulate matter in vials of the suspected lots of purified protein derivative.

Grabau, J C; DiFerdinando, G T; Novick, L F

1995-01-01

403

The Psychology of Interrogations and False Confessions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wrongful convictions have increasingly gar- nished media attention both in North America and Britain. In addition to a variety of factors, instances of false confession have been identified as a contributing cause of some wrongful con- victions. As a result of this finding, social scien- tists have begun to study the interrogation process in an effort to understand the factors

Christian A. Meissner; Melissa B. Russano

404

False memories and the source monitoring framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reyna and Lloyd [Learn Individ Differ 9 (1997) 95.] reviewed a wide range of studies on false-memory effects, and argued that all of the findings supported fuzzy trace theory (FTT) and that many of them challenge the source monitoring framework (SMF). The present paper provides a brief overview of the SMF and corrects a number of misconceptions in Reyna and

D. Stephen Lindsay; Marcia K. Johnson

2000-01-01

405

Web-based integrated alarm monitoring system in the ICU.  

PubMed

A web-based monitoring system for the alarm of equipment has developed for the conventional environment of Intensive Care Unit (ICU). The system communicates with equipment using Data Collection Interface (DCI) that converts the protocol of the output of equipment from RS-232C to TCP/IP. The system creates a web-document that can be referred from any internet-connected personal computer in the hospital. Using the system, a staff can easily monitor the state of the patient and the equipment. If the system is installed in the ICU, monitoring and management for the equipment will be highly improved. PMID:17281636

Murakami, Akitsugu; Kinouchi, Yohsuke; Akutagawa, Masatake; Ohnishi, Yoshiaki; Kuroda, Yasuhiro

2005-01-01

406

'Mitigating measures' cases won't affect HIV plaintiffs.  

PubMed

Legal experts say that although three recent U.S. Supreme Court cases on mitigating measures may change the way the American with Disabilities Act (ADA) is applied, they should not affect HIV employment discrimination claims. The court held in June that corrective lenses and medications must be considered when determining whether a plaintiff is disabled with regard to the ADA. Two cases involved vision impairments and one involved high blood pressure. The employers in each case argued that the impairment was not a disability and therefore not subject to ADA protection. Employers welcomed the rulings, and disability-rights groups expressed alarm. Plaintiff's attorneys who specialize in AIDS law said the rulings probably will not affect their clients because living with HIV carries a stigma and HIV infection limits many life activities. PMID:11366607

1999-07-23

407

A picture is worth a thousand lies: using false photographs to create false childhood memories.  

PubMed

Because image-enhancing technology is readily available, people are frequently exposed to doctored images. However, in prior research on how adults can be led to report false childhood memories, subjects have typically been exposed to personalized and detailed narratives describing false events. Instead, we exposed 20 subjects to a false childhood event via a fake photograph and imagery instructions. Over three interviews, subjects thought about a photograph showing them on a hot air balloon ride and tried to recall the event byusing guided-imagery exercises. Fifty percent of the subjects created complete or partial false memories. The results bear on ways in which false memories can be created and also have practical implications for those involved in clinical and legal settings. PMID:12412902

Wade, Kimberley A; Garry, Maryanne; Read, J Don; Lindsay, D Stephen

2002-09-01

408

On the general false path problem in timing analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The false path problem is often referred to as the problem of detecting the longest sensitizable path (A path which is not a false path is a sensitizable path). The term “false path” is not clearly defined. In this paper, we first give a clear and precise definition of a false path. Then the general false path problem is formulated.

David Hung-Chang Du; S. H. Yen; Subbarao Ghanta

1989-01-01

409

Characteristics of false positive findings in CT colonography CAD: a comparison of two fecal tagging regimens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The successful application of Computer Aided Detection schemes to CT Colonography depends not only on their performances in terms of sensitivity and specificity, but also on the interaction with the radiologist, and thus ultimately on factors such as the nature of CAD prompts and the reading paradigm. Fecal tagging is emerging as a widely accepted technique for patient preparation, and patient-friendlier schemes are being proposed in an effort to increase compliance to screening programs; the interaction between CAD and FT regimens should likewise be taken into account. In this scenario, an analysis of the characteristics of CAD prompts is of paramount importance in order to guide further research, both from clinical and technical viewpoints. The CAD scheme analyzed in this paper is essentially composed of five steps: electronic cleansing, colon surface extraction, polyp candidate segmentation, pre-filtering of residual tagged stool and classification of the generated candidates in true polyps vs. false alarms. False positives were divided into six categories: untagged and tagged solid stool, haustral folds, extra-colonic candidates, ileocecal valve and cleansing artifacts. A full cathartic preparation was compared with a semi-cathartic regimen with sameday fecal tagging, which is characterized by higher patient acceptance but also higher inhomogeneity. The distribution of false positives at segmentation reflects the quality of preparation, as more inhomogeneous tagging results in a higher number of untagged solid stool and cleansing artifacts.

Morra, Lia; Delsanto, Silvia; Agliozzo, Silvano; Baggio, Riccardo; Belluccio, Erika; Correale, Loredana; Genova, Dario; Bert, Alberto; Regge, Daniele

2009-02-01

410

Prevalence of working smoke alarms in local authority inner city housing: randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Objectives To identify which type of smoke alarm is most likely to remain working in local authority inner city housing, and to identify an alarm tolerated in households with smokers. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Two local authority housing estates in inner London. Participants 2145 households. Intervention Installation of one of five types of smoke alarm (ionisation sensor with a zinc battery; ionisation sensor with a zinc battery and pause button; ionisation sensor with a lithium battery and pause button; optical sensor with a lithium battery; or optical sensor with a zinc battery). Main outcome measure Percentage of homes with any working alarm and percentage in which the alarm installed for this study was working after 15 months. Results 54.4% (1166/2145) of all households and 45.9% (465/1012) of households occupied by smokers had a working smoke alarm. Ionisation sensor, lithium battery, and there being a smoker in the household were independently associated with whether an alarm was working (adjusted odds ratios 2.24 (95% confidence interval 1.75 to 2.87), 2.20 (1.77 to 2.75), and 0.62 (0.52 to 0.74)). The most common reasons for non-function were missing battery (19%), missing alarm (17%), and battery disconnected (4%). Conclusions Nearly half of the alarms installed were not working when tested 15 months later. Type of alarm and power source are important determinants of whether a household had a working alarm. What is already known on this topicFunctioning smoke alarms can reduce the risk of death in the event of a house fireMany local authorities install smoke alarms in their propertiesSeveral different types of smoke alarm are availableWhat this study addsOnly half of the smoke alarms installed in local authority housing were still working 15 months laterIonising smoke alarms with long life lithium batteries were most likely to remain functioningInstalling smoke alarms may not be an effective use of resources

Rowland, Diane; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn; Roberts, Ian; Curtis, Katherine; Roberts, Helen; Ginnelly, Laura; Sculpher, Mark; Wade, Angela

2002-01-01

411

Techniques for Mitigating Urban Sprawl.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Urban sprawl, driven by population and economic growth, is a pressing issue in the U.S., partly because of its contribution to growing levels of vehicle miles traveled (VMT). According to government figures, new development is gobbling up land at an alarm...

C. Bhat J. Jung J. Rajamani J. Song K. Kockelman R. Paterson S. Handy

2003-01-01

412

Reliability and the adaptive utility of discrimination among alarm callers.  

PubMed Central

Unlike individually distinctive contact calls, or calls that aid in the recognition of young by their parents, the function or functions of individually distinctive alarm calls is less obvious. We conducted three experiments to study the importance of caller reliability in explaining individual-discriminative abilities in the alarm calls of yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris). In our first two experiments, we found that calls from less reliable individuals and calls from individuals calling from a greater simulated distance were more evocative than calls from reliable individuals or nearby callers. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that marmots assess the reliability of callers to help them decide how much time to allocate to independent vigilance. The third experiment demonstrated that the number of callers influenced responsiveness, probably because situations where more than a single caller calls, are those when there is certain to be a predator present. Taken together, the results from all three experiments demonstrate the importance of reliability in explaining individual discrimination abilities in yellow-bellied marmots. Marmots' assessment of reliability acts by influencing the time allocated to individual assessment and thus the time not allocated to other activities.

Blumstein, Daniel T; Verneyre, Laure; Daniel, Janice C

2004-01-01

413

Mitigation planning for port development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Port expansions frequently result in adverse environmental impacts that require mitigation to preserve living marine resources. A systems analysis approach was used to select the location and design of an artificial reef that was part of the mitigation required for redevelopment of the Port of Wilmington, Delaware. Multiple Attribute Decision Making (MADM) and decision risk analysis (via network simulation) were

Daniel J. Sheehy; Susan F. Vik

1988-01-01

414

Overview of voltage sag mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives an overview of methods used in the mitigation of voltage sags. Different solutions for improving the performance of the power system, as well as the immunity of the equipment, are described. Finally, mitigation devices to be installed at the system-load interface for power quality enhancement are presented

Ambra Sannino; M. G. Miller; M. H. J. Bollen

2000-01-01

415

Injury mitigation in locomotive crashworthiness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work sponsored by the Federal Railroad Administration is to develop mitigation methods for safety of crew members in the event of train collisions. The measures considered are seatbelts, airbags, a reversing seat, an energy absorbing seat, a load limiting seat, and their combinations. The injury mitigation potential of two-point and three point seat belts, airbags, and

S. Kasturi; A. M. Galea; H. Nagarajan; S. K. Punwani

2005-01-01

416

Alarm pheromone increases defensive and risk assessment behaviors in male rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously, we reported that alarm pheromone released from the perianal region of male rats aggravated stress-induced hyperthermia and increased Fos expression in the vomeronasal pathway and stress-related nuclei in pheromone-recipient rats. However, the alarm property of this pheromone in terms of behavior modification is still unclear. We recently found that this alarm pheromone could be trapped in water. Based on

Yasushi Kiyokawa; Michito Shimozuru; Takefumi Kikusui; Yukari Takeuchi; Yuji Mori

2006-01-01

417

A cross-phyla response to Daphnia chemical alarm substances by an aquatic oligochaete  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although chemical alarm substances from damaged heterospecifics have been well documented to induce defense mechanisms in\\u000a potential prey, data about antipredator responses to alarm cues from prey organisms of a distinct phylum are scarce. In this\\u000a study, we analyze the response of an oligochaete to chemical alarm substances from distantly related cladocerans. We conducted\\u000a laboratory experiments to investigate whether the

Anita Kaliszewicz; Janusz Uchma?ski

2009-01-01

418

The development of alarm-call response behaviour in free-living juvenile Belding's ground squirrels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of and responses to alarm calls by adult ground-dwelling squirrels has been widely documented, yet the development of alarm-call behaviours has not been systematically addressed. The responses of free-living Belding's ground squirrels,Spermophilus beldingi, to playbacks of conspecific (three alarm calls and juvenile squeals) and heterospecific (wren song) vocalizations were observed from natal emergence until the age of dispersal.

JILL M. MATEO

1996-01-01

419

False Discovery Rate Control With Groups.  

PubMed

In the context of large-scale multiple hypothesis testing, the hypotheses often possess certain group structures based on additional information such as Gene Ontology in gene expression data and phenotypes in genome-wide association studies. It is hence desirable to incorporate such information when dealing with multiplicity problems to increase statistical power. In this article, we demonstrate the benefit of considering group structure by presenting a p-value weighting procedure which utilizes the relative importance of each group while controlling the false discovery rate under weak conditions. The procedure is easy to implement and shown to be more powerful than the classical Benjamini-Hochberg procedure in both theoretical and simulation studies. By estimating the proportion of true null hypotheses, the data-driven procedure controls the false discovery rate asymptotically. Our analysis on one breast cancer dataset confirms that the procedure performs favorably compared with the classical method. PMID:21931466

Hu, James X; Zhao, Hongyu; Zhou, Harrison H

2010-09-01

420

False Discovery Rate Control With Groups  

PubMed Central

In the context of large-scale multiple hypothesis testing, the hypotheses often possess certain group structures based on additional information such as Gene Ontology in gene expression data and phenotypes in genome-wide association studies. It is hence desirable to incorporate such information when dealing with multiplicity problems to increase statistical power. In this article, we demonstrate the benefit of considering group structure by presenting a p-value weighting procedure which utilizes the relative importance of each group while controlling the false discovery rate under weak conditions. The procedure is easy to implement and shown to be more powerful than the classical Benjamini–Hochberg procedure in both theoretical and simulation studies. By estimating the proportion of true null hypotheses, the data-driven procedure controls the false discovery rate asymptotically. Our analysis on one breast cancer dataset confirms that the procedure performs favorably compared with the classical method.

Hu, James X.; Zhao, Hongyu; Zhou, Harrison H.

2011-01-01

421

Development of the false-memory illusion.  

PubMed

The counterintuitive developmental trend in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) illusion (that false-memory responses increase with age) was investigated in learning-disabled and nondisabled children from the 6- to 14-year-old age range. Fuzzy-trace theory predicts that because there are qualitative differences in how younger versus older children and disabled versus nondisabled children connect meaning information across the words on DRM lists, certain key effects that are observed in adult studies will be absent in young children and in learning-disabled children. Data on 6 such adult effects (list strength, recall inflation, delayed inflation, delayed stability, thematic intrusion, and true-false dissociation) were used to investigate this hypothesis, and the resulting data were consistent with prediction. PMID:16953700

Brainerd, C J; Forrest, T J; Karibian, D; Reyna, V F

2006-09-01

422

False myths and legends in laboratory diagnostics.  

PubMed

Abstract Remarkable advances in understanding human biology in health and disease, propelled by technological innovations, have contributed to an increase in the number and quality of diagnostic tests. This evolving scenario has been accompanied by the proliferation of false myths and legends in laboratory diagnostics, consuming valuable human and economic resources and jeopardizing the clinical reasoning. The aim of this article is to provide a synthetic overview about some paradigmatic examples of false beliefs in laboratory diagnostics involving activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), cardiospecific troponins, ischemia modified albumin (IMA), D-dimer, prostate specific antigen (PSA), dibucaine number, Bence Jones protein (BJP), lipoprotein(a), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), potassium and reference ranges. Although the suggestive cases described in this article are not intended to be comprehensive, we hope that their description may help remove some mysticisms in laboratory diagnostics. PMID:23525875

Lippi, Giuseppe; Plebani, Mario

2013-11-01

423

Creating a false memory in the hippocampus.  

PubMed

Memories can be unreliable. We created a false memory in mice by optogenetically manipulating memory engram-bearing cells in the hippocampus. Dentate gyrus (DG) or CA1 neurons activated by exposure to a particular context were labeled with channelrhodopsin-2. These neurons were later optically reactivated during fear conditioning in a different context. The DG experimental group showed increased freezing in the original context, in which a foot shock was never delivered. The recall of this false memory was context-specific, activated similar downstream regions engaged during natural fear memory recall, and was also capable of driving an active fear response. Our data demonstrate that it is possible to generate an internally represented and behaviorally expressed fear memory via artificial means. PMID:23888038

Ramirez, Steve; Liu, Xu; Lin, Pei-Ann; Suh, Junghyup; Pignatelli, Michele; Redondo, Roger L; Ryan, Tomás J; Tonegawa, Susumu

2013-07-26

424

Gamma oscillations distinguish true from false memories.  

PubMed

To test whether distinct patterns of electrophysiological activity prior to a response can distinguish true from false memories, we analyzed intracranial electroencephalographic recordings while 52 patients undergoing treatment for epilepsy performed a verbal free-recall task. These analyses revealed that the same pattern of gamma-band (28-100 Hz) oscillatory activity that predicts successful memory formation at item encoding--increased gamma power in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and left temporal lobe--reemerges at retrieval to distinguish correct from incorrect responses. The timing of these oscillatory effects suggests that self-cued memory retrieval begins in the hippocampus and then spreads to the cortex. Thus, retrieval of true, as compared with false, memories induces a distinct pattern of gamma oscillations, possibly reflecting recollection of contextual information associated with past experience. PMID:17958703

Sederberg, Per B; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Madsen, Joseph R; Bromfield, Edward B; Litt, Brian; Brandt, Armin; Kahana, Michael J

2007-11-01

425

“FALSE POSITIVE” CLAIMS OF NEAR-DEATH EXPERIENCES AND “FALSE NEGATIVE” DENIALS OF NEAR-DEATH EXPERIENCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some persons who claim to have had near-death experiences (NDEs) fail research criteria for having had NDEs (“false positives”); others who deny having had NDEs do meet research criteria for having had NDEs (“false negatives”). The author evaluated false positive claims and false negative denials in an organization that promotes near-death research and in psychiatric outpatients. The frequency of false

BRUCE GREYSON

2005-01-01

426

True and False Memories in Maltreated Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in basic memory processes between maltreated and nonmaltreated children were examined in an experiment in which middle-socioeconomic-status (SES; N 560), low-SES maltreated (N 548), and low-SES nonmaltreated (N 551) children (ages 5-7, 8-9, and 10-12 years) studied 12 Deese-Roediger-McDermott lists. Using recall and recognition measures, the results showed that both true and false memories increased with age and, contrary

Mark L. Howe; Dante Cicchetti; Sheree L. Toth; Beth M. Cerrito

2004-01-01

427

The False Recognition Effect in Criminal Profiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to examine the false recognition effect in criminal profiling. Participants (N?=?83) were presented with a crime scene description and a criminal profile made up of semantically related statements. After\\u000a a one week delay, the task for each participant was to recognize statements from a suspect description that were included\\u000a in the profile, either with or without

Craig Bennell; Rebecca Mugford; Alyssa Taylor; Sarah Bloomfield; Catherine M. Wilson

2008-01-01

428

Detecting false intent using eye blink measures.  

PubMed

Eye blink measures have been shown to be diagnostic in detecting deception regarding past acts. Here we examined-across two experiments with increasing degrees of ecological validity-whether changes in eye blinking can be used to determine false intent regarding future actions. In both experiments, half of the participants engaged in a mock crime and then transported an explosive device with the intent of delivering it to a "contact" that would use it to cause a disturbance. Eye blinking was measured for all participants when presented with three types of questions: relevant to intent to transport an explosive device, relevant to intent to engage in an unrelated illegal act, and neutral questions. Experiment 1 involved standing participants watching a video interviewer with audio presented ambiently. Experiment 2 involved standing participants questioned by a live interviewer. Across both experiments, changes in blink count during and immediately following individual questions, total number of blinks, and maximum blink time length differentiated those with false intent from truthful intent participants. In response to questions relevant to intent to deliver an explosive device vs. questions relevant to intent to deliver illegal drugs, those with false intent showed a suppression of blinking during the questions when compared to the 10 s period after the end of the questions, a lower number of blinks, and shorter maximum blink duration. The results are discussed in relation to detecting deception about past activities as well as to the similarities and differences to detecting false intent as described by prospective memory and arousal. PMID:24130546

Marchak, Frank M

2013-10-11

429

49 CFR 236.785 - Position, false restrictive.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Position, false restrictive. 236.785 Section...AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.785 Position, false restrictive. A position of a semaphore arm that is more restrictive...

2011-10-01

430

Characteristics of false allegation adult crimes.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to identify common factors in false allegation adult crimes, by examining the dynamics involved in 30 confirmed false allegation cases. The authors conducted a comprehensive review of these adjudicated cases and then completed a collection instrument to capture offender demographics, offense characteristics, and motive. The results indicated that most false allegation crimes were committed by women (73.3%) and Caucasians (93.3%). Data indicated that more interpersonally violent allegations were primarily motivated by attention/sympathy needs (50.0%), whereas more impersonal offenses involved other motivations such as providing an alibi (16.7%) or profit (13.3%). Offenders tended to be younger, high school graduates with no higher education (43.3%). A total of 23.3% of offenders had a prior criminal history. Male offenders appeared as likely as women to be motivated by attention/sympathy; however, men tended to select more violent, nonsexual offenses (e.g., attempted murder) than women. PMID:22236499

McNamara, James J; McDonald, Sean; Lawrence, Jennifer M

2012-01-11

431

A synchronization account of false recognition.  

PubMed

We describe a computational model to explain a variety of results in both standard and false recognition. A key attribute of the model is that it uses plausible semantic representations for words, built through exposure to a linguistic corpus. A study list is encoded in the model as a gist trace, similar to the proposal of fuzzy trace theory (Brainerd & Reyna, 2002), but based on realistically structured semantic representations of the component words. The model uses a decision process based on the principles of neural synchronization and information accumulation. The decision process operates by synchronizing a probe with the gist trace of a study context, allowing information to be accumulated about whether the word did or did not occur on the study list, and the efficiency of synchronization determines recognition. We demonstrate that the model is capable of accounting for standard recognition results that are challenging for classic global memory models, and can also explain a wide variety of false recognition effects and make item-specific predictions for critical lures. The model demonstrates that both standard and false recognition results may be explained within a single formal framework by integrating realistic representation assumptions with a simple processing mechanism. PMID:22884279

Johns, Brendan T; Jones, Michael N; Mewhort, Douglas J K

2012-08-11

432

The distinctions of false and fuzzy memories.  

PubMed

Fuzzy-trace theory has recently been used to account for various types of "false memories" (Brainerd & Reyna, 1998, this issue). Although components of fuzzy-trace theory-in particular the distinction between gist and verbatim traces-overlap with distinctions made in other theories of memory, those in fuzzy-trace theory provide an illuminating account of the conditions under which semantic associates of previously seen items are erroneously recognized. However, the theory is less useful in explaining misinformation effects. Fuzzy-trace theory's differential success in accounting for these two types of errors follows from one of its central implications: whereas misinformation effects involve false memories, the erroneous recognition of related lures is due to a reliance on authentic, but underspecified, gist memories. As its name suggests, fuzzy-trace theory is best at explaining memory errors resulting from fuzzy traces. Consistent with this view, fuzzy-trace theory helps to explain another source of memory errors (verbal overshadowing of nonverbal memories) that may also be best characterized as resulting from a reliance on fuzzy, rather than false, memories. PMID:9843618

Schooler, J W

1998-11-01

433

Recollection rejection of false narrative statements.  

PubMed

Our research was focused on a false-memory editing operation that is posited in fuzzy-trace theory-recollection rejection. The main objectives were (a) to extend model-based measurement of this operation to a narrative task that ought to ensure high levels of recollection rejection and (b) to study five manipulations that ought to influence recollection rejection by affecting the accessibility of verbatim traces of narrative statements: recency of narrative presentation, narrative repetition, type of false-memory item, testing delay, and repeated testing. The results showed that the narrative task did indeed yield high levels of recollection, with an estimated 49% of gist-consistent distractors being rejected in this way on initial memory tests. Consistent with current theoretical conceptions of false-memory editing, the results also showed that recollection rejection increased as a function of manipulations that should enhance the accessibility of verbatim traces of narrative statements, with repeated testing delivering especially large increases in verbatim accessibility. PMID:16829486

Brainerd, C J; Reyna, V F; Estrada, S

2006-08-01

434

Field verification of the use of chemical alarm cues in a coral reef fish  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical alarm cues function as early indicators of a predation threat and influence the outcome of predator-prey interactions in the favour of the prey animal. The tropical goby, Asterropteryx semipunctatus, responded with a stereotypical alarm response, including reduced movement and feeding, following exposure to water that contained chemical cues from injured conspecifics under natural field conditions. Gobies did not exhibit an alarm response when challenged with extracts from damaged fish from a different taxonomic family. The behavioural response in the field was similar to that observed in laboratory experiments. This study verifies the use of chemical alarm cues in a marine fish in their natural environment.

McCormick, M. I.; Larson, J. K.

2007-09-01

435

Alarm substance from adult zebrafish alters early embryonic development in offspring  

PubMed Central

Alarm substances elicit behavioural responses in a wide range of animals but effects on early embryonic development are virtually unknown. Here we investigated whether skin injury-induced alarm substances caused physiological responses in embryos produced by two Danio species (Danio rerio and Danio albolineatus). Both species showed more rapid physiological development in the presence of alarm substance, although there were subtle differences between them: D. rerio had advanced muscle contraction and heart function, whereas D. albolineatus had advanced heart function only. Hence, alarm cues from injured or dying fish may be of benefit to their offspring, inducing physiological responses and potentially increasing their inclusive fitness.

Mourabit, S.; Rundle, S. D.; Spicer, J. I.; Sloman, K. A.

2010-01-01

436

False-evidence ploys and interrogations: mock jurors' perceptions of false-evidence ploy type, deception, coercion, and justification.  

PubMed

We studied mock jurors' evaluations of police false-evidence ploys across two false-evidence ploy information conditions (true or false confession). Study 1 participants evaluated lists of demeanor, testimonial, and scientific ploys and rated testimonial false-evidence ploys as more coercive than demeanor false-evidence ploys. Participants in the false-confession condition rated false-evidence ploys as more deceptive than did participants in the true-confession condition. Study 2 participants evaluated false-evidence ploy types within interrogation transcripts. Participants rated testimonial false-evidence ploys as more deceptive and coercive than demeanor false-evidence ploys; participants in the true-confession condition rated false-evidence ploys as more justified. Across studies, participants reading realistic transcripts rated false-evidence ploys as more deceptive and coercive. We discuss implications for scholars, attorneys, and interrogators. PMID:22315159

Forrest, Krista D; Woody, William Douglas; Brady, Sara E; Batterman, Keller C; Stastny, Bradley J; Bruns, Jennifer A

2012-02-08

437

Pathological findings in clinically false-negative and false-positive neck dissections for oral carcinoma.  

PubMed Central

A series of 86 patients presenting with oral cancer underwent neck dissection (114 sides of neck), after preoperative staging by palpation under general anaesthesia and CT imaging. Detailed histopathological assessment of the surgical neck dissection specimens showed the incidence of clinically false-negative and false-positive assessments was 27% and 40%, respectively. Extranodal spread of metastatic carcinoma was present in 16% of clinically negative necks. The pathological findings provided plausible explanations for the clinical misdiagnosis in all 19 of the false-positive necks and in 13 of the 18 false-negative necks, where micrometastases or metastasis to nodes measuring less than 1.7 cm accounted for five and seven misdiagnosed cases, respectively. We conclude that the most stringent clinical protocols, even when supplemented by CT scanning, cannot be expected to achieve 100% accuracy. Detailed histopathological assessment provides the most reliable, currently available method of diagnosing cervical metastatic disease. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4

Woolgar, J. A.; Vaughan, E. D.; Scott, J.; Brown, J. S.

1994-01-01

438

Tethers and debris mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, the use of tethers has been proposed for reduction of space debris either through momentum transfer or use of electrodynamic effects. Tethers have been shown to at least theoretically allow for quick, elegant and cost-effective deorbit of defunct satellites or spent stages. On the other hand, the large risk that tethers themselves may pose to other satellites in orbit has been recognized as well. The large collision area of tethers, combined with operational hazards and meteoroid risk may result in a large orbital exposure. For example, in 1997, the ESA/Dutch 35-km tether deployment of YES from TEAMSAT was inhibited after an analysis of the collision risk for the case the tether operation would fail. The question rises how these two points of view compare to eachother. This paper intends to highlight a representative selection of the proposed tether applications while taking into account the added risks caused by the tethers themselves. Typical applications from recent literature will be briefly described, such as an Ariane 502 spent stage re-entry from GTO and the concept of deboost of defunct satellites by interaction of a conductive tether with the Earth magnetic field. Mass savings of the tethered sytems versus conventional equivalents will be evaluated. Based on a crude risk analysis, involving elements such as mission complexity, dynamic stability, meteoroid risk and orbital life time, a general outline of limiting factors can be given for the various applications. Special attention is reserved for implementation of mechanisms that help reduce this tether risk, such as the DUtether (Tether Degradable by Ultraviolet), utilization of airdrag and solar pressure, the effect of residual current in bare tethers, tether retrieval etc. It is proposed how a net tether-induced mitigation can be compared to that of conventional alternatives, i.e. deboost by rocket engine or a completely passive approach. This comparison is put in the perspective of an ever-increasing occupation of the space environment. It is concluded that tethers can in fact help mitigate the debris risk and that for each application a useful niche can be defined. It is argued that eliminating pollution directly after use of the precious resource of space is not only good custom, but also an important way to make the risk of debris controllable and independent of future trends. Although tethers may have large exposure in terms of area-time product, they deliver a quick cleaning service that may be appreciated by the future users of space.

van der Heide, Erik Jan; Kruijff, Michiel

2001-03-01

439

Generalized site occupancy models allowing for false positive and false negative errors  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Site occupancy models have been developed that allow for imperfect species detection or ?false negative? observations. Such models have become widely adopted in surveys of many taxa. The most fundamental assumption underlying these models is that ?false positive? errors are not possible. That is, one cannot detect a species where it does not occur. However, such errors are possible in many sampling situations for a number of reasons, and even low false positive error rates can induce extreme bias in estimates of site occupancy when they are not accounted for. In this paper, we develop a model for site occupancy that allows for both false negative and false positive error rates. This model can be represented as a two-component finite mixture model and can be easily fitted using freely available software. We provide an analysis of avian survey data using the proposed model and present results of a brief simulation study evaluating the performance of the maximum-likelihood estimator and the naive estimator in the presence of false positive errors.

Royle, J. A.; Link, W. A.

2006-01-01

440

Albeni Falls Wildlife Mitigation Project : Annual Report of Mitigation Activities.  

SciTech Connect

The Albeni Falls Interagency Work Group was actively involved in implementing wildlife mitigation activities in 2000. The Work Group met each quarter to discuss management and budget issues affecting Albeni Falls wildlife mitigation. Members of the Work Group protected a total of 1,242 acres of wetland habitat in 2000. The total amount of wildlife habitat protected for Albeni Falls mitigation is approximately 4,190 acres (4,630 Habitat Units). Approximately 16% of the total wildlife habitat lost has been mitigated. Land management activities were limited in 2000 as protection opportunities took up most staff time. Administrative activities increased in 2000 as funding was more evenly distributed among Work Group members. As a result, implementation is expected to continue to increase in the coming year. Land management and monitoring and evaluation activities will increase in 2001 as site-specific management plans are completed and implemented.

Entz, Ray D.

2001-04-01

441

When one is not enough: prevalence and characteristics of homes not adequately protected by smoke alarms  

PubMed Central

Objective: The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has specific recommendations about the number, location, and type of smoke alarms that are needed to provide maximum protection for a household. No previous studies have examined whether or not homes are completely protected according to these guidelines. The authors describe the prevalence and home characteristics associated with compliance to recommendations for smoke alarm installation by the NFPA. Design, setting, and subjects: Data are from the baseline on-site survey of a randomized trial to measure smoke alarm effectiveness. The trial was housed in a longitudinal cohort study in a rural Iowa county. Of 1005 homes invited, 691 (68.8%) participated. Main outcome measures: Information about smoke alarm type, placement, and function, as well as home and occupant characteristics, was collected through an on-site household survey. Results: Although 86.0% of homes had at least one smoke alarm, only 22.3% of homes (approximately one in five) were adequately protected according to NFPA guidelines. Fourteen percent of homes had no functioning smoke alarms. More than half of the homes with smoke alarms did not have enough of them or had installed them incorrectly, and 42.4% of homes with alarms had at least one alarm that did not operate. Homes with at least one high school graduate were nearly four times more likely to be fully protected. Homes that had multiple levels, a basement, or were cluttered or poorly cleaned were significantly less likely to be fully protected. Conclusion: These findings indicate that consumers may not be knowledgeable about the number of alarms they need or how to properly install them. Occupants are also not adequately maintaining the alarms that are installed.

Peek-Asa, C; Allareddy, V; Yang, J; Taylor, C; Lundell, J; Zwerling, C

2005-01-01

442

The False Crisis in Science Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the October 1999 issue of Scientific American, "The False Crisis in Science Education," by W. Wayt Gibbs and Douglas Fox, is a select, Web-enhanced article available free at the Scientific American Website. With many hyperlinks to sites pertaining to points raised in the article, the piece discusses what the authors perceive as a "largely mythical decline in the quality of science education in U.S. public schools" and the nature of the reforms that followed. Still, the article says the US could do a better job preparing children for the future.

Fox, Douglas.; Gibbs, W. W.

1999-01-01

443

Aberrant halt of syringe pump motion: an improved system to prevent false setting of the syringe.  

PubMed

A syringe pump is used to inject precise doses of drugs having a strong action; for example, vasoactive drugs. Unexpected and undetected halt of a syringe pump can lead to potentially life-threatening complications. We experienced a sudden halt in the movement of a syringe pump (Terufusion syringe pump; Terumo, Tokyo, Japan) in two patients while administering norepinephrine in the intensive care unit (ICU). Fortunately, the patients had only transient hypotension, which was immediately detected and promptly treated, without any untoward sequelae. As a result of the occurrence of such cases, we conducted a detailed investigation of the causes of this sudden halt in the syringe pump. We could not reproduce the aberration of the syringe pump and thus could not specify the cause in the first patient. In the second patient, however, a false setting on the syringe was suspected to be the cause of the problem. In order to prove this, we tried to reproduce the situation where a syringe pump, due to a false syringe setting, abruptly terminated while giving a "syringe loss" warning, after a period of precise functioning. Once we had determined how a false setting of the syringe could occur without the syringe pump giving off an alarm from the onset, we collaborated with the Terumo Company to revise their current instruction manual to incorporate this as a warning. We also helped in the development of a new model, including a new safety feature that would prevent a false setting of the syringe from occurring at all. This new model was released in December 2003. PMID:16633770

Tokumine, Joho; Sugahara, Kazuhiro; Nitta, Kenichi; Fuchigami, Tatsuya; Abe, Masanori; Gushiken, Kouji; Oda, Masami; Okayama, Haruka

2006-01-01

444

Adults' Memories of Childhood: True and False Reports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 3 experiments, the authors examined factors that, according to the source-monitoring framework, might influence false memory formation and true/false memory discernment. In Experiment 1, combined effects of warning and visualization on false childhood memory formation were examined, as were individual differences in true and false childhood…

Qin, Jianjian; Ogle, Christin M.; Goodman, Gail S.

2008-01-01

445

Modality effect in false recognition: Evidence from Chinese characters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the Deese\\/Roediger?McDermott (DRM) false memory method, Smith and Hunt (1998) first reported the modality effect on false memory and showed that false recall from DRM lists was lower following visual study than following auditory study, which led to numerous studies on the mechanism of modality effect on false memory and provided many competing explanations. In the present experiment, the

Wei Bin Mao; Zhi Liang Yang; Lin Song Wang

2010-01-01

446

Evaluation and comparison of alarm reset modes in advanced control room of nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automation function has been widely applied in main control room of nuclear power plants (NPPs). The alarm system of fourth nuclear power plant (FNPP) in Taiwan is also going to be developed with automatic technology that is expected to support the operators’ performance and reduce the number of alarms. In this study, an experiment with a training simulator as

Fei-Hui Huang; Sheue-Ling Hwang; Tzu-Chung Yenn; Yuan-Chang Yu; Chong-Cheng Hsu; Hao-Wu Huang

2006-01-01

447

Red squirrels, Tamiasciurus hudsonicus , produce predator-class specific alarm calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red squirrels, can produce alarm calls when they detect a potential predator. Observations of natural interactions between red squirrels and large birds, and predator-presentation experiments in the field, showed that red squirrels produce acoustically different alarm calls in response to aerial danger (live birds and a model hawk flown towards them) versus danger approaching from the ground (dogs and humans).

ERICK GREENE; TOM MEAGHER

1998-01-01

448

21 CFR 870.2300 - Cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...cardiotachometer and rate alarm) is a device used to measure the heart rate from an analog signal produced by an electrocardiograph...blood pressure monitor. This device may sound an alarm when the heart rate falls outside preset upper and lower limits. (b)...

2013-04-01

449

Alarm calling behavior of the thirteen-lined ground squirrel, Spermophilus tridecemlineatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alarm calling in a population of thirteenlined ground squirrels, Spermophilus tridecemlineatus, was studied over a three-year period. Data on ground squirrel reactions to human and canine approaches and to the approach or presence of avian predators were used to quantify alarm calling behavior.

P. L. Schwagmeyer

1980-01-01

450

Efficacy of a new pressure-sensitive alarm for clinical use in orthopaedics.  

PubMed

The current study evaluated a new pressure alarm and compared the ability of subjects to limit weightbearing to 20 lb with and without the alarm. The 28 subjects were divided into four groups (Group 1, n = 7, mean age, 33 years, with normal sensation; Group 2, n = 7, mean age, 59 years, with normal sensation; Group 3, n = 6, mean age, 56 years, without protective lower limb sensation, and Group 4, n = 8, mean age, 39 years, with transtibial amputation). All subjects were instructed in partial weightbearing ambulation and then practiced weight shifting onto a scale set at 20 lb for 2 minutes. Average peak force was measured using the F-scan in-shoe sensor while subjects ambulated in two trials: one with a deactivated pressure alarm and the other with an activated alarm. Data were analyzed using two-tailed t tests. In Groups 1, 2, and 4, significantly lower average peak force with the activated alarm versus deactivated alarm occurred in 43%, 86%, and 100% of subjects, respectively. Weightbearing was limited to less than 20 lb with the activated alarm in 86%, 57%, 33%, and 38% of subjects versus 71%, 14%, 0%, and 0% of subjects with the deactivated alarm, respectively. PMID:15232455

Schon, Lew C; Short, Kelly W; Parks, Brent G; Kleeman, T Jay; Mroczek, Kenneth

2004-06-01

451

46 CFR 27.201 - What are the requirements for general alarms on towing vessels?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...background noise makes a general alarm hard to hear, a supplemental flashing red light that is identified with a sign that reads: Attention General AlarmâWhen Alarm Sounds or Flashes Go to Your Station. (4) Is tested at least once each...

2011-10-01

452

Emergency Vehicle Alarm System for Deaf Drivers by Using LEDs and Vibration Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing the emergency vehicle alarm system for deaf drivers by using LEDs and vibration devices. In order to design the alarm for deaf drivers, we have conducted basic experiment in order to evaluate perceptual characteristic on visibility of LED.

Kuwahara, Noriaki; Morimoto, Kazunari; Kozuki, Kazumasa; Kawamura, Tomonori

453

Localized defecation by pike: a response to labelling by cyprinid alarm pheromone?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) that have never encountered a predatory pike (Esox lucius), are able to detect conspecific alarm pheromone in a pike's diet if the pike has recently consumed minnows. It remains unclear how this minnow alarm pheromone is secreted by pike and if a pike is able to avoid being labelled as a potential predator by localizing these

Grant E. Brown; Douglas P. Chivers; R. Jan F. Smith

1995-01-01

454

Chemical labeling of northern pike ( Esox lucius ) by the alarm pheromone of fathead minnows ( Pimephales promelas )  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous experiments, chemical stimuli from northern pike (Esox lucius) elicited fright responses from pike-naive fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) only if the pike had recently eaten conspecific minnows. We used a behavioral assay to determine if the fright response is the result of the incorporation of the minnow alarm pheromone into the chemical signature of the pike. Because the alarm

Alicia Mathis; R. Jan F. Smith

1993-01-01

455

Design of Alarm Sound of Home Care Equipment Based on Age-related Auditory Sense  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide variety of home care equipment has been developed to support the independent lifestyle and care taking of elderly persons. Almost all of the equipment has an alarm designed to alert a care person or to sound a warning in case of an emergency. Due to the fact that aging human beings' senses physiologically, weaken and deteriorate, each alarm's

Jun-Ichi Shibano; Shigeru Tadano; Hirotaka Kaneko

2002-01-01

456

Modelling alarm management workflow in healthcare according to IHE framework by coloured Petri Nets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ensuring patient safety in medical device networks by managing alarms and related clinical data is a life-critical issue. The Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) initiative emerged to discuss and solve the interoperability and integration problems among medical information systems, vendors and users in order to improve patient care and healthcare system dependability. This paper models and analyzes the IHE Alarm

Maria Pia Fanti; Stefano Mininel; Walter Ukovich; Federica Vatta

457

Isolation of a pyrazine alarm pheromone component from the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Alarm pheromones in social insects are an essential part of a complex of pheromone interactions that contribute to the maintenance of colony integrity and sociality. The alarm pheromones of ants were among the first chemical ecology examples, primarily due to the large amount of pheromone produced a...

458

21 CFR 870.2300 - Cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm) is a device used to measure the heart rate from an analog signal produced by an electrocardiograph...monitor. This device may sound an alarm when the heart rate falls outside preset upper and lower...

2009-04-01

459

Exploitation of an Ant Chemical Alarm Signal by the Zodariid Spider Habronestes bradleyi Walckenaer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intraspecific signals are vulnerable to exploitation by predators that are not the targets of the signal. This cost has been documented for several acoustic, visual and chemical signals, but not for chemical alarm pheromones. We reveal a novel form of exploitation of an ant alarm pheromone by the cursorial spider Habronestes bradleyi (Zodariidae), a specialist predator of the highly territorial

Rachel A. Allan; Mark A. Elgar; Robert J. Capon

1996-01-01

460

An examination of a prototype LED fire-alarm signaling appliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the introduction of the Americans With Disabilities Act in 1990, the number of visual fire alarm signals installed in the United States has grown exponentially. Virtually all of these fire alarm visual signals consist of the Xenon gas flashtube type. This technology offers high intensity along with moderate cost in a relatively small package. Typical intensities offered range from

John W. Curran; Shawn P. Keeney

2004-01-01

461

Modeling Acidification Mitigation in Watersheds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Modeling of acidification mitigation processes in watersheds allows different neutralization methods to be compared regarding system chemical response and economics. A model for calcite dissolution under lake liming conditions is described, and verified u...

P. Warfvinge

1988-01-01

462

16 CFR Appendix A to Part 681 - Interagency Guidelines on Identity Theft Detection, Prevention, and Mitigation  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Interagency Guidelines on Identity Theft Detection, Prevention, and Mitigation...COMMISSION THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT IDENTITY THEFT RULES Pt. 681, App. A Appendix...Part 681âInteragency Guidelines on Identity Theft Detection, Prevention, and...

2009-01-01

463

16 CFR Appendix A to Part 681 - Interagency Guidelines on Identity Theft Detection, Prevention, and Mitigation  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Interagency Guidelines on Identity Theft Detection, Prevention, and Mitigation...COMMISSION THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT IDENTITY THEFT RULES Pt. 681, App. A Appendix...Part 681âInteragency Guidelines on Identity Theft Detection, Prevention, and...

2010-01-01

464

The use of simulation in the development of human factors guidelines for alarm systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a research program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to address the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The overall objective of the program is to develop HFE review guidance for advanced alarm systems. As part of this program, guidance was developed based on a broad review and analysis of technical and research literature. In the course of guidance development, aspects of alarm system design for which the technical basis was insufficient to support guidance developed were identified. Experimental research is currently underway to address the highest priority topics: alarm processing and display characteristics. This paper provides an overview of the approach to guidance development and discusses the role of simulation in the development approach. Finally, the current simulator-based experiment is described to illustrate how the alarm system design features are being studied.

O`Hara, J.; Brown, W.S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology; Hallbert, B.; Skraaning, G. [Halden Reactor Project (Norway); Wachtel, J.; Persensky, J. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

1997-07-01

465

The proportion of clinically relevant alarms decreases as patient clinical severity decreases in intensive care units: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine (1) the proportion and number of clinically relevant alarms based on the type of monitoring device; (2) whether patient clinical severity, based on the sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score, affects the proportion of clinically relevant alarms and to suggest; (3) methods for reducing clinically irrelevant alarms in an intensive care unit (ICU). Design A prospective, observational clinical study. Setting A medical ICU at the University of Tokyo Hospital in Tokyo, Japan. Participants All patients who were admitted directly to the ICU, aged ?18?years, and not refused active treatment were registered between January and February 2012. Methods The alarms, alarm settings, alarm messages, waveforms and video recordings were acquired in real time and saved continuously. All alarms were annotated with respect to technical and clinical validity. Results 18 ICU patients were monitored. During 2697 patient-monitored hours, 11?591 alarms were annotated. Only 740 (6.4%) alarms were considered to be clinically relevant. The monitoring devices that triggered alarms the most often were the direct measurement of arterial pressure (33.5%), oxygen saturation (24.2%), and electrocardiogram (22.9%). The numbers of relevant alarms were 12.4% (direct measurement of arterial pressure), 2.4% (oxygen saturation) and 5.3% (electrocardiogram). Positive correlations were established between patient clinical severities and the proportion of relevant alarms. The total number of irrelevant alarms could be reduced by 21.4% by evaluating their technical relevance. Conclusions We demonstrated that (1) the types of devices that alarm the most frequently were direct measurements of arterial pressure, oxygen saturation and ECG, and most of those alarms were not clinically relevant; (2) the proportion of clinically relevant alarms decreased as the patients’ status improved and (3) the irrelevance alarms can be considerably reduced by evaluating their technical relevance.

Inokuchi, Ryota; Sato, Hajime; Nanjo, Yuko; Echigo, Masahiro; Tanaka, Aoi; Ishii, Takeshi; Matsubara, Takehiro; Doi, Kent; Gunshin, Masataka; Hiruma, Takahiro; Nakamura, Kensuke; Shinohara, Kazuaki; Kitsuta, Yoichi; Nakajima, Susumu; Umezu, Mitsuo; Yahagi, Naoki

2013-01-01

466

Systematic review of controlled trials of interventions to promote smoke alarms  

PubMed Central

AIMS—To evaluate the effects of promotion of residential smoke alarms.?METHODS—Electronic databases, conference proceedings, and bibliographies were systematically searched, and investigators and organisations were contacted, in order to identify controlled trials evaluating interventions designed to promote residential smoke alarms. The following were assessed: smoke alarm acquisition, ownership, and function; fires; burns; and fire related injuries. Odds ratios (OR) were estimated by meta analysis of randomised trials.?RESULTS—A total of 26 trials were identified, of which 13 were randomised. Overall, counselling and educational interventions had only a modest effect on the likelihood of owning an alarm (OR = 1.26; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.87 to 1.81) or having a functional alarm (OR = 1.19; 95% CI: 0.85 to 1.66). Counselling as part of primary care child health surveillance had greater effects on ownership (OR = 1.93; 95% CI: 1.04 to 3.58) and function (OR = 1.72; 95% CI: 0.78 to 3.78). Results were sensitive to trial quality, however, and effects on fire related injuries were not reported. In two non-randomised trials, direct provision of free alarms significantly increased functioning alarms and reduced fire related injuries. Media and community education showed little benefit in non-randomised trials.?CONCLUSION—Counselling as part of child health surveillance may increase smoke alarm ownership and function, but its effects on injuries are unevaluated. Community smoke alarm give away programmes apparently reduce fire related injuries, but these trials were not randomised and results must be interpreted cautiously. Further efforts to promote smoke alarms in primary care or through give away programmes should be evaluated by adequately designed randomised controlled trials measuring injury outcomes.??

DiGuiseppi, C.; Higgins, J.

2000-01-01

467

"False Positive" Claims of Near-Death Experiences and "False Negative" Denials of Near-Death Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Some persons who claim to have had near-death experiences (NDEs) fail research criteria for having had NDEs ("false positives"); others who deny having had NDEs do meet research criteria for having had NDEs ("false negatives"). The author evaluated false positive claims and false negative denials in an organization that promotes near-death…

Greyson, Bruce

2005-01-01

468

Testing jumps via false discovery rate control.  

PubMed

Many recently developed nonparametric jump tests can be viewed as multiple hypothesis testing problems. For such multiple hypothesis tests, it is well known that controlling type I error often makes a large proportion of erroneous rejections, and such situation becomes even worse when the jump occurrence is a rare event. To obtain more reliable results, we aim to control the false discovery rate (FDR), an efficient compound error measure for erroneous rejections in multiple testing problems. We perform the test via the Barndorff-Nielsen and Shephard (BNS) test statistic, and control the FDR with the Benjamini and Hochberg (BH) procedure. We provide asymptotic results for the FDR control. From simulations, we examine relevant theoretical results and demonstrate the advantages of controlling the FDR. The hybrid approach is then applied to empirical analysis on two benchmark stock indices with high frequency data. PMID:23573190

Yen, Yu-Min

2013-04-03

469

40 CFR 267.34 - When must personnel have access to communication equipment or an alarm system?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...must personnel have access to communication equipment or an alarm system...access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or...capable of summoning external emergency assistance, unless not...

2013-07-01

470

Coaching, Truth Induction, and Young Maltreated Children's False Allegations and False Denials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the effects of coaching (encouragement and rehearsal of false reports) and truth induction (a child-friendly version of the oath or general reassurance about the consequences of disclosure) on 4- to 7-year-old maltreated children's reports (N = 198). Children were questioned using free recall, repeated yes-no questions, and…

Lyon, Thomas D.; Malloy, Lindsay C.; Quas, Jodi A.; Talwar, Victoria A.

2008-01-01

471

DHS Regional Reachback: Rapid Expert Radiation Alarm Assistance.  

SciTech Connect

Following assessments that attacks with radiological and nuclear weapons are possible, detection system deployments are being supported at national and local levels. Detection systems include both, highly sensitive but non-discriminating detectors, as well as detectors and algorithms capable of distinguishing and identifying gamma rays by energy. The latter systems, usually handheld systems based on sodium iodide detectors, also provide analysis of the specific radionuclides present and are referred to as radioisotope identifiers (RIIDs). Studies have shown that sodium iodide based RIIDs fall far short of 100% accurate identifications. The U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) initiated the Regional Reachback (RRB) Program in 2006 to provide rapid expert interpretation of gamma spectroscopic data from radiation alarms from detection systems deployed by state and local authorities. With expert specialists on call 24/7, RRB provides an avenue for local and state authorities to verify routine results, interpret unknown identifications, and notify national response assets if needed. This paper will provide details of the RRE3 program, an outline of the analysis process, a description of the drills and training systems used to maintain specialists response performance, and examples of drills and incidents from the first full year of operation.

Bowerman,B.; Archer, D.; Young, J.; Monetti, M.; Savage, B.

2008-07-13

472

A Retrospective Analysis to Validate the Alarm Signs Used in the CEDAP-Plus Study.  

PubMed

Background and Study Aim. This study aimed to validate the alarm signs used in the 2007 German CEDAP-Plus study for indicating capsule endoscopy in patients who have idiopathic chronic abdominal pain. Patients and Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the cases of all patients who underwent capsule endoscopy at our institution between August 2007 and August 2009 for chronic hitherto undiagnosed abdominal pain, despite previous investigations. The demographic data, indications, findings, and diagnoses were recorded, as were the alarm signs (i.e., 10% loss of weight within 3 months, suspected small intestinal bleed or chronic anemia, and laboratory indications of inflammation). Results. Alarm signs were found in only 4 of the 62 included patients. Capsule endoscopy revealed findings that led to diagnoses of Crohn's disease (n = 4), tuberculosis (n = 1), gastrointestinal stromal tumors (n = 3), and hookworm (n = 1); these diagnoses included 100% (4/4) of the patients with alarm signs, but only 8.6% (5/58) of patients without them. However, 55.6% (5/9) of patients with clinically capsule endoscopy findings reported no alarm signs. Conclusions. Although selecting patients based on the alarm signs may increase the yield of capsule endoscopy, the alarm sign criteria appear to have low sensitivity. PMID:21991500

Zhang, Hou-De; Lin, Mu-Xian; Zhang, Qu

2011-06-16

473

Integrating the CERN LASER Alarm System with the ALMA Common Software  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An alarm system is a cornerstone service in every computer controlled environment. Its purpose is the notification of exceptional conditions in the system requiring an intervention from the staff. The specifications for the alarm system in the Alma Common Software (ACS) require not only that each alarm has to be shown to operators in a short time, but also that correlated alarms must be "reduced" and presented in compact form in such a way that operators are able to easily identify the root cause for an abnormal condition. In the development of ACS we always investigate the availability of adequate implementations before writing a service from scratch. Such an implementation, the CERN Laser Alarm System, developed for the Large Hadron Collider, was fulfilling and exceeding our requirements. We have therefore started a pilot collaboration project to verify the possibility of integrating Large Hadron Collider Alarm Service (LASER) into ACS. A test suite was developed to demonstrate that the full chain of events starting from the publication of new alarms from a set of sources to their representation in a GUI happened as expected. Particular attention was given to the reduction mechanism for its importance in helping the operators in finding the real cause of each problem in a short time. The project showed that it is possible to integrate two different software systems if they are written with well defined interface and have a similar infrastructure. In this paper we describe the modifications we introduce to integrate CERN LASER into ACS.

Caproni, A.; Sigerud, K.; Zagar, K.

2006-07-01

474

A passive positioning alarm used by persons with dementia and their spouses - a qualitative intervention study  

PubMed Central

Background Increasingly, information and communication technology is being used to support persons with dementia living at home and their relatives. The aim of the present intervention study was to describe and explore the use and experiences of using a passive positioning alarm, over time, in daily life among persons with dementia and their spouses. Methods Using an ethnographically inspired approach, five couples, each including a person with Alzheimer´ s disease and his/her spouse living in their own home, were repeatedly observed and interviewed regarding their experiences of using a passive positioning alarm. Interview text transcripts and field notes were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results The main findings show changes over time, where testing and checking the passive positioning alarm successively led to trust in the alarm and in one own´s ability to use it. These components were a prerequisite for the couples to perceive the value of the alarm. Conclusions A passive positioning alarm for persons with dementia and their spouses needs to be packaged as a “service” with flexibility for each user and based on user needs, abilities, knowledge and skills. Using a passive positioning alarm can be a valuable support that allows persons with dementia to be alone outdoors and can increase safety and security for them and their spouses. The present study contributes to our understanding of what prerequisites need to be in place and what barriers need to be dealt with before successful implementation can occur.

2013-01-01

475

A Retrospective Analysis to Validate the Alarm Signs Used in the CEDAP-Plus Study  

PubMed Central

Background and Study Aim. This study aimed to validate the alarm signs used in the 2007 German CEDAP-Plus study for indicating capsule endoscopy in patients who have idiopathic chronic abdominal pain. Patients and Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the cases of all patients who underwent capsule endoscopy at our institution between August 2007 and August 2009 for chronic hitherto undiagnosed abdominal pain, despite previous investigations. The demographic data, indications, findings, and diagnoses were recorded, as were the alarm signs (i.e., 10% loss of weight within 3 months, suspected small intestinal bleed or chronic anemia, and laboratory indications of inflammation). Results. Alarm signs were found in only 4 of the 62 included patients. Capsule endoscopy revealed findings that led to diagnoses of Crohn's disease (n = 4), tuberculosis (n = 1), gastrointestinal stromal tumors (n = 3), and hookworm (n = 1); these diagnoses included 100% (4/4) of the patients with alarm signs, but only 8.6% (5/58) of patients without them. However, 55.6% (5/9) of patients with clinically capsule endoscopy findings reported no alarm signs. Conclusions. Although selecting patients based on the alarm signs may increase the yield of capsule endoscopy, the alarm sign criteria appear to have low sensitivity.

Zhang, Hou-De; Lin, Mu-Xian; Zhang, Qu

2011-01-01

476

Alarm pheromone increases defensive and risk assessment behaviors in male rats.  

PubMed

Previously, we reported that alarm pheromone released from the perianal region of male rats aggravated stress-induced hyperthermia and increased Fos expression in the vomeronasal pathway and stress-related nuclei in pheromone-recipient rats. However, the alarm property of this pheromone in terms of behavior modification is still unclear. We recently found that this alarm pheromone could be trapped in water. Based on this finding, we developed an experimental paradigm to assess the effect of alarm pheromone on recipient behavior. Male Wistar rats were acclimatized for 5 min to an open field, where two pieces of filter paper soaked with 750 microl of either pheromone-containing water or vehicle water were attached to the wall. Then, a small "hiding box" was placed in one corner of the field and the behavioral responses of the subject rat were recorded for 10 subsequent minutes. Exposure to alarm pheromone significantly increased defensive and risk assessment behaviors and decreased exploratory and grooming behaviors compared to the vehicle control group, indicating the alarm property of the pheromone. In addition, the comparison with previous results suggests that the alarm pheromone released from the perianal region of the male rat increases anxiety in recipients, rather than evoking a stereotyped autonomic response. PMID:16337975

Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Shimozuru, Michito; Kikusui, Takefumi; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

2005-12-09

477

Hemispheric asymmetries in discourse processing: evidence from false memories for lists and texts.  

PubMed

Previous research suggests that the right hemisphere (RH) may contribute uniquely to discourse and text processing by activating and maintaining a wide range of meanings, including more distantly related meanings. The present study used the word-lists false memory paradigm [Roediger, H. L., III, & McDermott, K. B. (1995). Creating false memories: Remembering words not presented in lists. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 21, 803-814.] to examine the hypothesis that difference between the two cerebral hemispheres in discourse processing may be due, at least partly, to memory representations for implicit text-related semantic information. Specifically, we tested the susceptibility of the left hemisphere (LH) and RH to unpresented target words following the presentation of semantically related words appearing in either word lists or short texts. Findings showed that the RH produced more false alarms than the LH for unpresented target words following either word lists or texts. These findings reveal hemispheric differences in memory for semantically related information and suggest that RH advantage in long-term maintenance of a wide range of text-related word meanings may be one aspect of its unique contribution to the construction of a discourse model. The results support the RH coarse semantic coding theory [Beeman, M. (1998). Coarse semantic coding and discourse comprehension. In M. Beeman & C. Chiarello (Eds.), Right hemisphere language comprehension: Perspectives from cognitive neuroscience (pp. 255-284). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.] and suggest that hemispheric differences in semantic processing during language comprehension extend also to verbal memory. PMID:18951910

Ben-Artzi, Elisheva; Faust, Miriam; Moeller, Edna

2008-10-05

478

Hemispheric asymmetries in semantic processing: evidence from false memories for ambiguous words.  

PubMed

Previous research suggests that the left hemisphere (LH) focuses on strongly related word meanings; the right hemisphere (RH) may contribute uniquely to the processing of lexical ambiguity by activating and maintaining a wide range of meanings, including subordinate meanings. The present study used the word-lists false memory paradigm [Roediger, H. L. III., & McDermott, K. B. (1995). Creating false memories: Remembering words not presented in lists. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 21, 803-814.] to examine whether these differences between the two cerebral hemispheres in semantic processing also affect memory representations for different meanings of ambiguous words. Specifically, we tested the differences between the LH and RH in recollecting unpresented, semantically related, ambiguous words following the presentation of lists of words all related to either the dominant or the subordinate meanings of these ambiguous words. Findings showed that for the unpresented ambiguous words, the LH made more false alarms than the RH for the dominant lists, whereas the opposite pattern emerged for subordinate lists. Moreover, d' analyses showed that, whereas the LH was more sensitive to subordinate than dominant meanings, the RH showed no differences in sensitivity for the two types of word-lists. Taken as a whole, these results support the RH coarse semantic coding theory [Beeman, M. (1998). Coarse semantic coding and discourse comprehension. In Beeman & M., Chiarello, C. (Eds.), Right hemisphere language comprehension: Perspectives from cognitive neuroscience (pp. 255-284). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum; Jung-Beeman, M. (2005). Bilateral brain processes for comprehending natural language. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9, 512-518.] indicating that during word recognition, the RH activates and maintains a broader and less differentiated range of related meanings than the LH, including both dominant and subordinate meanings of ambiguous words. Furthermore, the findings suggest that hemispheric differences in ambiguity resolution during language processing extend also to verbal memory. PMID:18178246

Faust, Miriam; Ben-Artzi, Elisheva; Harel, Itay

2008-02-21

479

Avoiding the False Peaks in Correlation Discrimination  

SciTech Connect

Fiducials imprinted on laser beams are used to perform video image based alignment of the 192 laser beams in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In many video images, matched filtering is used to detect the location of these fiducials. Generally, the highest correlation peak is used to determine the position of the fiducials. However, when the signal to-be-detected is very weak compared to the noise, this approach totally breaks down. The highest peaks act as traps for false detection. The active target images used for automatic alignment in the National Ignition Facility are examples of such images. In these images, the fiducials of interest exhibit extremely low intensity and contrast, surrounded by high intensity reflection from metallic objects. Consequently, the highest correlation peaks are caused by these bright objects. In this work, we show how the shape of the correlation is exploited to isolate the valid matches from hundreds of invalid correlation peaks, and therefore identify extremely faint fiducials under very challenging imaging conditions.

Awwal, A S

2009-07-31

480

A High-confidence Cyber-Physical Alarm System: Design and Implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most traditional alarm systems cannot address security threats in a\\u000asatisfactory manner. To alleviate this problem, we developed a high-confidence\\u000acyber-physical alarm system (CPAS), a new kind of alarm systems. This system\\u000aestablishes the connection of the Internet (i.e. TCP\\/IP) through GPRS\\/CDMA\\/3G.\\u000aIt achieves mutual communication control among terminal equipments, human\\u000amachine interfaces and users by using the existing mobile

Longhua Ma; Tengkai Yuan; Feng Xia; Ming Xu; Jun Yao; Meng Shao

2010-01-01

481

National Drought Mitigation Center (NDMC)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The School of Natural Resource Sciences at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln hosts this site on drought mitigation. Designed to help "reduce society's vulnerability to drought," NDMC offers a wide range of information on drought and how to prepare for and deal with it. Newcomers should start at the Drought Science and Impacts sections for background information. The Drought Watch and Climatology sections offer access to a huge variety of online data summaries, tables, and maps -- including several indices of current drought condition in the US -- in addition to links to related research sites. (NDMC is also one of the several agencies responsible for the Drought Monitor. For information on mitigation, see the Mitigation, Drought Links, and Network sections. Given the large proportion of the country currently classified as being on drought watch or experiencing drought, this site will serve as a timely information resource for students, educators, or the general public.

2007-08-15

482

Educator Tools - Slides/Talking Points - True or False Answer ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Educator Tools - Slides/Talking Points - True or False Answer #2. Return to Table of Contents. ... True or False? Foodborne illness doesn't affect me. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/resourcesforyou/healtheducators

483

Using the Ancient Method of False Position to Find Solutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several activities that are based on the ancient method of false position, also called false assumption, are presented in this article as a way to motivate students to find the solution of literal equations in beginning algebra.

Edwards, Thomas G.

2008-01-01

484

False discovery rate: setting the probability of false claim of detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When testing multiple hypotheses in a survey—e.g. many different source locations, template waveforms, and so on—the final result consists of a set of confidence intervals, each one at a desired confidence level. But the probability that at least one of these intervals does not cover the true value increases with the number of trials. With a sufficiently large array of confidence intervals, one can be sure that at least one is missing the true value. In particular, the probability of false claim of detection becomes non-negligible. In order to compensate for this, one should increase the confidence level, at the price of reduced detection power. False discovery rate control (Benjamini Y and Hochberg Y 1995 J. R. Stat. Soc. B 57 289 300) is a relatively new statistical procedure that bounds the number of mistakes made when performing multiple hypothesis tests. We shall review this method, discussing exercise applications to the field of gravitational wave surveys.

Baggio, L.; Prodi, G. A.

2005-09-01

485

Psychoactive drugs and false memory: comparison of dextroamphetamine and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on false recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Several psychoactive drugs are known to influence episodic memory. However, these drugs’ effects on false memory, or the tendency\\u000a to incorrectly remember nonstudied information, remain poorly understood.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  Here, we examined the effects of two commonly used psychoactive drugs, one with memory-enhancing properties (dextroamphetamine;\\u000a AMP), and another with memory-impairing properties (?9-tetrahydrocannabinol; THC), on false memory using the Deese\\/Roediger–McDermott (DRM) illusion.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Two

Michael E. Ballard; David A. Gallo; Harriet de Wit

486

Lexical Association and False Memory for Words in Two Cultures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the relationship between language experience and false memory produced by the DRM paradigm. The word lists used in Stadler, et al. (Memory & Cognition, 27, 494-500, 1999) were first translated into Chinese. False recall and false recognition for critical non-presented targets were then tested on a group of Chinese users. The…

Lee, Yuh-Shiow; Chiang, Wen-Chi; Hung, Hsu-Ching

2008-01-01

487

20 CFR 702.217 - Penalty for false statement, misrepresentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Penalty for false statement, misrepresentation...Claims Procedures Notice § 702.217 Penalty for false statement, misrepresentation...S.C. 909, if the injury results in death, shall be punished by a fine not...

2013-04-01

488

Chinese Preschoolers' Implicit and Explicit False-Belief Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Mandarin-speaking preschoolers in Mainland China (3- to 4-year-olds; N = 192) were tested for dissociations between anticipatory looking (AL) and verbal judgments on false-belief tasks. The dissociation between the two kinds of understanding was robust despite direct false-belief test questions using a Mandarin specific think-falsely verb and…

Wang, Bo; Low, Jason; Jing, Zhang; Qinghua, Qu

2012-01-01

489

Virtually True: Children's Acquisition of False Memories in Virtual Reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous work on human memory has shown that prompting participants with false events and self-relevant information via different types of media such as narratives, edited 2-dimensional images, and mental imagery creates false memories. This study tested a new form of media for studying false memory formation: Immersive Virtual Environment Technology (IVET). Using this tool, we examined how memory was affected

Kathryn Y. Segovia; Jeremy N. Bailenson

2009-01-01

490

Individual differences in false memory from misinformation: Cognitive factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research investigated the cognitive correlates of false memories that are induced by the misinformation paradigm. A large sample of Chinese college students (N=436) participated in a misinformation procedure and also took a battery of cognitive tests. Results revealed sizable and systematic individual differences in false memory arising from exposure to misinformation. False memories were significantly and negatively correlated with

Bi Zhu; Chuansheng Chen; Elizabeth F. Loftus; Chongde Lin; Qinghua He; Chunhui Chen; He Li; Gui Xue; Zhonglin Lu; Qi Dong

2010-01-01

491

Affect Influences False Memories at Encoding: Evidence from Recognition Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memory is susceptible to illusions in the form of false memories. Prior research found, however, that sad moods reduce false memories. The current experiment had two goals: (1) to determine whether affect influences retrieval processes, and (2) to determine whether affect influences the strength and the persistence of false memories. Happy or sad moods were induced either before or after

Justin Storbeck; Gerald L. Clore

2011-01-01

492

DHS Regional Reachback: Rapid Expert Radiation Alarm Assistance  

SciTech Connect

Following assessments that attacks with radiological and nuclear weapons are possible or even likely, detection system deployments are being supported at National and local levels. Detection systems include highly sensitive but non-discriminating detectors, as well as detectors and algorithms capable of distinguishing and identifying gamma rays by energy. The latter systems, usually handheld systems based on sodium iodide detectors, also provide analysis of the specific radionuclides present, and are referred to as radioisotope identifiers (RIIDs). Studies have shown that sodium iodide based RIIDs fall far short of 100% accurate identifications. The US Department of Homeland Security initiated the Regional Reachback (RRB) Program in 2006 to provide rapid expert interpretation of gamma spectroscopic data from radiation alarms from detection systems deployed by State and Local authorities. With expert specialists on call 24/7, RRB provides an avenue for Local and state Authorities to verify routine results, interpret unknown identifications, and notify national response assets if needed. Contact with RRB is through the DHS Joint Analysis Center (JAC), which functions as a fusion node for data correlation, transmittal, and analysis. After initial phone contacts, State/Local authorities transmit spectral data and incident information via e-mail or secure website. The JAC alerts the on-call RRB specialists, who are expected to provide an analysis within 30 minutes. This paper will provide details of the RRB program, an outline of the analysis process, a description of the drills and training systems used to maintain specialists response performance, and examples of drills and incidents from the first full year of operation.

Bowerman, Biasys [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Archer, Daniel E [ORNL; Young, John [Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL); Monetti, Matthew [Environmental Measurements Laboratory; Brian, Savage [U.S. Department of Homeland Security

2008-01-01

493

False Memory ? False Memory: DRM Errors Are Unrelated to the Misinformation Effect  

PubMed Central

The DRM method has proved to be a popular and powerful, if controversial, way to study ‘false memories’. One reason for the controversy is that the extent to which the DRM effect generalises to other kinds of memory error has been neither satisfactorily established nor subject to much empirical attention. In the present paper we contribute data to this ongoing debate. One hundred and twenty participants took part in a standard misinformation effect experiment, in which they watched some CCTV footage, were exposed to misleading post-event information about events depicted in the footage, and then completed free recall and recognition tests. Participants also completed a DRM test as an ostensibly unrelated filler task. Despite obtaining robust misinformation and DRM effects, there were no correlations between a broad range of misinformation and DRM effect measures (mean r ?=??.01). This was not due to reliability issues with our measures or a lack of power. Thus DRM ‘false memories’ and misinformation effect ‘false memories’ do not appear to be equivalent.

Ost, James; Blank, Hartmut; Davies, Joanna; Jones, Georgina; Lambert, Katie; Salmon, Kelly

2013-01-01

494

Individual acoustic variation in Belding's ground squirrel alarm chirps in the High Sierra Nevada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The acoustic structure of calls within call types can vary as function of individual identity, sex, and social group membership and is important in kin and social group recognition. Belding's ground squirrels (Spermophilus beldingi) produce alarm chirps that function in predator avoidance but little is known about the acoustic variability of these alarm chirps. The purpose of this preliminary study was to analyze the acoustic structure of alarm chirps with respect to individual differences (e.g., signature information) from eight Belding's ground squirrels from four different lakes in the High Sierra Nevada. Results demonstrate that alarm chirps are individually distinctive, and that acoustic similarity among individuals may correspond to genetic similarity and thus dispersal patterns in this species. These data suggest, on a preliminary basis, that the acoustic structure of calls might be used as a bioacoustic tool for tracking individuals, dispersal, and other population dynamics in Belding's ground squirrels, and perhaps other vocal species.

McCowan, Brenda; Hooper, Stacie L.

2002-03-01

495

ALARM 2.0 User Manual: Minimizing Compliance Costs of the Life Safety Code for Prisons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

ALARM, Alternative Life Safety Analysis for Retrofit Cost Minimization, is a software tool that helps prison facility managers and fire safety engineers achieve cost-effective compliance with the widely-used Life Safety Code of the National Fire Protectio...

S. F. Weber L. I. Schultz

2001-01-01