Science.gov

Sample records for familiares del instituto

  1. Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    La edición electrónica del Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer se publicó mensualmente desde septiembre de 2009 hasta enero de 2013, con el objetivo de difundir información sobre la investigación del cáncer, tanto de estudios financiados por el NCI y otras dependencias federales, así como de investigaciones realizadas por instituciones en Estados Unidos y alrededor del mundo.

  2. El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer de EE. UU. y Perú firman una Declaración de Intención

    Cancer.gov

    El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer y la República del Perú firmaron una declaración de intención para compartir el interés en fomentar la investigación biomédica de oncología, basándose en la colaboración mutua de ambas entidades, así como el objetivo común

  3. Localizador de Servicios de Apoyo - Instituto Nacional del Cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    HealthCare.gov es el primer centro de datos de alternativas de cobertura médica del Departamento de Salud y Servicios Humanos de EE. UU. que combina los programas públicos (ej. Medicare, Medicaid) con la información de más de 1 000 planes de seguros privados. El usuario puede buscar en Internet las opciones de cobertura médica específicas a su situación y a su comunidad local. Igualmente, Healthcare.gov tiene información sobre la reforma sanitaria Affordable Care Act.

  4. Control del cáncer y salud mundial: noticia del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI)

    Cancer.gov

    En combinación con una reunión de alto nivel de las Naciones Unidas sobre enfermedades no transmisibles en países en vías de desarrollo, el doctor Harold Varmus, director del NCI, y el doctor Ted L. Trimble, del NCI, han publicado un comentario en Science

  5. 165MAGALLANIA (Chile), 2015. Vol. 43(1):165-189 Universidad de Magallanes, Centro de Estudios del Hombre Austral del Instituto de la Patagonia. Av. Bulnes 01890, Punta

    E-print Network

    Kraus, Mary

    165MAGALLANIA (Chile), 2015. Vol. 43(1):165-189 * Universidad de Magallanes, Centro de Estudios del Hombre Austral del Instituto de la Patagonia. Av. Bulnes 01890, Punta Arenas, Chile. fabiana resultados de nuevos trabajos realizados en la cueva del Medio, Ultima Esperanza, Chile. Algunos de los

  6. Nuevo sitio web en español del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer, (NCI, por sus siglas en inglés) Cancer.gov en español - Silvia Inéz Salazar - transcript

    Cancer.gov

    Transmisiones de radio para promover Cancer.gov en espa%XF1ol | Nuevo sitio web en espa%XF1ol del Instituto Nacional del C%XE1ncer, (NCI, por sus siglas en ingl%XE9s) Cancer.gov en espa%XF1ol | Transcripci%XF3n Transmisiones de radio para promover

  7. CONVOCATORIA A LOS ESTUDIANTES DEL CENTRO DE INVESTIGACIN Y DE ESTUDIOS AVANZADOS DEL INSTITUTO

    E-print Network

    POLITÉCNICO NACIONAL PARA LA PRESENTACIÓN DE PROYECTOS DE EMPRENDIMIENTO emprendedores Antecedentes El Centro, a través de la cual se convoca al concurso IDi4Biz®- emprendedores. En este contexto, el Cinvestav ha el marco del concurso IDi4Biz®-emprendedores. Con esta iniciativa, el Cinvestav busca aprovechar

  8. DERECHOS Y RESPONSABILIDADES DEL EMPLEADO BAJO LA LEY DE AUSENCIA FAMILIAR Y MDICA

    E-print Network

    DERECHOS Y RESPONSABILIDADES DEL EMPLEADO BAJO LA LEY DE AUSENCIA FAMILIAR Y MÉDICA Derechos al empleado desempeñar su puesto. Derechos de Ausencia Para Familias Militares Empleados elegibles, pueden usar su derecho de ausencia de 12 semanas para atender ciertas exigencias calificadoras. Las

  9. Comunicacionas mansualas dal Instituto Intllrnacional de la Potase, Berna (Suiza) Ciencia del Suelo

    E-print Network

    Sparks, Donald L.

    del Suelo 728 continuacion N° 5/1981 La quimica del potasio en suelos arenosos* (On the chemistry of potassium in sandy soils) D, L. Sparks Profesor Auxiliar de Qulmica Fisica del Suelo, Departamento de y nativo en suelos Dothan. Sparks D.L., Zelazny L. W., Martens D. C.: Cineticas del Intercambio de

  10. Investigacin Centro de Investigacin y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politcnico Nacional

    E-print Network

    moleculares microbianos en suelos. Ana Carmela Ramos Valdivia Biotecnología del metabolismo secundario y la interés industrial Refugio Rodríguez Vázquez Biorremediación de suelo y agua. Aplicación de residuos agroindustriales en la biorremediación de suelos, enzimas fúngicas en la degradación de compuestos orgánicos

  11. INTRODUCCIN A LA ESTADSTICA APLICADA EN LA QUMICA Los institutos de Qumica Avanzada de Catalua (IQAC) y del Diagnstico Ambiental y Estudios del Agua (IDAEA) del CSIC

    E-print Network

    (IQAC) y del Diagnóstico Ambiental y Estudios del Agua (IDAEA) del CSIC ofrecen la posibilidad de datos: diseño, grabación, exportación. 3.Control de calidad de la información contenida en una base de

  12. Influence of capillary pressure on CO2 storage and monitoring Juan E. Santos, CONICET, Instituto del Gas y del Petroleo, Facultad Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires,

    E-print Network

    Santos, Juan

    are interested in analyzing the influence of capillary pressure on CO2 in- jection, storage and monitoringInfluence of capillary pressure on CO2 storage and monitoring Juan E. Santos, CONICET, Instituto Sequestration of CO2 in geological formations is one of the solutions to mitigate the greenhouse effect. We

  13. Curso experimental en qumica biolgica, ambiental y tecnologas relacionadas Los Institutos de Qumica Avanzada de Catalua (IQAC) y de Diagnstico Ambiental y Estudios del Agua (IDAEA) del

    E-print Network

    Curso experimental en química biológica, ambiental y tecnologías relacionadas Los Institutos de Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), ofrecen la posibilidad de realizar un curso experimental en-orgánica, teórica, bioquímica y tecnologías químicas. El curso se dirige a licenciados e ingenieros y se realizará

  14. Comunicaciones mensulles del Instituto Intet'f\\llCional de Ia POllIU. Berna (Suiza) Clenci. d.lsuelo

    E-print Network

    Sparks, Donald L.

    seleetividad del potasio en los suelos de Delaware· (Temperature effects on potassium exchange and selectivity absorbida por los suelos descendia. Para concentraciones electroliticas iniciales semejantes. AK (diferencia cantidad igulitl de K sobre el suelo en tanto que la temferatura aumentaba, se necesitaba una relaci6n mas

  15. INVESTIGACIN Instituto de Investigaciones sobre Recursos

    E-print Network

    Gilbes, Fernando

    la agricultura · Manejo y calidad del agua costera y subterránea · Estudios hidrológicos (H&H) y · Manejo de erosión y sedimentación · Manejo y calidad de agua superficial · Manejo y tratamiento de aguasINVESTIGACIÓN Instituto de Investigaciones sobre Recursos de Agua y el Ambiente de Puerto Rico 787

  16. Estudio de los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud indica que quienes toman café tienen un riesgo meno

    Cancer.gov

    Los adultos mayores que tomaron café, con o sin cafeína, tuvieron un riesgo menor de muerte en general que quienes no tomaron café, según un estudio llevado a cabo por investigadores del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI), parte de los Institutos Naciona

  17. Qu es el NICHD? El Instituto Nacional de Salud Infantil y Desarrollo Humano Eunice Kennedy Shriver (NICHD, por sus siglas en

    E-print Network

    Rau, Don C.

    Descubra el NICHD ¿Qué es el NICHD? El Instituto Nacional de Salud Infantil y Desarrollo Humano investigaciones sobre temas de salud. Creado en 1962, el Instituto es parte de los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud (NIH, por sus siglas en inglés) del Departamento de Salud y Servicios Humanos de los Estados

  18. Política de comentarios del NCI

    Cancer.gov

    Las opiniones expresadas en los comentarios reflejan las del autor y no necesariamente los puntos de vista oficiales del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer, los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud, el Departamento de Salud y Servicios Humanos de los EE. UU o del gobierno federal.

  19. Cost-effectiveness analysis for joint pain treatment in patients with osteoarthritis treated at the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS): Comparison of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) vs. cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Contreras-Hernández, Iris; Mould-Quevedo, Joaquín F; Torres-González, Rubén; Goycochea-Robles, María Victoria; Pacheco-Domínguez, Reyna Lizette; Sánchez-García, Sergio; Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel; Garduño-Espinosa, Juan

    2008-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the main causes of disability worldwide, especially in persons >55 years of age. Currently, controversy remains about the best therapeutic alternative for this disease when evaluated from a cost-effectiveness viewpoint. For Social Security Institutions in developing countries, it is very important to assess what drugs may decrease the subsequent use of medical care resources, considering their adverse events that are known to have a significant increase in medical care costs of patients with OA. Three treatment alternatives were compared: celecoxib (200 mg twice daily), non-selective NSAIDs (naproxen, 500 mg twice daily; diclofenac, 100 mg twice daily; and piroxicam, 20 mg/day) and acetaminophen, 1000 mg twice daily. The aim of this study was to identify the most cost-effective first-choice pharmacological treatment for the control of joint pain secondary to OA in patients treated at the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS). Methods A cost-effectiveness assessment was carried out. A systematic review of the literature was performed to obtain transition probabilities. In order to evaluate analysis robustness, one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted. Estimations were done for a 6-month period. Results Treatment demonstrating the best cost-effectiveness results [lowest cost-effectiveness ratio $17.5 pesos/patient ($1.75 USD)] was celecoxib. According to the one-way sensitivity analysis, celecoxib would need to markedly decrease its effectiveness in order for it to not be the optimal treatment option. In the probabilistic analysis, both in the construction of the acceptability curves and in the estimation of net economic benefits, the most cost-effective option was celecoxib. Conclusion From a Mexican institutional perspective and probably in other Social Security Institutions in similar developing countries, the most cost-effective option for treatment of knee and/or hip OA would be celecoxib. PMID:19014495

  20. Atlas del Genoma del Cáncer: Antecedentes

    Cancer.gov

    El Atlas del Genoma del Cáncer es una iniciativa de los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud (NIH) para crear mapas multidimensionales completos de los cambios genómicos clave en los tipos y subtipos principales de cáncer.

  1. J. E. Ortiz, O. Puche, I. Rbano and L. F. Mazadiego (eds.) History of Research in Mineral Resources. Cuadernos del Museo Geominero, 13. Instituto Geolgico y Minero de Espaa, Madrid. ISBN 978-84-7840-856-6

    E-print Network

    Boni, Maria

    -84-7840-856-6 © Instituto Geológico y Minero de España 2011 Discovery anD mining history of the "calamine" in sW sar discovered the "Calamine" ores (carbonate-hosted Zn(Pb) mineralizations of the Nonsulfide type) in a coastal, converting Italy in one of the main producers for the zinc commodity.The Companies working the Calamine ores

  2. Familiarity in Source Memory

    PubMed Central

    Mollison, Matthew V.; Curran, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Familiarity and recollection are thought to be separate processes underlying recognition memory. Event-related potentials (ERPs) dissociate these processes, with an early (approximately 300–500 ms) frontal effect relating to familiarity (the FN400) and a later (500–800 ms) parietal old/new effect relating to recollection. It has been debated whether source information for a studied item (i.e., contextual associations from when the item was previously encountered) is only accessible through recollection, or whether familiarity can contribute to successful source recognition. It has been shown that familiarity can assist in perceptual source monitoring when the source attribute is an intrinsic property of the item (e.g., an object’s surface color), but few studies have examined its contribution to recognizing extrinsic source associations. Extrinsic source associations were examined in three experiments involving memory judgments for pictures of common objects. In Experiment 1, source information was spatial and results suggested that familiarity contributed to accurate source recognition: the FN400 ERP component showed a source accuracy effect, and source accuracy was above chance for items judged to only feel familiar. Source information in Experiment 2 was an extrinsic color association; source accuracy was at chance for familiar items and the FN400 did not differ between correct and incorrect source judgments. Experiment 3 replicated the results using a within-subjects manipulation of spatial vs. color source. Overall, the results suggest that familiarity’s contribution to extrinsic source monitoring depends on the type of source information being remembered. PMID:22789677

  3. Instituto de Fsica Universidade de So Paulo

    E-print Network

    Nussenzveig, Alberto

    MEIOS AT�MICOS COERENTEMENTE PREPARADOS Luciano Soares da Cruz Tese apresentada ao Instituto de Física Eletromagnéticos Interagindo com Meios Atômicos Coerentemente Preparados. São Paulo 2005. Tese (Doutoramento

  4. Centro Clnico INSTITUTOS NACIONALES DE LA SALUD

    E-print Network

    Shen, Jun

    Centro Clínico INSTITUTOS NACIONALES DE LA SALUD Boletín educativo para el paciente Hágase escuchar por su seguridad, haga preguntas* Todos los médicos, enfermeras, directivos de salud y · Asegúrese de que los trabajadores de salud se técnicos, desempeñan un papel en la seguridad de la presenten cuando

  5. ARTIGO INTERNET VideoJogos invadem Instituto Superior Tcnico Taguspark

    E-print Network

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    NewsSearch ARTIGO INTERNET VideoJogos invadem Instituto Superior Técnico Taguspark in http://www.superindustria.com/ Data: 2010-9-13 Link: http://www.superindustria.com/ ... VideoJogos invadem Instituto Superior Técnico, Vice-Presidente do Instituto Superior Técnico para a Gestão do Taguspark, "os jogos são uma realidade

  6. Familiarization with LANDSAT imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Learning objectives of the activities provided include: (1) reading the annotation of a LANDSAT image; (2) becoming acquainted with the characteristics of 1:1,000,000 scale transparencies and prints of MSS images; (3) noting the general information visible in LANDSAT photo products; (4) observing changes of appearance of any ground feature or class in the black and white images made from the four MSS bands and the characteristic color of each class in color composites; (5) determining the degree to which a LANDSAT image meets map accuracy standards and can be fitted to map projections; (6) assessing the effects of LANDSAT enlargements and scale changes and of the limitations of satellite resolution relative to aerial photos; (7) observing the influence of time of acquisition (season) on a scene; (8) getting a feel for image quality as dependent on processing and photoreproduction; (9) appreciating the characteristics of the RBV and thermal band imagery obtained from LANDSAT-3; and (10) becoming familiar with certain attributes of adjacent LANDSAT images which permit them to be joined in mosaics and to be viewed in stereo.

  7. Sus Derechos La Ley de Ausencia Familiar y Mdica de 1993

    E-print Network

    Sus Derechos bajo La Ley de Ausencia Familiar y Médica de 1993 La Ley de Ausencia Familiar y Médica ocupan a 50 empleados o más del mismo patrón. Razones para Solicitar Ausencia: Tiene derecho un empleado. · Al regresar de una ausencia los empleados tienen el derecho a su trabajo original o a un trabajo

  8. Maintaining familiarity through mobile design

    E-print Network

    Nee, Diana

    2007-01-01

    This thesis aims to fulfill the needs for storage, portability, and comfort in the growing population of itinerant young professionals through generating a deployable device that provides a sense of familiarity and ...

  9. Direccin del Curso Jose Luis Jord Moret

    E-print Network

    Dirección del Curso Jose Luis Jordá Moret Marta Feliz Rodríguez Instituto de Tecnología Química (ITQ, UPV-CSIC) Secretaría Técnica del Curso Instituto de Tecnología Química (UPV-CSIC) Campus de la UPV Av. de los Naranjos s/n 46022 Valencia (España) Contacto http://cursositq.blogs.upv.es/ Curso de

  10. A language-familiarity effect for speaker discrimination without comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, David; Giordano, Bruno L.; Caldara, Roberto; Belin, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    The influence of language familiarity upon speaker identification is well established, to such an extent that it has been argued that “Human voice recognition depends on language ability” [Perrachione TK, Del Tufo SN, Gabrieli JDE (2011) Science 333(6042):595]. However, 7-mo-old infants discriminate speakers of their mother tongue better than they do foreign speakers [Johnson EK, Westrek E, Nazzi T, Cutler A (2011) Dev Sci 14(5):1002–1011] despite their limited speech comprehension abilities, suggesting that speaker discrimination may rely on familiarity with the sound structure of one’s native language rather than the ability to comprehend speech. To test this hypothesis, we asked Chinese and English adult participants to rate speaker dissimilarity in pairs of sentences in English or Mandarin that were first time-reversed to render them unintelligible. Even in these conditions a language-familiarity effect was observed: Both Chinese and English listeners rated pairs of native-language speakers as more dissimilar than foreign-language speakers, despite their inability to understand the material. Our data indicate that the language familiarity effect is not based on comprehension but rather on familiarity with the phonology of one’s native language. This effect may stem from a mechanism analogous to the “other-race” effect in face recognition. PMID:25201950

  11. Instituto Universitario del Agua y de las Ciencias Ambientales

    E-print Network

    Escolano, Francisco

    Sánchez Sánchez http://iuaca.ua.es Organiza: Patrocina: AGUA, ARQUITECTURA Y PAISAJE EN EUROPA 21 nov ua idraulico Sara Maldina (Universidad de Ferrara) 12:30 Arquitectura, agua y paisaje en algunas ciudades en Europa" 18:00 Exposición de la oferta docente y de investigación en arquitectura, agua y paisaje

  12. Acerca del Centro para la Salud Mundial del NCI

    Cancer.gov

    El Centro para la Salud Mundial (CGH) coordina y fija las prioridades en las actividades que lleva a cabo el Instituto Nacional del Cáncer a nivel mundial. Su objetivo es avanzar la investigación mundial del cáncer y reducir las muertes causadas por esta enfermedad.

  13. El papel que desempeña el NCI en la investigación del cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) es el patrocinador más grande del mundo de investigaciones sobre el cáncer y financia investigaciones realizadas en el mismo instituto y en centros oncológicos, hospitales, clínicas comunitarias y universidades en Estados Unidos y en todo el mundo.

  14. Neural microgenesis of personally familiar face recognition

    E-print Network

    Rossion, Bruno

    Neural microgenesis of personally familiar face recognition Meike Ramona,b,1 , Luca Viziolib , Joan a wealth of information provided by neuroimaging research, the neural basis of familiar face recognition in core posterior areas of the face-processing network, familiar face recognition emerges categorically

  15. Vertical motion simulator familiarization guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danek, George L.

    1993-01-01

    The Vertical Motion Simulator Familiarization Guide provides a synoptic description of the Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) and descriptions of the various simulation components and systems. The intended audience is the community of scientists and engineers who employ the VMS for research and development. The concept of a research simulator system is introduced and the building block nature of the VMS is emphasized. Individual sections describe all the hardware elements in terms of general properties and capabilities. Also included are an example of a typical VMS simulation which graphically illustrates the composition of the system and shows the signal flow among the elements and a glossary of specialized terms, abbreviations, and acronyms.

  16. Familiar Face Detection in 180ms

    PubMed Central

    Visconti di Oleggio Castello, Matteo; Gobbini, M. Ida

    2015-01-01

    The visual system is tuned for rapid detection of faces, with the fastest choice saccade to a face at 100ms. Familiar faces have a more robust representation than do unfamiliar faces, and are detected faster in the absence of awareness and with reduced attentional resources. Faces of family and close friends become familiar over a protracted period involving learning the unique visual appearance, including a view-invariant representation, as well as person knowledge. We investigated the effect of personal familiarity on the earliest stages of face processing by using a saccadic-choice task to measure how fast familiar face detection can happen. Subjects made correct and reliable saccades to familiar faces when unfamiliar faces were distractors at 180ms—very rapid saccades that are 30 to 70ms earlier than the earliest evoked potential modulated by familiarity. By contrast, accuracy of saccades to unfamiliar faces with familiar faces as distractors did not exceed chance. Saccades to faces with object distractors were even faster (110 to 120 ms) and equivalent for familiar and unfamiliar faces, indicating that familiarity does not affect ultra-rapid saccades. We propose that detectors of diagnostic facial features for familiar faces develop in visual cortices through learning and allow rapid detection that precedes explicit recognition of identity. PMID:26305788

  17. Probabilistic risk assessment familiarization training

    SciTech Connect

    Phillabaum, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    Philadelphia Electric Company (PECo) created a Nuclear Group Risk and Reliability Assessment Program Plan in order to focus the utilization of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) in support of Limerick Generating Station and Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station. The continuation of a PRA program was committed by PECo to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) prior to be the issuance of an operating license for Limerick Unit 1. It is believed that increased use of PRA techniques to support activities at Limerick and Peach Bottom will enhance PECo's overall nuclear excellence. Training for familiarization with PRA is designed for attendance once by all nuclear group personnel to understand PRA and its potential effect on their jobs. The training content describes the history of PRA and how it applies to PECo's nuclear activities. Key PRA concepts serve as the foundation for the familiarization training. These key concepts are covered in all classes to facilitate an appreciation of the remaining material, which is tailored to the audience. Some of the concepts covered are comparison of regulatory philosophy to PRA techniques, fundamentals of risk/success, risk equation/risk summation, and fault trees and event trees. Building on the concepts, PRA insights and applications are then described that are tailored to the audience.

  18. Familiar neighbors enhance breeding success in birds.

    PubMed Central

    Beletsky, L D; Orians, G H

    1989-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that long-term familiarity with neighbors is advantageous by determining whether male red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) breeding adjacent to familiar neighbors have better reproductive success than other males. Using data gathered during a 10-yr study of breeding success, we found that males with familiar neighbors fledged, on average, significantly more offspring annually than males without familiar neighbors. We also found that the same males, breeding in different years on the same territories, had significantly larger harems in the years they had familiar neighbors. Improved reproductive success was due to the males' abilities to attract more females to nest in their territories. Alternative hypotheses to explain the positive relationship between familiar neighbors and breeding success were not supported by our data. Relatively high reproductive success for breeders with long-term neighbors may provide a basis for the evolution of cooperative behavior in this and other species. PMID:2813369

  19. Categorical perception of familiarity: Evidence for a hyper-familiarity in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Horn, Mathilde; D'Hondt, Fabien; Vaiva, Guillaume; Thomas, Pierre; Pins, Delphine

    2015-12-01

    Familiarity is a crucial aspect of recognition that may be perturbed in schizophrenia patients (SZP) and may lead to delusional disorders. However, there are no existing guidelines on how to assess and treat familiarity disorders in schizophrenia. Some experimental studies have investigated familiarity processing in SZP but have produced inconsistent results, which are likely a result of methodological issues. Moreover, these studies only assessed whether familiarity processing is preserved or impaired in SZP, but not the tendency of SZP to consider unfamiliar stimuli to be familiar. By using a familiarity continuum task based on the existence of the categorical perception effect, the objective of this study was to determine whether SZP present hyper- or hypo-familiarity. To this purpose, 15 SZP and 15 healthy subjects (HS) were presented with facial stimuli, which consisted of picture morphs of unfamiliar faces and faces that were personally familiar to the participants. The percentage of the familiar face contained in the morph ranged from 5 to 95%. The participants were asked to press a button when they felt familiar with the face that was presented. The main results revealed a higher percentage of familiarity responses for SZP compared with HS from the stimuli with low levels of familiarity in the morph and a lower familiarity threshold, suggesting a hyper-familiarity disorder in SZP. Moreover, the intensity of this "hyper-familiarity" was correlated with positive symptoms. This finding clearly suggests the need for a more systematic integration of an assessment of familiarity processing in schizophrenia symptoms assessments. PMID:26452199

  20. Palatability, Familiarity, and Underage, Immoderate Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemon, Jim; Stevenson, Richard; Gates, Peter; Copeland, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Data gathered in a study of palatability ("liking") and familiarity ratings of alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages by 350 subjects from 12 to 30 years of age included the usual number of drinks consumed. Blind ratings of palatability and familiarity for the beverages were tested for association with immoderate drinking (more than four for males,…

  1. Global Depth Perception from Familiar Scene Structure

    E-print Network

    Poggio, Tomaso

    Global Depth Perception from Familiar Scene Structure Antonio Torralba and Aude Oliva AI Memo 2001 an absolute depth percept. b) Real-world stimulus: the recognition of familiar image structures provides. ## ############ Figure 1.a. illustrates the fundamental problem of depth perception from monocular information

  2. Semantic priming of familiar songs.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sarah K; Halpern, Andrea R

    2012-05-01

    We explored the functional organization of semantic memory for music by comparing priming across familiar songs both within modalities (Experiment 1, tune to tune; Experiment 3, category label to lyrics) and across modalities (Experiment 2, category label to tune; Experiment 4, tune to lyrics). Participants judged whether or not the target tune or lyrics were real (akin to lexical decision tasks). We found significant priming, analogous to linguistic associative-priming effects, in reaction times for related primes as compared to unrelated primes, but primarily for within-modality comparisons. Reaction times to tunes (e.g., "Silent Night") were faster following related tunes ("Deck the Hall") than following unrelated tunes ("God Bless America"). However, a category label (e.g., Christmas) did not prime tunes from within that category. Lyrics were primed by a related category label, but not by a related tune. These results support the conceptual organization of music in semantic memory, but with potentially weaker associations across modalities. PMID:22227862

  3. Instituto de Astrofísica de Madrid: science fiction or top science?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, J. A.

    2015-05-01

    In Spain, there is an Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias in Tenerife, an Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía in Granada and an Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya in Barcelona. However, there is not an Instituto de Astrofísica de Madrid (IAM). Actually, Madrilenian astronomers are spread over a number of institutions of quite different origin, size and funding source. The IAM, if it existed, would be a catalyzer of ideas and collaborations, an international meeting point, an engine for high-technology industry in the region, and an excellence centre. Furthermore, the IAM would maximise the efficiency in the use of resources, offer a place for finding synergies between research groups and, especially, have a critical mass for embarking in very large projects in the ground and space. I will expose how, in a smooth and democratic way, an IAM might be built step by step. The process may take decades and, thus, young Madrilenian astronomers shall play a rôle on it.

  4. Familiares a cargo de pacientes de cáncer (PDQ)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Sumario informativo revisado por expertos acerca de los desafíos que enfrentan los familiares a cargo de los pacientes con cáncer. Este resumen se centra en las funciones típicas y las inquietudes de las personas a cargo del paciente y en las intervenciones útiles para esas personas.

  5. Impaired capacity for familiarity after hippocampal damage.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhuang; Wixted, John T; Hopkins, Ramona O; Squire, Larry R

    2011-06-01

    Recognition memory is thought to consist of two components: recollection and familiarity. Whereas it is widely agreed that the hippocampus supports recollection (remembering the episode in which an item was learned), there is uncertainty about whether it also supports familiarity (simply knowing that an item was encountered but without remembering the learning episode). We tested a counterintuitive prediction that follows from the idea that the hippocampus selectively supports recollection. Patients with hippocampal lesions should have strong experiences of familiarity as often as controls do; however, unlike controls, these experiences should not be accompanied by recollection. Accordingly, with methods that allow participants to report whether they remember an item as encountered previously or whether they simply know it is familiar, patients should express strong familiarity (in the absence of recollection) more often than controls. We indexed strong familiarity and recollection for previously studied words by obtaining confidence ratings together with Remember-Know judgments. The result was that patients provided fewer high-confidence Know responses than controls rather than more. Furthermore, the number of Know responses made by patients was substantially less than was predicted if recollection were impaired. This was true regardless of whether the prediction was based on the assumption that recollection and familiarity are independent or dependent processes. These results suggest that hippocampal lesions impair both recollection and familiarity. Unlike many previous studies of these constructs, the prediction (and the result) is independent of any particular theoretical model, and it holds even if Remember-Know judgments are not process-pure indicators of recollection and familiarity. PMID:21606344

  6. 14 CFR 121.599 - Familiarity with weather conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Familiarity with weather conditions. 121.599 Section 121...Rules § 121.599 Familiarity with weather conditions. (a) Domestic and flag...thoroughly familiar with reported and forecast weather conditions on the route to be...

  7. 14 CFR 121.599 - Familiarity with weather conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Familiarity with weather conditions. 121.599 Section 121...Rules § 121.599 Familiarity with weather conditions. (a) Domestic and flag...thoroughly familiar with reported and forecast weather conditions on the route to be...

  8. 14 CFR 121.599 - Familiarity with weather conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Familiarity with weather conditions. 121.599 Section 121...Rules § 121.599 Familiarity with weather conditions. (a) Domestic and flag...thoroughly familiar with reported and forecast weather conditions on the route to be...

  9. 14 CFR 121.599 - Familiarity with weather conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Familiarity with weather conditions. 121.599 Section 121...Rules § 121.599 Familiarity with weather conditions. (a) Domestic and flag...thoroughly familiar with reported and forecast weather conditions on the route to be...

  10. 14 CFR 121.599 - Familiarity with weather conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Familiarity with weather conditions. 121.599 Section 121...Rules § 121.599 Familiarity with weather conditions. (a) Domestic and flag...thoroughly familiar with reported and forecast weather conditions on the route to be...

  11. The effect of familiarity on perceived interestingness of images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Sharon Lynn; Fedorovskaya, Elena; Quek, Francis; Snyder, Jeffrey

    2013-03-01

    We present an exploration of familiarity as a meaningful dimension for the individualized adaptation of media-rich interfaces. In this paper, we investigate in particular the effect of digital images personalized for familiarity on users' perceived interestingness. Two dimensions of familiarity, facial familiarity and familiarity with image context, are manipulated. Our investigation consisted of three studies: the first two address how morphing technology can be used to convey meaningful familiarity, and the third studies the effect of such familiarity on users' sense of interestingness. Four levels of person familiarity varying in degree of person knowledge, and two levels of context familiarity varying in frequency of exposure, were considered: Self, Friend, Celebrity, and Stranger in Familiar and Unfamiliar contexts. Experimental results showed significant main effects of context and person familiarity. Our findings deepen understanding of the critical element of familiarity in HCI and its relationship to the interestingness of images, and can have great impact for the design of media-rich systems.

  12. Computable structures of Scott rank !CK1 in familiar classes

    E-print Network

    Calvert, Wesley

    Computable structures of Scott rank !CK1 in familiar classes Abstract There are familiar examples of computable structures having various computable Scott ranks. There are also familiar structures, such as the Harrison ordering, that have Scott rank !CK1

  13. Centro Clnico del NIH Manual del Paciente

    E-print Network

    Shen, Jun

    39 Programa de los amigos de la Familia 39 s e C C i ó n 5 SERVICIOS DE APOYO PARA LOS PACIENTES Y LAS FAMILIAS servicios de trabajo social 42 Servicios de peluquería y cosmetología Programa de los Amigos de la Familia (Family Friend Program) Programa para el familiar/encargado del paciente

  14. Perceptual fluency, semantic familiarity and recognition-related familiarity: an electrophysiological exploration.

    PubMed

    Nessler, Doreen; Mecklinger, Axel; Penney, Trevor B

    2005-02-01

    Scalp recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to examine the neuronal activity associated with perceptual fluency, semantic familiarity and recognition-related familiarity. We assume that ERP differences between first and second presentations of non-famous faces in an implicit memory condition reflect perceptual fluency, ERP differences between first presentations of famous and non-famous faces reflect semantic familiarity (i.e., familiarity arising from semantic memory retrieval), and early ERP differences between first and second presentations of non-famous and famous faces in an explicit recognition memory task reflect recognition-related familiarity. Semantic familiarity elicited a broadly distributed effect between 200 and 300 ms after stimulus onset, possibly representing the activation of face recognition units. Between 300 and 450 ms, frontal effects were observed for semantic familiarity and recognition-related familiarity, while perceptual fluency was associated with a centro-parietally focused effect. Thus, familiarity arising from the retrieval of semantic information and recognition-related familiarity depend at least partly on the same neuronal circuits, while these are dissociable from those mediating perceptual fluency. PMID:15653299

  15. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais -INPE Centro de Previso de Tempo e Estudos Climticos -CPTEC

    E-print Network

    Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais - INPE Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos acoplado OceanoAtmosfera (MCGOA) do Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos do Instituto Nacional

  16. Laboratorio VISGRAF Instituto de Matematica Pura e Aplicada

    E-print Network

    de Figueiredo, Luiz Henrique

    Laborat´orio VISGRAF Instituto de Matem´atica Pura e Aplicada Mundos Virtuais e Jogos por- vidos. Apresenta a implementac¸~ao do jogo Pong Game em um ambiente distribu´ido e mostra sua relac¸~ao com Mundos Virtuais. O jogo foi desenvolvido em uma estrutura Cliente-Servidor, na plataforma Linux

  17. Laboratorio VISGRAF Instituto de Matematica Pura e Aplicada

    E-print Network

    de Figueiredo, Luiz Henrique

    to create, test, edit and play stop motion animations. 1.1 Overview: the Development of Animation AnimationLaborat´orio VISGRAF Instituto de Matem´atica Pura e Aplicada MUAN: A Stop Motion Animation System Magalh~aes Abstract MUAN is a Stop Motion Animation System for Education. The MUAN system allows

  18. Laboratorio VISGRAF Instituto de Matematica Pura e Aplicada

    E-print Network

    de Figueiredo, Luiz Henrique

    extension of variable resolution structures like [16]. Currently, generic programming methodology is beingLaborat´orio VISGRAF Instituto de Matem´atica Pura e Aplicada BMT: A Generic Programming Approach;BMT: A Generic Programming Approach to Multiresolution Spatial Decompositions Vin´icius Mello1 , Luiz

  19. Instituto de Estudios Carballieses Darwin e a expresin das emocins

    E-print Network

    Belles, Xavier

    Resulta trivial afirmar que o libro máis importante de Charles Darwin é A orixe das especies, de cuxa13 Instituto de Estudios Carballiñeses Darwin e a expresión das emocións O TERCEIRO LIBRO DE DARWIN Diario dun naturalista ó redor do mun- do, cuxa primeira edición estam- pou en 1839, e do cal Darwin se

  20. Digital Video, Digital TV IMPA -Instituto de Matemtica Pura e

    E-print Network

    de Figueiredo, Luiz Henrique

    1 Digital Video, Digital TV and Beyond Luiz Velho IMPA - Instituto de Matemática Pura e Aplicada 2 Outline Video in the Digital Age Deployment of Digital Video Enabling Technologies Research @ VISGRAF Laboratory Trends and the Future... 3 Evolution of Digital Video 1st Generation - Analog / Digital Conversion

  1. Abstract Valuation Semantics SQIG-Instituto de Telecomunicac~oes

    E-print Network

    Lisboa, Universidade Técnica de

    Abstract Valuation Semantics C. Caleiro SQIG-Instituto de Telecomunica¸c~oes Department@fct.unl.pt December 9, 2010 Abstract We define and study abstract valuation semantics for logics, an alge- braically well-behaved version of valuation semantics. In the context of the behavioral approach

  2. Constitutive theory of anisotropic rigid heat conductors Instituto de Matematica

    E-print Network

    Liu, I-Shih

    Constitutive theory of anisotropic rigid heat conductors I-Shih Liu Instituto de Matem´atica Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Abstract For rigid heat conductors of deformation gradients. Consequently it would be impossible to consider anisotropic rigid heat conductors from

  3. Instituto Superior Tcnico vai promover formao no Secundrio Id: 40454389

    E-print Network

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    Instituto Superior Técnico vai promover formação no Secundário Id: 40454389 Tipo de Meio: Web aos meios. Na lista de parceiros estão 13 escolas, quatro delas no concelho de Cascais (Secundária de

  4. Computer Animation IMPA Instituto de Matemtica Pura e Aplicada

    E-print Network

    de Figueiredo, Luiz Henrique

    1 Computer Animation Luiz Velho IMPA ­ Instituto de Matemática Pura e Aplicada © Luiz Velho 2 Outline · Wireframe Animation · Motion Graphics · Procedural Animation · Motion Capture · Facial Animation · Ray Tracing · Blobby Shapes · 3D Cartoon Shading © Luiz Velho 3 Wireframe Animation · My First Steps

  5. enseanzaINSTITUTO DE LA MUJER DE SANIDAD, SERVICIOS SOCIALES

    E-print Network

    Fernández Pascual, Ricardo

    enseñanzaINSTITUTO DE LA MUJER MINISTERIO DE SANIDAD, SERVICIOS SOCIALES E IGUALDAD SECRETARÍA DE ESTADO DE SERVICIOS SOCIALES E IGUALDAD DIRECCIÓN GENERAL PARA LA IGUALDAD DE OPORTUNIDADES #12;#12;Otras SANIDAD, SERVICIOS SOCIALES E IGUALDAD SECRETARÍA DE ESTADO DE SERVICIOS SOCIALES E IGUALDAD DIRECCIÓN

  6. Is LOC Responsive to Object Familiarity?

    PubMed

    Shilowich, Bryan; Shah, Manan; Biederman, Irving; Tjan, Bosco; Keller, Brenton

    2015-09-01

    Malach et al. (1995) discovered that the lateral occipital cortex and the posterior fusiform gyrus, cortical areas that they termed the lateral occipital complex (LOC), yielded greater fMRI BOLD responses when viewing intact images of familiar objects than their scrambled versions (resembling texture). Malach et al. discounted a role of familiarity by showing that unfamiliar "abstract" Henry Moore sculptures also activated LOC more than its scrambled versions. Although such a comparison does indicate that intact images produce greater LOC activation than their scrambled versions, it is not clear, without control for lower-level stimulus features, whether there is, in fact, no effect of familiarity. There is strong evidence that LOC represents objects in terms of their parts (Hayworth & Biederman, 2006). We put this issue of object familiarity to test by comparing cortical activation to 72 familiar objects and their novel counterparts, produced by rearranging their simple geon-like parts, thus holding the part ensemble of an image constant while varying familiarity (Panel A of Fig). Each object was composed of three or more geons, with each geon corresponding to a simple part of the object. The intact minus scrambled versions of each object was used to define LOC itself. With subjects performing an orthogonal task, greater activation in LOC was found for the familiar compared to the novel objects (Panel B). There was no effect of object symmetry. Although novel objects produce greater BOLD activity in LOC than their scrambled versions, there was still greater activation for familiar objects than their novel arrangements. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26326300

  7. Exploring the mental representation underlying familiarity assessment.

    PubMed

    Dopkins, Stephen; Sargent, Jesse; Ngo, Catherine T

    2013-06-01

    A new method was used to explore the role of perceptual information in familiarity-based recognition. The method uses a pairwise recognition task to compare recognition judgments to a test word when that word is related and unrelated to an immediately preceding word. If the false-alarm rate to the test word is greater when the two words are related, this is interpreted as reflecting an increase in the likelihood of positive familiarity assessment to the test word (Ngo, C. T., Sargent, J., & Dopkins, S. [2007]. Level of discrimination for recognition judgments reduced following the recognition of semantically related words. Journal of Memory and Language, 57, 415-436. doi:10.1016/j.jml.2007.05.007). The occurrence of such an increase for a given sort of preceding word-test word relatedness is taken as indicating that information of the sort in question is involved in familiarity-based recognition. Whereas previous work with this method has failed to find evidence that perceptual information is involved in familiarity-based recognition, the present study observed such evidence, under conditions in which previous work with other methods suggested that perceptual information would be likely to be involved in familiarity-based recognition. Thus, the study helped to validate the method and produced converging evidence that perceptual information is sometimes involved in familiarity-based recognition. The results of the study suggest that perceptual information is more likely to be involved in familiarity-based recognition when the lists for the recognition task are short. PMID:23046415

  8. Modelado de los cambios de uso/cobertura del suelo y conservacin de la biodiversidad en Michoacn

    E-print Network

    Lopez-Carr, David

    1 Modelado de los cambios de uso/cobertura del suelo y conservación de la biodiversidad en). Varios estudios se abocaron a evaluar los cambios de uso/cobertura del suelo (CUCS) en México (Mas et al MATERIALES Los insumos cartográficos fueron los mapas de uso/cobertura del suelo del Instituto Nacional de

  9. The hard-won benefits of familiarity in visual search: naturally familiar brand logos are found faster

    E-print Network

    Koutstaal, Wilma

    The hard-won benefits of familiarity in visual search: naturally familiar brand logos are found of experience would be required to produce them. Here, we tested whether familiar product logos were searched for faster than unfamiliar ones, and also familiarized subjects with previously unfamiliar logos. Subjects

  10. Familiar people recognition disorders: an introductory review.

    PubMed

    Gainotti, Guido

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this introduction is to provide a general background for the individual contributions dealing with different aspects of familiar people recognition disorders. Following are the main points considered in this survey: 1) the cognitive models proposed to explain the functional architecture of processes subsuming familiar people recognition; 2) the different roles of the right and left hemisphere in identifying people by face voice and name; 3) the anatomical structures and the cognitive processes involved in face and voice recognition; 4) the interactions that exist among the perceptual processes subsuming face and voice recognition, but not people's faces, voices and proper names; 5) the patterns of multimodal defects of familiar people recognition and their implications for current cognitive models. Finally, there is a short discussion of two models advanced to explain the role of the anterior temporal lobes in people recognition. PMID:24389261

  11. Recollection and familiarity in the human thalamus.

    PubMed

    Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto; Lombardi, Maria Giovanna; Caltagirone, Carlo; Barban, Francesco

    2015-07-01

    Recollection and familiarity are two distinct forms of recognition memory that differ in terms of the associative richness of the memory experience. In recollection, exposure to a previously encountered item cues the recollection of a number of contextual, temporal and other associative information. In the case of familiarity, instead, the item is recognized as previously encountered, but it does not cue any associative information. According to the dual-process theory, the memory processes that underlie recollection and familiarity are qualitatively different and this distinction is reflected in the existence of different neural substrates underlying the two processes. Thus far, research has primarily focused on distinct regions of the medial temporal lobe as implicated mostly in recollection (hippocampus) or familiarity (perirhinal cortex). Aggleton and Brown (1999) suggested extending the neuroanatomical distinction to other cortical and subcortical areas of the brain, including the thalamus. In particular, they proposed the existence of two reciprocally independent neural circuits for recollection and familiarity. The former would include the hippocampus, the fornix, the mammillary bodies and the anterior thalamic nuclei. The second would involve the mesial magnocellular portion of the mediodorsal nucleus connected to the perirhinal cortex through the ventroamygdalofugal pathway. Here we review neuropsychological evidence in experimental animals and brain-damaged individuals and functional neuroimaging evidence in healthy humans that supports Aggleton and Brown's model at the level of the thalamus. The evidence substantially supports the functional relationship between recollection processes and integrity of the thalamic anterior nuclei. Additional evidence, not predicted by the model, has been provided in favour of the reliance of recollection on the integrity of the lateral portion (parvocellular) of the mediodoral nucleus. Finally, there is sparse and controversial evidence in support of the reliance of familiarity on the integrity of the mesial portion of the mediodorsal nucleus, possibly due to neuroimaging methodological limits which did not satisfactorily distinguish between the medial and lateral portions of the mediodorsal nucleus. PMID:25263702

  12. Familiarity Enhances Visual Working Memory for Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Margaret C.; Raymond, Jane E.

    2008-01-01

    Although it is intuitive that familiarity with complex visual objects should aid their preservation in visual working memory (WM), empirical evidence for this is lacking. This study used a conventional change-detection procedure to assess visual WM for unfamiliar and famous faces in healthy adults. Across experiments, faces were upright or…

  13. Facelock: familiarity-based graphical authentication

    PubMed Central

    McLachlan, Jane L.; Renaud, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Authentication codes such as passwords and PIN numbers are widely used to control access to resources. One major drawback of these codes is that they are difficult to remember. Account holders are often faced with a choice between forgetting a code, which can be inconvenient, or writing it down, which compromises security. In two studies, we test a new knowledge-based authentication method that does not impose memory load on the user. Psychological research on face recognition has revealed an important distinction between familiar and unfamiliar face perception: When a face is familiar to the observer, it can be identified across a wide range of images. However, when the face is unfamiliar, generalisation across images is poor. This contrast can be used as the basis for a personalised ‘facelock’, in which authentication succeeds or fails based on image-invariant recognition of faces that are familiar to the account holder. In Study 1, account holders authenticated easily by detecting familiar targets among other faces (97.5% success rate), even after a one-year delay (86.1% success rate). Zero-acquaintance attackers were reduced to guessing (<1% success rate). Even personal attackers who knew the account holder well were rarely able to authenticate (6.6% success rate). In Study 2, we found that shoulder-surfing attacks by strangers could be defeated by presenting different photos of the same target faces in observed and attacked grids (1.9% success rate). Our findings suggest that the contrast between familiar and unfamiliar face recognition may be useful for developers of graphical authentication systems. PMID:25024913

  14. Facelock: familiarity-based graphical authentication.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Rob; McLachlan, Jane L; Renaud, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Authentication codes such as passwords and PIN numbers are widely used to control access to resources. One major drawback of these codes is that they are difficult to remember. Account holders are often faced with a choice between forgetting a code, which can be inconvenient, or writing it down, which compromises security. In two studies, we test a new knowledge-based authentication method that does not impose memory load on the user. Psychological research on face recognition has revealed an important distinction between familiar and unfamiliar face perception: When a face is familiar to the observer, it can be identified across a wide range of images. However, when the face is unfamiliar, generalisation across images is poor. This contrast can be used as the basis for a personalised 'facelock', in which authentication succeeds or fails based on image-invariant recognition of faces that are familiar to the account holder. In Study 1, account holders authenticated easily by detecting familiar targets among other faces (97.5% success rate), even after a one-year delay (86.1% success rate). Zero-acquaintance attackers were reduced to guessing (<1% success rate). Even personal attackers who knew the account holder well were rarely able to authenticate (6.6% success rate). In Study 2, we found that shoulder-surfing attacks by strangers could be defeated by presenting different photos of the same target faces in observed and attacked grids (1.9% success rate). Our findings suggest that the contrast between familiar and unfamiliar face recognition may be useful for developers of graphical authentication systems. PMID:25024913

  15. Fernando Gonzlez Gortzar, ganador del Premio Nacional de Ciencias y Artes 2012, en el campo de Bellas Artes. ARCHIVO

    E-print Network

    Coello, Carlos A. Coello

    de México. Contaba tan sólo con cuatros años de edad cuando se trasladó con su familia a la ciudad de Guadalajara, donde realizó sus estudios en la Escuela de Arquitectura del Instituto Tecnológico de la

  16. Informacin general Frecuencia del curso: Bienal

    E-print Network

    Información general Frecuencia del curso: Bienal Próxima Convocatoria: 2016 Coordinadora: Dra. Rosario Gonzalez Muñiz Año en el cual se impartió el curso por primera vez: 1986 Número de veces que se ha impartido el curso: 17 Secretaria del curso: Instituto de Química Médica (CSIC) Telf: 91-562 29 00 Fax: 91

  17. Familiares a cargo de pacientes de cáncer: funciones y desafíos (PDQ)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Sumario informativo revisado por expertos acerca de los desafíos que enfrentan los familiares a cargo de los pacientes con cáncer. Este resumen se centra en las funciones típicas y las inquietudes de las personas a cargo del paciente y en las intervenciones útiles para esas personas.

  18. Familiarity and Its Impact on Consumer Decision Biases and Heuristics

    E-print Network

    Park, C. Whan; Lessig, V. Parker

    1981-09-01

    The impact of familiarity on consumer decision biases and heuristics is examined. Subjects at three different familiarity levels revealed interesting differences in perceptual category breadth, usage of functional and ...

  19. Familiarity Enhances Visual Working Memory for Faces

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Margaret C.; Raymond, Jane E.

    2014-01-01

    Although it is intuitive that familiarity with complex visual objects should aid their preservation in visual working memory (WM), empirical evidence for this is lacking. This study used a conventional change-detection procedure to assess visual WM for unfamiliar and famous faces in healthy adults. Across experiments, faces were upright or inverted and a low- or high-load concurrent verbal WM task was administered to suppress contribution from verbal WM. Even with a high verbal memory load, visual WM performance was significantly better and capacity estimated as significantly greater for famous versus unfamiliar faces. Face inversion abolished this effect. Thus, neither strategic, explicit support from verbal WM nor low-level feature processing easily accounts for the observed benefit of high familiarity for visual WM. These results demonstrate that storage of items in visual WM can be enhanced if robust visual representations of them already exist in long-term memory. PMID:18505323

  20. Development of inductive generalization with familiar categories.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Anna V; Godwin, Karrie E; Matlen, Bryan J

    2015-10-01

    Inductive generalization is ubiquitous in human cognition. In the developmental literature, two different theoretical accounts of this important process have been proposed: a naïve theory account and a similarity-based account. However, a number of recent findings cannot be explained within the existing theoretical accounts. We describe a revised version of the similarity-based account of inductive generalization with familiar categories. We tested the novel predictions of this account in two reported studies with 4-year-old children (N = 57). The reported studies include the first short-term longitudinal investigation of the development of children's induction with familiar categories, and it is the first study to explore the role of individual differences in semantic organization, general intelligence, working memory, and inhibition in children's induction. PMID:25737367

  1. Face Transformation in Recollection and Familiarity.

    PubMed

    Chan, Winnie; Hayward, William; Cheung, Sing-Hang

    2015-09-01

    Three classical face recognition tasks (viewpoint, inversion, spatial frequency) were assessed using the remember/know procedure to examine how different transformations of the face influence recollection and familiarity in recognition memory. In the viewpoint task, participants studied front-view faces and were tested with front, three-quarter and profile views. Participants gave significantly higher remember responses to front view faces than three-quarter views, with profile views lower still. However, no difference in know responses among the three viewpoints was found. A viewpoint effect was observed in remember responses We then conducted the inversion task, in which participants studied both upright and inverted faces, and then were tested on each type. An inversion effect was observed with remember responses but not know responses. There was no difference in know responses between upright and inverted faces if participants studied upright faces. However, higher know responses were found for inverted faces than upright faces when participants studied inverted faces. These results indicate that feelings of familiarity can only be transferred from upright faces to inverted faces but not the other way round. The poor observed performance with inverted faces is indicative of a disruption of holistic processing. Therefore, in the final experiment we separated different spatial frequencies from faces to examine recollection and familiarity with low- and high-spatial frequency faces. Participants studied intact faces and were tested with intact, HSF and LSF faces. High numbers of remember responses were observed for intact faces only. No differences were found for either HSF and LSF. Based on the results of these three studies, recollection appears to be comparatively more sensitive to face transformation than familiarity. However, the extent to which configural processing is the basis for recollection is not yet clear. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26326387

  2. Familiarity and Recollection in Heuristic Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Schwikert, Shane R.; Curran, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Heuristics involve the ability to utilize memory to make quick judgments by exploiting fundamental cognitive abilities. In the current study we investigated the memory processes that contribute to the recognition heuristic and the fluency heuristic, which are both presumed to capitalize on the by-products of memory to make quick decisions. In Experiment 1, we used a city-size comparison task while recording event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the potential contributions of familiarity and recollection to the two heuristics. ERPs were markedly different for recognition heuristic-based decisions and fluency heuristic-based decisions, suggesting a role for familiarity in the recognition heuristic and recollection in the fluency heuristic. In Experiment 2, we coupled the same city-size comparison task with measures of subjective pre-experimental memory for each stimulus in the task. Although previous literature suggests the fluency heuristic relies on recognition speed alone, our results suggest differential contributions of recognition speed and recollected knowledge to these decisions, whereas the recognition heuristic relies on familiarity. Based on these results, we created a new theoretical frame work that explains decisions attributed to both heuristics based on the underlying memory associated with the choice options. PMID:25347534

  3. Examiner Familiarity Effects for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szarko, Julia E.; Brown, Alec J.; Watkins, Marley W.

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the difference in standardized test performance when familiar versus unfamiliar examiners tested 26 preschool and elementary-aged children with autism. The children were matched by age, severity, and developmental level and then randomly placed into familiar and unfamiliar examiner groups. Familiarity with the examiner was…

  4. Word-Form Familiarity Bootstraps Infant Speech Segmentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altvater-Mackensen, Nicole; Mani, Nivedita

    2013-01-01

    At about 7 months of age, infants listen longer to sentences containing familiar words--but not deviant pronunciations of familiar words (Jusczyk & Aslin, 1995). This finding suggests that infants are able to segment familiar words from fluent speech and that they store words in sufficient phonological detail to recognize deviations from a…

  5. The Role of Noncriterial Recollection in Estimating Recollection and Familiarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, Colleen M.

    2007-01-01

    Noncriterial recollection (ncR) is recollection of details that are irrelevant to task demands. It has been shown to elevate familiarity estimates and to be functionally equivalent to familiarity in the process dissociation procedure [Yonelinas, A. P., & Jacoby, L. L. (1996). Noncriterial recollection: Familiarity as automatic, irrelevant…

  6. Behavioral Neuroscience How Macaques View Familiarity and Gaze in Conspecific

    E-print Network

    Hoffman, Kari

    Behavioral Neuroscience How Macaques View Familiarity and Gaze in Conspecific Faces Timothy K. (2012, October 15). How Macaques View Familiarity and Gaze in Conspecific Faces. Behavioral Neuroscience. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1037/a0030348 #12;How Macaques View Familiarity and Gaze

  7. 14 CFR 121.599 - Familiarity with weather conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Familiarity with weather conditions. 121... § 121.599 Familiarity with weather conditions. (a) Domestic and flag operations. No aircraft dispatcher may release a flight unless he is thoroughly familiar with reported and forecast weather conditions...

  8. 14 CFR 121.599 - Familiarity with weather conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Familiarity with weather conditions. 121... § 121.599 Familiarity with weather conditions. (a) Domestic and flag operations. No aircraft dispatcher may release a flight unless he is thoroughly familiar with reported and forecast weather conditions...

  9. 14 CFR 121.599 - Familiarity with weather conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Familiarity with weather conditions. 121... § 121.599 Familiarity with weather conditions. (a) Domestic and flag operations. No aircraft dispatcher may release a flight unless he is thoroughly familiar with reported and forecast weather conditions...

  10. 14 CFR 121.599 - Familiarity with weather conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Familiarity with weather conditions. 121... § 121.599 Familiarity with weather conditions. (a) Domestic and flag operations. No aircraft dispatcher may release a flight unless he is thoroughly familiar with reported and forecast weather conditions...

  11. 14 CFR 121.599 - Familiarity with weather conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Familiarity with weather conditions. 121... § 121.599 Familiarity with weather conditions. (a) Domestic and flag operations. No aircraft dispatcher may release a flight unless he is thoroughly familiar with reported and forecast weather conditions...

  12. Instituto de Cincias Exatas COLEGIADO DO CURSO DE GRADUAO EM MATEMTICA

    E-print Network

    Procacci, Aldo

    Instituto de Ciências Exatas COLEGIADO DO CURSO DE GRADUAÇÃO EM MATEMÁTICA 3º andar ­ sala 3107 Fone: (031) 3409.5987 Unidade: INSTITUTO DE CIÊNCIAS EXATAS Curso: MATEMÁTICA Turno: DIURNO Graduação Licenciatura 2011038060 Professor Seme Gebara Neto Coordenador do Colegiado do Curso de Graduação

  13. Process dissociation of familiarity and recollection in children: response deadline affects recollection but not familiarity.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Laura; Wimmer, Marina C; Hollins, Timothy J

    2015-03-01

    According to dual-process theories, recollection (slow and associated with contextual details) and familiarity (fast and automatic) are two independent processes underlying recognition memory. An adapted version of the process dissociation paradigm was used to measure recognition memory in 5-, 7-, and 11-year-olds and adults. In Experiment 1, it was found that 5-year-olds already recollect details of items (i.e., number). Recollection increased particularly between 5 and 7 years. Familiarity differed between 5 years and adulthood. In Experiment 2, under limited response time during retrieval, recollection was eliminated in 5-year-olds and reduced across all ages, whereas familiarity was left unaffected. Together, these findings are consistent with dual-process theories of recognition memory and provide support for two processes underlying recognition memory from a developmental perspective. PMID:25544395

  14. Medical Operation KC-135 Familiarization Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Chris; Stoner, Paul; Arenare, Brian; Strickland, Angie; Rudge, Fredrick; Lowdermilk, Greg

    1999-01-01

    As new personnel join the Medical Operations Branch, it is critical that they understand the effects of microgravity on medical procedures, hardware, and supplies. The familiarization flight provided new personnel with a better understanding of the effects of microgravity on (1) medical procedures, (2) patient and rescuer restraint, (3) medical fluids, and (4) medical training for space flight. The flight process also provided experience in flight proposal preparation, flight test plan preparation and execution, and final report preparation. In addition, first time flyers gained insight on their performance level in microgravity for future flights.

  15. The Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias: 30 years of Research and Communication in Astronomy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Puerto, Carmen; Rodriguez, Nayra; Rosenberg, Alfred; Beckman, John Etienne

    2015-08-01

    1985 was a year of inauguration for the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC). In that year its two observatories, the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, on the island of La Palma, (where its 10.4m optical-NIR telescope vies with the world´s major instruments), and the Observatorio del Teide, on the island of Tenerife, as well as its headquarters in La Laguna, Tenerife, were all inaugurated. This young institution has rapidly become the leading research centre for astronomy in Spain and achieved research standards at a European and world level. The 30th anniversary celebrations this year give an opportunity to maximize its already very active outreach programmes. In February two shows, featuring IAC researchers, and with astronomical themes, were shown in the main theatre of the city of La Laguna, and during the year further entertainment, collaborating with Canarian musicians and artists, is planned. Two exhibitions have been designed combining the anniversary with celebrations of the International Year of Light: “Listen to the Universe”, in Tenerife, and “Thirty Journeys around the Sun”, in La Palma, which will be open to the public for most of the year. A new outreach magazine “Parallaxes” will be launched by the IAC, in both paper and digital editions, and will complement the current blog, and news websites of the institute, as well as its communications on Facebook and Twitter. Among the activities being organized in Tenerife will be the formal naming of traffic circles with names of the telescopes at the Observatories. In conjunction with the municipal wine cellars of the local city of Tegueste a new Canarian wine produced by innovative methods and with an astronomical motif on its label, is to be launched during the year. All of these activities are in addition to the somewhat more routine productions of videos on the research lines of the IAC, including exoplanets, solar stellar, and interstellar physics, galaxies, and cosmology.

  16. The hard-won benefits of familiarity in visual search: naturally familiar brand logos are found faster.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xiaoyan Angela; Koutstaal, Wilma; Engel, Stephen A

    2014-05-01

    Familiar items are found faster than unfamiliar ones in visual search tasks. This effect has important implications for cognitive theory, because it may reveal how mental representations of commonly encountered items are changed by experience to optimize performance. It remains unknown, however, whether everyday items with moderate levels of exposure would show benefits in visual search, and if so, what kind of experience would be required to produce them. Here, we tested whether familiar product logos were searched for faster than unfamiliar ones, and also familiarized subjects with previously unfamiliar logos. Subjects searched for preexperimentally familiar and unfamiliar logos, half of which were familiarized in the laboratory, amongst other, unfamiliar distractor logos. In three experiments, we used an N-back-like familiarization task, and in four others we used a task that asked detailed questions about the perceptual aspects of the logos. The number of familiarization exposures ranged from 30 to 84 per logo across experiments, with two experiments involving across-day familiarization. Preexperimentally familiar target logos were searched for faster than were unfamiliar, nonfamiliarized logos, by 8 % on average. This difference was reliable in all seven experiments. However, familiarization had little or no effect on search speeds; its average effect was to improve search times by 0.7 %, and its effect was significant in only one of the seven experiments. If priming, mere exposure, episodic memory, or relatively modest familiarity were responsible for familiarity's effects on search, then performance should have improved following familiarization. Our results suggest that the search-related advantage of familiar logos does not develop easily or rapidly. PMID:24510424

  17. El teatro cubano en la década del ochenta: Nuevas propuestas, nuevas promociones

    E-print Network

    Pianca, Marina

    1990-10-01

    -muchos, alumnos del Instituto Superior de Arte, que desde 1981 ha dado sus frutos en una primera promoción de teatristas egresados de sus aulas. El "encuentro de jóvenes críticos teatrales y danzarios" junto a los concursos de crítica de la revista Tablas... desarrollo cultural de la presente década. Conscientes de que el desarrollo cultural10 se articulaba necesariamente con el nivel de capacitación de promociones futuras, en julio de 1976 se creó el Instituto Superior de Arte (ISA) que ha tenido un rol...

  18. A Familiar Finding: Pseudowords Are More Familiar but No Less Recollectable than Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozubko, Jason D.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.

    2012-01-01

    The pseudoword effect is the finding that pseudowords (i.e., pronounceable nonwords) tend to give rise to more hits and false alarms than words. The familiarity-based account attributes this effect to the fact that pseudowords lack distinctive semantic meanings, which increases the inter-item similarity of pseudowords compared to words and…

  19. The FN400 indexes familiarity-based recognition of faces

    PubMed Central

    Curran, Tim; Hancock, Jane

    2007-01-01

    Separate event-related brain potential (ERP) components have been hypothesized to index familiarity and recollection processes that support recognition memory. A 300–500 ms mid-frontal FN400 old/new difference has been related to familiarity, whereas a 500–800 ms parietal old/new difference has been related to recollection. Other recent work has cast doubt on the FN400 familiarity hypothesis, especially its application to familiarity-based recognition of conceptually impoverished stimuli such as novel faces. Here we show that FN400 old/new differences can be observed with novel faces, and as predicted by the familiarity hypothesis, these differences are observed regardless of whether or not recognition is accompanied by the recollection of specific details from the study episode. Furthermore, FN400 differentiation between hits and misses is more consistent with an explicit familiarity process than an implicit memory process. PMID:17258471

  20. El cuento del cáncer de cérvix podría tener un final feliz

    Cancer.gov

    El cuento del cáncer de cérvix podría tener un final feliz Por el Instituto Nacional del Cáncer El cáncer de cérvix fue en un tiempo la causa principal de muerte por cáncer entre mujeres estadounidenses. Pero, en los últimos 50 años, el número de

  1. Role of the insular cortex in taste familiarity.

    PubMed

    Moraga-Amaro, Rodrigo; Cortés-Rojas, Andrés; Simon, Felipe; Stehberg, Jimmy

    2014-03-01

    Determining the role of the main gustatory cortical area within the insular cortex (IC), in conditioned taste aversion (CTA) has been elusive due to effective compensatory mechanisms that allow animals to learn in spite of lacking IC. IC lesions performed before CTA training induces mild if any memory impairments, while IC lesions done weeks after CTA produce amnesia. IC lesions before taste presentation have also been shown not to affect taste familiarity learning (attenuation of neophobia). This lack of effect could be either explained by compensation from other brain areas or by a lack of involvement of the IC in taste familiarity. To assess this issue, rats were bilaterally IC lesioned with ibotenic acid (200-300 nl.; 15 mg/ml) one week before or after taste familiarity, using either a preferred (0.1%) or a non-preferred (0.5%) saccharin solution. Rats lesioned before familiarity showed a decrease in neophobia to both solutions but no difference in their familiarity curve or their slope. When animals were familiarized and then IC lesioned, both IC lesioned groups treated the solutions as familiar, showing no differences from sham animals in their retention of familiarity. However, both lesioned groups showed increased latent inhibition (or impaired CTA) when CTA trained after repeated pre-exposures. The role of the IC in familiarity was also assessed using temporary inactivation of the IC, using bilateral micro-infusions of sodium channel blocker bupivacaine before each of 3 saccharin daily presentations. Intra-insular bupivacaine had no effects on familiarity acquisition, but did impair CTA learning in a different group of rats micro-infused before saccharin presentation in a CTA training protocol. Our data indicate that the IC is not essentially involved in acquisition or retention of taste familiarity, suggesting regional dissociation of areas involved in CTA and taste familiarity. PMID:24296461

  2. Computerizing a house organ: recharting familiar territory

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    Computerization can offer great advantages. But one publication ideally suited to computerization was slow to take advantage of the new technology. The main reason was reluctance to try an unfamiliar way of doing things. Having now switched to computerization, the publication has reaped many benefits. Among them: production time is faster; costs are lower; errors are fewer. Computerization has not been without minor problems. The most obvious is vulnerability to the rarity of a system failure. Others include the technology's potential reinforcement of overediting and of excessive reliance on extremely rapid response. Such problems, however, do not indicate weaknesses in the technology itself; rather, they reflect an incomplete adaption to it and the need for more realistic expectations. An unwarranted reluctance to innovate can slow advances in communication. Technical communicators must be willing to rechart their own familiar territory.

  3. Se lanza Red Nacional de Estudios Clínicos del NCI

    Cancer.gov

    El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) puso en marcha una nueva red de investigación de estudios clínicos con el objetivo de mejorar el tratamiento de más de 1,6 millones de estadounidenses que reciben un diagnóstico de cáncer cada año.

  4. t*iiBe*fe-bufriq.fs * frtus INSTITUTO DE PESQUISAS ESPACIAIS

    E-print Network

    florestal na Amazonia Legat,existenÍes no planeta Terra. t T t I D #12;INSTITUTO DE PESQUISAS ESPACIAIS#12;T- r It l; t It ! t t tI : tI : ! I b It I L t*iiBe*fe- bufriq.fs * frtus INSTITUTO DE PESQUISAS ESPACIAIS DIRETORIA DE SENSORIAMENTO REMOTO nvaunçÃo DA ALTERAçÃo on coBERTURA FLoRESTAL NA

  5. When Do Infants Begin Recognizing Familiar Words in Sentences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePaolis, Rory A.; Vihman, Marilyn M.; Keren-Portnoy, Tamar

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that by 11 but not by 10 months infants recognize words that have become familiar from everyday life independently of the experimental setting. This study explored the ability of 10-, 11-, and 12- month-old infants to recognize familiar words in sentential context, without experimental training. The headturn preference…

  6. Recollection and Familiarity in Recognition Memory: Evidence from ROC Curves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heathcote, Andrew; Raymond, Frances; Dunn, John

    2006-01-01

    Does recognition memory rely on discrete recollection, continuous evidence, or both? Is continuous evidence sensitive to only the recency and duration of study (familiarity), or is it also sensitive to details of the study episode? Dual process theories assume recognition is based on recollection and familiarity, with only recollection providing…

  7. 30 CFR 56.19096 - Familiarity with signal code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Familiarity with signal code. 56.19096 Section... Hoisting Signaling § 56.19096 Familiarity with signal code. Any person responsible for receiving or giving... with the posted signaling code. Shafts...

  8. 30 CFR 57.19096 - Familiarity with signal code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Familiarity with signal code. 57.19096 Section... Hoisting Signaling § 57.19096 Familiarity with signal code. Any person reponsible for receiving or giving... with the posted signaling code. Shafts...

  9. 30 CFR 56.19096 - Familiarity with signal code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Familiarity with signal code. 56.19096 Section... Hoisting Signaling § 56.19096 Familiarity with signal code. Any person responsible for receiving or giving... with the posted signaling code. Shafts...

  10. 30 CFR 56.19096 - Familiarity with signal code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Familiarity with signal code. 56.19096 Section... Hoisting Signaling § 56.19096 Familiarity with signal code. Any person responsible for receiving or giving... with the posted signaling code. Shafts...

  11. 30 CFR 57.19096 - Familiarity with signal code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Familiarity with signal code. 57.19096 Section... Hoisting Signaling § 57.19096 Familiarity with signal code. Any person reponsible for receiving or giving... with the posted signaling code. Shafts...

  12. 30 CFR 57.19096 - Familiarity with signal code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Familiarity with signal code. 57.19096 Section... Hoisting Signaling § 57.19096 Familiarity with signal code. Any person reponsible for receiving or giving... with the posted signaling code. Shafts...

  13. 30 CFR 57.19096 - Familiarity with signal code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Familiarity with signal code. 57.19096 Section... Hoisting Signaling § 57.19096 Familiarity with signal code. Any person reponsible for receiving or giving... with the posted signaling code. Shafts...

  14. 30 CFR 56.19096 - Familiarity with signal code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Familiarity with signal code. 56.19096 Section... Hoisting Signaling § 56.19096 Familiarity with signal code. Any person responsible for receiving or giving... with the posted signaling code. Shafts...

  15. 30 CFR 57.19096 - Familiarity with signal code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Familiarity with signal code. 57.19096 Section... Hoisting Signaling § 57.19096 Familiarity with signal code. Any person reponsible for receiving or giving... with the posted signaling code. Shafts...

  16. 30 CFR 56.19096 - Familiarity with signal code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Familiarity with signal code. 56.19096 Section... Hoisting Signaling § 56.19096 Familiarity with signal code. Any person responsible for receiving or giving... with the posted signaling code. Shafts...

  17. Assessing Recollection and Familiarity in Low Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ni Chuileann, Susan; Quigley, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Methods to assess recollection and familiarity separately in autism spectrum disorder were recently developed and piloted (Bigham et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 40:878-889, 2010). The preliminary data obtained via these methods showed that whereas recollection was mildly impaired in high functioning autism, familiarity was spared. The current study…

  18. An Inner Face Advantage in Children's Recognition of Familiar Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ge, Liezhong; Anzures, Gizelle; Wang, Zhe; Kelly, David J.; Pascalis, Olivier; Quinn, Paul C.; Slater, Alan M.; Yang, Zhiliang; Lee, Kang

    2008-01-01

    Children's recognition of familiar own-age peers was investigated. Chinese children (4-, 8-, and 14-year-olds) were asked to identify their classmates from photographs showing the entire face, the internal facial features only, the external facial features only, or the eyes, nose, or mouth only. Participants from all age groups were familiar with…

  19. COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE Personally familiar faces are perceived categorically in

    E-print Network

    Rossion, Bruno

    adaptation, fusiform gyrus, personal familiarity Abstract Neuroimaging studies of humans have provided resonance adaptation and morph continua of personally familiar faces, we investigated sensitivity to subtle is that the shared characteristics of two stimuli (adapting, test) will be associated with decreased activation

  20. Familiarity with music increases walking speed in rhythmic auditory cuing.

    PubMed

    Leow, Li-Ann; Rinchon, Cricia; Grahn, Jessica

    2015-03-01

    Rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) is a gait rehabilitation method in which patients synchronize footsteps to a metronome or musical beats. Although RAS with music can ameliorate gait abnormalities, outcomes vary, possibly because music properties, such as groove or familiarity, differ across interventions. To optimize future interventions, we assessed how initially familiar and unfamiliar low-groove and high-groove music affected synchronization accuracy and gait in healthy individuals. We also experimentally increased music familiarity using repeated exposure to initially unfamiliar songs. Overall, familiar music elicited faster stride velocity and less variable strides, as well as better synchronization performance (matching of step tempo to beat tempo). High-groove music, as reported previously, led to faster stride velocity than low-groove music. We propose two mechanisms for familiarity's effects. First, familiarity with the beat structure reduces cognitive demands of synchronizing, leading to better synchronization performance and faster, less variable gait. Second, familiarity might have elicited faster gait by increasing enjoyment of the music, as enjoyment was higher after repeated exposure to initially low-enjoyment songs. Future studies are necessary to dissociate the contribution of these mechanisms to the observed RAS effects of familiar music on gait. PMID:25773617

  1. 46 CFR 11.705 - Route familiarization requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Route familiarization requirements. 11.705 Section 11.705 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN REQUIREMENTS FOR OFFICER ENDORSEMENTS Professional Requirements for Pilots § 11.705 Route familiarization requirements. (a) The Officer in Charge,...

  2. Familiarity for Associations? A Test of the Domain Dichotomy Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlow, Iain M.; Mackenzie, Graham; Donaldson, David I.

    2010-01-01

    Episodic recognition memory is mediated by functionally separable retrieval processes, notably familiarity (a general sense of prior exposure) and recollection (the retrieval of contextual details), whose relative engagement depends partly on the nature of the information being retrieved. Currently, the specific contribution of familiarity to…

  3. Computable structures of Scott rank CK familiar classes

    E-print Network

    Calvert, Wesley

    Computable structures of Scott rank CK 1 in familiar classes W. Calvert, S. S. Goncharov, and J. F computable Scott ranks. There are also familiar structures, such as the Harrison ordering, that have Scott rank CK 1 + 1. Makkai [13] produced a structure of Scott rank CK 1 , which can be made computable [12

  4. Computable structures of Scott rank # CK familiar classes

    E-print Network

    Calvert, Wesley

    Computable structures of Scott rank # CK 1 in familiar classes W. Calvert, S. S. Goncharov, and J various computable Scott ranks. There are also familiar structures, such as the Harrison ordering, that have Scott rank # CK 1 + 1. Makkai [13] produced a structure of Scott rank # CK 1 , which can be made

  5. The Importance of Unitization for Familiarity-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, Colleen M.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    It is often assumed that recollection is necessary to support memory for novel associations, whereas familiarity supports memory for single items. However, the levels of unitization framework assumes that familiarity can support associative memory under conditions in which the components of an association are unitized (i.e., treated as a single…

  6. Familiar-Strange: Teaching the Scripture as John Would Teach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Tung-Chiew

    2014-01-01

    The Gospel of John teaches through telling the story of Jesus in light of the familiar Hebrew faith stories. It is an interpretive task that presents Jesus to his audience and teaches them adequate faith. John the Teacher skillfully uses narrative skills to create the familiar-strange effect in his storytelling. Each story is followed by a…

  7. Fluency, familiarity, aging, and the illusion of truth.

    PubMed

    Parks, Colleen M; Toth, Jeffrey P

    2006-06-01

    Research has shown that repeated statements are rated as more credible than new statements. However, little research has examined whether such "illusions of truth" can be produced by contextual (nonmnemonic) influences, or compared to the magnitude of these illusions in younger and older adults. In two experiments, we examined how manipulations of perceptual and conceptual fluency influenced truth and familiarity ratings made by young and older adults. Stimuli were claims about companies or products varying in normative familiarity. Results showed only small effects of perceptual fluency on rated truth or familiarity. In contrast, manipulating conceptual fluency via semantic/textual context had much larger effects on rated truth and familiarity, with the effects modulated by normative company familiarity such that fluency biases were larger for lesser-known companies. In both experiments, young and older adults were equally susceptible to fluency-based biases. PMID:16807200

  8. Musical familiarity in congenital amusia: evidence from a gating paradigm.

    PubMed

    Tillmann, Barbara; Albouy, Philippe; Caclin, Anne; Bigand, Emmanuel

    2014-10-01

    Congenital amusia has been described as a lifelong deficit of music perception and production, notably including amusic individuals' difficulties to recognize a familiar tune without the aid of lyrics. The present study aimed to evaluate whether amusic individuals might have acquired long-term knowledge of familiar music, and to test for the minimal amount of acoustic information necessary to access this knowledge (if any) in amusia. Segments of familiar and unfamiliar instrumental musical pieces were presented with increasing duration (250, 500, 1000 msec etc.), and participants provided familiarity judgments for each segment. Results showed that amusic individuals succeeded in differentiating familiar from unfamiliar excerpts with as little acoustic information as did control participants (i.e., within 500 msec). The findings reveal that amusic individuals have stored musical pieces in long-term memory (LTM), and, together with other recent findings, they suggest that congenital amusia might impair conscious access to music processing rather than music processing per se. PMID:25151640

  9. Gender differences in familiar voice identification.

    PubMed

    Skuk, Verena G; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2013-02-01

    We investigated gender differences in the identification of personally familiar voices in a gender-balanced sample of 40 listeners. From various types of utterances, listeners had to identify by name 20 speakers (10 female) among a set of 70 possible classmates who were all 12th grade pupils from the same local secondary school. Mean identification rates were 67% from sentences, and around 35% for an isolated /Hello/ or a VCV syllable. Even from non-verbal harrumphs, speakers were identified with an accuracy of 18%, i.e. highly above chance levels. Substantial individual differences were observed between listeners. Importantly, superior overall performance of female listeners was qualified by an interaction between voice gender and listener gender. Male listeners exhibited an own-gender bias (i.e. better identification for male than female voices), whereas female listeners identified voices of both genders at similar levels. Individual own-gender identification biases were correlated with differences in reported contact to a speaker's voice and voice distinctiveness. Overall, the present study establishes a number of factors that account for substantial individual differences in personal voice identification. PMID:23168357

  10. Perception of familiar contrasts in unfamiliar positions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broersma, Mirjam

    2005-06-01

    This paper investigates the perception of non-native phoneme contrasts which exist in the native language, but not in the position tested. Like English, Dutch contrasts voiced and voiceless obstruents. Unlike English, Dutch allows only voiceless obstruents in word-final position. Dutch and English listeners' accuracy on English final voicing contrasts and their use of preceding vowel duration as a voicing cue were tested. The phonetic structure of Dutch should provide the necessary experience for a native-like use of this cue. Experiment 1 showed that Dutch listeners categorized English final /zee/-/ess/, /vee/-/eff/, /bee/-/pee/, and /dee/-/tee/ contrasts in nonwords as accurately as initial contrasts, and as accurately as English listeners did, even when release bursts were removed. In experiment 2, English listeners used vowel duration as a cue for one final contrast, although it was uninformative and sometimes mismatched other voicing characteristics, whereas Dutch listeners did not. Although it should be relatively easy for them, Dutch listeners did not use vowel duration. Nevertheless, they attained native-like accuracy, and sometimes even outperformed the native listeners who were liable to be misled by uninformative vowel duration information. Thus, native-like use of cues for non-native but familiar contrasts in unfamiliar positions may hardly ever be attained. .

  11. Familiarity and categorization processes in memory search.

    PubMed

    Nosofsky, Robert M; Cao, Rui; Cox, Gregory E; Shiffrin, Richard M

    2014-12-01

    A fundamental distinction in tasks of memory search is whether items receive varied mappings (targets and distractors switch roles across trials) or consistent mappings (targets and distractors never switch roles). The type of mapping often produces markedly different performance patterns, but formal memory-based models that account quantitatively for detailed aspects of the results have not yet been developed and evaluated. Experiments were conducted to test a modern exemplar-retrieval model on its ability to account for memory-search performance involving a wide range of memory-set sizes in both varied-mapping (VM) and consistent-mapping (CM) probe-recognition tasks. The model formalized the idea that both familiarity-based and categorization-based processes operate. The model was required to fit detailed response-time (RT) distributions of individual, highly practiced subjects. A key manipulation involved the repetition of negative probes across trials. This manipulation produced a dramatic dissociation: False-alarm rates increased and correct-rejection RTs got longer in VM, but not in CM. The qualitative pattern of results and modeling analyses provided evidence for a strong form of categorization-based processing in CM, in which observers made use of the membership of negative probes in the "new" category to make old-new recognition decisions. PMID:25240209

  12. Investigacin Centro de Investigacin y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politcnico Nacional

    E-print Network

    interacciones planta-microorganismo; y bio-remediación de suelos. Octavio Paredes López Biotecnología general microbiología de suelo. Silvia Edith Valdés Rodríguez Bioquímica y biología molecular de proteínas

  13. Investigacin Centro de Investigacin y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politcnico Nacional

    E-print Network

    ecosistemas costeros, calidad e Intrusión de agua costera de mar en acuíferos de agua dulce. Jorge Iván Euán, distribución y destino ambiental de contaminantes tóxicos en ecosistemas costeros; efectos de contaminantes en Liceaga Correa Análisis espacial y temporal de ecosistemas marinos y costeros: Percepción remota y

  14. [Mortality among the workers of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social from 1983 to 1987].

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Márquez, O; Camacho-Solís, R; Villarroel-Vargas, R; Tudón-Garcés, H; Campos-Fernández, M C; Moras-Sandoval, R M

    1992-01-01

    A study on mortality of 2,268 workers of the Mexican Social Security Institute was done during 1983-1987 in order to obtain accurate information to specifically determine to those, activities which promote the health and improve the life conditions of the workers of the aforementioned institution. This information relates to the first step of the study, so it doesn't lead us to value judgements, because it would fall into speculations. However, it creates an important data to subsequently explore, by means of further studies, in the casualty of the existing results. PMID:1549792

  15. Cesar Flores-Coto Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia

    E-print Network

    , North Carolina to determine their density, and age and size composi- tion. Density data and otolith age distributions were used to calculate the relative contribution of birth- week cohorts to the seasonal recruit-March, with 90% in a 2-month period be- ginning mid-November. Larvae were recruited to the estuary over 5 months

  16. Investigacin Centro de Investigacin y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politcnico Nacional

    E-print Network

    controlabilidad, observabilidad, estabilidad, diagnostico. Principalmente uso redes de petri y lenguajes. Sistemas Montiel Diseño de dispositivos ASICs y sistemas electrónicos para telecomunicaciones, cómputo y equipo de grandes redes eléctricas. Luis Ernesto López Mellado Modelado, simulación y automatización de

  17. Investigacin Centro de Investigacin y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politcnico Nacional

    E-print Network

    Nacional Departamento de Biología Celular Investigador Línea de Investigación José Federico Bernardo Castro Muñoz Ledo Diferenciación celular. Utilizando como modelo experimental a la línea celular establecida herramientas de Biología Celular, Bioquímica, Biología Molecular e Inmunología, analizamos los mecanismos que

  18. Investigacin Centro de Investigacin y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politcnico Nacional

    E-print Network

    procesamiento de la información motora por los mismos. José Antonio G. Arias Montaño Neurofarmacología celular y molecular. Marcelino Cereijido Mattioli Fisiología celular y molecular de membranas epiteliales. Rubén Biología celular y molecular de canales iónicos. Emilio Julio Muñoz Martínez Integración sensoriomotora en

  19. Investigacin Centro de Investigacin y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politcnico Nacional

    E-print Network

    celular de parásitos María Esther Orozco Orozco Identificación y caracterización de moléculas proteicas y histolytica. Patricia Talamás Rohana Biología Celular e Inmunología de protozoarios parásitos (Entamoeba

  20. Investigacin Centro de Investigacin y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politcnico Nacional

    E-print Network

    alta TC y fotoluminiscencia. Alberto Alejandro García Díaz Relatividad y gravitación (T): Soluciones exactas en relatividad general. Gerardo Acacio González de la Cruz Materia condensada (T): Propiedades y física de superficies e interfaces. Nora Eva Bretón Báez Relatividad y gravitación (T

  1. Neural representation of face familiarity in an awake chimpanzee

    PubMed Central

    Hirata, Satoshi; Matsuda, Goh; Ueno, Ari; Fuwa, Kohki; Sugama, Keiko; Kusunoki, Kiyo; Hiraki, Kazuo; Tomonaga, Masaki; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2013-01-01

    Evaluating the familiarity of faces is critical for social animals as it is the basis of individual recognition. In the present study, we examined how face familiarity is reflected in neural activities in our closest living relative, the chimpanzee. Skin-surface event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were measured while a fully awake chimpanzee observed photographs of familiar and unfamiliar chimpanzee faces (Experiment 1) and human faces (Experiment 2). The ERPs evoked by chimpanzee faces differentiated unfamiliar individuals from familiar ones around midline areas centered on vertex sites at approximately 200 ms after the stimulus onset. In addition, the ERP response to the image of the subject’s own face did not significantly diverge from those evoked by familiar chimpanzees, suggesting that the subject’s brain at a minimum remembered the image of her own face. The ERPs evoked by human faces were not influenced by the familiarity of target individuals. These results indicate that chimpanzee neural representations are more sensitive to the familiarity of conspecific than allospecific faces. PMID:24392287

  2. Familiarity is not notoriety: phenomenological accounts of face recognition

    PubMed Central

    Liccione, Davide; Moruzzi, Sara; Rossi, Federica; Manganaro, Alessia; Porta, Marco; Nugrahaningsih, Nahumi; Caserio, Valentina; Allegri, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    From a phenomenological perspective, faces are perceived differently from objects as their perception always involves the possibility of a relational engagement (Bredlau, 2011). This is especially true for familiar faces, i.e., faces of people with a history of real relational engagements. Similarly, valence of emotional expressions assumes a key role, as they define the sense and direction of this engagement. Following these premises, the aim of the present study is to demonstrate that face recognition is facilitated by at least two variables, familiarity and emotional expression, and that perception of familiar faces is not influenced by orientation. In order to verify this hypothesis, we implemented a 3 × 3 × 2 factorial design, showing 17 healthy subjects three type of faces (unfamiliar, personally familiar, famous) characterized by three different emotional expressions (happy, hungry/sad, neutral) and in two different orientation (upright vs. inverted). We showed every subject a total of 180 faces with the instructions to give a familiarity judgment. Reaction times (RTs) were recorded and we found that the recognition of a face is facilitated by personal familiarity and emotional expression, and that this process is otherwise independent from a cognitive elaboration of stimuli and remains stable despite orientation. These results highlight the need to make a distinction between famous and personally familiar faces when studying face perception and to consider its historical aspects from a phenomenological point of view. PMID:25225476

  3. Dynamic Modulation of the Action Observation Network by Movement Familiarity

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Tom; Goulden, Nia

    2015-01-01

    When watching another person's actions, a network of sensorimotor brain regions, collectively termed the action observation network (AON), is engaged. Previous research suggests that the AON is more responsive when watching familiar compared with unfamiliar actions. However, most research into AON function is premised on comparisons of AON engagement during different types of task using univariate, magnitude-based approaches. To better understand the relationship between action familiarity and AON engagement, here we examine how observed movement familiarity modulates AON activity in humans using dynamic causal modeling, a type of effective connectivity analysis. Twenty-one subjects underwent fMRI scanning while viewing whole-body dance movements that varied in terms of their familiarity. Participants' task was to either predict the next posture the dancer's body would assume or to respond to a non–action-related attentional control question. To assess individuals' familiarity with each movement, participants rated each video on a measure of visual familiarity after being scanned. Parametric analyses showed more activity in left middle temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, and inferior frontal gyrus as videos were rated as increasingly familiar. These clusters of activity formed the regions of interest for dynamic causal modeling analyses, which revealed attenuation of effective connectivity bidirectionally between parietal and temporal AON nodes when participants observed videos they rated as increasingly familiar. As such, the findings provide partial support for a predictive coding model of the AON, as well as illuminate how action familiarity manipulations can be used to explore simulation-based accounts of action understanding. PMID:25632133

  4. Dynamic modulation of the action observation network by movement familiarity.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Tom; Goulden, Nia; Cross, Emily S

    2015-01-28

    When watching another person's actions, a network of sensorimotor brain regions, collectively termed the action observation network (AON), is engaged. Previous research suggests that the AON is more responsive when watching familiar compared with unfamiliar actions. However, most research into AON function is premised on comparisons of AON engagement during different types of task using univariate, magnitude-based approaches. To better understand the relationship between action familiarity and AON engagement, here we examine how observed movement familiarity modulates AON activity in humans using dynamic causal modeling, a type of effective connectivity analysis. Twenty-one subjects underwent fMRI scanning while viewing whole-body dance movements that varied in terms of their familiarity. Participants' task was to either predict the next posture the dancer's body would assume or to respond to a non-action-related attentional control question. To assess individuals' familiarity with each movement, participants rated each video on a measure of visual familiarity after being scanned. Parametric analyses showed more activity in left middle temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, and inferior frontal gyrus as videos were rated as increasingly familiar. These clusters of activity formed the regions of interest for dynamic causal modeling analyses, which revealed attenuation of effective connectivity bidirectionally between parietal and temporal AON nodes when participants observed videos they rated as increasingly familiar. As such, the findings provide partial support for a predictive coding model of the AON, as well as illuminate how action familiarity manipulations can be used to explore simulation-based accounts of action understanding. PMID:25632133

  5. Chemosensory discrimination of identity and familiarity in koalas.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Benjamin D

    2015-10-01

    Despite numerous descriptive accounts of scent marking in marsupials, rigorous experimentation is rare, and relatively little evidence exists to show that conspecifics use chemical signals to distinguish between individuals or different social groups. In this study a series of olfactory discrimination tests sought to determine whether: (1) male koala sternal scent gland secretions are individually distinctive; and (2) male koalas can differentiate between the scent of familiar and unfamiliar individuals. In the first experiment a habituation-discrimination trial demonstrated that male koalas discriminate between the scent gland secretions of different unfamiliar individuals. In a second experiment male koalas spent significantly more time investigating scent from unfamiliar males than familiar males, supporting the hypothesis that they differentiate between conspecifics based on their familiarity. Taken together these results suggest that male koalas are able to discriminate the identity and familiarity of conspecifics using chemical cues, and provide a platform for further studies investigating the functional role of olfactory communication in this species. PMID:26216198

  6. Facilitated detection of social cues conveyed by familiar faces

    PubMed Central

    Visconti di Oleggio Castello, Matteo; Guntupalli, J. Swaroop; Yang, Hua; Gobbini, M. Ida

    2014-01-01

    Recognition of the identity of familiar faces in conditions with poor visibility or over large changes in head angle, lighting and partial occlusion is far more accurate than recognition of unfamiliar faces in similar conditions. Here we used a visual search paradigm to test if one class of social cues transmitted by faces—direction of another's attention as conveyed by gaze direction and head orientation—is perceived more rapidly in personally familiar faces than in unfamiliar faces. We found a strong effect of familiarity on the detection of these social cues, suggesting that the times to process these signals in familiar faces are markedly faster than the corresponding processing times for unfamiliar faces. In the light of these new data, hypotheses on the organization of the visual system for processing faces are formulated and discussed. PMID:25228873

  7. A Model of Ant Route Navigation Driven by Scene Familiarity

    E-print Network

    distinguishable as silhouettes against the sky. In the first instance we determine view familiarity by exhaustive]. This is a goal shared by biomimetic engineers and those studying animal cognition using a bottom-up approach

  8. [Chronic benign exsudative pericarditis--a case of familiar incidence].

    PubMed

    Sovová, E; Marek, D; Bulava, A; Santavá, A; Klein, J; Lukl, J

    2007-10-01

    Pericarditis is a common disease caused by a number of factors. Chronic pericarditis is defined as the presence of pericardial effusion for more than 3 or 6 months. The case study reports a case of familiar incidence of chronic exsudative pericarditis in a young woman, her sister and her mother, with an analysis of diagnostic and therapeutic options. According to available literature, this is the second case described of such form of familiar incidence. PMID:18072439

  9. A model of ant route navigation driven by scene familiarity.

    PubMed

    Baddeley, Bart; Graham, Paul; Husbands, Philip; Philippides, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose a model of visually guided route navigation in ants that captures the known properties of real behaviour whilst retaining mechanistic simplicity and thus biological plausibility. For an ant, the coupling of movement and viewing direction means that a familiar view specifies a familiar direction of movement. Since the views experienced along a habitual route will be more familiar, route navigation can be re-cast as a search for familiar views. This search can be performed with a simple scanning routine, a behaviour that ants have been observed to perform. We test this proposed route navigation strategy in simulation, by learning a series of routes through visually cluttered environments consisting of objects that are only distinguishable as silhouettes against the sky. In the first instance we determine view familiarity by exhaustive comparison with the set of views experienced during training. In further experiments we train an artificial neural network to perform familiarity discrimination using the training views. Our results indicate that, not only is the approach successful, but also that the routes that are learnt show many of the characteristics of the routes of desert ants. As such, we believe the model represents the only detailed and complete model of insect route guidance to date. What is more, the model provides a general demonstration that visually guided routes can be produced with parsimonious mechanisms that do not specify when or what to learn, nor separate routes into sequences of waypoints. PMID:22241975

  10. Music and Emotions in the Brain: Familiarity Matters

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Carlos Silva; Teixeira, João; Figueiredo, Patrícia; Xavier, João; Castro, São Luís; Brattico, Elvira

    2011-01-01

    The importance of music in our daily life has given rise to an increased number of studies addressing the brain regions involved in its appreciation. Some of these studies controlled only for the familiarity of the stimuli, while others relied on pleasantness ratings, and others still on musical preferences. With a listening test and a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment, we wished to clarify the role of familiarity in the brain correlates of music appreciation by controlling, in the same study, for both familiarity and musical preferences. First, we conducted a listening test, in which participants rated the familiarity and liking of song excerpts from the pop/rock repertoire, allowing us to select a personalized set of stimuli per subject. Then, we used a passive listening paradigm in fMRI to study music appreciation in a naturalistic condition with increased ecological value. Brain activation data revealed that broad emotion-related limbic and paralimbic regions as well as the reward circuitry were significantly more active for familiar relative to unfamiliar music. Smaller regions in the cingulate cortex and frontal lobe, including the motor cortex and Broca's area, were found to be more active in response to liked music when compared to disliked one. Hence, familiarity seems to be a crucial factor in making the listeners emotionally engaged with music, as revealed by fMRI data. PMID:22110619

  11. A Model of Ant Route Navigation Driven by Scene Familiarity

    PubMed Central

    Baddeley, Bart; Graham, Paul; Husbands, Philip; Philippides, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose a model of visually guided route navigation in ants that captures the known properties of real behaviour whilst retaining mechanistic simplicity and thus biological plausibility. For an ant, the coupling of movement and viewing direction means that a familiar view specifies a familiar direction of movement. Since the views experienced along a habitual route will be more familiar, route navigation can be re-cast as a search for familiar views. This search can be performed with a simple scanning routine, a behaviour that ants have been observed to perform. We test this proposed route navigation strategy in simulation, by learning a series of routes through visually cluttered environments consisting of objects that are only distinguishable as silhouettes against the sky. In the first instance we determine view familiarity by exhaustive comparison with the set of views experienced during training. In further experiments we train an artificial neural network to perform familiarity discrimination using the training views. Our results indicate that, not only is the approach successful, but also that the routes that are learnt show many of the characteristics of the routes of desert ants. As such, we believe the model represents the only detailed and complete model of insect route guidance to date. What is more, the model provides a general demonstration that visually guided routes can be produced with parsimonious mechanisms that do not specify when or what to learn, nor separate routes into sequences of waypoints. PMID:22241975

  12. Configural and analytical processing of familiar and unfamiliar objects.

    PubMed

    Noudoost, Behrad; Adibi, Mehdi; Moeeny, Ali; Esteky, Hossein

    2005-08-01

    Configural processing could develop for non-face visual objects as one becomes familiar with those objects through repeated exposure. To explore the role of familiarity in object recognition, we studied the effect of adaptation to a visual object (adapting stimulus) on the identification performance of other objects (test stimulus) while adapting and test stimuli were exactly the same, shared parts or were completely different. We used a subset of English alphabets (p, q, d and b) as familiar objects and an unfamiliar set of symbols constructed from same parts but with different configurations. Adaptation to a member of each set led to a lower identification performance for that object in a crowding paradigm. Adaptation to each member of the unfamiliar set resulted in decreased identification performance for the same object and those members of the set that shared parts with the adapting stimulus. But no such transfer of adaptation was observed for the familiar set. Our results support the notion that processing of object parts plays an important role in the recognition of unfamiliar objects while recognition of familiar objects is mainly based on configural processing mechanisms. PMID:16099356

  13. Timing and Tuning for Familiarity of Cortical Responses to Faces

    PubMed Central

    Bobes, Maria A.; Lage Castellanos, Agustin; Quiñones, Ileana; García, Lorna; Valdes-Sosa, Mitchell

    2013-01-01

    Different kinds of known faces activate brain areas to dissimilar degrees. However, the tuning to type of knowledge, and the temporal course of activation, of each area have not been well characterized. Here we measured, with functional magnetic resonance imaging, brain activity elicited by unfamiliar, visually familiar, and personally-familiar faces. We assessed response amplitude and duration using flexible hemodynamic response functions, as well as the tuning to face type, of regions within the face processing system. Core face processing areas (occipital and fusiform face areas) responded to all types of faces with only small differences in amplitude and duration. In contrast, most areas of the extended face processing system (medial orbito-frontal, anterior and posterior cingulate) had weak responses to unfamiliar and visually-familiar faces, but were highly tuned and exhibited prolonged responses to personally-familiar faces. This indicates that the neural processing of different types of familiar faces not only differs in degree, but is probably mediated by qualitatively distinct mechanisms. PMID:24130761

  14. The importance of unitization for familiarity-based learning.

    PubMed

    Parks, Colleen M; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2015-05-01

    It is often assumed that recollection is necessary to support memory for novel associations, whereas familiarity supports memory for single items. However, the levels of unitization framework assumes that familiarity can support associative memory under conditions in which the components of an association are unitized (i.e., treated as a single coherent item). In the current study we tested two critical assumptions of this framework. First, does unitization reflect a specialized form of learning or is it simply a form of semantic or elaborative encoding, and, second, can the beneficial effects of unitization on familiarity be observed for across-domain associations or are they limited to creating new associations between items that are from the same stimulus domains? Unitization was found to increase associative recognition but not item recognition. It affected familiarity more than recollection, increased associative but not item priming, and was dissociable from levels of processing effects. Moreover, unitization effects were found to be particularly effective in supporting face-word and fractal-sound pairs. The current results indicate that unitization reflects a specialized form of learning that supports associative familiarity of within- and across-domain associations. PMID:25329077

  15. Ricardo Oliveira Duarte Storyteller_PT Email BURACOS NEGROS ESPAO FSICA INSTITUTO SUPERIOR TCNICO

    E-print Network

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    Ricardo Oliveira Duarte Storyteller_PT Email BURACOS NEGROS ESPAÇO FÍSICA INSTITUTO SUPERIOR negros." Investigador português ganha bolsa de um milhão e meio de euros - Obs... http buracos negros é importante porque estamos a perceber que a grande maioria das galáxias tem um buraco

  16. A solid-fluid mixture theory of porous media Instituto de Matematica,

    E-print Network

    Liu, I-Shih

    A solid-fluid mixture theory of porous media I-Shih Liu Instituto de Matem´atica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Abstract The theories of mixtures in the framework of continuum mechanics have of the typical constitutive theories obtained by Bowen [1] for mixture of elastic materials. We employ

  17. Silent Gains: Instituto Buena Bista and Art as Catalyst among Curacaoan Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Iberia Perez

    2010-01-01

    Considering the limited opportunities and resources for creative education, artists David Bade and Tirzo Martha, along with art historian Nancy Hoffmann, developed a dynamic platform to support creative young talent on the Dutch Caribbean island of Curacao. The aim of Instituto Buena Bista (IBB), founded in 2006, is to strengthen the arena of…

  18. Cursos de dois anosGoverno vai apresentar a proposta, que agrada aos Institutos Politcnicos.

    E-print Network

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    Cursos de dois anos·Governo vai apresentar a proposta, que agrada aos Institutos Politécnicos. ·0 objetivo passa por aumentar o número de diplomados em Portugal. #12;Cursos de dois anos para breve Proposta seja, cursos de menor duração. Uma ideia aplaudida pelo pre- sidente do conselho coordenador dos

  19. RECORRIDOS PARA VISITAS ALUMNOS BACHILLERATO INSTITUTO DE CIENCIA DE MATERIALES DE MADRID. CSIC

    E-print Network

    RECORRIDOS PARA VISITAS ALUMNOS BACHILLERATO INSTITUTO DE CIENCIA DE MATERIALES DE MADRID. CSIC C/ Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz 3 Cantoblanco, Madrid (CAMPUS DE LA UAM) http ciencia a la tecnología, desde el laboratorio a tu casa Primero viene la ciencia básica y los

  20. Universidade de Braslia Instituto de Cincias Humanas Programa de Ps-Graduao em Histria

    E-print Network

    Maier, Rudolf Richard

    / Identidades, Tradições e Processos 12 4 História Social/ Sociedade, Instituições e Poder 25 16 Vagas para Processos 01 01 História Social/ Sociedade, Instituições e Poder 01 01 3. DA INSCRIÇÃO NO PROCESSO SELETIVOUniversidade de Brasília Instituto de Ciências Humanas Programa de Pós-Graduação em História

  1. MINISTRIO DO MEIO AMBIENTE INSTITUTO DE PESQUISAS JARDIM BOTNICO DO RIO DE

    E-print Network

    Jardim, Wilson de Figueiredo

    MINISTÉRIO DO MEIO AMBIENTE INSTITUTO DE PESQUISAS JARDIM BOTÂNICO DO RIO DE JANEIRO PORTARIA JBRJ Scaramuzza, da Secretaria de Biodiversida- de e Florestas ­ SBF, do Ministério do Meio Ambiente - MMA; III, Samyra Crespo, para subsidiar a Ministra do Meio Ambiente, Izabella Teixeira, na indicação dos novos

  2. How familiarization and repetition modulate the picture naming network

    PubMed Central

    Llorens, Anaïs; Trébuchon, Agnès; Riès, Stéphanie; Liégeois-Chauvel, Catherine; Alario, F.-Xavier

    2014-01-01

    A common strategy to reveal the components of the speech production network is to use psycholinguistic manipulations previously tested in behavioral protocols. This often disregards how implementation aspects that are nonessential for interpreting behavior may affect the neural response. We compared the electrophysiological (EEG) signature of two popular picture naming protocols involving either unfamiliar pictures without repetitions or repeated familiar pictures. We observed significant semantic interference effects in behavior but not in the EEG, contrary to some previous findings. Remarkably, the two protocols elicited clearly distinct EEG responses. These were not due to naming latency differences nor did they reflect a homogeneous modulation of amplitude over the trial time-window. The effect of protocol is attributed to the familiarization induced by the first encounter with the materials. Picture naming processes can be substantially modulated by specific protocol requirements controlled by familiarity and, to a much lesser degree, the repetition of materials. PMID:24785306

  3. Children do not exhibit ambiguity aversion despite intact familiarity bias

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rosa; Brannon, Elizabeth M.; Huettel, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenon of ambiguity aversion, in which risky gambles with known probabilities are preferred over ambiguous gambles with unknown probabilities, has been thoroughly documented in adults but never measured in children. Here, we use two distinct tasks to investigate ambiguity preferences of children (8- to 9-year-olds) and a comparison group of adults (19- to 27-year-olds). Across three separate measures, we found evidence for significant ambiguity aversion in adults but not in children and for greater ambiguity aversion in adults compared to children. As ambiguity aversion in adults has been theorized to result from a preference to bet on the known and avoid the unfamiliar, we separately measured familiarity bias and found that children, like adults, are biased towards the familiar. Our findings indicate that ambiguity aversion emerges across the course of development between childhood and adolescence, while a familiarity bias is already present in childhood. PMID:25601848

  4. Centro de Contacto del NCI—Servicio de Información sobre el Cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) ofrece información actualizada, precisa, confiable y fácil de entender sobre diferentes de temas de cáncer. Los especialistas en información le pueden ayudar en el teléfono 1-800-422-6237 (1-800-4-CANCER).

  5. LA ASTRONOMIA EN MEXICO: EL PASADO RECIENTE Y LOS RETOS DEL FUTURO

    E-print Network

    Rodriguez, Luis F.

    LA ASTRONOMIA EN MEXICO: EL PASADO RECIENTE Y LOS RETOS DEL FUTURO Luis F. Rodr'iguez Instituto de Astronom'ia, UNAM ``Aquellos que no recuerdan el pasado est'an condenados a repetirlo'' Jorge Santayana (1863­1952) I. ANTECEDENTES Si bien con altibajos, la astronom'ia ha estado siempre presente en la vida

  6. The effect of motor familiarity during simple finger opposition tasks.

    PubMed

    Plata Bello, Julio; Modroño, Cristián; Marcano, Francisco; González-Mora, José Luis

    2015-12-01

    Humans are more familiar with performing (and observing) index-thumb than with any other finger to thumb grasping and the effect of familiarity has not been tested specifically with simple and intransitive actions. The study of simple and intransitive motor actions (i.e. simple actions without need of object interaction) provides the opportunity to investigate specifically the brain motor regions reducing the effect of non-motor aspects that are related with more complex and/or transitive motor actions. The aim of this study is to evaluate brain activity patterns during the execution of simple and intransitive finger movements with different degrees of familiarity. With this in mind, a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) study was performed in which participants were asked to execute finger to thumb opposition tasks with all the different fingers (index, middle, ring and little) with a fixed frequency (1Hz) determined by a visual cue. This movement is considered as the pantomime of a precision grasping action. Significant activity was identified in the Sensory Motor Cortex (SMC), posterior parietal and premotor regions for all simple conditions (index-finger>control, middle-finger>control, ring-finger>control and little-finger>control). However, a linear trend contrast (indexfamiliar simple intransitive movements seems to lead to a stronger activation of the SMC than familiar ones. Posterior parietal and premotor regions did not show the aforementioned stronger activation. The most important implication of this study is the identification of differences in brain activity during the execution of simple intransitive movements with different degrees of familiarity. PMID:25511522

  7. Acquaintanceship, familiarity, and coordinated laughter in writing tutorials

    E-print Network

    Thonus, Terese

    2008-01-01

    familiar element in the U.S. post-secondary environment. The mission of most echoes that of the one with which I am most familiar , from the Writing Center at the University of Kansas: ? Tel.: +1 785 864 2398; fax: +1 785 864 2003. E-mail address: tthonus... and illustrated here with data from writing center tutorials. (See Section 7.3 below for information on transcription conventions.) 2.1. Single-party laughter In most accounts, single-party laughter occurs because the hearer recognizes or accepts what the speak er...

  8. Dogs' comprehension of referential emotional expressions: familiar people and familiar emotions are easier.

    PubMed

    Merola, I; Prato-Previde, E; Lazzaroni, M; Marshall-Pescini, S

    2014-03-01

    Dogs have been shown to discriminate between human facial expressions, and they seem to use human emotional communication to regulate their behaviour towards an external object/situation. However, it is still not clear (1) whether they just respond to the emotional message received with a corresponding increase/decrease in their level of activation or whether they perceive that the emotional message refers to a specific object, (2) which emotional message they use to modify their behaviour (i.e. whether they are following the positive message or avoiding the negative one) and (3) whether their familiarity with the informant has an effect on the dogs' behaviour. To address these issues, five groups of dogs were tested in two experiments. The first group observed the owner delivering two different emotional messages (happiness and fear) towards two identical objects hidden behind barriers, and the second group observed the owner delivering the same emotional messages but with no-objects present in the room. The third and the fourth groups observed the owner delivering a happy versus a neutral, and a negative versus a neutral emotional message towards the hidden objects. Finally, the fifth group observed a stranger acting like the owner of the first group. When the owner was acting as the informant, dogs seemed to be capable of distinguishing between a fearful and happy emotional expression and preferentially chose to investigate a box eliciting an expression of happiness rather than of fear or neutrality. Dogs, however, seemed to have greater difficulty in distinguishing between the fearful and neutral emotional messages delivered by the owner and between the happy and fearful expressions delivered by the stranger. Results suggest that dogs have learned to associate their owners' positive emotional messages to positive outcomes, and hence use their communicative messages to guide their actions. However, negative emotional messages and those delivered by strangers are not as clear to dogs. PMID:23955027

  9. Talker familiarity and spoken word recognition in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Levi, Susannah V

    2015-07-01

    Research with adults has shown that spoken language processing is improved when listeners are familiar with talkers' voices, known as the familiar talker advantage. The current study explored whether this ability extends to school-age children, who are still acquiring language. Children were familiarized with the voices of three German-English bilingual talkers and were tested on the speech of six bilinguals, three of whom were familiar. Results revealed that children do show improved spoken language processing when they are familiar with the talkers, but this improvement was limited to highly familiar lexical items. This restriction of the familiar talker advantage is attributed to differences in the representation of highly familiar and less familiar lexical items. In addition, children did not exhibit accent-general learning; despite having been exposed to German-accented talkers during training, there was no improvement for novel German-accented talkers. PMID:25159173

  10. Pigeons combine compass and landmark guidance in familiar route navigation

    E-print Network

    Roberts, Stephen

    Pigeons combine compass and landmark guidance in familiar route navigation Dora Biro* , Robin terrain? In the best studied avian species, the homing pigeon (Columba livia), two apparently inde of simultaneous or oscillating dual control. clock shift homing pigeon sun pilotage route recapitulation

  11. Infants' Tactual Discrimination of Novel and Familiar Tactual Stimuli.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soroka, Sherri MacKay; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Forty 10-month-old infants were given two minutes to explore tactually an object in a totally darkened room. Subsequently, during a two-minute test trial in the dark, 10 infants were given the same object and 10 were given a novel shape. Novel shapes were manipulated significantly longer than familiar forms. (RH)

  12. Assessing the Dissociability of Recollection and Familiarity in Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratte, Michael S.; Rouder, Jeffrey N.

    2012-01-01

    Recognition memory is often modeled as constituting 2 separate processes, recollection and familiarity, rather than as constituting a single process mediated by a generic latent strength. One way of stating evidence for the more complex 2-process model is to show dissociations with select manipulations, in which one manipulation affects…

  13. The Effect of Conceptual and Contextual Familiarity on Transfer Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulasegaram, Kulamakan; Min, Cynthia; Ames, Kimberly; Howey, Elizabeth; Neville, Alan; Norman, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Applying a previously learned concept to a novel problem is an important but difficult process called transfer. It is suggested that a commonsense analogy aids in transfer by linking novel concepts to familiar ones. How the context of practice affects transfer when learning using analogies is still unclear. This study investigated the effect of a…

  14. Electrophysiological Signals of Familiarity and Recency in the Infant Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Kelly A.; Garza, John; Zolot, Liza; Kresse, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Electrophysiological work in nonhuman primates has established the existence of multiple types of signals in the temporal lobe that contribute to recognition memory, including information regarding a stimulus's relative novelty, familiarity, and recency of occurrence. We used high-density event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine whether young…

  15. Prefrontal Control of Familiarity and Recollection in Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feredoes, Eva; Postle, Bradley R.

    2010-01-01

    Left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) is a critical neural substrate for the resolution of proactive interference (PI) in working memory. We hypothesized that left IFG achieves this by controlling the influence of familiarity- versus recollection-based information about memory probes. Consistent with this idea, we observed evidence for an "early" (200…

  16. The Sensorimotor Contributions to Implicit Memory, Familiarity, and Recollection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topolinski, Sascha

    2012-01-01

    The sensorimotor contributions to memory for prior occurrence were investigated. Previous research has shown that both implicit memory and familiarity draw on gains in stimulus-related processing fluency for old, compared with novel, stimuli, but recollection does not. Recently, it has been demonstrated that processing fluency itself resides in…

  17. Effects of Adult Familiarity on Social Behaviours in Angelman Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount, R.; Oliver, C.; Berg, K.; Horsler, K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Individuals with Angelman syndrome appear strongly motivated by social contact, but there have been few studies that have examined the relationship between sociability and familiarity. In this study we compared social behaviour in Angelman syndrome when in contact with mothers and strangers. Methods: We systematically manipulated adult…

  18. 46 CFR 15.1105 - Familiarization and basic training (BT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Familiarization and basic training (BT). (a) Onboard a seagoing vessel to which this subpart...i) Can communicate with other persons onboard about elementary safety matters and understand...before seeking further medical assistance onboard; and (vii) Can close and open...

  19. Research report Neural mechanisms of repetition priming of familiar and

    E-print Network

    multiple repetitions within the same task. In this endeavor, we examined both between and withinResearch report Neural mechanisms of repetition priming of familiar and globally unfamiliar visual resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown that repetition priming of visual objects is typically

  20. Do Tetranychus urticae males avoid mating with familiar females?

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, T; Yano, S

    2014-07-01

    The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, usually lives in kin groups under common webs. Because only the first mating results in fertilisation in female T. urticae, adult males guard quiescent deutonymph females, those at the stage immediately before maturation, to ensure paternity. Therefore, the cost of precopulatory guarding time seems considerable for males. Moreover, the fitness indices of daughters from intra-population crosses were significantly lower than those of daughters from inter-population crosses, indicating that inbreeding depression exists in T. urticae. Therefore, we hypothesised that T. urticae males should be choosy in guarding familiar females to avoid inbreeding depression. Furthermore, webs should be a key element of the environment shared by familiar individuals. In this study, we demonstrated the inbreeding avoidance mechanism of T. urticae males in relation to webs produced by familiar females (known webs) or unfamiliar females (unknown webs). Regardless of surrounding webs (known or unknown), males preferred unfamiliar to familiar females. We further examined whether males detect unfamiliar females by their webs. When males had experienced a female's web without encountering that female, they subsequently preferred females that did not produce the surrounding webs in which the choice experiment was conducted. Results suggest that putative kin recognition for inbreeding avoidance in T. urticae males is based on the relationship between webs and females, and not on the discrimination of webs in shared environments. PMID:24737758

  1. Object Familiarity Facilitates Foreign Word Learning in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sera, Maria D.; Cole, Caitlin A.; Oromendia, Mercedes; Koenig, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Studying how children learn words in a foreign language can shed light on how language learning changes with development. In one experiment, we examined whether three-, four-, and five-year-olds could learn and remember words for familiar and unfamiliar objects in their native English and a foreign language. All age groups could learn and remember…

  2. Rethinking Familiarity: Remember/Know Judgments in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickes, Laura; Seale-Carlisle, Travis M.; Wixted, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Although frequently used with recognition, a few studies have used the Remember/Know procedure with free recall. In each case, participants gave Know judgments to a significant number of recalled items (items that were presumably not remembered on the basis of familiarity). What do these Know judgments mean? We investigated this issue using a…

  3. Context Dependency of Conditioned Aversions to Familiar and Novel Fluids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishii, Kiyoshi; Iguchi, Yoshio; Sawa, Kosuke

    2006-01-01

    Using a context discrimination procedure and rats as the subjects, the formation of context-dependent aversions to novel and familiar fluids was investigated. Experiment 1 revealed that context dependency could be established to a novel fluid (saccharin) after three cycles of context discrimination training and that the acquired context dependency…

  4. Assessing Student Interest and Familiarity with Professional Psychology Specialty Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark-Wroblewski, Kimberly; Wiggins, Tina L.; Ryan, Joseph J.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined undergraduate psychology students' (N = 83) self-reported interest in and familiarity with five specialty areas in professional psychology: counseling psychology, clinical psychology, school psychology, forensic psychology, and criminal profiling. Results suggest that although students are quite interested in careers…

  5. Sustained Effects of Adaptation on the Perception of Familiar Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbon, Claus-Christian; Ditye, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Figural aftereffects are commonly believed to be transient and to fade away in the course of milliseconds. We tested face aftereffects using familiar faces and found sustained effects lasting up to 1 week. In 3 experiments, participants were first exposed to distorted pictures of famous persons and then had to select the veridical face in a…

  6. Familiarity does indeed promote attraction in live interaction.

    PubMed

    Reis, Harry T; Maniaci, Michael R; Caprariello, Peter A; Eastwick, Paul W; Finkel, Eli J

    2011-09-01

    Does familiarity promote attraction? Prior research has generally suggested that it does, but a recent set of studies by Norton, Frost, and Ariely (2007) challenged that assumption. Instead, they found that more information about another person, when that information was randomly selected from lists of trait adjectives, using a trait evaluation paradigm, promoted perceptions of dissimilarity and, hence, disliking. The present research began with the assumption that natural social interaction involves contexts and processes not present in Norton et al.'s research or in the typical familiarity experiment. We theorized that these processes imply a favorable impact of familiarity on attraction. Two experiments are reported using a live interaction paradigm in which two previously unacquainted same-sex persons interacted with each other for varying amounts of time. Findings strongly supported the "familiarity leads to attraction" hypothesis: The more participants interacted, the more attracted they were to each other. Mediation analyses identified three processes that contribute to this effect: perceived responsiveness, increased comfort and satisfaction during interaction, and perceived knowledge. PMID:21381850

  7. Humans Have Precise Knowledge of Familiar Geographical Slants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stigliani, Anthony; Li, Zhi; Durgin, Frank H.

    2013-01-01

    Whereas maps primarily represent the 2-dimensional layout of the environment, people are also aware of the 3-dimensional layout of their environment. An experiment conducted on a small college campus tested whether the remembered slants of familiar paths were precisely represented. Three measures of slant (verbal, manual, and pictorial) were…

  8. Se inicia estudio de los NIH sobre respuestas excepcionales al tratamiento del cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    La Iniciativa de Respuestas Excepcionales (Exceptional Responders Initiative), un estudio que investiga los factores moleculares de los tumores en pacientes de cáncer que responden en forma excepcional al tratamiento con medicamentos, se inició hoy bajo la guía del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI). Los científicos tratarán de identificar en los tumores las características moleculares que predicen si un medicamento o una clase de medicamento en particular será beneficioso o no.

  9. IMPA -Instituto de Matemtica Pura e Aplicada 1. Context: A Little History

    E-print Network

    de Figueiredo, Luiz Henrique

    be used like these devices ­ Augmented reality ­ Virtual reality · Familiar interaction #12;Visorama Restriction Increases immersibility by simplifying interaction · Prevents invalid operations · No motion ­ Button Pressed ­ Timer Expires · Event Expressions ­ Complex Boolean Operations #12;Interaction

  10. In the beginning was the familiar voice: personally familiar voices in the evolutionary and contemporary biology of communication.

    PubMed

    Sidtis, Diana; Kreiman, Jody

    2012-06-01

    The human voice is described in dialogic linguistics as an embodiment of self in a social context, contributing to expression, perception and mutual exchange of self, consciousness, inner life, and personhood. While these approaches are subjective and arise from phenomenological perspectives, scientific facts about personal vocal identity, and its role in biological development, support these views. It is our purpose to review studies of the biology of personal vocal identity-the familiar voice pattern-as providing an empirical foundation for the view that the human voice is an embodiment of self in the social context. Recent developments in the biology and evolution of communication are concordant with these notions, revealing that familiar voice recognition (also known as vocal identity recognition or individual vocal recognition) has contributed to survival in the earliest vocalizing species. Contemporary ethology documents the crucial role of familiar voices across animal species in signaling and perceiving internal states and personal identities. Neuropsychological studies of voice reveal multimodal cerebral associations arising across brain structures involved in memory, emotion, attention, and arousal in vocal perception and production, such that the voice represents the whole person. Although its roots are in evolutionary biology, human competence for processing layered social and personal meanings in the voice, as well as personal identity in a large repertory of familiar voice patterns, has achieved an immense sophistication. PMID:21710374

  11. In the Beginning Was the Familiar Voice Personally Familiar Voices in the Evolutionary and Contemporary Biology of Communication

    PubMed Central

    Sidtis, Diana; Kreiman, Jody

    2011-01-01

    The human voice is described in dialogic linguistics as an embodiment of self in a social context, contributing to expression, perception and mutual exchange of self, consciousness, inner life, and personhood. While these approaches are subjective and arise from phenomenological perspectives, scientific facts about personal vocal identity, and its role in biological development, support these views. It is our purpose to review studies of the biology of personal vocal identity -- the familiar voice pattern-- as providing an empirical foundation for the view that the human voice is an embodiment of self in the social context. Recent developments in the biology and evolution of communication are concordant with these notions, revealing that familiar voice recognition (also known as vocal identity recognition or individual vocal recognition) or contributed to survival in the earliest vocalizing species. Contemporary ethology documents the crucial role of familiar voices across animal species in signaling and perceiving internal states and personal identities. Neuropsychological studies of voice reveal multimodal cerebral associations arising across brain structures involved in memory, emotion, attention, and arousal in vocal perception and production, such that the voice represents the whole person. Although its roots are in evolutionary biology, human competence for processing layered social and personal meanings in the voice, as well as personal identity in a large repertory of familiar voice patterns, has achieved an immense sophistication. PMID:21710374

  12. Universidade de Braslia Instituto de Letras Departamento de Teoria Literria e Literaturas

    E-print Network

    Maier, Rudolf Richard

    Universidade de Brasília ­ Instituto de Letras Departamento de Teoria Literária e Literaturas Programa de Pós-Graduação em Literatura Edital 2/2015 ICC Ala Sul sala B1 012. Campus Universitário Darcy PROGRAMA DE P�S-GRADUA��O EM LITERATURA EDITAL 02/2015 SELE��O DE CANDIDATOS �S VAGAS DO PROGRAMA DE P�S

  13. Ball Bearings - Investigating the effect of lasting familiar size representations on prehensile movement using tennis balls 

    E-print Network

    Styles, James Edward

    2009-07-03

    This study was designed to examine whether the learned pictorial depth cue of familiar size is a constantly stored artefact. The attempt was to distinguish whether the familiar size effect occurs only after recent ...

  14. Bodystorming: effects of collaboration and familiarity on improvising contemporary dance.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Catherine J; Leach, James

    2015-09-01

    In contemporary dance, cognitive events are not necessarily restricted "to the skin or skull of an individual" (Hutchins in Int Encycl Soc Behav Sci 2068-2072, 2001) but distributed across dancers during collaborative improvisation. There is some experimental evidence of greater output when people perform problem-solving tasks alone. However, when a task is challenging and paired participants are familiar with each other, pairwise and emergent outcomes are more plentiful than solo outcomes. We investigate these factors in the context of dance with the broad hypothesis that innovation is enhanced when dancers improvise together compared with when they improvise alone. Dancers (N = 10) in a professional company improvised for 2 min alone and then with another dancer. Dancer familiarity (familiar, unfamiliar) and task (expressive, non-expressive) were crossed (within-subjects). The improvisations were video-recorded over 2 h in the dancers' usual improvisation space. After each improvisation, the dancers: stated the number of movement ideas expressed and rated task ease, satisfaction, interest, novelty, originality and clarity. In both tasks, there was a tendency for self-report of a greater number of movement ideas expressed in familiar and unfamiliar pairs than alone. Ratings of task ease, satisfaction, interest, clarity, etc. were slightly higher in the unfamiliar pair condition. In the non-expressive task, ratings of the task were higher in pairs (M = 3.02, SD 0.82) than in the solo (M = 2.67, SD 0.96) condition. Distributed creativity, relational cognition and social facilitation are used to interpret the results. PMID:26233523

  15. Bonobos modify communication signals according to recipient familiarity

    PubMed Central

    Genty, Emilie; Neumann, Christof; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Human and nonhuman primate communication differs in various ways. In particular, humans base communicative efforts on mutual knowledge and conventions shared between interlocutors. In this study, we experimentally tested whether bonobos (Pan paniscus), a close relative to humans, are able to take into account the familiarity, i.e. the shared interaction history, when communicating with a human partner. In five experimental conditions we found that subjects took the recipients’ attentional state and their own communicative effectiveness into account by adjusting signal production accordingly. More importantly, in case of communicative failure, subjects repeated previously successful signals more often with a familiar than unfamiliar recipient, with whom they had no previous interactions, and elaborated by switching to new signals more with the unfamiliar than the familiar one, similar to what has previously been found in two year-old children. We discuss these findings in relation to the human capacity to establish common ground between interlocutors, a crucial aspect of human cooperative communication. PMID:26552655

  16. Children's identification of familiar songs from pitch and timing cues

    PubMed Central

    Volkova, Anna; Trehub, Sandra E.; Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Papsin, Blake C.; Gordon, Karen A.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to ascertain whether children with normal hearing and prelingually deaf children with cochlear implants could use pitch or timing cues alone or in combination to identify familiar songs. Children 4–7 years of age were required to identify the theme songs of familiar TV shows in a simple task with excerpts that preserved (1) the relative pitch and timing cues of the melody but not the original instrumentation, (2) the timing cues only (rhythm, meter, and tempo), and (3) the relative pitch cues only (pitch contour and intervals). Children with normal hearing performed at high levels and comparably across the three conditions. The performance of child implant users was well above chance levels when both pitch and timing cues were available, marginally above chance with timing cues only, and at chance with pitch cues only. This is the first demonstration that children can identify familiar songs from monotonic versions—timing cues but no pitch cues—and from isochronous versions—pitch cues but no timing cues. The study also indicates that, in the context of a very simple task, young implant users readily identify songs from melodic versions that preserve pitch and timing cues. PMID:25147537

  17. Familiarity and Sex Based Stereotypes on Instant Impressions of Male and Female Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadler, Joel T.; Berry, Seth A.; Stockdale, Margaret S.

    2013-01-01

    To address the stranger-to-stranger critique of stereotyping research, psychology students (n = 139) and law students (n = 58) rated photographs of familiar or unfamiliar male or female professors on competence. Results from Study 1 indicated that familiar male psychology faculty were rated as more competent than were familiar female faculty,…

  18. Investigating Faculty Familiarity with Assessment Terminology by Applying Cluster Analysis to Interpret Survey Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raker, Jeffrey R.; Holme, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    A cluster analysis was conducted with a set of survey data on chemistry faculty familiarity with 13 assessment terms. Cluster groupings suggest a high, middle, and low overall familiarity with the terminology and an independent high and low familiarity with terms related to fundamental statistics. The six resultant clusters were found to be…

  19. Assessing Japanese College Students' Vocabulary Knowledge with a Self-Checking Familiarity Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, J.; Nakanishi, Y.; Ishino, H.

    1999-01-01

    Aimed to determine the basic English words Japanese students are not familiar with and to develop a reliable and easy-to-use vocabulary survey. Investigated the relationship between familiarity and second language and first-language recall to judge the amount students overestimate their vocabulary when using a self-checking familiarity survey.…

  20. Talker Familiarity and Spoken Word Recognition in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levi, Susannah V.

    2015-01-01

    Research with adults has shown that spoken language processing is improved when listeners are familiar with talkers' voices, known as the familiar talker advantage. The current study explored whether this ability extends to school-age children, who are still acquiring language. Children were familiarized with the voices of three German-English…

  1. Lay causal theories and familiarity with mental illness 1 The Blame Game

    E-print Network

    Scholl, Brian

    Lay causal theories and familiarity with mental illness 1 The Blame Game: Lay causal theories and familiarity with mental illness Margaret A. Martinez Senior Thesis in Psychology Advisor: Susan Nolen-Hoeksema April 19, 2010 #12;Lay causal theories and familiarity with mental illness 2 Abstract The present study

  2. The Influence of Kinship on Familiar Natal Migrant Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    E-print Network

    Widdig, Anja

    The Influence of Kinship on Familiar Natal Migrant Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) Monika Albers we studied the influence of kinship on familiar natal migrant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta during natal dispersal when kin are still available. Keywords Familiarity. Kinship . Male rhesus macaques

  3. Familiarity breeds dissent: Reliability analyses for British-English idioms on measures of familiarity, meaning, literality, and decomposability.

    PubMed

    Nordmann, Emily; Cleland, Alexandra A; Bull, Rebecca

    2014-06-01

    To date, there have been several attempts made to build a database of normative data for English idiomatic expressions (e.g., Libben & Titone, 2008; Titone & Connine, 1994), however, there has been some discussion in the literature as to the validity and reliability of the data obtained, particularly for decomposability ratings. Our work aimed to address these issues by looking at ratings from native and non-native speakers and to extend the deeper investigation and analysis of decomposability to other aspects of idiomatic expressions, namely familiarly, meaning and literality. Poor reliability was observed on all types of ratings, suggesting that rather than decomposability being a special case, individual variability plays a large role in how participants rate idiomatic phrases in general. Ratings from native and non-native speakers were positively correlated and an analysis of covariance found that once familiarity with an idiom was accounted for, most of the differences between native and non-native ratings were not significant. Overall, the results suggest that individual experience with idioms plays an important role in how they are perceived and this should be taken into account when selecting stimuli for experimental studies. Furthermore, the results are suggestive of the inability of speakers to inhibit the figurative meanings for idioms that they are highly familiar with. PMID:24747270

  4. Miami: Meca del exilio cubano y escenario medido aunque efervescente

    E-print Network

    Rizk, Beatriz J.

    2000-10-01

    esenciales de una identidad cultural" (2000); o por "transparentar mediante los personajes secundarios las coordenadas históricas y la relación entre el medio familiar y la sociedad..[que] conectan el microcosmos del taller con la amplitud del universo..., El extravío (1987-88) de Julio Matas y hasta a la singular parodia Las hetairas habaneras (una melotragedia cubana) (1977) de José Corrales y Manuel Pereira, escritas en el exilio. Ahora, si dentro de estas familias, microcosmos de la sociedad, los...

  5. Discrimination of familiar human faces in dogs (Canis familiaris)

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Ludwig; Racca, Anaïs; Scaf, Billy; Virányi, Zsófia; Range, Friederike

    2013-01-01

    Faces are an important visual category for many taxa, and the human face is no exception to this. Because faces differ in subtle ways and possess many idiosyncratic features, they provide a rich source of perceptual cues. A fair amount of those cues are learned through social interactions and are used for future identification of individual humans. These effects of individual experience can be studied particularly well in hetero-specific face perception. Domestic dogs represent a perfect model in this respect, due to their proved ability to extract important information from the human face in socio-communicative interactions. There is also suggestive evidence that dogs can identify their owner or other familiar human individuals by using visual information from the face. However, most studies have used only dogs’ looking behavior to examine their visual processing of human faces and it has been demonstrated only that dogs can differentiate between familiar and unknown human faces. Here, we examined the dog's ability to discriminate the faces of two familiar persons by active choice (approach and touch). Furthermore, in successive stages of the experiment we investigated how well dogs discriminate humans in different representations by systematically reducing the informational richness and the quality of the stimuli. We found a huge inter-individual and inter-stage variance in performance, indicating differences across dogs in their learning ability as well as their selection of discriminative cues. On a group level, the performance of dogs significantly decreased when they were presented with pictures of human heads after having learned to discriminate the real heads, and when – after relearning – confronted with the same pictures showing only the inner parts of the heads. However, as two dogs quickly mastered all stages, we conclude that dogs are in principle able to discriminate people on the basis of visual information from their faces and by making active choices. PMID:24187385

  6. Holistic Processing Supports Familiarity-Based Associative Recognition for Faces.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Mitchell; Ganesan, Gowtham; Min, Michelle; Bartlett, James

    2015-09-01

    Associative recognition memory is measured by assessing discrimination between copies of studied items (intact items) and re-combinations of parts of studied items (conjunction items). Such intact/conjunction (I/C) discrimination has often been thought to require recollection, a process supporting the retrieval of qualitative information about a previous encounter. However, recent findings indicate that recognition of associations encoded in a holistic or unitized fashion can rely on familiarity, a mnemonic signal varying only in strength. To test this possibility, we applied a modified process dissociation procedure to an associative recognition paradigm for four classes of stimuli; upright faces, which are thought to be processed in a unitized or holistic fashion, inverted and misaligned faces, both thought to be processed in a part-based fashion, and faces which were both inverted and misaligned. Participants studied a list of faces, and were presented with intact, conjunction, and new faces at test. I/C discrimination was then compared for "exclusion" participants, for whom such discrimination was encouraged, and "inclusion" participants, for whom it was discouraged. According to process dissociation logic, familiarity-based associative recognition is inferred if exclusion and inclusion participants exhibit similar levels of I/C discrimination. By contrast, greater I/C discrimination in the exclusion condition as compared to the inclusion condition with no corresponding group difference in intact/new discrimination indicates recollection-based associative recognition. Consistent with previous findings, a negligible I/C discrimination advantage for exclusion versus inclusion participants was found with upright faces. Howevever, a robust I/C discrimination advantage for exclusion participants over inclusion participants was found with inverted-misaligned faces, consistent with the idea that such stimuli were processed in a part-based fashion. Broadly speaking, our results suggest that holistic processing of faces supports the use of familiarity in associative recognition, and that such processing is susceptible to a combination of face inversion and face misalignment. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26325849

  7. Interdisciplinary Unit: La Isla del Encanto (The Enchanted Island).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford-Guerrera, Rebecca

    This document presents a series of 14 lesson plans in an interdisciplinary Spanish unit on "La isla del encanto/The Enchanted Island." The materials were prepared for students in grades 5 or 6 who have had basic Spanish instruction in previous grades. The students should also be familiar with basic concepts in English such as math computation, map…

  8. STS-95 crew members participate in a SPACEHAB familiarization exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the SPACEHAB Payload Processing Facility (SPPF), Cape Canaveral, STS-95 Pilot Steven Lindsey (right) photographs BRIC (Biological Research in Canisters) experiments while a representative of the National Space Agency of Japan (NASDA) looks on. Lindsey, along with other crew members, have been participating in SPACEHAB familiarization in the SPPF. The mission, scheduled to launch Oct. 29, includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

  9. STS-95 crew members participate in a SPACEHAB familiarization exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the SPACEHAB Payload Processing Facility (SPPF) a representative of the National Space Agency of Japan (NASDA) and STS-95 Mission Specialist Scott Parazynski, M.D. (right), check out BRIC (Biological Research in Canisters) experiments to be part of the mission scheduled to launch Oct. 29. STS-95 crew members have been participating in SPACEHAB familiarization in the SPPF. The mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

  10. STS-95 crew members participate in a SPACEHAB familiarization exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Inside the SPACECHAB training module, STS-95 Payload Specialist John Glenn, who is a senator from Ohio, tries on the mesh cap that he will wear on the mission to monitor and record brain waves during sleep. Mission Specialist Scott Parazynski, M.D., watches. Parazynski and Glenn are participating in SPACEHAB familiarization at the SPACEHAB Payload Processing Facility, Cape Canaveral. The mission, scheduled to launch Oct. 29, includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

  11. STS-95 crew members participate in a SPACEHAB familiarization exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    (Left to right) STS-95 Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, who represents the European Space Agency (ESA), Mission Commander Curtis Brown Jr., and Mission Specialist Stephen Robinson, Ph.D., chat during SPACEHAB familiarization at the SPACEHAB Payload Processing Facility, Cape Canaveral. The mission, scheduled to launch Oct. 29, includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

  12. Social familiarity modulates personality trait in a cichlid fish.

    PubMed

    Galhardo, L; Vitorino, A; Oliveira, R F

    2012-12-23

    Personality traits, such as exploration-avoidance, are expected to be adaptive in a given context (e.g. low-risk environment) but to be maladaptive in others (e.g. high-risk environment). Therefore, it is expected that personality traits are flexible and respond to environmental fluctuations, given that consistency across different contexts is maintained, so that the relative individual responses in relation to others remains the same (i.e. although the magnitude of the response varies the differences between high and low responders are kept). Here, we tested the response of male cichlid fish (Oreochromis mossambicus) to a novel object (NO) in three different social contexts: (i) social isolation, (ii) in the presence of an unfamiliar conspecific, and (iii) in the presence of a familiar conspecific. Males in the familiar treatment exhibited more exploratory behaviour and less neophobia than males in either the unfamiliar or the social isolation treatments. However, there were no overall correlations in individual behaviour across the three treatments, suggesting a lack of consistency in exploration-avoidance as measured by the NO test in this species. Moreover, there were no differences in cortisol responsiveness to an acute stressor between the three treatments. Together, these results illustrate how behavioural traits usually taken as measures of personality may exhibit significant flexibility and lack the expected consistency across different social contexts. PMID:22859562

  13. Cross-cultural variation of memory colors of familiar objects.

    PubMed

    Smet, Kevin A G; Lin, Yandan; Nagy, Balázs V; Németh, Zoltan; Duque-Chica, Gloria L; Quintero, Jesús M; Chen, Hung-Shing; Luo, Ronnier M; Safi, Mahdi; Hanselaer, Peter

    2014-12-29

    The effect of cross-regional or cross-cultural differences on color appearance ratings and memory colors of familiar objects was investigated in seven different countries/regions - Belgium, Hungary, Brazil, Colombia, Taiwan, China and Iran. In each region the familiar objects were presented on a calibrated monitor in over 100 different colors to a test panel of observers that were asked to rate the similarity of the presented object color with respect to what they thought the object looks like in reality (memory color). For each object and region the mean observer ratings were modeled by a bivariate Gaussian function. A statistical analysis showed significant (p < 0.001) differences between the region average observers and the global average observer obtained by pooling the data from all regions. However, the effect size of geographical region or culture was found to be small. In fact, the differences between the region average observers and the global average observer were found to of the same magnitude or smaller than the typical within region inter-observer variability. Thus, although statistical differences in color appearance ratings and memory between regions were found, regional impact is not likely to be of practical importance. PMID:25607196

  14. Familiar and unfamiliar face recognition in crested macaques (Macaca nigra)

    PubMed Central

    Micheletta, Jérôme; Whitehouse, Jamie; Parr, Lisa A.; Marshman, Paul; Engelhardt, Antje; Waller, Bridget M.

    2015-01-01

    Many species use facial features to identify conspecifics, which is necessary to navigate a complex social environment. The fundamental mechanisms underlying face processing are starting to be well understood in a variety of primate species. However, most studies focus on a limited subset of species tested with unfamiliar faces. As well as limiting our understanding of how widely distributed across species these skills are, this also limits our understanding of how primates process faces of individuals they know, and whether social factors (e.g. dominance and social bonds) influence how readily they recognize others. In this study, socially housed crested macaques voluntarily participated in a series of computerized matching-to-sample tasks investigating their ability to discriminate (i) unfamiliar individuals and (ii) members of their own social group. The macaques performed above chance on all tasks. Familiar faces were not easier to discriminate than unfamiliar faces. However, the subjects were better at discriminating higher ranking familiar individuals, but not unfamiliar ones. This suggests that our subjects applied their knowledge of their dominance hierarchies to the pictorial representation of their group mates. Faces of high-ranking individuals garner more social attention, and therefore might be more deeply encoded than other individuals. Our results extend the study of face recognition to a novel species, and consequently provide valuable data for future comparative studies. PMID:26064665

  15. Content of methylated inositols in familiar edible plants.

    PubMed

    Negishi, Osamu; Mun'im, Abdul; Negishi, Yukiko

    2015-03-18

    Familiar plants contain large amounts of inositols; soybean, white clover, red clover, bush clover, locust tree, wisteria, and kudzu of the legume family contain pinitol (3-O-methyl-chiro-inositol) at approximately 200-600 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW). The contents of pinitol in other plants were 260 mg/100 g FW for sticky mouse-ear, 275 mg/100 g FW for chickweed, and 332 mg/100 g FW for ginkgo. chiro-Inositol of 191 and 156 mg/100 g FW was also found in dandelion and Japanese mallotus, respectively. Ononitol (4-O-methyl-myo-inositol) of 166 mg/100 g FW was found in sticky mouse-ear. Furthermore, young leaves of ginkgo contained sequoyitol (5-O-methyl-myo-inositol) of 287 mg/100 g FW. Hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of the methylated inositols were higher than those of the original inositols. Effective uses of these familiar edible plants are expected to promote good health. PMID:25734537

  16. Predictive codes of familiarity and context during the perceptual learning of facial identities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apps, Matthew A. J.; Tsakiris, Manos

    2013-11-01

    Face recognition is a key component of successful social behaviour. However, the computational processes that underpin perceptual learning and recognition as faces transition from unfamiliar to familiar are poorly understood. In predictive coding, learning occurs through prediction errors that update stimulus familiarity, but recognition is a function of both stimulus and contextual familiarity. Here we show that behavioural responses on a two-option face recognition task can be predicted by the level of contextual and facial familiarity in a computational model derived from predictive-coding principles. Using fMRI, we show that activity in the superior temporal sulcus varies with the contextual familiarity in the model, whereas activity in the fusiform face area covaries with the prediction error parameter that updated facial familiarity. Our results characterize the key computations underpinning the perceptual learning of faces, highlighting that the functional properties of face-processing areas conform to the principles of predictive coding.

  17. Social familiarity modulates group living and foraging behaviour of juvenile predatory mites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strodl, Markus A.; Schausberger, Peter

    2012-04-01

    Environmental stressors during early life may have persistent consequences for phenotypic development and fitness. In group-living species, an important stressor during juvenile development is the presence and familiarity status of conspecific individuals. To alleviate intraspecific conflicts during juvenile development, many animals evolved the ability to discriminate familiar and unfamiliar individuals based on prior association and use this ability to preferentially associate with familiar individuals. Assuming that familiar neighbours require less attention than unfamiliar ones, as predicted by limited attention theory, assorting with familiar individuals should increase the efficiency in other tasks. We assessed the influence of social familiarity on within-group association behaviour, development and foraging of juvenile life stages of the group-living, plant-inhabiting predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. The observed groups consisted either of mixed-age familiar and unfamiliar juvenile mites or of age-synchronized familiar or unfamiliar juvenile mites or of pairs of familiar or unfamiliar larvae. Overall, familiar mites preferentially grouped together and foraged more efficiently, i.e. needed less prey at similar developmental speed and body size at maturity, than unfamiliar mites. Preferential association of familiar mites was also apparent in the inter-exuviae distances. Social familiarity was established by imprinting in the larval stage, was not cancelled or overridden by later conspecific contacts and persisted into adulthood. Life stage had an effect on grouping with larvae being closer together than nymphal stages. Ultimately, optimized foraging during the developmental phase may relax within-group competition, enhance current and future food supply needed for optimal development and optimize patch exploitation and leaving under limited food.

  18. Word learning in adults with second language experience: Effects of phonological and referent familiarity

    PubMed Central

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon; Van Hecke, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this research was to examine whether phonological familiarity exerts different effects on novel word learning for familiar vs. unfamiliar referents, and whether successful word-learning is associated with increased second-language experience. Method Eighty-one adult native English speakers with various levels of Spanish knowledge learned phonologically-familiar novel words (constructed using English sounds) or phonologically-unfamiliar novel words (constructed using non-English and non-Spanish sounds) in association with either familiar or unfamiliar referents. Retention was tested via a forced-choice recognition-task. A median-split procedure identified high-ability and low-ability word-learners in each condition, and the two groups were compared on measures of second-language experience. Results Findings suggest that the ability to accurately match newly-learned novel names to their appropriate referents is facilitated by phonological familiarity only for familiar referents but not for unfamiliar referents. Moreover, more extensive second-language learning experience characterized superior learners primarily in one word-learning condition: Where phonologically-unfamiliar novel words were paired with familiar referents. Conclusions Together, these findings indicate that phonological familiarity facilitates novel word learning only for familiar referents, and that experience with learning a second language may have a specific impact on novel vocabulary learning in adults. PMID:22992709

  19. Effects of Individual Health Topic Familiarity on Activity Patterns During Health Information Searches

    PubMed Central

    Moriyama, Koichi; Fukui, Ken–ichi; Numao, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Background Non-medical professionals (consumers) are increasingly using the Internet to support their health information needs. However, the cognitive effort required to perform health information searches is affected by the consumer’s familiarity with health topics. Consumers may have different levels of familiarity with individual health topics. This variation in familiarity may cause misunderstandings because the information presented by search engines may not be understood correctly by the consumers. Objective As a first step toward the improvement of the health information search process, we aimed to examine the effects of health topic familiarity on health information search behaviors by identifying the common search activity patterns exhibited by groups of consumers with different levels of familiarity. Methods Each participant completed a health terminology familiarity questionnaire and health information search tasks. The responses to the familiarity questionnaire were used to grade the familiarity of participants with predefined health topics. The search task data were transcribed into a sequence of search activities using a coding scheme. A computational model was constructed from the sequence data using a Markov chain model to identify the common search patterns in each familiarity group. Results Forty participants were classified into L1 (not familiar), L2 (somewhat familiar), and L3 (familiar) groups based on their questionnaire responses. They had different levels of familiarity with four health topics. The video data obtained from all of the participants were transcribed into 4595 search activities (mean 28.7, SD 23.27 per session). The most frequent search activities and transitions in all the familiarity groups were related to evaluations of the relevancy of selected web pages in the retrieval results. However, the next most frequent transitions differed in each group and a chi-squared test confirmed this finding (P<.001). Next, according to the results of a perplexity evaluation, the health information search patterns were best represented as a 5-gram sequence pattern. The most common patterns in group L1 were frequent query modifications, with relatively low search efficiency, and accessing and evaluating selected results from a health website. Group L2 performed frequent query modifications, but with better search efficiency, and accessed and evaluated selected results from a health website. Finally, the members of group L3 successfully discovered relevant results from the first query submission, performed verification by accessing several health websites after they discovered relevant results, and directly accessed consumer health information websites. Conclusions Familiarity with health topics affects health information search behaviors. Our analysis of state transitions in search activities detected unique behaviors and common search activity patterns in each familiarity group during health information searches. PMID:25783222

  20. STS-95 crew members participate in a SPACEHAB familiarization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-95 Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, representing the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), handles part of the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) experiment which will fly on the planned nine-day mission. She and other crew members, including Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski, at right, are at KSC and the adjacent SPACEHAB Payload Processing Facility in Cape Canaveral to familiarize themselves with the STS-95 payloads. Standing behind the two astronauts is Steve Pyle of Boeing in Huntsville, Ala. STS-95 will feature a variety of research payloads, including the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, and experiments on space flight and the aging process. STS-95 is targeted for an Oct. 29 launch aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery.

  1. STS-95 crew members participate in a SPACEHAB familiarization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-95 crew members look over the Osteoporosis Experiment in Orbit (OSTEO) during a SPACEHAB familiarization tour and briefing in the SPACEHAB Payload Processing Facility in Cape Canaveral. Seated from left are Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai of the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), and Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., who also is a senator from Ohio. Standing, from left, are STS-95 Commander Curtis L. Brown and Canadian Space Agency representative Duncan Burnside. STS-95 will feature a variety of research payloads, including the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, and experiments on space flight and the aging process. STS-95 is targeted for an Oct. 29 launch aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery.

  2. From network heterogeneities to familiarity detection and hippocampal memory management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jane X.; Poe, Gina; Zochowski, Michal

    2008-10-01

    Hippocampal-neocortical interactions are key to the rapid formation of novel associative memories in the hippocampus and consolidation to long term storage sites in the neocortex. We investigated the role of network correlates during information processing in hippocampal-cortical networks. We found that changes in the intrinsic network dynamics due to the formation of structural network heterogeneities alone act as a dynamical and regulatory mechanism for stimulus novelty and familiarity detection, thereby controlling memory management in the context of memory consolidation. This network dynamic, coupled with an anatomically established feedback between the hippocampus and the neocortex, recovered heretofore unexplained properties of neural activity patterns during memory management tasks which we observed during sleep in multiunit recordings from behaving animals. Our simple dynamical mechanism shows an experimentally matched progressive shift of memory activation from the hippocampus to the neocortex and thus provides the means to achieve an autonomous off-line progression of memory consolidation.

  3. Familiarity and organization of category terms in semantic memory.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, D J; Kay, B E

    1977-01-01

    In order to determine production frequencies for various category terms, 219 college students were asked to generate category terms (e.g. Automobiles, Vegetables, Relatives) during a 4-rain period. The production frequency (i.e., the number of subjects who listed a particular term) for a given category term may be considered as reflecting the familiarity or amount of usage of that category term, and, as such, should be of value to memory researchers in designing experiments. Additionally, examination of the order in which terms were produced showed that subjects "clustered" related category terms, (e.g., "Countries" and "States" were often produced successively). This clustering of category terrms is supportive of the hypothesis that categories are organized in semantic memory in some kind of higher order structure. PMID:21331880

  4. Familiarity with, knowledge of, and attitudes toward epilepsy in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Aydemir, Nuran

    2011-02-01

    The aims of the study described here were to investigate familiarity with, knowledge of, and attitudes toward epilepsy and to assess indicators of positive attitudes toward epilepsy. Questionnaires previously developed for the Turkish population were used to assess knowledge and attitudes. Data were collected from 1354 randomly selected adults. Three-quarters of the sample had heard something about epilepsy, and almost half of the sample personally knew someone with epilepsy. The sample had a moderate level of knowledge of and favorable attitudes toward epilepsy in general. Variables that predicted positive attitudes were young age, male gender, and high level of knowledge of epilepsy. The results for both knowledge and attitudes indicate that the findings of the study are largely in line with previous studies, but where there is wide variability among previous findings, the findings for the Turkish population lie, just as Turkey does geographically, between those of the East and West. PMID:21277263

  5. STS-95 crew members participate in a SPACEHAB familiarization exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Inside the SPACEHAB training module, STS-95 Mission Specialist Scott Parazynski, M.D., helps with connections on the mesh cap worn by Payload Specialist John Glenn, who is a senator from Ohio. Glenn is also wearing the Respiratory Inductance Plethysmograph (RIP) suit he will wear on the mission to monitor respiration. The cap and suit are part of the equipment that will be used to seek to improve the quality of sleep for future astronauts. The STS-95 crew are participating in SPACEHAB familiarization at the SPACEHAB Payload Processing Facility, Cape Canaveral. The mission, scheduled to launch Oct. 29, includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

  6. STS-95 crew members participate in a SPACEHAB familiarization exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Inside the SPACEHAB training module, STS-95 Mission Specialist Scott Parazynski, M.D., helps adjust connections for the mesh cap and the Respiratory Inductance Plethysmograph (RIP) suit worn by Payload Specialist John Glenn, who is a senator from Ohio. The cap and suit, which Glenn will wear on the mission, are part of the equipment that will be used to seek to improve the quality of sleep for future astronauts. The STS-95 crew are participating in SPACEHAB familiarization at the SPACEHAB Payload Processing Facility, Cape Canaveral. The mission, scheduled to launch Oct. 29, includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar- observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

  7. STS-95 crew members participate in a SPACEHAB familiarization exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Inside the SPACEHAB training module, STS-95 Mission Specialist Scott Parazynski, M.D. (right), attaches sensors to the mesh cap worn by Payload Specialist John Glenn (back to camera). In the background is Ann Elliott, University of California, San Diego. Glenn will wear the cap on the mission to monitor and record brain waves during sleep. Parazynski and Glenn are participating in SPACEHAB familiarization at the SPACEHAB Payload Processing Facility, Cape Canaveral. The mission, scheduled to launch Oct. 29, includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar- observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

  8. Rethinking Familiarity: Remember/Know Judgments in Free Recall

    PubMed Central

    Mickes, Laura; Seale-Carlisle, Travis M.; Wixted, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Although frequently used with recognition, a few studies have used the Remember/Know procedure with free recall. In each case, participants gave Know judgments to a significant number of recalled items (items that were presumably not remembered on the basis of familiarity). What do these Know judgments mean? We investigated this issue using a source memory/free-recall procedure. For each word that was recalled, participants were asked to (a) make a confidence rating on a 5-point scale, (b) make a Remember/Know judgment, and (c) recollect a source detail. The large majority of both Remember judgments and Know judgments were made with high confidence and high accuracy, but source memory was nevertheless higher for Remember judgments than for Know judgments. These source memory results correspond to what is found using recognition, and they raise the possibility that Know judgments in free recall identify the cue-dependent retrieval of item-only information from an episodic memory search set. In agreement with this idea, we also found that the temporal dynamics of free recall were similar for high-confidence Remember and high-confidence Know judgments (as if both judgments reflected retrieval from the same search set). If Know judgments in free recall do in fact reflect the episodic retrieval of item-only information, it seems reasonable to suppose that the same might be true of high-confidence Know judgments in recognition. If so, then a longstanding debate about the role of the hippocampus in recollection and familiarity may have a natural resolution. PMID:23637470

  9. [The Bernardino Álvarez Farm Hospital and Farm School: antecedents to Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-de Romo, Ana Cecilia; Castañeda-López, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    By 1960, México's Manicomio General (General Asylum) could no longer fulfill the functions for which it was created so implementation of the so-called Castañeda Operation began, an initiative designed to close down and relocate psychiatric patients to other institutions. At that time, Dr. Manuel Velasco-Suárez was in charge of the General Direction of Neurology, Mental Health and Rehabilitation, and planned to create the Institute of Neurology on a site he already possessed for its construction. The Asylum was a dependency of the aforementioned Direction and Velasco- Suárez decided that some patients at the Castañeda could be moved to the old hacienda house that stood on that terrain. Thus was born the Bernardino Álvarez Farm Hospital. A year later, in 1961, the Farm School for the Weak-Minded, also named Bernardino Álvarez was established there as well. This paper examines the history of these two institutions as antecedents to the Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía. PMID:24687360

  10. [Self-medication behavior among pregnant women user of the Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal, Peru 2011].

    PubMed

    Miní, Elsy; Varas, Rocio; Vicuña, Yuliana; Lévano, María; Rojas, Luis; Medina, Julio; Butron, Joece; Aranda, Renzo; Gutierrez, Ericson L

    2012-06-01

    We aim to determine the prevalence of self prescribing behaviour during pregnancy and its characteristics. For this purpose, we designed a cross sectional study and interviewed 400 pregnant women who had their prenatal care at Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal, Lima. We found that 10.5% of the patients (42 patients) had a self prescribing behavior during pregnancy, 64.5% think that self prescribing behavior can produce congenital malformations. The medications used were classified as type A and B according to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Paracetamol was used more frequently (47.6%) followed by amoxicillin (16.7%). All the women who self-prescribed have had this behavior before pregnancy. According to these results, we conclude there is a low prevalence of self-prescribing behavior during pregnancy compared to the international literature. PMID:22858767

  11. [Instituto de Investigaciones Clinicas "Dr. Américo Negrette": 55 years of excellent research versus global economic recession].

    PubMed

    Valero Cedeño, Nereida Josefina

    2014-12-01

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas "Dr. Américo Negrette" belongs to the Faculty of Medicine at University of Zulia in Maracaibo, Zulia State, Venezuela. It was created on December 4, 1959 by Dr. Américo Negrette. Today, with 55 years of existence, the Institute seeks to fulfill the mission that characterizes it, based on the values instilled by its founder and maintained by subsequent generations, whose research projects are implemented through seven research sections: Biochemistry, Hematologic Research, Neuropharmacology and Neuroscience, Immunology and Cell Biology, Clinical Neurochemistry, Parasitology and Virology. The research originated in these laboratories have become national and international points of reference, despite the current economic situation with budget deficits that put at risk the quality and originality of their projects with negative consequences on the productivity and applications for health population, reasons of biomedical research. PMID:25558749

  12. Tese apresentada para obteno do ttulo de Doutor em Matemtica pelo Instituto Nacional de Matemtica Pura e Aplicada

    E-print Network

    de Figueiredo, Luiz Henrique

    Tese apresentada para obtenção do título de Doutor em Matemática pelo Instituto Nacional de de Figueiredo Co-orientador: Mario Costa Sousa Rio de Janeiro 22 de Fevereiro de 2011 #12;#12;On Sketches for Modeling Emilio Ashton Vital Brazil Advisor: Luiz Henrique de Figueiredo Co-advisor: Mario

  13. Ambient Dose Equivalent measured at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología Department of Nuclear Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ávila, O.; Torres-Ulloa, C. L.; Medina, L. A.; Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.; de Buen, I. Gamboa; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E.

    2010-12-01

    Ambient dose equivalent values were determined in several sites at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Departmento de Medicina Nuclear, using TLD-100 and TLD-900 thermoluminescent dosemeters. Additionally, ambient dose equivalent was measured at a corridor outside the hospitalization room for patients treated with 137Cs brachytherapy. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Laboratorio de Metrología, to known 137Cs gamma radiation air kerma. Radionuclides considered for this study are 131I, 18F, 67Ga, 99mTc, 111In, 201Tl and 137Cs, with main gamma energies between 93 and 662 keV. Dosemeters were placed during a five month period in the nuclear medicine rooms (containing gamma-cameras), injection corridor, patient waiting areas, PET/CT study room, hot lab, waste storage room and corridors next to the hospitalization rooms for patients treated with 131I and 137Cs. High dose values were found at the waste storage room, outside corridor of 137Cs brachytherapy patients and PET/CT area. Ambient dose equivalent rate obtained for the 137Cs brachytherapy corridor is equal to (18.51±0.02)×10-3 mSv/h. Sites with minimum doses are the gamma camera rooms, having ambient dose equivalent rates equal to (0.05±0.03)×10-3 mSv/h. Recommendations have been given to the Department authorities so that further actions are taken to reduce doses at high dose sites in order to comply with the ALARA principle (as low as reasonably achievable).

  14. Ambient Dose Equivalent measured at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia Department of Nuclear Medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Avila, O.; Torres-Ulloa, C. L.; Medina, L. A.; Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.; Gamboa de Buen, I.; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E.

    2010-12-07

    Ambient dose equivalent values were determined in several sites at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Departmento de Medicina Nuclear, using TLD-100 and TLD-900 thermoluminescent dosemeters. Additionally, ambient dose equivalent was measured at a corridor outside the hospitalization room for patients treated with {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Laboratorio de Metrologia, to known {sup 137}Cs gamma radiation air kerma. Radionuclides considered for this study are {sup 131}I, {sup 18}F, {sup 67}Ga, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 111}In, {sup 201}Tl and {sup 137}Cs, with main gamma energies between 93 and 662 keV. Dosemeters were placed during a five month period in the nuclear medicine rooms (containing gamma-cameras), injection corridor, patient waiting areas, PET/CT study room, hot lab, waste storage room and corridors next to the hospitalization rooms for patients treated with {sup 131}I and {sup 137}Cs. High dose values were found at the waste storage room, outside corridor of {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy patients and PET/CT area. Ambient dose equivalent rate obtained for the {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy corridor is equal to (18.51{+-}0.02)x10{sup -3} mSv/h. Sites with minimum doses are the gamma camera rooms, having ambient dose equivalent rates equal to (0.05{+-}0.03)x10{sup -3} mSv/h. Recommendations have been given to the Department authorities so that further actions are taken to reduce doses at high dose sites in order to comply with the ALARA principle (as low as reasonably achievable).

  15. The Role of Number and Familiarity of Stimuli in the Perception of Brief Temporal Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiffman, H. R.; Bobko, Douglas J.

    1977-01-01

    The influence of stimulus number and familiarity on judged duration were investigated. Results showed that the number of stimulus elements presented within a given interval affected its perceived duration, although the familiarity of those elements (as defined herein) did not. (Editor/RK)

  16. 46 CFR 15.1105 - Familiarization and basic safety-training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Familiarization and basic safety-training. 15.1105 Section 15.1105 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN MANNING REQUIREMENTS Vessels Subject to Requirements of STCW § 15.1105 Familiarization and basic safety-training. (a) On board a seagoing vessel,...

  17. Recognition errors suggest fast familiarity and slow recollection in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Basile, Benjamin M; Hampton, Robert R

    2013-08-01

    One influential model of recognition posits two underlying memory processes: recollection, which is detailed but relatively slow, and familiarity, which is quick but lacks detail. Most of the evidence for this dual-process model in nonhumans has come from analyses of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves in rats, but whether ROC analyses can demonstrate dual processes has been repeatedly challenged. Here, we present independent converging evidence for the dual-process model from analyses of recognition errors made by rhesus monkeys. Recognition choices were made in three different ways depending on processing duration. Short-latency errors were disproportionately false alarms to familiar lures, suggesting control by familiarity. Medium-latency responses were less likely to be false alarms and were more accurate, suggesting onset of a recollective process that could correctly reject familiar lures. Long-latency responses were guesses. A response deadline increased false alarms, suggesting that limiting processing time weakened the contribution of recollection and strengthened the contribution of familiarity. Together, these findings suggest fast familiarity and slow recollection in monkeys, that monkeys use a "recollect to reject" strategy to countermand false familiarity, and that primate recognition performance is well-characterized by a dual-process model consisting of recollection and familiarity. PMID:23864646

  18. Basic Processes in Reading: On the Relation between Spatial Attention and Familiarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risko, Evan F.; Stolz, Jennifer A.; Besner, Derek

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments combined a spatial cueing manipulation (valid vs. invalid spatial cues) with a stimulus repetition manipulation (repeated vs. nonrepeated) in order to assess the hypothesis that familiar items need less spatial attention than less familiar ones. The magnitude of the effect of cueing on reading aloud time for items that were…

  19. Sentential Context and the Interpretation of Familiar Open-Compounds and Novel Modifier-Noun Phrases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagne, Christina L.; Spalding, Thomas L.; Gorrie, Melissa C.

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the influence of sentential context on the relative ease of deriving a particular meaning for novel and familiar compounds. Experiment 1 determined which of two possible meanings was preferred for a set of novel phrases. Experiment 2 used both novel (e.g., "brain sponge") and familiar compounds (e.g., "bug spray"). The…

  20. Reading and Learning from L2 Text: Effects of Reading Goal, Topic Familiarity, and Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horiba, Yukie; Fukaya, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effect of reading goal, topic-familiarity, and language proficiency on text comprehension and learning. English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) students with high and low topic-familiarity read and recalled a text. Some were told in advance to expect a recall task in a particular language--the first language (L1) or second…

  1. Eye Movement Control during Reading: Effects of Word Frequency and Orthographic Familiarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Sarah J.

    2008-01-01

    Word frequency and orthographic familiarity were independently manipulated as readers' eye movements were recorded. Word frequency influenced fixation durations and the probability of word skipping when orthographic familiarity was controlled. These results indicate that lexical processing of words can influence saccade programming (as shown by…

  2. When Memory Does Not Fail: Familiarity-Based Recognition in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

    E-print Network

    Reber, Paul J.

    's disease and its preclinical stage, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), were associated with memory, familiarity Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with deficits in several cognitive domains, includingWhen Memory Does Not Fail: Familiarity-Based Recognition in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer

  3. Rhesus Monkeys See Who They Hear: Spontaneous Cross-Modal Memory for Familiar Conspecifics

    E-print Network

    Hampton, Robert

    Rhesus Monkeys See Who They Hear: Spontaneous Cross-Modal Memory for Familiar Conspecifics Ikuma of America Abstract Rhesus monkeys gather much of their knowledge of the social world through visual input social behavior. We tested whether rhesus monkeys have cross-modal access to visual memory for familiar

  4. Medial Temporal and Prefrontal Contributions to Working Memory Tasks With Novel and Familiar

    E-print Network

    Hasselmo, Michael

    complex pic- tures. In contrast, the working memory task with highly familiar stimuli resulted in greater with familiar stim- uli. These results are consistent with prior animal studies and suggest that prefrontal. This discrepancy between the human and nonhuman primate findings may be based on the fact that while animal studies

  5. Liking to Be Liked: Imitation, Familiarity and Pedagogy in the First Years of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker-Rees, Rod

    2007-01-01

    This paper offers a review of the literature on the role of imitation in the earliest stages of social interaction between babies and familiar partners. The review focuses on the ways in which reciprocal imitation marks familiar relationships that provide special contexts for babies to engage actively and exuberantly in the construction of a…

  6. Recognition Memory and the Hippocampus: A Test of the Hippocampal Contribution to Recollection and Familiarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeneson, Annette; Kirwan, C. Brock; Hopkins, Ramona O.; Wixted, John T.; Squire, Larry R.

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that the hippocampus selectively supports recollection and that adjacent cortex in the medial temporal lobe can support familiarity. Alternatively, it has been suggested that the hippocampus supports both recollection and familiarity. We tested these suggestions by assessing the performance of patients with hippocampal…

  7. Elementary School Teachers' Familiarity, Conceptual Knowledge, and Interest in Light

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumba, Frackson; Mbewe, Simon; Chabalengula, Vivien M.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored elementary school teachers' familiarity, conceptual knowledge, and interest in learning more about light and its related concepts. This study also sought to establish the relationship between elementary school teachers' familiarity, conceptual knowledge, and interest in learning light concepts. Sixty-six lower and…

  8. No Measured Effect of a Familiar Contextual Object on Color Constancy

    E-print Network

    No Measured Effect of a Familiar Contextual Object on Color Constancy Erika Kanematsu,1 * David H. Brainard2 1 Optical Research Laboratory, Nikon Corporation, Tokyo, Japan 2 Department of Psychology Abstract: Some familiar objects have a typical color, such as the yellow of a banana. The presence

  9. Word Learning in Adults with Second-Language Experience: Effects of Phonological and Referent Familiarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon; Van Hecke, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this research was to examine whether phonological familiarity exerts different effects on novel word learning for familiar versus unfamiliar referents and whether successful word learning is associated with increased second-language experience. Method: Eighty-one adult native English speakers with various levels of Spanish…

  10. Role of Featural and Configural Information in Familiar and Unfamiliar Face Recognition

    E-print Network

    643 Role of Featural and Configural Information in Familiar and Unfamiliar Face Recognition Adrian to what extent human face recognition relies on local information in parts (featural information. In Experiment 2 we replicated these results for familiar face recognition. Both Experiments provide evidence

  11. Familiar Face Recognition in Children with Autism: The Differential Use of Inner and Outer Face Parts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Rebecca; Pascalis, Olivier; Blades, Mark

    2007-01-01

    We investigated whether children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) have a deficit in recognising familiar faces. Children with ASD were given a forced choice familiar face recognition task with three conditions: full faces, inner face parts and outer face parts. Control groups were children with developmental delay (DD) and typically…

  12. The Effects of Spatial Contextual Familiarity on Remembered Scenes, Episodic Memories, and Imagined Future Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robin, Jessica; Moscovitch, Morris

    2014-01-01

    Several recent studies have explored the effect of contextual familiarity on remembered and imagined events. The aim of this study was to examine the extent of this effect by comparing the effect of cuing spatial memories, episodic memories, and imagined future events with spatial contextual cues of varying levels of familiarity. We used…

  13. The Price of Fame: The Impact of Stimulus Familiarity on Proactive Interference Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prabhakaran, Ranjani; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.

    2011-01-01

    Interference from previously learned information, known as proactive interference (PI), limits our memory retrieval abilities. Previous studies of PI resolution have focused on the role of short-term familiarity, or recency, in causing PI. In the present study, we investigated the impact of long-term stimulus familiarity on PI resolution…

  14. Mechanisms Supporting Superior Source Memory for Familiar Items: A Multi-Voxel Pattern Analysis Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poppenk, Jordan; Norman, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent cognitive research has revealed better source memory performance for familiar relative to novel stimuli. Here we consider two possible explanations for this finding. The source memory advantage for familiar stimuli could arise because stimulus novelty induces attention to stimulus features at the expense of contextual processing, resulting…

  15. Familiarity and Personal Experience as Mediators of Recall when Planning for Future Contingencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Stanley B.; Robertson, Theresa E.; Delton, Andrew W.; Lax, Moshe L.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we demonstrate that planning tasks enhance recall when the context of planning (a) is self-referential and (b) draws on familiar scenarios represented in episodic memory. Specifically, we show that when planning tasks are sorted according to the degree to which they evoke memories of personally familiar scenarios (e.g., planning a…

  16. Assessing Recollection and Familiarity in Autistic Spectrum Disorders: Methods and Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigham, Sally; Boucher, Jill; Mayes, Andrew; Anns, Sophie

    2010-01-01

    We hypothesise that of the two processes underlying declarative memory, recollection is impaired in high-functioning autism (HFA) whereas recollection and familiarity are impaired in low-functioning autism (LFA). Testing these hypotheses necessitates assessing recollection and familiarity separately. However, this is difficult, because both…

  17. Recognition Memory: Adding a Response Deadline Eliminates Recollection but Spares Familiarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauvage, Magdalena M.; Beer, Zachery; Eichenbaum, Howard

    2010-01-01

    A current controversy in memory research concerns whether recognition is supported by distinct processes of familiarity and recollection, or instead by a single process wherein familiarity and recollection reflect weak and strong memories, respectively. Recent studies using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses in an animal model have…

  18. Effects of Familiarity and Feeding on Newborn Speech-Voice Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valiante, A. Grace; Barr, Ronald G.; Zelazo, Philip R.; Brant, Rollin; Young, Simon N.

    2013-01-01

    Newborn infants preferentially orient to familiar over unfamiliar speech sounds. They are also better at remembering unfamiliar speech sounds for short periods of time if learning and retention occur after a feed than before. It is unknown whether short-term memory for speech is enhanced when the sound is familiar (versus unfamiliar) and, if so,…

  19. Evaluating Preference for Familiar and Novel Stimuli across a Large Group of Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenzer, Amy L.; Bishop, Michele R.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined relative preference for familiar and novel stimuli for 31 children with autism. Preference surveys, completed by 39 staff members, identified high and low preference familiar stimuli for each participant. Novel stimuli were selected by experimenters and included items that were not reported on a preference survey for that…

  20. Boys Affiliate More than Girls with a Familiar Same-Sex Peer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benenson, Joyce F.; Quinn, Amanda; Stella, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Evidence from ethnographic, observational, and experimental studies with humans converges to suggest that males affiliate more than females with unrelated, familiar same-sex peers, but this has never been examined directly. With this aim, we compared frequency of affiliation with a single, randomly chosen, familiar same-sex peer for the two sexes…

  1. Recognition errors suggest fast familiarity and slow recollection in rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Basile, Benjamin M.; Hampton, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    One influential model of recognition posits two underlying memory processes: recollection, which is detailed but relatively slow, and familiarity, which is quick but lacks detail. Most of the evidence for this dual-process model in nonhumans has come from analyses of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves in rats, but whether ROC analyses can demonstrate dual processes has been repeatedly challenged. Here, we present independent converging evidence for the dual-process model from analyses of recognition errors made by rhesus monkeys. Recognition choices were made in three different ways depending on processing duration. Short-latency errors were disproportionately false alarms to familiar lures, suggesting control by familiarity. Medium-latency responses were less likely to be false alarms and were more accurate, suggesting onset of a recollective process that could correctly reject familiar lures. Long-latency responses were guesses. A response deadline increased false alarms, suggesting that limiting processing time weakened the contribution of recollection and strengthened the contribution of familiarity. Together, these findings suggest fast familiarity and slow recollection in monkeys, that monkeys use a “recollect to reject” strategy to countermand false familiarity, and that primate recognition performance is well-characterized by a dual-process model consisting of recollection and familiarity. PMID:23864646

  2. Availability of Semantic Knowledge in Familiar-Only Experiences for Names

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, Ben; Köhler, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Situations in which the name of a person is perceived as familiar but does not trigger recall of pertinent semantic knowledge are common in daily life. In current connectionist models of person recognition, such "familiar-only" experiences reflect supra-threshold activation at person-identity nodes but subthreshold activation at nodes…

  3. The Role of Person Familiarity in Young Infants' Perception of Emotional Expressions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahana-Kalman, Ronit; Walker-Andrews, Arlene S.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the role of person familiarity in 3.5-month-olds' ability to recognize emotional expressions. Found that when more contextual information such as person familiarity was available, infants as young as 3.5 months recognized happy and sad expressions. Findings suggest that in early stages, infants are sensitive to contextual information…

  4. The role of oxytocin in familiarization-habituation responses to social novelty

    PubMed Central

    Tops, Mattie; Huffmeijer, Renske; Linting, Mariëlle; Grewen, Karen M.; Light, Kathleen C.; Koole, Sander L.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

    2013-01-01

    Stress or arousal responses to novel social contexts ease off when individuals get familiar with the social context. In the present study we investigated whether oxytocin is involved in this process of familiarization-habituation as oxytocin is known to increase trust and decrease anxiety. Fifty-nine healthy female subjects took part in the same experimental procedure in two sessions separated by 4 weeks. In the first (novelty) session state trust scores were significantly positively correlated with salivary oxytocin levels while in the second (familiarity) session state trust scores were significantly negatively correlated with salivary oxytocin levels. In a path model oxytocin was associated with increased trust in the novelty session and trust was associated with decreased oxytocin levels in the familiarity session. The results are consistent with the idea that oxytocin decreases stress-to-novelty responses by promoting familiarization to novel social contexts. PMID:24151482

  5. Interplay between familiarity and orientation in face processing: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Marzi, Tessa; Viggiano, Maria Pia

    2007-09-01

    In order to tap the electrophysiological correlates of the perceptual and structural encoding stages of face processing, we investigated how inversion and familiarity affect the face-specific event-related potentials (ERPs) components. ERPs were recorded while participants performed a familiarity judgment task with upright and inverted photographs of famous and unknown faces. The early P100 component was found to be sensitive to facial configuration that is disrupted by face inversion. Noteworthy, in addition to the ongoing effect of orientation, an effect of familiarity, although limited to upright faces, emerged at the processing stage indexed by N170. Later on, as witnessed by the P250 component, the familiarity effect was generalized to both upright and inverted faces with a larger amplitude for inverted famous faces. All in all, the present results suggest that the face structural encoding stage is cognitively permeable by higher-order factors such as familiarity, especially when familiarity is crucial for mastering the task. From a more general viewpoint, these results indicate that face processing is subserved by multiple mechanisms in which structural (i.e. orientation) and semantic (i.e. familiarity) factors begin to interact at early processing stages with different time courses. The electrophysiological correlates of these mechanisms are documented by the differential involvement of the major ERP components in the "familiarity check". With upright faces familiarity affects the N170 component, while with inverted faces it affects later components, in keeping with a prolonged time course of the familiarity decision when orientation is not upright. PMID:17512996

  6. The role of spurious feature familiarity in recognition memory

    PubMed Central

    DIANA, RACHEL A.; PETERSON, MARGARET J.; REDER, LYNNE M.

    2005-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated the role of perceptual information in spurious recognition judgments, Participants viewed lists of words in various unusual fonts. The frequency with which each font was presented was manipulated at study: Each font was presented with 1 or 12 different words in Experiment 1 and with 1 or 20 words in Experiment 2. Although the participants were instructed in a word recognition test to judge only on the basis of the word, regardless of font, there were significantly more false alarms for new words seen in a previously presented font than for new words presented in a novel (not seen at study) font in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, the participants were significantly more likely to make a false alarm to a new word seen in a font that had been used to present 20 words during study than to a font that had been used to present only 1 word during study. The data show a mirror effect, in which words tested in low-frequency fonts produced more hits and fewer false alarms than did words tested in high-frequency fonts. These results show that irrelevant perceptual information plays a role in recognition judgments by providing spurious sources of familiarity and, thus, provide evidence that perceptual information is represented and processed in the same way as semantic information. PMID:15117001

  7. Familiarity affects other-regarding preferences in pet dogs

    PubMed Central

    Quervel-Chaumette, Mylene; Dale, Rachel; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Range, Friederike

    2015-01-01

    Other-regarding preferences are considered to be the foundation of human cooperation. However, the evolutionary origin of this behavior in humans remains poorly understood. So far, comparative studies in primates have led to mixed conclusions probably due to methodological differences relating to both task complexity and the types of control conditions used. Moreover, no clear link between phylogenetic relatedness and prosociality has been found, suggesting that other convergent selection pressures may play a role in the evolution of such behaviors. Here, using one of the cognitively less demanding tasks, we show for the first time, that dogs can behave pro-socially by donating food to a conspecific partner, but only if the partner is familiar. This highlights the importance of considering the social relationships between individuals when testing animals for other-regarding behaviors. Moreover, by including a social control condition, we show that the dogs’ prosocial response was not due to a simple social facilitation effect. The current findings support recent proposals that other convergent selection pressures, such as dependence on cooperative activities, rather than genetic relatedness to humans, may shape a species’ propensity for other-regarding behaviors. PMID:26669671

  8. Familiarity affects other-regarding preferences in pet dogs.

    PubMed

    Quervel-Chaumette, Mylene; Dale, Rachel; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Range, Friederike

    2015-01-01

    Other-regarding preferences are considered to be the foundation of human cooperation. However, the evolutionary origin of this behavior in humans remains poorly understood. So far, comparative studies in primates have led to mixed conclusions probably due to methodological differences relating to both task complexity and the types of control conditions used. Moreover, no clear link between phylogenetic relatedness and prosociality has been found, suggesting that other convergent selection pressures may play a role in the evolution of such behaviors. Here, using one of the cognitively less demanding tasks, we show for the first time, that dogs can behave pro-socially by donating food to a conspecific partner, but only if the partner is familiar. This highlights the importance of considering the social relationships between individuals when testing animals for other-regarding behaviors. Moreover, by including a social control condition, we show that the dogs' prosocial response was not due to a simple social facilitation effect. The current findings support recent proposals that other convergent selection pressures, such as dependence on cooperative activities, rather than genetic relatedness to humans, may shape a species' propensity for other-regarding behaviors. PMID:26669671

  9. The familiar and the strange: the dynamics of change.

    PubMed

    Lazar, R

    1995-01-01

    This article relates to curative factors in the therapeutic process, or, to be more precise, to the various modes of the therapist's presence as presumed factors of change. It points to factors of change that have been discussed at length in the various streams of the analytical literature, which emphasized passive attention, absorption, processing and interpretation on the analyst's part, in an atmosphere of restraint and understanding (factors such as "free floating attention," "empathy," etc.). It stresses the importance of another psychic function different in nature--"defamiliarization"--as a condition that facilitates and accompanies processes of understanding and changes in perspective in relation to a reality aesthetically mediated by every human work of art, in general, and in relation to the personal-inner reality as it is expressed in the therapeutic work of art, in particular. This term sheds light on an active, mobile, breaking away--distancing--and rebinding aspect in the psychic functioning of the therapist (and in parallel of the patient), which allows them to "see the new" in a (supposedly) very familiar emotional given. In my view, this term joins others such as "act of freedom" and "constructive listening" in deepening our understanding of the therapeutic factor. There is reference to the term "defamiliarization," or "making strange," in its natural context--its birthplace--in literary criticism, and in a different historical context--in two key articles of the thirties that related to the causes of change in therapy in a very different way. PMID:8543456

  10. Feature diagnosticity affects representations of novel and familiar objects

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Nina S.; Schlichting, Margaret L.; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.

    2014-01-01

    Many features can describe a concept, but only some features define a concept in that they enable discrimination of items that are instances of a concept from (similar) items that are not. We refer to this property of some features as feature diagnosticity. Previous work has described the behavioral effects of feature diagnosticity, but there has been little work on explaining why and how these effects arise. In this study, we aimed to understand the impact of feature diagnosticity on concept representations across two complementary experiments. In Experiment 1, we manipulated the diagnosticity of one feature, color, for a set of novel objects that human subjects learned over the course of one week. We report behavioral and neural evidence that diagnostic features are likely to be automatically recruited during remembering. Specifically, individuals activated color-selective regions of ventral temporal cortex (specifically, left fusiform gyrus and left inferior temporal gyrus) when thinking about the novel objects, even though color information was never explicitly probed during the task. Moreover, multiple behavioral and neural measures of the effects of feature diagnosticity were correlated across subjects. In Experiment 2, we examined relative color association in familiar object categories, which varied in feature diagnosticity (fruits and vegetables, household items). Taken together, these results offer novel insights into the neural mechanisms underlying concept representations by demonstrating that automatic recruitment of diagnostic information gives rise to behavioral effects of feature diagnosticity. PMID:24800630

  11. Feature diagnosticity affects representations of novel and familiar objects.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Nina S; Schlichting, Margaret L; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L

    2014-12-01

    Many features can describe a concept, but only some features define a concept in that they enable discrimination of items that are instances of a concept from (similar) items that are not. We refer to this property of some features as feature diagnosticity. Previous work has described the behavioral effects of feature diagnosticity, but there has been little work on explaining why and how these effects arise. In this study, we aimed to understand the impact of feature diagnosticity on concept representations across two complementary experiments. In Experiment 1, we manipulated the diagnosticity of one feature, color, for a set of novel objects that human participants learned over the course of 1 week. We report behavioral and neural evidence that diagnostic features are likely to be automatically recruited during remembering. Specifically, individuals activated color-selective regions of ventral temporal cortex (specifically, left fusiform gyrus and left inferior temporal gyrus) when thinking about the novel objects, although color information was never explicitly probed during the task. Moreover, multiple behavioral and neural measures of the effects of feature diagnosticity were correlated across participants. In Experiment 2, we examined relative color association in familiar object categories, which varied in feature diagnosticity (fruits and vegetables, household items). Taken together, these results offer novel insights into the neural mechanisms underlying concept representations by demonstrating that automatic recruitment of diagnostic information gives rise to behavioral effects of feature diagnosticity. PMID:24800630

  12. Neuronal correlates of perception, imagery, and memory for familiar tunes.

    PubMed

    Herholz, Sibylle C; Halpern, Andrea R; Zatorre, Robert J

    2012-06-01

    We used fMRI to investigate the neuronal correlates of encoding and recognizing heard and imagined melodies. Ten participants were shown lyrics of familiar verbal tunes; they either heard the tune along with the lyrics, or they had to imagine it. In a subsequent surprise recognition test, they had to identify the titles of tunes that they had heard or imagined earlier. The functional data showed substantial overlap during melody perception and imagery, including secondary auditory areas. During imagery compared with perception, an extended network including pFC, SMA, intraparietal sulcus, and cerebellum showed increased activity, in line with the increased processing demands of imagery. Functional connectivity of anterior right temporal cortex with frontal areas was increased during imagery compared with perception, indicating that these areas form an imagery-related network. Activity in right superior temporal gyrus and pFC was correlated with the subjective rating of imagery vividness. Similar to the encoding phase, the recognition task recruited overlapping areas, including inferior frontal cortex associated with memory retrieval, as well as left middle temporal gyrus. The results present new evidence for the cortical network underlying goal-directed auditory imagery, with a prominent role of the right pFC both for the subjective impression of imagery vividness and for on-line mental monitoring of imagery-related activity in auditory areas. PMID:22360595

  13. Neuroimaging studies on recognition of personally familiar people.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Motoaki

    2014-01-01

    From an evolutionary viewpoint, readiness to engage in appropriate behavior toward a recognized person seems to be inherent in the human brain. In support of this hypothesis, functional neuroimaging studies have demonstrated activation in regions relevant to relationship-appropriate behavior during the recognition of personally familiar (PF) people. Recognition of friends and colleagues activates regions involved in real-time communication, including the regions for inference about the other's mental state, autobiographical memory retrieval, and self-referential processes. Recognition of people related by romantic love, maternal love, and lost love induces activation in regions involved in motivational, reward, and affective processes, reflecting behavioral readiness for mating, caretaking, and yearning, respectively. The involvement of motor-associated cortices during recognition of a personal enemy may reflect readiness for attack or defense. Self-recognition in a body-related modality uniquely activates sensory and motor association cortices reflecting the sensorimotor origin of the bodily self-concept, with social cognitive processes being suppressed or context dependent. Issues and future directions are also discussed. PMID:24389212

  14. Modelo Hidrulico Operacional del Oeste: El proyecto es una iniciativa conjunta entre la Autoridad de Acueductos y Alcantarillados de Puerto Rico, el Municipio de Mayagez y la Universidad de Puerto Rico, en la cual

    E-print Network

    Gilbes, Fernando

    sin violar los estándares de calidad de agua designados para los usos establecidos por la Agencia de Rico, en la cual se crea el Modelo Hidráulico para el Sistema de Distribución de Agua del Oeste. El Investigaciones Sobre RecursosInstituto de Investigaciones Sobre Recursos de Agua y el Ambiente de Puerto Ricode

  15. Volcano Monitoring in Ecuador: Three Decades of Continuous Progress of the Instituto Geofisico - Escuela Politecnica Nacional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, M. C.; Yepes, H. A.; Hall, M. L.; Mothes, P. A.; Ramon, P.; Hidalgo, S.; Andrade, D.; Vallejo Vargas, S.; Steele, A. L.; Anzieta, J. C.; Ortiz, H. D.; Palacios, P.; Alvarado, A. P.; Enriquez, W.; Vasconez, F.; Vaca, M.; Arrais, S.; Viracucha, G.; Bernard, B.

    2014-12-01

    In 1988, the Instituto Geofisico (IG) began a permanent surveillance of Ecuadorian volcanoes, and due to activity on Guagua Pichincha, SP seismic stations and EDM control lines were then installed. Later, with the UNDRO and OAS projects, telemetered seismic monitoring was expanded to Tungurahua, Cotopaxi, Cuicocha, Chimborazo, Antisana, Cayambe, Cerro Negro, and Quilotoa volcanoes. In 1992 an agreement with the Instituto Ecuatoriano de Electrificacion strengthened the monitoring of Tungurahua and Cotopaxi volcanoes with real-time SP seismic networks and EDM lines. Thus, background activity levels became established, which was helpful because of the onset of the 1999 eruptive activity at Tungurahua and Guagua Pichincha. These eruptions had a notable impact on Baños and Quito. Unrest at Cotopaxi volcano was detected in 2001-2002, but waned. In 2002 Reventador began its eruptive period which continues to the present and is closely monitored by the IG. In 2006 permanent seismic BB stations and infrasound sensors were installed at Tungurahua and Cotopaxi under a cooperative program supported by JICA, which allowed us to follow Tungurahua's climatic eruptions of 2006 and subsequent eruptions up to the present. Programs supported by the Ecuadorian Secretaria Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia and the Secretaria Nacional de Planificacion resulted in further expansion of the IG's monitoring infrastructure. Thermal and video imagery, SO2 emission monitoring, geochemical analyses, continuous GPS and tiltmeters, and micro-barometric surveillance have been incorporated. Sangay, Soche, Ninahuilca, Pululahua, and Fernandina, Cerro Azul, Sierra Negra, and Alcedo in the Galapagos Islands are now monitored in real-time. During this time, international cooperation with universities (Blaise Pascal & Nice-France, U. North Carolina, New Mexico Tech, Uppsala-Sweden, Nagoya, etc.), and research centers (USGS & UNAVCO-USA, IRD-France, NIED-Japan, SGC-Colombia, VAAC, MIROVA) has introduced the use of new technologies and methods. An agreement with the Secretaria de Gestion de Riesgos fortifies the communication flow to society, officials, and risk managers. Today the IG has the challenge of offering real-time information through a web-based net of virtual observatories.

  16. You look familiar, but I don’t care: Lure rejection in hybrid visual and memory search is not based on familiarity

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Jeremy M.; Boettcher, Sage E. P.; Josephs, Emilie L.; Cunningham, Corbin A.; Drew, Trafton

    2015-01-01

    In “hybrid” search tasks, observers hold multiple possible targets in memory while searching for those targets amongst distractor items in visual displays. Wolfe (2012) found that, if the target set is held constant over a block of trials, RTs in such tasks were a linear function of the number of items in the visual display and a linear function of the log of the number of items held in memory. However, in such tasks, the targets can become far more familiar than the distractors. Does this “familiarity” – operationalized here as the frequency and recency with which an item has appeared – influence performance in hybrid tasks In Experiment 1, we compared searches where distractors appeared with the same frequency as the targets to searches where all distractors were novel. Distractor familiarity did not have any reliable effect on search. In Experiment 2, most distractors were novel but some critical distractors were as common as the targets while others were 4× more common. Familiar distractors did not produce false alarm errors, though they did slightly increase response times (RTs). In Experiment 3, observers successfully searched for the new, unfamiliar item among distractors that, in many cases, had been seen only once before. We conclude that when the memory set is held constant for many trials, item familiarity alone does not cause observers to mistakenly confuse target with distractors. PMID:26191615

  17. Effects of age on the neural correlates of familiarity as indexed by event related potentials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tracy H.; de Chastelaine, Marianne; Minton, Brian; Rugg, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Event related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from samples of young (18–29yrs) and older (63–77yrs) subjects while they performed a modified `Remember/Know' recognition memory test. ERP correlates of familiarity-driven recognition were obtained by contrasting the waveforms elicited by unrecollected test items accorded `confident old' and `confident new' judgments. Correlates of recollection were identified by contrasting the ERPs elicited by items accorded `Remember' and confident old judgments. Behavioral analyses revealed lower estimates of both recollection and familiarity in older than in young subjects. The putative ERP correlate of recollection – the `left parietal old/new effect' – was evident in both age groups, although it was slightly but significantly smaller in the older sample. By contrast, the putative ERP correlate of familiarity – the `mid-frontal old/new effect' – could be identified in the young subjects only. This age-related difference in the sensitivity of ERPs to familiarity was also evident in sub-groups of young and older subjects in whom familiarity-based recognition performance was equivalent. Thus, the inability to detect a reliable mid-frontal old/new effect in older subjects was not a consequence of an age-related decline in the strength of familiarity. These findings raise the possibility that familiarity-based recognition memory depends upon qualitatively different memory signals in older and young adults. PMID:21878056

  18. More ways than one: ERPs reveal multiple familiarity signals in the word frequency mirror effect.

    PubMed

    Bridger, Emma K; Bader, Regine; Mecklinger, Axel

    2014-05-01

    Recent dual-process models of the word frequency mirror effect place absolute familiarity, an item?s baseline familiarity at a given time point, as responsible for false alarm differences and recollection for hit rate differences between high and low frequency items. One of the earliest dual-process propositions, however, posits an additional relative familiarity mechanism which is sensitive to recent presentation but relative to the absolute familiarity of a particular item (Mandler, 1980). In this study, it was possible to map these three mechanisms onto known event-related potential (ERP) effects in an old/new recognition task with high and low frequency words. Contrasts between ERPs elicited by high and low frequency new items were assumed to index absolute familiarity, and the distribution of this effect from 300 to 600ms was topographically distinct from a temporally-overlapping midfrontally-distributed old/new effect which was larger for low than high frequency words, as would be expected from a relative familiarity mechanism. A later left parietal old/new effect, strongly linked to recollection, was only present for low frequency items. These frequency-sensitive amplitude differences for both old/new effects disappeared in a second recognition task in which old/new decisions were made under a time constraint, although the posterior absolute familiarity effect remained unaffected by the speeding of responses. The data support the assertion that three distinct recognition processes are affected by word frequency in recognition memory tasks, and the qualitatively distinct distributions associated with the two familiarity contrasts support the presence of two cognitively distinct familiarity mechanisms. PMID:24675676

  19. Stranger to Familiar: Wild Strepsirhines Manage Xenophobia by Playing

    PubMed Central

    Antonacci, Daniela; Norscia, Ivan; Palagi, Elisabetta

    2010-01-01

    The power of play in limiting xenophobia is a well-known phenomenon in humans. Yet, the evidence in social animals remains meager. Here, we aim to determine whether play promotes social tolerance toward strangers in one of the most basal group of primates, the strepsirhines. We observed two groups of wild lemurs (Propithecus verreauxi, Verreaux's sifaka) during the mating season. Data were also collected on nine visiting, outgroup males. We compared the distribution of play, grooming, and aggressive interactions across three conditions: OUT (resident/outgroup interactions), IN (resident/resident interactions in presence of outgroups) and BL-IN (baseline of resident/resident interactions in absence of outgroups). Play frequency between males was higher in OUT than in IN and BL-IN conditions; whereas, grooming was more frequent in IN than in OUT and BL-IN conditions. Aggression rates between resident and outgroup males were significantly higher than those between residents. However, aggressions between resident and outgroup males significantly decreased after the first play session and became comparable with resident-resident aggression levels. The presence of strangers in a well-established group implies the onset of novel social circumstances, which sifaka males cope with by two different tactics: grooming with ingroup males and playing with outgroup ones. The grooming peak, concurrently with the visit of outgroups, probably represents a social shield adopted by resident males to make their pre-existing affiliation more evident to the stranger “audience”. Being mostly restricted to unfamiliar males, adult play in sifaka appears to have a role in managing new social situations more than in maintaining old relationships. In particular, our results indicate not only that play is the interface between strangers but also that it has a specific function in reducing xenophobia. In conclusion, play appears to be an ice-breaker mechanism in the critical process that “upgrades” an individual from stranger to familiar. PMID:20949052

  20. [The "familiarity" variable in maternal role playing in preschool children].

    PubMed

    Gourdon, B; Laflaquière, A; Barré, I

    1994-01-01

    The present investigation was effected in the context of several other studies involving mother role playing with dolls in children of both sexes aged 2 to 6. Previous studies had shown an interaction between several variables: sex of the child and of the doll, absence of toys representing maternal activities, naked or clothed dolls, playing in couples of same sex or different sexes. The present study involves a new factor: degree of familiarity between children. Three variables can be distinguished in the analysis of couples of friends: (1) exploratory activities of the body of the dolls: smaller children (boys and girls) explore the body for itself whereas older girls do it while assuming a maternal role and older boys take distance from this activity. (2) Involvement in mother role playing: girls are more involved than boys, older children have richer activities than the younger. (3) Choice of activity (mother role playing or other). Observation of activities in non-friends couples emphasize two factors. The first is the same as in couples of friends (exploration of the body of the dolls), the second being the emotional tone of play sessions. Children of both sexes are diversely tolerant of the non-friends situation. This has an important impact on the quality of playing and therefore on representations of playing and on identification behaviors. Analysis of this last factor in the context of the other findings on mother role playing suggests an evolution of mother role playing behaviors and leads to reformulate the parameters involved in the construction of representations of parental roles. PMID:7972535

  1. Recollection and familiarity components of recognition: effect of side of mesio-temporal damage.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Maria Giovanna; Fadda, Lucia; Serra, Laura; Di Paola, Margherita; Caltagirone, Carlo; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the memory performance of three patients with unilateral mesio-temporal lobe damage with the aim of evaluating the roles of the left and right hemispheres in recollection and familiarity. Consistent with the "Material Specificity Hypothesis", the right brain-damaged individual was selectively poor on recollection and familiarity tests for faces. Conversely, left-lesioned patients were severely deficient in recollection and familiarity of verbal material but mildly deficient on visual-spatial tests. This partially unexpected finding is interpreted in light of the ability of humans to verbally recode almost any material, thus giving rise to left-hemisphere effects for nominally nonverbal stimuli. PMID:25692372

  2. Differential response of coyotes to novel stimuli in familiar and unfamiliar environments

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, C.E.; Knowlton, F.F.

    1986-01-01

    The behavioral responses shown by captive coyotes, Canis latrans, to novel objects and artificial scent stations in familiar and unfamiliar environments were studied to determine how coyotes potentially respond to novel stimuli used in coyote management and research. Coyotes showed little avoidance of novel objects and scent stations when they were encountered in unfamiliar environments while avoidance was frequently observed with the same stimuli encountered in familiar environments, and supported the hypothesis that coyotes are more vulnerable to trapping and man-induced mortality when outside of the familiar environment of their territories.

  3. DIGITAL CLINICAL DATA: A Contribution of Instituto Traumatologico de Santiago de Chile to Hospital Management.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Mario; Molina, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Instituto Traumatológico developed an innovative project to gather clinical data in a digital format, thus generating the information necessary to make decisions. The ultimate goal of the project is to provide our patients with the best attention possible. The impact of incorporating health care informatics to a hospital's daily routine is profound, especially when those who are in charge of change have not learned about this topic or encouraged their students to incorporate new technologies to their work. The results of this project become even more significant when it is implemented in Latin American public hospitals, where the resources invested in technology are scarce. The success of this project could be considered a case of study for the region and the country. Although many efforts and resources have been invested in systematizing information, few cases have shown positive results. This project started with the systematization of the process of attention at the Emergency Department and the adaptation of the Emergency Information System. Once the implementation of this system was over, the project was applied to install the Polyclinic Information System, and Hospitalization Information Systems. The Electronic Health Record includes interfaces for specialties such as upper limbs, spine, hips and lower limbs, which makes it easier for specialists to handle the required information. The large amount of recollected data has been translated into statistic charts and indicators, which support the administration processes that take place in intermediate and superior areas of the Institute. PMID:24199116

  4. Managing by passion, professionalism and performance : the MBP³ model : an alternative management framework developed for the Instituto de Ciencias Terra-Mar (ICTM)

    E-print Network

    Coelho, Alexandre C. (Alexandre Costa)

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to develop a new, tailor-made and innovative managerial framework for the Instituto de Ciencias Terra-Mar (ICTM). The ICTM is a multi-functional science and technology institute dedicated ...

  5. Investigacin Instituto Nacional de Ecologa-SEMARNAT Volumen 4 Nmero 2

    E-print Network

    Rey Benayas, José María

    ; recuadro 1). Así, Ellis y Ramankutty (2008), en su clasificación antropogénica de los biomas #12;Investigaciónambiental2012·4(1):101-110 102 José M. Rey Benayas del mundo, distinguen 21 tipos principales de biomas de

  6. Recollection, Familiarity and the frontal lobes: the effects of healthy adult aging 

    E-print Network

    Allan, Elizabeth

    2008-06-28

    According to the dual process theory of memory there are two processes that contribute to recognition memory: familiarity and recollection. The present study looks at the effects of healthy adult aging on recollection and ...

  7. Apollo lunar surface experiments package. Apollo 17 ALSEP (array E) familiarization course handout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The familiarization course for the Apollo 17 ALSEP (ARRAY E) is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) power and data subsystems, (2) lunar surface gravimeter, (3) lunar mass spectrometer, (4) lunar seismic profiling experiment, and (5) heat flow experiment.

  8. Detecting deception in children: event familiarity affects criterion-based content analysis ratings.

    PubMed

    Pezdek, Kathy; Morrow, Anne; Blandon-Gitlin, Iris; Goodman, Gail S; Quas, Jodi A; Saywitz, Karen J; Bidrose, Sue; Pipe, Margaret-Ellen; Rogers, Martha; Brodie, Laura

    2004-02-01

    Statement Validity Assessment (SVA) is a comprehensive credibility assessment system, with the Criterion-Based Content Analysis (CBCA) as a core component. Worldwide, the CBCA is reported to be the most widely used veracity assessment instrument. We tested and confirmed the hypothesis that CBCA scores are affected by event familiarity; descriptions of familiar events are more likely to be judged true than are descriptions of unfamiliar events. CBCA scores were applied to transcripts of 114 children who recalled a routine medical procedure (control) or a traumatic medical procedure that they had experienced one time (relatively unfamiliar) or multiple times (relatively familiar). CBCA scores were higher for children in the relatively familiar than the relatively unfamiliar condition, and CBCA scores were significantly correlated with age. Results raise serious questions regarding the forensic suitability of the CBCA for assessing the veracity of children's accounts. PMID:14769124

  9. Asymmetry in pay-off predicts how familiar individuals respond to one another.

    PubMed

    Granroth-Wilding, Hanna M V; Magurran, Anne E

    2013-06-23

    Familiarity influences individual decision-making in many vertebrate species. Here, we propose that familiarity modulates behaviour to different extents depending on the social context of the interaction. Specifically, the more that one player stands to gain relative to the other, the less important familiarity will be in influencing their responses to one another. We test this prediction using pairs of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in three competitive scenarios of increasing asymmetry in outcome to the two players: schooling under potential threat (similar outcomes), competing for a defensible food source (some asymmetry) and competing for a receptive female (strongly asymmetrical outcomes). Males show a graded response as asymmetry increases, with familiarity producing marked behavioural differences under potential threat, minor changes when competing for food, but none at all in competition for mating opportunities. This suggests that mutualistic benefits can arise as a by-product of selfish behaviour, supporting the role of pseudo-reciprocity in the evolution of cooperation. PMID:23576778

  10. Long-Term Memory for Odors: Influences of Familiarity and Identification Across 64 Days

    PubMed Central

    Jönsson, Fredrik U.; Willander, Johan; Sikström, Sverker; Larsson, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have investigated long-term odor recognition memory, although some early observations suggested that the forgetting rate of olfactory representations is slower than for other sensory modalities. This study investigated recognition memory across 64 days for high and low familiar odors and faces. Memory was assessed in 83 young participants at 4 occasions; immediate, 4, 16, and 64 days after encoding. The results indicated significant forgetting for odors and faces across the 64 days. The forgetting functions for the 2 modalities were not fundamentally different. Moreover, high familiar odors and faces were better remembered than low familiar ones, indicating an important role of semantic knowledge on recognition proficiency for both modalities. Although odor recognition was significantly better than chance at the 64 days testing, memory for the low familiar odors was relatively poor. Also, the results indicated that odor identification consistency across sessions, irrespective of accuracy, was positively related to successful recognition. PMID:25740304

  11. Social modelling of food intake. The role of familiarity of the dining partners and food type.

    PubMed

    Kaisari, Panagiota; Higgs, Suzanne

    2015-03-01

    In a social eating context, people tend to model the food intake of their dining companions. In general, people tend to eat more when their dining companion eats more and less when their eating companion eats less. In the present paper we investigate 1) whether familiarity of dining partners affects modelling and 2) whether modelling is affected by whether familiar partners consume the same versus different foods. In both studies, female dyads completed a task together whilst having access to high energy dense snack foods. Modelling was observed regardless of the familiarity of the dining partners and food types consumed. These findings confirm that social modelling of food intake is a robust phenomenon that occurs even among familiar dining partners and when partners are consuming different types of snack food. PMID:25308433

  12. Language familiarity modulates relative attention to the eyes and mouth of a talker.

    PubMed

    Barenholtz, Elan; Mavica, Lauren; Lewkowicz, David J

    2016-02-01

    We investigated whether the audiovisual speech cues available in a talker's mouth elicit greater attention when adults have to process speech in an unfamiliar language vs. a familiar language. Participants performed a speech-encoding task while watching and listening to videos of a talker in a familiar language (English) or an unfamiliar language (Spanish or Icelandic). Attention to the mouth increased in monolingual subjects in response to an unfamiliar language condition but did not in bilingual subjects when the task required speech processing. In the absence of an explicit speech-processing task, subjects attended equally to the eyes and mouth in response to both familiar and unfamiliar languages. Overall, these results demonstrate that language familiarity modulates selective attention to the redundant audiovisual speech cues in a talker's mouth in adults. When our findings are considered together with similar findings from infants, they suggest that this attentional strategy emerges very early in life. PMID:26649759

  13. ROLE OF FAMILIARITY IN AUDITORY DISCRIMINATION OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENT: A LATERALITY STUDY

    E-print Network

    by familiar natural instruments (violin, flute, guitar and drum), and the other subjects performed the same. INTRODUCTION Piano and flute are easy to discriminate and to identify, even when they are playing a single note

  14. Casual sexual encounters among gay men: familiarity, trust and unprotected anal intercourse.

    PubMed

    Zablotska, Iryna B; Grulich, Andrew E; De Wit, John; Prestage, Garrett

    2011-04-01

    Familiarity with and a history of prior sex with casual partners is associated with unprotected anal intercourse and may increase the risk of HIV transmission among gay men. Using data from the Sydney Gay Community Periodic Survey 2007, we explored the relationship between familiarity and unprotected anal intercourse with the last casual partner (UAI-LC). 51% of the men knew their last casual partner and 49% had previously had sex with him. Men were more inclined to engage in UAI-LC if they had previously had sex with this partner. HIV-negative men were more likely to have UAI-LC with a more familiar partner independent of his serostatus. Familiarity with and a previous history of sex between casual partners may result in a false sense of trust and may increase the risk of HIV transmission. HIV prevention services should address this issue and develop programs to improve men's skills in negotiating safer sex. PMID:20376696

  15. Levels-of-processing effects on "remember" responses in recognition for familiar and unfamiliar tunes.

    PubMed

    Mungan, Esra; Peynircio?lu, Zehra F; Halpern, Andrea R

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the effect of level-of-processing manipulations on "remember" and "know" responses in episodic melody recognition (Experiments 1 and 2) and how this effect is modulated by item familiarity (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, participants performed 2 conceptual and 2 perceptual orienting tasks while listening to familiar melodies: judging the mood, continuing the tune, tracing the pitch contour, and counting long notes. The conceptual mood task led to higher d' rates for "remember" but not "know" responses. In Experiment 2, participants either judged the mood or counted long notes of tunes with high and low familiarity. A level-of-processing effect emerged again in participants' "remember" d' rates regardless of melody familiarity. Results are discussed within the distinctive processing framework. PMID:21506449

  16. Differentiating amodal familiarity from modality-specific memory processes: An ERP study

    PubMed Central

    DIEN, JOSEPH

    2005-01-01

    Distinct event-related potential effects have been related to familiarity and recollection processes underlying recognition memory. Familiarity has been conceptualized as similar either to perceptual priming mechanisms supporting implicit memory or to amodal global-matching processes that should show little sensitivity to perceptual variables. The present experiment manipulated the study modality of words (auditory, visual) that were visually tested for recognition memory. The mid-frontal (300–500 ms) old/new effect often attributed to familiarity was not affected by study modality, so it appears related to an amodal familiarity process. An earlier (176–260 ms) fronto-polar old/new effect was perceptually specific in that it was observed only following visual study. The parietal old/new effect (400–800 ms), often attributed to recollection, was similar following both visual and auditory study. Temporal-spatial PCA clarified the separability of these effects. PMID:14986851

  17. ERP correlates of familiarity and recollection processes in visual associative recognition

    PubMed Central

    Speer, Nicole K.; Curran, Tim

    2007-01-01

    Associative recognition memory often is thought to rely primarily on recollection processes, but opinions differ regarding the possible contribution of familiarity. The current experiments capitalized on hypothesized event-related potential (ERP) measures of familiarity and recollection to assess the contribution of each process to associative recognition. In two ERP experiments participants studied pairs of fractals and were later tested on their ability to recognize the studied pairs. Early (100 – 175 ms) visual ERP components were sensitive to the novelty of individual fractals, but later components hypothesized to be indicative of familiarity and recollection were sensitive to the novelty of the association between fractals. These relationships suggest that accurate memory for visual associations may be dependent on both familiarity and recollection processes. PMID:17825273

  18. Neurophysiological evidence for a recollection impairment in amnesia patients that leaves familiarity intact

    PubMed Central

    Addante, Richard J.; Ranganath, Charan; Olichney, John; Yonelinas, Andrew P.

    2012-01-01

    In several previous behavioral studies, we have identified a group of amnestic patients that, behaviorally, appear to exhibit severe deficits in recollection with relative preservation of familiarity-based recognition. However, these studies have relied exclusively on behavioral measures, rather than direct measures of physiology. Event-related potentials (ERPs) have been used to identify putative neural correlates of familiarity- and recollection-based recognition memory, but little work has been done to determine the extent to which these ERP correlates are spared in patients with relatively specific memory disorders. ERP studies of recognition in healthy subjects have indicated that recollection and familiarity are related to a parietal old-new effect characterized as a late positive component (LPC) and an earlier mid-frontal old-new effect referred to as an ‘FN400’, respectively. Here, we sought to determine the extent to which the putative ERP correlates of recollection and familiarity are intact or impaired in these patients. We recorded ERPs in three amnestic patients and six age matched controls while they made item recognition and source recognition judgments. The current patients were able to discriminate between old and new items fairly well, but showed nearly chance-level performance at source recognition. Moreover, whereas control subjects exhibited ERP correlates of memory that have been linked to recollection and familiarity, the patients only exhibited the mid-frontal FN400 ERP effect related to familiarity-based recognition. The results show that recollection can be severely impaired in amnesia even when familiarity-related processing is relatively spared, and they also provide further evidence that ERPs can be used to distinguish between neural correlates of familiarity and recollection. PMID:22898646

  19. Hierarchical Novelty-Familiarity Representation in the Visual System by Modular Predictive Coding

    PubMed Central

    Vladimirskiy, Boris; Urbanczik, Robert; Senn, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Predictive coding has been previously introduced as a hierarchical coding framework for the visual system. At each level, activity predicted by the higher level is dynamically subtracted from the input, while the difference in activity continuously propagates further. Here we introduce modular predictive coding as a feedforward hierarchy of prediction modules without back-projections from higher to lower levels. Within each level, recurrent dynamics optimally segregates the input into novelty and familiarity components. Although the anatomical feedforward connectivity passes through the novelty-representing neurons, it is nevertheless the familiarity information which is propagated to higher levels. This modularity results in a twofold advantage compared to the original predictive coding scheme: the familiarity-novelty representation forms quickly, and at each level the full representational power is exploited for an optimized readout. As we show, natural images are successfully compressed and can be reconstructed by the familiarity neurons at each level. Missing information on different spatial scales is identified by novelty neurons and complements the familiarity representation. Furthermore, by virtue of the recurrent connectivity within each level, non-classical receptive field properties still emerge. Hence, modular predictive coding is a biologically realistic metaphor for the visual system that dynamically extracts novelty at various scales while propagating the familiarity information. PMID:26670700

  20. The pupillary response discriminates between subjective and objective familiarity and novelty.

    PubMed

    Kafkas, Alexandros; Montaldi, Daniela

    2015-10-01

    The pupil response discriminates between old and new stimuli, with old stimuli characterized by larger pupil dilation patterns than new stimuli. We sought to explore the cause of the pupil old/new effect and discount the effect of targetness, effort, recollection retrieval, and complexity of the recognition decision. Two experiments are reported in which the pupil response and the eye fixation patterns were measured, while participants identified novel and familiar object stimuli, in two separate tasks, emphasizing either novelty or familiarity detection. In Experiment 1, familiarity and novelty decisions were taken using a rating scale, while in Experiment 2 a simpler yes/no decision was used. In both experiments, we found that detection of target familiar stimuli resulted in greater pupil dilation than the detection of target novel stimuli, while the duration of the first fixation discriminated between familiar and novel stimuli as early as within 320 ms after stimulus onset. Importantly, the pupil response distinguished between the objective (during an earlier temporal component) and the subjective (during a later temporal component) status of the stimulus for misses and false alarms. In the light of previous findings, we suggest that the pupil and fixation old/new effects reflect the distinct neural and cognitive mechanisms involved in the familiarity and novelty decisions. The findings also have important implications for the use of pupil dilation and eye movement patterns to explore explicit and implicit memory processes. PMID:26174940

  1. Neural correlates of familiarity and conceptual fluency in a recognition test with ancient pictographic characters.

    PubMed

    Hou, Mingzhu; Safron, Adam; Paller, Ken A; Guo, Chunyan

    2013-06-26

    Familiarity and conceptual priming refer to distinct memory expressions and are subtypes of explicit memory and implicit memory, respectively. Given that the neural events that produce conceptual priming may in some cases promote familiarity, distinguishing between neural signals of these two types of memory may further our understanding of recognition memory mechanisms. Although FN400 event-related potentials observed during recognition tests have often been ascribed to familiarity, much evidence suggests that they should instead be ascribed to conceptual fluency. To help resolve this controversy, we studied potentials elicited by unrecognizable ancient Chinese characters. These stimuli were categorized as high or low in meaningfulness based on subjective ratings. Conceptual priming was produced exclusively by repetition of characters high in meaningfulness. During a recognition test in which recollection was discouraged, FN400 old-new effects were observed, and amplitudes of the FN400 potentials varied inversely with familiarity confidence. However, these effects were absent for old items given low meaningfulness ratings. For both high and low meaningfulness, late positive (LPC) potentials were found in old-new comparisons, and LPC amplitudes were greater when higher familiarity confidence was registered during the recognition test. These findings linked familiarity and conceptual fluency with different brain potentials - LPC and FN400, respectively - and provide additional evidence that explicit memory and implicit memory have distinct neural substrates. PMID:23632379

  2. Familiar Person Recognition: Is Autonoetic Consciousness More Likely to Accompany Face Recognition Than Voice Recognition?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsics, Catherine; Brédart, Serge

    2010-11-01

    Autonoetic consciousness is a fundamental property of human memory, enabling us to experience mental time travel, to recollect past events with a feeling of self-involvement, and to project ourselves in the future. Autonoetic consciousness is a characteristic of episodic memory. By contrast, awareness of the past associated with a mere feeling of familiarity or knowing relies on noetic consciousness, depending on semantic memory integrity. Present research was aimed at evaluating whether conscious recollection of episodic memories is more likely to occur following the recognition of a familiar face than following the recognition of a familiar voice. Recall of semantic information (biographical information) was also assessed. Previous studies that investigated the recall of biographical information following person recognition used faces and voices of famous people as stimuli. In this study, the participants were presented with personally familiar people's voices and faces, thus avoiding the presence of identity cues in the spoken extracts and allowing a stricter control of frequency exposure with both types of stimuli (voices and faces). In the present study, the rate of retrieved episodic memories, associated with autonoetic awareness, was significantly higher from familiar faces than familiar voices even though the level of overall recognition was similar for both these stimuli domains. The same pattern was observed regarding semantic information retrieval. These results and their implications for current Interactive Activation and Competition person recognition models are discussed.

  3. Laterality effects in normal subjects' recognition of familiar faces, voices and names. Perceptual and representational components.

    PubMed

    Gainotti, Guido

    2013-06-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that a different hemispheric specialization may exist for different modalities of person identification, with a prevalent right lateralization of the sensory-motor systems allowing face and voice recognition and a prevalent left lateralization of the name recognition system. Data supporting this claim concern, however, much more disorders of familiar people recognition observed in patients with focal brain lesions than results of experimental studies conducted in normal subjects. These last data are sparse and in part controversial, but are important from the theoretical point of view, because it is not clear if hemispheric asymmetries in the recognition of faces, voices and names are limited to their perceptual processing, or also extend to the domain of their cortical representations. The present review has tried to clarify this issues, taking into account investigations that have evaluated in normal subjects laterality effects in recognition of familiar names, faces and voices, by means of behavioural, neurophysiological and neuroimaging techniques. Results of this survey indicate that: (a) recognition of familiar faces and voices show a prevalent right lateralization, whereas recognition of familiar names is lateralized to the left hemisphere; (b) the right hemisphere prevalence is greater in tasks involving familiar than unfamiliar faces and voices, and the left hemisphere superiority is greater in the recognition of familiar than unfamiliar names. Taken together, these data suggest that hemispheric asymmetries in the recognition of faces, voices and names are not limited to their perceptual processing, but also extend to the domain of their cortical representations. PMID:23542500

  4. ERP correlates of source memory: Unitized source information increases familiarity-based retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Diana, Rachel A.; Van den Boom, Wijnand; Yonelinas, Andrew P.; Ranganath, Charan

    2011-01-01

    Source memory tests typically require subjects to make decisions about the context in which an item was encoded and are thought to depend on recollection of details from the study episode. Although it is generally believed that familiarity does not contribute to source memory, recent behavioral studies have suggested that familiarity may also support source recognition when item and source information are integrated, or “unitized”, during study (Diana, Yonelinas, and Ranganath 2008). However, an alternative explanation of these behavioral findings is that unitization affects the manner in which recollection contributes to performance, rather than increasing familiarity-based source memory. To discriminate between these possibilities, we conducted an event-related potential (ERP) study testing the hypothesis that unitization increases the contribution of familiarity to source recognition. Participants studied associations between words and background colors using tasks that either encouraged or discouraged unitization. ERPs were recorded during a source memory test for background color. The results revealed two distinct neural correlates of source recognition: a frontally-distributed positivity that was associated with familiarity-based source memory in the high unitization condition only and a parietally-distributed positivity that was associated with recollection-based source memory in both the high unitization and low unitization conditions. The ERP and behavioral findings provide converging evidence for the idea that familiarity can contribute to source recognition, particularly when source information is encoded as an item detail. PMID:20965154

  5. Recollection, not familiarity, decreases in healthy ageing: Converging evidence from four estimation methods.

    PubMed

    Koen, Joshua D; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that ageing is associated with recollection impairments, there is considerable disagreement surrounding how healthy ageing influences familiarity-based recognition. One factor that might contribute to the mixed findings regarding age differences in familiarity is the estimation method used to quantify the two mnemonic processes. Here, this issue is examined by having a group of older adults (N = 39) between 40 and 81 years of age complete remember/know (RK), receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) and process dissociation (PD) recognition tests. Estimates of recollection, but not familiarity, showed a significant negative correlation with chronological age. Inconsistent with previous findings, the estimation method did not moderate the relationship between age and estimates of recollection and familiarity. In a final analysis, recollection and familiarity were estimated as latent factors in a confirmatory factor analysis that modelled the covariance between measures of free recall and recognition, and the results converged with the results from the RK, PD and ROC tasks. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that episodic memory declines in older adults are primary driven by recollection deficits, and also suggest that the estimation method plays little to no role in age-related decreases in familiarity. PMID:25485974

  6. The Similarities (and Familiarities) of Pseudowords and Extremely High-Frequency Words: Examining a Familiarity-Based Explanation of the Pseudoword Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozubko, Jason D.; Joordens, Steve

    2011-01-01

    The pseudoword effect is the finding that pseudowords (i.e., rare words or pronounceable nonwords) give rise to more hits and false alarms than words. Using the retrieving effectively from memory (REM) model of recognition memory, we tested a familiarity-based account of the pseudoword effect: Specifically, the pseudoword effect arises because…

  7. Scent of the familiar: an fMRI study of canine brain responses to familiar and unfamiliar human and dog odors.

    PubMed

    Berns, Gregory S; Brooks, Andrew M; Spivak, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Understanding dogs' perceptual experience of both conspecifics and humans is important to understand how dogs evolved and the nature of their relationships with humans and other dogs. Olfaction is believed to be dogs' most powerful and perhaps important sense and an obvious place to begin for the study of social cognition of conspecifics and humans. We used fMRI in a cohort of dogs (N=12) that had been trained to remain motionless while unsedated and unrestrained in the MRI. By presenting scents from humans and conspecifics, we aimed to identify the dimensions of dogs' responses to salient biological odors - whether they are based on species (dog or human), familiarity, or a specific combination of factors. We focused our analysis on the dog's caudate nucleus because of its well-known association with positive expectations and because of its clearly defined anatomical location. We hypothesized that if dogs' primary association to reward, whether it is based on food or social bonds, is to humans, then the human scents would activate the caudate more than the conspecific scents. Conversely, if the smell of conspecifics activated the caudate more than the smell of humans, dogs' association to reward would be stronger to their fellow canines. Five scents were presented (self, familiar human, strange human, familiar dog, strange dog). While the olfactory bulb/peduncle was activated to a similar degree by all the scents, the caudate was activated maximally to the familiar human. Importantly, the scent of the familiar human was not the handler, meaning that the caudate response differentiated the scent in the absence of the person being present. The caudate activation suggested that not only did the dogs discriminate that scent from the others, they had a positive association with it. This speaks to the power of the dog's sense of smell, and it provides important clues about the importance of humans in dogs' lives. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Canine Behavior. PMID:24607363

  8. Dogs and their human companions: the effect of familiarity on dog-human interactions.

    PubMed

    Kerepesi, Andrea; Dóka, Antal; Miklósi, Ádám

    2015-01-01

    There are few quantitative examinations of the extent to which dogs discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar persons. In our study we have investigated whether dogs show differential behaviour towards humans of different degrees of familiarity (owner, familiar person, unfamiliar person). Dogs and humans were observed in eight test situations: (1) Three-way strange situation test, (2) Calling in from food, (3) Obedience test, (4) Walking away, (5) Threatening approach, (6) Playful interaction, (7) Food inhibition test and (8) Manipulation of the dog's body. Dogs distinguished between the owner and the two other test partners in those tests which involved separation from the owner (Test 1, 4), were aversive for the dog (Test 5) or involved playing interaction (Test 6). Our results revealed that the owner cannot be replaced by a familiar person in situations provoking elevated anxiety and fear. In contrasts, dogs did not discriminate between the owner and the familiar person in those tests that were based on obedient behaviour or behaviour towards an assertive person (Tests 2, 3, 7 and 8). Dogs' former training experience reduced the difference between their behaviour towards the owner and the familiar person in situations requiring obedience but it did not mask it totally. The dogs' behaviour towards each of the humans participating in the tests was consistent all over the test series. In summary, dogs discriminated between their owner and the unfamiliar person and always preferred the owner to the unfamiliar person. However, the discrimination between the owner and the familiar person is context-specific. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Canine Behavior. PMID:24548652

  9. [From the old headquarters of the Diretoria Geral de Saúde Pública (DGSP) to the Instituto Nacional do Câncer (Inca)].

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Tadeu Benedito

    2007-01-01

    The old headquarters of the Diretoria Geral de Saúde Pública (DGSP), located on Rua do Resende #128, and the Conjunto Arquitetônico Histórico de Manguinhos da Fiocruz (Manguinhos-Fiocruz Historical Architectural Complex) are contemporary buildings built by the initiative of Oswaldo Cruz and projects by Luiz Moraes Júnior. The old DGSP is as important as the so-called Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (IOC) then, now Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz) for the introduction and institucionalization of public health policies in Brasil. We describe the building project of the DGSP facilities, its evolution, transformations, and the process of becoming part of the Historic Heritage. PMID:17645147

  10. The Role of Issue Familiarity And Social Norms: Findings on New College Students’ Alcohol Use Intentions

    PubMed Central

    Rimal, Rajiv N.; Mollen, Saar

    2013-01-01

    Background Scholars in a variety of disciplines are interested in understanding the conditions under which social norms affect human behavior. Following the distinction made between descriptive and injunctive norms by the focus theory of normative conduct, the theory of normative social behavior predicts that the influence of descriptive norms on behavior is moderated by injunctive norms, outcome expectations, and group identity. We extended the theory by testing the proposition that the influence of descriptive norms on behavior would be greater under conditions of greater issue familiarity, defined as the ease with which one can cognitively access the behavior or behavioral issue. Design and Methods The model was tested in the domain of alcohol consumption intentions by conducting a survey among incoming students (n=719) to a large university in the United States. Data indicated that students in the sample were well representative of the university population. Results The influence of descriptive norms on behavioral intentions was moderated by issue familiarity, as predicted. Familiarity was a facilitator of behavior: the influence of descriptive norms on behavioral intentions was greater under conditions of high, rather than low, familiarity. The overall model explained 53% of the variance in alcohol consumption intentions. Conclusions Public health interventions promoting health behaviors need to take into account the extent to which the behaviors are familiar to the target audience. The influence of norms appears to be weaker when the behavior is unfamiliar or novel. Implications for theory and interventions for reducing alcohol consumption are discussed. PMID:25170478

  11. Recognition memory and the hippocampus: A test of the hippocampal contribution to recollection and familiarity

    PubMed Central

    Jeneson, Annette; Kirwan, C. Brock; Hopkins, Ramona O.; Wixted, John T.; Squire, Larry R.

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that the hippocampus selectively supports recollection and that adjacent cortex in the medial temporal lobe can support familiarity. Alternatively, it has been suggested that the hippocampus supports both recollection and familiarity. We tested these suggestions by assessing the performance of patients with hippocampal lesions on recognition memory tests that differ in the extent to which recollection and familiarity contribute to the recognition decision. When targets and foils are highly similar, prior evidence suggests that, on a forced-choice test in which targets are presented together with highly similar, corresponding foils (the FC-C format), performance is supported primarily by familiarity. By contrast, when targets are presented together with foils that are similar to other targets (the FC-NC format) or when memory is tested in a yes/no (Y/N) format, performance is based much more strongly on recollection. Accordingly, a finding that hippocampal damage impaired both Y/N recognition and FC-NC recognition but spared FC-C recognition would suggest that the hippocampus selectively supports recollection. We administered Y/N, FC-C, and FC-NC tests to five memory-impaired patients with circumscribed hippocampal lesions and 14 controls. The patients were impaired on all three types of recognition test, and there was no indication that the patients were disproportionately benefited or disproportionately impaired on any test. This pattern of performance suggests that the hippocampus supports both recollection and familiarity. PMID:20047986

  12. Motor synergies during manual tracking differ between familiar and unfamiliar trajectories.

    PubMed

    Borbély, Bence J; Straube, Andreas; Eggert, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Synergistic control of the effector space allows high precision in task-relevant degrees of freedom, while noise is limited to task-irrelevant degrees of freedom. The present study investigates whether this typical structure of the variance-covariance matrix of the joint angles during manual tracking differs between familiar and unfamiliar trajectories. Subjects tracked a target moving in 2D on a graphics tablet with a hand-held pen, while their arm movements were not restricted. Subjects familiarized themselves with one target trajectory during an initial training block with 40 periodic trials. In the following test block, this familiar trajectory and several unfamiliar trajectories were presented in a mixed-block design to study prediction effects at the level of endpoint and joint trajectories. The differences in the synergistic control of arm movements were analyzed using the "uncontrolled manifold method." The results showed smaller variances and weaker motor synergies during tracking of familiar trajectories than during tracking of unfamiliar trajectories. The decrease in the synergy index was due to a stronger decrease in the variance irrelevant than of the variance relevant for pen position. In the context of motor control theory, these results suggest that tracking movements on familiar and unfamiliar target trajectories do not only differ in the available knowledge about target location but also apply different strategies to control the effector space. PMID:24352608

  13. Hippocampal involvement in recollection but not familiarity across time: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Suchan, Boris; Gayk, Anna E; Schmid, Gebhard; Köster, Odo; Daum, Irene

    2008-01-01

    For medial temporal lobe (MTL) involvement in memory formation, it is as yet unclear whether the MTL represents a single or dual (recollection/familiarity) memory system. A further controversial issue is whether or not the hippocampus is critical for the familiarity component of recognition memory. The present prospective fMRI study aimed to investigate changes of MTL involvement in recollection and familiarity at three time points following new learning: immediately after encoding, after 3 weeks and after 6 weeks. Significant hippocampal activation was observed for recollection relative to correct rejection responses at all three intervals. In addition, a decrease of signal changes in the perirhinal cortex was observed for the familiarity versus correct rejection contrasts. These findings support the idea that the MTL is a dual memory system. They also indicate a lasting hippocampal involvement in the recollection component of recognition memory and a decrease of perirhinal cortex activation associated with familiarity for time periods up to 6 weeks after new learning. PMID:17932973

  14. Recognition of Familiar Individuals in Golden Hamsters: A New Method and Functional Neuroanatomy

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Wen-Sung; Ramiro, Leora-Leigh R.; Yu, Helena A.; Johnston, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to recognize individuals is essential for many aspects of social interaction and social organization, yet we know relatively little about the neural mechanisms underlying this ability. Most laboratory studies of individual recognition in rodents have studied differential responses to familiar versus unfamiliar individuals rather than differential responses to equally well known individuals having different significance for the subject. In experiment 1, we use a new method for studying true individual recognition in which male hamsters first had different experiences with two stimulus males (exposures to one male across a wire-mesh barrier and fights with another male). One day later, losers of fights were tested in a Y-maze for reactions to one of the two familiar males. Subjects tested with the familiar winner avoided this stimulus male, but subjects tested with the familiar, neutral male were attracted to him. Immunohistochemistry for c-Fos and Egr-1 implicate several areas of the brain in individual recognition, particularly the anterior piriform cortex, the CA1 and CA3 regions of anterior dorsal hippocampus, anterior and posterior dentate gyrus, and perirhinal cortex. In experiment 2, temporary inactivation of the CA1 region of anterior dorsal hippocampus by microinfusion of lidocaine eliminated the avoidance of the familiar winner, but a saline control injection had no effect. These results are the first to use a rodent model to characterize neural circuits involved in the recognition of equally well known individuals and the corresponding emotional responses to them. PMID:16339019

  15. Changes in sagittal plane kinematics with treadmill familiarization to barefoot running.

    PubMed

    Moore, Isabel S; Dixon, Sharon J

    2014-10-01

    Interest in barefoot running and research on barefoot running are growing. However a methodological issue surrounding investigations is how familiar the participants are with running barefoot. The aim of the study was to assess the amount of time required for habitually shod runners to become familiar with barefoot treadmill running. Twelve female recreational runners, who were experienced treadmill users, ran barefoot on a treadmill for three bouts, each bout consisting of 10 minutes at a self-selected speed with 5 minute rest periods. Sagittal plane kinematics of the hip, knee, ankle, and foot during stance were recorded during the first and last minute of each 10-minute bout. Strong reliability (ICC > .8) was shown in most variables after 20 minutes of running. In addition, there was a general trend for the smallest standard error of mean to occur during the same period. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in any of the biomechanical variables after 20 minutes of running. Together, this suggests that familiarization was achieved between 11 and 20 minutes of running barefoot on a treadmill. Familiarization was characterized by less plantar flexion and greater knee flexion at touchdown. These results indicate that adequate familiarization should be given in future studies before gait assessment of barefoot treadmill running. PMID:25010043

  16. The awareness of novelty for strangely familiar words: a laboratory analogue of the déjà vu experience

    PubMed Central

    Urquhart, Josephine A.

    2014-01-01

    Déjà vu is a nebulous memory experience defined by a clash between evaluations of familiarity and novelty for the same stimulus. We sought to generate it in the laboratory by pairing a DRM recognition task, which generates erroneous familiarity for critical words, with a monitoring task by which participants realise that some of these erroneously familiar words are in fact novel. We tested 30 participants in an experiment in which we varied both participant awareness of stimulus novelty and erroneous familiarity strength. We found that déjà vu reports were most frequent for high novelty critical words (?25%), with low novelty critical words yielding only baseline levels of déjà vu report frequency (?10%). There was no significant variation in déjà vu report frequency according to familiarity strength. Discursive accounts of the experimentally-generated déjà vu experience suggest that aspects of the naturalistic déjà vu experience were captured by this analogue, but that the analogue was also limited in its focus and prone to influence by demand characteristics. We discuss theoretical and methodological considerations relevant to further development of this procedure and propose that verifiable novelty is an important component of both naturalistic and experimental analogues of déjà vu. PMID:25401055

  17. Temporal dynamics of the face familiarity effect: bootstrap analysis of single-subject event-related potential data.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Prieto, Esther; Pancaroglu, Raika; Dalrymple, Kirsten A; Handy, Todd; Barton, Jason J S; Oruc, Ipek

    2015-07-01

    Prior event-related potential studies using group statistics within a priori selected time windows have yielded conflicting results about familiarity effects in face processing. Our goal was to evaluate the temporal dynamics of the familiarity effect at all time points at the single-subject level. Ten subjects were shown faces of anonymous people or celebrities. Individual results were analysed using a point-by-point bootstrap analysis. While familiarity effects were less consistent at later epochs, all subjects showed them between 130 and 195?ms in occipitotemporal electrodes. However, the relation between the time course of familiarity effects and the peak latency of the N170 was variable. We concluded that familiarity effects between 130 and 195?ms are robust and can be shown in single subjects. The variability of their relation to the timing of the N170 potential may lead to underestimation of familiarity effects in studies that use group-based statistics. PMID:26079680

  18. Familiarity from the configuration of objects in 3-dimensional space and its relation to déjà vu: a virtual reality investigation.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Anne M; Brown, Alan S; Sawyer, Benjamin D; Nomi, Jason S; Ajoku, Adaeze C; Ryals, Anthony J

    2012-06-01

    Déjà vu is the striking sense that the present situation feels familiar, alongside the realization that it has to be new. According to the Gestalt familiarity hypothesis, déjà vu results when the configuration of elements within a scene maps onto a configuration previously seen, but the previous scene fails to come to mind. We examined this using virtual reality (VR) technology. When a new immersive VR scene resembled a previously-viewed scene in its configuration but people failed to recall the previously-viewed scene, familiarity ratings and reports of déjà vu were indeed higher than for completely novel scenes. People also exhibited the contrasting sense of newness and of familiarity that is characteristic of déjà vu. Familiarity ratings and déjà vu reports among scenes recognized as new increased with increasing feature-match of a scene to one stored in memory, suggesting that feature-matching can produce familiarity and déjà vu when recall fails. PMID:22322010

  19. Memory variability is due to the contribution of recollection and familiarity, not to encoding variability

    PubMed Central

    Koen, Joshua D.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.

    2010-01-01

    It is well established that the memory strength of studied items is more variable than the strength of new items on tests of recognition memory, but the reason why this occurs is poorly understood. One account for this old item variance effect is based on single-process theory, which proposes that this effect is due to variability in how well items are initially encoded into memory (i.e., the encoding variability account). In contrast, dual-process theory argues that old items are more variable because they are influenced by both recollection and familiarity, whereas recognition of new items relies primarily on familiarity. The current study shows that increasing encoding variability did not increase old item variance, and that old item variance is directly related to the contribution of recollection. These results indicate that old item memory variability is due to the relative contribution of recollection and familiarity. PMID:20854009

  20. A new design concept of robotic interface for the improvement of user familiarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiroi, Y.; Nakano, E.; Takahashi, T.; Ito, A.; Kotani, K.; Takatsu, N.

    2005-12-01

    Familiarity is the crucial requirement for the human symbiosis robot. This paper presents a new concept of a robot avatar to increase familiarity of a care service robot. The robot avatar is a small robot mounted on a main robot and equipped with minimum function to play some gestures during task execution of the main robot. By looking at the avatar, user feels as if it is controlling the main robot. A prototype of the avatar (CHIRIS) is developed and installed to a service robot IRIS. Several psychological tests about the impression of IRIS were carried out using video. Test results showed that CHIRIS is effective to give more familiar impression to the users. It is also shown that CHIRS is useful to announce IRIS's following behavior to the user preliminarily.

  1. When does familiarity promote versus undermine interpersonal attraction? A proposed integrative model from erstwhile adversaries.

    PubMed

    Finkel, Eli J; Norton, Michael I; Reis, Harry T; Ariely, Dan; Caprariello, Peter A; Eastwick, Paul W; Frost, Jeana H; Maniaci, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    This article began as an adversarial collaboration between two groups of researchers with competing views on a longstanding question: Does familiarity promote or undermine interpersonal attraction? As we explored our respective positions, it became clear that the limitations of our conceptualizations of the familiarity-attraction link, as well as the limitations of prior research, were masking a set of higher order principles capable of integrating these diverse conceptualizations. This realization led us to adopt a broader perspective, which focuses on three distinct relationship stages-awareness, surface contact, and mutuality-and suggests that the influence of familiarity on attraction depends on both the nature and the stage of the relationship between perceivers and targets. This article introduces the framework that emerged from our discussions and suggests directions for research to investigate its validity. PMID:25910379

  2. Emergency Preparedness Education for Nurses: Core Competency Familiarity Measured Utilizing an Adapted Emergency Preparedness Information Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Georgino, Madeline M; Kress, Terri; Alexander, Sheila; Beach, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to measure trauma nurse improvement in familiarity with emergency preparedness and disaster response core competencies as originally defined by the Emergency Preparedness Information Questionnaire after a focused educational program. An adapted version of the Emergency Preparedness Information Questionnaire was utilized to measure familiarity of nurses with core competencies pertinent to first responder capabilities. This project utilized a pre- and postsurvey descriptive design and integrated education sessions into the preexisting, mandatory "Trauma Nurse Course" at large, level I trauma center. A total of 63 nurses completed the intervention during May and September 2014 sessions. Overall, all 8 competencies demonstrated significant (P < .001; 98% confidence interval) improvements in familiarity. In conclusion, this pilot quality improvement project demonstrated a unique approach to educating nurses to be more ready and comfortable when treating victims of a disaster. PMID:26352654

  3. The effects of familiarity and social hierarchy on group membership decisions in a social fish

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Lyndon A.; Wong, Marian Y. L.; Balshine, Sigal S.

    2010-01-01

    Members of animal groups face a trade-off between the benefits of remaining with a familiar group and the potential benefits of dispersing into a new group. Here, we examined the group membership decisions of Neolamprologus pulcher, a group-living cichlid. We found that subordinate helpers showed a preference for joining familiar groups, but when choosing between two unfamiliar groups, helpers did not preferentially join groups that maximized their social rank. Rather, helpers preferred groups containing larger, more dominant individuals, despite receiving significantly more aggression within these groups, possibly owing to increased protection from predation in such groups. These results suggest a complex decision process in N. pulcher when choosing among groups, dependent not only on familiarity but also on the social and life-history consequences of joining new groups. PMID:20007168

  4. Dissociable parietal regions facilitate successful retrieval of recently learned and personally familiar information.

    PubMed

    Elman, Jeremy A; Cohn-Sheehy, Brendan I; Shimamura, Arthur P

    2013-03-01

    In fMRI analyses, the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is particularly active during the successful retrieval of episodic memory. To delineate the neural correlates of episodic retrieval more succinctly, we compared retrieval of recently learned spatial locations (photographs of buildings) with retrieval of previously familiar locations (photographs of familiar campus buildings). Episodic retrieval of recently learned locations activated a circumscribed region within the ventral PPC (anterior angular gyrus and adjacent regions in the supramarginal gyrus) as well as medial PPC regions (posterior cingulated gyrus and posterior precuneus). Retrieval of familiar locations activated more posterior regions in the ventral PPC (posterior angular gyrus, LOC) and more anterior regions in the medial PPC (anterior precuneus and retrosplenial cortex). These dissociable effects define more precisely PPC regions involved in the retrieval of recent, contextually bound information as opposed to regions involved in other processes, such as visual imagery, scene reconstruction, and self-referential processing. PMID:23287568

  5. Role of familiarity in auditory discrimination of musical instrument: a laterality study.

    PubMed

    Paquette, C; Peretz, I

    1997-12-01

    Normal subjects were presented with dichotic pairs of sounds differing in pitch-timbre combination. Their task was to detect a fixed target sound that occurred randomly but equally often in the right and the left ear in two-thirds of the trials. Half the subjects performed this task with sounds produced by familiar natural instruments (violin, flute, guitar and drum), and the other subjects performed the same task but with the sounds played backwards, hence being less recognizable. Subjects were quicker and more accurate in discriminating forwards than backwards played sounds, hence exhibiting sensitivity to familiarity with musical instrument sounds. Recourse to this knowledge was, however, not associated to a shift in laterality. For both familiar and unfamiliar sounds, a robust left-ear advantage (LEA) was observed. PMID:9444470

  6. The human hippocampus contributes to both the recollection and familiarity components of recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Merkow, Maxwell B; Burke, John F; Kahana, Michael J

    2015-11-17

    Despite a substantial body of work comprising theoretical modeling, the effects of medial temporal lobe lesions, and electrophysiological signal analysis, the role of the hippocampus in recognition memory remains controversial. In particular, it is not known whether the hippocampus exclusively supports recollection or both recollection and familiarity-the two latent cognitive processes theorized to underlie recognition memory. We studied recognition memory in a large group of patients undergoing intracranial electroencephalographic (iEEG) monitoring for epilepsy. By measuring high-frequency activity (HFA)-a signal associated with precise spatiotemporal properties-we show that hippocampal activity during recognition predicted recognition memory performance and tracked both recollection and familiarity. Through the lens of dual-process models, these results indicate that the hippocampus supports both the recollection and familiarity processes. PMID:26578784

  7. Isolating the Contributions of Familiarity and Source Information to Item Recognition: A Time Course Analysis

    PubMed Central

    McElree, Brian; Dolan, Patrick O.; Jacoby, Larry L.

    2012-01-01

    Recognition memory may be mediated by the retrieval of distinct types of information, notably, a general assessment of familiarity and the recovery of specific source information. A response-signal speed–accuracy trade-off variant of an exclusion procedure was used to isolate the retrieval time course for familiarity and source information. In 2 experiments, participants studied spoken and read lists (with various numbers of presentations) and then performed an exclusion task, judging an item as old only if it was in the heard list. Dual-process fits of the time course data indicated that familiarity information typically is retrieved before source information. The implications that these data have for models of recognition, including dual-process and global memory models, are discussed. PMID:10368927

  8. Recognition of personally familiar faces and functional connectivity in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Kurth, Sophie; Moyse, Evelyne; Bahri, Mohamed A; Salmon, Eric; Bastin, Christine

    2015-06-01

    Studies have reported that patients in the severe stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) experience difficulties recognizing their own faces in recent photographs. Two case reports of late-stage AD showed that this loss of self-face recognition was temporally graded: photographs from the remote past were recognized more easily than more recent photographs. Little is known about the neural correlates of own face recognition abilities in AD patients, while neuroimaging studies in healthy adults have related these abilities to a bilateral fronto-parieto-occipital network. In this study, two behavioral experiments (experiments 1 and 2) and one functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment (second part of experiment 2) were conducted to compare mild AD patients (experiment 1) and moderate AD patients (experiment 2) with healthy older participants in a recognition task involving self and familiar faces from different decades of the participants' life. In moderate AD patients, variable performance allowed us to examine correlations between scores and resting-state fMRI in order to link behavioral data to cerebral activity. At the behavioral level, the results revealed that, in mild AD, self and familiar face recognition was preserved. Moreover, mild AD patients and healthy older participants showed an inverse temporal gradient, with faster recognition of self and familiar recent photographs than self and familiar remote photographs. However, in moderate AD, both self and familiar face recognition were affected. fMRI results showed that the higher the connectivity between the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dMPFC) and the right superior frontal gyrus (rSFG), the lower the self and familiar face recognition scores in moderate AD patients. Given that previous studies have related the superior frontal region to control processes rather than face recognition processes, these results might reflect less segregation and more interference between brain networks in AD. In other words, impaired face recognition in AD may be related to functional dedifferentiation of specific brain regions. PMID:25913061

  9. Affect and Cognition in Attitude Formation toward Familiar and Unfamiliar Attitude Objects

    PubMed Central

    van Giesen, Roxanne I.

    2015-01-01

    At large attitudes are built on earlier experience with the attitude object. If earlier experiences are not available, as is the case for unfamiliar attitude objects such as new technologies, no stored evaluations exist. Yet, people are still somehow able to construct attitudes on the spot. Depending on the familiarity of the attitude object, attitudes may find their basis more in affect or cognition. The current paper investigates differences in reliance on affect or cognition in attitude formation toward familiar and unfamiliar realistic attitude objects. In addition, individual differences in reliance on affect (high faith in intuition) or cognition (high need for cognition) are taken into account. In an experimental survey among Dutch consumers (N = 1870), we show that, for unfamiliar realistic attitude objects, people rely more on affect than cognition. For familiar attitude objects where both affective and cognitive evaluations are available, high need for cognition leads to more reliance on cognition, and high faith in intuition leads to more reliance on affect, reflecting the influence of individually preferred thinking style. For people with high need for cognition, cognition has a higher influence on overall attitude for both familiar and unfamiliar realistic attitude objects. On the other hand, affect is important for people with high faith in intuition for both familiar and unfamiliar attitude objects and for people with low faith in intuition for unfamiliar attitude objects; this shows that preferred thinking style is less influential for unfamiliar objects. By comparing attitude formation for familiar and unfamiliar realistic attitude objects, this research contributes to understanding situations in which affect or cognition is the better predictor of overall attitudes. PMID:26517876

  10. Implications of recent findings for current cognitive models of familiar people recognition.

    PubMed

    Gainotti, Guido

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present survey was to review clinical and experimental data concerning the visual (face), auditory (voice) and verbal (name) channels through which familiar people are recognized, by contrasting these data with assumptions made by modular cognitive models of familiar people recognition. Particular attention was paid to the fact that visual (face), auditory (voice) and verbal (name) recognition modalities have different hemispheric representations and that these asymmetries have important implications for cognitive models which have not considered hemispheric differences as an important variable in familiar people recognition. Several lines of research have, indeed, shown that familiar faces and voices are mainly underpinned by the right hemisphere, whereas names are mostly subsumed by the left hemisphere. Furthermore, anatomo-clinical data have shown that familiarity judgements are not generated at the level of the Person Identity Nodes (PINs), as suggested by influential cognitive models, but at the level of the modality-specific recognition units, with a right hemisphere dominance in the generation of face and voice familiarity feelings. Additionally, clinical and experimental data have shown that PINs should not be considered as a simple gateway to a unitary semantic system, which stores information about people in an abstract and amodal format, but as structures involved in the storage and retrieval of person-specific information, preferentially represented in a sensory-motor format in the right hemisphere and in a language-mediated format in the left hemisphere. Finally, clinical and experimental data have shown that before the level of the person identity nodes (PINs) a cross-communication exists between the perceptual channels concerning faces and voices, but not between the latter and personal names. These data show that person-specific representations are mainly based on perceptual (face and voice) information in the right hemisphere and on verbal information in the left hemisphere. PMID:26359717

  11. Perception of identity: Robust representation of familiar other-race faces despite natural variation in appearance.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaomei; Mondloch, Catherine

    2015-09-01

    The other-race effect (better recognition of own- compared to other-race faces) has been framed as a problem with discriminating among other-race identities. Another impairment in recognizing other-race faces is the ability to recognize the same identity across a set of images that incorporate natural variability in appearance (e.g., changes in expression, lighting conditions, head orientation), known as within-person variability. We recently reported that within-person variability affects identity perception more for unfamiliar other-race faces than unfamiliar own-race faces (Zhou, Laurence & Mondloch, 2014). In the current study we examined how within-person variability affects identity perception in familiar other-race faces (i.e., whether participants would mistake two images of the same other-race person as belonging to different people even when viewing photographs of familiar identities). Chinese participants (n=100) were given 40 images of two identities (20 images/model) and asked to sort them into piles according to identity such that each pile had all images of the same person. The two identities belonged to one of four categories: familiar own-race, familiar other-race, unfamiliar own-race, or unfamiliar other-race. There was a significant interaction between familiarity and race of faces, p = .007. When faces were unfamiliar, participants sorted photos into significantly more piles (i.e., perceived more identities) for other-race faces (M = 11.56) than for own-race faces (M = 7.28), p = .006. This own-race advantage was eliminated when the identities were familiar (Mean piles = 2.12 and 2.24 for own- and other-race faces respectively). We are currently replicating this finding by testing Caucasian participants (n=60) with Caucasian and African American faces that are either familiar (NBA players) or unfamiliar (College basketball players). Our study adds new evidence of a fundamental difference between familiar versus unfamiliar face recognition; the other-race effect is limited to unfamiliar faces. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26326390

  12. Uneasy money: the Instituto Carlos Slim de la Salud, tobacco philanthropy and conflict of interest in global health

    PubMed Central

    Burch, Tiffany; Wander, Nathaniel; Collin, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    In May 2007, the Instituto Carso de la Salud—now Instituto Carlos Slim de la Salud (ICSS)—was endowed with US$500 million to focus on priority health issues in Latin America, notably issues of ‘globalisation and non-communicable diseases’. ICSS was soon criticised, however, on the grounds that its funding was derived from tobacco industry profits and that its founder Carlos Slim Hélu remained an active industry principal. Collaboration with ICSS was said to run counter to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. The Institute's then Executive President Julio Frenk disputed these charges. This research employs an archive of tobacco industry documents triangulated with materials from commercial, media, regulatory and NGO sources to examine the financial relations between Slim and the tobacco industry. The paper analyses Slim's continuing service to the industry and role in ICSS. It demonstrates a prima facie conflict of interest between ICSS's health mission and its founder's involvement in cigarette manufacturing and marketing, reflected on ICSS's website as a resounding silence on issues of tobacco and health. It is concluded that the reliance of international health agencies upon the commercial sector requires more robust institutional policies to effectively regulate conflicts of interest. PMID:21088061

  13. Anxious Solitude across Contexts: Girls' Interactions with Familiar and Unfamiliar Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazelle, Heidi; Putallaz, Martha; Li, Yan; Grimes, Christina L.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.; Coie, John D.

    2005-01-01

    Cross-situational continuity and change in anxious solitary girls' behavior and peer relations were examined in interactions with familiar versus unfamiliar playmates. Fourth-grade girls (N=209, M age 9.77 years, half African American, half European American) were identified as anxious solitary or behaviorally normative using observed and…

  14. The Effects of Familiarization with Oral Expository Text on Listening and Reading Comprehension Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diakidoy, Irene-Anna N.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of text type and early familiarization with oral expository text structures on listening and reading comprehension levels. Second-grade students read and listened to narrative and expository texts, and their comprehension was assessed with a sentence verification task. Half of the students had participated in a…

  15. Diurnal Cortisol Profile in Williams Syndrome in Novel and Familiar Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lense, Miriam Diane; Tomarken, Andrew J.; Dykens, Elisabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder associated with high rates of anxiety and social issues. We examined diurnal cortisol, a biomarker of the stress response, in adults with WS in novel and familiar settings, and compared these profiles to typically developing (TD) adults. WS and TD participants had similar profiles in…

  16. Proceedings of the ICIP 2001, Oct. 2001 Thessaloniki, Greece VISUAL PERCEPTION IN FAMILIAR, COMPLEX TASKS

    E-print Network

    while they performed the familiar, complex task of hand-washing. Analysis revealed a novel perceptual in the hand-washing task, their frequency fell to less than 1% in a control experiment. We propose significant overt attentional resources. Perhaps a less obvious example is hand-washing. The ease with which

  17. Familiarity Breeds Contempt: Kangaroos Persistently Avoid Areas with Experimentally Deployed Dingo Scents

    E-print Network

    Blumstein, Daniel T.

    Familiarity Breeds Contempt: Kangaroos Persistently Avoid Areas with Experimentally Deployed Dingo scents (urine, feces) from a sympatric predator (Canis lupus dingo), along with a control (water with 40 ml of dingo urine, X = 986.7563.97 g food remained as compared to the tap water control, X = 209

  18. Differential effects of aging on the neural correlates of recollection and familiarity.

    PubMed

    Angel, Lucie; Bastin, Christine; Genon, Sarah; Balteau, Evelyne; Phillips, Christophe; Luxen, André; Maquet, Pierre; Salmon, Eric; Collette, Fabienne

    2013-06-01

    The present experiment aimed to investigate age differences in the neural correlates of familiarity and recollection, while keeping performance similar across age groups by varying task difficulty. Twenty young and 20 older adults performed an episodic memory task in an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) design. At encoding, participants were presented with pictures, either once or twice. Then, they performed a recognition task, with a Remember/Know paradigm. A similar performance was observed for the two groups in the Easy condition for recollection and in the Hard condition for familiarity. Imaging data revealed the classic recollection-related and familiarity-related networks, common to young and older groups. In addition, we observed that some activity related to recollection (left frontal, left temporal, left parietal cortices and left parahippocampus) and familiarity (bilateral anterior cingulate, right frontal gyrus and left superior temporal gyrus) was reduced in older compared to young adults. However, for recollection processes only, older adults additionally recruited the right precuneus, possibly to successfully compensate for their difficulties, as suggested by a positive correlation between recollection and precuneus activity. PMID:23206530

  19. Enhancing Negotiation of Meaning through Task Familiarity Using Subtitled Videos in an Online TBLL Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslanyilmaz, Abdurrahman; Pedersen, Susan

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the effects of task familiarity through the use of subtitled videos on negotiation of meaning in an online task-based language learning (TBLL) environment. It explores the amount of negotiation of meaning produced by non-native speakers (NNSs) aimed at improving input comprehension to enhance second language acquisition. Ten…

  20. New Uses for a Familiar Technology: Introducing Mobile Phone Polling in Large Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voelkel, Susanne; Bennett, Daimark

    2014-01-01

    We have introduced a real-time polling system to support student engagement and feedback in four large Level 1 and 2 modules in Biological Sciences. The audience response system makes use of a technology that is ubiquitous and familiar to the students. To participate, students send text messages using their mobile phones or send a message via…

  1. Cross-modal individual recognition in domestic horses (Equus caballus) extends to familiar humans.

    PubMed

    Proops, Leanne; McComb, Karen

    2012-08-22

    It has recently been shown that some non-human animals can cross-modally recognize members of their own taxon. What is unclear is just how plastic this recognition system can be. In this study, we investigate whether an animal, the domestic horse, is capable of spontaneous cross-modal recognition of individuals from a morphologically very different species. We also provide the first insights into how cross-modal identity information is processed by examining whether there are hemispheric biases in this important social skill. In our preferential looking paradigm, subjects were presented with two people and playbacks of their voices to determine whether they were able to match the voice with the person. When presented with familiar handlers subjects could match the specific familiar person with the correct familiar voice. Horses were significantly better at performing the matching task when the congruent person was standing on their right, indicating marked hemispheric specialization (left hemisphere bias) in this ability. These results are the first to demonstrate that cross-modal recognition in animals can extend to individuals from phylogenetically very distant species. They also indicate that processes governed by the left hemisphere are central to the cross-modal matching of visual and auditory information from familiar individuals in a naturalistic setting. PMID:22593108

  2. A set of 150 pictures with morphologically complex English compound names: Norms for name agreement, familiarity,

    E-print Network

    Caramazza, Alfonso

    A set of 150 pictures with morphologically complex English compound names: Norms for name agreement (percentage and H), familiarity, image agreement, and visual complexity norms, as well as frequency estimates for the whole compound word and its first and second constituents. These pictures and their corresponding norms

  3. "Epigenetics" has different meanings for different sci-entists. Molecular biologists are probably most familiar

    E-print Network

    Haig, David

    "Epigenetics" has different meanings for different sci- entists. Molecular biologists are probably most familiar with a definition of epigenetics as "the study of mitoti- cally and/or meiotically. 1996). For them, epigenetic mechanisms would include DNA methylation and his- tone modification

  4. Tolerance for distorted faces: challenges to a configural processing account of familiar face recognition.

    PubMed

    Sandford, Adam; Burton, A Mike

    2014-09-01

    Face recognition is widely held to rely on 'configural processing', an analysis of spatial relations between facial features. We present three experiments in which viewers were shown distorted faces, and asked to resize these to their correct shape. Based on configural theories appealing to metric distances between features, we reason that this should be an easier task for familiar than unfamiliar faces (whose subtle arrangements of features are unknown). In fact, participants were inaccurate at this task, making between 8% and 13% errors across experiments. Importantly, we observed no advantage for familiar faces: in one experiment participants were more accurate with unfamiliars, and in two experiments there was no difference. These findings were not due to general task difficulty - participants were able to resize blocks of colour to target shapes (squares) more accurately. We also found an advantage of familiarity for resizing other stimuli (brand logos). If configural processing does underlie face recognition, these results place constraints on the definition of 'configural'. Alternatively, familiar face recognition might rely on more complex criteria - based on tolerance to within-person variation rather than highly specific measurement. PMID:24853629

  5. Effects of prospective thinking on intertemporal choice: The role of familiarity.

    PubMed

    Sasse, Laura K; Peters, Jan; Büchel, Christian; Brassen, Stefanie

    2015-10-01

    Imagining future events while performing an intertemporal choice task can attenuate the devaluation of future rewards. Here, we investigated whether this effect and its neural basis depend on the degree of personal prior experience associated with the simulated future scenarios. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was combined with a modified intertemporal choice task in which the delayed options were either purely monetary, or linked with a social event. Subject-specific events differed regarding familiarity, that is, meeting a close, familiar person or a celebrity in a café. In line with recent hypotheses on episodic construction, the simulation of future familiar and unfamiliar events equally attenuated delay discounting behavior in comparison with the control condition and both were imagined with similar richness. Imaging data, however, indicate that these results rely on differential neural activation patterns. The hippocampus was particularly involved in the simulation of unfamiliar future scenarios, probably reflecting enhanced construction processes when personal experience with similar past events is lacking. Consequently, functional coupling of the hippocampus with neural valuation signals in the anterior cingulate cortex predicted the subjective value only of rewards offered in the unfamiliar context. In contrast, valuation of rewards in a familiar context was predicted by activation in key nodes of emotional and autobiographical memory retrieval and dynamically modulated by frontal-striatal connectivity. The present data emphasize that the mechanisms underlying neural valuation of prospective rewards largely depend on the pre-experience with the context in which they are offered. PMID:26219923

  6. Effects of Presentation Mode and Computer Familiarity on Summarization of Extended Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Guoxing

    2010-01-01

    Comparability studies on computer- and paper-based reading tests have focused on short texts and selected-response items via almost exclusively statistical modeling of test performance. The psychological effects of presentation mode and computer familiarity on individual students are under-researched. In this study, 157 students read extended…

  7. Brain Dynamics of Word Familiarization in 20-Month-Olds: Effects of Productive Vocabulary Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torkildsen, Janne von Koss; Hansen, Hanna Friis; Svangstu, Janne Mari; Smith, Lars; Simonsen, Hanne Gram; Moen, Inger; Lindgren, Magnus

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the brain mechanisms involved during young children's receptive familiarization with new words, and whether the dynamics of these mechanisms are related to the child's productive vocabulary size. To this end, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) from 20-month-old children in a pseudoword repetition task.…

  8. Topic Familiarity and Interlanguage Variation: A Study of the Impact of Interactional Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahimpour, Massoud; Hazar, Fatemeh

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study investigating the impact of interactional feedback on interlanguage variation in terms of accuracy, complexity, and fluency of learners' discourse in performing tasks with familiar vs. unfamiliar topics. The participant of the study who were randomly assigned into an experimental and a control group were…

  9. Improving Students' Familiarity with the Family and Consumer Sciences Body of Knowledge (FCS-BOK)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Jane; Williams-Wheeler, Meeshay; Lee, Sung-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Because the family and consumer sciences body of knowledge (FCS-BOK) is the framework for the profession, students' familiarity with the FCS-BOK has implications for the profession. Using pre- (N = 78) and posttest (N = 43) data from students enrolled in an "Introduction to Family and Consumer Sciences" (FCS 160) undergraduate student…

  10. Evidence for a Non-Lexical Influence on Children's Auditory Repetition of Familiar Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, Mary-Jane; Hanley, J. Richard; Nozari, Nazbanou

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines evidence for a nonlexical influence on children's repetition of real words. We investigate the extent to which two computational models of auditory repetition can simulate the performance of 68 children aged between 5 and 11 years-old when they are attempting to repeat familiar words. Both computational accounts were derived…

  11. Training Teachers Using Computers: A Process of Familiarization, Utilization, and Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yu-Mei

    2000-01-01

    The author introduced a three-phase training model into a yearlong inservice technology training program, field testing the model with a group of elementary school teachers. Strategies, tips and insights are shared regarding each phase of the following phases: "Familiarization: Getting Acquainted with the Computer Environment"; "Utilization: Using…

  12. Fiber Handling and Numerical Aperture Measurement To become familiar with fiber cleaving and the relation between

    E-print Network

    Collins, Gary S.

    the fiber. The fiber pieces should NOT go in the regular trash can as they are essentially glass shardsFiber Handling and Numerical Aperture Measurement Purpose: To become familiar with fiber cleaving · 16 7 socket/driver For the laser- HeNe laser short rod clamp (340C) laser mount for the fiber- · F

  13. Faces are special but not too special: spared face recognition in amnesia is based on familiarity.

    PubMed

    Aly, Mariam; Knight, Robert T; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2010-11-01

    Most current theories of human memory are material-general in the sense that they assume that the medial temporal lobe (MTL) is important for retrieving the details of prior events, regardless of the specific type of materials. Recent studies of amnesia have challenged the material-general assumption by suggesting that the MTL may be necessary for remembering words, but is not involved in remembering faces. We examined recognition memory for faces and words in a group of amnesic patients, which included hypoxic patients and patients with extensive left or right MTL lesions. Recognition confidence judgments were used to plot receiver operating characteristics (ROCs) in order to more fully quantify recognition performance and to estimate the contributions of recollection and familiarity. Consistent with the extant literature, an analysis of overall recognition accuracy showed that the patients were impaired at word memory but had spared face memory. However, the ROC analysis indicated that the patients were generally impaired at high confidence recognition responses for faces and words, and they exhibited significant recollection impairments for both types of materials. Familiarity for faces was preserved in all patients, but extensive left MTL damage impaired familiarity for words. These results show that face recognition may appear to be spared because performance tends to rely heavily on familiarity, a process that is relatively well preserved in amnesia. In addition, the findings challenge material-general theories of memory, and suggest that both material and process are important determinants of memory performance in amnesia. PMID:20833190

  14. Effects of Familiarity and Type of Encoding on Proofreading of Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilott, Maura; Chodorow, Martin; Thornton, Kendell C.

    2005-01-01

    A handful of studies have claimed that error detection is improved by a proofreader's prior encounter with the text to be scanned for errors. In these studies, however, the beneficial effect of text familiarity on proofreading has been obtained via surface encoding tasks (prior reading or proofreading). This raises the question of whether the…

  15. Mathematics Teachers' Familiarity with Standards and Their Instructional Practices: 1995 and 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burian-Fitzgerald, Marisa; McGrath, Daniel J.; Plisko, Valena

    2003-01-01

    Examined reports by mathematics teachers of their degree of familiarity with various standards and assessments, then compared these reports with teachers' reports of their instructional practices in the classroom. Teacher awareness of state curriculum guides and state assessments has increased since 1995. (SLD)

  16. Recognition Errors Suggest Fast Familiarity and Slow Recollection in Rhesus Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basile, Benjamin M.; Hampton, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    One influential model of recognition posits two underlying memory processes: recollection, which is detailed but relatively slow, and familiarity, which is quick but lacks detail. Most of the evidence for this dual-process model in nonhumans has come from analyses of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves in rats, but whether ROC analyses…

  17. Down Syndrome and Automatic Processing of Familiar and Unfamiliar Emotional Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales, Guadalupe E.; Lopez, Ernesto O.

    2010-01-01

    Participants with Down syndrome (DS) were required to participate in a face recognition experiment to recognize familiar (DS faces) and unfamiliar emotional faces (non DS faces), by using an affective priming paradigm. Pairs of emotional facial stimuli were presented (one face after another) with a short Stimulus Onset Asynchrony of 300…

  18. Novelty and Familiarity as Determinants of Infant Attention within the First Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Michael; And Others

    Three related experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of novel and familiar stimuli on infant attention. The procedure in each of the experiments was to place an infant before a matrix panel composed of six rows of six lights. Two patterns of lights were used to obtain the infants' fixation time: (1) a point pattern, a single…

  19. Acquiring Noun Plurals in Palestinian Arabic: Morphology, Familiarity, and Pattern Frequency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saiegh-Haddad, Elinor; Hadieh, Areen; Ravid, Dorit

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the acquisition of two morphological procedures of noun pluralization in Palestinian Arabic: "Sound Feminine Plural" (SFP) and "Broken Plural" (BP). We tested if noun pluralization was affected by (1) the type of morphological procedure, (2) the degree of familiarity with the singular noun stem, and (3) the frequency of plural…

  20. Perception Precedes Computation: Can Familiarity Preferences Explain Apparent Calculation by Human Babies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, David S.; Cocas, Laura A.

    2006-01-01

    Two studies of 5-month-old infants explored whether a phenomenon reported by K. Wynn (1992) reflects a familiarity preference instead of a mathematical competence. Experiment 1 was a conceptual replication of Wynn's study. When data were analyzed with the relatively liberal statistical approach used by Wynn, the original phenomenon was replicated.…

  1. Familiarity Does Indeed Promote Attraction in Live Interaction Harry T. Reis, Michael R. Maniaci,

    E-print Network

    Reber, Paul J.

    unacquainted same-sex persons interacted with each other for varying amounts of time. Findings strongly attracted they were to each other. Mediation analyses identified three processes that contribute--and attraction to other persons. Consistent with this definition, the familiarity effect on attraction

  2. Comparing Urban and Rural Perceptions of and Familiarity With the Management of

    E-print Network

    Lupi, Frank

    Articles Comparing Urban and Rural Perceptions of and Familiarity With the Management of Forest-groups to under- stand how the public perceives these trade-offs and examines differences between urban and rural the hypothesis that rural=urban views lie as expected along an anthropocentric­biocentric continuum. Keywords

  3. Constraints on View Combination: Effects of Self-Occlusion and Differences among Familiar and Novel Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong,Alan C.-N.; Hayward, William G.

    2005-01-01

    The use of multiple familiar views of objects to facilitate recognition of novel views has been addressed in a number of behavioral studies, but the results have not been conclusive. The present study was a comprehensive examination of view combination for different types of novel views (internal or external to the studied views) and different…

  4. Dissociable parietal regions facilitate successful retrieval of recently learned and personally familiar information

    E-print Network

    Shimamura, Arthur P.

    familiar information Jeremy A. Elman n , Brendan I. Cohn-Sheehy, Arthur P. Shimamura University of California, Berkeley, California a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 30 August 2012 Received: Posterior parietal cortex Episodic memory Autobiographical memory fMRI a b s t r a c t In fMRI analyses

  5. Vocal, gestural and locomotor responses of wild chimpanzees to familiar and unfamiliar intruders: a playback study

    E-print Network

    Vocal, gestural and locomotor responses of wild chimpanzees to familiar and unfamiliar intruders Andrews c Wild Chimpanzee Foundation/Centre Suisse de Recherches Scientifiques en Co^te d'Ivoire a r t i c West African chimpanzee xenophobia Wild chimpanzees can be dangerously violent against individuals

  6. Could Masked Conceptual Primes Increase Recollection? The Subtleties of Measuring Recollection and Familiarity in Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Jason R.; Henson, Richard N.

    2012-01-01

    We begin with a theoretical overview of the concepts of recollection and familiarity, focusing, in the spirit of this special issue, on the important contributions made by Andrew Mayes. In particular, we discuss the issue of when the generation of semantically-related information in response to a retrieval cue might be experienced as recollection…

  7. Disorders of representation and control in semantic cognition: Effects of familiarity, typicality, and specificity

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Timothy T.; Patterson, Karalyn; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    We present a case-series comparison of patients with cross-modal semantic impairments consequent on either (a) bilateral anterior temporal lobe atrophy in semantic dementia (SD) or (b) left-hemisphere fronto-parietal and/or posterior temporal stroke in semantic aphasia (SA). Both groups were assessed on a new test battery designed to measure how performance is influenced by concept familiarity, typicality and specificity. In line with previous findings, performance in SD was strongly modulated by all of these factors, with better performance for more familiar items (regardless of typicality), for more typical items (regardless of familiarity) and for tasks that did not require very specific classification, consistent with the gradual degradation of conceptual knowledge in SD. The SA group showed significant impairments on all tasks but their sensitivity to familiarity, typicality and specificity was more variable and governed by task-specific effects of these factors on controlled semantic processing. The results are discussed with reference to theories about the complementary roles of representation and manipulation of semantic knowledge. PMID:25934635

  8. Value-Centric Trust Model with Improved Familiarity Measurement Jie Zhang and Ali. A. Ghorbani

    E-print Network

    Ghorbani, Ali

    . It is observed that the stability is in- creased by 33.47% through the improved familiar- ity measurement. 1 with the agent aj can be calculated through the formula as follows: F0(ai, aj) = n max k=1 F(aj, ak)S(ai, ak) (k

  9. The Role of Familiarity in Daily Well-Being: Developmental and Cultural Variation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oishi, Shigehiro; Kurtz, Jaime L.; Miao, Felicity F.; Park, Jina; Whitchurch, Erin

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined life stage and cultural differences in the degree to which familiarity of one's physical location and interaction partner is associated with daily well-being. Participants reported all the activities they engaged in and how they felt during these activities on a previous day using the Day Reconstruction Method (Kahneman,…

  10. The Influence of Distracting Familiar Vocal Music on Cognitive Performance of Introverts and Extraverts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avila, Christina; Furnham, Adrian; McClelland, Alastair

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of familiar musical distractors on the cognitive performance of introverts and extraverts. Participants completed a verbal, numerical and logic test in three music conditions: vocal music, instrumental music and silence. It was predicted that introverts would perform worse with vocal music, better with…

  11. The Faculty of Engineering has a new dean, but one with a familiar face.

    E-print Network

    Shoubridge, Eric

    the earth's surface, providing the water to replenish aquifers, springs and wells. The groundwater footprint groundwater footprint. If you haven't heard that term yet, read on, because it soon could become as familiar as "carbon footprint." Groundwater, which originates in rain, snow or ice, collects or flows beneath

  12. The Influence of Test Familiarity and Student Disability Status upon Teachers' Judgments of Students' Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurwitz, Jason T.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Braden, Jeffery P.

    2007-01-01

    Two questions motivated this study: (a) Does test familiarity influence teachers' judgments of their students' test performance? and (b) Does the disability status of students influence their teachers' judgments? Teachers (n=19) judged item performances for one student with disabilities and one student without disabilities (n pairs=19) from their…

  13. Familiarizing Students with the Empirically Supported Treatment Approaches for Substance Abuse Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Victoria; Chambliss, Catherine

    When training counseling students, it is important to familiarize them with the clinical research literature exploring the efficacy of particular treatments. The bulk of the document is comprised of a review of empirically supported treatments (ESTs). ESTs or evidence-based treatments are grounded in studies recommended by the American…

  14. Selective Familiarity Deficits after Left Anterior Temporal-Lobe Removal with Hippocampal Sparing Are Material Specific

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Chris B.; Bowles, Ben; Mirsattari, Seyed M.; Kohler, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Research has firmly established a link between recognition memory and the functional integrity of the medial temporal lobes (MTL). Dual-process models of MTL organization maintain that there is a division of labour within the MTL, with the hippocampus (HC) supporting recollective processes and perirhinal cortex (PRc) supporting familiarity

  15. Responsibilities During Emergencies Faculty and Instructors: Be familiar with emergency procedures and evacuation

    E-print Network

    and evacuation routes and make sure your students are made aware of the procedures. Account for the students in your class. Supervisors: Be familiar with emergency procedures and evacuation routes and account for staff whereabouts. People with Disabilities: Develop an individual evacuation plan and inform your

  16. Language Learner Strategy by Chinese-Speaking EFL Readers When Comprehending Familiar and Unfamiliar Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jia-Ying

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the language learner and test-taking strategies used by Chinese-speaking graduate students when confronted with familiar versus unfamiliar topics in an English multiple-choice format reading comprehension test. Thirty-six participants at a large mid-western university performed three tasks: A content knowledge vocabulary…

  17. Electroencephalogram and Heart Rate Regulation to Familiar and Unfamiliar People in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hecke, Amy Vaughan; Lebow, Jocelyn; Bal, Elgiz; Lamb, Damon; Harden, Emily; Kramer, Alexis; Denver, John; Bazhenova, Olga; Porges, Stephen W.

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have examined whether familiarity of partner affects social responses in children with autism. This study investigated heart rate regulation (respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA]: The myelinated vagus nerve's regulation of heart rate) and temporal-parietal electroencephalogram (EEG) activity while nineteen 8- to 12-year-old children with…

  18. Beyond the Memory Mechanism: Person-Selective and Nonselective Processes in Recognition of Personally Familiar Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugiura, Motoaki; Mano, Yoko; Sasaki, Akihiro; Sadato, Norihiro

    2011-01-01

    Special processes recruited during the recognition of personally familiar people have been assumed to reflect the rich episodic and semantic information that selectively represents each person. However, the processes may also include person nonselective ones, which may require interpretation in terms beyond the memory mechanism. To examine this…

  19. The effect of novelty-familiarity levels on material reward preference of first-grade children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skidgell, Alan C.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Twenty first-grade children were given 28 trial tetrads, each of which included three single reward presentations followed by a test between two reward values. Results demonstrated that the experimentally controlled familiarization monotonically depressed the preference value of the high reward within trial tetrads, as well as across trials.…

  20. Studies of the Cognitive Representation of Spatial Relations: II. A Familiar Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Baird, John C.

    1979-01-01

    This experiment tested the ability of people to recall the locations of buildings in a familiar campus setting. Ten graduate students represented the relative locations of buildings by pairwise distance judgments and by direct mapping of locations on a Tektronix cathode ray terminal. Both methods led to accurate judgments. (Author/CTM)

  1. The effect of exercise-induced arousal on chosen tempi for familiar melodies.

    PubMed

    Jakubowski, Kelly; Halpern, Andrea R; Grierson, Mick; Stewart, Lauren

    2015-04-01

    Many previous studies have shown that arousal affects time perception, suggesting a direct influence of arousal on the speed of the pacemaker of the internal clock. However, it is unknown whether arousal influences the mental representation of tempo (speed) for highly familiar and complex stimuli, such as well-known melodies, that have long-term representations in memory. Previous research suggests that mental representations of the tempo of familiar melodies are stable over time; the aim of the present study was to investigate whether these representations can be systematically altered via an increase in physiological arousal. Participants adjusted the tempo of 14 familiar melodies in real time until they found a tempo that matched their internal representation of the appropriate tempo for that piece. The task was carried out before and after a physiologically arousing (exercise) or nonarousing (anagrams) manipulation. Participants completed this task both while hearing the melodies aloud and while imagining them. Chosen tempi increased significantly following exercise-induced arousal, regardless of whether a melody was heard aloud or imagined. These findings suggest that a change in internal clock speed affects temporal judgments even for highly familiar and complex stimuli such as music. PMID:25056004

  2. 14 CFR 91.505 - Familiarity with operating limitations and emergency equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Familiarity with operating limitations and emergency equipment. 91.505 Section 91.505 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Large and...

  3. Position Distinctiveness, Item Familiarity, and Presentation Frequency Affect Reconstruction of Order in Immediate Episodic Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Alice F.; Shea, Kathleen M.; Kole, James A.; Cunningham, Thomas F.

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments examined the effects of position distinctiveness, item familiarity, and frequency of presentation on serial position functions in a task involving reconstructing the order of a subset of 12 names in a list of 20 names. Three different serial position conditions were compared in which the subset of names occurred in Positions…

  4. Making the Familiar Strange: Creative Cultural Storytelling within the Communication Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blinne, Kristen C.

    2012-01-01

    In this activity, students employ mock campfire storytelling to "make the familiar strange" in the same spirit as Horace Miner's (1956) classic tale of the "Nacirema." Students work individually, in pairs, or as small groups (around three) to create a whimsical story that deconstructs a mundane, everyday ritual (event, activity, practice) into a…

  5. Medical School Students' Knowledge of and Familiarity with Visual Impairments: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Amy R.; Henzi, David L.

    2010-01-01

    A limited amount of research has been conducted on the knowledge of and familiarity with individuals with disabilities of medical students. There have been studies on these individuals' satisfaction with medical services and the accessibility of medical services to them, the role of health care providers in working with these individuals, and the…

  6. Multimedia Technologies and Familiar Spaces: 21st-Century Teaching for 21st-Century Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Judy; Cuper, Pru

    2008-01-01

    This article explores 21st century skills, nonlinear thinking skills, and the need for student reflection--which, taken together, serve as an essential foundation for digital-age teaching of today's hypertext learners. The authors discuss why preservice teachers need to use multimedia technologies within the context of students' familiar,…

  7. Effects of Multimodal Presentation and Stimulus Familiarity on Auditory and Visual Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Christopher W.; Sloutsky, Vladimir M.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments examined the effects of multimodal presentation and stimulus familiarity on auditory and visual processing. In Experiment 1, 10-month-olds were habituated to either an auditory stimulus, a visual stimulus, or an auditory-visual multimodal stimulus. Processing time was assessed during the habituation phase, and discrimination of…

  8. Introduction Most biologists are familiar with the idea that a kangaroo's hop is

    E-print Network

    Azizi, Manny

    353 Introduction Most biologists are familiar with the idea that a kangaroo's hop is powered). This mechanism is obvious to any observer, so much so that the kangaroo's hop has become the iconic image and molecular springs within the muscles themselves. Although they may not always be as obvious as a kangaroo

  9. Aesthetic Education in the Early Years: Exploring Familiar and Unfamiliar Personal-Cultural Landscapes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blank, Jolyn

    2012-01-01

    This article explores a double-bind in early schooling: a persistent value placed upon presenting multicultural art forms to a child constructed as incapable of grasping what is not familiar. The author argues that this bind is situated within dominant developmental discourses that emphasize the appropriateness of concrete and sequential…

  10. Direct Familiarity Does Not Alter Mating Preference for Sisters in Male Pelvicachromis taeniatus (Cichlidae)

    E-print Network

    : Frommen & Bakker 2006; Gerlach & Lysiak 2006; birds: Nakagawa & Waas 2004; humans: Wolf 2004; Lieberman et al. 2007). However, the specific mechanisms of kin rec- ognition are still disputed and probably evolved which are not based on direct but on indirect familiarity (phenotype matching). During phenotype

  11. The Effect of Processing Fluency on Impressions of Familiarity and Liking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerman, Deanne L.; Lanska, Meredith; Olds, Justin M.

    2015-01-01

    Processing fluency has been shown to have wide-ranging effects on disparate evaluative judgments, including judgments of liking and familiarity. One account of such effects is the hedonic marking hypothesis (Winkielman, Schwarz, Fazendeiro, & Reber, 2003), which posits that fluency is directly linked to affective preferences via a positive…

  12. The Persistence of Erroneous Familiarity in an Epileptic Male: Challenging Perceptual Theories of Deja Vu Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Akira R.; Moulin, Christopher J. A.

    2008-01-01

    We report the case of a 39-year-old, temporal lobe epileptic male, MH. Prior to complex partial seizure, experienced up to three times a day, MH often experiences an aura experienced as a persistent sensation of deja vu. Data-driven theories of deja vu formation suggest that partial familiarity for the perceived stimulus is responsible for the…

  13. Perceptual Asymmetries Are Preserved in Memory for Highly Familiar Faces of Self and Friend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, N.; Campbell, M.; Flaherty, M.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the effect of familiarity on people's perception of facial likeness by asking participants to choose which of two mirror-symmetric chimeric images (made from the left or right half of a photograph of a face) looked more like an original image. In separate trials the participants made this judgment for their own face and for the…

  14. Familiarization effects for bilingual letter detection involving translation or exact text repetition.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Holly Krech; Healy, Alice F; Greenberg, Seth N

    2007-12-01

    In two experiments, English-Spanish bilinguals read passages, performing letter detection on some passages by circling target letters as they read. Detection passages were sometimes familiarized (primed) by prior reading of the same passage or a translation of it. Participants detected letters in English passages in Experiment 1 and in Spanish passages in Experiment 2. For both experiments, a missing letter effect occurred (depressed detection accuracy on frequent function words relative to less frequent content words). Familiarization promoted overall improvements in letter detection only for English passages, suggesting that reprocessing benefits depend on high language fluency. For Spanish passages, cognates engendered greater error rates than noncognates; the visual similarity of Spanish and English cognates apparently enabled faster identification of Spanish cognates in a way unaffected by familiarization of the whole text passage. Priming by familiarized text was significantly higher when the passages were in the same language than when they were in different languages, suggesting that the reprocessing benefits are at the word level instead of the semantic level. These results are consistent with the GO model of reading (Greenberg, Healy, Koriat, & Kreiner, 2004) but require an expanded consideration of attention redistribution processes in that model. PMID:18266506

  15. Presencia del sainete en el teatro argentino de las últimas décadas

    E-print Network

    Pellettieri, Osvaldo

    1986-10-01

    Ordaz,17 Marta Lena Paz,18 Tulio Carella 19 y el grupo de Susana Marco,20 entre otros. Especialmente en los últimos tiempos, la crítica le ha otorgado una significa ción más amplia, lo ha identifacado temática y estructuralmente y hasta ha tratado de..., 208-212. 2. Eva Golluscio de Montoya ha tratado con propiedad este tema en "Innovación dentro de la tradición escénica rioplatense: El caso de Nemesio Trejo," Boletín del Instituto de Teatro 4 (Buenos Aires) (1984): 119-140. En este sentido también...

  16. Familiarization, Attention, and Recognition Memory in Infancy: An Event-Related Potential and Cortical Source Localization Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Greg D.; Richards, John E.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of familiarization and attention on event-related potential (ERP) correlates of recognition memory in infants. Infants 4.5, 6, or 7.5 months of age were either familiarized with 2 stimuli that were used during later testing or presented 2 stimuli that were not used later. Then, infants were presented with a…

  17. The Effects of Orthographic Transparency and Familiarity on Reading Hebrew Words in Adults with and without Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yael, Weiss; Tami, Katzir; Tali, Bitan

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the effects of transparency and familiarity on word recognition in adult Hebrew dyslexic readers with a phonological processing deficit as compared to typical readers. We measured oral reading response time and accuracy of single nouns in several conditions: diacritics that provide transparent but less familiar

  18. Mechanisms of Visual Object Recognition in Infancy: Five-Month-Olds Generalize beyond the Interpolation of Familiar Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mash, Clay; Arterberry, Martha E.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2007-01-01

    This work examined predictions of the interpolation of familiar views (IFV) account of object recognition performance in 5-month-olds. Infants were familiarized to an object either from a single viewpoint or from multiple viewpoints varying in rotation around a single axis. Object recognition was then tested in both conditions with the same object…

  19. Rugby versus Soccer in South Africa: Content Familiarity Contributes to Cross-Cultural Differences in Cognitive Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malda, Maike; van de Vijver, Fons J. R.; Temane, Q. Michael

    2010-01-01

    In this study, cross-cultural differences in cognitive test scores are hypothesized to depend on a test's cultural complexity (Cultural Complexity Hypothesis: CCH), here conceptualized as its content familiarity, rather than on its cognitive complexity (Spearman's Hypothesis: SH). The content familiarity of tests assessing short-term memory,…

  20. 45 CFR 1182.16 - Procedures to ensure that Institute employees involved with its systems of records are familiar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...employees involved with its systems of records are familiar with...HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES IMPLEMENTATION OF...employees involved with its systems of records are familiar with...maintenance of any Institute system are informed of all...

  1. 45 CFR 1182.16 - Procedures to ensure that Institute employees involved with its systems of records are familiar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...employees involved with its systems of records are familiar with...HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES IMPLEMENTATION OF...employees involved with its systems of records are familiar with...maintenance of any Institute system are informed of all...

  2. 45 CFR 1182.16 - Procedures to ensure that Institute employees involved with its systems of records are familiar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...employees involved with its systems of records are familiar with...HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES IMPLEMENTATION OF...employees involved with its systems of records are familiar with...maintenance of any Institute system are informed of all...

  3. 45 CFR 1182.16 - Procedures to ensure that Institute employees involved with its systems of records are familiar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...employees involved with its systems of records are familiar with...HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES IMPLEMENTATION OF...employees involved with its systems of records are familiar with...maintenance of any Institute system are informed of all...

  4. 45 CFR 1182.16 - Procedures to ensure that Institute employees involved with its systems of records are familiar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...employees involved with its systems of records are familiar with...HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES IMPLEMENTATION OF...employees involved with its systems of records are familiar with...maintenance of any Institute system are informed of all...

  5. Deja Vu in Unilateral Temporal-Lobe Epilepsy Is Associated with Selective Familiarity Impairments on Experimental Tasks of Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Chris B.; Mirsattari, Seyed M.; Pruessner, Jens C.; Pietrantonio, Sandra; Burneo, Jorge G.; Hayman-Abello, Brent; Kohler, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    In deja vu, a phenomenological impression of familiarity for the current visual environment is experienced with a sense that it should in fact not feel familiar. The fleeting nature of this phenomenon in daily life, and the difficulty in developing experimental paradigms to elicit it, has hindered progress in understanding deja vu. Some…

  6. Familiar Verbs Are Not Always Easier than Novel Verbs: How German Pre-School Children Comprehend Active and Passive Sentences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittmar, Miriam; Abbot-Smith, Kirsten; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Many studies show a developmental advantage for transitive sentences with familiar verbs over those with novel verbs. It might be that once familiar verbs become entrenched in particular constructions, they would be more difficult to understand (than would novel verbs) in non-prototypical constructions. We provide support for this hypothesis…

  7. Familiarity and Recollection Produce Distinct Eye Movement, Pupil and Medial Temporal Lobe Responses when Memory Strength Is Matched

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kafkas, Alexandros; Montaldi, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments explored eye measures (fixations and pupil response patterns) and brain responses (BOLD) accompanying the recognition of visual object stimuli based on familiarity and recollection. In both experiments, the use of a modified remember/know procedure led to high confidence and matched accuracy levels characterising strong familiarity

  8. Many Roads Lead to Recognition: Electrophysiological Correlates of Familiarity Derived from Short-Term Masked Repetition Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Heather D.; Taylor, Jason R.; Henson, Richard N.; Paller, Ken A.

    2012-01-01

    The neural mechanisms that underlie familiarity memory have been extensively investigated, but a consensus understanding remains elusive. Behavioral evidence suggests that familiarity sometimes shares sources with instances of implicit memory known as priming, in that the same increases in processing fluency that give rise to priming can engender…

  9. Differential effects of stress-induced cortisol responses on recollection and familiarity-based recognition memory.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Andrew M; Ritchey, Maureen; Ranganath, Charan; Yonelinas, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    Stress-induced changes in cortisol can impact memory in various ways. However, the precise relationship between cortisol and recognition memory is still poorly understood. For instance, there is reason to believe that stress could differentially affect recollection-based memory, which depends on the hippocampus, and familiarity-based recognition, which can be supported by neocortical areas alone. Accordingly, in the current study we examined the effects of stress-related changes in cortisol on the processes underlying recognition memory. Stress was induced with a cold-pressor test after incidental encoding of emotional and neutral pictures, and recollection and familiarity-based recognition memory were measured one day later. The relationship between stress-induced cortisol responses and recollection was non-monotonic, such that subjects with moderate stress-related increases in cortisol had the highest levels of recollection. In contrast, stress-related cortisol responses were linearly related to increases in familiarity. In addition, measures of cortisol taken at the onset of the experiment showed that individuals with higher levels of pre-learning cortisol had lower levels of both recollection and familiarity. The results are consistent with the proposition that hippocampal-dependent memory processes such as recollection function optimally under moderate levels of stress, whereas more cortically-based processes such as familiarity are enhanced even with higher levels of stress. These results indicate that whether post-encoding stress improves or disrupts recognition memory depends on the specific memory process examined as well as the magnitude of the stress-induced cortisol response. PMID:25930175

  10. The effects of item familiarity on the neural correlates of successful associative memory encoding.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Nancy A; Turney, Indira C; Webb, Christina E; Overman, Amy A

    2015-12-01

    Associative memory is considered to be resource-demanding, requiring individuals to learn individual items and the specific relationships between those items. Previous research has shown that prior studying of items aids in associative memory for pairs composed of those same items, as compared to pairs of items that have not been prelearned (e.g., Kilb & Naveh-Benjamin, 2011). In the present study, we sought to elucidate the neural correlates mediating this memory facilitation. After being trained on individual items, participants were scanned while encoding item pairs composed of items from the pretrained phase (familiarized-item pairs) and pairs whose items had not been previously learned (unfamiliarized-item pairs). Consistent with previous findings, the overall subsequent recollection showed the engagement of bilateral parahippocampal gyrus (PHG) and hippocampus, when compared to subsequent forgetting. However, a direct comparison between familiarized- and unfamiliarized-item pairs showed that subsequently recollected familiarized-item pairs were associated with decreased activity across much of the encoding network, including bilateral PHG, hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and regions associated with item-specific processing within occipital cortex. Increased activity for familiarized-item pairs was found in a more limited set of regions, including bilateral parietal cortex, which has been associated with the formation of novel associations. Additionally, activity in the right parietal cortex correlated with associative memory success in the familiarized condition. Taken together, these results suggest that prior exposure to items can reduce the demands incurred on neural processing throughout the associative encoding network and can enhance associative memory performance by focusing resources within regions supporting the formation of associative links. PMID:25939781

  11. Self-testing produces superior recall of both familiar and unfamiliar muscle information.

    PubMed

    Dobson, John L; Linderholm, Tracy; Yarbrough, Mary Beth

    2015-12-01

    Dozens of studies have found learning strategies based on the "testing effect" promote greater recall than those that rely solely on reading; however, the advantages of testing are often only observed after a delay (e.g., 2-7 days later). In contrast, our research, which has focused on kinesiology students learning kinesiology information that is generally familiar to them, has consistently demonstrated that testing-based strategies produce greater recall both immediately and after a delay. In an attempt to understand the discrepancies in the literature, the purpose of the present study was to determine if the time-related advantages of a testing-based learning strategy vary with one's familiarity with the to-be-learned information. Participants used both read-only and testing-based strategies to repeatedly study three different sets of information: 1) previously studied human muscle information (familiar information), 2) a mix of previously studied and previously unstudied human muscle information (mixed information), and 3) previously unstudied muscle information that is unique to sharks (unfamiliar information). Learning was evaluated via free recall assessments administered immediately after studying and again after a 1-wk delay and a 3-wk delay. Across those three assessments, the read-only strategy resulted in mean scores of 29.26 ± 1.43, 15.17 ± 1.29, and 5.33 ± 0.77 for the familiar, mixed, and unfamiliar information, respectively, whereas the testing-based strategy produced scores of 34.57 ± 1.58, 16.90 ± 1.31, and 8.33 ± 0.95, respectively. The results indicate that the testing-based strategy produced greater recall immediately and up through the 3-wk delay regardless of the participants' level of familiarity with the muscle information. PMID:26628653

  12. Neural Correlates of Metaphor Processing: The Roles of Figurativeness, Familiarity and Difficulty

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Gwenda L.; Seger, Carol A.

    2009-01-01

    There is currently much interest in investigating the neural substrates of metaphor processing. In particular, it has been suggested that the right hemisphere plays a special role in the comprehension of figurative (non-literal) language, and in particular metaphors. However, some studies find no evidence of right hemisphere involvement in metaphor comprehension (e.g. Lee & Dapretto, 2006; Rapp et al., 2004). We suggest that lateralization differences between literal and metaphorical language may be due to factors such as differences in familiarity (Schmidt et al., 2007), or difficulty (Bookheimer, 2002; Rapp et al., 2004) in addition to figurativeness. The purpose of this study was to separate the effects of figurativeness, familiarity, and difficulty on the recruitment of neural systems involved in language, in particular right hemisphere mechanisms. This was achieved by comparing neural activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) between four conditions: literal sentences, familiar and easy to understand metaphors, unfamiliar and easy to understand metaphors, and unfamiliar and difficult to understand metaphors. Metaphors recruited the right insula, left temporal pole and right inferior frontal gyrus in comparison with literal sentences. Familiar metaphors recruited the right middle frontal gyrus when contrasted with unfamiliar metaphors. Easy metaphors showed higher activation in the left middle frontal gyrus as compared to difficult metaphors, while difficult metaphors showed selective activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus as compared to easy metaphors. We conclude that the right hemisphere is involved in metaphor processing and that the factors of figurativeness, familiarity and difficulty are important in determining neural recruitment of semantic processing. PMID:19586700

  13. Attentional biases towards familiar and unfamiliar foods in children. The role of food neophobia.

    PubMed

    Maratos, Frances A; Staples, Paul

    2015-08-01

    Familiarity of food stimuli is one factor that has been proposed to explain food preferences and food neophobia in children, with some research suggesting that food neophobia (and familiarity) is at first a predominant of the visual domain. Considering visual attentional biases are a key factor implicated in a majority of fear-related phobias/anxieties, the purpose of this research was to investigate attentional biases to familiar and unfamiliar fruit and vegetables in 8 to 11 year old children with differing levels of food neophobia. To this end, 70 primary aged children completed a visual-probe task measuring attentional biases towards familiar and unfamiliar fruit/vegetables, as well as the food neophobia, general neophobia and willingness to try self-report measures. Results revealed that as an undifferentiated population all children appeared to demonstrate an attentional bias towards the unfamiliar fruit and vegetable stimuli. However, when considering food neophobia, this bias was significantly exaggerated for children self-reporting high food neophobia and negligible for children self-reporting low food neophobia. In addition, willingness to try the food stimuli was inversely correlated with attentional bias towards the unfamiliar fruits/vegetables. Our results demonstrate that visual aspects of food stimuli (e.g. familiarity) play an important role in childhood food neophobia. This study provides the first empirical test of recent theory/models of food neophobia (e.g. Brown & Harris, 2012). Findings are discussed in light of these models and related anxiety models, along with implications concerning the treatment of childhood food neophobia. PMID:25862982

  14. Neural substrates for semantic memory of familiar songs: is there an interface between lyrics and melodies?

    PubMed

    Saito, Yoko; Ishii, Kenji; Sakuma, Naoko; Kawasaki, Keiichi; Oda, Keiichi; Mizusawa, Hidehiro

    2012-01-01

    Findings on song perception and song production have increasingly suggested that common but partially distinct neural networks exist for processing lyrics and melody. However, the neural substrates of song recognition remain to be investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the neural substrates involved in the accessing "song lexicon" as corresponding to a representational system that might provide links between the musical and phonological lexicons using positron emission tomography (PET). We exposed participants to auditory stimuli consisting of familiar and unfamiliar songs presented in three ways: sung lyrics (song), sung lyrics on a single pitch (lyrics), and the sung syllable 'la' on original pitches (melody). The auditory stimuli were designed to have equivalent familiarity to participants, and they were recorded at exactly the same tempo. Eleven right-handed nonmusicians participated in four conditions: three familiarity decision tasks using song, lyrics, and melody and a sound type decision task (control) that was designed to engage perceptual and prelexical processing but not lexical processing. The contrasts (familiarity decision tasks versus control) showed no common areas of activation between lyrics and melody. This result indicates that essentially separate neural networks exist in semantic memory for the verbal and melodic processing of familiar songs. Verbal lexical processing recruited the left fusiform gyrus and the left inferior occipital gyrus, whereas melodic lexical processing engaged the right middle temporal sulcus and the bilateral temporo-occipital cortices. Moreover, we found that song specifically activated the left posterior inferior temporal cortex, which may serve as an interface between verbal and musical representations in order to facilitate song recognition. PMID:23029492

  15. Avoidance of interspecific mating in female Syrian hamsters is stronger toward familiar than toward unfamiliar heterospecific males.

    PubMed

    delBarco-Trillo, Javier; Johnston, Robert E

    2011-09-01

    Adult Syrian hamster females (Mesocricetus auratus) learn to discriminate against familiar heterospecific males (Turkish hamster, M. brandti). We investigated whether females learn to avoid any heterospecific male after exposure to just one heterospecific male. We predicted that, after being exposed to one heterospecific male, a female would avoid mating not only with that familiar male but also with any unfamiliar heterospecific male. We exposed females to a heterospecific male across a wire-mesh barrier for 8 days and then paired the female with (a) that same heterospecific male or (b) an unfamiliar heterospecific male. Females exhibited lordosis faster and for a longer duration toward the unfamiliar than toward the familiar heterospecific male. However, females were similarly aggressive toward familiar and unfamiliar heterospecific males. Perhaps exposure to stimuli from several heterospecific males (a likely scenario in the wild) would result in females behaving similarly toward familiar and unfamiliar heterospecific males. PMID:21347669

  16. [Institutional renovation and scientific modernization: the creation of the Instituto de Investigaciones Hematológicas during the mid-1950s].

    PubMed

    Buschini, José

    2013-12-01

    Using documentary sources, this work analyzes the creation and initial functioning of the Instituto de Investigaciones Hematológicas (Institute of Hematological Research) of the National Academy of Medicine (Buenos Aires, Argentina) in the context of the scientific modernization initiated within the country during the mid-1950s. Particular attention is paid to the generation of material bases and institutional and cultural mechanisms for the development of scientific research and of clinical practices guided by procedures and techniques rooted in the basic sciences. The formation and development of a research school in the Experimental Leukemia Section of the institute is explored as a case illustrative of the effective consolidation of initiatives oriented towards the organization of a scientific center. PMID:24500546

  17. Dual hidden landscapes in Anderson localization on discrete lattices Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, 57072-970 Maceio, AL, Brazil

    E-print Network

    Mayboroda, Svitlana

    Dual hidden landscapes in Anderson localization on discrete lattices M.L.Lyra Instituto de F in continuous disordered media have been recently demon- strated to be governed by a hidden landscape localization confinement is determined by this landscape, and continuously decreases as the energy increases

  18. Reactivity to fearful expressions of familiar and unfamiliar people in children with autism: an eye-tracking pupillometry study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Individuals with autism are often reported to have difficulty with emotion processing. However, clinical and experimental data show that they are sensitive to familiarity; for example, they show normative attachment to familiar people, and have normative brain activity in response to familiar faces. To date, no study has measured their reactivity to the emotions of familiar vs. unfamiliar people. Thus, our aim was to determine whether individuals with autism would show normative reactivity to emotion in familiar people. Methods Participants were 21 children with autism and 21 children with typical development, aged two to five years, matched on age and gender. The children observed videos of familiar people (their child-care teachers) and unfamiliar people expressing fear, whilst their visual attention and pupillary reactions were recorded (the latter as an index of emotional reactivity), using eye tracking technology. Results The children with autism showed normative pupillary reactions (peak magnitude) to fear expressed by familiar people, but a reduced response to fear expressed by unfamiliar people. However, across familiarity conditions, the children with autism had longer latency peak responses than the typically developing children. This pattern of findings was independent of cognitive factors or visual attention as visual attention by group was not related to familiarity condition. The children with autism had reduced visual attention to neutral faces; however, on fearful faces there were no group differences. Abnormalities in pupillary reactivity in the autism group were related to less prosocial behaviour and more severe play and communication deficits. Conclusions Children with autism were less atypical in their responses to fearful expressions of people they know, arguing against a pervasive emotional impairment in autism, but rather one that may be mediated by familiarity. PMID:24982695

  19. Many roads lead to recognition: Electrophysiological correlates of familiarity derived from short-term masked repetition priming

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Heather D.; Taylor, Jason R.; Henson, Richard N.; Paller, Ken A.

    2015-01-01

    The neural mechanisms that underlie familiarity memory have been extensively investigated, but a consensus understanding remains elusive. Behavioral evidence suggests that familiarity sometimes shares sources with instances of implicit memory known as priming, in that the same increases in processing fluency that give rise to priming can engender familiarity. One underappreciated implication of this account is that patterns of neural activity that appear to index familiarity in a generic sense may instead reflect fluency-related precursors of recognition. In a novel illustration of this principle, we examined brain potentials during recognition tests for visual words. In two experiments, fluency was selectively enhanced for half of the test cues via masked repetition priming. Replicating previous findings, the proportion of words endorsed as “old” was greater for words immediately preceded by a matching masked word versus an unrelated one. In addition, N400 potentials were more positive for test cues preceded by matching versus unrelated masked words. Similar N400 differences were observed when false alarms were compared to correct rejections for the subset of unstudied words that were preceded by matching masked words. These N400 effects were topographically dissociable from other potentials that correlated with familiarity for studied words. We conclude that experiences of familiarity can have different neural correlates that signal the operation of distinct neurocognitive precursors of recognition judgments. Conceptualizations of the neural basis of recognition memory must account for a plurality of mechanisms that produce familiarity memory. PMID:23010141

  20. Many roads lead to recognition: electrophysiological correlates of familiarity derived from short-term masked repetition priming.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Heather D; Taylor, Jason R; Henson, Richard N; Paller, Ken A

    2012-11-01

    The neural mechanisms that underlie familiarity memory have been extensively investigated, but a consensus understanding remains elusive. Behavioral evidence suggests that familiarity sometimes shares sources with instances of implicit memory known as priming, in that the same increases in processing fluency that give rise to priming can engender familiarity. One underappreciated implication of this account is that patterns of neural activity that appear to index familiarity in a generic sense may instead reflect fluency-related precursors of recognition. In a novel illustration of this principle, we examined brain potentials during recognition tests for visual words. In two experiments, fluency was selectively enhanced for half of the test cues via masked repetition priming. Replicating previous findings, the proportion of words endorsed as "old" was greater for words immediately preceded by a matching masked word versus an unrelated one. In addition, N400 potentials were more positive for test cues preceded by matching versus unrelated masked words. Similar N400 differences were observed when false alarms were compared to correct rejections for the subset of unstudied words that were preceded by matching masked words. These N400 effects were topographically dissociable from other potentials that correlated with familiarity for studied words. We conclude that experiences of familiarity can have different neural correlates that signal the operation of distinct neurocognitive precursors of recognition judgments. Conceptualizations of the neural basis of recognition memory must account for a plurality of mechanisms that produce familiarity memory. PMID:23010141

  1. Influence of familiarity with goat meat on liking and preference for capretto and chevon.

    PubMed

    Borgogno, Monica; Corazzin, Mirco; Saccà, Elena; Bovolenta, Stefano; Piasentier, Edi

    2015-08-01

    The research aimed at assessing liking and preference for capretto and chevon as a function of consumer familiarity with goat meat. Five meats were produced: traditional milk capretto (MC), heavy summer capretto (HSC), summering (SCh), fall (FCh) and late fall chevon (LFCh). HSC was the most tender meat, having less cooking losses than both MC and redder chevon types. The instrumental profile corresponded with the appearance and texture attributes perceived by panellists. With aging of kids, meat lost its milk aroma (MC) and sweet taste (HSC) and acquired an increasing intensity of goat flavour and livery notes, partially related to feeding regime and fatty acid profile. A niche market preferred chevon over capretto, while the cluster of consumers who were unfamiliar with chevon showed a decrease in pleasantness when tasting chevon, the familiar group reduced their ratings only for meat from the oldest kids. PMID:25900784

  2. [Influence of survival processing and delay on recollection and familiarity in recognition].

    PubMed

    Munetsugu, Tetsuya; Horiuchi, Takashi

    2015-08-01

    The survival processing effect is a robust memory phenomenon of memory whereby encouraging participants to judge words for relevance to a survival situation produces better recall than other processing tasks such as semantic or self-reference tasks (Nairne, Thompson, & Pandeirada, 2007). The present study separated memory performance into recollection and familiarity, and estimated the contribution of these two factors to the survival processing effect as adaptive memory by using a recognition test based on the dual-process signal detection model. This study also examined the long-term persistence of the effect by delay manipulation (immediate, after a week, after five weeks) of the recognition test. Under delayed conditions (after a week and five weeks), survival processing advantage occurred on recollection, but semantic processing had no effect. In contrast, for familiarity, there was no significant difference between survival and semantic processing. These findings suggest that the survival processing effect mainly relies on recollection. PMID:26402958

  3. The effects of familiarity and group size on mating preferences in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata.

    PubMed

    Mariette, M M; Zajitschek, S R K; Garcia, C M; Brooks, R C

    2010-08-01

    In recent years, it has become evident that frequency dependence in the attractiveness of a particular phenotype to mates can contribute to the maintenance of polymorphism. However, these preferences for rare and unfamiliar male phenotypes have only been demonstrated in small, controlled experiments. Here, we tested the preference for unfamiliar mates in groups of six to 96 individuals over 13 days, in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata). We observed individual behaviour in situ to test whether fish discriminate two unfamiliar individuals among many familiar ones. We found that unfamiliar males and females were preferred over the familiar fishes in all groups and that this effect decayed over time. Increasing group sizes and levels of sexual activity did not hamper the preference for unfamiliar mates, providing further support for the role of frequency dependent mate choice in the maintenance of trait polymorphism in natural populations. PMID:20626544

  4. Spontaneous voice-face identity matching by rhesus monkeys for familiar conspecifics and humans.

    PubMed

    Sliwa, Julia; Duhamel, Jean-René; Pascalis, Olivier; Wirth, Sylvia

    2011-01-25

    Recognition of a particular individual occurs when we reactivate links between current perceptual inputs and the previously formed representation of that person. This recognition can be achieved by identifying, separately or simultaneously, distinct elements such as the face, silhouette, or voice as belonging to one individual. In humans, those different cues are linked into one complex conceptual representation of individual identity. Here we tested whether rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) also have a cognitive representation of identity by evaluating whether they exhibit cross-modal individual recognition. Further, we assessed individual recognition of familiar conspecifics and familiar humans. In a free preferential looking time paradigm, we found that, for both species, monkeys spontaneously matched the faces of known individuals to their voices. This finding demonstrates that rhesus macaques possess a cross-modal cognitive representation of individuals that extends from conspecifics to humans, revealing the adaptive potential of identity recognition for individuals of socioecological relevance. PMID:21220340

  5. The impact of childhood experience on amygdala response to perceptually familiar black and white faces.

    PubMed

    Cloutier, Jasmin; Li, Tianyi; Correll, Joshua

    2014-09-01

    Given the well-documented involvement of the amygdala in race perception, the current study aimed to investigate how interracial contact during childhood shapes amygdala response to racial outgroup members in adulthood. Of particular interest was the impact of childhood experience on amygdala response to familiar, compared with novel, Black faces. Controlling for a number of well-established individual difference measures related to interracial attitudes, the results reveal that perceivers with greater childhood exposure to racial outgroup members display greater relative reduction in amygdala response to familiar Black faces. The implications of such findings are discussed in the context of previous investigations into the neural substrates of race perception and in consideration of potential mechanisms by which childhood experience may shape race perception. PMID:24666123

  6. Picture Norms for Chinese Preschool Children: Name Agreement, Familiarity, and Visual Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lamei; Chen, Chia-Wen; Zhu, Liqi

    2014-01-01

    Pictorial stimuli standardized for Chinese children are still absent although it is needed in order to test the development of children's cognitive functions. This study presents normative measures for Snodgrass and Vanderwart pictures, viewed by 4- and 6-year old Chinese children. Name agreement, familiarity, and visual complexity were obtained for each age group. The data indicate substantial differences between young and older children in name agreement based on expected name, familiarity and visual complexity. The correlation pattern of the variables collected in the present study were consistent with children's norms in other languages and norms of Chinese adults, while there are cross-age and cross-culture differences in specific variables. The obtained measures represent a useful tool for further research on Chinese children's pictorial processing and constitute the first picture normative study for children in this language. PMID:24599271

  7. Familiarity with Interest Breeds Gossip: Contributions of Emotion, Expectation, and Reputation

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Bo; Scott, Graham G.; McAleer, Phil; O'Donnell, Patrick J.; Sereno, Sara C.

    2014-01-01

    Although gossip serves several important social functions, it has relatively infrequently been the topic of systematic investigation. In two experiments, we advance a cognitive-informational approach to gossip. Specifically, we sought to determine which informational components engender gossip. In Experiment 1, participants read brief passages about other people and indicated their likelihood to share this information. We manipulated target familiarity (celebrity, non-celebrity) and story interest (interesting, boring). While participants were more likely to gossip about celebrity than non-celebrity targets and interesting than boring stories, they were even more likely to gossip about celebrity targets embedded within interesting stories. In Experiment 2, we additionally probed participants' reactions to the stories concerning emotion, expectation, and reputation information conveyed. Analyses showed that while such information partially mediated target familiarity and story interest effects, only expectation and reputation accounted for the interactive pattern of gossip behavior. Our findings provide novel insights into the essential components and processing mechanisms of gossip. PMID:25119267

  8. The role of perceptual information in familiarity-based scene recognition.

    PubMed

    Pitarque, Alfonso; Sáez, Belén

    2012-11-01

    A method to analyze the role of familiarity in recognizing pictures of everyday scenes is introduced. The idea is to manipulate two within-subjects conditions: an experimental condition where the scenes repeat perceptual information (e.g. buildings and/or vehicles) and a control condition. The results show the two conditions did not differ in terms of hit rates, but in the experimental condition there were significantly fewer false alarms, yielding better results, which supports the findings of past research studies that have used verbal materials. This perceptual facilitation was maintained throughout a week-long retention interval. Finally, a detailed analysis of this facilitation shows it was due to a significant reduction in false alarms on know judgments, emphasizing familiarity's role in explaining this effect. PMID:23156900

  9. Familiarity differentially affects right hemisphere contributions to processing metaphors and literals.

    PubMed

    Lai, Vicky T; van Dam, Wessel; Conant, Lisa L; Binder, Jeffrey R; Desai, Rutvik H

    2015-01-01

    The role of the two hemispheres in processing metaphoric language is controversial. While some studies have reported a special role of the right hemisphere (RH) in processing metaphors, others indicate no difference in laterality relative to literal language. Some studies have found a role of the RH for novel/unfamiliar metaphors, but not conventional/familiar metaphors. It is not clear, however, whether the role of the RH is specific to metaphor novelty, or whether it reflects processing, reinterpretation or reanalysis of novel/unfamiliar language in general. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the effects of familiarity in both metaphoric and non-metaphoric sentences. A left lateralized network containing the middle and inferior frontal gyri, posterior temporal regions in the left hemisphere (LH), and inferior frontal regions in the RH, was engaged across both metaphoric and non-metaphoric sentences; engagement of this network decreased as familiarity decreased. No region was engaged selectively for greater metaphoric unfamiliarity. An analysis of laterality, however, showed that the contribution of the RH relative to that of LH does increase in a metaphor-specific manner as familiarity decreases. These results show that RH regions, taken by themselves, including commonly reported regions such as the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), are responsive to increased cognitive demands of processing unfamiliar stimuli, rather than being metaphor-selective. The division of labor between the two hemispheres, however, does shift towards the right for metaphoric processing. The shift results not because the RH contributes more to metaphoric processing. Rather, relative to its contribution for processing literals, the LH contributes less. PMID:25713522

  10. Familiarity differentially affects right hemisphere contributions to processing metaphors and literals

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Vicky T.; van Dam, Wessel; Conant, Lisa L.; Binder, Jeffrey R.; Desai, Rutvik H.

    2015-01-01

    The role of the two hemispheres in processing metaphoric language is controversial. While some studies have reported a special role of the right hemisphere (RH) in processing metaphors, others indicate no difference in laterality relative to literal language. Some studies have found a role of the RH for novel/unfamiliar metaphors, but not conventional/familiar metaphors. It is not clear, however, whether the role of the RH is specific to metaphor novelty, or whether it reflects processing, reinterpretation or reanalysis of novel/unfamiliar language in general. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the effects of familiarity in both metaphoric and non-metaphoric sentences. A left lateralized network containing the middle and inferior frontal gyri, posterior temporal regions in the left hemisphere (LH), and inferior frontal regions in the RH, was engaged across both metaphoric and non-metaphoric sentences; engagement of this network decreased as familiarity decreased. No region was engaged selectively for greater metaphoric unfamiliarity. An analysis of laterality, however, showed that the contribution of the RH relative to that of LH does increase in a metaphor-specific manner as familiarity decreases. These results show that RH regions, taken by themselves, including commonly reported regions such as the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), are responsive to increased cognitive demands of processing unfamiliar stimuli, rather than being metaphor-selective. The division of labor between the two hemispheres, however, does shift towards the right for metaphoric processing. The shift results not because the RH contributes more to metaphoric processing. Rather, relative to its contribution for processing literals, the LH contributes less. PMID:25713522

  11. Parallel effects of processing fluency and positive affect on familiarity-based recognition decisions for faces

    PubMed Central

    Duke, Devin; Fiacconi, Chris M.; Köhler, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    According to attribution models of familiarity assessment, people can use a heuristic in recognition-memory decisions, in which they attribute the subjective ease of processing of a memory probe to a prior encounter with the stimulus in question. Research in social cognition suggests that experienced positive affect may be the proximal cue that signals fluency in various experimental contexts. In the present study, we compared the effects of positive affect and fluency on recognition-memory judgments for faces with neutral emotional expression. We predicted that if positive affect is indeed the critical cue that signals processing fluency at retrieval, then its manipulation should produce effects that closely mirror those produced by manipulations of processing fluency. In two experiments, we employed a masked-priming procedure in combination with a Remember-Know (RK) paradigm that aimed to separate familiarity- from recollection-based memory decisions. In addition, participants performed a prime-discrimination task that allowed us to take inter-individual differences in prime awareness into account. We found highly similar effects of our priming manipulations of processing fluency and of positive affect. In both cases, the critical effect was specific to familiarity-based recognition responses. Moreover, in both experiments it was reflected in a shift toward a more liberal response bias, rather than in changed discrimination. Finally, in both experiments, the effect was found to be related to prime awareness; it was present only in participants who reported a lack of such awareness on the prime-discrimination task. These findings add to a growing body of evidence that points not only to a role of fluency, but also of positive affect in familiarity assessment. As such they are consistent with the idea that fluency itself may be hedonically marked. PMID:24795678

  12. Stress affects theta activity in limbic networks and impairs novelty-induced exploration and familiarization

    PubMed Central

    Jacinto, Luis R.; Reis, Joana S.; Dias, Nuno S.; Cerqueira, João J.; Correia, José H.; Sousa, Nuno

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to a novel environment triggers the response of several brain areas that regulate emotional behaviors. Here, we studied theta oscillations within the hippocampus (HPC)-amygdala (AMY)-medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) network in exploration of a novel environment and subsequent familiarization through repeated exposures to that same environment; in addition, we assessed how concomitant stress exposure could disrupt this activity and impair both behavioral processes. Local field potentials (LFP) were simultaneously recorded from dorsal and ventral hippocampus (dHPC and vHPC, respectively), basolateral amygdala (BLA) and mPFC in freely behaving rats while they were exposed to a novel environment, then repeatedly re-exposed over the course of 3 weeks to that same environment and, finally, on re-exposure to a novel unfamiliar environment. A longitudinal analysis of theta activity within this circuit revealed a reduction of vHPC and BLA theta power and vHPC-BLA theta coherence through familiarization which was correlated with a return to normal exploratory behavior in control rats. In contrast, a persistent over-activation of the same brain regions was observed in stressed rats that displayed impairments in novel exploration and familiarization processes. Importantly, we show that stress also affected intra-hippocampal synchrony and heightened the coherence between vHPC and BLA. In summary, we demonstrate that modulatory theta activity in the aforementioned circuit, namely in the vHPC and BLA, is correlated with the expression of anxiety in novelty-induced exploration and familiarization in both normal and pathological conditions. PMID:24137113

  13. How dogs scan familiar and inverted faces: an eye movement study.

    PubMed

    Somppi, Sanni; Törnqvist, Heini; Hänninen, Laura; Krause, Christina M; Vainio, Outi

    2014-05-01

    Faces play an important role in communication and identity recognition in social animals. Domestic dogs often respond to human facial cues, but their face processing is weakly understood. In this study, facial inversion effect (deficits in face processing when the image is turned upside down) and responses to personal familiarity were tested using eye movement tracking. A total of 23 pet dogs and eight kennel dogs were compared to establish the effects of life experiences on their scanning behavior. All dogs preferred conspecific faces and showed great interest in the eye area, suggesting that they perceived images representing faces. Dogs fixated at the upright faces as long as the inverted faces, but the eye area of upright faces gathered longer total duration and greater relative fixation duration than the eye area of inverted stimuli, regardless of the species (dog or human) shown in the image. Personally, familiar faces and eyes attracted more fixations than the strange ones, suggesting that dogs are likely to recognize conspecific and human faces in photographs. The results imply that face scanning in dogs is guided not only by the physical properties of images, but also by semantic factors. In conclusion, in a free-viewing task, dogs seem to target their fixations at naturally salient and familiar items. Facial images were generally more attractive for pet dogs than kennel dogs, but living environment did not affect conspecific preference or inversion and familiarity responses, suggesting that the basic mechanisms of face processing in dogs could be hardwired or might develop under limited exposure. PMID:24305996

  14. Dissociation between singing and speaking in expressive aphasia: the role of song familiarity.

    PubMed

    Straube, Thomas; Schulz, Alexander; Geipel, Katja; Mentzel, Hans-Joachim; Miltner, Wolfgang H R

    2008-04-01

    There are several reports on the ability aphasic patients have to sing familiar songs, despite having severe speech impairments. Based on these observations it was also suggested that singing might improve speech production. However, recent experimental studies with aphasic patients found no evidence to illustrate that singing improves word production under controlled experimental conditions. This study investigated the role of singing during repetition of word phrases in a patient severely affected with non-fluent aphasia (GS) who had an almost complete lesion of the left hemisphere. GS showed a pronounced increase in the number of correctly reproduced words during singing as compared to speaking excerpts of familiar lyrics. This dissociation between singing and speaking was not seen for novel song lyrics, regardless of whether these were coupled with an unfamiliar, a familiar, or a spontaneously generated melody during the singing conditions. These findings propose that singing might help word phrase production in at least some cases of severe expressive aphasia. However, the association of melody and text in long-term memory seems to be responsible for this effect. PMID:18294661

  15. Recollection and familiarity exhibit dissociable similarity gradients: a test of the complementary learning systems model.

    PubMed

    Elfman, Kane W; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2015-05-01

    Memory can often be triggered by retrieval cues that are quite different from the originally encoded events, but how different memory processes respond to variations in cue-target similarity is poorly understood. We begin by presenting simulations using a neurocomputational model of recognition memory (i.e., the complementary learning systems model), which proposes that the hippocampus supports recollection of associative information whereas the surrounding cortex supports assessments of item familiarity. The simulations showed that increases in the similarity between retrieval cues and learned items led to relatively linear increases in a cortex-based memory signal but led to steeper and more thresholded increases in the hippocampal signal. We then tested the predictions of the model by examining the effects of varying cue-target similarity in two recognition memory experiments in which participants studied a list of computer-generated faces and then, at test, gave confidence and remember/know responses to morphed faces. In both experiments, as cue-target similarity was increased, familiarity-based recognition increased in a gradual and relatively linear fashion, whereas recollection showed significantly steeper gradients. The results show that recollection and familiarity exhibit distinct similarity functions in recognition memory that correspond with predicted retrieval dynamics of the hippocampus and cortex, respectively. PMID:25390205

  16. A cultural side effect: learning to read interferes with identity processing of familiar objects

    PubMed Central

    Kolinsky, Régine; Fernandes, Tânia

    2014-01-01

    Based on the neuronal recycling hypothesis (Dehaene and Cohen, 2007), we examined whether reading acquisition has a cost for the recognition of non-linguistic visual materials. More specifically, we checked whether the ability to discriminate between mirror images, which develops through literacy acquisition, interferes with object identity judgments, and whether interference strength varies as a function of the nature of the non-linguistic material. To these aims we presented illiterate, late literate (who learned to read at adult age), and early literate adults with an orientation-independent, identity-based same-different comparison task in which they had to respond “same” to both physically identical and mirrored or plane-rotated images of pictures of familiar objects (Experiment 1) or of geometric shapes (Experiment 2). Interference from irrelevant orientation variations was stronger with plane rotations than with mirror images, and stronger with geometric shapes than with objects. Illiterates were the only participants almost immune to mirror variations, but only for familiar objects. Thus, the process of unlearning mirror-image generalization, necessary to acquire literacy in the Latin alphabet, has a cost for a basic function of the visual ventral object recognition stream, i.e., identification of familiar objects. This demonstrates that neural recycling is not just an adaptation to multi-use but a process of at least partial exaptation. PMID:25400605

  17. Asymmetric effect of automatic deviant detection: The effect of familiarity in visual mismatch negativity.

    PubMed

    Sulykos, István; Kecskés-Kovács, Krisztina; Czigler, István

    2015-11-11

    The visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) component is regarded as a prediction error signal elicited by events violating the sequential regularities of environmental stimulation. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of familiarity on the vMMN. Stimuli were patterns comprised of familiar (N) or unfamiliar (?) letters. In a passive oddball paradigm, letters (N and ?) were presented as either standard or deviant in separate conditions. VMMNs emerged in both conditions; peak latency of vMMN was shorter to the ? deviant compared to the vMMN elicited by the N deviant. To test the orientation-specific effect of the oblique lines on the vMMN, we introduced a control experiment. In the control experiment, the patterns were constructed solely from oblique lines, identical to the oblique lines of the N and ? stimuli. Contrary to the first experiment, there was no significant difference between the vMNNs elicited by the two orientations. Therefore, the differences in vMMNs to ? and N deviants are not attributable to the physical difference between the ? and N stimuli. Consequently, the vMMN is sensitive to the familiarity of the stimuli. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Prediction and Attention. PMID:25724142

  18. Threat perception and familiarity moderate the androgen response to competition in women

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Gonçalo A.; Uceda, Sara; Oliveira, Tânia; Fernandes, Alexandre; Garcia-Marques, Teresa; Oliveira, Rui F.

    2013-01-01

    Social interactions elicit androgen responses whose function has been posited to be the adjustment of androgen-dependent behaviors to social context. The activation of this androgen response is known to be mediated and moderated by psychological factors. In this study we tested the hypothesis that the testosterone (T) changes after a competition are not simply related to its outcome, but rather to the way the subject evaluates the event. In particular we tested two evaluative dimensions of a social interaction: familiarity with the opponent and the subjective evaluation of the outcome as threat or challenge. Challenge/threat occurs in goal relevant situations and represent different motivational states arising from the individuals’ subjective evaluation of the interplay between the task demands and coping resources possessed. For challenge the coping resources exceed the task demands, while threat represents a state where coping resources are insufficient to meet the task demands. In this experiment women competed in pairs, against a same sex opponent using the number tracking test as a competitive task. Losers appraised the competition outcome as more threatening than winners, and displayed higher post-competition T levels than winners. No differences were found either for cortisol (C) or for dehydroepiandrosterone. Threat, familiarity with the opponent and T response were associated only in the loser condition. Moderation analysis suggests that for the women that lost the competition the effect of threat on T is moderated by familiarity with the opponent. PMID:23847564

  19. That's my teacher! Children's ability to recognize personally familiar and unfamiliar faces improves with age.

    PubMed

    Laurence, Sarah; Mondloch, Catherine J

    2016-03-01

    Most previous research on the development of face recognition has focused on recognition of highly controlled images. One of the biggest challenges of face recognition is to identify an individual across images that capture natural variability in appearance. We created a child-friendly version of Jenkins, White, Van Montford, and Burton's sorting task (Cognition, 2011, Vol. 121, pp. 313-323) to investigate children's recognition of personally familiar and unfamiliar faces. Children between 4 and 12years of age were presented with a familiar/unfamiliar teacher's house and a pile of face photographs (nine pictures each of the teacher and another identity). Each child was asked to put all the pictures of the teacher inside the house while keeping the other identity out. Children over 6years of age showed adult-like familiar face recognition. Unfamiliar face recognition improved across the entire age range, with considerable variability in children's performance. These findings suggest that children's ability to tolerate within-person variability improves with age and support a face-space framework in which faces are represented as regions, the size of which increases with age. PMID:26530253

  20. The N250 Brain Potential to Personally Familiar and Newly Learned Faces and Objects

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Lara J.; Scott, Lisa S.; Boddington, Sophie; Droucker, Danielle; Curran, Tim; Tanaka, James W.

    2011-01-01

    Studies employing event-related potentials have shown that when participants are monitoring for a novel target face, the presentation of their own face elicits an enhanced negative brain potential in posterior channels approximately 250?ms after stimulus onset. Here, we investigate whether the own face N250 effect generalizes to other highly familiar objects, specifically, images of the participant’s own dog and own car. In our experiments, participants were asked to monitor for a pre-experimentally unfamiliar target face (Joe), a target dog (Experiment 1: Joe’s Dog) or a target car (Experiment 2: Joe’s Car). The target face and object stimuli were presented with non-target foils that included novel face and object stimuli, the participant’s own face, their own dog (Experiment 1), and their own car (Experiment 2). The consistent findings across the two experiments were the following: (1) the N250 potential differentiated the target faces and objects from the non-target face and object foils and (2) despite being non-targets, the own face and own objects produced an N250 response that was equal in magnitude to the target faces and objects by the end of the experiment. Thus, as indicated by its response to personally familiar and recently familiarized faces and objects, the N250 component is a sensitive index of individuated representations in visual memory. PMID:22059071

  1. Could masked conceptual primes increase recollection? The subtleties of measuring recollection and familiarity in recognition memory

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jason R.; Henson, Richard N.

    2012-01-01

    We begin with a theoretical overview of the concepts of recollection and familiarity, focusing, in the spirit of this special issue, on the important contributions made by Andrew Mayes. In particular, we discuss the issue of when the generation of semantically-related information in response to a retrieval cue might be experienced as recollection rather than familiarity. We then report a series of experiments in which two different types of masked prime, presented immediately prior to the test cue in a recognition memory paradigm, produced opposite effects on Remember vs. Know judgments. More specifically, primes that were conceptually related to the test item increased the incidence of Remember judgments, though only when intermixed with repetition primes (which increased the incidence of Know judgments instead, as in prior studies). One possible explanation—that the fluency of retrieval of item–context associations can be experienced as recollection, even when the source of that fluency is unknown—is counter to conventional views of recollection and familiarity, though it was anticipated by Andrew in his writings nearly two decades ago. PMID:22898644

  2. The effects of timbre on melody recognition are mediated by familiarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAuley, J. Devin; Ayala, Chris

    2002-11-01

    Two experiments examined the role of timbre in music recognition. In both experiments, participants rated the familiarity of a set of novel and well-known musical excerpts during a study phase and then were given a surprise old/new recognition test after a retention interval. The recognition test was comprised of the target melodies and an equal number of distractors; participants were instructed to respond yes to the targets and no to the distractors. In experiment 1, the timbre of the melodies was held constant throughout the study and then either stayed the same or switched to a different instrument sound during the test. In experiment 2, timbre varied randomly from trial to trial between the same two instruments used in experiment 1, yielding target melodies that were either mismatched or matched in their timbre. Switching timbre between study and test in experiment 1 was found to hurt the recognition of the novel melodies, but not the familiar melodies. The mediating effect of familiarity was eliminated in experiment 2 when timbre varied randomly from trial to trial rather than remaining constant. Possible reasons for the difference between studies will be discussed.

  3. Autonomous visual exploration creates developmental change in familiarity and novelty seeking behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Perone, Sammy; Spencer, John P.

    2013-01-01

    What motivates children to radically transform themselves during early development? We addressed this question in the domain of infant visual exploration. Over the first year, infants' exploration shifts from familiarity to novelty seeking. This shift is delayed in preterm relative to term infants and is stable within individuals over the course of the first year. Laboratory tasks have shed light on the nature of this familiarity-to-novelty shift, but it is not clear what motivates the infant to change her exploratory style. We probed this by letting a Dynamic Neural Field (DNF) model of visual exploration develop itself via accumulating experience in a virtual world. We then situated it in a canonical laboratory task. Much like infants, the model exhibited a familiarity-to-novelty shift. When we manipulated the initial conditions of the model, the model's performance was developmentally delayed much like preterm infants. This delay was overcome by enhancing the model's experience during development. We also found that the model's performance was stable at the level of the individual. Our simulations indicate that novelty seeking emerges with no explicit motivational source via the accumulation of visual experience within a complex, dynamical exploratory system. PMID:24065948

  4. Responsivity to familiar versus unfamiliar social reward in children with autism.

    PubMed

    Pankert, Azarakhsh; Pankert, Kilian; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin; Kohls, Gregor

    2014-09-01

    In autism spectrum disorders (ASD), social motivation theories suggest that the core social communication problems seen in children with ASD arise from diminished responsiveness to social reward. Although clinical and experimental data support these theories, the extent to which the reward deficit in ASD is unique for social rewards remains unclear. With the present investigation, we aimed to provide insight into the degree to which sociality as well as familiarity of reward incentives impact motivated goal-directed behavior in children with ASD. To do so, we directly compared the influence of familiar versus unfamiliar social reward relative to nonsocial, monetary reward in children with ASD relative to age- and IQ-matched typically developing controls (TDC) using a visual and auditory incentive go/nogo task with reward contingencies for successful response inhibitions. We found that children with ASD responded stronger to visual familiar and unfamiliar social reward as well as to nonsocial, monetary reward than TDC. While the present data are at odds with predictions made by social motivation theories, individual variations beyond clinical diagnosis, such as reward exposure across various social settings, help explain the pattern of results. The findings of this study stress the necessity for additional research on intra-individual as well as environmental factors that contribute to social reward responsiveness in individuals with ASD versus other neuropsychiatric disorders such as ADHD or conduct disorder. PMID:24728874

  5. Effects of Verb Familiarity on Finiteness Marking in Children With Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Mabel L.; Bontempo, Daniel E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Children with specific language impairment (SLI) have known deficits in the verb lexicon and finiteness marking. This study investigated a potential relationship between these 2 variables in children with SLI and 2 control groups considering predictions from 2 different theoretical perspectives, morphosyntactic versus morphophonological. Method Children with SLI, age-equivalent, and language-equivalent (LE) control children (n = 59) completed an experimental sentence imitation task that generated estimates of children's finiteness accuracy under 2 levels of verb familiarity—familiar real verbs versus unfamiliar real verbs—in clausal sites marked for finiteness. Imitations were coded and analyzed for overall accuracy as well as finiteness marking and verb root imitation accuracy. Results Statistical comparisons revealed that children with SLI did not differ from LE children and were less accurate than age-equivalent children on all dependent variables: overall imitation, finiteness marking imitation, and verb root imitation accuracy. A significant Group × Condition interaction for finiteness marking revealed lower levels of accuracy on unfamiliar verbs for the SLI and LE groups only. Conclusions Findings indicate a relationship between verb familiarity and finiteness marking in children with SLI and younger controls and help clarify the roles of morphosyntax, verb lexicon, and morphophonology. PMID:25611349

  6. Event-related potentials indicate that fluency can be interpreted as familiarity.

    PubMed

    Bruett, Heather; Leynes, P Andrew

    2015-11-01

    Recent evidence suggests that fluency may be capable of supporting recognition independently of familiarity. This hypothesis was further tested in the present study. 29 participants encoded name-brand and off-brand products in an incidental task. Participants then judged whether the product was old or new during two tests with products from one category (i.e., only name-brand or only off-brand products) and a mixed test (where both name-brand and off-brand products were shown). The ERP data elicited by off-brand products varied as a function of test format. During the mixed test, off-brand products were correlated with a FN400 effect, whereas a fluency ERP (old ERPs were more negative than new at parietal electrodes 225-400ms) was observed during the other test. Importantly, no FN400 was detected during this test. The ERP results suggest that viewing the off-brand products during the mixed test produced a familiarity experience; however, fluency supported recognition when viewing off-brand products on the other test. The results are strong evidence that top-down processing of visual features during recognition interprets the information relative to the context. This process results in either fluency or, in other contexts, it is interpreted as familiarity as the Discrepancy-Attribution Hypothesis (Whittlesea and Williams, 2001a, 2001b) contends. PMID:26432342

  7. Effects of modality on the neural correlates of encoding processes supporting recollection and familiarity

    PubMed Central

    Gottlieb, Lauren J.; Rugg, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Prior research has demonstrated that the neural correlates of successful encoding (“subsequent memory effects”) partially overlap with neural regions selectively engaged by the on-line demands of the study task. The primary goal of the present experiment was to determine whether this overlap is associated solely with encoding processes supporting later recollection, or whether overlapping subsequent memory and study condition effects are also evident when later memory is familiarity-based. Subjects (N = 17) underwent fMRI scanning while studying a series of visually and auditorily presented words. Memory for the words was subsequently tested with a modified Remember/Know procedure. Auditorily selective subsequent familiarity effects were evident in bilateral temporal regions that also responded preferentially to auditory items. Although other interpretations are possible, these findings suggest that overlap between study condition-selective subsequent memory effects and regions selectively sensitive to study demands is not uniquely associated with later recollection. In addition, modality-independent subsequent memory effects were identified in several cortical regions. In every case, the effects were greatest for later recollected items, and smaller for items later recognized on the basis of familiarity. The implications of this quantitative dissociation for dual-process models of recognition memory are discussed. PMID:21852431

  8. The role of familiarity in associative recognition of unitized compound word pairs.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Fahad N; Hockley, William E

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of unitization and contribution of familiarity in the recognition of word pairs. Compound words were presented as word pairs and were contrasted with noncompound word pairs in an associative recognition task. In Experiments 1 and 2, yes-no recognition hit and false-alarm rates were significantly higher for compound than for noncompound word pairs, with no difference in discrimination in both within- and between-subject comparisons. Experiment 2 also showed that item recognition was reduced for words from compound compared to noncompound word pairs, providing evidence of the unitization of the compound pairs. A two-alternative forced-choice test used in Experiments 3A and 3B provided evidence that the concordant effect for compound word pairs was largely due to familiarity. A discrimination advantage for compound word pairs was also seen in these experiments. Experiment 4A showed that a different pattern of results is seen when repeated noncompound word pairs are compared to compound word pairs. Experiment 4B showed that memory for the individual items of compound word pairs was impaired relative to items in repeated and nonrepeated noncompound word pairs, and Experiment 5 demonstrated that this effect is eliminated when the elements of compound word pairs are not unitized. The concordant pattern seen in yes-no recognition and the discrimination advantage in forced-choice recognition for compound relative to noncompound word pairs is due to greater reliance on familiarity at test when pairs are unitized. PMID:24873736

  9. The feeling of familiarity for music in patients with a unilateral temporal lobe lesion: A gating study.

    PubMed

    Huijgen, Josefien; Dellacherie, Delphine; Tillmann, Barbara; Clément, Sylvain; Bigand, Emmanuel; Dupont, Sophie; Samson, Séverine

    2015-10-01

    Previous research has indicated that the medial temporal lobe (MTL), and more specifically the perirhinal cortex, plays a role in the feeling of familiarity for non-musical stimuli. Here, we examined contribution of the MTL to the feeling of familiarity for music by testing patients with unilateral MTL lesions. We used a gating paradigm: segments of familiar and unfamiliar musical excerpts were played with increasing durations (250, 500, 1000, 2000, 4000ms and complete excerpts), and participants provided familiarity judgments for each segment. Based on the hypothesis that patients might need longer segments than healthy controls (HC) to identify excerpts as familiar, we examined the onset of the emergence of familiarity in HC, patients with a right MTL resection (RTR), and patients with a left MTL resection (LTR). In contrast to our hypothesis, we found that the feeling of familiarity was relatively spared in patients with a right or left MTL lesion, even for short excerpts. All participants were able to differentiate familiar from unfamiliar excerpts as early as 500ms, although the difference between familiar and unfamiliar judgements was greater in HC than in patients. These findings suggest that a unilateral MTL lesion does not impair the emergence of the feeling of familiarity. We also assessed whether the dynamics of the musical excerpt (linked to the type and amount of information contained in the excerpts) modulated the onset of the feeling of familiarity in the three groups. The difference between familiar and unfamiliar judgements was greater for high than for low-dynamic excerpts for HC and RTR patients, but not for LTR patients. This indicates that the LTR group did not benefit in the same way from dynamics. Overall, our results imply that the recognition of previously well-learned musical excerpts does not depend on the integrity of either right or the left MTL structures. Patients with a unilateral MTL resection may compensate for the effects of unilateral damage by using the intact contralateral temporal lobe. Moreover, we suggest that remote semantic memory for music might depend more strongly on neocortical structures rather than the MTL. PMID:26359715

  10. INCLUSIÓN DE LA ÉTICA Y BIOÉTICA EN LA FORMACIÓN DE PRE Y POSGRADO DEL CIRUJANO-DENTISTA EN PERÚ

    PubMed Central

    Rupaya, Carmen Rosa García

    2009-01-01

    Se revisan aspectos de la inclusión de la ética y bioética en la formación de pre y posgrado del cirujano-dentista en Perú. Desde el punto de vista de la formación del docente, se analiza la presencia de normatividad ética en la investigación científica que genera la universidad, así como los conocimientos y actitudes vinculados con la ética y bioética en la formación del odontólogo. Se concluye que es un compromiso fomentar un cambio de paradigma, a través de un movimiento masivo que involucre los ámbitos familiar, profesional y académico, con el n de integrar la reflexión ética en nuestro diario proceder. PMID:19946384

  11. Mechanisms supporting superior source memory for familiar items: A multi-voxel pattern analysis study

    PubMed Central

    Poppenk, Jordan; Norman, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent cognitive research has revealed better source memory performance for familiar relative to novel stimuli. Here we consider two possible explanations for this finding. The source memory advantage for familiar stimuli could arise because stimulus novelty induces attention to stimulus features at the expense of contextual processing, resulting in diminished overall levels of contextual processing at study for novel (vs. familiar) stimuli. Another possibility is that stimulus information retrieved from long-term memory (LTM) provides scaffolding that facilitates the formation of item-context associations. If contextual features are indeed more effectively bound to familiar (vs. novel) items, the relationship between contextual processing at study and subsequent source memory should be stronger for familiar items. We tested these possibilities by applying multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) to a recently collected functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) dataset, with the goal of measuring contextual processing at study and relating it to subsequent source memory performance. Participants were scanned with fMRI while viewing novel proverbs, repeated proverbs (previously novel proverbs that were shown in a pre-study phase), and previously known proverbs in the context of one of two experimental tasks. After scanning was complete, we evaluated participants’ source memory for the task associated with each proverb. Drawing upon fMRI data from the study phase, we trained a classifier to detect on-task processing (i.e., how strongly was the correct task set activated). On-task processing was greater for previously known than novel proverbs and similar for repeated and novel proverbs. However, both within- and across participants, the relationship between on-task processing and subsequent source memory was stronger for repeated than novel proverbs and similar for previously known and novel proverbs. Finally, focusing on the repeated condition, we found that higher levels of hippocampal activity during the pre-study phase, which we used as an index of episodic encoding, led to a stronger relationship between on-task processing at study and subsequent memory. Together, these findings suggest different mechanisms may be primarily responsible for superior source memory for repeated and previously known stimuli. Specifically, they suggest that prior stimulus knowledge enhances memory by boosting the overall level of contextual processing, whereas stimulus repetition enhances the probability that contextual features will be successfully bound to item features. Several possible theoretical explanations for this pattern are discussed. PMID:22820636

  12. The Effects of Healthy Aging on Recollection and Familiarity Components of Recognition Memory and Frontal Lobe Function 

    E-print Network

    May, Michelle F M

    2008-06-27

    According to the dual-process hypothesis of memory and aging (DPHMA), aging is associated with a decline in recollection efficiency and a relative stability in familiarity based mechanisms. The current study was carried ...

  13. Cognitive and Anatomical Underpinnings of the Conceptual Knowledge for Common Objects and Familiar People: A Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Campanella, Fabio; Fabbro, Franco; Urgesi, Cosimo

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have addressed the issue of how knowledge of common objects is organized in the brain, whereas the cognitive and anatomical underpinnings of familiar people knowledge have been less explored. Here we applied repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the left and right temporal poles before asking healthy individuals to perform a speeded word-to-picture matching task using familiar people and common objects as stimuli. We manipulated two widely used semantic variables, namely the semantic distance and the familiarity of stimuli, to assess whether the semantic organization of familiar people knowledge is similar to that of common objects. For both objects and faces we reliably found semantic distance and familiarity effects, with less accurate and slower responses for stimulus pairs that were more closely related and less familiar. However, the effects of semantic variables differed across categories, with semantic distance effects larger for objects and familiarity effects larger for faces, suggesting that objects and faces might share a partially comparable organization of their semantic representations. The application of rTMS to the left temporal pole modulated, for both categories, semantic distance, but not familiarity effects, revealing that accessing object and face concepts might rely on overlapping processes within left anterior temporal regions. Crucially, rTMS of the left temporal pole affected only the recognition of pairs of stimuli that could be discriminated at specific levels of categorization (e.g., two kitchen tools or two famous persons), with no effect for discriminations at either superordinate or individual levels. Conversely, rTMS of the right temporal pole induced an overall slowing of reaction times that positively correlated with the visual similarity of the stimuli, suggesting a more perceptual rather than semantic role of the right anterior temporal regions. Results are discussed in the light of current models of face and object semantic representations in the brain. PMID:23704999

  14. Jose A. Calderon-Perez Estaci6n Mazarlan, Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia, U.N.A.M.

    E-print Network

    concentration off southern Sinaloa, Mexico With an estimated value of30 mil- lion U.S. dollars, red or crystal Chilpancingo #70, col. Hipodromo Condesa, Mexico, D.F. Seasonal depth distribution of the crystal shrimp record of crystal shrimp is 183 m (Perez-Farfante, 1988). In spite of its rather wide depth dis

  15. A Brazilian in the Reich of Wilhelm II: Henrique da Rocha Lima, Brazil-Germany relations and the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 1901-1909.

    PubMed

    Silva, André Felipe Cândido da

    2013-03-01

    This article follows the career of the Brazilian physician Henrique da Rocha Lima, one of the first to join the group of young researchers working at the Instituto Soroterápico de Manguinhos (Instituto Oswaldo Cruz). It describes his first voyage to Germany where he specialized in microbiology and pathological anatomy, training that shaped his subsequent professional identity. The tensions and dilemmas experienced by Rocha Lima provide an insight into what it meant to dedicate oneself to a scientific career in Brazil at the start of the twentieth century. They also reveal the importance of the relations with the German-speaking world for the experimental medicine that became established under the leadership of Oswaldo Cruz. PMID:23559048

  16. Memorial familiarity remains intact for pictures but not for words in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Embree, Lindsay M.; Budson, Andrew E.; Ally, Brandon A.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how memory breaks down in the earliest stages of the Alzheimer’s disease (AD) process has significant implications, both clinically and with respect to intervention development. Previous work has highlighted a robust picture superiority effect in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). However, it remains unclear as to how pictures improve memory compared to words in this patient population. In the current study, we utilized receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to obtain estimates of familiarity and recollection for pictures and words in patients with aMCI and healthy older controls. Analysis of accuracy shows that even when performance is matched between pictures and words in the healthy control group, patients with aMCI continue to show a significant picture superiority effect. The results of the ROC analysis showed that patients demonstrated significantly impaired recollection and familiarity for words compared controls. In contrast, patients with aMCI demonstrated impaired recollection, but intact familiarity for pictures, compared to controls. Based on previous work from our lab, we speculate that patients can utilize the rich conceptual information provided by pictures to enhance familiarity, and perceptual information may allow for post-retrieval monitoring or verification of the enhanced sense of familiarity. Alternatively, the combination of enhanced conceptual and perceptual fluency of the test item might drive a stronger or more robust sense of familiarity that can be accurately attributed to a studied item. PMID:22705441

  17. Oscillatory brain responses to own names uttered by unfamiliar and familiar voices.

    PubMed

    del Giudice, Renata; Lechinger, Julia; Wislowska, Malgorzata; Heib, Dominik P J; Hoedlmoser, Kerstin; Schabus, Manuel

    2014-12-01

    Among auditory stimuli, the own name is one of the most powerful and it is able to automatically capture attention and elicit a robust electrophysiological response. The subject's own name (SON) is preferentially processed in the right hemisphere, mainly because of its self-relevance and emotional content, together with other personally relevant information such as the voice of a familiar person. Whether emotional and self-relevant information are able to attract attention and can be, in future, introduced in clinical studies remains unclear. In the present study we used EEG and asked participants to count a target name (active condition) or to just listen to the SON or other unfamiliar names uttered by a familiar or unfamiliar voice (passive condition). Data reveals that the target name elicits a strong alpha event related desynchronization with respect to non-target names and triggers in addition a left lateralized theta synchronization as well as delta synchronization. In the passive condition alpha desynchronization was observed for familiar voice and SON stimuli in the right hemisphere. Altogether we speculate that participants engage additional attentional resources when counting a target name or when listening to personally relevant stimuli which is indexed by alpha desynchronization whereas left lateralized theta synchronization may be related to verbal working memory load. After validating the present protocol in healthy volunteers it is suggested to move one step further and apply the protocol to patients with disorders of consciousness in which the degree of residual cognitive processing and self-awareness is still insufficiently understood. PMID:25307136

  18. Perceptual discrimination difficulty and familiarity in the Uncanny Valley: more like a “Happy Valley”

    PubMed Central

    Cheetham, Marcus; Suter, Pascal; Jancke, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    The Uncanny Valley Hypothesis (UVH) predicts that greater difficulty perceptually discriminating between categorically ambiguous human and humanlike characters (e.g., highly realistic robot) evokes negatively valenced (i.e., uncanny) affect. An ABX perceptual discrimination task and signal detection analysis was used to examine the profile of perceptual discrimination (PD) difficulty along the UVH' dimension of human likeness (DHL). This was represented using avatar-to-human morph continua. Rejecting the implicitly assumed profile of PD difficulty underlying the UVH' prediction, Experiment 1 showed that PD difficulty was reduced for categorically ambiguous faces but, notably, enhanced for human faces. Rejecting the UVH' predicted relationship between PD difficulty and negative affect (assessed in terms of the UVH' familiarity dimension), Experiment 2 demonstrated that greater PD difficulty correlates with more positively valenced affect. Critically, this effect was strongest for the ambiguous faces, suggesting a correlative relationship between PD difficulty and feelings of familiarity more consistent with the metaphor happy valley. This relationship is also consistent with a fluency amplification instead of the hitherto proposed hedonic fluency account of affect along the DHL. Experiment 3 found no evidence that the asymmetry in the profile of PD along the DHL is attributable to a differential processing bias (cf. other-race effect), i.e., processing avatars at a category level but human faces at an individual level. In conclusion, the present data for static faces show clear effects that, however, strongly challenge the UVH' implicitly assumed profile of PD difficulty along the DHL and the predicted relationship between this and feelings of familiarity. PMID:25477829

  19. Oscillatory brain responses to own names uttered by unfamiliar and familiar voices

    PubMed Central

    del Giudice, Renata; Lechinger, Julia; Wislowska, Malgorzata; Heib, Dominik P.J.; Hoedlmoser, Kerstin; Schabus, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Among auditory stimuli, the own name is one of the most powerful and it is able to automatically capture attention and elicit a robust electrophysiological response. The subject’s own name (SON) is preferentially processed in the right hemisphere, mainly because of its self-relevance and emotional content, together with other personally relevant information such as the voice of a familiar person. Whether emotional and self-relevant information are able to attract attention and can be, in future, introduced in clinical studies remains unclear. In the present study we used EEG and asked participants to count a target name (active condition) or to just listen to the SON or other unfamiliar names uttered by a familiar or unfamiliar voice (passive condition). Data reveals that the target name elicits a strong alpha event related desynchronization with respect to non-target names and triggers in addition a left lateralized theta synchronization as well as delta synchronization. In the passive condition alpha desynchronization was observed for familiar voice and SON stimuli in the right hemisphere. Altogether we speculate that participants engage additional attentional resources when counting a target name or when listening to personally relevant stimuli which is indexed by alpha desynchronization whereas left lateralized theta synchronization may be related to verbal working memory load. After validating the present protocol in healthy volunteers it is suggested to move one step further and apply the protocol to patients with disorders of consciousness in which the degree of residual cognitive processing and self-awareness is still insufficiently understood. PMID:25307136

  20. Perceptual discrimination difficulty and familiarity in the Uncanny Valley: more like a "Happy Valley".

    PubMed

    Cheetham, Marcus; Suter, Pascal; Jancke, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    The Uncanny Valley Hypothesis (UVH) predicts that greater difficulty perceptually discriminating between categorically ambiguous human and humanlike characters (e.g., highly realistic robot) evokes negatively valenced (i.e., uncanny) affect. An ABX perceptual discrimination task and signal detection analysis was used to examine the profile of perceptual discrimination (PD) difficulty along the UVH' dimension of human likeness (DHL). This was represented using avatar-to-human morph continua. Rejecting the implicitly assumed profile of PD difficulty underlying the UVH' prediction, Experiment 1 showed that PD difficulty was reduced for categorically ambiguous faces but, notably, enhanced for human faces. Rejecting the UVH' predicted relationship between PD difficulty and negative affect (assessed in terms of the UVH' familiarity dimension), Experiment 2 demonstrated that greater PD difficulty correlates with more positively valenced affect. Critically, this effect was strongest for the ambiguous faces, suggesting a correlative relationship between PD difficulty and feelings of familiarity more consistent with the metaphor happy valley. This relationship is also consistent with a fluency amplification instead of the hitherto proposed hedonic fluency account of affect along the DHL. Experiment 3 found no evidence that the asymmetry in the profile of PD along the DHL is attributable to a differential processing bias (cf. other-race effect), i.e., processing avatars at a category level but human faces at an individual level. In conclusion, the present data for static faces show clear effects that, however, strongly challenge the UVH' implicitly assumed profile of PD difficulty along the DHL and the predicted relationship between this and feelings of familiarity. PMID:25477829

  1. Segmentation of dance movement: effects of expertise, visual familiarity, motor experience and music

    PubMed Central

    Bläsing, Bettina E.

    2015-01-01

    According to event segmentation theory, action perception depends on sensory cues and prior knowledge, and the segmentation of observed actions is crucial for understanding and memorizing these actions. While most activities in everyday life are characterized by external goals and interaction with objects or persons, this does not necessarily apply to dance-like actions. We investigated to what extent visual familiarity of the observed movement and accompanying music influence the segmentation of a dance phrase in dancers of different skill level and non-dancers. In Experiment 1, dancers and non-dancers repeatedly watched a video clip showing a dancer performing a choreographed dance phrase and indicated segment boundaries by key press. Dancers generally defined less segment boundaries than non-dancers, specifically in the first trials in which visual familiarity with the phrase was low. Music increased the number of segment boundaries in the non-dancers and decreased it in the dancers. The results suggest that dance expertise reduces the number of perceived segment boundaries in an observed dance phrase, and that the ways visual familiarity and music affect movement segmentation are modulated by dance expertise. In a second experiment, motor experience was added as factor, based on empirical evidence suggesting that action perception is modified by visual and motor expertise in different ways. In Experiment 2, the same task as in Experiment 1 was performed by dance amateurs, and was repeated by the same participants after they had learned to dance the presented dance phrase. Less segment boundaries were defined in the middle trials after participants had learned to dance the phrase, and music reduced the number of segment boundaries before learning. The results suggest that specific motor experience of the observed movement influences its perception and anticipation and makes segmentation broader, but not to the same degree as dance expertise on a professional level. PMID:25610409

  2. Electrophysiological correlates associated with contributions of perceptual and conceptual fluency to familiarity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Li, Bingbing; Gao, Chuanji; Xiao, Xin; Guo, Chunyan

    2015-01-01

    The present research manipulated the fluency of unstudied items using masked repetition priming procedures during an explicit recognition test. Based on fluency-attribution accounts, which posit that familiarity can be driven by multiple forms of fluency, the relationship between masked priming-induced fluency and familiarity was investigated. We classified pictographic characters into High-Meaningfulness (High-M) and Low-Meaningfulness (Low-M) categories on the basis of subjective meaningfulness ratings and identified the distinct electrophysiological correlates of perceptual and conceptual fluency. The two types of fluency differed in associated ERP effects: 150–250 ms effects for perceptual fluency and FN400 effects for conceptual fluency. The ERPs of Low-M MP-same (items that were preceded by matching masked items) false alarms were more positive than correct rejections during 150–250 ms, whereas the ERPs of High-M MP-same false alarms were more positive than correct rejections during 300–500 ms. The topographic patterns of FN400 effects between High-M MP-same false alarms and Low-M MP-same false alarms were not different from those of High-M hits and Low-M hits. These results indicate that both forms of fluency can contribute to familiarity, and the neural correlates of conceptual fluency are not different from those of conceptual priming induced by prior study-phase exposure. We conclude that multiple neural signals potentially contribute to recognition memory, such as numerous forms of fluency differing in terms of their time courses. PMID:26097450

  3. Effect of training and familiarity on responsiveness to human cues in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Clare L; Ramos, Mari F

    2014-05-01

    Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) seem to possess an evolved competency to follow human-given cues, often out-performing their wild progenitor the wolf (Canis lupus) on cue-following tasks. However, domestication may not be solely responsible for the socio-cognitive skills of dogs, with ontogenetic experience also playing a role. This research evaluated the effects of intensive training on cue-following behaviour using an unreinforced object-choice paradigm. The responses of dogs that were trained to competitive levels were compared to those of pet dogs with only basic training, and dogs living in an animal shelter that demonstrated no or only rudimentary following of basic commands. Using a cue-following task where three types of cues were presented by familiar and unfamiliar human partners, the number of cues followed by each training group were recorded. All dogs found cues where gesture was combined with a congruent head and eye movement easier to follow than either gesture or eye gaze alone. Whether the cue-giver was familiar or not had a significant effect on number of cues followed in homed dogs, and the performance of shelter dogs was comparable to the other groups when faced with an unfamiliar cue-giver. Contrary to predictions, level of training did not improve performance on the cue-following task. This work does provide support for the presence of an evolved adaptation to exploit social cues provided by humans that can be augmented by familiarity with the cue giver. However, additional joint activity as experienced in an intensive training regime does not seem to increase accuracy in following human-given cues. PMID:24318516

  4. The perception of humans by piglets: recognition of familiar handlers and generalisation to unfamiliar humans.

    PubMed

    Brajon, Sophie; Laforest, Jean-Paul; Bergeron, Renée; Tallet, Céline; Devillers, Nicolas

    2015-11-01

    Humans are part of the environment of domestic animals and interact with them daily, providing a good basis for the study of interspecific relationships. Abilities to discriminate and recognise individuals form the basis of these relationships, and they are crucial skills for domestic animals, since individual humans can differ in their behaviour towards them. At the same time, with experience, animals may develop a general memory of humans and generalise their behaviour towards strangers. This study aimed to determine the extent to which weaned piglets can discriminate familiar humans and generalise their past experience when faced with unfamiliar humans. Forty-eight groups of three piglets were submitted to two consecutive 5-day conditioning periods of the same or opposite valence (positive and/or negative) given by one (A) or two (A then B) handlers. The reactivity of piglets to a motionless human and to an approaching human was measured before and after conditioning periods with unfamiliar and familiar handlers. Thereafter, piglets which received treatments with the two handlers A and B were subjected to a choice test between both handlers. The reactivity to an approaching human appeared to better reflect the past experience with familiar handlers since piglets clearly recognised them and adapted their behaviour accordingly. In contrast, reaction of piglets to a motionless human reflected their natural propensity to seek interaction, even after a negative experience. Although piglets were able to extend their memory of humans to an unfamiliar human through generalisation, many factors seemed to interact in this process, especially the complexity of the previous experience (inconsistent vs consistent) and the context in which piglets met the unfamiliar human (motionless vs approaching). We conclude that discrimination and generalisation processes of reactivity to humans do not simply rely on past interactions, but also depend on the context according to the degree of similitude with their past experience. PMID:26187347

  5. In live interaction, does familiarity promote attraction or contempt? Reply to Norton, Frost, and Ariely (2011).

    PubMed

    Reis, Harry T; Maniaci, Michael R; Caprariello, Peter A; Eastwick, Paul W; Finkel, Eli J

    2011-09-01

    In this reply, we address and refute each of Norton, Frost, and Ariely's (see record 2011-18560-001) specific objections to the conclusion that, ceteris paribus, familiarity breeds liking in live interaction. In particular, we reiterate the importance of studying live interaction rather than decontextualized processes. These rebuttals notwithstanding, we concur with Norton et al.'s call for an integrative model that encompasses both Norton, Frost, and Ariely's (see record 2006-23056-008) results and ours (see record 2011-04644-001), and we point readers toward a description of a possible model presented in our original article. PMID:21859228

  6. Instantánea del cáncer colorrectal

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer colorrectal; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  7. Estadísticas del cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Información básica sobre las estadísticas del cáncer, las cuales describen las tendencias en grupos grandes de personas y ofrecen una imagen a través del tiempo de la carga que representa el cáncer en la sociedad.

  8. “Taller and Shorter”: Human 3-D Spatial Memory Distorts Familiar Multilevel Buildings

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Thomas; Huber, Markus; Schramm, Hannah; Kugler, Günter; Dieterich, Marianne; Glasauer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Animal experiments report contradictory findings on the presence of a behavioural and neuronal anisotropy exhibited in vertical and horizontal capabilities of spatial orientation and navigation. We performed a pointing experiment in humans on the imagined 3-D direction of the location of various invisible goals that were distributed horizontally and vertically in a familiar multilevel hospital building. The 21 participants were employees who had worked for years in this building. The hypothesis was that comparison of the experimentally determined directions and the true directions would reveal systematic inaccuracy or dimensional anisotropy of the localizations. The study provides first evidence that the internal representation of a familiar multilevel building was distorted compared to the dimensions of the true building: vertically 215% taller and horizontally 51% shorter. This was not only demonstrated in the mathematical reconstruction of the mental model based on the analysis of the pointing experiments but also by the participants’ drawings of the front view and the ground plan of the building. Thus, in the mental model both planes were altered in different directions: compressed for the horizontal floor plane and stretched for the vertical column plane. This could be related to human anisotropic behavioural performance of horizontal and vertical navigation in such buildings. PMID:26509927

  9. A memory-retrieval view of discourse representation: The recollection and familiarity of text ideas

    PubMed Central

    Long, Debra L.; Johns, Clinton L.; Jonathan, Eunike

    2015-01-01

    According to most theories of text comprehension, readers construct and store in memory at least two inter-related representations: a text base containing the explicit ideas in a text and a discourse model that contains the overall meaning or “gist” of a text. The authors propose a refinement of this view in which text representations are distinguished by both encoding and retrieval processes. Some encoding processes “unitize” concepts in a text and some “relate” units to one another. Units are retrieved based on familiarity processes in recognition, whereas related units are retrieved based on recollective processes. This distinction was tested in two experiments. In Experiment 1, readers comprehended sentence pairs in which some could be related by means of a causal inference, whereas others were only temporally related. Overall recognition was high in both conditions, but recollection, much more than familiarity, was sensitive to the causal manipulation. In Experiment 2, sentences began with a definite article as a linguistic cue to connect noun phrases or began with an indefinite article. The discourse manipulation had its primary influence on recollection. The authors suggest that the discourse model may be a collection of text ideas that are available to consciousness at retrieval. The gist-level representation of a text may not be a pre-stored structure; rather, it may be generated, in part, as a summary description of recollected text ideas. PMID:26052170

  10. Testosterone response to competition in males is unrelated to opponent familiarity or threat appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Gonçalo A.; Uceda, Sara; Oliveira, Tânia F.; Fernandes, Alexandre C.; Garcia-Marques, Teresa; Oliveira, Rui F.

    2014-01-01

    It has been proposed in the literature that the testosterone (T) response to competition in humans may be modulated by cognitive variables. In a previous experiment with a female sample we have reported that opponent familiarity and threat appraisal moderated the T response to competition in women. With this experiment we aim to investigate if these variables have the same impact on males T response to competition, extending the previous findings in our lab. Forty male participants (20 dyads) were recruited to engage in a same sex, face to face competition using the Number Tracking Test as a competitive task. Levels of T, cortisol (C) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were measured before and 20 min after the competition. Results show that losers report higher levels of threat than winners and increased their T levels after the competition, however this T change was not predicted by opponent familiarity or threat appraisal. No variation was detected for C and DHEA levels. These findings suggest that there could be sex differences for the moderators/mediators of the T response to competition in humans. PMID:25404923

  11. Kindergarten food familiarization. An exploratory study of teachers' perspectives on food and nutrition in kindergartens.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Meghan

    2015-04-01

    This exploratory study employed a netnographic approach (netnography being a research methodology that adopts the practices of ethnography in an Internet-based setting) to reveal opportunities for kindergarten food familiarization. The study analyses kindergarten teachers' discussions on seven Internet message boards regarding the various food and nutrition experiences in their classes. Semi-structured interviews were then conducted with seven kindergarten teachers to explore further the message board findings. Five opportunities for how food familiarization occurs in kindergartens emerged from the analysis. These opportunities were categorized as being either "overt": (1) nutrition lessons, (2) snack times, (3) cooking experiences, or "covert" (4) food as teaching materials, and (5) dramatic play centres. Overt refers to any opportunity centred on food, healthy eating, or nutrition, whereas covert refers to opportunities where food was involved but in a non-exclusive manner. The five opportunities are examined and discussed in terms of their implications for children's food preference development. Results should be useful for future researchers for two main reasons. First, the results demonstrate the wide variety of food and nutrition experiences kindergarten students encounter throughout the day, beyond healthy eating interventions or foods served during meals. And second, because the findings are preliminary they require further research using various methods of data collection and samples of teachers. PMID:25526827

  12. "Taller and Shorter": Human 3-D Spatial Memory Distorts Familiar Multilevel Buildings.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Thomas; Huber, Markus; Schramm, Hannah; Kugler, Günter; Dieterich, Marianne; Glasauer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Animal experiments report contradictory findings on the presence of a behavioural and neuronal anisotropy exhibited in vertical and horizontal capabilities of spatial orientation and navigation. We performed a pointing experiment in humans on the imagined 3-D direction of the location of various invisible goals that were distributed horizontally and vertically in a familiar multilevel hospital building. The 21 participants were employees who had worked for years in this building. The hypothesis was that comparison of the experimentally determined directions and the true directions would reveal systematic inaccuracy or dimensional anisotropy of the localizations. The study provides first evidence that the internal representation of a familiar multilevel building was distorted compared to the dimensions of the true building: vertically 215% taller and horizontally 51% shorter. This was not only demonstrated in the mathematical reconstruction of the mental model based on the analysis of the pointing experiments but also by the participants' drawings of the front view and the ground plan of the building. Thus, in the mental model both planes were altered in different directions: compressed for the horizontal floor plane and stretched for the vertical column plane. This could be related to human anisotropic behavioural performance of horizontal and vertical navigation in such buildings. PMID:26509927

  13. Cold-Pressor Stress After Learning Enhances Familiarity-Based Recognition Memory in Men

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Andrew M.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.

    2013-01-01

    Stress that is experienced after items have been encoded into memory can protect memories from the effects of forgetting. However, very little is known about how stress impacts recognition memory. The current study investigated how an aversive laboratory stressor (i.e., the cold-pressor test) that occurs after information has been encoded into memory affects subsequent recognition memory in an immediate and a delayed test (i.e., 2-hour and 3-month retention interval). Recognition was assessed for negative and neutral photographs using a hybrid remember/know confidence procedure in order to characterize overall performance and to separate recollection- and familiarity-based responses. The results indicated that relative to a non-stress control condition, post-encoding stress significantly improved familiarity but not recollection-based recognition memory or free recall. The beneficial effects of stress were observed in males for negative and neutral materials at both immediate and long-term delays, but were not significant in females. The results indicate that aversive stress can have long-lasting beneficial effects on the memory strength of information encountered prior to the stressful event. PMID:23823181

  14. Exploring the influence of cultural familiarity and expertise on neurological responses to music.

    PubMed

    Demorest, Steven M; Morrison, Steven J

    2003-11-01

    Contemporary music education in many countries has begun to incorporate not only the dominant music of the culture, but also a variety of music from around the world. Although the desirability of such a broadened curriculum is virtually unquestioned, the specific function of these musical encounters and their potential role in children's cognitive development remain unclear. We do not know if studying a variety of world music traditions involves the acquisition of new skills or an extension and refinement of traditional skills long addressed by music teachers. Is a student's familiarity with a variety of musical traditions a manifestation of a single overarching "musicianship" or is knowledge of these various musical styles more similar to a collection of discrete skills much like learning a second language? Research on the comprehension of spoken language has disclosed a neurologically distinct response among subjects listening to their native language rather than an unfamiliar language. In a recent study comparing Western subjects' responses to music of their native culture and music of an unfamiliar culture, we found that subjects' activation did not differ on the basis of the cultural familiarity of the music, but on the basis of musical expertise. We discuss possible interpretations of these findings in relation to the concept of musical universals, cross-cultural stimulus characteristics, cross-cultural judgment tasks, and the influence of musical expertise. We conclude with suggestions for future research. PMID:14681123

  15. Use of a Green Familiar Faces Paradigm Improves P300-Speller Brain-Computer Interface Performance

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qi; Liu, Shuai; Li, Jian; Bai, Ou

    2015-01-01

    Background A recent study showed improved performance of the P300-speller when the flashing row or column was overlaid with translucent pictures of familiar faces (FF spelling paradigm). However, the performance of the P300-speller is not yet satisfactory due to its low classification accuracy and information transfer rate. Objective To investigate whether P300-speller performance is further improved when the chromatic property and the FF spelling paradigm are combined. Methods We proposed a new spelling paradigm in which the flashing row or column is overlaid with translucent green pictures of familiar faces (GFF spelling paradigm). We analyzed the ERP waveforms elicited by the FF and proposed GFF spelling paradigms and compared P300-speller performance between the two paradigms. Results Significant differences in the amplitudes of four ERP components (N170, VPP, P300, and P600f) were observed between both spelling paradigms. Compared to the FF spelling paradigm, the GFF spelling paradigm elicited ERP waveforms of higher amplitudes and resulted in improved P300-speller performance. Conclusions Combining the chromatic property (green color) and the FF spelling paradigm led to better classification accuracy and an increased information transfer rate. These findings demonstrate a promising new approach for improving the performance of the P300-speller. PMID:26087308

  16. An Efficient ERP-Based Brain-Computer Interface Using Random Set Presentation and Face Familiarity

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Klaus-Robert; Lee, Seong-Whan

    2014-01-01

    Event-related potential (ERP)-based P300 spellers are commonly used in the field of brain-computer interfaces as an alternative channel of communication for people with severe neuro-muscular diseases. This study introduces a novel P300 based brain-computer interface (BCI) stimulus paradigm using a random set presentation pattern and exploiting the effects of face familiarity. The effect of face familiarity is widely studied in the cognitive neurosciences and has recently been addressed for the purpose of BCI. In this study we compare P300-based BCI performances of a conventional row-column (RC)-based paradigm with our approach that combines a random set presentation paradigm with (non-) self-face stimuli. Our experimental results indicate stronger deflections of the ERPs in response to face stimuli, which are further enhanced when using the self-face images, and thereby improving P300-based spelling performance. This lead to a significant reduction of stimulus sequences required for correct character classification. These findings demonstrate a promising new approach for improving the speed and thus fluency of BCI-enhanced communication with the widely used P300-based BCI setup. PMID:25384045

  17. Feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary outcomes of the Fortalezas Familiares intervention for Latino families facing maternal depression

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Carmen R.; Padilla, Brian; Moore, Sarah; Magaña, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary outcomes of a linguistically- and culturally-adapted intervention for immigrant Latina mothers with depression and their families. Fortalezas Familiares (Family Strengths) is a community-based, 12-week, multi-family group intervention that aims to increase communication about family processes leading up to and affected by the mother’s depression, build child coping and efficacy, enhance parenting competence and skills, and promote cultural and social assets within the family. In terms of feasibility, of 16 families who enrolled and participated in the intervention, 13 families attended more than 90% of meetings and completed the intervention. Post-tests reported positive changes following the intervention, including improved psychological functioning, increased family and marital support, and enhanced family functioning, as reported by mothers and other caregivers. Mothers also reported decreased conduct and hyperactivity problems among their children. Children reported positive changes in their psychological functioning and coping, peer relations, parenting warmth and acceptance, and overall family functioning. Post-intervention focus groups and surveys measuring acceptability revealed families’ satisfaction with the intervention and suggested areas of improvement. We discuss similarities and differences in outcomes between the adapted intervention, Fortalezas Familiares, and the original intervention, Keeping Families Strong, and propose future areas of intervention adaptation and development. PMID:24033238

  18. Assessing recollection and familiarity of similar lures in a behavioral pattern separation task.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jennifer; Yassa, Michael A

    2013-04-01

    The relationship between recollection-mediated recognition memory and behavioral pattern separation is poorly understood. In two separate experiments, we modified a well-validated object discrimination task with previously demonstrated sensitivity to neural pattern separation with instructions to assess recollection and familiarity. In the first experiment, we included a Remember/Know (R/K) judgment, and in the second we included a source memory judgment. We found that both "Remember" and correct source judgments were higher for lures labeled "similar" (where pattern separation is engaged) but also higher on lures called "old" (where pattern separation is absent), suggesting that false alarms in pattern separation tasks are frequently mediated by recollection. As one might expect, "Remember" judgments and correct source decisions increased with greater dissimilarity for "similar" responses and increased with greater similarity for "old" responses. This suggests that recollection can occur in the presence and in the absence of pattern separation and that false alarms to similar lures are not simply driven by familiarity. PMID:23401187

  19. Drug-scene familiarity and exposure to gang violence among residents in a rural farming community in Baja California, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Volkmann, Tyson; Fraga, Miguel A.; Brodine, Stephanie K.; Iñiguez-Stevens, Esmeralda; Cepeda, Alice; Elder, John P.; Garfein, Richard S.

    2012-01-01

    We examined drug-scene familiarity and exposure to gang violence among residents of a migrant farming community in rural Baja California, Mexico. In October 2010, 164 members of a single colonia (community) underwent an interviewer-administered survey to assess ‘exposure to gang violence’ and ‘drug-scene familiarity’, as well as other health indicators. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of exposure to gang violence. Overall, 20% of participants were male, the median age was 27 years, 24% spoke an indigenous language, 42% reported exposure to gang violence, and 39% reported drug-scene familiarity. Factors independently associated with exposure to gang violence included being younger (AOR=0.80 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=0.67–0.96), living in the community longer (AOR=1.47 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=1.11–1.72), higher educational attainment (AOR=1.70 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=1.07–1.12), and drug-scene familiarity (AOR=5.10, 95%CI=2.39–10.89). Exposure to gang violence was very common in this community and was associated with drug-scene familiarity, suggesting a close relationship between drugs and gang violence in this rural community. In a region characterised by mass migration from poorer parts of Mexico, where drugs and gangs have not been previously reported, emerging social harms may affect these communities unless interventions are implemented. PMID:23072623

  20. Modulation of cortical activity during comprehension of familiar and unfamiliar text topics in speed reading and speed listening.

    PubMed

    Buchweitz, Augusto; Mason, Robert A; Meschyan, Gayane; Keller, Timothy A; Just, Marcel Adam

    2014-12-01

    Brain activation associated with normal and speeded comprehension of expository texts on familiar and unfamiliar topics was investigated in reading and listening. The goal was to determine how brain activation and the comprehension processes it reflects are modulated by comprehension speed and topic familiarity. Passages on more familiar topics differentially activated a set of areas in the anterior temporal lobe and medial frontal gyrus, areas often associated with text-level integration processes, which we interpret to reflect integration of previous knowledge with the passage content. Passages presented at the faster presentation resulted in more activation of a network of frontal areas associated with strategic and working-memory processes (as well as visual or auditory sensory-related regions), which we interpret to reflect maintenance of local coherence among briefly available passage segments. The implications of this research is that the brain system for text comprehension adapts to varying perceptual and knowledge conditions. PMID:25463816

  1. Cortisol Reactivity, Maternal Sensitivity, and Infant Preference for Mother's Familiar Face and Rhyme in 6-Month-Old Infants

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Laura A.; Trevathan, Wenda R.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated how cortisol (stress) reactivity and mothers' behavioral sensitivity affect familiarity preferences in 6-month-old infants. Relations between sensitivity and stress were explored using saliva samples taken from mothers and infants before, and 20-min after, two preferential looking experiments. Photographs and voice recordings from infants' mothers were incorporated into standard visual preference tasks. Sensitivity was assessed by determining the degree of behavioral synchrony between mother and infant from a 10-min interaction period preceding the preferential looking experiments. Results showed that decreasing infant cortisol reactivity and greater maternal sensitivity were associated with familiarity preferences for mother's face stimuli. For the experiment with voice stimuli, a sex difference was obtained in the relationship between the directionality of cortisol reactivity and familiarity preferences. Results are related to a parallel study with 3-month-old infants (Thompson & Trevathan, 2008), and issues are discussed in terms of infants' developing emotional independence from mother. PMID:20046939

  2. All new kids on the block? Personally familiar face processing in a case of pure prosopagnosia following brain damage.

    PubMed

    Ramon, Meike; Busigny, Thomas; Gosselin, Frederic; Rossion, Bruno

    2015-09-01

    Studies of patients with acquired prosopagnosia (AP) have provided invaluable information about human face processing. However, while patients typically complain of familiar face recognition impairments, these studies generally involved processing of unfamiliar faces. Here we conducted a series of 19 behavioral experiments to investigate personally familiar face processing (identification, forced-choice recognition) in PS, a pure case of AP, and her colleagues using faces of the children they supervised in a kindergarten. Stimulus manipulations included variations in the availability of external, color and spatial frequency information, as well as stimulus similarity and spatial location of diagnostic information using anti-caricatures and the response classification technique 'Bubbles', respectively. Further experiments assessed the extent to which facial information was perceived inter-dependently (e.g. whole-part advantage, composite face effect, global facial geometry). Across experiments, PS relied more heavily on the availability of local details as compared to normal controls, and exhibited deficient processing of the overall facial configuration of familiar faces and of the eye region. Although the use of familiar faces led to particularly robust effects and dissociations between the patient and normal controls, these findings parallel observations in PS and other AP patients made previously using unfamiliar faces. We suggest that PS's deficient representation of the eye region arises because it contains multiple features over a small space, and its diagnosticity is heavily dependent on the ability to integrate this information simultaneously (i.e., holistic perception). These observations support the hypothesis that AP is associated with a loss of holistic face perception, which affects both the processing of unfamiliar and familiar faces. More generally, they do not support the view that familiar an unfamiliar face processing differ qualitatively in AP. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26326893

  3. A visual-familiarity account of evidence for orthographic processing in baboons (Papio papio).

    PubMed

    Vokey, John R; Jamieson, Randall K

    2014-04-01

    Grainger, Dufau, Montant, Ziegler, and Fagot (2012a) taught 6 baboons to discriminate words from nonwords in an analogue of the lexical decision task. The baboons more readily identified novel words than novel nonwords as words, and they had difficulty rejecting nonwords that were orthographically similar to learned words. In a subsequent test (Ziegler, Hannagan, et al., 2013), responses from the same animals evinced a transposed-letter effect. These three effects, when seen in skilled human readers, are taken as hallmarks of orthographic processing. We show, by simulation of the unique learning trajectory of each baboon, that the results can be interpreted equally well as an example of simple, familiarity-based discrimination of pixel maps without orthographic processing. PMID:24503872

  4. STS-95 P.S. Glenn participates in a SPACEHAB familiarization exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-95 Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., who also is a senator from Ohio, works with the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) experiment which will be flown on the mission. Glenn and other STS-95 crew members were at KSC and the adjacent SPACEHAB Payload Processing Facility in Cape Canaveral to familiarize themselves with the payloads which will fly on the mission. STS-95 will feature a variety of research payloads, including the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, and experiments on space flight and the aging process. STS-95 is targeted for an Oct. 29 launch aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery.

  5. Differences in how monolingual and bilingual children learn second labels for familiar objects.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Lindsey; Jacobson, Rebecca; Saylor, Megan M

    2015-11-01

    Monolingual children sometimes resist learning second labels for familiar objects. One explanation is that they are guided by word learning constraints that lead to the assumption that objects have only one name. It is less clear whether bilingual children observe this constraint. In the current study, we test the hypothesis that bilingual children might be more willing to accept second labels for objects and ask how they are affected by different amounts of information relevant to the second label. Although monolingual and bilingual children benefited from increased levels of information, only bilingual children chose the referent at above chance levels when they were offered increased levels of information. They were also more likely than monolingual children to accept second labels. Differences emerged even when English language vocabulary size was controlled for in the analyses. PMID:25630837

  6. Associative and familiarity-based effects of environmental context on memory.

    PubMed

    Hockley, William E; Bancroft, Tyler D; Bryant, Elizabeth

    2012-06-01

    Previous research has shown that hit and false alarm rates and claims of remembering are greater when test items are shown in the same context that was present at study. In the present article, the effects of environmental context (photographs of scenes shown in the background) were evaluated in a yes-no recognition task when context was manipulated on the computer screen compared with when subjects were wearing virtual reality glasses (Experiment 1), in a forced-choice recognition task to address the question of criterion changes (Experiment 2), and in a free-recall task (Experiment 3) to address the issue of generality. The results show that both specific item-context associations and the familiarity of an old context influence memory performance. We suggest that the effects of environmental context are like other instances of reconstructive memory and can both support and distort recognition memory. PMID:22686156

  7. Preguntas y respuestas acerca del Estudio del

    Cancer.gov

    El Estudio del Tamoxifeno y Raloxifeno (STAR, por sus siglas en ingls) es un estudio clnico (un estudio de investigacin conducido con voluntarios) diseado para ver cómo el medicamento raloxifeno (Evista) se compara con el medicamento tamoxifeno (Nolvadex)

  8. Disentangling the influence of salience and familiarity on infant word learning: methodological advances

    PubMed Central

    Bortfeld, Heather; Shaw, Katie; Depowski, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    The initial stages of language learning involve a critical interaction between infants' environmental experience and their developing brains. The past several decades of research have produced important behavioral evidence of the many factors influencing this process, both on the part of the child and on the part of the environment that the child is in. The application of neurophysiological techniques to the study of early development has been augmenting these findings at a rapid pace. While the result is an accrual of data bridging the gap between brain and behavior, much work remains to make the link between behavioral evidence of infants' emerging sensitivities and neurophysiological evidence of changes in how their brains process information. Here we review the background behavioral data on how salience and familiarity in the auditory signal shape initial language learning. We follow this with a summary of more recent evidence of changes in infants' brain activity in response to specific aspects of speech. Our goal is to examine language learning through the lens of brain/environment interactions, ultimately focusing on changes in cortical processing of speech across the first year of life. We will ground our examination of recent brain data in the two auditory features initially outlined: salience and familiarity. Our own and others' findings on the influence of these two features reveal that they are key parameters in infants' emerging recognition of structure in the speech signal. Importantly, the evidence we review makes the critical link between behavioral and brain data. We discuss the importance of future work that makes this bridge as a means of moving the study of language development solidly into the domain of brain science. PMID:23616775

  9. Familiarity Bias and Physiological Responses in Contagious Yawning by Dogs Support Link to Empathy

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Teresa; Konno, Akitsugu; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2013-01-01

    In humans, the susceptibility to yawn contagion has been theoretically and empirically related to our capacity for empathy. Because of its relevance to evolutionary biology, this phenomenon has been the focus of recent investigations in non-human species. In line with the empathic hypothesis, contagious yawning has been shown to correlate with the level of social attachment in several primate species. Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) have also shown the ability to yawn contagiously. To date, however, the social modulation of dog contagious yawning has received contradictory support and alternative explanations (i.e., yawn as a mild distress response) could explain positive evidence. The present study aims to replicate contagious yawning in dogs and to discriminate between the two possible mediating mechanisms (i.e., empathic vs. distress related response). Twenty-five dogs observed familiar (dog’s owner) and unfamiliar human models (experimenter) acting out a yawn or control mouth movements. Concurrent physiological measures (heart rate) were additionally monitored for twenty-one of the subjects. The occurrence of yawn contagion was significantly higher during the yawning condition than during the control mouth movements. Furthermore, the dogs yawned more frequently when watching the familiar model than the unfamiliar one demonstrating that the contagiousness of yawning in dogs correlated with the level of emotional proximity. Moreover, subjects’ heart rate did not differ among conditions suggesting that the phenomenon of contagious yawning in dogs is unrelated to stressful events. Our findings are consistent with the view that contagious yawning is modulated by affective components of the behavior and may indicate that rudimentary forms of empathy could be present in domesticated dogs. PMID:23951146

  10. The Role of Book Familiarity and Book Type on Mothers' Reading Strategies and Toddlers' Responsiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Kathryn L.; Finch, W. Holmes

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine how maternal reading strategies and book type would impact on toddlers' responsiveness as they became familiar with three books. Eleven mothers and their 2- to 3-year-olds were recorded reading the same set of three different books (i.e. word book, narrative book and no narrative book) on four…

  11. Presenting in a dome We invite all our presenters to read this document and familiarize themselves with the presentation

    E-print Network

    Peletier, Reynier

    Presenting in a dome We invite all our presenters to read this document and familiarize themselves with the presentation possibilities available at our unique conference venue - the 3D fulldome theater Infoversum. Standard presentations Our dome is equipped with a set up consisting of a PC computer (Windows 7

  12. The First Slow Step: Differential Effects of Object and Word-Form Familiarization on Retention of Fast-Mapped Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucker, Sarah C.; Samuelson, Larissa K.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research demonstrated that although 24-month-old infants do well on the initial pairing of a novel word and novel object in fast-mapping tasks, they are unable to retain the mapping after a 5 min delay. The current study examines the role of familiarity with the objects and words on infants' ability to bridge between the initial fast…

  13. The contribution of familiarity to recognition memory is a function of test format when using similar foils

    PubMed Central

    Migo, Ellen; Montaldi, Daniela; Norman, Kenneth A.; Quamme, Joel; Mayes, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Patient Y.R., who suffered hippocampal damage that disrupted recollection but not familiarity, was impaired on a yes/no (YN) object recognition memory test with similar foils. However, she was not impaired on a forced-choice corresponding (FCC) version of the test that paired targets with corresponding similar foils (Holdstock et al. 2002). This dissociation is explained by the Complementary Learning Systems (CLS) neural-network model (Norman & O'Reilly 2003) if recollection is impaired but familiarity is preserved. The CLS model also predicts that participants relying exclusively on familiarity should be impaired on forced-choice non-corresponding (FCNC) tests, where targets are presented with foils similar to other targets. The present study tests these predictions for all three test formats (YN, FCC, FCNC) in normal participants using two variants of the remember/know procedure. As predicted, performance using familiarity alone was significantly worse than standard recognition on the YN and FCNC tests, but not on the FCC test. Recollection in the form of recall-to-reject was the major process driving YN recognition. This adds support to the interpretation of patient data according to which, hippocampal damage causes a recollection deficit that leads to poor performance on the YN test relative to FCC. PMID:19096990

  14. The Effects of Unitization on Familiarity-Based Source Memory: Testing a Behavioral Prediction Derived From Neuroimaging Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diana, Rachel A.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.; Ranganath, Charan

    2008-01-01

    Performance on tests of source memory is typically based on recollection of contextual information associated with an item. However, recent neuroimaging results have suggested that the perirhinal cortex, a region thought to support familiarity-based item recognition, may support source attributions if source information is encoded as a feature of…

  15. Derechos Bsicos de Ausencia La Ley de Ausencia Familiar y Mdica (FMLA-por sus siglas en ingls) exige

    E-print Network

    Barr, Maureen

    Derechos Básicos de Ausencia La Ley de Ausencia Familiar y Médica (FMLA-por sus siglas en inglés condición de salud seria que le impida al empleado desempeñar su puesto. Derechos de Ausencia Para Familias avisado de una llamada a estado de servicio activo bajo cobertura pueden usar su derecho de ausencia de 12

  16. LUABAB: Leeds University Angry Birds Artificial Brain Many of you will be familiar with the popular Angry

    E-print Network

    Bennett, Brandon

    LUABAB: Leeds University Angry Birds Artificial Brain Many of you will be familiar with the popular in undergrad modules and studied at research level in the Leeds School of Computing. Several students in the Leeds School of Computing have done projects based on AI Birds (Johnathan Cook BSc, Ed Worthy MEng

  17. Children’s level of word knowledge predicts their exclusion of familiar objects as referents of novel words

    PubMed Central

    Grassmann, Susanne; Schulze, Cornelia; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-01-01

    When children are learning a novel object label, they tend to exclude as possible referents familiar objects for which they already have a name. In the current study, we wanted to know if children would behave in this same way regardless of how well they knew the name of potential referent objects, specifically, whether they could only comprehend it or they could both comprehend and produce it. Sixty-six monolingual German-speaking 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old children participated in two experimental sessions. In one session the familiar objects were chosen such that their labels were in the children’s productive vocabularies, and in the other session the familiar objects were chosen such that their labels were only in the children’s receptive vocabularies. Results indicated that children at all three ages were more likely to exclude a familiar object as the potential referent of the novel word if they could comprehend and produce its name rather than comprehend its name only. Indeed, level of word knowledge as operationalized in this way was a better predictor than was age. These results are discussed in the context of current theories of word learning by exclusion. PMID:26322005

  18. The Relationship between Children's Familiarity with Numbers and Their Performance in Bounded and Unbounded Number Line Estimations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebersbach, Mirjam; Luwel, Koen; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2015-01-01

    Children's estimation skills on a bounded and unbounded number line task were assessed in the light of their familiarity with numbers. Kindergartners, first graders, and second graders (N = 120) estimated the position of numbers on a 1--100 number line, marked with either two reference points (i.e., 1 and 10: unbounded condition) or three…

  19. When We like What We Know--A Parametric fMRI Analysis of Beauty and Familiarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohrn, Isabel C.; Altmann, Ulrike; Lubrich, Oliver; Menninghaus, Winfried; Jacobs, Arthur M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a neuroscientific study of aesthetic judgments on written texts. In an fMRI experiment participants read a number of proverbs without explicitly evaluating them. In a post-scan rating they rated each item for familiarity and beauty. These individual ratings were correlated with the functional data to investigate the neural…

  20. Exploring the Role of Bases and Suffixes when Reading Familiar and Unfamiliar Words: Evidence from French Young Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quemart, Pauline; Casalis, Severine; Duncan, Lynne G.

    2012-01-01

    We examined whether French third- and fifth-grade children rely on morphemes when recognizing words and whether this reliance depends on word familiarity. We manipulated the presence of bases and suffixes in words and pseudowords to compare their contribution in a lexical decision task. Both bases and suffixes facilitated word reading accuracy and…