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1

Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer - 07-20-2010  

Cancer.gov

El doctor Harold Varmus, acompañado de su esposa Constance Casey (centro), presta juramento como director del NCI ante la Secretaria del Departamento de Salud y Servicios Humanos, Kathleen Sebelius, el lunes 12 de julio. (Foto cortesía de Chris Smith) El 12 de julio, el doctor Harold Varmus prestó juramento ante la Secretaria del Departamento de Salud y Servicios Humanos de los Estados Unidos, Kathleen Sebelios, como el decimocuarto director del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer.

2

Ayuda para usar el sitio web en español del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer  

Cancer.gov

Página de guía que le permite al lector entender la forma en que está organizado el sitio web del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI), las categorías de información disponibles y las políticas que rigen este sitio web.

3

Declaración del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer sobre los exámenes selectivos de detección de cáncer de seno  

Cancer.gov

El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) agradece la cuidadosa revisión y análisis que ha hecho la Brigada de Servicios Preventivos de los Estados Unidos de la evidencia con respecto a los exámenes de detección de cáncer de seno para mujeres que tienen un riesgo del promedio.Preguntas y Repuestas

4

Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer - 02-02-2010  

Cancer.gov

En un estudio clínico en fase inicial que probó una vacuna terapéutica en pacientes con leucemia mieloide crónica (LMC) que tomaban el fármaco imatinib (Gleevec), no se pudieron detectar células cancerosas en 7 de los 19 participantes por un tiempo promedio de 22 meses. Los resultados del estudio fueron publicados en el número del 1º de enero de la revista Clinical Cancer Research.

5

Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer - 27 de marzo de 2012  

Cancer.gov

Le invitamos a que comparta esta publicación con sus amigos, familiares y colegas y nos ayude a continuar nuestra misión de difundir las investigaciones más recientes sobre la prevención, el tratamiento y la información del cáncer.

6

El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer publica nuevo atlas de mortalidad por cáncer  

Cancer.gov

El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI, por sus siglas en inglés) ha publicado un nuevo atlas, el Atlas de Mortalidad por Cáncer en los Estados Unidos, 1950-94, que muestra los patrones geográficos de las tasas de mortalidad por cáncer durante más de cuatro décadas, en más de 3.000 condados a lo largo del país.

7

Control del cáncer y salud mundial: noticia del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI)  

Cancer.gov

En combinación con una reunión de alto nivel de las Naciones Unidas sobre enfermedades no transmisibles en países en vías de desarrollo, el doctor Harold Varmus, director del NCI, y el doctor Ted L. Trimble, del NCI, han publicado un comentario en Science Translational Medicine sobre “La integración del control del cáncer en la salud mundial" (Integrating Cancer Control into Global Health).

8

Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer - 3 de enero de 2012  

Cancer.gov

Dra. Rachel Ballard-Barbash Nuevos indicios del papel de la obesidad en el cáncer A medida que ha aumentado la prevalencia de la obesidad alrededor del mundo, se ha incrementado también la preocupación sobre sus consecuencias en la salud pública. Los índices de obesidad se han más que duplicado desde 1980, según la Organización Mundial de la Salud.

9

Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer - 31 de enero de 2012  

Cancer.gov

Dr. Nils Daulaire Salud mundial a través de la colaboración y el liderazgo Para conmemorar el Día Mundial del Cáncer que tuvo lugar el 4 febrero, el doctor Nils Daulaire, director de la Oficina de Asuntos Internacionales del Departamento de Salud y Servicios Humanos de los Estados Unidos habla sobre las razones por las cuales los Estados Unidos deben participar en iniciativas para mejorar la salud mundial.

10

FUNCIONAMIENTO Y COMUNICACIÓN FAMILIAR Y CONSUMO DE SUSTANCIAS EN LA ADOLESCENCIA: EL ROL MEDIADOR DEL APOYO SOCIAL1  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN En el presente estudio se analiza el apoyo social como un recurso protector para el ajuste de los adolescentes. Concretamente, se estudian tanto los efectos directos como los mediadores del apoyo social entre las características de funcionamiento y comunicación familiar y el consumo de sustancias de los adolescentes. Con este objetivo, 431 chicos y chicas de 15 a 17

Teresa Isabel Jiménez; Gonzalo Musitu; Sergio Murgui

2006-01-01

11

Frequency of cancer in children residing in Mexico City and treated in the hospitals of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (1996-2001)  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this article is to present the frequency of cancer in Mexican children who were treated in the hospitals of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social in Mexico City (IMSS-MC) in the period 1996–2001. Methods The Registry of Cancer in Children, started in 1996 in the IMSS-MC, is an on-going, prospective register. The data from 1996 through 2001 were analyzed and the different types of cancer were grouped according to the International Classification for Cancer in Children (ICCC). From this analysis, the general and specific frequencies by age and by sex were obtained for the different groups of neoplasms. Also, the frequency of the stage of the disease that had been diagnosed in cases of children with solid tumors was obtained. Results A total of 1,702 new cases of children with cancer were registered, with the male/female ratio at 1.1/1. Leukemias had the highest frequency with 784 cases (46.1%) and, of these, acute lymphoblastic leukemias were the most prevalent with 614 cases (78.3%). Thereafter, in descending order of frequency, were tumors of the central nervous system (CNST) with 197 cases (11.6%), lymphomas with 194 cases (11.4%), germinal cell tumors with 110 cases (6.5%), and bone tumors with 97 cases (5.7%). The highest frequency of cancer was found in the group of one to four year-olds that had 627 cases (36.8%). In all the age groups, leukemias were the most frequent. In the present work, the frequency of Hodgkin's disease (~4%) was found to be lower than that (~10%) in previous studies and the frequency of tumors of the sympathetic nervous system was low (2.3%). Of those cases of solid tumors for which the stage of the disease had been determined, 66.9% were diagnosed as being Stage III or IV. Conclusions The principal cancers in the children treated in the IMSS-MC were leukemias, CNST, and lymphomas, consistent with those reported by developed countries. A 2.5-fold reduction in the frequency of Hodgkin's disease was found. Of the children, the stage of whose disease had been determined, two thirds were diagnosed as having advanced stages of the disease.

Juarez-Ocana, Servando; Gonzalez-Miranda, Guadalupe; Mejia-Arangure, Juan Manuel; Rendon-Macias, Mario Enrique; Martinez-Garcia, Maria del Carmen; Fajardo-Gutierrez, Arturo

2004-01-01

12

O PROCESSO HISTÓRICO DO ARQUÉTIPO FAMILIAR CONTEMPORÂNEO E A INVENÇÃO DO INCESTO THE HISTORICAL PROCESS OF THE FAMILY ARCHETYPE COMTEMPORARY AND THE INCEST INVENTION EL PROCESO HISTÓRICO DEL ARQUÉTIPO FAMILIAR CONTEMPORÁNEO Y LA INVENCIÓN DEL INCESTO  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: RESUMO: RESUMO: RESUMO: RESUMO: O incesto emerge na atualidade como problema de saúde, já que é definido como situação de violência sexual. O objetivo deste artigo é refletir acerca do caráter natural da gênese do incesto, contextualizando-o nas narrativas históricas familiares. Trata-se de pesquisa bibliográfica buscando aportes de autores com discussão sobre família. Como resultados, expõem-se as inter-relações entre

Solano LC; Queiroz JC; Carvalho FPV; Timóteo RPS; Monteiro AI

2009-01-01

13

Estudio de los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud indica que quienes toman café tienen un riesgo menor de muerte  

Cancer.gov

Los adultos mayores que tomaron café, con o sin cafeína, tuvieron un riesgo menor de muerte en general que quienes no tomaron café, según un estudio llevado a cabo por investigadores del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI), parte de los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud, y por la Asociación Estadounidense de Personas Jubiladas (AARP).

14

Atlas del Genoma del Cáncer  

Cancer.gov

El Atlas del Genoma del Cáncer es una iniciativa de los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud (NIH) para crear mapas multidimensionales completos de los cambios genómicos clave en los tipos y subtipos principales de cáncer.

15

GEOGENIC ARSENIC IN SHALLOW AQUIFERS OF RÍO DULCE ALLUVIAL CONE SANTIAGO DEL ESTERO PROVINCE, NW ARGENTINA J. BUNDSCHUH, Ph. D. Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE), Associate to Universidad Nacional de Santiago del Estero (UNSE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geogenic arsenic (As) is reported in groundwaters from the shallow aquifers in different parts of the Chaco-Pampean Plain, Argentina. Río Dulce alluvial cone in Santiago del Estero Province (NW Argentina) was selected as an area to investigate the complex hydrological and geochemical conditions that control the distribution and mobilization of As in groundwater from these shallow alluvial aquifers. Average total

Apartado Postal; P. BHATTACHARYA; D. M. CLAESSON; J. FAGERBERG

16

LA ESTRATEGIA DE INTERNACIONALIZACIÓN DE LA PEQUEÑA EMPRESA FAMILIAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este trabajo estudia la internacionalización de las empresas familiares. A partir del enfoque de la empresa basado en los recursos, se analiza qué problemas plantea la propiedad familiar para obtener una cantera de recursos adecuada para sustentar la salida a los mercados internacionales. A partir de ahí, el contraste empírico confirma la existencia de una relación negativa entre propiedad familiar

Zulima Fernández; María Jesús Nieto

2002-01-01

17

Familiarity in source memory.  

PubMed

Familiarity and recollection are thought to be separate processes underlying recognition memory. Event-related potentials (ERPs) dissociate these processes, with an early (approximately 300-500ms) frontal effect relating to familiarity (the FN400) and a later (500-800ms) parietal old/new effect relating to recollection. It has been debated whether source information for a studied item (i.e., contextual associations from when the item was previously encountered) is only accessible through recollection, or whether familiarity can contribute to successful source recognition. It has been shown that familiarity can assist in perceptual source monitoring when the source attribute is an intrinsic property of the item (e.g., an object's surface color), but few studies have examined its contribution to recognizing extrinsic source associations. Extrinsic source associations were examined in three experiments involving memory judgments for pictures of common objects. In Experiment 1, source information was spatial and results suggested that familiarity contributed to accurate source recognition: the FN400 ERP component showed a source accuracy effect, and source accuracy was above chance for items judged to only feel familiar. Source information in Experiment 2 was an extrinsic color association; source accuracy was at chance for familiar items and the FN400 did not differ between correct and incorrect source judgments. Experiment 3 replicated the results using a within-subjects manipulation of spatial vs. color source. Overall, the results suggest that familiarity's contribution to extrinsic source monitoring depends on the type of source information being remembered. PMID:22789677

Mollison, Matthew V; Curran, Tim

2012-07-10

18

Cáncer de cuello del útero o uterino  

Cancer.gov

Información acerca del cáncer de cérvix (cervical o cuello uterino), lo cual incluye temas como tratamiento, prevención, causas, factores de riesgo, exámenes selectivos de detección, estudios clínicos y estadísticas del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer.

19

Familiarity in Source Memory  

PubMed Central

Familiarity and recollection are thought to be separate processes underlying recognition memory. Event-related potentials (ERPs) dissociate these processes, with an early (approximately 300–500 ms) frontal effect relating to familiarity (the FN400) and a later (500–800 ms) parietal old/new effect relating to recollection. It has been debated whether source information for a studied item (i.e., contextual associations from when the item was previously encountered) is only accessible through recollection, or whether familiarity can contribute to successful source recognition. It has been shown that familiarity can assist in perceptual source monitoring when the source attribute is an intrinsic property of the item (e.g., an object’s surface color), but few studies have examined its contribution to recognizing extrinsic source associations. Extrinsic source associations were examined in three experiments involving memory judgments for pictures of common objects. In Experiment 1, source information was spatial and results suggested that familiarity contributed to accurate source recognition: the FN400 ERP component showed a source accuracy effect, and source accuracy was above chance for items judged to only feel familiar. Source information in Experiment 2 was an extrinsic color association; source accuracy was at chance for familiar items and the FN400 did not differ between correct and incorrect source judgments. Experiment 3 replicated the results using a within-subjects manipulation of spatial vs. color source. Overall, the results suggest that familiarity’s contribution to extrinsic source monitoring depends on the type of source information being remembered.

Mollison, Matthew V.; Curran, Tim

2012-01-01

20

Featuring familiarity: how a familiar feature instantiation influences categorization.  

PubMed

We demonstrate that a familiar looking feature can influence categorization through 2 different routes, depending on whether a person is reliant on abstract feature representations or on concrete feature representations. In 2 experiments, trained participants categorized new category members in a 3-step procedure: Participants made an initial categorization, described the rule-consistent features indicated by the experimenter, and then recategorized the item. Critical was what happened on the second categorization after participants initially categorized an item based on a familiar, but misleading, feature. Participants who were reliant on abstract features most commonly reversed themselves after the rule-consistent features were pointed out, suggesting that the familiar feature had biased attention. Participants who were reliant on concrete feature representations, however, most commonly persisted with the initial response as if the familiar feature were more important than its rivals-the familiar feature biased decision making. PMID:20025385

Hannah, Samuel D; Brooks, Lee R

2009-12-01

21

Linguistic Activities of the Instituto Caro y Cuervo.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Instituto Caro y Cuervo of Bogota, Colombia, named after two outstanding Colombian intellectuals, was established in 1942 primarily to complete the lexicographic work of Rufino Jose Cuervo. It has continued its work through several reorganizations, and in 1947 was charged with the study of the present state of the Spanish language in various…

Champion, James J.

22

Familiarity and visual change detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection of change when one display of familiar objects replaces another display might be based purely upon visual codes,\\u000a or also on identity information (i.e., knowingwhat was presentwhere in the initial display). Displays of 10 alphanumeric characters were presented and, after a brief offset, were presented\\u000a again in the same position, with or without a change in a single character.

Harold Pashler

1988-01-01

23

Eye movements, word familiarity, and vocabulary acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments examined the effects of word familiarity on word recognition and text comprehension during silent reading. Readers' eye movements were monitored as they read sentences containing words that varied in familiarity as assessed by printed estimates of word frequency, subjective ratings of familiarity, and a multiple?choice test of meaning knowledge. Effects of word frequency were unaffected by differences in

Rihana Williams; Robin Morris

2004-01-01

24

Muerte prematura y discapacidad en los derechohabientes del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To carry out estimations of the burden of dis- ease for 129 causes in order to identify health priorities in the different geographic regions of the country and to present comparative data between 1995 and 2000. Mate- rial and Methods. Indicators such as disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and disability adjusted life expectancy (DALE) were analyzed for the population covered

Gabriela Rodríguez-Abrego; Jorge Escobedo de la Peña; Beatriz Zurita; Teresita de Jesús Ramírez

2007-01-01

25

The Effect of Familiarity on Mate Choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to recognize familiar conspecifics appears to be widespread among vertebrates and influences a variety of behavioural\\u000a interactions including mate selection. Female choice of males has been shown to vary according to male familiarity, but interestingly\\u000a in some species this favours familiar males, while in others unfamiliar males are preferred. Preference for unfamiliar partners\\u000a might result from the attempt

Sarah A. Cheetham; Michael D. Thom; Robert J. Beynon; Jane L. Hurst

26

Mothers respond differently to infants' familiar versus non-familiar verbal imitations.  

PubMed

Mothers' verbal responses to their infants' spontaneous imitations of familiar and non-familiar words during naturally occurring interactions were examined in a longitudinal sample observed at 1 ; 1, 1 ; 5 and 1 ; 9. Maternal responses to both familiar and non-familiar imitations exhibited structural characteristics likely to be facilitative of early word learning, including shorter and single-word utterances and reproductions of imitated words in sentence-final position. Mothers also responded differentially to infants' non-familiar versus familiar imitations. Mothers produced more return imitations and more exact repetitions, providing an extra exemplar, following infants' imitations of non-familiar words. The familiar words infants imitated were more likely to receive the more complex expanded and reduced+expanded return imitations. Results suggest mothers' responses to infants' verbal imitations could serve as a mechanism for facilitating language acquisition. PMID:21910953

Olson, Janet; Masur, Elise Frank

2011-09-13

27

Palatability, Familiarity, and Underage, Immoderate Drinking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Data gathered in a study of palatability ("liking") and familiarity ratings of alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages by 350 subjects from 12 to 30 years of age included the usual number of drinks consumed. Blind ratings of palatability and familiarity for the beverages were tested for association with immoderate drinking (more than four for males,…

Lemon, Jim; Stevenson, Richard; Gates, Peter; Copeland, Jan

2011-01-01

28

Cross-species familiarity in shoaling fishes.  

PubMed Central

Preferential association with familiar shoal mates confers a number of potentially important benefits to individuals, including improved anti-predator effects and the reduction of aggression in competitive interactions. Until now, however, familiarity has been demonstrated purely between conspecifics. Here, we present evidence that familiarity preferences can override natural preferences for conspecifics. Individual focal fishes (chub, Leuciscus cephalus) were given a choice of two stimulus shoals of the same size composed of conspecifics or of heterospecifics (minnows, Phoxinus phoxinus) in a flow tank. A series of four treatments was carried out to investigate the effects of familiarity, induced by a 15 day association between the focal fish and the stimulus fishes, on the choices made by the focal fish. Focal fishes showed a significant preference for conspecifics over heterospecifics when both stimulus shoals were composed of non-familiar individuals. Focal fishes also showed a significant preference for stimulus shoals composed of familiar fishes over stimulus shoals composed of non-familiar fishes when both shoals were conspecific and when both shoals were heterospecific. Finally, the preference of focal fishes for conspecifics disappeared when the alternative, a shoal of heterospecifics, was composed of familiar individuals. The importance of this work is discussed in the context of species interactions in free-ranging shoals.

Ward, A J W; Axford, S; Krause, J

2003-01-01

29

Illusions of face memory: Clarity breeds familiarity  

Microsoft Academic Search

When people perform a recognition memory task, they may avail themselves of different forms of information. For example, they may recall specific learning episodes, or rely on general feelings of familiarity. Although subjective familiarity is often valid, it can make people vulnerable to memory illusions. Research using verbal materials has shown that “old” responses are often increased by enhancing perceptual

Heather M Kleider; Stephen D Goldinger

2004-01-01

30

Palatability, Familiarity, and Underage, Immoderate Drinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data gathered in a study of palatability (“liking”) and familiarity ratings of alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages by 350 subjects from 12 to 30 years of age included the usual number of drinks consumed. Blind ratings of palatability and familiarity for the beverages were tested for association with immoderate drinking (more than four for males, two for females). Palatability ratings were

Jim Lemon; Richard Stevenson; Peter Gates; Jan Copeland

2011-01-01

31

Effects of Cultural Familiarity on Reading Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated the effect of cultural background on reading comprehension, specifically examining content knowledge (schemata) and overall familiarity with the setting. It tested the hypothesis that when a setting is familiar to readers, the text will be most readable, and will yield the shortest time to read, the best comprehension, and the…

Sasaki, Yoshinori; And Others

32

Brand Familiarity and Advertising Repetition Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

A crucial communication task for unknown brands is to build the knowledge in consumers' minds necessary to become established. However, communication effectiveness may depend on prior familiarity of the advertised brand. The findings of two experiments using television ads and computer Internet ads revealed that brand familiarity influenced repetition effectiveness. In particular, repetition of advertising attributed to an unfamiliar brand

2003-01-01

33

Semantic priming of familiar songs.  

PubMed

We explored the functional organization of semantic memory for music by comparing priming across familiar songs both within modalities (Experiment 1, tune to tune; Experiment 3, category label to lyrics) and across modalities (Experiment 2, category label to tune; Experiment 4, tune to lyrics). Participants judged whether or not the target tune or lyrics were real (akin to lexical decision tasks). We found significant priming, analogous to linguistic associative-priming effects, in reaction times for related primes as compared to unrelated primes, but primarily for within-modality comparisons. Reaction times to tunes (e.g., "Silent Night") were faster following related tunes ("Deck the Hall") than following unrelated tunes ("God Bless America"). However, a category label (e.g., Christmas) did not prime tunes from within that category. Lyrics were primed by a related category label, but not by a related tune. These results support the conceptual organization of music in semantic memory, but with potentially weaker associations across modalities. PMID:22227862

Johnson, Sarah K; Halpern, Andrea R

2012-05-01

34

Impaired capacity for familiarity after hippocampal damage  

PubMed Central

Recognition memory is thought to consist of two components: recollection and familiarity. Whereas it is widely agreed that the hippocampus supports recollection (remembering the episode in which an item was learned), there is uncertainty about whether it also supports familiarity (simply knowing that an item was encountered but without remembering the learning episode). We tested a counterintuitive prediction that follows from the idea that the hippocampus selectively supports recollection. Patients with hippocampal lesions should have strong experiences of familiarity as often as controls do; however, unlike controls, these experiences should not be accompanied by recollection. Accordingly, with methods that allow participants to report whether they remember an item as encountered previously or whether they simply know it is familiar, patients should express strong familiarity (in the absence of recollection) more often than controls. We indexed strong familiarity and recollection for previously studied words by obtaining confidence ratings together with Remember-Know judgments. The result was that patients provided fewer high-confidence Know responses than controls rather than more. Furthermore, the number of Know responses made by patients was substantially less than was predicted if recollection were impaired. This was true regardless of whether the prediction was based on the assumption that recollection and familiarity are independent or dependent processes. These results suggest that hippocampal lesions impair both recollection and familiarity. Unlike many previous studies of these constructs, the prediction (and the result) is independent of any particular theoretical model, and it holds even if Remember-Know judgments are not process-pure indicators of recollection and familiarity.

Song, Zhuang; Wixted, John T.; Hopkins, Ramona O.; Squire, Larry R.

2011-01-01

35

The effect of familiarity on perceived interestingness of images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an exploration of familiarity as a meaningful dimension for the individualized adaptation of media-rich interfaces. In this paper, we investigate in particular the effect of digital images personalized for familiarity on users' perceived interestingness. Two dimensions of familiarity, facial familiarity and familiarity with image context, are manipulated. Our investigation consisted of three studies: the first two address how morphing technology can be used to convey meaningful familiarity, and the third studies the effect of such familiarity on users' sense of interestingness. Four levels of person familiarity varying in degree of person knowledge, and two levels of context familiarity varying in frequency of exposure, were considered: Self, Friend, Celebrity, and Stranger in Familiar and Unfamiliar contexts. Experimental results showed significant main effects of context and person familiarity. Our findings deepen understanding of the critical element of familiarity in HCI and its relationship to the interestingness of images, and can have great impact for the design of media-rich systems.

Chu, Sharon Lynn; Fedorovskaya, Elena; Quek, Francis; Snyder, Jeffrey

2013-03-01

36

Violencia contra la mujer: conocimiento y actitud del personal médico del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Morelos, México  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To asses the affective, cognitive, and behavioral attitudes of healthcare providers at the Mexican Institute of Social Security (MISS) in Morelos, Mexico; to identify the institutional and medical practice barriers that hinder scree- ning and reference of battered women. Material and Me- thods. A cross-sectional study was conducted between September and December 1999. A self-administered ques- tionnaire was applied

Pablo Méndez-Hernández; Rosario Valdez-Santiago; Leonardo Viniegra-Velázquez; Leonor Rivera-Rivera; Jorge Salmerón-Castro

2003-01-01

37

NCI ofrece apoyo a quienes están necesitados después del huracane Katrina  

Cancer.gov

El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI), parte de los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud (NIH), está empeñado en ayudar a las miles de personas que han sido asoladas por los efectos del huracán Katrina. NCI está tratando de llegar a los públicos diversos para proporcionarles información relacionada con el cáncer que pueda ser compartida con exactitud y efectividad con quienes han sido afectados por el huracán.

38

Recollection and familiarity in negative schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Using the "remember-know" procedure to assess recognition memory, previous studies yielded evidence of impaired recollection but intact familiarity in schizophrenia patients. However, so far, the recognition memory performance of schizophrenia patients has not yet been analysed using the dual-process signal detection model (DPSD) by Yonelinas [Yonelinas, A. P. (2001). Components of episodic memory: The contribution of recollection and familiarity. Philosophical Transactions of Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 356(1413), 1363-1374], which accurately accounts for response and memory bias. Also, clinical symptoms have not yet been taken into account. Based on findings from neuropsychological and neurobiological research we hypothesized that high negative symptoms might be associated with a profile of impaired recollection and spared familiarity. The recognition memory performance of 22 schizophrenia patients scoring higher or lower on the negative symptoms subscale of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was assessed by means of a word list discrimination task. Following the rationale of the dual-process signal detection model, estimates of recollection and familiarity were derived. The recollection estimate, derived by the DPSD model, was lower in patients with more severe negative symptomatology compared with both the patients with lower negative symptoms scores and healthy individuals. Familiarity was not affected if IQ was partialled out. Furthermore, the results yielded increased false alarm rates in patients with negative schizophrenia. The findings confirm an association of negative symptoms and recollection impairment in schizophrenia. PMID:15993449

Thoma, Patrizia; Zoppelt, Diana; Wiebel, Burkhard; Daum, Irene

2005-07-01

39

Síndrome del cuidador de adultos mayores discapacitados y sus implicaciones psicosociales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objetivo: Describir la prevalencia del síndrome del cuidador y las características psicosociales de los cuidadores de adultos mayores discapacitados. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio piloto de casos y controles en el Valle del Cauca durante el 2003-2004 para evaluar la funcionalidad familiar (APGAR familiar), la ansiedad y depresión (escala de Goldberg), la presencia de enfermedades (cuidadores y no

ELIANA DUEÑAS; M ARÍA ANGGELINE MARTÍNEZ; B ENJAMÍN MORALES; CLAUDIA MUÑOZ; A NA SOFÍA VIÁFARA; J ULIÁN; A. HERRERA

2006-01-01

40

Política de comentarios del NCI  

Cancer.gov

Animamos a los usuarios a compartir sus ideas relacionadas con los temas en discusión en las secciones o foros determinados para tal fin en este sitio web u otros sitios administrados por el Instituto Nacional del Cáncer. Revisamos y publicamos los comentarios de acuerdo a la política indicada a continuación. Nos reservamos el derecho, a nuestra completa discreción, a no publicar o eliminar comentarios que no están de acuerdo con nuestra política.

41

The Paradox of the "Familiar Outsider."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes role of "familiar outsider," the "transplant" reformer who rejects personal power while aiding community. Focuses on four outsiders assisting Virginia town's developing commission. Details relationship and leadership problems among commission, technical assistant, and community leaders during development of sewing factory. Suggests…

Daley, Nelda Knelson; Kobak, Sue Ella

1990-01-01

42

Metropolitan French: Familiarization & Short-Term Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The U.S. Department of State's Foreign Service Institute French Familiarization and Short-Term (FAST) course for personnel working and living in France consists of 10 weeks of French language instruction combined with practical and cultural information. An introductory section outlines FAST course objectives and sample teaching techniques in…

Iszkowski, Marie-Charlotte

43

Contemporary Art: Familiar Objects in New Contexts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes objects from everyday life and analyzes artworks by four contemporary artists whose works make use of familiar objects (Louise Nevelson, Claes Oldenburg, Mitchell Syrop, and Betye Sarr). Divides lesson into four steps: (1) discussing everyday objects; (2) viewing artworks; (3) studying artists; and (4) class activities related to the…

Prabhu, Vas

1990-01-01

44

Metropolitan French: Familiarization & Short-Term Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The U.S. Department of State's Foreign Service Institute French Familiarization and Short-Term (FAST) course for personnel working and living in France consists of 10 weeks of French language instruction combined with practical and cultural information. An introductory section outlines FAST course objectives and sample teaching techniques in…

Iszkowski, Marie-Charlotte

45

[Clindrical battery in the stomach in the Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño, Lima, Peru].  

PubMed

The ingestion of foreign bodies (EC) is a problem commonly seen by pediatricians and emergency physicians. The intake is almost always accidental and most common objects are coins, pieces of toys, jewelry or batteries. The button batteries are the most common, in which case is important early diagnosis and removal. The cylindrical battery ingestion is very rare, are typically alkaline manganese or nickel-cadmium (rechargeable) and when ingested they can cause toxic and corrosive damage. Such damage may occur as a result of the effect of acid gastric contents sustained over a period of days or weeks. We report the case of a patient who accidentally ingested a cylindrical battery, which was removed from the stomach endoscopically without complications. PMID:23838943

Alarcón Olivera, César; Ormeño Julca, Alexis

46

Conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas sobre el tabaquismo en estudiantes de Enfermería y Obstetricia del Instituto \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of smoking in people in the phase of academic education is important considering that they will orientate about the risks of chronic diseases in the future. This cross-sectional observational descriptive study with an analytical component determined prevalence, characteristics of the smoking habit, knowledge and attitudes towards the smoking in students registered in 2007 in the Institute \\

Morel de Festner JC; Andrés Barbero

2008-01-01

47

Familiarity adds to attractiveness in matters of siskin mate choice.  

PubMed

There is currently considerable controversy in evolutionary ecology revolving around whether social familiarity brings attraction when a female chooses a mate. The topic of familiarity is significant because by avoiding or preferring familiar individuals as mates, the potential for local adaptation may be reduced or favoured. The topic becomes even more interesting if we simultaneously analyse preferences for familiarity and sexual ornaments, because when familiarity influences female mating preferences, this could very significantly affect the strength of sexual selection on male ornamentation. Here, we have used mate-choice experiments in siskins Carduelis spinus to analyse how familiarity and patterns of ornamentation (i.e. the size of wing patches) interact to influence mating success. Our results show that females clearly prefer familiar individuals when choosing between familiar and unfamiliar males with similar-sized wing patches. Furthermore, when females were given the choice between a highly ornamented unfamiliar male and a less ornamented familiar male, half of the females still preferred the socially familiar birds as mates. Our finding suggests that male familiarity may be as important as sexual ornaments in affecting female behaviour in mate choice. Given that the potential for local adaptation may be favoured by preferring familiar individuals as mates, social familiarity as a mate-choice criterion may become a potential area of fruitful research on sympatric speciation processes. PMID:24174112

Senar, J C; Mateos-Gonzalez, F; Uribe, F; Arroyo, L

2013-10-30

48

Examiner Familiarity Effects for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors examined the difference in standardized test performance when familiar versus unfamiliar examiners tested 26 preschool and elementary-aged children with autism. The children were matched by age, severity, and developmental level and then randomly placed into familiar and unfamiliar examiner groups. Familiarity with the examiner was…

Szarko, Julia E.; Brown, Alec J.; Watkins, Marley W.

2013-01-01

49

Neural substrates for recognition of familiar voices: a PET study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of familiar people is essential in our social life. We can identify familiar people by hearing their voices as well as by viewing their faces. By measuring regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) by positron emission tomography (PET), we identified neural substrates for the recognition of familiar voices. The brain activity during discrimination of voices of the subjects' associates and

Katsuki Nakamura; Ryuta Kawashima; Motoaki Sugiura; Takashi Kato; Akinori Nakamura; Kentaro Hatano; Sumiharu Nagumo; Kisou Kubota; Hiroshi Fukuda; Kengo Ito; Shozo Kojima

2001-01-01

50

14 CFR 121.599 - Familiarity with weather conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Familiarity with weather conditions. 121.599 Section 121...Rules § 121.599 Familiarity with weather conditions. (a) Domestic and flag...thoroughly familiar with reported and forecast weather conditions on the route to be...

2013-01-01

51

Impact of familiarity upon children's developing facial expression recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The impact of personal familiarity upon children's developing emotion-processing has been largely ignored in previous research, yet may prove particularly important given the emotional salience of such stimuli and children's greater exposure to familiar others compared to strangers. We examined the impact of personal familiarity upon developing facial expression recognition (FER). Methods: Participants included 153 children, 4-15 years old.

Catherine M. Herba; Philip Benson; Sabine Landau; Tamara Russell; Claire Goodwin; Erwin Lemche; Paramala Santosh; Mary Phillips

2008-01-01

52

Beneficial effects of acarbose on familiar hypertriglyceridemias.  

PubMed

Elevated serum triglyceride levels may be related to the following clinical features: increased blood coagulation and viscosity, increased serum fibrinogen levels, decreased fibrinolysis, and for serum levels over 1000 mg/dl, a strong increase of acute pancreatitis rate. Pharmacological choice among the numerous drugs to treat hypertriglyceridemias is currently debated. Our study was aimed to assess the therapeutic efficacy of acarbose in the treatment of non-diabetic subjects, affected by familiar hypertriglyceridemia (FH). We studied 18 non-diabetic patients (10 males, 8 females; mean age 57.61+/-6.85 years) without family history of diabetes mellitus affected by familiar hypertriglyceridemia. The study protocol planned a treatment period of 20 weeks, divided into five 4-week courses and made up as follows: diet plus acarbose therapy (4 weeks); diet therapy alone (4 weeks) alternatively. In the second and fourth 4-week courses diet plus acarbose were administered, while diet therapy alone was administered in the first, third, and fifth 4-week courses. Acarbose doses consisted of 50 mg (1/2 pill) twice daily. Mean serum triglyceride levels, after first month of dietary treatment, underwent a significant reduction from 481.5 +/- 67.1 mg/dl to 389.5 +/- 62.7 mg/dl, even if they did not reach the optimal levels to keep on the dietary therapy alone. After the first month of treatment with acarbose associated to diet, we observed a further reduction of serum triglycerides levels (p = 0.02). When diet alone was administered, mean triglyceride serum levels underwent a significant enhancement (p = 0.003). Restarting for the second time the association treatment, we observed a noteworthy reduction of mean serum triglyceride levels (p = 0.0001). Acarbose acts on the pathogenesis of FH, lowering the production of endogenous triglycerides. Our data suggested that acarbose can be considered a valid therapeutic tool in the treatment of familiar hypertriglyceridemias, also in non-diabetic patients. PMID:9726698

Malaguarnera, M; Giugno, I; Panebianco, M P; Pistone, G

1998-08-01

53

Word-form familiarity bootstraps infant speech segmentation.  

PubMed

At about 7 months of age, infants listen longer to sentences containing familiar words - but not deviant pronunciations of familiar words (Jusczyk & Aslin, 1995). This finding suggests that infants are able to segment familiar words from fluent speech and that they store words in sufficient phonological detail to recognize deviations from a familiar word. This finding does not examine whether it is, nevertheless, easier for infants to segment words from sentences when these words sound similar to familiar words. Across three experiments, the present study investigates whether familiarity with a word helps infants segment similar-sounding words from fluent speech and if they are able to discriminate these similar-sounding words from other words later on. Results suggest that word-form familiarity may be a powerful tool bootstrapping further lexical acquisition. PMID:24118722

Altvater-Mackensen, Nicole; Mani, Nivedita

2013-06-11

54

Oxytocin makes a face in memory familiar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Social recognition is the basis of all social interactions. Here we show that in humans, the evolutionary highly conserved neuropeptide oxytocin, after intranasal administration, specifically improves recognition memory for faces, but not for nonsocial stimuli. With increased oxytocin levels, previously presented,faces,were,more,correctly,assessed,as 'known' whereas,the ability,of recollecting,faces,was unchanged.,This pattern,speaks,for an immediate,and selective,effect,of the peptide,strengthening neuronal,systems,of social,memory. BriefCommunications OxytocinMakesaFaceinMemoryFamiliar UlrikeRimmele,,

K Hediger; M Heinrichs; P Klaver

2008-01-01

55

Enlightenment, Education, and the Republican Project: Chile's "Instituto Nacional" (1810-1830)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article analyses the establishment of the "Instituto Nacional de Chile" between 1810 and 1830 as a crucial element of a political and cultural project advanced from an enlightened and republican elite. Its early inception in 1813 resulted from the necessity of consolidating a republican order, as shown by the different projects between 1810…

Baeza Ruz, Andres

2010-01-01

56

Rendezvousing at Familiar and Unfamiliar Places  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports a diary study of rendezvousing as performed by university students. The study compares students' performance when meeting at familiar and unfamiliar rendezvous points. It reports various findings that help to set goals for the development of personal navigation and related services at appropriate levels. For example, when meeting at novel rendezvous points, students: (i) fail to meet as initially agreed more frequently; (ii) report more stress and lost opportunity as a result of rendezvousing problems; (iii) change plan during the rendezvous more often; (iv) communicate more about the rendezvous, particularly using text messaging; (v) attribute rendezvousing problems to lack of geographic and travel information more often, and to additional, spontaneous tasks such as ‘popping to the bank’ less often. Meetings at novel rendezvous points are also more likely to include acquaintances and strangers.

Colbert, Martin

2004-09-01

57

Reproduction, familiarity, love, and humaneness: How did confucius reveal “humaneness”?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article draws out the subtle connections among the various sorts of categories—“sheng ? (reproduction),” “qin ? (familiarity),” “ai ? (love),” and “ren ? (humaneness)”—focusing on the following: Confucius found the original significance of “reproduction” to be sympathy between\\u000a males and females, and upon further study he found it extended to the.affinity of blood relations, namely “familiarity.” From\\u000a “familiarity” he

Hongxing Chen

2010-01-01

58

The Effect of Satisfaction and Familiarity on Intention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have indicated the link of brand familiarity to intention via attitude and risk routes. With reference to the Howard model, these established routes exist only from the product-hierarchy concept that is supposed to be stored in the individual's memory.This investigation found a link existing between satisfaction and familiarity in the product-hierarchy. The influence of satisfaction on familiarity is

Kuang-Jung Chen

1998-01-01

59

The effects of cultural familiarity on reading comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated whether cultural familiarity influences comprehension of short stories and whether nativizing the story or using reading activities can compensate for the lack of such familiarity. The study was conducted with 44 advanced-level students of English at a state university in Turkey. In a 2 × 2 experimental research design, the 1st group of students read an original

Hakki Erten; Salim Razi

60

Long-term familiarity promotes joining in neighbour nest defence  

PubMed Central

Familiarity plays an important role in the evolution of sociality and cooperation. Familiar individuals may gain a reputation for participating in, or defecting from, cooperative tasks. Previous research suggests that long-term familiarity with territorial neighbours benefits breeders. We tested the hypothesis that great tits (Parus major) are more likely to join in neighbours' nest defence if those neighbours are familiar from the previous year. We show that neighbours that shared a territory boundary the previous year are more likely to join their neighbours' nest defence than neighbours that did not share a boundary before. Closer neighbours did not differ from distant neighbours in their latency to join. For familiar neighbours that joined, there was no difference in call rate in relation to whether one or both members of the focal pair were familiar. First-time breeders (by definition unfamiliar) did not join each other's nest defence. This is the first evidence of a relationship between familiarity and joining in nest defence. Such direct benefits of familiarity may have important implications in the evolution of sociality.

Grabowska-Zhang, A. M.; Sheldon, B. C.; Hinde, C. A.

2012-01-01

61

Rats' Novel Object Interaction as a Measure of Environmental Familiarity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Environmental familiarization is a learning phenomenon embedded within most tasks used to study learning and motivation. Given its prevalence there is surprisingly little systematic behavioral research on factors affecting familiarization. The six experiments reported in the present report used rats' tendency to interact more with a novel object…

Wilkinson, Jamie L.; Herrman, Laura; Palmatier, Matthew I.; Bevins, Rick A.

2006-01-01

62

Assessing Recollection and Familiarity in Low Functioning Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Methods to assess recollection and familiarity separately in autism spectrum disorder were recently developed and piloted (Bigham et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 40:878-889, 2010). The preliminary data obtained via these methods showed that whereas recollection was mildly impaired in high functioning autism, familiarity was spared. The current…

Ni Chuileann, Susan; Quigley, Jean

2013-01-01

63

In Search of Recollection and Familiarity Signals in the Hippocampus  

Microsoft Academic Search

fMRI studies of recognition memory have often been interpreted to mean that the hippocampus selectively subserves recollection and that adjacent regions selectively subserve familiarity. Yet, many of these studies have confounded recollection and familiarity with strong and weak memories. In a source memory experiment, we compared correct source judgments (which reflect recollection) and incorrect source judgments (often thought to reflect

Peter E. Wais; Larry R. Squire; John T. Wixted

2010-01-01

64

In Search of Recollection and Familiarity Signals in the Hippocampus  

Microsoft Academic Search

fMRI studies of recognition memory have often been interpreted to mean that the hippocampus selectively subserves recollection and that adjacent regions selectively subserve familiarity. Yet, many of these studies have confounded recollection and familiarity with strong and weak memories. In a source memory experiment, we compared correct source judgments (which reflect recollection) and incorrect source judgments (often thought to reflect

Peter E. Wais; Larry R. Squire; John T. Wixted

2009-01-01

65

Familiarity Affects the Processing of Task-irrelevant Auditory Deviance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of familiarity on auditory change detection on the basis of auditory sensory memory representations were investigated by presenting oddball sequences of sounds while participants ignored the auditory stimuli. Stimulus sequences were composed of sounds that were familiar and sounds that were made unfamiliar by playing the same sounds backward. The roles of frequently presented stimuli (standards) and infrequently

Thomas Jacobsen; Erich Schröger; István Winkler; János Horváth

2005-01-01

66

Prefrontal Control of Familiarity and Recollection in Working Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) is a critical neural substrate for the resolution of proactive interference (PI) in working memory. We hypothesized that left IFG achieves this by controlling the in- fluence of familiarity- versus recollection-based information about memory probes. Consistent with this idea, we observed evidence for an early (200 msec)-peaking signal corresponding to memory probe familiarity and a

Eva Feredoes; Bradley R. Postle

2010-01-01

67

Prefrontal Control of Familiarity and Recollection in Working Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) is a critical neural substrate for the resolution of proactive interference (PI) in working memory. We hypothesized that left IFG achieves this by controlling the influence of familiarity- versus recollection-based information about memory probes. Consistent with this idea, we observed evidence for an early (200 msec)-peaking signal corresponding to memory probe familiarity and a late

Eva Feredoes; Bradley R. Postle

2009-01-01

68

Familiarity for Associations? A Test of the Domain Dichotomy Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Episodic recognition memory is mediated by functionally separable retrieval processes, notably familiarity (a general sense of prior exposure) and recollection (the retrieval of contextual details), whose relative engagement depends partly on the nature of the information being retrieved. Currently, the specific contribution of familiarity to…

Harlow, Iain M.; Mackenzie, Graham; Donaldson, David I.

2010-01-01

69

The Influence of Familiarity on Affective Responses to Natural Scenes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This kansei study explored how familiarity with image-word combinations influences affective states. Stimuli were obtained from Japanese print advertisements (ads), and consisted of images (e.g., natural-scene backgrounds) and their corresponding headlines (advertising copy). Initially, a group of subjects evaluated their level of familiarity with images and headlines independently, and stimuli were filtered based on the results. In the main experiment, a different group of subjects rated their pleasure and arousal to, and familiarity with, image-headline combinations. The Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) scale was used to evaluate pleasure and arousal, and a bipolar scale was used to evaluate familiarity. The results showed a high correlation between familiarity and pleasure, but low correlation between familiarity and arousal. The characteristics of the stimuli, and their effect on the variables of pleasure, arousal and familiarity, were explored through ANOVA. It is suggested that, in the case of natural-scene ads, familiarity with image-headline combinations may increase the pleasure response to the ads, and that certain components in the images (e.g., water) may increase arousal levels.

Sanabria Z., Jorge C.; Cho, Youngil; Yamanaka, Toshimasa

70

A Model of Ant Route Navigation Driven by Scene Familiarity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose a model of visually guided route navigation in ants that captures the known properties of real behaviour whilst retaining mechanistic simplicity and thus biological plausibility. For an ant, the coupling of movement and viewing direction means that a familiar view specifies a familiar direction of movement. Since the views experienced along a habitual route will

Bart Baddeley; Paul Graham; Philip Husbands; Andrew Philippides

2012-01-01

71

Perception of familiar contrasts in unfamiliar positions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates the perception of non-native phoneme contrasts which exist in the native language, but not in the position tested. Like English, Dutch contrasts voiced and voiceless obstruents. Unlike English, Dutch allows only voiceless obstruents in word-final position. Dutch and English listeners' accuracy on English final voicing contrasts and their use of preceding vowel duration as a voicing cue were tested. The phonetic structure of Dutch should provide the necessary experience for a native-like use of this cue. Experiment 1 showed that Dutch listeners categorized English final /zee/-/ess/, /vee/-/eff/, /bee/-/pee/, and /dee/-/tee/ contrasts in nonwords as accurately as initial contrasts, and as accurately as English listeners did, even when release bursts were removed. In experiment 2, English listeners used vowel duration as a cue for one final contrast, although it was uninformative and sometimes mismatched other voicing characteristics, whereas Dutch listeners did not. Although it should be relatively easy for them, Dutch listeners did not use vowel duration. Nevertheless, they attained native-like accuracy, and sometimes even outperformed the native listeners who were liable to be misled by uninformative vowel duration information. Thus, native-like use of cues for non-native but familiar contrasts in unfamiliar positions may hardly ever be attained. .

Broersma, Mirjam

2005-06-01

72

Familiarity influences judgments of sex: the case of voice recognition.  

PubMed

Two experiments are reported in which subjects made judgments about the sex or the familiarity of a voice. In experiment 1, subjects were fans of the BBC-radio soap opera, The Archers, and familiar voice clips were taken from this programme. Subjects showed a large reduction in response times when making sex judgments to familiar voices, despite the fact that sex judgments are generally much faster than familiarity judgments. In experiment 2, the same familiar clips were played to subjects unfamiliar with the soap opera, and no difference was observed in times to make sex judgments to Archers or non-Archers voices. We conclude that, unlike the case of face recognition, sex and identity processing of voices are not independent. The findings constrain models of person recognition across multiple modalities. PMID:15330367

Burton, A Mike; Bonner, Lesley

2004-01-01

73

Fluency, familiarity, aging, and the illusion of truth.  

PubMed

Research has shown that repeated statements are rated as more credible than new statements. However, little research has examined whether such "illusions of truth" can be produced by contextual (nonmnemonic) influences, or compared to the magnitude of these illusions in younger and older adults. In two experiments, we examined how manipulations of perceptual and conceptual fluency influenced truth and familiarity ratings made by young and older adults. Stimuli were claims about companies or products varying in normative familiarity. Results showed only small effects of perceptual fluency on rated truth or familiarity. In contrast, manipulating conceptual fluency via semantic/textual context had much larger effects on rated truth and familiarity, with the effects modulated by normative company familiarity such that fluency biases were larger for lesser-known companies. In both experiments, young and older adults were equally susceptible to fluency-based biases. PMID:16807200

Parks, Colleen M; Toth, Jeffrey P

2006-06-01

74

Uneasy money: the Instituto Carlos Slim de la Salud, tobacco philanthropy and conflict of interest in global health  

Microsoft Academic Search

In May 2007, the Instituto Carso de la Salud—now Instituto Carlos Slim de la Salud (ICSS)—was endowed with US$500 million to focus on priority health issues in Latin America, notably issues of ‘globalisation and non-communicable diseases’. ICSS was soon criticised, however, on the grounds that its funding was derived from tobacco industry profits and that its founder Carlos Slim Hélu

Tiffany Burch; Nathaniel Wander; Jeff Collin

2010-01-01

75

Neural response to the visual familiarity of faces.  

PubMed

Recognizing personally familiar faces is the result of a spatially distributed process that involves visual perceptual areas and areas that play a role in other cognitive and social functions, such as the anterior paracingulate cortex, the precuneus and the amygdala [M.I. Gobbini, E. Leibenluft, N. Santiago, J.V. Haxby, Social and emotional attachment in the neural representation of faces, Neuroimage 22 (2004) 1628-1635; M.I. Gobbini, J.V. Haxby, Neural systems for recognition of familiar faces, Neuropsychologia, in press; E. Leibenluft, M.I. Gobbini, T. Harrison, J.V. Haxby, Mothers' neural activation in response to pictures of their, and other, children, Biol. Psychiatry 56 (2004) 225-232]. In order to isolate the role of visual familiarity in face recognition, we used fMRI to measure the response to faces characterized by experimentally induced visual familiarity that carried no biographical information or emotional content. The fMRI results showed a stronger response in the precuneus to the visually familiar faces consistent with studies that implicate this region in the retrieval of information from long-term memory and imagery. Moreover, this finding supports the hypothesis of a key role for the precuneus in the acquisition of familiarity with faces [H. Kosaka, M. Omori, T. Iidaka, T. Murata, T. Shimoyama, T. Okada, N. Sadato, Y. Yonekura, Y. Wada, Neural substrates participating in acquisition of facial familiarity: an fMRI study, Neuroimage 20 (2003) 1734-1742]. By contrast, the visually familiar faces evoked a weaker response in the fusiform gyrus, which may reflect the development of a sparser encoding or a reduced attentional load when processing stimuli that are familiar. The visually familiar faces also evoked a weaker response in the amygdala, supporting the proposed role of this structure in mediating the guarded attitude when meeting someone new. PMID:17113931

Gobbini, M Ida; Haxby, James V

2006-08-31

76

Face Distortion Aftereffects in Personally Familiar, Famous, and Unfamiliar Faces  

PubMed Central

The internal face prototype is thought to be a construction of the average of every previously viewed face (Schwaninger et al., 2003). However, the influence of the most frequently encountered faces (i.e., personally familiar faces) has been generally understated. The current research explored the face distortion aftereffect in unfamiliar, famous, and personally familiar (each subject’s parent) faces. Forty-eight adult participants reported whether faces were distorted or not (distorted by shifting the eyes in the vertical axis) of a series of images that included unfamiliar, famous, and personally familiar faces. The number of faces perceived to be “odd” was measured pre- and post-adaptation to the most extreme distortion. Participants were adapted to either an unfamiliar, famous, or personally familiar face. The results indicate that adaptation transferred from unfamiliar faces to personally familiar faces more so than the converse and aftereffects did not transfer from famous faces to unfamiliar faces. These results are indicative of representation differences between unfamiliar, famous, and personally familiar faces, whereby personally familiar faces share representations of both unfamiliar and famous faces.

Walton, Billy Ronald Peter; Hills, Peter James

2012-01-01

77

A demonstration that the hippocampus supports both recollection and familiarity  

PubMed Central

Recognition memory is thought to depend on two distinct processes: recollection and familiarity. There is debate as to whether damage to the hippocampus selectively impairs recollection or whether it impairs both recollection and familiarity. If hippocampal damage selectively impairs recollection but leaves familiarity intact, then patients with circumscribed hippocampal lesions should exhibit the full normal range of low-confidence and high-confidence familiarity-based recognition. High-confidence, familiarity-based decisions are ordinarily accompanied by successful recollection (when memory is intact). However, patients with hippocampal lesions, if recollection is impaired, should frequently experience high-confidence, familiarity-based recognition in the absence of recollection, and this circumstance (termed the “butcher-on-the-bus” phenomenon) should occur more often in patients than in healthy controls. We tested five patients with circumscribed hippocampal damage, asking them to recognize recently studied words as well as to remember the context in which the items were studied. Relative to controls, the patients exhibited no increased tendency to experience the butcher-on-the-bus phenomenon. The simplest explanation of the results is that hippocampal damage impairs familiarity as well as recollection. The same conclusion was suggested when two competing models of recognition memory were used to analyze the data.

Kirwan, C. Brock; Wixted, John T.; Squire, Larry R.

2009-01-01

78

Reminiscence of My Time in Manuel's Group at the Instituto Pluridisciplinar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I joined Manuel's group at the Instituto Pluridisciplinar (IP) in April 1994. The year before, Manuel had been one of its cofounders at Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM). Although up to then I had not worked in fluid dynamics, he accepted me under the condition to build up a lab from scratch to carry out experiments on convection. I agreed enthusiastically, yet not every Ph.D. student has the opportunity to carry out his research in a new lab—and on top of this, a lab one has a lot of freedom to design.

Wierschem, A.

79

When do infants begin recognizing familiar words in sentences?  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Previous studies have shown that by 11 but not by 10 months infants recognize words that have become familiar from everyday life independently of the experimental setting. This study explored the ability of 10-, 11-, and 12-month-old infants to recognize familiar words in sentential context, without experimental training. The headturn preference procedure was used to contrast passages containing words likely to be familiar to the infants with passages containing words unlikely to have been previously heard. Two stimulus words were inserted near the beginning and end of each of a set of simple sentence frames. The ability to recognize the familiar words within sentences emerged only at 12 months of age. The contrast between segmentation abilities as they emerge as a result of everyday exposure to language, as assessed here, and those abilities as measured in studies in which words are experimentally trained is discussed in terms of memory-based mechanisms. PMID:23253168

Depaolis, Rory A; Vihman, Marilyn M; Keren-Portnoy, Tamar

2012-12-20

80

Neuropsychological correlates of recollection and familiarity in normal aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dual-process model of recognition memory proposed by Jacoby (1991; see also Mandler, 1980) postulates the existence of\\u000a two independent components of recognition memory: a conscious retrieval process (recollection) and an automatic component ( familiarity). Older adults appear to be impaired in recollection, but findings with respect to familiarity have been mixed. Studies of\\u000a the brain bases of these components,

Patrick S. R. Davidson; Elizabeth L. Glisky

2002-01-01

81

Kin preferences in primates (Macaca nemestrina): Relatedness or familiarity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

90 1.5–3.5-yr-old female pigtail macaques were given 2-choice preference tests involving stimulus monkeys varying in relatedness and familiarity to the S. Related Ss had consanguinity coefficients of at least .25, while unrelated Ss had coefficients of .05 or less. Familiar Ss had lived together for 80% of the time since their birth, whereas unfamiliar Ss had lived together less than

W. Timm Fredrickson; Gene P. Sackett

1984-01-01

82

A Model of Ant Route Navigation Driven by Scene Familiarity  

PubMed Central

In this paper we propose a model of visually guided route navigation in ants that captures the known properties of real behaviour whilst retaining mechanistic simplicity and thus biological plausibility. For an ant, the coupling of movement and viewing direction means that a familiar view specifies a familiar direction of movement. Since the views experienced along a habitual route will be more familiar, route navigation can be re-cast as a search for familiar views. This search can be performed with a simple scanning routine, a behaviour that ants have been observed to perform. We test this proposed route navigation strategy in simulation, by learning a series of routes through visually cluttered environments consisting of objects that are only distinguishable as silhouettes against the sky. In the first instance we determine view familiarity by exhaustive comparison with the set of views experienced during training. In further experiments we train an artificial neural network to perform familiarity discrimination using the training views. Our results indicate that, not only is the approach successful, but also that the routes that are learnt show many of the characteristics of the routes of desert ants. As such, we believe the model represents the only detailed and complete model of insect route guidance to date. What is more, the model provides a general demonstration that visually guided routes can be produced with parsimonious mechanisms that do not specify when or what to learn, nor separate routes into sequences of waypoints.

Baddeley, Bart; Graham, Paul; Husbands, Philip; Philippides, Andrew

2012-01-01

83

Music and Emotions in the Brain: Familiarity Matters  

PubMed Central

The importance of music in our daily life has given rise to an increased number of studies addressing the brain regions involved in its appreciation. Some of these studies controlled only for the familiarity of the stimuli, while others relied on pleasantness ratings, and others still on musical preferences. With a listening test and a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment, we wished to clarify the role of familiarity in the brain correlates of music appreciation by controlling, in the same study, for both familiarity and musical preferences. First, we conducted a listening test, in which participants rated the familiarity and liking of song excerpts from the pop/rock repertoire, allowing us to select a personalized set of stimuli per subject. Then, we used a passive listening paradigm in fMRI to study music appreciation in a naturalistic condition with increased ecological value. Brain activation data revealed that broad emotion-related limbic and paralimbic regions as well as the reward circuitry were significantly more active for familiar relative to unfamiliar music. Smaller regions in the cingulate cortex and frontal lobe, including the motor cortex and Broca's area, were found to be more active in response to liked music when compared to disliked one. Hence, familiarity seems to be a crucial factor in making the listeners emotionally engaged with music, as revealed by fMRI data.

Pereira, Carlos Silva; Teixeira, Joao; Figueiredo, Patricia; Xavier, Joao; Castro, Sao Luis; Brattico, Elvira

2011-01-01

84

Observation of Simple Intransitive Actions: The Effect of Familiarity  

PubMed Central

Introduction Humans are more familiar with index – thumb than with any other finger to thumb grasping. The effect of familiarity has been previously tested with complex, specialized and/or transitive movements, but not with simple intransitive ones. The aim of this study is to evaluate brain activity patterns during the observation of simple and intransitive finger movements with differing degrees of familiarity. Methodology A functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) study was performed using a paradigm consisting of the observation of 4 videos showing a finger opposition task between the thumb and the other fingers (index, middle, ring and little) in a repetitive manner with a fixed frequency (1 Hz). This movement is considered as the pantomime of a precision grasping action. Results Significant activity was identified in the bilateral Inferior Parietal Lobule and premotor regions with the selected level of significance (FDR [False Discovery Rate]?=?0.01). The extent of the activation in both regions tended to decrease when the finger that performed the action was further from the thumb. More specifically, this effect showed a linear trend (index>middle>ring>little) in the right parietal and premotor regions. Conclusions The observation of less familiar simple intransitive movements produces less activation of parietal and premotor areas than familiar ones. The most important implication of this study is the identification of differences in brain activity during the observation of simple intransitive movements with different degrees of familiarity.

Plata Bello, Julio; Modrono, Cristian; Marcano, Francisco; Gonzalez-Mora, Jose Luis

2013-01-01

85

A model of ant route navigation driven by scene familiarity.  

PubMed

In this paper we propose a model of visually guided route navigation in ants that captures the known properties of real behaviour whilst retaining mechanistic simplicity and thus biological plausibility. For an ant, the coupling of movement and viewing direction means that a familiar view specifies a familiar direction of movement. Since the views experienced along a habitual route will be more familiar, route navigation can be re-cast as a search for familiar views. This search can be performed with a simple scanning routine, a behaviour that ants have been observed to perform. We test this proposed route navigation strategy in simulation, by learning a series of routes through visually cluttered environments consisting of objects that are only distinguishable as silhouettes against the sky. In the first instance we determine view familiarity by exhaustive comparison with the set of views experienced during training. In further experiments we train an artificial neural network to perform familiarity discrimination using the training views. Our results indicate that, not only is the approach successful, but also that the routes that are learnt show many of the characteristics of the routes of desert ants. As such, we believe the model represents the only detailed and complete model of insect route guidance to date. What is more, the model provides a general demonstration that visually guided routes can be produced with parsimonious mechanisms that do not specify when or what to learn, nor separate routes into sequences of waypoints. PMID:22241975

Baddeley, Bart; Graham, Paul; Husbands, Philip; Philippides, Andrew

2012-01-05

86

Why do strangers feel familiar, but friends don't? A discrepancy-attribution account of feelings of familiarity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent articles on familiarity (e.g. Whittlesea, B.W.A., 1993. Journal of Experimental Psychology 19, 1235) have argued that the feeling of familiarity is produced by unconscious attribution of fluent processing to a source in the past. In this article, we refine that notion: We argue that it is not fluency per se, but rather fluent processing occurring under unexpected circumstances that

Bruce W. A. Whittlesea; Lisa D. Williams

1998-01-01

87

Pigeons discriminate objects on the basis of abstract familiarity.  

PubMed

Knowledge of previous encounters with conspecifics is thought to be beneficial as it allows fast and appropriate behavioral responses toward those animals. This level of categorization goes beyond perceptual similarity and requires the individual to refer to a more abstract common referent, namely familiarity. It has been shown that pigeons are able to form functional classes of conspecifics that are based on familiarity. To date, we do not know whether this ability is restricted to the social context (including heterospecifics) or if it can also be used to classify inanimate objects. Furthermore, the factors influencing the formation of this functional class are still unknown. Here, we show that pigeons (Columba livia) are able to use a categorical rule of familiarity to classify previously unseen photographs of objects from their living environment. Pigeons that lacked real-life experience with the objects were not able to do so. This suggests that perceptual features alone were not sufficient for class recognition. To investigate the impact of additional functional properties of the objects, familiar objects were further divided into two subcategories, namely those that were considered functionally relevant to the birds and those that were not. Although the majority of pigeons learned to categorize photographs of objects based on familiarity alone, our results also suggest an unlearned preference for "relevant" familiar objects. The results presented here suggest that pigeons are able to learn to extract the discriminative feature of abstract familiarity from pictures by referring to previous real-life experience but that additional functions of objects lead to a preference of these objects. PMID:23584617

Stephan, Claudia; Wilkinson, Anna; Huber, Ludwig

2013-04-14

88

Familiar shapes attract attention in figure-ground displays.  

PubMed

We report five experiments that explore the effect of figure-ground factors on attention. We hypothesized that figural cues, such as familiar shape, would draw attention to the figural side in an attentional cuing task using bipartite figure-ground displays. The first two experiments used faces in profile as the familiar shape and found a perceptual advantage for targets presented on the meaningful side of the central contour in detection speed (Experiment 1) and discrimination accuracy (Experiment 2). The third experiment demonstrated the figural advantage in response time (RT) with nine other familiar shapes (including a sea horse, a guitar, a fir tree, etc.), but only when targets appeared in close proximity to the contour. A fourth experiment obtained a figural advantage in a discrimination task with the larger set of familiar shapes. The final experiment ruled out eye movements as a possible confounding factor by replicating the RT advantage for targets on the figural side of face displays when all trials containing eye movements were eliminated. The results are discussed in terms of ecological influences on attention, and are cast within the framework of Yantis and Jonides's hypothesis that attention is exogenously drawn to the onset of new perceptual objects. We argue that the figural side constitutes an "object" whereas the ground side does not, and that figural cues such as shape familiarity are effective in determining which areas represent objects. PMID:17672426

Nelson, Rolf A; Palmer, Stephen E

2007-04-01

89

Configural and analytical processing of familiar and unfamiliar objects.  

PubMed

Configural processing could develop for non-face visual objects as one becomes familiar with those objects through repeated exposure. To explore the role of familiarity in object recognition, we studied the effect of adaptation to a visual object (adapting stimulus) on the identification performance of other objects (test stimulus) while adapting and test stimuli were exactly the same, shared parts or were completely different. We used a subset of English alphabets (p, q, d and b) as familiar objects and an unfamiliar set of symbols constructed from same parts but with different configurations. Adaptation to a member of each set led to a lower identification performance for that object in a crowding paradigm. Adaptation to each member of the unfamiliar set resulted in decreased identification performance for the same object and those members of the set that shared parts with the adapting stimulus. But no such transfer of adaptation was observed for the familiar set. Our results support the notion that processing of object parts plays an important role in the recognition of unfamiliar objects while recognition of familiar objects is mainly based on configural processing mechanisms. PMID:16099356

Noudoost, Behrad; Adibi, Mehdi; Moeeny, Ali; Esteky, Hossein

2005-03-31

90

Timing and tuning for familiarity of cortical responses to faces.  

PubMed

Different kinds of known faces activate brain areas to dissimilar degrees. However, the tuning to type of knowledge, and the temporal course of activation, of each area have not been well characterized. Here we measured, with functional magnetic resonance imaging, brain activity elicited by unfamiliar, visually familiar, and personally-familiar faces. We assessed response amplitude and duration using flexible hemodynamic response functions, as well as the tuning to face type, of regions within the face processing system. Core face processing areas (occipital and fusiform face areas) responded to all types of faces with only small differences in amplitude and duration. In contrast, most areas of the extended face processing system (medial orbito-frontal, anterior and posterior cingulate) had weak responses to unfamiliar and visually-familiar faces, but were highly tuned and exhibited prolonged responses to personally-familiar faces. This indicates that the neural processing of different types of familiar faces not only differs in degree, but is probably mediated by qualitatively distinct mechanisms. PMID:24130761

Bobes, Maria A; Lage Castellanos, Agustin; Quiñones, Ileana; García, Lorna; Valdes-Sosa, Mitchell

2013-10-09

91

Timing and Tuning for Familiarity of Cortical Responses to Faces  

PubMed Central

Different kinds of known faces activate brain areas to dissimilar degrees. However, the tuning to type of knowledge, and the temporal course of activation, of each area have not been well characterized. Here we measured, with functional magnetic resonance imaging, brain activity elicited by unfamiliar, visually familiar, and personally-familiar faces. We assessed response amplitude and duration using flexible hemodynamic response functions, as well as the tuning to face type, of regions within the face processing system. Core face processing areas (occipital and fusiform face areas) responded to all types of faces with only small differences in amplitude and duration. In contrast, most areas of the extended face processing system (medial orbito-frontal, anterior and posterior cingulate) had weak responses to unfamiliar and visually-familiar faces, but were highly tuned and exhibited prolonged responses to personally-familiar faces. This indicates that the neural processing of different types of familiar faces not only differs in degree, but is probably mediated by qualitatively distinct mechanisms.

Bobes, Maria A.; Lage Castellanos, Agustin; Quinones, Ileana; Garcia, Lorna; Valdes-Sosa, Mitchell

2013-01-01

92

How Does the Brain Discriminate Familiar and Unfamiliar Faces?: A PET Study of Face Categorical Perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

Where and how does the brain discriminate familiar and unfamiliar faces? This question has not been answered yet by neuroimaging studies partly because different tasks were performed on familiar and unfamiliar faces, or because familiar faces were associated with semantic and lexical information. Here eight subjects were trained during 3 days with a set of 30 faces. The familiarized faces

Bruno Rossion; Christine Schiltz; Laurence Robaye; David Pirenne; Marc Crommelinck

2001-01-01

93

Preparing for Novel versus Familiar Events: Shifts in Global and Local Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Six experiments examined whether novelty versus familiarity influences global versus local processing styles. Novelty and familiarity were manipulated by either framing a task as new versus familiar or by asking participants to reflect upon novel versus familiar events prior to the task (i.e., procedural priming). In Experiments 1-3, global…

Forster, Jens; Liberman, Nira; Shapira, Oren

2009-01-01

94

Ambient Dose Equivalent measured at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia Department of Nuclear Medicine  

SciTech Connect

Ambient dose equivalent values were determined in several sites at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Departmento de Medicina Nuclear, using TLD-100 and TLD-900 thermoluminescent dosemeters. Additionally, ambient dose equivalent was measured at a corridor outside the hospitalization room for patients treated with {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Laboratorio de Metrologia, to known {sup 137}Cs gamma radiation air kerma. Radionuclides considered for this study are {sup 131}I, {sup 18}F, {sup 67}Ga, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 111}In, {sup 201}Tl and {sup 137}Cs, with main gamma energies between 93 and 662 keV. Dosemeters were placed during a five month period in the nuclear medicine rooms (containing gamma-cameras), injection corridor, patient waiting areas, PET/CT study room, hot lab, waste storage room and corridors next to the hospitalization rooms for patients treated with {sup 131}I and {sup 137}Cs. High dose values were found at the waste storage room, outside corridor of {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy patients and PET/CT area. Ambient dose equivalent rate obtained for the {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy corridor is equal to (18.51{+-}0.02)x10{sup -3} mSv/h. Sites with minimum doses are the gamma camera rooms, having ambient dose equivalent rates equal to (0.05{+-}0.03)x10{sup -3} mSv/h. Recommendations have been given to the Department authorities so that further actions are taken to reduce doses at high dose sites in order to comply with the ALARA principle (as low as reasonably achievable).

Avila, O. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, AP 18-1027, 11801, DF (Mexico); Torres-Ulloa, C. L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, AP 18-1027, 11801, DF (Mexico); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 70-542, 04510, DF (Mexico); Medina, L. A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 20-364, 01000, DF (Mexico); Unidad de Investigacion Biomedica en Cancer INCan-UNAM, Av. San Fernando 22 C.P. 14080 (Mexico); Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E. [Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia (INCan), Av. San Fernando 22, C.P. 14080 (Mexico); Gamboa de Buen, I. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 70-543, 04510 DF (Mexico); Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 20-364, 01000, DF (Mexico)

2010-12-07

95

Ambient Dose Equivalent measured at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología Department of Nuclear Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ambient dose equivalent values were determined in several sites at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Departmento de Medicina Nuclear, using TLD-100 and TLD-900 thermoluminescent dosemeters. Additionally, ambient dose equivalent was measured at a corridor outside the hospitalization room for patients treated with 137Cs brachytherapy. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Laboratorio de Metrología, to known 137Cs gamma radiation air kerma. Radionuclides considered for this study are 131I, 18F, 67Ga, 99mTc, 111In, 201Tl and 137Cs, with main gamma energies between 93 and 662 keV. Dosemeters were placed during a five month period in the nuclear medicine rooms (containing gamma-cameras), injection corridor, patient waiting areas, PET/CT study room, hot lab, waste storage room and corridors next to the hospitalization rooms for patients treated with 131I and 137Cs. High dose values were found at the waste storage room, outside corridor of 137Cs brachytherapy patients and PET/CT area. Ambient dose equivalent rate obtained for the 137Cs brachytherapy corridor is equal to (18.51+/-0.02)×10-3 mSv/h. Sites with minimum doses are the gamma camera rooms, having ambient dose equivalent rates equal to (0.05+/-0.03)×10-3 mSv/h. Recommendations have been given to the Department authorities so that further actions are taken to reduce doses at high dose sites in order to comply with the ALARA principle (as low as reasonably achievable).

Ávila, O.; Torres-Ulloa, C. L.; Medina, L. A.; Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.; de Buen, I. Gamboa; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E.

2010-12-01

96

Memory for the absolute pitch of familiar songs.  

PubMed

Four experiments were conducted to examine the ability of people without "perfect pitch" to retain the absolute pitch of familiar tunes. In Experiment 1, participants imagined given tunes, and then hummed their first notes four times either between or within sessions. The variability of these productions was very low. Experiment 2 used a recognition paradigm, with results similar to those in Experiment 1 for musicians, but with some additional variability shown for unselected subjects. In Experiment 3, subjects rated the suitability of various pitches to start familiar tunes. Previously given preferred notes were rated high, as were notes three or four semitones distant from the preferred notes, but not notes one or two semitones distant. In Experiment 4, subjects mentally transformed the pitches of familiar tunes to the highest and lowest levels possible. These experiments suggest some retention of the absolute pitch of tunes despite a paucity of verbal or visual cues for the pitch. PMID:2796742

Halpern, A R

1989-09-01

97

Emotional Processing of Personally Familiar Faces in the Vegetative State  

PubMed Central

Background The Vegetative State (VS) is a severe disorder of consciousness in which patients are awake but display no signs of awareness. Yet, recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have demonstrated evidence for covert awareness in VS patients by recording specific brain activations during a cognitive task. However, the possible existence of incommunicable subjective emotional experiences in VS patients remains largely unexplored. This study aimed to probe the question of whether VS patients retain a brain ability to selectively process external stimuli according to their emotional value and look for evidence of covert emotional awareness in patients. Methods and Findings In order to explore these questions we employed the emotive impact of observing personally familiar faces, known to provoke specific perceptual as well as emotional brain activations. Four VS patients and thirteen healthy controls first underwent an fMRI scan while viewing pictures of non-familiar faces, personally familiar faces and pictures of themselves. In a subsequent imagery task participants were asked to actively imagine one of their parent's faces. Analyses focused on face and familiarity selective regional brain activations and inter-regional functional connectivity. Similar to controls, all patients displayed face selective brain responses with further limbic and cortical activations elicited by familiar faces. In patients as well as controls, Connectivity was observed between emotional, visual and face specific areas, suggesting aware emotional perception. This connectivity was strongest in the two patients who later recovered. Notably, these two patients also displayed selective amygdala activation during familiar face imagery, with one further exhibiting face selective activations, indistinguishable from healthy controls. Conclusions Taken together, these results show that selective emotional processing can be elicited in VS patients both by external emotionally salient stimuli and by internal cognitive processes, suggesting the ability for covert emotional awareness of self and the environment in VS patients.

Sharon, Haggai; Pasternak, Yotam; Ben Simon, Eti; Gruberger, Michal; Giladi, Nir; Krimchanski, Ben Zion; Hassin, David; Hendler, Talma

2013-01-01

98

The limited usefulness of models based on recollection and familiarity.  

PubMed

A recent report concluded that magnetoencephalographic signals of neural activity associated with memory based on the recollection process are independent from signals associated with memory based on the familiarity process. These data can be interpreted equally well, however, as indications of memory aggregated from both processes and showing that signals associated with high-confidence recognition are dissociable from signals associated with low-confidence recognition. The usefulness of interpreting neural data according to psychological models based on recollection and familiarity is discussed. PMID:22993254

Wais, Peter E

2012-09-19

99

The type specimens of Apoidea (Hymenoptera) deposited in the Entomological Collection of Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.  

PubMed

A list of 41 Apoidea (Hymenoptera) type specimens deposited in the Entomological Collection of the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil is presented. The types previously belonged to the Zikán and Schrottky private collections. A total of 11 holotypes and 30 paratypes are listed with their respective data and literature. PMID:9332600

Ferraz, M V

100

Radio-Observaciones del OH EN la Coma del Cometa Halley Desde EL Hemisferio Sur  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Se utilizó una antena de 30 metros del Instituto Argentino de Radioastronomía para observaciones diarias Cf ebrero a abril de 1986) de la transición en 1667 MHz ( ? = 18 cm) del OH en la coma del cometa Halley. De las observaciones realizadas se concluye: 1) El número promedio de moléculas de OH en la coma durante 37 días de observación fue de (8.9±3.5)x1034 moléculas, lo que implica una tasa de producción promedio de OH de 1.8x1029 moléculas seg-1 y consecuentemente una pérdida de masa promedio de 17±6 toneladas seg-1 . Este valor está de acuerdo con las mediciones realizadas por las sondas Vega y Giotto. 2) El monitoreo desde el lAR revela la existencia de variaciones bruscas en los flujos de absorción del OH. Estas variaciones son consistentes con los modelos que representan la producción gaseosa a partir de ejecciones y/o desprendimientos discretos de materia congelada del núcleo. 3) Las variaciones en la densidad de flujo son consistentes con las estimaciones de los tiem- pos de vida medios del H2O y del OH en presencia del campo de radiación solar. 4) Se encuentra una correlación entre la intensidad del flujo absorbido y anisotropías en Ia dinamica de la coma.

Silva, A. M.; Bajaja, E.; Morras, R.; Cersosimo, J. C.; Martin, M. C.; Arnal, E. M.; Poppel, W. G. L.; Colomb, F. R.; Mazzaro, J.; Olalde, J. C.; Boriakoff, V.; Mirabel, I. F.

1987-05-01

101

Context effects in the processing of familiar faces  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we report five experiments that investigate the influence of prime faces upon the speed with which familiar faces are recognized and named. Previously, priming had been reported when the prime and target faces were closely associated, e.g., Prince Charles and Princess Diana (Bruce & Valentine, 1986). In Experiment 1 we show that there is a reliable effect

Tim Brennen; Brennen Bruce

1991-01-01

102

E-commerce: the role of familiarity and trust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Familiarity is a precondition for trust, claims Luhmann [28: Luhmann N. Trust and power. Chichester UK: Wiley, 1979. (translation from German)], and trust is a prerequisite of social behavior, especially regarding important decisions. This study examines this intriguing idea in the context of the E-commerce involved in inquiring about and purchasing books on the Internet. Survey data from 217 potential

David Gefen

2000-01-01

103

Learning and remembering from thematic maps of familiar regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine how four methods of symbolizing data affect learning from thematic maps of familiar regions, two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, 86 college students viewed one of three types of thematic map or a control table, then read a map-related text. Recall of regions with their associated theme information was greater for those who studied a map than

Kent A. Rittschof; Raymond W. Kulhavy

1998-01-01

104

Method to consider familiarity in clothing coordination recommender systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a method for clothing coordination recommender systems to consider familiarity by using internal activity factors. We implemented the method in our system for evaluation and conducted experiments using pairs of Kansei words to reflect the impressions of participants. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the method. This method should also be useful for other systems, such

Takahiro Akabane; Suzuka Kosugi; Sayaka Kimura; Masayuki Arai

2011-01-01

105

The Role of Decision Support in Alleviating the Familiarity Bias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decision support systems (DSS) have been designed in part to help circumvent human cognitive biases that hinder effective decision making. One bias that has been overlooked in the area of DSS is the familiarity bias. It has been researched primarily for making probability comparisons in the field of social psychology and for making investment decisions in finance, and it has

Kent Marett; Garry Adams

2006-01-01

106

Disruption of a Taste Familiarity Effect by Novel Exteroceptive Stimulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses four experiments concerned with environmental determiners of the taste familiarity effect. Specifically, external environmental stimulation experienced by the subject at the time of taste preexposure and taste conditioning was varied in order to assess its influence on taste aversion learning. (Author/RK)

Rudy, Jerry W.; And Others

1977-01-01

107

Naming Speed and Word Familiarity as Confounding Factors in Decoding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Establishes a suitable composite index which combines speed and accuracy in the measurement of decoding skill. Examines whether speed acts as a confounding factor in the measurement of decoding ability. Sees whether familiarity with the word acts as a confounding factor in the assessment of spelling skills. Indicates that including word-naming…

Joshi, R. Malatesha; Aaron, P. G.

2002-01-01

108

Familiar Sports and Activities Adapted for Multiply Impaired Persons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Means of adapting some familiar and popular physical activities for multiply impaired persons are described. Games reviewed are dice baseball, one base baseball, in-house bowling, wheelchair bowling, ramp bowling, swing-ball bowling, table tennis, shuffleboard, beanbag bingo and tic-tac-toe, balloon basketball, circle football, and wheelchair…

Schilling, Mary Lou, Ed.

1984-01-01

109

Sensitivity to orthographic familiarity in the occipito-temporal region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The involvement of the left hemisphere occipito-temporal (OT) junction in reading has been established, yet there is current controversy over the region's specificity for reading and the nature of its role in the reading process. Recent neuroimaging findings suggest that the region is sensitive to orthographic familiarity [Kronbichler, M., Bergmann, J., Hutzler, F., Staffen, W., Mair, A., Ladurner, G., Wimmer,

Jennifer Lynn Bruno; Allison Zumberge; Franklin R. Manis; Zhong-Lin Lu; Jason G. Goldman

2008-01-01

110

Assessing Student Interest and Familiarity with Professional Psychology Specialty Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined undergraduate psychology students' (N = 83) self-reported interest in and familiarity with five specialty areas in professional psychology: counseling psychology, clinical psychology, school psychology, forensic psychology, and criminal profiling. Results suggest that although students are quite interested in careers…

Stark-Wroblewski, Kimberly; Wiggins, Tina L.; Ryan, Joseph J.

2006-01-01

111

The Sensorimotor Contributions to Implicit Memory, Familiarity, and Recollection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The sensorimotor contributions to memory for prior occurrence were investigated. Previous research has shown that both implicit memory and familiarity draw on gains in stimulus-related processing fluency for old, compared with novel, stimuli, but recollection does not. Recently, it has been demonstrated that processing fluency itself resides in…

Topolinski, Sascha

2012-01-01

112

Context Dependency of Conditioned Aversions to Familiar and Novel Fluids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using a context discrimination procedure and rats as the subjects, the formation of context-dependent aversions to novel and familiar fluids was investigated. Experiment 1 revealed that context dependency could be established to a novel fluid (saccharin) after three cycles of context discrimination training and that the acquired context…

Ishii, Kiyoshi; Iguchi, Yoshio; Sawa, Kosuke

2006-01-01

113

Fear appeal effectiveness for familiar and unfamiliar issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of level of graphic threat (weak and strong) and the amount of information (low and high) on message effectiveness for an unfamiliar (a muscle disorder due to lack of physical exercise) vs a familiar (injuries as a result of traffic accidents due to drunk driving) issue. Design\\/methodology\\/approach –

Patrick De Pelsmacker; Verolien Cauberghe; Nathalie Dens

2011-01-01

114

Music and Emotions in the Brain: Familiarity Matters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of music in our daily life has given rise to an increased number of studies addressing the brain regions involved in its appreciation. Some of these studies controlled only for the familiarity of the stimuli, while others relied on pleasantness ratings, and others still on musical preferences. With a listening test and a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

Carlos Silva Pereira; João Teixeira; Patrícia Figueiredo; João Xavier; São Luís Castro; Elvira Brattico

2011-01-01

115

How do people find information on a familiar website?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has investigated how people either navigate the web as a whole, or find information on websites of which they have little previous knowledge. However, it is now common for people to make frequent use of one site (e.g., their employer's intranet). This paper reports how participants recalled and navigated a familiar website they had used for 8-20 months.

Roy A. Ruddle

2009-01-01

116

Use of Interdisciplinary Education to Foster Familiarization among Health Professionals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a pilot interdisciplinary experience between the dental hygiene and medical technology programs at Marquette University. It was designed, in part, to familiarize dental hygiene students with the medical technology profession. Comments solicited from students on the final evaluation form indicated that this pilot project was highly…

Laatsch, Linda J.; And Others

1986-01-01

117

Neuronal Correlates of Perception, Imagery, and Memory for Familiar Tunes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used fMRI to investigate the neuronal correlates of encoding and recognizing heard and imagined melodies. Ten participants were shown lyrics of familiar verbal tunes; they either heard the tune along with the lyrics, or they had to imagine it. In a subsequent surprise recognition test, they had to identify the titles of tunes that they had heard or imagined

Sibylle C. Herholz; Andrea R. Halpern; Robert J. Zatorre

2012-01-01

118

The Sensorimotor Contributions to Implicit Memory, Familiarity, and Recollection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The sensorimotor contributions to memory for prior occurrence were investigated. Previous research has shown that both implicit memory and familiarity draw on gains in stimulus-related processing fluency for old, compared with novel, stimuli, but recollection does not. Recently, it has been demonstrated that processing fluency itself resides in…

Topolinski, Sascha

2012-01-01

119

Neuronal Correlates of Perception, Imagery, and Memory for Familiar Tunes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used fMRI to investigate the neuronal correlates of encoding and recognizing heard and imagined melodies. Ten participants were shown lyrics of familiar verbal tunes; they either heard the tune along with the lyrics, or they had to imagine it. In a subsequent surprise recognition test, they had to identify the titles of tunes that they had heard or imagined

Sibylle C. Herholz; Andrea R. Halpern; Robert J. Zatorre

120

Electrophysiological Signals of Familiarity and Recency in the Infant Brain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Electrophysiological work in nonhuman primates has established the existence of multiple types of signals in the temporal lobe that contribute to recognition memory, including information regarding a stimulus's relative novelty, familiarity, and recency of occurrence. We used high-density event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine whether young…

Snyder, Kelly A.; Garza, John; Zolot, Liza; Kresse, Anna

2010-01-01

121

Prefrontal Control of Familiarity and Recollection in Working Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) is a critical neural substrate for the resolution of proactive interference (PI) in working memory. We hypothesized that left IFG achieves this by controlling the influence of familiarity- versus recollection-based information about memory probes. Consistent with this idea, we observed evidence for an "early" (200…

Feredoes, Eva; Postle, Bradley R.

2010-01-01

122

The Effect of Conceptual and Contextual Familiarity on Transfer Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Applying a previously learned concept to a novel problem is an important but difficult process called transfer. It is suggested that a commonsense analogy aids in transfer by linking novel concepts to familiar ones. How the context of practice affects transfer when learning using analogies is still unclear. This study investigated the effect of a…

Kulasegaram, Kulamakan; Min, Cynthia; Ames, Kimberly; Howey, Elizabeth; Neville, Alan; Norman, Geoffrey

2012-01-01

123

Research Article Interpreting heritage essentialisms: Familiarity and felt history  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses both the emergent mobilities and familiarity tourism agendas as essentialisms of nation, Europeanness, and past urban living through the medium of a pre-industrial urban heritage museum, Den Gamle By. The analysis is articulated both through visitors' own voices and through quantitative modelling. The methods are shown as complementary. Consumption is described as both experiential and empathetic. Despite

Richard Prentice; Vivien Andersen

124

Bluetooth Familiarity: Methods of Calculation, Applications and Limitations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an approach for utilising a mobile device's Bluetooth sensor to automatically identify social interactions and relationships between individuals in the real world. We show that a high degree of accuracy is achievable in the automatic identification of mobile devices of familiar individuals. This has implications for mobile device security, social networking and in context aware information access on

Barry Lavelle; Daragh Byrne; Cathal Gurrin; Alan F. Smeaton; Gareth J. F. Jones

125

Effects of Adult Familiarity on Social Behaviours in Angelman Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Individuals with Angelman syndrome appear strongly motivated by social contact, but there have been few studies that have examined the relationship between sociability and familiarity. In this study we compared social behaviour in Angelman syndrome when in contact with mothers and strangers. Methods: We systematically manipulated…

Mount, R.; Oliver, C.; Berg, K.; Horsler, K.

2011-01-01

126

Context Dependency of Conditioned Aversions to Familiar and Novel Fluids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a context discrimination procedure and rats as the subjects, the formation of context-dependent aversions to novel and familiar fluids was investigated. Experiment 1 revealed that context dependency could be established to a novel fluid (saccharin) after three cycles of context discrimination training and that the acquired context dependency…

Ishii, Kiyoshi; Iguchi, Yoshio; Sawa, Kosuke

2006-01-01

127

Does Familiarity with Text Breed Complacency or Vigilance?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Proofreading one's own writing is difficult due to the overfamiliarity of one's writing, which has been claimed to conceal errors, even extraneous errors inserted by someone else (as in collaborative writing). In the present research, we examined whether increasing one's familiarity with text can indeed have a negative influence on error…

Pilotti, Maura; Chodorow, Martin

2012-01-01

128

Familiarity does indeed promote attraction in live interaction.  

PubMed

Does familiarity promote attraction? Prior research has generally suggested that it does, but a recent set of studies by Norton, Frost, and Ariely (2007) challenged that assumption. Instead, they found that more information about another person, when that information was randomly selected from lists of trait adjectives, using a trait evaluation paradigm, promoted perceptions of dissimilarity and, hence, disliking. The present research began with the assumption that natural social interaction involves contexts and processes not present in Norton et al.'s research or in the typical familiarity experiment. We theorized that these processes imply a favorable impact of familiarity on attraction. Two experiments are reported using a live interaction paradigm in which two previously unacquainted same-sex persons interacted with each other for varying amounts of time. Findings strongly supported the "familiarity leads to attraction" hypothesis: The more participants interacted, the more attracted they were to each other. Mediation analyses identified three processes that contribute to this effect: perceived responsiveness, increased comfort and satisfaction during interaction, and perceived knowledge. PMID:21381850

Reis, Harry T; Maniaci, Michael R; Caprariello, Peter A; Eastwick, Paul W; Finkel, Eli J

2011-09-01

129

Assessing Student Interest and Familiarity with Professional Psychology Specialty Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study examined undergraduate psychology students' (N = 83) self-reported interest in and familiarity with five specialty areas in professional psychology: counseling psychology, clinical psychology, school psychology, forensic psychology, and criminal profiling. Results suggest that although students are quite interested in careers…

Stark-Wroblewski, Kimberly; Wiggins, Tina L.; Ryan, Joseph J.

2006-01-01

130

When Familiarity Breeds Accuracy: Cultural Exposure and Facial Emotion Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies provide evidence for the role of cultural familiarity in recognizing facial expressions of emotion. For Chinese located in China and the United States, Chinese Americans, and non-Asian Americans, accuracy and speed in judging Chinese and American emotions was greater with greater participant exposure to the group posing the expressions. Likewise, Tibetans residing in China and Africans residing in

Hillary Anger Elfenbein; Nalini Ambady

2003-01-01

131

Sustained Effects of Adaptation on the Perception of Familiar Faces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Figural aftereffects are commonly believed to be transient and to fade away in the course of milliseconds. We tested face aftereffects using familiar faces and found sustained effects lasting up to 1 week. In 3 experiments, participants were first exposed to distorted pictures of famous persons and then had to select the veridical face in a…

Carbon, Claus-Christian; Ditye, Thomas

2011-01-01

132

Prefrontal Control of Familiarity and Recollection in Working Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) is a critical neural substrate for the resolution of proactive interference (PI) in working memory. We hypothesized that left IFG achieves this by controlling the influence of familiarity- versus recollection-based information about memory probes. Consistent with this idea, we observed evidence for an "early"…

Feredoes, Eva; Postle, Bradley R.

2010-01-01

133

Visual laterality in dolphins: importance of the familiarity of stimuli  

PubMed Central

Background Many studies of cerebral asymmetries in different species lead, on the one hand, to a better understanding of the functions of each cerebral hemisphere and, on the other hand, to develop an evolutionary history of hemispheric laterality. Our animal model is particularly interesting because of its original evolutionary path, i.e. return to aquatic life after a terrestrial phase. The rare reports concerning visual laterality of marine mammals investigated mainly discrimination processes. As dolphins are migrant species they are confronted to a changing environment. Being able to categorize new versus familiar objects would allow dolphins a rapid adaptation to novel environments. Visual laterality could be a prerequisite to this adaptability. To date, no study, to our knowledge, has analyzed the environmental factors that could influence their visual laterality. Results We investigated visual laterality expressed spontaneously at the water surface by a group of five common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in response to various stimuli. The stimuli presented ranged from very familiar objects (known and manipulated previously) to familiar objects (known but never manipulated) to unfamiliar objects (unknown, never seen previously). At the group level, dolphins used their left eye to observe very familiar objects and their right eye to observe unfamiliar objects. However, eyes are used indifferently to observe familiar objects with intermediate valence. Conclusion Our results suggest different visual cerebral processes based either on the global shape of well-known objects or on local details of unknown objects. Moreover, the manipulation of an object appears necessary for these dolphins to construct a global representation of an object enabling its immediate categorization for subsequent use. Our experimental results pointed out some cognitive capacities of dolphins which might be crucial for their wild life given their fission-fusion social system and migratory behaviour.

2012-01-01

134

Valoración del impacto de un programa de educación en valores en el último curso de secundaria obligatoria  

Microsoft Academic Search

o de ESO de un instituto mala- gueño un programa de educación en actitudes y valores. Dos unidades docentes de dicho curso participaron en el programa y son considerados, en el análisis metodológico, como grupo (cuasi)experimental, mientras las otras tres unidades del mismo curso han servido como grupo de contraste o control. Los análisis han sido de comparación entre ambos

Carlos Fierro-Hernández

2006-01-01

135

In the beginning was the familiar voice: personally familiar voices in the evolutionary and contemporary biology of communication.  

PubMed

The human voice is described in dialogic linguistics as an embodiment of self in a social context, contributing to expression, perception and mutual exchange of self, consciousness, inner life, and personhood. While these approaches are subjective and arise from phenomenological perspectives, scientific facts about personal vocal identity, and its role in biological development, support these views. It is our purpose to review studies of the biology of personal vocal identity-the familiar voice pattern-as providing an empirical foundation for the view that the human voice is an embodiment of self in the social context. Recent developments in the biology and evolution of communication are concordant with these notions, revealing that familiar voice recognition (also known as vocal identity recognition or individual vocal recognition) has contributed to survival in the earliest vocalizing species. Contemporary ethology documents the crucial role of familiar voices across animal species in signaling and perceiving internal states and personal identities. Neuropsychological studies of voice reveal multimodal cerebral associations arising across brain structures involved in memory, emotion, attention, and arousal in vocal perception and production, such that the voice represents the whole person. Although its roots are in evolutionary biology, human competence for processing layered social and personal meanings in the voice, as well as personal identity in a large repertory of familiar voice patterns, has achieved an immense sophistication. PMID:21710374

Sidtis, Diana; Kreiman, Jody

2011-06-29

136

Does familiarity with computers affect computerized neuropsychological test performance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine whether self-reported computer familiarity is related to performance on computerized neurocognitive testing. Participants were 130 healthy adults who self-reported whether their computer use was “some” (n?=?65) or “frequent” (n?=?65). The two groups were individually matched on age, education, sex, and race. All completed the CNS Vital Signs (Gualtieri & Johnson, 2006b) computerized

Grant L. Iverson; Brian L. Brooks; V. Lynn Ashton; Lynda G. Johnson; C. Thomas Gualtieri

2009-01-01

137

Micro AR for education: using metaphors for familiar actions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micro AR is a hybrid physical\\/virtual hypermedia that integrates paper (a static\\/tangible media) and Augmented Reality (AR - an interactive\\/immersive media) using the metaphor of a loupe tool to represent magnification functionality. Making use of the familiar action of observing small objects as part of the metaphor, we can embed intuitive and semantic browsing operations into paper media. This system

Koh Sueda; Jian Gu; Shintaro Kitazawa; Henry Been-Lirn Duh

2011-01-01

138

Processing modes and parallel processors in producing familiar keying sequences.  

PubMed

Recent theorizing indicates that the acquisition of movement sequence skill involves the development of several independent sequence representations at the same time. To examine this for the discrete sequence production task, participants in Experiment 1 produced a highly practiced sequence of six key presses in two conditions that allowed little preparation so that interkey intervals were slowed. Analyses of the distributions of moderately slowed interkey intervals indicated that this slowing was caused by the occasional use of two slower processing modes, that probably rely on independent sequence representations, and by reduced parallel processing in the fastest processing mode. Experiment 2 addressed the role of intention for the fast production of familiar keying sequences. It showed that the participants, who were not aware they were executing familiar sequences in a somewhat different task, had no benefits of prior practice. This suggests that the mechanisms underlying sequencing skills are not automatically activated by mere execution of familiar sequences, and that some form of top-down, intentional control remains necessary. PMID:12739146

Verwey, Willem B

2002-11-30

139

The effect of conceptual and contextual familiarity on transfer performance.  

PubMed

Applying a previously learned concept to a novel problem is an important but difficult process called transfer. It is suggested that a commonsense analogy aids in transfer by linking novel concepts to familiar ones. How the context of practice affects transfer when learning using analogies is still unclear. This study investigated the effect of a commonsense analogy and context familiarity for transfer of physiological concepts. First year psychology students (n = 24) learned three concepts: Starling's law, Laplace's law, and laminar-turbulent flow. The control group saw standard explanations while the intervention group saw an additional commonsense analogy. The context of learning was the organ system used for two practice clinical cases which differed for all concepts. Testing consisted of 12 new clinical cases. Starling's law cases used the organ system from practice while the other concepts presented in both novel and familiar organ systems. Half of the sample repeated testing after 1 week delay. The outcome was ratings of explanations of cases on a 0-3 scale. The effect of analogy was significant (Mean = 1.24 with, 0.86 without, F(1,22) = 4.26, p < 0.05) but not after delay (means of 1.08 and 0.75 respectively, F = (1,10), p = 0.06) There was significant effect for familiar context (Same = 1.23 (Starling), different = 0.68 (Laplace) and 0.73 (laminar-turbulent flow) (F(2,44) = 5.14, p < 0.01). Laplace's law and laminar turbulent flow cases in the familiar organ system had means of 1.65 and 1.77 respectively compared to novel cases with means of 0.74 and 0.68 (F(1,22) = 35.64, p < 0.0001). Similar effects were observed after delay. There was significant decay in performance after delay for all participants (immediate = 1.17, delayed = 0.91, F = 11.9 (1,10) p < 0.01). Common analogies aid conceptual understanding necessary for transfer. Despite conceptual aids, solving transfer problems is difficult. PMID:21959956

Kulasegaram, Kulamakan; Min, Cynthia; Ames, Kimberly; Howey, Elizabeth; Neville, Alan; Norman, Geoffrey

2011-09-30

140

Matching Identities of Familiar and Unfamiliar Faces Caught on CCTV Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

People can be inaccurate at matching unfamiliar faces shown in high-quality video images, even when viewpoint and facial expressions are closely matched. However, identification of highly familiar faces appears good, even when video quality is poor. Experiment 1 reported a direct comparison between familiar and unfamiliar faces. Participants who were personally familiar with target items appearing on video were highly

Vicki Bruce; Zoë Henderson; Craig Newman; A. Mike Burton

2001-01-01

141

Familiarity, Beliefs, Attitudes, and Consumer Responses Toward Online Advertising in China and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the relationships among consumers' familiarity with online advertising, beliefs about online advertising effectiveness, attitudes toward online advertising (ATOA), and consumer responses across the United States and China. Results indicated, for U.S. consumers, familiarity was a positive predictor of online shopping but not a significant predictor of persuasion. For Chinese consumers, familiarity was a positive predictor of persuasion

Shaojing Sun; Ying Wang

2010-01-01

142

The impacts of perceived fit, brand familiarity, and status consciousness on fashion brand extension evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined how strongly consumers’ evaluations of vertical and horizontal fashion brand extensions are influenced by perceived fit, brand familiarity and status consciousness. Data were collected from 187 female consumers aged 18 and older who were familiar with Giorgio Armani, the parent brand chosen for this study. Regression analyses revealed that brand familiarity was a positive predictor of vertical

Soyoung Kim; Hyunjong Chung

2012-01-01

143

Influence of Familiarity on Identifying Prosodic Vocalizations Produced by Children with Severe Dysarthria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Familiarity is thought to aid listeners in decoding disordered speech; however, as the speech signal degrades, the "familiarity advantage" becomes less beneficial. Despite highly unintelligible speech sound production, many children with dysarthria vocalize when interacting with familiar caregivers. Perhaps listeners can understand these…

Patel, Rupal; Schroeder, Bethany

2007-01-01

144

Temporal Aspects of the Feeling of Familiarity for Music and the Emergence of Conceptual Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We tested whether the emergence of familiarity to a melody may trigger or co-occur with the processing of the concept(s) conveyed by emotions to, or semantic association with, the melody. With this objective, we recorded ERPs while participants were presented with highly familiar and less familiar melodies in a gating paradigm. The ERPs time…

Daltrozzo, Jerome; Tillmann, Barbara; Platel, Herve; Schon, Daniele

2010-01-01

145

Sex Differences in Attraction to Familiar and Unfamiliar Opposite-Sex Faces: Men Prefer Novelty and Women Prefer Familiarity.  

PubMed

Familiarity is attractive in many types of stimuli and exposure generally increases feelings of liking. However, men desire a greater number of sexual partners than women, suggesting a preference for novelty. We examined sex differences in preferences for familiarity. In Study 1 (N = 83 women, 63 men), we exposed individuals to faces twice and found that faces were judged as more attractive on the second rating, reflecting attraction to familiar faces, with the exception that men's ratings of female faces decreased on the second rating, demonstrating attraction to novelty. In Studies 2 (N = 42 women, 28 men) and 3 (N = 51 women, 25 men), exposure particularly decreased men's ratings of women's attractiveness for short-term relationships and their sexiness. In Study 4 (N = 64 women, 50 men), women's attraction to faces was positively related to self-rated similarity to their current partner's face, while the effect was significantly weaker for men. Potentially, men's attraction to novelty may reflect an adaptation promoting the acquisition of a high number of sexual partners. PMID:23740467

Little, Anthony C; Debruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C

2013-06-01

146

Review of Experience Gained in Fabricating Nuclear Grade Uranium and Thorium Compounds and Their Analytical Quality Control at the Instituto de Energia Atomica, Sao Paulo, Brazil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main activities associated with the fabrication of nuclear grade uranium and thorium compounds at the Instituto de Energia Atomica, Sao Paulo are summarized. Identification of problems and their resolutions, the experience gained in plant operation, t...

A. Abrao J. M. Franca A. Ikuta C. R. Pueschel L. Federgruen

1977-01-01

147

Review on Quality Control Techniques of UO sub 2 Pellets under Pilot-Plant Conditions, at Instituto de Energia Atomica, Sao Paulo, Brazil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Instituto de Energia Atomica's Metallurgy Division Pilot Plant has been established to develop fabrication and control techniques of ceramic fuel elements, to train personnel and to acquire experience in quality control of fuel pellets. Its close asso...

T. D. de Souza Santos H. M. Haydt E. F. Gentile F. Ambrozio Filho N. F. Quadros

1977-01-01

148

Discrimination of familiar human faces in dogs (Canis familiaris)  

PubMed Central

Faces are an important visual category for many taxa, and the human face is no exception to this. Because faces differ in subtle ways and possess many idiosyncratic features, they provide a rich source of perceptual cues. A fair amount of those cues are learned through social interactions and are used for future identification of individual humans. These effects of individual experience can be studied particularly well in hetero-specific face perception. Domestic dogs represent a perfect model in this respect, due to their proved ability to extract important information from the human face in socio-communicative interactions. There is also suggestive evidence that dogs can identify their owner or other familiar human individuals by using visual information from the face. However, most studies have used only dogs’ looking behavior to examine their visual processing of human faces and it has been demonstrated only that dogs can differentiate between familiar and unknown human faces. Here, we examined the dog's ability to discriminate the faces of two familiar persons by active choice (approach and touch). Furthermore, in successive stages of the experiment we investigated how well dogs discriminate humans in different representations by systematically reducing the informational richness and the quality of the stimuli. We found a huge inter-individual and inter-stage variance in performance, indicating differences across dogs in their learning ability as well as their selection of discriminative cues. On a group level, the performance of dogs significantly decreased when they were presented with pictures of human heads after having learned to discriminate the real heads, and when – after relearning – confronted with the same pictures showing only the inner parts of the heads. However, as two dogs quickly mastered all stages, we conclude that dogs are in principle able to discriminate people on the basis of visual information from their faces and by making active choices.

Huber, Ludwig; Racca, Anais; Scaf, Billy; Viranyi, Zsofia; Range, Friederike

2013-01-01

149

You sound familiar: carrion crows can differentiate between the calls of known and unknown heterospecifics.  

PubMed

In group-living animals, it is adaptive to recognize conspecifics on the basis of familiarity or group membership as it allows association with preferred social partners and avoidance of competitors. However, animals do not only associate with conspecifics but also with heterospecifics, for example in mixed-species flocks. Consequently, between-species recognition, based either on familiarity or even individual recognition, is likely to be beneficial. The extent to which animals can distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar heterospecifics is currently unclear. In the present study, we investigated the ability of eight carrion crows to differentiate between the voices and calls of familiar and unfamiliar humans and jackdaws. The crows responded significantly more often to unfamiliar than familiar human playbacks and, conversely, responded more to familiar than unfamiliar jackdaw calls. Our results provide the first evidence that birds can discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar heterospecific individuals using auditory stimuli. PMID:22538713

Wascher, Claudia A F; Szipl, Georgine; Boeckle, Markus; Wilkinson, Anna

2012-04-27

150

Neural Correlates of Familiarity-Based Associative Retrieval  

PubMed Central

The current study compared the neural correlates of associative retrieval of compound (unitized) stimuli and unrelated (non-unitized) stimuli. Although associative recognition was nearly identical for compounds and unrelated pairs, accurate recognition of these different pair types was associated with activation in distinct regions within the medial temporal lobe (MTL). Recognition of previously presented compound words was associated with left perirhinal activity, whereas recognition of unrelated word pairs was associated with activity in left hippocampus. These results provide evidence that perirhinal cortex mediates familiarity-based associative memory of stimuli unitized at encoding, while the hippocampus is required for recollection-based associative memory.

Ford, Jaclyn Hennessey; Verfaellie, Mieke; Giovanello, K.S.

2010-01-01

151

Interdisciplinary Unit: La Isla del Encanto (The Enchanted Island).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents a series of 14 lesson plans in an interdisciplinary Spanish unit on "La isla del encanto/The Enchanted Island." The materials were prepared for students in grades 5 or 6 who have had basic Spanish instruction in previous grades. The students should also be familiar with basic concepts in English such as math computation, map…

Ford-Guerrera, Rebecca

152

Interdisciplinary Unit: La Isla del Encanto (The Enchanted Island).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document presents a series of 14 lesson plans in an interdisciplinary Spanish unit on "La isla del encanto/The Enchanted Island." The materials were prepared for students in grades 5 or 6 who have had basic Spanish instruction in previous grades. The students should also be familiar with basic concepts in English such as math computation,…

Ford-Guerrera, Rebecca

153

Starting with the Familiar: An Element in Climate Change Adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A practical strategy for adaptation would be most effective if it began with what is familiar. In many ways, the uses for climate data and information in different sectors have been to provide ever more refined adaptation to what is perceived as the current climate. This perspective offers a starting point for adaptation to a climate with different properties. A widely shared traditional assumption is that the statistics of the future will be like the statistics of the past. A large number of tools and applications have been developed that have taken this presumption as nearly an article of faith. Approaches that can continue to make use of these familiar tools, but at the same time allow for the data upon which they operate to slowly begin to deviate from present or past values, are likely to have greater acceptance. Climate change in most circumstances will be experienced not as an abrupt transition (though this may sometimes happen), but rather as a gradual departure from what has characterized the past. A major need is for the climate modeling community to express the output of future climate projections in terms that users are accustomed to working with. At present there is a very large disconnect between the modeling and user communities in this regard. As one example, there are few easy ways of obtaining a two-hundred year time series of daily or hourly data for a site of interest, spanning the past and future century, from a model or set of models, that can be readily put into a form tailored to such existing software. Many models do not even save data of interest to, and familiar to, users. Because models are not likely to have the correct statistics for the present and recent climate, a step is needed to adjust for inaccuracies, which will probably be the rule rather than the exception. For most models these errors have been diminishing with each new iteration, and are likely to be generally tolerable. At present there is no set of procedures for helping a user to establishing credibility, by, for example, exhibiting correct and known statistics of the past. Models that cannot pass this credibility test should be viewed with greater skepticism. There are a number of other considerations associated with adaptation, but all of these should help the user be an active participant in establishing the degree of confidence they should place in data and information for whatever decisions they need to make.

Redmond, K. T.

2008-12-01

154

From network heterogeneities to familiarity detection and hippocampal memory management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hippocampal-neocortical interactions are key to the rapid formation of novel associative memories in the hippocampus and consolidation to long term storage sites in the neocortex. We investigated the role of network correlates during information processing in hippocampal-cortical networks. We found that changes in the intrinsic network dynamics due to the formation of structural network heterogeneities alone act as a dynamical and regulatory mechanism for stimulus novelty and familiarity detection, thereby controlling memory management in the context of memory consolidation. This network dynamic, coupled with an anatomically established feedback between the hippocampus and the neocortex, recovered heretofore unexplained properties of neural activity patterns during memory management tasks which we observed during sleep in multiunit recordings from behaving animals. Our simple dynamical mechanism shows an experimentally matched progressive shift of memory activation from the hippocampus to the neocortex and thus provides the means to achieve an autonomous off-line progression of memory consolidation.

Wang, Jane X.; Poe, Gina; Zochowski, Michal

2008-10-01

155

From novel to familiar: Tuning the brain for metaphors  

PubMed Central

Metaphors are fundamental to creative thought and expression. Newly coined metaphors regularly infiltrate our collective vocabulary and gradually become familiar, but how does this shift from novel to conventionalized meaning happen in the brain? We investigated the neural career of metaphors in a functional magnetic resonance imaging study using extensively normed new metaphors and simulated the ordinary, gradual experience of metaphor conventionalization by manipulating participants’ exposure to these metaphors. Results showed that the conventionalization of novel metaphors specifically tunes activity within bilateral inferior prefrontal cortex, left posterior middle temporal gyrus, and right postero-lateral occipital cortex. These results support theoretical accounts attributing a role for the right hemisphere in processing novel, low salience figurative meanings, but also show that conventionalization of metaphoric meaning is a bilaterally-mediated process. Metaphor conventionalization entails a decreased neural load within semantic networks rather than a hemispheric or regional shift across brain areas.

Cardillo, Eileen R.; Watson, Christine E.; Schmidt, Gwenda L.; Kranjec, Alexander; Chatterjee, Anjan

2012-01-01

156

Using source cues and familiarity cues to resist imagination inflation.  

PubMed

To investigate whether people can resist imagination inflation--the imagination-induced increased confidence that fictitious childhood events really happened--we gave them different types of cues. In a three-stage procedure, participants: (1) rated their confidence that a list of childhood events had happened to them, (2) imagined some of these events, and (3) made confidence ratings a second time. Subjects received either no cues about the source of the imagined event, an additional source cue (perspective), an additional familiarity cue (a plausibility questionnaire), or both cues. Only subjects who had both types of cues resisted imagination inflation. These results suggest that additional cues can sometimes safeguard people from becoming more confident that fictitious events were genuine experiences. PMID:15967405

Sharman, Stefanie J; Garry, Maryanne; Hunt, Maree

2005-06-20

157

From novel to familiar: tuning the brain for metaphors.  

PubMed

Metaphors are fundamental to creative thought and expression. Newly coined metaphors regularly infiltrate our collective vocabulary and gradually become familiar, but it is unclear how this shift from novel to conventionalized meaning happens in the brain. We investigated the neural career of metaphors in a functional magnetic resonance imaging study using extensively normed new metaphors and simulated the ordinary, gradual experience of metaphor conventionalization by manipulating participants' exposure to these metaphors. Results showed that the conventionalization of novel metaphors specifically tunes activity within bilateral inferior prefrontal cortex, left posterior middle temporal gyrus, and right postero-lateral occipital cortex. These results support theoretical accounts attributing a role for the right hemisphere in processing novel, low salience figurative meanings, but also show that conventionalization of metaphoric meaning is a bilaterally-mediated process. Metaphor conventionalization entails a decreased neural load within semantic networks rather than a hemispheric or regional shift across brain areas. PMID:22155328

Cardillo, Eileen R; Watson, Christine E; Schmidt, Gwenda L; Kranjec, Alexander; Chatterjee, Anjan

2011-12-04

158

From network heterogeneities to familiarity detection and hippocampal memory management  

PubMed Central

Hippocampal-neocortical interactions are key to the rapid formation of novel associative memories in the hippocampus and consolidation to long term storage sites in the neocortex. We investigated the role of network correlates during information processing in hippocampal-cortical networks. We found that changes in the intrinsic network dynamics due to the formation of structural network heterogeneities alone act as a dynamical and regulatory mechanism for stimulus novelty and familiarity detection, thereby controlling memory management in the context of memory consolidation. This network dynamic, coupled with an anatomically established feedback between the hippocampus and the neocortex, recovered heretofore unexplained properties of neural activity patterns during memory management tasks which we observed during sleep in multiunit recordings from behaving animals. Our simple dynamical mechanism shows an experimentally matched progressive shift of memory activation from the hippocampus to the neocortex and thus provides the means to achieve an autonomous off-line progression of memory consolidation.

Wang, Jane X.; Poe, Gina; Zochowski, Michal

2009-01-01

159

You Look Familiar: How Malaysian Chinese Recognize Faces  

PubMed Central

East Asian and white Western observers employ different eye movement strategies for a variety of visual processing tasks, including face processing. Recent eye tracking studies on face recognition found that East Asians tend to integrate information holistically by focusing on the nose while white Westerners perceive faces featurally by moving between the eyes and mouth. The current study examines the eye movement strategy that Malaysian Chinese participants employ when recognizing East Asian, white Western, and African faces. Rather than adopting the Eastern or Western fixation pattern, Malaysian Chinese participants use a mixed strategy by focusing on the eyes and nose more than the mouth. The combination of Eastern and Western strategies proved advantageous in participants' ability to recognize East Asian and white Western faces, suggesting that individuals learn to use fixation patterns that are optimized for recognizing the faces with which they are more familiar.

Tan, Chrystalle B. Y.; Stephen, Ian D.; Whitehead, Ross; Sheppard, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

160

Identification and Classification of Facial Familiarity in Directed Lying: An ERP Study  

PubMed Central

Recognizing familiar faces is essential to social functioning, but little is known about how people identify human faces and classify them in terms of familiarity. Face identification involves discriminating familiar faces from unfamiliar faces, whereas face classification involves making an intentional decision to classify faces as “familiar” or “unfamiliar.” This study used a directed-lying task to explore the differentiation between identification and classification processes involved in the recognition of familiar faces. To explore this issue, the participants in this study were shown familiar and unfamiliar faces. They responded to these faces (i.e., as familiar or unfamiliar) in accordance with the instructions they were given (i.e., to lie or to tell the truth) while their EEG activity was recorded. Familiar faces (regardless of lying vs. truth) elicited significantly less negative-going N400f in the middle and right parietal and temporal regions than unfamiliar faces. Regardless of their actual familiarity, the faces that the participants classified as “familiar” elicited more negative-going N400f in the central and right temporal regions than those classified as “unfamiliar.” The P600 was related primarily with the facial identification process. Familiar faces (regardless of lying vs. truth) elicited more positive-going P600f in the middle parietal and middle occipital regions. The results suggest that N400f and P600f play different roles in the processes involved in facial recognition. The N400f appears to be associated with both the identification (judgment of familiarity) and classification of faces, while it is likely that the P600f is only associated with the identification process (recollection of facial information). Future studies should use different experimental paradigms to validate the generalizability of the results of this study.

Sun, Delin; Chan, Chetwyn C. H.; Lee, Tatia M. C.

2012-01-01

161

Conceptual Automaticity in Recognition Memory: Levels-of-processing Effects on Familiarity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recognition memory can reflect both conscious recollection and automatically generated feelings of familiarity. Previous research has suggested that perceptual factors mediate familiarity. Three experiments show that familiarity can also arise from prior conceptual (meaning-based) processing. Each experiment manipulated level of processing (LoP) and tested recognition memory using two response-signal delays (500 and 1500 ms). In Experiment 1, a modality effect

JEFFREY P. TOTH

1996-01-01

162

Sex-specific responses to sexual familiarity, and the role of olfaction in Drosophila.  

PubMed

Studies of mating preferences have largely neglected the potential effects of individuals encountering their previous mates ('directly sexually familiar'), or new mates that share similarities to previous mates, e.g. from the same family and/or environment ('phenotypically sexually familiar'). Here, we show that male and female Drosophila melanogaster respond to the direct and phenotypic sexual familiarity of potential mates in fundamentally different ways. We exposed a single focal male or female to two potential partners. In the first experiment, one potential partner was novel (not previously encountered) and one was directly familiar (their previous mate); in the second experiment, one potential partner was novel (unrelated, and from a different environment from the previous mate) and one was phenotypically familiar (from the same family and rearing environment as the previous mate). We found that males preferentially courted novel females over directly or phenotypically familiar females. By contrast, females displayed a weak preference for directly and phenotypically familiar males over novel males. Sex-specific responses to the familiarity of potential mates were significantly weaker or absent in Orco(1) mutants, which lack a co-receptor essential for olfaction, indicating a role for olfactory cues in mate choice over novelty. Collectively, our results show that direct and phenotypic sexual familiarity is detected through olfactory cues and play an important role in sex-specific sexual behaviour. PMID:24068355

Tan, Cedric K W; Løvlie, Hanne; Greenway, Elisabeth; Goodwin, Stephen F; Pizzari, Tommaso; Wigby, Stuart

2013-09-25

163

Why are familiar-only experiences more frequent for voices than for faces?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hanley, Smith, and Hadfield (1998) showed that when participants were asked to recognize famous people from hearing their voice, there was a relatively large number of trials in which the celebrity's voice was felt to be familiar but biographical information about the person could not be retrieved. When a face was found familiar, however, the celebrity's occupation was significantly more

J. Richard Hanley; Jennifer M. Turner

2000-01-01

164

Repetition priming follows spontaneous but not prompted recognition of familiar faces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reaction times to make a familiarity decision to the faces of famous people were measured after recognition of the faces in a pre-training phase had occurred spontaneously or following prompting with a name or other cue. At test, reaction times to familiar faces that had been recognized spontaneously in the pre-training phase were significantly facilitated relative to an unprimed comparison

Joana Brunas-Wagstaff; Andrew W. Young; Andrew W. Ellis

1992-01-01

165

Anatomical Segregation of Representations of Personally Familiar and Famous People in the Temporal and Parietal Cortices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Person recognition has been assumed to entail many types of person-specific cognitive responses, including retrieval of knowledge, episodic recollection, and emotional responses. To demonstrate the cortical correlates of this modular structure of multimodal person representation, we investigated neural responses preferential to personally familiar people and responses dependent on familiarity with famous people in the temporal and parietal cortices. During functional

Motoaki Sugiura; Yuko Sassa; Jobu Watanabe; Yuko Akitsuki; Yasuhiro Maeda; Yoshihiko Matsue; Ryuta Kawashima

2008-01-01

166

Anatomical Segregation of Representations of Personally Familiar and Famous People in the Temporal and Parietal Cortices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Person recognition has been assumed to entail many types of person-specific cognitive responses, including retrieval of knowledge, episodic recollection, and emotional responses. To demonstrate the cortical correlates of this modular structure of multimodal person representation, we investigated neural responses preferential to personally familiar people and responses dependent on familiarity with famous people in the temporal and parietal cortices. During functional

Motoaki Sugiura; Yuko Sassa; Jobu Watanabe; Yuko Akitsuki; Yasuhiro Maeda; Yoshihiko Matsue; Ryuta Kawashima

2009-01-01

167

Why are familiar-only experiences more frequent for voices than for faces?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hanley,Smith, and Hadfield (1998) showed that when participants were asked to recognize famous people from hearing their voice, there was a relatively large number of trials in which the celebrity's voice was felt to be familiar but biographical information about the person could not be retrieved. When a face was found familiar, however, the celebrity's occupation was significantly more likely

J. Richard Hanley; Jennifer M. Turner

2000-01-01

168

Problems in Depth Perception: Perceived Size and Distance of Familiar Objects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Judgments of the distance of familiar objects, especially other aircraft, are critical aspects of flight safety. In this study, the perception of distance as a function of the retinal size of a familiar object was investigated by simulating a stationary o...

W. C. Gogel H. W. Mertens

1966-01-01

169

Mechanisms Supporting Superior Source Memory for Familiar Items: A Multi-Voxel Pattern Analysis Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recent cognitive research has revealed better source memory performance for familiar relative to novel stimuli. Here we consider two possible explanations for this finding. The source memory advantage for familiar stimuli could arise because stimulus novelty induces attention to stimulus features at the expense of contextual processing, resulting…

Poppenk, Jordan; Norman, Kenneth A.

2012-01-01

170

Boys Affiliate More than Girls with a Familiar Same-Sex Peer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence from ethnographic, observational, and experimental studies with humans converges to suggest that males affiliate more than females with unrelated, familiar same-sex peers, but this has never been examined directly. With this aim, we compared frequency of affiliation with a single, randomly chosen, familiar same-sex peer for the two sexes…

Benenson, Joyce F.; Quinn, Amanda; Stella, Sandra

2012-01-01

171

Emotion Recognition in EthiopiaThe Effect of Familiarity with Western Culture on Accuracy of Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subjects in Western and westernized literate cultures have always recognized facial expression of emotions more accurately than those tested in nonwesternized cultures. Is this difference attributable only to a different degree of familiarity with the experimental conditions or is this also due to different degrees of familiarity with the expression of the emotions? One hundred Ethiopians (fifty males and fifty

Luigi Ducci; Luciano Arcuri; Taddese W Georgis; Tilahun Sineshaw

1982-01-01

172

Primary Care Provider Familiarity with Binge Eating Disorder and Implications for Obesity Management: A Preliminary Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current guidelines for the evaluation and treatment of obesity recommend referring individuals with binge eating disorder (BED) to a mental health professional. However, it is unclear how familiar primary care providers are with BED. The purpose of this study was to assess providers' familiarity with BED diagnosis and treatment. Providers in two primary care clinics completed a questionnaire, which assessed

Lillian Huang Cummins; Erin C. Dunn; Leora Rabin; Joan Russo; Katherine Anne Comtois; Barbara S. McCann

2003-01-01

173

Familiarity in schooling fish: how long does it take to acquire?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous work has demonstrated that fish prefer to school with familiar individuals. In this study schooling preferences for familiar female guppies,Poecilia reticulata, developed gradually over 12 days, but once established were maintained. This contrasts with condition-dependent recognition in which fish rapidly learn to discriminate between conspecifics on the basis of obvious morphological differences such as body size

Siân W. Griffiths; Anne E. Magurran

1997-01-01

174

Recognition Memory: Adding a Response Deadline Eliminates Recollection but Spares Familiarity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A current controversy in memory research concerns whether recognition is supported by distinct processes of familiarity and recollection, or instead by a single process wherein familiarity and recollection reflect weak and strong memories, respectively. Recent studies using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses in an animal model have…

Sauvage, Magdalena M.; Beer, Zachery; Eichenbaum, Howard

2010-01-01

175

Neural Representations of Personally Familiar and Unfamiliar Faces in the Anterior Inferior Temporal Cortex of Monkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the neural representations of faces in primates, particularly in relation to their personal familiarity or unfamiliarity, neuronal activities were chronically recorded from the ventral portion of the anterior inferior temporal cortex (AITv) of macaque monkeys during the performance of a facial identification task using either personally familiar or unfamiliar faces as stimuli. By calculating the correlation coefficients between

Satoshi Eifuku; Wania C. de Souza; Ryuzaburo Nakata; Taketoshi Ono; Ryoi Tamura; Grainne M. McAlonan

2011-01-01

176

Déjà Vu in the Laboratory: A Behavioral and Experiential Comparison of Posthypnotic Amnesia and Posthypnotic Familiarity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment aimed to create a laboratory analogue of déjà vu. During hypnosis, 1 group of high hypnotizables completed a puzzle game and then received a posthypnotic amnesia suggestion to forget the game (PHA condition). Another group of highs were not given the game but received a posthypnotic familiarity suggestion that it would feel familiar (PHF condition). After hypnosis, all

Akira R. OConnor; Amanda J. Barnier; Rochelle E. Cox

2008-01-01

177

Familiarity and Personal Experience as Mediators of Recall when Planning for Future Contingencies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, we demonstrate that planning tasks enhance recall when the context of planning (a) is self-referential and (b) draws on familiar scenarios represented in episodic memory. Specifically, we show that when planning tasks are sorted according to the degree to which they evoke memories of personally familiar scenarios (e.g., planning…

Klein, Stanley B.; Robertson, Theresa E.; Delton, Andrew W.; Lax, Moshe L.

2012-01-01

178

Familiarity and group size affect emotional stress in Japanese Black heifers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared behavioural and cardiac responses to emotional stresses between familiar and unfamiliar heifers in groups of two or five. Fourteen Japanese Black heifers were divided into two experimental groups of two individuals (F2) and two groups of five individuals (F5) that were familiar with each other. Four additional Holstein heifers were used in forming the unfamiliar groups (UF2 and

Ken-ichi Takeda; Shusuke Sato; Kazuo Sugawara

2003-01-01

179

Mental Representation of Familiar Others: The Impact of Occupation, Sex, and Race  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study used a double primed semantic decision task to investigate the role of social group information in mental representations of familiar others. Extrapolating from social role theory, we predicted that social role information would facilitate responding to familiar targets regardless of the specific task at hand. The names of celebrities were used as stimuli, as people know them

Kimberley A. Clow; Victoria M. Esses

2010-01-01

180

Modulation of perceived taste by olfaction in familiar and unfamiliar beverages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integration of olfactory and taste perception and the role of congruency and familiarity on perception have already been demonstrated in model solutions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of these factors in real food products. Therefore, we have investigated the impact of olfactory perception on perceived bitterness in a familiar (bitter cocoa beverage) and

D. Labbe; L. Damevin; C. Vaccher; C. Morgenegg; N. Martin

2006-01-01

181

Boys Affiliate More than Girls with a Familiar Same-Sex Peer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Evidence from ethnographic, observational, and experimental studies with humans converges to suggest that males affiliate more than females with unrelated, familiar same-sex peers, but this has never been examined directly. With this aim, we compared frequency of affiliation with a single, randomly chosen, familiar same-sex peer for the two sexes…

Benenson, Joyce F.; Quinn, Amanda; Stella, Sandra

2012-01-01

182

Parent Word Familiarity and the Language Development of Pediatric Cochlear Implant Users.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the relationship between parent word familiarity and the language development of pediatric cochlear implant users (ages 3- 8). Thirty-two parents rated their familiarity with 150 words. Results indicated a significant relationship between parents' ratings and children's receptive vocabulary and language abilities, as well as their…

Stallings, Lynne M.; Kirk, Karen Iler; Chin, Steven B.; Gao, Sujuan

2000-01-01

183

Consumer familiarity with foods and the perception of risks and benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in familiarity with food products may influence how information about the risks and benefits about foods is used in forming risk and benefit perceptions. In two experimental studies, the risk and benefit perceptions of student participants, for four foods (familiar or unfamiliar) were assessed. In experiment 1, participants had the option to voluntarily request information (N=106). In experiment 2,

Arnout R. H. Fischer; Lynn J. Frewer

2009-01-01

184

Non-agonistic familiarity decreases aggression in male Turkish hamsters, Mesocricetus brandti  

PubMed Central

In laboratory studies, hamsters (Mesocricetus spp.) exhibit intense male-male aggression, thus making them an excellent model system for studies of the functional and mechanistic bases of aggression. In a field study of golden hamsters (M. auratus) in the wild, however, the few documented male-male interactions were not highly aggressive. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that familiarity modulates aggression in hamsters. Previous investigations of the effects of familiarity on aggression have mostly involved familiarization of unfamiliar individuals through agonistic interactions. Here we allowed male Turkish hamsters (M. brandti) to become familiar with each other by housing them together but separated by a wire-mesh partition (thus ‘non-agonistic’ familiarity). We found that although non-agonistic familiarity did not decrease investigation of the familiar male, it did decrease the occurrence of fights, the number of fights, and the percentage of time fighting; it also increased the latency to fight. These results are consistent with the ‘dear enemy’ hypothesis, which proposes that males are less aggressive toward familiar neighbors than to unfamiliar conspecifics because previous interactions have provided enough information about the other individual to render severe aggression unnecessary. Most importantly, our results suggest that information gained about other individuals through non-agonistic interactions decrease the frequency and intensity of fights with those individuals. We conclude that results from laboratory studies on aggression that do not consider the kind of social interactions that individuals have in nature should be interpreted with caution.

delBarco-Trillo, Javier; McPhee, M. Elsbeth; Johnston, Robert E.

2009-01-01

185

Basic Processes in Reading: On the Relation between Spatial Attention and Familiarity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments combined a spatial cueing manipulation (valid vs. invalid spatial cues) with a stimulus repetition manipulation (repeated vs. nonrepeated) in order to assess the hypothesis that familiar items need less spatial attention than less familiar ones. The magnitude of the effect of cueing on reading aloud time for items that were…

Risko, Evan F.; Stolz, Jennifer A.; Besner, Derek

2011-01-01

186

Prosopagnosia: a double dissociation between the recognition of familiar and unfamiliar faces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two cases of a dissociation between prosopagnosia and impaired capacity to match familiar faces were studied. Recognition of familiar faces recovered in the first patient, whereas prosopagnosia persisted in the second patient despite recovery of matching unfamiliar faces and other visuoperceptive skills. This double dissociation is discussed in relation to current views of prosopagnosia.

D R Malone; H H Morris; M C Kay; H S Levin

1982-01-01

187

Detection of deception in familiar and unfamiliar persons: The effects of information restriction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper investigated the effects of the familiarity between the detector and deceiver and the amount of information available on the detection of deception. It was hypothesized that limiting the amount of information available to the lie detector would increase detection accuracy when the deceiver was familiar and, alternatively, would decrease accuracy when the deceiver was unfamiliar. In Study

Murray Millar; Karen Millar

1995-01-01

188

THE EFFECT OF CULTURAL FAMILIARITY ON INCIDENTAL VOCABULARY ACQUISITION THROUGH READING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examines the effects of cultural background knowledge on immediate incidental vocabulary gain through reading brief narratives that depicted either culturally familiar or culturally unfamiliar versions of everyday scenarios. Participants were high-intermediate adult learners of Spanish. Independent variables included (a) cultural familiarity, (b) group assignment, and (c) L2 passage sight vocabulary. The dependent variable was an adapted version of

Diana Pulido

2004-01-01

189

Competitive interference effects in memory for advertising: are familiar brands exempt?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advertising must work through consumers' memories, but messages for competing brands may disrupt recall of advertisement information. Previous findings have shown that the prior familiarity of many advertised brands increases the recall of advertisement claims and reduces their vulnerability to competitive interference. The present research examines familiarity and interference effects in brand name and advertisement claim recall. The results demonstrate

James J. Kellaris

2001-01-01

190

Processing Social Information in MessagesSocial Group Familiarity, Fiction Versus Nonfiction, and Subsequent Beliefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment examines the impact of messages on subsequent beliefs about social groups. As a result of probable differences between the processing of familiar versus unfamiliar social information, nonfiction messages are expected to influence beliefs about social group member characteristics more than do fiction messages only when the social group described is relatively familiar. The experiment is a 2 ×

MICHAEL D. SLATER

1990-01-01

191

The Price of Fame: The Impact of Stimulus Familiarity on Proactive Interference Resolution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Interference from previously learned information, known as proactive interference (PI), limits our memory retrieval abilities. Previous studies of PI resolution have focused on the role of short-term familiarity, or recency, in causing PI. In the present study, we investigated the impact of long-term stimulus familiarity on PI resolution…

Prabhakaran, Ranjani; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.

2011-01-01

192

Viability and molecular authentication of Coccidioides spp. isolates from the Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo culture collection, Brazil.  

PubMed

Coccidioidomycosis is an emerging fungal disease in Brazil; adequate maintenance and authentication of Coccidioides isolates are essential for research into genetic diversity of the environmental organisms, as well as for understanding the human disease. Seventeen Coccidioides isolates maintained under mineral oil since 1975 in the Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo (IMTSP) culture collection, Brazil, were evaluated with respect to their viability, morphological characteristics and genetic features in order to authenticate these fungal cultures. Only five isolates were viable after almost 30 years, showing typical morphological characteristics, and sequencing analysis using Coi-F and Coi-R primers revealed 99% identity with Coccidioides genera. These five isolates were then preserved in liquid nitrogen and sterile water, and remained viable after two years of storage under these conditions, maintaining the same features. PMID:23328719

Cavalcanti, Sarah Desirée Barbosa; Vidal, Mônica Scarpelli Martinelli; Sousa, Maria da Glória Teixeira de; Del Negro, Gilda Maria Barbaro

193

The contribution of local features to familiarity judgments in music.  

PubMed

The contributions of local and global features to object identification depend upon the context. For example, while local features play an essential role in identification of words and objects, the global features are more influential in face recognition. In order to evaluate the respective strengths of local and global features for face recognition, researchers usually ask participants to recognize human faces (famous or learned) in normal and scrambled pictures. In this paper, we address a similar issue in music. We present the results of an experiment in which musically untrained participants were asked to differentiate famous from unknown musical excerpts that were presented in normal or scrambled ways. Manipulating the size of the temporal window on which the scrambling procedure was applied allowed us to evaluate the minimal length of time necessary for participants to make a familiarity judgment. Quite surprisingly, the minimum duration for differentiation of famous from unknown pieces is extremely short. This finding highlights the contribution of very local features to music memory. PMID:19673787

Bigand, Emmanuel; Gérard, Yannick; Molin, Paul

2009-07-01

194

The familiar and the strange: the dynamics of change.  

PubMed

This article relates to curative factors in the therapeutic process, or, to be more precise, to the various modes of the therapist's presence as presumed factors of change. It points to factors of change that have been discussed at length in the various streams of the analytical literature, which emphasized passive attention, absorption, processing and interpretation on the analyst's part, in an atmosphere of restraint and understanding (factors such as "free floating attention," "empathy," etc.). It stresses the importance of another psychic function different in nature--"defamiliarization"--as a condition that facilitates and accompanies processes of understanding and changes in perspective in relation to a reality aesthetically mediated by every human work of art, in general, and in relation to the personal-inner reality as it is expressed in the therapeutic work of art, in particular. This term sheds light on an active, mobile, breaking away--distancing--and rebinding aspect in the psychic functioning of the therapist (and in parallel of the patient), which allows them to "see the new" in a (supposedly) very familiar emotional given. In my view, this term joins others such as "act of freedom" and "constructive listening" in deepening our understanding of the therapeutic factor. There is reference to the term "defamiliarization," or "making strange," in its natural context--its birthplace--in literary criticism, and in a different historical context--in two key articles of the thirties that related to the causes of change in therapy in a very different way. PMID:8543456

Lazar, R

1995-01-01

195

Neuronal correlates of perception, imagery, and memory for familiar tunes.  

PubMed

We used fMRI to investigate the neuronal correlates of encoding and recognizing heard and imagined melodies. Ten participants were shown lyrics of familiar verbal tunes; they either heard the tune along with the lyrics, or they had to imagine it. In a subsequent surprise recognition test, they had to identify the titles of tunes that they had heard or imagined earlier. The functional data showed substantial overlap during melody perception and imagery, including secondary auditory areas. During imagery compared with perception, an extended network including pFC, SMA, intraparietal sulcus, and cerebellum showed increased activity, in line with the increased processing demands of imagery. Functional connectivity of anterior right temporal cortex with frontal areas was increased during imagery compared with perception, indicating that these areas form an imagery-related network. Activity in right superior temporal gyrus and pFC was correlated with the subjective rating of imagery vividness. Similar to the encoding phase, the recognition task recruited overlapping areas, including inferior frontal cortex associated with memory retrieval, as well as left middle temporal gyrus. The results present new evidence for the cortical network underlying goal-directed auditory imagery, with a prominent role of the right pFC both for the subjective impression of imagery vividness and for on-line mental monitoring of imagery-related activity in auditory areas. PMID:22360595

Herholz, Sibylle C; Halpern, Andrea R; Zatorre, Robert J

2012-02-23

196

The Role of Face Familiarity in Eye Tracking of Faces by Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

PubMed Central

It has been shown that individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) demonstrate normal activation in the fusiform gyrus when viewing familiar, but not unfamiliar faces. The current study utilized eye tracking to investigate patterns of attention underlying familiar versus unfamiliar face processing in ASD. Eye movements of 18 typically developing participants and 17 individuals with ASD were recorded while passively viewing three face categories: unfamiliar non-repeating faces, a repeating highly familiar face, and a repeating previously unfamiliar face. Results suggest that individuals with ASD do not exhibit more normative gaze patterns when viewing familiar faces. A second task assessed facial recognition accuracy and response time for familiar and novel faces. The groups did not differ on accuracy or reaction times.

Dawson, Geraldine; Webb, Sara; Murias, Michael; Munson, Jeffrey; Panagiotides, Heracles; Aylward, Elizabeth

2010-01-01

197

The role of oxytocin in familiarization-habituation responses to social novelty.  

PubMed

Stress or arousal responses to novel social contexts ease off when individuals get familiar with the social context. In the present study we investigated whether oxytocin is involved in this process of familiarization-habituation as oxytocin is known to increase trust and decrease anxiety. Fifty-nine healthy female subjects took part in the same experimental procedure in two sessions separated by 4 weeks. In the first (novelty) session state trust scores were significantly positively correlated with salivary oxytocin levels while in the second (familiarity) session state trust scores were significantly negatively correlated with salivary oxytocin levels. In a path model oxytocin was associated with increased trust in the novelty session and trust was associated with decreased oxytocin levels in the familiarity session. The results are consistent with the idea that oxytocin decreases stress-to-novelty responses by promoting familiarization to novel social contexts. PMID:24151482

Tops, Mattie; Huffmeijer, Renske; Linting, Mariëlle; Grewen, Karen M; Light, Kathleen C; Koole, Sander L; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H

2013-10-18

198

Effect of frontal lobe lesions on the recollection and familiarity components of recognition memory  

PubMed Central

Single-process theories assume that familiarity is the sole influence on recognition memory with decisions being made as a continuous process. Dual-process theories claim that recognition involves both recollection and familiarity processes with recollection as a threshold process. Although, the frontal lobes of the brain play an important role in recognition memory, few studies have examined the effect of frontal lobe lesions on recollection and familiarity. In the current study, the nonverbal recognition memory of 24 patients with focal frontal lesions due to tumour or stroke was examined. Recollection and familiarity were estimated using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) method. A secondary analysis was also conducted using standard signal detection theory methodology. Both analyses led to similar conclusions where only the familiarity component of recognition memory was impaired in frontal patients compared to healthy controls whilst the recollection-type (or variance ratio) processes remained intact.

MacPherson, Sarah E.; Bozzali, Marco; Cipolotti, Lisa; Dolan, Raymond J.; Rees, Jeremy H.; Shallice, Tim

2008-01-01

199

Recognition memory: adding a response deadline eliminates recollection but spares familiarity.  

PubMed

A current controversy in memory research concerns whether recognition is supported by distinct processes of familiarity and recollection, or instead by a single process wherein familiarity and recollection reflect weak and strong memories, respectively. Recent studies using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses in an animal model have shown that manipulations of the memory demands can eliminate the contribution of familiarity while sparing recollection. Here it is shown that a different manipulation, specifically the addition of a response deadline in recognition testing, results in the opposite performance pattern, eliminating the contribution of recollection while sparing that of familiarity. This dissociation, combined with the earlier findings, demonstrates that familiarity and recollection are differentially sensitive to specific memory demands, strongly supporting the dual process view. PMID:20154356

Sauvage, Magdalena M; Beer, Zachery; Eichenbaum, Howard

2010-02-13

200

The role of oxytocin in familiarization-habituation responses to social novelty  

PubMed Central

Stress or arousal responses to novel social contexts ease off when individuals get familiar with the social context. In the present study we investigated whether oxytocin is involved in this process of familiarization-habituation as oxytocin is known to increase trust and decrease anxiety. Fifty-nine healthy female subjects took part in the same experimental procedure in two sessions separated by 4 weeks. In the first (novelty) session state trust scores were significantly positively correlated with salivary oxytocin levels while in the second (familiarity) session state trust scores were significantly negatively correlated with salivary oxytocin levels. In a path model oxytocin was associated with increased trust in the novelty session and trust was associated with decreased oxytocin levels in the familiarity session. The results are consistent with the idea that oxytocin decreases stress-to-novelty responses by promoting familiarization to novel social contexts.

Tops, Mattie; Huffmeijer, Renske; Linting, Marielle; Grewen, Karen M.; Light, Kathleen C.; Koole, Sander L.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

2013-01-01

201

Stranger to Familiar: Wild Strepsirhines Manage Xenophobia by Playing  

PubMed Central

The power of play in limiting xenophobia is a well-known phenomenon in humans. Yet, the evidence in social animals remains meager. Here, we aim to determine whether play promotes social tolerance toward strangers in one of the most basal group of primates, the strepsirhines. We observed two groups of wild lemurs (Propithecus verreauxi, Verreaux's sifaka) during the mating season. Data were also collected on nine visiting, outgroup males. We compared the distribution of play, grooming, and aggressive interactions across three conditions: OUT (resident/outgroup interactions), IN (resident/resident interactions in presence of outgroups) and BL-IN (baseline of resident/resident interactions in absence of outgroups). Play frequency between males was higher in OUT than in IN and BL-IN conditions; whereas, grooming was more frequent in IN than in OUT and BL-IN conditions. Aggression rates between resident and outgroup males were significantly higher than those between residents. However, aggressions between resident and outgroup males significantly decreased after the first play session and became comparable with resident-resident aggression levels. The presence of strangers in a well-established group implies the onset of novel social circumstances, which sifaka males cope with by two different tactics: grooming with ingroup males and playing with outgroup ones. The grooming peak, concurrently with the visit of outgroups, probably represents a social shield adopted by resident males to make their pre-existing affiliation more evident to the stranger “audience”. Being mostly restricted to unfamiliar males, adult play in sifaka appears to have a role in managing new social situations more than in maintaining old relationships. In particular, our results indicate not only that play is the interface between strangers but also that it has a specific function in reducing xenophobia. In conclusion, play appears to be an ice-breaker mechanism in the critical process that “upgrades” an individual from stranger to familiar.

Antonacci, Daniela; Norscia, Ivan; Palagi, Elisabetta

2010-01-01

202

The effect of familiarity on aggregation and social behaviour in juvenile small spotted catsharks Scyliorhinus canicula.  

PubMed

This study was designed to address whether juvenile small spotted catsharks Scyliorhinus canicula aggregate and to determine whether potential aggregation is underpinned by social preferences for conspecifics. Using controlled and replicated experiments, the role of familiarity as a potential mechanism driving aggregation and social behaviour in this species was considered. Observed S. canicula association data compared to null model simulations of random distributions revealed differences in aggregation under different social contexts. Only familiar juvenile S. canicula aggregated more than would be expected from random distribution across their habitat. Familiarity increased the mean number of groups but did not significantly affect mean group size. Significant preference and avoidance behaviour across all groups were also observed. Furthermore, the strength of social attraction, quantified by the mean association index, was significantly higher in groups containing familiar individuals. Mixed familiar and unfamiliar treatments were also conducted to test for within- and between-group effects, finding high variation across replicates with some groups assorting by familiarity and others not. It is believed that this study is the first to examine experimentally the influence of conspecific familiarity on aggregation behaviour in sharks. These results not only imply a functional benefit to aggregation, but also suggest that persistent social affiliation is likely to influence dispersal following hatching in this small benthic elasmobranch. PMID:23020563

Jacoby, D M P; Sims, D W; Croft, D P

2012-10-01

203

[The effect of familiarity on eyewitness identification testimony: the relationship between accuracy and confidence].  

PubMed

In this study, we examined eyewitness identification involving a person who was slightly familiar to the witness. Although identification of a familiar person has been believed to be more accurate than that of a stranger, we expected that misidentification of a familiar distracter as the target would occur, and in such cases, the witness would be more confidence than when correctly rejecting the familiar person. A total of 102 participants were assigned to one of four conditions where familiarity with the distracter and the visibility of the target's photo were manipulated. First, they rated impressions of several photos in terms of personality traits to increase familiarity of some, then were presented with the target photo in either dark or bright condition. Finally, they were asked to identify the target in a two-photo lineup, where the critical trial included a familiar distracter. Results indicated that 66.7 per cent of subjects who saw the target photo in the dark condition misidentified the distracter as the target. At the same time, confidence for the choice (misidentification) was significantly higher than that of correct rejection. The findings were discussed from the forensic viewpoint. PMID:11797328

Asai, C

2001-10-01

204

Differential response of coyotes to novel stimuli in familiar and unfamiliar environments  

SciTech Connect

The behavioral responses shown by captive coyotes, Canis latrans, to novel objects and artificial scent stations in familiar and unfamiliar environments were studied to determine how coyotes potentially respond to novel stimuli used in coyote management and research. Coyotes showed little avoidance of novel objects and scent stations when they were encountered in unfamiliar environments while avoidance was frequently observed with the same stimuli encountered in familiar environments, and supported the hypothesis that coyotes are more vulnerable to trapping and man-induced mortality when outside of the familiar environment of their territories.

Harris, C.E.; Knowlton, F.F.

1986-01-01

205

Effects of novelty and familiarity on illness-induced aversions to food and place cues in coyotes (Canis latrans)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments investigated the effects of novelty and familiarity on illness-induced aversions to taste and place cues in 10 coyotes. Ss were made ill on familiar food laced with Li2CO3 in a novel place and then received preference tests. In Exp I, Ss avoided the previously poisoned familiar food in the novel treatment place but readily ate the same familiar

Stuart R. Ellins; Lucien Thompson; William E. Swanson

1983-01-01

206

It is more difficult to retrieve a familiar person's name and occupation from their voice than from their blurred face  

Microsoft Academic Search

Damjanovic and Hanley (2007) showed that episodic information is more readily retrieved from familiar faces than familiar voices, even when the two presentation modalities are matched for overall recognition rates by blurring the faces. This pattern of performance contrasts with the results obtained by Hanley and Turner (2000) who showed that semantic information could be recalled equally easily from familiar

J. Richard Hanley; Ljubica Damjanovic

2009-01-01

207

The effects of audience pleasantness, audience familiarity, and speaking contexts on public speaking anxiety and willingness to speak  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two potential sources of anxiety about public speaking cited in previous research are audience pleasantness and audience familiarity. More familiar audiences, as well as more pleasant ones, usually evoke less anxiety, but research has shown some exceptions to this general rule. In addition, it is expected that as audiences become more pleasant and familiar, individuals would be more willing to

Peter D. MacIntyre; Kimly A. Thivierge

1995-01-01

208

The Neural Correlates of Object Familiarity and Domain Specificity in the Human Visual Cortex: An fMRI Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ventral occipito-temporal cortex is known to play a major role in visual object recognition. Still unknown is whether object familiarity and semantic domain are critical factors in its functional organization. Most models assume a functional locus where exemplars of familiar categories are represented: the structural description system. On the assumption that familiarity should modulate the effect of visual noise on

Gian Daniele Zannino; Francesco Barban; Emiliano Macaluso; Carlo Caltagirone; Giovanni A. Carlesimo

2011-01-01

209

Identificación y caracterización preliminar del agente causal de la mancha necrótica de las hojas de la mora (Rubus glaucus) en el muncipio de  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification and characterization of the leaf necrotic spot of blackberry (Rubus glaucus) in the municipality of Trujillo (Valle del Cauca, Colombia) The blackberry crop in the Chuscales and Monteloro regions of the municipality of Trujillo (Valle del Cauca, Colombia) generates 100% of the familiar income. To improve productivity and income of these communities, a diagnostic and development of disease control

María José Botero; Germán Franco

2007-01-01

210

Familiar Music as an Enhancer of Self-Consciousness in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

The main objective of this paper is to examine the impact of familiar music on self-consciousness (SC) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). For this purpose, two AD groups of 20 patients matched by age, educational level, gender, illness duration, and cognitive state were assessed using an SC questionnaire before and after music intervention. The SC questionnaire measured several aspects: personal identity, anosognosia, affective state, body representation, prospective memory, introspection and moral judgments. One AD group received familiar music stimulation and another AD group unfamiliar music stimulation over three months. The AD patients who received a familiar music intervention showed a stabilization or improvement in aspects of SC. By contrast, control AD group showed a deterioration of most of the SC aspects after unfamiliar music stimulation, except the SC aspects of body representation and affective state. Familiar music stimulation could be considered as an enhancer of SC in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

Arroyo-Anllo, Eva M.; Diaz, Juan Poveda; Gil, Roger

2013-01-01

211

Lateral Asymmetry in Pattern Recognition: Understanding the Effects of Familiarity, Distinction, and Perspective Change.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of perspective change and familiarity upon lateral asymmetry for a face recognition task are analyzed based on the results of several experiments. A four choice match-to-sample procedure involved frontal target perspective faces and choice set...

M. D. McNeese

1989-01-01

212

Familiar music as an enhancer of self-consciousness in patients with Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

The main objective of this paper is to examine the impact of familiar music on self-consciousness (SC) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). For this purpose, two AD groups of 20 patients matched by age, educational level, gender, illness duration, and cognitive state were assessed using an SC questionnaire before and after music intervention. The SC questionnaire measured several aspects: personal identity, anosognosia, affective state, body representation, prospective memory, introspection and moral judgments. One AD group received familiar music stimulation and another AD group unfamiliar music stimulation over three months. The AD patients who received a familiar music intervention showed a stabilization or improvement in aspects of SC. By contrast, control AD group showed a deterioration of most of the SC aspects after unfamiliar music stimulation, except the SC aspects of body representation and affective state. Familiar music stimulation could be considered as an enhancer of SC in patients with Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24106716

Arroyo-Anlló, Eva M; Díaz, Juan Poveda; Gil, Roger

2013-09-11

213

Object Familiarity Modulates the Relationship Between Visual Object Imagery and Haptic Shape Perception  

PubMed Central

Although visual cortical engagement in haptic shape perception is well established, its relationship with visual imagery remains controversial. We addressed this using functional magnetic resonance imaging during separate visual object imagery and haptic shape perception tasks. Two experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, the haptic shape task employed unfamiliar, meaningless objects, whereas familiar objects were used in the second experiment. The activations evoked by visual object imagery overlapped more extensively, and their magnitudes were more correlated, with those evoked during haptic shape perception of familiar, compared to unfamiliar, objects. In the companion paper (Deshpande et al., 2009), we used task-specific functional and effective connectivity analyses to provide convergent evidence: these analyses showed that the neural networks underlying visual imagery were similar to those underlying haptic shape perception of familiar, but not unfamiliar, objects. We conclude that visual object imagery is more closely linked to haptic shape perception when objects are familiar, compared to when they are unfamiliar.

Lacey, Simon; Flueckiger, Peter; Stilla, Randall; Lava, Michael; Sathian, K.

2011-01-01

214

14 CFR 91.505 - Familiarity with operating limitations and emergency equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Large and Turbine-Powered Multiengine Airplanes and Fractional Ownership Program Aircraft § 91.505 Familiarity with operating...

2013-01-01

215

Damage to the lateral prefrontal cortex impairs familiarity but not recollection.  

PubMed

Frontal lobe lesions impair recognition memory but it is unclear whether the deficits arise from impaired recollection, impaired familiarity, or both. In the current study, recognition memory for verbal materials was examined in patients with damage to the left or right lateral prefrontal cortex. Words were incidentally encoded under semantic or phonological orienting conditions, and recognition memory was tested using a 6-point confidence procedure. Receiver operating characteristics (ROCs) were examined in order to measure the contributions of recollection and familiarity to recognition memory. In both encoding conditions, lateral prefrontal cortex damage led to a deficit in familiarity but not recollection. Similar deficits were observed in left and right hemisphere patients. The results indicate that the lateral prefrontal cortex plays a critical role in the monitoring or decision processes required for accurate familiarity-based recognition responses. PMID:21827792

Aly, Mariam; Yonelinas, Andrew P; Kishiyama, Mark M; Knight, Robert T

2011-07-30

216

Differential Response of Coyotes to Novel Stimuli in Familiar and Unfamiliar Environments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The behavioral responses shown by captive coyotes, Canis latrans, to novel objects and artificial scent stations in familiar and unfamiliar environments were studied to determine how coyotes potentially respond to novel stimuli used in coyote management a...

C. E. Harris F. F. Knowlton

1986-01-01

217

Beyond the Memory Mechanism: Person-selective and Nonselective Processes in Recognition of Personally Familiar Faces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Special processes recruited during the recognition of personally familiar people have been assumed to reflect the rich episodic and semantic information that selectively represents each person. However, the processes may also include person nonselectiveones,whichmayrequireinterpretationintermsbeyond the memory mechanism. To examine this possibility, we assessed decrease in differential activation during the second presentationofanidenticalface(repetitionsuppression)asanindex of person selectivity. During fMRI, pictures of personally familiar,

Motoaki Sugiura; Yoko Mano; Akihiro Sasaki; Norihiro Sadato

2010-01-01

218

Document familiarity, relevance, and bradford's law: The getty online searching project report no. 5  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Getty Online Searching Project studied the end-user searching behavior of 27 humanities scholars over a 2-year period. Surprising results were that a number of scholars anticipated—and found—that they were already familiar with a very high percentage of the records their searches retrieved. Previous familiarity with documents has been mentioned in discussion of relevance and information retrieval (IR) theory, but

Marcia J. Bates

1996-01-01

219

Neurophysiological evidence for a recollection impairment in amnesia patients that leaves familiarity intact.  

PubMed

In several previous behavioral studies, we have identified a group of amnestic patients that, behaviorally, appear to exhibit severe deficits in recollection with relative preservation of familiarity-based recognition. However, these studies have relied exclusively on behavioral measures, rather than direct measures of physiology. Event-related potentials (ERPs) have been used to identify putative neural correlates of familiarity- and recollection-based recognition memory, but little work has been done to determine the extent to which these ERP correlates are spared in patients with relatively specific memory disorders. ERP studies of recognition in healthy subjects have indicated that recollection and familiarity are related to a parietal old-new effect characterized as a late positive component (LPC) and an earlier mid-frontal old-new effect referred to as an 'FN400', respectively. Here, we sought to determine the extent to which the putative ERP correlates of recollection and familiarity are intact or impaired in these patients. We recorded ERPs in three amnestic patients and six age matched controls while they made item recognition and source recognition judgments. The current patients were able to discriminate between old and new items fairly well, but showed nearly chance-level performance at source recognition. Moreover, whereas control subjects exhibited ERP correlates of memory that have been linked to recollection and familiarity, the patients only exhibited the mid-frontal FN400 ERP effect related to familiarity-based recognition. The results show that recollection can be severely impaired in amnesia even when familiarity-related processing is relatively spared, and they also provide further evidence that ERPs can be used to distinguish between neural correlates of familiarity and recollection. PMID:22898646

Addante, Richard James; Ranganath, Charan; Olichney, John; Yonelinas, Andrew P

2012-08-07

220

On the interplay between familiarity and emotional expression in face perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional models of face perception (e.g. Bruce and Young 1986) stress independent routes for processing identity and emotional expression. We investigated the interplay between familiarity\\u000a and emotional expression by systematically varying both factors. In contrast to earlier studies which used binary forced-choice\\u000a decisions, participants had to judge the familiarity of the presented face and the emotional hedonic valence and emotional

Christian Dobel; Lena Geiger; Maximilian Bruchmann; Christian Putsche; Stefan R. Schweinberger; Markus Junghöfer

2008-01-01

221

When Memory Does Not Fail: Familiarity-Based Recognition in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recognition can be guided by familiarity, a restricted form of retrieval devoid of contextual recall, or by recollection, which occurs when retrieval is sufficient to support the full experience of remembering an episode. Recollection and familiarity were disentangled by testing recognition memory using silhouette object drawings, high target-foil resemblance, and both yes-no and forced-choice procedures. Theoretically, forced-choice recognition could be

Carmen E. Westerberg; Ken A. Paller; Sandra Weintraub; M.-Marsel Mesulam; Juliet S. Holdstock; Andrew R. Mayes; Paul J. Reber

2006-01-01

222

Role of familiarity on effects of caffeine- and glucose-containing soft drinks  

Microsoft Academic Search

SMIT, H. J., M. L. GRADY, Y. E. FINNEGAN, S.-A. C. HUGHES, J. R. COTTON AND P. J. ROGERS. Role of familiarity on effects of caffeine- and glucose-containing soft drinks PHYSIOL BEHAV XX(X) 000-000, 200X. — Familiarity, through conditioned responses and expectations, may play a significant role in the expression of liking for, and mood and performance effects of, food

Hendrik J. Smit; Melanie L. Grady; Yvonne E. Finnegan; Sally-Anne C. Hughes; Jacqui R. Cotton; Peter J. Rogers

2006-01-01

223

Novelty vs. Familiarity Principles in Preference Decisions: Task-Context of Past Experience Matters  

PubMed Central

Our preferences are shaped by past experience in many ways, but a systematic understanding of the factors is yet to be achieved. For example, studies of the mere exposure effect show that experience with an item leads to increased liking (familiarity preference), but the exact opposite tendency is found in other studies utilizing dishabituation (novelty preference). Recently, it has been found that image category affects whether familiarity or novelty preference emerges from repeated stimulus exposure (Park et al., 2010). Faces elicited familiarity preference, but natural scenes elicited novelty preference. In their task, preference judgments were made throughout all exposures, raising the question of whether the task-context during exposure was involved. We adapt their paradigm, testing if passive exposure or objective judgment task-contexts lead to different results. Results showed that after passive viewing, familiar faces were preferred, but no preference bias in either direction was found with natural scenes, or with geometric figures (control). After exposure during the objective judgment task, familiar faces were preferred, novel natural scenes were preferred, and no preference bias was found with geometric figures. The overall results replicate the segregation of preference biases across object categories and suggest that the preference for familiar faces and novel natural scenes are modulated by task-context memory at different processing levels or selection involvement. Possible underlying mechanisms of the two types of preferences are discussed.

Liao, Hsin-I; Yeh, Su-Ling; Shimojo, Shinsuke

2011-01-01

224

Familiar Person Recognition: Is Autonoetic Consciousness More Likely to Accompany Face Recognition Than Voice Recognition?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Autonoetic consciousness is a fundamental property of human memory, enabling us to experience mental time travel, to recollect past events with a feeling of self-involvement, and to project ourselves in the future. Autonoetic consciousness is a characteristic of episodic memory. By contrast, awareness of the past associated with a mere feeling of familiarity or knowing relies on noetic consciousness, depending on semantic memory integrity. Present research was aimed at evaluating whether conscious recollection of episodic memories is more likely to occur following the recognition of a familiar face than following the recognition of a familiar voice. Recall of semantic information (biographical information) was also assessed. Previous studies that investigated the recall of biographical information following person recognition used faces and voices of famous people as stimuli. In this study, the participants were presented with personally familiar people's voices and faces, thus avoiding the presence of identity cues in the spoken extracts and allowing a stricter control of frequency exposure with both types of stimuli (voices and faces). In the present study, the rate of retrieved episodic memories, associated with autonoetic awareness, was significantly higher from familiar faces than familiar voices even though the level of overall recognition was similar for both these stimuli domains. The same pattern was observed regarding semantic information retrieval. These results and their implications for current Interactive Activation and Competition person recognition models are discussed.

Barsics, Catherine; Brédart, Serge

2010-11-01

225

Laterality effects in normal subjects' recognition of familiar faces, voices and names. Perceptual and representational components.  

PubMed

A growing body of evidence suggests that a different hemispheric specialization may exist for different modalities of person identification, with a prevalent right lateralization of the sensory-motor systems allowing face and voice recognition and a prevalent left lateralization of the name recognition system. Data supporting this claim concern, however, much more disorders of familiar people recognition observed in patients with focal brain lesions than results of experimental studies conducted in normal subjects. These last data are sparse and in part controversial, but are important from the theoretical point of view, because it is not clear if hemispheric asymmetries in the recognition of faces, voices and names are limited to their perceptual processing, or also extend to the domain of their cortical representations. The present review has tried to clarify this issues, taking into account investigations that have evaluated in normal subjects laterality effects in recognition of familiar names, faces and voices, by means of behavioural, neurophysiological and neuroimaging techniques. Results of this survey indicate that: (a) recognition of familiar faces and voices show a prevalent right lateralization, whereas recognition of familiar names is lateralized to the left hemisphere; (b) the right hemisphere prevalence is greater in tasks involving familiar than unfamiliar faces and voices, and the left hemisphere superiority is greater in the recognition of familiar than unfamiliar names. Taken together, these data suggest that hemispheric asymmetries in the recognition of faces, voices and names are not limited to their perceptual processing, but also extend to the domain of their cortical representations. PMID:23542500

Gainotti, Guido

2013-03-28

226

In-service elementary teachers' familiarity, interest, conceptual knowledge, and performance on science process skills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purposes of this research study were to determine (a) in-service elementary teachers' familiarity, interest, conceptual knowledge of , and performance on science process skills and (b) how in-service elementary teachers' familiarity with, interest in conceptual knowledge of and performance on science process skills relate to each other. The science process skills include the basic skills [observation, classification, measuring, predicting, inferring, and communication,] and the integrated skills [hypothesizing, experimenting, identifying and controlling variables, formulating models, interpreting data, and graphing]. Twenty-four in-service elementary teachers enrolled in a master of math and science education degree program participated in this study. Participants completed questionnaires on their familiarity and interest in the science process skills, a science processes conceptual knowledge test, and a performance test on science process skills. Results indicate that these teachers were highly familiar with the science process skills, but moderately interested in these skills. Results also indicate that teachers were more interested in learning more about integrated process skills than basic process skills. Teachers possessed very low conceptual knowledge of the science process skills. However, teachers performed well on science process skills performance test. Significant correlations among the four constructs (familiarity, interest, conceptual knowledge and performance) were only significant between familiarity and interest. The implications, discussion and recommendations for future research and instruction on science process skills in teacher education programs have been presented.

Miles, Erin

227

Cambios del EEG por habituación y condicionamiento en niños de tres a 15 años que acuden al Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitación (INR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY During waking, stimuli activate the sensory pathways giving rise to sensation and the response to such stimulation. The electrobiochemical changes and modifications in EEG rhythms event- related synchronization or event-related desynchronization, ERD or ERS) propagated in the specific and unspecific cortex are added to the changes elicited by the responses and to the new signals originated by those same

Héctor Brust-Carmona; Francisco Ramírez-Aboytes; José Martínez; Ángel Rodríguez Miguel; Blanca Flores-Ávalos; Oscar Yáñez-Suárez

2009-01-01

228

Correspondencia entre CIE10 y CIE9 para las listas de causas de muerte del Instituto Nacional de Estadística y de la Región de Murcia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results: A decline in infectious diseases (-1.7%) and viral hepa- titis, (-12.3%) declined under Tenth revision, while AIDS showed an increase (5.7%). Neoplasms increased a little (0.3%) with the inclu- sion of the Mielodisplasic Syndrome (55.2%). Diabetes mellitus is increased (2.1%). Mental disorders declined on dementia being shif- ted to Alzheimer's disease (28.6%). Cardiovascular diseases dropped slightly (-1.4%), without any

Lluís Cirera Suárez; Miguel Rodríguez Barranco; Emilia Madrigal de Torres; Jesús Carrillo Prieto; Augusto Hasiak Santo; Roberto Augusto Becker; Aurelio Tobías Garcés; Carmen Navarro Sánchez

2006-01-01

229

Experience with Adults Shapes Multisensory Representation of Social Familiarity in the Brain of a Songbird  

PubMed Central

Social animals learn to perceive their social environment, and their social skills and preferences are thought to emerge from greater exposure to and hence familiarity with some social signals rather than others. Familiarity appears to be tightly linked to multisensory integration. The ability to differentiate and categorize familiar and unfamiliar individuals and to build a multisensory representation of known individuals emerges from successive social interactions, in particular with adult, experienced models. In different species, adults have been shown to shape the social behavior of young by promoting selective attention to multisensory cues. The question of what representation of known conspecifics adult-deprived animals may build therefore arises. Here we show that starlings raised with no experience with adults fail to develop a multisensory representation of familiar and unfamiliar starlings. Electrophysiological recordings of neuronal activity throughout the primary auditory area of these birds, while they were exposed to audio-only or audiovisual familiar and unfamiliar cues, showed that visual stimuli did, as in wild-caught starlings, modulate auditory responses but that, unlike what was observed in wild-caught birds, this modulation was not influenced by familiarity. Thus, adult-deprived starlings seem to fail to discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar individuals. This suggests that adults may shape multisensory representation of known individuals in the brain, possibly by focusing the young’s attention on relevant, multisensory cues. Multisensory stimulation by experienced, adult models may thus be ubiquitously important for the development of social skills (and of the neural properties underlying such skills) in a variety of species.

George, Isabelle; Cousillas, Hugo; Richard, Jean-Pierre; Hausberger, Martine

2012-01-01

230

Conceptual priming and familiarity: different expressions of memory during recognition testing with distinct neurophysiological correlates.  

PubMed

Familiarity and recollection are qualitatively different explicit-memory phenomena evident during recognition testing. Investigations of the neurocognitive substrates of familiarity and recollection, however, have typically disregarded implicit-memory processes likely to be engaged during recognition tests. We reasoned that differential neural responses to old and new items in a recognition test may reflect either explicit or implicit memory. Putative neural correlates of familiarity in prior experiments, for example, may actually reflect contamination by implicit memory. In two experiments, we used obscure words that subjects could not formally define to tease apart electrophysiological correlates of familiarity and one form of implicit memory, conceptual priming. In Experiment 1, conceptual priming was observed for words only if they elicited meaningful associations. In Experiment 2, two distinct neural signals were observed in conjunction with familiarity-based recognition: late posterior potentials for words that both did and did not elicit meaningful associations and FN400 potentials only for the former. Given that symbolic meaning is a prerequisite for conceptual priming, the combined results specifically link late posterior potentials and FN400 potentials with familiarity and conceptual priming, respectively. These findings contradict previous interpretations of FN400 potentials as generic signals of familiarity and show that repeated stimuli in recognition tests can engender facilitated processing of conceptual information in addition to retrieval processing that leads to the awareness of memory retrieval. The different characteristics of the electrical markers of these two types of process further underscore the biological validity of the distinction between implicit memory and explicit memory. PMID:19702474

Voss, Joel L; Lucas, Heather D; Paller, Ken A

2010-11-01

231

Familiarity and recollection produce distinct eye movement, pupil and medial temporal lobe responses when memory strength is matched.  

PubMed

Two experiments explored eye measures (fixations and pupil response patterns) and brain responses (BOLD) accompanying the recognition of visual object stimuli based on familiarity and recollection. In both experiments, the use of a modified remember/know procedure led to high confidence and matched accuracy levels characterising strong familiarity (F3) and recollection (R) responses. In Experiment 1, visual scanning behaviour at retrieval distinguished familiarity-based from recollection-based recognition. Recollection, relative to strength-matched familiarity, involved significantly larger pupil dilations and more dispersed fixation patterns. In Experiment 2, the hippocampus was selectively activated for recollected stimuli, while no evidence of activation was observed in the hippocampus for strong familiarity of matched accuracy. Recollection also activated the parahippocampal cortex (PHC), while the adjacent perirhinal cortex (PRC) was actively engaged in response to strong familiarity (than to recollection). Activity in prefrontal and parietal areas differentiated familiarity and recollection in both the extent and the magnitude of activity they exhibited, while the dorsomedial thalamus showed selective familiarity-related activity, and the ventrolateral and anterior thalamus selective recollection-related activity. These findings are consistent with the view that the hippocampus and PRC play contrasting roles in supporting recollection and familiarity and that these differences are not a result of differences in memory strength. Overall, the combined pupil dilation, eye movement and fMRI data suggest the operation of recognition mechanisms drawing differentially on familiarity and recollection, whose neural bases are distinct within the MTL. PMID:22902538

Kafkas, Alexandros; Montaldi, Daniela

2012-08-10

232

Familiarity knowledge in student nurses' clinical studies: exemplified by student nurses in palliative care.  

PubMed

In this article based on a literary study, the form of knowledge named familiarity knowledge is examined. Although rooted in the philosophical tradition of Wittgenstein and Polanyi, the development of familiarity knowledge is tied in with clinical practice and particular patients and contexts while paying attention to the framework factors influencing the setting as a whole as well as with theoretical knowledge relevant to the situation at hand. Palliative care makes a backdrop for some of the discussion. Familiarity knowledge can never be context free and attends to that which is unique in every nurse-patient relationship. Both assertive and familiarity knowledge are needed to care for dying patients in a competent, sensitive, and truly caring manner. Mentors need to help students synthesize assertive knowledge and familiarity knowledge during their clinical studies to enrich both kinds of knowledge and deepen their understanding. Student nurses expertly mentored and tutored while caring for dying patients living at home become, for instance, less apprehensive about facing dying patients than students not so mentored. Nurses need to understand the complexity of nursing care to be able to see the uniqueness of the situation and approach the individual patient on the bases of experience and insight. PMID:22908430

Haugan, Grethe; Hanssen, Ingrid

2012-01-01

233

The Effect of Real-World Personal Familiarity on the Speed of Face Information Processing  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have explored the effects of familiarity on various kinds of visual face judgments, yet the role of familiarity in face processing is not fully understood. Across different face judgments and stimulus sets, the data is equivocal as to whether or not familiarity impacts recognition processes. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we examine the effect of real-world personal familiarity in three simple delayed-match-to-sample tasks in which subjects were required to match faces on the basis of orientation (upright v. inverted), gender and identity. We find that subjects had a significant speed advantage with familiar faces in all three tasks, with large effects for the gender and identity matching tasks. Conclusion/Significance Our data indicates that real-world experience with a face exerts a powerful influence on face processing in tasks where identity information is irrelevant, even in tasks that could in principle be solved via low-level cues. These results underscore the importance of experience in shaping visual recognition processes.

Balas, Benjamin; Cox, David; Conwell, Erin

2007-01-01

234

Familiarity of objects affects susceptibility to the sound-induced flash illusion.  

PubMed

Audition is accepted as more reliable (thus dominant) than vision when temporal discrimination is required by the task. However, it is not known whether the characteristics of the visual stimulus, for example its familiarity to the perceiver, affect auditory dominance. In this study we manipulated familiarity of the visual stimulus in a well-established multisensory phenomenon, i.e., the sound-induced flash illusion. This illusion occurs when, for example, one brief visual stimulus (e.g., a flash) is presented in close temporal proximity with two brief sounds; participants perceive two flashes instead of one. We found that when the visual stimuli (faces or buildings) were familiar, participants were less susceptible to the illusion than when they were unfamiliar. As the illusion has been ascribed to early cross-sensory interactions between vision and audition, the present work offers behavioural evidence that high level processing of objects' characteristics such as familiarity, affects early temporal multisensory integration. Possible mechanisms underlying the effect of familiarity are discussed. PMID:21262319

Setti, Annalisa; Chan, Jason S

2011-01-22

235

The effect of familiarity on behavior of kenneled dogs during interactions with conspecifics.  

PubMed

Kenneled environments often prevent direct physical contact between dogs, potentially causing stress, and so it has been recommended that such contact should be provided. This study examined the effect of familiarity on the behavior of dogs during off-lead interaction. Kenneled dogs (3 breeds) were given 15-min off-lead interactions with a familiar dog and an unfamiliar dog; the behavior of the focal dog and the distance between the dogs were recorded. More time in contact and interaction behaviors were recorded at 0 to 3 min with unfamiliar dogs than with familiar dogs. At 9 to 12 min, familiar pairs spent more time within 5 body lengths and more time being followed than unfamiliar pairs, who spent more time at more than 5 body lengths apart. This suggests that the initial interaction is more important when dogs are unfamiliar, but once this "greeting" has occurred, unfamiliar pairs are more likely to investigate their surroundings independently rather than together. Breed differences were observed only at 0 to 3 min. The study suggests that familiarity should be taken into account when assessing the effectiveness of conspecific contact as a potential enrichment for kennel-housed dogs. PMID:23282294

Pullen, Anne J; Merrill, Ralph J N; Bradshaw, John W S

2013-01-01

236

Recognition memory and the hippocampus: A test of the hippocampal contribution to recollection and familiarity  

PubMed Central

It has been suggested that the hippocampus selectively supports recollection and that adjacent cortex in the medial temporal lobe can support familiarity. Alternatively, it has been suggested that the hippocampus supports both recollection and familiarity. We tested these suggestions by assessing the performance of patients with hippocampal lesions on recognition memory tests that differ in the extent to which recollection and familiarity contribute to the recognition decision. When targets and foils are highly similar, prior evidence suggests that, on a forced-choice test in which targets are presented together with highly similar, corresponding foils (the FC-C format), performance is supported primarily by familiarity. By contrast, when targets are presented together with foils that are similar to other targets (the FC-NC format) or when memory is tested in a yes/no (Y/N) format, performance is based much more strongly on recollection. Accordingly, a finding that hippocampal damage impaired both Y/N recognition and FC-NC recognition but spared FC-C recognition would suggest that the hippocampus selectively supports recollection. We administered Y/N, FC-C, and FC-NC tests to five memory-impaired patients with circumscribed hippocampal lesions and 14 controls. The patients were impaired on all three types of recognition test, and there was no indication that the patients were disproportionately benefited or disproportionately impaired on any test. This pattern of performance suggests that the hippocampus supports both recollection and familiarity.

Jeneson, Annette; Kirwan, C. Brock; Hopkins, Ramona O.; Wixted, John T.; Squire, Larry R.

2010-01-01

237

When familiar is not better: 12-month-old infants respond to talk about absent objects.  

PubMed

Three experiments that demonstrate a novel constraint on infants' language skills are described. Across the experiments it is shown that as babies near their 1st birthday, their ability to respond to talk about an absent object is influenced by a referent's spatiotemporal history: familiarizing infants with an object in 1 or several nontest locations before the study interferes with their ability to respond to talk about the object when it is out of view. Familiarity with an object may not always strengthen infants' object representations and therefore facilitate their ability to appropriately react to the mention of absent objects. On the contrary, early in development, irrelevant information about prior location may be bound to representations of familiar objects and thus interfere with infants' ability to respond to talk about absent things. PMID:22448983

Osina, Maria A; Saylor, Megan M; Ganea, Patricia A

2012-03-26

238

German norms for semantic typicality, age of acquisition, and concept familiarity.  

PubMed

The present study introduces the first substantial German database with norms for semantic typicality, age of acquisition, and concept familiarity for 824 exemplars of 11 semantic categories, including four natural (ANIMALS, BIRDS, FRUITS,: and VEGETABLES: ) and five man-made (CLOTHING, FURNITURE, VEHICLES, TOOLS: , and MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS: ) categories, as well as PROFESSIONS: and SPORTS: . Each category exemplar in the database was collected empirically in an exemplar generation study. For each category exemplar, norms for semantic typicality, estimated age of acquisition, and concept familiarity were gathered in three different rating studies. Reliability data and additional analyses on effects of semantic category and intercorrelations between age of acquisition, semantic typicality, concept familiarity, word length, and word frequency are provided. Overall, the data show high inter- and intrastudy reliabilities, providing a new resource tool for designing experiments with German word materials. The full database is available in the supplementary material of this file and also at www.psychonomic.org/archive . PMID:22190280

Schröder, Astrid; Gemballa, Teresa; Ruppin, Steffie; Wartenburger, Isabell

2012-06-01

239

Does this sound familiar? Effects of timbre change on episodic retrieval of novel melodies.  

PubMed

Three experiments investigated episodic retrieval of novel melodies and tested how a change in timbre between study and test affects the two processes underlying recognition memory, conscious recollection and familiarity. In Experiments 1 and 2, conscious recollection and familiarity were operationalized using the remember/know paradigm. We additionally assessed the influence of the number of presentations during learning in Experiment 1, and the effect of massed versus distributed learning in Experiment 2. Experiment 3 confirmed that participants could also indicate a change in timbre explicitly (same versus different timbre classifications). In all experiments, melodies were better recognized when the timbre at study and test was identical. Effects of timbre change were more pronounced for recollection than familiarity. Distributed learning specifically enhanced the same-timbre advantage on recollection. Together, these results suggest that timbre serves both as a context cue and as an integrated feature of a melody. PMID:23562848

Lange, Kathrin; Czernochowski, Daniela

2013-04-02

240

The effects of tempo and familiarity on children's affective interpretation of music.  

PubMed

When and how does one learn to associate emotion with music? This study attempted to address this issue by examining whether preschool children use tempo as a cue in determining whether a song is happy or sad. Instrumental versions of children's songs were played at different tempos to adults and children ages 3 to 5 years. Familiar and unfamiliar songs were used to examine whether familiarity affected children's identification of emotion in music. The results indicated that adults, 4 year olds and 5 year olds rated fast songs as significantly happier than slow songs. However, 3 year olds failed to rate fast songs differently than slow songs at above-chance levels. Familiarity did not significantly affect children's identification of happiness and sadness in music. PMID:21668112

Mote, Jasmine

2011-06-01

241

Isolating the Contributions of Familiarity and Source Information to Item Recognition: A Time Course Analysis  

PubMed Central

Recognition memory may be mediated by the retrieval of distinct types of information, notably, a general assessment of familiarity and the recovery of specific source information. A response-signal speed–accuracy trade-off variant of an exclusion procedure was used to isolate the retrieval time course for familiarity and source information. In 2 experiments, participants studied spoken and read lists (with various numbers of presentations) and then performed an exclusion task, judging an item as old only if it was in the heard list. Dual-process fits of the time course data indicated that familiarity information typically is retrieved before source information. The implications that these data have for models of recognition, including dual-process and global memory models, are discussed.

McElree, Brian; Dolan, Patrick O.; Jacoby, Larry L.

2012-01-01

242

Familiarity mediates the relationship between emotional arousal and pleasure during music listening  

PubMed Central

Emotional arousal appears to be a major contributing factor to the pleasure that listeners experience in response to music. Accordingly, a strong positive correlation between self-reported pleasure and electrodermal activity (EDA), an objective indicator of emotional arousal, has been demonstrated when individuals listen to familiar music. However, it is not yet known to what extent familiarity contributes to this relationship. In particular, as listening to familiar music involves expectations and predictions over time based on veridical knowledge of the piece, it could be that such memory factors plays a major role. Here, we tested such a contribution by using musical stimuli entirely unfamiliar to listeners. In a second experiment we repeated the novel music to experimentally establish a sense of familiarity. We aimed to determine whether (1) pleasure and emotional arousal would continue to correlate when listeners have no explicit knowledge of how the tones will unfold, and (2) whether this could be enhanced by experimentally-induced familiarity. In the first experiment, we presented 33 listeners with 70 unfamiliar musical excerpts in two sessions. There was no relationship between the degree of experienced pleasure and emotional arousal as measured by EDA. In the second experiment, 7 participants listened to 35 unfamiliar excerpts over two sessions separated by 30 min. Repeated exposure significantly increased EDA, even though individuals did not explicitly recall having heard all the pieces before. Furthermore, increases in self-reported familiarity significantly enhanced experienced pleasure and there was a general, though not significant, increase in EDA. These results suggest that some level of expectation and predictability mediated by prior exposure to a given piece of music play an important role in the experience of emotional arousal in response to music.

van den Bosch, Iris; Salimpoor, Valorie N.; Zatorre, Robert J.

2013-01-01

243

Familiarity mediates the relationship between emotional arousal and pleasure during music listening.  

PubMed

Emotional arousal appears to be a major contributing factor to the pleasure that listeners experience in response to music. Accordingly, a strong positive correlation between self-reported pleasure and electrodermal activity (EDA), an objective indicator of emotional arousal, has been demonstrated when individuals listen to familiar music. However, it is not yet known to what extent familiarity contributes to this relationship. In particular, as listening to familiar music involves expectations and predictions over time based on veridical knowledge of the piece, it could be that such memory factors plays a major role. Here, we tested such a contribution by using musical stimuli entirely unfamiliar to listeners. In a second experiment we repeated the novel music to experimentally establish a sense of familiarity. We aimed to determine whether (1) pleasure and emotional arousal would continue to correlate when listeners have no explicit knowledge of how the tones will unfold, and (2) whether this could be enhanced by experimentally-induced familiarity. In the first experiment, we presented 33 listeners with 70 unfamiliar musical excerpts in two sessions. There was no relationship between the degree of experienced pleasure and emotional arousal as measured by EDA. In the second experiment, 7 participants listened to 35 unfamiliar excerpts over two sessions separated by 30 min. Repeated exposure significantly increased EDA, even though individuals did not explicitly recall having heard all the pieces before. Furthermore, increases in self-reported familiarity significantly enhanced experienced pleasure and there was a general, though not significant, increase in EDA. These results suggest that some level of expectation and predictability mediated by prior exposure to a given piece of music play an important role in the experience of emotional arousal in response to music. PMID:24046738

van den Bosch, Iris; Salimpoor, Valorie N; Zatorre, Robert J

2013-09-05

244

Perception Precedes Computation: Can Familiarity Preferences Explain Apparent Calculation by Human Babies?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies of 5-month-old infants explored whether a phenomenon reported by K. Wynn (1992) reflects a familiarity preference instead of a mathematical competence. Experiment 1 was a conceptual replication of Wynn's study. When data were analyzed with the relatively liberal statistical approach used by Wynn, the original phenomenon was replicated. However, an analysis of variance revealed that girls and boys

David S. Moore; Laura A. Cocas

2006-01-01

245

Episodic over-Distribution: A Signature Effect of Familiarity without Recollection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When recognition probes seem familiar but their presentation cannot be recollected, dual-process models predict that they will be attributed to too many presentation contexts--most dramatically, to multiple contexts that are mutually contradictory. This is the phenomenon of episodic over-distribution. In the conjoint-recognition and…

Brainerd, C. J.; Reyna, V. F.

2008-01-01

246

Effects of Familiarity and Type of Encoding on Proofreading of Text  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A handful of studies have claimed that error detection is improved by a proofreader's prior encounter with the text to be scanned for errors. In these studies, however, the beneficial effect of text familiarity on proofreading has been obtained via surface encoding tasks (prior reading or proofreading). This raises the question of whether the…

Pilott, Maura; Chodorow, Martin; Thornton, Kendell C.

2005-01-01

247

When Familiar Is Not Better: 12-Month-Old Infants Respond to Talk about Absent Objects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Three experiments that demonstrate a novel constraint on infants' language skills are described. Across the experiments it is shown that as babies near their 1st birthday, their ability to respond to talk about an absent object is influenced by a referent's spatiotemporal history: familiarizing infants with an object in 1 or several nontest…

Osina, Maria A.; Saylor, Megan M.; Ganea, Patricia A.

2013-01-01

248

Familiarity with, knowledge of, and attitudes toward epilepsy among teachers in Korean elementary schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated familiarity with, knowledge of, and attitudes toward epilepsy among teachers in elementary schools in Korea, where there is profound prejudice against epilepsy. Most of the teachers thought that epilepsy is a genetic disease. They agreed that children with epilepsy (CWE) should attend regular classes (although with some restriction of school activities) because their academic achievement would be comparable

Haeyoung Lee; Sang Kun Lee; Chun Kee Chung; Soon Nyung Yun; Smi Choi-Kwon

2010-01-01

249

Electroencephalogram and Heart Rate Regulation to Familiar and Unfamiliar People in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Few studies have examined whether familiarity of partner affects social responses in children with autism. This study investigated heart rate regulation (respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA]: The myelinated vagus nerve's regulation of heart rate) and temporal-parietal electroencephalogram (EEG) activity while nineteen 8- to 12-year-old children…

Van Hecke, Amy Vaughan; Lebow, Jocelyn; Bal, Elgiz; Lamb, Damon; Harden, Emily; Kramer, Alexis; Denver, John; Bazhenova, Olga; Porges, Stephen W.

2009-01-01

250

The role of Internet buyer's product familiarity and confidence in anchoring effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although anchoring effect is a robust phenomenon and has been discussed in different decision making domains, related research efforts in the Internet purchasing domain are still lacking. Furthermore, little research has been conducted to examine the role of individual differences (e.g. product familiarity and confidence level) in the anchoring effect. Thus, the current study aims to conduct an online experiment

Chin-Shan Wu; Fei-Fei Cheng; David C. Yen

2011-01-01

251

The role of Internet buyer's product familiarity and confidence in anchoring effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although anchoring effect is a robust phenomenon and has been discussed in different decision making domains, related research efforts in the Internet purchasing domain are still lacking. Furthermore, little research has been conducted to examine the role of individual differences (e.g. product familiarity and confidence level) in the anchoring effect. Thus, the current study aims to conduct an online experiment

Chin-Shan Wu; Fei-Fei Cheng; David C. Yen

2012-01-01

252

Users’ familiar situational contexts facilitate the practice of EFL in elementary schools with mobile devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is beneficial for students to experience situational learning, especially for English as a foreign language (EFL) learning. Providing more listening and speaking opportunities could help EFL students with English learning. Our research proposes a listening and speaking practice system employing personal digital assistants (PDAs) for situated learning using contexts with which students would be familiar. The proposed system attempts

Wu-Yuin Hwang; Holly S. L. Chen

2011-01-01

253

Effects of Multimodal Presentation and Stimulus Familiarity on Auditory and Visual Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two experiments examined the effects of multimodal presentation and stimulus familiarity on auditory and visual processing. In Experiment 1, 10-month-olds were habituated to either an auditory stimulus, a visual stimulus, or an auditory-visual multimodal stimulus. Processing time was assessed during the habituation phase, and discrimination of…

Robinson, Christopher W.; Sloutsky, Vladimir M.

2010-01-01

254

Position Distinctiveness, Item Familiarity, and Presentation Frequency Affect Reconstruction of Order in Immediate Episodic Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Three experiments examined the effects of position distinctiveness, item familiarity, and frequency of presentation on serial position functions in a task involving reconstructing the order of a subset of 12 names in a list of 20 names. Three different serial position conditions were compared in which the subset of names occurred in Positions…

Healy, Alice F.; Shea, Kathleen M.; Kole, James A.; Cunningham, Thomas F.

2008-01-01

255

Societal Responses to Familiar Versus Unfamiliar Risk: Comparisons of Influenza and SARS in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the connections between familiar (influenza) and unfamiliar (SARS) risks among the general public in a SARS affected society. Using a survey of 350 respondents in Chonju, we find that risk perceptions and a belief that influenza vaccination reduces the incidence of SARS explain behavioral intentions for influenza vaccination and purchase responses to a hypothetical SARS vaccine. Those

Seonghoon Hong; Alan Collins

2006-01-01

256

Effects of Multimodal Presentation and Stimulus Familiarity on Auditory and Visual Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments examined the effects of multimodal presentation and stimulus familiarity on auditory and visual processing. In Experiment 1, 10-month-olds were habituated to either an auditory stimulus, a visual stimulus, or an auditory-visual multimodal stimulus. Processing time was assessed during the habituation phase, and discrimination of…

Robinson, Christopher W.; Sloutsky, Vladimir M.

2010-01-01

257

The Relationship between Text Comprehension and Second Language Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition: A Matter of Topic Familiarity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examines the relationship between second language (L2) passage comprehension and intake (form recognition), gain (meaning recognition and production), and retention of new lexical items from the passages. The effect of topic familiarity on the above relationships is also examined. Participants were a cross-sectional sample of L2…

Pulido, Diana

2004-01-01

258

The relationship between social behaviour and habitat familiarity in African elephants (Loxodonta africana)  

PubMed Central

Social associations with conspecifics can expedite animals' acclimation to novel environments. However, the benefits gained from sociality may change as the habitat becomes familiar. Furthermore, the particular individuals with whom animals associate upon arrival at a new place, familiar conspecifics or knowledgeable unfamiliar residents, may influence the type of information they acquire about their new home. To examine animals' social dynamics in novel habitats, we studied the social behaviour of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) translocated into a novel environment. We found that the translocated elephants' association with conspecifics decreased over time supporting our hypothesis that sociality provides added benefits in novel environments. In addition, we found a positive correlation between body condition and social association, suggesting that elephants gain direct benefits from sociality. Furthermore, the translocated elephants associated significantly less than expected with the local residents and more than expected with familiar, but not necessarily genetically related, translocated elephants. The social segregation between the translocated and resident elephants declined over time, suggesting that elephants can integrate into an existing social setting. Knowledge of the relationship between sociality and habitat familiarity is highly important in our constantly changing world to both conservation practice and our understanding of animals' behaviour in novel environments.

Pinter-Wollman, Noa; Isbell, Lynne A.; Hart, Lynette A.

2008-01-01

259

Imaging recollection and familiarity in the medial temporal lobe: a three-component model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The medial temporal lobe (MTL) plays a crucial role in supporting memory for events, but the functional organ- ization of regions in the MTL remains controversial, especially regarding the extent to which different subregions support recognition based on familiarity or recollection. Here we review results from functional neu- roimaging studies showing that, whereas activity in the hippocampus and posterior parahippocampal

Rachel A. Diana; Andrew P. Yonelinas; Charan Ranganath

2007-01-01

260

Orthographic familiarity, phonological legality and number of orthographic neighbours affect the onset of ERP lexical effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that the variability among studies in the onset of lexical effects may be due to a series of methodological differences. In this study we investigated the role of orthographic familiarity, phonological legality and number of orthographic neighbours of words in determining the onset of word\\/non-word discriminative responses. METHODS: ERPs were recorded from 128 sites in

Alice M Proverbio; Roberta Adorni

2008-01-01

261

Secretarial attitudes towards word processors as a function of familiarity and locus of control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to investigate dimensions of secretarial anxiety, eagerness, and curiosity with respect to word processing equipment. Such variables as familiarity, formal training, physical proximity to the equipment, degree of influence in the decision to acquire a word processor, and frequency of use were seen as potential predictors of such attitudes. Additionally, two trait-like dimensions

STEPHAN ARNDT; JOAN FELTES; JOYCE HANAK

1983-01-01

262

Cultural Familiarity in Inferential and Literal Comprehension in L2 Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study explores the role of culturally familiar background knowledge in inferential and literal comprehension in L2 reading. Ninety-eight Turkish EFL (English as a Foreign Language) university students were divided into two groups of equivalent English proficiency. They read either the original of an American short story or a "nativized"…

Alptekin, Cem

2006-01-01

263

Comprehension of Familiar and Unfamiliar Native Accents under Adverse Listening Conditions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study aimed to determine the relative processing cost associated with comprehension of an unfamiliar native accent under adverse listening conditions. Two sentence verification experiments were conducted in which listeners heard sentences at various signal-to-noise ratios. In Experiment 1, these sentences were spoken in a familiar or an…

Adank, Patti; Evans, Bronwen G.; Stuart-Smith, Jane; Scott, Sophie K.

2009-01-01

264

Effects of Interlocutor Familiarity on Second Language Learning in Group Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recent research in second language acquisition has focused on the effects of group work on learning by examining various factors (i.e., motivation, age, task, gender differences, etc.). One particular factor that has not been heavily investigated is interlocutor familiarity, which is at the forefront of the present study. Two separate classes (in…

Poteau, Christine E.

2011-01-01

265

Rhesus Monkeys See Who They Hear: Spontaneous Cross-Modal Memory for Familiar Conspecifics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhesus monkeys gather much of their knowledge of the social world through visual input and may preferentially represent this knowledge in the visual modality. Recognition of familiar faces is clearly advantageous, and the flexibility and utility of primate social memory would be greatly enhanced if visual memories could be accessed cross-modally either by visual or auditory stimulation. Such cross-modal access

Ikuma Adachi; Robert R. Hampton

2011-01-01

266

Effects of Familiarity with a Melody Prior to Instruction on Children's Piano Performance Accuracy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The main purpose of this study was to examine the effects of familiarity with the sound of a melody on children's performance of the melody. Children in kindergarten through fourth grade (N = 97) with no previous formal instrumental instruction were taught to play a four-measure melody on a keyboard during an individual instruction session.…

Frewen, Katherine Goins

2010-01-01

267

Modulation of perceived taste by olfaction in familiar and unfamiliar beverages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integration of olfactory and taste perception was already demonstrated in model solutions. In the present study we have investigated the impact of olfactory perception on perceived bitterness in a familiar (bitter cocoa beverage) and an unfamiliar (bitter milk) beverage. Comparative profiles were conducted, with and without noseclip. In a first experiment, an instant cocoa powder mixed in water was

D. Labbe; L. Damevin; C. Vaccher; C. Morgenegg; N. Martin

2005-01-01

268

Age-of-acquisition, imagery, concreteness, familiarity, and ambiguity measures for 1,944 words  

Microsoft Academic Search

Age-of-acquisition, imagery, concreteness, familiarity, and ambiguity measures for 1,944 words of varying length and frequency\\u000a of occurrence are presented. The words can all be used as nouns. Intergroup reliabilities are satisfactory on all attributes.\\u000a Correlations with previous word lists are significant, and the intercorrelations between measures match previous findings.

K. J. Gilhooly; R. H. Logie

1980-01-01

269

Inquiring into Familiar Objects: An Inquiry-Based Approach to Introduce Scientific Vocabulary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Learning science vocabulary is an often tedious but important component of many curricula. Frequently, students are expected to learn science vocabulary indirectly, but this method can hinder the success of lower-performing students (Carlisle, Fleming, and Gudbrandsen 2000). We have developed an inquiry-based vocabulary activity wherein students explore how new words apply to familiar objects, piquing their interest in the words’

Caitlin Hicks Pries; Julie Hughes

2012-01-01

270

The Influence of Test Familiarity and Student Disability Status upon Teachers' Judgments of Students' Test Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two questions motivated this study: (a) Does test familiarity influence teachers' judgments of their students' test performance? and (b) Does the disability status of students influence their teachers' judgments? Teachers (n=19) judged item performances for one student with disabilities and one student without disabilities (n pairs=19) from their…

Hurwitz, Jason T.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Braden, Jeffery P.

2007-01-01

271

Strangers in familiar places – using generic spaces in cross-cultural identity work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Employees working across multiple cultures are exposed to a vast number of different norms and values, and consequentially work is often a struggle to retain a coherent sense of self. However, when international workers travel, they also encounter more bland spaces where familiarity and similarity are important. These spaces appear culturally generic to the Western traveler, but are highly Westernized

Sara Louise Muhr

2012-01-01

272

Estabilidades e mudanças em padrões familiares de crianças com problemas de comportamento exteriorizado  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: A literatura sobre crianças com problemas de comportamento exteriorizado tem enfatizado a necessidade de descrever a origem e a evolução desses comportamentos. Este estudo visa comparar as continuidades e mudanças no perfil cognitivo, no estresse parental e na qualidade das relações familiares de crianças com problemas de comportamento exteriorizado. Participaram da coleta de dados sete crianças pré-escolares morando com

Maria Auxiliadora Dessen; Adriane Corrêa Szelbracikowski

2006-01-01

273

Familiarity effects in the construction of facial-composite images using modern software systems.  

PubMed

We investigate the effect of target familiarity on the construction of facial composites, as used by law enforcement to locate criminal suspects. Two popular software construction methods were investigated. Participants were shown a target face that was either familiar or unfamiliar to them and constructed a composite of it from memory using a typical 'feature' system, involving selection of individual facial features, or one of the newer 'holistic' types, involving repeated selection and breeding from arrays of whole faces. This study found that composites constructed of a familiar face were named more successfully than composites of an unfamiliar face; also, naming of composites of internal and external features was equivalent for construction of unfamiliar targets, but internal features were better named than the external features for familiar targets. These findings applied to both systems, although benefit emerged for the holistic type due to more accurate construction of internal features and evidence for a whole-face advantage. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This work is of relevance to practitioners who construct facial composites with witnesses to and victims of crime, as well as for software designers to help them improve the effectiveness of their composite systems. PMID:22103723

Frowd, Charlie D; Skelton, Faye C; Butt, Neelam; Hassan, Amal; Fields, Stephen; Hancock, Peter J B

2011-12-01

274

The Influence of Test Familiarity and Student Disability Status Upon Teachers' Judgments of Students' Test Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two questions motivated this study: (a) Does test familiarity influence teachers' judgments of their students' test performance? and (b) Does the disability status of students influence their teachers' judgments? Teachers (n = 19) judged item performances for one student with disabilities and one student without disabilities (n pairs = 19) from their fourth-grade classrooms. Teachers made judgments using (a) a

Jason T. Hurwitz; Stephen N. Elliott; Jeffery P. Braden

2007-01-01

275

The Effect of Stimulus Familiarity on the Conservation Performance of Rural Guatemalan Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this cross-cultural research tests of the effects of stimulus familiarity on a conservation of area task in rural Guatemala are made. Performance on the conservation of area task is compared with performance on other types of conservation. Changes in performance over a one-month interval are reported. (SM)

Lester, Barry M.; Klein, Robert E.

1973-01-01

276

Making the Familiar Strange: Creative Cultural Storytelling within the Communication Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this activity, students employ mock campfire storytelling to "make the familiar strange" in the same spirit as Horace Miner's (1956) classic tale of the "Nacirema." Students work individually, in pairs, or as small groups (around three) to create a whimsical story that deconstructs a mundane, everyday ritual (event, activity, practice) into a…

Blinne, Kristen C.

2012-01-01

277

Familiarizing Students with the Empirically Supported Treatment Approaches for Substance Abuse Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|When training counseling students, it is important to familiarize them with the clinical research literature exploring the efficacy of particular treatments. The bulk of the document is comprised of a review of empirically supported treatments (ESTs). ESTs or evidence-based treatments are grounded in studies recommended by the American…

Wilkins, Victoria; Chambliss, Catherine

278

No need to Talk, I Know You: Familiarity Influences Early Multisensory Integration in a Songbird's Brain.  

PubMed

It is well known that visual information can affect auditory perception, as in the famous "McGurk effect," but little is known concerning the processes involved. To address this issue, we used the best-developed animal model to study language-related processes in the brain: songbirds. European starlings were exposed to audiovisual compared to auditory-only playback of conspecific songs, while electrophysiological recordings were made in their primary auditory area (Field L). The results show that the audiovisual condition modulated the auditory responses. Enhancement and suppression were both observed, depending on the stimulus familiarity. Seeing a familiar bird led to suppressed auditory responses while seeing an unfamiliar bird led to response enhancement, suggesting that unisensory perception may be enough if the stimulus is familiar while redundancy may be required for unfamiliar items. This is to our knowledge the first evidence that multisensory integration may occur in a low-level, putatively unisensory area of a non-mammalian vertebrate brain, and also that familiarity of the stimuli may influence modulation of auditory responses by vision. PMID:21283531

George, Isabelle; Richard, Jean-Pierre; Cousillas, Hugo; Hausberger, Martine

2011-01-25

279

IMPLICIT AND EXPLICIT MEMORY FOR FAMILIAR AND NOVEL OBJECTS PRESENTED TO TOUCH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments examined implicit and explicit memory for familiar and unfa- miliar objects presented haptically. Experiment 1 showed substantial priming for real world objects using a speeded naming task. Furthermore, priming was not affected by changes in the mode of exploration (with gloves or without gloves) from study to test. In contrast, explicit memory assessed by a recognition test was

Soledad Ballesteros; José M. Reales; Dionisio Manga

1999-01-01

280

Introducing International Accounting Standards to an emerging capital market: relative familiarity and language effect in Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to assess the effect of relative familiarity and language accessibility on the International Accounting Standards (IASs) disclosures when IASs are first introduced in an emerging capital market. The study focuses on the annual reports of listed non-financial companies in Egypt when IASs were first introduced. The method used applies a disclosure index measurement to

Omneya H. Abd-Elsalam; Pauline Weetman

2003-01-01

281

Familiarity and Plausibility in Conceptual Combination: Reply to Gagne and Spalding (2006)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

E. J. Wisniewski and G. L. Murphy (see record EJ689195) suggested that the apparent effects of relation frequency in C. L. Gagne and E. J. Shoben's (1997) conceptual combination experiments could be explained by differences between the familiarity and plausibility of their stimuli (noun-noun phrases). However, C. L. Gagne and T. L. Spalding argued…

Murphy, Gregory L.; Wisniewski, Edward J.

2006-01-01

282

Evidence for a Non-Lexical Influence on Children's Auditory Repetition of Familiar Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper examines evidence for a nonlexical influence on children's repetition of real words. We investigate the extent to which two computational models of auditory repetition can simulate the performance of 68 children aged between 5 and 11 years-old when they are attempting to repeat familiar words. Both computational accounts were derived…

Budd, Mary-Jane; Hanley, J. Richard; Nozari, Nazbanou

2012-01-01

283

Potential of Technology and a Familiar Context to Enhance Students' Concept of Rate of Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students' concept image of rate of change may be in complete or erroneous This paper reports a pilot study, with secondary school studen ts, which explores the potential of technology (JavaMathWorlds), depicting a familiar c ontext of motion, to develop students' existing schema of informal understandings of rate of change to more formal mathematical representations Students developed numerous 'models of'

Sandra Herbert; Robyn Pierce

284

Beyond the Memory Mechanism: Person-Selective and Nonselective Processes in Recognition of Personally Familiar Faces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Special processes recruited during the recognition of personally familiar people have been assumed to reflect the rich episodic and semantic information that selectively represents each person. However, the processes may also include person nonselective ones, which may require interpretation in terms beyond the memory mechanism. To examine this…

Sugiura, Motoaki; Mano, Yoko; Sasaki, Akihiro; Sadato, Norihiro

2011-01-01

285

Beyond the Memory Mechanism: Person-Selective and Nonselective Processes in Recognition of Personally Familiar Faces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Special processes recruited during the recognition of personally familiar people have been assumed to reflect the rich episodic and semantic information that selectively represents each person. However, the processes may also include person nonselective ones, which may require interpretation in terms beyond the memory mechanism. To examine this…

Sugiura, Motoaki; Mano, Yoko; Sasaki, Akihiro; Sadato, Norihiro

2011-01-01

286

Familiarity with School English in African American Children and Its Relation to Early Reading Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For children whose everyday speech differs greatly from the School English (SE) they encounter in academic materials and settings, it was hypothesized that greater familiarity with SE would be associated with more successful early reading acquisition. Sentence imitation and reading skills of 217 urban African American students in kindergarten…

Charity, Anne H.; Scarborough, Hollis S.; Griffin, Darion M.

2004-01-01

287

The Influence of Distracting Familiar Vocal Music on Cognitive Performance of Introverts and Extraverts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigates the effect of familiar musical distractors on the cognitive performance of introverts and extraverts. Participants completed a verbal, numerical and logic test in three music conditions: vocal music, instrumental music and silence. It was predicted that introverts would perform worse with vocal music, better with…

Avila, Christina; Furnham, Adrian; McClelland, Alastair

2012-01-01

288

Internal Consistency of Performance Evaluations as a Function of Music Expertise and Excerpt Familiarity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of music experience and excerpt familiarity on the internal consistency of performance evaluations. Participants included nonmusic majors who had not participated in high school music ensembles, nonmusic majors who had participated in high school music ensembles, music majors, and experts…

Kinney, Daryl W.

2009-01-01

289

Segurança Alimentar e Agricultura Familiar: Análise dos Programas Municipais de Araraquara-SP  

Microsoft Academic Search

O presente trabalho analisa as políticas públicas de segurança alimentar como instrumentos de desenvolvimento nos espaços locais e regionais voltados ao objetivo de elevar as condições de renda e de emprego na agricultura familiar. Mostra que mecanismos institucionais desenvolvidos a partir de políticas públicas participativas podem promover o desenvolvimento rural local e regional com possibilidades de inclusão social. Tal constatação

Luiz Manoel de Moraes Camargo Almeida; Thauana Paiva Gomes; Sonia Maria Bergamasco; Luiz Fernando Paulillo

2008-01-01

290

Effect of Relation Availability on the Interpretation and Access of Familiar Noun-Noun Compounds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two experiments investigate whether relations that link the constituents of compounds during compound formation (e.g., "teapot" is formed by combining "tea" and "pot" using the relation "head noun FOR modifier") also influence the processing of familiar compounds. Although there is evidence for the use of such relations in forming compounds,…

Gagne, Christina L.; Spalding, Thomas L.

2004-01-01

291

The Effects of Interesting Examples and Topic Familiarity on Text Comprehension, Attention, and Reading Speed.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The impact of interestingness and "narrativity" on comprehension, attention, and reading speed and the role of topic familiarity were studied for 16 college students in psychology classes and 8 from engineering classes who read excerpts from psychology and engineering texts. Results support schema-based comprehension theory. (SLD)

Shimoda, Todd A.

1993-01-01

292

Differential effects of aging on the neural correlates of recollection and familiarity.  

PubMed

The present experiment aimed to investigate age differences in the neural correlates of familiarity and recollection, while keeping performance similar across age groups by varying task difficulty. Twenty young and 20 older adults performed an episodic memory task in an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) design. At encoding, participants were presented with pictures, either once or twice. Then, they performed a recognition task, with a Remember/Know paradigm. A similar performance was observed for the two groups in the Easy condition for recollection and in the Hard condition for familiarity. Imaging data revealed the classic recollection-related and familiarity-related networks, common to young and older groups. In addition, we observed that some activity related to recollection (left frontal, left temporal, left parietal cortices and left parahippocampus) and familiarity (bilateral anterior cingulate, right frontal gyrus and left superior temporal gyrus) was reduced in older compared to young adults. However, for recollection processes only, older adults additionally recruited the right precuneus, possibly to successfully compensate for their difficulties, as suggested by a positive correlation between recollection and precuneus activity. PMID:23206530

Angel, Lucie; Bastin, Christine; Genon, Sarah; Balteau, Evelyne; Phillips, Christophe; Luxen, André; Maquet, Pierre; Salmon, Eric; Collette, Fabienne

2012-10-27

293

Consequences of consumer trust in PDO food products: the role of familiarity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This research proposes studying how the moderating role of consumers' familiarity with a food product with a protected denomination of origin (PDO) influences consumer behavior. Past research has ascertained that consumers confuse different brands and PDOs. For this reason, it is important to analyze whether the level of consumers' experience with PDO food products influences their decisions. Design\\/methodology\\/approach

Carmina Fandos Herrera; Carlos Flavián Blanco

2011-01-01

294

The effects of item familiarization on the long-term retention of paired-associate lists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigated the effects of prior item familiarization on the acquisition and retention of paired-associate lists. Ss were 32 undergraduates in 8 experimental and 2 control groups. The critical items were trigrams which were paired with paralogs in the paired-associate task. There were 20 trials of learning, and recall was tested after 1 wk. The experimental treatments formed a 2 *

Leo Postman; Karen Stark

1970-01-01

295

The Representation and Processing of Familiar Faces in Dyslexia: Differences in Age of Acquisition Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two under-explored areas of developmental dyslexia research, face naming and age of acquisition (AoA), were investigated. Eighteen dyslexic and 18 non-dyslexic university students named the faces of 50 well-known celebrities, matched for facial distinctiveness and familiarity. Twenty-five of the famous people were learned early in life, while the…

Smith-Spark, James H.; Moore, Viv

2009-01-01

296

Comprehension of Familiar and Unfamiliar Native Accents under Adverse Listening Conditions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to determine the relative processing cost associated with comprehension of an unfamiliar native accent under adverse listening conditions. Two sentence verification experiments were conducted in which listeners heard sentences at various signal-to-noise ratios. In Experiment 1, these sentences were spoken in a familiar or an…

Adank, Patti; Evans, Bronwen G.; Stuart-Smith, Jane; Scott, Sophie K.

2009-01-01

297

Aesthetic Education in the Early Years: Exploring Familiar and Unfamiliar Personal-Cultural Landscapes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article explores a double-bind in early schooling: a persistent value placed upon presenting multicultural art forms to a child constructed as incapable of grasping what is not familiar. The author argues that this bind is situated within dominant developmental discourses that emphasize the appropriateness of concrete and sequential…

Blank, Jolyn

2012-01-01

298

Diurnal Cortisol Profile in Williams Syndrome in Novel and Familiar Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder associated with high rates of anxiety and social issues. We examined diurnal cortisol, a biomarker of the stress response, in adults with WS in novel and familiar settings, and compared these profiles to typically developing (TD) adults. WS and TD participants had similar profiles in…

Lense, Miriam Diane; Tomarken, Andrew J.; Dykens, Elisabeth M.

2013-01-01

299

Middle school teachers' familiarity with, interest in, performance on, and conceptual and pedagogical knowledge of light  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was threefold: Examine middle school teachers' familiarity with, interest in, conceptual knowledge of and performance on light; Examine their ability to identify misconceptions on light and their suggested pedagogical ideas to address the identified misconceptions; and Establish the relationship between the middle school teachers' interest, familiarity, conceptual understanding, performance, misconception identification, and pedagogical ideas for light. Sixty six (66) middle school science teachers enrolled in three math and science teacher professional development projects at Southern Illinois University Carbondale participated in this study. This study used mixed-methods approach to collect and analyze data. The participants responded in writing to four different instruments: Familiarity and Interest Questionnaire, Conceptual Knowledge Test, Two-tier Performance Test, and Misconceptions Identification Questionnaire. Data was analyzed quantitatively by conducting non-parametric (Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney U, and Kruskal-Wallis) and parametric (paired samples, independent samples, and One-Way ANOVA) tests. Qualitative data was analyzed using thematic analysis and open coding to identify emerging themes and categories. The results showed that the teachers reported high levels of familiarity with and interest in learning more about light concepts. However, they had low conceptual knowledge and performance on light concepts. As such, middle school teachers' perceived knowledge of light concepts was not consistent with their actual knowledge of light. To some extent, the teachers identified students' misconceptions expressed in some scenarios on light and also suggested pedagogical ideas for addressing such misconceptions in middle school science classrooms. However, most teachers did not provide details on their pedagogical ideas for light. Correlations among the four constructs (familiarity, interest, conceptual understanding, and performance) were only significant between performance and conceptual understanding, r (64) = .50, p = .000. There was no significant relationship between conceptual understanding and familiarity, and between performance and familiarity. In view of these findings, it is evident that some teachers did not have sound conceptual understanding and pedagogical ideas to effectively help their students develop the understanding of light concepts accentuated in the US national science education standards. These findings have implications on teacher education and science teaching and learning.

Mbewe, Simeon

300

Neural substrates for semantic memory of familiar songs: is there an interface between lyrics and melodies?  

PubMed

Findings on song perception and song production have increasingly suggested that common but partially distinct neural networks exist for processing lyrics and melody. However, the neural substrates of song recognition remain to be investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the neural substrates involved in the accessing "song lexicon" as corresponding to a representational system that might provide links between the musical and phonological lexicons using positron emission tomography (PET). We exposed participants to auditory stimuli consisting of familiar and unfamiliar songs presented in three ways: sung lyrics (song), sung lyrics on a single pitch (lyrics), and the sung syllable 'la' on original pitches (melody). The auditory stimuli were designed to have equivalent familiarity to participants, and they were recorded at exactly the same tempo. Eleven right-handed nonmusicians participated in four conditions: three familiarity decision tasks using song, lyrics, and melody and a sound type decision task (control) that was designed to engage perceptual and prelexical processing but not lexical processing. The contrasts (familiarity decision tasks versus control) showed no common areas of activation between lyrics and melody. This result indicates that essentially separate neural networks exist in semantic memory for the verbal and melodic processing of familiar songs. Verbal lexical processing recruited the left fusiform gyrus and the left inferior occipital gyrus, whereas melodic lexical processing engaged the right middle temporal sulcus and the bilateral temporo-occipital cortices. Moreover, we found that song specifically activated the left posterior inferior temporal cortex, which may serve as an interface between verbal and musical representations in order to facilitate song recognition. PMID:23029492

Saito, Yoko; Ishii, Kenji; Sakuma, Naoko; Kawasaki, Keiichi; Oda, Keiichi; Mizusawa, Hidehiro

2012-09-28

301

Community pharmacists' involvement in smoking cessation: familiarity and implementation of the National smoking cessation guideline in Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Guidelines on smoking cessation (SC) emphasize healthcare cooperation and community pharmacists' involvement. This study explored the familiarity and implementation of the National SC Guideline in Finnish community pharmacies, factors relating to Guideline familiarity, implementation and provision of SC services. METHODS: A nationwide mail survey was sent to a systematic, sample of community pharmacy owners and staff pharmacists (total n

Terhi Kurko; Kari Linden; Kirsi Pietilä; Patrick Sandström; Marja Airaksinen

2010-01-01

302

The effect of familiarization time, retention interval, and context change on adults' performance in the visual paired-comparison task  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a series of three experiments, we examined the effects of familiarization time, retention interval, and changes in environmental context on adults' performance in the visual paired-comparison (VPC) task. The magnitude of adults' novelty preference increased as familiarization time increased, decreased as retention interval increased, and was impaired by a change in context after a delay. These data are highly

Jenny Richmond; Paula Sowerby; Michael Colombo; Harlene Hayne

2004-01-01

303

Rugby versus Soccer in South Africa: Content Familiarity Contributes to Cross-Cultural Differences in Cognitive Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study, cross-cultural differences in cognitive test scores are hypothesized to depend on a test's cultural complexity (Cultural Complexity Hypothesis: CCH), here conceptualized as its content familiarity, rather than on its cognitive complexity (Spearman's Hypothesis: SH). The content familiarity of tests assessing short-term memory,…

Malda, Maike; van de Vijver, Fons J. R.; Temane, Q. Michael

2010-01-01

304

Familiarity and Recollection Produce Distinct Eye Movement, Pupil and Medial Temporal Lobe Responses when Memory Strength Is Matched  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments explored eye measures (fixations and pupil response patterns) and brain responses (BOLD) accompanying the recognition of visual object stimuli based on familiarity and recollection. In both experiments, the use of a modified remember/know procedure led to high confidence and matched accuracy levels characterising strong familiarity

Kafkas, Alexandros; Montaldi, Daniela

2012-01-01

305

Many Roads Lead to Recognition: Electrophysiological Correlates of Familiarity Derived from Short-Term Masked Repetition Priming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The neural mechanisms that underlie familiarity memory have been extensively investigated, but a consensus understanding remains elusive. Behavioral evidence suggests that familiarity sometimes shares sources with instances of implicit memory known as priming, in that the same increases in processing fluency that give rise to priming can engender…

Lucas, Heather D.; Taylor, Jason R.; Henson, Richard N.; Paller, Ken A.

2012-01-01

306

REDE DE DINAMIZAÇÃO DAS FEIRAS DA AGRICULTURA FAMILIAR – REDIFEIRA: UMA ALTERNATIVA PARA A INCLUSÃO SOCIOECONÔMICA DAS FAMÍLIAS RURAIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Rede de Dinamização das Feiras da Agricultura Familiar – REDIfeira, projeto integrante do Programa de Extensão Universitária – Universidade Sem Fronteiras, da Secretaria de Ciência, Tecnologia e Ensino Superior (SETI) do Governo do Estado do Paraná, tem como objetivo, dinamizar a produção e a comercialização dos produtos produzidos pela Agricultura Familiar nos municípios do Programa de Desenvolvimento da Região

Ednaldo Michellon; Tiago Ribeiro Costa; Gisiane July Stroher; Lucas Souza Camacho; Paulo Sipoli Pereira

2008-01-01

307

The Influence of Job Familiarity and Impression Management on Self-Report Measure Scale Scores and Response Latencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies were conducted to examine the effects of job familiarity and impression management on response latencies and scale scores for measures of personality and situational judgment. In a laboratory study using university students and a field study using U.S. Border Patrol Agent applicants, impression management was generally associated with faster personality item responses when job familiarity was high and

Nicholas L. Vasilopoulos; Richard R. Reilly; Julia A. Leaman

2000-01-01

308

Are there optimal levels of arousal to memory? Effects of arousal, centrality, and familiarity on brand memory in video games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a modified first-person shooter game, Counter Strike 2, this study tested (1) if the Yerkes–Dodson law could be applied to the relationship between physiological arousal (skin conductance) and brand memory in the new interactive technology setting; (2) if central and familiar ads are better recognized; and (3) if there are any interaction effects among arousal, centrality, and familiarity on

Eui Jun Jeong; Frank A. Biocca

309

Deja Vu in Unilateral Temporal-Lobe Epilepsy Is Associated with Selective Familiarity Impairments on Experimental Tasks of Recognition Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In deja vu, a phenomenological impression of familiarity for the current visual environment is experienced with a sense that it should in fact not feel familiar. The fleeting nature of this phenomenon in daily life, and the difficulty in developing experimental paradigms to elicit it, has hindered progress in understanding deja vu. Some…

Martin, Chris B.; Mirsattari, Seyed M.; Pruessner, Jens C.; Pietrantonio, Sandra; Burneo, Jorge G.; Hayman-Abello, Brent; Kohler, Stefan

2012-01-01

310

Familiarization, Attention, and Recognition Memory in Infancy: An Event-Related Potential and Cortical Source Localization Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of familiarization and attention on event-related potential (ERP) correlates of recognition memory in infants. Infants 4.5, 6, or 7.5 months of age were either familiarized with 2 stimuli that were used during later testing or presented 2 stimuli that were not used later. Then, infants were presented with a…

Reynolds, Greg D.; Richards, John E.

2005-01-01

311

Effects of Alzheimer's disease on the recognition of novel versus familiar words: neuropsychological and clinico-metabolic data.  

PubMed

This study explored recognition memory performance for novel versus familiar words in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and normal controls (NCs), using an adaptation of E. Tulving and N. Kroll's (1995) procedure. Results showed that both groups exhibited more hits and more false alarms for familiar than for novel words. The groups did not differ in the recognition of familiar words, reflecting preserved familiarity processes in AD. However, AD patients made more false alarms than NCs in the recognition of novel words, reflecting impairment of recollection processes in AD. A positron emission tomography analysis of clinico-metabolic correlations in AD patients showed a correlation between recognition of novel words and right hippocampal activity, whereas recognition of familiar words was more related to metabolic activity in the left posterior orbitofrontal cortex. PMID:12597083

Lekeu, Françoise; Van der Linden, Martial; Degueldre, Christian; Lemaire, Christian; Luxen, André; Franck, Georges; Moonen, Gustave; Salmon, Eric

2003-01-01

312

Políticas del sitio web  

Cancer.gov

En el sitio web del NCI se proporcionan enlaces a otros sitios web con fines informativos y para conveniencia del público. Si el usuario selecciona un sitio web externo, saldrá del sitio web del NCI y estará sujeto a las políticas de privacidad y seguridad de dicho sitio.

313

Increasing food familiarity without the tears. A role for visual exposure?  

PubMed

Research has established the success of taste exposure paradigms as a means of increasing children's acceptance, and liking, of previously unfamiliar or disliked foods. Yet, parents report that they tend to avoid the stress associated with repeatedly offering their children foods that are likely to be rejected. Given that successful taste exposure programmes often enhance children's familiarity with a food's appearance, as well as its taste, this article reviews the potential for exposure interventions that do not require repeated tastings to bring about positive attitude changes towards healthy foods. Recent evidence from studies that expose toddlers to picture books about fruit and vegetables suggest that familiarity with the origins and appearance of unfamiliar foods might increase children's willingness to accept these into their diets. PMID:21683747

Heath, Philippa; Houston-Price, Carmel; Kennedy, Orla B

2011-05-27

314

An Inner-face Advantage in Children's Recognition of Familiar Peers  

PubMed Central

Children’s recognition of familiar own-age peers was investigated. Four-, 8-, and 14-year-old Chinese children were asked to identify their classmates from photographs showing the entire face, the internal facial features only, the external facial features only, or the eyes, nose, or mouth only. Participants from all age groups were familiar with the faces used as stimuli for one academic year. The results showed that children from all age groups demonstrated an advantage for recognition of the internal facial features relative to their recognition of the external facial features. Previous observations of a shift in reliance from external to internal facial features can, thus, be attributed to experience with faces rather than to age-related changes in face processing.

Ge, Liezhong; Anzures, Gizelle; Wang, Zhe; Kelly, David J.; Pascalis, Olivier; Quinn, Paul C.; Slater, Alan M.; Yang, Zhiliang; Lee, Kang

2008-01-01

315

The effects of familiarity and group size on mating preferences in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata.  

PubMed

In recent years, it has become evident that frequency dependence in the attractiveness of a particular phenotype to mates can contribute to the maintenance of polymorphism. However, these preferences for rare and unfamiliar male phenotypes have only been demonstrated in small, controlled experiments. Here, we tested the preference for unfamiliar mates in groups of six to 96 individuals over 13 days, in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata). We observed individual behaviour in situ to test whether fish discriminate two unfamiliar individuals among many familiar ones. We found that unfamiliar males and females were preferred over the familiar fishes in all groups and that this effect decayed over time. Increasing group sizes and levels of sexual activity did not hamper the preference for unfamiliar mates, providing further support for the role of frequency dependent mate choice in the maintenance of trait polymorphism in natural populations. PMID:20626544

Mariette, M M; Zajitschek, S R K; Garcia, C M; Brooks, R C

2010-07-05

316

Spontaneous voice-face identity matching by rhesus monkeys for familiar conspecifics and humans  

PubMed Central

Recognition of a particular individual occurs when we reactivate links between current perceptual inputs and the previously formed representation of that person. This recognition can be achieved by identifying, separately or simultaneously, distinct elements such as the face, silhouette, or voice as belonging to one individual. In humans, those different cues are linked into one complex conceptual representation of individual identity. Here we tested whether rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) also have a cognitive representation of identity by evaluating whether they exhibit cross-modal individual recognition. Further, we assessed individual recognition of familiar conspecifics and familiar humans. In a free preferential looking time paradigm, we found that, for both species, monkeys spontaneously matched the faces of known individuals to their voices. This finding demonstrates that rhesus macaques possess a cross-modal cognitive representation of individuals that extends from conspecifics to humans, revealing the adaptive potential of identity recognition for individuals of socioecological relevance.

Sliwa, Julia; Duhamel, Jean-Rene; Pascalis, Olivier; Wirth, Sylvia

2011-01-01

317

The Familiar Foundation and the Fuller Sense: Ethics Consultation and Narrative  

PubMed Central

As clinical ethicists and ethics committee members, we strive to create the ideal situation for moral conversation and ethical reflection. Using both the familiar foundation and the fuller sense, the ethicist and ethics committee are aided in participating more fruitfully in a process of resolution. The familiar foundation represents a body of knowledge that ethics consultants and ethics committees should thoroughly understand. In addition, there is a depth of analysis found in the fuller sense, through narrative, that sharpens ethical focus and enables richer understanding of the patient's situation in life. In using both tools, patients and families are better served than they would be relying on either tool by itself. Stakeholders and their relationships become more clearly assessed and individuals more effectively discover their own legitimate position. This can mean a more thorough representation of moral problems, a deeper understanding of all parties involved, and a greater opportunity to help parties better understand themselves and each other.

Nelson, Craig

2012-01-01

318

Distinguishing between attributional and mnemonic sources of familiarity: the case of positive emotion bias.  

PubMed

Does familiarity arise from direct access to memory representations (a mnemonic account) or from inferences and diagnostic cues (an attributional account)? These theoretically distinct explanations can be difficult to distinguish in practice, as is shown by the positivity effect, the increase in feelings of familiarity that accompanies positive emotion. Experiment 1 manipulated mnemonic and attributional sources of positivity via word valence and physical expressions of emotion, respectively. Both sources influenced the tendency to call items old, but receiver-operating characteristic analysis revealed a change in accuracy only with the mnemonic source. To further contrast the mnemonic and attributional accounts, Experiment 2 varied the ratio of positive to neutral words. A higher proportion of positive words exaggerated the pattern of increased old judgments and decreased accuracy for positive words, relative to neutral ones, consistent with the mnemonic account but inconsistent with the attributional account. PMID:20173187

Verde, Michael F; Stone, Laura K; Hatch, Hannah S; Schnall, Simone

2010-03-01

319

Diurnal cortisol profile in Williams syndrome in novel and familiar settings.  

PubMed

Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder associated with high rates of anxiety and social issues. We examined diurnal cortisol, a biomarker of the stress response, in adults with WS in novel and familiar settings, and compared these profiles to typically developing (TD) adults. WS and TD participants had similar profiles in a familiar setting, while participants with WS had elevated cortisol late in the day in the novel setting when social demands were higher. The cortisol awakening response in WS was associated with parent-reported levels of somatic complaints and social difficulties. Results suggest that adults with WS have a typical diurnal cortisol profile that may be sensitive to social and activity transitions throughout the day. PMID:23734615

Lense, Miriam Diane; Tomarken, Andrew J; Dykens, Elisabeth M

2013-05-01

320

Effects of multimodal presentation and stimulus familiarity on auditory and visual processing.  

PubMed

Two experiments examined the effects of multimodal presentation and stimulus familiarity on auditory and visual processing. In Experiment 1, 10-month-olds were habituated to either an auditory stimulus, a visual stimulus, or an auditory-visual multimodal stimulus. Processing time was assessed during the habituation phase, and discrimination of auditory and visual stimuli was assessed during a subsequent testing phase. In Experiment 2, the familiarity of the auditory or visual stimulus was systematically manipulated by prefamiliarizing infants to either the auditory or visual stimulus prior to the experiment proper. With the exception of the prefamiliarized auditory condition in Experiment 2, infants in the multimodal conditions failed to increase looking when the visual component changed at test. This finding is noteworthy given that infants discriminated the same visual stimuli when presented unimodally, and there was no evidence that multimodal presentation attenuated auditory processing. Possible factors underlying these effects are discussed. PMID:20553691

Robinson, Christopher W; Sloutsky, Vladimir M

2010-05-31

321

Wayfinding in familiar and unfamiliar environments in a case of progressive topographical agnosia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 71-year-old right-handed man (F.G.) presents with prosopagnosia and with an inability to recognize famous and familiar buildings. Despite his deficit, F.G. obtained normal scores on neuropsychological tests of executive functions, language, praxis and primary visuoperceptual skills. Brain MRI showed atrophy predominantly in the right temporal lobe, particularly in the fusiform gyrus and the parahippocampal cortex. The present study investigated

Constant Rainville; Sven Joubert; Olivier Felician; Vanessa Chabanne; Mathieu Ceccaldi; Patrick Péruch

2005-01-01

322

Development of Visual Expertise for Reading: Rapid Emergence of Visual Familiarity for an Artificial Script  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adults produce left-lateralized N170 responses to visual words relative to control stimuli, even within tasks that do not require active reading. This specialization begins in preschoolers as a right-lateralized N170 effect. We investigated whether this developmental shift reflects an early learning phenomenon, such as attaining visual familiarity with a script, by training adults in an artificial script and measuring N170

Urs Maurer; Vera C. Blau; Yuliya N. Yoncheva; Bruce D. McCandliss

2010-01-01

323

Do familiar landmarks reset the global path integration system of desert ants?  

PubMed

It is often suggested that animals may link landmark memories to a global coordinate system provided by path integration, thereby obtaining a map-like representation of familiar terrain. In an attempt to discover if desert ants form such associations we have performed experiments that test whether desert ants recall a long-term memory of a global path integration vector on arriving at a familiar food site. Ants from three nests were trained along L-shaped routes to a feeder. Each route was entirely within open-topped channels that obscured all natural landmarks. Conspicuous artificial landmarks were attached to the channelling that formed the latter part of the route. The homeward vectors of ants accustomed to the route were tested with the foodward route, either as in training, or with the first leg of the L shortened or extended. These ants were taken from the feeder to a test area and released, whereupon they performed a home vector. If travelling the latter part of a familiar route and arriving at a familiar food site triggers the recall of an accustomed home vector, then the home vector should be the same under both test conditions. We find instead that the home vector tended to reflect the immediately preceding outward journey. In conjunction with earlier work, these experiments led us to conclude in the case of desert ants that landmark memories do not prime the recall of long-term global path integration memories. On the other hand, landmark memories are known to be linked to local path integration vectors that guide ants along a segment of a route. Landmarks thus seem to provide procedural information telling ants what action to perform next but not the positional information that gives an ant its location relative to its nest. PMID:12547942

Collett, M; Collett, T S; Chameron, S; Wehner, R

2003-03-01

324

Effects of age on estimated familiarity in the process dissociation procedure: The role of noncriterial recollection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on recognition memory using the process dissociation procedure has suggested that although recollection (R) declines\\u000a with age, familiarity (F) remains age invariant. However, this research has used relatively broad definitions of R. An important\\u000a question concerns age-related changes in memory when R is defined in terms of specific event details. Yonelinas and Jacoby\\u000a (1996a) required young participants to recollect

Jeffrey P. Toth; Colleen M. Parks

2006-01-01

325

Computerized vs. Experimenter Controlled Administration of the Matching Familiar Figures Test: Mean Test Scores and Reliabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Matching Familiar Figures Test (MFFT) is a well-known instrument designed to measure the cognitive style reflection impulsivity. In the present study, a computerized MFFT version for the Apple MacIntosh (MacMFFT) is compared to the traditional, experimenter controlled MFFT. For a group of 80 subjects, age 17-21, no differences were found between internal consistencies and test-retest reliabilities of the MacMFFT

Jeroen J. G. Van Merriënboer; Otto Jelsma; Jacintha Timmermans; Jakob Sikken

1989-01-01

326

The Hippocampus Supports both the Recollection and the Familiarity Components of Recognition Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) has been used to investigate the component processes of rec- ognition memory. Some studies with this technique have been taken to indicate that the hippocampus se- lectivelysupportstheprocessofrecollection,whereas adjacent cortex in the parahippocampal gyrus sup- ports the process of familiarity. We analyzed ROC data from young adults, memory-impaired patients with limited hippocampal lesions, and age-matched

Peter E. Wais; John T. Wixted; Ramona O. Hopkins; Larry R. Squire

2006-01-01

327

Familiarity, memorability, and the effect of typicality on the recognition of faces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Typical faces are more poorly discriminated on tests of recognition than are atypical faces, an effect suggested to mediate\\u000a similar findings for attractive or likable faces. We tested the hypothesis that the effect of typicality on recognition is\\u000a a function of context-free familiarity and memorability, which function in opposition. Two orthogonal principal components\\u000a were extracted from subjects’ ratings of faces

John R. Vokey; J. Don Read

1992-01-01

328

Effect of environmental sound familiarity on dynamic neural activation/inhibition patterns: an ERD mapping study.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to analyze the timing and topography of brain activity in relation to the cognitive processing of different types of auditory information. We specifically investigated the effects of familiarity on environmental sound identification, an issue which has been little studied with respect to cognitive processes, neural substrates, and time course of brain activity. To address this issue, we implemented and applied an electroencephalographic mapping method named event-related desynchronization, which allows one to assess the dynamics of neuronal activity with high temporal resolution (here, 125 ms); we used 19 recording electrodes with standard positioning. We designed an activation paradigm in which healthy subjects were asked to discriminate binaurally heard sounds belonging to one of two distinct categories, "familiar" (i.e., natural environmental sounds) or "unfamiliar" (i.e., altered environmental sounds). The sounds were selected according to strict preexperimental tests so that the former should engage greater semantic, and the latter greater structural, analysis, which we predicted to preferentially implicate left posterior and right brain regions, respectively. During the stimulations, significant desynchronizations (thought to reflect neuronal activations) were recorded over left hemisphere regions for familiar sounds and right temporofrontal regions for unfamiliar sounds, but with only few significant differences between the two sound categories and a common bilateral activation in the frontal regions. However, strongly significant differences between familiar and unfamiliar sounds occurred near the end of and following the stimulations, due to synchronizations (though to reflect deactivations) which appeared over the left posterior regions, as well as the vertex and bilateral frontal cortex, only after unfamiliar sounds. These unexpected synchronizations after the unfamiliar stimuli may reflect an awareness of the unfamiliarity of such sounds, which may have induced an inhibition of semantic and episodic representations because the latter could not be associated with meaningless sounds. PMID:9698578

Lebrun, N; Clochon, P; Etévenon, P; Baron, J C; Eustache, F

1998-07-01

329

Cattle discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics by using only head visual cues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Faces have features characteristic of the identity, age and sex of an individual. In the context of social communication and\\u000a social recognition in various animal species, facial information is relevant for discriminating between familiar and unfamiliar\\u000a individuals. Here, we present two experiments aimed at testing the ability of cattle (Bos taurus) to visually discriminate between heads (including face views) of

Marjorie Coulon; Claude Baudoin; Yvan Heyman; Bertrand L. Deputte

2011-01-01

330

Picture Naming by Young Children: Norms for Name Agreement, Familiarity, and Visual Complexity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers concerned with the development of cognitive functions are in need of standardized material that can be used with both adults and children. The present article provides normative measures for 400 line drawings viewed by 5- and 6-year-old children. The three variables obtained—name agreement, familiarity, and visual complexity—are important because of their potential effect on memory and other cognitive processes.

Yael M. Cycowicz; David Friedman; Mairav Rothstein; Joan Gay Snodgrass

1997-01-01

331

The Influence of Familiarity among Group Members and Extraversion on Verbal Interaction in Proximate GSS Sessions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) is popular, past research shows that Face-to-Face (FTF) interaction is also important in CMC environments. The question is, what are the accelerators for FTF interaction in CMC scenarios? A literature review finds the accelerators of familiarity among group members and personality factors related to E\\/I (Extraversion\\/Introversion) important factors to consider in FTF interaction. The focus, therefore,

Tsuneki Mukahi; Gail Corbitt

2004-01-01

332

Stress affects theta activity in limbic networks and impairs novelty-induced exploration and familiarization.  

PubMed

Exposure to a novel environment triggers the response of several brain areas that regulate emotional behaviors. Here, we studied theta oscillations within the hippocampus (HPC)-amygdala (AMY)-medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) network in exploration of a novel environment and subsequent familiarization through repeated exposures to that same environment; in addition, we assessed how concomitant stress exposure could disrupt this activity and impair both behavioral processes. Local field potentials (LFP) were simultaneously recorded from dorsal and ventral hippocampus (dHPC and vHPC, respectively), basolateral amygdala (BLA) and mPFC in freely behaving rats while they were exposed to a novel environment, then repeatedly re-exposed over the course of 3 weeks to that same environment and, finally, on re-exposure to a novel unfamiliar environment. A longitudinal analysis of theta activity within this circuit revealed a reduction of vHPC and BLA theta power and vHPC-BLA theta coherence through familiarization which was correlated with a return to normal exploratory behavior in control rats. In contrast, a persistent over-activation of the same brain regions was observed in stressed rats that displayed impairments in novel exploration and familiarization processes. Importantly, we show that stress also affected intra-hippocampal synchrony and heightened the coherence between vHPC and BLA. In summary, we demonstrate that modulatory theta activity in the aforementioned circuit, namely in the vHPC and BLA, is correlated with the expression of anxiety in novelty-induced exploration and familiarization in both normal and pathological conditions. PMID:24137113

Jacinto, Luis R; Reis, Joana S; Dias, Nuno S; Cerqueira, João J; Correia, José H; Sousa, Nuno

2013-10-14

333

Stress affects theta activity in limbic networks and impairs novelty-induced exploration and familiarization  

PubMed Central

Exposure to a novel environment triggers the response of several brain areas that regulate emotional behaviors. Here, we studied theta oscillations within the hippocampus (HPC)-amygdala (AMY)-medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) network in exploration of a novel environment and subsequent familiarization through repeated exposures to that same environment; in addition, we assessed how concomitant stress exposure could disrupt this activity and impair both behavioral processes. Local field potentials (LFP) were simultaneously recorded from dorsal and ventral hippocampus (dHPC and vHPC, respectively), basolateral amygdala (BLA) and mPFC in freely behaving rats while they were exposed to a novel environment, then repeatedly re-exposed over the course of 3 weeks to that same environment and, finally, on re-exposure to a novel unfamiliar environment. A longitudinal analysis of theta activity within this circuit revealed a reduction of vHPC and BLA theta power and vHPC-BLA theta coherence through familiarization which was correlated with a return to normal exploratory behavior in control rats. In contrast, a persistent over-activation of the same brain regions was observed in stressed rats that displayed impairments in novel exploration and familiarization processes. Importantly, we show that stress also affected intra-hippocampal synchrony and heightened the coherence between vHPC and BLA. In summary, we demonstrate that modulatory theta activity in the aforementioned circuit, namely in the vHPC and BLA, is correlated with the expression of anxiety in novelty-induced exploration and familiarization in both normal and pathological conditions.

Jacinto, Luis R.; Reis, Joana S.; Dias, Nuno S.; Cerqueira, Joao J.; Correia, Jose H.; Sousa, Nuno

2013-01-01

334

Treadmill exercise training augments brain norepinephrine response to familiar and novel stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a test of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) cortical and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) interaction during familiar and novel stress, we previously reported that treadmill exercise training led to blunted plasma adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) response to acute treadmill running but a hyper-responsiveness of ACTH after novel immobilization. In this follow-up analysis, we examined whether those results might be plausibly explained by a similar effect of

R. K Dishman; K. J Renner; J. E White-Welkley; K. A Burke; B. N Bunnell

2000-01-01

335

THE IMPACT OF LEFT HEMISPHERE STROKE ON FORCE CONTROL WITH FAMILIAR AND NOVEL OBJECTS: NEUROANATOMIC SUBSTRATES AND RELATIONSHIP TO APRAXIA  

PubMed Central

Fingertip force scaling for lifting objects frequently occurs in anticipation of finger contact. An ongoing question concerns the types of memories that are used to inform predictive control. Object-specific information such as weight may be stored and retrieved when previously encountered objects are lifted again. Alternatively, visual size and shape cues may provide estimates of object density each time objects are encountered. We reasoned that differences in performance with familiar versus novel objects would provide support for the former possibility. Anticipatory force production with both familiar and novel objects was assessed in 6 left hemisphere stroke patients, 2 of whom exhibited deficient actions with familiar objects (ideomotor apraxia; IMA), along with 5 control subjects. In contrast to healthy controls and stroke participants without IMA, participants with IMA displayed poor anticipatory scaling with familiar objects. However, like the other groups, IMA participants learned to differentiate fingertip forces with repeated lifts of both familiar and novel objects. Finally, there was a significant correlation between damage to the inferior parietal and superior and middle temporal lobes, and impaired anticipatory control for familiar objects. These data support the hypotheses that anticipatory control during lifts of familiar objects in IMA patients are based on object-specific memories, and that the ventro-dorsal stream is involved in the long-term storage of internal models used for anticipatory scaling during object manipulation.

Dawson, Amanda M.; Buxbaum, Laurel J.; Duff, Susan V.

2010-01-01

336

Perirhinal cortex lesions uncover subsidiary systems in the rat for the detection of novel and familiar objects  

PubMed Central

The present study compared the impact of perirhinal cortex lesions on tests of object recognition. Object recognition was tested directly by looking at the preferential exploration of novel objects over simultaneously presented familiar objects. Object recognition was also tested indirectly by presenting just novel objects or just familiar objects, and recording exploration levels. Rats with perirhinal cortex lesions were severely impaired at discriminating a novel object from a simultaneously presented familiar object (direct test), yet displayed normal levels of exploration to novel objects presented on their own and showed normal declines in exploration times for familiar objects that were repeatedly presented (indirect tests). This effective reduction in the exploration of familiar objects after perirhinal cortex lesions points to the sparing of some recognition mechanisms. This possibility led us to determine whether rats with perirhinal cortex lesions can overcome their preferential exploration deficits when given multiple object familiarisation trials prior to that same (familiar) object being paired with a novel object. It was found that after multiple familiarisation trials, objects could now successfully be recognised as familiar by rats with perirhinal cortex lesions, both following a 90-min delay (the longest delay tested) and when object recognition was tested in the dark after familiarisation trials in the light. These latter findings reveal: (i) the presumed recruitment of other regions to solve recognition memory problems in the absence of perirhinal cortex tissue; and (ii) that these additional recognition mechanisms require more familiarisation trials than perirhinal-based recognition mechanisms.

Albasser, Mathieu M; Amin, Eman; Iordanova, Mihaela D; Brown, Malcolm W; Pearce, John M; Aggleton, John P

2011-01-01

337

Neural evidence for reduced apprehensiveness of familiarized stimuli in a mere exposure paradigm.  

PubMed

Mere familiarization with a stimulus increases liking for it or similar stimuli ("mere exposure" effects) as well as perceptual fluency, indexed by the speed and accuracy of categorizing it or similar stimuli ("priming" effects). Candidate mechanisms proposed to explain mere exposure effects include both increased positive affect associated with greater perceptual fluency, and reduced negative affect associated with diminished apprehensiveness of novel stimuli. Although these two mechanisms are not mutually exclusive, it is difficult for behavioral measures to disentangle them, since increased liking or other indices of greater positive affect toward exposed stimuli could result from increases in positive feelings or decreases in negative feelings or both. The present study sought to clarify this issue by building on research showing a dissociation at the neural level in which the lateral orbitofrontal cortex (LOFC) is activated more by negatively valenced than by neutral or positively valenced stimuli, with the reverse effect for medial orbitofrontal cortex (MOFC). Supporting the reduced apprehensiveness hypothesis, we found lower LOFC activation to familiarized faces and objects (repetition suppression). We did not find evidence to support the positive affect hypothesis in increased activation to familiarized stimuli in MOFC or in other parts of the reward circuit that respond more to positively valenced stimuli (repetition enhancement), although enhancement effects were shown in some regions. PMID:22017290

Zebrowitz, Leslie A; Zhang, Yi

2011-10-21

338

The N250 Brain Potential to Personally Familiar and Newly Learned Faces and Objects  

PubMed Central

Studies employing event-related potentials have shown that when participants are monitoring for a novel target face, the presentation of their own face elicits an enhanced negative brain potential in posterior channels approximately 250?ms after stimulus onset. Here, we investigate whether the own face N250 effect generalizes to other highly familiar objects, specifically, images of the participant’s own dog and own car. In our experiments, participants were asked to monitor for a pre-experimentally unfamiliar target face (Joe), a target dog (Experiment 1: Joe’s Dog) or a target car (Experiment 2: Joe’s Car). The target face and object stimuli were presented with non-target foils that included novel face and object stimuli, the participant’s own face, their own dog (Experiment 1), and their own car (Experiment 2). The consistent findings across the two experiments were the following: (1) the N250 potential differentiated the target faces and objects from the non-target face and object foils and (2) despite being non-targets, the own face and own objects produced an N250 response that was equal in magnitude to the target faces and objects by the end of the experiment. Thus, as indicated by its response to personally familiar and recently familiarized faces and objects, the N250 component is a sensitive index of individuated representations in visual memory.

Pierce, Lara J.; Scott, Lisa S.; Boddington, Sophie; Droucker, Danielle; Curran, Tim; Tanaka, James W.

2011-01-01

339

Could masked conceptual primes increase recollection? The subtleties of measuring recollection and familiarity in recognition memory  

PubMed Central

We begin with a theoretical overview of the concepts of recollection and familiarity, focusing, in the spirit of this special issue, on the important contributions made by Andrew Mayes. In particular, we discuss the issue of when the generation of semantically-related information in response to a retrieval cue might be experienced as recollection rather than familiarity. We then report a series of experiments in which two different types of masked prime, presented immediately prior to the test cue in a recognition memory paradigm, produced opposite effects on Remember vs. Know judgments. More specifically, primes that were conceptually related to the test item increased the incidence of Remember judgments, though only when intermixed with repetition primes (which increased the incidence of Know judgments instead, as in prior studies). One possible explanation—that the fluency of retrieval of item–context associations can be experienced as recollection, even when the source of that fluency is unknown—is counter to conventional views of recollection and familiarity, though it was anticipated by Andrew in his writings nearly two decades ago.

Taylor, Jason R.; Henson, Richard N.

2012-01-01

340

Roles of familiarity and novelty in visual preference judgments are segregated across object categories.  

PubMed

Understanding preference decision making is a challenging problem because the underlying process is often implicit and dependent on context, including past experience. There is evidence for both familiarity and novelty as critical factors for preference in adults and infants. To resolve this puzzling contradiction, we examined the cumulative effects of visual exposure in different object categories, including faces, natural scenes, and geometric figures, in a two-alternative preference task. The results show a clear segregation of preference across object categories, with familiarity preference dominant in faces and novelty preference dominant in natural scenes. No strong bias was observed in geometric figures. The effects were replicated even when images were converted to line drawings, inverted, or presented only briefly, and also when spatial frequency and contour distribution were controlled. The effects of exposure were reset by a blank of 1 wk or 3 wk. Thus, the category-specific segregation of familiarity and novelty preferences is based on quick visual categorization and cannot be caused by the difference in low-level visual features between object categories. Instead, it could be due either to different biological significances/attractiveness criteria across these categories, or to some other factors, such as differences in within-category variance and adaptive tuning of the perceptual system. PMID:20679235

Park, Junghyun; Shimojo, Eiko; Shimojo, Shinsuke

2010-08-02

341

Autonomous visual exploration creates developmental change in familiarity and novelty seeking behaviors.  

PubMed

What motivates children to radically transform themselves during early development? We addressed this question in the domain of infant visual exploration. Over the first year, infants' exploration shifts from familiarity to novelty seeking. This shift is delayed in preterm relative to term infants and is stable within individuals over the course of the first year. Laboratory tasks have shed light on the nature of this familiarity-to-novelty shift, but it is not clear what motivates the infant to change her exploratory style. We probed this by letting a Dynamic Neural Field (DNF) model of visual exploration develop itself via accumulating experience in a virtual world. We then situated it in a canonical laboratory task. Much like infants, the model exhibited a familiarity-to-novelty shift. When we manipulated the initial conditions of the model, the model's performance was developmentally delayed much like preterm infants. This delay was overcome by enhancing the model's experience during development. We also found that the model's performance was stable at the level of the individual. Our simulations indicate that novelty seeking emerges with no explicit motivational source via the accumulation of visual experience within a complex, dynamical exploratory system. PMID:24065948

Perone, Sammy; Spencer, John P

2013-09-20

342

The evolution of social cognition: goal familiarity shapes monkeys' action understanding.  

PubMed

What is the evolutionary origin of the human ability to understand and predict the behavior of others? Recent studies suggest that human infants' early capacity for understanding others' goal-directed actions relies on nonmentalistic strategies [1-8]. However, there is no consensus about the nature of the mechanisms underpinning these strategies and their evolutionary history. Comparative studies can shed light on these controversial issues. We carried out three preferential looking-time experiments on macaques, modeled on previous work on human infants [1-5], to test whether macaques are sensitive to the functional efficacy of familiar goal-related hand motor acts performed by an experimenter in a given context and to examine to which extent this sensitivity also is present when observing non-goal-related or unusual goal-related motor acts. We demonstrate that macaque monkeys, similar to human infants, do indeed detect action efficacy by gazing longer at less efficient actions. However, they do so only when the observed behavior is directed to a perceptible and familiar goal. Our results show that the direct detection of the functional fitness of action, in relation to goals that have become familiar through previous experience, is the phylogenetic precursor of intentional understanding. PMID:18221878

Rochat, Magali J; Serra, Elisabetta; Fadiga, Luciano; Gallese, Vittorio

2008-01-24

343

What child is this? What interval was that? Familiar tunes and music perception in novice listeners.  

PubMed

In the laboratory, musical novices often seem insensitive even to basic structural elements of music (octaves, intervals, etc.), undermining long-held theories of music perception, and threatening to leave current theories applicable only to experts. Consequently it is important to demonstrate novices' basic listening competence where possible. Two experiments examined the perception of musical intervals (minor thirds, major thirds and perfect fourths) by musical novices. Subjects received either standard instructions or familiar folk-tune labels to aid performance. The folk-tune labels greatly improved identification performance, producing expert-caliber performance by some musically inexperienced subjects. The effectiveness of the folk-tune manipulation was much more limited in a difficult discrimination task. The results suggest that novices do have some basic competence when assayed appropriately, and that familiar musical tokens may be a critical element in such assays. Larger implications of the role of familiarity in novices' competence are discussed, including those that relate to music cognition and aesthetics. PMID:7924198

Smith, J D; Nelson, D G; Grohskopf, L A; Appleton, T

1994-07-01

344

Processing of novel and familiar faces in infants at average and high risk for autism.  

PubMed

The study investigated whether infant siblings of children with autism (sibs-ASD) process familiar and novel faces differently from typical infants and whether sensitivity to face familiarity is associated with infants' social and communicative behaviors. Visual event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in 35 infants, age 9 months ± 15 days (20 typical infants, 15 sibs-ASD) using an oddball paradigm presenting photographs of infants' mothers (70% of trials) and an unfamiliar female (30% of trials). Eye tracking responses to a different unfamiliar face were recorded to determine whether differences in gaze patterns might account for any ERP differences found. There were no group differences in the distribution, number or duration of fixations. Both infant groups differentiated between mothers and strangers, as reflected in amplitude modulations of posterior N290/P400 and frontal/central Nc responses. Group differences were present in the latency of the P400 response, where a delayed response to the stranger face was observed only in typical infants. Across both groups, shorter Nc latency to mother's face was associated with parental reports of stronger interpersonal skills. Individual differences in the speed of processing for novel vs. familiar faces may be an informative early marker of risk for atypical social development. PMID:22483074

Key, Alexandra P F; Stone, Wendy L

2011-12-21

345

Dissociation between singing and speaking in expressive aphasia: the role of song familiarity.  

PubMed

There are several reports on the ability aphasic patients have to sing familiar songs, despite having severe speech impairments. Based on these observations it was also suggested that singing might improve speech production. However, recent experimental studies with aphasic patients found no evidence to illustrate that singing improves word production under controlled experimental conditions. This study investigated the role of singing during repetition of word phrases in a patient severely affected with non-fluent aphasia (GS) who had an almost complete lesion of the left hemisphere. GS showed a pronounced increase in the number of correctly reproduced words during singing as compared to speaking excerpts of familiar lyrics. This dissociation between singing and speaking was not seen for novel song lyrics, regardless of whether these were coupled with an unfamiliar, a familiar, or a spontaneously generated melody during the singing conditions. These findings propose that singing might help word phrase production in at least some cases of severe expressive aphasia. However, the association of melody and text in long-term memory seems to be responsible for this effect. PMID:18294661

Straube, Thomas; Schulz, Alexander; Geipel, Katja; Mentzel, Hans-Joachim; Miltner, Wolfgang H R

2008-01-19

346

Neural Evidence for Reduced Apprehensiveness of Familiarized Stimuli in a Mere Exposure Paradigm  

PubMed Central

Mere familiarization with a stimulus increases liking for it or similar stimuli (‘mere exposure’ effects) as well as perceptual fluency, indexed by the speed and accuracy of categorizing it or similar stimuli (‘priming’ effects). Candidate mechanisms proposed to explain mere exposure effects include both increased positive affect associated with greater perceptual fluency, and also reduced negative affect associated with diminished apprehensiveness of novel stimuli. Although these two mechanisms are not mutually exclusive, it is difficult for behavioral measures to disentangle them, since increased liking or other indices of greater positive affect toward exposed stimuli could result from increases in positive feelings or decreases in negative feelings or both. The present study sought to clarify this issue by building on research showing a dissociation at the neural level in which the lateral orbital frontal cortex (LOFC) is activated more by negatively valenced than by neutral or positively valenced stimuli, with the reverse effect for medial orbital frontal cortex (MOFC). Supporting the reduced apprehensiveness hypothesis, we found lower LOFC activation to familiarized faces and objects (repetition suppression). We did not find evidence to support the positive affect hypothesis in increased activation to familiarized stimuli in MOFC or in other parts of the reward circuit that respond more to positively valenced stimuli (repetiton enhancement), although enhancement effects were shown in some regions.

Zebrowitz, Leslie A.; Zhang, Yi

2012-01-01

347

Autonomous visual exploration creates developmental change in familiarity and novelty seeking behaviors  

PubMed Central

What motivates children to radically transform themselves during early development? We addressed this question in the domain of infant visual exploration. Over the first year, infants' exploration shifts from familiarity to novelty seeking. This shift is delayed in preterm relative to term infants and is stable within individuals over the course of the first year. Laboratory tasks have shed light on the nature of this familiarity-to-novelty shift, but it is not clear what motivates the infant to change her exploratory style. We probed this by letting a Dynamic Neural Field (DNF) model of visual exploration develop itself via accumulating experience in a virtual world. We then situated it in a canonical laboratory task. Much like infants, the model exhibited a familiarity-to-novelty shift. When we manipulated the initial conditions of the model, the model's performance was developmentally delayed much like preterm infants. This delay was overcome by enhancing the model's experience during development. We also found that the model's performance was stable at the level of the individual. Our simulations indicate that novelty seeking emerges with no explicit motivational source via the accumulation of visual experience within a complex, dynamical exploratory system.

Perone, Sammy; Spencer, John P.

2013-01-01

348

Von Hippel-Lindau Disease: A Rare Familiar Multi-System Disorder and the Impact of the Clinical Nurse Specialist.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Von Hippel-Lindau disease is a rare-familiar multi-system disorder that predisposes tumor formation. The lesions that most commonly cause morbidity and mortality are renal cell carcinoma, cerebellar and spinal cord hemangioblastomas, retinal angiomas and ...

M. M. McNeill

1993-01-01

349

Spatial Orientation and Familiarity in a Small-Scale Real Environment Using PC-Based Virtual Environment Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Conducting training in a new or unfamiliar environment requires a certain amount of time to acquire the necessary spatial orientation and familiarity to that environment's physical layout. This thesis explores the effects of exposing individuals to a PC-b...

M. Mollmer

2005-01-01

350

Automatic without autonomic responses to familiar faces: Differential components of covert face recognition in a case of Capgras delusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. This study was designed to elucidate the relationship between different types of covert face recognition. Some patients with prosopagnosia (i.e., the profound inability to recognise previously familiar faces) nonetheless evince autonomic face recognition (elevated skin-conductance levels to familiar faces) or behavioural indices of covert recognition (i.e., priming; interference effects; matching effects; face-name learning). One prosopagnosic patient revealed both autonomic

Hadyn D. Ellis; Michael B. Lewis; Andrew W. Young

2000-01-01

351

Territory ownership and familiarity status affect how much male root voles ( Microtus oeconomus) invest in territory defence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neighbour–stranger discrimination occurs when individuals respond with more aggression to strangers than to territorial neighbours—a\\u000a phenomenon termed the “dear enemy phenomenon” (DEP). We investigated the DEP with male and female root voles (Microtus oeconomus Pallas 1776) using field dyadic arena tests conducted in enclosures where we could test for the effects of familiarity (familiar\\u000a versus stranger), ownership (resident versus intruder

Frank Rosell; Gry Gundersen; Jean-François Le Galliard

2008-01-01

352

Cognitive and anatomical underpinnings of the conceptual knowledge for common objects and familiar people: a repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation study.  

PubMed

Several studies have addressed the issue of how knowledge of common objects is organized in the brain, whereas the cognitive and anatomical underpinnings of familiar people knowledge have been less explored. Here we applied repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the left and right temporal poles before asking healthy individuals to perform a speeded word-to-picture matching task using familiar people and common objects as stimuli. We manipulated two widely used semantic variables, namely the semantic distance and the familiarity of stimuli, to assess whether the semantic organization of familiar people knowledge is similar to that of common objects. For both objects and faces we reliably found semantic distance and familiarity effects, with less accurate and slower responses for stimulus pairs that were more closely related and less familiar. However, the effects of semantic variables differed across categories, with semantic distance effects larger for objects and familiarity effects larger for faces, suggesting that objects and faces might share a partially comparable organization of their semantic representations. The application of rTMS to the left temporal pole modulated, for both categories, semantic distance, but not familiarity effects, revealing that accessing object and face concepts might rely on overlapping processes within left anterior temporal regions. Crucially, rTMS of the left temporal pole affected only the recognition of pairs of stimuli that could be discriminated at specific levels of categorization (e.g., two kitchen tools or two famous persons), with no effect for discriminations at either superordinate or individual levels. Conversely, rTMS of the right temporal pole induced an overall slowing of reaction times that positively correlated with the visual similarity of the stimuli, suggesting a more perceptual rather than semantic role of the right anterior temporal regions. Results are discussed in the light of current models of face and object semantic representations in the brain. PMID:23704999

Campanella, Fabio; Fabbro, Franco; Urgesi, Cosimo

2013-05-21

353

Female sexual preferences differ in Mus spicilegus and Mus musculus domesticus: the role of familiarization and sexual experience.  

PubMed

Mating systems correspond to particular ecological conditions and result from proximate interactions between individuals. We compared the mating preferences of female mice of two species: the house mouse, Mus musculus domesticus, and the mound-builder mouse, Mus spicilegus. Because of differences in their habitat, we expected to observe differences in their sexual preferences. We studied female preferences for a familiar or an unfamiliar male and the occurrence of copulation with the unfamiliar male, during two states of female sexual activity: (1) the postpartum oestrus of paired females, to evaluate the stability of their sexual partnership; and (2) the oestrus of females familiarized with a male, to study the mechanisms underlying their sexual preferences. In the polygamous house mouse, postpartum oestrous females did not show a clear preference between their familiar male and the unfamiliar one. Moreover, oestrous females, familiarized with a male (without sexual interactions), preferred an unfamiliar male and copulated with him. In contrast, postpartum oestrous females and oestrous females of M. spicilegus preferred their familiar male and rarely copulated with the unfamiliar male. This study indicates a strong pair bond in established breeding pairs in M. spicilegus and shows that this bond can be established by familiarization, which is not the case in M. m. domesticus. Our study suggests the existence of monogamous traits in M. spicilegus in contrast to the polygamous M. m. domesticus. (c) 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9933543

Patris; Baudoin

1998-12-01

354

La virtualización del cuerpo a través del \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hablar de un cuerpo virtualizado es hablar de su problematización y consecuente actualización, una de las principales consecuencias de este proceso de transfiguración del cuerpo estaría marcada por una adjudicación actualizada de un cambio. El cuerpo es simultáneamente un cuerpo-materia prima, modelo físico para la conversión óptico-iconográfica digital, y un cuerpo interfaz, que permite el acceso a la morfogénesis del

Eduardo Castro Pinzón; José Luis Troncoso

2005-01-01

355

In live interaction, does familiarity promote attraction or contempt? Reply to Norton, Frost, and Ariely (2011).  

PubMed

In this reply, we address and refute each of Norton, Frost, and Ariely's (see record 2011-18560-001) specific objections to the conclusion that, ceteris paribus, familiarity breeds liking in live interaction. In particular, we reiterate the importance of studying live interaction rather than decontextualized processes. These rebuttals notwithstanding, we concur with Norton et al.'s call for an integrative model that encompasses both Norton, Frost, and Ariely's (see record 2006-23056-008) results and ours (see record 2011-04644-001), and we point readers toward a description of a possible model presented in our original article. PMID:21859228

Reis, Harry T; Maniaci, Michael R; Caprariello, Peter A; Eastwick, Paul W; Finkel, Eli J

2011-09-01

356

Dinámica del Desempeño Académico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este trabajo se ocupa del progreso, luego del ingreso, de los estudiantes de la cohorte 2000 de la Facultad de Ciencias Económicas de la Universidad Nacional de La Plata. Si bien hay antecedentes de medición del rendimiento de los estudiantes de la Facultad y sus factores explicativos, se trata de estudios realizados en base a encuestas a alumnos regulares en

Luciano Di Gresia; Alberto Porto

2004-01-01

357

Evidence for a non-lexical influence on children's auditory repetition of familiar words.  

PubMed

This paper examines evidence for a nonlexical influence on children's repetition of real words. We investigate the extent to which two computational models of auditory repetition can simulate the performance of 68 children aged between 5 and 11 years-old when they are attempting to repeat familiar words. Both computational accounts were derived from Foygel and Dell's (J Mem Lang 43:182-216, 2000) semantic-phonological model of picture-naming. Results showed that a dual-route model in which a lexical and a nonlexical route work together to repeat familiar words (Hanley et al. in Cogn Neuropsychol 21:147-158, 2004) provided an accurate simulation of children's repetition, whereas Foygel and Dell (J Mem Lang 43:182-216, 2000) single lexical-route model under-predicted performance. The only exception was the repetition performance of 5 year-old children, which was over-predicted by the dual-route model. It is argued that at 5 years of age, some children have available both a lexical and a nonlexical repetition route but the output of the two routes does not summate when real words are being repeated. Some young children may lack the attentional skills that would enable them to co-ordinate the activity of the lexical and nonlexical repetition routes. PMID:22089520

Budd, Mary-Jane; Hanley, J Richard; Nozari, Nazbanou

2012-08-01

358

Memory color of natural familiar objects: effects of surface texture and 3-D shape.  

PubMed

Natural objects typically possess characteristic contours, chromatic surface textures, and three-dimensional shapes. These diagnostic features aid object recognition, as does memory color, the color most associated in memory with a particular object. Here we aim to determine whether polychromatic surface texture, 3-D shape, and contour diagnosticity improve memory color for familiar objects, separately and in combination. We use solid three-dimensional familiar objects rendered with their natural texture, which participants adjust in real time to match their memory color for the object. We analyze mean, accuracy, and precision of the memory color settings relative to the natural color of the objects under the same conditions. We find that in all conditions, memory colors deviate slightly but significantly in the same direction from the natural color. Surface polychromaticity, shape diagnosticity, and three dimensionality each improve memory color accuracy, relative to uniformly colored, generic, or two-dimensional shapes, respectively. Shape diagnosticity improves the precision of memory color also, and there is a trend for polychromaticity to do so as well. Differently from other studies, we find that the object contour alone also improves memory color. Thus, enhancing the naturalness of the stimulus, in terms of either surface or shape properties, enhances the accuracy and precision of memory color. The results support the hypothesis that memory color representations are polychromatic and are synergistically linked with diagnostic shape representations. PMID:23814075

Vurro, Milena; Ling, Yazhu; Hurlbert, Anya C

2013-06-28

359

Familiarity leads to female mate preference for novel males in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata.  

PubMed

Guppies are a model vertebrate for studies of sexual selection and life history evolution. None the less, there have been few investigations of the factors responsible for maintaining extreme within-population genetic variation in male coloration. In a laboratory study, we tested the hypothesis that frequency-dependent mate choice contributes to the maintenance of this variation. We attempted to avoid biases inherent in earlier studies of the 'rare male effect' by familiarizing females to males bearing a particular colour pattern and later presenting them with alternate male types, in equal numbers. Females were significantly more likely to mate with males having novel colour patterns than with males having a colour pattern with which they were familiar. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that mate choice is frequency dependent. Other factors such as male and female size were unrelated to mate preference. Implications of the results for theories of sexual selection and the maintenance of variation are discussed. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10512664

Hughes; Du; Rodd; Reznick

1999-10-01

360

Feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary outcomes of the fortalezas familiares intervention for latino families facing maternal depression.  

PubMed

This pilot study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary outcomes of a linguistically and culturally adapted intervention for immigrant Latina mothers with depression and their families. Fortalezas Familiares (Family Strengths) is a community-based, 12-week, multifamily group intervention that aims to increase communication about family processes leading up to and affected by the mother's depression, build child coping and efficacy, enhance parenting competence and skills, and promote cultural and social assets within the family. In terms of feasibility, of 16 families who enrolled and participated in the intervention, 13 families attended more than 90% of meetings and completed the intervention. Posttests reported positive changes following the intervention, including improved psychological functioning, increased family and marital support, and enhanced family functioning, as reported by mothers and other caregivers. Mothers also reported decreased conduct and hyperactivity problems among their children. Children reported positive changes in their psychological functioning and coping, parenting warmth and acceptance, and overall family functioning. Postintervention focus groups and surveys measuring acceptability revealed families' satisfaction with the intervention and suggested areas of improvement. We discuss similarities and differences in outcomes between the adapted intervention, Fortalezas Familiares, and the original intervention, Keeping Families Strong, and propose future areas of intervention adaptation and development. PMID:24033238

Valdez, Carmen R; Padilla, Brian; Moore, Sarah McArdell; Magaña, Sandra

2013-06-27

361

Assessing recollection and familiarity of similar lures in a behavioral pattern separation task.  

PubMed

The relationship between recollection-mediated recognition memory and behavioral pattern separation is poorly understood. In two separate experiments, we modified a well-validated object discrimination task with previously demonstrated sensitivity to neural pattern separation with instructions to assess recollection and familiarity. In the first experiment, we included a Remember/Know (R/K) judgment, and in the second we included a source memory judgment. We found that both "Remember" and correct source judgments were higher for lures labeled "similar" (where pattern separation is engaged) but also higher on lures called "old" (where pattern separation is absent), suggesting that false alarms in pattern separation tasks are frequently mediated by recollection. As one might expect, "Remember" judgments and correct source decisions increased with greater dissimilarity for "similar" responses and increased with greater similarity for "old" responses. This suggests that recollection can occur in the presence and in the absence of pattern separation and that false alarms to similar lures are not simply driven by familiarity. PMID:23401187

Kim, Jennifer; Yassa, Michael A

2013-02-08

362

Using Lexical Familiarity Judgments to Assess Verbally-Mediated Intelligence in Aphasia  

PubMed Central

In this study, a task using forced-choice lexical familiarity judgments of irregular versus archaic words (a newly developed measure called the Lexical Orthographic Familiarity Test; LOFT) was compared to a standardized oral word-reading measure (the Wechsler Test of Adult Reading; WTAR) in a group of 35 aphasic adults and a comparison group of 125 community dwelling, non-brain damaged adults. When compared to non-brain damaged adults, aphasics had significantly lower scores on the WTAR but not the LOFT. Although both the WTAR and LOFT were significantly correlated with education in the non-brain damaged group, only the LOFT was correlated with education and also with the Barona full scale IQ index in the aphasic group. Lastly, WTAR performance showed a significantly greater relationship to the severity of language disorder in the aphasic group than did the LOFT. These results have both theoretical and clinical implications for the assessment of language disordered adults, as they indicate that patients with aphasia may retain aspects of verbally mediated intelligence, and that the LOFT may provide a better estimate of premorbid functioning in aphasia than other currently available measures.

Leritz, Elizabeth C.; McGlinchey, Regina E.; Lundgren, Kristine; Grande, Laura J.; Milberg, William P.

2010-01-01

363

Dear enemies and nasty neighbors in crayfish: Effects of social status and sex on responses to familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics.  

PubMed

Our experiment examined the ability of crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) to discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics of equivalent social status, and investigated whether this species displays dear enemy or nasty neighbor effects. Pairs of size and sex matched crayfish fought to establish social status and the resulting dominant and subordinate crayfish then participated in a choice phase in which they interacted with two conspecifics tethered in an arena. Both choice conspecifics had the same social status and sex, but one was familiar (the focal animal's previous opponent) and the other was novel. We found that subordinate focal animals of both sexes spent significantly more time in proximity to the unfamiliar choice animal, behavior inconsistent with the dear enemy and nasty neighbor hypotheses. In contrast, male and female dominant focals differed significantly: females spent more time close to and fighting with the familiar choice animal while male dominants responded equivalently to the two choice animals. Thus the response of crayfish toward familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics was complex and not explained by a single hypothesis. We suggest that, in addition to familiarity and unfamiliarity, the perceived threat-level of opponents influences the behavior of crayfish toward conspecifics. PMID:23769936

Tierney, A J; Andrews, K; Happer, K R; White, M K M

2013-06-13

364

Intuitively detecting what is hidden within a visual mask: Familiar-novel discrimination and threat detection for unidentified stimuli.  

PubMed

Recognition without identification is the finding that, among recognition test items that go unidentified (as when a word is unidentified from a fragment), participants can discriminate those that were studied from those that were unstudied. In the present study, we extended this phenomenon to the more life-like situation of discriminating known from novel stimuli. Pictures of famous and nonfamous faces (Exp. 1), famous and nonfamous scenes (Exp. 2), and threatening and nonthreatening images (Exp. 3) were filtered in order to impede identification. As in list-learning recognition-without-identification paradigms, participants attempted to identify each image (e.g., whose face it was, what scene it was, or what was in the picture) and rated how familiar the image seemed on a scale of 0 (very unfamiliar) to 10 (very familiar). Among the unidentified stimuli, higher familiarity ratings were given to famous than to nonfamous faces (Exp. 1) and scenes (Exp. 2), and to threatening than to nonthreatening living/animate (but not to nonliving/nonanimate) images (Exp. 3). These findings suggest that even when a stimulus is too occluded to allow for conscious identification, enough information can be processed to allow a sense of familiarity or novelty with it, which appears also to be related to the sense of whether or not a living creature is a threat. That the sense of familiarity for unidentified stimuli may be related to threat detection for living or animate things suggests that it may be an adaptive aspect of human memory. PMID:23606041

Cleary, Anne M; Ryals, Anthony J; Nomi, Jason S

2013-10-01

365

Drug-scene familiarity and exposure to gang violence among residents in a rural farming community in Baja California, Mexico.  

PubMed

We examined drug-scene familiarity and exposure to gang violence among residents of a migrant farming community in rural Baja California, Mexico. In October 2010, 164 members of a single colonia (community) underwent an interviewer-administered survey to assess 'exposure to gang violence' and 'drug-scene familiarity', as well as other health indicators. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of exposure to gang violence. Overall, 20% of participants were male, the median age was 27 years, 24% spoke an indigenous language, 42% reported exposure to gang violence and 39% reported drug-scene familiarity. Factors independently associated with exposure to gang violence included being younger (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.80 per 5-year increase, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.67-0.96), living in the community longer (AOR=1.47 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=1.11-1.72), higher educational attainment (AOR=1.70 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=1.07-1.12) and drug-scene familiarity (AOR=5.10, 95% CI=2.39-10.89). Exposure to gang violence was very common in this community and was associated with drug-scene familiarity, suggesting a close relationship between drugs and gang violence in this rural community. In a region characterised by mass migration from poorer parts of Mexico, where drugs and gangs have not been previously reported, emerging social harms may affect these communities unless interventions are implemented. PMID:23072623

Volkmann, Tyson; Fraga, Miguel A; Brodine, Stephanie K; Iñiguez-Stevens, Esmeralda; Cepeda, Alice; Elder, John P; Garfein, Richard S; Viidai Team

2012-10-16

366

The role of chunk tightness and chunk familiarity in problem solving: evidence from ERPs and fMRI.  

PubMed

Multiple factors of task difficulty keep problem solvers from finding the crucial thinking steps required to solve insight problems. In this study, we distinguished two difficulty factors, chunk familiarity and chunk tightness, and investigated their effects on chunk decomposition--a specific type of insight that depends on the process of breaking up perceptual patterns or chunks into elements so that they can be reorganized to form a new meaning. Subjects solved problems that required decomposing Chinese characters that differed in chunk familiarity and chunk tightness. Brain activity was recorded using the electroencephalogram and functional magnetic resonance imaging. The results showed that chunk familiarity could be overcome through an inhibition of familiar meanings, whereas overcoming chunk tightness required visual-spatial processing. Furthermore, chunk familiarity posed an additional difficulty when chunk tightness was high. This result demonstrates that the difficulty sources in a problem do not always simply add up. Rather, the difficulty of a problem can reside in the interaction of particular sources of difficulty. PMID:22328466

Wu, Lili; Knoblich, Guenther; Luo, Jing

2012-02-13

367

Familiarity Perception Call Elicited under Restricted Sensory Cues in Peer-Social Interactions of the Domestic Chick  

PubMed Central

Social cognitive mechanisms are central to understanding developmental abnormalities, such as autistic spectrum disorder. Peer relations besides parent-infant or pair-bonding interactions are pivotal social relationships that are especially well developed in humans. Cognition of familiarity forms the basis of peer socialization. Domestic chick (Gallus gallus) studies have contributed to our understanding of the developmental process in sensory-motor cognition but many processes remain unknown. In this report, we used chicks, as they are precocial birds, and we could therefore focus on peer interaction without having to consider parenting. The subject chick behavior towards familiar and unfamiliar reference peers was video-recorded, where the subject and the reference were separated by either an opaque or transparent wall. Spectrogram and behavior correlation analyses based on principal component analysis, revealed that chicks elicited an intermediate contact call and a morphologically different distress call, more frequently towards familiar versus unfamiliar chicks in acoustic only conditions. When both visual and acoustic cues were present, subject chicks exhibited approaching and floor pecking behavior, while eliciting joyful (pleasant) calls, irrespective of whether reference peers were familiar or unfamiliar. Our result showed that chicks recognized familiarity using acoustic cues and expressed cognition through modified distress calls. These finding suggests that peer affiliation may be established by acoustic recognition, independent of visual face recognition, and that eventually, both forms of recognition are integrated, with modulation of acoustic recognition.

Koshiba, Mamiko; Shirakawa, Yuka; Mimura, Koki; Senoo, Aya; Karino, Genta; Nakamura, Shun

2013-01-01

368

Boosting Cholinergic Activity in Gustatory Cortex Enhances the Salience of a Familiar CS in Taste Aversion Learning  

PubMed Central

The cholinergic system is important for learning, memory and responses to novel stimuli. Exposure to novel, but not familiar, tastes increases extracellular acetylcholine (ACh) levels in insular cortex (IC). To further examine whether cholinergic activation is a critical signal of taste novelty the present studies infused carbachol, a direct cholinergic agonist, into IC prior to conditioned taste aversion (CTA) training with a familiar taste. By mimicking the cholinergic activation generated by novel taste exposure, it was hypothesized that a familiar taste would be treated as “novel”, and therefore a salient target for aversion learning. As predicted, rats infused with the agonist were able to acquire CTAs to familiar saccharin. Effects of carbachol infusion on patterns of neuronal activation during CS-US pairing were assessed using Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI). Familiar taste-illness pairing following carbachol, but not vehicle, induced significant elevations of FLI in amygdala, a region with reciprocal connections to IC that is also important for CTA learning. These results support the view that IC ACh activity provides a critical signal of taste novelty which facilitates CTA acquisition.

Clark, Emily Wilkins; Bernstein, Ilene L.

2009-01-01

369

Mere exposure revisited: the influence of growth versus security cues on evaluations of novel and familiar stimuli.  

PubMed

Combining regulatory focus theory (Higgins, 1997) and novelty categorization theory (Förster, Marguc, & Gillebaart, 2010), we predicted that novel stimuli would be more positively evaluated when focused on growth as compared with security and that familiar stimuli would be more negatively evaluated when focused on growth as compared with security. This would occur, at least in part, because of changes in category breadth. We tested effects of several variables linked to growth and security on evaluations of novel and familiar stimuli. Using a subliminal mere exposure paradigm, results showed novel stimuli were evaluated more positively in a promotion focus compared to a prevention focus (Experiments 1A-1C), with high power compared to low power (Experiment 2A), and with the color blue compared to red (Experiment 2B). For familiar stimuli, all effects were reversed. Additionally, as predicted by novelty categorization theory, novel stimuli were liked better after broad compared to narrow category priming, and familiar stimuli were liked better after narrow compared with broad category priming (Experiment 3). We suggest, therefore, that although familiarity glows warmly in security-related contexts, people prefer novelty when they are primarily focused on growth. PMID:22409663

Gillebaart, Marleen; Förster, Jens; Rotteveel, Mark

2012-03-12

370

Infants prefer the faces of strangers or mothers to morphed faces: an uncanny valley between social novelty and familiarity.  

PubMed

The 'uncanny valley' response is a phenomenon involving the elicitation of a negative feeling and subsequent avoidant behaviour in human adults and infants as a result of viewing very realistic human-like robots or computer avatars. It is hypothesized that this uncanny feeling occurs because the realistic synthetic characters elicit the concept of 'human' but fail to satisfy it. Such violations of our normal expectations regarding social signals generate a feeling of unease. This conflict-induced uncanny valley between mutually exclusive categories (human and synthetic agent) raises a new question: could an uncanny feeling be elicited by other mutually exclusive categories, such as familiarity and novelty? Given that infants prefer both familiarity and novelty in social objects, we address this question as well as the associated developmental profile. Using the morphing technique and a preferential-looking paradigm, we demonstrated uncanny valley responses of infants to faces of mothers (i.e. familiarity) and strangers (i.e. novelty). Furthermore, this effect strengthened with the infant's age. We excluded the possibility that infants detect and avoid traces of morphing. This conclusion follows from our finding that the infants equally preferred strangers' faces and the morphed faces of two strangers. These results indicate that an uncanny valley between familiarity and novelty may accentuate the categorical perception of familiar and novel objects. PMID:22696289

Matsuda, Yoshi-Taka; Okamoto, Yoko; Ida, Misako; Okanoya, Kazuo; Myowa-Yamakoshi, Masako

2012-06-13

371

Pro-inflammatory genetic profile and familiarity of acute myocardial infarction  

PubMed Central

Background Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a multifactorial disease with a complex pathogenesis where lifestyle, individual genetic background and environmental risk factors are involved. Altered inflammatory responses are implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and a premature AMI of parents is associated with an increased risk of the disease in their offspring (Offs). However, the genetic background of familiarity for AMI is still largely unknown. To understand which genes may predispose to increased risk of cardiovascular disease gene polymorphism of immune regulatory genes, and clinical events from the Offs of parents with an early AMI were investigated. Genetics data from Offs were compared with those obtained from healthy subjects and an independent cohort of patients with clinical sporadic AMI. Rates of clinical events during a 24?years follow up from Offs and from an independent Italian population survey were also evaluated. Results This study showed that a genetic signature consisting of the concomitant presence of the CC genotype of VEGF, the A allele of IL-10 and the A allele of IFN-? was indeed present in the Offs population. In fact, the above genetic markers were more frequent in unaffected Offs (46.4%) and patients with sporadic AMI (31.8%) than in the CTR (17.3%) and the differences were highly statistically significant (Offs vs CTR: p?=?0.0001, OR?=?4.129; AMI vs CTR: p?=?0.0001, OR?=?2.224). During the 24-year follow-up, Offs with a positive familiarity in spite of a relatively young age showed an increased prevalence of diabetes, ischemic heart disease and stroke. These findings reinforce the notion that subjects with a familial history of AMI are at risk of an accelerated aging of cardiovascular system resulting in cardiovascular events. Conclusion Our data suggest that selected genes with immune regulatory functions are part of the complex genetic background contributing to familiarity for cardiovascular diseases. This inflammatory genetic profile, along with classical cardiovascular risk factors, may be used for better defining individual risk of AMI in unaffected subjects.

2012-01-01

372

Recollection and familiarity deficits in amnesia: convergence of remember-know, process dissociation, and receiver operating characteristic data.  

PubMed

Previous studies using the process dissociation and the remember-know procedures led to conflicting conclusions regarding the effects of anterograde amnesia on recollection and familiarity. We argue that these apparent contradictions arose because different models were used to interpret the results and because differences in false-alarm rates between groups biased the estimates provided by those models. A reanalysis of those studies with a dual-process signal-detection model that incorporates response bias revealed that amnesia led to a pronounced reduction in recollection and smaller but consistent reduction in familiarity. To test the assumptions of the model and to further assess recognition deficits in amnesics, we examined receiver operating characteristics (ROCs) in amnesics and controls. The ROCs of the controls were curved and asymmetrical, whereas those of the amnesics were curved and symmetrical. The results supported the predictions of the model and indicated that amnesia was associated with deficits in both recollection and familiarity. PMID:9673991

Yonelinas, A P; Kroll, N E; Dobbins, I; Lazzara, M; Knight, R T

1998-07-01

373

INCLUSI?N DE LA ?TICA Y BIO?TICA EN LA FORMACI?N DE PRE Y POSGRADO DEL CIRUJANO-DENTISTA EN PER?  

PubMed Central

Se revisan aspectos de la inclusión de la ética y bioética en la formación de pre y posgrado del cirujano-dentista en Perú. Desde el punto de vista de la formación del docente, se analiza la presencia de normatividad ética en la investigación científica que genera la universidad, así como los conocimientos y actitudes vinculados con la ética y bioética en la formación del odontólogo. Se concluye que es un compromiso fomentar un cambio de paradigma, a través de un movimiento masivo que involucre los ámbitos familiar, profesional y académico, con el n de integrar la reflexión ética en nuestro diario proceder.

Rupaya, Carmen Rosa Garcia

2009-01-01

374

Achalasia familiar: report of a family with an autosomal dominant pattern of inherence.  

PubMed

Esophageal achalasia is a well-known pathology with an autosomal recessive pattern of inherence described in the familiar cases. Its principal symptom is dysphagia, secondary to the poor relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter. Chagas disease is one of the many causes involved in the development of this disease, being of great importance in our country because of the high prevalence of the vector. Various syndromes include achalasia in their symptomatology, such as the triple A syndrome or Allgrove syndrome (Addisonianism, achalasia, and alacrimia). We reported a family with a classical autosomal pattern of inherence with six affected members, four men and two women, with achalasia diagnosis as well as esophagus cancer in two of them, secondary to the disease, and no other findings. PMID:21073617

Gordillo-González, G; Guatibonza, Y P; Zarante, I; Roa, P; Jacome, L A; Hani, A

2010-11-12

375

The Reverse-Caricature Effect Revisited: Familiarization With Frontal Facial Caricatures Improves Veridical Face Recognition  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Prior research suggests that recognition of a person's face can be facilitated by exaggerating the distinctive features of the face during training. We tested if this ‘reverse-caricature effect’ would be robust to procedural variations that created more difficult learning environments. Specifically, we examined whether the effect would emerge with frontal rather than three-quarter views, after very brief exposure to caricatures during the learning phase and after modest rotations of faces during the recognition phase. Results indicate that, even under these difficult training conditions, people are more accurate at recognizing unaltered faces if they are first familiarized with caricatures of the faces, rather than with the unaltered faces. These findings support the development of new training methods to improve face recognition.

RODRIGUEZ, JOBANY; BORTFELD, HEATHER; RUDOMIN, ISAAC; HERNANDEZ, BENJAMIN; GUTIERREZ-OSUNA, RICARDO

2010-01-01

376

The Hippocampus Supports both the Recollection and the Familiarity Components of Recognition Memory  

PubMed Central

Summary The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) has been used to investigate the component processes of recognition memory. Some studies with this technique have been taken to indicate that the hippocampus selectively supports the process of recollection, whereas adjacent cortex in the parahippocampal gyrus supports the process of familiarity. We analyzed ROC data from young adults, memory-impaired patients with limited hippocampal lesions, and age-matched controls. The shape of the ROC changed in similar ways from asymmetric to symmetric, as a function of the strength of memory (strong to weak) in both the young adults and the patients. Moreover, once overall memory strength was similar, the shape of the patient ROC was asymmetric and matched the control ROC. These results suggest that the component processes that determine the shape of the ROC are operative in the absence of the hippocampus, and they argue against the idea that the hippocampus selectively supports the recollection process.

Wais, Peter E.; Wixted, John T.; Hopkins, Ramona O.; Squire, Larry R.

2006-01-01

377

[Behavioral interactions of adult females of the common shrew (Sorex araneus) with conspecifics on familiar territory].  

PubMed

Interactions of overwintered females with conspecifics (> or = 5 days) on familiar territories were studied experimentally. In interactions of the resident females with unfamiliar overwintered females (28 experiments), there were no differences related to the reproductive status of both parties. Between the behavior of the residents and aliens, there were no significant differences, except the refusals of contacts--and aliens had more of it. Identification and affiliative behavior and the presence of ritualized aggression was noted. There was little direct aggression. Females were sharply aggressive toward the overwintered males (23 experiments) regardless of their reproductive status. Males tried to avoid contacts. Identification and affiliative behavior were rare. Toward yearlings (25 experiments), females that participated in reproduction were aggressive (direct aggression prevailed) and singles (9 experiments) were not. PMID:22988759

Ole?nichenko, V Iu

378

Medial prefrontal cortex supports recollection, but not familiarity, in the rat  

PubMed Central

There is continuing controversy about the extent to which the rodent medial prefrontal cortical area (mPFC) is functionally homologous to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in humans and non-human primates. Previous studies have compared the effects of mPFC lesions in rats to those of dorsolateral prefrontal lesions in working memory, strategy switching, and temporal ordering. None, however, have examined the role of the rodent mPFC in recognition memory, wherein in humans, dorsolateral prefrontal damage results in a deficit in source monitoring resulting in impaired recollection. In the present study, we examined recognition memory in rats with bilateral mPFC lesions (PL/IL; ibotenic acid) using a variant of a non-match-to-sample task with manipulations of response bias that allowed for a signal detection analysis that distinguishes recollection and familiarity contributions to recognition memory. Animals with medial prefrontal lesions had a modest overall deficit in recognition with no general change in their tendency to elicit “old” or “new” responses. Signal detection analyses indicated that rats with mPFC damage had a curvilinear and symmetrical ROC curve, compared to a curvilinear and asymmetrical ROC curve in control subjects, indicating that mPFC damage severely reduced recollection-based performance, while sparing familiarity. The recollection failure was associated with an impaired ability to reject new items (increased false alarm rate), whereas the identification of old items (hit rate) was normal. This pattern of findings is similar to that observed in humans with dorsolateral prefrontal damage and is complementary to the selective deficit in hit rate observed following hippocampal damage.

Farovik, Anja; Dupont, Laura M; Arce, Miguel; Eichenbaum, Howard

2008-01-01

379

Disentangling the influence of salience and familiarity on infant word learning: methodological advances  

PubMed Central

The initial stages of language learning involve a critical interaction between infants' environmental experience and their developing brains. The past several decades of research have produced important behavioral evidence of the many factors influencing this process, both on the part of the child and on the part of the environment that the child is in. The application of neurophysiological techniques to the study of early development has been augmenting these findings at a rapid pace. While the result is an accrual of data bridging the gap between brain and behavior, much work remains to make the link between behavioral evidence of infants' emerging sensitivities and neurophysiological evidence of changes in how their brains process information. Here we review the background behavioral data on how salience and familiarity in the auditory signal shape initial language learning. We follow this with a summary of more recent evidence of changes in infants' brain activity in response to specific aspects of speech. Our goal is to examine language learning through the lens of brain/environment interactions, ultimately focusing on changes in cortical processing of speech across the first year of life. We will ground our examination of recent brain data in the two auditory features initially outlined: salience and familiarity. Our own and others' findings on the influence of these two features reveal that they are key parameters in infants' emerging recognition of structure in the speech signal. Importantly, the evidence we review makes the critical link between behavioral and brain data. We discuss the importance of future work that makes this bridge as a means of moving the study of language development solidly into the domain of brain science.

Bortfeld, Heather; Shaw, Katie; Depowski, Nicole

2013-01-01

380

Familiarity bias and physiological responses in contagious yawning by dogs support link to empathy.  

PubMed

In humans, the susceptibility to yawn contagion has been theoretically and empirically related to our capacity for empathy. Because of its relevance to evolutionary biology, this phenomenon has been the focus of recent investigations in non-human species. In line with the empathic hypothesis, contagious yawning has been shown to correlate with the level of social attachment in several primate species. Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) have also shown the ability to yawn contagiously. To date, however, the social modulation of dog contagious yawning has received contradictory support and alternative explanations (i.e., yawn as a mild distress response) could explain positive evidence. The present study aims to replicate contagious yawning in dogs and to discriminate between the two possible mediating mechanisms (i.e., empathic vs. distress related response). Twenty-five dogs observed familiar (dog's owner) and unfamiliar human models (experimenter) acting out a yawn or control mouth movements. Concurrent physiological measures (heart rate) were additionally monitored for twenty-one of the subjects. The occurrence of yawn contagion was significantly higher during the yawning condition than during the control mouth movements. Furthermore, the dogs yawned more frequently when watching the familiar model than the unfamiliar one demonstrating that the contagiousness of yawning in dogs correlated with the level of emotional proximity. Moreover, subjects' heart rate did not differ among conditions suggesting that the phenomenon of contagious yawning in dogs is unrelated to stressful events. Our findings are consistent with the view that contagious yawning is modulated by affective components of the behavior and may indicate that rudimentary forms of empathy could be present in domesticated dogs. PMID:23951146

Romero, Teresa; Konno, Akitsugu; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

2013-08-07

381

Familiarization Effects of an Elliptical All-out Test and the Wingate Test Based on Mechanical Power Indices  

PubMed Central

The Wingate all-out test (WAT) is commonly used to estimate anaerobic capabilities of athletes by using an upper or lower body cycle ergometer, however, a new test modality called elliptical all-out test (EAT) which measures activated whole-body locomotor tasks has recently been proposed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the familiarization effects of a 30-s EAT versus WAT. Twenty male trained athletes performed pre-familiarization (Trial- I), post-familiarization (Trial-II) and retest of Trial-II (Trial-III) sessions on both cycle ergometer and elliptical trainer. Peak power (PP), average power (AP), power drop (PD) and fatigue index ratio (FI%) were analyzed using student's t-test for paired samples and correlated by intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC). Moreover, an error detection procedure was administered using data attained from illogical interrelations among 5-s segments of 30-s tests. The main results showed that there were significant familiarization effects in all mechanical power outputs obtained from Trial-I and Trial-II in both EAT (ICC = 0.49-0.55) and WAT (ICC = 0.50-0.57) performances (p ? 0.01). Significant segmental disorders were detected in power production during Trial-I of EAT, however, none existed in any of test trails in the WAT (p ? 0.001). After familiarization sessions, reliability coefficients between Trial-II and Trial-III showed moderate to strong-level agreements for both EAT (ICC = 0.74-0.91) and the WAT (ICC=0.76-0.93). Our results suggested that prior to the performance tests, combination of a well designed familiarization session with one full all-out test administration is necessary to estimate the least moderately reliable and accurate test indices for both WAT and EAT. Key Points A well designed familiarization session, and then, one additional all-out test administration, several days prior to main test, is suggested to estimate more accurate and reliable retest correlations for both cycling and elliptical all-out test modalities. Because of greater muscle recruitment and different movement pattern, familiarization seems more effective for a 30-s all-out test performed on an elliptical trainer compared to a cycle ergometer.

Ozkaya, Ozgur

2013-01-01

382

Familiarization Effects of an Elliptical All-out Test and the Wingate Test Based on Mechanical Power Indices.  

PubMed

The Wingate all-out test (WAT) is commonly used to estimate anaerobic capabilities of athletes by using an upper or lower body cycle ergometer, however, a new test modality called elliptical all-out test (EAT) which measures activated whole-body locomotor tasks has recently been proposed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the familiarization effects of a 30-s EAT versus WAT. Twenty male trained athletes performed pre-familiarization (Trial- I), post-familiarization (Trial-II) and retest of Trial-II (Trial-III) sessions on both cycle ergometer and elliptical trainer. Peak power (PP), average power (AP), power drop (PD) and fatigue index ratio (FI%) were analyzed using student's t-test for paired samples and correlated by intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC). Moreover, an error detection procedure was administered using data attained from illogical interrelations among 5-s segments of 30-s tests. The main results showed that there were significant familiarization effects in all mechanical power outputs obtained from Trial-I and Trial-II in both EAT (ICC = 0.49-0.55) and WAT (ICC = 0.50-0.57) performances (p ? 0.01). Significant segmental disorders were detected in power production during Trial-I of EAT, however, none existed in any of test trails in the WAT (p ? 0.001). After familiarization sessions, reliability coefficients between Trial-II and Trial-III showed moderate to strong-level agreements for both EAT (ICC = 0.74-0.91) and the WAT (ICC=0.76-0.93). Our results suggested that prior to the performance tests, combination of a well designed familiarization session with one full all-out test administration is necessary to estimate the least moderately reliable and accurate test indices for both WAT and EAT. Key PointsA well designed familiarization session, and then, one additional all-out test administration, several days prior to main test, is suggested to estimate more accurate and reliable retest correlations for both cycling and elliptical all-out test modalities.Because of greater muscle recruitment and different movement pattern, familiarization seems more effective for a 30-s all-out test performed on an elliptical trainer compared to a cycle ergometer. PMID:24149160

Ozkaya, Ozgur

2013-09-01

383

Aprovechamiento del Falso Fruto del Jocote Maranon (Utilization of the Pseudofruit of the Cashew Trees).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document is a summary of the work done by the Instituto Centroamericano de Investigacion Aplicada, in coordination with El Banco Centroamericano de Integracion Economica, aimed to promote the growth of cashew trees in Central America. It also studies ...

R. Garcia

1980-01-01

384

Appointment reminder systems and patient preferences: Patient technology usage and familiarity with other service providers as predictive variables.  

PubMed

This study had two aims: to measure patient preferences for medical appointment reminder systems and to assess the predictive value of patient usage and familiarity with other service providers contacting them on responsiveness to appointment reminder systems. We used a cross-sectional design wherein patients' at an urban, primary-care clinic ranked various reminder systems and indicated their usage of technology and familiarity with other service providers contacting them over text messages and e-mails. We assessed the impact of patient usage of text messages and e-mails and patient familiarity with other service providers contacting them over text messages and e-mails on effectiveness of and responsiveness to appointment reminder systems. We found that patient usage of text messages or e-mails and familiarity with other service providers contacting them are the best predictors of perceived effectiveness and responsiveness to text message and e-mail reminders. When these variables are accounted for, age and other demographic variables do not predict responsiveness to reminder systems. PMID:23715208

Finkelstein, Stacey R; Liu, Nan; Jani, Beena; Rosenthal, David; Poghosyan, Lusine

2013-06-01

385

Familiarity in fish: The role of diet-based cues in association preferences in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of familiarity and the use of different cues in social recognition by shoaling fish species have been well researched. Recently several studies have focused on determining whether more general habitat- and diet-based odour cues can be exploited by shoaling fish species to give association preferences, rather than more specific individual recognition. In this study the effect of diet-based

Kathryn Hunt

2006-01-01

386

High School Labor Studies. A Cooperative Effort for the Familiarization of High School Students with the World of Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This teaching outline is designed for use by speakers involved in the High School Labor Studies Program, a 10-session cooperative program developed by the United Auto Workers and designed to familiarize high school students with the world of work. Covered in the individual sections are the following topics: the early days of the labor movement,…

United Auto Workers, Detroit, MI.

387

The Effects of Unitization on Familiarity-Based Source Memory: Testing a Behavioral Prediction Derived From Neuroimaging Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Performance on tests of source memory is typically based on recollection of contextual information associated with an item. However, recent neuroimaging results have suggested that the perirhinal cortex, a region thought to support familiarity-based item recognition, may support source attributions if source information is encoded as a feature…

Diana, Rachel A.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.; Ranganath, Charan

2008-01-01

388

Recollection and familiarity deficits in amnesia: Convergence of remember-know, process dissociation, and receiver operating characteristic data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies using the process dissociation and the remember—know procedures led to conflicting conclusions regarding the effects of anterograde amnesia on recollection and familiarity. We argue that these apparent contradictions arose because different models were used to interpret the results and because differences in false-alarm rates between groups biased the estimates provided by those models. A reanalysis of those studies

Andrew P. Yonelinas; Neal E. A. Kroll; Ian Dobbins; Michele Lazzara; Robert T. Knight

1998-01-01

389

When We like What We Know--A Parametric fMRI Analysis of Beauty and Familiarity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper presents a neuroscientific study of aesthetic judgments on written texts. In an fMRI experiment participants read a number of proverbs without explicitly evaluating them. In a post-scan rating they rated each item for familiarity and beauty. These individual ratings were correlated with the functional data to investigate the neural…

Bohrn, Isabel C.; Altmann, Ulrike; Lubrich, Oliver; Menninghaus, Winfried; Jacobs, Arthur M.

2013-01-01

390

The attraction of the known: the importance of spatial familiarity in habitat selection in wapiti Cervus elaphus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most studies of habitat selection by large herbivores focus on the resource availability and interactions with other species, but neglect the importance of an animal being familiar with an area due to past use. Yet, studies of the establishment and retention of territories, home ranges, birth sites, and feeding site choices in experimental settings have shown the importance of spatial

Mosheh Wolf; Jacqui Frair; Evelyn Merrill; Peter Turchin

2009-01-01

391

Second Language Reading Topic Familiarity and Test Score: Test-Taking Strategies for Multiple-Choice Comprehension Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The main purpose of this study was to compare the strategies used by Chinese-speaking students when confronted with familiar versus unfamiliar topics in a multiple-choice format reading comprehension test. The focus was on describing what students do when they are taking reading comprehension tests by asking students to verbalize their thoughts.…

Lee, Jia-Ying

2011-01-01

392

The First Slow Step: Differential Effects of Object and Word-Form Familiarization on Retention of Fast-Mapped Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recent research demonstrated that although 24-month-old infants do well on the initial pairing of a novel word and novel object in fast-mapping tasks, they are unable to retain the mapping after a 5 min delay. The current study examines the role of familiarity with the objects and words on infants' ability to bridge between the initial fast…

Kucker, Sarah C.; Samuelson, Larissa K.

2012-01-01

393

Pre-experimental Familiarization Increases Hippocampal Activity for Both Targets and Lures in Recognition Memory: An fMRI Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, items pre-exposed in a familiarization series were included in a list discrimination task to manipulate memory strength. At test, participants were required to discriminate strong targets and strong lures from weak targets and new lures. This resulted in a concordant pattern of increased \\

Greig I. de Zubicaray; Katie L. McMahon; Lydia Hayward; John C. Dunn

2011-01-01

394

The Effects of Unitization on Familiarity-Based Source Memory: Testing a Behavioral Prediction Derived From Neuroimaging Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Performance on tests of source memory is typically based on recollection of contextual information associated with an item. However, recent neuroimaging results have suggested that the perirhinal cortex, a region thought to support familiarity-based item recognition, may support source attributions if source information is encoded as a feature of…

Diana, Rachel A.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.; Ranganath, Charan

2008-01-01

395

Cortisol reactivity, maternal sensitivity, and infant preference for mother's familiar face and rhyme in 6?month?old infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated how cortisol (stress) reactivity and mothers' behavioural sensitivity affect familiarity preferences in 6?month?old infants. Relations between sensitivity and stress were explored using saliva samples taken from mothers and infants before, and 20 min after, two preferential looking experiments. Photographs and voice recordings from infants' mothers were incorporated into standard visual preference tasks. Sensitivity was assessed by determining the

Laura A. Thompson; Wenda R. Trevathan

2009-01-01

396

The Computer Aversion, Attitudes, and Familiarity Index (CAAFI): A Measure for the Study of Computer-Related Constructs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to systematically develop an instrument to measure computer aversion, computer attitudes, and computer familiarity. The study is an extension of previous research (Schulenberg, 2002). Development involved item generation, pilot testing, and exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. The measure was administered to…

Schulenberg, Stefan E.; Yutrzenka, Barbara A.; Gohm, Carol L.

2006-01-01

397

The Influence of Toy Type and Adult Familiarity on the Pretend Play of 22-Month-Olds.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the degree to which young children are influenced by the familiarity of an adult participant in their pretend play with toys which vary in resemblance to highly prototypical objects (e.g., cup-like cups or doll-like dolls). A group of 29 children, mean age 21 months, was divided into two experimental groups balanced by sex; 15…

Fein, Greta G.; Diamond, Edward

398

Social interactions in adolescent and adult Sprague–Dawley rats: Impact of social deprivation and test context familiarity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interactions with peers become particularly important during adolescence, and age differences in social interactions have been successfully modeled in rats. To determine the impact of social deprivation on social interactions under anxiogenic (unfamiliar) or non-anxiogenic (familiar) test circumstances during ontogeny, the present study used a modified social interaction test to assess the effects of 5 days of social isolation or

Elena I. Varlinskaya; Linda P. Spear

2008-01-01

399

CARTAS DE PRESOS POLÍTICOS E DE SEUS FAMILIARES: VIOLÊNCIA E ATUAÇÃO FEMININA NO GOVERNO VARGAS. 1930-1945  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: Para a análise do tema da repressão durante o governo Vargas (1930-1945), as cartas de presos políticos e de seus familiares revelaram ser fontes valiosas para a percepção do alcance e dos significados para parte da sociedade do poder repressivo empregado por este governo no combate a seus \\

Janete Leiko TANNO

2005-01-01

400

Effects of Working Memory Capacity and Content Familiarity on Literal and Inferential Comprehension in L2 Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines the effects of working memory capacity and content familiarity on literal and inferential comprehension in second language (L2) reading. Participants were 62 Turkish university students with an advanced English proficiency level. Working memory capacity was measured through a computerized version of a reading span test,…

Alptekin, Cem; Ercetin, Gulcan

2011-01-01

401

Social reinstatement responses of meat-type chickens to familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics after exposure to an acute stressor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Runway tests are considered indicative of underlying sociality in birds and their ability to make social discriminations. We evaluated whether experience of a prior stressor alters the subsequent affiliation responses of 9 or 10-day-old chicks simultaneously exposed to familiar (cagemates) and unfamiliar conspecifics placed in goal boxes at opposite ends of a runway. Birds were housed in groups of eight

Diego A. Guzman; Raul H. Marin

2008-01-01

402

Direct Evidence for Two Different Neural Mechanisms for Reading Familiar and Unfamiliar Words: An Intra-Cerebral EEG Study  

PubMed Central

After intensive practice, unfamiliar letter strings become familiar words and reading speed increases strikingly from a slow processing to a fast and with more global recognition of words. While this effect has been well documented at the behavioral level, its neural underpinnings are still unclear. The question is how the brain modulates the activity of the reading network according to the novelty of the items. Several models have proposed that familiar and unfamiliar words are not processed by separate networks but rather by common regions operating differently according to familiarity. This hypothesis has proved difficult to test at the neural level because the effects of familiarity and length on reading occur (a) on a millisecond scale, shorter than the resolution of fMRI and (b) in regions which cannot be isolated with non-invasive EEG or MEG. We overcame these limitations by using invasive intra-cerebral EEG recording in epileptic patients. Neural activity (gamma-band responses, between 50 and 150?Hz) was measured in three major nodes of reading network – left inferior frontal, supramarginal, and inferior temporo-occipital cortices – while patients silently read familiar (words) and unfamiliar (pseudo-words) items of two lengths (short composed of one-syllable vs. long composed of three-syllables). While all items elicited strong neural responses in the three regions, we found that the duration of the neural response increases with length only for pseudo-words, in direct relation to orthographic-to-phonological conversion. Our results validate at the neural level the hypothesis that all words are processed by a common network operating more or less efficiently depending on words’ novelty.

Juphard, Alexandra; Vidal, Juan R.; Perrone-Bertolotti, Marcela; Minotti, Lorella; Kahane, Philippe; Lachaux, Jean-Philippe; Baciu, Monica

2011-01-01

403

Direct evidence for two different neural mechanisms for reading familiar and unfamiliar words: an intra-cerebral EEG study.  

PubMed

After intensive practice, unfamiliar letter strings become familiar words and reading speed increases strikingly from a slow processing to a fast and with more global recognition of words. While this effect has been well documented at the behavioral level, its neural underpinnings are still unclear. The question is how the brain modulates the activity of the reading network according to the novelty of the items. Several models have proposed that familiar and unfamiliar words are not processed by separate networks but rather by common regions operating differently according to familiarity. This hypothesis has proved difficult to test at the neural level because the effects of familiarity and length on reading occur (a) on a millisecond scale, shorter than the resolution of fMRI and (b) in regions which cannot be isolated with non-invasive EEG or MEG. We overcame these limitations by using invasive intra-cerebral EEG recording in epileptic patients. Neural activity (gamma-band responses, between 50 and 150?Hz) was measured in three major nodes of reading network - left inferior frontal, supramarginal, and inferior temporo-occipital cortices - while patients silently read familiar (words) and unfamiliar (pseudo-words) items of two lengths (short composed of one-syllable vs. long composed of three-syllables). While all items elicited strong neural responses in the three regions, we found that the duration of the neural response increases with length only for pseudo-words, in direct relation to orthographic-to-phonological conversion. Our results validate at the neural level the hypothesis that all words are processed by a common network operating more or less efficiently depending on words' novelty. PMID:21960968

Juphard, Alexandra; Vidal, Juan R; Perrone-Bertolotti, Marcela; Minotti, Lorella; Kahane, Philippe; Lachaux, Jean-Philippe; Baciu, Monica

2011-09-20

404

Recollection and familiarity for public events in neurologically intact older adults and two brain-damaged patients.  

PubMed

Despite extensive investigations of the role of recollection and familiarity on laboratory-acquired memories, there is a dearth of such research on memories formed in real life settings. We used the Remember/Know paradigm to investigate the relative contribution of recollection and familiarity processes to memory of public historical events reported in the media across the life span of two groups of neurologically intact older adults (old-old: 74-85, young-old: 58-69) and on two patients with brain damage. First, in neurologically intact participants, recollection rates decreased as a function of time elapsed since the event occurred, at a significantly higher rate than the corresponding decrease in familiarity or global memory. Second, consistent with the hypothesis that memories become increasingly semantic as they age, and that recollection is selectively impaired in older adults, across decades, old-old participants exhibited lower recollection, but not familiarity, relative to young-old participants. Finally, as a demonstration of how this procedure may be applied to studies of clinical populations, we tested two patients, one with medial temporal lesions and another with relative sparing of the medial temporal lobes, but with anterior temporal damage. We found that recollection was disproportionately impaired relative to familiarity across most of the life span in the patient with medial temporal lesions severely while recollection was relatively intact in the patient with anterior lateral temporal damage. We discuss the present results in the context of neuroanatomical and process-oriented theories of how memories age. PMID:19944709

Petrican, Raluca; Gopie, Nigel; Leach, Larry; Chow, Tiffany W; Richards, Brian; Moscovitch, Morris

2009-11-26

405

Multiple ways to the prior occurrence of an event: an electrophysiological dissociation of experimental and conceptually driven familiarity in recognition memory.  

PubMed

Recent research has shown that familiarity contributes to associative memory when the to-be-associated stimuli are unitized during encoding. However, the specific processes underlying familiarity-based recognition of unitized representations are still indefinite. In this study, we present electrophysiologically dissociable early old/new effects, presumably related to two different kinds of familiarity inherent in associative recognition tasks. In a study-test associative recognition memory paradigm, we employed encoding conditions that established unitized representations of two pre-experimentally unrelated words, e.g. vegetable-bible. We compared event-related potentials (ERP) during the retrieval of these unitized word pairs using different retrieval cues. Word pairs presented in the same order as during unitization at encoding elicited a parietally distributed early old/new effect which we interpret as reflecting conceptually driven familiarity for newly formed concepts. Conversely, word pairs presented in reversed order only elicited a topographically dissociable early effect, i.e. the mid-frontal old/new effect, the putative correlate of experimental familiarity. The late parietal old/new effect, the putative ERP correlate of recollection, was obtained irrespective of word order, though it was larger for words presented in same order. These results indicate that familiarity may not be a unitary process and that different task demands can promote the assessment of conceptually driven familiarity for novel unitized concepts or experimentally-induced increments of experimental familiarity, respectively. PMID:20816760

Wiegand, Iris; Bader, Regine; Mecklinger, Axel

2010-11-11

406

Effect of Social Familiarity on Salivary Cortisol and Self-Reports of Social Anxiety and Stress in Children with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the effect of social familiarity on salivary cortisol and social anxiety/stress for a sample of children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders. The relationship between self-reported social anxiety/stress and salivary cortisol was also examined. Participants interacted with a familiar peer on one occasion and an…

Lopata, Christopher; Volker, Martin A.; Putnam, Susan K.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Nida, Robert E.

2008-01-01

407

Drosophila melanogaster virgins are more likely to mate with strangers than familiar flies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent evidence shows that females of many species can discriminate against males and/or male phenotypes they have mated with previously. However, these studies have not tested whether actual mating is necessary to induce the avoidance behaviour. A preference for strangers may have evolved because it avoids multiple matings with similar genotypes. Alternatively, there may be selection against mating with familiar individuals directly. By choosing its first mate among unfamiliar individuals (which are less likely close relatives than are those encountered early in life), a virgin might disentangle some of the potential benefits of avoiding genetic incompatibility and inbreeding in the offspring from the costs of remating. In this study, we test whether Drosophila melanogaster flies bias their mate choice towards strangers according to previous, non-copulatory, experience. Based on 173 trials over 12 weeks, virgin females presented with two virgin males were 59% more likely to mate with a novel male than the one which she had been housed with for 8 h the day before. Hence we present the first report showing that a dipteran can distinguish between previously encountered and not previously encountered conspecifics.

Ödeen, Anders; Moray, Clea M.

2008-03-01

408

The conditioning of aversions to familiar and preferred flavours: a new aversion therapy model.  

PubMed

The present study examined the ability of rats to develop aversions to familiar flavours and to flavours that they had previously acquired a preference for. Rats were first conditioned to prefer a CS+ flavour over a CS- flavour by pairing CS+ intake with the consumption of a starch solution (16% Polycose). A second group was exposed to the same training but preference conditioning was prevented by inhibiting starch digestion with the drug acarbose. The rats were next given aversion training; the CS+ flavour was now paired with toxicosis (LiCl injection) while the CS- flavour paired with a control treatment (NaCl injection). The results of two-choice tests revealed that aversion training produced significant avoidance of the CS+ flavours in both the group that had acquired a preference for this flavour as well as in the no-preference group. The value of using conditioned flavour preferences as targets for aversions to model the aversion therapy approach to alcoholism is discussed. PMID:16840158

Clarke, J C; Manza, L M; Sclafani, A

1990-01-01

409

Word Learning by Preschoolers with SLI: Effect of Phonotactic Probability and Object Familiarity  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study investigated whether previous findings of a low phonotactic probability/unfamiliar object word learning advantage in preschoolers could be replicated, whether this advantage would be apparent at different ‘stages’ of word learning, and whether findings would differ for preschoolers with specific language impairment (SLI) and typical development (TD). Method One hundred fourteen children participated: 40 with SLI, 39 with TD matched for age and gender, and 35 with TD matched for expressive vocabulary and gender. Comprehension and production were assessed during word learning and at post-test for words that varied in phonotactic probability and object familiarity. Results Across groups, comprehension performance increased significantly from days 1–3, but there was no significant word/object type effect. Production performance increased significantly for days 1–4 for all groups and there was a clear low phonotactic probability/unfamiliar object advantage during word learning, but not at post-test. Conclusions Results help to establish that preschoolers with TD and SLI show a low phonotactic probability/unfamiliar object production advantage during word learning that is not restricted to the first few exposures to words, but continues over time. This study illustrates how the interaction of phonological characteristics in nascent and extant words can affect word learning.

Gray, Shelley; Brinkley, Shara; Svetina, Dubravka

2012-01-01

410

Fortalezas familiares program: building sociocultural and family strengths in latina women with depression and their families.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article is to describe Fortalezas Familiares (FF; Family Strengths), a community-based prevention program designed to address relational family processes and promote well-being among Latino families when a mother has depression. Although depression in Latina women is becoming increasingly recognized, risk and protective mechanisms associated with children's outcomes when a mother has depression are not well understood for Latino families. We begin by reviewing the literature on risk and protective psychosocial mechanisms by which maternal depression may affect Latino youth, using family systems theory and a developmental psychopathology framework with an emphasis on sociocultural factors shaping family processes. Next, we describe the theoretical basis and development of the FF program, a community-based 12-week intervention for Latina immigrant women with depression, other caregivers, and their children. Throughout this article, we use a case study to illustrate a Latina mother's vulnerability to depression and the family's response to the FF program. Recommendations for future research and practice include consideration of sociocultural processes in shaping both outcomes of Latino families and their response to interventions. PMID:24033237

Valdez, Carmen R; Abegglen, Jessica; Hauser, Claire T

2012-11-29

411

fMRI repetition suppression for familiar but not arbitrary actions with tools.  

PubMed

For humans, daily life is characterized by routine interaction with many different tools for which corresponding actions are specified and performed according to well-learned procedures. The current study used functional MRI (fMRI) repetition suppression (RS) to identify brain areas underlying the transformation of visually defined tool properties to corresponding motor programs for conventional use. Before grasping and demonstrating how to use a specific tool, participants passively viewed either the same (repeated) tool or a different (non-repeated) tool. Repetition of tools led to reduced fMRI signals (RS) within a selective network of parietal and premotor areas. Comparison with newly learned, arbitrarily defined control actions revealed specificity of RS for tool use, thought to reflect differences in the extent of previous sensorimotor experience. The findings indicate that familiar tools are visually represented within the same sensorimotor areas underlying their dexterous use according to learned properties defined by previous experience. This interpretation resonates with the broader concept of affordance specification considered fundamental to action planning and execution whereby action-relevant object properties (affordances) are visually represented in sensorimotor areas. The current findings extend this view to reveal that affordance specification in humans includes learned object properties defined by previous sensorimotor experience. From an evolutionary perspective, the neural mechanisms identified in the current study offer clear survival advantage, providing fast efficient transformation of visual information to appropriate motor responses based on previous experience. PMID:22442087

Valyear, Kenneth F; Gallivan, Jason P; McLean, D Adam; Culham, Jody C

2012-03-21

412

The effects of inversion and familiarity on face versus body cues to person recognition.  

PubMed

Extensive research has focused on face recognition, and much is known about this topic. However, much of this work seems to be based on an assumption that faces are the most important aspect of person recognition. Here we test this assumption in two experiments. We show that when viewers are forced to choose, they do use the face more than the body, both for familiar (trained) person recognition and for unfamiliar person matching. However, we also show that headless bodies are recognized and matched with very high accuracy. We further show that processing style may be similar for faces and bodies, with inversion effects found in all cases (bodies with heads, faces alone and bodies alone), and evidence that mismatching bodies and heads causes interference. We suggest that recent findings of no inversion effect when stimuli are headless bodies may have been obtained because the stimuli led viewers to focus on nonbody aspects (e.g., clothes) or because pose and identity tasks led to somewhat different processing. Our results are consistent with holistic processing for bodies as well as faces. PMID:22642217

Robbins, Rachel A; Coltheart, Max

2012-05-28

413

Reaction time, memory strength, and fMRI activity during memory retrieval: Hippocampus and default network are differentially responsive during recollection and familiarity judgments  

PubMed Central

Retrieval is often subdivided into recollection and familiarity. Memory-strength and reaction time (RT) differ for each, complicating fMRI studies of these processes. Recollection leads to greater activity in the hippocampus and default network (DN). Increased DN activity with recollection is thought to reflect self-referential processes, but prior studies have not accounted for varying RT, which modulates DN activity and is consistently faster for recollection than familiarity. This study examined the influence of RT and memory-strength on recollection and familiarity activity. The results show the hippocampus functionally dissociated from DN during retrieval. DN was generally influenced by RT and signal was suppressed when subjects were task-engaged in recollection or familiarity; suppression was greater for slower trials of either type. The hippocampus showed a positive deflection of fMRI activity only for recollection trials; activation was greater for slower recollection trials, but RT did not influence hippocampal activity during familiarity trials.

Gimbel, Sarah I.; Brewer, James B.

2010-01-01

414

El pronóstico del cáncer  

Cancer.gov

Hoja informativa sobre la predicción de resultados y recuperación de una enfermedad, y sobre cómo las estadísticas ayudan a los médicos a hacer una estimación del pronóstico de un paciente con cáncer.

415

Il problema del litio.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contents: 1. Introduzione. 2. La nucleosintesi del Big Bang. 3. Il litio nelle stelle di popolazione II. 4. I modelli stellari standard. 5. Il litio negli ammassi aperti. 6. Meccanismi di distruzione "non standard". 7. I modelli non-standard applicati alla popolazione II. 8. L'evoluzione Galattica del litio. 9. Quali stelle producono litio? 10. Il litio come elemento chiave per dare un nome agli oggetti stellari più minuscoli. 11. Conclusioni.

D'Antona, F.

1995-03-01

416

Fisiopatología del estreñimiento  

Microsoft Academic Search

ResumenEl estreñimiento es un trastorno extremadamente frecuente en la infancia, responsable de hasta el 25% de todas las consultas gastroenterológicas pediátricas y el 3% de todas las consultas pediátricas ambulatorias. En el 90% de los casos el origen del trastorno es funcional y sólo en un 10% existe un problema orgánico subyacente. Entre las causas orgánicas corrientes del estreñimiento infantil

Peter J. Milla

2007-01-01

417

Familiarization and reliability of one repetition maximum strength testing in older women.  

PubMed

Strength is a fundamental component of physical fitness, and therefore should be precisely assessed. The purpose of this study was to analyze the number of testing sessions required to achieve consistent 1 repetition maximum (1RM) strength measurements in untrained older women. Forty-five untrained older women were measured for 1RM in bench press machine (BP), leg extension (LE) machine, and free weight arm curl (AC). Reliability coefficients for trials 1 and 2 for BP (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.973) and LE (ICC = 0.976) were higher than for AC (ICC = 0.953). Percent change from trial 1 to 2 for BP (3.5 ± 10.9%) and AC (3.8 ± 8.1%) was less than for LE (5.4 ± 6.2%), but all were significant increases between trials (p < 0.05). Trial differences were reduced to nonsignificant levels (p > 0.05) in the third trial for BP (0.0 ± 0.0%), LE (1.2 ± 3.0%) and AC (2.7 ± 5.9%). Reliability coefficients rose for BP and LE (ICC = 0.999) and AC (ICC = 0.963) when a third trial was performed. Bland and Altman plotting showed very small bias and limits of agreement (LoA) for both the exercises (BP: bias = 0 kg, limits of agreement = 0 kg; LE: bias = -0.16 kg, LoA = 2.21 kg; AC: bias = -0.11 kg, LoA = 1.72 kg). This approach to determine 1RM strength values produced rapid lifting technique familiarization resulting in a need of 2 to 3 test sessions to achieve consistent 1RM measurements in untrained older women. PMID:22990569

Amarante do Nascimento, Matheus; Januário, Renata Selvatici Borges; Gerage, Aline Mendes; Mayhew, Jerry L; Cheche Pina, Fábio Luiz; Cyrino, Edilson Serpeloni

2013-06-01

418

Familiarity with breeding habitat improves daily survival in colonial cliff swallows  

PubMed Central

One probable cost of dispersing to a new breeding habitat is unfamiliarity with local conditions such as the whereabouts of food or the habits of local predators, and consequently immigrants may have lower probabilities of survival than more experienced residents. Within a breeding season, estimated daily survival probabilities of cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) at colonies in southwestern Nebraska were highest for birds that had always nested at the same site, followed by those for birds that had nested there in some (but not all) past years. Daily survival probabilities were lowest for birds that were naïve immigrants to a colony site and for yearling birds that were nesting for the first time. Birds with past experience at a colony site had monthly survival 8.6% greater than that of naïve immigrants. All colonies where experienced residents did better than immigrants were smaller than 750 nests in size, and in colonies greater than 750 nests, naïve immigrants paid no survival costs relative to experienced residents. Removal of nest ectoparasites by fumigation resulted in higher survival probabilities for all birds, on average, and diminished the differences between immigrants and past residents, probably by improving bird condition to the extent that effects of past experience were relatively less important and harder to detect. The greater survival of experienced residents could not be explained by condition or territory quality, suggesting that familiarity with a local area confers survival advantages during the breeding season for cliff swallows. Colonial nesting may help to moderate the cost of unfamiliarity with an area, likely through social transfer of information about food sources and enhanced vigilance in large groups.

BROWN, CHARLES R.; BROWN, MARY BOMBERGER; BRAZEAL, KATHLEEN R.

2008-01-01

419

Schooling decisions in guppies ( Poecilia reticulata ) are based on familiarity rather than kin recognition by phenotype matching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence from a number of freshwater species indicates that fish prefer to school with familiar individuals. Do they also\\u000a choose to associate with kin? Our experiment tested this idea using the Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata, a species whose reproductive biology favours the association of kin groups. Juveniles reared together were able to recognise\\u000a one another on the basis of either

Siân W. Griffiths; Anne E. Magurran

1999-01-01

420

Right Frontal Lobe Mediation of Recollection and Familiarity-based Verbal Recognition Memory: Evidence from Patients with Tumor Resections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medial-temporal, parietal, and pFC regions have been implicated in recollection and familiarity, but existing evidence from neuroimaging and patient studies is limited and conflicting regarding the role of specific regions within pFC in these memory processes. We report a study of 20 patients who had undergone resection of right frontal lobe tumors and 20 matched healthy control participants. The location

Nicole D. Anderson; Patrick S. R. Davidson; Warren P. Mason; Fuqiang Gao; Malcolm A. Binns; Gordon Winocur

2011-01-01

421

Imagery, concreteness, goodness, and familiarity ratings for 500 proverbs sampled from the Oxford Dictionary of English Proverbs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partly in order to facilitate research on the relation between some standard psychological variables, we gathered normative\\u000a data on 500 proverbs sampled from theOxford Dictionary of English Proverbs (Wilson, 1970). The scales for which we gathered data are imagery, concreteness, goodness , and familiarity. These norms\\u000a may be of value to researchers who wish to sample linguistic units larger than

John Benjafield; Kris Frommhold; Tom Keenan; Ron Muckenheim; Dierk Mueller

1993-01-01

422

La empresa familiar en Castilla y Le¢n. Un primer intento de caracterizaci¢n y an lisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

La b£squeda de formas de gesti¢n que favorezcan la continuidad de la empresa familiar ha generado un intenso debate en torno a la naturaleza y comportamiento de estas organizaciones. Desde nuestra perspectiva, la diferencia esencial de estas organizaciones es su singular estructura contractual. La coincidencia de la propiedad y direcci¢n de la empresa en miembros de una familia da lugar

Virginia Blanco Mazagatos

2003-01-01

423

Issue Familiarity and Framing Effects of Online Campaign Coverage: Event Perception, Issue Attitudes, and the 2004 Presidential Election in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tests how two distinguishable frames identified from Mainland Chinese online coverage of Taiwan's 2004 presidential election campaign influenced U.S. and Chinese audiences' event perception and attitudes toward Mainland-Taiwan relations. Employing a 2times2×3 between-subjects experiment, this study highlights the moderating effect of issue familiarity. Findings show a significant impact of framing intensity on the event perception of those who

T. Makana Chock; Pamela J. Shoemaker

2009-01-01

424

The importance of multiple assessments of object knowledge in semantic dementia: The case of the familiar objects task  

PubMed Central

Semantic dementia (SD) is characterized by a dramatic loss of conceptual knowledge about the meaning of words and the identity of objects. Previous research has suggested that SD patients’ knowledge is differentially influenced by the disease and may decline at different degrees depending on a patient’s everyday familiarity with certain items. However, no study has examined (a) semantic knowledge deterioration and (b) the potential significance of autobiographical experience for the maintenance of object concepts in the same cohort of SD patients by using comprehensive assessments of different aspects of object knowledge across an experience-based, distributed semantic memory network. Here, we tested four SD patients and three Alzheimer’s disease (AD) control patients using a range of tasks – including naming, gesture generation, and autobiographical knowledge – with personally familiar objects or perceptually similar or different object analogs. Our results showed dissociations between performance on naming relative to other assessments of object knowledge between SD and AD patients, though we did not observe a reliable familiar objects advantage. We discuss different factors that may account for these findings, as well as their implications for research on SD.

Chrysikou, Evangelia G.; Giovannetti, Tania; Wambach, Denene M.; Lyon, Abigail C.; Grossman, Murray; Libon, David J.

2012-01-01

425

Pre-experimental familiarization increases hippocampal activity for both targets and lures in recognition memory: an fMRI study.  

PubMed

In the present study, items pre-exposed in a familiarization series were included in a list discrimination task to manipulate memory strength. At test, participants were required to discriminate strong targets and strong lures from weak targets and new lures. This resulted in a concordant pattern of increased "old" responses to strong targets and lures. Model estimates attributed this pattern to either equivalent increases in memory strength across the two types of items (unequal variance signal detection model) or equivalent increases in both familiarity and recollection (dual process signal detection [DPSD] model). Hippocampal activity associated with strong targets and lures showed equivalent increases compared with missed items. This remained the case when analyses were restricted to high-confidence responses considered by the DPSD model to reflect predominantly recollection. A similar pattern of activity was observed in parahippocampal cortex for high-confidence responses. The present results are incompatible with "noncriterial" or "false" recollection being reflected solely in inflated DPSD familiarity estimates and support a positive correlation between hippocampal activity and memory strength irrespective of the accuracy of list discrimination, consistent with the unequal variance signal detection model account. PMID:21736453

de Zubicaray, Greig I; McMahon, Katie L; Hayward, Lydia; Dunn, John C

2011-07-07

426

Inter-subject variability in the use of two different neuronal networks for reading aloud familiar words  

PubMed Central

Cognitive models of reading predict that high frequency regular words can be read in more than one way. We investigated this hypothesis using functional MRI and covariance analysis in 43 healthy skilled readers. Our results dissociated two sets of regions that were differentially engaged across subjects who were reading the same familiar words. Some subjects showed more activation in left inferior frontal and anterior occipito-temporal regions while other subjects showed more activation in right inferior parietal and left posterior occipito-temporal regions. To explore the behavioural correlates of these systems, we measured the difference between reading speed for irregularly spelled words relative to pseudowords outside the scanner in fifteen of our subjects and correlated this measure with fMRI activation for reading familiar words. The faster the lexical reading the greater the activation in left posterior occipito-temporal and right inferior parietal regions. Conversely, the slower the lexical reading the greater the activation in left anterior occipito-temporal and left ventral inferior frontal regions. Thus, the double dissociation in irregular and pseudoword reading behaviour predicted the double dissociation in neuronal activation for reading familiar words. We discuss the implications of these results which may be important for understanding how reading is learnt in childhood or re-learnt following brain damage in adulthood.

Seghier, M.L.; Lee, H.L.; Schofield, T.; Ellis, C.L.; Price, C.J.

2008-01-01

427

Inter-subject variability in the use of two different neuronal networks for reading aloud familiar words.  

PubMed

Cognitive models of reading predict that high frequency regular words can be read in more than one way. We investigated this hypothesis using functional MRI and covariance analysis in 43 healthy skilled readers. Our results dissociated two sets of regions that were differentially engaged across subjects who were reading the same familiar words. Some subjects showed more activation in left inferior frontal and anterior occipito-temporal regions while other subjects showed more activation in right inferior parietal and left posterior occipito-temporal regions. To explore the behavioural correlates of these systems, we measured the difference between reading speed for irregularly spelled words relative to pseudowords outside the scanner in fifteen of our subjects and correlated this measure with fMRI activation for reading familiar words. The faster the lexical reading the greater the activation in left posterior occipito-temporal and right inferior parietal regions. Conversely, the slower the lexical reading the greater the activation in left anterior occipito-temporal and left ventral inferior frontal regions. Thus, the double dissociation in irregular and pseudoword reading behaviour predicted the double dissociation in neuronal activation for reading familiar words. We discuss the implications of these results which may be important for understanding how reading is learnt in childhood or re-learnt following brain damage in adulthood. PMID:18639469

Seghier, M L; Lee, H L; Schofield, T; Ellis, C L; Price, C J

2008-05-28

428

Recognition memory strength is predicted by pupillary responses at encoding while fixation patterns distinguish recollection from familiarity.  

PubMed

Thirty-five healthy participants incidentally encoded a set of man-made and natural object pictures, while their pupil response and eye movements were recorded. At retrieval, studied and new stimuli were rated as novel, familiar (strong, moderate, or weak), or recollected. We found that both pupil response and fixation patterns at encoding predict later recognition memory strength. The extent of pupillary response accompanying incidental encoding was found to be predictive of subsequent memory. In addition, the number of fixations was also predictive of later recognition memory strength, suggesting that the accumulation of greater visual detail, even for single objects, is critical for the creation of a strong memory. Moreover, fixation patterns at encoding distinguished between recollection and familiarity at retrieval, with more dispersed fixations predicting familiarity and more clustered fixations predicting recollection. These data reveal close links between the autonomic control of pupil responses and eye movement patterns on the one hand and memory encoding on the other. Moreover, the data illustrate quantitative as well as qualitative differences in the incidental visual processing of stimuli, which are differentially predictive of the strength and the kind of memory experienced at recognition. PMID:21838656

Kafkas, Alexandros; Montaldi, Daniela

2011-08-15

429

Investigación translacional para generar datos a favor de la introducción racional y eficiente de vacunas nuevas en países en vías de desarrollo: La experiencia del Instituto Internacional de Vacunas  

Microsoft Academic Search

ExtractoEn los últimos años, la introducción de vacunas nuevas en países opulentos ha tenido lugar a un ritmo asombroso. En comparación, se han introducido pocas vacunas de nueva generación en los programas de salud pública para los pobres de los países en vías de desarrollo, y para aquéllos que sí los tienen, la introducción ha sido penosamente lenta. Los recursos

John Clemens

2008-01-01

430

Comportamiento del cáncer de vulva durante 16 años en el Instituto Nacional de Cancerología (Colombia) Behavior of Vulvar Cancer over a 16-year Period at the National Cancer Institute (Colombia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe patient mortality among patients with vulvar cancer at the National Cancer Institute of Colombia (INC). Materials and Methods: Retrospective cohort study among vulvar cancer patients at the INC from 1990-2006. Survival estimated by Kaplan-Meyer; comparison with logarithmic trial rankings. Results: 303 patients were diagnosed with vulvar cancer, including. One hundred and ninety cases fulfilled inclusion criteria. Average

Mónica Medina; Ricardo Sánchez; Natascha Ortíz; Alexánder Rodríguez; Simón Oróstegui

431

Un estudio financiado por los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud (NIH) muestra reducción en la mortalidad entre hombres con cáncer de próstata en grado intermedio:  

Cancer.gov

Terapia hormonal por corto tiempo administrada en combinación con radioterapia a hombres con cáncer de próstata en estadio inicial aumentó sus posibilidades de vivir más en comparación con tratamiento de radioterapia sola, según un estudio clínico patrocinado por el NCI. Los beneficios del tratamiento combinado se limitaron principalmente a pacientes con enfermedad de riesgo intermedio y no se observaron en hombres con cáncer de próstata de riesgo bajo, indican los investigadores.

432

An animal model of amnesia that uses Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) analysis to distinguish recollection from familiarity deficits in recognition memory.  

PubMed

Here we review our development of an animal model of episodic memory and amnesia that employs a signal detection analyses to characterize recognition memory performance in rats. This approach aims to distinguish episodic recollection of studied items from mere familiarity for recently experienced stimuli, and then to examine the neural basis of these memory processes. Our findings on intact animals indicate that it is possible to distinguish independent components of recognition that are associated with features of recollection and familiarity in humans. Furthermore, we have found that damage limited to the hippocampus results in a selective deficit in recollection and not familiarity. Also, aging and prefrontal damage result in a similar pattern of impaired recollection and spared familiarity. However, whereas the recollection deficit following hippocampal damage can be attributed to the forgetting of studied materials, the impairment following prefrontal damage is due to false alarms, likely reflecting a deficit in source monitoring. PMID:19772865

Eichenbaum, H; Fortin, N; Sauvage, M; Robitsek, R J; Farovik, A

2009-09-20

433

The Effects of Content Familiarity and Language Ability on Reading Comprehension Performance of Low and High-ability Saudi Tertiary Students Studying English as a Foreign Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the effects of content familiarity and language ability (defined as general L2 proficiency) on the comprehension performance of low- and high-ability Saudi students of English as a foreign language. One hundred and thirty-two male and female university students participated in this study, performing two reading comprehension tests on two different types of text (familiar and unfamiliar). The

Yousif A. N. Al-Shumaimeri

2006-01-01

434

Can Computer Familiarity Regulate the Benefits of Computer-based Memory Training in Normal Aging? A Study with an Italian Sample of Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we investigated whether computer familiarity could regulate the efficacy of a computer-based memory training intervention in an Italian sample of older adults. Participants were randomly assigned to either the training or the waiting-list control group and were tested on four computerized neuropsychological memory tasks and one paper-pencil task. Computer familiarity measures included a computer questionnaire, reaction times

Sara Bottiroli; Elena Cavallini

2009-01-01

435

Passive somatosensory discrimination tasks in healthy volunteers: differential networks involved in familiar versus unfamiliar shape and length discrimination.  

PubMed

Somatosensory discrimination of unseen objects relies on processing of proprioceptive and tactile information to detect spatial features, such as shape or length, as acquired by exploratory finger movements. This ability can be impaired after stroke, because of somatosensory-motor deficits. Passive somatosensory discrimination tasks are therefore used in therapy to improve motor function. Whereas the neural correlates of active discrimination have been addressed repeatedly, little is known about the neural networks activated during passive discrimination of somatosensory information. In the present study, we applied functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while the right index finger of ten healthy subjects was passively moved along various shapes and lengths by an fMRI compatible robot. Comparing discriminating versus non-discriminating passive movements, we identified a bilateral parieto-frontal network, including the precuneus, superior parietal gyrus, rostral intraparietal sulcus, and supramarginal gyrus as well as the supplementary motor area (SMA), dorsal premotor (PMd), and ventral premotor (PMv) areas. Additionally, we compared the discrimination of different spatial features, i.e., discrimination of length versus familiar (rectangles or triangles) and unfamiliar geometric shapes (arbitrary quadrilaterals). Length discrimination activated mainly medially located superior parietal and PMd circuits whereas discrimination of familiar geometric shapes activated more laterally located inferior parietal and PMv regions. These differential parieto-frontal circuits provide new insights into the neural basis of extracting spatial features from somatosensory input and suggest that different passive discrimination tasks could be used for lesion-specific training following stroke. PMID:15907302

Van de Winckel, Ann; Sunaert, Stefan; Wenderoth, Nicole; Peeters, Ron; Van Hecke, Paul; Feys, Hilde; Horemans, Els; Marchal, Guy; Swinnen, Stephan P; Perfetti, Carlo; De Weerdt, Willy

2005-03-24

436

Recollection, familiarity, and content-sensitivity in lateral parietal cortex: a high-resolution fMRI study  

PubMed Central

Numerous studies have identified brain regions where activity is consistently correlated with the retrieval (recollection) of qualitative episodic information. This ‘core recollection network’ can be contrasted with regions where activity differs according to the contents of retrieval. The present study used high-resolution fMRI to investigate whether these putatively-distinct retrieval processes engage common versus dissociable regions. Subjects studied words with two encoding tasks and then performed a memory test in which they distinguished between recollection and different levels of recognition confidence. The fMRI data from study and test revealed several overlapping regions where activity differed according to encoding task, suggesting that content was selectively reinstated during retrieval. The majority of recollection-related regions, though, did not exhibit reinstatement effects, providing support for a core recollection network. Importantly, lateral parietal cortex demonstrated a clear dissociation, whereby recollection effects were localized to angular gyrus and confidence effects were restricted to intraparietal sulcus. Moreover, the latter region exhibited a non-monotonic pattern, consistent with a neural signal reflecting item familiarity rather than a generic form of memory strength. Together, the findings show that episodic retrieval relies on both content-sensitive and core recollective processes, and these can be differentiated from familiarity-based recognition memory.

Johnson, Jeffrey D.; Suzuki, Maki; Rugg, Michael D.

2013-01-01

437

Subadult experience influences adult mate choice in an arthropod: Exposed female wolf spiders prefer males of a familiar phenotype  

PubMed Central

Current sexual selection theory proposes several potential mechanisms driving the evolution of female mating preferences, few of which involve social interactions. Although vertebrate examples of socially influenced mating preferences do exist, the invertebrate examples are virtually nonexistent. Here I demonstrate that the mating preferences of female wolf spiders can be acquired through exposure as subadults to unrelated, sexually active adult males. I first conducted exposure trials during which subadult females of the wolf spider Schizocosa uetzi were allowed to interact with mature males of an experimentally manipulated phenotype (either black or brown forelegs). After maturation, these previously exposed females were paired with a male of either a familiar or unfamiliar manipulated phenotype for mate-choice trials. Subadult females that were exposed to directed courtship by mature males of a particular morphological phenotype were subsequently more likely to mate with a male of a familiar phenotype as adults. Furthermore, females that were exposed as subadults were more likely, as adults, to cannibalize a courting male with an unfamiliar phenotype. Unexposed females did not distinguish between phenotypes in either mate choice or cannibalism frequency. These results suggest a previously uncharacterized mechanism influencing the origin of female mating preferences and ultimately the evolution of male traits: subadult experience. This study also stresses the potential importance of learning and memory on adult mate choice in an arthropod.

Hebets, Eileen A.

2003-01-01

438

Norms for two types of manipulability (graspability and functional usage), familiarity, and age of acquisition for 320 photographs of objects.  

PubMed

There is increasing interest in the role that manipulability plays in processing objects. To date, Magnié, Besson, Poncet, and Dolisi's (2003) manipulability ratings, based on the degree to which objects can be uniquely pantomimed, have been the reference point for many studies. However, these ratings do not fully capture some relevant dimensions of manipulability, including whether an object is graspable and the extent to which functional motor associations above and beyond graspability are present. To address this, we collected ratings of these dimensions, in addition to ratings of familiarity and age of acquisition (AoA), for a set of 320 black-and-white photographs of objects. Familiarity and AoA ratings were highly correlated with previously reported ratings of the same dimensions (r = .853, p < .001, and r = .771, p < .001, respectively), validating the present norms. Grasping and functional use ratings, in contrast, were more moderately correlated with Magnié et al.'s pantomime manipulability ratings (r = .507, p < .001). These results were taken as evidence that the new manipulability ratings collected in this research capture distinct aspects of object manipulability. The complete stimuli and norms from this study may be downloaded from http://brm.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental. PMID:20160288

Salmon, J P; McMullen, P A; Filliter, J H

2010-02-01

439

Social Familiarity Governs Prey Patch-Exploitation, - Leaving and Inter-Patch Distribution of the Group-Living Predatory Mite Phytoseiulus persimilis  

PubMed Central

Background In group-living animals, social interactions and their effects on other life activities such as foraging are commonly determined by discrimination among group members. Accordingly, many group-living species evolved sophisticated social recognition abilities such as the ability to recognize familiar individuals, i.e. individuals encountered before. Social familiarity may affect within-group interactions and between-group movements. In environments with patchily distributed prey, group-living predators must repeatedly decide whether to stay with the group in a given prey patch or to leave and search for new prey patches and groups. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on the assumption that in group-living animals social familiarity allows to optimize the performance in other tasks, as for example predicted by limited attention theory, we assessed the influence of social familiarity on prey patch exploitation, patch-leaving, and inter-patch distribution of the group-living, plant-inhabiting predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. P. persimilis is highly specialized on herbivorous spider mite prey such as the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae, which is patchily distributed on its host plants. We conducted two experiments with (1) groups of juvenile P. persimilis under limited food on interconnected detached leaflets, and (2) groups of adult P. persimilis females under limited food on whole plants. Familiar individuals of both juvenile and adult predator groups were more exploratory and dispersed earlier from a given spider mite patch, occupied more leaves and depleted prey more quickly than individuals of unfamiliar groups. Moreover, familiar juvenile predators had higher survival chances than unfamiliar juveniles. Conclusions/Significance We argue that patch-exploitation and -leaving, and inter-patch dispersion were more favorably coordinated in groups of familiar than unfamiliar predators, alleviating intraspecific competition and improving prey utilization and suppression.

Zach, Gernot J.; Peneder, Stefan; Strodl, Markus A.; Schausberger, Peter

2012-01-01

440

Knowing too little or too much: the effects of familiarity with a co-performer's part on interpersonal coordination in musical ensembles.  

PubMed

Expert ensemble musicians produce exquisitely coordinated sounds, but rehearsal is typically required to do so. Ensemble coordination may thus be influenced by the degree to which individuals are familiar with each other's parts. Such familiarity may affect the ability to predict and synchronize with co-performers' actions. Internal models related to action simulation and anticipatory musical imagery may be affected by knowledge of (1) the musical structure of a co-performer's part (e.g., in terms of its rhythm and phrase structure) and/or (2) the co-performer's idiosyncratic playing style (e.g., expressive micro-timing variations). The current study investigated the effects of familiarity on interpersonal coordination in piano duos. Skilled pianists were required to play several duets with different partners. One condition included duets for which co-performers had previously practiced both parts, while another condition included duets for which each performer had practiced only their own part. Each piece was recorded six times without joint rehearsal or visual contact to examine the effects of increasing familiarity. Interpersonal coordination was quantified by measuring asynchronies between pianists' keystroke timing and the correlation of their body (head and torso) movements, which were recorded with a motion capture system. The results suggest that familiarity with a co-performer's part, in the absence of familiarity with their playing style, engenders predictions about micro-timing variations that are based instead upon one's own playing style, leading to a mismatch between predictions and actual events at short timescales. Predictions at longer timescales-that is, those related to musical measures and phrases, and reflected in head movements and body sway-are, however, facilitated by familiarity with the structure of a co-performer's part. These findings point to a dissociation between interpersonal coordination at the level of keystrokes and body movements. PMID:23805116

Ragert, Marie; Schroeder, Tim; Keller, Peter E

2013-06-25

441

Análisis de la Satisfacción con los Cuidados en Salud a Través del Cuestionario EORTC IN-PATSAT32 en Pacientes con Cáncer de Mama, Linfoma no Hodgkin y Cáncer ColoRectal en Diferentes Etapas Clínicas. Relación con las Características Socio-Demográficas, Estados Co-Mórbidos y Variables del Proceso de Atención en el Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionIn Mexico cancer is a public health burden. Nowadays the health care systems pay special attention to patient's perception and satisfaction of the health care received. Satisfaction with quality of health care has an impact in the adherence to the treatment.

Luz-Ma-Adriana Balderas-Peña; Daniel Sat-Muñoz; Iris Contreras-Hernández; Pedro Solano-Murillo; Guillermo-Allan Hernández-Chávez; Ignacio Mariscal-Ramírez; Martha Lomelí-García; Margarita-Arimatea Díaz-Cortés; Joaquín-Federico Mould-Quevedo; Juan-Manuel Castro-Cervantes; Oscar-Miguel Garcés-Ruiz; Gilberto Morgan-Villela

2011-01-01

442

Contributions of familiarity and recollection rejection to recognition: Evidence from the time course of false recognition for semantic and conjunction lures  

PubMed Central

It has been suggested that both familiarity and recollection contribute to the recognition decision process. In this paper, we leverage the form of false alarm rate functions—in which false-alarm rates describe an inverted U-shaped function as the time between study and test increases—to assess how these processes support retention of semantic and surface form information from previously studied words. We directly compare the maxima of these functions for lures that are semantically related and lures that are related by surface form to previously studied material. This analysis reveals a more rapid loss of access to surface form than to semantic information. To separate the contributions of item familiarity and reminding-induced recollection rejection to this effect, we use a simple multinomial process model; this analysis reveals that this loss of access reflects both a more rapid loss of familiarity and lower rates of recollection for surface form information.

Matzen, Laura E.; Taylor, Eric G.; Benjamin, Aaron S.

2010-01-01

443

Developmental change in the ERP responses to familiar faces in toddlers with autism spectrum disorders versus typical development.  

PubMed

Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show differences in face processing abilities from early in development. To examine whether these differences reflect an atypical versus delayed developmental trajectory, neural responses to familiar and unfamiliar faces in twenty-four 18- to 47-month-old children with ASD were compared with responses of thirty-two 12- to 30-month-old typically developing children. Results of 2 experiments revealed that neural responses to faces in children with ASD resembled those observed in younger typically developing children, suggesting delayed development. Electrophysiological responses to faces were also related to parent report of adaptive social behaviors for both children with ASD and typical development. Slower development of the face processing system in ASD may be related to reduced self-directed "expected" experience with faces in early development. PMID:22004249

Webb, Sara Jane; Jones, Emily J H; Merkle, Kristen; Venema, Kaitlin; Greenson, Jessica; Murias, Michael; Dawson, Geraldine

2011-10-17

444

Familiarity-connected or stress-based contagious yawning in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris)? Some additional data.  

PubMed

The present short note aimed at further exploring data from a recent study showing socially modulated auditory contagious yawning in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). Two independent observers further extended the analysis of all video recordings made in the previous study and coded both the number of yawns performed by the dogs and the frequencies or durations of stress-related behaviors exhibited throughout the presentation of familiar and unfamiliar yawns. By showing no significant difference between conditions in the frequencies or durations of the coded behaviors, nor any association between the number of yawns and the frequencies or durations of stress-related behaviors, results raised doubt on the stress-induced yawn hypothesis, thus supporting social modulation. The exact mechanism underlying contagious yawning, however, needs further research. PMID:23982621

Silva, Karine; Bessa, Joana; de Sousa, Liliana

2013-08-28

445

Stimulus control of predatory behavior by the Iberian wall lizard (Podarcis hispanica, Sauria, Lacertidae): effects of familiarity with prey.  

PubMed

The authors examine the relative roles of vision and chemoreception and the influence of previous experience with prey on the predatory behavior of Iberian wall lizards (Podarcis hispanica). Experiment 1 compared the responses to visual, chemical, and a combination of visual and chemical cues of a familiar prey by 2 groups of lizards that had been kept in captivity for either 3 months or 21 days. Experiment 2 assessed the responses of lizards kept in the laboratory for more than 3 months to a novel prey species. The results reveal that feeding on a prey species affects the lizards' responses to chemical stimuli from that prey. The response to chemical cues of a novel prey requires a 1st-feeding experience with that prey. Lizards that have been fed the same prey species for several months cease responding to the chemical stimuli of that particular prey. PMID:14498807

Desfilis, Ester; Font, Enrique; Guillén-Salazar, Federico

2003-09-01

446

The importance of knowledge in vivid text memory: An individual-differences investigation of recollection and familiarity  

PubMed Central

The goal of this study was to examine how individual variation in readers’ skills and, in particular, their background knowledge about a text are related to text memory. Recollection and familiarity estimates were obtained from remember and know judgments to text ideas. Recollection estimates to old items were predicted by readers’ background knowledge, but not by other comprehension-related factors, such as word-decoding skill and working memory capacity. False alarms involving recollection of new items (inferences) were diminished as a function of verbal ability, working memory capacity, and reasoning but increased as a function of background knowledge. The results suggest that recollection indexes the reader’s ability to construct a text representation in which text ideas are integrated with relevant domain knowledge. Moreover, these results highlight the importance of background knowledge in explaining individual variation in comprehension and memory for text.

Long, Debra L.; Prat, Chantel; Johns, Clinton; Morris, Phillip; Jonathan, Eunike

2009-01-01

447

Electrophysiological evidence for the effect of interactive imagery on episodic memory: encouraging familiarity for non-unitized stimuli during associative recognition.  

PubMed

Episodic memory depends upon multiple processes, including familiarity and recollection. Although associative recognition tasks are traditionally viewed as requiring recollection, recent research suggests a role for familiarity if to-be-remembered stimuli are perceived as unitized. Here we use event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the relationship between stimulus properties and encoding strategy on the engagement of familiarity during associative recognition. Participants studied word pairs containing an association (e.g. traffic-jam) or an unassociated semantic relationship (e.g. violin-guitar), using either item or interactive imagery. At test, participants were required to recognize if word pairs were presented in the same pairing as study, were rearranged, or new. We hypothesized that adopting a strategy of interactive imagery during encoding (i.e. encouraging unitization) would enhance familiarity for unassociated word pairs but would have no effect on association pairs because they are already perceived as unitized. As expected, overall recognition performance was better for word pairs encoded with interactive imagery, and for association than semantic word pairs. ERPs recorded at test revealed an interaction between encoding strategy and stimulus properties. Association word pairs elicited similar bilateral frontal (familiarity) and left parietal (recollection) old/new effects following item and interactive imagery. By contrast, for semantic word pairs, the left parietal effect was equivalent across conditions, but the bilateral frontal effect was enhanced for the interactive imagery condition. The ERP results suggest that an encoding strategy of interactive imagery can enhance familiarity during associative recognition, but this effect is ultimately dependent on the properties of the stimuli to-be-remembered and the nature of the representations that underlie them. PMID:17950624

Rhodes, Sinéad M; Donaldson, David I

2007-09-04

448

Effect of reference foods in repeated acceptability tests: testing familiar and novel foods using 2 acceptability scales.  

PubMed

Hedonic tests are routinely used to assess the acceptance of food products. However, these single tests may not be the best approach for predicting long-term use. The objectives of this study were, first, to check whether a difference from reference score is more sensitive to changes in hedonic scores, second, to assess whether the labeled affective scale (LAM) is more sensitive to differences than the 9-point scale, and third, to assess the effect of repeated exposure on the hedonic scores of neophilic and neophobic panelists for familiar and novel foods. Two groups of 41 panelists were tested with either the 9-point hedonic scale or LAM scale. Panelists received a food neophobia questionnaire and were subsequently classified to neophobic, neophilic, or neutral. Ten foods, including 5 novel and 5 familiar, were used. In each session, 5 to 6 foods were served twice/week for 4 wk. Serving frequency ranged between 1 and 8 times (1, 2, 4, 6, 8). Data analyses were performed 3 times, using either absolute acceptability scores or relative scores, that is, the difference between absolute scores and scores for either the reference (cracker, RELFAM) or a novel food (pickled-ginger, RELNOV) served in every session. The 3 analyses (absolute, RELFAM, and RELNOV) generated similar results with respect to the number of significant differences between foods. There was no major drift in acceptability scores with sessions. A significant food effect was obtained (P < 0.05) and a significant food x neophobia (P < 0.05) was noted for 2 novel foods, pickled ginger, and lychee, whereby neophobic panelists were less accepting of them. Both scales were equally sensitive with some advantages for LAM over the 9-point hedonic scale. PMID:19323773

El Dine, A Nasser; Olabi, A

2009-03-01

449

EL ORIGEN BIOLÓGICO DEL DERECHO  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este trabajo se aborda el posible origen evolutivo del derecho como una consecuencia del desarrollo social de nuestra especie. Otras especies con sistemas sociales similares presentan varias reglas para la convivencia en grupo. Algunas de estas reglas son comunes en todas las especies con comportamiento social. El desarrollo de la sociobiología en las últimas décadas es una herramienta importante

Axel P. Retana-Salazar

450

Ipercolesterolemia Familiare e Difetti del Gene del Recettore delle Lipoproteine a Bassa Densita: Mutazioni Italiane e Loro Analisi (Familial Hypercholesterolemia Due to Defects in the Gene Encoding the LDL Receptor. Mutations Occurring in Italy and Their Analysis).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor (LDLR) gene undergoes a great number of either small or gross mutations that cause in their homozygote and heterozygote carriers the classical familial hypercholesterolemia. In spite of the great advances in the developmen...

A. Cantafora F. Prestinaci I. Blotta

2006-01-01

451

What the study of voice recognition in normal subjects and brain-damaged patients tells us about models of familiar people recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years it has been shown that a disorder in recognizing familiar people can be observed in patients with lesions affecting the anterior parts of the temporal lobes and that these disorders can be multi-modal, simultaneously affecting the visual, auditory and linguistic channels that allow person identification. Several authors have also shown that patients with right anterior temporal atrophy

Guido Gainotti

2011-01-01

452

Distinguishing the Effects of Familiarity, Relatedness, and Color Pattern Rarity on Attractiveness and Measuring Their Effects on Sexual Selection in Guppies ( Poecilia reticulata )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mate choice is often based on multiple signal traits and can be influenced by context-dependent factors. Understanding the importance of these signals and factors can be difficult because they are often correlated and might interact. Here, we experimentally disentangle the effects of familiarity, kinship, pattern rarity, and or- nament patterns on mate choice in guppies. We estimate whether these factors

2008-01-01

453

Estado nutricional em zinco e teste de acuidade do paladar em crianças de baixa estatura familiar Zinc nutritional status and taste acuity test in familial short stature children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objetivos: Avaliar o estado nutricional em zinco e a percepção do paladar (salgado, doce, ácido e amargo) em crianças de baixa estatura familiar. Métodos: Estudo transversal de 30 crianças sem sinais de puberdade, pacientes do ambulatório de crescimento da Universidade Federal de São Paulo. A ingestão dietética foi avaliada pelo método do Registro Alimentar. Para o teste de acuidade do

Andréa G. Marques; Luiz A. Lopes; Olga M. S. Amancio

454

Brain Regions Involved in the Retrieval of Spatial and Episodic Details Associated with a Familiar Environment: An fMRI Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to compare brain activity during the retrieval of coarse- and fine-grained spatial details and episodic details associated with a familiar environment. Long-time Toronto residents compared pairs of landmarks based on their absolute geographic locations (requiring either coarse or fine…

Hirshhorn, Marnie; Grady, Cheryl; Rosenbaum, R. Shayna; Winocur, Gordon; Moscovitch, Morris

2012-01-01

455

I Recognise You but I Can't Place You: An Investigation of Familiar-only Experiences during Tests of Voice and Face Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we examine in detail the situation in which a subject finds that a face or voice is familiar but is unable to retrieve any biographical information about the person concerned. In two experiments, subjects were asked to identify a set of 40 celebrities either from hearing their voice or from seeing their face. Although many more celebrities

J. Richard Hanley S. Tanya Smith Jenny Hadfield; S. Tanya; Jenny Hadfield

1998-01-01

456

Reaction time, memory strength, and fMRI activity during memory retrieval: Hippocampus and default network are differentially responsive during recollection and familiarity judgments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retrieval is often subdivided into recollection and familiarity. Memory strength and reaction time (RT) differ for each, complicating functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of these processes. Recollection leads to greater activity in the hippocampus and default network (DN). Increased DN activity with recollection is thought to reflect self-referential processes, but prior studies have not accounted for varying RT, which

Sarah I. Gimbel; James B. Brewer

2011-01-01

457

Do Major Field of Study and Cultural Familiarity Affect TOEFL® iBT Reading Performance? A Confirmatory Approach to Differential Item Functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TOEFL® iBT has increased the length of each reading passage to better approximate academic reading at North American universities, resulting in a reduction in the number of passages on the reading section of the test. One of the concerns brought about by this change is whether the decrease in topic variety increases the likelihood that an examinee's familiarity with

Ou Lydia Liu

2011-01-01

458

Hábitos de estudio, ambiente familiar y su relación con el consumo de drogas en estudiantes Study habits, family environment and their relationship to drug use in students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evalutate the relationship among drug consumption, study habits and family conflicts in Mexcian students. The Familiar Scale Environment and the Check- list Silva were used to evaluate 273 students between 11 and 17 years old. The analysis of data was carried out with the coefficient correlation of Pearson and Test t Student. The

Vanessa Araiza Cárdenas; Arturo Silva Rodríguez; Norma Coffin Cabrera; Lourdes Jiménez Rentería

2009-01-01

459

The Relationship between the Shape of the Mental Number Line and Familiarity with Numbers in 5- to 9-Year Old Children: Evidence for a Segmented Linear Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment aimed to expand previous findings on the development of mental number representation. We tested the hypothesis that children's familiarity with numbers is directly reflected by the shape of their mental number line. This mental number line was expected to be linear as long as numbers lay within the range of numbers children were…

Ebersbach, Mirjam; Luwel, Koen; Frick, Andrea; Onghena, Patrick; Verschaffel, Lieven

2008-01-01

460

BEHAVIOURAL REACTION OF ROOT VOLE (MICROTUS OECONOMUS PALLAS) MALES OF DIFFERENT SOCIAL RANKS TO FAMILIAR AND NOVEL ODOUR OF CONSPECIFIC MALES  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this experiment, we tested the hypothesis that males of root voles (Microtus oeconomus Pallas) of different social ranks display different behavioural strategies. To document be- havioural differences between social ranks, we in- vestigated patterns in the behavioural responses to urine cues from familiar and novel individuals in a choice maze. Ten pairs of male voles were ef- fectively used

Ping SUN; Yajun ZHAO; Xinquan ZHAO; Dehua WANG

461

Help-Seeking Behaviour Regarding Mental Health Problems of Mediterranean Migrants in the Netherlands: Familiarity with Care, Consultation Attitude and Use of Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Ethnic minority groups differ in the pattern of their seeking help, and in their use of and attitude towards mental health systems. To meet the mental health needs of ethnic minority populations, insights into determinants of their help-seeking orientations are of great concern. Aim: To investigate help-seeking behaviour regarding mental health problems in terms of familiarity, attitude and service

Jeroen W. Knipscheer; Rolf J. Kleber

2005-01-01

462

Home energy consumption rate, familiarity, and participation in home energy assistance programs: implications for energy educators of elderly people  

SciTech Connect

This study was designed to examine the factors predicting energy consumption, to determine factors affecting familiarity with assistance programs, and to determine factor affecting participation in home energy assistance programs for an elderly population. Objectives included: (1) developing an equation from discriminant functions for factors significant in predicting low or high home energy consumption rate; (2) developing an equation from discriminant function for factors significant predicting low or high awareness of home energy assistance programs; (3) developing an equation from discriminant functions for factors significant in predicting participation in home energy assistance programs; (4) determining the relation between perceived energy efficiency of the home and actual energy expenditures; (5) to develop recommendations for effective energy education programs for elderly people. Recommendations for energy educators of elderly people: (1) provide effective information on energy assistance programs to elderly people, including information that encourages accurate perceptions; (2) hold the energy information programs at a senior citizen center; (3) offer programs during the day, allowing for possible physical impairments; (4) stress the relevancy of the material; (5) stress the socialization aspect of programs; and (6) provide for hand on experience.

Junk, V.W.

1986-01-01

463

Inhibition of protein kinase M? disrupts the stable spatial discharge of hippocampal place cells in a familiar environment.  

PubMed

It is widely held that spatial computations in the rodent hippocampus require the location-specific discharge of place cells that together form a stable cognitive map used to solve and perform spatial tasks. It is not known, however, if map stability requires persistent hippocampal synaptic strength changes that are vulnerable to blockade of protein kinase M? (PKM?) phosphorylation activity, a manipulation that reverses hippocampal LTP and disrupts multiple forms of long-term memory. Here we report that acute intrahippocampal inhibition of PKM? disrupts place cell activity in a familiar environment, where the map is expected to be stable. After this disruption, new, stable spatial firing patterns can later form, but the new and original maps are unrelated even though the rat is exposed to a constant environment. We therefore propose that the previously demonstrated erasure of stored spatial memory and the disruption of place cell firing are parallel effects of PKM? blockade. We similarly propose that the known sparing of new spatial memory formation depends on the sparing of new map formation. On these bases, we argue that the loss of the map used to perform a practiced spatial task leads to behavioral performance deficits, and that synaptic plasticity maintained by PKM?, which stabilizes the map, is essential for the proper expression of spatial memory. PMID:23035087

Barry, Jeremy M; Rivard, Bruno; Fox, Steven E; Fenton, Andre A; Sacktor, Todd C; Muller, Robert U

2012-10-01

464

The effects of familiarity and complexity on appraisal of complex songs by cochlear implant recipients and normal hearing adults.  

PubMed

The purposes of this study were (a) to develop a test of complex song appraisal that would be suitable for use with adults who use a cochlear implant (assistive hearing device) and (b) to compare the appraisal ratings (liking) of complex songs by adults who use cochlear implants (n = 66) with a comparison group of adults with normal hearing (n = 36). The article describes the development of a computerized test for appraisal, with emphasis on its theoretical basis and the process for item selection of naturalistic stimuli. The appraisal test was administered to the 2 groups to determine the effects of prior song familiarity and subjective complexity on complex song appraisal. Comparison of the 2 groups indicates that the implant users rate 2 of 3 musical genres (country wester