Note: This page contains sample records for the topic false alarm mitigation from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

On false alarm mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Condition-based maintenance (CBM) of complex military vehicles or industrial machines presumes the capability to correctly detect faults in components or subsystems. Faults are malfunctions that are observed in the monitoring system. Two types of errors can occur during automated fault detection: (1) missed detections or (2) false alarms. The practical consequence of either type of error is that a failed

J. R. Bock; T. Brotherton; P. Grabill; D. Gass; J. A. Keller

2006-01-01

2

False Alarm Mitigation of Vibration Diagnostic Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

False alarms in legacy aircraft diagnostic systems have negatively impacted fleet maintenance costs and mission readiness. As the industry moves towards more advanced prognostic and health management (PHM) solutions, a reduction in false alarms is needed to reduce the cost and readiness burdens that have plagued legacy systems. It is therefore important to understand why these false alarms occur and

C. S. Byington; M. J. Watson; Sanket Amin; M. Begin

2008-01-01

3

False alarm mitigation techniques for hyperspectral target detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A challenging problem of major importance in hyperspectral imaging applications is the detection of subpixel objects of military and civilian interest. High false alarm thresholds are required to detect subpixel objects due to the large amount of surrounding background clutter. These high false alarm rates are unacceptable for military purposes, requiring the need for false alarm mitigation (FAM) techniques to weed out the objects of interest. The objective of this paper is to provide a comparison of the implementation of these FAM techniques and their inherent benefits in the whitened detection space. The widely utilized matched filter (MF) and adaptive cosine estimator (ACE) are both based on a linear mixing model (LMM) between a background and object class. The matched filter approximates the object abundance, and the ACE measures the model error. Each of these measurements provides inadequate object separation alone, but by using both the object abundance and model error, the objects can be separated from the false alarms.

Pieper, M. L.; Manolakis, D.; Truslow, E.; Cooley, T.; Brueggeman, M.

2013-05-01

4

Hyperspectral matched filter with false-alarm mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the fundamental challenges for a hyperspectral imaging surveillance system is the detection of sub-pixel objects in background clutter. The background surrounding the object, which acts as interference, provides the major obstacle to successful detection. One algorithm that is widely used in hyperspectral detection and successfully suppresses the background in many situations is the matched filter detector. However, the matched filter also produces false alarms in many situations. We use three simple and well-established concepts--the target-background replacement model, the matched filter, and Mahalanobis distance--to develop the matched filter with false alarm mitigation (MF-FAM), a dual-threshold detector capable of eliminating many matched filter false alarms. We compare this algorithm to the mixture tuned matched filter (MTMF), a popular approach to matched filter false alarm mitigation found in the ENVI® software environment. The two algorithms are shown to produce nearly identical results using real hyperspectral data, but the MF-FAM is shown to be operationally, computationally, and theoretically simpler than the MTMF.

Dipietro, Robert S.; Manolakis, Dimitris G.; Lockwood, Ronald B.; Cooley, Thomas; Jacobson, John

2012-01-01

5

Control of Elt False Alarms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The statistics of emergency locator transmitter (ELT) alarms are presented. The primary sources of data include ELT Incident Logs, Service Difficulty Reports, and Frequency Interference Reports. The number of reported and unreported alarms is discussed, a...

S. Toth I. Gershkoff

1979-01-01

6

Control of ELT false alarms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The statistics of emergency locator transmitter (ELT) alarms are presented. The primary sources of data include ELT Incident Logs, Service Difficulty Reports, and Frequency Interference Reports. The number of reported and unreported alarms is discussed, as are seasonal variations, duration of ELT transmissions, and cost of silencing. Origin, causes, and possible strategies for reducing the impact of alarms on the aviation community are considered.

Toth, S.; Gershkoff, I.

1979-01-01

7

Collection and evaluation of false alarm signatures in background data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A significant amount of background airborne data was collected as part of May 2005 tests for airborne minefield detection at an arid site. The locations of false alarms which occurred consistently during different runs, were identified and geo-referenced by MultiSensor Science LLC. Ground truth information, which included pictures, type qualifiers and some hyperspectral data for these identified false alarm locations, was surveyed by ERDC-WES. This collection of background data, and subsequent survey of the false alarm locations, is unique in that it is likely the first such airborne data collection with ground truthed and documented false alarm locations. A library of signatures for different sources of these false alarms was extracted in the form of image chips and organized into a self-contained database by Missouri S&T. The library contains target chips from airborne mid wave infrared (MWIR) and multispectral imaging (MSI) sensors, representing data for different days, different times of day and different altitudes. Target chips for different surface mines were also added to the database. This database of the target signatures is expected to facilitate evaluation of spectral and shape characteristics of the false alarms, to achieve better false alarm mitigation and improve mine and minefield detection for airborne applications. The aim of this paper is to review and summarize the data collection procedure used, present the currently available database of target chips and make some recommendations regarding future data collections.

Agarwal, Sanjeev; Vulli, Shivakar; Malloy, Neil J.; Lord, Elizabeth M.; Fairley, Josh R.; Sabol, Bruce M.; Johnson, Wesley; Ess, Richard; Trang, Anh H.

2009-05-01

8

Modeling human false alarms using clutter metrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The TSSIM clutter metrics correlate amazingly well to both the experimental detection probabilities and the mean detection time. Based on the analysis of both probabilities of the correct detections and of the total (correct and false) number of detections made by human observers, a mathematical formula for predicting the probability of false alarms as a function of clutter metrics is presented in this paper. Comparing real experimental data with the predicted products reveal very good agreement, which is very helpful in understanding human behavior mechanisms regarding target detection tasks. It is concluded that the human observer behaves as fixed threshold signal processor /Non-CFAR.

Chang, Honghua; Zhang, Jianqi; Liu, Delian

2007-11-01

9

Some comments on GMTI false alarm rate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A typical Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) radar specification includes the parameters Probability of Detection (PD) - typically on the order of 0.85, and False Alarm Rate (FAR) - typically on the order of 0.1 Hz. The PD is normally associated with a particular target 'size', such as Radar Cross Section (RCS) with perhaps some statistical description (e.g. Swerling number). However, the concept of FAR is embodied at a fundamental level in the detection process, which traditionally employs a Constant-FAR (CFAR) detector to set thresholds for initial decisions on whether a target is present or not. While useful, such a metric for radar specification and system comparison is not without some serious shortcomings. In particular, when comparing FAR across various radar systems, some degree of normalization needs to occur to account for perhaps swath width and scan rates. This in turn suggests some useful testing strategies.

Doerry, A. W.

2011-05-01

10

Collection and evaluation of false alarm signatures in background data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant amount of background airborne data was collected as part of May 2005 tests for airborne minefield detection at an arid site. The locations of false alarms which occurred consistently during different runs, were identified and geo-referenced by MultiSensor Science LLC. Ground truth information, which included pictures, type qualifiers and some hyperspectral data for these identified false alarm locations,

Sanjeev Agarwal; Shivakar Vulli; Neil J. Malloy; Elizabeth M. Lord; Josh R. Fairley; Bruce M. Sabol; Wesley Johnson; Richard Ess; Anh H. Trang

2009-01-01

11

False alarm effects on estimation in multitarget trackers  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of false alarm effects on tracking filter performance in multitarget track-while-scan radars, using variable correlation gates, is presented. The false alarms considered originate from noise, clutter, and crossing targets. The dimensions of the correlation gates are determined by filter prediction and measurement error variances. Track association is implanted either by means of a distance weighted average of the

Arie Berman; Amnon Hammer

1991-01-01

12

False alarm effects on estimation in multitarget trackers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis of false alarm effects on tracking filter performance in multitarget track-while-scan radars, using variable correlation gates, is presented. The false alarms considered originate from noise, clutter, and crossing targets. The dimensions of the correlation gates are determined by filter prediction and measurement error variances. Track association is implanted either by means of a distance weighted average of the observations or by the nearest neighbor rule. State estimation is performed by means of a second-order discrete Kalman filter, taking into consideration random target maneuvers. Measurements are made in polar coordinates, while target dynamics are estimated in Cartesian coordinates, resulting in coupled linear filter equations. The effect of false alarms on the observation noise covariance matrix, and hence on state estimation errors, is analyzed. A computer simulation example, implementing radar target tracking with a variable correlation gate in the presence of false alarms, is discussed.

Berman, Arie; Hammer, Amnon

1991-07-01

13

Expert System Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) Processor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An artificial intelligence system improves radar signal processor performance by increasing target probability of detection and reducing probability of false alarm in a severe radar clutter environment. This utilizes advances in artificial intelligence an...

M. C. Wicks

2006-01-01

14

Improved Variable Index constant false alarm rate radar processors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the cases when the statistical distribution of range return samples are not known, constant false alarm rate (CFAR) processors can be used. Cell Averaging (CA) CFAR radar processors which have the best performance in Gaussian homogeneous environments, exhibits performance degradation in the presence of an interfering target or in regions of abrupt change in the backround clutter power. The

Y. C. U?n; K. M. U?ner

2010-01-01

15

Clean: A false alarm reduction method for SAR CCD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic Aperture Radar Coherent Change Detection (SAR CCD) is a sensitive change detector capable of finding ground surface height changes on the order of a radar wavelength. While this detector is capable of finding small changes such as tire tracks left on the ground, it is fraught with false alarms. This paper introduces a new algorithm, the Clutter Location, Estimation,

Rhonda D. Phillips

2011-01-01

16

False-alarm probability of conventional and logarithmic CFAR receivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a radar system, it is well known that the conventional and logarithmic CFAR techniques after a square-law detector are effective for Rayleigh clutter. In order to apply CFAR techniques to practical radar systems with a linear detector, false-alarm probability was calculated by a Monte Carlo simulation on computer for a finite number of samples N. It is concluded that the conventional CFAR receiver is superior to the logarithmic CFAR receiver.

Tatsukawa, S.; Sekine, M.; Musha, T.

1984-10-01

17

SETI pulse detection algorithm: Analysis of false-alarm rates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some earlier work by the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Science Working Group (SWG) on the derivation of spectrum analyzer thresholds for a pulse detection algorithm based on an analysis of false alarm rates is extended. The algorithm previously analyzed was intended to detect a finite sequence of i periodically spaced pulses that did not necessarily occupy the entire observation interval. This algorithm would recognize the presence of such a signal only if all i-received pulse powers exceeded a threshold T(i): these thresholds were selected to achieve a desired false alarm rate, independent of i. To simplify the analysis, it was assumed that the pulses were synchronous with the spectrum sample times. This analysis extends the earlier effort to include infinite and/or asynchronous pulse trains. Furthermore, to decrease the possibility of missing an extraterrestrial intelligence signal, the algorithm was modified to detect a pulse train even if some of the received pulse powers fall below the threshold. The analysis employs geometrical arguments that make it conceptually easy to incorporate boundary conditions imposed on the derivation of the false alarm rates. While the exact results can be somewhat complex, simple closed form approximations are derived that produce a negligible loss of accuracy.

Levitt, B. K.

1983-01-01

18

False Alarm Control of CFAR Algorithms with Experimental Bistatic Radar Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

False alarm control performance of different constant false alarm rate (CFAR) algorithms is experimentally investigated using bistatic radar data. The CFARs under investigation include cell-averaging (CA-CFAR), smaller- of (SOCFAR) greater-of (GO-CFAR), o...

J. Palmer P. E. Berry T. V. Cao

2010-01-01

19

Context-Aided False Alarm Reduction for SAR Automatic Target Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces techniques for context-aided false alarm reduction for automatic target recognition (ATR) in airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. Candidate target pixels are identified using constant false alarm rate (CFAR) detection. If only a single radar image is available, a 2-D site model is constructed and used to determine regions inhospitable to targets. In multipass imagery, false alarm

Sandrine Mathieu-Marni; Shyam Kuttikkad; Rama Chellappa

1997-01-01

20

Empirical mode decomposition based reducing false alarm filter for built-in test signal  

Microsoft Academic Search

False alarm is the phenomenon that built-in test or other detection module indicates fault problem but actually no fault exists. High false alarm rate severely restricts the development of built-in test system. This paper reveals that doing extra processing on the intrinsic mode functions obtained from empirical mode decomposition, we can establish a filter with good performance in reducing false

Miao Zhang; Yi Shen; Xin Li; Zhibo Wang; Xiaolei Zhang; Yanchao Gao; Yanju Ji

2011-01-01

21

False alarm rates of three third-generation pulse oximeters in PACU, ICU and IABP patients.  

PubMed

The objective of this clinical study was to determine alarm rates--in particular the frequency of false positive alarms--of three third-generation pulse oximeters in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU), the intensive care unit (ICU), and in patients with an intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP): Nellcor Symphony N-3000, a Masimo IVY 2000, and Agilent Viridia CMS 2000. All alarms were classified into technical/physiological and false/correct. 235 consecutive ASA physical status I-IV patients after surgery were included into the study. In the PACU false positive alarms were rare: CMS n = 60, N-3000 n = 60, Masimo n = 87. Bland-Altman testing discovered only negligible differences of alarm rates and dropout times. Out of a total of 728 alarms 67.3% were classified as false positive in ICU-patients: 97 alarms by CMS, 176 by N-3000 and 218 by Masimo SET. If IABP was present, CMS indicated a significant smaller number of false positive alarms (n = 35, 7.2%) when compared to Masimo SET (n = 188, 38.9%) and N-3000 (n = 229, 47.4%), consecutively the majority of false positive alarms (76.2%) can be rated as a result of the interference of IABP. Unless IABP (and to a considerably smaller extent cardiac arrhythmia) is present the pulse oximeters do not differ significantly regarding sensitivity and specificity. PMID:11900042

Lutter, Norbert O; Urankar, Sabine; Kroeber, Steffi

2002-01-01

22

Study of False Alarm Reduction in Forest Fire Detection (Onderzoek naar Reductie van vals Alarmen bij Bosbrand Detectie).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

False alarms and missed detections are common problem to any autonomous surveillance system. The present investigation describes the possible causes for the occurrences of false alarms and missed detection in a demonstration system based on an electro-opt...

J. S. De Vries

1993-01-01

23

Performance Comparison of Cell Averaging and 'Greatest-of' Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Radar system detection procedures involve the comparison of a received signal to a threshold value. A fixed threshold is not successful in controlling the false alarms because of changing interference conditions such as noise, clutter, and jammers. Conseq...

N. B. Lawrence

1981-01-01

24

Parametric Study of a Nonsuppressing CFAR (Constant False Alarm Rate) Detector.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes a parametric analysis of a modified conventional constant false alarm rate (CFAR) detector. The modified CFAR detector is nonsuppressing in the sense that targets or other interfering signals in the reference cells of the detector wi...

J. D. Wilson

1983-01-01

25

Variability Index Constant False Alarm Rate (VI-CFAR) for Sonar Target Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sonar background environment is not homogeneous at all times but is often filled with in-homogeneities like multiple targets and reverberation edges. Cell Averaging Constant False Alarm Rate (CA-CFAR) gives optimum performance in a homogeneous environment but its performance degrades in presence of in-homogeneities. Greatest Of CFAR (GO-CFAR) has been designed to control false alarms during reverberation edges while Smallest

A. K. Verma

2008-01-01

26

False alarm control of CFAR algorithms with experimental bistatic radar data  

Microsoft Academic Search

False alarm control performance of different constant false alarm rate (CFAR) algorithms is experimentally investigated using bistatic radar data. The CFARs under investigation include cell-averaging (CA-CFAR), smaller-of (SO-CFAR), greater-of (GO-CFAR), ordered-statistic (OS-CFAR), censored cell-averaging (CCA-CFAR), and the homogeneity detector mean-to-mean ratio (MMR) test. The experimental data was collected using an Illuminator of Opportunity (IOO) bistatic radar that is under ongoing

Tri-Tan V. Cao; James Palmer; Paul E. Berry

2010-01-01

27

Probability of false alarm in CA-CFAR device downstream from linear-law detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

With coherent and digital signal processing, the amplitude is easier to obtain in modern radars than the squared amplitude. Thus, it may be useful to have a relationship between the false alarm probability P(fa), the constant of the adaptive threshold, and the number of reference samples for a cell-averaging constant false alarm rate (CA-CFAR) device downstream from a linear-law detector.

A. di Vito; G. Moretti

1989-01-01

28

Reducing False Alarm Rates for Critical Arrhythmias Using the Arterial Blood Pressure Waveform  

PubMed Central

Background Over the past two decades, high false alarm (FA) rates have remained an important yet unresolved concern in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). High FA rates lead to desensitization of the attending staff to such warnings, with associated slowing in response times and detrimental decreases in the quality of care for the patient. False arrhythmia alarms are commonly due to single channel ECG artifacts and low voltage signals, and therefore it is likely that the FA rates may be reduced if information from other independent signals is used to form a more robust hypothesis of the alarm’s etiology. Methods A large multi-parameter ICU database (PhysioNet’s MIMIC II database) was used to investigate the frequency of five categories of false critical (“red” or “life-threatening”) ECG arrhythmia alarms produced by a commercial ICU monitoring system, namely: asystole, extreme bradycardia, extreme tachycardia, ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation/tachycardia. Non-critical (“yellow”) arrhythmia alarms were not considered in this study. Multiple expert reviews of 5,386 critical ECG arrhythmia alarms from a total of 447 adult patient records in the MIMIC II database were made using the associated 41,301 hours of simultaneous ECG and arterial blood pressure (ABP) waveforms. An algorithm to suppress false critical ECG arrhythmia alarms using morphological and timing information derived from the ABP signal was then tested. Results An average of 42.7% of the critical ECG arrhythmia alarms were found to be false, with each of the five alarm categories having FA rates between 23.1% and 90.7%. The FA suppression algorithm developed was able to suppress 59.7% of the false alarms, with FA reduction rates as high as 93.5% for asystole and 81.0% for extreme bradycardia. FA reduction rates were lowest for extreme tachycardia (63.7%) and ventricular-related alarms (58.2% for ventricular fibrillation/tachycardia and 33.0% for ventricular tachycardia). True alarm (TA) reduction rates were all 0%, except for ventricular tachycardia alarms (9.4%). Conclusions The FA suppression algorithm reduced the incidence of false critical ECG arrhythmia alarms from 42.7% to 17.2%, where simultaneous ECG and ABP data were available. The present algorithm demonstrated the potential of data fusion to reduce false ECG arrhythmia alarms in a clinical setting, but the non-zero TA reduction rate for ventricular tachycardia indicates the need for further refinement of the suppression strategy. To avoid suppressing any true alarms, the algorithm could be implemented for all alarms except ventricular tachycardia. Under these conditions the FA rate would be reduced from 42.7% to 22.7%. This implementation of the algorithm should be considered for prospective clinical evaluation. The public availability of a real-world ICU database of multiparameter physiologic waveforms, together with their associated annotated alarms is a new and valuable research resource for algorithm developers.

Aboukhalil, Anton; Nielsen, Larry; Saeed, Mohammed; Mark, Roger G.; Clifford, Gari D.

2008-01-01

29

Performance analysis of order statistic constant false alarm rate (CFAR) detectors in generalized Rayleigh environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performances of order statistic (OS) constant false alarm rate (CFAR) detectors are analyzed for non-Gaussian clutters modeled by heavy-tailed complex isotropic symmetric alpha-stable random processes whose amplitude is the generalized Rayleigh distribution. The detection and false alarm probabilities of the amplitude OS-CFAR detectors are presented assuming that the target signal is Rayleigh distributed. Exact closed-form solutions are derived for the special case of Cauchy-Rayleigh distribution where the characteristic exponent is 1. Numerical results are presented for detection and false alarm rates as functions of the generalized signal-to-noise ratio, reference window sizes, and rank order indexes. It is shown that the window size and rank order do not have significant effects on the performances. It is also shown that the amplitude detectors provide similar performances as the square-law detectors in the heavy-tailed clutter environment.

Xu, Xiaolan; Zheng, Rosa; Chen, Genshe; Blasch, Erik

2007-08-01

30

Improved detection and false alarm rejection for chemical vapors using passive hyperspectral imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two AIRIS sensors were tested at Dugway Proving Grounds against chemical agent vapor simulants. The primary objectives of the test were to: 1) assess performance of algorithm improvements designed to reduce false alarm rates with a special emphasis on solar effects, and 3) evaluate performance in target detection at 5 km. The tests included 66 total releases comprising alternating 120 kg glacial acetic acid (GAA) and 60 kg triethyl phosphate (TEP) events. The AIRIS sensors had common algorithms, detection thresholds, and sensor parameters. The sensors used the target set defined for the Joint Service Lightweight Chemical Agent Detector (JSLSCAD) with TEP substituted for GA and GAA substituted for VX. They were exercised at two sites located at either 3 km or 5 km from the release point. Data from the tests will be presented showing that: 1) excellent detection capability was obtained at both ranges with significantly shorter alarm times at 5 km, 2) inter-sensor comparison revealed very comparable performance, 3) false alarm rates < 1 incident per 10 hours running time over 143 hours of sensor operations were achieved, 4) algorithm improvements eliminated both solar and cloud false alarms. The algorithms enabling the improved false alarm rejection will be discussed. The sensor technology has recently been extended to address the problem of detection of liquid and solid chemical agents and toxic industrial chemical on surfaces. The phenomenology and applicability of passive infrared hyperspectral imaging to this problem will be discussed and demonstrated.

Marinelli, William J.; Miyashiro, Rex; Gittins, Christopher M.; Konno, Daisei; Chang, Shing; Farr, Matt; Perkins, Brad

2013-05-01

31

Optimal Sensor Location Design for Reliable Fault Detection in Presence of False Alarms  

PubMed Central

To improve fault detection reliability, sensor location should be designed according to an optimization criterion with constraints imposed by issues of detectability and identifiability. Reliability requires the minimization of undetectability and false alarm probability due to random factors on sensor readings, which is not only related with sensor readings but also affected by fault propagation. This paper introduces the reliability criteria expression based on the missed/false alarm probability of each sensor and system topology or connectivity derived from the directed graph. The algorithm for the optimization problem is presented as a heuristic procedure. Finally, a boiler system is illustrated using the proposed method.

Yang, Fan; Xiao, Deyun; Shah, Sirish L.

2009-01-01

32

Probability of false alarm in CA-CFAR device downstream from linear-law detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With coherent and digital signal processing, the amplitude is easier to obtain in modern radars than the squared amplitude. Thus, it may be useful to have a relationship between the false alarm probability P(fa), the constant of the adaptive threshold, and the number of reference samples for a cell-averaging constant false alarm rate (CA-CFAR) device downstream from a linear-law detector. Here, an approximate and simple expression for the P(fa) for such a device is presented. The results from the expression are in good agreement with those obtained by a simulation.

di Vito, A.; Moretti, G.

1989-12-01

33

Alarm fatigue: a roadmap for mitigating the cacophony of beeps.  

PubMed

The phenomenon known as alarm fatigue is the direct result of excessive alarms in hospitals. This article highlights the effects of alarm fatigue and reviews current clinical recommendations and guidelines to raise nurse awareness and provide tools to combat the problem. PMID:24310707

Purbaugh, Thomas

2014-01-01

34

Constant False Alarm Rate Schemes with Receive Diversity for Code Acquisition Under Nonhomogeneous Fading Circumstances  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance characteristics of the cell aver- aging (CA), greatest of (GO), and smallest of (SO) constant false alarm rate (CFAR) processors in homogeneous environment are analyzed and compared when receiving antenna diversity is employed in the pseudonoise code acquisition of direct-sequence code division multiple access systems. From the simulation results, it is observed that the CA CFAR scheme has

Hyun Gu Kang; Hyoungmoon Kwon; Iickho Song; Sun Yong Kim

2006-01-01

35

Ll-filters in CFAR (constant false-alarm rate) detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most radar systems determine the presence of a target via the comparison of the appropriate return (actually the output of a square-law device) to a threshold. In order to achieve CFAR (constant false-alarm rate) operation, this threshold must incorporate some estimate of the ambient noise power level, usually derived using measurements from a reference window of neighboring cells (in range,

Syed Mahmood Reza; Peter K. Willett

1991-01-01

36

Estimation of a Constant False Alarm Rate Processing Loss for a High- Resolution Maritime Radar System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report addresses a problem of estimation of a constant false alarm rate (CFAR) processing loss for a high-resolution maritime radar system on an example of a generic radar system Anti-Submarine Warfare mode and discusses approaches to modelling of th...

I. Antipov J. Baldwinson

2008-01-01

37

On adaptive cell-averaging CFAR (Constant False-Alarm Rate) radar signal detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In radar signal detection, the problem is to automatically detect a target in a nonstationary noise and clutter background while maintaining a constant probability of false alarm. Classical detection using a matched filter receiver and a fixed threshold is not applicable due to the nonstationary nature of the background noise. Therefore, adaptive threshold techniques are needed to maintain a constant

Mourad Barkat; Pramod K. Varshney

1987-01-01

38

Studies of Multiple Target Tracking, Constant-False--Alarm-Rate and Glint for the Ear System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is a continuation of the experimental array radar simulation studies. The main objectives are to: (1) expand and exercise the baseline EAR simulation program to include multiple target handling, (2) analyze and design a constant-false-alarm rat...

B. K. Bhagavan E. R. McKee L. Callas R. D. Hays R. J. Polge

1973-01-01

39

Latency differentiation of hits and false alarms in an operant-psychophysical test1  

PubMed Central

Rats detected the luminance difference of standard and comparison stimuli in a go/no-go procedure. A key press was reinforced by brain stimulation only when the key's luminance was 10.53 ft-L (36.01 cd/m2), and key presses to dimmer comparison values produced a 5-sec timeout. These asymmetrical reinforcement contingencies maximized the bias toward hits and false alarms (“yes” reports), and thus the number of latencies available for analysis. False alarm latencies exceeded hit latencies, with the magnitude of differentiation proportional to luminance difference, demonstrating stimulus control on the very occasions that errors (key presses to comparison luminances) were emitted. Overall latencies decreased when the standard-comparison luminance difference was made smaller, suggesting a reduction in observing time when the stimuli became indiscriminable.

Terman, Michael; Terman, Jiuan S.

1973-01-01

40

Proximate Factors Underpinning Receiver Responses to Deceptive False Alarm Calls in Wild Tufted Capuchin Monkeys: Is It Counterdeception?  

PubMed Central

Previous research demonstrates that tufted capuchin monkeys use terrestrial predator alarm calls in a functionally deceptive manner to distract conspecifics when feeding on contestable resources, although the success of this tactic is limited because listeners frequently ignore these calls when given in such situations. While this decreased response rate is suggestive of a counterstrategy to deception by receivers, the proximate factors underpinning the behavior are unclear. The current study aims to test if the decreased response rate to alarm calls in competitive contexts is better explained by the perception of subtle acoustic differences between predator-elicited and deceptive false alarms, or by receivers varying their responses based on the context in which the signal is received. This was tested by first examining the acoustic structure of predator-elicited and deceptive false alarms for any potentially perceptible acoustic differences, and second by comparing the responses of capuchins to playbacks of each of predator-elicited and false alarms, played back in noncompetitive contexts. The results indicate that deceptive false alarms and predator-elicited alarms show, at best, minimal acoustic differences based on the structural features measured. Likewise, playbacks of deceptive false alarms elicited antipredator reactions at the same rate as did predator-elicited alarms, although there was a nonsignificant tendency for false alarms to be more likely to elicit escape reactions. The lack of robust acoustic differences together with the high response rate to false alarms in noncompetitive contexts suggests that the context in which the signal is received best explains receiver responses. It remains unclear, however, if listeners ascribe different meanings to the calls based on context, or if they generally ignore all signals in competitive contexts. Whether or not the decreased response rate of receivers directly stems from the deceptive use of the calls cannot be determined until these latter possibilities are rigorously tested. Am. J. Primatol. 75:715-725, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Wheeler, Brandon C; Hammerschmidt, Kurt

2013-01-01

41

A radar unattended ground sensor with micro-Doppler capabilities for false alarm reduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unattended ground sensors (UGS) provide the capability to inexpensively secure remote borders and other areas of interest. However, the presence of normal animal activity can often trigger a false alarm. Accurately detecting humans and distinguishing them from natural fauna is an important issue in security applications to reduce false alarm rates and improve the probability of detection. In particular, it is important to detect and classify people who are moving in remote locations and transmit back detections and analysis over extended periods at a low cost and with minimal maintenance. We developed and demonstrate a compact radar technology that is scalable to a variety of ultra-lightweight and low-power platforms for wide area persistent surveillance as an unattended, unmanned, and man-portable ground sensor. The radar uses micro-Doppler processing to characterize the tracks of moving targets and to then eliminate unimportant detections due to animals as well as characterize the activity of human detections. False alarms from sensors are a major liability that hinders widespread use. Incorporating rudimentary intelligence into sensors can reduce false alarms but can also result in a reduced probability of detection. Allowing an initial classification that can be updated with new observations and tracked over time provides a more robust framework for false alarm reduction at the cost of additional sensor observations. This paper explores these tradeoffs with a small radar sensor for border security. Multiple measurements were done to try to characterize the micro-Doppler of human versus animal and vehicular motion across a range of activities. Measurements were taken at the multiple sites with realistic but low levels of clutter. Animals move with a quadrupedal motion, which can be distinguished from the bipedal human motion. The micro-Doppler of a vehicle with rotating parts is also shown, along with ground truth images. Comparisons show large variations for different types of motion by the same type of animal. This paper presents the system and data on humans, vehicles, and animals at multiple angles and directions of motion, demonstrates the signal processing approach that makes the targets visually recognizable, verifies that the UGS radar has enough micro-Doppler capability to distinguish between humans, vehicles, and animals, and analyzes the probability of correct classification.

Tahmoush, Dave; Silvious, Jerry; Burke, Ed

2010-10-01

42

Augmented evaluation of the false criticality alarm at Idaho Chemical Processing Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Self-Assessment (DP-9), Defense Programs (DP) began to monitor a Criticality Alarm system (CAS) failure occurrence at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) shortly after January 11, 1992, when a false trip of the CAS in building CPP-601/602 caused a plant evacuation. Building CPP-601/602 contains the uranium fuel reprocessing denitration system, which was not operating at the time of the CAS failure occurrence. At that time DP-9 and Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO), the Department of Energy (DOE) operating contractor, believed that this event may represent a potential generic safety concern for other DOE facilities. This false criticality alarm activation did not pose a significant danger to the health and safety of the public or to ICPP employees. Once the CAS was activated, the ICPP was evacuated per procedures. However, false CAS actuations are undesirable. The CAS system should be extremely reliable because of the dangers associated with criticality events and the potential for accidents and injuries resulting from prompt process termination and building evacuation. The Office of Self-Assessment then formed an Augmented Evaluation Team (AET) for an on-site diagnostic assessment of the CAS at ICPP. The AET's on-site evaluation process included briefings by ICPP management, discussions with pertinent technical supervisors and managers, an examination of relevant CAS documentation, physical examination of failed equipment, and a walk-through of the ICPP CAS. The AET judged that the most probable direct causes of the CAS failure were the heat induced failure of a low voltage power supply combined with the concurrent and/or prior failure of its back-up nickel cadium (NiCad) battery located in the CAS. The battery was not adequately maintained. These judgments are consistent with WINCO's analyses.

Not Available

1992-05-01

43

Augmented evaluation of the false criticality alarm at Idaho Chemical Processing Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Self-Assessment (DP-9), Defense Programs (DP) began to monitor a Criticality Alarm system (CAS) failure occurrence at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) shortly after January 11, 1992, when a false trip of the CAS in building CPP-601/602 caused a plant evacuation. Building CPP-601/602 contains the uranium fuel reprocessing denitration system, which was not operating at the time of the CAS failure occurrence. At that time DP-9 and Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO), the Department of Energy (DOE) operating contractor, believed that this event may represent a potential generic safety concern for other DOE facilities. This false criticality alarm activation did not pose a significant danger to the health and safety of the public or to ICPP employees. Once the CAS was activated, the ICPP was evacuated per procedures. However, false CAS actuations are undesirable. The CAS system should be extremely reliable because of the dangers associated with criticality events and the potential for accidents and injuries resulting from prompt process termination and building evacuation. The Office of Self-Assessment then formed an Augmented Evaluation Team (AET) for an on-site diagnostic assessment of the CAS at ICPP. The AET`s on-site evaluation process included briefings by ICPP management, discussions with pertinent technical supervisors and managers, an examination of relevant CAS documentation, physical examination of failed equipment, and a walk-through of the ICPP CAS. The AET judged that the most probable direct causes of the CAS failure were the heat induced failure of a low voltage power supply combined with the concurrent and/or prior failure of its back-up nickel cadium (NiCad) battery located in the CAS. The battery was not adequately maintained. These judgments are consistent with WINCO`s analyses.

Not Available

1992-05-01

44

Adaptive beam pointing control of a phased array radar in the presence of ECM and false alarms using IMMPDAF  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the use of the interacting multiple model (IMM) estimation algorithm combined with the probabilistic data association filter (PDAF) for adaptive beam pointing control of a phased array radar to track maneuvering targets in the presence of false alarms and electronic counter measures (ECM) is presented. The tracking algorithm includes target track formation and maintenance using IMMPDAF, jammer

T. Kirubarajan; Y. Bar-Shalom; E. Daeipour

1995-01-01

45

System design that minimizes both missed detections and false alarms: a case study in arc fault detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers several components in the architecture and design of systems to discriminate conditions and fuse the data. It focuses on the problems of missing detections and reducing the possibility of generating false positive alarms. It uses a case study of a protective system that detects arcing faults in power switchboards on board ships. The results in this paper

Kim R. Fowler

2004-01-01

46

Constant false alarm rate target detection in clutter: a neural processing algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A serious degradation in detection probability of conventional Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) processors used in the automatic detection of radar targets results from a reduction in the number of available reference cells. Several factors such as any constraints on the radar system used (in terms of resolution and sampling time), presence of interfering targets and nonstationary clutter may contribute to the reduction in the number of reference cells. This paper presents a novel neural network-based CFAR detection scheme (referred to as NN- CFAR scheme) that offers robust performance in the face of loss of reference cells. This scheme employs a multilayer feedforward neural network trained by error backpropagation approach using the optimal detector as the teacher. The excellent pattern classification capabilities of trained neural networks are exploited in this application to effectively counter performance degradations due to reduced reference window sizes. In particular it is demonstrated that a neural network implementation of the CFAR detection scheme provides an efficient approach for accommodating more input parameters without increasing design complexity for countering the information loss due to reduced reference window size. Precise quantitative performance evaluation of the NN-CFAR scheme are conducted in a variety of situations that include both homogeneous and nonhomogeneous clutter backgrounds and the target detection performance is compared with that of the traditional CA-CFAR scheme to highlight the benefits.

Amoozegar, Farid; Sundareshan, Malur K.

1994-03-01

47

Ll-filters in CFAR (constant false-alarm rate) detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most radar systems determine the presence of a target via the comparison of the appropriate return (actually the output of a square-law device) to a threshold. In order to achieve CFAR (constant false-alarm rate) operation, this threshold must incorporate some estimate of the ambient noise power level, usually derived using measurements from a reference window of neighboring cells (in range, bearing, and/or doppler). Under the assumption that the reference cells are statistically homogenous, cell- averaging (CA)-CFAR, which uses the empirical mean from the cells in the reference window as the noise power estimate, is optimal. However, the reference cells may contain interfering targets and/or clutter edges, and in such situations CA-CFAR performs poorly. Several alternative schemes have been proposed, but none appears to work well uniformly over the broad class of possible reference window nonhomogeneities. In this paper we investigate the use of the Ll-filter, a MSE- optimized amalgamation of ordered-statistic (L) and linear (l) filters, to form an estimate of the noise power. Our results show that Ll-CFAR, while in some situations suboptimal, appears to be robust to reference window nonuniformities.

Mahmood Reza, Syed; Willett, Peter K.

1991-04-01

48

Both differences in encoding processes and monitoring at retrieval reduce false alarms when distinctive information is studied.  

PubMed

A reduction in false alarms to critical lures is observed in the DRM paradigm (Roediger & McDermott, 1995) when distinctive information is presented at encoding. Two mechanisms have been proposed to account for this reduction. According to the monitoring theory (e.g., the distinctiveness heuristic), lack of diagnostic recollection serves as a basis for discarding non-presented lures. According to the encoding theory, presenting distinctive information at study leads to impoverished relational processing, which results in a reduction in memorial information elicited by critical lures. In the present study a condition was created in which the use of the distinctiveness heuristic was precluded by associating, within the same study, lures with distinctive information in a context different from the study session. Under that condition reduction in false alarms to distinctive critical lures was still observed. This result supports the predictions of the encoding theory. However, when in the same study the use of the distinctiveness heuristic was not precluded, reductions in false alarms to unrelated lures were also observed when distinctive information was presented at study, indicating that both mechanisms are likely to contribute to the rejection of false memories. PMID:21500088

Hanczakowski, Maciej; Mazzoni, Giuliana

2011-04-01

49

Field-of-view, detection range, and false alarm trade-offs in vision-based aircraft detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a survey of previously presented vision based aircraft detection flight test, and then presents new flight test results examining the impact of camera field-of view choice on the detection range and false alarm rate characteristics of a vision-based aircraft detection technique.\\u000a\\u000aUsing data collected from approaching aircraft, we examine the impact of camera fieldof-view choice and confirm

John S. Lai; Jason J. Ford; Luis Mejias; Alexander Lloyd Wainwright; Peter J. O'Shea; Rodney A. Walker

2012-01-01

50

Reducing false alarm rates during change detection by modeling relief, shade and shadow of multi-temporal imagery.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Change detection on the basis of multi-temporal imagery may lead to false alarms when the image has changed, whereas the scene has not. Geometric image differerences in an unchanged scene may be due to relief displacement, caused by diferent camera positions. Radiometric differences may be caused by changes in illumimation and shadow between the images, caused by a different position of the sun. The effects may be predicted, and after that compensated, if a 3d model of the scene is available. The paper presents an integrated approach to prediction of and compensation for relief displacement, shading and shadow.

Gorte, B.; van der Sande, C.

2014-04-01

51

Method and apparatus for distinguishing actual sparse events from sparse event false alarms  

DOEpatents

Remote sensing method and apparatus wherein sparse optical events are distinguished from false events. "Ghost" images of actual optical phenomena are generated using an optical beam splitter and optics configured to direct split beams to a single sensor or segmented sensor. True optical signals are distinguished from false signals or noise based on whether the ghost image is presence or absent. The invention obviates the need for dual sensor systems to effect a false target detection capability, thus significantly reducing system complexity and cost.

Spalding, Richard E. (Albuquerque, NM); Grotbeck, Carter L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2000-01-01

52

Statistical Considerations in Designing Tests of Mine Detection Systems: II - Measures Related to the False Alarm Rate  

SciTech Connect

The rate at which a mine detection system falsely identifies man-made or natural clutter objects as mines is referred to as the system's false alarm rate (FAR). Generally expressed as a rate per unit area or time, the FAR is one of the primary metrics used to gauge system performance. In this report, an overview is given of statistical methods appropriate for the analysis of data relating to FAR. Techniques are presented for determining a suitable size for the clutter collection area, for summarizing the performance of a single sensor, and for comparing different sensors. For readers requiring more thorough coverage of the topics discussed, references to the statistical literature are provided. A companion report addresses statistical issues related to the estimation of mine detection probabilities.

Simonson, K.M.

1998-08-01

53

FALSE-ALARM PROBABILITY IN RELATION TO OVERSAMPLED POWER SPECTRA, WITH APPLICATION TO SUPER-KAMIOKANDE SOLAR NEUTRINO DATA  

SciTech Connect

The term 'false-alarm probability' denotes the probability that at least one out of M independent power values in a prescribed search band of a power spectrum computed from a white-noise time series is expected to be as large as or larger than a given value. The usual formula is based on the assumption that powers are distributed exponentially, as one expects for power measurements of normally distributed random noise. However, in practice, one typically examines peaks in an oversampled power spectrum. It is therefore more appropriate to compare the strength of a particular peak with the distribution of peaks in oversampled power spectra derived from normally distributed random noise. We show that this leads to a formula for the false-alarm probability that is rather more conservative than the familiar formula. We also show how to combine these results with a Bayesian method for estimating the probability of the null hypothesis (that there is no oscillation in the time series), and we discuss as an example the application of these procedures to Super-Kamiokande solar neutrino data.

Sturrock, Peter A. [Center for Space Science and Astrophysics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Scargle, Jeffrey D. [NASA/Ames Research Center, MS 245-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

2010-07-20

54

Constant false alarm rate detection of wake vortices with application to a pulsed Doppler lidar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 2 micron pulsed Doppler lidar system is being evaluated as a means of remotely detecting wingtip-induced vortices, i.e., wake vortices, in the approach corridor at an airport runway. The lidar system is placed beside the runway approach corridor and scanned in elevation. A structured signal processor estimates the Doppler spectra of the time sampled lidar return. A constant false

Jonathan E. Wren

1999-01-01

55

Benchmark problem for beam pointing control of phased array radar against maneuvering targets in the presence of ECM and false alarms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper extends an earlier benchmark problem for beam pointing control of a phased array radar to include the effects of false alarms and ECM. Multiple waveforms are included in the benchmark problem so that the radar energy can be coordinated with the tracking algorithm. The ECM includes a standoff jammer broadcasting wideband noise and targets attempting range gate pull

W. D. Blair; Watson G. L. Gentry; G. L. Gentry; S. A. Hoffman

1995-01-01

56

Characteristics of optical fire detector false alarm sources and qualification test procedures to prove immunity, phase 2, volume 3: Appendix 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study identified possible sources of UV, IR and visible radiations that may cause an optical fire detector to false alarm and\\/or affect its fire detection performance. The spectral irradiances of JP-4 pan fires and a multitude of lamps, hot bodies, and other of radiation stimuli that an optical detector may be exposed to in any type of aircraft shelter,

A. D. Goedeke; H. G. Gross

1995-01-01

57

A Framework for Computing Detection and False Alarm Probabilities for IR-UWB Transmitted Reference Receivers over Generalized Fading Channels with Tone Interference  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose an analytical framework for computing Detection (PD) and False Alarm (P FA ) Probabili- ties for Impulse Radio Ultra Wide Band (IR-UWB) Transmitted- Reference (TR) receivers in a quite general scenario, which includes generalized multipath fading channels and narrow- band interference as well. The proposed framework is intended to overcome the limitations of current frameworks

Marco Di Renzo; Fabio Graziosi; Fortunato Santucci

2008-01-01

58

False alarms and mine seismicity: An example from the Gentry Mountain mining region, Utah. Los Alamos Source Region Project  

SciTech Connect

Mining regions are a cause of concern for monitoring of nuclear test ban treaties because they present the opportunity for clandestine nuclear tests (i.e. decoupled explosions). Mining operations are often characterized by high seismicity rates and can provide the cover for excavating voids for decoupling. Chemical explosions (seemingly as part of normal mining activities) can be used to complicate the signals from a simultaneous decoupled nuclear explosion. Thus, most concern about mines has dealt with the issue of missed violations to a test ban treaty. In this study, we raise the diplomatic concern of false alarms associated with mining activities. Numerous reports and papers have been published about anomalous seismicity associated with mining activities. As part of a large discrimination study in the western US (Taylor et al., 1989), we had one earthquake that was consistently classified as an explosion. The magnitude 3.5 disturbance occurred on May 14, 1981 and was conspicuous in its lack of Love waves, relative lack of high- frequency energy, low Lg/Pg ratio, and high m{sub b} {minus} M{sub s}. A moment-tensor solution by Patton and Zandt (1991) indicated the event had a large implosional component. The event occurred in the Gentry Mountain coal mining region in the eastern Wasatch Plateau, Utah. Using a simple source representation, we modeled the event as a tabular excavation collapse that occurred as a result of normal mining activities. This study raises the importance of having a good catalogue of seismic data and information about mining activities from potential proliferant nations.

Taylor, S.R.

1992-09-23

59

Measures of sensitivity based on a single hit rate and false alarm rate: the accuracy, precision, and robustness of d', Az, and A'.  

PubMed

Signal detection theory offers several indexes of sensitivity (d', Az, and A') that are appropriate for two-choice discrimination when data consist of one hit rate and one false alarm rate per condition. These measures require simplifying assumptions about how target and lure evidence is distributed. We examine three statistical properties of these indexes: accuracy (good agreement between the parameter and the sampling distribution mean), precision (small variance of the sampling distribution), and robustness (small influence of violated assumptions on accuracy). We draw several conclusions from the results. First, a variety of parameters (sample size, degree of discriminability, and magnitude of hits and false alarms) influence statistical bias in these indexes. Comparing conditions that differ in these parameters entails discrepancies that can be reduced by increasing N. Second, unequal variance of the evidence distributions produces significant bias that cannot be reduced by increasing N-a serious drawback to the use of these sensitivity indexes when variance is unknown. Finally, their relative statistical performances suggest that Az is preferable to A'. PMID:16933428

Verde, Michael E; MacMillan, Neil A; Rotello, Caren M

2006-05-01

60

Is it time to sound an alarm about false-positive cell-free DNA testing for fetal aneuploidy?  

PubMed

Testing cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in maternal blood samples has been shown to have very high sensitivity for the detection of fetal aneuploidy with very low false-positive results in high-risk patients who undergo invasive prenatal diagnosis. Recent observation in clinical practice of several cases of positive cfDNA tests for trisomy 18 and trisomy 13, which were not confirmed by cytogenetic testing of the pregnancy, may reflect a limitation of the positive predictive value of this quantitative testing, particularly when it is used to detect rare aneuploidies. Analysis of a larger number of false-positive cases is needed to evaluate whether these observations reflect the positive predictive value that should be expected. Infrequently, mechanisms (such as low percentage mosaicism or confined placental mosaicism) might also lead to positive cfDNA testing that is not concordant with standard prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis. The need to explore these and other possible causes of false-positive cfDNA testing is exemplified by 2 of these cases. Additional evaluation of cfDNA testing in clinical practice and a mechanism for the systematic reporting of false-positive and false-negative cases will be important before this test is offered widely to the general population of low-risk obstetric patients. In the meantime, incorporating information about the positive predictive value in pretest counseling and in clinical laboratory reports is recommended. These experiences reinforce the importance of offering invasive testing to confirm cfDNA results before parental decision-making. PMID:23529082

Mennuti, Michael T; Cherry, Athena M; Morrissette, Jennifer J D; Dugoff, Lorraine

2013-11-01

61

Correlator bank detection of gravitational wave chirps--False-alarm probability, template density, and thresholds: Behind and beyond the minimal-match issue  

SciTech Connect

The general problem of computing the false-alarm probability vs the detection-threshold relationship for a bank of correlators is addressed, in the context of maximum-likelihood detection of gravitational waves in additive stationary Gaussian noise. Specific reference is made to chirps from coalescing binary systems. Accurate (lower-bound) approximants for the cumulative distribution of the whole-bank supremum are deduced from a class of Bonferroni-type inequalities. The asymptotic properties of the cumulative distribution are obtained, in the limit where the number of correlators goes to infinity. The validity of numerical simulations made on small-size banks is extended to banks of any size, via a Gaussian-correlation inequality. The result is used to readdress the problem of relating the template density to the fraction of potentially observable sources which could be dismissed as an effect of template space discreteness.

Croce, R.P.; Demma, Th.; Pierro, V.; Pinto, I.M. [Wavesgroup, University of Sannio at Benevento, Piazza Roma, Pal. Bosco Lucarelli, 82100 Benevento (Italy); Longo, M.; Marano, S.; Matta, V. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione e Ingegneria Elettrica, University of Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, 84084 Fisciano, SA (Italy)

2004-12-15

62

Medical audible alarms: a review  

PubMed Central

Objectives This paper summarizes much of the research that is applicable to the design of auditory alarms in a medical context. It also summarizes research that demonstrates that false alarm rates are unacceptably high, meaning that the proper application of auditory alarm design principles are compromised. Target audience Designers, users, and manufacturers of medical information and monitoring systems that indicate when medical or other parameters are exceeded and that are indicated by an auditory signal or signals. Scope The emergence of alarms as a ‘hot topic’; an outline of the issues and design principles, including IEC 60601-1-8; the high incidence of false alarms and its impact on alarm design and alarm fatigue; approaches to reducing alarm fatigue; alarm philosophy explained; urgency in audible alarms; different classes of sound as alarms; heterogeneity in alarm set design; problems with IEC 60601-1-8 and ways of approaching this design problem.

Edworthy, Judy

2013-01-01

63

Video methods for evaluating physiologic monitor alarms and alarm responses.  

PubMed

False physiologic monitor alarms are extremely common in the hospital environment. High false alarm rates have the potential to lead to alarm fatigue, leading nurses to delay their responses to alarms, ignore alarms, or disable them entirely. Recent evidence from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and The Joint Commission has demonstrated a link between alarm fatigue and patient deaths. Yet, very little scientific effort has focused on the rigorous quantitative measurement of alarms and responses in the hospital setting. We developed a system using multiple temporarily mounted, minimally obtrusive video cameras in hospitalized patients' rooms to characterize physiologic monitor alarms and nurse responses as a proxy for alarm fatigue. This allowed us to efficiently categorize each alarm's cause, technical validity, actionable characteristics, and determine the nurse's response time. We describe and illustrate the methods we used to acquire the video, synchronize and process the video, manage the large digital files, integrate the video with data from the physiologic monitor alarm network, archive the video to secure servers, and perform expert review and annotation using alarm "bookmarks." We discuss the technical and logistical challenges we encountered, including the root causes of hardware failures as well as issues with consent, confidentiality, protection of the video from litigation, and Hawthorne-like effects. The description of this video method may be useful to multidisciplinary teams interested in evaluating physiologic monitor alarms and alarm responses to better characterize alarm fatigue and other patient safety issues in clinical settings. PMID:24847936

Bonafide, Christopher P; Zander, Miriam; Graham, Christian Sarkis; Weirich Paine, Christine M; Rock, Whitney; Rich, Andrew; Roberts, Kathryn E; Fortino, Margaret; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Lin, Richard; Keren, Ron

2014-01-01

64

Optimal delineation of ambulatory holter ECG events via false-alarm bounded segmentation of a wavelet-based principal components analyzed decision statistic.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to develop and describe a new ambulatory holter electrocardiogram (ECG) events detection-delineation algorithm with the major focus on the bounded false-alarm probability (FAP) segmentation of an information-optimized decision statistic. After implementation of appropriate preprocessing methods to the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) of the original ECG data, a uniform length sliding window is applied to the obtained signal and in each slid, six feature vectors namely as summation of the nonlinearly amplified Hilbert transform, summation of absolute first order differentiation, summation of absolute second order differentiation, curve length, area and variance of the excerpted segment are calculated to construct a newly proposed principal components analyzed geometric index (PCAGI) by application of a linear orthonormal projection. In the next step, the ?-level Neyman-Pearson classifier (which is a FAP controlled tester) is implemented to detect and delineate QRS complexes. The presented method was applied to MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database, QT Database, and T-Wave Alternans Database and as a result, the average values of sensitivity and positive predictivity Se = 99.96% and P+ = 99.96% are obtained for the detection of QRS complexes, with the average maximum delineation error of 5.7, 3.8 and 6.1 m for P-wave, QRS complex and T-wave, respectively. Also, the proposed method was applied to DAY general hospital high resolution holter data (more than 1,500,000 beats including Bundle Branch Blocks-BBB, Premature Ventricular Complex-PVC and Premature Atrial Complex-PAC) and average values of Se = 99.98% and P+ = 99.97% are obtained for QRS detection. In summary, marginal performance improvement of ECG events detection-delineation process in a widespread values of signal to noise ratio (SNR), reliable robustness against strong noise, artifacts and probable severe arrhythmia(s) of high resolution holter data and the processing speed 155,000 samples/s can be mentioned as important merits and capabilities of the proposed algorithm. PMID:20821349

Homaeinezhad, M R; Ghaffari, A; Toosi, H Najjaran; Tahmasebi, M; Daevaeiha, M M

2010-09-01

65

Reply to “A false alarm based on electrical activity recorded at a VAN-Station in northern Greece in December 1990,” by J. Drakopoulos and G. Stavrakakis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drakopoulos and Stavrakakis [1996] -hereafter called DS- select in their discussion one public alarm (issued on January 1991), but delete three other such cases (issued on Sept. 1988, April 1990 and Febr.-March 1993) which were followed by destructive seismic activities. (In other words, only one public alarm was issued during the period 1987-1989 discussed in the present Debate, but this is not discussed by DS.) For the three latter alarms Drakopoulos and/or co-workers disagreed with the VAN predictions and, two to ten days before the corresponding earthquakes (EQs), publicly claimed that “no significant activity is expected.”. In the case selected here by DS, they report the seismic data within 22 days after the alarm but they do not mention that the EQ activity started on the morning of the 23rd day and lasted the next five days. Furthermore, DS misinterpreted our prediction which was submitted to Tectonophysics [see Varotsos et al., 1991] before the EQ occurrence.

Varotsos, P.; Eftaxias, K.; Lazaridou, M.

66

Wind Farm Clutter Mitigation in Air Surveillance Radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the authors will discuss recommended techniques for wind farm mitigation, which are based on a UK Royal Air Force sponsored demonstration on a Watchman radar, conducted at Clatter, South Wales. Specifically, false alarm and false track reductions will be quantified.

J. Perry; A. Biss

2007-01-01

67

Alarm Processing System  

SciTech Connect

During power plant transients, a control room operator is deluged with large amounts of diverse information of varying degrees of importance and in different format. Control room operators are sometimes overwhelmed. They are required to make quick decisions based on operating procedures thereby bypassing most deep-level reasoning. The application of expert systems to process alarms and to perform diagnosis can substantially improve the quality of information presented to operators. The high-level goal of the Alarm Processing System is for operators to enthusiastically accept a new technology that will improve their response to alarms during plant transient conditions. The Alarm Processing System dynamically prioritizes alarms based on the state of the plant; reduces the amount of information presented to the operator by grouping and displaying alarms in accordance with the present state of the plant; and allows nuisance alarms to be suppressed. Object-oriented programming techniques are used to describe plant analog and binary sensors, alarms, and plant states. The system reasons about nuisance signals taken off-line by using logic system that has three states: true, false, and null. A null or invalid state is propagated through the logic until the operator can assign a derived value for the signal. 5 refs., 7 figs.

Di Domenico, P.; Mah, E. (Bechtel National, Inc., San Francisco, CA (USA)); Corsberg, D. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA)); Somsel, J. (Pacific Gas and Electric Co., San Francisco, CA (USA)); Chan, J.K. (Bechtel Power Corp., San Francisco, CA (USA)); Naser, J. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (USA)); Scarl, E. (Boeing Computer Services Co., Seattle, WA (USA))

1989-01-01

68

Attitudes and practices related to clinical alarms.  

PubMed

Background The number of devices with alarms has multiplied in recent years, causing alarm fatigue in bedside clinicians. Alarm fatigue is now recognized as a critical safety issue. Objective To determine if attitudes and practices related to clinical alarms have changed since 2005. Methods The Healthcare Technology Foundation's Clinical Alarms Committee developed an online survey for hospital personnel that addressed attitudes and practices related to clinical alarms. They administered it in 2005-2006 and in 2011 and compared the results. Results Respondents were asked about their level of agreement with 19 statements about alarms. Many of the statements revealed no significant differences between the 2 survey years, although some differences were apparent. Respondents to the 2011 survey were significantly more likely to agree with statements about alarm sounds differentiating the priority of alarm and the helpfulness of central alarm management. Respondents in 2011 were significantly less likely to feel that nuisance alarms occur frequently and disrupt patient care. Respondents also ranked the importance of 9 different alarm issues. In both years, they ranked frequent false alarms as the most important. In response to a new question in the 2011 survey, 18% of respondents reported patients' experiencing adverse events related to alarms at their institutions. Conclusions Since 2005-2006 when the first survey was conducted, not much has changed. False alarms continue to contribute to a noisy hospital environment, and sentinel events related to alarm fatigue persist. Alarm hazards are a significant patient safety issue. PMID:24786820

Funk, Marjorie; Clark, J Tobey; Bauld, Thomas J; Ott, Jennifer C; Coss, Paul

2014-05-01

69

Learn about Smoke Alarms  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Campaigns Smoke Alarms Smoke Alarms Learn about smoke alarms This page may contain links to non- ... to you » Why should I have a working smoke alarm? A properly installed and maintained smoke alarm ...

70

Mitigation techniques for non-Gaussian sea clutter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the problem of coherent radar detection of targets embedded in clutter modeled as a compound-Gaussian process. We first provide a survey on clutter mitigation techniques with a particular emphasis on adaptive detection schemes ensuring the constant false-alarm rate (CFAR) property with respect to all of the clutter parameters. Thus, we propose a novel decision rule based

Ernesto Conte; Antonio De Maio

2004-01-01

71

False Alarm Probabilities for Mixed Events.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Analysis of 1,471 P- and PKP-coda indicates that the probability of an unexplained phase occurring in a coda of an event as recorded at a single station is 0.12 for a detection threshold on the order of 3.5db (signal-to-coda background). The average coda ...

T. J. Cohen E. I. Sweetser

1973-01-01

72

Eyewitness Testimony: False Alarms on Biased Instructions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two experiments we investigated the effects of biased instructions on the accuracy of eyewitness identification in a field setting in which some of the subjects were unaware of their participation in an experiment. In Experiment 1, 76 students observed a theft and were later asked to identify the perpetrator from a target-absent lineup, receiving either unbiased or biased instructions.

Günter Köhnken; Anne Maass

1988-01-01

73

46 CFR 169.730 - General alarm bell switch.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false General alarm bell switch. 169.730 Section 169.730 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.730 General alarm bell switch. On vessels...

2013-10-01

74

46 CFR 161.002-12 - Manual fire alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Manual fire alarm systems. 161.002-12 Section...SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Fire-Protective Systems § 161.002-12 Manual fire alarm systems. (a) General. A...

2013-10-01

75

New data mining technique to enhance IDS alarms quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intrusion detection systems (IDSs) generate large number of alarms most of which are false positives. Fortunately, there\\u000a are reasons for triggering alarms where most of these reasons are not attacks. In this paper, a new data mining technique\\u000a has been developed to group alarms and to produce clusters. Hereafter, each cluster abstracted as a generalized alarm. The\\u000a generalized alarms

Safaa O. Al-Mamory; Hongli Zhang

2010-01-01

76

46 CFR 78.47-5 - General alarm contact makers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General alarm contact makers. 78.47-5 Section 78.47-5...Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-5 General alarm contact makers. Each general alarm contact maker must be marked in accordance with...

2013-10-01

77

46 CFR 153.409 - High level alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false High level alarms. 153.409 Section 153...Cargo Gauging Systems § 153.409 High level alarms. When Table 1 refers...cargo's containment system must have a high level alarm: (a) That gives an...

2010-10-01

78

46 CFR 153.409 - High level alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false High level alarms. 153.409 Section 153...Cargo Gauging Systems § 153.409 High level alarms. When Table 1 refers...cargo's containment system must have a high level alarm: (a) That gives an...

2009-10-01

79

Bilevel alarm monitoring multiplexer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the operation of the Bilevel Alarm Monitoring Multiplexer used in the Adaptive Intrusion Data System (AIDS) to transfer and control alarm signals being sent to the Nova 2 computer, the Memory Controlled Data Processor, and its own integral Display Panel. The multiplexer can handle 48 alarm channels and format the alarms into binary formats compatible with the

Johnson

1977-01-01

80

Experimental Studies Using Median Polish Procedure to Reduce Alarm Rates in Data Cubes of Intrusion Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overwhelming number of alarms generated by rule-based net- work intrusion detection systems makes the task of network security opera- tors ineffective. Preliminary results on an approach called EXOLAP shows that false positives alarms can be avoided by detecting changes on the stream of alarms using a data cube and median polish procedure. A data cube aggre- gates alarms by

Jorge Levera; Benjamín Barán; Robert L. Grossman

2004-01-01

81

Alarm points for fixed oxygen monitors  

SciTech Connect

Oxygen concentration monitors were installed in a vault where numerous pipes carried inert cryogens and gases to the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) experimental vessel at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The problems associated with oxygen-monitoring systems and the reasons why such monitors were installed were reviewed. As a result of this review, the MFTF-B monitors were set to sound an evacuation alarm when the oxygen concentration fell below 18%. We chose the 18% alarm criterion to minimize false alarms and to allow time for personnel to escape in an oxygen-deficient environment.

Miller, G.C.

1987-05-01

82

Network alarm assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Physical intrusion alarm systems provide a structural and operating model that gives useful insights into how to detect intrusions into computer networks. This paper covers one major component of an alarm system called the assessment subsystem. Assessment...

D. J. Bailey

1994-01-01

83

Criticality accident alarm system.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The American National Standard ANSI/ANS-8.3-1986, Criticality Accident Alarm System provides guidance for the establishment and maintenance of an alarm system to initiate personnel evacuation in the event of inadvertent criticality. In addition to identif...

R. E. Malenfant

1991-01-01

84

Intra-operative monitoring--many alarms with minor impact.  

PubMed

Alarms are key components of peri-operative monitoring devices, but a high false-alarm rate may lead to desensitisation and neglect. The objective of this study was to quantify the number of alarms and assess the value of these alarms during moderate-risk surgery. For this purpose, we analysed documentation of anaesthesia workstations during 38 surgical procedures. Alarms were classified on technical validity and clinical relevance. The median (IQR [range]) alarm density per procedure was 20.8 (14.5-34.2 [3.7-85.6]) alarms.h?¹ (1 alarm every 2.9 min) and increased during induction and emergence of anaesthesia, with up to one alarm per 0.99 min during these periods (p < 0.001). Sixty-four per cent of all alarms were clinically irrelevant, whereas 5% of all alarms required immediate intervention. The positive predictive value of an alarm during induction and emergence was 20% (95% CI 16-24%) and 11% (95% CI 8-14%), respectively. This study shows that peri-operative alarms are frequently irrelevant, with a low predictive value for an emerging event requiring clinical intervention. PMID:23745968

de Man, F R; Greuters, S; Boer, C; Veerman, D P; Loer, S A

2013-08-01

85

46 CFR 113.25-25 - General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. 113.25-25 Section...25-25 General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. A manned ocean or coastwise barge of more than 100...

2013-10-01

86

46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 169.732 Section 169.732 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.732 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms....

2013-10-01

87

33 CFR 149.414 - What are the requirements for a fire detection and alarm system?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false What are the requirements for a fire detection and alarm system? 149.414...CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment Firefighting Requirements...414 What are the requirements for a fire detection and alarm system?...

2013-07-01

88

Giving radioiodine? Think about airport security alarms.  

PubMed

An increased sensitivity of airport detectors, a growing number of isotopic tests, and globalization of the society have raised a number of false positive radioactive alarms at airports and public places. This paper presents two new cases of patients who triggered airport security alarms after receiving 740MBq of (131)I for non-toxic goitre and attempts to compare surprisingly limited literature concerning this problem. A 57-year-old man triggered a security alarm at three different airports on the 17th, 28th, and 31st day after radioiodine exposure. Interestingly enough, in the meantime, on the 18th and 22nd day, no radiation was detected in him at the airport where he was twice detained as a source of radiation later on. The second case presents a 45-year-old woman who activated security alarm detectors while crossing a border on her coach trip 28 days after radioiodine administration. PMID:22226338

Kaniuka-Jakubowska, S; Lewczuk, A; Mizan-Gross, K; Obo?o?czyk, L; Lass, P; Sworczak, K

2012-01-01

89

Improved correlation analysis and visualization of industrial alarm data.  

PubMed

The problem of multivariate alarm analysis and rationalization is complex and important in the area of smart alarm management due to the interrelationships between variables. The technique of capturing and visualizing the correlation information, especially from historical alarm data directly, is beneficial for further analysis. In this paper, the Gaussian kernel method is applied to generate pseudo continuous time series from the original binary alarm data. This can reduce the influence of missed, false, and chattering alarms. By taking into account time lags between alarm variables, a correlation color map of the transformed or pseudo data is used to show clusters of correlated variables with the alarm tags reordered to better group the correlated alarms. Thereafter correlation and redundancy information can be easily found and used to improve the alarm settings; and statistical methods such as singular value decomposition techniques can be applied within each cluster to help design multivariate alarm strategies. Industrial case studies are given to illustrate the practicality and efficacy of the proposed method. This improved method is shown to be better than the alarm similarity color map when applied in the analysis of industrial alarm data. PMID:22503464

Yang, F; Shah, S L; Xiao, D; Chen, T

2012-07-01

90

46 CFR 131.810 - General alarm bell.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General alarm bell. 131.810 Section 131.810 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.810 General alarm bell. Each general...

2013-10-01

91

Advanced fire detection using multi-signature alarm algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work was to assess the feasibility of reducing false alarms while increasing sensitivity through the use of combined conventional smoke detectors with carbon monoxide (CO) sensors. This was accomplished through an experimental program using both real (fire) and nuisance alarm sources. A broad selection of sources was used ranging from smoldering wood and flaming fabric to

Daniel T. Gottuk; Michelle J. Peatross; Richard J. Roby; Craig L. Beyler

2002-01-01

92

Alarm toe switch  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alarm toe switch inserted within a shoe for energizing an alarm circuit in a covert manner includes an insole mounting pad into which a miniature reed switch is fixedly molded. An elongated slot perpendicular to the reed switch is formed in the bottom surface of the mounting pad. A permanent cylindrical magnet positioned in the forward portion of the

Ganyard

1982-01-01

93

Alarm toe switch  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alarm toe switch inserted within a shoe for energizing an alarm circuit n a covert manner includes an insole mounting pad into which a miniature reed switch is fixedly molded. An elongated slot perpendicular to the reed switch is formed in the bottom surface of the mounting pad. A permanent cylindrical magnet positioned in the forward portion of the

Ganyard; Floyd P

1982-01-01

94

Deception by flexible alarm mimicry in an African bird.  

PubMed

Deception is common in nature, but victims of deception discriminate against and ultimately ignore deceptive signals when they are produced too frequently. Flexible variation of signals could allow evasion of such constraints. Fork-tailed drongos (Dicrurus adsimilis) use false alarm calls to scare other species away from food that they then steal. We show that drongos mimic the alarms of targeted species. Further, target species reduce their response to false alarm calls when they are repeated. However, the fear response is maintained when the call is varied. Drongos exploit this propensity by changing their alarm-call type when making repeated theft attempts on a particular species. Our results show that drongos can evade the frequency-dependent constraints that typically limit deception payoffs through flexible variation of their alarm calls. PMID:24786078

Flower, Tom P; Gribble, Matthew; Ridley, Amanda R

2014-05-01

95

46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 108.627 Section 108.627...OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT... § 108.627 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide alarm...

2013-10-01

96

46 CFR 35.40-5 - General alarm bells-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false General alarm bells-TB/ALL. 35.40-5 Section 35.40-5 Shipping...OPERATIONS Posting and Marking Requirements-TB/ALL § 35.40-5 General alarm bellsâTB/ALL. General alarm bells must be marked...

2013-10-01

97

46 CFR 35.40-1 - General alarm contact maker-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false General alarm contact maker-TB/ALL. 35.40-1 Section 35.40-1 Shipping...OPERATIONS Posting and Marking Requirements-TB/ALL § 35.40-1 General alarm contact makerâTB/ALL. Each general alarm contact maker...

2013-10-01

98

Chair Alarm for patient fall prevention based on Gesture Recognition and Interactivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gesture Recognition Interactive Technology (GRiT) Chair Alarm aims to prevent patient falls from chairs and wheelchairs by recognizing the gesture of a patient attempting to stand. Patient falls are one of the greatest causes of injury in hospitals. Current chair and bed exit alarm systems are inadequate because of insufficient notification, high false-alarm rate, and long trigger delays. The

Heather Knight; Jae-Kyu Lee; Hongshen Ma

2008-01-01

99

46 CFR 97.37-5 - General alarm bell contact maker.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false General alarm bell contact maker. 97.37-5 Section 97.37-5...Etc. § 97.37-5 General alarm bell contact maker. Each general alarm contact maker must be marked in accordance with...

2013-10-01

100

46 CFR 196.37-5 - General alarm bell contact makers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false General alarm bell contact makers. 196.37-5 Section 196.37-5...etc. § 196.37-5 General alarm bell contact makers. (a) Each general alarm contact maker must be marked in accordance with...

2013-10-01

101

47 CFR 80.307 - Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm. 80.307 Section 80.307 Telecommunication... § 80.307 Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm. The radiotelegraph auto alarm required on a cargo ship subject to the...

2009-10-01

102

47 CFR 80.307 - Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm. 80.307 Section 80.307 Telecommunication... § 80.307 Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm. The radiotelegraph auto alarm required on a cargo ship subject to the...

2010-10-01

103

False labor.  

PubMed

The nature of false labor and its influence on the subsequent course of true labor was examined by a retrospective case-controlled matched study of 83 patients admitted in false labor. Patients with a history of false labor had a significantly greater incidence of dysfunctional labor when true labor did commence. The frequency of cesarean section was also higher, though not statistically significantly so. The dilatation of the cervix and the station of the presenting part at admission were both significantly different in patients with false labor from those in true labor; however, the overlap of these two groups makes this of limited clinical use. Time of day and day of the week did not correlate with the likelihood of being admitted in false labor. PMID:3785787

Schauberger, C W

1986-12-01

104

The Neural Correlates of Conceptual and Perceptual False Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

False recognition, broadly defined as a claim to remember something that was not encountered previously, can arise for multiple reasons. For instance, a distinction can be made between conceptual false recognition (i.e., false alarms resulting from semantic or associative similarities between studied and tested items) and perceptual false

Garoff-Eaton, Rachel J.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.; Schacter, Daniel L.

2007-01-01

105

Criticality accident alarm system  

SciTech Connect

The American National Standard ANSI/ANS-8.3-1986, Criticality Accident Alarm System provides guidance for the establishment and maintenance of an alarm system to initiate personnel evacuation in the event of inadvertent criticality. In addition to identifying the physical features of the components of the system, the characteristics of accidents of concern are carefully delineated. Unfortunately, this ANSI Standard has led to considerable confusion in interpretation, and there is evidence that the minimum accident of concern'' may not be appropriate. Furthermore, although intended as a guide, the provisions of the standard are being rigorously applied, sometimes with interpretations that are not consistent. Although the standard is clear in the use of absorbed dose in free air of 20 rad, at least one installation has interpreted the requirement to apply to dose in soft tissue. The standard is also clear in specifying the response to both neutrons and gamma rays. An assembly of uranyl fluoride enriched to 5% {sup 235}U was operated to simulate a potential accident. The dose, delivered in a free run excursion 2 m from the surface of the vessel, was greater than 500 rad, without ever exceeding a rate of 20 rad/min, which is the set point for activating an alarm that meets the standard. The presence of an alarm system would not have prevented any of the five major accidents in chemical operations nor is it absolutely certain that the alarms were solely responsible for reducing personnel exposures following the accident. Nevertheless, criticality alarm systems are now the subject of great effort and expense. 13 refs.

Malenfant, R.E.

1991-01-01

106

Fork-tailed drongos use deceptive mimicked alarm calls to steal food  

PubMed Central

Despite the prevalence of vocal mimicry in animals, few functions for this behaviour have been shown. I propose a novel hypothesis that false mimicked alarm calls could be used deceptively to scare other species and steal their food. Studies have previously suggested that animals use their own species-specific alarm calls to steal food. However none have shown conclusively that these false alarms are deceptive, or that mimicked alarm calls are used in this manner. Here, I show that wild fork-tailed drongos (Dicrurus adsimilis) make both drongo-specific and mimicked false alarm calls when watching target species handling food, in response to which targets flee to cover abandoning their food. The drongo-specific and mimicked calls made in false alarms were structurally indistinguishable from calls made during true alarms at predators by drongos and other species. Furthermore, I demonstrate by playback experiments that two of these species, meerkats (Suricata suricatta) and pied babblers (Turdoides bicolor), are deceived by both drongo-specific and mimicked false alarm calls. These results provide the first conclusive evidence that false alarm calls are deceptive and demonstrate a novel function for vocal mimicry. This work also provides valuable insight into the benefits of deploying variable mimetic signals in deceptive communication.

Flower, Tom

2011-01-01

107

Target Motion Analysis in the Presence of False Alarm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Usually, Target Motion Analysis (TMA) is based upon the Gaussian statistical assumption for the additive corrupting measurement noise. As a consequence, the Least Square Estimator (LSE) is equal to the Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE). In this paper, we propose a general formulation for TMA problems when the available measurement at each sampling time is either a true detection or a

C. Jauffret; Y. Bar-Shalom

1992-01-01

108

False Alarm: A Massaging Numb Values Crisis Intervention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses the problem of students who want to do well but cannot manage the effects of failure or wrong actions. They have a conscience and experience guilt when they err, but rather than using mistakes as opportunities to rectify their behavior, they are overwhelmed by their inadequacy, which leads to self-defeating patterns of behavior.…

Hewitt, Mary Beth; Long, Nicholas J.

1999-01-01

109

Expected Detection and False Alarm Rates for Transiting Jovian Planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground-based searches for transiting Jupiter-sized planets have so far\\u000aproduced few detections of planets, but many of stellar systems with eclipse\\u000adepths, durations, and orbital periods that resemble those expected from\\u000aplanets. I show that these detection rates are consistent with our present\\u000aknowledge of binary and multiple-star systems, and of Jovian-mass extrasolar\\u000aplanets. Upcoming space-based searches for transiting Earth-sized

Timothy M. Brown

2003-01-01

110

Four False Alarms and Two Beams of Light. Review Essay.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The alarmist tone of four of these books is consistent with the surging anti-immigration sentiment of the mid-1990s. None is a serious effort to analyze the complex effects of immigration in the United States. The other two books reviewed present thoughtful and carefully researched examinations of immigration questions. (SLD)

Fuchs, Lawrence H.

1996-01-01

111

Ship Navigation Alarm System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report covers all work done under Contract DAAK02-68-C-0513 by Stewart Warner Electronics (SWE), Chicago, Ill., from 28 June 1968 till 15 July 1969 to develop and test the Ship Navigation Alarm System (SNAS). The prime objective was to determine whet...

H. J. Osinga

1969-01-01

112

False Dichotomies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the origins and implications of the false dichotomy between teaching and research. Finds the roots of the dichotomy in public schools. Addresses problems caused by failure to recognize the links between teaching and research, including cultural dissonance, faculty isolation from their discipline, and benefits of faculty research. (DMM)

Block, Jonathan

1991-01-01

113

Automatic Alarm for Fluorescent Blinking.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Alarming mechanism, sounding and/or flashing, which signals fluorescent lamp malfunctioning as visibly manifested by flickering. The alarming mechanism according to this invention electrically engages the starter mechanism of a fluorescent lamp and is res...

C. J. Fleck C. J. Fleck R. Bohenski

1995-01-01

114

Alarm effectiveness in driver-centred collision-warning systems.  

PubMed

The potential use of systems that seek to communicate a warning of impending collision directly to the driver is examined. Technological advances in collision-warning systems include reliable, low-cost radars, sensors with low noise levels, and the development of accurate detection algorithms for particular crash types, e.g. rear-end collisions. However, fundamental practical constraints make perfect sensor detection difficult to achieve. Imperfect detection conflates the false alarm rate and experience with other technologies confirms driver aversion to false warnings. Although sensitive alarm systems with high detection rates and low false alarm rates have been developed, the posterior probability of a collision given an alarm can be quite low because of the low base rate of collision events. As a result, only a small proportion of alarms will represent true collision scenarios. These and other factors can conspire to reduce alarm effectiveness in collision-warning systems. The problem is illustrated analytically and potential solutions are advanced. PMID:9118938

Parasuraman, R; Hancock, P A; Olofinboba, O

1997-03-01

115

False Memories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use this activity (10th on the page) to help learners explore memory and how sometimes your brain makes up its own memories. Learners will read and try to remember the words in list #1. Five minutes later, learners will try to remember which words on list #2 they remember from list #1. Learners will be surprised to find out that their brains can be easily tricked. This activity guide includes two word challenges. Learners can make up their own lists to see if they can create false memories.

Chudler, Eric H.

2010-01-01

116

Semi-supervised detection of intracranial pressure alarms using waveform dynamics.  

PubMed

Patient monitoring systems in intensive care units (ICU) are usually set to trigger alarms when abnormal values are detected. Alarms are generated by threshold-crossing rules that lead to high false alarm rates. This is a recognized issue that causes alarm fatigue, waste of human resources, and increased patient risks. Recently developed smart alarm models require alarms to be validated by experts during the training phase. The manual annotation process involved is time-consuming and virtually impossible to achieve for the thousands of alarms recorded in the ICU every week. To tackle this problem, we investigate in this study if the use of semi-supervised learning methods, that can naturally integrate unlabeled data samples in the model, can be used to improve the accuracy of the alarm detection. As a proof of concept, the detection system is evaluated on intracranial pressure (ICP) signal alarms. Specific morphological and trending features are extracted from the ICP signal waveform to capture the dynamic of the signal prior to alarms. This study is based on a comprehensive dataset of 4791 manually labeled alarms recorded from 108 neurosurgical patients. A comparative analysis is provided between kernel spectral regression (SR-KDA) and support vector machine (SVM) both modified for the semi-supervised setting. Results obtained during the experimental evaluations indicate that the two models can significantly reduce false alarms using unlabeled samples; especially in the presence of a restrained number of labeled examples. At a true alarm recognition rate of 99%, the false alarm reduction rates improved from 9% (supervised) to 27% (semi-supervised) for SR-KDA, and from 3% (supervised) to 16% (semi-supervised) for SVM. PMID:23524637

Scalzo, Fabien; Hu, Xiao

2013-04-01

117

Development of a GLE Alarm System Based Upon Neutron Monitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a system that watches for count rate increases recorded in real time by eight neutron monitors, and gives an alarm when a Ground Level Enhancement (GLE) is detected. In this work, we determine optimal strategies for detecting the GLE event at a very early stage, while still keeping the false alarm rate from glitches at a very low level. The January 20, 2005 event will be used to illustrate our methods. A reliable system is developed with an algorithm that produces alarms in three levels according to the number of stations showing an increase. We study past events to optimize appropriate intensity threshold values and a baseline to determine the intensity increase. At the highest level alarm produced by the three stations increase, a false alarm rate expected from the observed data during the past five years become zero. Alarm times of GLEs examined from the most recent nine events are compared with satellite proton data. The GLE alert would precede the earliest alert from GOES (100 MeV or 10 MeV protons) by ~10-20 minutes. For the January 20 event, the GLE alert (3 stations) was generated 12 minutes prior to the earliest GOES alert. The realtime GLE data may be viewed at http://neutronm.bartol.udel.edu/spaceweather. An automated e-mail alert system is under development. Supported by NSF grants ATM-0207196 and ATM-0000315.

Kuwabara, T.; Bieber, J. W.; Clem, J.; Evenson, P.; Pyle, R.

2005-12-01

118

Functional relationship-based alarm processing  

DOEpatents

A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously updated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on causal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). 11 figs.

Corsberg, D.R.

1987-04-13

119

Alarm toe switch  

DOEpatents

An alarm toe switch inserted within a shoe for energizing an alarm circuit n a covert manner includes an insole mounting pad into which a miniature reed switch is fixedly molded. An elongated slot perpendicular to the reed switch is formed in the bottom surface of the mounting pad. A permanent cylindrical magnet positioned in the forward portion of the slot with a diameter greater than the pad thickness causes a bump above the pad. A foam rubber block is also positioned in the slot rearwardly of the magnet and holds the magnet in normal inoperative relation. A non-magnetic support plate covers the slot and holds the magnet and foam rubber in the slot. The plate minimizes bending and frictional forces to improve movement of the magnet for reliable switch activation. The bump occupies the knuckle space beneath the big toe. When the big toe is scrunched rearwardly the magnet is moved within the slot relative to the reed switch, thus magnetically activating the switch. When toe pressure is released the foam rubber block forces the magnet back into normal inoperative position to deactivate the reed switch. The reed switch is hermetically sealed with the magnet acting through the wall so the switch assembly S is capable of reliable operation even in wet and corrosive environments.

Ganyard, Floyd P. (Albuquerque, NM)

1982-01-01

120

When false recognition is unopposed by true recognition: Gist-based memory distortion in Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examined false recognition of semantic associates in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD), older adults, and young adults using a paradigm that provided rates of false recognition after single and multiple exposures to word lists. Using corrected false recognition scores to control for unrelated false alarms, the authors found that (a) the level of false recognition after a

Andrew E. Budson; Kirk R. Daffner; Rahul Desikan; Daniel L. Schacter

2000-01-01

121

Alarm toe switch. [Patent application  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alarm toe switch inserted within a shoe for energizing an alarm circuit in a covert manner includes an insole mounting pad into which a miniature reed switch is fixedly molded. An elongated slot perpendicular to the reed switch is formed in the bottom surface of the mounting pad. A permanent cylindrical magnet positioned in the forward portion of the

Ganyard

1980-01-01

122

Talking Fire Alarms Calm Kids.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The new microprocessor-based fire alarm systems can help to control smoke movement throughout school buildings by opening vents and doors, identify the burning section, activate voice alarms, provide firefighters with telephone systems during the fire, and release fire-preventing gas. (KS)

Executive Educator, 1984

1984-01-01

123

Alarm Characterization for Continuous Glucose Monitors Used as Adjuncts to Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose  

PubMed Central

Background Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) devices available in the United States are approved for use as adjuncts to self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). Alarm evaluation in the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guideline for CGM does not specifically address devices that employ both CGM and SMBG. In this report, an alarm evaluation method is proposed for these devices. Method The proposed method builds on the CLSI method using data from an in-clinic study of subjects with type 1 diabetes. CGM was used to detect glycemic events, and SMBG was used to determine treatment. To optimize detection of a single glucose level, such as 70 mg/dl, a range of alarm threshold settings was evaluated. The alarm characterization provides a choice of alarm settings that trade off detection and false alarms. Detection of a range of high glucose levels was similarly evaluated. Results Using low glucose alarms, detection of 70 mg/dl within 30 minutes increased from 64 to 97% as alarm settings increased from 70 to100 mg/dl, and alarms that did not require treatment (SMBG >85 mg/dl) increased from 18 to 52%. Using high glucose alarms, detection of 180 mg/dl within 30 minutes increased from 87 to 96% as alarm settings decreased from 180 to 165 mg/dl, and alarms that did not require treatment (SMBG <180 mg/dl) increased from 24 to 42%. Conclusion The proposed alarm evaluation method provides information for choosing appropriate alarm thresholds and reflects the clinical utility of CGM alarms.

McGarraugh, Geoffrey

2010-01-01

124

46 CFR 78.47-13 - Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells. 78.47-13...manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells. (a) The fire...manual alarm automatic sprinklers, and smoke detecting alarm bells in the engine room...

2013-10-01

125

Automated detection of alarm sounds  

PubMed Central

Two approaches to the automated detection of alarm sounds are compared, one based on a change in overall sound level (RMS), the other a change in periodicity, as given by the power of the normalized autocorrelation function (PNA). Receiver operating characteristics in each case were obtained for different exemplars of four classes of alarm sounds (bells/chimes, buzzers/beepers, horns/whistles, and sirens) embedded in four noise backgrounds (cafeteria, park, traffic, and music). The results suggest that PNA combined with RMS may be used to improve current alarm-sound alerting technologies for the hard-of-hearing.

Lutfi, Robert A.; Heo, Inseok

2012-01-01

126

The "Let's Get Alarmed!" initiative: a smoke alarm giveaway programme  

PubMed Central

Objectives—To reduce fires and fire related injuries by increasing the prevalence of functioning smoke alarms in high risk households. Setting—The programme was delivered in an inner London area with above average material deprivation and below average smoke alarm ownership. The target population included low income and rental households and households with elderly persons or young children. Methods—Forty wards, averaging 4000 households each, were randomised to intervention or control status. Free smoke alarms and fire safety information were distributed in intervention wards by community groups and workers as part of routine activities and by paid workers who visited target neighbourhoods. Recipients provided data on household age distribution and housing tenure. Programme costs were documented from a societal perspective. Data are being collected on smoke alarm ownership and function, and on fires and related injuries and their costs. Results—Community and paid workers distributed 20 050 smoke alarms, potentially sufficient to increase smoke alarm ownership by 50% in intervention wards. Compared with the total study population, recipients included greater proportions of low income and rental households and households including children under 5 years or adults aged 65 and older. Total programme costs were £145 087. Conclusions—It is possible to implement a large scale smoke alarm giveaway programme targeted to high risk households in a densely populated, multicultural, materially deprived community. The programme's effects on the prevalence of installed and functioning alarms and the incidence of fires and fire related injuries, and its cost effectiveness, are being evaluated as a randomised controlled trial.

DiGuiseppi, C.; Slater, S.; Roberts, I.; Adams, L.; Sculpher, M.; Wade, A.; McCarthy, M.

1999-01-01

127

Ultrasonic Technology in Duress Alarms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides the pros and cons of the most commonly used technologies in personal duress alarm systems in the school environment. Discussed are radio frequency devices, infrared systems, and ultrasonic technology. (GR)

Lee, Martha A.

2000-01-01

128

USE OF ACID LAKE REACIDIFICATION MODEL (ALaRM) TO ASSESS IMPACT OF BOTTOM SEDIMENTS ON CALCIUM CARBONATE TREATED LAKES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model (ALaRM) for predicting the reacidification profile of calcium carbonate treated lakes has been calibrated and confirmed using data from two Lake Acidification Mitigation Project (LAMP) lakes. This manuscript focused on the use of ALaRM to evaluate the relative impact of bottom sediment processes on the reacidification rate of the LAMP lakes. Prior to liming the lakes exhibited

Joseph V. DePinto; Richard D. Scheffe; Thomas C. Young; William G. Booty; James R. Rhea

1987-01-01

129

Functional relationship-based alarm processing system  

DOEpatents

A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the functional relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated or deactivated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously updated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on causal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). The alarm processing system and method is sensitive to the dynamic nature of the process being monitored and is capable of changing the relative importance of each alarm as necessary. 12 figs.

Corsberg, D.R.

1988-04-22

130

Use of pagers with an alarm escalation system to reduce cardiac monitor alarm signals.  

PubMed

Alarm fatigue desensitizes nurses to alarm signals and presents potential for patient harm. This project describes an innovative method of communicating cardiac monitor alarms to pagers using an alarm escalation algorithm. This innovation was tested on 2 surgical progressive care units over a 6-month period. There was a significant decrease in mean frequency and duration of high-priority monitor alarms and improvement in nurses' perception of alarm response time, using this method of alarm communication. PMID:23963169

Cvach, Maria M; Frank, Robert J; Doyle, Pete; Stevens, Zeina Khouri

2014-01-01

131

44 CFR 78.6 - Flood Mitigation Plan approval process.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flood Mitigation Plan approval process. 78.6 Section...SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION ASSISTANCE § 78.6 Flood...

2013-10-01

132

44 CFR 78.5 - Flood Mitigation Plan development.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flood Mitigation Plan development. 78.5 Section 78...SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION ASSISTANCE § 78.5 Flood...

2013-10-01

133

44 CFR 201.6 - Local Mitigation Plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Local Mitigation...OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE MITIGATION...revise its plan to reflect changes in development, progress...mitigation efforts, and changes in priorities, and...

2010-10-01

134

False recognition after a right frontal lobe infarction: Memory for general and specific information  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously reported a case study of a man with right frontal lobe damage, BG, who showed extraordinarily high false alarm rates on remember-know recognition tests (Schacter, D. L. et al., Neuropsychologia, 1996, Vol. 34, pp. 793–808). Experiment 1 extends his high false alarm rate to yes-no recognition tests. BG typically gives false ‘remember’ responses on remember-know tests, and this

Tim Curran; Daniel L. Schacter; Kenneth A. Norman; Lissa Galluccio

1997-01-01

135

Structural damage alarming using auto-associative neural network technique: Exploration of environment-tolerant capacity and setup of alarming threshold  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the intention of avoiding false-positive and false-negative alarms in structural damage alarming using the auto-associative neural network (AANN) technique, two issues pertaining to this technique are addressed in this study. The first issue explored is the environment-tolerant capacity of the AANN. Efforts have been made to seek a generalization technique to enhance the environment-tolerant capacity. First, a baseline AANN model is formulated using the conventional training algorithm. Generalization techniques including AIC and FPE, early stopping, and Bayesian regularization are then investigated, resulting in three new AANN models. Their environment-tolerant capacity is evaluated as per their capability to avoid false-positive and false-negative alarms. The other issue addressed is the setup of alarming threshold, with intent to reduce the uncertainty in AANN-based structural damage alarming. A procedure based on the probability analysis of the novelty index is proposed for this purpose. First, the novelty index characterizing the intact structure is analyzed by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit test to obtain its best-fit continuous probability distribution. A confidence interval is then defined in consideration of the compromise between type I and type II errors. The alarming threshold of the novelty index is consequently set at the upper limit of the confidence interval. The above explorations are examined by using the long-term monitoring data on modal properties of the cable-stayed Ting Kau Bridge. The capability to eliminate false-positive alarm is verified by using unseen testing data which were not used in formulating the AANN models, while the capability to alleviate false-negative alarm is examined by using simulated data from the 'damaged' bridge with the help of a precise finite element model. The study indicates that the early stopping technique performs best in improving the environment-tolerant capacity of the AANN, and the alarming threshold set by the proposed procedure helps to reduce the uncertainty in AANN-based structural damage alarming.

Zhou, H. F.; Ni, Y. Q.; Ko, J. M.

2011-07-01

136

Composition of aphid alarm pheromones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of single cornicle droplets from six species of aphid showed the presence of volatile components in addition to (E)-ß-farnesene. Compounds identified included (Z,E)-a- and (E,E)-a-farnesene forMyzus persicae and a- and ß-pinene forMegoura viciae. WithMegoura viciae, (-)-a-pinene was most important for alarm activity. The major component of the alarm pheromone ofPhorodon humuli was (E)-ß-farnesene even though farnesenes are present in

J. A. Pickett; D. C. Griffiths

1980-01-01

137

[False recognition in visual short-term memory of the elderly is affected by test methods].  

PubMed

We confirmed an increase in false recognition for visual short-term memory of the elderly using a recognition task, which was affected by the test method. Old/new judgments and a forced-choice task were used as the recognition tasks and the hit rate, false alarm rate, and d' for each task were compared across age groups. The results indicated that there were significant differences in the hit rate, false alarm rate and d' across age groups for both recognition tasks. However, in the forced-choice task, where judgments could depend on familiarity, the false alarm rate among the elderly group decreased and differences in d' across age groups became smaller. The elderly could input sight information, but had more difficulty to input the geometric details. We concluded that the false alarm rate for short term visual memory increases in the elderly, but it decreases when recognition judgments can be made based on familiarity. PMID:22117305

Kunimi, Mitsunobu; Matsukawa, Junko

2011-10-01

138

COMPARISON OF RADIO-FREQUENCY INTERFERENCE MITIGATION STRATEGIES FOR DISPERSED PULSE DETECTION  

SciTech Connect

Impulsive radio-frequency signals from astronomical sources are dispersed by the frequency-dependent index of refraction of the interstellar media and so appear as chirped signals when they reach Earth. Searches for dispersed impulses have been limited by false detections due to radio-frequency interference (RFI) and, in some cases, artifacts of the instrumentation. Many authors have discussed techniques to excise or mitigate RFI in searches for fast transients, but comparisons between different approaches are lacking. This work develops RFI mitigation techniques for use in searches for dispersed pulses, employing data recorded in a 'Fly's Eye' mode of the Allen Telescope Array as a test case. We gauge the performance of several RFI mitigation techniques by adding dispersed signals to data containing RFI and comparing false alarm rates at the observed signal-to-noise ratios of the added signals. We find that Huber filtering is most effective at removing broadband interferers, while frequency centering is most effective at removing narrow frequency interferers. Neither of these methods is effective over a broad range of interferers. A method that combines Huber filtering and adaptive interference cancelation provides the lowest number of false positives over the interferers considered here. The methods developed here have application to other searches for dispersed pulses in incoherent spectra, especially those involving multiple beam systems.

Hogden, John; Vander Wiel, Scott; Michalak, Sarah [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, NM (United States); Bower, Geoffrey C.; Siemion, Andrew; Werthimer, Daniel [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States)

2012-03-10

139

Comparison of Radio-frequency Interference Mitigation Strategies for Dispersed Pulse Detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Impulsive radio-frequency signals from astronomical sources are dispersed by the frequency-dependent index of refraction of the interstellar media and so appear as chirped signals when they reach Earth. Searches for dispersed impulses have been limited by false detections due to radio-frequency interference (RFI) and, in some cases, artifacts of the instrumentation. Many authors have discussed techniques to excise or mitigate RFI in searches for fast transients, but comparisons between different approaches are lacking. This work develops RFI mitigation techniques for use in searches for dispersed pulses, employing data recorded in a "Fly's Eye" mode of the Allen Telescope Array as a test case. We gauge the performance of several RFI mitigation techniques by adding dispersed signals to data containing RFI and comparing false alarm rates at the observed signal-to-noise ratios of the added signals. We find that Huber filtering is most effective at removing broadband interferers, while frequency centering is most effective at removing narrow frequency interferers. Neither of these methods is effective over a broad range of interferers. A method that combines Huber filtering and adaptive interference cancelation provides the lowest number of false positives over the interferers considered here. The methods developed here have application to other searches for dispersed pulses in incoherent spectra, especially those involving multiple beam systems.

Hogden, John; Vander Wiel, Scott; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Michalak, Sarah; Siemion, Andrew; Werthimer, Daniel

2012-03-01

140

The false classification of extinction risk in noisy environments.  

PubMed

Abundance trends are the basis for many classifications of threat and recovery status, but they can be a challenge to interpret because of observation error, stochastic variation in abundance (process noise) and temporal autocorrelation in that process noise. To measure the frequency of incorrectly detecting a decline (false-positive or false alarm) and failing to detect a true decline (false-negative), we simulated stable and declining abundance time series across several magnitudes of observation error and autocorrelated process noise. We then empirically estimated the magnitude of observation error and autocorrelated process noise across a broad range of taxa and mapped these estimates onto the simulated parameter space. Based on the taxa we examined, at low classification thresholds (30% decline in abundance) and short observation windows (10 years), false alarms would be expected to occur, on average, about 40% of the time assuming density-independent dynamics, whereas false-negatives would be expected to occur about 60% of the time. However, false alarms and failures to detect true declines were reduced at higher classification thresholds (50% or 80% declines), longer observation windows (20, 40, 60 years), and assuming density-dependent dynamics. The lowest false-positive and false-negative rates are likely to occur for large-bodied, long-lived animal species. PMID:24898368

Connors, B M; Cooper, A B; Peterman, R M; Dulvy, N K

2014-07-22

141

Security and Fire Alarm Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This PowerPoint from the Convergence Technology Center presents information on security and fire alarm systems. This material would be useful for students learning these concepts for the first time, or as an overview. Topics include home security, zones, subzones, smoke detectors, wireless systems and more.

Carranza, Julian; Harsh, Mike

2013-07-18

142

Is alarm calling risky? Marmots avoid calling from risky places  

PubMed Central

Alarm calling is common in many species. A prevalent assumption is that calling puts the vocalizing individual at increased risk of predation. If calling is indeed costly, we need special explanations for its evolution and maintenance. In some, but not all species, callers vocalize away from safety and thus may be exposed to an increased risk of predation. However, for species that emit bouts with one or a few calls, it is often difficult to identify the caller and find the precise location where a call was produced. We analyzed the spatial dynamics of yellow-bellied marmot (Marmota flaviventris) alarm calling using an acoustic localization system to determine the location from which calls were emitted. Marmots almost always called from positions close to the safety of their burrows, and, if they produced more than one alarm call, tended to end their calling bouts closer to safety than they started them. These results suggest that for this species, potential increased predation risk from alarm calling is greatly mitigated and indeed calling may have limited predation costs.

Collier, Travis C.; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Girod, Lewis; Taylor, Charles E.

2010-01-01

143

A Dynamic EnRoute Scheme for Filtering False Data Injection in Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a dynamic en-route filtering scheme for false data injection attacks in wireless sensor networks. In sensor networks, adversaries can inject false data reports containing bogus sensor readings or nonexistent events from compromised nodes. Such attacks may not only cause false alarms, but also drain out the limited energy of sensor nodes. Several existing schemes for

Zhen Yu; Yong Guan

2006-01-01

144

Hornbills can distinguish between primate alarm calls.  

PubMed

Some mammals distinguish between and respond appropriately to the alarm calls of other mammal and bird species. However, the ability of birds to distinguish between mammal alarm calls has not been investigated. Diana monkeys (Cercopithecus diana) produce different alarm calls to two predators: crowned eagles (Stephanoaetus coronatus) and leopards (Panthera pardus). Yellow-casqued hornbills (Ceratogymna elata) are vulnerable to predation by crowned eagles but are not preyed on by leopards and might therefore be expected to respond to the Diana monkey eagle alarm call but not to the leopard alarm call. We compared responses of hornbills to playback of eagle shrieks, leopard growls, Diana monkey eagle alarm calls and Diana monkey leopard alarm calls and found that they distinguished appropriately between the two predator vocalizations as well as between the two Diana monkey alarm calls. We discuss possible mechanisms leading to these responses. PMID:15209110

Rainey, Hugo J; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Slater, Peter J B

2004-04-01

145

Priority coding for control room alarms  

DOEpatents

Indicating the priority of a spatially fixed, activated alarm tile on an alarm tile array by a shape coding at the tile, and preferably using the same shape coding wherever the same alarm condition is indicated elsewhere in the control room. The status of an alarm tile can change automatically or by operator acknowledgement, but tones and/or flashing cues continue to provide status information to the operator.

Scarola, Kenneth (Windsor, CT); Jamison, David S. (Windsor, CT); Manazir, Richard M. (North Canton, CT); Rescorl, Robert L. (Vernon, CT); Harmon, Daryl L. (Enfield, CT)

1994-01-01

146

Semantic Alarms in Medical Device Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe preliminary work on semantic alarms, a framework for context-sensitive clinical alerts. Semantic alarms are intended for deployment in a multi-parameter vital sign monitoring system. Requirements for device and data interoperability within this system are discussed. Extended examples are provided for sepsis and congestive heart failure disease state alarms.

Albert Goldfain; Atanu Roy Chowdhury; Min Xu; Jim DelloStritto; Jonathan Bona; Blue Highway

147

Improved alarm tracking for better accountability  

SciTech Connect

An alarm system is a vital component of any accelerator, as it provides a warning that some element of the system is not functioning properly. The severity and age of the alarm may sometimes signify whether urgent or deferred attention is required. For example, older alarms may be given a lower priority if an assumption is made that someone else is already investigating it, whereas those of higher severity or alarms that are more current may indicate the need for an immediate response. The alarm history also provides valuable information regarding the functionality of the overall system, thus careful tracking of these data is likely to improve response time, remove uncertainty about the current status and assist in the ability to promptly respond to the same warning/trigger in the future. Since one goal of every alarm display is to be free of alarms, a clear and concise presentation of an alarm along with useful historic annotations can help the end user address the warning more quickly, thus expediting the elimination of such alarm conditions. By defining a discrete set of very specific alarm management states and by utilizing database resources to maintain a complete and easily accessible alarm history, we anticipate facilitated work flow due to more efficient operator response and management of alarms.

Nemesure, S.; Marr, G.; Shrey, T.; Kling, N.; Hammons, L.; Ingrassia, P.; D'Ottavio, T.

2011-03-28

148

The strategic nature of false recognition in the DRM paradigm.  

PubMed

The false memory effect produced by the Deese/Roediger & McDermott (DRM) paradigm is reportedly impervious to warnings to avoid false alarming to the critical lures (D. A. Gallo, H. L. Roediger III, & K. B. McDermott, 2001). This finding has been used as strong evidence against models that attribute the false alarms to a decision process (e.g., M. B. Miller & G. L. Wolford, 1999). In this report, the authors clarify their earlier article and suggest that subjects establish only 2 underlying criteria for a recognition judgment, a liberal criterion for items that seem to be related to 1 of the study list themes and a conservative criterion for items that do not seem to be related. They demonstrate that warnings designed on the basis of these underlying criteria are effective in significantly suppressing the false recognition effect, suggesting that strategic control of the retrieval response does play a role in the DRM paradigm. PMID:21767060

Miller, Michael B; Guerin, Scott A; Wolford, George L

2011-09-01

149

HYBRID ALARM SYSTEMS: COMBINING SPATIAL ALARMS AND ALARM LISTS FOR OPTIMIZED CONTROL ROOM OPERATION  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research, development, and deployment on Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS), in which the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is working closely with nuclear utilities to develop technologies and solutions to help ensure the safe operational life extension of current nuclear power plants. One of the main areas of focus is control room modernization. Within control room modernization, alarm system upgrades present opportunities to meet the broader goals of the LWRS project in demonstrating the use and safety of the advanced instrumentation and control (I&C) technologies and the short-term and longer term objectives of the plant. In this paper, we review approaches for and human factors issues behind upgrading alarms in the main control room of nuclear power plants.

Ronald L. Boring; J.J. Persensky

2012-07-01

150

MSPI False Indication Probability Simulations  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines false indication probabilities in the context of the Mitigating System Performance Index (MSPI), in order to investigate the pros and cons of different approaches to resolving two coupled issues: (1) sensitivity to the prior distribution used in calculating the Bayesian-corrected unreliability contribution to the MSPI, and (2) whether (in a particular plant configuration) to model the fuel oil transfer pump (FOTP) as a separate component, or integrally to its emergency diesel generator (EDG). False indication probabilities were calculated for the following situations: (1) all component reliability parameters at their baseline values, so that the true indication is green, meaning that an indication of white or above would be false positive; (2) one or more components degraded to the extent that the true indication would be (mid) white, and “false” would be green (negative) or yellow (negative) or red (negative). In key respects, this was the approach taken in NUREG-1753. The prior distributions examined were the constrained noninformative (CNI) prior used currently by the MSPI, a mixture of conjugate priors, the Jeffreys noninformative prior, a nonconjugate log(istic)-normal prior, and the minimally informative prior investigated in (Kelly et al., 2010). The mid-white performance state was set at ?CDF = ?10 ? 10-6/yr. For each simulated time history, a check is made of whether the calculated ?CDF is above or below 10-6/yr. If the parameters were at their baseline values, and ?CDF > 10-6/yr, this is counted as a false positive. Conversely, if one or all of the parameters are set to values corresponding to ?CDF > 10-6/yr but that time history’s ?CDF < 10-6/yr, this is counted as a false negative indication. The false indication (positive or negative) probability is then estimated as the number of false positive or negative counts divided by the number of time histories (100,000). Results are presented for a set of base case parameter values, and three sensitivity cases in which the number of FOTP demands was reduced, along with the Birnbaum importance of the FOTP.

Dana Kelly; Kurt Vedros; Robert Youngblood

2011-03-01

151

Clinical Evaluation of a Noninvasive Alarm System for Nocturnal Hypoglycemia  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a prototype noninvasive alarm system (HypoMon®) for the detection of nocturnal hypoglycemia. A prospective cohort study evaluated an alarm system that included a sensor belt, a radio frequency transmitter for chest belt signals, and a receiver. The receiver incorporated integrated “real-time” algorithms designed to recognize hypoglycemia “signatures” in the physiological parameters monitored by the sensor belt. Methods Fifty-two children and young adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) participated in this blinded, prospective, in-clinic, overnight study. Participants had a mean age of 16 years (standard deviation 2.1, range 12–20 years) and were asked to follow their normal meal and insulin routines for the day of the study. Participants had physiological parameters monitored overnight by a single HypoMon system. Their BG levels were also monitored overnight at regular intervals via an intravenous cannula and read on two independent Yellow Springs Instruments analyzers. Hypoglycemia was not induced by any manipulations of diabetes management, rather the subjects were monitored overnight for “natural” occurrences of hypoglycemia. Performance analyses included comparing HypoMon system alarm times with allowed time windows associated with each hypoglycemic event. Results The primary recognition algorithm in the prototype alarm system performed at a level consistent with expectations based on prior user surveys. The HypoMon system correctly recognized 8 out of the 11 naturally occurring overnight hypoglycemic events and falsely alarmed on 13 out of the remaining 41 normal nights [sensitivity 73% (8/11), specificity 68% (28/41), positive predictive value 38%,negative predictive value 90%]. Conclusion The prototype HypoMon shows potential as an adjunct method for noninvasive overnight monitoring for hypoglycemia events in young people with T1DM.

Skladnev, Victor N.; Ghevondian, Nejhdeh; Tarnavskii, Stanislav; Paramalingam, Nirubasini; Jones, Timothy W.

2010-01-01

152

Minimum fire alarm sound pressure level for elder care centres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some building occupants cannot hear the activated fire alarm nor can they recognize the alarm, although the fire alarm system has been installed to the acceptable standard. Measurements of fire alarm sound pressure levels (SPLs) in five elder care centres showed that the sound output of a fire alarm can be depreciated after installation. The alarm level of a new

L. T. Wong; L. K. Leung

2005-01-01

153

Alarm sensor apparatus for closures  

DOEpatents

An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or framework and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

Carlson, J.A.; Stoddard, L.M.

1984-01-31

154

Alarm sensor apparatus for closures  

DOEpatents

An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or frame work and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

Carlson, James A. (Thornton, CO); Stoddard, Lawrence M. (Arvada, CO)

1986-01-01

155

Alarm toe switch. [Patent application  

DOEpatents

An alarm toe switch inserted within a shoe for energizing an alarm circuit in a covert manner includes an insole mounting pad into which a miniature reed switch is fixedly molded. An elongated slot perpendicular to the reed switch is formed in the bottom surface of the mounting pad. A permanent cylindrical magnet positioned in the forward portion of the slot with a diameter greater than the pad thickness causes a bump above the pad. A foam rubber block is also positioned in the slot rearwardly of the magnet and holds the magnet in normal inoperative relation. A non-magnetic support plate covers the slot and holds the magnet and foam rubber in the slot. The plate minimizes bending and frictional forces to improve movement of the magnet for reliable switch activation. The bump occupies the knuckle space beneath the big toe. When the big toe is scrunched rearwardly the magnet is moved within the slot relative to the reed switch, thus magnetically activating the switch. When toe pressure is released the foam rubber block forces the magnet back into normal inoperative position to deactivate the reed switch.

Ganyard, F.P.

1980-11-18

156

An Earthquake Alarm System for the Marmara Region,Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An Earthquake Alarm System For the Marmara Region, Turkey. M.Ekinci, C.Gurbuz, R.M. Allen Marmara region is tectonically very active and destructive earthquakes occurred in the past. Istanbul and other major cities around the Marmara region can face a significant earthquake hazard in the next thirty years the main Marmara Fault can create an earthquake moment magnitude as week as 7.5 A short-term seismic hazard mitigation in the Marmara region can be very useful.Shot-term hazard mitigation requires information on coming groun motion a few seconds to tens of seconds prior to its arrival.A proposed earthquake alarm system using the MARNET and NANOMET seismic networks could issue a warning a few seconds ahead of damaging groun motion.We proposed system uses the frequency content of P arrival to determine earthquake magnitude, an aproach that allows magnitude determination prior to any damaging ground motion. In this study we applied this method to earthquakes with a magnitude range of 3.0 and 5.1 between 2002 and 2003 in the Marmara region.

Ekinci, M.; Gurbuz, C.; Allen, R. M.

2003-12-01

157

Testing alarm-based earthquake predictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Motivated by a recent resurgence in earthquake predictability research, we present a method for testing alarm-based earthquake predictions. The testing method is based on the Molchan diagram—a plot of miss rate and fraction of space-time occupied by alarm—and is applicable to a wide class of predictions, including probabilistic earthquake forecasts varying in space, time, and magnitude. A single alarm

J. Douglas Zechar; Thomas H. Jordan

2008-01-01

158

Neural Mechanisms of Alarm Pheromone Signaling  

PubMed Central

Alarm pheromones are important semiochemicals used by many animal species to alert conspecifics or other related species of impending danger. In this review, we describe recent developments in our understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying the ability of fruit flies, zebrafish and mice to mediate the detection of alarm pheromones. Specifically, alarm pheromones are detected in these species through specialized olfactory subsystems that are unique to the chemosensitive receptors, second messenger-signaling and physiology. Thus, the alarm pheromones appear to be detected by signaling mechanisms that are distinct from those seen in the canonical olfactory system.

Enjin, Anders; Suh, Greg Seong-Bae

2013-01-01

159

The False Aneurysm  

PubMed Central

The clinical course of 18 patients with 25 false aneurysms is reviewed. In recent years false aneurysm has been most commonly seen as a complication of arterioplastic procedures in which prosthetic arterial grafts were used. The use of indwelling needles or cannulae, particularly in patients with a wide arterial pulse pressure, can also lead to the formation of false aneurysms. In the groin, a false aneurysm is frequently mistaken for an abscess. Early diagnosis and operative repair are essential to reduce the incidence of further complications.

Baird, R. J.; Doran, M. L.

1964-01-01

160

40 CFR 51.930 - Mitigation of Exceptional Events.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Mitigation of Exceptional Events. 51.930 Section 51.930 ...930 Mitigation of Exceptional Events. (a) A State requesting to exclude air quality data due to exceptional events must take appropriate and...

2013-07-01

161

44 CFR 201.5 - Enhanced State Mitigation Plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Enhanced...OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE MITIGATION...mitigation into its post-disaster recovery operations...revise its plan to reflect changes in development,...

2010-10-01

162

The Roles of Spreading Activation and Retrieval Mode in Producing False Recognition in the DRM Paradigm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The nature of persisting spreading activation from list presentation in eliciting false recognition in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm was examined in two experiments. We compared the time course of semantic priming in the lexical decision task (LDT) and false alarms in speeded recognition under identical study and test conditions. The…

Meade, Michelle L.; Watson, Jason M.; Balota, David A.; Roediger, Henry L., III

2007-01-01

163

The new climate discourse: Alarmist or alarming?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discourse on climate change is in part divided between a sense of alarm and a sense of alarmism in assessments of the magnitude and urgency of the problem. The divide in the discourse among climatologists relates to tensions in the use of key phrases to describe climate change. This article reviews evidence to support claims that climate change can

James S. Risbey

2008-01-01

164

AUDITORY ALARMS: FROM ALERTING TO INFORMING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current alarm and warning systems in medical domains are integrated into patient monitoring devices and are centered around the concept of alerting operators to potential problems without specifying the specific nature of the problem. In contrast, informative auditory alarms and warning systems have been proposed for next-generation monitoring equipment, These \\

F. Jacob Seagull; Yan Xiao; Cohn F. Mackenzie; Christopher D. Wickens

2000-01-01

165

Alarm- And Power-Monitoring System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electronic central monitoring system, called Remote Monitor Alarm System, RMAS, used to monitor malfunction alarms and power supplies of remotely located equipment modules of transmitting and receiving equipment in fiber-optic communication network at Kennedy Space Center. Includes central monitoring unit at location convenient for technicians, plus remote terminal unit at each remote site containing equipment to be monitored.

Stute, Rob; Galloway, F. Houston; Swindle, Bob; Bierman, Tracy Alan; Medelius, Pedro

1994-01-01

166

Development of medical equipment alarm monitoring system.  

PubMed

In a hospital, we use a large number of medical equipment. In these use, I support the safe use by the alarm such as errors from medical equipment. There is the instrument notifying of alarm in communication, but there is the instrument by a sound and the light. For the medical safety management, confirmation of the alarm is important. We thought that stability was improved by integrating alarm from the instrument of the different type. Therefore, we thought that we integrated alarm from medical equipment. We decided to transmit an alarm signal from medical equipment by adding radio module program unit. The type of the radio used IEEE 802.15.4 (ZigBee) at a point of view of low power, International Standard, simple radio equipment. This system deals with only alarm information from medical equipment and does not handle the data. However, we understood that we were helpful very much even if it was only alarm information. We were able to in this way reduce the number of incidents. PMID:23920969

Yamashita, Yoshinori; Ogaito, Tatoku; Kasamatsu, Shingo

2013-01-01

167

T-Farm complex alarm upgrades  

SciTech Connect

The alarm and controls associated with the T, TX, and TY farms are located in the 242-T control room. The design data for replacement and upgrades of the alarm panels is in this document. This task was canceled previous to the 90% design review point.

Roberts, J.B.

1995-01-01

168

Alarm rates for quality control charts  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a direct relationship between a single alarm probability and the average run length only for basic Shewhart charts such as the X-chart. Alarm rates are defined in this paper that can be applied with charts such as the cumulative sum (CUSUM) chart and the exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) chart that base decisions on several observations, not just

Thomas M. Margavio; Michael D. Conerly; William H. Woodall; Laurel G. Drake

1995-01-01

169

Display-And-Alarm Circuit For Accelerometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compact accelerometer assembly consists of commercial accelerometer retrofit with display-and-alarm circuit. Provides simple means for technician attending machine to monitor vibrations. Also simpifies automatic safety shutdown by providing local alarm or shutdown signal when vibration exceeds preset level.

Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

1995-01-01

170

Alarming features: birds use specific acoustic properties to identify heterospecific alarm calls  

PubMed Central

Vertebrates that eavesdrop on heterospecific alarm calls must distinguish alarms from sounds that can safely be ignored, but the mechanisms for identifying heterospecific alarm calls are poorly understood. While vertebrates learn to identify heterospecific alarms through experience, some can also respond to unfamiliar alarm calls that are acoustically similar to conspecific alarm calls. We used synthetic calls to test the role of specific acoustic properties in alarm call identification by superb fairy-wrens, Malurus cyaneus. Individuals fled more often in response to synthetic calls with peak frequencies closer to those of conspecific calls, even if other acoustic features were dissimilar to that of fairy-wren calls. Further, they then spent more time in cover following calls that had both peak frequencies and frequency modulation rates closer to natural fairy-wren means. Thus, fairy-wrens use similarity in specific acoustic properties to identify alarms and adjust a two-stage antipredator response. Our study reveals how birds respond to heterospecific alarm calls without experience, and, together with previous work using playback of natural calls, shows that both acoustic similarity and learning are important for interspecific eavesdropping. More generally, this study reconciles contrasting views on the importance of alarm signal structure and learning in recognition of heterospecific alarms.

Fallow, Pamela M.; Pitcher, Benjamin J.; Magrath, Robert D.

2013-01-01

171

'Jibsheet' in False Color  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit drove up to this outcrop, called 'Jibsheet,' on the flank of 'Husband Hill,' in early March 2005. This view of Jibsheet by Spirit's panoramic camera is presented in false color.

2005-01-01

172

29 CFR 1910.165 - Employee alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...system also serves as the employee alarm system, all emergency...employers with 10 or fewer employees in a particular workplace, direct voice communication is an acceptable...sounding the alarm provided all employees can hear the alarm....

2009-07-01

173

29 CFR 1910.165 - Employee alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...system also serves as the employee alarm system, all emergency...employers with 10 or fewer employees in a particular workplace, direct voice communication is an acceptable...sounding the alarm provided all employees can hear the alarm....

2010-07-01

174

29 CFR 1910.165 - Employee alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...system also serves as the employee alarm system, all emergency...employers with 10 or fewer employees in a particular workplace, direct voice communication is an acceptable...sounding the alarm provided all employees can hear the alarm....

2013-07-01

175

30 CFR 57.4360 - Underground alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms...Underground alarm systems. (a) Fire alarm systems capable of promptly...safe evacuation in the event of a...

2013-07-01

176

There Is a Need for Alarm.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces the alarm system planning process and provides examples of approaches that have worked for school districts. Explains system elements, monitoring, the bidding process, and the importance of staff training. (MLF)

Kaufer, Steve

1994-01-01

177

Enzyme Immobilization Alternatives for the Enzyme Alarm.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this research program was to investigate new methods for immobilizing the enzyme, acetylcholinesterase, on selected supports suitable for use in enzyme alarms. Various coupling procedures were developed for glass, nylon and urethane suppo...

H. W. Levin E. S. Erenrich

1976-01-01

178

Technical standard: Nuclear Incident Alarm System  

SciTech Connect

This Standard establishes the requirements for installing and operating Nuclear Incident Alarm Systems in all areas of the Savannah River Plant and Laboratory where fissile material is handled and processed. These systems contain instruments for detecting gamma radiation.

Not Available

1986-01-01

179

Improved protection for alarm communications systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sandia National Laboratories has initiated efforts to identify systems and concepts which are promising for enhanced protection of the alarm communications system against both the insider and outsider adversary. Modules from commercial vendors are being d...

C. D. Jaeger A. Y. Liang

1991-01-01

180

The hazards of alarm overload. Keeping excessive physiologic monitoring alarms from impeding care.  

PubMed

There are many reasons that the numbers of physiologic monitoring system alarms that clinicians must respond to can grow out of control. This article identifies the most common reasons and delivers recommendations for handling them. Although alarms are an important part of patient care and safety, they can easily reach quantities that overwhelm nurses, thereby compromising alarm effectiveness. Excessive quantities of alarms may desensitize nurses, leading them to not promptly respond to alarms or to inappropriately inactivate them. And alarms that ultimately prove to have been unnecessary can needlessly distract nurses or pull them away from other tasks. ECRI doesn't believe that there is a single "cure-all" for controlling alarm quantities. Rather, the way to combat alarm overload is to first identify the various sources of excessive alarms and to then take actions to individually address each source. This article recommends key actions to take and describes how these actions can be organized into a systematic plan. The effect of these efforts should be better clinical efficiency and improved patient safety. PMID:17500263

2007-03-01

181

'Methuselah' in False Color  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An outcrop dubbed 'Methuselah,' approached by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit in April 2005, presented a more extensive exposure of layered rock than Spirit had found in the all its preceding 15 months since landing on Mars. This view of Methuselah by Spirit's panoramic camera is presented in false color.

2005-01-01

182

Mars Rotate (False Color)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center features an animation of Mars rotating. The visualization was created using data collected by the Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter (MOLA) on board the Mars Global Surveyor. The animation uses false color to highlight topography, specifically the Hellas Basin, Terra Meridiani, the Tharsis rise, and Lucus Planum. The site also provides still images of the same features.

Studio, Nasa/goddard S.

183

Alarm acknowledgement in a nuclear plant control room  

SciTech Connect

Alarm acknowledgment can be made not only at the alarm tile array of a given console but via other touch sensitive alarm indications in the screen displays of the monitoring system at the same or other consoles; also, touching one tile can acknowledge multiple alarm sources.

Scarola, Kenneth (Windsor, CT); Jamison, David S. (Windsor, CT); Manazir, Richard M. (North Canton, CT); Rescorl, Robert L. (Vernon, CT); Harmon, Daryl L. (Enfield, CT)

1994-01-01

184

H7N9: A killer in the making or a false alarm?  

PubMed

Influenza virus remains one of the most important disease-causing viruses owing to its high adaptability and even higher contagious nature. Thus, it poses a constant threat of pandemic, engulfing a large population within the smallest possible time interval. A similar threat was anticipated with the identification of the novel H7N9 virus in China on 30 March 2013. Detection of transmission of the virus between humans has caused a stir with the identification of family clusters along with sporadic infections all across China. In this review we analyze the potential of the novel H7N9 virus as a probable cause of a pandemic and the possible consequences thereof. PMID:24893133

Nailwal, Himani; Kamra, Komal; Lal, Sunil K

2014-07-01

185

Internet-based Security Incidents and the Potential for False Alarms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the background to experimental work intended to measure aspects of the World Wide Web, which inadvertently caused two perceived security breaches on remote systems. Describes the nature of these incidents and considers why, when over 700,000 addresses were sampled, only two sites considered the activity to be an attempt to breach their…

Evans, M. P.; Furnell, S. M.

2000-01-01

186

Code Acquisition with Receive Diversity and Constant False Alarm Rate Schemes: 1. Homogeneous Fading Circumstance  

Microsoft Academic Search

? ? ????? ???? ?? ???? ???? ???? ????? ???? ??? ??? ? ???, ??, ??? ??? ?? ??? ?? ???? ?? ??? ?? ?? ???? ?? ??? ??. ?? ?? ??? ?? ??? ?? ??? ?? ??? ??? ?? ??, ?? ?? ??? ?? ??? ??? ?? ??? ? ? ??? ??? ?? ??? ?? ?????? ???. ? ???

Hyoungmoon Kwon; Jongho Oh; Iickho Song; Jumi Lee; Sung Ro Lee

187

False alarm control of spiky clutter by multi-burst range-Doppler processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two alternative CFAR processors applicable to radars that employ multiple bursts per dwell and filter bank Doppler processors are presented; these are respectively designated range-Doppler-time (RDT)-CFAR and delta-CFAR processors. The delta-CFAR processor overcomes the shortcomings of both RDT and conventional CFAR processors; it is in addition immune to extraneous targets and clutter edges, and thereby yields enhanced multitarget discrimination and interclutter visibility.

Armstrong, B. C.; Griffiths, H. D.

188

An acoustic fall detector system that uses sound height information to reduce the false alarm rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than one third of about 38 million adults 65 and older fall each year in the United States. To address the above problem we propose to develop an acoustic fall detection system (FADE) that will automatically signal a fall to the monitoring caregiver. As opposed to many existent fall detection systems that require the monitored person to wear devices

Mihail Popescu; Yun Li; Marjorie Skubic; Marilyn Rantz

2008-01-01

189

CFAR (Constant False Alarm Rate) Design Concept for Operation in Heterogeneous Clutter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

When the heterogeneous clutter field spanning the spatial sampling sliding window can be modeled as two contiguous homogeneous clutter fields with the statistical parameters of each field unknown and independent from field to field and with the transition...

H. M. Finn

1986-01-01

190

Improving the false alarm capabilities of the maximum average correlation height correlation filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that the maximum average correlation height (MACH) correlation filter overemphasizes the importance of the average training image leading to poor discrimination of the desired class images from clutter images. To overcome this, two new metrics termed the all image correlation height and the modified average similarity measure are introduced and optimized in a new correlation design. The resulting

Mohamed Alkanhal; B. V. K. Vijaya Kumar; Abhijit Mahalanobis

2000-01-01

191

Detection delays, false alarm rates and the reconfiguration of control systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systems like unstable aircraft or large space structures are inherently vulnerable to failure of components and their reliability has to be improved through fault-tolerant control: given a set of redundant components, the failed element is diagnosed by a failure detection and isolation (FDI) device and its influence is removed through a reconfiguration of the control algorithms. Performance requirements are then

M. Mariton

1989-01-01

192

Improving the false alarm capabilities of the maximum average correlation height correlation filter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that the maximum average correlation height (MACH) correlation filter overemphasizes the importance of the average training image leading to poor discrimination of the desired class images from clutter images. To overcome this, two new metrics termed the all image correlation height and the modified average similarity measure are introduced and optimized in a new correlation design. The resulting filter exhibits improved clutter rejection performance while retaining the attractive distortion tolerance feature of the MACH filter. Simulation results based on a simulated synthetic aperture radar image database are presented to illustrate the new filter's properties.

Alkanhal, Mohamed; Vijaya Kumar, B. V. K.; Mahalanobis, Abhijit

2000-05-01

193

Experimental Analysis on False Alarms of Fire Detectors by Cooking Fumes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted to analyze the response of ionization and photoelectric detectors to the two typical Chinese cooking fumes simulated in the FE\\/DE. Four real fire smokes were also carried out for comparison with the nuisance cooking fumes. The outputs of the ionization and photoelectric detector, CO, CO2 and humidity were recorded throughout the six experiments and were compared. The

Xie Qiyuan; Yuan Hongyong; Guo Huiliang

2004-01-01

194

Encountering bird alarms in full-stare IRSTs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Birds are a potential source of frequent false alarms in Infrared Search and Track (IRST) systems. One reason is that the signals, generated by birds at short ranges (1-2 km) in IR sensors may be of the same magnitude as the signals generated by real targets (missiles) at long ranges (10-20 km). Another reason is that new generations of IRSTs have more sensitivity which brings more birds within the detection range. Furthermore military operations tend to be held more and more in coastal zones, where the frequency of occurrence of birds is greater than in the open ocean. Finally, the variety in type of birds and their flight characteristics and signature is larger. In the paper attention is spent on the IR signatures of birds in various backgrounds, including rapid variations in signature due to wing motions. Basically, these fluctuations and the flight pattern of a bird provide opportunities to encounter bird alarms in next generation IRSTs, using multiple Focal Plan Array cameras with high frame rates. One has to take into account in this process the difference between signal variations due to wing motions and scintillation for long range targets above the horizon.

de Jong, Arie N.; Winkel, Hans; Kemp, Rob A. W.

2000-12-01

195

Schizotypy and false memory.  

PubMed

Using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm the present study examined the relationship between schizotypy and recognition memory. Participants scoring in the upper and lower quartile ranges for schizotypy (Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire brief version; SPQ-B) and on each of the SPQ-B subscales (cognitive-perceptual, interpersonal and disorganized) were compared on true and false memory performance. Participants scoring in the lower quartile range on the cognitive-perceptual subscale recognised a higher proportion of both true and false memories than those scoring in the higher quartile range. Participants scoring in the upper quartile on the interpersonal factor recognised fewer true items than those in the lower quartile range. No differences were found for overall schizotypy or on the disorganized subscale. PMID:18817907

Dagnall, Neil; Parker, Andrew

2009-03-01

196

Low Voltage Alarm Apprenticeship. Related Training Modules. 7.1-26.10 Alarm Basics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This packet of 70 learning modules on alarm basics is 1 of 8 such packets developed for apprenticeship training for low voltage alarm. Introductory materials are a complete listing of all available modules and a supplementary reference list. Each module contains some or all of these components: goal, performance indicators, study guide (a check…

Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

197

Smart container UWB sensor system for situational awareness of intrusion alarms  

DOEpatents

An in-container monitoring sensor system is based on an UWB radar intrusion detector positioned in a container and having a range gate set to the farthest wall of the container from the detector. Multipath reflections within the container make every point on or in the container appear to be at the range gate, allowing intrusion detection anywhere in the container. The system also includes other sensors to provide false alarm discrimination, and may include other sensors to monitor other parameters, e.g. radiation. The sensor system also includes a control subsystem for controlling system operation. Communications and information extraction capability may also be included. A method of detecting intrusion into a container uses UWB radar, and may also include false alarm discrimination. A secure container has an UWB based monitoring system

Romero, Carlos E.; Haugen, Peter C.; Zumstein, James M.; Leach, Jr., Richard R.; Vigars, Mark L.

2013-06-11

198

Likelihood alarm displays. [for human operator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a likelihood alarm display (LAD) information about event likelihood is computed by an automated monitoring system and encoded into an alerting signal for the human operator. Operator performance within a dual-task paradigm was evaluated with two LADs: a color-coded visual alarm and a linguistically coded synthetic speech alarm. The operator's primary task was one of tracking; the secondary task was to monitor a four-element numerical display and determine whether the data arose from a 'signal' or 'no-signal' condition. A simulated 'intelligent' monitoring system alerted the operator to the likelihood of a signal. The results indicated that (1) automated monitoring systems can improve performance on primary and secondary tasks; (2) LADs can improve the allocation of attention among tasks and provide information integrated into operator decisions; and (3) LADs do not necessarily add to the operator's attentional load.

Sorkin, Robert D.; Kantowitz, Barry H.; Kantowitz, Susan C.

1988-01-01

199

Technical aspects of the sigma factor alarm method in alpha CAMs  

SciTech Connect

Some test must be applied to the low-level count data from alpha continuous air monitors (CAMs) to determine if the count is statistically significant (i.e., different from background). The test should also automatically account for different levels of background (i.e., ambient radon progeny concentrations). The method should, in other words, be as sensitive as possible, automatically desensitize when required, but in such a manner as to not exceed a previously-chosen acceptable false-alarm rate.

Justus, Alan Lawrence [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

200

Pressurized security barrier and alarm system  

DOEpatents

A security barrier for placement across a passageway is made up of interconnected pressurized tubing made up in a grid pattern with openings too small to allow passage. The tubing is connected to a pressure switch, located away from the barrier site, which activates an alarm upon occurrence of a pressure drop. A reinforcing bar is located inside and along the length of the tubing so as to cause the tubing to rupture and set off the alarm upon an intruder's making an attempt to crimp and seal off a portion of the tubing by application of a hydraulic tool. Radial and rectangular grid patterns are disclosed.

Carver, Don W. (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01

201

True or False  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you're told that a particular drug doesn't cure arthritis, there's a good chance you'll start to think it does. That's according to Ian Skurnik at the University of Toronto and Carolyn Yoon at the University of Michigan. They found that when people were told a statement was false, they remembered the statement itself much better than the warning. This Science Update looks at the research, which leads to these findings and offers links to other resources for further inquiry. There are also links to Science Netlinks Lesson plans for use at the 9-12 grade level.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)

2005-04-18

202

ALARM STRATEGY AND COMPLEXITY: PREDICTIONS OF OPERATOR RESPONSE  

SciTech Connect

Decision support for operators is not new, and much has been written regarding the potential usefulness of digital support systems and alarm filtering strategies. However, determining the appropriate characteristics of decision support tools is difficult, especially when alarms can vary in the manner which diagnostic information is formulated and displayed and when event scenario types are complex and numerous. When first reviewed, the advantages or disadvantages of a particular alarm approach may not be apparent to the designer or analyst. The present research focuses on the review of two particular alarm strategies, binary alarm type (BAT) and likelihood alarm type (LAT), and reviews their influence upon accuracy, bias, and trust for tasks performed at a computer workstation capable of replicating a series of control-room-like alarms. The findings are discussed in terms of the of the performance advantages of likelihood alarm technology and related research as an aid to the alarm design process.

Austin Ragsdale; Roger Lew; Brian Dyre; Ronald Boring; David Gertman

2012-07-01

203

Enzyme Immobilization Alternatives For the Enzyme Alarm.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Samples of glass beads, modified starch urethane pads, nylon and urethane enzyme products which passed wash-out resistance were sent to Edgewood Arsenal. Glass bead products and nylon products do not seem suitable for the alarm. Urethane pads including ch...

H. W. Levin E. S. Erenrich

1975-01-01

204

EARTHQUAKE ALARM SYSTEMS IN JAPAN RAILWAYS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives a history of research and development concerning earthquake disaster prevention systems in Japan railways. Railway Technical Research Institute (RTRI) has established a new algorithm in evaluating quickly seismic source parameters (magnitude and epicenter location) from the initial part of P waves and developed a new earthquake quick alarm system (EQAS) which utilizes prompt earthquake information that will

Kimitoshi ASHIYA

205

Nuclear power plant alarm systems: Problems and issues  

SciTech Connect

Despite the incorporation of advanced technology into nuclear power plant alarm systems, human factors problems remain. This paper identifies to be addressed in order to allow advanced technology to be used effectively in the design of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The operator's use and processing of alarm system information will be considered. Based upon a review of alarm system research, issues related to general system design, alarm processing, display and control are discussed. It is concluded that the design of effective alarm systems depends on an understanding of the information processing capabilities and limitations of the operator. 39 refs.

O'Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.

1991-01-01

206

False color viewing device  

DOEpatents

This invention consists of a viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching, the user`s eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage.

Kronberg, J.W.

1991-05-08

207

False color viewing device  

DOEpatents

A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage.

Kronberg, James W. (108 Independent Blvd., Aiken, SC 29801)

1992-01-01

208

False color viewing device  

DOEpatents

A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage. 7 figs.

Kronberg, J.W.

1992-10-20

209

21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...device monitors an electrocardiogram and is designed to produce a visible or audible signal or alarm when atrial or ventricular arrhythmia, such as premature contraction or ventricular fibrillation, occurs. (b) Classification. Class...

2010-04-01

210

21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...device monitors an electrocardiogram and is designed to produce a visible or audible signal or alarm when atrial or ventricular arrhythmia, such as premature contraction or ventricular fibrillation, occurs. (b) Classification. Class...

2009-04-01

211

False Alerts in Air Traffic Control Conflict Alerting System: Is There a \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim is to establish the extent to which the high false-alarm rate of air traffic control midair conflict alerts is responsible for a “cry wolf” effect—where true alerts are not responded to and all alerts are delayed in their response. Background: Some aircraft collisions have been partly attributed to the cry wolf effect, and in other domains (health

Christopher D. Wickens; Stephen Rice; David Keller; Shaun Hutchins; Jamie Hughes; Krisstal Clayton

2009-01-01

212

15 CFR 971.604 - Best available technologies (BAT) and mitigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Best available technologies (BAT) and mitigation. 971.604...Effects § 971.604 Best available technologies (BAT) and mitigation. ...permits, the use of the best available technologies for the protection of...

2011-01-01

213

15 CFR 971.604 - Best available technologies (BAT) and mitigation.  

...2014-01-01 false Best available technologies (BAT) and mitigation. 971.604...Effects § 971.604 Best available technologies (BAT) and mitigation. ...permits, the use of the best available technologies for the protection of...

2014-01-01

214

15 CFR 971.604 - Best available technologies (BAT) and mitigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Best available technologies (BAT) and mitigation. 971.604...Effects § 971.604 Best available technologies (BAT) and mitigation. ...permits, the use of the best available technologies for the protection of...

2010-01-01

215

15 CFR 971.604 - Best available technologies (BAT) and mitigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Best available technologies (BAT) and mitigation. 971.604...Effects § 971.604 Best available technologies (BAT) and mitigation. ...permits, the use of the best available technologies for the protection of...

2012-01-01

216

46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power semiconductor rectifier must have a high temperature alarm or shutdown, except as...

2013-10-01

217

Alarm guided critical function and success path monitoring  

SciTech Connect

The use of alarm indication on the overview (IPSO) display to initiate diagnosis of challenges to critical functions or unavailability of success paths, and further alarm-based guidance toward ultimate diagnosis.

Scarola, Kenneth (Windsor, CT); Jamison, David S. (Windsor, CT); Manazir, Richard M. (North Canton, CT); Rescorl, Robert L. (Vernon, CT); Harmon, Daryl L. (Enfield, CT)

1994-01-01

218

8. INTERIOR, FIRE ALARM CONTROL ROOM (NORTH OF MAIN GARAGE), ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. INTERIOR, FIRE ALARM CONTROL ROOM (NORTH OF MAIN GARAGE), FROM ENTRYWAY, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING ADDITIONAL 'GAMEWELL' FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Firehouse, East of Fourth Street, between A & B Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

219

Bonneville Power Administration Communication Alarm Processor expert system:  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the Communications Alarm Processor (CAP), a prototype expert system developed for the Bonneville Power Administration by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The system is designed to receive and diagnose alarms from Bonneville's Microwave Communications System (MCS). The prototype encompasses one of seven branches of the communications network and a subset of alarm systems and alarm types from each system. The expert system employs a backward chaining approach to diagnosing alarms. Alarms are fed into the expert system directly from the communication system via RS232 ports and sophisticated alarm filtering and mailbox software. Alarm diagnoses are presented to operators for their review and concurrence before the diagnoses are archived. Statistical software is incorporated to allow analysis of archived data for report generation and maintenance studies. The delivered system resides on a Digital Equipment Corporation VAX 3200 workstation and utilizes Nexpert Object and SAS for the expert system and statistical analysis, respectively. 11 refs., 23 figs., 7 tabs.

Goeltz, R.; Purucker, S.; Tonn, B. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Wiggen, T. (Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (USA)); MacGregor, D. (MacGregor-Bates, Inc., Eugene, OR (USA))

1990-06-01

220

Alerting the apathetic and reassuring the alarmed: communicating about radon risk in three communities. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Public reaction to the risk from radon varied widely in three communities chosen for qualitative analysis. In Boyertown, PA, some residents were very alarmed, but most were apathetic toward this newly identified environmental risk. In Clinton, NJ, residents were concerned and worked with the mayor and the state to determine whether they were at risk and to disseminate information about mitigation of high indoor radon levels. Residents in Vernon, New Jersey were very alarmed and actively opposed the state's decision to site low-level radium wastes there. The qualitative study examines why reactions differed among the three communities, and extracts lessons for communicating about the risk from radon. These lessons should apply to communicating about other environmental hazards to individuals and communities.

Chess, C.; Hance, B.J.

1988-08-01

221

Auditory alarms during anesthesia monitoring with an integrated monitoring system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alarms in the operating room remain a major source of annoyance and confusion. A previous study by Kestin et al. utilized\\u000a a specific combination of distinct, separate monitors in 50 pediatric patients. He reported a mean of 10 alarms per case with\\u000a a mean frequency of one alarm every 4.5 minutes. The alarms were classified as spurious (75%), change outside

Frank E. Block; Carl Schaaf

1996-01-01

222

Reduced False Memory after Sleep  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several studies have shown that sleep contributes to the successful maintenance of previously encoded information. This research has focused exclusively on memory for studied events, as opposed to false memories. Here we report three experiments showing that sleep reduces false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) memory illusion. False

Fenn, Kimberly M.; Gallo, David A.; Margoliash, Daniel; Roediger, Henry L., III; Nusbaum, Howard C.

2009-01-01

223

Alarm Clustering for Intrusion Detection Systems in Computer Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until recently, network administrators manually arranged alarms produced by Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs) to attain a high- level description of threats. As the number of alarms is increasingly grow- ing, automatic tools for alarm clustering have been proposed to provide such a high level description of the attack scenario. In addition, it has been shown that eectiv e threat analysis

Giorgio Giacinto; Roberto Perdisci; Fabio Roli

2005-01-01

224

A personal miner's carbon monoxide alarm  

SciTech Connect

Underground miners may be exposed to hazardous quantities of toxic gases, such as carbon monoxide (CO), generated from mine fires or explosions. Every underground miner is required to carry a filter self-rescuer (FSR), which when operated will remove CO from the miner's breathing air. In addition, every underground miner must have a self-contained self-rescuer(SCSR) near the worksite that will supply breathing oxygen. In many situations, miners do not know when to don either rescuer since they do not know if there is a fire in the mine, nor do they carry instrumentation necessary for the detection of the toxic, colorless, and odorless fire product CO. If each miner carried a personal CO alarm, which would respond to high concentrations of CO, the miner would then be alerted when to don either the FSR or SCSR and exit the mine. The authors report on the development of a prototype personal miner's CO alarm called PEMCOAL.

Chilton, J.E.; Carpenter, C.R.

1989-01-01

225

ZoneAlarm 8.0.065  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

ZoneAlarm is a piece of firewall software designed to protect computers from hackers. It features four interlocking security services, including an application control, an Internet lock, and a firewall. The program also includes an easy-to-use wizard device which will help less-experienced users with setting up the program. This version is compatible with computers running Windows XP and newer.

2009-01-01

226

Clinical alarm hazards: a "top ten" health technology safety concern.  

PubMed

For the past several years ECRI Institute has published a list of Top Ten Health Technology Hazards. This list is based on ECRI's extensive research in health technology safety and on data provided to its problemreporting systems. For every year that the Top Ten list has been published, Alarm Hazards have been at or near the top of the list. Improving alarm safety requires a systematic review of a hospital's alarm-based technologies and analysis of alarm management policies like alarm escalation strategies and staffing patterns. It also requires careful selection of alarm setting criteria for each clinical care area. This article will overview the clinical alarm problems that have been identified through ECRI Institute's research and analysis of various problem reporting databases, including those operated by ECRI Institute. It will also highlight suggestions for improvement, particularly from a technology design and technology management perspective. PMID:23022300

Keller, James P

2012-01-01

227

44 CFR 201.7 - Tribal Mitigation Plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tribal...OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE MITIGATION...government's pre- and post-disaster hazard management policies...necessary to reflect changes in tribal or Federal...

2010-10-01

228

False recognition in Lewy-body disease and frontotemporal dementia.  

PubMed

The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the false recognition phenomenon in persons with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and those with Lewy-body disease (LBD). Patients with LBD (n=10) or FTD (n=15) and their corresponding controls (n=30) were subjected to the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm to induce false recognition. Patients were first presented with items semantically related to a nonpresented critical target. The critical target was later included in a word list shown to patients to assess level of recognition. Both groups of patients showed a reduced level of false recognition of the critical target when controlling for their overall level of false alarms. This reduction was greater in persons with LBD than in those with FTD. Correlational analyses of performance on neuropsychological tests and the DRM variables indicated that the reduced DRM effect was associated with inhibition deficits in patients with LBD and with inhibition deficits and verbal memory in those with FTD. Our results support current models suggesting that these cognitive components contribute to the false recognition effect. PMID:21094574

de Boysson, C; Belleville, S; Phillips, N A; Johns, E K; Goupil, D; Souchay, C; Bouchard, R; Chertkow, H

2011-03-01

229

Development of quick and accurate automatic hypocenter location system for the earthquake alarm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most earthquake damage occurs after arrival of the S wave, whose amplitude is about five times larger than the P wave. Because the P wave travels faster than the S wave, the interval between their arrival times creates an opportunity to activate an earthquake alarm and take preemptive safety measures. We developed an automatic system which transmits the earthquake shaking intensity before S wave arrival. Since the alarm system is used to control transportation, industry, business, etc, at a time of a large earthquake occurrence, false alarms cost huge. We solved the technical difficulty of determining earthquake parameters very quickly and without errors, by developing a novel method using not only P wave arrival times but also time data of P wave not yet arrived. We also developed filters which can distinguish seismic signal from large amplitude noise generated by many kinds of reasons. The system can eliminate extraneous arrival-time readings during the process of hypocenter location by checking automatically measured readings, P wave not yet arrived data, and their station distribution. We use waveform data of Hi-net (High Sensitivity Seismograph Network Japan, National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention) composed of ca. 700 very high quality stations covering whole Japan with space density of 20 to 30 km. All seismometers are installed on observation wells deeper than 100m. Our system can locate precise hypocenters for 97 % felt events occurring in and near Japan Islands within a few seconds and transmits earthquake alarm information before most of seismic energy has arrived even to the station closest to the hypocenter. We are broadcasting earthquake alarm information for all destructive earthquakes by using the satellite system developed by ERI (Earthquake Research Institute, Univ. of Tokyo), and hoping to promote the development of many kinds of automatic control systems which stop cars, factories, etc to protect people from earthquake damage.

Horiuchi, S.; Kamimura, A.; Negishi, H.; Yamamoto, S.

2003-12-01

230

Alarm handler for the advanced photon source control system  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Photon Source (APS), now under construction at Argonne National Laboratory, will have a control system employing graphics workstations at the operator interface level and VME-based microprocessors operating with a distributed database at the field level. The alarm handler is an application utilizing X-Windows running on one or more operator interface workstations which monitors alarms generated by the VME-based microprocessors. Alarms can be grouped in a hierarchical manner. The operator can monitor, acknowledge, and mask alarms either individually or aggregately. Alarm changes of state and all operator modifications are logged. When alarms occur, display windows are automatically generated conveying system and subsystem relationships and severity. Menus are used to modify the alarm action configuration files and to obtain help. Since alarm groups are defined via an alarm configuration file, the alarm handler is a general purpose application which can be customized to monitor a single subsystem or configured to monitor the entire accelerator complex. 2 refs., 2 figs.

Kraimer, M.R.; Cha, B.K.; Anderson, M.

1991-01-01

231

False recognition with the Deese-Roediger-McDermott-Reid-Solso procedure: a quantitative summary.  

PubMed

In the Deese-Roediger-McDermott-Read-Solso (DRMRS) procedure, participants study lists of words associated with central concepts (critical themes) that are not on the lists, then their memory is tested. Based on 224 estimates, the rate of False Recognition of the nonstudied critical themes was .59 (95% confidence interval of .56 to .61), which is smaller than the Hit rate of .75 for correct recognition of studied items (95% confidence interval of .73 to .77) but greater than various rates of False Alarms for other nonstudied items (ranging from .13 to .19). Ratings of subjective confidence were similar on Hits and on False Recognitions but higher than on False Alarms, confirming that false recognition was more like correct recognition than like other errors. The results from judgments of feeling of remembering or knowing, from the effects of intervening activities (particularly recall) between study and test, and from the effects of age suggest that False Recognition occurs because the critical theme is activated along with studied items during list presentation and perhaps also during recall. Invoking fuzzy trace theory, it is argued Hits are based on verbatim traces whereas False Recognition is based on gist traces and a failure of source memory. Proposals are made for research. PMID:15291231

McKelvie, Stuart J

2004-06-01

232

Early warning, warning or alarm systems for natural hazards? A generic classification.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early warning, warning and alarm systems have gained popularity in recent years as cost-efficient measures for dangerous natural hazard processes such as floods, storms, rock and snow avalanches, debris flows, rock and ice falls, landslides, flash floods, glacier lake outburst floods, forest fires and even earthquakes. These systems can generate information before an event causes loss of property and life. In this way, they mainly mitigate the overall risk by reducing the presence probability of endangered objects. These systems are typically prototypes tailored to specific project needs. Despite their importance there is no recognised system classification. This contribution classifies warning and alarm systems into three classes: i) threshold systems, ii) expert systems and iii) model-based expert systems. The result is a generic classification, which takes the characteristics of the natural hazard process itself and the related monitoring possibilities into account. The choice of the monitoring parameters directly determines the system's lead time. The classification of 52 active systems moreover revealed typical system characteristics for each system class. i) Threshold systems monitor dynamic process parameters of ongoing events (e.g. water level of a debris flow) and incorporate minor lead times. They have a local geographical coverage and a predefined threshold determines if an alarm is automatically activated to warn endangered objects, authorities and system operators. ii) Expert systems monitor direct changes in the variable disposition (e.g crack opening before a rock avalanche) or trigger events (e.g. heavy rain) at a local scale before the main event starts and thus offer extended lead times. The final alarm decision incorporates human, model and organisational related factors. iii) Model-based expert systems monitor indirect changes in the variable disposition (e.g. snow temperature, height or solar radiation that influence the occurrence probability of snow avalanches) or trigger events (e.g. heavy snow fall) to predict spontaneous hazard events in advance. They encompass regional or national measuring networks and satisfy additional demands such as the standardisation of the measuring stations. The developed classification and the characteristics, which were revealed for each class, yield a valuable input to quantifying the reliability of warning and alarm systems. Importantly, this will facilitate to compare them with well-established standard mitigation measures such as dams, nets and galleries within an integrated risk management approach.

Sättele, Martina; Bründl, Michael; Straub, Daniel

2013-04-01

233

Voltage monitor and alarm for power line  

SciTech Connect

A device is described for monitoring the voltage of an electrical power line means, comprising: lamps in circuit with the power line means; a display driver in circuit with the lamps and the power line means and arranged to light one lamp at a time depending on the voltage of the power line means in a predetermined voltage range; oscillator means in circuit with the display driver for generating a fixed frequency signal when the voltage of the power line means is outside the voltage range; an audible sound generator in circuit with the oscillator means and driven thereby to sound an alarm when the oscillator means generates the signal; an auxiliary power supply connected in circuit with the oscillator means; and electronic latching means in circuit with the auxiliary power supply and the oscillator means and arranged to pass a driving current to the oscillator means to keep the same energized and generating the signal, so that the alarm continues to sound even though the voltage of the power line means returns to a magnitude within the predetermined voltage range.

Fathi, S.S.

1986-09-02

234

Alarm system for a nuclear control complex  

DOEpatents

An advanced control room complex for a nuclear power plant, including a discrete indicator and alarm system (72) which is nuclear qualified for rapid response to changes in plant parameters and a component control system (64) which together provide a discrete monitoring and control capability at a panel (14-22, 26, 28) in the control room (10). A separate data processing system (70), which need not be nuclear qualified, provides integrated and overview information to the control room and to each panel, through CRTs (84) and a large, overhead integrated process status overview board (24). The discrete indicator and alarm system (72) and the data processing system (70) receive inputs from common plant sensors and validate the sensor outputs to arrive at a representative value of the parameter for use by the operator during both normal and accident conditions, thereby avoiding the need for him to assimilate data from each sensor individually. The integrated process status board (24) is at the apex of an information hierarchy that extends through four levels and provides access at each panel to the full display hierarchy. The control room panels are preferably of a modular construction, permitting the definition of inputs and outputs, the man machine interface, and the plant specific algorithms, to proceed in parallel with the fabrication of the panels, the installation of the equipment and the generic testing thereof.

Scarola, Kenneth (Windsor, CT); Jamison, David S. (Windsor, CT); Manazir, Richard M. (North Canton, CT); Rescorl, Robert L. (Vernon, CT); Harmon, Daryl L. (Enfield, CT)

1994-01-01

235

Hypoxia: an alarm signal during intestinal inflammation  

PubMed Central

Intestinal epithelial cells that line the mucosal surface of the gastrointestinal tract are positioned between an anaerobic lumen and a highly metabolic lamina propria. As a result of this unique anatomy, intestinal epithelial cells function within a steep physiologic oxygen gradient relative to other cell types. Furthermore, during active inflammatory disease such as IBD, metabolic shifts toward hypoxia are severe. Studies in vitro and in vivo have shown that the activation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) serves as an alarm signal for the resolution of inflammation in various murine disease models. Amelioration of disease occurs, at least in part, through transcriptional up-regulation of non-classical epithelial barrier genes. There is much recent interest in harnessing hypoxia-inducible pathways, including targeting the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) and the proyl-hydroxylase enzyme (which stabilizes HIF), for therapy of IBD. Here, we review the signaling pathways involved and define how hypoxia may serve as an endogenous alarm signal for mucosal inflammatory disease. We also discuss the upside and potential downsides of targeting these pathways to treat patients with IBD.

Colgan, Sean P.; Taylor, Cormac T.

2014-01-01

236

An investigation of training strategies to improve alarm reactions.  

PubMed

Researchers have suggested that operator training may improve operator reactions; however, researchers have not documented this for alarm reactions. The goal of this research was to train participants to react to alarms using sensor activity patterns. In Experiment 1, 80 undergraduates monitored a simulated security screen while completing a primary word search task. They received spatial, temporal, single sensor, or no training to respond to alarms of differing reliability levels. Analyses revealed more appropriate and quicker reactions when participants were trained and when the alarms were reliable. In Experiment 2, 56 participants practiced time estimation by simple repetition, performance feedback, or performance feedback and temporal subdivision. They then reacted to alarms based on elapsed time between sensor activity and alarm onset. Surprisingly, results indicated that participants did not benefit differentially from temporal interval training, focusing instead on advertised system reliability. Researchers should replicate these findings with realistic tasks and real-world complex task operators. PMID:23849303

Bliss, James P; Chancey, Eric T

2014-09-01

237

Efficient indexing structure for scalable processing of spatial alarms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the design and implementation of a new indexing technique, Mondrian tree. The Mondrian tree indexing method partitions the entire universe of discourse into spatial alarm monitoring regions and alarm-free regions. This enables us to reduce the number of on-demand alarm-free region computations, significant savings of both server load and client-to-server communication cost. We evaluate the efficiency of the

Myungcheol Doo; Ling Liu; Nitya Narasimhan; Venu Vasudevan

2010-01-01

238

5. CABLE STRAND ALARM: Photocopy of December 1966 photograph showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. CABLE STRAND ALARM: Photocopy of December 1966 photograph showing cable strand alarm located at Beach and Hyde Streets. A strand in the cable (see CA-12-7) forces the fork forward, alerting the powerhouse to the strand by means of an electrical warning device. This strand alarm operates in essentially the same manner as those first used in the 1880s. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

239

Assessment of familiarity and recollection in the false fame paradigm using a modified process dissociation procedure.  

PubMed

A modified way of administering the process dissociation procedure to the false fame paradigm is described. Multidimensional signal detection theory (SDT) is used to correct for recollection as well as familiarity false alarms, and two experiments are reported that compare this method of false alarm correction with the hybrid procedure preferred by Jacoby et al. (1993). In experiment 1, it is shown that recollection and familiarity are lost at the same rate in normal subjects over a delay of 1 d when an SDT analysis is used. Analysis with the hybrid procedure fails to find any forgetting over the 1-d delay. In experiment 2, amnesics are shown to have preserved familiarity in the face of impaired recollection for names when the results are analyzed by either method. An additional analysis showed that the amnesics' familiarity was normal even for relatively novel surnames. The SDT analysis also revealed that the amnesics, relative to controls, showed a conservative recollection and a liberal familiarity response bias. The results indicate that it is important to correct for recollection as well as familiarity false alarms. PMID:9375232

Mayes, A R; Van Eijk, R; Isaac, C L

1995-09-01

240

Structural Damage Alarm Utilizing Modified Back-Propagation Neural Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Damage alarm is an important step among structure damage identification. Its objective is to evaluate the structure health. The existing damage alarm methods are mostly based on Back-Propagation Neural Networks without thinking over testing noise. Therefore, in order to avoid the disadvantages of conventional Back-Propagation Neural Networks, a modified Back-Propagation Neural Networks was proposed for structure damage alarm system in this paper. The experiment results of steel truss girder bridge show that the improved method is better than BPNN for structural damage alarm.

Dong, Xiaoma

241

Clinical engineering's role in managing clinical alarm risk.  

PubMed

This manuscript highlights the role that clinical engineering can play to minimize the risk of problems associated with clinical alarms. AAMI held a town meeting on clinical alarm management and integration during its 2005 Annual Conference & Expo. The meeting highlighted some excellent suggestions on how the whole concept of improving clinical alarm design and implementation must be addressed in a systematic way. Examples of how the clinical engineering profession can contribute to this effort include participation in more AAMI town hall meetings and other conferences, providing design suggestions to medical device manufacturers, and participation in the development of alarm-related standards. PMID:16544791

Keller, Jim

2006-01-01

242

Nonlinear dynamics of false bottoms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nansen from his observations in the Beaufort Sea published in 1897 noted that heat transfer from the fresh water to the arctic salt water is the only source of ice accretion during the polar summer. This transfer mechanism, unusual at first sight, is responsible for the initiation and evolution of a false bottom ice, changing ice properties to a great extent and affecting various processes while interacting with the ocean and the atmosphere. A false bottom represents a thin layer of ice which forms in summer underneath the floe where fresh water lies between the salt water and the ice. Details of how this process occurs in nature are now emerging from different laboratory and field experiments. The false bottoms appearing at the interface between the fresh and salt water as a result of double-diffusive convection normally lie below surface and under-ice melt ponds. Such false bottoms represent the only significant source of ice growth in the Arctic during the spring-summer period. Their evolution influences the mass balance of the Arctic sea-ice cover recognized as an indicator of climate change. However, the quantity, aerial extent and other properties of false bottoms are difficult to measure because coring under the surface melt ponds leads to direct mixing of surface and under-ice water. This explains why their aerial extent and overall volume is still not known despite the fact that the upper limit of the ice coverage by the false bottom is approximately half of the ice surface. The growth of false bottoms also leads to other important consequences for different physical, chemical and biological processes associated with their dynamics. This study addressed to a broad community of readers is concerned with non-linear behavior of false bottoms including their stochastic dynamics due to possible fluctuations of the main process parameters in the ocean and the atmosphere.

Nizovtseva, Irina; Alexandrov, Dmitri; Ryashko, Lev

2014-05-01

243

Community social alarm network in Slovenia.  

PubMed

The article deals with a case report on the technology transfer of the Lifeline community social alarm system to Slovenia. The main reason the project was initiated is the ageing of the Slovenian population (11% of the population is 65 or over). With this system we intend to support the public's wish to allow the elderly to remain in their own homes for as long as possible instead of placing them in institutional care. Between 1992 and 1995 the following results were achieved: the acceptability of the system in the social environment was increased; a pilot control centre in Ljubljana was established and has been operational for two-and-a-half years; a national dissemination plan was prepared; the integration of the programme into other information systems has been started. One of the main conclusions is that for the successful transfer of a technology which also affects social values in society, a social innovation must support the process. PMID:8997529

Premik, M; Rudel, D

1996-12-01

244

Temperature monitor and alarm for cryogenic instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Internal temperatures in filled cryostats must be continuously monitored to preserve the health and safety of hardware and personnel. The accidental response of cryogenic gases into the atmosphere pose a health threat and, if the gases are flammable, may lead to an explosion. One indication of an imminent cryogen release is the sudden increase in cryogen temperature. Although there are many data acquisition systems and temperature monitoring products commercially available, these systems lack the portability and safety features required during cryostat qualification tests and transport. This paper describes a temperature monitor and alarm circuit developed for the Spirit II solid hydrogen cryostat program. The instrument is battery-operated, accurate, portable, and intrinsically safe in an explosive atmosphere.

Thatcher, John B., Jr.; Keliher, Pat; Jeanpierre, Carlos

1994-06-01

245

The chemistry of eavesdropping, alarm, and deceit.  

PubMed Central

Arthropods that prey on or parasitize other arthropods frequently employ those chemical cues that reliably indicate the presence of their prey or hosts. Eavesdropping on the sex pheromone signals emitted to attract mates allows many predators and parasitoids to find and attack adult insects. The sex pheromones are also useful signals for egg parasitoids since eggs are frequently deposited on nearby plants soon after mating. When the larval stages of insects or other arthropods are the targets, a different foraging strategy is employed. The larvae are often chemically inconspicuous, but when they feed on plants the injured plants respond by producing and releasing defensive chemicals. These plant chemicals may also serve as "alarm signals" that are exploited by predators and parasitoids to locate their victims. There is considerable evidence that the volatile "alarm signals" are induced by interactions of substances from the herbivore with the damaged plant tissue. A very different strategy is employed by several groups of spiders that remain stationary and send out chemical signals that attract prey. Some of these spiders prey exclusively on male moths. They attract the males by emitting chemicals identical to the sex pheromones emitted by female moths. These few examples indicate the diversity of foraging strategies of arthropod predators and parasitoids. It is likely that many other interesting chemically mediated interactions between arthropod hunters and their victims remain to be discovered. Increased understanding of these systems will enable us to capitalize on natural interactions to develop more ecologically sound, environmentally safe methods for biological control of insect pests of agriculture.

Stowe, M K; Turlings, T C; Loughrin, J H; Lewis, W J; Tumlinson, J H

1995-01-01

246

40 CFR 93.164 - Inter-precursor mitigation measures and offsets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inter-precursor mitigation measures and offsets. 93...Implementation Plans § 93.164 Inter-precursor mitigation measures and offsets...offsets or mitigation measures of different precursors of the same criteria pollutant,...

2010-07-01

247

Effects of presentation mode on veridical and false memory in individuals with intellectual disability.  

PubMed

In the present study the effects of visual, auditory, and audio-visual presentation formats on memory for thematically constructed lists were assessed in individuals with intellectual disability and mental age-matched children. The auditory recognition test included target items, unrelated foils, and two types of semantic lures: critical related foils and related foils. The audio-visual format led to better recognition of old items and lower false-alarm rates for all foil types. Those with intellectual disability had higher false-alarm rates for all foil types and experienced particular difficulty discriminating presented items from those most strongly activated internally during acquisition (i.e., critical foils). Results are consistent with the activation-monitoring framework and fuzzy-trace theory and inform best practices for designing visual supports to maximize performance in educational and work environments. PMID:22716261

Carlin, Michael; Toglia, Michael P; Belmonte, Colleen; DiMeglio, Chiara

2012-05-01

248

D0 Cryo System ODH and Cryo Alarm System Response  

SciTech Connect

The D0 Cryo System is monitored by a computerized process control system and an ODH safety system. During steady state operations the cryo system will be unmanned and system experts will depend on communication systems for notification of system problems. The FIRUS system meets the minimum communication requirement and is supplemented with an autodialer which attempts to contact cryo operators by pager or phone. The RD/Safety Department requires the ODH monitor system to be connected to the labwide FIRUS system. which enables the Communications Center to receive alarms and notify the proper experts of the condition. The ODH system will have two alarm points. One for an ODH alarm and one for a system trouble alarm. The autodialer system has replaced a former cryo operations summation alarm point in the FIRUS system. This has freed space on the FIRUS system and has allowed the cryo experts more flexibility in setting up their own communication link. The FIRUS and the autodialer systems receive alarms and access lists of experts to call for notification of problems. Attempts to contact these experts will continue until the alarm or alarms is acknowledged.

Urbin, J.; Dixon, K.; /Fermilab

1990-04-05

249

Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory long-range alarm system  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) Long-Range Alarm System is described. The last few years have brought significant changes in the Department of Energy regulations for protection of classified documents and special nuclear material. These changes in regulations have forced a complete redesign of the LASL security alarm system. LASL covers many square miles of varying terrain and consists of separate technical areas connected by public roads and communications. A design study over a period of 2 years produced functional specifications for a distributed intelligence, expandable alarm system that will handle 30,000 alarm points from hundreds of data concentrators spread over a 250-km/sup 2/ area. Emphasis in the design was on nonstop operation, data security, data communication, and upward expandability to incorporate fire alarms and the computer-aided dispatching of security and fire vehicles. All aspects of the alarm system were to be fault tolerant from the central computer system down to but not including the individual data concentrators. Redundant communications lines travel over public domain from the alarmed area to the central alarm station.

DesJardin, R.; Machanik, J.

1980-01-01

250

1. Photographic copy of fire alarm plan for Control and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Photographic copy of fire alarm plan for Control and Recording Center Building 4221/E-22, showing layout of rooms. California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Plant Engineering 'Edwards Test Station, Fire Alarm Plan, Bldg. E-22,' drawing no. EFA/11-1, December 15, 1961. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Control & Recording Center, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

251

E-Alarm: An Anomaly Detection System on Large Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, several worms attacked the Internet and caused serious global damage. We consider that if we can detect the worm in its early spreading stage and perform the access control policy on the related routers immediately, the disaster may be alleviated or even avoided. E-Alarm makes use of network topology information, analyzes anomaly alarms using clustering method, and

Min Sun; Yuanzhi Wang; Yun Luo

2009-01-01

252

Evaluating Injury Prevention Programs: The Oklahoma City Smoke Alarm Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Illustrates how evaluating the Oklahoma City Smoke Alarm Project increased its success in reducing residential fire-related injuries and deaths. The program distributed and tested smoke alarms in residential dwellings and offered educational materials on fire prevention and safety. Evaluation provided sound data on program processes and outcomes,…

Mallonee, Sue

2000-01-01

253

Diagnostic et évaluation de l'alarme des incubateurs  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alarm bell on au incubator can be harmful for neonates if its noise level inside the incubator is quite high, and can be a potential risk if it is not perceptible by the nurses. The objective of this study is to evaluate the alarm bells of different incubator models and to analyze their performances. For the whole of the

M Abdiche; G Farges; J. M Ville; J. P Libert

2001-01-01

254

Policy Manual - Emergency Management - Clarification of Alarms & Codes  

Cancer.gov

Fire Alarm Pull Station Manually operated fire alarm pull stations are located in the corridors throughout the LP and should be used by anyone to report fires, the odor of smoke, electrical arc, and other major hazardous incidents. The pull stations should NOT be used to report bomb threats.

255

Comparison of desmopressin and enuresis alarm for nocturnal enuresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty children with primary nocturnal enuresis were randomised for a study comparing desmopressin (DDAVP) and enuresis alarm. Forty six completed the trial, 24 of whom were treated with 20 micrograms intranasal desmopressin nightly and 22 with enuresis alarm for three months. Failures were crossed over and relapses were continued on the same treatment for a further three months. The improvement

S Wille

1986-01-01

256

Successful Use of the Nocturnal Urine Alarm for Diurnal Enuresis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A urine alarm, typically used to treat nocturnal enuresis, was effectively used to treat diurnal enuresis in a 15-year-old female with depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and conduct disorder. The study indicated that the alarm eliminated wetting in both treatment phases and that continence was maintained at three-month and…

Friman, Patrick C.; Vollmer, Dennis

1995-01-01

257

Measurement of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant criticality accident alarm.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Measurements of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant's nuclear criticality accident radiation alarm signal response time, sound wave frequency, and sound volume levels were made to demonstrate compliance with ANSI/ANS-8.3-1986. A steady-state alarm sign...

R. W. Tayloe B. McGinnis

1990-01-01

258

Spiny lobsters detect conspecific blood-borne alarm cues exclusively through olfactory sensilla  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY When attacked by predators, diverse animals actively or passively release molecules that evoke alarm and related anti-predatory behavior by nearby conspecifics. The actively released molecules are alarm pheromones, whereas the passively released molecules are alarm cues. For example, many insects have alarm-signaling systems that involve active release of alarm pheromones from specialized glands and detection of these signals using

Shkelzen Shabani; Michiya Kamio; Charles D. Derby

2008-01-01

259

75 FR 34687 - Notice of Decision to Issue Permits for the Importation of Fresh False Coriander From Panama Into...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...designated phytosanitary measures will be sufficient to mitigate the risks of introducing or disseminating plant pests or noxious weeds via the importation of fresh false coriander from Panama. EFFECTIVE DATE: June 18, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

2010-06-18

260

Surprising causes of C5-carnitine false positive results in newborn screening.  

PubMed

During an 18-month period, we noticed an alarming increase of newborn screening false positivity rate in identifying isovaleric acidemia. In 50 of 50 newborns presenting elevated C5-carnitine, we confirmed the presence of pivaloylcarnitine. Exogenous pivalate administration had been previously identified as the causal agent of this concern. No pivalic-ester prodrug is commercially available in Belgium, but pivalic derivates are also used in the cosmetic industry as emollient under the term "neopentanoate". We have identified neopentanoate-esters in a nipple-fissure unguent that was provided to young mothers. Ceasing distribution of this product hugely reduced the C5-carnitine false positivity rate. PMID:24291264

Boemer, François; Schoos, Roland; de Halleux, Virginie; Kalenga, Masendu; Debray, François-Guillaume

2014-01-01

261

Design Principles of a Genetic Alarm Clock  

PubMed Central

Turning genes on and off is a mechanism by which cells and tissues make phenotypic decisions. Gene network motifs capable of supporting two or more steady states and thereby providing cells with a plurality of possible phenotypes are referred to as genetic switches. Modeled on the bases of naturally occurring genetic networks, synthetic biologists have successfully constructed artificial switches, thus opening a door to new possibilities for improvement of the known, but also the design of new synthetic genetic circuits. One of many obstacles to overcome in such efforts is to understand and hence control intrinsic noise which is inherent in all biological systems. For some motifs the noise is negligible; for others, fluctuations in the particle number can be comparable to its average. Due to their slowed dynamics, motifs with positive autoregulation tend to be highly sensitive to fluctuations of their chemical environment and are in general very noisy, especially during transition (switching). In this article we use stochastic simulations (Gillespie algorithm) to model such a system, in particular a simple bistable motif consisting of a single gene with positive autoregulation. Due to cooperativety, the dynamical behavior of this kind of motif is reminiscent of an alarm clock – the gene is (nearly) silent for some time after it is turned on and becomes active very suddenly. We investigate how these sudden transitions are affected by noise and show that under certain conditions accurate timing can be achieved. We also examine how promoter complexity influences the accuracy of this timing mechanism.

Albert, Jaroslav; Rooman, Marianne

2012-01-01

262

Mitigating ground clutter effects for mine detection with lightweight artificial dielectrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground surface roughness is problematic when using a radar impulse to detect and locate land mines. Waves scatter from a random rough ground surface in unpredictable ways, contributing to clutter that is particularly hard to suppress. This clutter has proven experimentally and computationally to distort and obscure the desired scattered field from a buried target. To overcome this effect we have developed a lightweight, artificial dielectric that can be placed over a chosen area that will mimic flat ground and mitigate clutter effects. An artificial dielectric of close-packed array of small insulated metal-coated plastic spheres and lossless uniform plastic spheres can be formulated to match the dielectric properties soil. The ratio of these two spheres in the collection is adjusted to match a particular soil type and the moisture content. Placing them in a conformable bag and ensuring a flat upper interface with the air, ground reflections from an impulse radar can effectively be removed to reveal a target scattering signature. Furthermore, a matched filter can be used to distinguish between a landmine and a false alarm (such as a rock) The artificial dielectric was matched by running experiments in the frequency and time domains. A 1 GHz center frequency impulse ground penetrating radar was used to collect time signals and compare different cases: flat ground, rough ground and rough ground with artificial dielectric. Results indicate excellent rough surface reflection removal and target signal enhancement.

Linnehan, Robert; Rappaport, Carey M.

2002-08-01

263

Evolutionary Psychology and False Confession  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents comments on Kassin's review, (see record 2005-03019-002) of the psychology of false confessions. The authors note that Kassin's review makes a compelling argument for the need for legal reform in police interrogation practices. Because his work strikes at the heart of the American criminal justice system--its fairness--the…

Bering, Jesse M.; Shackelford, Todd K.

2005-01-01

264

Felt, false, and miserable smiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretically based distinctions linked to measurable differences in appearance are described for three smiles: felt smiles (spontaneous expressions of positive emotion); false smiles (deliberate attempts to appear as if positive emotion is felt when it isn't); and, miserable smiles (acknowledgements of feeling miserable but not intending to do much about it). Preliminary evidence supports some of the hypotheses about how

Paul Ekman; Wallace V. Friesen

1982-01-01

265

'Larry's Outcrop' in False Color  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A portion of an exposure of bedrock dubbed 'Larry's Outcrop' shows little layering in this view, in contrast to nearby outcrops called 'Methuselah' and 'Jibsheet.' NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its panoramic camera in May 2005 to take this image, which is presented in false color.

2005-01-01

266

Tunneling decay of false vortices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the decay of vortices trapped in the false vacuum of a theory of scalar electrodynamics in 2+1 dimensions. The potential is inspired by models with intermediate symmetry breaking to a metastable vacuum that completely breaks a U(1) symmetry, while in the true vacuum, the symmetry is unbroken. The false vacuum is unstable through the formation of true vacuum bubbles; however, the rate of decay can be extremely long. On the other hand, the false vacuum can contain metastable vortex solutions. These vortices contain the true vacuum inside in addition to a unit of magnetic flux and the appropriate topologically nontrivial false vacuum outside. We numerically establish the existence of vortex solutions which are classically stable; however, they can decay via tunneling. In general terms, they tunnel to a configuration which is a large, thin-walled vortex configuration that is now classically unstable to the expansion of its radius. We compute an estimate for the tunneling amplitude in the semiclassical approximation. We believe our analysis would be relevant to superconducting thin films or superfluids.

Lee, Bum-Hoon; Lee, Wonwoo; MacKenzie, Richard; Paranjape, M. B.; Yajnik, U. A.; Yeom, Dong-han

2013-10-01

267

Sleep loss produces false memories.  

PubMed

People sometimes claim with high confidence to remember events that in fact never happened, typically due to strong semantic associations with actually encoded events. Sleep is known to provide optimal neurobiological conditions for consolidation of memories for long-term storage, whereas sleep deprivation acutely impairs retrieval of stored memories. Here, focusing on the role of sleep-related memory processes, we tested whether false memories can be created (a) as enduring memory representations due to a consolidation-associated reorganization of new memory representations during post-learning sleep and/or (b) as an acute retrieval-related phenomenon induced by sleep deprivation at memory testing. According to the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm, subjects learned lists of semantically associated words (e.g., "night", "dark", "coal",...), lacking the strongest common associate or theme word (here: "black"). Subjects either slept or stayed awake immediately after learning, and they were either sleep deprived or not at recognition testing 9, 33, or 44 hours after learning. Sleep deprivation at retrieval, but not sleep following learning, critically enhanced false memories of theme words. This effect was abolished by caffeine administration prior to retrieval, indicating that adenosinergic mechanisms can contribute to the generation of false memories associated with sleep loss. PMID:18946511

Diekelmann, Susanne; Landolt, Hans-Peter; Lahl, Olaf; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich

2008-01-01

268

Albeni Fall Wildlife Mitigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Albeni Falls Interagency Work Group continued to actively engage in implementing wildlife mitigation actions in 2002. Regular Work Group meetings were held to discuss budget concerns affecting the Albeni Falls Wildlife Mitigation Program, to present p...

2003-01-01

269

30 CFR 75.352 - Actions in response to AMS malfunction, alert, or alarm signals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Actions in response to AMS malfunction, alert, or alarm signals. 75.352 Section... Actions in response to AMS malfunction, alert, or alarm signals. (a) When a malfunction, alert, or alarm signal is received at the...

2010-07-01

270

30 CFR 75.352 - Actions in response to AMS malfunction, alert, or alarm signals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Actions in response to AMS malfunction, alert, or alarm signals. 75.352 Section... Actions in response to AMS malfunction, alert, or alarm signals. (a) When a malfunction, alert, or alarm signal is received at the...

2011-07-01

271

30 CFR 75.352 - Actions in response to AMS malfunction, alert, or alarm signals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Actions in response to AMS malfunction, alert, or alarm signals. 75.352 Section... Actions in response to AMS malfunction, alert, or alarm signals. (a) When a malfunction, alert, or alarm signal is received at the...

2012-07-01

272

30 CFR 75.352 - Actions in response to AMS malfunction, alert, or alarm signals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Actions in response to AMS malfunction, alert, or alarm signals. 75.352 Section... Actions in response to AMS malfunction, alert, or alarm signals. (a) When a malfunction, alert, or alarm signal is received at the...

2013-07-01

273

The neural correlates of gist-based true and false recognition  

PubMed Central

When information is thematically related to previously studied information, gist-based processes contribute to false recognition. Using functional MRI, we examined the neural correlates of gist-based recognition as a function of increasing numbers of studied exemplars. Sixteen participants incidentally encoded small, medium, and large sets of pictures, and we compared the neural response at recognition using parametric modulation analyses. For hits, regions in middle occipital, middle temporal, and posterior parietal cortex linearly modulated their activity according to the number of related encoded items. For false alarms, visual, parietal, and hippocampal regions were modulated as a function of the encoded set size. The present results are consistent with prior work in that the neural regions supporting veridical memory also contribute to false memory for related information. The results also reveal that these regions respond to the degree of relatedness among similar items, and implicate perceptual and constructive processes in gist-based false memory.

Gutchess, Angela H.; Schacter, Daniel L.

2012-01-01

274

Computational Human Performance Modeling For Alarm System Design  

SciTech Connect

The introduction of new technologies like adaptive automation systems and advanced alarms processing and presentation techniques in nuclear power plants is already having an impact on the safety and effectiveness of plant operations and also the role of the control room operator. This impact is expected to escalate dramatically as more and more nuclear power utilities embark on upgrade projects in order to extend the lifetime of their plants. One of the most visible impacts in control rooms will be the need to replace aging alarm systems. Because most of these alarm systems use obsolete technologies, the methods, techniques and tools that were used to design the previous generation of alarm system designs are no longer effective and need to be updated. The same applies to the need to analyze and redefine operators’ alarm handling tasks. In the past, methods for analyzing human tasks and workload have relied on crude, paper-based methods that often lacked traceability. New approaches are needed to allow analysts to model and represent the new concepts of alarm operation and human-system interaction. State-of-the-art task simulation tools are now available that offer a cost-effective and efficient method for examining the effect of operator performance in different conditions and operational scenarios. A discrete event simulation system was used by human factors researchers at the Idaho National Laboratory to develop a generic alarm handling model to examine the effect of operator performance with simulated modern alarm system. It allowed analysts to evaluate alarm generation patterns as well as critical task times and human workload predicted by the system.

Jacques Hugo

2012-07-01

275

Chandra Images and False Color  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the Chandra X-ray Observatory photo album website. It begins with an introduction on the electromagnetic spectrum, focusing on X-rays in particular. It also contains information on false color images. The images in this photo gallery were taken between 1999 and 2004 by the Chandra telescope. Each image includes a description and a link to more information about the object.

Lestition, Kathy

2004-07-14

276

Partial 'Seminole' Panorama (False Color)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This view from Spirit's panoramic camera is assembled from frames acquired on Martian days, or sols, 672 and 673 (Nov. 23 and 24, 2005) from the rover's position near an outcrop called 'Seminole.' The view is a southward-looking portion of a larger panorama still being completed. This is a false-color version to emphasize geological differences. It is a composite of images shot through three different filters, admitting light of wavelengths 750 nanometers, 530 nanometers and 430 nanometers.

2005-01-01

277

Research on the fire alarming system of fiber grating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of fiber grating sensing technology in fire alarming based on temperature detection has the advantages of high accuracy, high reliability and strong immunity from electronic and magnetic fields. It is especially advantageous to use this system in the petroleum and chemistry industry because it can provide an extraordinary safe means for the fire alarm. But due to the traditional optical Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) technology is limited by the optic source bandwidth, the number of its multiplexing points is few. In this paper WDM technology will be developed mixing with Identified Bragg, which is called Identified and Wavelength Multiplexing, to build the Fiber Grating (FBG) fire alarm system integrated with computers. Some technologies applied in fire alarming system of fiber grating such as the transmission of test signals which pass through modulate and demodulate, the disposal of software system, the output of control signal and the strong ability of anti-disturbance have been studied and discussed.

Qi, Yaobin

2007-10-01

278

46 CFR 108.623 - General alarm bell switch.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...General alarm bell switch. 108.623 Section 108.623 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.623...

2013-10-01

279

How to design plant evacuation alarms: Part 1  

SciTech Connect

Using new guidelines, safety managers can evaluate plant emergency alarms and decide if their systems meet OSHA requirements. Under OSHA's CFR 1910.119 Process Safety Management (PSM) and 29 CFR 1910.120 Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response (HAZWOPER) directives, employers must develop, implement and maintain alarm systems to protect and evacuate all employees during an emergency. The paper discusses OSHA requirements; information sources and availability; and performance over time. Part 2 will examine how alarm signals are interpreted by workers. Using the Do's and Don'ts for alarms, safety engineers can effectively design around signaling problems so that employees are able to see, hear or feel emergency signals and respond quickly and correctly.

Kruger, D.A. (Webb, Murray and Associates, Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

1994-10-01

280

Measurement of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant criticality accident alarm  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant's nuclear criticality accident radiation alarm signal response time, sound wave frequency, and sound volume levels were made to demonstrate compliance with ANSI/ANS-8.3-1986. A steady-state alarm signal is produced within one-half second of obtaining a two-out-of-three detector trip. The fundamental alarm sound wave frequency is 440 hertz. The sound volume levels are greater than 10 decibels above background and ranged from 100 to 125 A-weighted decibels. The requirements of the standard were met; however the recommended maximum sound volume level of 115 dBA was exceeded. Emergency procedures require immediate evacuation upon initiation of a facility's radiation alarm. Comparison with standards for allowable time of exposure at different noise levels indicate that the elevated noise level at this location does not represent an occupational injury hazard. 8 refs., 5 figs.

Tayloe, R.W. Jr. (Battelle Columbus (USA)); McGinnis, B. (Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Piketon, OH (USA))

1990-08-31

281

5. DETAIL VIEW OF OLD, PUNCHTYPE MASTER FIRE ALARM SYSTEM, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. DETAIL VIEW OF OLD, PUNCH-TYPE MASTER FIRE ALARM SYSTEM, LOCATED ON S WALL OF ENGINE STORAGE ROOM; LOOKING S. (Ceronie and Ryan) - Watervliet Arsenal, Building No. 22, Westervelt Avenue & Buffington Street, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

282

Verification of criticality accident alarm system for environmental restoration activities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This work analyzes the optimal placement of a criticality accident alarm system (CAAS) necessitated by an unexpected accumulation of fissile materials in the filtration system of an idled experimental nuclear reactor. Results using multidimensional determ...

B. L. Broadhead R. L. Childs C. M. Hopper

1995-01-01

283

Onsite Portable Alarm System - Its Merit and Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently an existence of the earthquake early warning system (EEWS) becomes popular. In general, the EEWS will be installed in a fixed observation site and it may consist of several separated components such as a sensing portion, A/D converter, an information processing potion and so on. The processed information for warning may be transmitted to network via fixed communication line, and therefore this kind of alarm system is called as Network Alarm System. On the other hand, after the severe earthquake damage, it is very important to save the disaster victims immediately. These rescue staffs are also under the risk of aftershocks and need a local alarm not depending on the network, so this kind of alarm can be called as Onsite Alarm. But the common early warning system is too complex to set onsite temporary, and even if possible to install, the alarm is too late to receive at the epicentral area. However, the new generation earthquake early warning system FREQL can issue the P wave alarm by minimum 0.2 seconds after P wave detection. And FREQL is characterized as the unique all-in-one seismometer with power unit. At the time of the 2004 Niigata-Ken-Chuetsu earthquake, a land slide attacked a car just passing. A hyper rescue team of Tokyo Fire Department pulled the survivor, one baby, from the land slide area. During their activity the rescue team was exposed to the risk of secondary hazards caused by the aftershocks. It was clear that it is necessary to use a portable warning system to issue the onsite P wave alarm. Because FREQL was originally developed as portable equipment, Tokyo Fire Department asked us to modify it to the portable equipment with the loud sound and the light signal. In this moment, this portable FREQL has equipped in nation wide. When the hyper rescue team of Tokyo Fire Department was sent to Pakistan as a task force for rescue work of the 2005 Pakistan earthquake, the portable FREQL was used as important onsite portable warning system and P wave alarms was actually issued by three times during the rescue work. Although this is one example for the actual application of portable onsite alarm, it is possible to apply the other field as the construction field. In this presentation, Portable Onsite Alarm is discussed from views of its necessity and application.

Saita, J.; Sato, T.; Nakamura, Y.

2007-12-01

284

Analysis of Alarm Sequences in a Chemical Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil and gas industries need secure and cost-effective alarm systems to meet safety requirements and to avoid problems that\\u000a lead to plant shutdowns, production losses, accidents and associated lawsuit costs. Although most current distributed control\\u000a systems (DCS) collect and archive alarm event logs, the extensive quantity and complexity of such data make identification\\u000a of the problem a very labour-intensive and

Savo Kordic; Peng Lam; Jitian Xiao; Huaizhong Li

2008-01-01

285

Heterospecific alarm call recognition in a non-vocal reptile.  

PubMed

The ability to recognize and respond to the alarm calls of heterospecifics has previously been described only in species with vocal communication. Here we provide evidence that a non-vocal reptile, the Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus), can eavesdrop on the alarm call of the Galápagos mockingbird (Nesomimus parvulus) and respond with anti-predator behaviour. Eavesdropping on complex heterospecific communications demonstrates a remarkable degree of auditory discrimination in a non-vocal species. PMID:17911047

Vitousek, Maren N; Adelman, James S; Gregory, Nathan C; Clair, James J H St

2007-12-22

286

Alarm pheromone production by two honeybee (Apis mellifera) types.  

PubMed

Of 12 alarm pheromones assayed in European and Africanized honeybees, nine were found in larger quantities in the Africanized population. Isopentyl and 2-heptanone levels were similar in both; 2-methylbutanol-1 was greater in European workers. These differences were not due to age or geographical location. Significant positive correlations between alarm pheromone levels and defensive behavior, especially numbers of stings, were observed. PMID:24272178

Collins, A M; Rinderer, T E; Daly, H V; Harbo, J R; Pesante, D

1989-06-01

287

ZoneAlarm 6.0.631.003  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Zone Alarm application was created to protect DSL-or cable-connected PCs from hackers, and this latest version contains four valuable security services. They include a firewall, an application control, an Internet lock, and zones. Working in tandem, these interlocking devices block Internet traffic while the computer is unattended and also monitor all activity on a given computer. This version of ZoneAlarm is compatible with Windows 98 or newer.

288

An alarm processing system for a nuclear power plant using artificial intelligence techniques  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on an alarm processing system (APS) developed that uses artificial intelligence techniques to help operators to make decisions. Alarms in nuclear power plants are classified into generalized and special alarms. Generalized alarms are further classified into global and local alarms. For each type of alarm, the specific processing rules are applied to filter and suppress unnecessary and potentially misleading alarms. The processing for the generalized alarms is based on model-based reasoning. The special alarms are processed by the cause-consequence check rules. The priorities of alarms are determined according to both the plant state and the consistencies among the alarms. This APS is built on a workstation using the Prolog language.

Yang, J.O.; Chang, S.H. (Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, P.O. Box 150 Cheongryang, Seoul (KR))

1991-09-01

289

Detection of an LTE signal based on constant false alarm rate methods and Constant Amplitude Zero Autocorrelation sequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to detect the presence of primary user (PU) signal, spectrum sensing is a fundamental requirement to achieve the cognitive radio (CR) goals. This ensures the efficient utilization of the spectrum. There are many methods for signal detection such as cyclostationary detection, cyclic prefix detection, energy detection, and detection based on fractional Fourier transform (FrFT). The aim of this

M. M. Sebdani; M. Javad Omidi

2010-01-01

290

A false alarm based on electrical activity recorded at a VAN-Station in northern Greece in December 1990  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A VAN-prediction was announced on January 6, 1991, through the French newspaper “Le Monde” and on January 8-10, 1991, through Greek newspapers and TV stations. We evaluate this prediction on the basis of a letter which was sent by Prof. Varotsos (without date) to the Greek Minister of Public Works, and by considering previous VAN-publications as well as recent seismological data for the candidate regions. We conclude that what was observed at ASS station (northern Greece) on December 31, 1990, was not SES-activity but another disturbance or noise.

Drakopoulos, John; Stavrakakis, George N.

291

Using intent information to investigate the relationship between missed detections and false alarms in conflict detection verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerospace systems are becoming more dependent on software for safety critical functions such as conflict detection. The notion of intent is rarely ever addressed in software decision aiding and alerting tools such as conflict detection devices. Traditional modelling techniques for specifying and verifying safety properties of software systems rarely allow for a framework in which to specify intent. Since intent

Natasha Neogi

2003-01-01

292

Organic Contaminants from Sewage Sludge Applied to Agricultural Soils. False Alarm Regarding Possible Problems for Food Safety? (8 pp)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goal, Scope and Background   Sewage sludge produced in wastewater treatment contains large amounts of organic matter and nutrients and could, therefore,\\u000a be suitable as fertiliser. However, with the sludge, besides heavy metals and pathogenic bacteria, a variety of organic contaminants\\u000a can be added to agricultural fields. Whether the organic contaminants from the sludge can have adverse effects on human health

Christian Grøn; Karin von Arnold

2007-01-01

293

Epidermal 'alarm substance' cells of fishes maintained by non-alarm functions: possible defence against pathogens, parasites and UVB radiation  

PubMed Central

Many fishes possess specialized epidermal cells that are ruptured by the teeth of predators, thus reliably indicating the presence of an actively foraging predator. Understanding the evolution of these cells has intrigued evolutionary ecologists because the release of these alarm chemicals is not voluntary. Here, we show that predation pressure does not influence alarm cell production in fishes. Alarm cell production is stimulated by exposure to skin-penetrating pathogens (water moulds: Saprolegnia ferax and Saprolegnia parasitica), skin-penetrating parasites (larval trematodes: Teleorchis sp. and Uvulifer sp.) and correlated with exposure to UV radiation. Suppression of the immune system with environmentally relevant levels of Cd inhibits alarm cell production of fishes challenged with Saprolegnia. These data are the first evidence that alarm substance cells have an immune function against ubiquitous environmental challenges to epidermal integrity. Our results indicate that these specialized cells arose and are maintained by natural selection owing to selfish benefits unrelated to predator–prey interactions. Cell contents released when these cells are damaged in predator attacks have secondarily acquired an ecological role as alarm cues because selection favours receivers to detect and respond adaptively to public information about predation.

Chivers, Douglas P; Wisenden, Brian D; Hindman, Carrie J; Michalak, Tracy A; Kusch, Robin C; Kaminskyj, Susan G.W; Jack, Kristin L; Ferrari, Maud C.O; Pollock, Robyn J; Halbgewachs, Colin F; Pollock, Michael S; Alemadi, Shireen; James, Clayton T; Savaloja, Rachel K; Goater, Cameron P; Corwin, Amber; Mirza, Reehan S; Kiesecker, Joseph M; Brown, Grant E; Adrian, James C; Krone, Patrick H; Blaustein, Andrew R; Mathis, Alicia

2007-01-01

294

Gating Functions for Multipath Mitigation in GNSS BOC Signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new multipath mitigation technique is proposed for binary offset carrier (BOC) signals in global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) using the concept of gating function originally conceived for the GPS coarse-acquisition (C\\/A) code. Specially-tailored pulses are utilized to diminish the number of false-lock points of the code discriminator response and to improve the multipath mitigation capability. The code loop includes

FERNANDO D. NUNES; FERNANDO M. G. SOUSA; Jose Leitao

2007-01-01

295

Building false memories without suggestions.  

PubMed

People can come to remember doing things they have never done. The question we asked in this study is whether people can systematically come to remember performing actions they never really did, in the absence of any suggestion from the experimenter. People built LEGO vehicles, performing some steps but not others. For half the people, all the pieces needed to assemble each vehicle were laid out in order in front of them while they did the building; for the other half, the pieces were hidden from view. The next day, everyone returned for a surprise recognition test. People falsely and confidently remembered having carried out steps they did not; those who saw all the pieces while they built each vehicle were more likely to correctly remember performing steps they did perform but equally likely to falsely remember performing steps they did not. We explain our results using the source monitoring framework: People used the relationships between actions to internally generate the missing, related actions, later mistaking that information for genuine experience. PMID:22774684

Foster, Jeffrey L; Garry, Maryanne

2012-01-01

296

'Payson' Panorama in False Color  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The panoramic camera aboard NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity acquired this panorama of the 'Payson' outcrop on the western edge of 'Erebus' Crater during Opportunity's sol 744 (Feb. 26, 2006). From this vicinity at the northern end of the outcrop, layered rocks are observed in the crater wall, which is about 1 meter (3.3 feet) thick. The view also shows rocks disrupted by the crater-forming impact event and subjected to erosion over time.

To the left of the outcrop, a flat, thin layer of spherule-rich soils overlies more outcrop materials. The rover is currently traveling down this 'road' and observing the approximately 25-meter (82-foot) length of the outcrop prior to departing Erebus crater.

The panorama camera took 28 separate exposures of this scene, using four different filters. The resulting panorama covers about 90 degrees of terrain around the rover. This false-color rendering was made using the camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer and 423-nanometer filters. Using false color enhances the subtle color differences between layers of rocks and soils in the scene so that scientists can better analyze them. Image-to-image seams have been eliminated from the sky portion of the mosaic to better simulate the vista a person standing on Mars would see.

2006-01-01

297

Astrophysical False Positives Encountered in Wide-Field Transit Searches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wide-field photometric transit surveys for Jupiter-sized planets are inundated by astrophysical false positives, namely systems that contain an eclipsing binary and mimic the desired photometric signature. We discuss several examples of such false alarms. These systems were initially identified as candidates by the PSST instrument at Lowell Observatory. For three of the examples, we present follow-up spectroscopy that demonstrates that these systems consist of (1) an M-dwarf in eclipse in front of a larger star, (2) two main-sequence stars presenting grazing-incidence eclipses, and (3) the blend of an eclipsing binary with the light of a third, brighter star. For an additional candidate, we present multi-color follow-up photometry during a subsequent time of eclipse, which reveals that this candidate consists of a blend of an eclipsing binary and a physically unassociated star. We discuss a couple indicators from publicly-available catalogs that can be used to identify which candidates are likely giant stars, a large source of the contaminants in such surveys.

Charbonneau, David; Brown, Timothy M.; Dunham, Edward W.; Latham, David W.; Looper, Dagny L.; Mandushev, Georgi

2004-06-01

298

FAULT DIAGNOSIS WITH MULTI-STATE ALARMS IN A NUCLEAR POWER CONTROL SIMULATOR  

SciTech Connect

This research addresses how alarm systems can increase operator performance within nuclear power plant operations. The experiment examined the effect of two types of alarm systems (two-state and three-state alarms) on alarm compliance and diagnosis for two types of faults differing in complexity. We hypothesized three-state alarms would improve performance in alarm recognition and fault diagnoses over that of two-state alarms. We used sensitivity and criterion based on Signal Detection Theory to measure performance. We further hypothesized that operator trust would be highest when using three-state alarms. The findings from this research showed participants performed better and had more trust in three-state alarms compared to two-state alarms. Furthermore, these findings have significant theoretical implications and practical applications as they apply to improving the efficiency and effectiveness of nuclear power plant operations.

Austin Ragsdale; Roger Lew; Brian P. Dyre; Ronald L. Boring

2012-10-01

299

False recognition and source attribution for actions of an emotional event in older and younger adults.  

PubMed

In two experiments recognition of actions of a robbery presented in a video was examined in older and younger adults. In both experiments older adults had more false alarms and showed less accurate recognition than younger adults. In addition, when participants were asked in Experiment 1 to indicate Remember/Know/Guess judgments for actions they considered true, older adults accepted more false actions with Remember judgments. And when participants were asked in Experiment 2 to attribute the source (i.e., perpetrator), the older adults were less able to attribute actions that occurred during the robbery to their correct sources. Furthermore, we found a robust positive correlation between source attribution ability and recognition accuracy. Thus, source-memory deficits may contribute to older adults' false memories in real-life eyewitness situations. PMID:21534031

Aizpurua, Alaitz; Garcia-Bajos, Elvira; Migueles, Malen

2011-05-01

300

Alarm calls elicit predator-specific physiological responses  

PubMed Central

Glucocorticoids regulate glucose concentrations and responses to unpredictable events, while also modulating cognition. Juvenile Belding's ground squirrels (Urocitellus beldingi) learn to respond to whistle and trill alarm calls, warning of aerial and terrestrial predators, respectively, shortly after emerging from natal burrows at one month of age. Alarm calls can cause physiological reactions and arousal, and this arousal, coupled with watching adult responses, might help juveniles learn associations between calls and behavioural responses. I studied whether young show differential cortisol responses to alarm and non-alarm calls, using playbacks of U. beldingi whistles, trills, squeals (a conspecific control vocalization) and silent controls. Trills elicited very high cortisol responses, and, using an individual's response to the silent control as baseline, only their response to a trill was significantly higher than baseline. This cortisol increase would provide glucose for extended vigilance and escape efforts, which is appropriate for evading terrestrial predators which hunt for long periods. Although whistles do not elicit a cortisol response, previous research has shown that they do result in bradycardia, which enhances attention and information processing. This is a novel demonstration of two physiological responses to two alarm calls, each appropriate to the threats represented by the calls.

Mateo, Jill M.

2010-01-01

301

Cape Verde in False Color  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A promontory nicknamed 'Cape Verde' can be seen jutting out from the walls of Victoria Crater in this false-color picture taken by the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The rover took this picture on martian day, or sol, 1329 (Oct. 20, 2007), more than a month after it began descending down the crater walls -- and just 9 sols shy of its second Martian birthday on sol 1338 (Oct. 29, 2007). Opportunity landed on the Red Planet on Jan. 25, 2004. That's nearly four years ago on Earth, but only two on Mars because Mars takes longer to travel around the sun than Earth. One Martian year equals 687 Earth days.

This view was taken using three panoramic-camera filters, admitting light with wavelengths centered at 750 nanometers (near infrared), 530 nanometers (green) and 430 nanometers (violet).

2007-01-01

302

MITIGATING WETLANDS LOSSES  

EPA Science Inventory

Under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act, compensatory mitigation of wetlands is required to offset any unavoidable adverse impacts to wetlands that cannot otherwise be minimized. Compensatory mitigation usually is in the form of restoration, enhancement, or creation of new wetl...

303

Field response of tadpoles to conspecific and heterospecific alarm  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many organisms use chemical cues from a variety of sources to mediate predator avoidance. Response to heterospecific alarm cues has been demonstrated for tadpoles within but not among taxa and alarm response behavior has seldom been examined under field conditions. This study examined the response of three sympatric amphibian larvae and predaceous larval Dytiscus sp. (diving beetle) to damage-release signals in natural ponds by using capture rates from treated funnel traps as an index of larval behavior. Hyla regilla (Pacific tree frog) tadpoles avoided traps treated with either crushed conspecifics or with Rana aurora (red-legged frog) tadpoles but the larger ranids and Arabystoma macrodactylum (long-toed salamander) did not respond to either treatment. H. regilla tadpoles were likely susceptible to any potential predators of ranid tadpoles in these ponds and this result is consistent with the hypothesis that a response to heterospecific alarm occurs in sympatric prey with shared predators.

Adams, M. J.; Claeson, S.

1998-01-01

304

42 CFR 93.408 - Mitigating and aggravating factors in HHS administrative actions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mitigating and...in HHS administrative actions. 93.408 Section 93.408 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH...

2012-10-01

305

42 CFR 93.408 - Mitigating and aggravating factors in HHS administrative actions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mitigating and...in HHS administrative actions. 93.408 Section 93.408 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH...

2013-10-01

306

16 CFR Appendix A to Part 681 - Interagency Guidelines on Identity Theft Detection, Prevention, and Mitigation  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Interagency Guidelines on Identity Theft Detection, Prevention, and Mitigation...THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT IDENTITY THEFT RULES Pt. 681, App. A Appendix...681âInteragency Guidelines on Identity Theft Detection, Prevention, and...

2010-01-01

307

Mitigation Action Plan  

SciTech Connect

This Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) focuses on mitigation commitments stated in the Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) and the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1). Specific commitments and mitigation implementation actions are listed in Appendix A-Mitigation Actions, and form the central focus of this MAP. They will be updated as needed to allow for organizational, regulatory, or policy changes. It is the intent of DOE to comply with all applicable federal, state, and local environmental, safety, and health laws and regulations. Eighty-six specific commitments were identified in the SEIS and associated ROD which pertain to continued operation of NPR-1 with petroleum production at the Maximum Efficient Rate (MER). The mitigation measures proposed are expected to reduce impacts as much as feasible, however, as experience is gained in actual implementation of these measures, some changes may be warranted.

Not Available

1994-02-01

308

Selective reduction of CAD false-positive findings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computer-Aided Detection (CAD) systems are becoming widespread supporting tools to radiologists' diagnosis, especially in screening contexts. However, a large amount of false positive (FP) alarms would inevitably lead both to an undesired possible increase in time for diagnosis, and to a reduction in radiologists' confidence in CAD as a useful tool. Most CAD systems implement as final step of the analysis a classifier which assigns a score to each entry of a list of findings; by thresholding this score it is possible to define the system performance on an annotated validation dataset in terms of a FROC curve (sensitivity vs. FP per scan). To use a CAD as a supportive tool for most clinical activities, an operative point has to be chosen on the system FROC curve, according to the obvious criterion of keeping the sensitivity as high as possible, while maintaining the number of FP alarms still acceptable. The strategy proposed in this study is to choose an operative point with high sensitivity on the CAD FROC curve, then to implement in cascade a further classification step, constituted by a smarter classifier. The key issue of this approach is that the smarter classifier is actually a meta-classifier of more then one decision system, each specialized in rejecting a particular type of FP findings generated by the CAD. The application of this approach to a dataset of 16 lung CT scans previously processed by the VBNACAD system is presented. The lung CT VBNACAD performance of 87.1% sensitivity to juxtapleural nodules with 18.5 FP per scan is improved up to 10.1 FP per scan while maintaining the same value of sensitivity. This work has been carried out in the framework of the MAGIC-V collaboration.

Camarlinghi, N.; Gori, I.; Retico, A.; Bagagli, F.

2010-03-01

309

Pulse register phonation in Diana monkey alarm calls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adult male Diana monkeys (Cercopithecus diana) produce predator-specific alarm calls in response to two of their predators, the crowned eagles and the leopards. The acoustic structure of these alarm calls is remarkable for a number of theoretical and empirical reasons. First, although pulsed phonation has been described in a variety of mammalian vocalizations, very little is known about the underlying production mechanism. Second, Diana monkey alarm calls are based almost exclusively on this vocal production mechanism to an extent that has never been documented in mammalian vocal behavior. Finally, the Diana monkeys' pulsed phonation strongly resembles the pulse register in human speech, where fundamental frequency is mainly controlled by subglottal pressure. Here, we report the results of a detailed acoustic analysis to investigate the production mechanism of Diana monkey alarm calls. Within calls, we found a positive correlation between the fundamental frequency and the pulse amplitude, suggesting that both humans and monkeys control fundamental frequency by subglottal pressure. While in humans pulsed phonation is usually considered pathological or artificial, male Diana monkeys rely exclusively on pulsed phonation, suggesting a functional adaptation. Moreover, we were unable to document any nonlinear phenomena, despite the fact that they occur frequently in the vocal repertoire of humans and nonhumans, further suggesting that the very robust Diana monkey pulse production mechanism has evolved for a particular functional purpose. We discuss the implications of these findings for the structural evolution of Diana monkey alarm calls and suggest that the restricted variability in fundamental frequency and robustness of the source signal gave rise to the formant patterns observed in Diana monkey alarm calls, used to convey predator information.

Riede, Tobias; Zuberbühler, Klaus

2003-05-01

310

Description of ALARMA: the alarm algorithm developed for the Nuclear Car Wash  

SciTech Connect

The goal of any alarm algorithm should be that it provide the necessary tools to derive confidence limits on whether the existence of fissile materials is present in cargo containers. It should be able to extract these limits from (usually) noisy and/or weak data while maintaining a false alarm rate (FAR) that is economically suitable for port operations. It should also be able to perform its analysis within a reasonably short amount of time (i.e. {approx} seconds). To achieve this, it is essential that the algorithm be able to identify and subtract any interference signature that might otherwise be confused with a fissile signature. Lastly, the algorithm itself should be user-intuitive and user-friendly so that port operators with little or no experience with detection algorithms may use it with relative ease. In support of the Nuclear Car Wash project at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, we have developed an alarm algorithm that satisfies the above requirements. The description of the this alarm algorithm, dubbed ALARMA, is the purpose of this technical report. The experimental setup of the nuclear car wash has been well documented [1, 2, 3]. The presence of fissile materials is inferred by examining the {beta}-delayed gamma spectrum induced after a brief neutron irradiation of cargo, particularly in the high-energy region above approximately 2.5 MeV. In this region naturally occurring gamma rays are virtually non-existent. Thermal-neutron induced fission of {sup 235}U and {sup 239}P, on the other hand, leaves a unique {beta}-delayed spectrum [4]. This spectrum comes from decays of fission products having half-lives as large as 30 seconds, many of which have high Q-values. Since high-energy photons penetrate matter more freely, it is natural to look for unique fissile signatures in this energy region after neutron irradiation. The goal of this interrogation procedure is a 95% success rate of detection of as little as 5 kilograms of fissile material while retaining at most .1% false alarm rate. Plywood is used to simulate hydrogenous cargo material and steel (pipes) is used to simulate metallic cargo. The wood consists of 120 x 240 cm sheets and has approximately .65 g/cm{sup 3}. The steel pipes have approximately 10 cm diameters x 6.4 mm wall thickness are .6 g/cm{sup 3}. Fissile sources consist of a ''large'' (380 g) and ''small'' (250 g) sample of HEU (U{sub 3}O{sub 8} 94% enriched). Note that the masses of the HEU sources used in our experimental runs are at least an order of magnitude smaller than 5 kilograms. Runs are done with either wood or steel cargoes stacked at various heights and the HEU sources placed at various depths within the cargo.

Luu, T; Biltoft, P; Church, J; Descalle, M; Hall, J; Manatt, D; Mauger, J; Norman, E; Petersen, D; Pruet, J; Prussin, S; Slaughter, D

2006-11-28

311

25 CFR 11.431 - False reports.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.431 False reports. (a) A person who knowingly gives false information to any law enforcement...

2011-04-01

312

Removing False Paths from Combinational Modules 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence of false paths complicates the task of accurate tim- ing analysis significantly. A technique to remove false paths from a combinational circuit without degrading its performance h as a prac- tical value since topological timing analysis is then good e nough to estimate the performance of false-path-free circuits accu rately. One can think of the KMS algorithm (1)

Yuji Kukimoto; Robert K. Brayton

313

An Association Account of False Belief Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The elicited-response false belief task has traditionally been considered as reliably indicating that children acquire an understanding of false belief around 4 years of age. However, recent investigations using spontaneous-response tasks suggest that false belief understanding emerges much earlier. This leads to a developmental paradox: if young…

De Bruin, L. C.; Newen, A.

2012-01-01

314

Can fabricated evidence induce false eyewitness testimony?  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY False information can influence people's beliefs and memories. But can fabricated evidence induce individuals to accuse another person of doing something they never did? We examined whether exposure to a fabricated video could produce false eyewitness testimony. Subjects completed a gambling task alongside a confederate subject, and later we falsely told subjects that their partner had cheated on the

Kimberley A. Wade; Sarah L. Green; Robert A. Nash

2009-01-01

315

A model of the influence of false-positive mammography screening results on subsequent screening  

PubMed Central

Decades of empirical research have demonstrated psychological and behavioural consequences of false-positive medical tests. To organise this literature and offer novel predictions, we propose a model of how false-positive mammography results affect return for subsequent mammography screening. We propose that false-positive mammography results alter how women think about themselves (e.g., increasing their perceived likelihood of getting breast cancer) and the screening test (e.g., believing mammography test results are less accurate). We further hypothesise that thoughts elicited by the false-positive experience will, in turn, affect future use of screening mammography. In addition, we discuss methodological considerations for statistical analyses of these mediational pathways and propose two classes of potential moderators. While our model focuses on mammography screening, it may be applicable to psychological and behavioural responses to other screening tests. The model is especially timely as false-positive medical test results are increasingly common, due to efforts to increase uptake of cancer screening, new technologies that improve existing tests’ ability to detect disease at the cost of increased false alarms, and growing numbers of new medical tests.

DeFrank, Jessica T.; Brewer, Noel

2011-01-01

316

Learning three sets of alarms for the same medical functions: A perspective on the difficulty of learning alarms specified in an international standard.  

PubMed

Three sets of eight alarms supporting eight functions specified in an international medical equipment standard (IEC 60601-1-8) were tested for learnability using non-anaesthetist participants. One set consisted of the tonal alarms specified in the standard. A second set consisted of a set of abstract alarms randomly selected from a database of abstract alarm sounds held by the authors. A third set of alarms was designed as indirect metaphors of the functions. Participants were presented with the alarms and then asked to identify them across ten blocks of eight trials. The results indicated a significant difference in learnability across the three sets of alarms. The indirect metaphors were learned significantly better than both other sets of alarms, and the randomly selected abstract alarms were learned significantly better than the alarms specified in the standard. The results suggest therefore that there are more readily learnable possible designs than those proposed in the standard. The use of auditory icons in particular should be given serious consideration as potential alarms for this application. PMID:24209498

Edworthy, Judy; Page, Rebecca; Hibbard, Andrea; Kyle, Sean; Ratnage, Paul; Claydon, Suzanne

2014-09-01

317

Miniature Bilevel Alarm for Oxygen-Deficient Atmospheres.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Mines has developed a miniature, portable two-level oxygen-deficiency alarm and produced three prototype models. Each operates from a 4.2-v dc power source, and the highest current drain of any model is 80 ma. An electrochemical cell, which ...

R. A. Bradburn M. L. Bowser

1968-01-01

318

AQUAMESH-Fiber Optic Alarmed Underwater Security Barrier.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pilkington P.E. Limited, United Kingdom, has developed and is marketing an underwater fiber optic alarmed security barrier. The system is designed to deter, delay, and detect an intruder or intrusions into a restricted area. Additionally, the system has a...

1989-01-01

319

Research on rural emergency alarm system based on network  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the huge rural people floating into the cities, for those old men and children who have to live in the village, the safety issues, especially the ones on the alarm and treatment on time during the emergency situation, need to be resolved urgently. The paper demonstrates a system that is composed of software and hardware, constructs its structure model

Fangyan Yang; Lei Jin

2010-01-01

320

Mouse alarm pheromone shares structural similarity with predator scents  

PubMed Central

Sensing the chemical warnings present in the environment is essential for species survival. In mammals, this form of danger communication occurs via the release of natural predator scents that can involuntarily warn the prey or by the production of alarm pheromones by the stressed prey alerting its conspecifics. Although we previously identified the olfactory Grueneberg ganglion as the sensory organ through which mammalian alarm pheromones signal a threatening situation, the chemical nature of these cues remains elusive. We here identify, through chemical analysis in combination with a series of physiological and behavioral tests, the chemical structure of a mouse alarm pheromone. To successfully recognize the volatile cues that signal danger, we based our selection on their activation of the mouse olfactory Grueneberg ganglion and the concomitant display of innate fear reactions. Interestingly, we found that the chemical structure of the identified mouse alarm pheromone has similar features as the sulfur-containing volatiles that are released by predating carnivores. Our findings thus not only reveal a chemical Leitmotiv that underlies signaling of fear, but also point to a double role for the olfactory Grueneberg ganglion in intraspecies as well as interspecies communication of danger.

Brechbuhl, Julien; Moine, Fabian; Klaey, Magali; Nenniger-Tosato, Monique; Hurni, Nicolas; Sporkert, Frank; Giroud, Christian; Broillet, Marie-Christine

2013-01-01

321

47 CFR 80.318 - Use of alarm signals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...only be used to announce: (1) That a distress call or message is about to follow; (2) The transmission of an urgent cyclone warning. In this case the alarm signal may only be used by coast stations authorized by the Commission to do so;...

2013-10-01

322

LonWorks-based intelligent train's fire alarming control network  

Microsoft Academic Search

LonWorks Field Bus is introduced. Then one way of using this technology to design intelligent train's fire alarming and controlling network is presented. This way successfully realizes the serial port communication between the neuron chip and PC or ?p. Thus another approach of applying LonWorks to traditional measurement and control system is founded.

Yu Zujun; Shi Hongmei; Ai Li; Guo Baoqing

2002-01-01

323

Prototype ventilator and alarm algorithm for the NASA space station  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alarm algorithm was developed to monitor the ventilator on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration space station. The algorithm automatically identifies and interprets critical events so that an untrained user can manage the mechanical ventilation of a critically injured crew member. The algorithm was tested in two healthy volunteers by simulating 260 critical events in each volunteer while the

Josef X. Brunner; Dwayne R. Westenskow; Paul Zelenkov

1988-01-01

324

46 CFR 28.240 - General alarm system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Vessels That Operate Beyond the Boundary Lines or With More Than 16 Individuals On Board, or for Fish Tender Vessels Engaged in the Aleutian Trade § 28.240 General alarm system. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (f) of this section, each...

2013-10-01

325

Integrated alarm annunciation and entry control systems -- Survey results  

SciTech Connect

This report provides the results and analyses of a detailed survey undertaken in Summer 1993 to address integrated intrusion detection alarm annunciation and entry control system issues. This survey was undertaken as a first attempt toward beginning to answer questions about integrated systems and commercial capabilities to meet or partially meet US Department of Energy (DOE) site needs.

Clever, J.J.; Arakaki, L.H.; Monaco, F.M.; Juarros, L.E.; Quintana, G.R.

1993-10-01

326

Real-time distributed fiber optic sensor for security systems: Performance, event classification and nuisance mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The success of any perimeter intrusion detection system depends on three important performance parameters: the probability of detection (POD), the nuisance alarm rate (NAR), and the false alarm rate (FAR). The most fundamental parameter, POD, is normally related to a number of factors such as the event of interest, the sensitivity of the sensor, the installation quality of the system, and the reliability of the sensing equipment. The suppression of nuisance alarms without degrading sensitivity in fiber optic intrusion detection systems is key to maintaining acceptable performance. Signal processing algorithms that maintain the POD and eliminate nuisance alarms are crucial for achieving this. In this paper, a robust event classification system using supervised neural networks together with a level crossings (LCs) based feature extraction algorithm is presented for the detection and recognition of intrusion and non-intrusion events in a fence-based fiber-optic intrusion detection system. A level crossings algorithm is also used with a dynamic threshold to suppress torrential rain-induced nuisance alarms in a fence system. Results show that rain-induced nuisance alarms can be suppressed for rainfall rates in excess of 100 mm/hr with the simultaneous detection of intrusion events. The use of a level crossing based detection and novel classification algorithm is also presented for a buried pipeline fiber optic intrusion detection system for the suppression of nuisance events and discrimination of intrusion events. The sensor employed for both types of systems is a distributed bidirectional fiber-optic Mach-Zehnder (MZ) interferometer.

Mahmoud, Seedahmed S.; Visagathilagar, Yuvaraja; Katsifolis, Jim

2012-09-01

327

Orbital Debris Mitigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Policies on limiting orbital debris are found throughout the US Government, many foreign space agencies, and as adopted guidelines in the United Nations. The underlying purpose of these policies is to ensure the environment remains safe for the operation of robotic and human spacecraft in near- Earth orbit. For this reason, it is important to consider orbital debris mitigation during the design of all space vehicles. Documenting compliance with the debris mitigation guidelines occurs after the vehicle has already been designed and fabricated for many CubeSats, whereas larger satellites are evaluated throughout the design process. This paper will provide a brief explanation of the US Government Orbital Debris Mitigation Standard Practices, a discussion of international guidelines, as well as NASA's process for compliance evaluation. In addition, it will discuss the educational value of considering orbital debris mitigation requirements as a part of student built satellite design.

Kelley, R. L.; Jarkey, D. R.; Stansbery, G.

2014-01-01

328

Materials for Shock Mitigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this effort was to investigate basic material properties that affect shock wave attenuation in construction materials and field test materials which show promise as external shock mitigators (ESMs). The results of this work demonstrated t...

L. C. Muszyski M. A. Rochefort

1994-01-01

329

Dust Mitigation Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A document describes the development and demonstration of an apparatus, called a dust mitigation vehicle, for reducing the amount of free dust on the surface of the Moon. The dust mitigation vehicle would be used to pave surfaces on the Moon to prevent the dust from levitating or adhering to surfaces. The basic principle of operation of these apparatuses is to use a lens or a dish mirror to concentrate solar thermal radiation onto a small spot to heat lunar regolith. In the case of the prototype dust mitigation vehicle, a Fresnel lens was used to heat a surface layer of regolith sufficiently to sinter or melt dust grains into a solid mass. The prototype vehicle has demonstrated paving rates up to 1.8 square meters per day. The proposed flight design of the dust mitigation vehicle is also described.

Cardiff, Eric H.

2011-01-01

330

Mitigation win-win  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Win-win messages regarding climate change mitigation policies in agriculture tend to oversimplify farmer motivation. Contributions from psychology, cultural evolution and behavioural economics should help to design more effective policy.

Moran, Dominic; Lucas, Amanda; Barnes, Andrew

2013-07-01

331

RFI Mitigation Workshop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increased sensitivity of passive instrumentation in radio astronomy and remote sensing and the intensifying active use of the spectrum have led to an increasing level of radio frequency interference (RFI) of the active services on the passive use of the spectrum. Advances in technology and computing have opened up new possibilities for mitigating the effects of certain classes of interference in the observing data. Interference in allocated bands always leads to data loss for the passive users of the spectrum even if interference mitigation is applied. However, interference mitigation in non-allocated spectral bands may facilitate the partial use of this spectrum for passive (non-interfering) observations. There is no generic method to mitigate all types of interference, so a multi-layered system approach may be advisable to reduce detrimental effects for a congested interference environment. Specific mitigation methods implemented at different points in the data acquisition chain will thus result in a cumulative mitigation effect on the data. This third RFI Mitigation Workshop considered RFI mitigation in radio astronomy in all its facets with the aim of facilitating the implementation of instrumental and data processing techniques. This workshop aimed to take a forward look at applications for the next generation of radio instruments, such as the SKA and its pathfinders and LOFAR, as well as considering their application to existing instruments. This workshop has been organized by ASTRON and NAIC, with support from the Engineering Forum of FP7 RadioNet, the SKA Project Development Office, and in collaboration with CRAF and IUCAF.

2010-05-01

332

Mimas Showing False Colors #2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This false color image of Saturn's moon Mimas reveals variation in either the composition or texture across its surface.

During its approach to Mimas on Aug. 2, 2005, the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera obtained multi-spectral views of the moon from a range of 228,000 kilometers (142,500 miles).

This image is a color composite of narrow-angle ultraviolet, green, infrared and clear filter images, which have been specially processed to accentuate subtle changes in the spectral properties of Mimas' surface materials. To create this view, three color images (ultraviolet, green and infrared) were combined with a single black and white picture that isolates and maps regional color differences to create the final product.

Shades of blue and violet in the image at the right are used to identify surface materials that are bluer in color and have a weaker infrared brightness than average Mimas materials, which are represented by green.

Herschel crater, a 140-kilometer-wide (88-mile) impact feature with a prominent central peak, is visible in the upper right of the image. The unusual bluer materials are seen to broadly surround Herschel crater. However, the bluer material is not uniformly distributed in and around the crater. Instead, it appears to be concentrated on the outside of the crater and more to the west than to the north or south. The origin of the color differences is not yet understood. It may represent ejecta material that was excavated from inside Mimas when the Herschel impact occurred. The bluer color of these materials may be caused by subtle differences in the surface composition or the sizes of grains making up the icy soil.

This image was obtained when the Cassini spacecraft was above 25 degrees south, 134 degrees west latitude and longitude. The Sun-Mimas-spacecraft angle was 45 degrees and north is at the top.

The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging operations center is based at the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colo.

For more information about the Cassini-Huygens mission visit http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov . The Cassini imaging team homepage is at http://ciclops.org .

2005-01-01

333

A Closer Look at Self-Reported Suicide Attempts: False Positives and False Negatives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The validity of self-reported suicide attempt information is undermined by false positives (e.g., incidences without intent to die), or by unreported suicide attempts, referred to as false negatives. In a sample of 1,385 Austrian adults, we explored the occurrence of false positives and false negatives with detailed, probing questions. Removing…

Ploderl, Martin; Kralovec, Karl; Yazdi, Kurosch; Fartacek, Reinhold

2011-01-01

334

Mimas Showing False Colors #1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

False color images of Saturn's moon, Mimas, reveal variation in either the composition or texture across its surface.

During its approach to Mimas on Aug. 2, 2005, the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera obtained multi-spectral views of the moon from a range of 228,000 kilometers (142,500 miles).

The image at the left is a narrow angle clear-filter image, which was separately processed to enhance the contrast in brightness and sharpness of visible features. The image at the right is a color composite of narrow-angle ultraviolet, green, infrared and clear filter images, which have been specially processed to accentuate subtle changes in the spectral properties of Mimas' surface materials. To create this view, three color images (ultraviolet, green and infrared) were combined into a single black and white picture that isolates and maps regional color differences. This 'color map' was then superimposed over the clear-filter image at the left.

The combination of color map and brightness image shows how the color differences across the Mimas surface materials are tied to geological features. Shades of blue and violet in the image at the right are used to identify surface materials that are bluer in color and have a weaker infrared brightness than average Mimas materials, which are represented by green.

Herschel crater, a 140-kilometer-wide (88-mile) impact feature with a prominent central peak, is visible in the upper right of each image. The unusual bluer materials are seen to broadly surround Herschel crater. However, the bluer material is not uniformly distributed in and around the crater. Instead, it appears to be concentrated on the outside of the crater and more to the west than to the north or south. The origin of the color differences is not yet understood. It may represent ejecta material that was excavated from inside Mimas when the Herschel impact occurred. The bluer color of these materials may be caused by subtle differences in the surface composition or the sizes of grains making up the icy soil.

The images were obtained when the Cassini spacecraft was above 25 degrees south, 134 degrees west latitude and longitude. The Sun-Mimas-spacecraft angle was 45 degrees and north is at the top.

The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging operations center is based at the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colo.

For more information about the Cassini-Huygens mission visit http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov . The Cassini imaging team homepage is at http://ciclops.org .

2005-01-01

335

THE NEW SOFT-IOC-BASED ALARM HANDLER AT THE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE  

SciTech Connect

The standard EPICS alarm handler tool (ALH) does not integrate well with other EPICS client applications. At SNS, we wanted the ability to incorporate alarm summaries and alarm controls such as masks and resets into screens in the display manager as well as the ability to call display screens from alarm screens. To achieve these aims, we built a soft-IOC-based alarm handler that runs in Linux soft IOCs. A set of scripts builds EPICS databases, display manager screens, and startup scripts for standard Linux soft IOCs from old EPICS Alarm Handler (ALH) or extensible markup language (XML) configuration files. With this new tool the summaries, masks and latch status can be incorporated into other EPICS client applications. In this paper we describe our experience building and using the soft-IOC-based alarm handler everywhere that alarms are defined in the SNS control system.

Gurd, Pamela A [ORNL] [ORNL; Lawson, Gregory S [ORNL] [ORNL; Munro Jr, John K [ORNL] [ORNL; Strong, William Herb [ORNL] [ORNL; Williams, Jr., Ernest L [ORNL

2007-01-01

336

"Turn It Off!": Diabetes Device Alarm Fatigue Considerations for the Present and the Future  

PubMed Central

Abstract Safe and widespread use of diabetes technology is constrained by alarm fatigue: when someone receives so many alarms that he or she becomes less likely to respond appropriately. Alarm fatigue and related usability issues deserve consideration at every stage of alarm system design, especially as new technologies expand the potential number and complexity of alarms. The guiding principle should be patient wellbeing, while taking into consideration the regulatory and liability issues that sometimes contribute to building excessive alarms. With examples from diabetes devices, we illustrate two complementary frameworks for alarm design: a “patient safety first” perspective and a focus on human factors. We also describe opportunities and challenges that will come with new technologies such as remote monitoring, adaptive alarms, and ever-closer integration of glucose sensing with insulin delivery.

Shivers, Joseph P.; Mackowiak, Linda; Anhalt, Henry; Zisser, Howard

2013-01-01

337

19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13...descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. (a) Articles which...Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys thereof...

2013-04-01

338

19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13...descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. (a) Articles which...Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys thereof...

2011-04-01

339

19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13...descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. (a) Articles which...Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys thereof...

2012-04-01

340

19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13...descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. (a) Articles which...Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys thereof...

2010-04-01

341

19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.  

...descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13...descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. (a) Articles which...Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys thereof...

2014-04-01

342

Effects of a fire alarm strobe light on fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The type and location of fire alarms are important considerations in animal facility design. The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals recommends minimizing animal exposure to such alarms. Nevertheless, it is often necessary to maintain fire alarms within animal housing or procedural areas. The authors exposed male mice to the flashing strobe light component of a standard

Jerald Silverman; Denice Godfrey

2009-01-01

343

Design of large space fire alarm controller based on intelligent video surveillance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the ARM embedded fire alarm controller is designed and applied to the fire intelligent video surveillance system of large space. Based on the Modbus communication protocol, the fire alarm controller receive the information from video surveillance platform, sending out alarm signal of voice and light when fire happened, and then the fire sprinkler system are controlled to

Shuangye Chen; Chen Luo; Yawei Chen; Weijing Zhang; Jie Hou; Jiaru Qian

2011-01-01

344

The double slit experiment and the time reversed fire alarm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When both slits of the double slit experiment are open, closing one paradoxically increases the detection rate at some points on the detection screen. Feynman famously warned that temptation to ``understand'' such a puzzling feature only draws us into blind alleys. Nevertheless, we gain insight into this feature by drawing an analogy between the double slit experiment and a time reversed fire alarm. Much as closing the slit increases probability of a future detection, ruling out fire drill scenarios, having heard the fire alarm, increases probability of a past fire (using Bayesian inference). Classically, Bayesian inference is associated with computing probabilities of past events. We therefore identify this feature of the double slit experiment with a time reversed thermodynamic arrow. We believe that much of the enigma of quantum mechanics is simply due to some variation of time's arrow.

Halabi, Tarek

2011-03-01

345

Chimpanzee Alarm Call Production Meets Key Criteria for Intentionality  

PubMed Central

Determining the intentionality of primate communication is critical to understanding the evolution of human language. Although intentional signalling has been claimed for some great ape gestural signals, comparable evidence is currently lacking for their vocal signals. We presented wild chimpanzees with a python model and found that two of three alarm call types exhibited characteristics previously used to argue for intentionality in gestural communication. These alarm calls were: (i) socially directed and given to the arrival of friends, (ii) associated with visual monitoring of the audience and gaze alternations, and (iii) goal directed, as calling only stopped when recipients were safe from the predator. Our results demonstrate that certain vocalisations of our closest living relatives qualify as intentional signals, in a directly comparable way to many great ape gestures. We conclude that our results undermine a central argument of gestural theories of language evolution and instead support a multimodal origin of human language.

Schel, Anne Marijke; Townsend, Simon W.; Machanda, Zarin; Zuberbuhler, Klaus; Slocombe, Katie E.

2013-01-01

346

Chimpanzee alarm call production meets key criteria for intentionality.  

PubMed

Determining the intentionality of primate communication is critical to understanding the evolution of human language. Although intentional signalling has been claimed for some great ape gestural signals, comparable evidence is currently lacking for their vocal signals. We presented wild chimpanzees with a python model and found that two of three alarm call types exhibited characteristics previously used to argue for intentionality in gestural communication. These alarm calls were: (i) socially directed and given to the arrival of friends, (ii) associated with visual monitoring of the audience and gaze alternations, and (iii) goal directed, as calling only stopped when recipients were safe from the predator. Our results demonstrate that certain vocalisations of our closest living relatives qualify as intentional signals, in a directly comparable way to many great ape gestures. We conclude that our results undermine a central argument of gestural theories of language evolution and instead support a multimodal origin of human language. PMID:24146908

Schel, Anne Marijke; Townsend, Simon W; Machanda, Zarin; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Slocombe, Katie E

2013-01-01

347

The information that receivers extract from alarm calls in suricates.  

PubMed Central

Field observations and acoustic analyses have shown that suricate (Suricata suricatta) alarm calls vary in their acoustic structure depending on predator type. In this study, we tested whether receivers respond appropriately when hearing a call in the absence of a predator. Although the only way for suricates to escape from predators is to retreat to boltholes, responses to playbacks could be divided into distinct categories. The subjects responded differently to alarm calls given in response to aerial or terrestrial predators and to recruitment calls emitted in response to snakes and deposits on the ground. Suricates also showed rather distinct responses to low, medium and high urgency aerial calls. Differences in the responses were less obvious for different levels of urgency in the terrestrial and recruitment calls. Suricate receivers thus gain information about both the predator type and level of urgency from the acoustic structures of their calls.

Manser, M B; Bell, M B; Fletcher, L B

2001-01-01

348

GPS-BASED ONLINE CONTROL AND ALARM SYSTEM (GOCA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A GPS-based online control and alarm system (GOCA) for the monitoring of three-dimensional movements has been developed at the Karlsruhe University of Applied Sciences in cooperation with the EuroNav, Wunstorf. The GOCA hardware consists of an array of GPS sensors and communication units to be placed in the monitoring area. The hardware dependent control software communicates with the GPS sensors

Simone Kälber; Reiner Jäger

349

A GPS-Based Online Control and Alarm System  

Microsoft Academic Search

  A global positioning system (GPS)-based online control and alarm system (GOCA) for monitoring of three-dimensional movements\\u000a has been developed at the Karlsruhe University of Technology. The GOCA hardware consists of an array of GPS sensors and communication\\u000a units to be placed in the monitoring area. The hardware-dependent control software communicates with the GPS sensors and provides\\u000a the GPS baseline data

Simone Kälber; Reiner Jäger; Rainer Schwäble

2000-01-01

350

ZoneAlarm 5.5.094.000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This latest application from ZoneLabs is intended to assist users who wish to protect their DSL- or cable-connected personal computer from marauding hackers. The program includes four interlocking security services, including a firewall and Internet lock, and an application control. The Interlock is particularly handy, as it effectively blocks Internet traffic while your computer is unattended. This version of ZoneAlarm is compatible with Windows 98 or newer.

351

Recent and proposed changes in criticality alarm system requirements  

SciTech Connect

Various changes in criticality alarm system (CAS) requirements of American Nuclear Society (ANS) standards, US Department of Energy (DOE) orders, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations and guidance, and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards or regulations were approved or proposed in the last 5 yr. Many changes interpreted or clarified existing requirements or accommodated technological or organizational developments. However, some changes could substantively affect CAS programs, including several changes originally thought to be editorial. These changes are discussed here.

Putman, V.L. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies, Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

1998-09-01

352

Spacecraft operations automation: Automatic alarm notification and web telemetry display  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In these times of Faster, Better, Cheaper (FBC) spacecraft, Spacecraft Operations Automation is an area that is targeted by many Operations Teams. To meet the challenges of the FBC environment, the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Operations Team designed and quickly implemented two new low-cost technologies: one which monitors spacecraft telemetry, checks the status of the telemetry, and contacts technical experts by pager when any telemetry datapoints exceed alarm limits, and a second which allows quick and convenient remote access to data displays. The first new technology is Automatic Alarm Notification (AAN). AAN monitors spacecraft telemetry and will notify engineers automatically if any telemetry is received which creates an alarm condition. The second new technology is Web Telemetry Display (WTD). WTD captures telemetry displays generated by the flight telemetry system and makes them available to the project web server. This allows engineers to check the health and status of the spacecraft from any computer capable of connecting to the global internet, without needing normally-required specialized hardware and software. Both of these technologies have greatly reduced operations costs by alleviating the need to have operations engineers monitor spacecraft performance on a 24 hour per day, 7 day per week basis from a central Mission Support Area. This paper gives details on the design and implementation of AAN and WTD, discusses their limitations, and lists the ongoing benefits which have accrued to MGS Flight Operations since their implementation in late 1996.

Short, Owen G.; Leonard, Robert E.; Bucher, Allen W.; Allen, Bryan

1999-11-01

353

LVIS Tree Height Cross Section (false color)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation starts with a false-color map of tree heights north of San Jose, Costa Rica, and changes to a close-up 3D cut-away of a section of the forest, also in false color. Data from LVIS observations taken in March, 1998.

Jones, Randall; Blair, Bryan

1999-09-17

354

Mediastinal false aneurysm after thoracic aortic surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Postoperative mediastinal false aneurysm is associated with a substantial morbidity and mortality. Surgical treatment is mandatory, although the individual approach varies according to the type of pathologic process, infection status, and site of origin of the aneurysm.Methods. Between April 1993 and February 1999, we treated 10 patients, aged 25 to 73 years, with anastomotic mediastinal false aneurysm originating from

Takahiro Katsumata; Narain Moorjani; Giuseppe Vaccari; Stephen Westaby

2000-01-01

355

How Does Distinctive Processing Reduce False Recall?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

False memories arising from associatively related lists are a robust phenomenon that resists many efforts to prevent it. However, a few variables have been shown to reduce this form of false memory. Explanations for how the reduction is accomplished have focused on either output monitoring processes or constraints on access, but neither idea alone…

Hunt, R. Reed; Smith, Rebekah E.; Dunlap, Kathryn R.

2011-01-01

356

Poor working memory predicts false memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies investigated whether individual differences in simple span verbal working memory and complex working memory capacity are related to memory accuracy and susceptibility to false memory development. In Study 1, undergraduate students (N=60) were given two simple span working memory tests: forward and backward digit span. They also underwent a memory task that is known to elicit false memories

Maarten J. V. Peters; Marko Jelicic; Hilde Verbeek; Harald Merckelbach

2007-01-01

357

Explaining the Development of False Memories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews explanatory dimensions of children's false memory relevant to forensic practice: measurement, development, social factors, individual differences, varieties of memories and memory judgments, and varieties of procedures inducing false memories. Asserts that recent studies fail to use techniques that separate acquiescence from memory…

Reyna, Valerie F.; Holliday, Robyn; Marche, Tammy

2002-01-01

358

Emotional content of true and false memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many people believe that emotional memories (including those that arise in therapy) are particularly likely to represent true events because of their emotional content. But is emotional content a reliable indicator of memory accuracy? The current research assessed the emotional content of participants’ pre-existing (true) and manipulated (false) memories for childhood events. False memories for one of three emotional childhood

Cara Laney; Elizabeth F. Loftus

2008-01-01

359

Satellite Breakup Risk Mitigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many satellite breakups occur as a result of an explosion of stored energy on-board spacecraft or rocket-bodies. These breakups generate a cloud of tens or possibly hundreds of thousands of debris fragments which may pose a transient elevated threat to spaceflight crews and vehicles. Satellite breakups pose a unique threat because the majority of the debris fragments are too small to be tracked from the ground. The United States Human Spaceflight Program is currently implementing a risk mitigation strategy that includes modeling breakup events, establishing action thresholds, and prescribing corresponding mitigation actions in response to satellite breakups.

Leleux, Darrin P.; Smith, Jason T.

2006-01-01

360

Masters Thesis- Criticality Alarm System Design Guide with Accompanying Alarm System Development for the Radioisotope Production Laboratory in Richland, Washington  

SciTech Connect

A detailed instructional manual was created to guide criticality safety engineers through the process of designing a criticality alarm system (CAS) for Department of Energy (DOE) hazard class 1 and 2 facilities. Regulatory and technical requirements were both addressed. A list of design tasks and technical subtasks are thoroughly analyzed to provide concise direction for how to complete the analysis. An example of the application of the design methodology, the Criticality Alarm System developed for the Radioisotope Production Laboratory (RPL) of Richland, Washington is also included. The analysis for RPL utilizes the Monte Carlo code MCNP5 for establishing detector coverage in the facility. Significant improvements to the existing CAS were made that increase the reliability, transparency, and coverage of the system.

Greenfield, Bryce A.

2009-12-20

361

Mitigating ground-based sensor failures with video motion detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) systems typically employ distributed sensor nodes utilizing seismic, magnetic or passive IR sensing modalities to alarm if activity is present. The use of an imaging component to verify sensor events is beneficial to create actionable intelligence. Integration of the ground-based images with other ISR data requires that the images contain valid activity and are appropriately formatted, such as prescribed by Standard NATO Agreement (STANAG) 4545 or the National Imagery Transmission Format, version 2.1 (NITF 2.1). Ground activity sensors suffer from false alarms due to meteorological or biological activity. The addition of imaging allows the analyst to differentiate valid threats from nuisance alarms. Images are prescreened based on target size and temperature difference relative to the background. The combination of video motion detection based on thermal imaging with seismic, magnetic or passive IR sensing modalities improves data quality through multi-phenomenon combinatorial logic. The ground-based images having a nominally vertical aspect are transformed to the horizontal geospatial domain for exploitation and correlation of UGS imagery with other ISR data and for efficient archive and retrieval purposes. The description of an UGS system utilized and solutions that were developed and implemented during an experiment to correlate and fuse IR still imagery with ground moving target information, forming real-time, actionable, coalition intelligence, are presented.

Macior, Robert E.; Knauth, Jonathan P.; Walter, Sharon M.; Evans, Richard

2008-10-01

362

On False-Positive and False-Negative Decisions with a Mastery Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Methods are described for obtaining upper and lower bounds to both false-positive and false-negative decisions with a mastery test. These methods make no assumptions about the form of the true score distribution. (CTM)

Wilcox, Rand R.

1979-01-01

363

Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of national and international space debris mitigation guides is to promote the preservation of near-Earth space for applications and exploration missions far into the future. To accomplish this objective, the accumulation of objects, particularly in long-lived orbits, must be eliminated or curtailed.

Johnson, Nicholas L.

2011-01-01

364

Human factors engineering guidance for the review of advanced alarm systems  

SciTech Connect

This report provides guidance to support the review of the human factors aspects of advanced alarm system designs in nuclear power plants. The report is organized into three major sections. The first section describes the methodology and criteria that were used to develop the design review guidelines. Also included is a description of the scope, organization, and format of the guidelines. The second section provides a systematic review procedure in which important characteristics of the alarm system are identified, described, and evaluated. The third section provides the detailed review guidelines. The review guidelines are organized according to important characteristics of the alarm system including: alarm definition; alarm processing and reduction; alarm prioritization and availability; display; control; automated; dynamic, and modifiable characteristics; reliability, test, maintenance, and failure indication; alarm response procedures; and control-display integration and layout.

O`Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.; Higgins, J.C.; Stubler, W.F. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1994-09-01

365

19 CFR Appendix C to Part 171 - Customs Regulations Guidelines for the Imposition and Mitigation of Penalties for Violations of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Customs Regulations Guidelines for the Imposition and Mitigation of Penalties for Violations of 19 U.S.C. 1641 C Appendix C to Part 171 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY;...

2014-04-01

366

19 CFR Appendix C to Part 171 - Customs Regulations Guidelines for the Imposition and Mitigation of Penalties for Violations of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Customs Regulations Guidelines for the Imposition and Mitigation of Penalties for Violations of 19 U.S.C. 1641 C Appendix C to Part 171 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY;...

2012-04-01

367

Mitigation Theory: An Integrated Approach.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this paper is to develop a theoretical model of mitigation by integrating cognitive and discourse approaches to appraisal and coping. Mitigation involves strategic, emotional, linguistic, and Theory of Mind processes on different levels of ...

B. Martinovski J. Gratch S. Marsella W. Mao

2005-01-01

368

Krohne Flow Indicator and High Flow Alarm Local Indicator and High Flow Alarm of Helium Flow from the SCHe Purge Lines C and D to the Process Vent  

SciTech Connect

Flow Indicators/alarms FI/FSH-5*52 and -5*72 are located in the process vent lines connected to the 2 psig SCHe purge lines C and D. They monitor the flow from the 2 psig SCHe purge going to the process vent. The switch/alarm is non-safety class GS.

MISKA, C.R.

2000-09-03

369

25 CFR 11.404 - False imprisonment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.404 False imprisonment. A person commits a misdemeanor if he or she knowingly restrains another...

2011-04-01

370

20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31 U.S.C. 3729 based on actions...

2013-04-01

371

False Assumptions Can Get You in Trouble  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, short deceptive problem stories are presented to the class and students are challenged to solve each problem by asking only yes/no questions. The key is for students to recognize: what the False Assumption is that makes the solution tricky; that many common problems are difficult to solve because we tend to assume a particular paradigm; and that science is a way to work around or through those false assumptions.

Randak, Steve

372

False Belief vs. False Photographs: A Test of Theory of Mind or Working Memory?  

PubMed Central

Theory of mind (ToM), the ability to reason about other people’s thoughts and beliefs, has been traditionally studied in behavioral and neuroimaging experiments by comparing performance in “false belief” and “false photograph” (control) stories. However, some evidence suggests that these stories are not matched in difficulty, complicating the interpretation of results. Here, we more fully evaluated the relative difficulty of comprehending these stories and drawing inferences from them. Subjects read false belief and false photograph stories followed by comprehension questions that probed true (“reality” questions) or false beliefs (“representation” questions) appropriate to the stories. Stories and comprehension questions were read and answered, respectively, more slowly in the false photograph than false belief conditions, indicating their greater difficulty. Interestingly, accuracy on representation questions for false photograph stories was significantly lower than for all other conditions and correlated positively with participants’ working memory span scores. These results suggest that drawing representational inferences from false photo stories is particularly difficult and places heavy demands on working memory. Extensive naturalistic practice with ToM reasoning may enable a more flexible and efficient mental representation of false belief stories, resulting in lower memory load requirements. An important implication of these results is that the differential modulation of right temporal–parietal junction (RTPJ) during ToM and “false photo” control conditions may reflect the documented negative correlation of RTPJ activity with working memory load rather than a specialized involvement in ToM processes.

Callejas, Alicia; Shulman, Gordon L.; Corbetta, Maurizio

2011-01-01

373

Isolation of a pyrazine alarm pheromone component from the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta.  

PubMed

Alarm pheromones in social insects are an essential part of a complex of pheromone interactions that contribute to the maintenance of colony integrity and sociality. The alarm pheromones of ants were among the first examples of animal pheromones identified, primarily because of the large amount of chemical produced and the distinctive responses of ants to the pheromone. However, the alarm pheromone of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, eluded identification for over four decades. We identified 2-ethyl-3,6-dimethylpyrazine as an alarm pheromone component of S. invicta. Worker fire ants detect the pyrazine alarm pheromone at 30 pg/ml, which is comparable to alarm pheromone sensitivities reported for other ant species. The source of this alarm pheromone are the mandibular glands, which, in fire ants, are not well developed and contain only about 300 pg of the compound, much less than the microgram quantities of alarm pheromones reported for several other ant species. Female and male sexuals and workers produce the pyrazine, which suggests that it may be involved in fire ant mating flight initiation, as well as the typical worker alarm response. This is the first report of 2-ethyl-3,6-dimethylpyrazine from a Solenopsis species and the first example of this alkaloid functioning as an alarm pheromone. PMID:20145982

Vander Meer, Robert K; Preston, Catherine A; Choi, Man-Yeon

2010-02-01

374

Optimization of WAMDAS: A Web Service-Based Wireless Alarm Monitoring and Data Acquisition System for Pharmaceutical Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a novel infrastructure which allows the Web service-based wireless alarm monitoring and data acquisition system for pharmaceutical plants (WAMDAS) to be a more portable, reliable, secure and robust wireless Web service-based middleware system. This infrastructure provides a reliable alarm management mechanism that guarantees timely alarm delivery according with a defined configuration schema for alarms. Also it provides a

Edith Quispe-Holgado; Manuel Rodríguez-martínez; Edilberto García-Rodríguez

2008-01-01

375

Reliability and the adaptive utility of discrimination among alarm callers.  

PubMed Central

Unlike individually distinctive contact calls, or calls that aid in the recognition of young by their parents, the function or functions of individually distinctive alarm calls is less obvious. We conducted three experiments to study the importance of caller reliability in explaining individual-discriminative abilities in the alarm calls of yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris). In our first two experiments, we found that calls from less reliable individuals and calls from individuals calling from a greater simulated distance were more evocative than calls from reliable individuals or nearby callers. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that marmots assess the reliability of callers to help them decide how much time to allocate to independent vigilance. The third experiment demonstrated that the number of callers influenced responsiveness, probably because situations where more than a single caller calls, are those when there is certain to be a predator present. Taken together, the results from all three experiments demonstrate the importance of reliability in explaining individual discrimination abilities in yellow-bellied marmots. Marmots' assessment of reliability acts by influencing the time allocated to individual assessment and thus the time not allocated to other activities.

Blumstein, Daniel T.; Verneyre, Laure; Daniel, Janice C.

2004-01-01

376

Is there a hypersensitive visual alarm system in panic disorder?  

PubMed

Agoraphobia in panic disorder (PD) has been related to abnormal balance system function. Vision influences balance and behavioural adaptations; peripheral vision influences orienting and fast defensive reactions whereas central vision analyzes details of objects. We have hypothesized that the abnormal balance function in PD could be mainly related to peripheral vision as part of a defensive alarm system in the brain. In 25 patients with PD and agoraphobia and 31 healthy controls we assessed, by posturography, balance system reactivity to video-films projected in peripheral and central visual fields (randomized sequence). Length, velocity and surface of body sway were calculated. Patients increased their body sway during peripheral stimulation, whereas controls did not; the two groups showed a similar increase of body sway during central stimulation. Anxiety levels during peripheral stimulation significantly influenced the postural response in the group of patients. These preliminary results suggest that the higher visual sensitivity to peripheral stimulation in patients with PD and agoraphobia may be linked to a more active "visual alarm system" involving visual, vestibular and limbic areas that might influence the development of agoraphobia in situations where environmental stimuli are uncertain. PMID:21477868

Caldirola, Daniela; Teggi, Roberto; Bondi, Stefano; Lopes, Fabiana Leao; Grassi, Massimiliano; Bussi, Mario; Perna, Giampaolo

2011-05-30

377

False Positive Mammograms and Detection Controlled Estimation  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the causes of false positive in mammograms. Data Sources Secondary data collected from extracts from computerized medical records from 1999 from five thousand patients at a single hospital in a medium-sized Southern city. Study Design Retrospective analysis of electronic medical data on screening and diagnostic mammograms. Detection-controlled estimation (DCE) was used to compare the efficacy of alternative readers of mammogram films. Analysis was also conducted on follow-up exams of women who tested positive in the first stage of investigation. Key variables included whether the patient had had a prior mammogram, age of the patient, and identifiers for the individual physicians. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Hospital maintains electronic medical records (EMR) on all patients. Extracts were performed on this EMR system under the guidance of clinical expertise. Data were collected for all women who had mammograms in 1999. Random samples were employed for screening mammograms, and all data was used for diagnostic mammograms. Principal Findings Study results imply that access to a previous mammogram greatly reduces the incidence of false positives readings. This has important consequences for benefit-cost, and cost-effectiveness analysis of mammography. Were previous mammograms always available, the results imply the number of false positives would decrease by at least half. The results here also indicate that there is no reason to believe this decrease in false positive would be accompanied by an increase in the number of false negatives. Other attributes also affected the number of false positives. Mondays and Wednesdays appear to be more prone to false positives than the other days in the week. There is also some disparity in false positive outcomes among the five physicians studied. With respect to detection-controlled estimation, the results are mixed. With follow-up data, the DCE estimator appears to generate reasonable, robust results. Without follow-up data, however, the DCE estimator is far less precise. Conclusions Study results imply that access to a previous mammogram reduces by at least half the incidence of false positives readings. This has important consequences for benefit-cost, and cost-effectiveness analysis of mammography.

Kleit, Andrew N; Ruiz, James F

2003-01-01

378

Combined therapy of enuresis alarm and desmopressin in the treatment of nocturnal enuresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-eight children with primary nocturnal enuresis were blindly allocated at random to a combination of enuresis alarm and 20 µg intranasal desmopressin or alarm and placebo for 2 weeks. Patients received the other therapy after a 2-week treatment-free period. The combined treatment of desmopressin and alarm showed 5.1±0.4 (mean ± SEM) dry nights per week and resulted in significantly more

R. N. Sukhai; J. Mol; A. S. Harris

1989-01-01

379

Consequences of false-positive screening mammograms.  

PubMed

IMPORTANCE False-positive mammograms, a common occurrence in breast cancer screening programs, represent a potential screening harm that is currently being evaluated by the US Preventive Services Task Force. OBJECTIVE To measure the effect of false-positive mammograms on quality of life by measuring personal anxiety, health utility, and attitudes toward future screening. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS The Digital Mammographic Imaging Screening Trial (DMIST) quality-of-life substudy telephone survey was performed shortly after screening and 1 year later at 22 DMIST sites and included randomly selected DMIST participants with positive and negative mammograms. EXPOSURE Mammogram requiring follow-up testing or referral without a cancer diagnosis. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The 6-question short form of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory state scale (STAI-6) and the EuroQol EQ-5D instrument with US scoring. Attitudes toward future screening as measured by women's self-report of future intention to undergo mammographic screening and willingness to travel and stay overnight to undergo a hypothetical new type of mammography that would identify as many cancers with half the false-positive results. RESULTS Among 1450 eligible women invited to participate, 1226 (84.6%) were enrolled, with follow-up interviews obtained in 1028 (83.8%). Anxiety was significantly higher for women with false-positive mammograms (STAI-6, 35.2 vs 32.7), but health utility scores did not differ and there were no significant differences between groups at 1 year. Future screening intentions differed by group (25.7% vs 14.2% more likely in false-positive vs negative groups); willingness to travel and stay overnight did not (9.9% vs 10.5% in false-positive vs negative groups). Future screening intention was significantly increased among women with false-positive mammograms (odds ratio, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.54-2.93), younger age (2.78; 1.5-5.0), and poorer health (1.63; 1.09-2.43). Women's anticipated high-level anxiety regarding future false-positive mammograms was associated with willingness to travel overnight (odds ratio, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.28-2.95). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE False-positive mammograms were associated with increased short-term anxiety but not long-term anxiety, and there was no measurable health utility decrement. False-positive mammograms increased women's intention to undergo future breast cancer screening and did not increase their stated willingness to travel to avoid a false-positive result. Our finding of time-limited harm after false-positive screening mammograms is relevant for clinicians who counsel women on mammographic screening and for screening guideline development groups. PMID:24756610

Tosteson, Anna N A; Fryback, Dennis G; Hammond, Cristina S; Hanna, Lucy G; Grove, Margaret R; Brown, Mary; Wang, Qianfei; Lindfors, Karen; Pisano, Etta D

2014-06-01

380

Photographs cause false memories for the news.  

PubMed

What is the effect on memory when seemingly innocuous photos accompany false reports of the news? We asked people to read news headlines of world events, some of which were false. Half the headlines appeared with photographs that were tangentially related to the event; others were presented without photographs. People saw each headline only once, and indicated whether they remembered the event, knew about it, or neither. Photos led people to immediately and confidently remember false news events. Drawing on the Source Monitoring Framework (Johnson, Hashtroudi, & Lindsay, 1993), we suggest that people often relied on familiarity and other heuristic processes when making their judgments and thus experienced effects of the photos as evidence of memory for the headlines. PMID:21062659

Strange, Deryn; Garry, Maryanne; Bernstein, Daniel M; Lindsay, D Stephen

2011-01-01

381

The research of highway traffic accident management and pre-alarm system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the rigorous traffic safety issues resulting from rapid transportation development, as well as the more and more attention paid to the traffic accidents dynamic analysis and pre-alarm methods, combined with the practical needs of the highway safety management, this paper summarizes the experience of traffic safety pre-alarm research both in domestic and abroad, designs the frame of highway traffic accident management and pre-alarm system from the function and software engineering requirement, and refines kernel modules such as accident prone section judgement, traffic safety pre-alarm analysis and perfecting safety measures analysis, in order to guide the exploitation and application of the system.

Xu, Jianping; Zhang, Tiejun; Wan, Jiaonan; Zhang, Juwen; Wang, Rui

382

Mother knows best: functionally referential alarm calling in white-tailed ptarmigan.  

PubMed

Functionally referential alarm calls have stimulus specificity, distinct acoustic structure, and elicit different escape responses that are appropriate to the threat. The mechanisms by which escape responses are evoked are not fully understood and may range from eliciting innate responses to conveying representational information. White-tailed ptarmigan (Lagopus leucurus) are a long-lived alpine tundra grouse, which are preyed upon by aerial and terrestrial predators. We investigated the hypothesis that alarm calls of ptarmigan hens with chicks are functionally referential. We recorded hens' alarm calls in response to naturally occurring and model predators in California's Sierra Nevada alpine tundra for two summer seasons. We conducted playback experiments in the field to determine chick responses to alarm calls. Alarm calls commenced with an extended 'alerting' note followed by a series of staccato notes grouped into elements. Fundamental and dominant frequencies in element notes were significantly higher in terrestrial compared to aerial threat alarm calls. Playbacks of terrestrial threat alarm calls elicited an upright/alert position by chicks (75 % of responses). In response to aerial threat alarm call playbacks, chicks flattened to the ground and froze (80 % of responses). To our knowledge, this study provides the first empirical evidence of functionally referential alarm calling, including the responses of the receivers, in an avian species in the wild. PMID:24132414

Ausmus, Desa M; Clarke, Jennifer A

2014-05-01

383

A Human Factors Perspective on Alarm System Research and Development 2000 to 2010  

SciTech Connect

By definition, alarms serve to notify human operators of out-of-parameter conditions that could threaten equipment, the environment, product quality and, of course, human life. Given the complexities of industrial systems, human machine interfaces, and the human operator, the understanding of how alarms and humans can best work together to prevent disaster is continually developing. This review examines advances in alarm research and development from 2000 to 2010 and includes the writings of trade professionals, engineering and human factors researchers, and standards organizations with the goal of documenting advances in alarms system design, research, and implementation.

Curt Braun; John Grimes; Eric Shaver; Ronald Boring (Principal Investigator)

2011-09-01

384

Why `false' colours are seen by butterflies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light can be described by its intensity, spectral distribution and polarization, and normally a visual system analyses these independently to extract the maximum amount of information. Here I present behavioural evidence that this does not happen in butterflies, whose choice of oviposition substrate on the basis of its colour appears to be strongly influenced by the direction of polarization of the light reflected from the substrate. To my knowledge, this is the first record of `false' colours being perceived as a result of light polarization. This detection of false colours may help butterflies to find optimal oviposition sites.

Kelber, Almut

1999-11-01

385

Mitigating lightning hazards  

SciTech Connect

A new draft document provides guidance for assessing and mitigating the effects of lightning hazards on a Department of Energy (or any other) facility. Written by two Lawrence Livermore Engineers, the document combines lightning hazard identification and facility categorization with a new concept, the Lightning Safety System, to help dispel the confusion and mystery surrounding lightning and its effects. The guidance is of particular interest to DOE facilities storing and handling nuclear and high-explosive materials. The concepts presented in the document were used to evaluate the lightning protection systems of the Device Assembly Facility at the Nevada Test Site.

Hasbrouck, R.

1996-05-01

386

Characteristics of false positive findings in CT colonography CAD: a comparison of two fecal tagging regimens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The successful application of Computer Aided Detection schemes to CT Colonography depends not only on their performances in terms of sensitivity and specificity, but also on the interaction with the radiologist, and thus ultimately on factors such as the nature of CAD prompts and the reading paradigm. Fecal tagging is emerging as a widely accepted technique for patient preparation, and patient-friendlier schemes are being proposed in an effort to increase compliance to screening programs; the interaction between CAD and FT regimens should likewise be taken into account. In this scenario, an analysis of the characteristics of CAD prompts is of paramount importance in order to guide further research, both from clinical and technical viewpoints. The CAD scheme analyzed in this paper is essentially composed of five steps: electronic cleansing, colon surface extraction, polyp candidate segmentation, pre-filtering of residual tagged stool and classification of the generated candidates in true polyps vs. false alarms. False positives were divided into six categories: untagged and tagged solid stool, haustral folds, extra-colonic candidates, ileocecal valve and cleansing artifacts. A full cathartic preparation was compared with a semi-cathartic regimen with sameday fecal tagging, which is characterized by higher patient acceptance but also higher inhomogeneity. The distribution of false positives at segmentation reflects the quality of preparation, as more inhomogeneous tagging results in a higher number of untagged solid stool and cleansing artifacts.

Morra, Lia; Delsanto, Silvia; Agliozzo, Silvano; Baggio, Riccardo; Belluccio, Erika; Correale, Loredana; Genova, Dario; Bert, Alberto; Regge, Daniele

2009-02-01

387

Reducing False Positives in Molecular Pattern Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the search for new cancer subtypes by gene expression proling, it is essential to avoid misclassifying samples of unknown subtypes as known ones. In this paper, we evaluated the false positive error rates of several classication algorithms through a 'null test' by presenting classiers a large collection of independent samples that do not belong to any of the tumor

Xijin Ge; Shuichi Tsutsumi; Hiroyuki Aburatani; Shuichi Iwata

2003-01-01

388

False Spider Mites of Mexico ('Tenuipalpidae: Acari').  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The bulletin includes descriptions and figures for 165 species of plant-feeding false spider mites (Tenuipalpidae) of Mexico, of which 65 are described as new to science. Less than one-third (48) of the Mexican tenuipalpids are distributed in 8 genera (Ae...

D. M. Tuttle E. W. Baker

1987-01-01

389

What Makes Language Learners False Beginners?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study in Japan investigated second language skill loss and maintenance in three groups of English-as-a-Second-Language learners: (1) ninth graders studying basic vocabulary and sentence structures (true beginners); (2) students in the lowest level English class at a technical college, but with some English language skills (false beginners); and…

Nakamura, Tomoko

390

Diseases of Camelina sativa (false flax)  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is renewed interest in the crucifer Camelina sativa (false flax, camelina, gold of pleasure) as an alternative oilseed crop because of its potential value for food, feed, and industrial applications. This species is adapted to canola-growing areas in many regions of the world and is generally considered to be resistant to many diseases. A review of the literature indicates

G. Séguin-Swartz; C. Eynck; R. K. Gugel; S. E. Strelkov; C. Y. Olivier; J. L. Li; H. Klein-Gebbinck; H. Borhan; C. D. Caldwell; K. C. Falk

2009-01-01

391

How to Justify Teaching False Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We often knowingly teach false science. Such a practice conflicts with a prima facie pedagogical value placed on teaching only what is true. I argue that only a partial dissolution of the conflict is possible: the proper aim of instruction in science is not to provide an armory of facts about what things the world contains, how they interact, and…

Slater, Matthew H.

2008-01-01

392

Semantic processing in "associative" false memory.  

PubMed

We studied the semantic properties of a class of illusions, of which the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm is the most prominent example, in which subjects falsely remember words that are associates of studied words. We analyzed DRM materials for 16 dimensions of semantic content and assessed the ability of these dimensions to predict interlist variability in false memory. For the more general class of illusions, we analyzed pairs of presented and unpresented words that varied in associative strength for the presence of these same 16 semantic properties. DRM materials proved to be exceptionally rich in meaning, as indexed by these semantic properties. Variability in false recall, false recognition, and backward associative strength loaded on a single semantic factor (familiarity/meaningfulness), whereas variability in true recall loaded on a quite different factor (imagery/concreteness). For word association generally, 15 semantic properties varied reliably with forward or backward association between words. Implications for semantic versus associative processing in this class of illusions, for dual-process theories, and for semantic properties of word associations are discussed. PMID:19001566

Brainerd, C J; Yang, Y; Reyna, V F; Howe, M L; Mills, B A

2008-12-01

393

WINDS AND CURRENT PATTERNS IN FALSE BAY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind records from six reporting stations in the vicinity of False Bay have been analysed, and the mean directional frequency and velocity combined to give relative ‘wind run’ for each station and season are shown in the form of wind roses.Methods of current measurements are briefly discussed, and the ‘dye-bomb’ technique using aircraft chosen to obtain a nearly synoptic pattern

G. R. Atkins

1970-01-01

394

Combining email models for false positive reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Machine learning and data mining can be effectively used to model, classify and discover interesting information for a wide variety of data including email. The Email Mining Toolkit, EMT, has been designed to provide a wide range of analyses for arbitrary email sources. Depending upon the task, one can usually achieve very high accuracy, but with some amount of false

Shlomo Hershkop; Salvatore J. Stolfo

2005-01-01

395

Detecting false intent using eye blink measures  

PubMed Central

Eye blink measures have been shown to be diagnostic in detecting deception regarding past acts. Here we examined—across two experiments with increasing degrees of ecological validity—whether changes in eye blinking can be used to determine false intent regarding future actions. In both experiments, half of the participants engaged in a mock crime and then transported an explosive device with the intent of delivering it to a “contact” that would use it to cause a disturbance. Eye blinking was measured for all participants when presented with three types of questions: relevant to intent to transport an explosive device, relevant to intent to engage in an unrelated illegal act, and neutral questions. Experiment 1 involved standing participants watching a video interviewer with audio presented ambiently. Experiment 2 involved standing participants questioned by a live interviewer. Across both experiments, changes in blink count during and immediately following individual questions, total number of blinks, and maximum blink time length differentiated those with false intent from truthful intent participants. In response to questions relevant to intent to deliver an explosive device vs. questions relevant to intent to deliver illegal drugs, those with false intent showed a suppression of blinking during the questions when compared to the 10 s period after the end of the questions, a lower number of blinks, and shorter maximum blink duration. The results are discussed in relation to detecting deception about past activities as well as to the similarities and differences to detecting false intent as described by prospective memory and arousal.

Marchak, Frank M.

2013-01-01

396

Noise Mitigation Controller Tools  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the past decade, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been developing and evaluating a suite of decision support tools (DSTs) to aid the air traffic controller in the management of traffic. These tools are known collectively as the Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS). The primary focus of CTAS is increased capacity. As part of a new NASA program called Quiet Aircraft Technology (QAT), the following question is being addressed: Can CTAS technology also support the noise mitigation requirements imposed by the community? Controllers currently support a variety of low noise procedures in low traffic densities but, as traffic increases, these must be abandoned due to excessive spacing requirements for vectoring or inter-arrival spacing requirements needed to handle a spectrum of low noise procedures. NASA is currently investigating how to provide controllers with noise-mitigation-based advisories which address these issues without negatively impacting capacity. These issues are of global concern which must be addressed as the demand for air travel continues to increase.

Tobias, Leonard

2001-01-01

397

False discovery and false nondiscovery rates in single-step multiple testing procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results on the false discovery rate (FDR) and the false nondiscovery rate (FNR) are developed for single-step multiple testing procedures. In addition to verifying desirable properties of FDR and FNR as measures of error rates, these results extend previously known results, providing further insights, particularly under dependence, into the notions of FDR and FNR and related measures. First, considering fixed

Sanat K. Sarkar

2006-01-01

398

Apparatus and Methods for Mitigating Electromagnetic Emissions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparatus, methods, and other embodiments associated with mitigation of magnetic fields are described herein. In an embodiment, a method for mitigating an electromagnetic field includes positioning a mitigating coil around a linear alternator of linear motor so that the mitigating coil is coaxially located with an alternator coil; arranging the mitigating coil to generate a field to mitigate an electromagnetic field generated by the alternator coil; and passing an induced current from the alternator coil through the mitigating coil.

Geng, Steven M. (Inventor); Niedra, Janis M. (Inventor)

2013-01-01

399

Crime Prevention in Schools: Specification, Installation, and Maintenance of Intruder Alarm Systems. Building Bulletin 69.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Greater use of expensive equipment by schools has also increased the potential for vandalism and theft, giving an increased role to intruder alarm systems. This document provides guidance on the management and technical aspects of forming policies for installing and operating intruder alarm systems in educational buildings. Also provided are…

Haworth-Roberts, A., Ed.

400

Real-time Health Information Acquisition and Alarm System Based on Bluetooth and GPRS Communication Technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introducing medical monitor information integrated application system which is used to enhance the people's health guarantee. It integrated the circadian detecting technology, Bluetooth technology, GPRS technology, artificial intelligence medical diagnosis technology and alarm technology. It is an uninterrupted real-time working system which includes the subsystem of medical detecting, long distance transmission, date storage and analysis, alarm etc. It is mainly

Fang Yanan; Lu Xinghua; Li Huaizu

2006-01-01

401

Cadmium disrupts behavioural and physiological responses to alarm substance in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alarm substance is a chemical signal released from fish skin epithelial cells after a predator causes skin damage. When other prey fish detect alarm substance by olfaction, they perform stereotypical predator-avoidance behaviours to decrease predation risk. The objective of this study was to explore the effect of sublethal cadmium (Cd) exposure on the behavioural and physiological responses of juvenile rainbow

Graham R. Scott; Katherine A. Sloman; Claude Rouleau; Chris M. Wood

2003-01-01

402

Reed warblers discriminate cuckoos from sparrowhawks with graded alarm signals that attract mates and neighbours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brood parasites and predators pose unique threats that may favour the evolution of enemy-specific defence strategies. We considered whether reed warblers, Acrocephalus scirpaceus, have a specific alarm call for com- mon cuckoos, Cuculus canorus, and whether their alarms attract mates and neighbours. Mounts of cuckoos (threat to nest but harmless to adults) were significantly more likely to be mobbed and

J. A. Welbergen; N. B. Davies

2008-01-01

403

Effects of Fungal Infection on the Alarm Response of Pea Aphids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum, Homoptera: Aphididae) infected with the fungal pathogen Erynia neoaphidis (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales) were less sensitive to the aphid alarm pheromone (E)-?-farnesene than uninfected aphids. Approximately 83% of the healthy aphids and 45% of the infected aphids (2 and 3 days post-inoculation) responded to the alarm pheromone. The percentage of nonresponding aphids increased as the disease progressed. When

H. E. Roy; J. K. Pell; P. G. Alderson

1999-01-01

404

A mini digital methane detecting and alarm system for miners lamp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methane detecting and alarm miners lamp has proved very effective on methane monitoring in recent decades. The functions of those lamps are limited for its size, caused high maintenance costs and performance instability. Aimed at computer technology, modern signal analysis and processing technology, a mini intelligent methane detecting and alarm system is developed. Firstly, the status of domestic and overseas

Xuhui Zhang; Hongwei Ma

2010-01-01

405

Climate change and mitigation.  

PubMed

Planet Earth has experienced repeated changes of its climate throughout time. Periods warmer than today as well as much colder, during glacial episodes, have alternated. In our time, rapid population growth with increased demand for natural resources and energy, has made society increasingly vulnerable to environmental changes, both natural and those caused by man; human activity is clearly affecting the radiation balance of the Earth. In the session "Climate Change and Mitigation" the speakers offered four different views on coal and CO2: the basis for life, but also a major hazard with impact on Earth's climate. A common denominator in the presentations was that more than ever science and technology is required. We need not only understand the mechanisms for climate change and climate variability, we also need to identify means to remedy the anthropogenic influence on Earth's climate. PMID:20873680

Nibleus, Kerstin; Lundin, Rickard

2010-01-01

406

Mitigation against extreme windstorms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper treats various manifestations of atmospheric wind in relation to the effects these have on human safety and comfort. We concentrate on more recent advances in our knowledge of the geophysical structure and behavior of extreme windstorms. Particular attention is given to severe thunderstorms and their attendant mesoscale offspring, tornadoes and downbursts, as well as the extratropical and tropical cyclones. It appears that the highest credible wind speed estimates in any of these windstorms so far are for tornadoes, about 135 m s-1; these have been derived from photogrammetric analyses of eyewitness photography and remote sensing from in situ and portable Doppler radars. On the other hand, it is found from extensive aerial and ground poststorm damage surveys that the vast majority of all tornadoes have peak wind speeds no higher than those measured by sparse surface networks and reconnaissance aircraft in mature hurricanes. New in situ and remote sensing (Doppler radars) weather observing networks currently being deployed across the United States and other countries, combined with greater public awareness, may significantly alter our current assessment of the climatology of extreme windstorms in these areas. Advances in the field of wind engineering are shown to afford cost-effective techniques for mitigating against extreme windstorms, including tornadoes. However, the rather unique sociopolitical framework of building codes and practices in the United States presently hinders effective technology transfer and mitigation practice. Important implications of these findings accrue to forecasts and warnings of forest fires and airborne dispersal (loss of containment) of toxic materials, including nuclear processing by-products.

Golden, Joseph H.; Snow, John T.

1991-11-01

407

ED accreditation update. Hospitals put on notice: alarm management is a top priority for 2014.  

PubMed

Establishing alarm management as a new National Patient Safety Goal (NPSG), The Joint Commission (TJC) is calling on hospitals to make the issue a safety priority, and to begin establishing policies and procedures designed to minimize alarm fatigue among clinical staff. Beginning on January 1,2014, hospitals need to begin identifying the most important alarm signals to manage based on input from staff as well as factors such as patient risk, and the potential for harm as demonstrated by the device's history. By January 1,2016, hospitals need to have policies and procedures in place for managing alarms identified in the first phase of the NPSG's requirements. Also, staff and independent licensed practitioners need to be educated about the purpose and proper operation of alarm systems that they are responsible for. PMID:24058949

2013-09-01

408

Quality improvement in nursing homes: testing of an alarm elimination program.  

PubMed

Falls are the most common cause of injury deaths and nonfatal injuries in older adults. In an effort to detect a resident's movement, many nursing homes use bed or chair alarms to alert staff that the resident may get up and possibly fall. However, there is little evidence that bed or chair alarms prevent falls, and mounting evidence that alarms can impede the functional status and negatively impact feelings of dignity among older adults in nursing homes. The purpose of this article was to describe the development and pilot testing of an alarm elimination program for nursing homes. A program aimed at decreasing or eliminating the use of alarms may enhance quality of life of older adults in nursing homes. PMID:24135950

Crogan, Neva L; Dupler, Alice E

2014-01-01

409

Cortisol influences the antipredator behavior induced by chemical alarm cues in the Frillfin goby.  

PubMed

We evaluated the effect of increased plasma cortisol levels on fish antipredator behavior induced by conspecific chemical alarm cues. The experimental model for the study was the Frillfin goby Bathygobius soporator. We first confirmed that the alarm substance induces typical defensive antipredator responses in Frillfin gobies and described their alarm substance cells (epidermal 'club' cells). Second, we confirmed that intraperitoneal cortisol implants increase plasma cortisol levels in this species. We then demonstrated that exogenous cortisol administration and subsequent exposure to an alarm substance decreased swimming activity to a greater extent than the activity prompted by either stimulus alone. In addition, cortisol did not abolish the sheltering response to the alarm chemical cue even though it decreased activity. As predators use prey movements to guide their first contact with the prey, a factor that decreases swimming activity clearly increases the probability of survival. Consequently, this observation indicates that cortisol helps improve the antipredator response in fish. PMID:24657662

Barreto, Rodrigo Egydio; Barbosa-Júnior, Augusto; Urbinati, Elisabeth Criscuolo; Hoffmann, Anette

2014-04-01

410

Spirit Beholds Bumpy Boulder (False Color)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit began collecting images for a 360-degree panorama of new terrain, the rover captured this view of a dark boulder with an interesting surface texture. The boulder sits about 40 centimeters (16 inches) tall on Martian sand about 5 meters (16 feet) away from Spirit. It is one of many dark, volcanic rock fragments -- many pocked with rounded holes called vesicles -- littering the slope of 'Low Ridge.' The rock surface facing the rover is similar in appearance to the surface texture on the outside of lava flows on Earth.

Spirit took this false-color image with the panoramic camera on the rover's 810th sol, or Martian day, of exploring Mars (April 13, 2006). This image is a false-color rendering using camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters.

2006-01-01

411

Cosmic chirality both true and false.  

PubMed

The discrete symmetries of parity P, time reversal T, and charge conjugation C may be used to characterize the properties of chiral systems. It is well known that parity violation infiltrates into ordinary matter via an interaction between the nucleons and electrons, mediated by the Z(0) particle, that lifts the degeneracy of the mirror-image enantiomers of a chiral molecule. Being odd under P but even under T, this P-violating interaction exhibits true chirality and so may induce absolute enantioselection under all circumstances. It has been suggested that CP violation may also infiltrate into ordinary matter via a P-odd, T-odd interaction mediated by the (as yet undetected) axion. This CP-violating interaction exhibits false chirality and so may induce absolute enantioselection in processes far from equilibrium. Both true and false cosmic chirality should be considered together as possible sources of homochirality in the molecules of life. PMID:22930646

Barron, Laurence D

2012-12-01

412

The problem with false vacuum Higgs inflation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the possibility of using the only known fundamental scalar, the Higgs, as an inflaton with minimal coupling to gravity. The peculiar appearance of a plateau or a false vacuum in the renormalised effective scalar potential suggests that the Higgs might drive inflation. For the case of a false vacuum we use an additional singlet scalar field, motivated by the strong CP problem, and its coupling to the Higgs to lift the barrier allowing for a graceful exit from inflation by mimicking hybrid inflation. We find that this scenario is incompatible with current measurements of the Higgs mass and the QCD coupling constant and conclude that the Higgs can only be the inflaton in more complicated scenarios.

Fairbairn, Malcolm; Grothaus, Philipp; Hogan, Robert

2014-06-01

413

Effectively Using Syntax for Recognizing False Entailment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recognizing textual entailment is a chal- lenging problem and a fundamental com- ponent of many applications in natural language processing. We present a novel framework for recognizing textual entail- ment that focuses on the use of syntactic heuristics to recognize false entailment. We give a thorough analysis of our sys- tem, which demonstrates state-of-the-art performance on a widely-used test set.

Rion Snow; Lucy Vanderwende; Arul Menezes

2006-01-01

414

[False postvoid residual volume diagnosed by videourodynamics].  

PubMed

We present a case report of a young male patient, with a bilateral vesico renal reflux. The urodynamic study findings suggested the possibility of a non-neurogenic bladder-external spincter dissinergya producing a valuable residual volume. After biofeedback treatment, the dissinergia disappeaed, but residual volume persisted. The videourodynamic assessment allowed us the accurate diagnosis of a false residual volume, produced by the voiding of the refluxed urine from the ureters into the bladder. PMID:15666527

Musquera Felip, M; Errando Smet, C; Prados Saavedra, M; Arañó Bertrán, P; Villavicencio Mavrich, H

2004-01-01

415

Infants' Reasoning About Others' False Perceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior research suggests that children younger than age 3 or 4 do not understand that an agent may be deceived by an object's misleading appearance. The authors asked whether 14.5-month-olds would give evidence in a violation-of-expectation task that they understand that agents may form false perceptions. Infants first watched events in which an agent faced a stuffed skunk and a

Hyun-joo Song; Renée Baillargeon

2008-01-01

416

The proportion of clinically relevant alarms decreases as patient clinical severity decreases in intensive care units: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine (1) the proportion and number of clinically relevant alarms based on the type of monitoring device; (2) whether patient clinical severity, based on the sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score, affects the proportion of clinically relevant alarms and to suggest; (3) methods for reducing clinically irrelevant alarms in an intensive care unit (ICU). Design A prospective, observational clinical study. Setting A medical ICU at the University of Tokyo Hospital in Tokyo, Japan. Participants All patients who were admitted directly to the ICU, aged ?18?years, and not refused active treatment were registered between January and February 2012. Methods The alarms, alarm settings, alarm messages, waveforms and video recordings were acquired in real time and saved continuously. All alarms were annotated with respect to technical and clinical validity. Results 18 ICU patients were monitored. During 2697 patient-monitored hours, 11?591 alarms were annotated. Only 740 (6.4%) alarms were considered to be clinically relevant. The monitoring devices that triggered alarms the most often were the direct measurement of arterial pressure (33.5%), oxygen saturation (24.2%), and electrocardiogram (22.9%). The numbers of relevant alarms were 12.4% (direct measurement of arterial pressure), 2.4% (oxygen saturation) and 5.3% (electrocardiogram). Positive correlations were established between patient clinical severities and the proportion of relevant alarms. The total number of irrelevant alarms could be reduced by 21.4% by evaluating their technical relevance. Conclusions We demonstrated that (1) the types of devices that alarm the most frequently were direct measurements of arterial pressure, oxygen saturation and ECG, and most of those alarms were not clinically relevant; (2) the proportion of clinically relevant alarms decreased as the patients’ status improved and (3) the irrelevance alarms can be considerably reduced by evaluating their technical relevance.

Inokuchi, Ryota; Sato, Hajime; Nanjo, Yuko; Echigo, Masahiro; Tanaka, Aoi; Ishii, Takeshi; Matsubara, Takehiro; Doi, Kent; Gunshin, Masataka; Hiruma, Takahiro; Nakamura, Kensuke; Shinohara, Kazuaki; Kitsuta, Yoichi; Nakajima, Susumu; Umezu, Mitsuo; Yahagi, Naoki

2013-01-01

417

Systematic review of controlled trials of interventions to promote smoke alarms  

PubMed Central

AIMS—To evaluate the effects of promotion of residential smoke alarms.?METHODS—Electronic databases, conference proceedings, and bibliographies were systematically searched, and investigators and organisations were contacted, in order to identify controlled trials evaluating interventions designed to promote residential smoke alarms. The following were assessed: smoke alarm acquisition, ownership, and function; fires; burns; and fire related injuries. Odds ratios (OR) were estimated by meta analysis of randomised trials.?RESULTS—A total of 26 trials were identified, of which 13 were randomised. Overall, counselling and educational interventions had only a modest effect on the likelihood of owning an alarm (OR = 1.26; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.87 to 1.81) or having a functional alarm (OR = 1.19; 95% CI: 0.85 to 1.66). Counselling as part of primary care child health surveillance had greater effects on ownership (OR = 1.93; 95% CI: 1.04 to 3.58) and function (OR = 1.72; 95% CI: 0.78 to 3.78). Results were sensitive to trial quality, however, and effects on fire related injuries were not reported. In two non-randomised trials, direct provision of free alarms significantly increased functioning alarms and reduced fire related injuries. Media and community education showed little benefit in non-randomised trials.?CONCLUSION—Counselling as part of child health surveillance may increase smoke alarm ownership and function, but its effects on injuries are unevaluated. Community smoke alarm give away programmes apparently reduce fire related injuries, but these trials were not randomised and results must be interpreted cautiously. Further efforts to promote smoke alarms in primary care or through give away programmes should be evaluated by adequately designed randomised controlled trials measuring injury outcomes.??

DiGuiseppi, C.; Higgins, J.

2000-01-01

418

23 CFR 710.513 - Environmental mitigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...The acquisition and maintenance of land for wetlands mitigation, wetlands banking, natural habitat, or other appropriate environmental...Federal-aid program. FHWA participation in wetland mitigation sites and other mitigation...

2013-04-01

419

Generalized site occupancy models allowing for false positive and false negative errors.  

PubMed

Site occupancy models have been developed that allow for imperfect species detection or "false negative" observations. Such models have become widely adopted in surveys of many taxa. The most fundamental assumption underlying these models is that "false positive" errors are not possible. That is, one cannot detect a species where it does not occur. However, such errors are possible in many sampling situations for a number of reasons, and even low false positive error rates can induce extreme bias in estimates of site occupancy when they are not accounted for. In this paper, we develop a model for site occupancy that allows for both false negative and false positive error rates. This model can be represented as a two-component finite mixture model and can be easily fitted using freely available software. We provide an analysis of avian survey data using the proposed model and present results of a brief simulation study evaluating the performance of the maximum-likelihood estimator and the naive estimator in the presence of false positive errors. PMID:16676527

Royle, J Andrew; Link, William A

2006-04-01

420

47 CFR 80.1114 - False distress alerts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false False distress alerts. 80.1114 Section 80.1114...Communications § 80.1114 False distress alerts. The provisions of §§ 80.334 and 80.335 apply to false distress alerts. [68 FR 46980, Aug. 7,...

2010-10-01

421

47 CFR 80.334 - False distress alerts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false False distress alerts. 80.334 Section 80.334 Telecommunication...and Safety Procedures § 80.334 False distress alerts. A distress alert is false if it was transmitted without any...

2011-10-01

422

47 CFR 80.1114 - False distress alerts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false False distress alerts. 80.1114 Section 80.1114...Communications § 80.1114 False distress alerts. The provisions of §§ 80.334 and 80.335 apply to false distress alerts. [68 FR 46980, Aug. 7,...

2011-10-01

423

47 CFR 80.334 - False distress alerts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false False distress alerts. 80.334 Section 80.334 Telecommunication...and Safety Procedures § 80.334 False distress alerts. A distress alert is false if it was transmitted without any...

2012-10-01

424

47 CFR 80.1114 - False distress alerts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false False distress alerts. 80.1114 Section 80.1114...Communications § 80.1114 False distress alerts. The provisions of §§ 80.334 and 80.335 apply to false distress alerts. [68 FR 46980, Aug. 7,...

2012-10-01

425

47 CFR 80.334 - False distress alerts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false False distress alerts. 80.334 Section 80.334 Telecommunication...and Safety Procedures § 80.334 False distress alerts. A distress alert is false if it was transmitted without any...

2010-10-01

426

47 CFR 80.1114 - False distress alerts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false False distress alerts. 80.1114 Section 80.1114...Communications § 80.1114 False distress alerts. The provisions of §§ 80.334 and 80.335 apply to false distress alerts. [68 FR 46980, Aug. 7,...

2013-10-01

427

47 CFR 80.334 - False distress alerts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false False distress alerts. 80.334 Section 80.334 Telecommunication...and Safety Procedures § 80.334 False distress alerts. A distress alert is false if it was transmitted without any...

2013-10-01

428

Adults' Memories of Childhood: True and False Reports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 3 experiments, the authors examined factors that, according to the source-monitoring framework, might influence false memory formation and true/false memory discernment. In Experiment 1, combined effects of warning and visualization on false childhood memory formation were examined, as were individual differences in true and false childhood…

Qin, Jianjian; Ogle, Christin M.; Goodman, Gail S.

2008-01-01

429

False-positive pregnancy tests following enterocystoplasty.  

PubMed

People with major congenital urological or neurological malformations invariably require bladder reconstruction with enterocystoplasty in early childhood. The improvement of the surgical management of these children has reflected significantly on their life expectancy. As a result, more young people with enterocystoplasty are being transitioned to adolescent clinics where they receive the usual counselling about sexual health and pregnancy risks. However, the possibility of false-positive urinary pregnancy tests in these young women remains an overlooked but essential message. The lack of awareness about this fact can result in significant patient anxiety and the potential for unnecessary interventions as exemplified by the three cases we have encountered. PMID:22082173

Nakhal, R S; Wood, D; Woodhouse, C; Creighton, S M

2012-02-01

430

False discovery rates in spectral identification.  

PubMed

Automated database search engines are one of the fundamental engines of high-throughput proteomics enabling daily identifications of hundreds of thousands of peptides and proteins from tandem mass (MS/MS) spectrometry data. Nevertheless, this automation also makes it humanly impossible to manually validate the vast lists of resulting identifications from such high-throughput searches. This challenge is usually addressed by using a Target-Decoy Approach (TDA) to impose an empirical False Discovery Rate (FDR) at a pre-determined threshold x% with the expectation that at most x% of the returned identifications would be false positives. But despite the fundamental importance of FDR estimates in ensuring the utility of large lists of identifications, there is surprisingly little consensus on exactly how TDA should be applied to minimize the chances of biased FDR estimates. In fact, since less rigorous TDA/FDR estimates tend to result in more identifications (at higher 'true' FDR), there is often little incentive to enforce strict TDA/FDR procedures in studies where the major metric of success is the size of the list of identifications and there are no follow up studies imposing hard cost constraints on the number of reported false positives. Here we address the problem of the accuracy of TDA estimates of empirical FDR. Using MS/MS spectra from samples where we were able to define a factual FDR estimator of 'true' FDR we evaluate several popular variants of the TDA procedure in a variety of database search contexts. We show that the fraction of false identifications can sometimes be over 10× higher than reported and may be unavoidably high for certain types of searches. In addition, we further report that the two-pass search strategy seems the most promising database search strategy. While unavoidably constrained by the particulars of any specific evaluation dataset, our observations support a series of recommendations towards maximizing the number of resulting identifications while controlling database searches with robust and reproducible TDA estimation of empirical FDR. PMID:23176207

Jeong, Kyowon; Kim, Sangtae; Bandeira, Nuno

2012-01-01

431

False discovery rates in spectral identification  

PubMed Central

Automated database search engines are one of the fundamental engines of high-throughput proteomics enabling daily identifications of hundreds of thousands of peptides and proteins from tandem mass (MS/MS) spectrometry data. Nevertheless, this automation also makes it humanly impossible to manually validate the vast lists of resulting identifications from such high-throughput searches. This challenge is usually addressed by using a Target-Decoy Approach (TDA) to impose an empirical False Discovery Rate (FDR) at a pre-determined threshold x% with the expectation that at most x% of the returned identifications would be false positives. But despite the fundamental importance of FDR estimates in ensuring the utility of large lists of identifications, there is surprisingly little consensus on exactly how TDA should be applied to minimize the chances of biased FDR estimates. In fact, since less rigorous TDA/FDR estimates tend to result in more identifications (at higher 'true' FDR), there is often little incentive to enforce strict TDA/FDR procedures in studies where the major metric of success is the size of the list of identifications and there are no follow up studies imposing hard cost constraints on the number of reported false positives. Here we address the problem of the accuracy of TDA estimates of empirical FDR. Using MS/MS spectra from samples where we were able to define a factual FDR estimator of 'true' FDR we evaluate several popular variants of the TDA procedure in a variety of database search contexts. We show that the fraction of false identifications can sometimes be over 10× higher than reported and may be unavoidably high for certain types of searches. In addition, we further report that the two-pass search strategy seems the most promising database search strategy. While unavoidably constrained by the particulars of any specific evaluation dataset, our observations support a series of recommendations towards maximizing the number of resulting identifications while controlling database searches with robust and reproducible TDA estimation of empirical FDR.

2012-01-01

432

Albeni Falls Wildlife Mitigation Project : Annual Report of Mitigation Activities.  

SciTech Connect

The Albeni Falls Interagency Work Group was actively involved in implementing wildlife mitigation activities in 2000. The Work Group met each quarter to discuss management and budget issues affecting Albeni Falls wildlife mitigation. Members of the Work Group protected a total of 1,242 acres of wetland habitat in 2000. The total amount of wildlife habitat protected for Albeni Falls mitigation is approximately 4,190 acres (4,630 Habitat Units). Approximately 16% of the total wildlife habitat lost has been mitigated. Land management activities were limited in 2000 as protection opportunities took up most staff time. Administrative activities increased in 2000 as funding was more evenly distributed among Work Group members. As a result, implementation is expected to continue to increase in the coming year. Land management and monitoring and evaluation activities will increase in 2001 as site-specific management plans are completed and implemented.

Entz, Ray D.

2001-04-01

433

Expert-control accident mitigation  

SciTech Connect

The author discusses how failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) aids in pattern recognition. Failure modes can be identified from patterns (symptoms) that they produce within a plant. These patterns are combinations of alarms and instrument readings. The patterns exhibited by failure modes must be documented in advance and stored to use the approach described here. Failures during plant operation can be identified (diagnosed) from the stored patterns. This method is an artificial technique called pattern recognition.

Stacklin, C.A. (Fluor Daniel, Inc., Irvine, CA (US))

1989-11-01

434

African elephant alarm calls distinguish between threats from humans and bees.  

PubMed

The Samburu pastoralists of Northern Kenya co-exist with African elephants, Loxodonta africana, and compete over resources such as watering holes. Audio playback experiments demonstrate that African elephants produce alarm calls in response to the voices of Samburu tribesmen. When exposed to adult male Samburu voices, listening elephants exhibited vigilance behavior, flight behavior, and produced vocalizations (rumbles, roars and trumpets). Rumble vocalizations were most common and were characterized by increased and more variable fundamental frequencies, and an upward shift in the first [F1] and second [F2] formant locations, compared to control rumbles. When exposed to a sequence of these recorded rumbles, roars and trumpets, listening elephants also exhibited vigilance and flight behavior. The same behavior was observed, in lesser degrees, both when the roars and trumpets were removed, and when the second formants were artificially lowered to levels typical of control rumbles. The "Samburu alarm rumble" is acoustically distinct from the previously described "bee alarm rumble." The bee alarm rumbles exhibited increased F2, while Samburu alarm rumbles exhibited increased F1 and F2, compared to controls. Moreover, the behavioral reactions to the two threats were different. Elephants exhibited vigilance and flight behavior in response to Samburu and bee stimuli and to both alarm calls, but headshaking behavior only occurred in response to bee sounds and bee alarm calls. In general, increasingly threatening stimuli elicited alarm calls with increases in F0 and in formant locations, and increasing numbers of these acoustic cues in vocal stimuli elicited increased vigilance and flight behavior in listening elephants. These results show that African elephant alarm calls differentiate between two types of threat and reflect the level of urgency of threats. PMID:24586753

Soltis, Joseph; King, Lucy E; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Vollrath, Fritz; Savage, Anne

2014-01-01

435

Judging the urgency of non-verbal auditory alarms: a case study.  

PubMed

When designed correctly, non-verbal auditory alarms can convey different levels of urgency to the aircrew, and thereby permit the operator to establish the appropriate level of priority to address the alarmed condition. The conveyed level of urgency of five non-verbal auditory alarms presently used in the Canadian Forces CH-146 Griffon helicopter was investigated. Pilots of the CH-146 Griffon helicopter and non-pilots rated the perceived urgency of the signals using a rating scale. The pilots also ranked the urgency of the alarms in a post-experiment questionnaire to reflect their assessment of the actual situation that triggers the alarms. The results of this investigation revealed that participants' ratings of perceived urgency appear to be based on the acoustic properties of the alarms which are known to affect the listener's perceived level of urgency. Although for 28% of the pilots the mapping of perceived urgency to the urgency of their perception of the triggering situation was statistically significant for three of the five alarms, the overall data suggest that the triggering situations are not adequately conveyed by the acoustic parameters inherent in the alarms. The pilots' judgement of the triggering situation was intended as a means of evaluating the reliability of the alerting system. These data will subsequently be discussed with respect to proposed enhancements in alerting systems as it relates to addressing the problem of phase of flight. These results call for more serious consideration of incorporating situational awareness in the design and assignment of auditory alarms in aircraft. PMID:15204277

Arrabito, G Robert; Mondor, Todd; Kent, Kimberley

2004-06-22

436

A High-confidence Cyber-Physical Alarm System: Design and Implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most traditional alarm systems cannot address security threats in a\\u000asatisfactory manner. To alleviate this problem, we developed a high-confidence\\u000acyber-physical alarm system (CPAS), a new kind of alarm systems. This system\\u000aestablishes the connection of the Internet (i.e. TCP\\/IP) through GPRS\\/CDMA\\/3G.\\u000aIt achieves mutual communication control among terminal equipments, human\\u000amachine interfaces and users by using the existing mobile

Longhua Ma; Tengkai Yuan; Feng Xia; Ming Xu; Jun Yao; Meng Shao

2010-01-01

437

"False Positive" Claims of Near-Death Experiences and "False Negative" Denials of Near-Death Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some persons who claim to have had near-death experiences (NDEs) fail research criteria for having had NDEs ("false positives"); others who deny having had NDEs do meet research criteria for having had NDEs ("false negatives"). The author evaluated false positive claims and false negative denials in an organization that promotes near-death…

Greyson, Bruce

2005-01-01

438

Memory for musical tones: the impact of tonality and the creation of false memories.  

PubMed

Although the relation between tonality and musical memory has been fairly well-studied, less is known regarding the contribution of tonal-schematic expectancies to this relation. Three experiments investigated the influence of tonal expectancies on memory for single tones in a tonal melodic context. In the first experiment, listener responses indicated superior recognition of both expected and unexpected targets in a major tonal context than for moderately expected targets. Importantly, and in support of previous work on false memories, listener responses also revealed a higher false alarm rate for expected than unexpected targets. These results indicate roles for tonal schematic congruency as well as distinctiveness in memory for melodic tones. The second experiment utilized minor melodies, which weakened tonal expectancies since the minor tonality can be represented in three forms simultaneously. Finally, tonal expectancies were abolished entirely in the third experiment through the use of atonal melodies. Accordingly, the expectancy-based results observed in the first experiment were disrupted in the second experiment, and disappeared in the third experiment. These results are discussed in light of schema theory, musical expectancy, and classic memory work on the availability and distinctiveness heuristics. PMID:24971071

Vuvan, Dominique T; Podolak, Olivia M; Schmuckler, Mark A

2014-01-01

439

Memory for musical tones: the impact of tonality and the creation of false memories  

PubMed Central

Although the relation between tonality and musical memory has been fairly well-studied, less is known regarding the contribution of tonal-schematic expectancies to this relation. Three experiments investigated the influence of tonal expectancies on memory for single tones in a tonal melodic context. In the first experiment, listener responses indicated superior recognition of both expected and unexpected targets in a major tonal context than for moderately expected targets. Importantly, and in support of previous work on false memories, listener responses also revealed a higher false alarm rate for expected than unexpected targets. These results indicate roles for tonal schematic congruency as well as distinctiveness in memory for melodic tones. The second experiment utilized minor melodies, which weakened tonal expectancies since the minor tonality can be represented in three forms simultaneously. Finally, tonal expectancies were abolished entirely in the third experiment through the use of atonal melodies. Accordingly, the expectancy-based results observed in the first experiment were disrupted in the second experiment, and disappeared in the third experiment. These results are discussed in light of schema theory, musical expectancy, and classic memory work on the availability and distinctiveness heuristics.

Vuvan, Dominique T.; Podolak, Olivia M.; Schmuckler, Mark A.

2014-01-01

440

Performance of cell averaging constant false alarm rate (CA-CFAR) processors for M-correlated sweeps in multiple target environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the detection performance of CA-CFAR processor is analysed for M-correlated sweeps in Gaussian clutter environment which contains interfering targets. The performance analyses are done for different number of sweeps, M, and sweep-to-sweep correlation coefficient, R, with Swerling-I target model in homogeneous and non-homogeneous environments.

E. Sahin; M. Uner

2010-01-01

441

Establishing a Vibration Threshold Value, Which Ensures a Negligible False Alarm Rate for Each Gear in CH-53 Aircraft Using the Operational Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rotating machinery such as gears plays an important role in control of an aircraft. The condition of this machinery is a key ingredient to both platform safety and mission success, especially in military operations. The purpose of the thesis research is t...

M. Elyurek

2003-01-01

442

Lunar Dust Mitigation Screens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With plans for the United States to return to the moon, and establish a sustainable human presence on the lunar surface many issues must be successfully overcome. Lunar dust is one of a number of issues with the potential to create a myriad of problems if not adequately addressed. Samples of dust brought back from Apollo missions show it to be soft, yet sharp and abrasive. The dust consists of a variety of morphologies including spherical, angular blocks, shards, and a number of irregular shapes. One of the main issues with lunar dust is its attraction to stick to anything it comes in contact with (i.e. astronauts, equipment, habitats, etc.). Ionized radiation from the sun strikes the moon's surface and creates an electrostatic charge on the dust. Further, the dust harbors van der Waals forces making it especially difficult to separate once it sticks to a surface. During the Apollo missions, it was discovered that trying to brush the lunar dust from spacesuits was not effective, and rubbing it caused degradation of the suit material. Further, when entering the lunar module after moonwalks, the astronauts noted that the dust was so prolific inside the cabin that they inhaled and ingested it, causing at least one of them, Harrison "Jack" Schmidt, to report irritation of the throat and lungs. It is speculated that the dust could also harm an astronaut's nervous and cardiovascular systems, especially during an extended stay. In addition to health issues, the dust can also cause problems by scouring reflective coatings off of thermal blankets, and roughening surfaces of windows and optics. Further, panels on solar cells and photovoltaics can also be compromised due to dust sticking on the surfaces. Lunar dust has the capacity to penetrate seals, interfere with connectors, as well as mechanisms on digging machines, all of which can lead to problems and failure. To address lunar dust issues, development of electrostatic screens to mitigate dust on sur-faces is currently being developed in a collaborative effort between Langley Research Center and Kennedy Space Center. The screens typically consist of spiral shaped conductive traces patterned on high dielectric substrates (i.e. glass, quartz, polyimide film, etc.). Two broad categories of substrate materials are being investigated for the screens. One category consists of transparent substrates (i.e. glass, quartz, sapphire, etc.), and the other non-transparent sub-strates (Kapton, polyimide films, metals, etc.). The transparent screens utilize patterns made from indium tin oxide (ITO), a transparent conductive material, on clear substrates while the non-transparent screens use copper patterns on a transluscent or opaque substrates. Further, the screen is coated with a high dielectric polyimide cover layer to protect the screen pattern. One promising cover layer material that is currently being investigated is Langley Research Center-Soluble Imide (LaRC-SI), a NASA LaRC developed polyimide. Lastly, a top-coat of hard, inorganic material is evaporated onto the cover layer for protection from scratches due to abrasive nature of the dust. Of note, several top-coat materials are under investigation and include: aluminum oxide, silicon dioxide, titanium oxide, yttrium oxide, zirconium oxide, and zinc sulfide. The electrostatic dust mitigation screens function when a high voltage (700V or greater) is applied to the screen electrodes, thus creating an electromagnetic wave across the surface of the screen that repels the dust. Lunar dust typically contains a high positive charge; therefore, the screens are charged with a higher positive charge that effectively repels dust from the surface (i.e. like charges repel, unlike charges attract). It is anticipated that full development and maturation of this technology will enable humans to sustain a long term presence on the moon, and other planets where dust may have negative implications.

Knutson, Shawn; Holloway, Nancy

443

Cutaneous factitia in elderly patients: alarm signal for psychiatric disorders  

PubMed Central

Background The factitious disorders, more commonly known in daily practice as pathomimia, are expressed in dermatology units by skin lesions induced voluntarily by the patient, in order to draw attention of the medical staff and/or the family members. The disorder is often challenging to diagnose and even more difficult to document in front of the patient or relatives. It represents a challenge for the physician, and any attempt at treatment may be followed by recurrence of the self-mutilation. This paper describes two cases of pathomimia diagnosed by dermatologists and treated in a psychiatry unit, highlighting the importance of collaboration in these situations. Patients and methods Two case reports, describing old female patients with pathomimia, hospitalized in a department of dermatology for bizarre skin lesions. Results The first case was a 77-year-old female with unknown psychiatric problems and atrophic skin lesions on the face, self-induced for many months, with multiple hospitalizations in dermatology units, with no response to different therapeutic patterns, and full recovery after psychiatric treatment for a major depressive syndrome. The second case was a 61-year-old female patient with disseminated atrophic scars on the face, trunk, and limbs. She raised our interest because of possible psychiatric issues, as she had attempted to commit suicide. The prescription of antidepressants led to a significant clinical improvement. Conclusion These cases indicate that a real psychiatric disease may be recorded in patients suffering from pathomimia. Therefore, complete psychiatric evaluation in order to choose the proper therapy is mandatory for all these cases. Dermatologists and all physicians who take care of old patients must recognize the disorder in order to provide optimum care for this chronic condition. We emphasize therefore the importance of psychiatric evaluation and treatment to avoid the major risk of suicide. Skin lesions must be regarded as an alarm signal in critical cases, especially in senior people.

Chiriac, Anca; Foia, Liliana; Birsan, Cristina; Goriuc, Ancuta; Solovan, Caius

2014-01-01

444

Nuisance alarm suppression techniques for fibre-optic intrusion detection systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The suppression of nuisance alarms without degrading sensitivity in fibre-optic intrusion detection systems is important for maintaining acceptable performance. Signal processing algorithms that maintain the POD and minimize nuisance alarms are crucial for achieving this. A level crossings algorithm is presented for suppressing torrential rain-induced nuisance alarms in a fibre-optic fence-based perimeter intrusion detection system. Results show that rain-induced nuisance alarms can be suppressed for rainfall rates in excess of 100 mm/hr, and intrusion events can be detected simultaneously during rain periods. The use of a level crossing based detection and novel classification algorithm is also presented demonstrating the suppression of nuisance events and discrimination of nuisance and intrusion events in a buried pipeline fibre-optic intrusion detection system. The sensor employed for both types of systems is a distributed bidirectional fibre-optic Mach Zehnder interferometer.

Mahmoud, Seedahmed S.; Visagathilagar, Yuvaraja; Katsifolis, Jim

2012-01-01

445

Faecal glucocorticoid metabolites and alarm calling in free-living yellow-bellied marmots  

PubMed Central

When individuals of a variety of species encounter a potential predator, some, but not all, emit alarm calls. To explain the proximate basis of this variation, we compared faecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations in live-trapped yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) between occasions when they did and did not emit alarm calls. We found that marmots had significantly higher glucocorticoid levels when they called than when they did not call, suggesting that stress or arousal may play an important role in potentiating alarm calls. Marmots are sensitive to variation in the reliability of callers. The present finding provides one possible mechanism underlying caller variation: physiological arousal influences the propensity to emit alarm calls.

Blumstein, Daniel T; Patton, Marilyn L; Saltzman, Wendy

2005-01-01

446

Fuel handling exclusion zone established to prevent spurious alarms to CAS neutron detectors in the IFSF.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An experimental and calculational study has been performed to understand and prevent inadvertent activation of the criticality alarm system (CAS) from fuel-handling operations at the Irradiated Fuel Storage Facility. In conjunction with the study, the CAS...

S. S. Kim J. W. Sterbentz

2000-01-01

447

ALARM 2.0 User Manual: Minimizing Compliance Costs of the Life Safety Code for Prisons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

ALARM, Alternative Life Safety Analysis for Retrofit Cost Minimization, is a software tool that helps prison facility managers and fire safety engineers achieve cost-effective compliance with the widely-used Life Safety Code of the National Fire Protectio...

S. F. Weber L. I. Schultz

2001-01-01

448

Ordonnance sur la Centrale nationale d'alarme. (Ordinance on the National Emergency Station).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Ordinance concerns the National Emergency Station (CENAL) which is responsible for raising the alarm with the authorities and the population, in particular, in case of radioactivity (atomic explosion, nuclear accident). The Ordinance provides for the...

1984-01-01

449

Spirit Scans Winter Haven (False Color)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At least three different kinds of rocks await scientific analysis at the place where NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit will likely spend several months of Martian winter. They are visible in this picture, which the panoramic camera on Spirit acquired during the rover's 809th sol, or Martian day, of exploring Mars (April 12, 2006). Paper-thin layers of light-toned, jagged-edged rocks protrude horizontally from beneath small sand drifts; a light gray rock with smooth, rounded edges sits atop the sand drifts; and several dark gray to black, angular rocks with vesicles (small holes) typical of hardened lava lie scattered across the sand.

This view is a false-color rendering that combines images taken through the panoramic camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters.

2006-01-01

450

Two Holes in 'Wooly Patch' (False Color)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The rock abrasion tool on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit ground two holes in a relatively soft rock called 'Wooly Patch' near the base of the 'Columbia Hills' inside Gusev Crater on Mars. This false-color image from the panoramic camera was taken on sol 200 (July 25, 2004) and generated using the camera's 750-, 530-, and 430-nanometer filters. It highlights the material ground up by the rock abrasion tool, grayish-blue in appearance in this image. The color of the material excavated suggests the interior of the rock contains iron minerals that are less oxidized than the dust or possibly weathered coating on the exterior of the rock. Scientists speculate that this relatively soft rock (compared to others analyzed by Spirit) may have been modified by water. Small cracks in the surface outside the drill holes may be the result of interactions with water-rich fluids.

2004-01-01

451

Caffeine's effects on true and false memory.  

PubMed

Caffeine's effects on recall of word lists were investigated using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. College students were administered either 200 mg of caffeine or a 250-mg lactose placebo; after 30 min., they were tested on recall using six word lists. Words of each list were semantically related to a single word (a "critical lure") that was not presented in the list. Participants administered caffeine recalled more list words and more critical lures than participants administered lactose. Recall of list words was negatively correlated with recall of critical lures. Caffeine appears to intensify the strength of connections among list words and critical lures, thereby enhancing both true and false memory. PMID:19708406

Capek, Sarah; Guenther, R Kim

2009-06-01

452

Opportunity View of 'Gilbert' Layer (False Color)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This view from NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows bedock within a stratigraphic layer informally named 'Gilbert,' which is the rover's next target after completing an examination of three stratigtaphic layers forming a bright band around the inside of Victoria Crater. The rover will descend deeper into the crater to reach the Gilbert layer.

Opportunity used its panoramic camera (Pancam) to capture this image with low-sun angle at a local solar time of 3:30 p.m. during the rover's 1,429th Martian day, of sol (Jan. 31, 2008).

This view combines separate images taken through the Pancam filters centered on wavelengths of 753 nanometers, 535 nanometers and 432 nanometers. It is presented in a false-color stretch to bring out subtle color differences in the scene.

2008-01-01

453

Opportunity View of 'Lyell' Layer (False Color)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This view from NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows bedrock within a stratigraphic layer informally named 'Lyell,' which is the lowermost of three layers the rover has examined at a bright band around the inside of Victoria Crater.

Opportunity used its panoramic camera (Pancam) to capture this image with low-sun angle at a local solar time of 3:21 p.m. during the rover's 1,433rd Martian day, of sol (Feb. 4, 2008).

This view combines separate images taken through the Pancam filters centered on wavelengths of 753 nanometers, 535 nanometers and 432 nanometers. It is presented in a false-color stretch to bring out subtle color differences in the scene.

2008-01-01

454

View from Spirit's Overwintering Position (False Color)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has this view northward from the position at the north edge of the 'Home Plate' plateau where the rover will spend its third Martian winter.

Husband Hill is on the horizon. The dark area in the middle distance is 'El Dorado' sand dune field.

Spirit used its panoramic camera (Pancam) to capture this image during the rover's 1,448th Martian day, of sol (Jan. 29, 2008).

This view combines separate images taken through the Pancam filters centered on wavelengths of 753 nanometers, 535 nanometers and 432 nanometers. It is presented in a false-color stretch to bring out subtle color differences in the scene.

2008-01-01

455

Development of an on-line fuzzy expert system for integrated alarm processing in nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

An on-line fuzzy expert system, called alarm filtering and diagnostic system (AFDS), was developed to provide the operator with clean alarm pictures and system-wide failure information during abnormal states through alarm filtering and diagnosis. In addition, it carries out alarm prognosis to warn the operator of process abnormalities. Clean alarm pictures that have no information overlapping are generated from multiple activated alarms at the alarm filtering stage. The meta rules for dynamic filtering were established on the basis of the alarm relationship network. In the case of alarm diagnosis, the relations between alarms and abnormal states are represented by means of fuzzy relations, and the compositional inference rule of fuzzy logic is utilized to infer abnormal states from the fuzzy relations. The AFDS offers the operator related operating procedures as well as diagnostic results. At the stage of alarm prognosis, the future values of some important critical safety parameters are predicted by means of Levinson algorithm selected from the comparative experiments, and the global trends of these parameters are estimated using data smoothing and fuzzy membership. This information enables early failure detection and is also used to supplement diagnostic symptoms.

Choi, S.S.; Kang, K.S.; Kim, H.G.; Chang, S.H. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

1995-08-01

456

Mitigation Evaluations: A Survey of Current Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the scope and components of mitigation assessments in a first effort to develop some guidelines for conducting mitigation evaluations. Using the mitigation evaluations survey (MES) we developed for this research, we surveyed 266 psychologists about the characteristics and content of mitigation evaluations. A high percentage of participants endorsed each of the 14 content areas presented in the

Michelle E. Barnett; Stanley L. Brodsky; Tess M. S. Neal

2011-01-01

457

Application study of mine alarm system based on ZigBee technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

After introducing the wireless network communication technology ZigBee and the features, advantages and application rule of the wireless single chip microcomputer cc2430, which is a true system-on-chip (SOC) loading ZigBee technology, the article introduced the design method of mine alarm system based on ZigBee technology. The composition of the mine alarm system and the design features of hardware and software

Qingzhu Wang; Rongchang Liu; Yuquan Ma; Jinchuan Zhao; Lizhen Feng; Shiguang Liu

2008-01-01

458

Modulation of aphid alarm pheromone emission of pea aphid prey by predators.  

PubMed

Recent studies on animal alarm signaling have shown that alarm calls generally are not uniform, but may vary depending on the type and intensity of threat. While alarm call variability has been studied intensively in birds and mammals, little is known about such variation in insects. We investigated variability in alarm signaling in aphids, group-living insect herbivores. Under attack, aphids release droplets containing a volatile alarm pheromone, (E)-?-farnesene (EBF), that induces specific escape behavior in conspecifics. We used a handheld gas chromatograph (zNose™), which allows real-time volatile analysis, to measure EBF emission by pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum, under attack from different predators, lacewing or ladybird larvae. We demonstrate that aphid alarm signaling is affected by the predator species attacking. Ladybirds generally elicited smaller EBF emission peaks and consumed aphids more quickly, resulting in lower total EBF emission compared to lacewing attacks. In 52 % of the replicates with lacewings and 23 % with ladybirds, no EBF was detectable in the headspace, although aphids secreted cornicle droplets after attack. We, therefore, examined EBF amounts contained in these droplets and the aphid body. While all aphid bodies always contained EBF, many secreted droplets did not. Our experiments show that alarm signaling in insects can be variable, and both the attacker as well as the attacked may affect alarm signal variation. While underlying mechanisms of such variation in aphid-predator interactions need to be investigated in more detail, we argue that at least part of this variation may be adaptive for the predator and the aphid. PMID:23686467

Joachim, Christoph; Hatano, Eduardo; David, Anja; Kunert, Maritta; Linse, Cornelia; Weisser, Wolfgang W

2013-06-01

459

Ontogenetic variation of heritability and maternal effects in yellow-bellied marmot alarm calls  

PubMed Central

Individuals of many species produce distinctive vocalizations that may relay potential information about the signaller. The alarm calls of some species have been reported to be individually specific, and this distinctiveness may allow individuals to access the reliability or kinship of callers. While not much is known generally about the heritability of mammalian vocalizations, if alarm calls were individually distinctive to permit kinship assessment, then call structure should be heritable. Here, we show conclusively for the first time that alarm call structure is heritable. We studied yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) and made nine quantitative measurements of their alarm calls. With a known genealogy, we used the animal model (a statistical technique) to estimate alarm call heritability. In juveniles, only one of the measured variables had heritability significantly different from zero; however, most variables had significant maternal environmental effects. By contrast, yearlings and adults had no significant maternal environmental effects, but the heritability of nearly all measured variables was significantly different from zero. Some, but not all of these heritable effects were significantly different across age classes. The presence of significantly non-zero maternal environmental effects in juveniles could reflect the impact of maternal environmental stresses on call structure. Regardless of this mechanism, maternal environmental effects could permit kinship recognition in juveniles. In older animals, the substantial genetic basis of alarm call structure suggests that calls could be used to assess kinship and, paradoxically, might also suggest a role of learning in call structure.

Blumstein, Daniel T.; Nguyen, Kathy T.; Martin, Julien G. A.

2013-01-01

460

Effects of a fire alarm strobe light on fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations in mice.  

PubMed

The type and location of fire alarms are important considerations in animal facility design. The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals recommends minimizing animal exposure to such alarms. Nevertheless, it is often necessary to maintain fire alarms within animal housing or procedural areas. The authors exposed male mice to the flashing strobe light component of a standard fire alarm and evaluated mouse fecal corticosterone concentration, which is known to be an indicator of stress. Mice were exposed to the strobe light for 5 min during either the light or the dark phase of the light:dark cycle. The authors collected fecal samples every 6 h for 24 h before exposing mice to the alarm and every 6 h for 24 h after exposure. Fecal samples taken before exposure (baseline samples) showed a normal circadian pattern of corticosterone metabolite excretion. In fecal samples taken after mice were exposed to the fire alarm, metabolite concentrations did not significantly differ from baseline concentrations over time. PMID:19165194

Godfrey, Denice; Silverman, Jerald

2009-02-01

461

A micro-geography of fear: learning to eavesdrop on alarm calls of neighbouring heterospecifics.  

PubMed

Many vertebrates eavesdrop on alarm calls of other species, which is a remarkable ability, given geographical variation in community composition and call diversity within and among species. We used micro-geographical variation in community composition to test whether individuals recognize heterospecific alarm calls by: (i) responding to acoustic features shared among alarm calls; (ii) having innate responses to particular heterospecific calls; or (iii) learning specific alarm calls. We found that superb fairy-wrens (Malurus cyaneus) fled to cover to playback of noisy miner (Manorina melanocephala) aerial predator alarm calls only in locations where miners were present, suggesting that learning rather than acoustic structure determines response. Sites with and without miners were well within the dispersal distance of fairy-wrens, and philopatric males and dispersing females showed the same pattern, so that local genetic adaptation is extremely unlikely. Furthermore, where miners were present, fairy-wrens responded appropriately to different miner calls, implying eavesdropping on their signalling system rather than fleeing from miners themselves. Learned eavesdropping on alarm calls enables individuals to harvest ecologically relevant information from heterospecifics on an astonishingly fine spatial scale. Such phenotypic plasticity is valuable in a changing world, where individuals can be exposed to new species. PMID:21849313

Magrath, Robert D; Bennett, Thomas H

2012-03-01

462

A micro-geography of fear: learning to eavesdrop on alarm calls of neighbouring heterospecifics  

PubMed Central

Many vertebrates eavesdrop on alarm calls of other species, which is a remarkable ability, given geographical variation in community composition and call diversity within and among species. We used micro-geographical variation in community composition to test whether individuals recognize heterospecific alarm calls by: (i) responding to acoustic features shared among alarm calls; (ii) having innate responses to particular heterospecific calls; or (iii) learning specific alarm calls. We found that superb fairy-wrens (Malurus cyaneus) fled to cover to playback of noisy miner (Manorina melanocephala) aerial predator alarm calls only in locations where miners were present, suggesting that learning rather than acoustic structure determines response. Sites with and without miners were well within the dispersal distance of fairy-wrens, and philopatric males and dispersing females showed the same pattern, so that local genetic adaptation is extremely unlikely. Furthermore, where miners were present, fairy-wrens responded appropriately to different miner calls, implying eavesdropping on their signalling system rather than fleeing from miners themselves. Learned eavesdropping on alarm calls enables individuals to harvest ecologically relevant information from heterospecifics on an astonishingly fine spatial scale. Such phenotypic plasticity is valuable in a changing world, where individuals can be exposed to new species.

Magrath, Robert D.; Bennett, Thomas H.

2012-01-01

463

Alarm pheromone is detected by the vomeronasal organ in male rats.  

PubMed

It is widely known that a stressed animal releases specific pheromones, possibly for alarming nearby conspecifics. We previously investigated an alarm pheromone in male rats and found that this alarm pheromone evokes several responses, including increases in the defensive and risk assessment behaviors in a modified open-field test, and enhancement of the acoustic startle reflex. However, the role of the vomeronasal organ in these pheromone effects remains unclear. To clarify this point, vomeronasal organ-excising or sham surgeries were performed in male rats for use in 2 experimental models, after which they were exposed to alarm pheromone. We found that the vomeronasal organ-excising surgery blocked the effects of this alarm pheromone in both the modified open-field test and acoustic startle reflex test. In addition, the results of habituation/dishabituation test and soybean agglutinin binding to the accessory olfactory bulb suggested that the vomeronasal organ-excising surgery completely ablated the vomeronasal organ while preserving the functioning of the main olfactory system. From the above results, we showed that the vomeronasal organ plays an important role in alarm pheromone effects in the modified open-field test and acoustic startle reflex test. PMID:23821727

Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Kodama, Yuka; Kubota, Takahiro; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

2013-10-01

464

Ontogenetic variation of heritability and maternal effects in yellow-bellied marmot alarm calls.  

PubMed

Individuals of many species produce distinctive vocalizations that may relay potential information about the signaller. The alarm calls of some species have been reported to be individually specific, and this distinctiveness may allow individuals to access the reliability or kinship of callers. While not much is known generally about the heritability of mammalian vocalizations, if alarm calls were individually distinctive to permit kinship assessment, then call structure should be heritable. Here, we show conclusively for the first time that alarm call structure is heritable. We studied yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) and made nine quantitative measurements of their alarm calls. With a known genealogy, we used the animal model (a statistical technique) to estimate alarm call heritability. In juveniles, only one of the measured variables had heritability significantly different from zero; however, most variables had significant maternal environmental effects. By contrast, yearlings and adults had no significant maternal environmental effects, but the heritability of nearly all measured variables was significantly different from zero. Some, but not all of these heritable effects were significantly different across age classes. The presence of significantly non-zero maternal environmental effects in juveniles could reflect the impact of maternal environmental stresses on call structure. Regardless of this mechanism, maternal environmental effects could permit kinship recognition in juveniles. In older animals, the substantial genetic basis of alarm call structure suggests that calls could be used to assess kinship and, paradoxically, might also suggest a role of learning in call structure. PMID:23466987

Blumstein, Daniel T; Nguyen, Kathy T; Martin, Julien G A

2013-05-01

465

True and False Recognition Memories of Odors Induce Distinct Neural Signatures  

PubMed Central

Neural bases of human olfactory memory are poorly understood. Very few studies have examined neural substrates associated with correct odor recognition, and none has tackled neural networks associated with incorrect odor recognition. We investigated the neural basis of task performance during a yes–no odor recognition memory paradigm in young and elderly subjects using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. We explored four response categories: correct (Hit) and incorrect false alarm (FA) recognition, as well as correct (CR) and incorrect (Miss) rejection, and we characterized corresponding brain responses using multivariate analysis and linear regression analysis. We hypothesized that areas of the medial temporal lobe were differentially involved depending on the accuracy of odor recognition. In young adults, we found that significant activity in the hippocampus and the parahippocampal gyrus was associated with correct (true) recognition of odors, whereas the perirhinal cortex was associated with FAs and Misses. These findings are consistent with literature regarding hypothetical functional organization for memory processing. We also found that for correct recognition and rejection responses, the involvement of the hippocampus decreased when memory performances improved. In contrast to young individuals, elderly subjects were more prone to false memories and exhibited less specific activation patterns for the four response categories. Activation in the hippocampus and the parahippocampal gyrus was positively correlated with response bias scores for true and false recognition, demonstrating that conservative subjects produced an additional search effort leading to more activation of these two medial temporal lobe regions. These findings demonstrate that correct and incorrect recognition and rejection induce distinct neural signatures.

Royet, Jean-Pierre; Morin-Audebrand, Leri; Cerf-Ducastel, Barbara; Haase, Lori; Issanchou, Sylvie; Murphy, Claire; Fonlupt, Pierre; Sulmont-Rosse, Claire; Plailly, Jane

2011-01-01

466

SILENE Benchmark Critical Experiments for Criticality Accident Alarm Systems  

SciTech Connect

In October 2010 a series of benchmark experiments was conducted at the Commissariat a Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA) Valduc SILENE [1] facility. These experiments were a joint effort between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the French CEA. The purpose of these experiments was to create three benchmarks for the verification and validation of radiation transport codes and evaluated nuclear data used in the analysis of criticality accident alarm systems (CAASs). This presentation will discuss the geometric configuration of these experiments and the quantities that were measured and will present some preliminary comparisons between the measured data and calculations. This series consisted of three single-pulsed experiments with the SILENE reactor. During the first experiment the reactor was bare (unshielded), but during the second and third experiments it was shielded by lead and polyethylene, respectively. During each experiment several neutron activation foils and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were placed around the reactor, and some of these detectors were themselves shielded from the reactor by high-density magnetite and barite concrete, standard concrete, and/or BoroBond. All the concrete was provided by CEA Saclay, and the BoroBond was provided by Y-12 National Security Complex. Figure 1 is a picture of the SILENE reactor cell configured for pulse 1. Also included in these experiments were measurements of the neutron and photon spectra with two BICRON BC-501A liquid scintillators. These two detectors were provided and operated by CEA Valduc. They were set up just outside the SILENE reactor cell with additional lead shielding to prevent the detectors from being saturated. The final detectors involved in the experiments were two different types of CAAS detectors. The Babcock International Group provided three CIDAS CAAS detectors, which measured photon dose and dose rate with a Geiger-Mueller tube. CIDAS detectors are currently in use at Y-12 in the newly constructed Highly Enriched Uranium Materials Facility. The second CAAS detector used a {sup 6}LiF TLD to absorb neutrons and a silicon detector to count the charge particles released by these absorption events. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory provided four of these detectors, which had formerly been used at the Rocky Flats facility in the United States.

Miller, Thomas Martin [ORNL; Reynolds, Kevin H. [Y-12 National Security Complex

2011-01-01

467

Using the Ancient Method of False Position to Find Solutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several activities that are based on the ancient method of false position, also called false assumption, are presented in this article as a way to motivate students to find the solution of literal equations in beginning algebra.

Edwards, Thomas G.

2008-01-01

468

42 CFR 21.23 - False statements as disqualification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... COMMISSIONED OFFICERS Appointment § 21.23 False statements as disqualification. Willfully false statements shall be cause for rejection of the application or, as provided in subpart N of this part, for...

2012-10-01

469

Allergen immunotherapy and allergic rhinitis: false beliefs  

PubMed Central

Background Over the last 100 years, several persistent misconceptions or ‘false beliefs’ have built up around allergen immunotherapy and its use in allergic rhinitis. This is perhaps because enthusiastic physicians administered complex allergen extracts to a diverse population of patients suffering from heterogeneous atopic conditions. Here, we review evidence that counters seven of these ‘false beliefs.’ Discussion 1. The symptoms of allergic rhinitis can be more heterogeneous, more severe and more troublesome in everyday life than many physicians believe. Large-scale epidemiological surveys show that the majority of allergic rhinitis patients have at least one symptom severe enough to interfere with sleep quality, productivity and/or well-being. 2. Allergen immunotherapy is not necessarily suitable for all allergic rhinitis patients (notably those with mild symptoms). Recent evidence from double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials suggests that the more severe the disease, the greater the treatment effect. 3. Allergen immunotherapy is often accused of lack of efficacy (relative to pharmacotherapy, for example). However, there are now many meta-analyses, systematic reviews and high-quality clinical trials that find overwhelmingly in favor of the efficacy of allergen immunotherapy (including sublingual formulations) in allergic rhinitis induced by pollen and, increasingly, other allergens. 4. Natural-exposure and challenge-chamber trials have shown that symptom relief may become apparent within months or even weeks of the initiation of allergen immunotherapy. 5. In pollen-induced allergic rhinitis, several years of subcutaneous or sublingual allergen immunotherapy are associated with sustained clinical efficacy after subsequent treatment cessation – confirming the disease-modifying nature of this therapy. 6. Most patients seeking treatment for allergic rhinitis are polysensitized, and allergen immunotherapy has proven efficacy in large, robust clinical trials in these groups. Polysensitization is not a contraindication to allergen immunotherapy. 7. Sublingual allergen immunotherapy is safe for home administration. A recent review calculated that 1 billion doses were administered worldwide between 2000 and 2010 and found that the 11 case reports of anaphylaxis (all non-fatal) corresponded to non-standard practice. Summary Modern, evidence-based medicine has generated more than enough robust evidence to remove misconceptions about allergen immunotherapy and allergic rhinitis.

2013-01-01

470

Industry initiatives in impact mitigation  

SciTech Connect

The author concludes that mitigation is the focus of conflicting opinions regarding responsibility, strategy, and effort. There are no hard, fast, or tried and true rules for company involvement in mitigation efforts. Each mitigation effort must be tailored and negotiated to match the unique characteristics of individual projects and circumstances of specific locales. Companies must assume financial responsibility for the temporary impacts and area needs created by their projects. They must also offer financial and technical assistance to impact areas, not just the host political jurisdiction, when local, state, federal, and special fund sources of revenue or technical assistance are not available or insufficient. But, local, state, and federal governments must also recognize their responsibilities and make adjustments in tax jurisdiction boundaries and disbursement formulas so that impacted areas are properly defined and receive an adequate share of lease, royalty, severance tax, permit fee, special use and service charges, and sales tax payments. Laws need to allow innovative uses of tax pre-payments, housing mortgage bonds, changeable debt and bounding limits, industrial loans with delayed prepayment, and revised revenue assistance formulas. Enabling legislation is required in most states to allow impact areas to negotiate the mitigation efforts. A review of 7 types of mitigation effort is presented: transportation; housing; public utilities; health, public safety and recreation; miscellaneous; and company-community interaction. (PBS)

Metz, W.C.

1982-08-01

471

On the prefactor in false vacuum decay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper gives a survey of recent work in collaboration with G Dunne concerning a new method for computing determinants in quantum field-theoretic applications, using angular momentum cut-off regularization and renormalization. This method is generally applicable to the situation of computing the quantum fluctuations about a classical configuration that has a symmetry allowing the fluctuation operator to be radially separable. There are many such cases of interest in quantum field theory. Here I describe the case of the false vacuum decay rate in a self-interacting scalar field theory modelling the process of nucleation in a four-dimensional spacetime. The rate prefactor involves quantum fluctuations about the classical bounce solution, which is O(4) symmetric. The computational method is based on the Gelfand-Yaglom approach to determinants of ordinary differential operators, suitably extended to higher dimensions using angular momentum cut-off regularization. I also present a simple new formula for the zero-mode contribution to the fluctuation prefactor, expressed entirely in terms of the asymptotic behaviour of the classical bounce solution.

Min, Hyunsoo

2006-05-01

472

'Endurance Crater's' Dazzling Dunes (false-color)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity creeps farther into 'Endurance Crater,' the dune field on the crater floor appears even more dramatic. This false-color image taken by the rover's panoramic camera shows that the dune crests have accumulated more dust than the flanks of the dunes and the flat surfaces between them. Also evident is a 'blue' tint on the flat surfaces as compared to the dune flanks. This results from the presence of the hematite-containing spherules ('blueberries') that accumulate on the flat surfaces.

Sinuous tendrils of sand less than 1 meter (3.3 feet) high extend from the main dune field toward the rover. Scientists hope to send the rover down to one of these tendrils in an effort to learn more about the characteristics of the dunes. Dunes are a common feature across the surface of Mars, and knowledge gleaned from investigating the Endurance dunes close-up may apply to similar dunes elsewhere.

Before the rover heads down to the dunes, rover drivers must first establish whether the slippery slope that leads to them is firm enough to ensure a successful drive back out of the crater. Otherwise, such hazards might make the dune field a true sand trap.

2004-01-01

473

Peering at Pesky 'Jammerbugt' (False Color)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This false-color image was generated from images obtained by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on sol 842 (June 7, 2006) using the panoramic camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanomter, and 430-nanometer filters.

As winter has descended over Meridiani Planum, the availability of solar power for the rovers has diminished greatly. One consequence of less power for Opportunity is that there are fewer telecommunications links via the orbiting Mars Odyssey spacecraft because the rover needs to use the 'deep sleep' mode overnight to conserve energy. As a result, images that are not needed specifically to help plan the next sol of operations often stay onboard for much longer time than the science team has been used to. For example, on sol 833 Opportunity became embedded within an unexpectedly deep and very fine-grained ripple, named 'Jammerbugt' by the operations team, and spent the next eight sols (834-841) extricating itself.

A series of images from the hazard avoidance camera were quickly returned because they were needed to help plan the drive sequences. However, once the rover was free from the ripple, the science team commanded these panoramic camera image mosaics on sol 842 to show complete coverage of the wheel tracks that were left by Opportunity during the extraction process. The images are of great scientific value but were not critical for planning operations. Accordingly, they were not fully downlinked until sol 864 (June 29, 2006), about three weeks after they were obtained.

2006-01-01

474

The False Security of Blind Dates  

PubMed Central

Background The reuse of clinical data for research purposes requires methods for the protection of personal privacy. One general approach is the removal of personal identifiers from the data. A frequent part of this anonymization process is the removal of times and dates, which we refer to as “chrononymization.” While this step can make the association with identified data (such as public information or a small sample of patient information) more difficult, it comes at a cost to the usefulness of the data for research. Objectives We sought to determine whether removal of dates from common laboratory test panels offers any advantage in protecting such data from re-identification. Methods We obtained a set of results for 5.9 million laboratory panels from the National Institutes of Health’s (NIH) Biomedical Translational Research Information System (BTRIS), selected a random set of 20,000 panels from the larger source sets, and then identified all matches between the sets. Results We found that while removal of dates could hinder the re-identification of a single test result, such removal had almost no effect when entire panels were used. Conclusions Our results suggest that reliance on chrononymization provides a false sense of security for the protection of laboratory test results. As a result of this study, the NIH has chosen to rely on policy solutions, such as strong data use agreements, rather than removal of dates when reusing clinical data for research purposes.

Cimino, J.J.

2012-01-01

475

Deep Hole in 'Clovis' (False Color)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At a rock called 'Clovis,' the rock abrasion tool on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit cut a 9-millimeter (0.35-inch) hole during the rover's 216th martian day, or sol (Aug. 11, 2004). The hole is the deepest drilled in a rock on Mars so far. This false color view was made from images taken by Spirit's panoramic camera on sol 226 (Aug. 21, 2004) at around 12:50 p.m. local true solar time -- early afternoon in Gusev Crater on Mars. To the right is a 'brush flower' of circles produced by scrubbing the surface of the rock with the abrasion tool's wire brush. Scientists used rover's Moessbauer spectrometer and alpha particle X-ray spectrometer to look for iron-bearing minerals and determine the elemental chemical composition of the rock. This composite combines images taken with the camera's 750-, 530-, and 430-nanometer filters. The grayish-blue hue in this image suggests that the interior of the rock contains iron minerals that are less oxidized than minerals on the surface. The diameter of the hole cut into the rock is 4.5 centimeters (1.8 inches).

2004-01-01

476