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Sample records for familial scpn deficiency

  1. Familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... and white-colored blood vessels in the retinas Pancreatitis that keeps returning Yellowing of the eyes and ... discuss your diet needs with a registered dietitian. Pancreatitis that is related to lipoprotein lipase deficiency responds ...

  2. Genetics Home Reference: familial glucocorticoid deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... familial glucocorticoid deficiency type 1 lead to defective trafficking of the receptor to the cell surface. J ... short stature, and natural killer cell deficiency in humans. J Clin Invest. 2012 Mar;122(3):814- ...

  3. Familial hypothalamic digoxin deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2004-01-01

    The case report of a family with coexistence of hypotension, recurrent respiratory infection, motor tics, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), major depressive disorder, early onset osteoporosis, low body mass index, bulimia nervosa, and healthy aging with longevity is described. The family members had hyposexual behavior and less tendency toward spirituality. They did not have insomnia, but they did display tendency toward increased somnolence. No addictive behavior was observed. The family demonstrated a high level of bonding and affectionate behavior, and they were less creative, with an average intelligence quotient (IQ). There was a total absence of vascular thrombosis, systemic neoplasms and neuronal degeneration in the indexed family. All members of the indexed family were left hemispheric dominant. The levels of serum digoxin, HMG-CoA reductase activity, and dolichol were found to be decreased in the members of the indexed family, with a corresponding increase in red blood cell (RBC) Na(+)-K+ ATPase activity, serum ubiquinone and magnesium levels. There was increase in tyrosine catabolites and a reduction in tryptophan catabolites in the serum. The total and individual glycosaminoglycan fractions, carbohydrate residues of glycoproteins, activity of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) degrading enzymes, and glycohydrolases were decreased in the serum. The concentration of RBC membrane total GAG and carbohydrate residues of glycoproteins increased, while the cholesterol: phospholipid ratio of the membrane decreased. The activity of free radical scavenging enzymes were increased, while the concentration of free radicals decreased significantly. The same biochemical patterns were observed in left hemispheric dominance as opposed to right hemispheric dominance. The significance of these findings in the pathogenesis of these disorders is discussed. PMID:14990764

  4. Properdin deficiency in a family with fulminant meningococcal infections.

    PubMed Central

    Sjöholm, A G; Braconier, J H; Söderström, C

    1982-01-01

    Three males in a large family showed a selective deficiency of properdin (P). One of the P deficient individuals died from a fulminant infection with Neisseria meningitidis group C. The family history revealed three previous cases of similar infections with a fatal outcome. The deficiency did not appear to be associated with repeated bacterial infections. The pattern of inheritance suggested an X-linked mode of transmittance. However, heterozygous carriers were not clearly distinguished in the family. P deficient serum supported immune haemolysis in a normal fashion. Alternative pathway functions, such as the activation of C3 by inulin or zymosan, lysis of guinea-pig erythrocytes in agarose gel and opsonization of endotoxin coated oil particles, were grossly impaired in P deficient serum while efficient C3 activation was produced by addition of cobra venom factor. Images Fig. 2 PMID:7151327

  5. Complement component C7 deficiency in two Spanish families

    PubMed Central

    Barroso, Sonia; Sánchez, Berta; Álvarez, Antonia José; López-Trascasa, Margarita; Lanuza, Amparo; Luque, Rafael; Wichmann, Ingeborg; Núñez-Roldán, Antonio

    2004-01-01

    Different genetic mutations have been described in complement component C7 deficiency, a molecular defect clinically associated with an increased susceptibility to neisserial recurrent infections. In this work we report the genetic basis of C7 deficiency in two different Spanish families (family 1 and family 2). In family 1, of Gypsy ethnical background, exon-specific polymerase chain reaction and sequencing revealed a not previously described single base deletion of nucleotide 1309 (exon 10) in the patient, as well as in her father, leading to a stop codon that causes the premature truncation of the C7 protein (K416 X 419). Additionally, the patient and her mother displayed a missense mutation at position 1135 (exon 9) located in the first nucleotide of the codon GGG (CGG), resulting in a change of amino acid (G357R). This mutation was firstly described in individuals of Moroccan Sephardic Jewish ancestry and has been also reported among Spaniards. In family 2, another novel mutation was found in homozygosity in two siblings; a two base-pair deletion of nucleotides 1922 and 1923 in exon 14 leading to the generation of a downstream stop codon causing the truncation of the C7 protein product (S620 X 630). Our results provide more evidence for the heterogeneous molecular basis of C7 deficiency as well as for the subsequent susceptibility to meningococcal disease, since different families carry different molecular defects. On the other hand, certain C7 defects appear to be prevalent in individuals from certain populations or living in defined geographical areas. PMID:15554930

  6. Familial C4B Deficiency and Immune Complex Glomerulonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Soto, K; Wu, YL; Ortiz, A; Aparício, SR; Yu, CY

    2010-01-01

    Homozygous complement C4B deficiency is described in a Southern European young female patient with Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis (MPGN) type III characterized by renal biopsies with strong complement C4 and IgG deposits. Low C4 levels were independent of clinical evolution or type of immunosuppression and were found in three other family members without renal disease or infections. HLA typing revealed that the patient has homozygous A*02, Cw*06, B*50 at the class I region, and DRB1*08 and DQB1*03 at the class II region. Genotypic and phenotypic studies demonstrated that the patient has homozygous monomodular RCCX in the HLA class III region, with single long C4A genes coding for C4A3 and complete C4B deficiency. Her father, mother, son and niece have heterozygous C4B deficiency. The patient’s deceased brother had a history of Henoch-Schönlein Purpura (HSP), an immune complex-mediated proliferative glomerulonephritis. These findings challenge the putative pathophysiological roles of C4A and C4B and underscore the need to perform functional assays, C4 allotyping and genotyping on patients with persistently low serum levels of a classical pathway complement component and glomerulopathy associated with immune deposits. PMID:20580617

  7. Complement component C7 deficiency in a Spanish family.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Bermúdez, M F; Barroso, S; Walter, K; Alvarez, A J; Alarcón, A; López-Trascasa, M; Wichmann, I; Aguilar, F; Núñez-Roldán, A; Sánchez, B

    2003-08-01

    Different genetic mutations have been described in complement component C7 deficiency, a molecular defect which is clinically associated with an increased susceptibility to neisserial recurrent infections, although some cases remain asymptomatic. In this work we report the genetic bases of C7 deficiency in one Spanish family. Exon-specific PCR and sequencing revealed a novel point mutation at nucleotide 615 (exon 6) leading to a stop codon (UGG to UGA) in the patient, his mother, and sister. This transversion causes the premature truncation of the C7 protein (W183X). Additionally, we detected a missense mutation at position 1135 (exon 9) located in the first nucleotide of the codon GGG (CGG), resulting in an amino acid change (G357R) in the patient, his father, as well as in his sister. This latter mutation had been previously described in individuals from Moroccan Sephardic Jewish ancestry. Since both heterozygous mutations were found in the patient as well as in his asymptomatic sister, we analyse other meningococcal defence mechanisms such as polymorphisms of the opsonin receptors on polymorphonuclear cells. Results showed that the patient and his sister bore identical combinations of FcgammaRIIA-H/R131 and FcgammaRIIIB-NA1/2 allotypes. Our results provide further evidence that the molecular pathogenesis of C7 deficiency as well as susceptibility to meningococcal disease are heterogeneous, since different families carry different molecular defects, although many of the C7 defects appear to be homogeneous in individuals from certain geographical areas. The missense mutation G357R would make an interesting topic of analysis with regard to meningococcal disease susceptibility in the Spanish population. PMID:12869030

  8. Recurrent infections in partial complement factor I deficiency: evaluation of three generations of a Brazilian family

    PubMed Central

    Grumach, A S; Leitão, M F; Arruk, V G; Kirschfink, M; Condino-Neto, A

    2006-01-01

    We report here on the evaluation of a factor I-deficient Brazilian family (three generations, 39 members) with strong consanguinity. The complete factor I-deficient patients (n = 3) presented recurrent respiratory infections, skin infections and meningitis; one of them died after sepsis. They presented an impaired total haemolytic activity (CH50), low C3, low factor H and undetectable C3dg/C3d. Partial factor I deficiency was detected in 16 family members (normal low cut-off value was 25 µg/ml). Respiratory infections were the most common clinical occurrence among partial factor I-deficient relatives. Two of them were submitted to nephrectomy following recurrent urinary tract infections. An additional two heterozygous relatives presented with arthritis and rheumatic fever. Apparently, patients with partial factor I deficiency are also at higher risk for recurrent infections. Vaccination against capsulated bacteria and the eventual use of prophylactic antibiotics should be considered individually in this patient group. PMID:16412054

  9. A family of homozygous familial hyperalphalipoproteinemia with complete deficiency of cholesteryl ester transfer activity.

    PubMed

    Eto, M; Miyata, O; Noda, K; Makino, I

    1990-01-01

    The propositus was a 43-year-old Japanese male with a plasma total cholesterol (chol) level of 252 mg/dl and a high density lipoprotein (HDL)-chol of 169 mg/dl. His brother also had a markedly higher HDL-chol level of 149 mg/dl. In addition, his mother, sister and all 3 children had higher HDL-chol levels of 75-91 mg/dl. These data suggest that the propositus and his brother were homozygous for familial hyperalphalipoproteinemia (FHALP), whereas his mother, sister and 3 children were heterozygous for FHALP. None had any clinical signs of atherosclerosis. The propositus and his brother (homozygous FHALP) also showed markedly higher levels of apo AI (greater than or equal to 190 mg/dl) and E (greater than 16 mg/dl). Ultracentrifugal analysis disclosed an increase of HDL2-chol in the propositus. Cholesteryl ester transfer activity (CETA) was completely absent in the propositus (0.0% transfer/5 microliters/18 hr) and his brother (0.3% transfer/5 microliters/18 hr). It is concluded that this case is a family of homozygous FHALP probably caused by complete deficiency of CETA. PMID:2360880

  10. Deficiency of Maternal Approval in the Abusive Family Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrenkohl, Roy C.; Herrenkohl, Ellen C.

    This study examines the hypothesis that the lack of parental approval of the child characterizes child-abusing families. As part of a larger study of the coping styles of such families, a variety of verbal and non-verbal behaviors in parent-child interactions was examined. Subjects were 80 mother-child pairs from among four groups of comparable…

  11. Delayed Adrenarche may be an Additional Feature of Immunoglobulin Super Family Member 1 Deficiency Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hulle, Severine Van; Craen, Margarita; Callewaert, Bert; Joustra, Sjoerd; Oostdijk, Wilma; Losekoot, Monique; Wit, Jan Maarten; Turgeon, Marc Olivier; Bernard, Daniel J.; Schepper, Jean De

    2016-01-01

    Immunoglobulin super family member 1 (IGSF1) deficiency syndrome is characterized by central hypothyroidism, delayed surge in testosterone during puberty, macro-orchidism, and in some cases, hypoprolactinemia and/or transient growth hormone (GH) deficiency. Our patient was a 19-year-old male adolescent who had been treated since the age of 9 years with GH and thyroxine for an idiopathic combined GH, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and prolactin (PRL) deficiency. His GH deficiency proved to be transient, but deficiencies of TSH and PRL persisted, and he had developed macro-orchidism since the end of puberty. Brain magnetic resonance imaging and PROP1 and POU1F1 sequencing were normal. A disharmonious puberty (delayed genital and pubic hair development, bone maturation, and pubertal growth spurt, despite normal testicular growth) was observed as well as a delayed adrenarche, as reflected by very low dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and delayed pubarche. Direct sequencing of the IGSF1 gene revealed a novel hemizygous mutation, c.3127T>C, p.Cys1043Arg. Pathogenicity of the mutation was demonstrated in vitro. Male children with an idiopathic combined GH, PRL, and TSH deficiency, showing persistent central hypothyroidism but transient GH deficiency upon retesting at adult height, should be screened for mutations in the IGSF1 gene, especially when macro-orchidism and/or hypoprolactinemia are present. We suspect that delayed adrenarche, as a consequence of PRL deficiency, might be part of the clinical phenotype of patients with IGSF1 deficiency. PMID:26757742

  12. Delayed Adrenarche may be an Additional Feature of Immunoglobulin Super Family Member 1 Deficiency Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hulle, Severine Van; Craen, Margarita; Callewaert, Bert; Joustra, Sjoerd; Oostdijk, Wilma; Losekoot, Monique; Wit, Jan Maarten; Turgeon, Marc Olivier; Bernard, Daniel J; Schepper, Jean De

    2016-03-01

    Immunoglobulin super family member 1 (IGSF1) deficiency syndrome is characterized by central hypothyroidism, delayed surge in testosterone during puberty, macro-orchidism, and in some cases, hypoprolactinemia and/or transient growth hormone (GH) deficiency. Our patient was a 19-year-old male adolescent who had been treated since the age of 9 years with GH and thyroxine for an idiopathic combined GH, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and prolactin (PRL) deficiency. His GH deficiency proved to be transient, but deficiencies of TSH and PRL persisted, and he had developed macro-orchidism since the end of puberty. Brain magnetic resonance imaging and PROP1 and POU1F1 sequencing were normal. A disharmonious puberty (delayed genital and pubic hair development, bone maturation, and pubertal growth spurt, despite normal testicular growth) was observed as well as a delayed adrenarche, as reflected by very low dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and delayed pubarche. Direct sequencing of the IGSF1 gene revealed a novel hemizygous mutation, c.3127T>C, p.Cys1043Arg. Pathogenicity of the mutation was demonstrated in vitro. Male children with an idiopathic combined GH, PRL, and TSH deficiency, showing persistent central hypothyroidism but transient GH deficiency upon retesting at adult height, should be screened for mutations in the IGSF1 gene, especially when macro-orchidism and/or hypoprolactinemia are present. We suspect that delayed adrenarche, as a consequence of PRL deficiency, might be part of the clinical phenotype of patients with IGSF1 deficiency. PMID:26757742

  13. Molecular basis of human transcobalamin II deficiency in an affected family

    SciTech Connect

    Li, N.; Seetharam, S.; Seetharam, B.

    1994-09-01

    Transcobalamin II (TC II) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disease leading to cobalamin (Cbl, Vitamin B{sub 12}) deficiency. Patients with this disorder fail to absorb and transport Cbl across cellular membranes and develop Cbl deficiency, symptoms of which include failure to thrive, megaloblastic anemia, impaired immunodefence and neurological disorders. The molecular basis for this disease is not known. By means of Southern blotting and sequence analysis of TC II, cDNA amplified from fibroblasts of an affected child and his parents, we have identified two mutant TC II alleles. The maternally derived allele had a gross deletion, while the paternally derived allele had a 4-nucleotide ({sup 1023}TCTG) deletion which caused a reading frame shift and generation of a premature termination codon, 146 nucleotides downstream from the deletion. Both these deletions caused markedly reduced levels of TC II mRNA and protein. In addition, these two deletions were unique to this family and were not detected in four other unrelated TC II deficient patients who also exhibited the same (TC II protein/mRNA deficiency) phenotypes. Based on this study we suggest, (1) that the molecular defect in the most common form of human TC II deficiency (lack of immunoprecipitable plasma TC II) is heterogeneous and (2) these mutations cause TC II mRNA and protein deficiency leading to defective plasma transport of Cbl and the development of Cbl deficiency.

  14. Characterization of high density lipoprotein particles in familial apolipoprotein A-I deficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our aim was to characterize HDL subspecies and fat-soluble vitamin levels in a kindred with familial apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) deficiency. Sequencing of the APOA1 gene revealed a nonsense mutation at codon 22, Q[22]X, with two documented homozygotes, eight heterozygotes, and two normal subjects in...

  15. Familial orthostatic tachycardia due to norepinephrine transporter deficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, D.; Flattem, N.; Tellioglu, T.; Carson, R.; Garland, E.; Shannon, J. R.; Jordan, J.; Jacob, G.; Blakely, R. D.; Biaggioni, I.

    2001-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance (OI) or postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a syndrome primarily affecting young females, and is characterized by lightheadedness, palpitations, fatigue, altered mentation, and syncope primarily occurring with upright posture and being relieved by lying down. There is typically tachycardia and raised plasma norepinephrine levels on upright posture, but little or no orthostatic hypotension. The pathophysiology of OI is believed to be very heterogeneous. Most studies of the syndrome have focused on abnormalities in norepinephrine release. Here the hypothesis that abnormal norepinephrine transporter (NET) function might contribute to the pathophysiology in some patients with OI was tested. In a proband with significant orthostatic symptoms and tachycardia, disproportionately elevated plasma norepinephrine with standing, impaired systemic, and local clearance of infused tritiated norepinephrine, impaired tyramine responsiveness, and a dissociation between stimulated plasma norepinephrine and DHPG elevation were found. Studies of NET gene structure in the proband revealed a coding mutation that converts a highly conserved transmembrane domain Ala residue to Pro. Analysis of the protein produced by the mutant cDNA in transfected cells demonstrated greater than 98% reduction in activity relative to normal. NE, DHPG/NE, and heart rate correlated with the mutant allele in this family. CONCLUSION: These results represent the first identification of a specific genetic defect in OI and the first disease linked to a coding alteration in a Na+/Cl(-)-dependent neurotransmitter transporter. Identification of this mechanism may facilitate our understanding of genetic causes of OI and lead to the development of more effective therapeutic modalities.

  16. Work-Family Conflict, Psychological Distress and Sleep Deficiency Among Patient Care Workers

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, Henrik Børsting; Reme, Silje Endresen; Sembajwe, Grace; Hopcia, Karen; Stoddard, Anne M.; Kenwood, Christopher; Stiles, Tore C.; Sorensen, Glorian; Buxton, Orfeu M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives There is a well-established link between psychological distress, work-related stress and sleep. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that work-family conflict was associated with sleep deficiency both cross-sectionally and longitudinally while controlling for potential covariates. Methods In this two-phase study, a workplace health survey was collected from a cohort of patient care workers (n=1,572) at two large hospitals. Follow-up was collected nearly two years later in a subsample (n=102). Self-reported measures included work-family conflict, socio-demographics, workplace factors, psychological distress, and outcomes of sleep duration, sleep insufficiency, and sleep maintenance. Bivariate associations (P<0.2) from the baseline sample were used to build multivariable logistic regression models. Results The participants were 90 % women with a mean age of 41 (±11.7) years. At baseline, after adjusting for covariates, higher levels of work-family conflict were significantly associated with sleep deficiency, short sleep duration and perceived sleep insufficiency, but not with sleep maintenance problems. Higher levels of work-family conflict also predicted sleep insufficiency at follow-up nearly two years later. None of the other variables were associated with sleep outcomes longitudinally. Conclusion This is the first study to determine the predictive and cross-sectional associations of work-family conflict on sleep deficiency, also controlling for other measures of job stress and psychological distress. The results indicate that future interventions on sleep deficiency in patient care workers should include a specific focus on work-family conflict. PMID:25000547

  17. Cerebral venous thrombosis in young adult with familial protein S deficiency.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Franciele M; Silva, Caroline Ribeiro da; Borém, Michelle G; Miranda-Vilela, Ana L

    2015-04-01

    Hereditary thrombophilia is the inherited predisposition to venous or, occasionally, arterial thrombosis. In most cases, it is because of changes related to physiological coagulation inhibitors or mutations in genes of coagulation factors. Protein S, a vitamin K-dependent plasma glycoprotein, is a natural anticoagulant and its deficiency is associated with familial venous thrombosis. We present a case study that brings together two rare diseases, cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) and familial protein S deficiency, in a 21-year-old male patient with a positive family history of thrombosis. He developed a headache of moderate intensity lasting 30 days, followed by bizarre movements, which culminated in the patient's death. This report discusses the importance of family history for the diagnosis of hereditary thrombophilia, as well as the request for brain imaging for diagnosis of CVT for an early appropriate intervention, and the importance of specialized medical guidance for family members, who must receive medical advice to prevent another fatal episode in a family member. PMID:25304012

  18. Defective minor spliceosome mRNA processing results in isolated familial growth hormone deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Argente, Jesús; Flores, Raquel; Gutiérrez-Arumí, Armand; Verma, Bhupendra; Martos-Moreno, Gabriel Á; Cuscó, Ivon; Oghabian, Ali; Chowen, Julie A; Frilander, Mikko J; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A

    2014-01-01

    The molecular basis of a significant number of cases of isolated growth hormone deficiency remains unknown. We describe three sisters affected with severe isolated growth hormone deficiency and pituitary hypoplasia caused by biallelic mutations in the RNPC3 gene, which codes for a minor spliceosome protein required for U11/U12 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) formation and splicing of U12-type introns. We found anomalies in U11/U12 di-snRNP formation and in splicing of multiple U12-type introns in patient cells. Defective transcripts include preprohormone convertases SPCS2 and SPCS3 and actin-related ARPC5L genes, which are candidates for the somatotroph-restricted dysfunction. The reported novel mechanism for familial growth hormone deficiency demonstrates that general mRNA processing defects of the minor spliceosome can lead to very narrow tissue-specific consequences. Subject Categories Genetics, Gene Therapy ' Genetic Disease; Metabolism PMID:24480542

  19. 21-hydroxylase deficiency families with HLA identical affected and unaffected sibs.

    PubMed Central

    Sinnott, P J; Dyer, P A; Price, D A; Harris, R; Strachan, T

    1989-01-01

    During our investigations of polymorphisms at, and in the immediate chromosomal vicinity of, the 21-hydroxylase locus in families with 21-hydroxylase deficiency, three families were found to show marked discordance in clinical features of HLA identical subjects. In one family, there is discordance between a boy with the simple virilising form of 21-hydroxylase deficiency and his two younger sisters, who are both HLA identical to their brother, but who have additional salt wasting features. In the other two families, one subject is severely affected and has very high 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels, but has an HLA identical sib who is asymptomatic and shows only slightly raised 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels. In all cases, HLA identity, as indicated by protein polymorphism studies (HLA-A, B, DR, C4A, C4B, and Bf typing), has been verified at the gene organisation level using 21-hydroxylase and complement C4 DNA probes. An HLA-Bw47 bearing haplotype in one of the latter families has not been transmitted to the affected child and appears to carry a normal 21-OHB allele and two genes which specify C4A allotypes. Images PMID:2783976

  20. Co-existence of classic familial lecithin-cholesterol acyl transferase deficiency and fish eye disease in the same family.

    PubMed

    Mahapatra, H S; Ramanarayanan, S; Gupta, A; Bhardwaj, M

    2015-01-01

    We report a family with a rare genetic disorder arising out of mutation in the gene that encodes for the enzyme lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT). The proband presented with nephrotic syndrome, hemolytic anemia, cloudy cornea, and dyslipidemia. Kidney biopsy showed certain characteristic features to suggest LCAT deficiency, and the enzyme activity in the serum was undetectable. Mother and younger sister showed corneal opacity and dyslipidemia but no renal or hematological involvement. These two members had a milder manifestation of the disease called fish eye disease. This case is presented to emphasize the importance of taking family history and doing a good clinical examination in patients with nephrotic syndrome and carefully analyze the lipid fractions in these subset of patients. PMID:26664212

  1. Co-existence of classic familial lecithin-cholesterol acyl transferase deficiency and fish eye disease in the same family

    PubMed Central

    Mahapatra, H. S.; Ramanarayanan, S.; Gupta, A.; Bhardwaj, M.

    2015-01-01

    We report a family with a rare genetic disorder arising out of mutation in the gene that encodes for the enzyme lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT). The proband presented with nephrotic syndrome, hemolytic anemia, cloudy cornea, and dyslipidemia. Kidney biopsy showed certain characteristic features to suggest LCAT deficiency, and the enzyme activity in the serum was undetectable. Mother and younger sister showed corneal opacity and dyslipidemia but no renal or hematological involvement. These two members had a milder manifestation of the disease called fish eye disease. This case is presented to emphasize the importance of taking family history and doing a good clinical examination in patients with nephrotic syndrome and carefully analyze the lipid fractions in these subset of patients. PMID:26664212

  2. Altered expression of PGK1 in a family with phosphoglycerate kinase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Svaasand, Eva K; Aasly, Jan; Landsem, Veslemøy Malm; Klungland, Helge

    2007-11-01

    The X-linked recessive disease phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) deficiency is caused by altered expression of the PGK1 enzyme, which causes muscle stiffness, hemolytic anemia, and mental retardation. In this study we characterized the PGK1 gene in a family of two brothers, two sisters, and their parents. A single mutation in exon 6, which was associated with the pattern of inheritance of PGK1 deficiency, was observed. This silent G213G; c.639C>T mutation was localized to the conserved exon-intron boundary. We have developed a method for quantification of PGK1 mRNA and demonstrated a marked reduction in PGK1 mRNA in both brothers with the disease. A smaller decrease in PGK1 expression was observed in one sister with symptoms of PGK deficiency and in her mother. Only the normal PGK1 allele was expressed in the two heterozygous women. Whereas most known PGK1 mutations cause amino acid alterations, our study indicates that inhibition of the transcription mechanism is the cause of PGK deficiency. PMID:17661373

  3. Familial alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency cases that are diagnosed in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Atayan, Y; Çağın, Y F; Erdoğan, M A; Bestas, R; Aladag, M

    2016-01-01

    Alpha 1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is a hereditary disorder leading to severe lung and liver diseases worldwide. An accumulation of insoluble heterodimer AAT molecules in hepatocytes is the main cause of liver disorders. The most commonly detected allele worldwide is the PIMM allele, which fulfills the AAT function. The most common missing variant is PiZZ. Serum AAT level is a beneficial but not a reliable determinant for diagnosis. Liver biopsy yields more reliable results. AAT deficiency has no specific treatment. The only treatment modality in children with end stage liver disease is the hepatic transplant. We wanted to present in our article four cases from same family, diagnosed alpha-1 antitrypsindeficiency in adulthood. PMID:26852765

  4. Educating children and families about growth hormone deficiency and its management: part 1.

    PubMed

    Collin, Jacqueline; Whitehead, Amanda; Walker, Jenny

    2016-02-01

    The management of growth hormone deficiency is long term. Children may be diagnosed at pre-school age meaning relationships with the paediatric endocrine team may last more than 15 years. The education role of the paediatric endocrine nurse specialist is essential in working in partnership with families over a long period of time. Children and young people have changing needs for information to help them understand their condition and growth hormone deficiency treatment as they grow up. Developing positive working relationships with parents, children and young people enables their developmental needs and the context in which they live their lives to be central to any educational planning for them. Addressing developmental needs when providing information on growth hormone deficiency to children and young people reinforces the need for education to be an ongoing process and not a one-off event. This is part one of a two-part article. The second part will be published in the March issue of Nursing Children and Young People and it focuses on educating children, young people and their parents about the condition, and includes case studies. PMID:26856576

  5. Thioredoxin Reductase 2 (TXNRD2) Mutation Associated With Familial Glucocorticoid Deficiency (FGD)

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Rathi; Chan, Li F.; Hughes, Claire R.; Kaski, Juan P.; Kowalczyk, Julia C.; Savage, Martin O.; Peters, Catherine J.; Nathwani, Nisha; Clark, Adrian J. L.; Metherell, Louise A.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Classic ACTH resistance, due to disruption of ACTH signaling, accounts for the majority of cases of familial glucocorticoid deficiency (FGD). Recently FGD cases caused by mutations in the mitochondrial antioxidant, nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase, have highlighted the importance of redox regulation in steroidogenesis. Objective: We hypothesized that other components of mitochondrial antioxidant systems would be good candidates in the etiology of FGD. Design: Whole-exome sequencing was performed on three related patients, and segregation of putative causal variants confirmed by Sanger sequencing of all family members. A TXNRD2-knockdown H295R cell line was created to investigate redox homeostasis. Setting: The study was conducted on patients from three pediatric centers in the United Kingdom. Patients: Seven individuals from a consanguineous Kashmiri kindred, six of whom presented with FGD between 0.1 and 10.8 years, participated in the study. Interventions: There were no interventions. Main Outcome Measure: Identification and functional interrogation of a novel homozygous mutation segregating with the disease trait were measured. Results: A stop gain mutation, p.Y447X in TXNRD2, encoding the mitochondrial selenoprotein thioredoxin reductase 2 (TXNRD2) was identified and segregated with disease in this extended kindred. RT-PCR and Western blotting revealed complete absence of TXNRD2 in patients homozygous for the mutation. TXNRD2 deficiency leads to impaired redox homeostasis in a human adrenocortical cell line. Conclusion: In contrast to the Txnrd2-knockout mouse model, in which embryonic lethality as a consequence of hematopoietic and cardiac defects is described, absence of TXNRD2 in humans leads to glucocorticoid deficiency. This is the first report of a homozygous mutation in any component of the thioredoxin antioxidant system leading to inherited disease in humans. PMID:24601690

  6. Deficiency of serum cholesteryl-ester transfer activity in patients with familial hyperalphalipoproteinaemia.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, J; Mabuchi, H; Yoshimura, A; Michishita, I; Takeda, M; Itoh, H; Sakai, Y; Sakai, T; Ueda, K; Takeda, R

    1985-12-01

    Lipoprotein patterns and cholesteryl ester transfer activity (CETA) were examined in 2 patients with familial hyperalphalipoproteinaemia (FHALP). The proband was a healthy 58-year-old Japanese male who had an HDL cholesterol of 7.83 mmol/l (301 mg/dl). His sister's HDL cholesterol was 4.52 mmol/l (174 mg/dl), which suggested that both were homozygous carriers of FHALP. In both subjects HDL showed a high cholesterol/apo A-I ratio and appeared to be a larger-sized particle than normal HDL on agarose gel chromatography. Two of the proband's children showed higher HDL cholesterol levels (1.74 mmol/l, 2.16 mmol/l) than normal, but another 2 children showed normal levels (1.48 mmol/l, 1.40 mmol/l). However, the ratios of HDL cholesterol to total cholesterol and to apo A-I in all children were higher than normal. These data suggest, but do not prove, that all his children were heterozygotes. Apo B levels in all of the family members studied were lower than normal (47-80 mg/dl). Deceased members of the same family had not died from cardiovascular disease. Cholesteryl-ester transfer activity was studied in both patients. When serum or lipoprotein deficient serum (d greater than 1.21) and [3H]cholesteryl ester labelled HDL3 were incubated in the presence of an LCAT inhibitor, there was no evidence of cholesteryl ester transfer from HDL to VLDL and/or LDL, unlike normal subjects. The deficiency of CETA in these patients with FHALP presumably accounted for the increase in particle size and cholesterol enrichment of HDL. PMID:3937535

  7. Hereditary deficiency of the sixth component of complement in man. I. Immunochemical, biologic, and family studies.

    PubMed Central

    Leddy, J P; Frank, M M; Gaither, T; Baum, J; Klemperer, M R

    1974-01-01

    An 18-yr-old black woman in good general health was found to lack serum hemolytic complement activity. The sixth component of complement (C6) was undetectable by functional assay of serum or plasma and by immunoprecipitin analysis of serum. Functional titers of all other complement components were normal. The absence of C6 in the patient's serum could not be accounted for by a circulating C6 inhibitor, and addition of functionally pure C6 to the patient's serum restored hemolytic activity to normal. Both parents of the proband and five of six available siblings had approximately half the normal levels of functional C6. The other sibling had a normal C6 level. These data suggest that both parents and five siblings are heterozygous for C6 deficiency, while the proband is homozygous and one sibling is normal. Thus, C6 deficiency appears to follow classic mendelian inheritance, with all three possible genotypes recognizable within the family. Functional properties of the proband's C6-deficient serum included total absence of bactericidal activity against Salmonella typhi 0 901 and Hemophilus influenzae, type b, and inability to mediate lysis of red blood cells from patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria in either the acidified serum or "sugar water" tests. The proband's serum did, however, exhibit a normal capacity (a) to generate chemotactic activity during incubation with bacterial endotoxin or aggregated IgG, (b) to mediate the immune adherence phenomenon, and (c) to coat human red blood cells, sensitized by cold agglutinins, with C4 and C3. Images PMID:11344568

  8. Familial X-linked mental retardation and isolated growth hormone deficiency: Clinical and molecular findings

    SciTech Connect

    Hamel, B.C.J.; Smits, A.P.T.; Helm, B. van den

    1996-07-12

    We report on several members of a family with varying degrees of X-linked mental retardation (XLMR), isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD), and infantile behavior but without other consistent phenotypic abnormalities. Male patients continued to grow until well into their twenties and reached a height ranging from 135 to 159 cm. Except one, all female carriers were mentally normal; their adult height ranged from 159 to 168 cm. By linkage studies we have assigned the underlying genetic defect to the Xq24-q27.3 region, with a maximum lod score of Z = 3.26 at {theta} = 0.0 for the DXS294 locus. The XLMR-IGHD phenotype in these patients may be due to pleiotropic effects of a single gene or it may represent a contiguous gene syndrome. 18 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Alipogene tiparvovec: a review of its use in adults with familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Scott, Lesley J

    2015-02-01

    Alipogene tiparvovec (Glybera®; AMT-011, AAV1-LPL(S447X)) is an adeno-associated virus serotype 1-based gene therapy for adult patients with familial lipoprotein lipase (LPL) deficiency (LPLD) and suffering from severe or multiple pancreatitis attacks despite dietary fat restrictions. It is administered as a one-time series of intramuscular injections in the legs. LPLD, a rare autosomal recessive disorder, results in hyperchylomicronaemia and severe hypertriglyceridaemia, which in turn, are associated with an increased risk of clinical complications, the most debilitating of which is recurrent severe and potentially life-threatening pancreatitis. In clinical studies (n = 27 patients), one-time administration of alipogene tiparvovec was associated with significant reductions in plasma triglyceride levels during the 12 or 14 week study period post administration. Although triglyceride levels returned to pre-treatment levels within 16-26 weeks after administration, patients had sustained improvements in postprandial chylomicron metabolism, with sustained expression of functional copies of the LPL (S477X) gene and of biologically active LPL in skeletal muscle. Moreover, after up to 6 years' follow-up post administration, there were clinically relevant reductions in the incidence of documented pancreatitis and acute abdominal pain events consistent with pancreatitis. Alipogene tiparvovec was generally well tolerated, with most adverse events being localized, transient, mild to moderate injection-site reactions. This article reviews the pharmacology of alipogene tiparvovec and its efficacy and safety in adults with LPLD. PMID:25559420

  10. Hereditary sideroblastic anemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in a negro family

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Ananda S.; Tranchida, Liborio; Konno, Edward T.; Berman, Lawrence; Albert, Samuel; Sing, Charles F.; Brewer, George J.

    1968-01-01

    Detailed clinical and genetic studies have been performed in a Negro family, which segregated for sex-linked sideroblastic anemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-DP) deficiency. This is the first such pedigree reported. Males affected with sideroblastic anemia had growth retardation, hypochromic microcytic anemia, elevated serum iron, decreased unsaturated iron-binding capacity, increased 59Fe clearance, low 59Fe incorporation into erythrocytes, normal erythrocyte survival (51Cr), normal hemoglobin electrophoretic pattern, erythroblastic hyperplasia of marrow with increased iron, and marked increase in marrow sideroblasts, particularly ringed sideroblasts. Perinuclear deposition of ferric aggregates was demonstrated to be intramitochondrial by electron microscopy. Female carriers of the sideroblastic gene were normal but exhibited a dimorphic population of erythrocytes including normocytic and microcytic cells. The bone marrow studies in the female (mother) showed ringed marrow sideroblasts. Studies of G-6-PD involved the methemoglobin elution test for G-6-PD activity of individual erythrocytes, quantitative G-6-PD assay, and electrophoresis. In the pedigree, linkage information was obtained from a doubly heterozygous woman, four of her sons, and five of her daughters. Three sons were doubly affected, and one was normal. One daughter appeared to be a recombinant. The genes appeared to be linked in the coupling phase in the mother. The maximum likelihood estimate of the recombination value was 0.14. By means of Price-Jones curves, the microcytic red cells in peripheral blood were quantitated in female carriers. The sideroblast count in the bone marrow in the mother corresponded closely to the percentage of microcytic cells in peripheral blood. This is the second example in which the cellular expression of a sex-linked trait has been documented in the human red cells, the first one being G-6-PD deficiency. The coexistence of the two genes in doubly

  11. Molecular Characterization of Glucose-6-phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Families from the Republic of Macedonia and Genotype-phenotype Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Cherepnalkovski, Anet Papazovska; Zemunik, Tatijana; Glamocanin, Sofijanka; Piperkova, Katica; Gunjaca, Ivana; Kocheva, Svetlana; Jovanova, Biljana Coneska; Krzelj, Vjekoslav

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Glucose-6-phospahte dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD) is one of the most common inherited disorders affecting around 400 million people worldwide. Molecular analysis of the G6PD gene identified more than 140 distinct mutations, the majority being single base missense mutations. G6PD Mediterranean is the most common variant found in populations of the Mediterranean area. Aim: The aim of our study was to perform molecular characterization of G6PD deficiency in families from the Republic of Macedonia and correlate the findings to disease phenotype. Patients and methods: Six patients and seven other family members were selected for genetic characterization, the selection procedure involved clinical evaluation and G6PD quantitative testing. All patients were first screened for the Mediterranean mutation, and subsequently for the Seattle mutation. Mutations were detected using PCR amplification and appropriate restriction endonuclease cleavage. Results: Four hemizygote and 3 heterozygous carriers for G6PD Mediterranean were detected. All G6PD deficient patients from this group showed clinical picture of hemolysis, and in 66.6% neonatal jaundice was confirmed based on history data. To our knowledge, this is the first study concerned with molecular aspects of the G6PD deficiency in R. Macedonia. Conclusion: This study represents a step towards a more comprehensive genetic evaluation in our population and better understanding of the health issues involved. PMID:26622077

  12. Mice deficient in Rbm38, a target of the p53 family, are susceptible to accelerated aging and spontaneous tumors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jin; Xu, Enshun; Ren, Cong; Yan, Wensheng; Zhang, Min; Chen, Mingyi; Cardiff, Robert D.; Imai, Denise M.; Wisner, Erik; Chen, Xinbin

    2014-01-01

    RNA-binding motif protein 38 (Rbm38), also called RNPC1 [RNA-binding region (RNP1, RRM) containing 1], is a target of the p53 family and modulates p53 expression via mRNA translation. To investigate the biological function of Rbm38 in vivo, we generated an Rbm38-null mouse model. We showed that mice deficient in Rbm38 exhibit signs of accelerated aging and are prone to hematopoietic defects and spontaneous tumors. To determine the biological significance of the p53-Rbm38 loop, we showed that Rbm38 deficiency enhances accumulation of p53 induced by ionizing radiation (IR) and sensitizes mice to IR-induced lethality in a p53-dependent manner. Most importantly, Rbm38 deficiency markedly decreases the tumor penetrance in mice heterozygous for p53 via enhanced p53 expression. Interestingly, we found that Rbm38 deficiency shortens the life span of, and promotes lymphomagenesis in, mice deficient in p53. These results provide genetic evidence that Rbm38 is necessary for normal hematopoiesis and for suppressing accelerated aging and tumorigenesis. Thus, the p53-Rbm38 axis might be explored for extending longevity and for tumor suppression. PMID:25512531

  13. Childhood stroke at three years of age with transient protein C deficiency, familial antiphospholipid antibodies and F. XII deficiency--a family study.

    PubMed

    Korte, W; Otremba, H; Lutz, S; Flury, R; Schmid, L; Weissert, M

    1994-12-01

    The unusual case of a boy with a stroke occurring at three years of age, transient reduction in protein C activity and high concentrations of antiphospholipid antibodies (APA) is described. APA or Lupus Anticoagulant (LA) were found in 7 of 11 relatives studied out of three different generations. In addition, antigenic Factor (F) XII deficiencies or borderline values were found in the propositus and 2 relatives. Evidence for F. XII inhibitors was found in the propositus, one of his brothers and both of his parents. Whether F. XII inhibitors in patients with APA and/or LA are pathophysiologically relevant in vivo or if they are only an in vitro phenomenon remains to be elucidated. It is reasonable to believe that the main laboratory pathology (APA and/or LA activity) in antiphospholipid syndrome is related to the clinical picture of a hypercoagulable state. There is evidence from the literature that deficiency or inhibition of F. XII might contribute to a prothrombotic state through impairment of the fibrinolytic system. There is also evidence that APA are able to reduce protein C activation. From a clinical point of view, it seems that hypercoagulability in our patient was controlled by low-dose aspirin therapy (75 mg/d). In conclusion, this case seems to support the idea of a genetic predisposition for the development of APA and/or LA. The related disturbances of the coagulatory, anticoagulatory and fibrinolytic systems might contribute in different ways to the prothrombotic state seen in patients with "antiphospholipid syndrome", eventually resulting in possible venous thrombosis or arterial thrombosis with corresponding ischaemic lesions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7770125

  14. Relationship of family income and house type to body mass index and chronic energy deficiency among urban Bengalee male slum dwellers of Kolkata, India.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Raja; Bose, Kaushik; Bisai, Samiran

    2009-01-01

    A cross-sectional study of 469 adult (>18 years) Bengalee male slum dwellers of Dum Dum, Kolkata, India, was undertaken to study the relationships of family income and house type with body mass index (BMI) and chronic energy deficiency. The overall frequency of chronic energy deficiency was 32.0%. Based on the World Health Organization classification, the prevalence of chronic energy deficiency among this population was high and thus the situation is serious. Overall, monthly family income was significantly positively correlated with BMI. Significant differences in mean weight, BMI and monthly family income, were observed between the two house type groups. All values were found to be significantly higher in the brick household group who also earned a comparatively higher income as evident from the mean monthly family income values. The prevalence of chronic energy deficiency was also found to be significantly higher in the bamboo-fenced household group. Subjects belonging to the lowest family income group had the lowest mean BMI and the highest rate of chronic energy deficiency while those in the highest family income group had the largest mean BMI and lowest rate of chronic energy deficiency. There was a significant family income group difference in mean BMI. There existed significant differences in chronic energy deficiency rates in family income group categories. Linear regression analyses showed that monthly family income and house type had a significant impact on BMI. Subsequent multiple regression analyses revealed that both monthly family income and house type had a significant impact on BMI, even after controlling for each other. PMID:19019365

  15. IRAK-4 deficiency as a cause for familial fatal invasive infection by Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Grazioli, Serge; Hamilton, Sara J; McKinnon, Margaret L; Del Bel, Kate L; Hoang, Linda; Cook, Victoria E; Hildebrand, Kyla J; Junker, Anne K; Turvey, Stuart E

    2016-02-01

    In this Letter to the Editor we report the case of two siblings with fatal pneumococcal meningitis as the initial manifestation of IRAK-4 deficiency caused by previously undescribed mutations in IRAK4. The letter also highlights the importance of invasive pneumococcal infection as a critical 'red flag' warning of the potential for an underlying primary immunodeficiency and identifies some of the challenges in making the clinical diagnosis of IRAK-4 deficiency. PMID:26698383

  16. Split hand/foot malformation with long-bone deficiency and BHLHA9 duplication: report of 13 new families.

    PubMed

    Petit, F; Jourdain, A-S; Andrieux, J; Baujat, G; Baumann, C; Beneteau, C; David, A; Faivre, L; Gaillard, D; Gilbert-Dussardier, B; Jouk, P-S; Le Caignec, C; Loget, P; Pasquier, L; Porchet, N; Holder-Espinasse, M; Manouvrier-Hanu, S; Escande, F

    2014-05-01

    Split hand/foot malformation (SHFM) with long-bone deficiency (SHFLD, MIM#119100) is a rare condition characterized by SHFM associated with long-bone malformation usually involving the tibia. Previous published data reported several unrelated patients with 17p13.3 duplication and SHFLD. Recently, the minimal critical region had been reduced, suggesting that BHLHA9 copy number gains are associated with this limb defect. Here, we report on 13 new families presenting with ectrodactyly and harboring a BHLHA9 duplication. PMID:23790188

  17. Rapid and Progressive Pulmonary Fibrosis in 2 Families with DNA Repair Deficiencies of Undetermined Etiology

    PubMed Central

    Vece, Timothy J.; Schecter, Marc G.; Gatti, Richard A.; Tunuguntla, Rashmi; Garcia, Christine Kim; Langston, Claire; Dishop, Megan K.; Moore, Robert H.; Fan, Leland L.

    2016-01-01

    Known genetic causes of pediatric interstitial lung disease include disorders of surfactant metabolism, telomerase, and DNA repair. We report 4 children from 2 families with rapidly progressive and fatal pulmonary fibrosis. A novel DNA repair defect unrelated to the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated gene was found in 1 child from each family. PMID:22240110

  18. Familial Paroxysmal Exercise-Induced Dystonia: Atypical Presentation of Autosomal Dominant GTP-Cyclohydrolase 1 Deficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Russell C.; Melchers, Anna; Fung, Victor S. C.; Grattan-Smith, Padraic; Houlden, Henry; Earl, John

    2010-01-01

    Paroxysmal exercise-induced dystonia (PED) is one of the rarer forms of paroxysmal dyskinesia, and can occur in sporadic or familial forms. We report a family (male index case, mother and maternal grandfather) with autosomal dominant inheritance of paroxysmal exercise-induced dystonia. The dystonia began in childhood and was only ever induced…

  19. Infantile familial cardiomyopathy due to mitochondrial complex I and IV associated deficiency.

    PubMed

    Romero, N B; Marsac, C; Paturneau-Jouas, M; Ogier, H; Magnier, S; Fardeau, M

    1993-01-01

    Two brothers, aged 27 and 20 months, born from consanguineous healthy parents, presented with cardiomyopathy, lactic acidosis and carnitine abnormalities in serum and muscle, without clinical evidence of muscle involvement. The histochemical reaction for cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity was negative in all muscle fibres, although the holoenzyme and subunits were present at a normal level, as shown by immunocytochemistry. The COX activity was, respectively, 5 and 25% of control values, in muscle biopsies. Partial deficiency of complex IV was confirmed in fresh isolated muscle mitochondria from patient 2 and was associated with a defect of complex I. Patient 1 died at age 3 yr 6 months. Partial improvement of cardiomyopathy in patient 2 was obtained under carnitine therapy, but seizures occurred and CT scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed thalamic hypodensity. Thus, the disorder appears to be progressive despite the clinical stabilization of the cardiomyopathy. This further demonstrates the complexity and clinical heterogeneity of combined respiratory chain complex deficiencies. PMID:8392409

  20. Familial cerebellar ataxia and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: evidence for hypothalamic LHRH deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Berciano, J; Amado, J A; Freijanes, J; Rebollo, M; Vaquero, A

    1982-01-01

    A family with familial cerebellar ataxia and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is described. The condition was inherited as an autosomal recessive defect. CT scan in one case revealed cerebellar and brain stem atrophy. Endocrinological tests showed abnormalities only in two patients who were clinically affected. In both cases raised gonadotropic levels were found after repetitive stimulation with luteining hormone-releasing hormone which suggests that the hypogonadism was due to a primary hypothalamic disturbance. Images PMID:6813427

  1. Increased expression of six ZIP family genes by zinc (Zn) deficiency is associated with enhanced uptake and root-to-shoot translocation of Zn in barley (Hordeum vulgare).

    PubMed

    Tiong, Jingwen; McDonald, Glenn; Genc, Yusuf; Shirley, Neil; Langridge, Peter; Huang, Chun Y

    2015-09-01

    Low zinc (Zn) in soils reduces yield and grain Zn content. Regulation of ZRT/IRT-like protein (ZIP) family genes is a major mechanism in plant adaptation to low and fluctuating Zn in soil. Although several Zn deficiency-inducible ZIP genes are identified in cereals, there has been no systematic study on the association of Zn deficiency-induced uptake and root-to-shoot translocation with expression of ZIP family genes. We measured Zn deficiency-induced uptake and root-to-shoot translocation of Zn in barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants by resupplying 0.5 μM Zn, and quantified the transcripts of thirteen HvZIP genes. Subcellular localization and tissue-specific expression were also determined for Zn deficiency-inducible HvZIP genes. Zn deficiency enhanced the capacity of uptake and root-to-shoot translocation of Zn, and sustained the enhanced capacity for 6 d after Zn resupply. Six HvZIP genes were highly induced in roots of Zn-deficient plants, and their proteins were localized in the plasma membrane. Tissue-specific expression in roots supports their roles in uptake and root-to-shoot translocation of Zn under low Zn conditions. Our results provide a comprehensive view on the physiological roles of ZIP genes in plant adaptation to low and fluctuating Zn in soil, and pave the way for development of new strategies to improve Zn-deficiency tolerance and biofortification in cereals. PMID:25904503

  2. De novo mutation causes steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency in one family of HLA-identical affected and unaffected siblings

    SciTech Connect

    Tajima, Toshihiro Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo ); Fujieda, K. ); Fujii-Kuriyama, Yoshiaki )

    1993-07-01

    Over 90% of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) results from 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Because the CYP21B gene is located within the HLA complex and is very tightly linked to HLA markers, HLA typing is widely used for prenatal diagnosis and identifying heterozygous family members. In the course of a study on identification of heterozygous family members with HLA typing, the authors recognized an unusual family case in which three siblings share the same HLA haplotype, and only one of them had the simple virilizing form; her two siblings did not have any endocrinological abnormalities. They investigated the mode of genetic transmission by using polymerase chain reaction and single stranded conformation polymorphism. The present study revealed that the proband was a compound heterozygote with the intron 2 mutation that causes aberrant RNA splicing and the missense mutation of exon 4, while the other siblings and the father had only one allele of a missense mutation in exon 4; the mother is a normal homozygote. This result together with DNA fingerprint analysis strongly suggest that the intron 2 mutation occurred de novo in the maternally inherited gene of the proband. This seems to be the first case of a de novo mutation of the CYP21B gene that causes CAH. 19 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Molecular analysis of the 5 alpha-steroid reductase type 2 gene in a family with deficiency of the enzyme.

    PubMed

    Vilchis, F; Canto, P; Chávez, B; Ulloa-Aguirre, A; Méndez, J P

    1997-03-01

    This report describes the identification of a point mutation in the 5 alpha-reductase type 2 (5 alpha-SR2) gene from a family in which both sibs (6 and 3 years old) have steroid 5 alpha-reductase 2 deficiency. The five exons of the gene were individually amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and analysed for single-strand conformation polymorphisms (SSCP) to detect mutations. Direct sequencing of the mutant PCR products demonstrated a single C-->T mutation, within exon 4, changing codon 227 from CGA (Arg) to TGA (premature termination signal). Both patients were homozygous for the mutation, but their parents were heterozygous. These results suggest that the mutation at codon 227 impairs normal 5 alpha-SR2 function, thus leading to the phenotypical expression of this rare enzymatic defect. PMID:9066886

  4. Molecular study of the 5 {alpha}-reductase type 2 gene in three European families with 5 {alpha}-reductase deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Boudon, C.; Lumbroso, S.; Lobaccaro, J.M.

    1995-07-01

    The molecular basis of 5{alpha}-reductase (5{alpha}R) deficiency was investigated in four patients from three European families. In the French family, the first patient was raised as a female, and gonadectomy was performed before puberty. The second sibling, also raised as female, differed in that gonadal removal was performed after the onset of pubertal masculinization. The other two patients, both from Polish families, developed masculinization of external genitalia during puberty. All patients developed a female sexual identity. In all cases, no known consanguinity or family history of 5{alpha}R deficiency was reported. The genomic DNAs of the patients were sequenced after polymerase chain reaction amplification of the five exons of the 5{alpha}R type 2 gene. We found two homozygous mutations responsible for gutamine to arginine and histidine to arginine substitution in families 1 and 3, respectively. In family 2, we found a heterozygous mutation responsible for an asparagine to serine substitution at position 193. The glutamine/arginine 126 mutation in the French family was previously reported in a Creole ethnic group, and the Polish histidine/arginine 231 mutation was previously reported in a patient from Chicago, Moreover, all of the mutations created new restriction sites, which were used to determine the kindred carrier status in the three families. Because 5{alpha}R deficiency is known to be heterogenous disease in terms of clinical and biochemical expression, our data suggest that molecular biology analysis of the type 2 gene could be an essential step in diagnosing 5{alpha}R deficiency. 22 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Familial idiopathic gonadotropin deficiency not linked to gene for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in Brazilian kindred

    SciTech Connect

    Faraco, J.; Francke, U.; Toledo, S.

    1994-09-01

    Familial idiopathic gonadotropin deficiency (FIGD) is an autosomal recessive disorder which results in failure to develop secondary sexual characteristics. The origin is a hypothalamic defect resulting in insufficient secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone GnRH (also called LHRH, luteinizing hormone releasing hormone) and follicle-stimuating hormone (FSH). FIGD has been determined to be a separate entity from Kallmann syndrome which presents with hypogonadism as well as anosmia. The FIGD phenotype appears to be analogous to the phenotype of the hpg (hypogonadal) mouse. Because the hpg phenotype is the result of a structurally abnormal GnRH gene, we have studied the GnRH gene in individuals from a previously reported Brazilian FIGD family. An informative dimorphic marker in the signal peptide sequence of the GnRH gene allowed assessment of linkage between the disease gene and the GnRH locus in this pedigree. We have concluded that the GnRH locus is not linked to the disease-causing mutation in these hypogonadal individuals. Recent evidence suggests that neuropeptide Y (NPY) may play a role in the initiation of puberty. We hypothesize that mutations in NPY may result in failure to secrete GnRH. We have characterized three diallelic frequent-cutter restriction fragment length polymorphisms within the human NPY locus, and are currently using these markers to determine if the NPY gene is linked to, and possibly the site of the disease mutation in this kindred.

  6. Genotype-phenotype correlation in 1,507 families with congenital adrenal hyperplasia owing to 21-hydroxylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    New, Maria I; Abraham, Moolamannil; Gonzalez, Brian; Dumic, Miroslav; Razzaghy-Azar, Maryam; Chitayat, David; Sun, Li; Zaidi, Mone; Wilson, Robert C; Yuen, Tony

    2013-02-12

    Over the last two decades, we have extensively studied the genetics of congenital adrenal hyperplasia caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency (CAH) and have performed 8,290 DNA analyses of the CYP21A2 gene on members of 4,857 families at risk for CAH--the largest cohort of CAH patients reported to date. Of the families studied, 1,507 had at least one member affected with one of three known forms of CAH, namely salt wasting, simple virilizing, or nonclassical CAH. Here, we report the genotype and phenotype of each affected patient, as well as the ethnic group and country of origin for each patient. We showed that 21 of 45 genotypes yielded a phenotypic correlation in our patient cohort. In particular, contrary to what is generally reported in the literature, we found that certain mutations, for example, the P30L, I2G, and I172N mutations, yielded different CAH phenotypes. In salt wasting and nonclassical CAH, a phenotype can be attributed to a genotype; however, in simple virilizing CAH, we observe wide phenotypic variability, particularly with the exon 4 I172N mutation. Finally, there was a high frequency of homozygous I2G and V281L mutations in Middle Eastern and Ashkenazi Jewish populations, respectively. By identifying the predominant phenotype for a given genotype, these findings should assist physicians in prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling of parents who are at risk for having a child with CAH. PMID:23359698

  7. Characterization of High Density Lipoprotein Particles in Familial Apolipoprotein A-I Deficiency With Premature Coronary Atherosclerosis, Corneal Arcus and Opacification, and Tubo-Eruptive and Planar Xanthomas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe two male siblings with homozygous familial apolipoprotein (apo) A-I deficiency, markedly decreased high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels, undetectable plasma apoA-1, tubo-eruptive and planar xanthomas, and mild corneal arcus and opacification. Sequencing of the apoA-I gene re...

  8. Molecular Diagnostic Challenges and Complex Management of Consecutive Twin Pregnancies in a Family with CD40 Ligand Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Török, O; Tóth, B; Erdős, M; Csorba, G; Gyimesi, E; Balogh, I; Tóth, Z; Maródi, L

    2012-02-01

    X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome (XHIGM) is a primary immunodeficiency disorder (PID) caused by mutation in the gene encoding the CD40 ligand (CD40L) expressed on activated T cells. Prenatal genotyping in carriers with twin pregnancies is more challenging than in women with singleton pregnancies. In addition, women with twin pregnancies may decide on selective termination for which the risk of loss of the healthy foetus may exceed 7%. We report here on a family affected by XHIGM. Diagnosis of the disease was made in a male patient as late as 33 years of age. After family screening, the sister of the proband conceived male twins in two consecutive pregnancies. In the first pregnancy, one of the male foetuses was hemizygous for the c.521A>G (Q174R) mutation in the CD40L gene. In the second pregnancy, ultrasound scan showed one foetus to have exencephaly and karyotyping revealed this foetus to have trisomy 18. Several options were discussed, but the parents decided on selective termination in both pregnancies. The interventions were successful in both cases, and the mother now has two healthy sons. This report demonstrates the way in which advanced technologies in molecular medicine and obstetric interventions may assist families with decisions about possible selective termination in case of life-threatening molecular or chromosomal disorders. Diagnosis of CD40L deficiency at the age of 33 years in the proband was striking and indicated that PIDs are still neglected as disease entities in the evaluation of patients with recurrent severe infectious diseases. PMID:21958324

  9. Characterization of Mice Deficient in the Src Family Nonreceptor Tyrosine Kinase Frk/rak

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekharan, Subhashini; Qiu, Ting Hu; Alkharouf, Nawal; Brantley, Kelly; Mitchell, James B.; Liu, Edison T.

    2002-01-01

    Frk/rak belongs to a novel family of Src kinases with epithelial tissue-specific expression. Although developmental expression patterns and functional overexpression in vitro have associated these kinases with growth suppression and differentiation, their physiological functions remain largely unknown. We therefore generated mice carrying a null mutation in iyk, the mouse homolog of Frk/rak. We report here that frk/rak−/− mice are viable, show similar growth rates to wild-type animals, and are fertile. Furthermore, a 2-year study of health and survival did not identify differences in the incidence and spectrum of spontaneous tumors or provide evidence of hyperplasias in frk/rak−/− epithelial tissues. Histological analysis of organs failed to reveal any morphological changes in epithelial tissues that normally express high levels of Frk/rak. Ultrastructural analysis of intestinal enterocytes did not identify defects in brush border morphology or structural polarization, demonstrating that Frk/rak is dispensable for intestinal cytodifferentiation. Additionally, frk/rak-null mice do not display altered sensitivity to intestinal damage induced by ionizing radiation. cDNA microarray analysis revealed an increase in c-src expression and identified subtle changes in the expression of genes regulated by thyroid hormones. Significant decreases in the circulating levels of T3 but not T4 hormone are consistent with this observation and reminiscent of euthyroid sick syndrome, a stress-associated clinical condition. PMID:12077350

  10. Chronic and Invasive Fungal Infections in a Family with CARD9 Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Alves de Medeiros, Ana Karina; Lodewick, Evelyn; Bogaert, Delfien J A; Haerynck, Filomeen; Van Daele, Sabine; Lambrecht, Bart; Bosma, Sara; Vanderdonckt, Laure; Lortholary, Olivier; Migaud, Mélanie; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Puel, Anne; Lanternier, Fanny; Lambert, Jo; Brochez, Lieve; Dullaers, Melissa

    2016-04-01

    Chronic mucocutaneous or invasive fungal infections are generally the result of primary or secondary immune dysfunction. Patients with autosomal recessive CARD9 mutations are also predisposed to recurrent mucocutaneous and invasive fungal infections with Candida spp., dermatophytes (e.g., Trichophyton spp.) and phaeohyphomycetes (Exophiala spp., Phialophora verrucosa). We study a consanguineous family of Turkish origin in which three members present with distinct clinical phenotypes of chronic mucocutaneous and invasive fungal infections, ranging from chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) in one patient, treatment-resistant cutaneous dermatophytosis and deep dermatophytosis in a second patient, to CMC with Candida encephalitis and endocrinopathy in a third patient. Two patients consented to genetic testing and were found to have a previously reported homozygous R70W CARD9 mutation. Circulating IL-17 and IL-22 producing T cells were decreased as was IL-6 and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) secretion upon stimulation with Candida albicans. Patients with recurrent fungal infections in the absence of known immunodeficiencies should be analyzed for CARD9 gene mutations as the cause of fungal infection predisposition. PMID:26961233

  11. Molecular, immunological, enzymatic and biochemical studies of coproporphyrinogen oxidase deficiency in a family with hereditary coproporphyria.

    PubMed

    Gross, U; Puy, H; Kühnel, A; Meissauer, U; Deybach, J C; Jacob, K; Martasek, P; Nordmann, Y; Doss, M O

    2002-02-01

    A 27-year-old woman who had recurrent pain in renal bed since 1998 with increasing character, was stationary admitted. The patient showed dark urine, complained of hair loss and took since 1994 a hormonal oral contraceptive. No photosensitivity was observed. Determinations of urinary porphyrin metabolites in 1998 revealed a porphyria cutanea tarda like excretion pattern with elevations of uro- (1767 nmol/24 hr, normal <29 nmol/24 hr) and heptacarboxyporphyrin (568 nmol/24 hr; normal <4 nmol/24 hr). Follow-up studies in feces showed the characteristics of a hereditary coproporphyria with dominance of coproporphyrin isomer III (total= 1470 nmol/g, isomer III= 93%), (normal: <37 nmol/g, isomer III = 25-35%). The excretion of porphyrin precursors (delta-aminolevulinic acid and porphobilinogen) was increased by taking an ethinylestradiol-cyproteronacetate-preparation, but acute and/or chronic manifestations were not observed. Coproporphyrinogen oxidase activity was decreased to 35% in the patient (normal=138+/-21 pkat/g protein; x+/-s), whereas the activity of red cell uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase was normal. Her mother and both sisters could be verified as heterozygous gene carriers of hereditary coproporphyria by their urinary and fecal excretion parameters and because of reduced coproporphyrinogen oxidase activity up to 50%. The father was normal with respect to his genotype. Molecular analysis revealed a hitherto unknown mutation with the transversion of a cytosine to thymine at nucleotide position 854 in exon 4 of the coproporphyrinogen oxidase gene. The gene defect was confirmed by DGGE in the mother and her three daughters. The investigation of the immunological nature of the defective coproporphyrinogen oxidase gene from the whole family revealed decreased concentrations of coproporphyrinogen oxidase protein in the patient, her mother and her two sisters. PMID:11929047

  12. Defective cytotoxic lymphocyte degranulation in syntaxin-11–deficient familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis 4 (FHL4) patients

    PubMed Central

    Bryceson, Yenan T.; Rudd, Eva; Zheng, Chengyun; Edner, Josefine; Ma, Daoxin; Wood, Stephanie M.; Bechensteen, Anne Grete; Boelens, Jaap J.; Celkan, Tiraje; Farah, Roula A.; Hultenby, Kjell; Winiarski, Jacek; Roche, Paul A.; Nordenskjöld, Magnus

    2007-01-01

    Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL) is typically an early onset, fatal disease characterized by a sepsislike illness with cytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly, and deficient lymphocyte cytotoxicity. Disease-causing mutations have been identified in genes encoding perforin (PRF1/FHL2), Munc13-4 (UNC13D/FHL3), and syntaxin-11 (STX11/FHL4). In contrast to mutations leading to loss of perforin and Munc13-4 function, it is unclear how syntaxin-11 loss-of-function mutations contribute to disease. We show here that freshly isolated, resting natural killer (NK) cells and CD8+ T cells express syntaxin-11. In infants, NK cells are the predominant perforin-containing cell type. NK cells from FHL4 patients fail to degranulate when encountering susceptible target cells. Unexpectedly, IL-2 stimulation partially restores degranulation and cytotoxicity by NK cells, which could explain the less severe disease progression observed in FHL4 patients, compared with FHL2 and FHL3 patients. Since the effector T-cell compartment is still immature in infants, our data suggest that the observed defect in NK-cell degranulation may contribute to the pathophysiology of FHL, that evaluation of NK-cell degranulation in suspected FHL patients may facilitate diagnosis, and that these new insights may offer novel therapeutic possibilities. PMID:17525286

  13. Construction of minicircle DNA vectors capable of correcting familial hypercholesterolemia phenotype in a LDLR-deficient mouse model.

    PubMed

    Hou, X; Jiao, R; Guo, X; Wang, T; Chen, P; Wang, D; Chen, Y; He, C-Y; Chen, Z-Y

    2016-08-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) caused by defect in low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) is a life-threatening disease with poor response to conventional treatments. Earlier gene therapy studies have generated promising results, but further development is hampered because the cells harboring the viral vectors were eliminated by host immune system soon after delivery, whereas the nonviral vectors were too bulky to be delivered to target cells. To overcome these problems, we constructed multiple minicircle (MC) DNA vectors to express the therapeutic LDLR. MC is an optimized nonviral vector that is capable of expressing high level of transgene product persistently. We found that among the seven MCs tested, the best is MC5 with multiple advanced features. First, the LDLr gene was placed under the control of sterol regulatory element (SRE) using LDLr gene promoter or apoprotein E (ApoE) promoter, allowing the transcription of the LDLr gene to be regulated by serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol as its functional gene counterpart. Second, a hepatic control region (HCR) was placed upstream of the promoter that serves as a controller to ensure liver-specific expression. Third, the modified Kozak sequence was placed in front of the LDLr gene start codon to enhance its translation efficiency. MC5 was 5.23 kb in size, and was capable of tight physiological control in intracellular LDL cholesterol level even when challenged with high dose of sterols in vitro. Importantly, it was able to correct the phenotype of LDLR-deficient mice C57BL/6 LDLR(-/-) for more than 105 days without detectable toxicity. Therefore, this MC has the clinical application potential for treating FH. PMID:27092942

  14. Familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... infancy Fatty deposits in the skin ( xanthomas ) High triglyceride levels in the blood Pale retinas and white- ... tests will be done to check cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Sometimes, a special blood test is done ...

  15. Exclusion of growth hormone (GH)-releasing hormone gene mutations in familial isolated GH deficiency by linkage and single strand conformation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Perez Jurado, L.A.; Francke, U.; Phillips, J.A. III

    1994-03-01

    The molecular basis and the locus responsible for most familial cases of isolated GH deficiency (IGHD) are still unknown. The GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) gene has been evaluated as a possible candidate in 23 unrelated families with IGHD, 14 of whom were classified as having autosomal recessive IGHD type IB and 9 of whom had autosomal dominant IGHD type II. Three highly polymorphic microsatellites (dinucleotide repeats), mapped close to GHRH on chromosome 20 by previous linkage studies, were analyzed as markers for the GHRH locus. All available family members were genotyped for D20S44 [no recombination with GHRH at a LOD (logarithm of the odds) score of 3.6]. Noninformative families were also genotyped for D20S45 and/or D20S54 (located at {approximately} 1 and 3 centiMorgan of genetic distance from GHRH, respectively). Twenty families were informative for linkage analysis with 1 or more of these markers. They found at least 1 obligate recombinant with discordance between phenotype and genotype in 19 of the 23 families (83%). There is only a very small chance (1-3% or less) that the discordances observed are due to recombination between the GHRH locus and the marker tested. Concordant segregation was seen in only 1 type IB family (4%). When probands from this and the 3 noninformative families were screened for sequence variants in the 5 exons of the GHRH gene by single strand conformation analysis, no abnormal patterns were observed. They conclude that mutations responsible for IGHD are not within or near the structural gene for GHRH on chromosome 20 in the 23 families studied. As linkage to the GH-1 gene has also been previously excluded in 65% of these families, mutations in a locus or loci unlinked to GH-1 and GHRH must be responsible for the majority of these IGHD families. 31 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Asymptomatic and late-onset ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency caused by a A208T mutation: Clinical, biochemical and DNA analyses in a four-generation family

    SciTech Connect

    Ausems, M.G.E.M.; Bakker, E.; Kneppers, A.L.J.

    1997-01-20

    We describe a 4-generation family in which a previously healthy 10-year-old boy died of late-onset ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency. Pedigree analysis and allopurinol loading tests in female relatives were not informative. A missense mutation (A208T) in the OTC gene was detected in the deceased patient and in several clinically healthy male and female relatives, the oldest male being 97 years old. OTC deficiency was established in autopsy liver tissue of the propositus and liver biopsy samples of his sister, mother, and a maternal uncle. The males had 4% and 6% residual activity, respectively, the females 58% and 67%, respectively. The observed relation between the mutation and the decreased OTC activity in liver tissue of these subjects suggests that the mutation is a deleterious one. Late-onset, {open_quotes}mild{close_quotes} OTC deficiency can have a fatal or a favorable outcome. The disease can segregate undetected in families. 16 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  17. A novel mutation of the adrenocorticotropin receptor (ACTH-R) gene in a family with the syndrome of isolated glucocorticoid deficiency, but no ACTH-R abnormalities in two families with the triple A syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Tsigos, C.; Arai, K.; Latronico, A.C. ||

    1995-07-01

    Isolated glucocorticoid deficiency (IGD) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by primary adrenocortical insufficiency, usually without mineralocorticoid deficiency. Occasionally, the disorder is associated with alacrima and achalasia of the esophagus (triple A syndrome), suggesting potential heterogeneity in its etiology. Mutations in the ACTH receptor gene have been reported in several families with IGD. We have amplified and directly sequenced the entire intronless ACTH receptor gene in 1 other family with IGD and 2 famlies with triple A syndrome. The proband with IGD was a homozygote for an A {r_arrow}G substitution, changing tyrosine 254 to cysteine in the third extracellular loop of the receptor protein, probably interfering with ligand binding. Both of her parents were heterozygotes for this mutation, which was not detected in 100 normal alleles. No mutations were identified in the entire coding area of the ACTH receptor in the 2 families with triple A syndrome, supporting the idea of a developmental or postreceptor defect in this syndrome. 19 refs., 1 fig.

  18. A method for specific amplification and PCR sequencing of individual members of multigene families: application to the study of steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Collier, S; Tassabehji, M; Strachan, T

    1992-02-01

    Mutations at the human HLA-linked CYP21B locus are responsible for 21-hydroxylase deficiency, a recessively inherited disorder of steroidogenesis. The scope for PCR-based analysis of the CYP21B gene has been restricted by the very high sequence homology between CYP21B and a closely related pseudogene, CYP21A. Here we describe a novel PCR sequencing strategy that allows the independent amplification of the entire CYP21B coding sequence and the subsequent enzyme-mediated conversion of the PCR product to a single-stranded form for dideoxy sequencing. We have used this approach to characterize the 21-hydroxylase deficiency allele associated with HLA-B55, the most frequent HLA marker associated with a CYP21B point mutation in the British population, and also an HLA-B35 associated allele of Asian origin. Allele-specific oligonucleotide (ASO) hybridization analyses have confirmed the selective amplification of CYP21B genes and the identity of the pathological mutations. The method can be adapted to permit selective amplification and PCR sequencing of individual closely related members of other multigene families and small-copy-number repetitive DNA families. PMID:1472941

  19. Vitamin deficiencies and excesses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamins are essential nutrients that must be supplied exogenously either as part of a well balanced diet or as supplements. Deficiency states are uncommon in developed countries except, perhaps, among some food insecure families. In contrast, deficiency states are quite common in many developing ...

  20. PGK deficiency.

    PubMed

    Beutler, Ernest

    2007-01-01

    Phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) deficiency is one of the relatively uncommon causes of hereditary non-spherocytic haemolytic anaemia (HNSHA). The gene encoding the erythrocyte enzyme PGK1, is X-linked. Mutations of this gene may cause chronic haemolysis with or without mental retardation and they may cause myopathies, often with episodes of myoglobinuria, or a combination of these clinical manifestations. Twenty-six families have been described and in 20 of these the mutations are known. The reason for different clinical manifestations of mutations of the same gene remains unknown. PMID:17222195

  1. Tomato Cutin Deficient 1 (CD1) and Putative Orthologs Comprise an Ancient Family of Cutin Synthase-like (CUS) Proteins that are Conserved among Land Plants

    PubMed Central

    Yeats, Trevor H.; Huang, Wenlin; Chatterjee, Subhasish; Viart, Hélène M-F.; Clausen, Mads H.; Stark, Ruth E.; Rose, Jocelyn K.C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The aerial epidermis of all land plants is covered with a hydrophobic cuticle that provides essential protection from desiccation, and so its evolution is believed to have been prerequisite for terrestrial colonization. A major structural component of apparently all plant cuticles is cutin, a polyester of hydroxy fatty acids. However, despite its ubiquity, the details of cutin polymeric structure and the mechanisms of its formation and remodeling are not well understood. We recently reported that cutin polymerization in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit occurs via transesterification of hydroxyacylglycerol precursors, catalyzed by the GDSL-motif lipase/hydrolase family protein (GDSL) Cutin Deficient 1 (CD1). Here we present additional biochemical characterization of CD1 and putative orthologs from Arabidopsis thaliana and the moss Physcomitrella patens, which represent a distinct clade of cutin synthases within the large GDSL super-family. We demonstrate that members of this ancient and conserved family of cutin synthase-like (CUS) proteins act as polyester synthases with negligible hydrolytic activity. Moreover, solution-state NMR analysis indicates that CD1 catalyzes the formation of primarily linear cutin oligomeric products in vitro. These results reveal a conserved mechanism of cutin polyester synthesis in land plants, and suggest that elaborations of the linear polymer, such as branching or cross-linking, may require additional, as yet unknown, factors. PMID:24372802

  2. Recruiting Latina Families in a Study of Infant Iron Deficiency: A Description of Barriers, Study Adjustments and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Alyssa K.; Fischer, Beth A.; Baxter, Ryan J.; Shafranski, Sue A.; Coe, Christopher L.; Kling, Pamela J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Maternal minority status is a risk factor for iron deficiency in infancy and pregnancy. Because language and cultural differences may limit research participation, a prospective study examining iron deficiency included maternal minority status as an inclusionary criterion. Cognizant of potential barriers to recruitment, goals were to quantify eligible Latina enrollees and refusals, examine participation barriers, and devise possible solutions. Methods Mothers and their full-term newborns were eligible if the women were anemic, diabetic during pregnancy, of minority and/or lower socioeconomic status, and/or delivered an infant outside the average weight range for gestational age. Self-reported ethnicity and reasons for participation refusal were documented. Results During the first 18 months, 255 mothers and their infants were enrolled. Based on inclusionary criteria and the percentage of minority women admitted to the birthing center in a year, we anticipated 25% minority enrollees, with 16.3% Latina. Although 27% minority enrollment was obtained, only 8% were Latina (P < 0.01). System barriers, researcher perception barriers, and participant perception barriers were encountered. Over the next 8 months, addressing these recruitment barriers improved Latina enrollment. Conclusion Enrollment barriers are significant hurdles to overcome, but with increased understanding and effort, more successful inclusion of Latina families can be achieved. PMID:21473510

  3. Impact of a novel homozygous mutation in nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase on mitochondrial DNA integrity in a case of familial glucocorticoid deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Fujisawa, Yasuko; Napoli, Eleonora; Wong, Sarah; Song, Gyu; Yamaguchi, Rie; Matsui, Toshiharu; Nagasaki, Keisuke; Ogata, Tsutomu; Giulivi, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Background Familial glucocorticoid deficiency (FGD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that is characterized by isolated glucocorticoid deficiency. Recently, mutations in the gene encoding for the mitochondrial nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (NNT) have been identified as a causative gene for FGD; however, no NNT activities have been reported in FGD patients carrying NNT mutations. Methods Clinical, biochemical and molecular analyses of lymphocytes from FDG homozygous and heterozygous carriers for the F215S NNT mutation were performed. Results In this study, we described an FGD-affected Japanese patient carrying a novel NNT homozygous mutation (c.644T>C; F215S) with a significant loss-of-function (NNT activity = 31% of healthy controls) in peripheral blood cells' mitochondria. The NNT activities of the parents, heterozygous for the mutation, were 61% of the controls. Conclusions Our results indicated that (i) mitochondrial biogenesis (citrate synthase activity) and/or mtDNA replication (mtDNA copy number) were affected at ≤ 60% NNT activity because these parameters were affected in individuals carrying either one or both mutated alleles; and (ii) other outcomes (mtDNA deletions, protein tyrosine nitration, OXPHOS capacity) were affected at ≤ 30% NNT activity as also observed in murine cerebellar mitochondria from C57BL/6J (NNT−/−) vs. C57BL/6JN (NNT+/+) substrains. General significance By studying a family affected with a novel point mutation in the NNT gene, a gene–dose response was found for various mitochondrial outcomes providing for novel insights into the role of NNT in the maintenance of mtDNA integrity beyond that described for preventing oxidative stress. PMID:26309815

  4. SORT1 Mutation Resulting in Sortilin Deficiency and p75(NTR) Upregulation in a Family With Essential Tremor.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Elena; Bergareche, Alberto; Krebs, Catharine E; Gorostidi, Ana; Makarov, Vladimir; Ruiz-Martinez, Javier; Chorny, Alejo; Lopez de Munain, Adolfo; Marti-Masso, Jose Felix; Paisán-Ruiz, Coro

    2015-01-01

    *These authors contributed equally to this work.Essential tremor (ET) is the most prevalent movement disorder affecting millions of people in the United States. Although a positive family history is one of the most important risk factors for ET, the genetic causes of ET remain unknown. In this study, whole exome sequencing and subsequent approaches were performed in a family with an autosomal dominant form of early-onset ET. Functional analyses including mutagenesis, cell culture, gene expression, enzyme-linked immunosorbent, and apoptosis assays were also performed. A disease-segregating mutation (p.Gly171Ala), absent in normal population, was identified in the SORT1 gene. The p.Gly171Ala mutation was shown not only to impair the expression of its encoding protein sortilin but also the mRNA levels of its binding partner p75 neurotrophin receptor that is known to be implicated in brain injury, neuronal apoptosis, and neurotransmission. PMID:26297037

  5. SORT1 Mutation Resulting in Sortilin Deficiency and p75NTR Upregulation in a Family With Essential Tremor

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Elena; Bergareche, Alberto; Krebs, Catharine E.; Gorostidi, Ana; Makarov, Vladimir; Ruiz-Martinez, Javier; Chorny, Alejo; Lopez de Munain, Adolfo; Marti-Masso, Jose Felix

    2015-01-01

    *These authors contributed equally to this work.Essential tremor (ET) is the most prevalent movement disorder affecting millions of people in the United States. Although a positive family history is one of the most important risk factors for ET, the genetic causes of ET remain unknown. In this study, whole exome sequencing and subsequent approaches were performed in a family with an autosomal dominant form of early-onset ET. Functional analyses including mutagenesis, cell culture, gene expression, enzyme-linked immunosorbent, and apoptosis assays were also performed. A disease-segregating mutation (p.Gly171Ala), absent in normal population, was identified in the SORT1 gene. The p.Gly171Ala mutation was shown not only to impair the expression of its encoding protein sortilin but also the mRNA levels of its binding partner p75 neurotrophin receptor that is known to be implicated in brain injury, neuronal apoptosis, and neurotransmission. PMID:26297037

  6. Apolipoprotein A-I Q[-2]X causing isolated apolipoprotein A-I deficiency in a family with analphalipoproteinemia.

    PubMed Central

    Ng, D S; Leiter, L A; Vezina, C; Connelly, P W; Hegele, R A

    1994-01-01

    We report a Canadian kindred with a novel mutation in the apolipoprotein (apo) A-I gene causing analphalipoproteinemia. The 34-yr-old proband, product of a consanguineous marriage, had bilateral retinopathy, bilateral cataracts, spinocerebellar ataxia, and tendon xanthomata. High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was < 0.1 mM and apoA-I was undetectable. Genomic DNA sequencing of the proband's apoA-I gene identified a nonsense mutation at codon [-2], which we designate as Q[-2]X. This mutation causes a loss of endonuclease digestion sites for both BbvI and Fnu4HI. Genotyping identified four additional homozygotes, four heterozygotes, and two unaffected subjects among the first-degree relatives. Q[-2]X homozygosity causes a selective failure to produce any portion of mature apoA-I, resulting in very low plasma level of HDL. Heterozygosity results in approximately half-normal apoA-I and HDL. Gradient gel electrophoresis and differential electroimmunodiffusion assay revealed that the HDL particles of the homozygotes had peak Stokes diameter of 7.9 nm and contained apoA-II without apoA-I (Lp-AII). Heterozygotes had an additional fraction of HDL3-like particles. Two of the proband's affected sisters had documented premature coronary heart disease. This kindred, the third reported apoA-I gene mutation causing isolated complete apoA-I deficiency, appears to be at significantly increased risk for atherosclerosis. Images PMID:8282791

  7. Modeling structural and functional deficiencies of RBM20 familial dilated cardiomyopathy using human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wyles, Saranya P; Li, Xing; Hrstka, Sybil C; Reyes, Santiago; Oommen, Saji; Beraldi, Rosanna; Edwards, Jessica; Terzic, Andre; Olson, Timothy M; Nelson, Timothy J

    2016-01-15

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a leading cause of heart failure. In families with autosomal-dominant DCM, heterozygous missense mutations were identified in RNA-binding motif protein 20 (RBM20), a spliceosome protein induced during early cardiogenesis. Dermal fibroblasts from two unrelated patients harboring an RBM20 R636S missense mutation were reprogrammed to human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and differentiated to beating cardiomyocytes (CMs). Stage-specific transcriptome profiling identified differentially expressed genes ranging from angiogenesis regulator to embryonic heart transcription factor as initial molecular aberrations. Furthermore, gene expression analysis for RBM20-dependent splice variants affected sarcomeric (TTN and LDB3) and calcium (Ca(2+)) handling (CAMK2D and CACNA1C) genes. Indeed, RBM20 hiPSC-CMs exhibited increased sarcomeric length (RBM20: 1.747 ± 0.238 µm versus control: 1.404 ± 0.194 µm; P < 0.0001) and decreased sarcomeric width (RBM20: 0.791 ± 0.609 µm versus control: 0.943 ± 0.166 µm; P < 0.0001). Additionally, CMs showed defective Ca(2+) handling machinery with prolonged Ca(2+) levels in the cytoplasm as measured by greater area under the curve (RBM20: 814.718 ± 94.343 AU versus control: 206.941 ± 22.417 AU; P < 0.05) and higher Ca(2+) spike amplitude (RBM20: 35.281 ± 4.060 AU versus control:18.484 ± 1.518 AU; P < 0.05). β-adrenergic stress induced with 10 µm norepinephrine demonstrated increased susceptibility to sarcomeric disorganization (RBM20: 86 ± 10.5% versus control: 40 ± 7%; P < 0.001). This study features the first hiPSC model of RBM20 familial DCM. By monitoring human cardiac disease according to stage-specific cardiogenesis, this study demonstrates RBM20 familial DCM is a developmental disorder initiated by molecular defects that pattern maladaptive cellular mechanisms of pathological cardiac remodeling. Indeed, hiPSC-CMs recapitulate RBM20 familial DCM phenotype in a dish and establish a tool

  8. Deficiency in nucleotide excision repair family gene activity, especially ERCC3, is associated with non-pigmented hair fiber growth.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mei; Bell, Robert H; Ho, Maggie M; Leung, Gigi; Haegert, Anne; Carr, Nicholas; Shapiro, Jerry; McElwee, Kevin J

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a microarray study to discover gene expression patterns associated with a lack of melanogenesis in non-pigmented hair follicles (HF) by microarray. Pigmented and non-pigmented HFs were collected and micro-dissected into the hair bulb (HB) and the upper hair sheaths (HS) including the bulge region. In comparison to pigmented HS and HBs, nucleotide excision repair (NER) family genes ERCC1, ERCC2, ERCC3, ERCC4, ERCC5, ERCC6, XPA, NTPBP, HCNP, DDB2 and POLH exhibited statistically significantly lower expression in non- pigmented HS and HBs. Quantitative PCR verified microarray data and identified ERCC3 as highly differentially expressed. Immunohistochemistry confirmed ERCC3 expression in HF melanocytes. A reduction in ERCC3 by siRNA interference in human melanocytes in vitro reduced their tyrosinase production ability. Our results suggest that loss of NER gene function is associated with a loss of melanin production capacity. This may be due to reduced gene transcription and/or reduced DNA repair in melanocytes which may eventually lead to cell death. These results provide novel information with regard to melanogenesis and its regulation. PMID:22615732

  9. Identification of a novel large CYP17A1 deletion by MLPA analysis in a family with classic 17α-hydroxylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Turkkahraman, Doga; Guran, Tulay; Ivison, Hannah; Griffin, Aliesha; Vijzelaar, Raymon; Krone, Nils

    2015-01-01

    Steroid 17α-hydroxylase deficiency (17OHD) is a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia caused by mutations in the 17α-hydroxylase ( CYP17A1) gene. CYP17A1 is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of adrenal and gonadal steroid hormones facilitating both 17α-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase activities. We characterized a partial CYP17A1 deletion in a Kurdish family with 17OHD by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). The index patient presented with amenorrhea and lack of pubertal development. Investigations established the diagnosis of 46,XY disorder of sex development (DSD). She is the daughter of consanguineous parents and has 2 sisters with similar clinical presentation. All patients showed biochemical signs of primary adrenal and gonadal insufficiency. The molecular genetic analysis by PCR suggested a deletion spanning exons 1–6 of the CYP17A1 gene. MLPA analysis confirmed the large partial CYP17A1 deletion in patients and parents in homozygous and heterozygous state, respectively. This is the first report employing MLPA for mutation analysis to detect a deletion of CYP17A1 spanning multiple exons in 3 patients with classic 17OHD. Therefore, it is important to consider large partial CYP17A1 deletions in 17OHD in addition to point mutations in cases where no segregation analysis is possible to determine the correct genotype. PMID:25765894

  10. Congenital limb deficiency disorders.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, William R; Coulter, Colleen P; Schmitz, Michael L

    2015-06-01

    Congenital limb deficiency disorders (LDDs) are birth defects characterized by the aplasia or hypoplasia of bones of the limbs. Limb deficiencies are classified as transverse, those due to intrauterine disruptions of previously normal limbs, or longitudinal, those that are isolated or associated with certain syndromes as well as chromosomal anomalies. Consultation with a medical geneticist is advisable. Long-term care should occur in a specialized limb deficiency center with expertise in orthopedics, prosthetics, and occupational and physical therapy and provide emotional support and contact with other families. With appropriate care, most children with LDDs can lead productive lives. PMID:26042905

  11. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome in a Belgian family is caused by a point mutation at an invariant histidine residue (107 His----Tyr): complete structure of the normal human CA II gene.

    PubMed Central

    Venta, P J; Welty, R J; Johnson, T M; Sly, W S; Tashian, R E

    1991-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase II (CA II), which has the highest turnover number and widest tissue distribution of any of the seven CA isozymes known in humans, is absent from the red blood cells and probably from other tissues of patients with CA II deficiency syndrome. We have sequenced the CA II gene in a patient from a consanguinous marriage in a Belgian family and identified the mutation that is probably the cause of the CA II deficiency in that family. The change is a C-to-T transition which results in the substitution of Tyr (TAT) for His (CAT) at position 107. This histidine is invariant in all amniotic CA isozymes sequenced to date, as well as the CAs from elasmobranch and algal sources and in a viral CA-related protein. His-107 appears to have a stabilizing function in the structure of all CA molecules, and its substitution by Tyr apparently disrupts the critical hydrogen bonding of His-107 to two other similarly invariant residues, Glu-117 and Tyr-194, resulting in an unstable CA II molecule. We have also completed the intron-exon structure of the normal human CA II gene, which has allowed us to prepare PCR primers for all exons. These primers will facilitate the determination of the mutations in other inherited CA II deficiencies. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:1928091

  12. Enhanced haemolysis with beta-thalassaemia trait due to the unstable beta chain variant, Hb Gunma, accompanied by hereditary elliptocytosis due to protein 4.1 deficiency in a Japanese family.

    PubMed

    Maehara, Tadashi; Tsukamoto, Norifumi; Nojima, Yoshihisa; Karasawa, Masamitsu; Murakami, Hirokazu; Hattori, Yukio; Ideguchi, Hiroshi

    2002-04-01

    We identified a Japanese family with a beta-thalassaemia trait and hereditary elliptocytosis (HE). We studied five members of this family. One was normal, one had only the beta-thalassaemia trait, one had heterozygous HE, and two had compound heterozygous beta-thalassaemia trait and HE. The last two had already undergone splenectomy. The molecular profile of beta-thalassaemia was consistent with that of Hb Gunma: codon 127/128CAGGCT(Gln-Ala)--> CCT(Pro). Analysis of erythrocyte membrane proteins revealed a partial deficiency of protein 4.1 in all those with HE, whereas the spectrin content was within the normal range. Each heterozygous family member with either the beta-thalassaemia trait or HE was asymptomatic, whereas the two with both beta-thalassaemia and HE had marked red blood cell deformities and haemolysis. The abnormalities of the red blood cells in patients with the beta-thalassaemia trait might be enhanced by association with HE owing to a protein 4.1 deficiency. PMID:11918554

  13. Selective deficiency of IgA

    MedlinePlus

    Consider genetic counseling if you have a family history of selective IgA deficiency and you plan to have children. If ... Genetic counseling may be of value to prospective parents with a family history of selective IgA deficiency.

  14. A novel heterozygous missense mutation (His127Arg) in a family with inherited cross-reacting material positive factor XI deficiency.

    PubMed

    Castaman, Giancarlo; Giacomelli, Sofia H; Tagliaferri, Annarita; Rodeghiero, Francesco

    2013-09-01

    Factor XI (FXI) deficiency is an autosomal inherited coagulation disorder, characterized by an inconsistent bleeding tendency, mainly associated with injury or surgery. Although most of the F11 gene mutations cause a true quantitative deficiency of FXI (cross-reacting material-negative, CRM-), very few variants characterized by a qualitative abnormality resulting in a discrepant FXI activity/FXI antigen ratio (CRM positive, CRM+) have been reported. We describe here a novel CRM+ mutation (His127Arg) identified in an asymptomatic woman from Indonesia and in her two sons. PMID:23571684

  15. Iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Scrimshaw, N S

    1991-10-01

    The world's leading nutritional problem is iron deficiency. 66% of children and women aged 15-44 years in developing countries have it. Further, 10-20% of women of childbearing age in developed countries are anemic. Iron deficiency is identified with often irreversible impairment of a child's learning ability. It is also associated with low capacity for adults to work which reduces productivity. In addition, it impairs the immune system which reduces the body's ability to fight infection. Iron deficiency also lowers the metabolic rate and the body temperature when exposed to cold. Hemoglobin contains nearly 73% of the body's iron. This iron is always being recycled as more red blood cells are made. The rest of the needed iron does important tasks for the body, such as binds to molecules that are reservoirs of oxygen for muscle cells. This iron comes from our diet, especially meat. Even though some plants, such as spinach, are high in iron, the body can only absorb 1.4-7% of the iron in plants whereas it can absorb 20% of the iron in red meat. In many developing countries, the common vegetarian diets contribute to high rates of iron deficiency. Parasitic diseases and abnormal uterine bleeding also promote iron deficiency. Iron therapy in anemic children can often, but not always, improve behavior and cognitive performance. Iron deficiency during pregnancy often contributes to maternal and perinatal mortality. Yet treatment, if given to a child in time, can lead to normal growth and hinder infections. However, excess iron can be damaging. Too much supplemental iron in a malnourished child promotes fatal infections since the excess iron is available for the pathogens use. Many countries do not have an effective system for diagnosing, treating, and preventing iron deficiency. Therefore a concerted international effort is needed to eliminate iron deficiency in the world. PMID:1745900

  16. Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis: characterization of a family with STAT‐1 gain‐of‐function and development of an ex‐vivo assay for Th17 deficiency of diagnostic utility

    PubMed Central

    Fox, H.; Davenport, E. E.; Sadler, R.; Anzilotti, C.; van Schouwenburg, P. A.; Ferry, B.; Chapel, H.; Knight, J. C.; Patel, S. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) is characterized by recurrent and persistent superficial infections, with Candida albicans affecting the mucous membranes, skin and nails. It can be acquired or caused by primary immune deficiencies, particularly those that impair interleukin (IL)−17 and IL‐22 immunity. We describe a single kindred with CMC and the identification of a STAT1 GOF mutation by whole exome sequencing (WES). We show how detailed clinical and immunological phenotyping of this family in the context of WES has enabled revision of disease status and clinical management. Together with analysis of other CMC cases within our cohort of patients, we used knowledge arising from the characterization of this family to develop a rapid ex‐vivo screening assay for the detection of T helper type 17 (Th17) deficiency better suited to the routine diagnostic setting than established in‐vitro techniques, such as intracellular cytokine staining and enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using cell culture supernatants. We demonstrate that cell surface staining of unstimulated whole blood for CCR6+CXCR3–CCR4+CD161+ T helper cells generates results that correlate with intracellular cytokine staining for IL‐17A, and is able to discriminate between patients with molecularly defined CMC and healthy controls with 100% sensitivity and specificity within the cohort tested. Furthermore, removal of CCR4 and CD161 from the antibody staining panel did not affect assay performance, suggesting that the enumeration of CCR6+CXCR3–CD4+ T cells is sufficient for screening for Th17 deficiency in patients with CMC and could be used to guide further investigation aimed at identifying the underlying molecular cause. PMID:26621323

  17. Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis: characterization of a family with STAT-1 gain-of-function and development of an ex-vivo assay for Th17 deficiency of diagnostic utility.

    PubMed

    Dhalla, F; Fox, H; Davenport, E E; Sadler, R; Anzilotti, C; van Schouwenburg, P A; Ferry, B; Chapel, H; Knight, J C; Patel, S Y

    2016-05-01

    Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) is characterized by recurrent and persistent superficial infections, with Candida albicans affecting the mucous membranes, skin and nails. It can be acquired or caused by primary immune deficiencies, particularly those that impair interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-22 immunity. We describe a single kindred with CMC and the identification of a STAT1 GOF mutation by whole exome sequencing (WES). We show how detailed clinical and immunological phenotyping of this family in the context of WES has enabled revision of disease status and clinical management. Together with analysis of other CMC cases within our cohort of patients, we used knowledge arising from the characterization of this family to develop a rapid ex-vivo screening assay for the detection of T helper type 17 (Th17) deficiency better suited to the routine diagnostic setting than established in-vitro techniques, such as intracellular cytokine staining and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using cell culture supernatants. We demonstrate that cell surface staining of unstimulated whole blood for CCR6(+) CXCR3(-) CCR4(+) CD161(+) T helper cells generates results that correlate with intracellular cytokine staining for IL-17A, and is able to discriminate between patients with molecularly defined CMC and healthy controls with 100% sensitivity and specificity within the cohort tested. Furthermore, removal of CCR4 and CD161 from the antibody staining panel did not affect assay performance, suggesting that the enumeration of CCR6(+) CXCR3(-) CD4(+) T cells is sufficient for screening for Th17 deficiency in patients with CMC and could be used to guide further investigation aimed at identifying the underlying molecular cause. PMID:26621323

  18. Iron deficiency in Europe.

    PubMed

    Hercberg, S; Preziosi, P; Galan, P

    2001-04-01

    In Europe, iron deficiency is considered to be one of the main nutritional deficiency disorders affecting large fractions of the population, particularly such physiological groups as children, menstruating women and pregnant women. Some factors such as type of contraception in women, blood donation or minor pathological blood loss (haemorrhoids, gynaecological bleeding...) considerably increase the difficulty of covering iron needs. Moreover, women, especially adolescents consuming low-energy diets, vegetarians and vegans are at high risk of iron deficiency. Although there is no evidence that an absence of iron stores has any adverse consequences, it does indicate that iron nutrition is borderline, since any further reduction in body iron is associated with a decrease in the level of functional compounds such as haemoglobin. The prevalence of iron-deficient anaemia has slightly decreased in infants and menstruating women. Some positive factors may have contributed to reducing the prevalence of iron-deficiency anaemia in some groups of population: the use of iron-fortified formulas and iron-fortified cereals; the use of oral contraceptives and increased enrichment of iron in several countries; and the use of iron supplements during pregnancy in some European countries. It is possible to prevent and control iron deficiency by counseling individuals and families about sound iron nutrition during infancy and beyond, and about iron supplementation during pregnancy, by screening persons on the basis of their risk for iron deficiency, and by treating and following up persons with presumptive iron deficiency. This may help to reduce manifestations of iron deficiency and thus improve public health. Evidence linking iron status with risk of cardiovascular disease or cancer is unconvincing and does not justify changes in food fortification or medical practice, particularly because the benefits of assuring adequate iron intake during growth and development are well established

  19. A mitochondrial mutation at nt 9101 in the ATP synthase 6 gene associated with deficient oxidative phosphorylation in a family with leber hereditary optic neuroretinopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Lamninen, T.; Junoven, V.; Aula, P.; Savontaus, M.L.; Majander, A.; Wikstroem, M.

    1995-05-01

    Leber hereditary optic neuroretinopathy (LHON) is a maternally inherited ocular disease resulting in bilateral optic atrophy in young adults. Several mtDNA point mutations have been proposed as being causative for LHON, all in complex I, III, or IV of the respiratory chain. The ND4/11778 mutation accounts for {approximately}50% of all LHON families, the ND1/3460 mutation is detected in {approximately}15% of cases, and {approximately}10% of LHON families have the ND6/14484 mutation. All these mutations are restricted to LHON families, and they change evolutionary conserved amino acids. Furthermore, these primary mutations have never been observed to occur simultaneously. Besides the primary mutations, several other replacement mutations have been found in LHON families. These mutations are also detected at low frequency in control individuals, and they change evolutionarily less conserved amino acids. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  20. A novel factor X gene mutation Val (GTC) 384Ala (GCC) in a Chinese family resulting in congenital factor X deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanming; Ma, Junjie; Liu, Xinguang; Wang, Yan; Wang, Hui; Wang, Li; Ding, Qiulan; Chu, Xiaoxia; Hou, Ming

    2015-01-01

    FX is a vitamin K-dependent coagulation protease critically essential for the coagulation cascade. FXD (congenital deficiency of factor X) is a rare coagulation disorder that inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. Here we reported a patient with bleeding diathesis from infant. The proband with pseudotumor in cerebral articular and cavity were identified as encapsulated hematocele ultimately. FX sequence analysis revealed that the patient carried a novel homozygous missense mutation that resulted in the Val384Ala substitution. Further investigation of the novel mutation would deepen our understanding of the bleeding mechanism involved in FXD. PMID:26309706

  1. A family with factor X deficiency from Argentina: a compound heterozygosis because of the combination of a new mutation (Gln138Arg) with an already known one (Glu350Lys).

    PubMed

    Girolami, Antonio; Molina, Maria Angelica; Galletti, Maria Laura Lopez; Ferrari, Silvia; Sambado, Luisa; Guglielmone, Hugo

    2016-09-01

    The objective was to investigate a family from Argentina. The proposita was a 51-year-old woman who had a moderate bleeding tendency. Some of her children showed a mild bleeding tendency. Her mother and the husband were asymptomatic. Clotting, immunological and molecular biology techniques were used. Partial thromboplastin, prothrombin, Russell Viper venom-clotting times were moderately prolonged in the proposita, whereas they were slightly prolonged in the children and in her mother. Factor X (FX) activity was about 2-3% of normal in all assay systems. FX antigen was less than 5%. Other clotting factors and platelet were normal. Genetic analysis showed a compound heterozygosis: combination of a 'new' mutation (Gln138Arg) with an already known mutation (Glu350Lys). The children had intermediate FX levels (35-63% of normal) and were carriers of one of the two mutations present in the proposita. This is the first observation of a FX deficiency in Argentina. PMID:27031279

  2. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Disease Information > Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Explore this section to learn more about alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, including a description of the disorder ...

  3. Evidence for a partial deficiency of the LDL (apo B,E) receptor within a family of rhesus monkeys with a spontaneous hypercholesterolemia

    SciTech Connect

    Scanu, A.M.; Khalil, A.; Tidore, M.; Kaiser, M.; Pfaffinger, D.; Carey, D.; Dawson, G.

    1987-05-01

    Spontaneous hypercholesterolemia is rare among non-human primates. Through screening of a rhesus monkey colony they have identified a family in which 3 out of its 6 members have a persistent hypercholesterolemia on a cholesterol-free Purina Chow diet and are high responders to a dietary fat challenge. On a basal diet the 3 affected animals also exhibited high plasma levels of LDL and apoB. To shed light on the mechanism of the hypercholesterolemia they have grown in culture fibroblasts from skin biopsies obtained from all members of the rhesus monkey family and 12 control. Binding studies at 4/sup 0/C and ligand blotting experiments using /sup 125/I-LDL of either normolipidemic rhesus monkeys or human subjects have shown that the fibroblasts from the 3 monkeys with a spontaneous hypercholesterolemia have a significant reduction of the number of LDL receptor and to the same extent as fibroblasts derived from subjects with heterozygous FH studied at the same time. The data suggest that the spontaneous elevation of plasma cholesterol observed in the 3 family members is related, at least in part, to a defective uptake of LDL by the LDL receptor pathway.

  4. 24 CFR 203.369 - Deficiency judgments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... State law to obtain a deficiency judgment. (b) Mortgages insured before March 28, 1988. For mortgages... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deficiency judgments. 203.369... SINGLE FAMILY MORTGAGE INSURANCE Contract Rights and Obligations Claim Procedure § 203.369...

  5. Familial apolipoprotein Al and apolipoprotein CIII deficiency: subclass distribution, composition, and morphology of lipoproteins in a disorder associated with premature atherosclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Forte, T.M.; Nichols, A.V.; Krauss, R.M.; Norum, R.A.

    1984-11-01

    Lipoprotein classes isolated from the plasma of two patients with apolipoprotein AI (apo AI) and apolipoprotein CIII (apo CIII) deficiency were characterized and compared with those of healthy, age- and sex-matched controls. The plasma triglyceride values for patients 1 and 2 were 31 and 51 mg/dl, respectively, and their cholesterol values were 130 and 122 mg/dl, respectively; the patients, however, had no measurable high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol. Analytic ultracentrifugation showed that patients' S/sub f//sup 0/ 0-20 lipoproteins posses a single peak with S/sub f//sup 0/ rates of 7.4 and 7.6 for patients 1 and 2, respectively, which is similar to that of the controls. The concentration of low density lipoprotein (LDL) (S/sub f//sup 0/ 0-12) particles, although within normal range (331 and 343 mg/dl for patients 1 and 2, respectively), was 35% greater than that of controls. Intermediate density lipoproteins (IDL) and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) (S/sub f//sup 0/ 20-400) were extremely low in the patients. HDL in the patients had a calculated mass of 15.4 and 11.8 mg/dl for patients 1 and 2, respectively. No HDL could be detected by analytic ultracentrifugation, but polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis (gge) revealed that patients possessed two major HDL subclasses: (HDL/sub sb/)/sub gge/ at 11.0 nm and (HDL/sub 3b/)/sub gge/ at 7.8 nm. The major peak in the controls (HDL/sub 3a/)/sub gge/, was lacking in the patients.

  6. Molecular pathogenesis of plasminogen Hakodate: the second Japanese family case of severe type I plasminogen deficiency manifested late-onset multi-organic chronic pseudomembranous mucositis.

    PubMed

    Osaki, Tsukasa; Souri, Masayoshi; Song, Young-Seok; Izumi, Naohiro; Law, Ruby; Ichinose, Akitada

    2016-08-01

    A 64-year-old man first developed ligneous conjunctivitis at the age of 58 years after right pulmonary resection because of suspected cancer; otherwise, he had been healthy. Since then, he began to suffer from various forms of chronic pseudomembranous mucositis. Laboratory tests demonstrated that he had 7.8 % of plasminogen activity and 5.9 % of the normal antigen level. Thus, he was diagnosed as having severe type I plasminogen deficiency, making him the third case in Japan. DNA sequencing and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses revealed that this patient was a compound heterozygote of a G-to-A missense mutation (G266E) in exon VIII and a g-to-a mutation at the obligatory splicing acceptor site in intron 12 (IVS12-1g>a). These two mutations were confirmed to be novel. Molecular modeling and splice site strength calculation predicted conformational disorder(s) for the Glu266 mutant and a drastic decrease in splicing efficiency for intron 12, respectively. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the patient contained a small amount of the normal-sized plasminogen protein. Mass spectrometric analysis of the patient's plasminogen revealed a peptide containing the wild-type Gly266 residue and no peptides with mutations at Glu266. However, he had never suffered from thrombosis. Low levels of fibrinogen/fibrin degradation products (FDP), D-dimer, and plasmin-α2-plasmin inhibitor complex clearly indicated a hypo-fibrinolytic condition. However, his plasma concentration of elastase-digested crosslinked FDPs was 4.8 U/mL, suggesting the presence of an on-going plasmin(ogen)-independent "alternative" fibrinolytic system, which may protect the patient from thrombosis. The patient has been free from recurrence of ligneous conjunctivitis for approximately 2.5 years. PMID:27193180

  7. The molecular basis of homocystinuria due to cystathionine {beta}-synthase deficiency in Italian families, and report of four novel mutations

    SciTech Connect

    Sebastio, G.; Sperandeo, M.P.; Panico, M.

    1995-06-01

    Four new mutations in the cystathionine {beta}-synthase (CBS) gene have been identified in Italian patients with homocystinuria. The first mutation is a G-to-A transition at base 374 in exon 3, causing an arginine-to-glutamic acid substitution at position 125 of the protein (R125Q). This mutation has been found in homozygosity in a patient partially responsive to pyridoxine treatment. The second mutation is a C-to-T transition at base 770 in exon 7, causing a threonine-to-methionine substitution at amino acid 257 of the protein (T257M). This mutation has been observed in homozygosity in a patient non-responsive to the cofactor treatment. The third mutation, found in heterozygosity in a patient responsive to pyridoxine treatment, is an insertion of 68 bp in exon 8 at base 844, which introduces a premature termination codon. The fourth mutation is C-to-T transition in exon 2 at base 262, causing a proline-to-serine substitution at position 88 of the protein (P88S). This mutation is carried on a single allele in three affected sisters responsive to the cofactor treatment. In addition, six previously reported mutations (A114V, E131D, P145L, I278T, G307S, and A{sub 1224-2}C) have been tested in 14 independent Italian families. Mutations A114V and I278T are carried by three and by seven independent alleles, respectively. The other four mutations - including G307S and A{sub 1224-2}C, common among northern European patients - have not been detected. 21 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. The novel extremely acidophilic, cell-wall-deficient archaeon Cuniculiplasma divulgatum gen. nov., sp. nov. represents a new family, Cuniculiplasmataceae fam. nov., of the order Thermoplasmatales.

    PubMed

    Golyshina, Olga V; Lünsdorf, Heinrich; Kublanov, Ilya V; Goldenstein, Nadine I; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Golyshin, Peter N

    2016-01-01

    Two novel cell-wall-less, acidophilic, mesophilic, organotrophic and facultatively anaerobic archaeal strains were isolated from acidic streamers formed on the surfaces of copper-ore-containing sulfidic deposits in south-west Spain and North Wales, UK. Cells of the strains varied from 0.1 to 2 μm in size and were pleomorphic, with a tendency to form filamentous structures. The optimal pH and temperature for growth for both strains were 1.0-1.2 and 37-40 °C, with the optimal substrates for growth being beef extract (3 g l- 1) for strain S5T and beef extract with tryptone (3 and 1 g l- 1, respectively) for strain PM4. The lipid composition was dominated by intact polar lipids consisting of a glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) core attached to predominantly glycosidic polar headgroups. In addition, free GDGT and small relative amounts of intact and core diether lipids were present. Strains S5T and PM4 possessed mainly menaquinones with minor fractions of thermoplasmaquinones. The DNA G+C content was 37.3 mol% in strain S5T and 37.16 mol% for strain PM4. A similarity matrix of 16S rRNA gene sequences (identical for both strains) showed their affiliation to the order Thermoplasmatales, with 73.9-86.3 % identity with sequences from members of the order with validly published names. The average nucleotide identity between genomes of the strains determined in silico was 98.75 %, suggesting, together with the 16S rRNA gene-based phylogenetic analysis, that the strains belong to the same species. A novel family, Cuniculiplasmataceae fam. nov., genus Cuniculiplasma gen. nov. and species Cuniculiplasma divulgatum sp. nov. are proposed based on the phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic analyses and physiological properties of the two isolates, S5T and PM4 ( = JCM 30641 = VKM B-2940). The type strain of Cuniculiplasma divulgatum is S5T ( = JCM 30642T = VKM B-2941T). PMID:26518885

  9. Prevention of Premature Fusion of Calvarial Suture in GLI-Kruppel Family Member 3 (Gli3)-deficient Mice by Removing One Allele of Runt-related Transcription Factor 2 (Runx2)*

    PubMed Central

    Tanimoto, Yukiho; Veistinen, Lotta; Alakurtti, Kirsi; Takatalo, Maarit; Rice, David P. C.

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding the zinc finger transcription factor GLI3 (GLI-Kruppel family member 3) have been identified in patients with Grieg cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome in which premature fusion of calvarial suture (craniosynostosis) is an infrequent but important feature. Here, we show that Gli3 acts as a repressor in the developing murine calvaria and that Dlx5, Runx2 type II isoform (Runx2-II), and Bmp2 are expressed ectopically in the calvarial mesenchyme, which results in aberrant osteoblastic differentiation in Gli3-deficient mouse (Gli3Xt-J/Xt-J) and resulted in craniosynostosis. At the same time, enhanced activation of phospho-Smad1/5/8 (pSmad1/5/8), which is a downstream mediator of canonical Bmp signaling, was observed in Gli3Xt-J/Xt-J embryonic calvaria. Therefore, we generated Gli3;Runx2 compound mutant mice to study the effects of decreasing Runx2 dosage in a Gli3Xt-J/Xt-J background. Gli3Xt-J/Xt-J Runx2+/− mice have neither craniosynostosis nor additional ossification centers in interfrontal suture and displayed a normalization of Dlx5, Runx2-II, and pSmad1/5/8 expression as well as sutural mesenchymal cell proliferation. These findings suggest a novel role for Gli3 in regulating calvarial suture development by controlling canonical Bmp-Smad signaling, which integrates a Dlx5/Runx2-II cascade. We propose that targeting Runx2 might provide an attractive way of preventing craniosynostosis in patients. PMID:22547067

  10. Genetics Home Reference: familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... tissue. This enzyme helps break down fats called triglycerides, which are carried by molecules called lipoproteins . Mutations ... which prevents the enzyme from effectively breaking down triglycerides. As a result, triglycerides attached to lipoproteins build ...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: familial HDL deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... hypoalphalipoproteinemia ClinicalTrials.gov (1 link) ClinicalTrials.gov Scientific articles on PubMed (1 link) PubMed OMIM (1 link) HYPOALPHALIPOPROTEINEMIA, PRIMARY Sources for This Page Batal R, Tremblay M, ...

  12. A Therapist's Perspective on Jewish Family Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuk, Gerald H.

    1978-01-01

    Family therapy has been deficient in accounting for the impact of ethnic, religious, and racial values on success or failure in treating families. Jewish families respond well in family therapy due to a set of values. An individual's neurotic disposition may evolve from conflicts between family values and independent identity. (Author/JEL)

  13. Unilateral Isolated Proximal Femoral Focal Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Doğer, Emek; Köpük, Şule Y.; Çakıroğlu, Yiğit; Çakır, Özgür; Yücesoy, Gülseren

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To discuss a patient with a prenatal diagnosis of unilateral isolated femoral focal deficiency. Case. Antenatal diagnosis of unilateral isolated femoral focal deficiency was made at 20 weeks of gestation. The length of left femur was shorter than the right, and fetal femur length was below the fifth percentile. Proximal femoral focal deficiency was diagnosed. After delivery, the diagnosis was confirmed with skeletal radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging. In prenatal ultrasonographic examination, the early recognition and exclusion of skeletal dysplasias is important; moreover, treatment plans should be initiated, and valuable information should be provided to the family. PMID:23984135

  14. Growth hormone deficiency: an update.

    PubMed

    Audí, L; Fernández-Cancio, M; Camats, N; Carrascosa, A

    2013-03-01

    Growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) in humans manifests differently according to the individual developmental stage (early after birth, during childhood, at puberty or in adulthood), the cause or mechanism (genetic, acquired or idiopathic), deficiency intensity and whether it is the only pituitary-affected hormone or is combined with that of other pituitary hormones or forms part of a complex syndrome. Growing knowledge of the genetic basis of GH deficiency continues to provide us with useful information to further characterise mutation types and mechanisms for previously described and new candidate genes. Despite these advances, a high proportion of GH deficiencies with no recognisable acquired basis continue to be labelled as idiopathic, although less frequently when they are congenital and/or familial. The clinical and biochemical diagnoses continue to be a conundrum despite efforts to harmonise biochemical assays for GH and IGF-1 analysis, probably because the diagnosis based on the so-called GH secretion stimulation tests will prove to be of limited usefulness for predicting therapy indications. PMID:23435439

  15. Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    by G6PC (GSDIa) or SLC37A4 (GSDIb) gene analysis, and the indications of liver biopsy to measure G6P activity are getting rarer and rarer. Differential diagnoses include the other GSDs, in particular type III (see this term). However, in GSDIII, glycemia and lactacidemia are high after a meal and low after a fast period (often with a later occurrence than that of type I). Primary liver tumors and Pepper syndrome (hepatic metastases of neuroblastoma) may be evoked but are easily ruled out through clinical and ultrasound data. Antenatal diagnosis is possible through molecular analysis of amniocytes or chorionic villous cells. Pre-implantatory genetic diagnosis may also be discussed. Genetic counseling should be offered to patients and their families. The dietary treatment aims at avoiding hypoglycemia (frequent meals, nocturnal enteral feeding through a nasogastric tube, and later oral addition of uncooked starch) and acidosis (restricted fructose and galactose intake). Liver transplantation, performed on the basis of poor metabolic control and/or hepatocarcinoma, corrects hypoglycemia, but renal involvement may continue to progress and neutropenia is not always corrected in type Ib. Kidney transplantation can be performed in case of severe renal insufficiency. Combined liver-kidney grafts have been performed in a few cases. Prognosis is usually good: late hepatic and renal complications may occur, however, with adapted management, patients have almost normal life span. Disease name and synonyms Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency or G6P deficiency or glycogen storage disease type I or GSDI or type I glycogenosis or Von Gierke disease or Hepatorenal glycogenosis. PMID:21599942

  16. Skin wound healing in MMP2-deficient and MMP2 / plasminogen double-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Frøssing, Signe; Rønø, Birgitte; Hald, Andreas; Rømer, John; Lund, Leif R

    2010-08-01

    During healing of incisional skin wounds, migrating keratinocytes dissect their way under the crust to re-epithelialize the wounded area. The efficiency of this tissue remodelling process depends on the concomitant activity of several extracellular proteases, including members of the plasminogen activation (PA) system and the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family. Treatment with the broad spectrum MMP inhibitor, galardin, delays wound healing in wildtype mice and completely arrest wound healing in plasminogen (Plg)-deficient mice, indicating a functional overlap between plasmin- and galardin-sensitive MMPs during wound healing. To address whether MMP2 is accountable for the galardin-induced healing deficiency in wildtype and Plg-deficient mice, incisional skin wounds were generated in MMP2 single-deficient mice and in MMP2/Plg double-deficient mice and followed until healed. Alternatively, tissue was isolated 7 days post wounding for histological and biochemical analyses. No difference was found in the time from wounding to overt gross restoration of the epidermal surface between MMP2-deficient and wildtype control littermate mice. MMP2/Plg double-deficient mice were viable and fertile, and displayed an unchallenged general phenotype resembling that of Plg-deficient mice, including development of rectal prolapses. MMP2/Plg double-deficient mice displayed a slight increase in the wound length throughout the healing period compared with Plg-deficient mice. However, the overall time to complete healing was not significantly different between Plg-deficient and MMP2/Plg double-deficient mice. These results show that MMP2 activity is not essential for wound healing and indicate that lack of MMP2 only marginally potentiates the effect of Plg deficiency. PMID:20163454

  17. Folate-deficiency anemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000551.htm Folate-deficiency anemia To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Folate-deficiency anemia is a decrease in red blood cells (anemia) ...

  18. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency? Alpha-1 antitrypsin (an-tee-TRIP-sin) deficiency, or AAT ... as it relates to lung disease. Overview Alpha-1 antitrypsin, also called AAT, is a protein made ...

  19. DOCK8 Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... on ClinicalTrials.gov . Related Links Primary Immune Deficiency Diseases (PIDDs) Immune System ​​​​​​​ Javascript Error Your browser JavaScript is turned ... Scientists Identify Genetic Cause of Previously Undefined Primary Immune Deficiency Disease Signs and Symptoms DOCK8 deficiency causes persistent skin ...

  20. Carnitine Deficiency and Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    de Bruyn, Anouk; Jacquemyn, Yves; Kinget, Kristof; Eyskens, François

    2015-01-01

    We present two cases of carnitine deficiency in pregnancy. In our first case, systematic screening revealed L-carnitine deficiency in the first born of an asymptomatic mother. In the course of her second pregnancy, maternal carnitine levels showed a deficiency as well. In a second case, a mother known with carnitine deficiency under supplementation was followed throughout her pregnancy. Both pregnancies had an uneventful outcome. Because carnitine deficiency can have serious complications, supplementation with carnitine is advised. This supplementation should be continued throughout pregnancy according to plasma concentrations. PMID:26113999

  1. Carnitine Deficiency and Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    de Bruyn, Anouk; Jacquemyn, Yves; Kinget, Kristof; Eyskens, François

    2015-01-01

    We present two cases of carnitine deficiency in pregnancy. In our first case, systematic screening revealed L-carnitine deficiency in the first born of an asymptomatic mother. In the course of her second pregnancy, maternal carnitine levels showed a deficiency as well. In a second case, a mother known with carnitine deficiency under supplementation was followed throughout her pregnancy. Both pregnancies had an uneventful outcome. Because carnitine deficiency can have serious complications, supplementation with carnitine is advised. This supplementation should be continued throughout pregnancy according to plasma concentrations. PMID:26113999

  2. [IgA deficiency and Addison's disease].

    PubMed

    Petite, J

    1982-01-30

    A case of Addison's disease and selective IgA deficiency in a 15-year-old male is discussed. The etiology of Addison's disease in this case is unknown. Investigation of HLA-antigens in the family does not yield the usual pattern of autoimmune diseases. Nevertheless, this very rare association does not appear to be fortuitous. PMID:7071576

  3. [Biotinidase deficiency and vascular ring malformation: case report].

    PubMed

    González-Salazar, Francisco; Gabino Gerardo-Aviles, José; Rodríguez Jacobo, Sofía; Vargas-Camacho, Gerardo

    2014-10-01

    Biotinidase deficiency is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder that affects the cleavage of biotin. Family studies of the index case found that both parents are usually carriers and siblings have the altered gene, but only homozygotes have manifestations that vary depending on the deficiency grade. Mothers may have moderate deficiency and be asymptomatic; biotin deficiency in pregnant women causes defects in children. In a study, using human cells exposed to biotin deficiency, cell growth decreased contributing to the development of cleft palate. In newborns, biotinidase deficiency has been associated with VACTERL syndrome and annular pancreas. The case of an infant with biotinidase deficiency and congenital defect of the vascular ring is presented. This defect surrounds and compresses the trachea and esophagus, disturbing swallowing and breathing. Infant was supplemented with biotin and surgically intervened with excellent results. PMID:25192539

  4. Iodine deficiency disorders.

    PubMed

    Elliott, T C

    1987-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) affects 800 million people in the world, yet iodine supplementation is one of the most cost-effective nutritional interventions known. Iodine is incorporated into thyroid hormones, necessary for regulating metabolic rate, growth, and development of the brain and nervous system. IDD may appear as goiter in adults, usually not a serious problem, or in cretinism in children, which is marked by severe mental and physical retardation, with irreversible hearing and speech defects and either deaf-mutism, squint and paralysis, or stunting and edema. Children supplemented by age 1 or 2 can sometimes be helped. Foods contain variable amounts of iodine dependent on the soil where they are grown, hence mountainous and some inland regions have high goiter and IDD incidence. There are also goitrogenic foods, typically those of the cabbage family. Diagnosis is clinical or by blood tests for thyroid hormone levels and ratios. Finger-stick methods are available. Prevention of IDD is simple with either iodized salt or flour, iodinated central water supplies, injectable or oral iodine-containing oil. All cost about $.04 per person per year, except injections, which cost about $1 per person, but have the advantage that they could be combined with immunizations. Local problems with supplements are loss of iodine in salt with storage in tropics, and local production of cheaper uniodinated salt. Emphasis should be given to pregnant women and young children. There is no harm in giving pregnant women iodine injections in 2nd or 3rd trimester. PMID:12343033

  5. Deficiency or dementia? Exploring B12 deficiency after urostomy.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Michelle; Bryan, Sandra; Dukes, Suzie

    Vitamin B12 deficiency can be misdiagnosed as a variety of other illnesses, and if left untreated can lead to irreversible damage to the brain and nervous system. This article discusses the case of a 70-year-old female with a urostomy, well known to the stoma care department, who shortly after a routine parastomal hernia repair developed severe confusion, immobility and was unable to communicate. Subsequent investigations ruled out a cerebrovascular accident (CVA) and a diagnosis of rapidly progressing vascular dementia was made. An incidental finding of a low vitamin B12 level was identified and treatment commenced. She was transferred to a community hospital and her family were told to 'prepare for the worst'. It was, in fact, the vitamin B12 deficiency that was causing her symptoms of vascular dementia, and once treatment was established she underwent a 'miraculous' improvement, returning to normal life. This article discusses vitamin B12 deficiency and why patients with a urostomy are at risk of developing it; highlights the key role of the stoma care nurse and his or her knowledge of the patient; explores the importance of testing vitamin B12 levels in this group of patients; and discusses key learning and recommendations for practice. PMID:26067796

  6. Creatine deficiency syndromes.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Andreas

    2003-02-01

    Since the first description of a creatine deficiency syndrome, the guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiency, in 1994, the two further suspected creatine deficiency syndromes--the creatine transporter (CrT1) defect and the arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) deficiency were disclosed. GAMT and AGAT deficiency have autosomal-recessive traits, whereas the CrT1 defect is a X-linked disorder. All patients reveal developmental delay/regression, mental retardation, and severe disturbance of their expressive and cognitive speech. The common feature of all creatine deficiency syndromes is the severe depletion of creatine/phosphocreatine in the brain. Only the GAMT deficiency is in addition characterized by accumulation of guanidinoacetic acid in brain and body fluids. Guanidinoacetic acid seems to be responsible for intractable seizures and the movement disorder, both exclusively found in GAMT deficiency. Treatment with oral creatine supplementation is in part successful in GAMT and AGAT deficiency, whereas in CrT1 defect it is not able to replenish creatine in the brain. Treatment of combined arginine restriction and ornithine substitution in GAMT deficiency is capable to decrease guanidinoacetic acid permanently and improves the clinical outcome. The lack of the creatine/phosphocreatine signal in the patient's brain by means of in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy is the common finding and the diagnostic clue in all three diseases. In AGAT deficiency guanidinoacetic acid is decreased, whereas creatine in blood was found to be normal. On the other hand the CrT1 defect is characterized by an increased concentration of creatine in blood and urine whereas guanidinoacetic acid concentration is normal. The increasing number of patients detected very recently suffering from a creatine deficiency syndrome and the unfavorable outcome highlights the need of further attempts in early recognition of affected individuals and in optimizing its treatment

  7. AIDS: Implications for Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macklin, Eleanor D.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews facts about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and its epidemiology. Discusses implications for families (social stigma and isolation, fears of contagion, infection and abandonment, guilt, anger, grief, and economic hardship) and for human service professionals (public education, voluntary, anonymous testing with counseling, and…

  8. Infections Revealing Complement Deficiency in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Audemard-Verger, A.; Descloux, E.; Ponard, D.; Deroux, A.; Fantin, B.; Fieschi, C.; John, M.; Bouldouyre, A.; Karkowsi, L.; Moulis, G.; Auvinet, H.; Valla, F.; Lechiche, C.; Davido, B.; Martinot, M.; Biron, C.; Lucht, F.; Asseray, N.; Froissart, A.; Buzelé, R.; Perlat, A.; Boutboul, D.; Fremeaux-Bacchi, V.; Isnard, S.; Bienvenu, B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Complement system is a part of innate immunity, its main function is to protect human from bacterial infection. As genetic disorders, complement deficiencies are often diagnosed in pediatric population. However, complement deficiencies can also be revealed in adults but have been poorly investigated. Herein, we describe a case series of infections revealing complement deficiency in adults to study clinical spectrum and management of complement deficiencies. A nationwide retrospective study was conducted in French university and general hospitals in departments of internal medicine, infectious diseases enrolling patients older than 15 years old who had presented at least one infection leading to a complement deficiency diagnosis. Forty-one patients included between 2002 and 2015 in 19 different departments were enrolled in this study. The male-to-female ratio was 1.3 and the mean age at diagnosis was 28 ± 14 (15–67) years. The main clinical feature was Neisseria meningitidis meningitis 75% (n = 31/41) often involving rare serotype: Y (n = 9) and W 135 (n = 7). The main complement deficiency observed was the common final pathway deficiency 83% (n = 34/41). Half of the cohort displayed severe sepsis or septic shock at diagnosis (n = 22/41) but no patient died. No patient had family history of complement deficiency. The mean follow-up was 1.15 ± 1.95 (0.1–10) years. Half of the patients had already suffered from at least one infection before diagnosis of complement deficiency: meningitis (n = 13), pneumonia (n = 4), fulminans purpura (n = 1), or recurrent otitis (n = 1). Near one-third (n = 10/39) had received prophylactic antibiotics (cotrimoxazole or penicillin) after diagnosis of complement deficiency. The vaccination coverage rate, at the end of the follow-up, for N meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumonia, and Haemophilius influenzae were, respectively, 90% (n = 33/37), 47% (n = 17/36), and 35

  9. Family Preservation & Family Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCroskey, Jacquelyn; Meezan, William

    This book reports a study of the outcomes of home-based family preservation services for abusive and neglectful families in Los Angeles County. Using the Family Assessment Form, the research project evaluated services provided by two voluntary agencies, and focused on changes in family functioning between the opening and closing of services during…

  10. α1-Antitrypsin Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Hatipoğlu, Umur; Stoller, James K

    2016-09-01

    α1-Antitrypsin deficiency is an autosomal codominant condition that predisposes to emphysema and cirrhosis. The condition is common but grossly under-recognized. Identifying patients' α1-antitrypsin deficiency has important management implications (ie, smoking cessation, genetic and occupational counseling, and specific treatment with the infusion of pooled human plasma α1-antitrypsin). The weight of evidence suggests that augmentation therapy slows the progression of emphysema in individuals with severe α1-antitrypsin deficiency. PMID:27514595

  11. Iron deficiency anemia from diagnosis to treatment in children.

    PubMed

    Özdemir, Nihal

    2015-03-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency worldwide and an important public health problem especially in developing countries. Since the most important indicator of iron deficieny is anemia, the terms "iron deficiency" and "iron deficiency anemia" are often used interchangeably. However, iron deficiency may develop in the absence of anemia and the tissues may be affected from this condition. The most common causes of iron deficiency in children include insufficient intake together with rapid growth, low birth weight and gastrointestinal losses related to excessive intake of cow's milk. If insufficient intake can be excluded and there is insufficient response to oral iron treatment in patients with iron deficiency especially in older children, blood loss should be considered as the underlying cause. The main principles in management of iron deficiency anemia include investigation and elimination of the cause leading to iron deficiency, replacement of deficiency, improvement of nutrition and education of the patient and family. In this article, the practical approaches in the diagnosis and treatment of iron deficiency and the experience of our center have been reviewed. PMID:26078692

  12. Iron induced nickel deficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is increasingly apparent that economic loss due to nickel (Ni) deficiency likely occurs in horticultural and agronomic crops. While most soils contain sufficient Ni to meet crop requirements, situations of Ni deficiency can arise due to antagonistic interactions with other metals. This study asse...

  13. Cerebral Folate Deficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Neil

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral folate deficiency (CFD) is associated with low levels of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with normal folate levels in the plasma and red blood cells. The onset of symptoms caused by the deficiency of folates in the brain is at around 4 to 6 months of age. This is followed by delayed development, with deceleration…

  14. Iron deficiency anemia

    MedlinePlus

    Anemia - iron deficiency ... iron from old red blood cells. Iron deficiency anemia develops when your body's iron stores run low. ... You may have no symptoms if the anemia is mild. Most of the time, ... slowly. Symptoms may include: Feeling weak or tired more often ...

  15. Factor X deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    Factor X (ten) deficiency is a disorder caused by a lack of a protein called factor X in the blood. It leads to problems with ... or are not functioning like they should. Factor X is one such coagulation factor. Factor X deficiency ...

  16. Iodine-deficiency disorders.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Michael B; Jooste, Pieter L; Pandav, Chandrakant S

    2008-10-01

    2 billion individuals worldwide have insufficient iodine intake, with those in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa particularly affected. Iodine deficiency has many adverse effects on growth and development. These effects are due to inadequate production of thyroid hormone and are termed iodine-deficiency disorders. Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of preventable mental impairment worldwide. Assessment methods include urinary iodine concentration, goitre, newborn thyroid-stimulating hormone, and blood thyroglobulin. In nearly all countries, the best strategy to control iodine deficiency is iodisation of salt, which is one of the most cost-effective ways to contribute to economic and social development. When iodisation of salt is not possible, iodine supplements can be given to susceptible groups. Introduction of iodised salt to regions of chronic iodine-deficiency disorders might transiently increase the proportion of thyroid disorders, but overall the small risks of iodine excess are far outweighed by the substantial risks of iodine deficiency. International efforts to control iodine-deficiency disorders are slowing, and reaching the third of the worldwide population that remains deficient poses major challenges. PMID:18676011

  17. Testosterone deficiency myopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Orrell, R W; Woodrow, D F; Barrett, M C; Press, M; Dick, D J; Rowe, R C; Lane, R J

    1995-01-01

    Testosterone is recognized to have a positive effect on nitrogen balance and muscle development in hypogonadal men, but significantly myopathy secondary to testosterone deficiency has been reported only rarely. We describe a patient who presented with a myopathy associated with testosterone deficiency, and who demonstrated a significant functional and myometric response to treatment. PMID:7562829

  18. MENTAL DEFICIENCY. SECOND EDITION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HILLIARD, L.T.; KIRMAN, BRIAN H.

    REVISED TO INCLUDE LEGISLATIVE AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES NEW IN BRITAIN SINCE THE 1957 EDITION, THE TEXT INCLUDES RECENT ADVANCES IN ETIOLOGY, PATHOLOGY, AND TREATMENT OF MENTAL DEFICIENCY. CONSIDERATION OF THE BACKGROUND OF MENTAL DEFICIENCY INCLUDES HISTORICAL AND LEGAL ASPECTS, THE SOCIAL BACKGROUND OF MENTAL DEFECT, PRENATAL CAUSES OF…

  19. G6PD Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a genetic disorder that is most common in males. About 1 in 10 African American males in the United States has it. G6PD deficiency mainly affects red blood cells, which carry oxygen ...

  20. Iron deficiency anemia from diagnosis to treatment in children

    PubMed Central

    Özdemir, Nihal

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency worldwide and an important public health problem especially in developing countries. Since the most important indicator of iron deficieny is anemia, the terms “iron deficiency” and “iron deficiency anemia” are often used interchangeably. However, iron deficiency may develop in the absence of anemia and the tissues may be affected from this condition. The most common causes of iron deficiency in children include insufficient intake together with rapid growth, low birth weight and gastrointestinal losses related to excessive intake of cow’s milk. If insufficient intake can be excluded and there is insufficient response to oral iron treatment in patients with iron deficiency especially in older children, blood loss should be considered as the underlying cause. The main principles in management of iron deficiency anemia include investigation and elimination of the cause leading to iron deficiency, replacement of deficiency, improvement of nutrition and education of the patient and family. In this article, the practical approaches in the diagnosis and treatment of iron deficiency and the experience of our center have been reviewed. PMID:26078692

  1. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    G-6-PD deficiency; Hemolytic anemia due to G6PD deficiency; Anemia - hemolytic due to G6PD deficiency ... Churchill Livingston; 2008:chap 45. Golan DER. Hemolytic anemias: red cell membrane and metabolic defects. In: Goldman ...

  2. Betaine deficiency in maize

    SciTech Connect

    Lerma, C. ); Rich, P.J.; Ju, G.C.; Yang, Wenju; Rhodes, D. ); Hanson, A.D. )

    1991-04-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is a betaine-accumulating species, but certain maize genotypes lack betaine almost completely; a single recessive gene has been implicated as the cause of this deficiency. This study was undertaken to determine whether betaine deficiency in diverse maize germplasm is conditioned by the same genetic locus, and to define the biochemical lesion(s) involved. Complementation tests indicated that all 13 deficient genotypes tested shared a common locus. One maize population (P77) was found to be segregating for betaine deficiency, and true breeding individuals were used to produce related lines with and without betaine. Leaf tissue of both betaine-positive and betaine-deficient lines readily converted supplied betaine aldehyde to betaine, but only the betaine-containing line was able to oxidize supplied choline to betaine. This locates the lesion in betaine-deficient plants at the choline {r arrow} betaine aldehyde step of betaine synthesis. Consistent with this location, betaine-deficient plants were shown to have no detectable endogenous pool of betaine aldehyde.

  3. Thiamine deficiency and delirium.

    PubMed

    Osiezagha, Kenneth; Ali, Shahid; Freeman, C; Barker, Narviar C; Jabeen, Shagufta; Maitra, Sarbani; Olagbemiro, Yetunde; Richie, William; Bailey, Rahn K

    2013-04-01

    Thiamine is an essential vitamin that plays an important role in cellular production of energy from ingested food and enhances normal neuronal actives. Deficiency of this vitamin leads to a very serious clinical condition known as delirium. Studies performed in the United States and other parts of the world have established the link between thiamine deficiency and delirium. This literature review examines the physiology, pathophysiology, predisposing factors, clinical manifestations (e.g., Wernicke's encephalopathy, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, structural and functional brain injuries) and diagnosis of thiamine deficiency and delirium. Current treatment practices are also discussed that may improve patient outcome, which ultimately may result in a reduction in healthcare costs. PMID:23696956

  4. Iron deficiency anemia

    PubMed Central

    Naigamwalla, Dinaz Z.; Webb, Jinelle A.; Giger, Urs

    2012-01-01

    Iron is essential to virtually all living organisms and is integral to multiple metabolic functions. The most important function is oxygen transport in hemoglobin. Iron deficiency anemia in dogs and cats is usually caused by chronic blood loss and can be discovered incidentally as animals may have adapted to the anemia. Severe iron deficiency is characterized by a microcytic, hypochromic, potentially severe anemia with a variable regenerative response. Iron metabolism and homeostasis will be reviewed, followed by a discussion of diagnostic testing and therapeutic recommendations for dogs and cats with iron deficiency anemia. PMID:22942439

  5. Vitamin D Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... deficiency can lead to a loss of bone density (size and strength), broken bones (fractures), muscle weakness, ... get too much calcium in their blood or urine. Careful monitoring of blood vitamin D levels will ...

  6. Growth hormone deficiency - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... the same age. The child will have normal intelligence in most cases. In older children, puberty may ... hormones cause the body to make. Tests can measure these growth factors. Accurate growth hormone deficiency testing ...

  7. Factor V deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... as many as 20 different proteins in blood plasma. These proteins are called blood coagulation factors. Factor ... You will be given fresh blood plasma or fresh frozen plasma infusions ... These treatments will correct the deficiency temporarily.

  8. Folate-deficiency anemia

    MedlinePlus

    Folate-deficiency anemia is a decrease in red blood cells (anemia) due to a lack of folate. Folate is a type ... B vitamin. It is also called folic acid. Anemia is a condition in which the body does ...

  9. Clinical significance of complement deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, H David; Teuber, Suzanne S; Gershwin, M Eric

    2009-09-01

    The complement system is composed of more than 30 serum and membrane-bound proteins, all of which are needed for normal function of complement in innate and adaptive immunity. Historically, deficiencies within the complement system have been suspected when young children have had recurrent and difficult-to-control infections. As our understanding of the complement system has increased, many other diseases have been attributed to deficiencies within the complement system. Generally, complement deficiencies within the classical pathway lead to increased susceptibility to encapsulated bacterial infections as well as a syndrome resembling systemic lupus erythematosus. Complement deficiencies within the mannose-binding lectin pathway generally lead to increased bacterial infections, and deficiencies within the alternative pathway usually lead to an increased frequency of Neisseria infections. However, factor H deficiency can lead to membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Finally, deficiencies within the terminal complement pathway lead to an increased incidence of Neisseria infections. Two other notable complement-associated deficiencies are complement receptor 3 and 4 deficiency, which result from a deficiency of CD18, a disease known as leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1, and CD59 deficiency, which causes paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Most inherited deficiencies of the complement system are autosomal recessive, but properidin deficiency is X-linked recessive, deficiency of C1 inhibitor is autosomal dominant, and mannose-binding lectin and factor I deficiencies are autosomal co-dominant. The diversity of clinical manifestations of complement deficiencies reflects the complexity of the complement system. PMID:19758139

  10. VERMILION-DEFICIENCY.

    PubMed

    Bridges, C B

    1919-07-20

    In May, 1916, a culture of Drosophila melanogaster showed that a new sex-linked lethal had arisen. The linkage relations indicated that the position of the lethal was in the neighborhood of the sex-linked recessive "vermilion," whose locus in the X chromosome is at 33.0. When females heterozygous for the lethal were outcrossed to vermilion males, all the daughters that received the lethal-bearing chromosome showed vermilion eye-color, though, from the pedigree, vermilion was known to be absent from the ancestry of the mother. The lethal action and the unexpected appearance of vermilion both suggested that this was another instance of the phenomenon called "deficiency;" that is, the loss or "inactivation" of the genes of a section of the X chromosome. The lethal action would then be due to the deficient region including one or more genes necessary for the life of the individual. The appearance of vermilion in females carrying only one vermilion gene would be explainable on the ground that the deficient-bearing females are virtually haploid for the region including the vermilion locus. Linkage tests showed that the amount of crossing over in the neighborhood of the deficiency was cut down by about five units. Part of this may be attributed to the actual length of the "deficient" region, within which it is probable that no crossing over occurs, and part (probably most) to an alteration in the synaptic relations in the regions immediately adjacent. In more remote regions there was no disturbance or perhaps a slight rise in the frequency of crossing over. Both the local fall and the possible rise in more distant regions would seem to argue that a "pucker" at synapsis had been caused by an actual shortening of the deficient chromosome. That the deficient region extends to the left of the locus of vermilion was indicated by a test in which it was observed that the presence of an extra piece of chromosome including the loci for vermilion and sable ("vermilion

  11. Deep Dermatophytosis and Inherited CARD9 Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Quentin B.; Liu, Luyan; Cypowyj, Sophie; Prando, Carolina; Migaud, Mélanie; Taibi, Lynda; Ammar-Khodja, Aomar; Stambouli, Omar Boudghene; Guellil, Boumediene; Jacobs, Frederique; Goffard, Jean-Christophe; Schepers, Kinda; del Marmol, Véronique; Boussofara, Lobna; Denguezli, Mohamed; Larif, Molka; Bachelez, Hervé; Michel, Laurence; Lefranc, Gérard; Hay, Rod; Jouvion, Gregory; Chretien, Fabrice; Fraitag, Sylvie; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth; Boudia, Merad

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Deep dermatophytosis is a severe and sometimes life-threatening fungal infection caused by dermatophytes. It is characterized by extensive dermal and subcutaneous tissue invasion and by frequent dissemination to the lymph nodes and, occasionally, the central nervous system. The condition is different from common superficial dermatophyte infection and has been reported in patients with no known immunodeficiency. Patients are mostly from North African, consanguineous, multiplex families, which strongly suggests a mendelian genetic cause. METHODS We studied the clinical features of deep dermatophytosis in 17 patients with no known immunodeficiency from eight unrelated Tunisian, Algerian, and Moroccan families. Because CARD9 (caspase recruitment domain–containing protein 9) deficiency has been reported in an Iranian family with invasive fungal infections, we also sequenced CARD9 in the patients. RESULTS Four patients died, at 28, 29, 37, and 39 years of age, with clinically active deep dermatophytosis. No other severe infections, fungal or otherwise, were reported in the surviving patients, who ranged in age from 37 to 75 years. The 15 Algerian and Tunisian patients, from seven unrelated families, had a homozygous Q289X CARD9 allele, due to a founder effect. The 2 Moroccan siblings were homozygous for the R101C CARD9 allele. Both alleles are rare deleterious variants. The familial segregation of these alleles was consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance and complete clinical penetrance. CONCLUSIONS All the patients with deep dermatophytosis had autosomal recessive CARD9 deficiency. Deep dermatophytosis appears to be an important clinical manifestation of CARD9 deficiency. (Funded by Agence Nationale pour la Recherche and others.) PMID:24131138

  12. Iron deficiency anaemia.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Anthony; Cacoub, Patrice; Macdougall, Iain C; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent

    2016-02-27

    Anaemia affects roughly a third of the world's population; half the cases are due to iron deficiency. It is a major and global public health problem that affects maternal and child mortality, physical performance, and referral to health-care professionals. Children aged 0-5 years, women of childbearing age, and pregnant women are particularly at risk. Several chronic diseases are frequently associated with iron deficiency anaemia--notably chronic kidney disease, chronic heart failure, cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease. Measurement of serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, serum soluble transferrin receptors, and the serum soluble transferrin receptors-ferritin index are more accurate than classic red cell indices in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anaemia. In addition to the search for and treatment of the cause of iron deficiency, treatment strategies encompass prevention, including food fortification and iron supplementation. Oral iron is usually recommended as first-line therapy, but the most recent intravenous iron formulations, which have been available for nearly a decade, seem to replenish iron stores safely and effectively. Hepcidin has a key role in iron homoeostasis and could be a future diagnostic and therapeutic target. In this Seminar, we discuss the clinical presentation, epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and acute management of iron deficiency anaemia, and outstanding research questions for treatment. PMID:26314490

  13. Deficient DNA repair capacity, a predisposing factor in breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Parshad, R.; Price, F. M.; Bohr, V. A.; Cowans, K. H.; Zujewski, J. A.; Sanford, K. K.

    1996-01-01

    Women with breast cancer and a family history of breast cancer and some with sporadic breast cancer are deficient in the repair of radiation-induced DNA damage compared with normal donors with no family history of breast cancer. DNA repair was measured indirectly by quantifying chromatid breaks in phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated blood lymphocytes after either X-irradiation or UV-C exposure, with or without post treatment with the DNA repair inhibitor, 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (ara-C). We have correlated chromatid breaks with unrepaired DNA strand breaks using responses to X-irradiation of cells from xeroderma pigmentosum patients with well-characterised DNA repair defects or responses of repair-deficient mutant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells with or without transfected human DNA repair genes. Deficient DNA repair appears to be a predisposing factor in familial breast cancer and in some sporadic breast cancers. PMID:8679441

  14. Cobalamin deficiency presenting as obsessive compulsive disorder: case report.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vivek; Biswas, Devdutta

    2012-01-01

    Cobalamin deficiency commonly presents with a wide range of neuropsychiatric manifestations ranging from myelopathy, neuropathy, optic neuritis and dementia to mood disorders, chronic fatigue and psychosis even without classical hematological abnormalities like anemia and macrocytosis. However, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in relation to vitamin B12 deficiency has not been described so far. We report a case of middle-aged man presenting with OCD, low serum cobalamin and a positive family history of vitamin B12 deficiency who responded well to methylcobalamin replacement. PMID:22227032

  15. Natural killer cell deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Orange, Jordan S.

    2013-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are part of the innate immune defense against infection and cancer, and are especially useful in combating certain viral pathogens. The utility of NK cells in human health has been underscored by a growing number of individuals who are deficient in NK cells and/or their functions. This can be in the context of a broader genetically-defined congenital immunodeficiency of which there are over forty presently known to impair NK cells. The abnormality of NK cells, however, in certain cases represents the majority immunological defect. In aggregate, these conditions are termed NK cell deficiency. Recent advances have added clarity to this diagnosis and identified defects in three different genes that can cause NK cell deficiency as well as some of the underlying biology. Appropriate consideration of these diagnoses and patients raises the potential for rational therapeutic options and further innovation. PMID:23993353

  16. Antepartum ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Hitoshi; Sasaki, Yosuke; Maeda, Tadashi; Takeda, Masako; Hara, Noriko; Nakanishi, Kazushige; Urita, Yoshihisa; Hattori, Risa; Miura, Ken; Taniguchi, Tomoko

    2014-01-01

    Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD) is the most common type urea cycle enzyme deficiencies. This syndrome results from a deficiency of the mitochondrial enzyme ornithine transcarbamylase, which catalyzes the conversion of ornithine and carbamoyl phosphate to citrullin. Our case was a 28-year-old female diagnosed with OTCD following neurocognitive deficit during her first pregnancy. Although hyperammonemia was suspected as the cause of the patient's mental changes, there was no evidence of chronic liver disease. Plasma amino acid and urine organic acid analysis revealed OTCD. After combined modality treatment with arginine, sodium benzoate and hemodialysis, the patient's plasma ammonia level stabilized and her mental status returned to normal. At last she recovered without any damage left. PMID:25759629

  17. Transient neonatal zinc deficiency.

    PubMed

    Krieger, I; Alpern, B E; Cunnane, S C

    1986-06-01

    We report an infant who developed clinical manifestations of zinc deficiency during the first month of life although the diet was adequate for zinc and no other causes could be ascertained. The diagnosis was confirmed by low plasma-zinc concentrations and a positive response to zinc treatment. The fatty acid profile of plasma phospholipids was typical of zinc deficiency (ie, arachidonic acid was markedly decreased). The transient nature of this disorder was evident when no relapse occurred after cessation of zinc therapy and plasma-zinc and arachidonic acid concentrations remained normal. Several explanations for the development of transient neonatal zinc deficiency are offered. The observation demonstrates that occasional infants may have requirements for zinc that are beyond the intakes of the conventional RDA. PMID:3717070

  18. Thiamine Deficiency and Delirium

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Shahid; Freeman, C.; Barker, Narviar C.; Jabeen, Shagufta; Maitra, Sarbani; Olagbemiro, Yetunde; Richie, William; Bailey, Rahn K.

    2013-01-01

    Thiamine is an essential vitamin that plays an important role in cellular production of energy from ingested food and enhances normal neuronal actives. Deficiency of this vitamin leads to a very serious clinical condition known as delirium. Studies performed in the United States and other parts of the world have established the link between thiamine deficiency and delirium. This literature review examines the physiology, pathophysiology, predisposing factors, clinical manifestations (e.g., Wernicke’s encephalopathy, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, structural and functional brain injuries) and diagnosis of thiamine deficiency and delirium. Current treatment practices are also discussed that may improve patient outcome, which ultimately may result in a reduction in healthcare costs. PMID:23696956

  19. Prenatal monitoring in a family at high risk for ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency: A new mutation of an A-to-C transversion in position +4 of intron 1 of the OTC gene that is likely to abolish enzyme activity

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshide, Ryuuji; Matsuura, Toshinobu; Endo, Fumio

    1996-08-23

    DNA analysis of a male propositus with ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency documented an A-to-C substitution in position +4 of intron 1. No other abnormalities were observed in the OTC gene, or at 563 bp upstream of the 5{prime} site, which included a promoter region, or at 383 bp downstream of the termination codon, which included a polyadenylation signal sequence. This mutation produces an RsaI site in the sequence, which was used for prenatal monitoring in the fourth and fifth pregnancies. DNA from amniotic cells in the former case were positive for RsaI digestion and the SRY gene (sex determinant region Y), indicating hemizygosity for the mutant allele. OTC activity was not measureable, and mRNA of the OTC gene was not detected by Northern blotting in the affected fetal liver. RT-PCR (reverse transcription-PCR) demonstrated only the wild-type allele. Thus, the mutation interferes with RNA processing, and an extremely low amount of normally spliced mRNA for the OTC gene seems to have caused the disease in our patient. The fetus of the fifth pregnancy was a normal male, as confirmed postnatally. 25 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Mutations and phenotype in isolated glycerol kinase deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, A. P.; Muscatelli, F.; Stafford, A. N.; Chelly, J.; Dahl, N.; Blomquist, H. K.; Delanghe, J.; Willems, P. J.; Steinmann, B.; Monaco, A. P.

    1996-01-01

    We demonstrate that isolated glycerol kinase (GK) deficiency in three families results from mutation of the Xp21 GK gene. GK mutations were detected in four patients with widely differing phenotypes. Patient 1 had a splice-site mutation causing premature termination. His general health was good despite absent GK activity, indicating that isolated GK deficiency can be silent. Patient 2 had GK deficiency and a severe phenotype involving psychomotor retardation and growth delay, bone dysplasia, and seizures, similar to the severe phenotype of one of the first described cases of GK deficiency. His younger brother, patient 3, also had GK deficiency, but so far his development has been normal. GK exon 17 was deleted in both brothers, implicating additional factors in causation of the severe phenotype of patient 2. Patient 4 had both GK deficiency with mental retardation and a GK missense mutation (D440V). Possible explanations for the phenotypic variation of these four patients include ascertainment bias; metabolic or environmental stress as a precipitating factor in revealing GK-related changes, as has previously been described in juvenile GK deficiency; and interactions with functional polymorphisms in other genes that alter the effect of GK deficiency on normal development. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8651297

  1. Color vision deficiencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannorren, D.

    1982-04-01

    Congenital and acquired color vision defects are described in the context of physiological data. Light sources, photometry, color systems and test methods are described. A list of medicines is also presented. The practical social consequences of color vision deficiencies are discussed.

  2. Arginase-1 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Sin, Yuan Yan; Baron, Garrett; Schulze, Andreas; Funk, Colin D

    2015-12-01

    Arginase-1 (ARG1) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that affects the liver-based urea cycle, leading to impaired ureagenesis. This genetic disorder is caused by 40+ mutations found fairly uniformly spread throughout the ARG1 gene, resulting in partial or complete loss of enzyme function, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of arginine to ornithine and urea. ARG1-deficient patients exhibit hyperargininemia with spastic paraparesis, progressive neurological and intellectual impairment, persistent growth retardation, and infrequent episodes of hyperammonemia, a clinical pattern that differs strikingly from other urea cycle disorders. This review briefly highlights the current understanding of the etiology and pathophysiology of ARG1 deficiency derived from clinical case reports and therapeutic strategies stretching over several decades and reports on several exciting new developments regarding the pathophysiology of the disorder using ARG1 global and inducible knockout mouse models. Gene transfer studies in these mice are revealing potential therapeutic options that can be exploited in the future. However, caution is advised in extrapolating results since the lethal disease phenotype in mice is much more severe than in humans indicating that the mouse models may not precisely recapitulate human disease etiology. Finally, some of the functions and implications of ARG1 in non-urea cycle activities are considered. Lingering questions and future areas to be addressed relating to the clinical manifestations of ARG1 deficiency in liver and brain are also presented. Hopefully, this review will spark invigorated research efforts that lead to treatments with better clinical outcomes. PMID:26467175

  3. Toddler diets in the U.K.: deficiencies and imbalances. 1. Risk of micronutrient deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, Bianca; Lanigan, Julie; Singhal, Atul

    2007-01-01

    The toddler diet in the U.K. changed considerably during the 25 years between the last two national dietary surveys, and these and other reports suggest that the nutritional intake of many toddlers does not comply with national recommendations. This is a concern for parents and health care workers because both deficiencies and excesses in nutrition are associated with increased risk of diseases, such as iron deficiency anaemia, rickets, dental caries and diseases related to obesity. Paradoxically, a decrease in energy intake has been accompanied by a rise in obesity, while a parallel fall in vitamin and mineral intake has been seen in tandem with an increase in diseases associated with nutritional deficiency. Establishing good dietary habi in early childhood is therefore important for short-term health. Dietary patterns at this time may be crucial to later behaviour and, if carried through to adulthood, may affect long-term health. In particular, deficiencies of micronutrients such as iron, zinc and vitamin D are a cause for con cern. Childhood diseases such as rickets, which affects bone development and was thought to have been eradicated, have re-emerged in recent years and the prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia has increased, particularly among migrant populations among migrant populations. Part 1 of this review considers the relationship between current toddler diet and micronutrient deficiencies, focusing on the impact of deficiency on both short- and longterm health. In Part 2 (to be published in Journal of Family Health Care 2007; 17[6]), the authors will consider effects on health of nutritional imbalance resulting from overconsumption of energy and nutrients. PMID:17990656

  4. Genetics Home Reference: biotinidase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aydin HI, Sennaroğlu L, Belgin E, Jensen K, Wolf B. Hearing loss in biotinidase deficiency: genotype-phenotype ... corrected to Aydin, Halil Ibrahim]. Citation on PubMed Wolf B. Biotinidase deficiency: "if you have to have ...

  5. Factor XII (Hageman factor) deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... takes longer than normal to clot in a test tube. Factor XII deficiency is a rare inherited disorder. Symptoms There are usually no symptoms. Exams and Tests Factor XII deficiency is most often found when ...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: pseudocholinesterase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... deficiency is a condition that results in increased sensitivity to certain muscle relaxant drugs used during general ... People with pseudocholinesterase deficiency may also have increased sensitivity to certain other drugs, including the local anesthetic ...

  7. Biotinidase deficiency and our champagne legacy.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Barry

    2016-09-10

    Biotinidase is the enzyme that is necessary for the recycling of the vitamin, biotin. Biotinidase deficiency is an autosomal recessively inherited metabolic disorder. If untreated, individuals with biotinidase deficiency usually develop neurological and cutaneous symptoms that can result in coma or death. Symptomatic individuals can be markedly improved by treating them with pharmacological doses of biotin; however, some clinical features may be irreversible. Fortunately, essentially all symptoms can be prevented if treatment is initiated at birth or before the symptoms develop. Because of this, the disorder is currently screened for in newborns in all states in the United States and in many countries around the world. This is the story of one laboratory's work in bringing basic science research from the discovery of the disorder to its translation into clinical medicine and its impact on the individuals with the disorder and their families. PMID:26456103

  8. Mismatch repair deficiency testing in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Buza, Natalia; Ziai, James; Hui, Pei

    2016-05-01

    Lynch syndrome, an autosomal dominant inherited disorder, is caused by inactivating mutations involving DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. This leads to profound genetic instability, including microsatellite instability (MSI) and increased risk for cancer development, particularly colon and endometrial malignancies. Clinical testing of tumor tissues for the presence of MMR gene deficiency is standard practice in clinical oncology, with immunohistochemistry and PCR-based microsatellite instability analysis used as screening tests to identify potential Lynch syndrome families. The ultimate diagnosis of Lynch syndrome requires documentation of mutation within one of the four MMR genes (MLH1, PMS2, MSH2 and MSH6) or EPCAM, currently achieved by comprehensive sequencing analysis of germline DNA. In this review, the genetic basis of Lynch syndrome, methodologies of MMR deficiency testing, and current diagnostic algorithms in the clinical management of Lynch syndrome, are discussed. PMID:26895074

  9. Transient partial growth hormone deficiency due to zinc deficiency.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Y; Hatano, S; Aihara, K; Fujie, A; Kihara, M

    1989-04-01

    We present here a 13-year-old boy with partial growth hormone deficiency due to chronic mild zinc deficiency. When zinc administration was started, his growth rate, growth hormone levels, and plasma zinc concentrations increased significantly. His poor dietary intake resulted in chronic mild zinc deficiency, which in turn could be the cause of a further loss of appetite and growth retardation. There was also a possibility of renal zinc wasting which may have contributed to zinc deficiency. Zinc deficiency should be carefully ruled out in patients with growth retardation. PMID:2708733

  10. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    G6PD deficiency; Hemolytic anemia due to G6PD deficiency; Anemia - hemolytic due to G6PD deficiency ... Gallagher PG. Hemolytic anemias. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 161. Janz ...

  11. Molybdenum cofactor deficiency.

    PubMed

    Atwal, Paldeep S; Scaglia, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Molybdenum cofactor deficiency (MoCD) is a severe autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism first described in 1978. It is characterized by a neonatal presentation of intractable seizures, feeding difficulties, severe developmental delay, microcephaly with brain atrophy and coarse facial features. MoCD results in deficiency of the molybdenum cofactor dependent enzymes sulfite oxidase, xanthine dehydrogenase, aldehyde oxidase and mitochondrial amidoxime reducing component. The resultant accumulation of sulfite, taurine, S-sulfocysteine and thiosulfate contributes to the severe neurological impairment. Recently, initial evidence has demonstrated early treatment with cyclic PMP can turn MoCD type A from a previously neonatal lethal condition with only palliative options, to near normal neurological outcomes in affected patients. We review MoCD and focus on describing the currently published evidence of this exciting new therapeutic option for MoCD type A caused by pathogenic variants in MOCD1. PMID:26653176

  12. Primary antibody deficiency syndromes.

    PubMed

    Wood, P

    2009-03-01

    The primary antibody deficiency syndromes are a group of rare disorders characterized by an inability to produce clinically effective immunoglobulin responses. Some of these disorders result from genetic mutations in genes involved in B cell development, whereas others appear to be complex polygenic disorders. They most commonly present with recurrent infections due to encapsulated bacteria, although in the most common antibody deficiency, Common Variable Immunodeficiency, systemic and organ-specific autoimmunity can be a presenting feature. Diagnostic delay in this group of disorders remains a problem, and the laboratory has a vital role in the detection of abnormalities in immunoglobulin concentration and function. It is critical to distinguish this group of disorders from secondary causes of hypogammaglobulinaemia, in particular lymphoid malignancy, and appropriate laboratory investigations are of critical importance. Treatment of primary antibody deficiencies involves immunoglobulin replacement therapy, either via the intravenous or subcutaneous route. Patients remain at risk of a wide variety of complications, not all linked to diagnostic delay and inadequate therapy. In common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) in particular, patients remain at significantly increased risk of lymphoid malignancy, and regular clinical and laboratory monitoring is required. This review aims to give an overview of these conditions for the general reader, covering pathogenesis, clinical presentation, laboratory investigation, therapy and clinical management. PMID:19151170

  13. Adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, Erin K; Colman, Roberta F; Patterson, David

    2006-01-01

    Adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency is a disease of purine metabolism which affects patients both biochemically and behaviorally. The symptoms are variable and include psychomotor retardation, autistic features, hypotonia, and seizures. Patients also accumulate the substrates of ADSL in body fluids. Both the presence of normal levels of ADSL enzyme activities in some patient tissues and the absence of a clear correlation between mutations, biochemistry, and behavior show that the system has unexplored biochemical and/or genetic complexity. It is unclear whether the pathological mechanisms of this disease result from a deficiency of purines, a toxicity of intermediates, or perturbation of another pathway or system. A patient with autistic features and mild psychomotor delay carries two novel mutations in this gene, E80D and D87E. The creation of a mouse model of this disease will be an important step in elucidating the in vivo mechanisms of the disease. Mice carrying mutations that cause ADSL deficiency in humans will be informative as to the effects of these mutations both during embryogenesis and on the brain, possibly leading to therapies for this disease in the future. PMID:16839792

  14. Family Meals

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Family Meals KidsHealth > For Parents > Family Meals Print A ... even more important as kids get older. Making Family Meals Happen It can be a big challenge ...

  15. Family History

    MedlinePlus

    Your family history includes health information about you and your close relatives. Families have many factors in common, including their genes, ... as heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Having a family member with a disease raises your risk, but ...

  16. Family Arguments

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Family Arguments Page Content Article Body We seem to ...

  17. Family Folklore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotkin, Amy J.; Baker, Holly C.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the Family Folklore Program of the Smithsonian Institution's annual Festival of American Folklife, in which the whole family can be involved in tracing family history through story telling, photographs, etc. (MS)

  18. Family History

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Family Health History Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Family Health History The Basics Family Health History & Chronic Disease Planning ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Iron-Deficiency Anemia KidsHealth > For Parents > Iron-Deficiency Anemia Print A ... common nutritional deficiency in children. About Iron-Deficiency Anemia Every red blood cell in the body contains ...

  20. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Roe, C R.; Yang, B-Z; Brunengraber, H; Roe, D S.; Wallace, M; Garritson, B K.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT II) deficiency is an important cause of recurrent rhabdomyolysis in children and adults. Current treatment includes dietary fat restriction, with increased carbohydrate intake and exercise restriction to avoid muscle pain and rhabdomyolysis. Methods: CPT II enzyme assay, DNA mutation analysis, quantitative analysis of acylcarnitines in blood and cultured fibroblasts, urinary organic acids, the standardized 36-item Short-Form Health Status survey (SF-36) version 2, and bioelectric impedance for body fat composition. Diet treatment with triheptanoin at 30% to 35% of total daily caloric intake was used for all patients. Results: Seven patients with CPT II deficiency were studied from 7 to 61 months on the triheptanoin (anaplerotic) diet. Five had previous episodes of rhabdomyolysis requiring hospitalizations and muscle pain on exertion prior to the diet (two younger patients had not had rhabdomyolysis). While on the diet, only two patients experienced mild muscle pain with exercise. During short periods of noncompliance, two patients experienced rhabdomyolysis with exercise. None experienced rhabdomyolysis or hospitalizations while on the diet. All patients returned to normal physical activities including strenuous sports. Exercise restriction was eliminated. Previously abnormal SF-36 physical composite scores returned to normal levels that persisted for the duration of the therapy in all five symptomatic patients. Conclusions: The triheptanoin diet seems to be an effective therapy for adult-onset carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency. GLOSSARY ALT = alanine aminotransferase; AST = aspartate aminotransferase; ATP = adenosine triphosphate; BHP = β-hydroxypentanoate; BKP = β-ketopentanoate; BKP-CoA = β-ketopentanoyl–coenzyme A; BUN = blood urea nitrogen; CAC = citric acid cycle; CoA = coenzyme A; CPK = creatine phosphokinase; CPT II = carnitine palmitoyltransferase II; LDL = low-density lipoprotein; MCT

  1. Iatrogenic nutritional deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Young, R C; Blass, J P

    1982-01-01

    This article catalogs the nutritional deficiencies inadvertently introduced by certain treatment regimens. Specifically, the iatrogenic effects on nutrition of surgery, hemodialysis, irradiation, and drugs are reviewed. Nutritional problems are particularly frequent consequences of surgery on the gastrointestinal tract. Gastric surgery can lead to deficiencies of vitamin B12, folate, iron, and thiamine, as well as to metabolic bone disease. The benefits of small bowel bypass are limited by the potentially severe nutritional consequences of this procedure. Following bypass surgery, patients should be monitored for signs of possible nutritional probems such as weight loss, neuropathy, cardiac arrhythmias, loss of stamina, or changes in mental status. Minimal laboratory tests should include hematologic evaluation, B12, folate, iron, albumin, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, transaminases, sodium, potassium, chloride, and carbon dioxide levels. Roentgenologic examination of the bone should also be obtained. Loss of bone substance is a major consequence of many forms of treatment, and dietary supplementation with calcium is warranted. Patients undergoing hemodialysis have shown carnitine and choline deficiencies, potassium depletion, and hypovitaminosis, as well as osteomalacia. Chronic drug use may alter intake, synthesis, absorption, transport, storage, metabolism, or excretion of nutrients. Patients vary markedly in the metabolic effects of drugs, and recommendations for nutrition must be related to age, sex, reproductive status, and genetic endowment. Moreover, the illness being treated can itself alter nutritional requirements and the effect of the treatment on nutrient status. The changes in nutritional levels induced by use of estrogen-containing oral contraceptives (OCs) are obscure; however, the effects on folate matabolism appear to be of less clinical import than previously suggested. Reduction in pyridoxine and serum vitamin B12 levels has been

  2. Treatment of carnitine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Winter, S C

    2003-01-01

    Carnitine deficiency is a secondary complication of many inborn errors of metabolism. Pharmacological treatment with carnitine not only corrects the deficiency, it facilitates removal of accumulating toxic acyl intermediates and the generation of mitochondrial free coenzyme A (CoA). The United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) approved the use of carnitine for the treatment of inborn errors of metabolism in 1992. This approval was based on retrospective chart analysis of 90 patients, with 18 in the untreated cohort and 72 in the treated cohort. Efficacy was evaluated on the basis of clinical and biochemical findings. Compelling data included increased excretion of disease-specific acylcarnitine derivatives in a dose-response relationship, decreased levels of metabolites in the blood, and improved clinical status with decreased hospitalization frequency, improved growth and significantly lower mortality rates as compared to historical controls. Complications of carnitine treatment were few, with gastrointestinal disturbances and odour being the most frequent. No laboratory or clinical safety issues were identified. Intravenous carnitine preparations were also approved for treatment of secondary carnitine deficiency. Since only 25% of enteral carnitine is absorbed and gastrointestinal tolerance of high doses is poor, parenteral carnitine treatment is an appealing alternative therapeutic approach. In 7 patients treated long term with high-dose weekly to daily venous boluses of parenteral carnitine through a subcutaneous venous port, benefits included decreased frequency of decompensations, improved growth, improved muscle strength and decreased reliance on medical foods with liberalization of protein intake. Port infections were the most troubling complication. Theoretical concerns continue to be voiced that carnitine might result in fatal arrhythmias in patients with long-chain fat metabolism defects. No published clinical studies substantiate these

  3. Family Privilege

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seita, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Family privilege is defined as "strengths and supports gained through primary caring relationships." A generation ago, the typical family included two parents and a bevy of kids living under one roof. Now, every variation of blended caregiving qualifies as family. But over the long arc of human history, a real family was a…

  4. Nasal Tip Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Cerkes, Nazim

    2016-01-01

    Nasal tip deficiency can be congenital or secondary to previous nasal surgeries. Underdeveloped medial crura usually present with underprojected tip and lack of tip definition. Weakness or malposition of lateral crura causes alar rim retraction and lateral nasal wall weakness. Structural grafting of alar cartilages strengthens the tip framework, reinforces the disrupted support mechanisms, and controls the position of the nasal tip. In secondary cases, anatomic reconstruction of the weakened or interrupted alar cartilages and reconstitution of a stable nasal tip tripod must be the goal for a predictable outcome. PMID:26616702

  5. Antithrombin deficiency in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Durai, Shivani; Tan, Lay Kok; Lim, Serene

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of a 39-year-old, gravida 3 para 2, Chinese female with a history of inherited type 1 Antithrombin deficiency and multiple prior episodes of venous thromboembolism. She presented at 29+4 weeks' gestation with severe pre-eclampsia complicated by haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet (HELLP) syndrome. She subsequently underwent an emergency caesarean section for non-reassuring fetal status, which was complicated by postpartum haemorrhage secondary to uterine atony, requiring a B-Lynch suture intraoperatively. PMID:27207982

  6. Disialotransferrin developmental deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Kristiansson, B; Andersson, M; Tonnby, B; Hagberg, B

    1989-01-01

    Seven mentally deficient children and adolescents (three pairs of siblings and one singleton) were studied. A peculiar external appearance, a characteristic neurohepatosubcutaneous tissue impairment syndrome and, as a biological marker, an abnormal sialic acid transferrin pattern were characteristic features. All seven seemed odd from birth and prone to acute cerebral dysfunction during catabolic states. Abnormal lower neurone, cerebellar, and retinal functions dominated from later childhood. The disialotransferrin pattern found in serum and cerebrospinal fluid is thought to be the biological marker of a newly discovered inborn error of glycoprotein metabolism with autosomal recessive inheritance. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 p74-b PMID:2466439

  7. Palmoplantar Keratoderma in Slurp2-Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Allan, Christopher M; Procaccia, Shiri; Tran, Deanna; Tu, Yiping; Barnes, Richard H; Larsson, Mikael; Allan, Bernard B; Young, Lorraine C; Hong, Cynthia; Tontonoz, Peter; Fong, Loren G; Young, Stephen G; Beigneux, Anne P

    2016-02-01

    SLURP1, a member of the lymphocyte antigen 6 protein family, is secreted by suprabasal keratinocytes. Mutations in SLURP1 cause a palmoplantar keratoderma (PPK) known as mal de Meleda. SLURP2, another secreted lymphocyte antigen 6 protein, is encoded by a gene located ?20 kb downstream from SLURP1. SLURP2 is produced by suprabasal keratinocytes. To investigate the importance of SLURP2, we first examined Slurp2 knockout mice in which exon 2-3 sequences had been replaced with lacZ and neo cassettes. Slurp2(-/-) mice exhibited hyperkeratosis on the volar surface of the paws (i.e., palmoplantar keratoderma), increased keratinocyte proliferation, and an accumulation of lipid droplets in the stratum corneum. They also exhibited reduced body weight and hind limb clasping. These phenotypes are similar to those of Slurp1(-/-) mice. To solidify a link between Slurp2 deficiency and palmoplantar keratoderma and to be confident that the disease phenotypes in Slurp2(-/-) mice were not secondary to the effects of the lacZ and neo cassettes on Slurp1 expression, we created a new line of Slurp2 knockout mice (Slurp2X(-/-)) in which Slurp2 was inactivated with a simple nonsense mutation. Slurp2X(-/-) mice exhibited the same disease phenotypes. Thus, Slurp2 deficiency and Slurp1 deficiencies cause the same disease phenotypes. PMID:26967477

  8. Palmoplantar keratoderma in Slurp2-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Allan, Christopher M.; Procaccia, Shiri; Tran, Deanna; Tu, Yiping; Barnes, Richard H.; Larsson, Mikael; Allan, Bernard B.; Young, Lorraine C.; Hong, Cynthia; Tontonoz, Peter; Fong, Loren G.; Young, Stephen G.; Beigneux, Anne P.

    2015-01-01

    SLURP1, a member of the Ly6 protein family, is secreted by suprabasal keratinocytes. Mutations in SLURP1 cause a palmoplantar keratoderma (PPK) known as mal de Meleda. Another secreted Ly6 protein, SLURP2, is encoded by a gene located ~20 kb downstream from SLURP1. SLURP2 is produced by suprabasal keratinocytes. To investigate the importance of SLURP2, we first examined Slurp2 knockout mice in which exon 2–3 sequences had been replaced with lacZ and neo cassettes. Slurp2−/− mice exhibited hyperkeratosis on the volar surface of the paws (i.e., PPK), increased keratinocyte proliferation, and an accumulation of lipid droplets in the stratum corneum. They also exhibited reduced body weight and hind limb clasping. These phenotypes are very similar to those of Slurp1−/− mice. To solidify a link between Slurp2 deficiency and PPK and to be confident that the disease phenotypes in Slurp2−/− mice were not secondary to the effects of the lacZ and neo cassettes on Slurp1 expression, we created a new line of Slurp2 knockout mice (Slurp2X−/−) in which Slurp2 was inactivated with a simple nonsense mutation. Slurp2X−/− mice exhibited the same disease phenotypes. Thus, Slurp2 deficiency and Slurp1 deficiencies cause the same disease phenotypes. PMID:26967477

  9. Selenium deficiency mitigates hypothyroxinemia in iodine-deficient subjects.

    PubMed

    Vanderpas, J B; Contempré, B; Duale, N L; Deckx, H; Bebe, N; Longombé, A O; Thilly, C H; Diplock, A T; Dumont, J E

    1993-02-01

    Studies were performed to assess the role of combined selenium and iodine deficiency in the etiology of endemic myxedematous cretinism in a population in Zaire. One effect of selenium deficiency may be to lower glutathione peroxidase activity in the thyroid gland, thus allowing hydrogen peroxide produced during thyroid hormone synthesis to be cytotoxic. In selenium-and-iodine-deficient humans, selenium supplementation may aggravate hypothyroidism by stimulating thyroxin metabolism by the selenoenzyme type I iodothyronine 5'-deiodinase. Selenium supplementation is thus not indicated without iodine or thyroid hormone supplementation in cases of combined selenium and iodine deficiencies. PMID:8427203

  10. The many faces of Glut1 deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tzadok, Michal; Nissenkorn, Andreea; Porper, Keren; Matot, Israel; Marcu, Shai; Anikster, Yair; Menascu, Shay; Bercovich, Dani; Ben Zeev, Bruria

    2014-03-01

    Glucose transporter protein type 1 deficiency syndrome is a metabolic disorder manifesting as cognitive impairment, acquired microcephaly, epilepsy, and/or movement disorder caused by mutations in the SLC2A1 gene. We describe a cohort of isolated and familial cases of glucose transporter protein type 1 deficiency syndrome, emphasizing seizure semiology, electroencephalographic (EEG) features, treatment response and mutation pathogenicity. SLC2A1 mutations were detected in 3 sporadic and 4 familial cases. In addition, mutations were identified in 9 clinically unaffected family members in 2 families. The phenotypic spectrum of glucose transporter protein type 1 deficiency is wider than previously recognized, with considerable intra-familial variation. Diagnosis requires either hypoglycorrachia followed by SLC2A1 sequencing or direct gene sequencing. A ketogenic diet should be the first line of treatment, but more flexible diets, like the Atkins modified diet, can also be followed. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, such as acetazolamide or zonisamide, can be effective for seizure control. PMID:23340081

  11. Iron deficiency in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Lawrence P

    2010-01-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) and related anaemia (IDA) during pregnancy are highly prevalent worldwide in both developed and developing nations although the causes are often different. At conception, many women lack sufficient iron stores to meet the increased requirements of pregnancy, which are calculated at approximately 1200 mg. Appraisal of iron status in pregnant women is problematic, however the most reliable available diagnostic test is a serum ferritin < 20 µg/L. ID is often associated with other nutritional disorders, and there is frequently a secondary cause or association. A greater oral intake is usually insufficient to meet the increased demands of pregnancy, however regular oral supplements (given either daily or intermittently) can often meet maternal needs and avoid associated neonatal complications of IDA. Over-treatment with iron should be avoided, but intravenous administration is useful when deficiency is discovered late, is severe, or if the woman is intolerant of oral formulations. This paper reviews the current literature, and addresses differences in the prevalence and causes of ID betwen developed and developing nations. It examines gestational iron requirements, distinguishes between ID and IDA, and highlights difficulties in diagnostic testing. Finally, it appraises the evidence for and against different treatment regimens, ranging from food fortification to intravenous iron infusions, according to availability and to need.

  12. Vitamin D Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Alshishtawy, Moeness Moustafa

    2012-01-01

    Recently, scientists have generated a strong body of evidence providing new information about the preventive effect of vitamin D on a broad range of disorders. This evidence suggests that vitamin D is much more than a nutrient needed for bone health; it is an essential hormone required for regulation of a large number of physiological functions. Sufficient concentration of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is essential for optimising human health. This article reviews the present state-of-the-art knowledge about vitamin D’s status worldwide and refers to recent articles discussing some of the general background of vitamin D, including sources, benefits, deficiencies, and dietary requirements, especially in pregnancy. They offer evidence that vitamin D deficiency could be a major public health burden in many parts of the world, mostly because of sun deprivation. The article also discusses the debate about optimal concentration of circulating serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and explores different views on the amount of vitamin D supplementation required to achieve and maintain this concentration. PMID:22548132

  13. Cancer, Families, and Family Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Maureen; Gillig, Scott

    2003-01-01

    Examines the role of the family counselor in working with cancer patients and their families. Suggests ways in which the family counselor can work proactively with families in the area of cancer prevention and helping them cope more effectively with its impact on their lives. Uses a clinical case example to illustrate intervention with cancer…

  14. Family therapy by family doctors

    PubMed Central

    Neighbour, R.

    1982-01-01

    The experiences of a group of general practitioners learning and attempting family therapy are described. Three principles for working with whole families — facilitation, formulation and focussing — are illustrated by case histories. Family therapy in general practice can be effective for patients and worthwhile for family doctors. PMID:7153974

  15. Zinc deficiency and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Humphries, L; Vivian, B; Stuart, M; McClain, C J

    1989-12-01

    Decreased food intake, a cyclic pattern of eating, and weight loss are major manifestations of zinc deficiency. In this study, zinc status was evaluated in 62 patients with bulimia and 24 patients with anorexia nervosa. Forty percent of patients with bulimia and 54% of those with anorexia nervosa had biochemical evidence of zinc deficiency. The authors suggest that for a variety of reasons, such as lower dietary intake of zinc, impaired zinc absorption, vomiting, diarrhea, and binging on low-zinc foods, patients with eating disorders may develop zinc deficiency. This acquired zinc deficiency could then add to the chronicity of altered eating behavior in those patients. PMID:2600063

  16. FAMILIAL SUICIDE

    PubMed Central

    Unni, K.E. Sadanaandan

    1996-01-01

    Seven completed suicides in a family of lower socioeconomic status and suburban domicile in Pondicherry are reported. The presence of bipolar affective disorder in the family members and the absence of exogenous factors are illustrated by utilising both family history method and family study method. The details collected formed the basis for the terminology ‘familial suicide’. The management of the index case, one of the only three surviving male members of the family, who presented with suicidal ruminations and depressive features, is described. PMID:21584122

  17. [A study of 95 families having at least two epileptic children (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Sternberg, B; Patry, G

    1979-01-01

    This report concerns a study of 95 families in which at least two of the children had epilepsy (a total of 210 cases). A total of 45 p. 100 of the patients were from 60 p. 100 of the families and had an intellectual level below the average, and 32 p. 100 of them had an IQ below 70. The family history was the same whether the children were mentally deficient or not. There was no family history of mental deficiency in those families where the epileptic children had a normal IQ but there was a positive family history in 25 p. 100 of families having at least one mentally deficient and epileptic child. The persistence of seizures after 5 years of treatment is seen much more frequently in mentally deficient children than in those with normal intelligence. Finally, the position of the child within the family has no influence and epilepsy may be found in any of the children. PMID:115068

  18. Borjeson-Forssman-Lehmann syndrome and multiple pituitary hormone deficiency.

    PubMed

    Birrell, G; Lampe, A; Richmond, S; Bruce, S N; Gécz, J; Lower, K; Wright, M; Cheetham, T D

    2003-12-01

    We describe two brothers with Borjeson-Forssman-Lehmann syndrome and the 22A-->T (Lys8X) PHF6 mutation, who presented with the symptoms and signs of multiple pituitary hormone deficiency. Biochemical investigations and radiology confirmed growth hormone (GH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) as well as gonadotrophin deficiency. They were also found to have optic nerve hypoplasia. This family suggests that the BFL gene product may play an important role in midline neuro-development including the hypothalamo-pituitary axis. PMID:14714754

  19. Inherited BCL10 deficiency impairs hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic immunity.

    PubMed

    Torres, Juan Manuel; Martinez-Barricarte, Rubén; García-Gómez, Sonia; Mazariegos, Marina S; Itan, Yuval; Boisson, Bertrand; Rholvarez, Rita; Jiménez-Reinoso, Anaïs; del Pino, Lucia; Rodríguez-Pena, Rebeca; Ferreira, Antonio; Hernández-Jiménez, Enrique; Toledano, Victor; Cubillos-Zapata, Carolina; Díaz-Almirón, Mariana; López-Collazo, Eduardo; Unzueta-Roch, José L; Sánchez-Ramón, Silvia; Regueiro, Jose R; López-Granados, Eduardo; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Pérez de Diego, Rebeca

    2014-12-01

    Heterotrimers composed of B cell CLL/lymphoma 10 (BCL10), mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation protein 1 (MALT1), and caspase recruitment domain-containing (CARD) family adaptors play a role in NF-κB activation and have been shown to be involved in both the innate and the adaptive arms of immunity in murine models. Moreover, individuals with inherited defects of MALT1, CARD9, and CARD11 present with immunological and clinical phenotypes. Here, we characterized a case of autosomal-recessive, complete BCL10 deficiency in a child with a broad immunodeficiency, including defects of both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic immunity. The patient died at 3 years of age and was homozygous for a loss-of-expression, loss-of-function BCL10 mutation. The effect of BCL10 deficiency was dependent on the signaling pathway, and, for some pathways, the cell type affected. Despite the noted similarities to BCL10 deficiency in mice, including a deficient adaptive immune response, human BCL10 deficiency in this patient resulted in a number of specific features within cell populations. Treatment of the patient's myeloid cells with a variety of pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecules (PAMPs) elicited a normal response; however, NF-κB-mediated fibroblast functions were dramatically impaired. The results of this study indicate that inherited BCL10 deficiency should be considered in patients with combined immunodeficiency with B cell, T cell, and fibroblast defects. PMID:25365219

  20. Inherited BCL10 deficiency impairs hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic immunity

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Juan Manuel; Martinez-Barricarte, Rubén; García-Gómez, Sonia; Mazariegos, Marina S.; Itan, Yuval; Boisson, Bertrand; ρlvarez, Rita; Jiménez-Reinoso, Anaïs; del Pino, Lucia; Rodríguez-Pena, Rebeca; Ferreira, Antonio; Hernández-Jiménez, Enrique; Toledano, Victor; Cubillos-Zapata, Carolina; Díaz-Almirón, Mariana; López-Collazo, Eduardo; Unzueta-Roch, José L.; Sánchez-Ramón, Silvia; Regueiro, Jose R.; López-Granados, Eduardo; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Pérez de Diego, Rebeca

    2014-01-01

    Heterotrimers composed of B cell CLL/lymphoma 10 (BCL10), mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation protein 1 (MALT1), and caspase recruitment domain–containing (CARD) family adaptors play a role in NF-κB activation and have been shown to be involved in both the innate and the adaptive arms of immunity in murine models. Moreover, individuals with inherited defects of MALT1, CARD9, and CARD11 present with immunological and clinical phenotypes. Here, we characterized a case of autosomal-recessive, complete BCL10 deficiency in a child with a broad immunodeficiency, including defects of both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic immunity. The patient died at 3 years of age and was homozygous for a loss-of-expression, loss-of-function BCL10 mutation. The effect of BCL10 deficiency was dependent on the signaling pathway, and, for some pathways, the cell type affected. Despite the noted similarities to BCL10 deficiency in mice, including a deficient adaptive immune response, human BCL10 deficiency in this patient resulted in a number of specific features within cell populations. Treatment of the patient’s myeloid cells with a variety of pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecules (PAMPs) elicited a normal response; however, NF-κB–mediated fibroblast functions were dramatically impaired. The results of this study indicate that inherited BCL10 deficiency should be considered in patients with combined immunodeficiency with B cell, T cell, and fibroblast defects. PMID:25365219

  1. Basic Skills: Dealing with Deficiencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces.

    Research findings on college instruction and basic skills deficiencies are discussed in 12 papers from the first Regional Conference on University Teaching. Titles and authors are as follows: "Basic Skills: Dealing with Deficiencies" (Susanne D. Roueche, with responses by Gary B. Donart, Betty Harris, and James Nordyke); "Is Higher Education an…

  2. Family Matters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mainor, Peggy

    2001-01-01

    Describes a Kellogg Family Collaborative project that involves the University of Montana and four tribal colleges in a family-strengths approach to improving student retention and achievement. States that the project is grounded in social work theory and research that recognize and reinforce family and student resilience through promotion of…

  3. Family Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieck, Colleen, Ed.; McBride, Marijo, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This "Feature Issue" of the quarterly journal "Impact" presents 19 brief articles on family support systems in the United States for persons with developmental disabilities and their families. Emphasis is on provisions of Public Law 99-457. Articles include: "Family Support in the United States: Setting a Course for the 1990s" (James Knoll);…

  4. Rural Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Kathy, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This "special focus" journal issue consists of 13 individual articles on the theme of rural family programs relating to school, health services, church, and other institutions. It includes: (1) "Towards a Rural Family Policy" (Judith K. Chynoweth and Michael D. Campbell); (2) "Montana: Council for Families Collaborates for Prevention (Jean…

  5. Iron deficiency anemia in children.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Girish; Girish, Meenakshi

    2015-06-01

    Iron deficiency is not just anemia; it can be responsible for a long list of other manifestations. This topic is of great importance, especially in infancy and early childhood, for a variety of reasons. Firstly, iron need is maximum in this period. Secondly, diet in infancy is usually deficient in iron. Thirdly and most importantly, iron deficiency at this age can result in neurodevelopmental and cognitive deficits, which may not be reversible. Hypochromia and microcytosis in a complete blood count (CBC) makes iron deficiency anemia (IDA) most likely diagnosis. Absence of response to iron should make us look for other differential diagnosis like β thalassemia trait and anemia of chronic disease. Celiac disease is the most important cause of true IDA not responding to oral iron therapy. While oral ferrous sulphate is the cheapest and most effective therapy for IDA, simple nonpharmacological and pharmacological measures can go a long way in prevention of iron deficiency. PMID:25636824

  6. Interactions between copper deficiency, selenium deficiency and adriamycin toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, J.; Tackett, R.; Johnson, M.A. )

    1991-03-15

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that there are interactions between copper (Cu) and selenium (Se) status, and adriamycin (ADR) toxicity. Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed Cu,Se adequate; Cu deficient, Se adequate ({minus}Cu); Cu adequate, Se deficient; or Cu,Se deficient diets for 38-41 days. ADR or saline (SAL) were administered weekly for the last 4 weeks of the study. Cu deficiency was confirmed by a 3-fold decrease in liver Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase and liver Cu, and a 5-fold decrease in RBC Cu,Zn-SOD. Se deficiency was confirmed by a 10-fold decrease in liver glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). ADR, Cu deficiency and Se deficiency all caused EKG abnormalities. However, Cu and Se deficiencies did not enhance ADR's influence on EKGs. ADR increased lipid peroxidation in liver by 15% and in heart by 18% (NS). Cu deficiency decreased ADR-induced lipid peroxidation in heart tissue by 25%. ADR influenced Se status by significantly increasing heart GSH-Px, and Cu status by increasing liver Cu, plasma ceruloplasmin and liver Cu, Zn-SOD. These elevations in Cu,Zn-SOD and GSH-Px may be a consequence of the increased lipid peroxidation initiated by ADR. In {minus}Cu rats, ADR caused severe hemolytic anemia characterized by a 19% decrease in hematocrit and a 17-fold increase in splenic Fe. These data suggest that there are numerous interactions between ADR toxicity and Cu and Se status.

  7. Gender Dependent Evaluation of Autism like Behavior in Mice Exposed to Prenatal Zinc Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Grabrucker, Stefanie; Boeckers, Tobias M; Grabrucker, Andreas M

    2016-01-01

    Zinc deficiency has recently been linked to the etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) as environmental risk factor. With an estimated 17% of the world population being at risk of zinc deficiency, especially zinc deficiency during pregnancy might be a common occurrence, also in industrialized nations. On molecular level, zinc deficiency has been shown to affect a signaling pathway at glutamatergic synapses that has previously been identified through genetic mutations in ASD patients, the Neurexin-Neuroligin-Shank pathway, via altering zinc binding Shank family members. In particular, prenatal zinc deficient but not acute zinc deficient animals have been reported to display autism like behavior in some behavioral tests. However, a full behavioral analysis of a possible autism like behavior has been lacking so far. Here, we performed an extensive behavioral phenotyping of mice born from mothers with mild zinc deficiency during all trimesters of pregnancy. Prenatal zinc deficient animals were investigated as adults and gender differences were assessed. Our results show that prenatal zinc deficient mice display increased anxiety, deficits in nest building and various social interaction paradigm, as well as mild alterations in ultrasonic vocalizations. A gender specific analysis revealed only few sex specific differences. Taken together, given that similar behavioral abnormalities as reported here are frequently observed in ASD mouse models, we conclude that prenatal zinc deficient animals even without specific genetic susceptibility for ASD, already show some features of ASD like behavior. PMID:26973485

  8. Gender Dependent Evaluation of Autism like Behavior in Mice Exposed to Prenatal Zinc Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Grabrucker, Stefanie; Boeckers, Tobias M.; Grabrucker, Andreas M.

    2016-01-01

    Zinc deficiency has recently been linked to the etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) as environmental risk factor. With an estimated 17% of the world population being at risk of zinc deficiency, especially zinc deficiency during pregnancy might be a common occurrence, also in industrialized nations. On molecular level, zinc deficiency has been shown to affect a signaling pathway at glutamatergic synapses that has previously been identified through genetic mutations in ASD patients, the Neurexin-Neuroligin-Shank pathway, via altering zinc binding Shank family members. In particular, prenatal zinc deficient but not acute zinc deficient animals have been reported to display autism like behavior in some behavioral tests. However, a full behavioral analysis of a possible autism like behavior has been lacking so far. Here, we performed an extensive behavioral phenotyping of mice born from mothers with mild zinc deficiency during all trimesters of pregnancy. Prenatal zinc deficient animals were investigated as adults and gender differences were assessed. Our results show that prenatal zinc deficient mice display increased anxiety, deficits in nest building and various social interaction paradigm, as well as mild alterations in ultrasonic vocalizations. A gender specific analysis revealed only few sex specific differences. Taken together, given that similar behavioral abnormalities as reported here are frequently observed in ASD mouse models, we conclude that prenatal zinc deficient animals even without specific genetic susceptibility for ASD, already show some features of ASD like behavior. PMID:26973485

  9. Genetics Home Reference: isolated growth hormone deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Conditions isolated growth hormone deficiency isolated growth hormone deficiency Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... PDF Open All Close All Description Isolated growth hormone deficiency is a condition caused by a severe ...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: adenosine deaminase 2 deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Conditions adenosine deaminase 2 deficiency adenosine deaminase 2 deficiency Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... PDF Open All Close All Description Adenosine deaminase 2 (ADA2) deficiency is a disorder characterized by abnormal ...

  11. What Causes Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency? Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is an inherited disease. "Inherited" ... have AAT deficiency inherit two faulty AAT genes, one from each parent. These genes tell cells in ...

  12. Monocular Elevation Deficiency - Double Elevator Palsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Monocular Elevation Deficiency/ Double Elevator Palsy En Español Read in Chinese What is monocular elevation deficiency (Double Elevator Palsy)? Monocular Elevation Deficiency, also known by the ...

  13. Genetics Home Reference: protein C deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions protein C deficiency protein C deficiency Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Protein C deficiency is a disorder that increases the ...

  14. Genetics Home Reference: protein S deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions protein S deficiency protein S deficiency Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Protein S deficiency is a disorder of blood clotting. People ...

  15. Genetics Home Reference: glucose phosphate isomerase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions GPI deficiency glucose phosphate isomerase deficiency Enable Javascript to view the ... boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI) deficiency is an inherited disorder ...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: factor V deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetics Home Health Conditions factor V deficiency factor V deficiency Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description Factor V deficiency is a rare bleeding disorder. The signs ...

  17. Hypocretin ligand deficiency in narcolepsy: recent basic and clinical insights.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Cayde; Okuro, Masashi; Kanbayashi, Takashi; Nishino, Seiji

    2010-05-01

    Narcolepsy is a chronic sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations, and sleep paralysis. Both sporadic and familial forms exist in humans. Recently, the major pathophysiology of human narcolepsy was indicated, based on discovery, through animal study, of narcolepsy genes involved in the pathology of hypocretin/orexin ligand and its receptor. Hypocretin ligand deficiency is found in most patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy. This deficiency likely is the result of postnatal cell death of hypocretin neurons, and involvement of autoimmune mechanisms is suggested. Hypocretin deficiency also is found in symptomatic narcolepsy and excessive daytime sleepiness with neurologic conditions, including immune-mediated neurologic disorders. These findings have significant clinical relevance and promote understanding of hypocretin cell death mechanisms. Already, discoveries in humans have led to a new diagnostic test for narcolepsy. Currently, hypocretin replacement therapy has emerged as a promising therapeutic option, and experiments using gene therapy and cell transplantation are in progress. PMID:20425033

  18. α1-Antitrypsin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Greene, Catherine M; Marciniak, Stefan J; Teckman, Jeffrey; Ferrarotti, Ilaria; Brantly, Mark L; Lomas, David A; Stoller, James K; McElvaney, Noel G

    2016-01-01

    α1-Antitrypsin deficiency (A1ATD) is an inherited disorder caused by mutations in SERPINA1, leading to liver and lung disease. It is not a rare disorder but frequently goes underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or cryptogenic liver disease. The most frequent disease-associated mutations include the S allele and the Z allele of SERPINA1, which lead to the accumulation of misfolded α1-antitrypsin in hepatocytes, endoplasmic reticulum stress, low circulating levels of α1-antitrypsin and liver disease. Currently, there is no cure for severe liver disease and the only management option is liver transplantation when liver failure is life-threatening. A1ATD-associated lung disease predominately occurs in adults and is caused principally by inadequate protease inhibition. Treatment of A1ATD-associated lung disease includes standard therapies that are also used for the treatment of COPD, in addition to the use of augmentation therapy (that is, infusions of human plasma-derived, purified α1-antitrypsin). New therapies that target the misfolded α1-antitrypsin or attempt to correct the underlying genetic mutation are currently under development. PMID:27465791

  19. [Physiopathology of iodine deficiency].

    PubMed

    Pinchera, A; Rago, T; Vitti, P

    1998-01-01

    The process of goitrogenesis is likely to be the consequence of an increased TSH stimulation linked to an initial reduction of circulating thyroid hormone caused by iodine deficiency (ID). Other growth factors associated to TSH may have a role in the pathogenesis of goiter. Natural history of goiter is the evolution towards nodularity and functional autonomy. This phenomenon is due to the heterogeneity of thyroid follicular cells, some of which, with an intrinsic elevated growth rate, under the stimulation of ID progress to nodule formation and hyperfunction. In multinodular goiter TSH receptor mutations activating adenylate cyclase-cAMP pathway were found. In a recent epidemiological survey it was shown that nodular goiter increased with the age, being about 1% in schoolchildren and 23% in the adults (56-75 years). Also nodular autonomy and hyperthyroidism were more frequent in the 36-75 year age group. Severe ID is also cause of endemic cretinism. In Europe minor neuropsychological impairments and cognitive deficits were described in areas of moderate ID. The exposure to a mild ID during fetal life causes minor neuropsychological damage. In conclusion, ID is responsible of goiter and its evolution towards nodularity and functional autonomy. Severe ID is also cause of endemic cretinism, while cognitive deficits and minor neuropsychological impairments were found in mild to moderate ID. PMID:10052165

  20. Betaine Deficiency in Maize 1

    PubMed Central

    Lerma, Claudia; Rich, Patrick J.; Ju, Grace C.; Yang, Wen-Ju; Hanson, Andrew D.; Rhodes, David

    1991-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is a betaine-accumulating species, but certain maize genotypes lack betaine almost completely; a single recessive gene has been implicated as the cause of this deficiency (D Rhodes, PJ Rich [1988] Plant Physiol 88: 102-108). This study was undertaken to determine whether betaine deficiency in diverse maize germplasm is conditioned by the same genetic locus, and to define the biochemical lesion(s) involved. Complementation tests indicated that all 13 deficient genotypes tested shared a common locus. One maize population (P77) was found to be segregating for betaine deficiency, and true breeding individuals were used to produce related lines with and without betaine. Leaf tissue of both betaine-positive and betaine-deficient lines readily converted supplied betaine aldehyde to betaine, but only the betaine-containing line was able to oxidize supplied choline to betaine. This locates the lesion in betaine-deficient plants at the choline → betaine aldehyde step of betaine synthesis. Consistent with this location, betaine-deficient plants were shown to have no detectable endogenous pool of betaine aldehyde. PMID:16668098

  1. Clinical manifestations of zinc deficiency.

    PubMed

    Prasad, A S

    1985-01-01

    The essentiality of zinc for humans was recognized in the early 1960s. The causes of zinc deficiency include malnutrition, alcoholism, malabsorption, extensive burns, chronic debilitating disorders, chronic renal diseases, following uses of certain drugs such as penicillamine for Wilson's disease and diuretics in some cases, and genetic disorders such as acrodermatitis enteropathica and sickle cell disease. In pregnancy and during periods of growth the requirement of zinc is increased. The clinical manifestations in severe cases of zinc deficiency include bullous-pustular dermatitis, alopecia, diarrhea, emotional disorder, weight loss, intercurrent infections, hypogonadism in males; it is fatal if unrecognized and untreated. A moderate deficiency of zinc is characterized by growth retardation and delayed puberty in adolescents, hypogonadism in males, rough skin, poor appetite, mental lethargy, delayed wound healing, taste abnormalities, and abnormal dark adaptation. In mild cases of zinc deficiency in human subjects, we have observed oligospermia, slight weight loss, and hyperammonemia. Zinc is a growth factor. Its deficiency adversely affects growth in many animal species and humans. Inasmuch as zinc is needed for protein and DNA synthesis and for cell division, it is believed that the growth effect of zinc is related to its effect on protein synthesis. Whether or not zinc is required for the metabolism of somatomedin needs to be investigated in the future. Testicular functions are affected adversely as a result of zinc deficiency in both humans and experimental animals. This effect of zinc is at the end organ level; the hypothalamic-pituitary axis is intact in zinc-deficient subjects. Inasmuch as zinc is intimately involved in cell division, its deficiency may adversely affect testicular size and thus affect its functions. Zinc is required for the functions of several enzymes and whether or not it has an enzymatic role in steroidogenesis is not known at present

  2. "Myelodysplasia," myeloneuropathy, and copper deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Neeraj; Elliott, Michelle A; Hoyer, James D; Harper, Charles M; Ahlskog, J Eric; Phyliky, Robert L

    2005-07-01

    We describe a patient with a suspected myelodysplastic syndrome that developed in association with a neurologic disorder resembling subacute combined degeneration but without vitamin B12 deficiency. Ultimately, the hematologic manifestations and the neurologic syndrome were linked to severe copper deficiency. Prompt and complete reversal of the hematologic abnormalities occurred with copper replacement. Serum copper determination should be included in the work-up of patients with anemia and leukopenia of unclear etiology who have associated myeloneuropathy. The hematologic picture can resemble sideroblastic anemia or myelodysplastic syndrome. Hyperzincemia can be an accompanying abnormality even without exogenous zinc ingestion. The reason for the copper deficiency may not be evident. PMID:16007901

  3. Genetics of growth hormone deficiency.

    PubMed

    Mullis, Primus E

    2007-03-01

    When a child is not following the normal, predicted growth curve, an evaluation for underlying illness and central nervous system abnormalities is required and appropriate consideration should be given to genetic defects causing growth hormone (GH) deficiency. This article focuses on the GH gene, the various gene alterations, and their possible impact on the pituitary gland. Transcription factors regulating pituitary gland development may cause multiple pituitary hormone deficiency but may present initially as GH deficiency. The role of two most important transcription factors, POU1F1 (Pit-1) and PROP 1, is discussed. PMID:17336732

  4. [Immune deficiencies in nutritional anemias].

    PubMed

    Bonnet Gajdos, M; Navarro, J; Belas, F; Traineau, R

    1982-12-16

    A transient cellular immunologic defect caused by folic acid deficiency was seen in a goat-milk-fed infant with severe enterocolitis. Data on the immunologic consequences of folic acid, protein and iron deficiencies were reviewed in the medical literature. Investigations are difficult because of the patients' poor general condition. Results are difficult to interpret as many etiologic factors are often combined and mechanisms of immunologic responses are complex. Attention is drawn to the danger of iron therapy in patients with transferrin deficiency. PMID:6297076

  5. Genetics Home Reference: prekallikrein deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... a role in a process called the intrinsic coagulation pathway (also called the contact activation pathway). This ... functional plasma kallikrein, which likely impairs the intrinsic coagulation pathway. Researchers suggest that this lack (deficiency) of ...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... 3. Citation on PubMed Liu TT, Chiang SH, Wu SJ, Hsiao KJ. Tetrahydrobiopterin-deficient hyperphenylalaninemia in the ... Citation on PubMed Wang L, Yu WM, He C, Chang M, Shen M, Zhou Z, Zhang Z, ...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: arginase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... deficiency is an inherited disorder that causes the amino acid arginine (a building block of proteins) and ammonia ... links) Encyclopedia: Hereditary urea cycle abnormality Health Topic: Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders Health Topic: Genetic Brain Disorders Health ...

  8. Detecting Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Stoller, James K

    2016-08-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency is a widely underrecognized condition, with evidence of persisting long diagnostic delays and patients' frequent need to see multiple physicians before initial diagnosis. Reasons for underrecognition include inadequate understanding of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency by physicians and allied health care providers; failure to implement available, guideline-based practice recommendations; and the belief that effective therapy is unavailable. Multiple studies have described both the results of screening and targeted detection of individuals with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, with both varying strategies employed to identify at-risk individuals and varying results of testing. Also, various strategies to enhance detection of affected individuals have been examined, including use of the electronic medical record to prompt testing and empowerment of allied health providers, especially respiratory therapists, to promote testing for alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. Such efforts are likely to enhance detection with the expected result that the harmful effects of delayed diagnosis can be mitigated. PMID:27564667

  9. Genetics Home Reference: dihydropyrimidinase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... An abnormally small head size ( microcephaly ) and autistic behaviors that affect communication and social interaction also occur ... deficiency MalaCards: dihydropyrimidinuria Merck Manual Professional Version: Pyrimidine ... Dihydropyrimidinuria Patient Support and Advocacy Resources ( ...

  10. [Niacin deficiency and cutaneous immunity].

    PubMed

    Ikenouchi-Sugita, Atsuko; Sugita, Kazunari

    2015-01-01

    Niacin, also known as vitamin B3, is required for the synthesis of coenzymes, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP). Niacin binds with G protein-coupled receptor (GPR) 109A on cutaneous Langerhans cells and causes vasodilation with flushing in head and neck area. Niacin deficiency due to excessive alcohol consumption, certain drugs or inadequate uptake in diet causes pellagra, a photosensitivity dermatitis. Recently several studies have revealed the mechanism of photosensitivity in niacin deficiency, which may pave a way for new therapeutic approaches. The expression level of prostaglandin E synthase (PTGES) is up-regulated in the skin of both pellagra patients and niacin deficient pellagra mouse models. In addition, pellagra is mediated through prostaglandin E₂-EP4 (PGE₂-EP4) signaling via reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in keratinocytes. In this article, we have reviewed the role of niacin in immunity and the mechanism of niacin deficiency-induced photosensitivity. PMID:25765687

  11. Genetics Home Reference: prothrombin deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patients and Caregivers: How Blood Clots Orphanet: Congenital factor II deficiency University of Iowa Health Care: Prothrombin Gene Mutation Patient Support and Advocacy Resources (2 links) Canadian Hemophilia Society National Hemophilia Foundation: Factor II ... Genetic Testing Registry (1 link) Prothrombin ...

  12. Evolutionary Processes and Mental Deficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitz, Herman H.

    1973-01-01

    The author hypothesizes that central nervous system damage of deficiency associated with mental retardation affects primarily those cortical processes which developed at a late stage in man's evolutionary history. (Author)

  13. Cutaneous findings of nutritional deficiencies in children.

    PubMed

    Goskowicz, M; Eichenfield, L F

    1993-08-01

    Nutritional deficiencies may be associated with a variety of cutaneous findings in children. This review emphasizes new developments relating to cutaneous findings of nutritional deficiencies. Zinc deficiency, acrodermatitis enteropathica, and acrodermatitis enteropathica-like eruptions are seen with a variety of conditions including cystic fibrosis, anorexia nervosa, and breastfeeding. Similar cutaneous findings not related to zinc deficiency may also occur with such metabolic disorders as methylmalonic aciduria, multiple carboxylase deficiency, essential fatty acid deficiency and other amino acid deficiencies. Vitamin K deficiency is associated with hemorrhagic disease of the newborn and coagulopathy. Vitamin A deficiency presents with a variety of systemic findings and distinctive dermatologic findings. Acute vitamin A deficiency may be seen in children infected with measles and is associated with more severe disease. The systemic and cutaneous findings of vitamin C deficiency, scurvy, are discussed. PMID:8374671

  14. Potential Mechanisms of Progranulin-deficient FTLD

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Michael Emmerson

    2013-01-01

    Frontotemporal lobar dementia (FTLD) is the most common cause of dementia in patients younger than 60 years of age, and causes progressive neurodegeneration of the frontal and temporal lobes usually accompanied by devastating changes in language or behavior in affected individuals. Mutations in the progranulin (GRN) gene account for a significant fraction of familial FTLD, and in the vast majority of cases, these mutations lead to reduced expression of progranulin via nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Progranulin is a secreted glycoprotein that regulates a diverse range of cellular functions including cell proliferation, cell migration, and inflammation. Recent fundamental discoveries about progranulin biology, including the findings that sortilin and tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) are high affinity progranulin receptors, are beginning to shed light on the mechanism(s) by which progranulin deficiency causes FTLD. This review will explore how alterations in basic cellular functions due to PGRN deficiency, both intrinsic and extrinsic to neurons, might lead to the development of FTLD. PMID:21892758

  15. Caspase deficiency alters the murine gut microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Brinkman, B M; Hildebrand, F; Kubica, M; Goosens, D; Del Favero, J; Declercq, W; Raes, J; Vandenabeele, P

    2011-01-01

    Caspases are aspartate-specific cysteine proteases that have an essential role in apoptosis and inflammation, and contribute to the maintenance of homeostasis in the intestine. These facts, together with the knowledge that caspases are implicated in host-microbe crosstalk, prompted us to investigate the effect of caspase (Casp)1, -3 and -7 deficiency on the composition of the murine gut microbiota. We observed significant changes in the abundance of the Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla, in particular the Lachnospiraceae, Porphyromonodaceae and Prevotellacea families, when comparing Casp-1, -7 and -3 knockout mice with wild-type mice. Our data point toward an intricate relationship between these caspases and the composition of the murine gut microflora. PMID:22012254

  16. [Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH)-deficient renal cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Agaimy, A

    2016-03-01

    Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) represents a type II mitochondrial complex related to the respiratory chain and Krebs cycle. The complex is composed of four major subunits, SDHA, SDHB, SDHC and SDHD. The oncogenic role of this enzyme complex has only recently been recognized and the complex is currently considered an important oncogenic signaling pathway with tumor suppressor properties. In addition to the familial paraganglioma syndromes (types 1-5) as prototypical SDH-related diseases, many other tumors have been defined as SDH-deficient, in particular a subset of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), rare hypophyseal adenomas, a subset of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (recently added) and a variety of other tumor entities, the latter mainly described as rare case reports. As a central core subunit responsible for the integrity of the SDH complex, the expression of SDHB is lost in all SDH-deficient neoplasms irrespective of the specific SDH subunit affected by a genetic mutation in addition to concurrent loss of the subunit specifically affected by genetic alteration. Accordingly, all SDH-deficient neoplasms are by definition SDHB-deficient. The SDH-deficient renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has only recently been well-characterized and it is included as a specific subtype of RCC in the new World Health Organization (WHO) classification published in 2016. In this review, the major clinicopathological, immunohistochemical and genetic features of this rare disease entity are presented and discussed in the context of the broad differential diagnosis. PMID:26979428

  17. Caspase-2 Deficiency Enhances Aging-Related Traits in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yingpei; Padalecki, Susan S; Chaudhuri, Asish R; Waal, Eric De; Goins, Beth A; Grubbs, Barry; Ikeno, Yuji; Richardson, Arlan; Mundy, Gregory R; Herman, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Alteration of apoptotic activity has been observed in a number of tissues in aging mammals, but it remains unclear whether and/or how apoptosis may affect aging. Caspase-2 is a member of the cysteine protease family that plays a critical role in apoptosis. To understand the impact of compromised apoptosis function on mammalian aging, we conducted a comparative study on caspase-2 deficient mice and their wild-type littermates with a specific focus on the aging-related traits at advanced ages. We found that caspase-2 deficiency enhanced a number of traits commonly seen in premature aging animals. Loss of caspase-2 was associated with shortened maximum lifespan, impaired hair growth, increased bone loss, and reduced body fat content. In addition, we found that the livers of caspase-2 deficient mice had higher levels of oxidized proteins than those of age-matched wild-type mice, suggesting that caspase-2 deficiency compromised the animal's ability to clear oxidatively damaged cells. Collectively, these results suggest that caspase-2 deficiency affects aging in the mice. This study thus demonstrates for the first time that disruption of a key apoptotic gene has a significant impact on aging. PMID:17188333

  18. Zinc and its deficiency diseases.

    PubMed

    Evans, G W

    1986-01-01

    The pervasive role of zinc in the metabolic function of the body results from its function as a cofactor of a multitude of enzymes. Zinc is found in every tissue in the body, and because zinc metalloenzymes are found in every known class of enzymes, the metal has a function in every conceivable type of biochemical pathway. Symptoms resulting from zinc deficiency are as diverse as the enzymes with which the metal is associated. If chronic, severe, and untreated, zinc deficiency can be fatal. Less drastic symptoms include infections, hypogonadism, weight loss, emotional disturbance, dermatitis, alopecia, impaired taste acuity, night blindness, poor appetite, delayed wound healing, and elevated blood ammonia levels. Many symptoms of zinc deficiency result from poor diet consumption, but often the most severe symptoms result from other factors including excessive alcohol use, liver diseases, malabsorption syndromes, renal disease, enteral or parenteral alimentation, administration of sulfhydryl-containing drugs, and sickle cell disease. The most severe symptoms of zinc deficiency occur in young children affected with the autosomal-recessive trait, acrodermatitis enteropathica. This disease results in decreased synthesis of picolinic acid which causes an impaired ability to utilize zinc from common food. Because simple laboratory analyses are often not reliable in determining zinc nutriture of a patient, those symptoms caused by suspected zinc deficiency are best verified by the oral administration of zinc dipicolinate. This zinc compound is efficacious and safe and would provide an accurate means of identifying symptoms that do result from zinc deficiency. PMID:3514057

  19. FAMILY LYGISTORRHINIDAE.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Sarah Siqueira; Amorim, Dalton De Souza

    2016-01-01

    The Lygistorrhinidae are a family belonging to the suborder Bibionomorpha, with no previous record from Colombia. This paper refers for the first time to the occurrence of the family in the country, an undetermined species of the genus Lygistorrhina (Probolaeus) Williston. PMID:27395260

  20. Family Potyviridae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses potyvirus study group has revised the description of the family Potyviridae for inclusion in the ICTV 9th report. Characteristic features of each genus within the family is presented. Revised criteria for demarcation and nomenclature of viral sp...

  1. Family Empowerment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Mary F., Ed.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This feature issue of IMPACT focuses on the empowerment of families with a member who has a developmental disability. It presents strategies and models for a collaborative, respectful approach to service provision, and presents the experiences of families in seeking support and assistance. Feature articles include "Two Generations of Disability: A…

  2. Family Workshops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Dave; Rees-Jones, Tanny

    1978-01-01

    A Family Workshop is an informal, multidisciplined educational program for adults and children, organized by a team of teachers. This article discusses the Lavender Hill Family Workshop, one of many, which attempts to provide education in various subject areas for adults and for children while also integrating both objectives in order to educate…

  3. Family Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Focuses on various aspects of mammal family life ranging from ways different species are born to how different mammals are raised. Learning activities include making butter from cream, creating birth announcements for mammals, and playing a password game on family life. (ML)

  4. 33 CFR 154.1070 - Deficiencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... equipment or records maintained in connection with this subpart. (b) Deficiencies shall be corrected within... who disagrees with a deficiency issued by the COTP may appeal the deficiency to the cognizant COTP within 7 days or the time specified by the COTP to correct the deficiency, whichever is less. This...

  5. Elevation of guanidinoacetate in newborn dried blood spots and impact of early treatment in GAMT deficiency.

    PubMed

    El-Gharbawy, Areeg H; Goldstein, Jennifer L; Millington, David S; Vaisnins, Amie E; Schlune, Andrea; Barshop, Bruce A; Schulze, Andreas; Koeberl, Dwight D; Young, Sarah P

    2013-06-01

    Guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiency is a good candidate disorder for newborn screening because early treatment appears to improve outcomes. We report elevation of guanidinoacetate in archived newborn dried blood spots for 3 cases (2 families) of GAMT deficiency compared with an unaffected carrier and controls. We also report a new case of a patient treated from birth with normal developmental outcome at the age of 42 months. PMID:23583224

  6. Family Health and Family Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This document is made up of a selection of some of the papers distributed to participants in courses on "Family Health and Family Planning" which have been organized each year since 1973 by the International Children's Center and the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. Six courses, held between 1973 and 1978, brought together a…

  7. Familial Risk for Exceptional Longevity

    PubMed Central

    Sebastiani, Paola; Andersen, Stacy L.; McIntosh, Avery I.; Nussbaum, Lisa; Stevenson, Meredith D.; Pierce, Leslie; Xia, Samantha; Salance, Kelly; Perls, Thomas T.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most glaring deficiencies in the current assessment of mortality risk is the lack of information concerning the impact of familial longevity. In this work, we update estimates of sibling relative risk of living to extreme ages using data from more than 1,700 sibships, and we begin to examine the trend for heritability for different birth-year cohorts. We also build a network model that can be used to compute the increased chance for exceptional longevity of a subject, conditional on his family history of longevity. The network includes familial longevity from three generations and can be used to understand the effects of paternal and maternal longevity on an individual's chance to live to an extreme age. PMID:27041978

  8. Family structure and child anemia in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Schmeer, Kammi K

    2013-10-01

    Utilizing longitudinal data from the nationally-representative Mexico Family Life Survey, this study assesses the association between family structure and iron-deficient anemia among children ages 3-12 in Mexico. The longitudinal models (n = 4649), which control for baseline anemia status and allow for consideration of family structure transitions, suggest that children living in stable-cohabiting and single-mother families and those who have recently experienced a parental union dissolution have higher odds of anemia than those in stable-married, father-present family structures. Interaction effects indicate that unmarried family contexts have stronger associations with anemia in older children (over age five); and, that the negative effects of parental union dissolution are exacerbated in poorer households. Resident maternal grandparents have a significant beneficial effect on child anemia independent of parental family structure. These results highlight the importance of family structure for child micronutrient deficiencies and suggest that understanding social processes within households may be critical to preventing child anemia in Mexico. PMID:23294876

  9. Zinc deficiency in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Prasad, A S; Fitzgerald, J T; Hess, J W; Kaplan, J; Pelen, F; Dardenne, M

    1993-01-01

    Zinc is needed for growth and development, DNA synthesis, neurosensory functions, and cell-mediated immunity. Although zinc intake is reduced in elderly people, its deficiency and effects on cell-mediated immunity of the elderly have not been established. Subjects enrolled in "A Model Health Promotion and Intervention Program for Urban Middle Aged and Elderly Americans" were assessed for nutrition and zinc status. One hundred eighty healthy subjects were randomly selected for the study. Their mean dietary zinc intake was 9.06 mg/day, whereas the recommended dietary allowance is 15 mg/day. Plasma zinc was normal, but zinc in granulocytes and lymphocytes were decreased compared with younger control subjects. Of 118 elderly subjects in whom zinc levels in both granulocytes and lymphocytes were available, 36 had deficient levels. Plasma copper was increased, and interleukin 1 (IL-1) production was significantly decreased. Reduced response to the skin-test antigen panel and decreased taste acuity were observed. Thirteen elderly zinc-deficient subjects were supplemented with zinc, and various variables were assessed before and after zinc supplementation. Zinc supplementation corrected zinc deficiency and normalized plasma copper levels. Serum thymulin activity, IL-1 production, and lymphocyte ecto-5'-nucleotidase increased significantly after supplementation. Improvement in response to skin-test antigens and taste acuity was observed after zinc supplementation. A mild zinc deficiency appears to be a significant clinical problem in free-living elderly people. PMID:8353362

  10. Health consequences of iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kapil, Umesh

    2007-12-01

    Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) are one of the biggest worldwide public health problem of today. Their effect is hidden and profoundly affects the quality of human life. Iodine deficiency occurs when the soil is poor in iodine, causing a low concentration in food products and insufficient iodine intake in the population. When iodine requirements are not met, the thyroid may no longer be able to synthesize sufficient amounts of thyroid hormone. The resulting low-level of thyroid hormones in the blood is the principal factor responsible for the series of functional and developmental abnormalities, collectively referred to as IDD. Iodine deficiency is a significant cause of mental developmental problems in children, including implications on reproductive functions and lowering of IQ levels in school-aged children. The consequence of iodine deficiency during pregnancy is impaired synthesis of thyroid hormones by the mother and the foetus. An insufficient supply of thyroid hormones to the developing brain may result in mental retardation. Brain damage and irreversible mental retardation are the most important disorders induced by iodine deficiency. Daily consumption of salt fortified with iodine is a proven effective strategy for prevention of IDD. PMID:21748117

  11. Leaf Senescence by Magnesium Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Tanoi, Keitaro; Kobayashi, Natsuko I.

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium ions (Mg2+) are the second most abundant cations in living plant cells, and they are involved in various functions, including photosynthesis, enzyme catalysis, and nucleic acid synthesis. Low availability of Mg2+ in an agricultural field leads to a decrease in yield, which follows the appearance of Mg-deficient symptoms such as chlorosis, necrotic spots on the leaves, and droop. During the last decade, a variety of physiological and molecular responses to Mg2+ deficiency that potentially link to leaf senescence have been recognized, allowing us to reconsider the mechanisms of Mg2+ deficiency. This review focuses on the current knowledge about the physiological responses to Mg2+ deficiency including a decline in transpiration, accumulation of sugars and starch in source leaves, change in redox states, increased oxidative stress, metabolite alterations, and a decline in photosynthetic activity. In addition, we refer to the molecular responses that are thought to be related to leaf senescence. With these current data, we give an overview of leaf senescence induced by Mg deficiency. PMID:27135350

  12. Molecular characterization of novel splice site mutation causing protein C deficiency.

    PubMed

    Al-Hamed, Mohamed H; AlBatniji, Fatma; AlDakheel, Ghadah A; El-Faraidi, Huda; Al-Zahrani, Azzah; Al-Abbass, Fahed; Imtiaz, Faiqa

    2016-07-01

    Congenital protein C deficiency is an inherited coagulation disorder associated with an elevated risk of venous thromboembolism. A Saudi Arabian male from a consanguineous family was admitted to neonatal intensive care unit in his first days of life because of transient tachypnea and hematuria. Laboratory investigations determined low platelet and protein C deficiency. Direct sequencing of PROC gene and RNA analysis were performed. Analysis of factor V Leiden (G1691A) and factor II (G20210A) mutations was also done. Novel homozygous splice site mutation c.796+3A>T was detected in the index case and segregation was confirmed in the family. RNA analysis revealed the pathogenicity of the mutation by skipping exon 8 of PROC gene and changing the donor splice site of the exon. Detection of the molecular cause of protein C deficiency reduces life threatening and facilitates inductive carrier testing, prenatal and preimplantation genetic diagnosis for families. PMID:26656900

  13. Phenotype and Genotype Characterization of Adenine Phosphoribosyltransferase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Bollée, Guillaume; Dollinger, Cécile; Boutaud, Lucile; Guillemot, Delphine; Bensman, Albert; Harambat, Jérôme; Deteix, Patrice; Daudon, Michel; Knebelmann, Bertrand

    2010-01-01

    Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder causing 2,8-dihydroxyadenine stones and renal failure secondary to intratubular crystalline precipitation. Little is known regarding the clinical presentation of APRT deficiency, especially in the white population. We retrospectively reviewed all 53 cases of APRT deficiency (from 43 families) identified at a single institution between 1978 and 2009. The median age at diagnosis was 36.3 years (range 0.5 to 78.0 years). In many patients, a several-year delay separated the onset of symptoms and diagnosis. Of the 40 patients from 33 families with full clinical data available, 14 (35%) had decreased renal function at diagnosis. Diagnosis occurred in six (15%) patients after reaching ESRD, with five diagnoses made at the time of disease recurrence in a renal allograft. Eight (20%) patients reached ESRD during a median follow-up of 74 months. Thirty-one families underwent APRT sequencing, which identified 54 (87%) mutant alleles on the 62 chromosomes analyzed. We identified 18 distinct mutations. A single T insertion in a splice donor site in intron 4 (IVS4 + 2insT), which produces a truncated protein, accounted for 40.3% of the mutations. We detected the IVS4 + 2insT mutation in two (0.98%) of 204 chromosomes of healthy newborns. This report, which is the largest published series of APRT deficiency to date, highlights the underdiagnosis and potential severity of this disease. Early diagnosis is crucial for initiation of effective treatment with allopurinol and for prevention of renal complications. PMID:20150536

  14. FAMILY BIBIONIDAE.

    PubMed

    Falaschi, Rafaela Lopes; Oliveira, Sarah Siqueira; Amorim, Dalton De Souza

    2016-01-01

    The Bibionidae are a family belonging to the suborder Bibionomorpha with four genera and 17 species known from Colombia. This work expands the distribution of these species to other localities in the country. PMID:27395253

  15. Tomorrow's Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickett, Robert S.

    1977-01-01

    Author states that "...the traditional form of family which has been the norm in recent times in the West will persist, but will be forced to "move over" to accommodate other forms of domestic life." (Author)

  16. Unusual families.

    PubMed

    Golombok, Susan

    2005-03-01

    The introduction of assisted reproduction has led to unusual forms of procreation. This article describes the social consequences of lesbian motherhood and of families headed by single heterosexual mothers. PMID:15819999

  17. FAMILY RHAGIONIDAE.

    PubMed

    Santos, Charles Morphy D; Carmo, Daniel D D

    2016-01-01

    The family Rhagionidae is one of the oldest Brachyeran lineages. Its monophyly is still uncertain. There are four rhagionid genera distributed in Neotropical Region but only three species of Chrysopilus are found in Colombia. PMID:27395270

  18. Family Issues

    MedlinePlus

    ... not mean that everyone gets along all the time. Conflicts are a part of family life. Many things can lead to conflict, such as illness, disability, addiction, job loss, school problems, and marital issues. Listening to ...

  19. Pagophagia in iron deficiency anemia.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Tatsumi; Kawati, Yasunori

    2014-04-01

    The relationship between pagophagia (ice pica) and iron deficiency anemia was studied. All 81 patients with iron deficiency anemia defined as hemoglobin <12.0 g/dl and ferritin level <12 ng/ml were interviewed about their habits of eating ice or other non-food substances. Pagophagia was defined as compulsive and repeated ingestion of at least one tray of ice or ice eating which was relieved after iron administration. Pagophagia was present in 13 patients (16.0%). All patients who received oral iron were periodically assessed employing a questionnaire on pagophagia and laboratory data. Iron therapy can cure the pagophagia earlier than hemoglobin recovery and repair of tissue iron deficiency. Although the pathogenesis of pagophagia is unclear, a biochemical approach involving the central nervous system might elucidate the mechanism underlying these abnormal behaviors. PMID:24850454

  20. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Luzzatto, Lucio; Nannelli, Caterina; Notaro, Rosario

    2016-04-01

    G6PD is a housekeeping gene expressed in all cells. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is part of the pentose phosphate pathway, and its main physiologic role is to provide NADPH. G6PD deficiency, one of the commonest inherited enzyme abnormalities in humans, arises through one of many possible mutations, most of which reduce the stability of the enzyme and its level as red cells age. G6PD-deficient persons are mostly asymptomatic, but they can develop severe jaundice during the neonatal period and acute hemolytic anemia when they ingest fava beans or when they are exposed to certain infections or drugs. G6PD deficiency is a global health issue. PMID:27040960

  1. Family Limitation

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Robert

    1966-01-01

    Dr Robert Smith surveys the history of birth control and sounds a warning for the future of mankind, if the population explosion is allowed to continue unchecked. He stresses the importance of the role of the general practitioner in the limitation of births. Sir Theodore Fox describes the work of the Family Planning Association and stresses that, increasingly, this is a specialist service covering all aspects of fertility. He also feels that the general practitioner has a role in family planning. PMID:5954261

  2. [Phosphate metabolism and iron deficiency].

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Keitaro

    2016-02-01

    Autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets(ADHR)is caused by gain-of-function mutations in FGF23 that prevent its proteolytic cleavage. Fibroblast growth factor 23(FGF23)is a hormone that inhibits renal phosphate reabsorption and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D biosynthesis. Low iron status plays a role in the pathophysiology of ADHR. Iron deficiency is an environmental trigger that stimulates FGF23 expression and hypophosphatemia in ADHR. It was reported that FGF23 elevation in patients with CKD, who are often iron deficient. In patients with nondialysis-dependent CKD, treatment with ferric citrate hydrate resulted in significant reductions in serum phosphate and FGF23. PMID:26813504

  3. Iron deficiency in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Fleming, A F

    1982-06-01

    Iron in food is classified as belonging to the haem pool, the nonhaem pool, and extraneous sources. Haem iron is derived from vegetable and animal sources with varying bioavailability. Hookworm infestation of the intestinal tract affects 450 million people in the tropics. Schistosoma mansoni caused blood loss in 7 Egyptian patients of 7.5- 25.9 ml/day which is equivalent to a daily loss of iron of .6-7.3 mg daily urinary loss of iron in 9 Egyptian patients. Trichuris trichiura infestation by whipworm is widespread in children with blood loss of 5 ml/day/worm. The etiology of anemia in children besides iron deficiency includes malaria, bacterial or viral infections, folate deficiency and sickle-cell disease. Severe infections cause profound iron-deficiency anemia in children in central American and Malaysia. Plasmodium falciparum malaria-induced anaemia in tropical Africa lowers the mean haemoglobin concentration in the population by 2 g/dI, causing profound anaemia in some. The increased risk of premature delivery, low birthweight, fetal abnormalities, and fetal death is directly related to the degree of maternal anemia. Perinatal mortality was reduced from 38 to 4% in treated anemic mothers. Mental performance was significantly lower in anemic school children and improved after they received iron. Supplements of iron, soy-protein, calcium, and vitamins given to villagers with widespread malnutrition, iron deficiency, and hookworm infestation in Colombia reduced enteric infections in children. Severe iron-deficiency anemia was treated in adults in northern Nigeria by daily in Ferastral 10 ml, which is equivalent to 500 mg of iron per day. Choloroquine, folic acid, rephenium hydroxynaphthoate, and tetrachlorethylene treat adults with severe iron deficiency from hookworm infestation in rural tropical Africa. Blood transfusion is indicated if the patient is dying of anaemia or is pregnant with a haemoglobin concentration 6 gm/dl. In South East Asia, mg per day

  4. Family welfare.

    PubMed

    Sinha, N K

    1992-01-01

    Between 1901-1921, India gained 12.9 million people because mortality remained high. The death rate fell between 1921-1951, but birth rates remained the same. Therefore 110 million people were added--2 times the population increase between 1891-1921. Between 1951-1981, the population increased to 324 million. Socioeconomic development was responsible for most of the downward trend in the birth rate during the 20th century. Even though large families were the norm in early India, religious leaders encouraged small family size. The 1st government family planning clinics in the world opened in Mysore and Bangalore in 1930. Right before Independence, the Bhore Committee made recommendations to reduce population growth such as increasing the age of marriage for girls. Since 1951 there has been a change in measures and policies geared towards population growth with each of the 7 5-Year Plans because policy makers applied what they learned from each previous plan. The 1st 5-Year Plan emphasized the need to understand what factors contribute to population growth. It also integrated family planning services into health services of hospitals and health centers. The government was over zealous in its implementation of the sterilization program (2nd 5-Year Plan, 1956-1961), however, which hurt family planning programs for many years. As of early 1992, sterilization, especially tubectomy, remained the most popular family planning method, however. The 7th 5-Year Plan changed its target of reaching a Net Reproductive Rate of 1 by 2001 to 2006-2011. It set a goal of 100% immunization coverage by 1990 but it did not occur. In 1986, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare planned to make free contraceptives available in urban and rural areas and to involve voluntary organizations. The government needs to instill measures to increase women's status, women's literacy, and age of marriage as well as to eliminate poverty, ensure old age security, and ensure child survival and

  5. Transcriptional activation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase by phosphorus deficiency in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Kentaro; Koizumi, Nozomu; Sato, Fumihiko

    2003-03-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), which catalyses the carboxylation of phosphoenolpyruvate using HCO(3)(-) to generate oxaloacetic acid, is an important enzyme in the primary metabolism of plants. Although the PEPC genes (ppc) comprise only a small gene family, the function of each gene is not clear, except for roles in C(4) photosynthesis and CAM. Three PEPC genes (Nsppc1-3) from the C(3) plant Nicotiana sylvestris were used to investigate their roles and regulation in a C(3) plant, and their regulation by phosphorus depletion in particular. First, the induction of PEPC by phosphorus depletion was confirmed. Next, Nsppc1 was determined to be mainly responsive to phosphorus deficiency at the transcriptional level. Further studies using transgenic tobacco harbouring a chimeric gene consisting of the 2.0 kb promoter region of Nsppc1 and the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter showed that PEPC is transcriptionally induced. It was also found that sucrose had a synergistic effect on the induction of PEPC by phosphorus deficiency. A series of transgenic tobacco containing 5'-deletion mutants of Nsppc1 promoter::GUS fusion revealed that the -539 to -442 bp Nsppc1 promoter region, relative to the translation start site, was necessary for the response to phosphorus deficiency. Gain-of-function analysis using a construct containing three tandem repeats of the -539 to -442 bp region confirmed that this region was sufficient to induce the phosphorus-deficiency response in tobacco. PMID:12598567

  6. Iodine deficiency disorders in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, H K; Quazi, S; Kahn, M R; Mohiduzzaman, M; Nahar, B; Rahman, M M; Islam, M N; Khan, M A; Shahidullah, M; Hoque, T; Baquer, M; Pandav, C S

    1996-01-01

    An extensive iodine deficiency disorders survey was conducted in Bangladesh in 1993 to assess the latest iodine nutriture status of the country. The clinical variables of the survey were goitre and cretinism, and the biochemical variable was urinary iodine. The "EPI-30 cluster" sampling methodology was followed for selecting the survey sites. In each survey site, the study population consisted of boys and girls, aged 5-11 years, and men and women, aged 15-44 years, in about equal populations. The total number of survey sites was 78 and the total number of respondents was 30,072. The total number of urine samples was 4512 (15% sub-sample). The current total goitre rate (grade 1 + grade 2) in Bangladesh is 47.1% (hilly, 44.4%; flood-prone, 50.7%; and plains, 45.6%). The prevalence of cretinism in the country is 0.5% (hilly, 0.8%; flood-prone, 0.5%; and plains, 0.3%). Nearly 69% of Bangladeshi population have biochemical iodine deficiency (urinary iodine excretion [UIE] < 10 mg/dl) (hilly, 84.4; flood-prone, 67.1%; and plains 60.4%). Women and children are more affected that men, in terms of both goitre prevalence and UIE. The widespread severe iodine deficiency in all ecological zones indicates that the country as a whole is an iodine-deficient region. Important recommendations of global interest are made from the experience of the survey. PMID:10829973

  7. Management of Iron Deficiency Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, Kristine; Kulnigg-Dabsch, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    Anemia affects one-fourth of the world’s population, and iron deficiency is the predominant cause. Anemia is associated with chronic fatigue, impaired cognitive function, and diminished well-being. Patients with iron deficiency anemia of unknown etiology are frequently referred to a gastroenterologist because in the majority of cases the condition has a gastrointestinal origin. Proper management improves quality of life, alleviates the symptoms of iron deficiency, and reduces the need for blood transfusions. Treatment options include oral and intravenous iron therapy; however, the efficacy of oral iron is limited in certain gastrointestinal conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and autoimmune gastritis. This article provides a critical summary of the diagnosis and treatment of iron deficiency anemia. In addition, it includes a management algorithm that can help the clinician determine which patients are in need of further gastrointestinal evaluation. This facilitates the identification and treatment of the underlying condition and avoids the unnecessary use of invasive methods and their associated risks. PMID:27099596

  8. Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Senard, Jean-Michel; Rouet, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DβH) deficiency is a very rare form of primary autonomic failure characterized by a complete absence of noradrenaline and adrenaline in plasma together with increased dopamine plasma levels. The prevalence of DβH deficiency is unknown. Only a limited number of cases with this disease have been reported. DβH deficiency is mainly characterized by cardiovascular disorders and severe orthostatic hypotension. First symptoms often start during a complicated perinatal period with hypotension, muscle hypotonia, hypothermia and hypoglycemia. Children with DβH deficiency exhibit reduced ability to exercise because of blood pressure inadaptation with exertion and syncope. Symptoms usually worsen progressively during late adolescence and early adulthood with severe orthostatic hypotension, eyelid ptosis, nasal stuffiness and sexual disorders. Limitation in standing tolerance, limited ability to exercise and traumatic morbidity related to falls and syncope may represent later evolution. The syndrome is caused by heterogeneous molecular alterations of the DBH gene and is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Restoration of plasma noradrenaline to the normal range can be achieved by therapy with the synthetic precursor of noradrenaline, L-threo-dihydroxyphenylserine (DOPS). Oral administration of 100 to 500 mg DOPS, twice or three times daily, increases blood pressure and reverses the orthostatic intolerance. PMID:16722595

  9. VISUAL DEFICIENCIES AND READING DISABILITY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROSEN, CARL L.

    THE ROLE OF VISUAL SENSORY DEFICIENCIES IN THE CAUSATION READING DISABILITY IS DISCUSSED. PREVIOUS AND CURRENT RESEARCH STUDIES DEALING WITH SPECIFIC VISUAL PROBLEMS WHICH HAVE BEEN FOUND TO BE NEGATIVELY RELATED TO SUCCESSFUL READING ACHIEVEMENT ARE LISTED--(1) FARSIGHTEDNESS, (2) ASTIGMATISM, (3) BINOCULAR INCOORDINATIONS, AND (4) FUSIONAL…

  10. Psychological Problems in Mental Deficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarason, Seymour B.; Doris, John

    A statement of goals and the rationale for organization precede a historical discussion of mental deficiency and society. The problem of labels like IQ and brain injured and the consequences of the diagnostic process are illustrated by case histories; case studies are also used to examine the criteria used to decide who is retarded and to discuss…