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1

Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer - 07-20-2010  

Cancer.gov

El doctor Harold Varmus, acompañado de su esposa Constance Casey (centro), presta juramento como director del NCI ante la Secretaria del Departamento de Salud y Servicios Humanos, Kathleen Sebelius, el lunes 12 de julio. (Foto cortesía de Chris Smith) El 12 de julio, el doctor Harold Varmus prestó juramento ante la Secretaria del Departamento de Salud y Servicios Humanos de los Estados Unidos, Kathleen Sebelios, como el decimocuarto director del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer.

2

Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer - 12-08-2009  

Cancer.gov

El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) recientemente puso a disposición carteles y broches de promoción en español para aumentar la concientización sobre los estudios clínicos. Se pretende que los instrumentos animen la conversación con pacientes de cáncer que pudieran estar interesados en participar en un estudio clínico.

3

Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer  

Cancer.gov

No se puede negar que vivimos en una comunidad global, en la que los eventos de una ciudad o país pueden tener graves consecuencias para los residentes de otra ciudad o país a miles de kilómetros de distancia. Ya sea la pandemia del virus H1N1, los recientes disturbios en Irán o la recesión económica mundial, es evidente que esta interconectividad trae consigo retos importantes. Pero también puede crear oportunidades sin precedentes, en particular aquellas que podrían mejorar sustancialmente la salud pública.

4

Harold Varmus investido bajo juramento como 14.º director del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer  

Cancer.gov

Ganador del Premio Nobel, doctor Harold E. Varmus, prestó juramento hoy como 14.º director del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI).  "Es muy estimulante que estés de regreso con nosotros", dijo la secretaria del Departamento de Salud y Servicios Humanos Kathleen Sebelius en la ceremonia de toma de juramento. “Hoy se abre un nuevo capítulo para el Instituto Nacional del Cáncer”.

5

Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer - 29 de marzo de 2011  

Cancer.gov

Los artículos originales en inglés se encuentran disponibles en las páginas del NCI Cancer Bulletin. El Boletín es una publicación del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI), una entidad gubernamental de los Estados Unidos creada en 1937.

6

Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer - 21 de junio de 2011  

Cancer.gov

Los artículos originales en inglés se encuentran disponibles en las páginas del NCI Cancer Bulletin. El Boletín es una publicación del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI), una entidad gubernamental de los Estados Unidos creada en 1937.

7

Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer - 28 de febrero de 2012  

Cancer.gov

Los artículos originales en inglés están disponibles en las páginas del NCI Cancer Bulletin. El Boletín es una publicación del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI), una entidad gubernamental de los Estados Unidos creada en 1937.

8

Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer - 4 de enero de 2011  

Cancer.gov

En esta edición especial del Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer, usted conocerá las diversas formas en que el NCI está apoyando los esfuerzos de colaboración internacional en las áreas de investigación, capacitación, comunicación y demás actividades relacionadas con una mejor comprensión del cáncer y el tratamiento de pacientes con esta enfermedad.

9

Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer - 08-17-2010  

Cancer.gov

En la reunión del 20 de julio, los miembros del comité revisaron los resultados finales de esos estudios, en los cuales no se pudo confirmar la información que llevó a la aprobación acelerada. Las mujeres del estudio inicial, llamado E2100, recibieron paclitaxel (Taxol) solo o paclitaxel más bevacizumab para tratar el cáncer de mama localizado recidivante.

10

Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer - 09-14-2010  

Cancer.gov

Las mediciones ecocardiográficas del ventrículo izquierdo del corazón sirven para que los médicos monitoreen el funcionamiento cardiaco durante el tratamiento contra el cáncer. Una reducción de la fracción de eyección ventricular izquierda (LVEF) durante el tratamiento puede indicar daño cardiaco provocado por los fármacos. Haga clic para ampliar.

11

Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer - 05-25-2010  

Cancer.gov

Aproximadamente 41.000 participantes en un estudio en el Reino Unido se sometieron una sola vez a una examen de detección en la parte inferior del colon mediante el uso de un sigmoidoscopio, un instrumento delgado en forma de tubo que se inserta a través del recto para buscar lesiones precancerosas o cancerosas. Este dispositivo también tiene una herramienta para extraer pólipos potencialmente precancerosos.

12

Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer - 3 de enero 2013  

Cancer.gov

En Estados Unidos nos bombardean con información sobre los exámenes de detección del cáncer. Los comerciales radiales tratan de atraer a la gente a los centros médicos subrayando los beneficios de los exámenes de detección del cáncer de pulmón. Algunos grupos de defensa promueven los exámenes para el cáncer de próstata o de mama. Y los medios enfatizan los beneficios de estas pruebas. Pero mucha gente no entiende la complejidad de estos procedimientos.

13

Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer - 04-27-2010  

Cancer.gov

Cada vez es más evidente que los esfuerzos mundiales de salud de mayor éxito dependen no solo del aporte de las mentes más brillantes, sino de la colaboración entre ellas para marcar la diferencia en el escenario global. Este enfoque es el motor impulsor detrás de una asociación excepcional con el NCI, financiada en parte por Susan G.

14

Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer - 01-05-2010  

Cancer.gov

Al caminar por los pasillos del nuevo centro oncológico integral en la sede de Ciencias Médicas de la Universidad de Puerto Rico (UPR) en San Juan, uno debe mantener los ojos abiertos. La mujer que pasa caminando vigorosamente podría ser la doctora Marcia Roxana Cruz-Correa, y no debe uno perderse la oportunidad de conocerla.

15

Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer - 03-02-2010  

Cancer.gov

Algunas mujeres con cáncer de ovarios reportan síntomas que incluyen dolor abdominal, meteorismo y sensación de llenura antes de que haya un diagnóstico. Pero un estudio nuevo concluye que vigilar estos síntomas relativamente inespecíficos en las mujeres tendría un valor limitado en la detección de la enfermedad. Los médicos tendrían que evaluar a 100 mujeres con estos síntomas para encontrar un cáncer de ovarios, informaron los investigadores en Internet en la revista Journal of the National Cancer Institute del 28 de enero.

16

Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer - 22 de mayo de 2012  

Cancer.gov

Le invitamos a que comparta esta publicación con sus amigos, familiares y colegas y nos ayude a continuar nuestra misión de difundir las investigaciones más recientes sobre la prevención, el tratamiento y la información del cáncer.

17

Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer - 19 de julio de 2011  

Cancer.gov

Le invitamos a que comparta esta publicación con sus amigos, familiares y colegas y nos ayude a continuar nuestra misión de difundir las investigaciones más recientes sobre la prevención, el tratamiento y la información del cáncer.

18

Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer - 24 de abril de 2012  

Cancer.gov

Le invitamos a que comparta esta publicación con sus amigos, familiares y colegas y nos ayude a continuar nuestra misión de difundir las investigaciones más recientes sobre la prevención, el tratamiento y la información del cáncer.

19

Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer - 11 de octubre de 2011  

Cancer.gov

Le invitamos a que comparta esta publicación con sus amigos, familiares y colegas y nos ayude a continuar nuestra misión de difundir las investigaciones más recientes sobre la prevención, el tratamiento y la información del cáncer.

20

Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer - 8 de noviembre de 2011  

Cancer.gov

Le invitamos a que comparta esta publicación con sus amigos, familiares y colegas y nos ayude a continuar nuestra misión de difundir las investigaciones más recientes sobre la prevención, el tratamiento y la información del cáncer.

21

Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer - 27 de marzo de 2012  

Cancer.gov

Le invitamos a que comparta esta publicación con sus amigos, familiares y colegas y nos ayude a continuar nuestra misión de difundir las investigaciones más recientes sobre la prevención, el tratamiento y la información del cáncer.

22

Se da a conocer el plan del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para acelerar la investigación del cáncer  

Cancer.gov

En la 100va Reunión Anual de la Asociación Estadounidense de Investigación del Cáncer realizada en Denver, el director del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer, doctor John E. Niederhuber, dio a conocer detalles importantes, tales como financiamiento de más subvenciones, creación de una plataforma para atención personalizada del cáncer y un programa acelerado de genética del cáncer que hará avanzar la investigación oncológica en este nuevo ambiente económico.

23

El Servicio de Información sobre el Cáncer del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer  

Cancer.gov

El Servicio de Información del Cáncer (CIS) del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer facilita la información más actualizada y precisa sobre el cáncer a pacientes, a sus familias, al público en general y a profesionales médicos. El CIS brinda respuestas personalizadas a preguntas específicas sobre el cáncer y asistencia a los fumadores que quieren abandonar el hábito. Comuníquese con el CIS al 1-800-422-6237 (1-800-4-CANCER) o al 1-877-448-7848 (1-877-44U-QUIT).

24

Nuestro Instituto  

Cancer.gov

Información acerca de nuestra misión como Instituto Nacional del Cáncer, así como sobre los diferentes tipos de investigación que apoya nuestro Instituto, el programa de centros oncológicos, y sobre el Informe Anual a la Nación acerca del cáncer, el cual es preparado por las principales organizaciones oncológicas de los Estados Unidos.

25

JORNADA AGUA Y ENERGA Organiza: Instituto Universitario del Agua y de las Ciencias Ambientales (IUACA)  

E-print Network

JORNADA AGUA Y ENERGÍA Organiza: Instituto Universitario del Agua y de las Ciencias Ambientales el ciclo integral del agua Daniel Prats Rico Catedrático de Ingeniería Química 13:00-14:00 Agua Domingo Zarzo Martínez Director de I+D+i de Valoriza Agua 19:00-21:00. Marco jurídico de la explotación

Escolano, Francisco

26

Control del cáncer y salud mundial: noticia del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI)  

Cancer.gov

En combinación con una reunión de alto nivel de las Naciones Unidas sobre enfermedades no transmisibles en países en vías de desarrollo, el doctor Harold Varmus, director del NCI, y el doctor Ted L. Trimble, del NCI, han publicado un comentario en Science Translational Medicine sobre “La integración del control del cáncer en la salud mundial" (Integrating Cancer Control into Global Health).

27

Nuevo sitio web en español del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer, (NCI, por sus siglas en inglés) Cancer.gov en español - Silvia Inéz Salazar - transcript  

Cancer.gov

Transmisiones de radio para promover Cancer.gov en espa%XF1ol | Nuevo sitio web en espa%XF1ol del Instituto Nacional del C%XE1ncer, (NCI, por sus siglas en ingl%XE9s) Cancer.gov en espa%XF1ol | Transcripci%XF3n Transmisiones de radio para promover

28

Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer - 3 de enero de 2012  

Cancer.gov

Dra. Rachel Ballard-Barbash Nuevos indicios del papel de la obesidad en el cáncer A medida que ha aumentado la prevalencia de la obesidad alrededor del mundo, se ha incrementado también la preocupación sobre sus consecuencias en la salud pública. Los índices de obesidad se han más que duplicado desde 1980, según la Organización Mundial de la Salud.

29

Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer - 31 de enero de 2012  

Cancer.gov

Dr. Nils Daulaire Salud mundial a través de la colaboración y el liderazgo Para conmemorar el Día Mundial del Cáncer que tuvo lugar el 4 febrero, el doctor Nils Daulaire, director de la Oficina de Asuntos Internacionales del Departamento de Salud y Servicios Humanos de los Estados Unidos habla sobre las razones por las cuales los Estados Unidos deben participar en iniciativas para mejorar la salud mundial.

30

Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer - 11 de septiembre de 2012  

Cancer.gov

Con la ayuda de herramientas genéticas, investigadores han identificado subconjuntos de células que parecen impulsar el crecimiento de tumores en ratones. Estos resultados ofrecen factores adicionales que sustentan la hipótesis de la existencia de células madre del cáncer, es decir, la idea de que algunos tumores contienen células que se autorenuevan y dan origen a todo tipo de células tumorales.

31

Comunicacionas mansualas dal Instituto Intllrnacional de la Potase, Berna (Suiza) Ciencia del Suelo  

E-print Network

del Suelo 728 continuacion N° 5/1981 La quimica del potasio en suelos arenosos* (On the chemistry of potassium in sandy soils) D, L. Sparks Profesor Auxiliar de Qulmica Fisica del Suelo, Departamento de y nativo en suelos Dothan. Sparks D.L., Zelazny L. W., Martens D. C.: Cineticas del Intercambio de

Sparks, Donald L.

32

DERECHOS Y RESPONSABILIDADES DEL EMPLEADO BAJO LA LEY DE AUSENCIA FAMILIAR Y MDICA  

E-print Network

DERECHOS Y RESPONSABILIDADES DEL EMPLEADO BAJO LA LEY DE AUSENCIA FAMILIAR Y M�DICA Derechos al empleado desempeñar su puesto. Derechos de Ausencia Para Familias Militares Empleados elegibles, pueden usar su derecho de ausencia de 12 semanas para atender ciertas exigencias calificadoras. Las

Fraden, Seth

33

En el ao 1991se creaba el Insti-tuto Universitario del Agua y las  

E-print Network

En el año 1991se creaba el Insti- tuto Universitario del Agua y las Ciencias otra denominación, se imparte el máster Gestión Sostenible y Tec- nología del Agua, adaptado al Es participan 38 profesores de universidad y 12 profesionales del sector agua. «El que se haya mantenido todo

Escolano, Francisco

34

Investigacin Centro de Investigacin y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politcnico Nacional  

E-print Network

ecosistemas costeros, calidad e Intrusión de agua costera de mar en acuíferos de agua dulce. Jorge Iván Euán y cuerpos de agua, peligros, y aproximaciones para el manejo costero. Gerardo Gold Bouchot Niveles tropicales a impactos locales y globales, utilizando indicadores de calidad del agua, estado trófico

35

Investigacin Centro de Investigacin y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politcnico Nacional  

E-print Network

moleculares microbianos en suelos. Ana Carmela Ramos Valdivia Biotecnología del metabolismo secundario y la interés industrial Refugio Rodríguez Vázquez Biorremediación de suelo y agua. Aplicación de residuos agroindustriales en la biorremediación de suelos, enzimas fúngicas en la degradación de compuestos orgánicos

36

Declaración del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer sobre la aprobación de la vacuna de VPH por la FDA  

Cancer.gov

Hace casi dos décadas que los investigadores del NCI y de otras instituciones comenzaron a investigar las causas fundamentales del cáncer cervical. Esta búsqueda científica resultó en la aprobación de hoy de la vacuna GardasilTM por la Food and Drug Administration.

37

La democracia constitucional en América Latina y las evoluciones recientes del presidencialismo. Memorias Encuentro del Instituto Iberoamericano de Derecho Constitucional  

Microsoft Academic Search

Siempre será oportuno reflexionar sobre la democracia, su contenido, sus desafíos, su presente y su futuro, las transformaciones y percepciones que de ella se tienen. No son pocas las preocupaciones o inquietudes que la democracia suscita en esta parte del mundo, y muestra de ello son los más variados estudios e informes sobre el estado actual de la democracia y

Pedro Pablo Vanegas

38

El Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologa, organiza el "Da Mundial del Agua 2012", un evento de Puertas Abiertas para celebrar "El Agua y la seguridad alimentara" tema  

E-print Network

El Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología, organiza el "Día Mundial del Agua 2012", un evento de Puertas Abiertas para celebrar "El Agua y la seguridad alimentaría" tema orientado para llamar la atención internacional sobre la alimentación y su relación con el agua. El lema con el que la ONU ha

Islas, León

39

Tiene familiares con Alzheimer? La Escuela de Medicina del Recinto de Ciencias Mdicas en colaboracin con la Universidad de Columbia  

E-print Network

¿Tiene familiares con Alzheimer? 25/1/2008 La Escuela de Medicina del Recinto de Ciencias Médicas más con Alzheimer para participar de un estudio genético. La investigación pretende encontrar genes que se encuentren relacionados a la enfermedad de Alzheimer con el propósito de aprender más sobre las

Quirk, Gregory J.

40

Comunicaciones mensulles del Instituto Intet'f\\llCional de Ia POllIU. Berna (Suiza) Clenci. d.lsuelo  

E-print Network

seleetividad del potasio en los suelos de Delaware· (Temperature effects on potassium exchange and selectivity absorbida por los suelos descendia. Para concentraciones electroliticas iniciales semejantes. AK (diferencia cantidad igulitl de K sobre el suelo en tanto que la temferatura aumentaba, se necesitaba una relaci6n mas

Sparks, Donald L.

41

Departamentos -Institutos Departamentos  

E-print Network

Derecho Civil Derecho del Trabajo y de la Seguridad Social Derecho Internacional Público y Derecho Penal Derecho Mercantil y Derecho Procesal Disciplinas Económicas y Financieras Ecología Enfermería Enfermería Literatura Filología Inglesa Filologías Integradas Filosofía del Derecho y Derecho Internacional Privado

Escolano, Francisco

42

Estudio de los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud indica que quienes toman café tienen un riesgo menor de muerte  

Cancer.gov

Los adultos mayores que tomaron café, con o sin cafeína, tuvieron un riesgo menor de muerte en general que quienes no tomaron café, según un estudio llevado a cabo por investigadores del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI), parte de los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud, y por la Asociación Estadounidense de Personas Jubiladas (AARP).

43

Cost-effectiveness analysis for joint pain treatment in patients with osteoarthritis treated at the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS): Comparison of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) vs. cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Background Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the main causes of disability worldwide, especially in persons >55 years of age. Currently, controversy remains about the best therapeutic alternative for this disease when evaluated from a cost-effectiveness viewpoint. For Social Security Institutions in developing countries, it is very important to assess what drugs may decrease the subsequent use of medical care resources, considering their adverse events that are known to have a significant increase in medical care costs of patients with OA. Three treatment alternatives were compared: celecoxib (200 mg twice daily), non-selective NSAIDs (naproxen, 500 mg twice daily; diclofenac, 100 mg twice daily; and piroxicam, 20 mg/day) and acetaminophen, 1000 mg twice daily. The aim of this study was to identify the most cost-effective first-choice pharmacological treatment for the control of joint pain secondary to OA in patients treated at the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS). Methods A cost-effectiveness assessment was carried out. A systematic review of the literature was performed to obtain transition probabilities. In order to evaluate analysis robustness, one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted. Estimations were done for a 6-month period. Results Treatment demonstrating the best cost-effectiveness results [lowest cost-effectiveness ratio $17.5 pesos/patient ($1.75 USD)] was celecoxib. According to the one-way sensitivity analysis, celecoxib would need to markedly decrease its effectiveness in order for it to not be the optimal treatment option. In the probabilistic analysis, both in the construction of the acceptability curves and in the estimation of net economic benefits, the most cost-effective option was celecoxib. Conclusion From a Mexican institutional perspective and probably in other Social Security Institutions in similar developing countries, the most cost-effective option for treatment of knee and/or hip OA would be celecoxib. PMID:19014495

Contreras-Hernandez, Iris; Mould-Quevedo, Joaquin F; Torres-Gonzalez, Ruben; Goycochea-Robles, Maria Victoria; Pacheco-Dominguez, Reyna Lizette; Sanchez-Garcia, Sergio; Mejia-Arangure, Juan Manuel; Garduno-Espinosa, Juan

2008-01-01

44

U n a V e n t a n a A l F u t u r o El Instituto Weizmann de Ciencias es uno  

E-print Network

U n a V e n t a n a A l F u t u r o #12;El Instituto Weizmann de Ciencias es uno de los institutos básicas de los científicos del Instituto abarcan toda la gama de las Ciencias de la Naturaleza y las Ciencias Exactas: Ciencias de la Vida, Química, Física, Matemáticas y Ciencias de la Computación. A lo

45

Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer - 06-22-2010  

Cancer.gov

Muchos critican el hecho de que solo un 3% a 5% de los adultos que padecen cáncer en los Estados Unidos participan en estudios clínicos, pero un desafío aún mayor surge cuando se analizan estas cifras en detalle.

46

Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer - 10-13-2009  

Cancer.gov

El sobrediagnóstico ocurre cuando una prueba de detección detecta un cáncer que no es mortal. A veces se le llama seudo-enfermedad, uno muere con esos tumores y no por ellos. Cuando un examen selectivo de detección detecta este tipo de tumor que luego se extirpa, aparentemente ha sido tratado con éxito, lo cual hace que se piense que el examen de detección es efectivo cuando, en realidad, el examen detectó algo que no era mortal.

47

Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer - 03-30-2010  

Cancer.gov

Generalmente empieza en manos y pies, y sube gradualmente por los brazos y las piernas. A veces se siente un hormigueo o un adormecimiento. Otras veces, es más como un pinchazo o un dolor ardiente, o sensibilidad a la temperatura. Puede incluir un dolor punzante y agudo, que puede hacer difícil realizar las tareas diarias como abotonarse la camisa, separar monedas en un bolso o caminar.

48

Instituto Nacional de Salud Pblica http://www.insp.mx/Portal/Centros/ciss/ciss_seminario.html 1 of 2 2/4/06 2:06 AM  

E-print Network

sobre tabaquismo y salud. Además, ha sido miembro en varios comités del Instituto de Medicina y elInstituto Nacional de Salud Pública http://www.insp.mx/Portal/Centros/ciss/ciss_seminario.html 1 desarrollado una vacuna contra el SIDA? El Centro de Investigación en Sistemas de Salud (CISS) invita al

Seager, Sara

49

UNIVERSIDADE TECNICA DE LISBOA INSTITUTO SUPERIOR TECNICO  

E-print Network

B UNIVERSIDADE T�ECNICA DE LISBOA INSTITUTO SUPERIOR T�ECNICO VISUAL PERCEPTION FOR MOBILE ROBOTS : FROM PERCEPTS TO BEHAVIOURS JOS�E ALBERTO ROSADO DOS SANTOS VICTOR (Mestre) Tese para obten�c~ao do vision" approaches, thus justifying the title : Visual Perception for Mobile Robots : from Percepts

Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

50

Un/Familiar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What I put forward here is that the interpretative practices of the museum, whether they take the form of exhibitions, education programs, written texts or digital productions, are fashioned by relationships between the familiar and unfamiliar, which in turn both shape and are shaped by human understanding in general. The development of a new…

Meszaros, Cheryl

2008-01-01

51

Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid  

E-print Network

Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid Laboratorio de Resonancia Magnética Nuclear Seguro que ionizante. Sus inventores, Paul Laterbur y Sir Peter Mansfield recibieron el Premio Nobel de Medicina en encuentra en el núcleo de los átomos (de ahí el nombre de Nuclear): el núcleo de los átomos está formado por

52

Programa de Apoyos para la Superacin del Personal Acadmico de la UNAM Resultados del 2 periodo de la convocatoria 2011  

E-print Network

Colegio de Ciencias y Humanidades Maestría Bassiouk Evdokimenko Vladimir Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares Vladimir Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares Estancia Sabática Blancas Neria Andrés Instituto de de Geología Estancia Sabática Castañeda Serrano María Del Pilar Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y

Islas, León

53

Familiarization with LANDSAT imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Learning objectives of the activities provided include: (1) reading the annotation of a LANDSAT image; (2) becoming acquainted with the characteristics of 1:1,000,000 scale transparencies and prints of MSS images; (3) noting the general information visible in LANDSAT photo products; (4) observing changes of appearance of any ground feature or class in the black and white images made from the four MSS bands and the characteristic color of each class in color composites; (5) determining the degree to which a LANDSAT image meets map accuracy standards and can be fitted to map projections; (6) assessing the effects of LANDSAT enlargements and scale changes and of the limitations of satellite resolution relative to aerial photos; (7) observing the influence of time of acquisition (season) on a scene; (8) getting a feel for image quality as dependent on processing and photoreproduction; (9) appreciating the characteristics of the RBV and thermal band imagery obtained from LANDSAT-3; and (10) becoming familiar with certain attributes of adjacent LANDSAT images which permit them to be joined in mosaics and to be viewed in stereo.

1982-01-01

54

SIGNIFICADOS DE AVÓS SOBRE A PRÁTICA DO ALEITAMENTO MATERNO NO COTIDIANO FAMILIAR: A CULTURA DO QUERER-PODER AMAMENTAR GRANDPARENTS' UNDERSTANDINGS ABOUT THE PRACTICE OF MATERNAL BREAST FEEDING IN FAMILY DAILY LIFE: THE CULTURE OF POSSIBILITIES FOR BREASTFEEDING SIGNIFICADOS DE LAS ABUELAS SOBRE LAS PRÁCTICAS DE LA LACTANCIA MATERNA EN SU COTIDIANO FAMILIAR: LA CULTURA DEL QUERER-PODER AMAMANTAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: Trata-se de um estudo qualitativo, fundamentado no Interacionismo Simbólico, tendo como objetivos compreender como os avós experienciaram e\\/ou vivenciaram a prática do aleitamento materno no cotidiano familiar e refletir sobre seus significados. Os dados foram coletados durante uma oficina, tendo como informantes onze avós. Da análise temática, emergiram quatro categorias: \\

Marizete Argolo Teixeira; Rosane Gonçalves Nitschke; Patricia De Gasperi; Mônica Joesting Siedler

55

Laboratorio VISGRAF Instituto de Matematica Pura e Aplicada  

E-print Network

Krakowski and Luiz Velho Technical Report TR-13-02 Relat´orio T´ecnico August - 2013 - Agosto The contents responsabilidade dos autores. #12;Modeling Sound in 3-Orbifolds Sergio Krakowski, Luiz Velho Instituto Nacional de

56

Familiares a cargo de pacientes de cáncer (PDQ®)  

Cancer.gov

Sumario informativo revisado por expertos acerca de los desafíos que enfrentan los familiares a cargo de los pacientes con cáncer. Este resumen se centra en las funciones típicas y las inquietudes de las personas a cargo del paciente y en las intervenciones útiles para esas personas.

57

en el mundo Trasplante del arroz en Madagascar  

E-print Network

Ciencias y Tecnologías del Agua » con la ayuda del Ministerio de Asuntos Extranjeros. África del Norte y internacional MERGUSIE, dedicado al manejo integral del agua en la cuenca vertiente del Merguellil. De éste han tecnologías del agua » del Nepad Los lazos entre el Instituto y el NEPAD (The New Partnership for Africa

58

Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid  

E-print Network

como ondas en lugar de como pequeñas bolas... ¿Cómo?: Aquí las leyes de Newton y del electromagnetismo 446, 60 (2007) Imagen:Docdiamond.com Cada pequeña bola en la imagen corresponde a un átomo visto con

59

A language-familiarity effect for speaker discrimination without comprehension.  

PubMed

The influence of language familiarity upon speaker identification is well established, to such an extent that it has been argued that "Human voice recognition depends on language ability" [Perrachione TK, Del Tufo SN, Gabrieli JDE (2011) Science 333(6042):595]. However, 7-mo-old infants discriminate speakers of their mother tongue better than they do foreign speakers [Johnson EK, Westrek E, Nazzi T, Cutler A (2011) Dev Sci 14(5):1002-1011] despite their limited speech comprehension abilities, suggesting that speaker discrimination may rely on familiarity with the sound structure of one's native language rather than the ability to comprehend speech. To test this hypothesis, we asked Chinese and English adult participants to rate speaker dissimilarity in pairs of sentences in English or Mandarin that were first time-reversed to render them unintelligible. Even in these conditions a language-familiarity effect was observed: Both Chinese and English listeners rated pairs of native-language speakers as more dissimilar than foreign-language speakers, despite their inability to understand the material. Our data indicate that the language familiarity effect is not based on comprehension but rather on familiarity with the phonology of one's native language. This effect may stem from a mechanism analogous to the "other-race" effect in face recognition. PMID:25201950

Fleming, David; Giordano, Bruno L; Caldara, Roberto; Belin, Pascal

2014-09-23

60

A language-familiarity effect for speaker discrimination without comprehension  

PubMed Central

The influence of language familiarity upon speaker identification is well established, to such an extent that it has been argued that “Human voice recognition depends on language ability” [Perrachione TK, Del Tufo SN, Gabrieli JDE (2011) Science 333(6042):595]. However, 7-mo-old infants discriminate speakers of their mother tongue better than they do foreign speakers [Johnson EK, Westrek E, Nazzi T, Cutler A (2011) Dev Sci 14(5):1002–1011] despite their limited speech comprehension abilities, suggesting that speaker discrimination may rely on familiarity with the sound structure of one’s native language rather than the ability to comprehend speech. To test this hypothesis, we asked Chinese and English adult participants to rate speaker dissimilarity in pairs of sentences in English or Mandarin that were first time-reversed to render them unintelligible. Even in these conditions a language-familiarity effect was observed: Both Chinese and English listeners rated pairs of native-language speakers as more dissimilar than foreign-language speakers, despite their inability to understand the material. Our data indicate that the language familiarity effect is not based on comprehension but rather on familiarity with the phonology of one’s native language. This effect may stem from a mechanism analogous to the “other-race” effect in face recognition. PMID:25201950

Fleming, David; Giordano, Bruno L.; Caldara, Roberto; Belin, Pascal

2014-01-01

61

StudyAbroad@Exeter Instituto Tecnolgico Autnomo de Mxico  

E-print Network

, with an annual average temperature of 64F (18C). Travel The nearest airport is Mexico City International AirportStudyAbroad@Exeter Instituto Tecnológico Autónomo de México Mexico City, Mexico The University ITAM.itam.mx/ Location The main campus is a traditional group of buildings in the south of Mexico City, in- cluding

Mumby, Peter J.

62

Digital Video, Digital TV IMPA -Instituto de Matemtica Pura e  

E-print Network

1 Digital Video, Digital TV and Beyond Luiz Velho IMPA - Instituto de Matemática Pura e Aplicada 2 Outline Video in the Digital Age Deployment of Digital Video Enabling Technologies Research @ VISGRAF Laboratory Trends and the Future... 3 Evolution of Digital Video 1st Generation - Analog / Digital Conversion

63

Laboratorio VISGRAF Instituto de Matematica Pura e Aplicada  

E-print Network

Descriptor Extraction Giordano Cabral, Sergio Krakowski Francois Pachet, Jean-Pierre Briot, Luiz Velho Krakowski, Luiz Velho Instituto de Matemática Pura e Aplicada Estrada Dona Castorina, 110 22460-320 Rio de case studies, which actually make part of broader systems being developed by Sergio Krakowski

64

Publicaciones del IGME: serie Hidrogeologa y aguas subterrneas, n 14. VI Simposio del Agua en Andaluca. I: 619-628. 2005  

E-print Network

Publicaciones del IGME: serie Hidrogeología y aguas subterráneas, nº 14. VI Simposio del Agua en) , Benavente Herrera, José(2) e Hidalgo Estévez, Mª del Carmen(3) (1) CSIC e Instituto del Agua (Univ. Granada). C/ Ramón y Cajal, 4. 18071Granada. Correo electrónico: acastill@ugr.es (2) Instituto del Agua (Univ

Castillo, Antonio

65

Vertical motion simulator familiarization guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Vertical Motion Simulator Familiarization Guide provides a synoptic description of the Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) and descriptions of the various simulation components and systems. The intended audience is the community of scientists and engineers who employ the VMS for research and development. The concept of a research simulator system is introduced and the building block nature of the VMS is emphasized. Individual sections describe all the hardware elements in terms of general properties and capabilities. Also included are an example of a typical VMS simulation which graphically illustrates the composition of the system and shows the signal flow among the elements and a glossary of specialized terms, abbreviations, and acronyms.

Danek, George L.

1993-01-01

66

Sus Derechos La Ley de Ausencia Familiar y Mdica de 1993  

E-print Network

Sus Derechos bajo La Ley de Ausencia Familiar y Médica de 1993 La Ley de Ausencia Familiar y Médica ocupan a 50 empleados o más del mismo patrón. Razones para Solicitar Ausencia: Tiene derecho un empleado. · Al regresar de una ausencia los empleados tienen el derecho a su trabajo original o a un trabajo

67

Familiar neighbors enhance breeding success in birds.  

PubMed Central

We tested the hypothesis that long-term familiarity with neighbors is advantageous by determining whether male red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) breeding adjacent to familiar neighbors have better reproductive success than other males. Using data gathered during a 10-yr study of breeding success, we found that males with familiar neighbors fledged, on average, significantly more offspring annually than males without familiar neighbors. We also found that the same males, breeding in different years on the same territories, had significantly larger harems in the years they had familiar neighbors. Improved reproductive success was due to the males' abilities to attract more females to nest in their territories. Alternative hypotheses to explain the positive relationship between familiar neighbors and breeding success were not supported by our data. Relatively high reproductive success for breeders with long-term neighbors may provide a basis for the evolution of cooperative behavior in this and other species. PMID:2813369

Beletsky, L D; Orians, G H

1989-01-01

68

Familiar neighbors enhance breeding success in birds.  

PubMed

We tested the hypothesis that long-term familiarity with neighbors is advantageous by determining whether male red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) breeding adjacent to familiar neighbors have better reproductive success than other males. Using data gathered during a 10-yr study of breeding success, we found that males with familiar neighbors fledged, on average, significantly more offspring annually than males without familiar neighbors. We also found that the same males, breeding in different years on the same territories, had significantly larger harems in the years they had familiar neighbors. Improved reproductive success was due to the males' abilities to attract more females to nest in their territories. Alternative hypotheses to explain the positive relationship between familiar neighbors and breeding success were not supported by our data. Relatively high reproductive success for breeders with long-term neighbors may provide a basis for the evolution of cooperative behavior in this and other species. PMID:2813369

Beletsky, L D; Orians, G H

1989-10-01

69

Dynamics and Robustness of Familiarity Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

When one is presented with an item or a face, one can sometimes have a sense\\u000aof recognition without being able to recall where or when one has encountered\\u000ait before. This sense of recognition is known as familiarity. Following\\u000aprevious computational models of familiarity memory we investigate the\\u000adynamical properties of familiarity discrimination, and contrast two different\\u000afamiliarity discriminators:

J. M. Cortes; Andrea Greve; A. B. Barrett; Mark C. W. van Rossum

2010-01-01

70

Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer - 9 de octubre de 2012  

Cancer.gov

Cinco estudios nuevos han identificado alteraciones genéticas y epigenéticas en cientos de tumores pulmonares, entre ellas muchos cambios sobre los cuales podría actuarse con fármacos que ya están disponibles o están en fase de pruebas clínicas.

71

Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer - 4 de diciembre de 2012  

Cancer.gov

Los pacientes con cáncer avanzado que hablaron con sus médicos sobre su cuidado durante sus últimos días de vida en las etapas más tempranas de la enfermedad, recibieron un cuidado menos agresivo en su último mes de vida. Asimismo, tuvieron una probabilidad menor de usar servicios para enfermos terminales, según indican los resultados de un nuevo estudio.

72

Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer - 19 de junio de 2012  

Cancer.gov

En un extenso estudio con distribución al azar que contó con la participación de mujeres y hombres sanos, con edades comprendidas entre 55 y 74 años, la sigmoidoscopia redujo considerablemente la incidencia de cáncer colorrectal y la mortalidad por esta enfermedad.

73

Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer - 6 de noviembre de 2012  

Cancer.gov

Nuevos resultados de tres estudios clínicos resaltan la evolución de opciones de tratamiento para mujeres con cáncer de mama HER2 positivo. Estos cánceres, los cuales producen demasiada proteína HER2, constituyen una forma maligna de la enfermedad y representan aproximadamente 20 por ciento de todos los casos de cáncer de mama diagnosticados.

74

Modelo Hidrulico Operacional del Oeste de Puerto Rico  

E-print Network

Puerto Rico Introducción El Instituto de Investigaciones Sobre Recursos de Agua y el Ambiente de Puerto del Modelo Hidráulico Operacional del Sistema de Distribución de Agua del Oeste de Puerto Rico. El agua. · Reserva Nodos que representan una fuente de agua externa del sistema. · Tanques Nodos con

Gilbes, Fernando

75

Brand Familiarity and Advertising Repetition Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

A crucial communication task for unknown brands is to build the knowledge in consumers' minds necessary to become established. However, communication effectiveness may depend on prior familiarity of the advertised brand. The findings of two experiments using television ads and computer Internet ads revealed that brand familiarity influenced repetition effectiveness. In particular, repetition of advertising attributed to an unfamiliar brand

2003-01-01

76

OBSERVATION A Familiar-Size Stroop Effect  

E-print Network

OBSERVATION A Familiar-Size Stroop Effect: Real-World Size Is an Automatic Property of Object with the visual size than when it was incongruent--demonstrating a familiar- size Stroop effect. Critically, the real-world size of the objects was irrelevant for the task. This Stroop effect was also present when

Oliva, Aude

77

Cross-species familiarity in shoaling fishes.  

PubMed

Preferential association with familiar shoal mates confers a number of potentially important benefits to individuals, including improved anti-predator effects and the reduction of aggression in competitive interactions. Until now, however, familiarity has been demonstrated purely between conspecifics. Here, we present evidence that familiarity preferences can override natural preferences for conspecifics. Individual focal fishes (chub, Leuciscus cephalus) were given a choice of two stimulus shoals of the same size composed of conspecifics or of heterospecifics (minnows, Phoxinus phoxinus) in a flow tank. A series of four treatments was carried out to investigate the effects of familiarity, induced by a 15 day association between the focal fish and the stimulus fishes, on the choices made by the focal fish. Focal fishes showed a significant preference for conspecifics over heterospecifics when both stimulus shoals were composed of non-familiar individuals. Focal fishes also showed a significant preference for stimulus shoals composed of familiar fishes over stimulus shoals composed of non-familiar fishes when both shoals were conspecific and when both shoals were heterospecific. Finally, the preference of focal fishes for conspecifics disappeared when the alternative, a shoal of heterospecifics, was composed of familiar individuals. The importance of this work is discussed in the context of species interactions in free-ranging shoals. PMID:12816654

Ward, A J W; Axford, S; Krause, J

2003-06-01

78

14 CFR 121.599 - Familiarity with weather conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Familiarity with weather conditions. 121.599 Section 121...Rules § 121.599 Familiarity with weather conditions. (a) Domestic and flag...thoroughly familiar with reported and forecast weather conditions on the route to be...

2011-01-01

79

14 CFR 121.599 - Familiarity with weather conditions.  

...2014-01-01 false Familiarity with weather conditions. 121.599 Section 121...Rules § 121.599 Familiarity with weather conditions. (a) Domestic and flag...thoroughly familiar with reported and forecast weather conditions on the route to be...

2014-01-01

80

14 CFR 121.599 - Familiarity with weather conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Familiarity with weather conditions. 121.599 Section 121...Rules § 121.599 Familiarity with weather conditions. (a) Domestic and flag...thoroughly familiar with reported and forecast weather conditions on the route to be...

2012-01-01

81

14 CFR 121.599 - Familiarity with weather conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Familiarity with weather conditions. 121.599 Section 121...Rules § 121.599 Familiarity with weather conditions. (a) Domestic and flag...thoroughly familiar with reported and forecast weather conditions on the route to be...

2010-01-01

82

14 CFR 121.599 - Familiarity with weather conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Familiarity with weather conditions. 121.599 Section 121...Rules § 121.599 Familiarity with weather conditions. (a) Domestic and flag...thoroughly familiar with reported and forecast weather conditions on the route to be...

2013-01-01

83

Familiares a cargo de pacientes de cáncer: funciones y desafíos (PDQ®)  

Cancer.gov

Sumario informativo revisado por expertos acerca de los desafíos que enfrentan los familiares a cargo de los pacientes con cáncer. Este resumen se centra en las funciones típicas y las inquietudes de las personas a cargo del paciente y en las intervenciones útiles para esas personas.

84

Víctimas de violencia familiar: Consecuencias psicológicas en hijos de mujeres maltratadas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen: Las mujeres y los niños son las principales víctimas que sufren la violencia doméstica o familiar. Mientras que en el caso de las mujeres maltratadas existe una creciente proliferación tanto de investigaciones como de recursos de ayuda, la atención e intervención sobre las conse- cuencias que se derivan para sus hijos es todavía bastante escasa. El obje- tivo del

Rosa Patró Hernández; Rosa María; Limiñana Gras

85

Clausura de curso del Mster en Gestin Sostenible y Tecnologas del Agua de la Universidad de Alicante  

E-print Network

Clausura de curso del Máster en Gestión Sostenible y Tecnologías del Agua de la Universidad de el Tratamiento del Agua (ATTA) pronunciará la ponencia de clausura Finaliza el curso de los estudios oficiales del Máster en Gestión Sostenible y Tecnologías del Agua de la UA que imparte el Instituto del Agua

Escolano, Francisco

86

EXPOSICIN DIVULGATIVA Lugar Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de  

E-print Network

SUSPENDIDO #12;EXPOSICI�N DE LIBROS UN VISTAZO A LA QUÍMICA DE PRINCIPIOS DEL SIGLO XX A TRAV�S DE LOS LIBROS XX procedentes de distintas bibliotecas del CSIC Se expondrán varios ejemplares de libros de Química

87

La alimentación del enfermo de Alzheimer en el ámbito familiar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the patients diagnosed of Alzheimer's disease are still living at home with their relatives. It is impor- tant to know their clinical state, nutritional habits and attitudes toward their illness in order to improve their quality of life. Patients and methods: Patients who are members of the Valencia Association of Alzheimer's Disease Realti- ves, who live with their

J. J. Botella Trelis; I. Ferrero López

2004-01-01

88

La Empresa Familiar Española y su Internacionalización  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este trabajo de investigación, se busca lograr una aproximación que permita identificar los patrones que han seguido las pequeñas y medianas empresas familiares españolas en su proceso de implicación y proyección internacional. Se presentan, en primer lugar, los resultados obtenidos de la revisión de fuentes secundarias, en donde se analiza la evolución de las PYMES españolas, haciendo énfasis en

Alberto Gómez Torres

2010-01-01

89

INTRODUCTION Unlike the familiar Phanerozoic history of  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTION Unlike the familiar Phanerozoic history of megascopic life, evolution during earlier instrument was used by Mojzsis et al. (1996) for carbon isotopic analy- sis of individual ~5 µm carbonaceous Gunflint Formation of southern Canada (Barghoorn and Tyler, 1965). Optical microscopy was used to select

90

Familiarity increases consistency in animal tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment investigated the effect of identity of the experimenter and familiarity to their test animals on results obtained from a standard test of anxiety. We found that having different experimenters perform the same test (i.e. elevated plus maze) using the same equipment and rats from the same breeding colony within the same room of the same laboratory significantly affects

Katja S van Driel; Janet C Talling

2005-01-01

91

The Paradox of the "Familiar Outsider."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes role of "familiar outsider," the "transplant" reformer who rejects personal power while aiding community. Focuses on four outsiders assisting Virginia town's developing commission. Details relationship and leadership problems among commission, technical assistant, and community leaders during development of sewing factory. Suggests…

Daley, Nelda Knelson; Kobak, Sue Ella

1990-01-01

92

Metropolitan French: Familiarization & Short-Term Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The U.S. Department of State's Foreign Service Institute French Familiarization and Short-Term (FAST) course for personnel working and living in France consists of 10 weeks of French language instruction combined with practical and cultural information. An introductory section outlines FAST course objectives and sample teaching techniques in…

Iszkowski, Marie-Charlotte

93

Facelock: familiarity-based graphical authentication  

PubMed Central

Authentication codes such as passwords and PIN numbers are widely used to control access to resources. One major drawback of these codes is that they are difficult to remember. Account holders are often faced with a choice between forgetting a code, which can be inconvenient, or writing it down, which compromises security. In two studies, we test a new knowledge-based authentication method that does not impose memory load on the user. Psychological research on face recognition has revealed an important distinction between familiar and unfamiliar face perception: When a face is familiar to the observer, it can be identified across a wide range of images. However, when the face is unfamiliar, generalisation across images is poor. This contrast can be used as the basis for a personalised ‘facelock’, in which authentication succeeds or fails based on image-invariant recognition of faces that are familiar to the account holder. In Study 1, account holders authenticated easily by detecting familiar targets among other faces (97.5% success rate), even after a one-year delay (86.1% success rate). Zero-acquaintance attackers were reduced to guessing (<1% success rate). Even personal attackers who knew the account holder well were rarely able to authenticate (6.6% success rate). In Study 2, we found that shoulder-surfing attacks by strangers could be defeated by presenting different photos of the same target faces in observed and attacked grids (1.9% success rate). Our findings suggest that the contrast between familiar and unfamiliar face recognition may be useful for developers of graphical authentication systems. PMID:25024913

McLachlan, Jane L.; Renaud, Karen

2014-01-01

94

NCI ofrece apoyo a quienes están necesitados después del huracane Katrina  

Cancer.gov

El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI), parte de los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud (NIH), está empeñado en ayudar a las miles de personas que han sido asoladas por los efectos del huracán Katrina. NCI está tratando de llegar a los públicos diversos para proporcionarles información relacionada con el cáncer que pueda ser compartida con exactitud y efectividad con quienes han sido afectados por el huracán.

95

General and Familiar Trust in Websites  

Microsoft Academic Search

When people rely on the web to gather and distribute information, they can build a sense of trust in the websites with which\\u000a they interact. Understanding the correlates of trust in most websites (general website trust) and trust in websites that one\\u000a frequently visits (familiar website trust) is crucial for constructing better models of risk perception and online behavior.\\u000a We

Coye Cheshire; Judd Antin; Karen S. Cook; Elizabeth Churchill

2010-01-01

96

Odor recognition: familiarity, identifiability, and encoding consistency.  

PubMed

The investigation examined the association between the perceived identity of odorous stimuli and the ability to recognize the previous occurrence of them. The stimuli comprised 20 relatively familiar odorous objects such as chocolate, leather, popcorn, and soy sauce. Participants rated the familiarity of the odors and sought to identify them. At various intervals up to 7 days after initial inspection, the participants sought to recognize the odors among sets of distractor odors that included such items as soap, cloves, pipe tobacco, and so on. The recognition response entailed a confidence rating as to whether or not an item had appeared in the original set. At the time of testing, the participants also sought to identify the stimuli again. The results upheld previous findings of excellent initial recognition memory for environmentally relevant odors and slow forgetting. The results also uncovered, for the first time, a strong association between recognition memory and identifiability, rated familiarity, and the ability to use an odor label consistently at inspection and subsequent testing. Encodability seems to enhance rather than to permit recognizability. Even items identified incorrectly or inconsistently were recognized at levels above chance. PMID:6242742

Rabin, M D; Cain, W S

1984-04-01

97

Uso del agua activada y con tratamiento magnético del tomate en condiciones de organopónico Use of the activated water and with magnetic treatment of the tomato under organoponics conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN. Se realizó una investigación en el organopónico del Instituto de Investigaciones de Riego y Drenaje (IIRD), durante dos años sobre la aplicación del agua con tratamientos físico- químicos (activación y magnetización) para el riego del tomate variedad Rilia. Durante el período, se estudió la dinámica de crecimiento estableciéndose las diferencias entre los tratamientos de magnetización y activación del agua

Carmen E. Duarte; Greter Guevara; Maykel Méndez

98

Word-Form Familiarity Bootstraps Infant Speech Segmentation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At about 7 months of age, infants listen longer to sentences containing familiar words--but not deviant pronunciations of familiar words (Jusczyk & Aslin, 1995). This finding suggests that infants are able to segment familiar words from fluent speech and that they store words in sufficient phonological detail to recognize deviations from a…

Altvater-Mackensen, Nicole; Mani, Nivedita

2013-01-01

99

Examiner Familiarity Effects for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined the difference in standardized test performance when familiar versus unfamiliar examiners tested 26 preschool and elementary-aged children with autism. The children were matched by age, severity, and developmental level and then randomly placed into familiar and unfamiliar examiner groups. Familiarity with the examiner was…

Szarko, Julia E.; Brown, Alec J.; Watkins, Marley W.

2013-01-01

100

Situational Familiarity, Efficacy Expectations, and the Process of Credibility Attribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four experiments investigated the influence of situational familiarity within a judgmental context on the process of credibility attribution. We predicted that high familiarity with a situation would lead to higher efficacy expectations for, and a more pronounced use of, verbal information when making judgments of credibility. Under low situational familiarity, judges were expected to experience higher efficacy expectations for, and

Marc-Andre Reinhard; Martin Scharmach; Siegfried L. Sporer

2012-01-01

101

UNIVERSIDAD DE ALICANTE INSTITUTO UNIVERSITARIO DE INVESTIGACIONES TURSTICAS  

E-print Network

2008, que causó graves problemas a la economía mundial, afectando también el turismo. El impacto fue DIRECCI�N Y PLANIFICACI�N DEL TURISMO Ewerton Monti tonmonti@hotmail.com LA CRISIS ECON�MICA DE 2008 Y EL TURISMO: Análisis de efectos y medidas de respuesta en Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil Alicante 2011 #12

Escolano, Francisco

102

El presidente Obama anuncia nombramiento del doctor Harold Varmus  

Cancer.gov

En los últimos cinco años como director del NCI, y en otras funciones ejercidas durante muchos años, he disfrutado ampliamente cada oportunidad que he tenido de visitar los laboratorios y las oficinas, desde Bethesda hasta Frederick, para conocer en persona a los miembros del personal y compartir mis opiniones sobre temas importantes en torno a la ciencia y al manejo de este gran Instituto.

103

Artculo publicado en "Lanjarn: paisajes del agua". Ed. Balneario de Lanjarn, S.A. 35-64. AGUAS DE SIERRA NEVADA; AGUAS DE LANJARON  

E-print Network

Artículo publicado en "Lanjarón: paisajes del agua". Ed. Balneario de Lanjarón, S.A. 35-64. 1999 AGUAS DE SIERRA NEVADA; AGUAS DE LANJARON A. Castillo Martín*, J.J. Cruz Sanjulián** y J. Benavente Herrera** * CSIC e Instituto del Agua de la Universidad de Granada ** Instituto del Agua de la Universidad

Castillo, Antonio

104

Publicaciones del IGME: serie Hidrogeologa y aguas subterrneas, n 14. VI Simposio del Agua en Andaluca. I: 669-678  

E-print Network

Publicaciones del IGME: serie Hidrogeología y aguas subterráneas, nº 14. VI Simposio del Agua en Andalucía. I: 669-678 Problemática de la calidad de las aguas de la Vega de Granada para el riego del tabaco Castillo Martín, Antonio* y Sánchez Díaz, Luis** * CSIC e Instituto del Agua de la Universidad de Granada

Castillo, Antonio

105

Investigacin Centro de Investigacin y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politcnico Nacional  

E-print Network

interacciones planta-microorganismo; y bio-remediación de suelos. Octavio Paredes López Biotecnología general microbiología de suelo. Silvia Edith Valdés Rodríguez Bioquímica y biología molecular de proteínas

106

Las Ideas Eugenésicas en la Creación del Instituto de Medicina Social  

Microsoft Academic Search

EUGENIC IDEAS AND THE FOUNDATION OF THE INSTITUTE OF SOCIAL MEDICINE SUMMARY Here we discuss about the influence of eugenic ideas on the foundation and performance of the Faculty of Medicine Institute of Social Medicine (1927). Academic publications from 1910 to 1950, mainly those of Dr. Carlos Enrique Paz Soldan, support our analysis. In the first half of this century,

WALTER MENDOZA; OSCAR MARTÍNEZ

1999-01-01

107

Investigacin Centro de Investigacin y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politcnico Nacional  

E-print Network

Montiel Diseño de dispositivos ASICs y sistemas electrónicos para telecomunicaciones, cómputo y equipo médico. Deni Librado Torres Román Modelado de Internet: modelos de tráfico, estimadores de autosimilitud Ernesto González Torres Verificación formal de sistemas reactivos. Demostración automática de teoremas

108

Word-form familiarity bootstraps infant speech segmentation.  

PubMed

At about 7 months of age, infants listen longer to sentences containing familiar words - but not deviant pronunciations of familiar words (Jusczyk & Aslin, 1995). This finding suggests that infants are able to segment familiar words from fluent speech and that they store words in sufficient phonological detail to recognize deviations from a familiar word. This finding does not examine whether it is, nevertheless, easier for infants to segment words from sentences when these words sound similar to familiar words. Across three experiments, the present study investigates whether familiarity with a word helps infants segment similar-sounding words from fluent speech and if they are able to discriminate these similar-sounding words from other words later on. Results suggest that word-form familiarity may be a powerful tool bootstrapping further lexical acquisition. PMID:24118722

Altvater-Mackensen, Nicole; Mani, Nivedita

2013-11-01

109

Medical Operation KC-135 Familiarization Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As new personnel join the Medical Operations Branch, it is critical that they understand the effects of microgravity on medical procedures, hardware, and supplies. The familiarization flight provided new personnel with a better understanding of the effects of microgravity on (1) medical procedures, (2) patient and rescuer restraint, (3) medical fluids, and (4) medical training for space flight. The flight process also provided experience in flight proposal preparation, flight test plan preparation and execution, and final report preparation. In addition, first time flyers gained insight on their performance level in microgravity for future flights.

Dawson, Chris; Stoner, Paul; Arenare, Brian; Strickland, Angie; Rudge, Fredrick; Lowdermilk, Greg

1999-01-01

110

The hard-won benefits of familiarity in visual search: naturally familiar brand logos are found faster.  

PubMed

Familiar items are found faster than unfamiliar ones in visual search tasks. This effect has important implications for cognitive theory, because it may reveal how mental representations of commonly encountered items are changed by experience to optimize performance. It remains unknown, however, whether everyday items with moderate levels of exposure would show benefits in visual search, and if so, what kind of experience would be required to produce them. Here, we tested whether familiar product logos were searched for faster than unfamiliar ones, and also familiarized subjects with previously unfamiliar logos. Subjects searched for preexperimentally familiar and unfamiliar logos, half of which were familiarized in the laboratory, amongst other, unfamiliar distractor logos. In three experiments, we used an N-back-like familiarization task, and in four others we used a task that asked detailed questions about the perceptual aspects of the logos. The number of familiarization exposures ranged from 30 to 84 per logo across experiments, with two experiments involving across-day familiarization. Preexperimentally familiar target logos were searched for faster than were unfamiliar, nonfamiliarized logos, by 8 % on average. This difference was reliable in all seven experiments. However, familiarization had little or no effect on search speeds; its average effect was to improve search times by 0.7 %, and its effect was significant in only one of the seven experiments. If priming, mere exposure, episodic memory, or relatively modest familiarity were responsible for familiarity's effects on search, then performance should have improved following familiarization. Our results suggest that the search-related advantage of familiar logos does not develop easily or rapidly. PMID:24510424

Qin, Xiaoyan Angela; Koutstaal, Wilma; Engel, Stephen A

2014-05-01

111

A Familiar Finding: Pseudowords Are More Familiar but No Less Recollectable than Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The pseudoword effect is the finding that pseudowords (i.e., pronounceable nonwords) tend to give rise to more hits and false alarms than words. The familiarity-based account attributes this effect to the fact that pseudowords lack distinctive semantic meanings, which increases the inter-item similarity of pseudowords compared to words and…

Ozubko, Jason D.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.

2012-01-01

112

¿Qué es el Servicio de Información sobre el Cáncer del NCI?  

Cancer.gov

El Servicio de Información sobre el Cáncer (CIS) del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) es un programa financiado con fondos del Gobierno Federal y fue establecido en 1975 como un componente fundamental de la misión y los programas de educación e información del cáncer del NCI. Comuníquese con nosotros para hablar con un especialista capacitado en información quien puede responder a sus preguntas relacionadas con el cáncer en inglés y español.

113

A solid-fluid mixture theory of porous media Instituto de Matematica,  

E-print Network

A solid-fluid mixture theory of porous media I-Shih Liu Instituto de Matem�atica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Abstract The theories of mixtures in the framework of continuum mechanics have of the typical constitutive theories obtained by Bowen [1] for mixture of elastic materials. We employ

Liu, I-Shih

114

Rendezvousing at Familiar and Unfamiliar Places  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports a diary study of rendezvousing as performed by university students. The study compares students' performance when meeting at familiar and unfamiliar rendezvous points. It reports various findings that help to set goals for the development of personal navigation and related services at appropriate levels. For example, when meeting at novel rendezvous points, students: (i) fail to meet as initially agreed more frequently; (ii) report more stress and lost opportunity as a result of rendezvousing problems; (iii) change plan during the rendezvous more often; (iv) communicate more about the rendezvous, particularly using text messaging; (v) attribute rendezvousing problems to lack of geographic and travel information more often, and to additional, spontaneous tasks such as ‘popping to the bank’ less often. Meetings at novel rendezvous points are also more likely to include acquaintances and strangers.

Colbert, Martin

2004-09-01

115

Role of the insular cortex in taste familiarity.  

PubMed

Determining the role of the main gustatory cortical area within the insular cortex (IC), in conditioned taste aversion (CTA) has been elusive due to effective compensatory mechanisms that allow animals to learn in spite of lacking IC. IC lesions performed before CTA training induces mild if any memory impairments, while IC lesions done weeks after CTA produce amnesia. IC lesions before taste presentation have also been shown not to affect taste familiarity learning (attenuation of neophobia). This lack of effect could be either explained by compensation from other brain areas or by a lack of involvement of the IC in taste familiarity. To assess this issue, rats were bilaterally IC lesioned with ibotenic acid (200-300 nl.; 15 mg/ml) one week before or after taste familiarity, using either a preferred (0.1%) or a non-preferred (0.5%) saccharin solution. Rats lesioned before familiarity showed a decrease in neophobia to both solutions but no difference in their familiarity curve or their slope. When animals were familiarized and then IC lesioned, both IC lesioned groups treated the solutions as familiar, showing no differences from sham animals in their retention of familiarity. However, both lesioned groups showed increased latent inhibition (or impaired CTA) when CTA trained after repeated pre-exposures. The role of the IC in familiarity was also assessed using temporary inactivation of the IC, using bilateral micro-infusions of sodium channel blocker bupivacaine before each of 3 saccharin daily presentations. Intra-insular bupivacaine had no effects on familiarity acquisition, but did impair CTA learning in a different group of rats micro-infused before saccharin presentation in a CTA training protocol. Our data indicate that the IC is not essentially involved in acquisition or retention of taste familiarity, suggesting regional dissociation of areas involved in CTA and taste familiarity. PMID:24296461

Moraga-Amaro, Rodrigo; Cortés-Rojas, Andrés; Simon, Felipe; Stehberg, Jimmy

2014-03-01

116

Fixation Patterns During Recognition of Personally Familiar and Unfamiliar Faces  

PubMed Central

Previous studies recording eye gaze during face perception have rendered somewhat inconclusive findings with respect to fixation differences between familiar and unfamiliar faces. This can be attributed to a number of factors that differ across studies: the type and extent of familiarity with the faces presented, the definition of areas of interest subject to analyses, as well as a lack of consideration for the time course of scan patterns. Here we sought to address these issues by recording fixations in a recognition task with personally familiar and unfamiliar faces. After a first common fixation on a central superior location of the face in between features, suggesting initial holistic encoding, and a subsequent left eye bias, local features were focused and explored more for familiar than unfamiliar faces. Although the number of fixations did not differ for un-/familiar faces, the locations of fixations began to differ before familiarity decisions were provided. This suggests that in the context of familiarity decisions without time constraints, differences in processing familiar and unfamiliar faces arise relatively early – immediately upon initiation of the first fixation to identity-specific information – and that the local features of familiar faces are processed more than those of unfamiliar faces. PMID:21607074

van Belle, Goedele; Ramon, Meike; Lefevre, Philippe; Rossion, Bruno

2010-01-01

117

La revisión del estudio de prevención de cáncer de próstata indica no haber beneficio del uso de suplementos de selenio y de vitamina E  

Cancer.gov

La revisión inicial, independiente, de los datos del estudio SELECT, sigla en inglés del Estudio del Selenio y la Vitamina E para Prevenir el Cáncer, financiado por el Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) y otros institutos que comprenden los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud (NIH), indica que los suplementos de selenio y de vitamina E, tomados juntos o por separado, no impiden el cáncer de próstata. Los datos indicaron también dos tendencias preocupantes: un pequeño aumento aunque no significativo estadísticamente en el número de casos de cáncer de próstata entre los más de 35 000 hombres de 50 años y mayores en el estudio que tomaron sólo vitamina E, y un aumento pequeño aunque no significativo estadísticamente en el número de casos de diabetes de aparición en edad adulta en los hombres que tomaron sólo el selenio.

118

Publicaciones del IGME: serie Hidrogeologa y aguas subterrneas, n 14. VI Simposio del Agua en Andaluca. II: 1.229-1.236. 2005  

E-print Network

Publicaciones del IGME: serie Hidrogeología y aguas subterráneas, nº 14. VI Simposio del Agua en Andalucía. II: 1.229-1.236. 2005 Sobre la calidad físico-química de las aguas superficiales del área metropolitana de Granada Sánchez Díaz, Luis* y Castillo Martín, Antonio** * Instituto del Agua. Universidad de

Castillo, Antonio

119

Familiar-Strange: Teaching the Scripture as John Would Teach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Gospel of John teaches through telling the story of Jesus in light of the familiar Hebrew faith stories. It is an interpretive task that presents Jesus to his audience and teaches them adequate faith. John the Teacher skillfully uses narrative skills to create the familiar-strange effect in his storytelling. Each story is followed by a…

Ha, Tung-Chiew

2014-01-01

120

Synthetic generation of airport familiarization using geo information systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An Airport Qualification may be required for a pilot to receive qualification for the execution of an approach or departure from a terrain, weather, or procedure challenging airport. The FAA identified these challenging airports and calls them "Special Pilot Qualification Airports". This Qualification may be accomplished through a familiarization using airport images or through a familiarization flight with an authorized person. Currently, Jeppesen offers Airport Familiarization Charts. These charts depict approach procedure photos to a runway from the pilot's perspective and aerial views of the airport. Before the approach, Pilots make use of these photos to get familiarized with the airport, the runway layout, the approach and terrain. Jeppesen qualification charts cover all FAA identified airports and other challenging airports. A first prototype for generating "Synthetic Airport Familiarization" pictures and videos has been researched, developed, implemented and validated. Flight Information Data as well as Remote Sensing Data and their derived data was processed and visualized through Geo Information System (GIS). This paper describes a new possibility to generate airport familiarization images using Remote Sensing Data, terrain data, airport vector data, obstacles and approach procedure data through GIS. The objective is to replace analogues photos with synthetic pictures and also to generate new Airport Familiarization Videos. Finally, an overview of the potential feature extensibility of the Synthetic Airport Familiarization System is presented.

Zimmer, N.; Wipplinger, P.; Schiefele, J.

2007-10-01

121

Synthetic generation of Airport Familiarization using geo information systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An airport qualification may be required for a pilot to receive qualification for the execution of an approach or departure from a terrain, weather, or procedure challenging airport. The FAA identified these challenging airports and calls them ldquospecial pilot qualification airportsrdquo. This qualification may be accomplished through a familiarization using airport images or through a familiarization flight with an authorized

N. Zimmer; P. Wipplinger; J. Schiefele

2008-01-01

122

An Inner Face Advantage in Children's Recognition of Familiar Peers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children's recognition of familiar own-age peers was investigated. Chinese children (4-, 8-, and 14-year-olds) were asked to identify their classmates from photographs showing the entire face, the internal facial features only, the external facial features only, or the eyes, nose, or mouth only. Participants from all age groups were familiar with…

Ge, Liezhong; Anzures, Gizelle; Wang, Zhe; Kelly, David J.; Pascalis, Olivier; Quinn, Paul C.; Slater, Alan M.; Yang, Zhiliang; Lee, Kang

2008-01-01

123

Effects of Self-Monitoring and Familiarity on Deception Detection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results indicated that observers familiar with a communicator's truthful behavior were more accurate in detecting deception than those who were not familiar, and that accuracy increased as self-monitoring increased. (High self-monitors are individuals particularly sensitive to the expression and self-presentation of others in social situations.)…

Brandt, David R.; And Others

1980-01-01

124

Familiarity for Associations? A Test of the Domain Dichotomy Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Episodic recognition memory is mediated by functionally separable retrieval processes, notably familiarity (a general sense of prior exposure) and recollection (the retrieval of contextual details), whose relative engagement depends partly on the nature of the information being retrieved. Currently, the specific contribution of familiarity to…

Harlow, Iain M.; Mackenzie, Graham; Donaldson, David I.

2010-01-01

125

Long-term familiarity promotes joining in neighbour nest defence  

PubMed Central

Familiarity plays an important role in the evolution of sociality and cooperation. Familiar individuals may gain a reputation for participating in, or defecting from, cooperative tasks. Previous research suggests that long-term familiarity with territorial neighbours benefits breeders. We tested the hypothesis that great tits (Parus major) are more likely to join in neighbours' nest defence if those neighbours are familiar from the previous year. We show that neighbours that shared a territory boundary the previous year are more likely to join their neighbours' nest defence than neighbours that did not share a boundary before. Closer neighbours did not differ from distant neighbours in their latency to join. For familiar neighbours that joined, there was no difference in call rate in relation to whether one or both members of the focal pair were familiar. First-time breeders (by definition unfamiliar) did not join each other's nest defence. This is the first evidence of a relationship between familiarity and joining in nest defence. Such direct benefits of familiarity may have important implications in the evolution of sociality. PMID:22535641

Grabowska-Zhang, A. M.; Sheldon, B. C.; Hinde, C. A.

2012-01-01

126

Adjustment to change in familiar and unfamiliar task constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the rate of adjustment to changes in task constraints that are familiar and unfamiliar when a change in the pattern of sequencing of segmental movements is not required. The selected task was underwater flutter kicking with flippers (familiar) and without flippers (unfamiliar). Nine male competitive age-group swimmers were assigned either to an

Ross Sanders; Shuping Li; Joseph Hamill

2009-01-01

127

When Do Infants Begin Recognizing Familiar Words in Sentences?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous studies have shown that by 11 but not by 10 months infants recognize words that have become familiar from everyday life independently of the experimental setting. This study explored the ability of 10-, 11-, and 12- month-old infants to recognize familiar words in sentential context, without experimental training. The headturn preference…

DePaolis, Rory A.; Vihman, Marilyn M.; Keren-Portnoy, Tamar

2014-01-01

128

Rats' Novel Object Interaction as a Measure of Environmental Familiarity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Environmental familiarization is a learning phenomenon embedded within most tasks used to study learning and motivation. Given its prevalence there is surprisingly little systematic behavioral research on factors affecting familiarization. The six experiments reported in the present report used rats' tendency to interact more with a novel object…

Wilkinson, Jamie L.; Herrman, Laura; Palmatier, Matthew I.; Bevins, Rick A.

2006-01-01

129

The importance of stable schooling: do familiar sticklebacks stick together?  

PubMed Central

Preferences for rejoining shoals composed of familiar individuals have recently been documented in a variety of small, shallow-water fish species. Such preferences are assumed to be adaptive, since familiar groups have improved anti-predator defences and more stable dominance hierarchies. However, the design of these studies may have created conditions that elevate preferences for familiar individuals. Furthermore, in natural habitats, where significant opportunities for inter-shoal transfer may exist, it is unclear whether shoals stay together long enough for such preferences to develop. Here we present the results of a laboratory study examining whether prior familiarity influences the subsequent shoal composition of sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) allowed to re-assort freely in a large arena tank. We show that fish from different familiarity groups associate with familiar conspecifics significantly more than predicted by a model of random assortment, suggesting that even when there is ample opportunity for inter-group transfer, shoal composition can remain stable. We discuss the phenomena that may lead to the formation of familiar groups in natural habitats. In addition, we suggest that familiarity benefits may reduce the relative value of transferring to otherwise more attractive (e.g. larger or more phenotypically matched) groups, and thereby stabilize shoal structure. PMID:10687820

Barber, L; Ruxton, G D

2000-01-01

130

The Influence of Familiarity on Affective Responses to Natural Scenes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This kansei study explored how familiarity with image-word combinations influences affective states. Stimuli were obtained from Japanese print advertisements (ads), and consisted of images (e.g., natural-scene backgrounds) and their corresponding headlines (advertising copy). Initially, a group of subjects evaluated their level of familiarity with images and headlines independently, and stimuli were filtered based on the results. In the main experiment, a different group of subjects rated their pleasure and arousal to, and familiarity with, image-headline combinations. The Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) scale was used to evaluate pleasure and arousal, and a bipolar scale was used to evaluate familiarity. The results showed a high correlation between familiarity and pleasure, but low correlation between familiarity and arousal. The characteristics of the stimuli, and their effect on the variables of pleasure, arousal and familiarity, were explored through ANOVA. It is suggested that, in the case of natural-scene ads, familiarity with image-headline combinations may increase the pleasure response to the ads, and that certain components in the images (e.g., water) may increase arousal levels.

Sanabria Z., Jorge C.; Cho, Youngil; Yamanaka, Toshimasa

131

Assessing Recollection and Familiarity in Low Functioning Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Methods to assess recollection and familiarity separately in autism spectrum disorder were recently developed and piloted (Bigham et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 40:878-889, 2010). The preliminary data obtained via these methods showed that whereas recollection was mildly impaired in high functioning autism, familiarity was spared. The current study…

Ni Chuileann, Susan; Quigley, Jean

2013-01-01

132

Musical familiarity in congenital amusia: Evidence from a gating paradigm.  

PubMed

Congenital amusia has been described as a lifelong deficit of music perception and production, notably including amusic individuals' difficulties to recognize a familiar tune without the aid of lyrics. The present study aimed to evaluate whether amusic individuals might have acquired long-term knowledge of familiar music, and to test for the minimal amount of acoustic information necessary to access this knowledge (if any) in amusia. Segments of familiar and unfamiliar instrumental musical pieces were presented with increasing duration (250, 500, 1000 msec etc.), and participants provided familiarity judgments for each segment. Results showed that amusic individuals succeeded in differentiating familiar from unfamiliar excerpts with as little acoustic information as did control participants (i.e., within 500 msec). The findings reveal that amusic individuals have stored musical pieces in long-term memory (LTM), and, together with other recent findings, they suggest that congenital amusia might impair conscious access to music processing rather than music processing per se. PMID:25151640

Tillmann, Barbara; Albouy, Philippe; Caclin, Anne; Bigand, Emmanuel

2014-10-01

133

Effect of facial familiarity and task requirement on electrodermal activity.  

PubMed

We examined the effect of facial familiarity and task requirement on electrodermal activity (EDA). Proposed models of facial recognition suggest a sequential process wherein a recognition of familiarity precedes any identity-specific search. Prior research has indicated that an automatic increase in EDA occurs to familiar faces. We reexamined this effect while manipulating the task requirement. One group of subjects was required to identify (name) faces, and a control group was required to rate facial attractiveness. The results indicated that an increase in EDA to familiar faces occurred only when coupled with the identification task. No increase in EDA occurred when subjects were rating facial attractiveness and presented with a familiar face. PMID:8714454

Shearer, D; Mikulka, P

1996-01-01

134

Fluency, familiarity, aging, and the illusion of truth.  

PubMed

Research has shown that repeated statements are rated as more credible than new statements. However, little research has examined whether such "illusions of truth" can be produced by contextual (nonmnemonic) influences, or compared to the magnitude of these illusions in younger and older adults. In two experiments, we examined how manipulations of perceptual and conceptual fluency influenced truth and familiarity ratings made by young and older adults. Stimuli were claims about companies or products varying in normative familiarity. Results showed only small effects of perceptual fluency on rated truth or familiarity. In contrast, manipulating conceptual fluency via semantic/textual context had much larger effects on rated truth and familiarity, with the effects modulated by normative company familiarity such that fluency biases were larger for lesser-known companies. In both experiments, young and older adults were equally susceptible to fluency-based biases. PMID:16807200

Parks, Colleen M; Toth, Jeffrey P

2006-06-01

135

Perception of familiar contrasts in unfamiliar positions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates the perception of non-native phoneme contrasts which exist in the native language, but not in the position tested. Like English, Dutch contrasts voiced and voiceless obstruents. Unlike English, Dutch allows only voiceless obstruents in word-final position. Dutch and English listeners' accuracy on English final voicing contrasts and their use of preceding vowel duration as a voicing cue were tested. The phonetic structure of Dutch should provide the necessary experience for a native-like use of this cue. Experiment 1 showed that Dutch listeners categorized English final /zee/-/ess/, /vee/-/eff/, /bee/-/pee/, and /dee/-/tee/ contrasts in nonwords as accurately as initial contrasts, and as accurately as English listeners did, even when release bursts were removed. In experiment 2, English listeners used vowel duration as a cue for one final contrast, although it was uninformative and sometimes mismatched other voicing characteristics, whereas Dutch listeners did not. Although it should be relatively easy for them, Dutch listeners did not use vowel duration. Nevertheless, they attained native-like accuracy, and sometimes even outperformed the native listeners who were liable to be misled by uninformative vowel duration information. Thus, native-like use of cues for non-native but familiar contrasts in unfamiliar positions may hardly ever be attained. .

Broersma, Mirjam

2005-06-01

136

Smells familiar: group-joining decisions of predatory mites are mediated by olfactory cues of social familiarity?  

PubMed Central

Group-living animals frequently have to trade off the costs and benefits of leaving an established group and joining another group. Owing to their high fitness relevance, group-joining decisions are commonly nonrandom and may be based on traits of both individual members and the group such as life stage, body size, social status and group density or size, respectively. Many group-living animals are able to recognize and to associate preferentially with familiar individuals, i.e. those encountered before. Hence, after dispersing from established groups, animals commonly have to decide whether to join a new familiar or unfamiliar group. Using binary choice situations we assessed the effects of social familiarity on group-joining behaviour of the plant-inhabiting predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. Group living in P. persimilis is brought about by the patchy distribution of its spider mite prey and mutual conspecific attraction. In the first experiment, gravid predator females given a choice between spider mite patches occupied by unfamiliar and familiar groups of females strongly preferred to join familiar groups and to deposit their eggs in these patches. Preference for socially familiar groups was robust across biases of spider mite prey densities between choice options. The second experiment revealed that the predatory mite females can smell social familiarity from a distance. Females subjected to odour choice situations in artificial cages were more strongly attracted to the odour of familiar than unfamiliar groups. We argue that P. persimilis females preferentially join socially familiar groups because a familiar social environment relaxes competition and optimizes foraging and reproduction. PMID:24027341

Muleta, Muluken G.; Schausberger, Peter

2013-01-01

137

El cuento del cáncer de cérvix podría tener un final feliz  

Cancer.gov

El cuento del cáncer de cérvix podría tener un final feliz Por el Instituto Nacional del Cáncer El cáncer de cérvix fue en un tiempo la causa principal de muerte por cáncer entre mujeres estadounidenses. Pero, en los últimos 50 años, el número de

138

JORNADA SOBRE LA TRANSFORMACIN DEL DERECHO PRIVADO ANTE LA CRISIS1  

E-print Network

JORNADA SOBRE LA TRANSFORMACI�N DEL DERECHO PRIVADO ANTE LA CRISIS1 . Lugar de celebración: Sala Conde. Catedrático de D. Constitucional y Director del Instituto de Derecho Público. URJC. 10:00 Conferencia inaugural Prof. Dr. D. Domingo Bello Janeiro, Catedrático de Derecho Civil. Universidad de

Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad

139

How familiar characters influence children's judgments about information and products.  

PubMed

Children are exposed to advertisements and products that incorporate familiar characters, such as Dora the Explorer and Bob the Builder, virtually from birth. How does the presence of these characters influence children's judgments about information and products? Three experiments (N=125) explored how 4-year-olds evaluate messages from familiar characters and how their trust in a familiar character's testimony relates to their product preferences. Children endorsed objective and subjective claims made by a familiar character more often than those made by a perceptually similar but unfamiliar character even in situations where they had evidence that the familiar character was unreliable. Children also preferred low-quality products bearing a familiar character's image over high-quality products without a character image up to 74% of the time (whereas control groups preferred the low-quality products less than 6% of the time when they did not include a character image). These findings suggest that young children are powerfully influenced by familiar characters encountered in the media, leaving them vulnerable to advertising messages and clouding their judgments about products. PMID:25038449

Danovitch, Judith H; Mills, Candice M

2014-12-01

140

Neural representation of face familiarity in an awake chimpanzee.  

PubMed

Evaluating the familiarity of faces is critical for social animals as it is the basis of individual recognition. In the present study, we examined how face familiarity is reflected in neural activities in our closest living relative, the chimpanzee. Skin-surface event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were measured while a fully awake chimpanzee observed photographs of familiar and unfamiliar chimpanzee faces (Experiment 1) and human faces (Experiment 2). The ERPs evoked by chimpanzee faces differentiated unfamiliar individuals from familiar ones around midline areas centered on vertex sites at approximately 200 ms after the stimulus onset. In addition, the ERP response to the image of the subject's own face did not significantly diverge from those evoked by familiar chimpanzees, suggesting that the subject's brain at a minimum remembered the image of her own face. The ERPs evoked by human faces were not influenced by the familiarity of target individuals. These results indicate that chimpanzee neural representations are more sensitive to the familiarity of conspecific than allospecific faces. PMID:24392287

Fukushima, Hirokata; Hirata, Satoshi; Matsuda, Goh; Ueno, Ari; Fuwa, Kohki; Sugama, Keiko; Kusunoki, Kiyo; Hiraki, Kazuo; Tomonaga, Masaki; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

2013-01-01

141

¿Cómo puedo usar los servicios del CIS?  

Cancer.gov

El Servicio de Información sobre el Cáncer del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer maneja también la línea telefónica para dejar de fumar 1-877-448-7848 (1-877-44U-QUIT), la cual proporciona información gratuita para dejar de fumar y apoyo a fumadores que desean dejar el tabaco. Nuestro servicio no tiene ningún costo ni cuota de pago. El servicio se brinda en inglés y en español, de lunes a viernes de 8 de la mañana a 8 de la noche, hora del Este.

142

When do infants begin recognizing familiar words in sentences?  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that by 11 but not by 10 months infants recognize words that have become familiar from everyday life independently of the experimental setting. This study explored the ability of 10-, 11-, and 12-month-old infants to recognize familiar words in sentential context, without experimental training. The headturn preference procedure was used to contrast passages containing words likely to be familiar to the infants with passages containing words unlikely to have been previously heard. Two stimulus words were inserted near the beginning and end of each of a set of simple sentence frames. The ability to recognize the familiar words within sentences emerged only at 12 months of age. The contrast between segmentation abilities as they emerge as a result of everyday exposure to language, as assessed here, and those abilities as measured in studies in which words are experimentally trained is discussed in terms of memory-based mechanisms. PMID:23253168

Depaolis, Rory A; Vihman, Marilyn M; Keren-Portnoy, Tamar

2014-01-01

143

Familiarity and attraction to pictures of children's faces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studied the relationship between familiarity and liking of a peer in 32 children in Grades 1–6. Pictures of boys' and girls' faces were shown at different frequencies; Ss then ranked the faces according to liking. Marked individual differences were found. For Ss with high sex-typed preferences, increased familiarity led to increased liking of same-sex faces and decreased liking of other-sex

Robert V. Kail

1977-01-01

144

Music and Emotions in the Brain: Familiarity Matters  

PubMed Central

The importance of music in our daily life has given rise to an increased number of studies addressing the brain regions involved in its appreciation. Some of these studies controlled only for the familiarity of the stimuli, while others relied on pleasantness ratings, and others still on musical preferences. With a listening test and a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment, we wished to clarify the role of familiarity in the brain correlates of music appreciation by controlling, in the same study, for both familiarity and musical preferences. First, we conducted a listening test, in which participants rated the familiarity and liking of song excerpts from the pop/rock repertoire, allowing us to select a personalized set of stimuli per subject. Then, we used a passive listening paradigm in fMRI to study music appreciation in a naturalistic condition with increased ecological value. Brain activation data revealed that broad emotion-related limbic and paralimbic regions as well as the reward circuitry were significantly more active for familiar relative to unfamiliar music. Smaller regions in the cingulate cortex and frontal lobe, including the motor cortex and Broca's area, were found to be more active in response to liked music when compared to disliked one. Hence, familiarity seems to be a crucial factor in making the listeners emotionally engaged with music, as revealed by fMRI data. PMID:22110619

Pereira, Carlos Silva; Teixeira, Joao; Figueiredo, Patricia; Xavier, Joao; Castro, Sao Luis; Brattico, Elvira

2011-01-01

145

Observation of Simple Intransitive Actions: The Effect of Familiarity  

PubMed Central

Introduction Humans are more familiar with index – thumb than with any other finger to thumb grasping. The effect of familiarity has been previously tested with complex, specialized and/or transitive movements, but not with simple intransitive ones. The aim of this study is to evaluate brain activity patterns during the observation of simple and intransitive finger movements with differing degrees of familiarity. Methodology A functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) study was performed using a paradigm consisting of the observation of 4 videos showing a finger opposition task between the thumb and the other fingers (index, middle, ring and little) in a repetitive manner with a fixed frequency (1 Hz). This movement is considered as the pantomime of a precision grasping action. Results Significant activity was identified in the bilateral Inferior Parietal Lobule and premotor regions with the selected level of significance (FDR [False Discovery Rate]?=?0.01). The extent of the activation in both regions tended to decrease when the finger that performed the action was further from the thumb. More specifically, this effect showed a linear trend (index>middle>ring>little) in the right parietal and premotor regions. Conclusions The observation of less familiar simple intransitive movements produces less activation of parietal and premotor areas than familiar ones. The most important implication of this study is the identification of differences in brain activity during the observation of simple intransitive movements with different degrees of familiarity. PMID:24073213

Plata Bello, Julio; Modrono, Cristian; Marcano, Francisco; Gonzalez-Mora, Jose Luis

2013-01-01

146

Reminiscence of My Time in Manuel's Group at the Instituto Pluridisciplinar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I joined Manuel's group at the Instituto Pluridisciplinar (IP) in April 1994. The year before, Manuel had been one of its cofounders at Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM). Although up to then I had not worked in fluid dynamics, he accepted me under the condition to build up a lab from scratch to carry out experiments on convection. I agreed enthusiastically, yet not every Ph.D. student has the opportunity to carry out his research in a new lab—and on top of this, a lab one has a lot of freedom to design.

Wierschem, A.

147

Pigeons discriminate objects on the basis of abstract familiarity.  

PubMed

Knowledge of previous encounters with conspecifics is thought to be beneficial as it allows fast and appropriate behavioral responses toward those animals. This level of categorization goes beyond perceptual similarity and requires the individual to refer to a more abstract common referent, namely familiarity. It has been shown that pigeons are able to form functional classes of conspecifics that are based on familiarity. To date, we do not know whether this ability is restricted to the social context (including heterospecifics) or if it can also be used to classify inanimate objects. Furthermore, the factors influencing the formation of this functional class are still unknown. Here, we show that pigeons (Columba livia) are able to use a categorical rule of familiarity to classify previously unseen photographs of objects from their living environment. Pigeons that lacked real-life experience with the objects were not able to do so. This suggests that perceptual features alone were not sufficient for class recognition. To investigate the impact of additional functional properties of the objects, familiar objects were further divided into two subcategories, namely those that were considered functionally relevant to the birds and those that were not. Although the majority of pigeons learned to categorize photographs of objects based on familiarity alone, our results also suggest an unlearned preference for "relevant" familiar objects. The results presented here suggest that pigeons are able to learn to extract the discriminative feature of abstract familiarity from pictures by referring to previous real-life experience but that additional functions of objects lead to a preference of these objects. PMID:23584617

Stephan, Claudia; Wilkinson, Anna; Huber, Ludwig

2013-11-01

148

Route familiarity breeds inattention: a driving simulator study.  

PubMed

Inattention is a major cause of traffic accidents. Here, we show that, contrary to common-sense expectation, familiarity with a route is itself a source of driving impairment. This effect may be attributed to increased mind-wandering along familiar routes. In the present work, participants followed a vehicle along a route with which they were either familiar or unfamiliar. During the experimental session, the lead-vehicle braked at random locations, forcing participants to brake to avoid a collision. Participants were also required to respond with a button press when they noticed pedestrians heading toward the road from a sidewalk. In Experiment 1 we found that familiar drivers follow the lead vehicle more closely and are slower to notice approaching pedestrians. In Experiment 2, with following distance held constant, reaction times to central and peripheral events were longer for familiar drivers. Consistent with the mind-wandering hypothesis, all these effects were eliminated in Experiment 3 when drivers were made to focus on the driving task. PMID:23643937

Yanko, Matthew R; Spalek, Thomas M

2013-08-01

149

Timing and Tuning for Familiarity of Cortical Responses to Faces  

PubMed Central

Different kinds of known faces activate brain areas to dissimilar degrees. However, the tuning to type of knowledge, and the temporal course of activation, of each area have not been well characterized. Here we measured, with functional magnetic resonance imaging, brain activity elicited by unfamiliar, visually familiar, and personally-familiar faces. We assessed response amplitude and duration using flexible hemodynamic response functions, as well as the tuning to face type, of regions within the face processing system. Core face processing areas (occipital and fusiform face areas) responded to all types of faces with only small differences in amplitude and duration. In contrast, most areas of the extended face processing system (medial orbito-frontal, anterior and posterior cingulate) had weak responses to unfamiliar and visually-familiar faces, but were highly tuned and exhibited prolonged responses to personally-familiar faces. This indicates that the neural processing of different types of familiar faces not only differs in degree, but is probably mediated by qualitatively distinct mechanisms. PMID:24130761

Bobes, Maria A.; Lage Castellanos, Agustin; Quinones, Ileana; Garcia, Lorna; Valdes-Sosa, Mitchell

2013-01-01

150

Preparing for Novel versus Familiar Events: Shifts in Global and Local Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six experiments examined whether novelty versus familiarity influences global versus local processing styles. Novelty and familiarity were manipulated by either framing a task as new versus familiar or by asking participants to reflect upon novel versus familiar events prior to the task (i.e., procedural priming). In Experiments 1-3, global…

Forster, Jens; Liberman, Nira; Shapira, Oren

2009-01-01

151

How Does the Brain Discriminate Familiar and Unfamiliar Faces?: A PET Study of Face Categorical Perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

Where and how does the brain discriminate familiar and unfamiliar faces? This question has not been answered yet by neuroimaging studies partly because different tasks were performed on familiar and unfamiliar faces, or because familiar faces were associated with semantic and lexical information. Here eight subjects were trained during 3 days with a set of 30 faces. The familiarized faces

Bruno Rossion; Christine Schiltz; Laurence Robaye; David Pirenne; Marc Crommelinck

2001-01-01

152

Listening, Not Watching: Situational Familiarity and the Ability to Detect Deception  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 4 experiments, the authors investigated the influence of situational familiarity with the judgmental context on the process of lie detection. They predicted that high familiarity with a situation leads to a more pronounced use of content cues when making judgments of veracity. Therefore, they expected higher classification accuracy of truths and lies under high familiarity. Under low situational familiarity,

Marc-André Reinhard; Siegfried L. Sporer; Martin Scharmach; Tamara Marksteiner

2011-01-01

153

How familiarization and repetition modulate the picture naming network.  

PubMed

A common strategy to reveal the components of the speech production network is to use psycholinguistic manipulations previously tested in behavioral protocols. This often disregards how implementation aspects that are nonessential for interpreting behavior may affect the neural response. We compared the electrophysiological (EEG) signature of two popular picture naming protocols involving either unfamiliar pictures without repetitions or repeated familiar pictures. We observed significant semantic interference effects in behavior but not in the EEG, contrary to some previous findings. Remarkably, the two protocols elicited clearly distinct EEG responses. These were not due to naming latency differences nor did they reflect a homogeneous modulation of amplitude over the trial time-window. The effect of protocol is attributed to the familiarization induced by the first encounter with the materials. Picture naming processes can be substantially modulated by specific protocol requirements controlled by familiarity and, to a much lesser degree, the repetition of materials. PMID:24785306

Llorens, Anaïs; Trébuchon, Agnès; Riès, Stéphanie; Liégeois-Chauvel, Catherine; Alario, F-Xavier

2014-06-01

154

Route following and the pigeon's familiar area map.  

PubMed

Homing pigeons (Columba livia) have been the central model of avian navigation research for many decades, but only more recently has research extended into understanding their mechanisms of orientation in the familiar area. The discovery (facilitated by GPS tracking) that pigeons gradually acquire with experience individually idiosyncratic routes home to which they remain faithful on repeated releases, even if displaced off-route, has helped uncover the fundamental role of familiar visual landmarks in the avian familiar area map. We evaluate the robustness and generality of the route-following phenomenon by examining extant studies in depth, including the single published counter-example, providing a detailed comparison of route efficiencies, flight corridor widths and fidelity. We combine this analysis with a review of inferences that can be drawn from other experimental approaches to understanding the nature of familiar area orientation in pigeons, including experiments on landmark recognition, and response to clock-shift, to build the first detailed picture of how bird orientation develops with experience of the familiar area. We articulate alternative hypotheses for how guidance might be controlled during route following, concluding that although much remains unknown, the details of route following strongly support a pilotage interpretation. Predictable patterns of efficiency increase, but limited to the local route, typical corridor widths of 100-200 m, high-fidelity pinch-points on route, attraction to landscape edges, and a robustness to clock-shift procedures, all demonstrate that birds can associatively acquire a map of their familiar area guided (at least partially) by direct visual control from memorised local landscape features. PMID:24431141

Guilford, Tim; Biro, Dora

2014-01-15

155

Emotional Processing of Personally Familiar Faces in the Vegetative State  

PubMed Central

Background The Vegetative State (VS) is a severe disorder of consciousness in which patients are awake but display no signs of awareness. Yet, recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have demonstrated evidence for covert awareness in VS patients by recording specific brain activations during a cognitive task. However, the possible existence of incommunicable subjective emotional experiences in VS patients remains largely unexplored. This study aimed to probe the question of whether VS patients retain a brain ability to selectively process external stimuli according to their emotional value and look for evidence of covert emotional awareness in patients. Methods and Findings In order to explore these questions we employed the emotive impact of observing personally familiar faces, known to provoke specific perceptual as well as emotional brain activations. Four VS patients and thirteen healthy controls first underwent an fMRI scan while viewing pictures of non-familiar faces, personally familiar faces and pictures of themselves. In a subsequent imagery task participants were asked to actively imagine one of their parent's faces. Analyses focused on face and familiarity selective regional brain activations and inter-regional functional connectivity. Similar to controls, all patients displayed face selective brain responses with further limbic and cortical activations elicited by familiar faces. In patients as well as controls, Connectivity was observed between emotional, visual and face specific areas, suggesting aware emotional perception. This connectivity was strongest in the two patients who later recovered. Notably, these two patients also displayed selective amygdala activation during familiar face imagery, with one further exhibiting face selective activations, indistinguishable from healthy controls. Conclusions Taken together, these results show that selective emotional processing can be elicited in VS patients both by external emotionally salient stimuli and by internal cognitive processes, suggesting the ability for covert emotional awareness of self and the environment in VS patients. PMID:24086365

Sharon, Haggai; Pasternak, Yotam; Ben Simon, Eti; Gruberger, Michal; Giladi, Nir; Krimchanski, Ben Zion; Hassin, David; Hendler, Talma

2013-01-01

156

Using Intelligent Agents to Facilitate Game Based Cultural Familiarization Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

CHI Systems, under contract to the U. S. Army Research Institute, developed an immersive training system, called Virtual Environment\\u000a Composable Training for Operational Readiness Training Delivery (VECTOR-TD), which provides scenario-based virtual environments\\u000a for cultural familiarization. VECTOR-TD was designed to provide a new technology for game-based training in cultural familiarization\\u000a through the application of scenario-based training. VECTOR-TD integrates the Lithtech Jupiter

Thomas Santarelli; Charles Barba; Floyd A. Glenn; Daphne Bogert

2006-01-01

157

Dogs' comprehension of referential emotional expressions: familiar people and familiar emotions are easier.  

PubMed

Dogs have been shown to discriminate between human facial expressions, and they seem to use human emotional communication to regulate their behaviour towards an external object/situation. However, it is still not clear (1) whether they just respond to the emotional message received with a corresponding increase/decrease in their level of activation or whether they perceive that the emotional message refers to a specific object, (2) which emotional message they use to modify their behaviour (i.e. whether they are following the positive message or avoiding the negative one) and (3) whether their familiarity with the informant has an effect on the dogs' behaviour. To address these issues, five groups of dogs were tested in two experiments. The first group observed the owner delivering two different emotional messages (happiness and fear) towards two identical objects hidden behind barriers, and the second group observed the owner delivering the same emotional messages but with no-objects present in the room. The third and the fourth groups observed the owner delivering a happy versus a neutral, and a negative versus a neutral emotional message towards the hidden objects. Finally, the fifth group observed a stranger acting like the owner of the first group. When the owner was acting as the informant, dogs seemed to be capable of distinguishing between a fearful and happy emotional expression and preferentially chose to investigate a box eliciting an expression of happiness rather than of fear or neutrality. Dogs, however, seemed to have greater difficulty in distinguishing between the fearful and neutral emotional messages delivered by the owner and between the happy and fearful expressions delivered by the stranger. Results suggest that dogs have learned to associate their owners' positive emotional messages to positive outcomes, and hence use their communicative messages to guide their actions. However, negative emotional messages and those delivered by strangers are not as clear to dogs. PMID:23955027

Merola, I; Prato-Previde, E; Lazzaroni, M; Marshall-Pescini, S

2014-03-01

158

Catalogue of the type material of Phlebotominae (Diptera, Psychodidae) deposited in the Instituto Evandro Chagas, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Abstract The available type material of Phlebotominae (Diptera, Psychodidae) deposited in the “Coleção de Flebotomíneos” of the Instituto Evandro Chagas (ColFleb IEC) is now presented in an annotated catalogue comprising a total of 121 type specimens belonging to 12 species as follow: Nyssomyia richardwardi (2 female paratypes), Nyssomyia shawi (9 male and 25 female paratypes), Nyssomyia umbratilis (female holotype and 1 female paratype), Nyssomyia yuilli yuilli (1 male and 1 female paratypes), Pintomyia gruta (1 male and 2 female paratypes), Psychodopygus lainsoni (2 male syntypes), Psychodopygus leonidasdeanei (male holotype, female “allotype” and 45 female paratypes), Psychodopygus llanosmartinsi (2 female paratypes), Psychodopygus wellcomei (1 male and 4 female “syntypes”), Trichophoromyia readyi (male holotype, female “allotype” and 1 male paratype), Trichophoromyia adelsonsouzai (male holotype, 13 male 5 female paratypes), and Trichophoromyia brachipyga (1 male paratype). PMID:24715786

dos Santos, Thiago Vasconcelos; Pinheiro, Maria Sueli Barros; de Andrade, Andrey Jose

2014-01-01

159

[Development, science, and politics: the debate surrounding creation of the Instituto Internacional da Hiléia Amazônica].  

PubMed

The article uses the debate surrounding creation of the Instituto Internacional da Hiléia Amazônica (International Institute of the Hylean Amazon--IIHA) as a point of departure for analyzing the topic of development. We first address post-World War II relations between science and development. Next, we examine the Brazilian government's initiatives in the Amazon during the 1940s and how the IIHA project was received. Lastly, we analyze the controversies ignited in Brazil by Unesco's plan. The IIHA project was a catalyst of the development debate in post-World War II Brazil. The discussions then sparked in Brazil and the project's denouement solidified a development model for the Amazon that even today underpins initiatives taken in the region. PMID:18783148

Magalhães, Rodrigo Cesar da Silva; Maio, Marcos Chor

2007-12-01

160

Familiarity and Attraction to Pictures of Children's Faces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relation between familiarity and peer liking was studied in 96 elementary school-aged children. Pictures of boys' and girls' faces shown at different frequencies were ranked according to liking. Marked individual differences and effects for degree of children's sex-typed attitudes were found. (Author/JMB)

Kail, Robert V., Jr.

1977-01-01

161

Familiar Sports and Activities Adapted for Multiply Impaired Persons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Means of adapting some familiar and popular physical activities for multiply impaired persons are described. Games reviewed are dice baseball, one base baseball, in-house bowling, wheelchair bowling, ramp bowling, swing-ball bowling, table tennis, shuffleboard, beanbag bingo and tic-tac-toe, balloon basketball, circle football, and wheelchair…

Schilling, Mary Lou, Ed.

1984-01-01

162

Rethinking Familiarity: Remember/Know Judgments in Free Recall  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although frequently used with recognition, a few studies have used the Remember/Know procedure with free recall. In each case, participants gave Know judgments to a significant number of recalled items (items that were presumably not remembered on the basis of familiarity). What do these Know judgments mean? We investigated this issue using a…

Mickes, Laura; Seale-Carlisle, Travis M.; Wixted, John T.

2013-01-01

163

What's in a Forename? Cue Familiarity and Stereotypical Thinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has characterized categorical thinking as an essential component of the person perception process. Yet relatively little is known about the myriad factors that moderate the accessibility of this mode of thought. With regard to this we hypothesized that the subjective familiarity of a person's forename may play an important role in triggering categorical thinking. Specifically, category-based knowledge may

C. Neil Macrae; Jason P. Mitchell; Louise F. Pendry

2002-01-01

164

Context Dependency of Conditioned Aversions to Familiar and Novel Fluids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a context discrimination procedure and rats as the subjects, the formation of context-dependent aversions to novel and familiar fluids was investigated. Experiment 1 revealed that context dependency could be established to a novel fluid (saccharin) after three cycles of context discrimination training and that the acquired context dependency…

Ishii, Kiyoshi; Iguchi, Yoshio; Sawa, Kosuke

2006-01-01

165

The Effect of Test Item Familiarization on Achievement Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied the effects of overlapping some test items across consecutive test levels by using overlapping and nonoverlapping items with 834 prematched and 782 matched elementary school students and focusing on whether there is an effect on achievement test scores due to item familiarization. No effects were detected. (SLD)

Bishop, N. Scott; Frisbie, David A.

1999-01-01

166

Familiarity and Lie Detection: A Replication and Extension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reported two studies on the relations among observer familiarity, perceived behavioral discrepancy, and judgmental accuracy in detecting deceptions. Results indicated, among other findings, that observers having prior exposure to baseline information were significantly better at detecting deception, though repeated exposure did not significantly…

Brandt, David R.; And Others

1982-01-01

167

From Pixels to People: A Model of Familiar Face Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in face recognition has largely been divided between those projects concerned with front-end image processing and those projects concerned with memory for familiar people. These perceptual and cognitive programmes of research have proceeded in parallel, with only limited mutual influence. In this paper we present a model of human face recognition which combines both a perceptual and a cognitive

A. Mike Burton; Vicki Bruce; Peter J. B. Hancock

1999-01-01

168

Correctional Training. Institution Familiarization. Part II: The Training Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to assist training coordinators in the initial institution familiarization training for new employees in correctional institutions, this manual consists of two documents: a training coordinator's guide (Part I - CE 017 285) and this document, the training program (Part II). Four training areas are treated: (1) an introduction consisting…

Bureau of Prisons (Dept. of Justice), Washington, DC.

169

Probability of Equivalence Formation: Familiar Stimuli and Training Sequence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study was conducted to show how responding in accord with equivalence relations changes as a function of position of familiar stimuli, pictures, and with the use of nonsense syllables in an MTO-training structure. Fifty college students were tested for responding in accord with equivalence in an AB, CB, DB, and EB training structure.…

Arntzen, Erik

2004-01-01

170

Color preference and familiarity in performance on brand logo recall.  

PubMed

Two experiments assessed effects of color preference and brand-logo familiarity on recall performance. Exp. 1 explored the color preferences, using a forced-choice technique, of 189 women and 63 men, Taiwanese college students ages 18 to 20 years (M = 19.4, SD = 1.5). The sequence of the three most preferred colors was white, light blue, and black and of the three least preferred colors was light orange, dark violet, and dark brown. Exp. 2 investigated the effects of color preference based on the results of Exp. 1 and brand-logo familiarity on recall. A total of 27 women and 21 men, Taiwanese college students ages 18 to 20 years (M = 19.2, SD = 1.2) participated. They memorized a list of 24 logos (four logos shown in six colors) and then performed sequential recall. Analyses showed color preference significantly affected recall accuracy. Accuracy for high color preference was significantly greater than that for low preferences. Results showed no significant effects of brand-logo familiarity or sex on accuracy. In addition, the interactive effect of color preference and brand-logo familiarity on accuracy was significant. These results have implications for the design of brand logos to create and sustain memory of brand images. PMID:19093619

Huang, Kuo-Chen; Lin, Chin-Chiuan; Chiang, Shu-Ying

2008-10-01

171

The Concept Smacks of Magic: Fighting Familiarity Today  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Good educational ethnography whether done by sociologists or anthropologists, makes the familiar strange. The history of that proposition is outlined, and five strategies available to all ethnographers focused on teaching and learning, whether sociologists or anthropologists of education or not, are outlined. The vital importance of the working…

Delamont, Sara; Atkinson, Paul; Pugsley, Lesley

2010-01-01

172

Pigeons combine compass and landmark guidance in familiar route navigation  

E-print Network

Pigeons combine compass and landmark guidance in familiar route navigation Dora Biro* , Robin terrain? In the best studied avian species, the homing pigeon (Columba livia), two apparently inde of simultaneous or oscillating dual control. clock shift homing pigeon sun pilotage route recapitulation

Roberts, Stephen

173

The Effect of Conceptual and Contextual Familiarity on Transfer Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Applying a previously learned concept to a novel problem is an important but difficult process called transfer. It is suggested that a commonsense analogy aids in transfer by linking novel concepts to familiar ones. How the context of practice affects transfer when learning using analogies is still unclear. This study investigated the effect of a…

Kulasegaram, Kulamakan; Min, Cynthia; Ames, Kimberly; Howey, Elizabeth; Neville, Alan; Norman, Geoffrey

2012-01-01

174

Prefrontal Control of Familiarity and Recollection in Working Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) is a critical neural substrate for the resolution of proactive interference (PI) in working memory. We hypothesized that left IFG achieves this by controlling the influence of familiarity- versus recollection-based information about memory probes. Consistent with this idea, we observed evidence for an "early" (200…

Feredoes, Eva; Postle, Bradley R.

2010-01-01

175

Object Familiarity Facilitates Foreign Word Learning in Preschoolers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studying how children learn words in a foreign language can shed light on how language learning changes with development. In one experiment, we examined whether three-, four-, and five-year-olds could learn and remember words for familiar and unfamiliar objects in their native English and a foreign language. All age groups could learn and remember…

Sera, Maria D.; Cole, Caitlin A.; Oromendia, Mercedes; Koenig, Melissa A.

2014-01-01

176

Electrophysiological Signals of Familiarity and Recency in the Infant Brain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Electrophysiological work in nonhuman primates has established the existence of multiple types of signals in the temporal lobe that contribute to recognition memory, including information regarding a stimulus's relative novelty, familiarity, and recency of occurrence. We used high-density event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine whether young…

Snyder, Kelly A.; Garza, John; Zolot, Liza; Kresse, Anna

2010-01-01

177

In situ stem cell therapy: novel targets, familiar challenges  

E-print Network

stem cells: the goal of control Stem cell research has escalated significantly in recent yearsIn situ stem cell therapy: novel targets, familiar challenges Smita Agrawal and David V. Schaffer and engrafting embryonic or adult stem cells have significant potential for tissue repair but harnessing endo

Schaffer, David V.

178

Prejudice, Social Distance, and Familiarity with Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the paths between two prejudicial atti- tudes (authoritarianism and benevolence) and a proxy measure of behavioral discrimination (social distance) were examined in a sample drawn from the general public Moreover, the effects of two person variables (familiarity with mental illness and ethnicity) on prej- udice were examined in the path analysis. One hun- dred fifty-one research participants

Patrick W. Corrigan; Annette Backs Edwards; Amy Qreen; Sarah Lickey Thwart; David L. Perm

179

Prejudice, Social Distance, and Familiarity with Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the paths between two prejudicial attitudes (authoritarianism and benevolence) and a proxy measure of behavioral discrimination (social distance) were examined in a sample drawn from the general public. Moreover, the effects of two person variables (familiarity with mental illness and ethnicity) on prejudice were examined in the path analysis. One hundred fifty-one research participants completed measures of

Patrick W. Corrigan; Annette Backs Edwards; Amy Green; Sarah Lickey Diwan; David L. Penn

2001-01-01

180

Does Familiarity with Text Breed Complacency or Vigilance?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proofreading one's own writing is difficult due to the overfamiliarity of one's writing, which has been claimed to conceal errors, even extraneous errors inserted by someone else (as in collaborative writing). In the present research, we examined whether increasing one's familiarity with text can indeed have a negative influence on error…

Pilotti, Maura; Chodorow, Martin

2012-01-01

181

Reactions of rhesus monkeys to familiar and unfamiliar peers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an attempt to assess the nature of rhesus monkey's social responding to familiar and unfamiliar peers, individuals in various combinations of 4 Ss each were rated over a 15-wk period in the playpen situation on a 24-item inventory of social responding. The sex ratios in the 3 subgroups were not equal. Both the overall analyses and the analyses which

Ernst W. Hansen; Harry F. Harlow; Robert O. Dodsworth

1966-01-01

182

Neuronal Correlates of Perception, Imagery, and Memory for Familiar Tunes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used fMRI to investigate the neuronal correlates of encoding and recognizing heard and imagined melodies. Ten participants were shown lyrics of familiar verbal tunes; they either heard the tune along with the lyrics, or they had to imagine it. In a subsequent surprise recognition test, they had to identify the titles of tunes that they had heard or imagined

Sibylle C. Herholz; Andrea R. Halpern; Robert J. Zatorre

2012-01-01

183

Assessing Student Interest and Familiarity with Professional Psychology Specialty Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined undergraduate psychology students' (N = 83) self-reported interest in and familiarity with five specialty areas in professional psychology: counseling psychology, clinical psychology, school psychology, forensic psychology, and criminal profiling. Results suggest that although students are quite interested in careers…

Stark-Wroblewski, Kimberly; Wiggins, Tina L.; Ryan, Joseph J.

2006-01-01

184

The Sensorimotor Contributions to Implicit Memory, Familiarity, and Recollection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The sensorimotor contributions to memory for prior occurrence were investigated. Previous research has shown that both implicit memory and familiarity draw on gains in stimulus-related processing fluency for old, compared with novel, stimuli, but recollection does not. Recently, it has been demonstrated that processing fluency itself resides in…

Topolinski, Sascha

2012-01-01

185

Ambient Dose Equivalent measured at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología Department of Nuclear Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ambient dose equivalent values were determined in several sites at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Departmento de Medicina Nuclear, using TLD-100 and TLD-900 thermoluminescent dosemeters. Additionally, ambient dose equivalent was measured at a corridor outside the hospitalization room for patients treated with 137Cs brachytherapy. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Laboratorio de Metrología, to known 137Cs gamma radiation air kerma. Radionuclides considered for this study are 131I, 18F, 67Ga, 99mTc, 111In, 201Tl and 137Cs, with main gamma energies between 93 and 662 keV. Dosemeters were placed during a five month period in the nuclear medicine rooms (containing gamma-cameras), injection corridor, patient waiting areas, PET/CT study room, hot lab, waste storage room and corridors next to the hospitalization rooms for patients treated with 131I and 137Cs. High dose values were found at the waste storage room, outside corridor of 137Cs brachytherapy patients and PET/CT area. Ambient dose equivalent rate obtained for the 137Cs brachytherapy corridor is equal to (18.51±0.02)×10-3 mSv/h. Sites with minimum doses are the gamma camera rooms, having ambient dose equivalent rates equal to (0.05±0.03)×10-3 mSv/h. Recommendations have been given to the Department authorities so that further actions are taken to reduce doses at high dose sites in order to comply with the ALARA principle (as low as reasonably achievable).

Ávila, O.; Torres-Ulloa, C. L.; Medina, L. A.; Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.; de Buen, I. Gamboa; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E.

2010-12-01

186

Familiarity, ambivalence, and firm reputation: is corporate fame a double-edged sword?  

PubMed

This research questioned the proposition that corporate familiarity is positively associated with firm reputation. Student images of familiar and unfamiliar Fortune 500 corporations were examined in 4 experiments. The results suggested that, consistent with behavioral decision theory and attitude theory, highly familiar corporations provide information that is more compatible with the tasks of both admiring and condemning than less familiar corporations. Furthermore, the judgment context may determine whether positive or negative judgments are reported about familiar companies. The notion that people can simultaneously hold contradictory images of well-known firms may help to explain the inconsistent findings on the relation between familiarity and reputation. PMID:14516252

Brooks, Margaret E; Highhouse, Scott; Russell, Steven S; Mohr, David C

2003-10-01

187

Aplicaciones del aloinjerto de dermis humana acelular en cirugía plástica oftálmica y reconstructiva  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Purpose: To describe the uses and experience of a commercially available acellular dermal allograft (Alloderm®) in oculoplastic surgery in the Servicio de Párpados, Órbita y Vía Lagrimal del Instituto de Oftalmología Conde de Valenciana. Methods: It was a retrospective, noncomparative case series between January 2001 and June 2005. We identified 30 cases (23 patients). Outcome measures included applications of

Ruth Medina-Gutiérrez; José Luis Tovilla-Canales; Angel Nava-Castañeda

188

Humans have precise knowledge of familiar geographical slants  

PubMed Central

Whereas maps primarily represent the 2D layout of the environment, people are also aware of the 3D layout of their environment. An experiment conducted on a small college campus tested whether the remembered slants of familiar paths were precisely represented. Three measures of slant (verbal, manual and pictorial) were collected in two different between-subject conditions (perception and memory) for five familiar paths on the campus of Swarthmore College ranging in slant from 0.5° to 8.6°. Estimates from memory and from perception did not differ for any of the measures. Moreover, estimates from all measures, though different in mean value, were correlated within participants, suggesting a common underlying representation was consulted in all cases. PMID:23895446

Stigliani, Anthony; Li, Zhi; Durgin, Frank H.

2014-01-01

189

Visual Personal Familiarity in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPatients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment are at high risk for developing Alzheimer's disease. Besides episodic memory dysfunction they show deficits in accessing contextual knowledge that further specifies a general concept or helps to identify an object or a person.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsUsing functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the neural networks associated with the perception of personal familiar faces and places

Luisa Jurjanz; Markus Donix; Eva C. Amanatidis; Shirin Meyer; Katrin Poettrich; Thomas Huebner; Damaris Baeumler; Michael N. Smolka; Vjera A. Holthoff

2011-01-01

190

Nest distribution varies with dispersal method and familiarity-mediated aggression for two sympatric ants  

E-print Network

Nest distribution varies with dispersal method and familiarity-mediated aggression for two-00484 Keywords: familiarity-mediated aggression fission dispersal Plectroctena mandibularis spatial distribution competitive pressure from conspecifics relative to species that disperse in other ways. Although fission

Alvarez, Nadir

191

Emotion-modulated startle in psychopathy: Clarifying familiar effects  

PubMed Central

The behavior of psychopathic individuals is thought to reflect a core fear deficit that prevents these individuals from appreciating the consequences of their choices and actions. However, growing evidence suggests that psychopathy-related emotion deficits are moderated by attention and, thus, may not reflect a reduced capacity for emotion responding. The present study attempts to reconcile this attention perspective with one of the most cited findings in psychopathy, which reports emotion-modulated startle deficits among psychopathic individuals during picture viewing. In this study, we evaluate the potential effects of a putative attention bottleneck on the emotion processing of psychopathic offenders during picture viewing by manipulating picture familiarity and examining emotion-modulated startle and late positive potential (LPP). As predicted, psychopathic individuals displayed the classic deficit in emotion-modulated startle during novel pictures, but they showed no deficit in emotion-modulated startle during familiar pictures. Conversely, results for LPP responses revealed psychopathy-related differences during familiar pictures and no psychopathy-related differences during novel pictures. Important differences related to the two Factors of psychopathy are also discussed. Overall, the results of this study not only highlight the differential importance of perceptual load on emotion processing in psychopathy, but also raise interesting questions about the varied effects of attention on psychopathy-related emotion deficits. PMID:23356218

Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R.; Curtin, John J.; Newman, Joseph P.

2012-01-01

192

Familiarity effects on categorization levels of faces and objects.  

PubMed

It is well established that faces, in contrast to objects, are categorized as fast or faster at the individual level (e.g., Bill Clinton) than at the basic-level (e.g., human face). This subordinate-shift from basic-level categorization has been considered an outcome of visual expertise with processing faces. However, in the present study we found that, similar to familiar faces, categorization of individually-known familiar towers is also faster at the individual level than at the basic-level in naïve participants. In addition, category-verification of familiar stimuli, at basic and superordinate levels, was slower and less accurate compared to unfamiliar stimuli. Thus, the existence of detailed semantic information, regardless of expertise, can induce a shift in the default level of object categorization from basic to individual level. Moreover, the individually-specific knowledge is not only more easily-retrieved from memory but it might also interfere with accessing more general category information. PMID:19217085

Anaki, David; Bentin, Shlomo

2009-04-01

193

The Effect of Real-World Personal Familiarity on the Speed of Face Information Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPrevious studies have explored the effects of familiarity on various kinds of visual face judgments, yet the role of familiarity in face processing is not fully understood. Across different face judgments and stimulus sets, the data is equivocal as to whether or not familiarity impacts recognition processes.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsHere, we examine the effect of real-world personal familiarity in three simple delayed-match-to-sample

Benjamin Balas; David Cox; Erin Conwell; Sheng He

2007-01-01

194

JOB PREFERENCES AND PREFERENCE SHIFTS AS FUNCTIONS OF JOB INFORMATION, FAMILIARITY, AND PRESTIGE LEVEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBTAINED PREFERENCE RATINGS OF 10 FAMILIAR AND 10 UNFAMILIAR PROFESSIONAL, AND 10 FAMILIAR AND 10 UNFAMILIAR SKILLED, LABOR JOBS, PRESENTED AS EITHER TITLES OR DESCRIPTIONS, FROM 100 MALE HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS. PROFESSIONAL OR FAMILIAR JOBS WERE PREFERRED AS TITLES BUT THESE EFFECTS WERE ABSENT OR REDUCED IN RATINGS OF DESCRIPTIONS OF THE SAME JOBS. CHANGES IN JOB PREFERENCES IN A

RALPH D. NORMAN; DAVID W. BESSEMER

1968-01-01

195

The impacts of perceived fit, brand familiarity, and status consciousness on fashion brand extension evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined how strongly consumers’ evaluations of vertical and horizontal fashion brand extensions are influenced by perceived fit, brand familiarity and status consciousness. Data were collected from 187 female consumers aged 18 and older who were familiar with Giorgio Armani, the parent brand chosen for this study. Regression analyses revealed that brand familiarity was a positive predictor of vertical

Soyoung Kim; Hyunjong Chung

2012-01-01

196

When Memory Does Not Fail: Familiarity-Based Recognition in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease  

E-print Network

When Memory Does Not Fail: Familiarity-Based Recognition in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer-choice procedures. Theoret- ically, forced-choice recognition could be mediated by familiarity alone. Alzheimer and entorhinal cortex, known to be present in MCI, presumably disrupted recollection while leaving familiarity-based

Paller, Ken

197

Familiarity and Sex Based Stereotypes on Instant Impressions of Male and Female Faculty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To address the stranger-to-stranger critique of stereotyping research, psychology students (n = 139) and law students (n = 58) rated photographs of familiar or unfamiliar male or female professors on competence. Results from Study 1 indicated that familiar male psychology faculty were rated as more competent than were familiar female faculty,…

Nadler, Joel T.; Berry, Seth A.; Stockdale, Margaret S.

2013-01-01

198

Investigating Faculty Familiarity with Assessment Terminology by Applying Cluster Analysis to Interpret Survey Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A cluster analysis was conducted with a set of survey data on chemistry faculty familiarity with 13 assessment terms. Cluster groupings suggest a high, middle, and low overall familiarity with the terminology and an independent high and low familiarity with terms related to fundamental statistics. The six resultant clusters were found to be…

Raker, Jeffrey R.; Holme, Thomas A.

2014-01-01

199

The hippocampus supports both recollection and familiarity when memories are strong  

PubMed Central

Recognition memory is thought to consist of two component processes – recollection and familiarity. It has been suggested that the hippocampus supports recollection, while adjacent cortex supports familiarity. However, the qualitative experiences of recollection and familiarity are typically confounded with a quantitative difference in memory strength (recollection > familiarity). Thus, the question remains whether the hippocampus might in fact support familiarity-based memories whenever they are as strong as recollection-based memories. We addressed this problem in a novel way using the Remember/Know procedure where we could explicitly match the confidence and accuracy of Remember and Know decisions. As in earlier studies, recollected items had higher accuracy and confidence than familiar items, and hippocampal activity was higher for recollected items than for familiar items. Furthermore hippocampal activity was similar for familiar items, misses, and correct rejections. When the accuracy and confidence of recollected and familiar items were matched, the findings were dramatically different. Hippocampal activity was now similar for recollected and familiar items. Importantly, hippocampal activity was also greater for familiar items than for misses or correct rejections (as well as for recollected items vs. misses or correct rejections). Our findings suggest that the hippocampus supports both recollection and familiarity when memories are strong. PMID:22049412

Smith, Christine N.; Wixted, John T.; Squire, Larry R.

2011-01-01

200

Temporal Aspects of the Feeling of Familiarity for Music and the Emergence of Conceptual Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We tested whether the emergence of familiarity to a melody may trigger or co-occur with the processing of the concept(s) conveyed by emotions to, or semantic association with, the melody. With this objective, we recorded ERPs while participants were presented with highly familiar and less familiar melodies in a gating paradigm. The ERPs time…

Daltrozzo, Jerome; Tillmann, Barbara; Platel, Herve; Schon, Daniele

2010-01-01

201

Influence of Familiarity on Identifying Prosodic Vocalizations Produced by Children with Severe Dysarthria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Familiarity is thought to aid listeners in decoding disordered speech; however, as the speech signal degrades, the "familiarity advantage" becomes less beneficial. Despite highly unintelligible speech sound production, many children with dysarthria vocalize when interacting with familiar caregivers. Perhaps listeners can understand these…

Patel, Rupal; Schroeder, Bethany

2007-01-01

202

Familiarity with Speech Affects Cortical Processing of Auditory Distance Cues and Increases Acuity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several acoustic cues contribute to auditory distance estimation. Nonacoustic cues, including familiarity, may also play a role. We tested participants’ ability to distinguish the distances of acoustically similar sounds that differed in familiarity. Participants were better able to judge the distances of familiar sounds. Electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings collected while participants performed this auditory distance judgment task revealed that several cortical

Matthew G. Wisniewski; Eduardo Mercado; Klaus Gramann; Scott Makeig

2012-01-01

203

[What patients think of the services of the Instituto Nacional de la Nutrición "Salvador Zubirán"].  

PubMed

The quality of care has always been a subject of interest to the Instituto Nacional de la Nutrición "Salvador Zubirán", in order to improve its services. This interest led to the present survey which aims to evaluate the patient's global satisfaction and to identify specific problems susceptible of improvement. One hundred and seventy-one patients or relatives attending eight different services of the Institute were interviewed. Opinions about the following aspects were explored by means of service-specific questionnaires: sociodemographic characteristics, satisfaction with care, waiting periods, patient-personnel relationship, hospital environment, food quality, drug availability and costs. Results of the survey show a high level of satisfaction with the services provided, i.e. 33% of the patients considered it good, and 64% excellent. However, and in agreement with other reports, this high level of satisfaction does not necessarily reflect an absence of problems, i.e. long waiting periods, insufficient restrooms, failures in getting information about their health status, and occasional absence of drugs in the pharmacy were identified. Continuation of this kind of surveys in our setting leads not only to the identification of problems, but also to the evaluation of the impact that resulting measures may have on the patient's satisfaction. PMID:2091181

Ruiz-González, C; Vargas-Vorácková, F; Castillo-Rentería, C; Pérez Pimentel, L; Martínez Mata, R A

1990-01-01

204

Sex differences in attraction to familiar and unfamiliar opposite-sex faces: men prefer novelty and women prefer familiarity.  

PubMed

Familiarity is attractive in many types of stimuli and exposure generally increases feelings of liking. However, men desire a greater number of sexual partners than women, suggesting a preference for novelty. We examined sex differences in preferences for familiarity. In Study 1 (N = 83 women, 63 men), we exposed individuals to faces twice and found that faces were judged as more attractive on the second rating, reflecting attraction to familiar faces, with the exception that men's ratings of female faces decreased on the second rating, demonstrating attraction to novelty. In Studies 2 (N = 42 women, 28 men) and 3 (N = 51 women, 25 men), exposure particularly decreased men's ratings of women's attractiveness for short-term relationships and their sexiness. In Study 4 (N = 64 women, 50 men), women's attraction to faces was positively related to self-rated similarity to their current partner's face, while the effect was significantly weaker for men. Potentially, men's attraction to novelty may reflect an adaptation promoting the acquisition of a high number of sexual partners. PMID:23740467

Little, Anthony C; DeBruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C

2014-07-01

205

El presidente Obama anuncia nombramiento del doctor Harold Varmus  

Cancer.gov

En un correo electrónico enviado al personal del NCI, el doctor Francis Collins, director de los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud, dijo que Varmus “trae consigo un experiencia sin igual a todo nivel, no solo en la investigación científica más avanzada, sino también como líder en la creación de estrategias para mejorar el cuidado de los pacientes, la educación científica, la capacitación y el diseño de novedosas alianzas entre el sector público y el privado”.

206

Se inicia estudio de los NIH sobre respuestas excepcionales al tratamiento del cáncer  

Cancer.gov

La Iniciativa de Respuestas Excepcionales (Exceptional Responders Initiative), un estudio que investiga los factores moleculares de los tumores en pacientes de cáncer que responden en forma excepcional al tratamiento con medicamentos, se inició hoy bajo la guía del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI). Los científicos tratarán de identificar en los tumores las características moleculares que predicen si un medicamento o una clase de medicamento en particular será beneficioso o no.

207

STS-95 crew members participate in a SPACEHAB familiarization exercise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Inside the SPACECHAB training module, STS-95 Payload Specialist John Glenn, who is a senator from Ohio, tries on the mesh cap that he will wear on the mission to monitor and record brain waves during sleep. Mission Specialist Scott Parazynski, M.D., watches. Parazynski and Glenn are participating in SPACEHAB familiarization at the SPACEHAB Payload Processing Facility, Cape Canaveral. The mission, scheduled to launch Oct. 29, includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

1998-01-01

208

Effects of the Similarity and Dissimilarity between Familiarization and Test Objects on Recognition Memory in Infants Following Unimodal and Bimodal Familiarization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments were conducted to investigate six-month-old infants' recognition memory for the shape of an object following unimodal (visual) and bimodal (visual and haptic) familiarization. Visual recognition memory was evident only when the conditions of familiarization and testing were identical. Two possible explanations are presented and…

Rolfe, Sharne A.; Day, R. H.

1981-01-01

209

Managing by passion, professionalism and performance : the MBP³ model : an alternative management framework developed for the Instituto de Ciencias Terra-Mar (ICTM)  

E-print Network

The objective of this thesis is to develop a new, tailor-made and innovative managerial framework for the Instituto de Ciencias Terra-Mar (ICTM). The ICTM is a multi-functional science and technology institute dedicated ...

Coelho, Alexandre C. (Alexandre Costa)

2007-01-01

210

Matching identities of familiar and unfamiliar faces caught on CCTV images.  

PubMed

People can be inaccurate at matching unfamiliar faces shown in high-quality video images, even when viewpoint and facial expressions are closely matched. However, identification of highly familiar faces appears good, even when video quality is poor. Experiment 1 reported a direct comparison between familiar and unfamiliar faces. Participants who were personally familiar with target items appearing on video were highly accurate at a verification task. Unfamiliar participants doing the same task performed very inaccurately. Familiarity affected discriminability, but not bias. Experiments 2 and 3 showed that brief periods of familiarization have little beneficial effect unless "deep" or "social" processing is encouraged. The results show that video evidence can be used effectively as a probe to identity when the faces shown are highly familiar to observers, but caution should be used where images of unfamiliar people are being compared. PMID:11676099

Bruce, V; Henderson, Z; Newman, C; Burton, A M

2001-09-01

211

From novel to familiar: Tuning the brain for metaphors  

PubMed Central

Metaphors are fundamental to creative thought and expression. Newly coined metaphors regularly infiltrate our collective vocabulary and gradually become familiar, but how does this shift from novel to conventionalized meaning happen in the brain? We investigated the neural career of metaphors in a functional magnetic resonance imaging study using extensively normed new metaphors and simulated the ordinary, gradual experience of metaphor conventionalization by manipulating participants’ exposure to these metaphors. Results showed that the conventionalization of novel metaphors specifically tunes activity within bilateral inferior prefrontal cortex, left posterior middle temporal gyrus, and right postero-lateral occipital cortex. These results support theoretical accounts attributing a role for the right hemisphere in processing novel, low salience figurative meanings, but also show that conventionalization of metaphoric meaning is a bilaterally-mediated process. Metaphor conventionalization entails a decreased neural load within semantic networks rather than a hemispheric or regional shift across brain areas. PMID:22155328

Cardillo, Eileen R.; Watson, Christine E.; Schmidt, Gwenda L.; Kranjec, Alexander; Chatterjee, Anjan

2012-01-01

212

From network heterogeneities to familiarity detection and hippocampal memory management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hippocampal-neocortical interactions are key to the rapid formation of novel associative memories in the hippocampus and consolidation to long term storage sites in the neocortex. We investigated the role of network correlates during information processing in hippocampal-cortical networks. We found that changes in the intrinsic network dynamics due to the formation of structural network heterogeneities alone act as a dynamical and regulatory mechanism for stimulus novelty and familiarity detection, thereby controlling memory management in the context of memory consolidation. This network dynamic, coupled with an anatomically established feedback between the hippocampus and the neocortex, recovered heretofore unexplained properties of neural activity patterns during memory management tasks which we observed during sleep in multiunit recordings from behaving animals. Our simple dynamical mechanism shows an experimentally matched progressive shift of memory activation from the hippocampus to the neocortex and thus provides the means to achieve an autonomous off-line progression of memory consolidation.

Wang, Jane X.; Poe, Gina; Zochowski, Michal

2008-10-01

213

STS-95 crew members participate in a SPACEHAB familiarization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-95 crew members look over the Osteoporosis Experiment in Orbit (OSTEO) during a SPACEHAB familiarization tour and briefing in the SPACEHAB Payload Processing Facility in Cape Canaveral. Seated from left are Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai of the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), and Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., who also is a senator from Ohio. Standing, from left, are STS-95 Commander Curtis L. Brown and Canadian Space Agency representative Duncan Burnside. STS-95 will feature a variety of research payloads, including the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, and experiments on space flight and the aging process. STS-95 is targeted for an Oct. 29 launch aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery.

1998-01-01

214

STS-95 crew members participate in a SPACEHAB familiarization exercise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Inside the SPACEHAB training module, STS-95 Mission Specialist Scott Parazynski, M.D. (right), attaches sensors to the mesh cap worn by Payload Specialist John Glenn (back to camera). In the background is Ann Elliott, University of California, San Diego. Glenn will wear the cap on the mission to monitor and record brain waves during sleep. Parazynski and Glenn are participating in SPACEHAB familiarization at the SPACEHAB Payload Processing Facility, Cape Canaveral. The mission, scheduled to launch Oct. 29, includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar- observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

1998-01-01

215

Social familiarity modulates group living and foraging behaviour of juvenile predatory mites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental stressors during early life may have persistent consequences for phenotypic development and fitness. In group-living species, an important stressor during juvenile development is the presence and familiarity status of conspecific individuals. To alleviate intraspecific conflicts during juvenile development, many animals evolved the ability to discriminate familiar and unfamiliar individuals based on prior association and use this ability to preferentially associate with familiar individuals. Assuming that familiar neighbours require less attention than unfamiliar ones, as predicted by limited attention theory, assorting with familiar individuals should increase the efficiency in other tasks. We assessed the influence of social familiarity on within-group association behaviour, development and foraging of juvenile life stages of the group-living, plant-inhabiting predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. The observed groups consisted either of mixed-age familiar and unfamiliar juvenile mites or of age-synchronized familiar or unfamiliar juvenile mites or of pairs of familiar or unfamiliar larvae. Overall, familiar mites preferentially grouped together and foraged more efficiently, i.e. needed less prey at similar developmental speed and body size at maturity, than unfamiliar mites. Preferential association of familiar mites was also apparent in the inter-exuviae distances. Social familiarity was established by imprinting in the larval stage, was not cancelled or overridden by later conspecific contacts and persisted into adulthood. Life stage had an effect on grouping with larvae being closer together than nymphal stages. Ultimately, optimized foraging during the developmental phase may relax within-group competition, enhance current and future food supply needed for optimal development and optimize patch exploitation and leaving under limited food.

Strodl, Markus A.; Schausberger, Peter

2012-04-01

216

Effects of Familiarity on Neural Activity in Monkey Inferior Temporal Lobe  

PubMed Central

Long-term familiarity facilitates recognition of visual stimuli. To better understand the neural basis for this effect, we measured the local field potential (LFP) and multiunit spiking activity (MUA) from the inferior temporal (IT) lobe of behaving monkeys in response to novel and familiar images. In general, familiar images evoked larger amplitude LFPs whereas MUA responses were greater for novel images. Familiarity effects were attenuated by image rotations in the picture plane of 45°. Decreasing image contrast led to more pronounced decreases in LFP response magnitude for novel, compared with familiar images, and resulted in more selective MUA response profiles for familiar images. The shape of individual LFP traces could be used for stimulus classification, and classification performance was better for the familiar image category. Recording the visual and auditory evoked LFP at multiple depths showed significant alterations in LFP morphology with distance changes of 2 mm. In summary, IT cortex shows local processing differences for familiar and novel images at a time scale and in a manner consistent with the observed behavioral advantage for classifying familiar images and rapidly detecting novel stimuli. PMID:18296433

Anderson, Britt; Mruczek, Ryan E.B.; Kawasaki, Keisuke

2008-01-01

217

Evaluación del grosor del complejo íntima-media de la carótida en la hipercolesterolemia familiar durante la infancia  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionFamilial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is characterized by exposure to severely elevated LDL-cholesterol from birth, which produces lipid deposits, which can be measured by means of intima-media thickness (IMT).

J. Dalmau Serra; I. Vitoria Miñana; M. Legarda Tamara; D. Muro Velilla; C. Sangüesa Nebot

2009-01-01

218

Un cuento distribuido por el Instituto Nacional de las Ciencias de la Salud Ambiental  

E-print Network

su cara y se peinó. Se cepilló los dientes y observó el agua saliendo del grifo y yéndose por el Herman moviendo su colita peluda le dijo ­ ¡Así es! Y acaso ¿tomaste agua antes de salir? El agua también ambiente es el aire, el agua, el suelo, y nuestra comida. En realidad, es todo lo que se encuentra

Bezrukov, Sergey M.

219

The Influence of Kinship on Familiar Natal Migrant Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)  

PubMed Central

In most primate species, females remain in the natal group with kin while males disperse away from kin around the time of puberty. Philopatric females bias their social behavior toward familiar maternal and paternal kin in several species, but little is known about kin bias in the dispersing sex. Male dispersal is likely to be costly because males encounter an increased risk of predation and death, which might be reduced by dispersing together with kin and/or familiar males (individuals that were born and grew up in same natal group) or into a group containing kin and/or familiar males. Here we studied the influence of kinship on familiar natal migrant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) on Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico, by combining demographic, behavioral, and genetic data. Our data suggest that kinship influences spatial proximity between recent natal immigrants and males familiar to them. Immigrants were significantly nearer to more closely related familiar males than to more distantly related individuals. Within a familiar subgroup, natal migrants were significantly closer to maternal kin, followed by paternal kin, then non-kin, and finally to males related via both the maternal and paternal line. Spatial proximity between natal immigrants and familiar males did not decrease over time in the new group, suggesting that there is no decline in associations between these individuals within the first months of immigration. Overall, our results might indicate that kinship is important for the dispersing sex, at least during natal dispersal when kin are still available. PMID:24850977

Albers, Monika; Widdig, Anja

2014-01-01

220

Detecting Deception in Children: An Experimental Study of the Effect of Event Familiarity on CBCA Ratings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CBCA is the most commonly used deception detection technique worldwide. Pezdek et al. (2004) used a quasi-experimental design to assess children’s accounts of a traumatic medical procedure; CBCA ratings were higher for descriptions of familiar than unfamiliar events. This study tested this effect using an experimental design and assessed the joint effect of familiarity and veracity on CBCA ratings.

Iris Blandon-Gitlin; Kathy Pezdek; Martha Rogers; Laura Brodie

2005-01-01

221

Influence of Text Type, Topic Familiarity, and Stuttering Frequency on Listener Recall, Comprehension, and Mental Effort  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To determine how text type, topic familiarity, and stuttering frequency influence listener recall, comprehension, and perceived mental effort. Method: Sixty adults listened to familiar and unfamiliar narrative and expository texts produced with 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% stuttering. Participants listened to 4 experimental text samples at only 1…

Panico, James; Healey, E. Charles

2009-01-01

222

You Can't Drink a Word: Lexical and Individual Emotionality Affect Subjective Familiarity Judgments.  

PubMed

For almost 30 years, subjective familiarity has been used in psycholinguistics as an explanatory variable, allegedly able to explain many phenomena that have no other obvious explanation (Gernsbacher in J Exp Psychol General 113:256-281, 1984). In this paper, the hypothesis tested is that the subjective familiarity of words is reflecting personal familiarity with or importance of the referents of words. Using an empirically-grounded model of affective force derived from Wundt (Grundriss der Psychologie [Outlines of Psychology]. Engelmann, Leibzig, 1896) and based in a co-occurrence model of semantics (which involves no human judgment), it is shown that affective force can account for the same variance in a large set of human subjective familiarity judgments as other human subjective familiarity judgments, can predict whether people will rate new words of the same objective frequency as more or less familiar, can predict lexical access as well as human subjective familiarity judgments do, and has a predicted relationship to age of acquisition norms. Individuals who have highly affective reactivity [as measured by Carver and White's (J Pers Soc Psychol 67(2):319-333, 1994) Behavioral Inhibition Scale and Behavioral Activation Scales] rate words as significantly more familiar than individuals who have low affective reactivity. PMID:24061785

Westbury, Chris

2014-10-01

223

ROLE OF FAMILIARITY IN AUDITORY DISCRIMINATION OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENT: A LATERALITY STUDY  

E-print Network

and the left ear in two-thirds of the trials. Half the subjects performed this task with sounds produced by familiar natural instruments (violin, flute, guitar and drum), and the other subjects performed the same in laterality. For both familiar and unfamiliar sounds, a robust left-ear advantage (LEA) was observed

224

Rapid Acquisition of a Novelty Versus Familiarity Concept by Pigeons (Columba livia )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pigeons performed a successive discrimination task in which responding to novel slides was rewarded, and responding to familiar slides, seen once previously, was not rewarded. In Experiment 1, naive Ss initially responded more rapidly to familiar slides, but all Ss learned to respond more rapidly to novel slides within a few sessions. In Experiment 2, Ss transferred immediately to novel

Euan M. Macphail; Steve Reilly

1989-01-01

225

The Role of Face Familiarity in Eye Tracking of Faces by Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has been shown that individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) demonstrate normal activation in the fusiform gyrus when viewing familiar, but not unfamiliar faces. The current study utilized eye tracking to investigate patterns of attention underlying familiar versus unfamiliar face processing in ASD. Eye movements of 18 typically…

Sterling, Lindsey; Dawson, Geraldine; Webb, Sara; Murias, Michael; Munson, Jeffrey; Panagiotides, Heracles; Aylward, Elizabeth

2008-01-01

226

The Truth-Deception Attribution: Effects of Familiarity on the Ability of Observers to Detect Deception.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the relationship between an observer's familiarity with the normal, truthful communicative behavior of an individual, and the observer's ability to detect deception on the part of that individual. Provides an experimental test of the degree of linearity between familiarity and judgmental accuracy in detecting deception. (JMF)

And Others; Brandt, David R.

1980-01-01

227

Evaluating Preference for Familiar and Novel Stimuli across a Large Group of Children with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined relative preference for familiar and novel stimuli for 31 children with autism. Preference surveys, completed by 39 staff members, identified high and low preference familiar stimuli for each participant. Novel stimuli were selected by experimenters and included items that were not reported on a preference survey for that…

Kenzer, Amy L.; Bishop, Michele R.

2011-01-01

228

Consumer familiarity with foods and the perception of risks and benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in familiarity with food products may influence how information about the risks and benefits about foods is used in forming risk and benefit perceptions. In two experimental studies, the risk and benefit perceptions of student participants, for four foods (familiar or unfamiliar) were assessed. In experiment 1, participants had the option to voluntarily request information (N=106). In experiment 2,

Arnout R. H. Fischer; Lynn J. Frewer

2009-01-01

229

A Social Identity Approach to Identify Familiar Strangers in a Social Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a novel problem of searching for 'familiar strangers' in a social network. Familiar strangers are individ- uals who are not directly connected but exhibit some similar- ity. The power-law nature of social networks determines that majority of individuals are directly connected with a small number of fellow individuals, and similar individuals can be largely unknown to each other.

Nitin Agarwal; Huan Liu; Sudheendra Murthy; Arunabha Sen; Xufei Wang

2009-01-01

230

Recognition Memory: Adding a Response Deadline Eliminates Recollection but Spares Familiarity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A current controversy in memory research concerns whether recognition is supported by distinct processes of familiarity and recollection, or instead by a single process wherein familiarity and recollection reflect weak and strong memories, respectively. Recent studies using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses in an animal model have…

Sauvage, Magdalena M.; Beer, Zachery; Eichenbaum, Howard

2010-01-01

231

The effects of familiarization on intelligibility and lexical segmentation in hypokinetic and ataxic dysarthria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is the third in a series that has explored the source of intelligibility decrement in dysarthria by jointly considering signal characteristics and the cognitive-perceptual processes employed by listeners. A paradigm of lexical boundary error analysis was used to examine this interface by manipulating listener constraints with a brief familiarization procedure. If familiarization allows listeners to extract relevant segmental and suprasegmental information from dysarthric speech, they should obtain higher intelligibility scores than nonfamiliarized listeners, and their lexical boundary error patterns should approximate those obtained in misperceptions of normal speech. Listeners transcribed phrases produced by speakers with either hypokinetic or ataxic dysarthria after being familiarized with other phrases produced by these speakers. Data were compared to those of nonfamiliarized listeners [Liss et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 107, 3415-3424 (2000)]. The familiarized groups obtained higher intelligibility scores than nonfamiliarized groups, and the effects were greater when the dysarthria type of the familiarization procedure matched the dysarthria type of the transcription task. Remarkably, no differences in lexical boundary error patterns were discovered between the familiarized and nonfamiliarized groups. Transcribers of the ataxic speech appeared to have difficulty distinguishing strong and weak syllables in spite of the familiarization. Results suggest that intelligibility decrements arise from the perceptual challenges posed by the degraded segmental and suprasegmental aspects of the signal, but that this type of familiarization process may differentially facilitate mapping segmental information onto existing phonological categories.

Liss, Julie M.; Spitzer, Stephanie M.; Caviness, John N.; Adler, Charles

2002-12-01

232

Social Facilitation of Eating Familiar Food in Tufted Capuchins ( Cebus apella ): Does it Involve Behavioral Coordination?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social facilitation of eating familiar foods might serve to synchronize eating activities within groups. We aimed to assess whether capuchins (Cebus apella) are prompted to eat when observing other conspecifics eating a familiar food. Subjects were 8 male captive-born tufted capuchins. One pair of capuchins acted as demonstrators for the other 6 observer subjects. In the Experimental condition, the demonstrator

Amy T. Galloway; Elsa Addessi; Dorothy M. Fragaszy; Elisabetta Visalberghi

2005-01-01

233

Word Learning in Adults with Second-Language Experience: Effects of Phonological and Referent Familiarity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The goal of this research was to examine whether phonological familiarity exerts different effects on novel word learning for familiar versus unfamiliar referents and whether successful word learning is associated with increased second-language experience. Method: Eighty-one adult native English speakers with various levels of Spanish…

Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon; Van Hecke, Stephanie

2013-01-01

234

Familiarity and Personal Experience as Mediators of Recall when Planning for Future Contingencies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we demonstrate that planning tasks enhance recall when the context of planning (a) is self-referential and (b) draws on familiar scenarios represented in episodic memory. Specifically, we show that when planning tasks are sorted according to the degree to which they evoke memories of personally familiar scenarios (e.g., planning a…

Klein, Stanley B.; Robertson, Theresa E.; Delton, Andrew W.; Lax, Moshe L.

2012-01-01

235

The Role of Number and Familiarity of Stimuli in the Perception of Brief Temporal Intervals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The influence of stimulus number and familiarity on judged duration were investigated. Results showed that the number of stimulus elements presented within a given interval affected its perceived duration, although the familiarity of those elements (as defined herein) did not. (Editor/RK)

Schiffman, H. R.; Bobko, Douglas J.

1977-01-01

236

Nestsite selection by male loons leads to sex-biased site familiarity.  

PubMed

1. The concept that animals benefit from gaining familiarity with physical spaces is widespread among ecologists and constitutes a theoretical pillar in studies of territory defence, philopatry and habitat selection. Yet proximate causes and fitness benefits of site familiarity are poorly known. 2. We used data from marked common loons Gavia immer breeding on 98 territories over 14 years to investigate the 'win-stay, lose-switch rule' for nestsite placement (if eggs hatch, reuse nestsite; if predator takes eggs, move nestsite). Males controlled nest placement in this species: pairs used the rule if both members remained the same from the previous nesting attempt or if only the male remained the same but not if only the female remained the same. 3. By means of the nesting rule, male common loons benefited from site familiarity, increasing nesting success by 41% between their first and third years on a territory. In contrast, females exhibited no increase in nesting success with increased territorial tenure. 4. Owing to site familiarity, a male loon competing for a breeding territory faces a considerable 'familiarity deficit' compared with the male breeder already established there. The familiarity deficit probably explains why resident animals often fight hard to retain familiar territories, when challenged, and why animals of many species tend to remain on familiar territories rather than moving when territories of higher intrinsic quality become available nearby. PMID:17976165

Piper, Walter H; Walcott, Charles; Mager, John N; Spilker, Frank J

2008-03-01

237

Basic Processes in Reading: On the Relation between Spatial Attention and Familiarity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments combined a spatial cueing manipulation (valid vs. invalid spatial cues) with a stimulus repetition manipulation (repeated vs. nonrepeated) in order to assess the hypothesis that familiar items need less spatial attention than less familiar ones. The magnitude of the effect of cueing on reading aloud time for items that were…

Risko, Evan F.; Stolz, Jennifer A.; Besner, Derek

2011-01-01

238

Why are familiar-only experiences more frequent for voices than for faces?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hanley, Smith, and Hadfield (1998) showed that when participants were asked to recognize famous people from hearing their voice, there was a relatively large number of trials in which the celebrity's voice was felt to be familiar but biographical information about the person could not be retrieved. When a face was found familiar, however, the celebrity's occupation was significantly more

J. Richard Hanley; Jennifer M. Turner

2000-01-01

239

Assessing Recollection and Familiarity in Autistic Spectrum Disorders: Methods and Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We hypothesise that of the two processes underlying declarative memory, recollection is impaired in high-functioning autism (HFA) whereas recollection and familiarity are impaired in low-functioning autism (LFA). Testing these hypotheses necessitates assessing recollection and familiarity separately. However, this is difficult, because both…

Bigham, Sally; Boucher, Jill; Mayes, Andrew; Anns, Sophie

2010-01-01

240

Diabetes Mellitus tipo 1 y lactancia artificial antes del sexto mes de vida DIABETES MELLITUS 1 AND ARTIFICIAL LACTATION BEFORE SIXTH MONTH OLD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: to determine if consumption of cow's milk or its derivatives before six months of age is a risk factor for the development of diabetes mellitus type 1. Material and methods: retrospective study of cases and controls in patients older six months, with diagnosis of diabetes mellitus type 1, from Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño in the period 1994-2004.

JUSTO PADILLA YGREDA; MARIANA PENDAVIS PFLUCKER; MARITZA PIMENTEL UBILLUS; CLAUDIA PINEDO REVILLA; CARLA PONCE COLLANTES; EDUARDO RONDÓN REQUENA

241

NEW CONCEPTS FOR STATIC CONCENTRATION OF DIRECT AND DIFFUSE RADIATION A. Luque, J. Eguren, J.M. Ruiz, A. Cuevas, J. del Alamo, J.M. Gomez, M.  

E-print Network

.M. Ruiz, A. Cuevas, J. del Alamo, J.M. Gomez, M. Acuna and G. Sala Instituto de Energia Solar (E light are upper bounds when using practical ~! erials. Practical bifacial solar cells required with g =-1 c Tnree rules can be immedia .. f· solar cell: aJ to use bifac ,

del Alamo, Jesús A.

242

Recollective experience in odor recognition: influences of adult age and familiarity.  

PubMed

We examined recollective experience in odor memory as a function of age, intention to learn, and familiarity. Young and older adults studied a set of familiar and unfamiliar odors with incidental or intentional encoding instructions. At recognition, participants indicated whether their response was based on explicit recollection (remembering), a feeling of familiarity (knowing), or guessing. The results indicated no age-related differences in the distribution of experiential responses for unfamiliar odors. By contrast, for familiar odors the young demonstrated more explicit recollection than the older adults, who produced more "know" and "guess" responses. Intention to learn was unrelated to recollective experience. In addition, the observed age differences in "remember" responses for familiar odors were eliminated when odor naming was statistically controlled. This suggests that age-related deficits in activating specific odor knowledge (i.e., odor names) play an important role for age differences in recollective experience of olfactory information. PMID:15480757

Larsson, Maria; Oberg, Christina; Bäckman, Lars

2006-01-01

243

Female familiarity influences odor preferences and plasma estradiol levels in the meadow vole, Microtus pennsylvanicus.  

PubMed

To determine whether neighbor familiarity can affect reproduction, we studied the relationship between familiarity, odor preference, and plasma estradiol levels in the meadow vole, Microtus pennsylvanicus. Bedding was switched between pairs of female meadow voles for 2 wk to allow them to develop olfactory familiarity. When familiarization was complete animals were reexposed, after 24 h of no exposure to conspecific odors, to either the bedding of the familiar female or to the bedding of a new, unfamiliar female. Voles exposed to the bedding of unfamiliar females experienced a dramatic reversal in odor preference and failed to orient towards male odors. This behavioral change was accompanied by a significant decrease in plasma estradiol levels. These changes suggest that exposure to unfamiliar conspecifics may result in reproductive inhibition. Excessive contact between unfamiliar females in the field may be indicative of environmental conditions unfavorable to breeding. PMID:8848484

Fortier, G M; Erskine, M S; Tamarin, R H

1996-01-01

244

The role of oxytocin in familiarization-habituation responses to social novelty  

PubMed Central

Stress or arousal responses to novel social contexts ease off when individuals get familiar with the social context. In the present study we investigated whether oxytocin is involved in this process of familiarization-habituation as oxytocin is known to increase trust and decrease anxiety. Fifty-nine healthy female subjects took part in the same experimental procedure in two sessions separated by 4 weeks. In the first (novelty) session state trust scores were significantly positively correlated with salivary oxytocin levels while in the second (familiarity) session state trust scores were significantly negatively correlated with salivary oxytocin levels. In a path model oxytocin was associated with increased trust in the novelty session and trust was associated with decreased oxytocin levels in the familiarity session. The results are consistent with the idea that oxytocin decreases stress-to-novelty responses by promoting familiarization to novel social contexts. PMID:24151482

Tops, Mattie; Huffmeijer, Renske; Linting, Mariëlle; Grewen, Karen M.; Light, Kathleen C.; Koole, Sander L.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

2013-01-01

245

How visual and semantic information influence learning in familiar contexts.  

PubMed

Previous research using the contextual cuing paradigm has revealed both quantitative and qualitative differences in learning depending on whether repeated contexts are defined by letter arrays or real-world scenes. To clarify the relative contributions of visual features and semantic information likely to account for such differences, the typical contextual cuing procedure was adapted to use meaningless but nevertheless visually complex images. The data in reaction time and in eye movements show that, like scenes, such repeated contexts can trigger large, stable, and explicit cuing effects, and that those effects result from facilitated attentional guidance. Like simpler stimulus arrays, however, those effects were impaired by a sudden change of a repeating image's color scheme at the end of the learning phase (Experiment 1), or when the repeated images were presented in a different and unique color scheme across each presentation (Experiment 2). In both cases, search was driven by explicit memory. Collectively, these results suggest that semantic information is not required for conscious awareness of context-target covariation, but it plays a primary role in overcoming variability in specific features within familiar displays. PMID:22612057

Goujon, Annabelle; Brockmole, James R; Ehinger, Krista A

2012-10-01

246

Feature diagnosticity affects representations of novel and familiar objects.  

PubMed

Many features can describe a concept, but only some features define a concept in that they enable discrimination of items that are instances of a concept from (similar) items that are not. We refer to this property of some features as feature diagnosticity. Previous work has described the behavioral effects of feature diagnosticity, but there has been little work on explaining why and how these effects arise. In this study, we aimed to understand the impact of feature diagnosticity on concept representations across two complementary experiments. In Experiment 1, we manipulated the diagnosticity of one feature, color, for a set of novel objects that human participants learned over the course of 1 week. We report behavioral and neural evidence that diagnostic features are likely to be automatically recruited during remembering. Specifically, individuals activated color-selective regions of ventral temporal cortex (specifically, left fusiform gyrus and left inferior temporal gyrus) when thinking about the novel objects, although color information was never explicitly probed during the task. Moreover, multiple behavioral and neural measures of the effects of feature diagnosticity were correlated across participants. In Experiment 2, we examined relative color association in familiar object categories, which varied in feature diagnosticity (fruits and vegetables, household items). Taken together, these results offer novel insights into the neural mechanisms underlying concept representations by demonstrating that automatic recruitment of diagnostic information gives rise to behavioral effects of feature diagnosticity. PMID:24800630

Hsu, Nina S; Schlichting, Margaret L; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L

2014-12-01

247

The familiar and the strange: the dynamics of change.  

PubMed

This article relates to curative factors in the therapeutic process, or, to be more precise, to the various modes of the therapist's presence as presumed factors of change. It points to factors of change that have been discussed at length in the various streams of the analytical literature, which emphasized passive attention, absorption, processing and interpretation on the analyst's part, in an atmosphere of restraint and understanding (factors such as "free floating attention," "empathy," etc.). It stresses the importance of another psychic function different in nature--"defamiliarization"--as a condition that facilitates and accompanies processes of understanding and changes in perspective in relation to a reality aesthetically mediated by every human work of art, in general, and in relation to the personal-inner reality as it is expressed in the therapeutic work of art, in particular. This term sheds light on an active, mobile, breaking away--distancing--and rebinding aspect in the psychic functioning of the therapist (and in parallel of the patient), which allows them to "see the new" in a (supposedly) very familiar emotional given. In my view, this term joins others such as "act of freedom" and "constructive listening" in deepening our understanding of the therapeutic factor. There is reference to the term "defamiliarization," or "making strange," in its natural context--its birthplace--in literary criticism, and in a different historical context--in two key articles of the thirties that related to the causes of change in therapy in a very different way. PMID:8543456

Lazar, R

1995-01-01

248

The role of the medial prefrontal cortex in regulating social familiarity-induced anxiolysis.  

PubMed

Overcoming specific fears and subsequent anxiety can be greatly enhanced by the presence of familiar social partners, but the neural circuitry that controls this phenomenon remains unclear. To overcome this, the social interaction (SI) habituation test was developed in this lab to systematically investigate the effects of social familiarity on anxiety-like behavior in rats. Here, we show that social familiarity selectively reduced anxiety-like behaviors induced by an ethological anxiogenic stimulus. The anxiolytic effect of social familiarity could be elicited over multiple training sessions and was specific to both the presence of the anxiogenic stimulus and the familiar social partner. In addition, socially familiar conspecifics served as a safety signal, as anxiety-like responses returned in the absence of the familiar partner. The expression of the social familiarity-induced anxiolysis (SFiA) appears dependent on the prefrontal cortex (PFC), an area associated with cortical regulation of fear and anxiety behaviors. Inhibition of the PFC, with bilateral injections of the GABAA agonist muscimol, selectively blocked the expression of SFiA while having no effect on SI with a novel partner. Finally, the effect of D-cycloserine, a cognitive enhancer that clinically enhances behavioral treatments for anxiety, was investigated with SFiA. D-cycloserine, when paired with familiarity training sessions, selectively enhanced the rate at which SFiA was acquired. Collectively, these outcomes suggest that the PFC has a pivotal role in SFiA, a complex behavior involving the integration of social cues of familiarity with contextual and emotional information to regulate anxiety-like behavior. PMID:24157502

Lungwitz, Elizabeth A; Stuber, Garret D; Johnson, Philip L; Dietrich, Amy D; Schartz, Nicole; Hanrahan, Brian; Shekhar, Anantha; Truitt, William A

2014-03-01

249

Response to familiar faces, newly familiar faces, and novel faces as assessed by ERPs is intact in adults with autism spectrum disorders  

PubMed Central

Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have pervasive impairments in social functioning, which may include problems with processing and remembering faces. In this study, we examined whether posterior ERP components associated with identity processing (P2, N250 and face-N400) and components associated with early-stage face processing (P1 and N170) are atypical in ASD. We collected ERP responses to a familiar repeated face (Familiar), an unfamiliar repeated face (Other) and novel faces (Novels) in 29 high functioning adults with ASD and matched controls. For both groups, the P2 and N250 were sensitive to repetition (Other vs. Novels) and personal familiarity (Familiar vs. Other), and the face-N400 was sensitive to repetition. Adults with ASD did not show significantly atypical processing of facial familiarity and repetition in an ERP paradigm, despite showing significantly poorer performance than controls on a behavioral test of face memory. This study found no evidence that early-stage facial identity processing is a primary contributor to the face recognition deficit in high functioning ASD. PMID:20452382

Webb, Sara J.; Jones, Emily; Merkle, Kristen; Murias, Michael; Greenson, Jessica; Richards, Todd; Aylward, Elizabeth; Dawson, Geraldine

2010-01-01

250

Shifting Gears in Hippocampus: Temporal Dissociation between Familiarity and Novelty Signatures in a Single Event.  

PubMed

The hippocampus is known to be involved in encoding and retrieval of episodes. However, real-life experiences are expected to involve both encoding and retrieval, and it is unclear how the human hippocampus subserves both functions in the course of a single event. We presented participants with brief movie clips multiple times and examined the effect of familiarity on the hippocampal response at event onset versus event offset. Increased familiarity resulted in a decreased offset response, indicating that the offset response is a novelty-related signature. The magnitude of this offset response was correlated, across hippocampal voxels, with an independent measure of successful encoding, based on nonrepeated clips. This suggests that the attenuated offset response to familiar clips reflects reduced encoding. In addition, the posterior hippocampus exhibited an increased onset response to familiar events, switching from an online familiarity signal to an offline novelty signal during a single event. Moreover, participants with stronger memory exhibited increased reactivation of online activity during familiar events, in line with a retrieval signature. Our results reveal a spatiotemporal dissociation between novelty/encoding and familiarity/retrieval signatures, assumed to reflect different computational modes, in response to the same stimulus. PMID:25253846

Ben-Yakov, Aya; Rubinson, Mica; Dudai, Yadin

2014-09-24

251

The effect of a familiar scent on the behavioral and physiological pain responses in neonates.  

PubMed

There are adverse physiologic effects of pain in neonates, and effective pain management must be an essential aspect of neonatal care. In this study we assessed the effect of a nonmaternal familiar scent on the neonatal pain responses. This study included 135 neonates randomly assigned to one of three groups. During arterial puncture, one group was exposed to a vanillin scent on a gauze pad held next to their nose. They were familiarized with it the night before blood sampling by a scented gauze pad placed in the incubator next to their head for an average duration of 8.65 hours. The second group was not familiarized with the scent but was exposed to it during the procedure. The third group was neither familiarized nor exposed to the scent. The duration of crying in the familiar scent group was significantly lower than in the two other groups. Comparison of the physiologic parameters showed less variation in oxygen saturation level during arterial puncture in the familiar scent group. In this study, a familiar scent could reduce crying and oxygen consumption during arterial puncture. PMID:24315273

Sadathosseini, Akram Sadat; Negarandeh, Reza; Movahedi, Zeinab

2013-12-01

252

[Institutional renovation and scientific modernization: the creation of the Instituto de Investigaciones Hematológicas during the mid-1950s].  

PubMed

Using documentary sources, this work analyzes the creation and initial functioning of the Instituto de Investigaciones Hematológicas (Institute of Hematological Research) of the National Academy of Medicine (Buenos Aires, Argentina) in the context of the scientific modernization initiated within the country during the mid-1950s. Particular attention is paid to the generation of material bases and institutional and cultural mechanisms for the development of scientific research and of clinical practices guided by procedures and techniques rooted in the basic sciences. The formation and development of a research school in the Experimental Leukemia Section of the institute is explored as a case illustrative of the effective consolidation of initiatives oriented towards the organization of a scientific center. PMID:24500546

Buschini, José

2013-12-01

253

Effects of novelty and familiarity on illness-induced aversions to food and place cues in coyotes (Canis latrans)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments investigated the effects of novelty and familiarity on illness-induced aversions to taste and place cues in 10 coyotes. Ss were made ill on familiar food laced with Li2CO3 in a novel place and then received preference tests. In Exp I, Ss avoided the previously poisoned familiar food in the novel treatment place but readily ate the same familiar

Stuart R. Ellins; Lucien Thompson; William E. Swanson

1983-01-01

254

Differential response of coyotes to novel stimuli in familiar and unfamiliar environments  

SciTech Connect

The behavioral responses shown by captive coyotes, Canis latrans, to novel objects and artificial scent stations in familiar and unfamiliar environments were studied to determine how coyotes potentially respond to novel stimuli used in coyote management and research. Coyotes showed little avoidance of novel objects and scent stations when they were encountered in unfamiliar environments while avoidance was frequently observed with the same stimuli encountered in familiar environments, and supported the hypothesis that coyotes are more vulnerable to trapping and man-induced mortality when outside of the familiar environment of their territories.

Harris, C.E.; Knowlton, F.F.

1986-01-01

255

Event-Related Potential (ERP) Indices of Infants' Recognition of Familiar and Unfamiliar Objects in Two and Three Dimensions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We measured infants' recognition of familiar and unfamiliar 3-D objects and their 2-D representations using event-related potentials (ERPs). Infants differentiated familiar from unfamiliar objects when viewing them in both two and three dimensions. However, differentiation between the familiar and novel objects occurred more quickly when infants…

Carver, Leslie J.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Dawson, Geraldine

2006-01-01

256

Social familiarity relaxes the constraints of limited attention and enhances reproduction of group-living predatory mites  

PubMed Central

In many group-living animals, within-group associations are determined by familiarity, i.e. familiar individuals, independent of genetic relatedness, preferentially associate with each other. The ultimate causes of this behaviour are poorly understood and rigorous documentation of its adaptive significance is scarce. Limited attention theory states that focusing on a given task has interrelated cognitive, behavioural and physiological costs with respect to the attention paid to other tasks. In multiple signal environments attention has thus to be shared among signals. Assuming that familiar neighbours require less attention than unfamiliar ones, associating with familiar individuals should increase the efficiency in other tasks and ultimately increase fitness. We tested this prediction in adult females of the group-living, plant-inhabiting predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. We evaluated the influence of social familiarity on within-group association behaviour, activity, predation and reproduction. In mixed groups (familiar and unfamiliar), familiar predator females preferentially associated with each other. In pure groups (either familiar or unfamiliar), familiar predator females produced more eggs than unfamiliar females at similar predation rates. Higher egg production was correlated with lower activity levels, indicating decreased restlessness. In light of limited attention theory, we argue that the ability to discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar individuals and preferential association with familiar individuals confers a selective advantage because familiar social environments are cognitively and physiologically less taxing than unfamiliar social environments. PMID:24273345

Strodl, Markus A.; Schausberger, Peter

2013-01-01

257

Os ltimos fins na cultura ibrica dos sculos XV-XVIII (Porto, 19-21 outubre 1995), Porto, Instituto de Cultura Portuguesa, 1997, 113-135.  

E-print Network

1 Os «últimos fins» na cultura ibérica dos séculos XV-XVIII (Porto, 19-21 outubre 1995), Porto, Instituto de Cultura Portuguesa, 1997, 113-135. Mancilla y limpieza: la obsesión por el pecado en Castilla

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

258

Auftaktworkshop "Marie Sklodowska Curie in Horizon 2020 Actions with familiar and novel aspects"  

E-print Network

Auftaktworkshop "Marie Sklodowska Curie in Horizon 2020 ­ Actions with familiar and novel aspects, Universität Potsdam) 10:15 ­ 11:00 Uhr Die Marie Sklodowska Curie Ma�nahmen in Horizon 2020 (Victoria Llobet

Potsdam, Universität

259

Familiar Music as an Enhancer of Self-Consciousness in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

The main objective of this paper is to examine the impact of familiar music on self-consciousness (SC) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). For this purpose, two AD groups of 20 patients matched by age, educational level, gender, illness duration, and cognitive state were assessed using an SC questionnaire before and after music intervention. The SC questionnaire measured several aspects: personal identity, anosognosia, affective state, body representation, prospective memory, introspection and moral judgments. One AD group received familiar music stimulation and another AD group unfamiliar music stimulation over three months. The AD patients who received a familiar music intervention showed a stabilization or improvement in aspects of SC. By contrast, control AD group showed a deterioration of most of the SC aspects after unfamiliar music stimulation, except the SC aspects of body representation and affective state. Familiar music stimulation could be considered as an enhancer of SC in patients with Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24106716

Arroyo-Anllo, Eva M.; Diaz, Juan Poveda; Gil, Roger

2013-01-01

260

Asymmetry in pay-off predicts how familiar individuals respond to one another.  

PubMed

Familiarity influences individual decision-making in many vertebrate species. Here, we propose that familiarity modulates behaviour to different extents depending on the social context of the interaction. Specifically, the more that one player stands to gain relative to the other, the less important familiarity will be in influencing their responses to one another. We test this prediction using pairs of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in three competitive scenarios of increasing asymmetry in outcome to the two players: schooling under potential threat (similar outcomes), competing for a defensible food source (some asymmetry) and competing for a receptive female (strongly asymmetrical outcomes). Males show a graded response as asymmetry increases, with familiarity producing marked behavioural differences under potential threat, minor changes when competing for food, but none at all in competition for mating opportunities. This suggests that mutualistic benefits can arise as a by-product of selfish behaviour, supporting the role of pseudo-reciprocity in the evolution of cooperation. PMID:23576778

Granroth-Wilding, Hanna M V; Magurran, Anne E

2013-06-23

261

Damage to the lateral prefrontal cortex impairs familiarity but not recollection  

PubMed Central

Frontal lobe lesions impair recognition memory but it is unclear whether the deficits arise from impaired recollection, impaired familiarity, or both. In the current study, recognition memory for verbal materials was examined in patients with damage to the left or right lateral prefrontal cortex. Words were incidentally encoded under semantic or phonological orienting conditions, and recognition memory was tested using a 6-point confidence procedure. Receiver operating characteristics (ROCs) were examined in order to measure the contributions of recollection and familiarity to recognition memory. In both encoding conditions, lateral prefrontal cortex damage led to a deficit in familiarity but not recollection. Similar deficits were observed in left and right hemisphere patients. The results indicate that the lateral prefrontal cortex plays a critical role in the monitoring or decision processes required for accurate familiarity-based recognition responses. PMID:21827792

Aly, Mariam; Yonelinas, Andrew P.; Kishiyama, Mark M.; Knight, Robert T.

2011-01-01

262

Asymmetry in pay-off predicts how familiar individuals respond to one another  

PubMed Central

Familiarity influences individual decision-making in many vertebrate species. Here, we propose that familiarity modulates behaviour to different extents depending on the social context of the interaction. Specifically, the more that one player stands to gain relative to the other, the less important familiarity will be in influencing their responses to one another. We test this prediction using pairs of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in three competitive scenarios of increasing asymmetry in outcome to the two players: schooling under potential threat (similar outcomes), competing for a defensible food source (some asymmetry) and competing for a receptive female (strongly asymmetrical outcomes). Males show a graded response as asymmetry increases, with familiarity producing marked behavioural differences under potential threat, minor changes when competing for food, but none at all in competition for mating opportunities. This suggests that mutualistic benefits can arise as a by-product of selfish behaviour, supporting the role of pseudo-reciprocity in the evolution of cooperation. PMID:23576778

Granroth-Wilding, Hanna M. V.; Magurran, Anne E.

2013-01-01

263

Visual influence of shapes and semantic familiarity on human sweet sensitivity.  

PubMed

Vision influences taste. It is known that color plays an important role in flavor perception. However, the effect of other features of visual information such as shapes and semantic familiarity of words on the taste perception, particularly on taste sensitivity, is not clear yet. Here we study whether the sweet taste sensitivity of the subjects is affected by such visual inputs. By displaying basic geometric patterns or words with different degrees of semantic familiarity as visual inputs, the subjects rate the hedonic and semantic familiar scores, and taste a series of sucrose solutions, and their sweet sensitivities are accordingly analyzed. Our results show (1) shapes with curvature like circle and ellipse, with higher hedonic scores, increase the sweet sensitivity, whereas angular shapes like square, rectangle, triangle and pentagram do not affect sweet sensitivity; (2) semantic familiar words, with higher hedonic ratings as well, increase sweet sensitivity, whereas unfamiliar words do not affect or even reduce sweet sensitivities. PMID:23835044

Liang, Pei; Roy, Soumyajit; Chen, Meng-Ling; Zhang, Gen-Hua

2013-09-15

264

Effects of relationship motivation, partner familiarity, and alcohol on women's risky sexual decision making.  

PubMed

This experiment examined the effects of women's relationship motivation, partner familiarity, and alcohol consumption on sexual decision making. Women completed an individual difference measure of relationship motivation and then were randomly assigned to partner familiarity condition (low, high) and to alcohol consumption condition (high dose, low dose, no alcohol, placebo). Then women read and projected themselves into a scenario of a sexual encounter. Relationship motivation and partner familiarity interacted with intoxication to influence primary appraisals of relationship potential. Participants' primary and secondary relationship appraisals mediated the effects of women's relationship motivation, partner familiarity, and intoxication on condom negotiation, sexual decision abdication, and unprotected sex intentions. These findings support a cognitive mediation model of women's sexual decision making and identify how individual and situational factors interact to shape alcohol's influences on cognitive appraisals that lead to risky sexual decisions. This knowledge can inform empirically based risky sex interventions. PMID:19332435

Zawacki, Tina; Norris, Jeanette; Hessler, Danielle M; Morrison, Diane M; Stoner, Susan A; George, William H; Davis, Kelly Cue; Abdallah, Devon A

2009-06-01

265

Differentiating amodal familiarity from modality-specific memory processes: An ERP study  

PubMed Central

Distinct event-related potential effects have been related to familiarity and recollection processes underlying recognition memory. Familiarity has been conceptualized as similar either to perceptual priming mechanisms supporting implicit memory or to amodal global-matching processes that should show little sensitivity to perceptual variables. The present experiment manipulated the study modality of words (auditory, visual) that were visually tested for recognition memory. The mid-frontal (300–500 ms) old/new effect often attributed to familiarity was not affected by study modality, so it appears related to an amodal familiarity process. An earlier (176–260 ms) fronto-polar old/new effect was perceptually specific in that it was observed only following visual study. The parietal old/new effect (400–800 ms), often attributed to recollection, was similar following both visual and auditory study. Temporal-spatial PCA clarified the separability of these effects. PMID:14986851

DIEN, JOSEPH

2005-01-01

266

The relationship between social behaviour and habitat familiarity in African elephants  

E-print Network

The relationship between social behaviour and habitat familiarity in African elephants (Loxodonta behaviour of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) translocated into a novel environment. We found: African elephant; association; conservation; novel environment; social behaviour; translocation 1

Pinter-Wollman, Noa

267

Casual Sexual Encounters Among Gay Men: Familiarity, Trust and Unprotected Anal Intercourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Familiarity with and a history of prior sex with casual partners is associated with unprotected anal intercourse and may increase\\u000a the risk of HIV transmission among gay men. Using data from the Sydney Gay Community Periodic Survey 2007, we explored the\\u000a relationship between familiarity and unprotected anal intercourse with the last casual partner (UAI-LC). 51% of the men knew\\u000a their

Iryna B. ZablotskaAndrew; Andrew E. Grulich; John De Wit; Garrett Prestage

2011-01-01

268

Beyond the Memory Mechanism: Person-selective and Nonselective Processes in Recognition of Personally Familiar Faces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Special processes recruited during the recognition of personally familiar people have been assumed to reflect the rich episodic and semantic information that selectively represents each person. However, the processes may also include person nonselectiveones,whichmayrequireinterpretationintermsbeyond the memory mechanism. To examine this possibility, we assessed decrease in differential activation during the second presentationofanidenticalface(repetitionsuppression)asanindex of person selectivity. During fMRI, pictures of personally familiar,

Motoaki Sugiura; Yoko Mano; Akihiro Sasaki; Norihiro Sadato

2010-01-01

269

Familiarity affects social network structure and discovery of prey patch locations in foraging stickleback shoals.  

PubMed

Numerous factors affect the fine-scale social structure of animal groups, but it is unclear how important such factors are in determining how individuals encounter resources. Familiarity affects shoal choice and structure in many social fishes. Here, we show that familiarity between shoal members of sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) affects both fine-scale social organization and the discovery of resources. Social network analysis revealed that sticklebacks remained closer to familiar than to unfamiliar individuals within the same shoal. Network-based diffusion analysis revealed that there was a strong untransmitted social effect on patch discovery, with individuals tending to discover a task sooner if a familiar individual from their group had previously done so than if an unfamiliar fish had done so. However, in contrast to the effect of familiarity, the frequency with which individuals had previously associated with one another had no effect upon the likelihood of prey patch discovery. This may have been due to the influence of fish on one another's movements; the effect of familiarity on discovery of an empty 'control' patch was as strong as for discovery of an actual prey patch. Our results demonstrate that factors affecting fine-scale social interactions can also influence how individuals encounter and exploit resources. PMID:25009061

Atton, N; Galef, B J; Hoppitt, W; Webster, M M; Laland, K N

2014-08-22

270

Familiar Person Recognition: Is Autonoetic Consciousness More Likely to Accompany Face Recognition Than Voice Recognition?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Autonoetic consciousness is a fundamental property of human memory, enabling us to experience mental time travel, to recollect past events with a feeling of self-involvement, and to project ourselves in the future. Autonoetic consciousness is a characteristic of episodic memory. By contrast, awareness of the past associated with a mere feeling of familiarity or knowing relies on noetic consciousness, depending on semantic memory integrity. Present research was aimed at evaluating whether conscious recollection of episodic memories is more likely to occur following the recognition of a familiar face than following the recognition of a familiar voice. Recall of semantic information (biographical information) was also assessed. Previous studies that investigated the recall of biographical information following person recognition used faces and voices of famous people as stimuli. In this study, the participants were presented with personally familiar people's voices and faces, thus avoiding the presence of identity cues in the spoken extracts and allowing a stricter control of frequency exposure with both types of stimuli (voices and faces). In the present study, the rate of retrieved episodic memories, associated with autonoetic awareness, was significantly higher from familiar faces than familiar voices even though the level of overall recognition was similar for both these stimuli domains. The same pattern was observed regarding semantic information retrieval. These results and their implications for current Interactive Activation and Competition person recognition models are discussed.

Barsics, Catherine; Brédart, Serge

2010-11-01

271

The Similarities (and Familiarities) of Pseudowords and Extremely High-Frequency Words: Examining a Familiarity-Based Explanation of the Pseudoword Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The pseudoword effect is the finding that pseudowords (i.e., rare words or pronounceable nonwords) give rise to more hits and false alarms than words. Using the retrieving effectively from memory (REM) model of recognition memory, we tested a familiarity-based account of the pseudoword effect: Specifically, the pseudoword effect arises because…

Ozubko, Jason D.; Joordens, Steve

2011-01-01

272

Rhesus monkeys see who they hear: spontaneous cross-modal memory for familiar conspecifics.  

PubMed

Rhesus monkeys gather much of their knowledge of the social world through visual input and may preferentially represent this knowledge in the visual modality. Recognition of familiar faces is clearly advantageous, and the flexibility and utility of primate social memory would be greatly enhanced if visual memories could be accessed cross-modally either by visual or auditory stimulation. Such cross-modal access to visual memory would facilitate flexible retrieval of the knowledge necessary for adaptive social behavior. We tested whether rhesus monkeys have cross-modal access to visual memory for familiar conspecifics using a delayed matching-to-sample procedure. Monkeys learned visual matching of video clips of familiar individuals to photographs of those individuals, and generalized performance to novel videos. In crossmodal probe trials, coo-calls were played during the memory interval. The calls were either from the monkey just seen in the sample video clip or from a different familiar monkey. Even though the monkeys were trained exclusively in visual matching, the calls influenced choice by causing an increase in the proportion of errors to the picture of the monkey whose voice was heard on incongruent trials. This result demonstrates spontaneous cross-modal recognition. It also shows that viewing videos of familiar monkeys activates naturally formed memories of real monkeys, validating the use of video stimuli in studies of social cognition in monkeys. PMID:21887244

Adachi, Ikuma; Hampton, Robert R

2011-01-01

273

The awareness of novelty for strangely familiar words: a laboratory analogue of the déjà vu experience.  

PubMed

Déjà vu is a nebulous memory experience defined by a clash between evaluations of familiarity and novelty for the same stimulus. We sought to generate it in the laboratory by pairing a DRM recognition task, which generates erroneous familiarity for critical words, with a monitoring task by which participants realise that some of these erroneously familiar words are in fact novel. We tested 30 participants in an experiment in which we varied both participant awareness of stimulus novelty and erroneous familiarity strength. We found that déjà vu reports were most frequent for high novelty critical words (?25%), with low novelty critical words yielding only baseline levels of déjà vu report frequency (?10%). There was no significant variation in déjà vu report frequency according to familiarity strength. Discursive accounts of the experimentally-generated déjà vu experience suggest that aspects of the naturalistic déjà vu experience were captured by this analogue, but that the analogue was also limited in its focus and prone to influence by demand characteristics. We discuss theoretical and methodological considerations relevant to further development of this procedure and propose that verifiable novelty is an important component of both naturalistic and experimental analogues of déjà vu. PMID:25401055

Urquhart, Josephine A; O'Connor, Akira R

2014-01-01

274

The Role of Issue Familiarity And Social Norms: Findings on New College Students' Alcohol Use Intentions  

PubMed Central

Background Scholars in a variety of disciplines are interested in understanding the conditions under which social norms affect human behavior. Following the distinction made between descriptive and injunctive norms by the focus theory of normative conduct, the theory of normative social behavior predicts that the influence of descriptive norms on behavior is moderated by injunctive norms, outcome expectations, and group identity. We extended the theory by testing the proposition that the influence of descriptive norms on behavior would be greater under conditions of greater issue familiarity, defined as the ease with which one can cognitively access the behavior or behavioral issue. Design and Methods The model was tested in the domain of alcohol consumption intentions by conducting a survey among incoming students (n=719) to a large university in the United States. Data indicated that students in the sample were well representative of the university population. Results The influence of descriptive norms on behavioral intentions was moderated by issue familiarity, as predicted. Familiarity was a facilitator of behavior: the influence of descriptive norms on behavioral intentions was greater under conditions of high, rather than low, familiarity. The overall model explained 53% of the variance in alcohol consumption intentions. Conclusions Public health interventions promoting health behaviors need to take into account the extent to which the behaviors are familiar to the target audience. The influence of norms appears to be weaker when the behavior is unfamiliar or novel. Implications for theory and interventions for reducing alcohol consumption are discussed. PMID:25170478

Rimal, Rajiv N.; Mollen, Saar

2013-01-01

275

Familiarity knowledge in student nurses' clinical studies: exemplified by student nurses in palliative care.  

PubMed

In this article based on a literary study, the form of knowledge named familiarity knowledge is examined. Although rooted in the philosophical tradition of Wittgenstein and Polanyi, the development of familiarity knowledge is tied in with clinical practice and particular patients and contexts while paying attention to the framework factors influencing the setting as a whole as well as with theoretical knowledge relevant to the situation at hand. Palliative care makes a backdrop for some of the discussion. Familiarity knowledge can never be context free and attends to that which is unique in every nurse-patient relationship. Both assertive and familiarity knowledge are needed to care for dying patients in a competent, sensitive, and truly caring manner. Mentors need to help students synthesize assertive knowledge and familiarity knowledge during their clinical studies to enrich both kinds of knowledge and deepen their understanding. Student nurses expertly mentored and tutored while caring for dying patients living at home become, for instance, less apprehensive about facing dying patients than students not so mentored. Nurses need to understand the complexity of nursing care to be able to see the uniqueness of the situation and approach the individual patient on the bases of experience and insight. PMID:22908430

Haugan, Grethe; Hanssen, Ingrid

2012-01-01

276

Testing the absolute-tempo hypothesis: Context effects for familiar and unfamiliar songs.  

PubMed

In two experiments, we investigated context effects on tempo judgments for familiar and unfamiliar songs performed by popular artists. In Experiment 1, participants made comparative tempo judgments to a remembered standard for song clips drawn from either a slow or a fast context, created by manipulating the tempos of the same songs. Although both familiar and unfamiliar songs showed significant shifts in their points of subjective equality toward the tempo context values, more-familiar songs showed significantly reduced contextual bias. In Experiment 2, tempo pleasantness ratings showed significant context effects in which the ordering of tempos on the pleasantness scale differed across contexts, with the most pleasant tempo shifting toward the contextual values, an assimilation of ideal points. Once again, these effects were significant but reduced for the more-familiar songs. The moderating effects of song familiarity support a weak version of the absolute-tempo hypothesis, in which long-term memory for tempo reduces but does not eliminate contextual effects. Thus, although both relative and absolute tempo information appear to be encoded in memory, the absolute representation may be subject to rapid revision by recently experienced tempo-altered versions of the same song. PMID:24972559

Rashotte, Matthew A; Wedell, Douglas H

2014-11-01

277

Familiarity from the configuration of objects in 3-dimensional space and its relation to déjà vu: a virtual reality investigation.  

PubMed

Déjà vu is the striking sense that the present situation feels familiar, alongside the realization that it has to be new. According to the Gestalt familiarity hypothesis, déjà vu results when the configuration of elements within a scene maps onto a configuration previously seen, but the previous scene fails to come to mind. We examined this using virtual reality (VR) technology. When a new immersive VR scene resembled a previously-viewed scene in its configuration but people failed to recall the previously-viewed scene, familiarity ratings and reports of déjà vu were indeed higher than for completely novel scenes. People also exhibited the contrasting sense of newness and of familiarity that is characteristic of déjà vu. Familiarity ratings and déjà vu reports among scenes recognized as new increased with increasing feature-match of a scene to one stored in memory, suggesting that feature-matching can produce familiarity and déjà vu when recall fails. PMID:22322010

Cleary, Anne M; Brown, Alan S; Sawyer, Benjamin D; Nomi, Jason S; Ajoku, Adaeze C; Ryals, Anthony J

2012-06-01

278

When familiar is not better: 12-month-old infants respond to talk about absent objects.  

PubMed

Three experiments that demonstrate a novel constraint on infants' language skills are described. Across the experiments it is shown that as babies near their 1st birthday, their ability to respond to talk about an absent object is influenced by a referent's spatiotemporal history: familiarizing infants with an object in 1 or several nontest locations before the study interferes with their ability to respond to talk about the object when it is out of view. Familiarity with an object may not always strengthen infants' object representations and therefore facilitate their ability to appropriately react to the mention of absent objects. On the contrary, early in development, irrelevant information about prior location may be bound to representations of familiar objects and thus interfere with infants' ability to respond to talk about absent things. PMID:22448983

Osina, Maria A; Saylor, Megan M; Ganea, Patricia A

2013-01-01

279

A new design concept of robotic interface for the improvement of user familiarity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Familiarity is the crucial requirement for the human symbiosis robot. This paper presents a new concept of a robot avatar to increase familiarity of a care service robot. The robot avatar is a small robot mounted on a main robot and equipped with minimum function to play some gestures during task execution of the main robot. By looking at the avatar, user feels as if it is controlling the main robot. A prototype of the avatar (CHIRIS) is developed and installed to a service robot IRIS. Several psychological tests about the impression of IRIS were carried out using video. Test results showed that CHIRIS is effective to give more familiar impression to the users. It is also shown that CHIRS is useful to announce IRIS's following behavior to the user preliminarily.

Hiroi, Y.; Nakano, E.; Takahashi, T.; Ito, A.; Kotani, K.; Takatsu, N.

2005-12-01

280

Familiarity mediates the relationship between emotional arousal and pleasure during music listening  

PubMed Central

Emotional arousal appears to be a major contributing factor to the pleasure that listeners experience in response to music. Accordingly, a strong positive correlation between self-reported pleasure and electrodermal activity (EDA), an objective indicator of emotional arousal, has been demonstrated when individuals listen to familiar music. However, it is not yet known to what extent familiarity contributes to this relationship. In particular, as listening to familiar music involves expectations and predictions over time based on veridical knowledge of the piece, it could be that such memory factors plays a major role. Here, we tested such a contribution by using musical stimuli entirely unfamiliar to listeners. In a second experiment we repeated the novel music to experimentally establish a sense of familiarity. We aimed to determine whether (1) pleasure and emotional arousal would continue to correlate when listeners have no explicit knowledge of how the tones will unfold, and (2) whether this could be enhanced by experimentally-induced familiarity. In the first experiment, we presented 33 listeners with 70 unfamiliar musical excerpts in two sessions. There was no relationship between the degree of experienced pleasure and emotional arousal as measured by EDA. In the second experiment, 7 participants listened to 35 unfamiliar excerpts over two sessions separated by 30 min. Repeated exposure significantly increased EDA, even though individuals did not explicitly recall having heard all the pieces before. Furthermore, increases in self-reported familiarity significantly enhanced experienced pleasure and there was a general, though not significant, increase in EDA. These results suggest that some level of expectation and predictability mediated by prior exposure to a given piece of music play an important role in the experience of emotional arousal in response to music. PMID:24046738

van den Bosch, Iris; Salimpoor, Valorie N.; Zatorre, Robert J.

2013-01-01

281

Prefrontal-temporal disconnection impairs recognition memory but not familiarity discrimination  

PubMed Central

Neural mechanisms in the temporal lobe are essential for recognition memory. Evidence from human functional imaging and neuropsychology and monkey neurophysiology and neuropsychology also suggests a role for prefrontal cortex in recognition memory. To examine the interaction of these cortical regions in support of recognition memory we tested rhesus monkeys with prefrontal-inferotemporal (PFC-IT) cortical disconnection on two recognition memory tasks, a ‘Constant Negative’ task and delayed nonmatching-to-sample (DNMS). In the Constant Negative task monkeys were presented with sets of 100 discrimination problems. In each problem one unrewarded object was presented once every day, and became familiar over the course of several days testing. The other, rewarded object was always novel. In this task monkeys learned to avoid the familiar ‘constant negatives’ and choose the novel objects, so performance on this task is guided by a sense of familiarity for the constant negatives. Following PFC-IT disconnection monkeys were severely impaired at reacquiring the rule (to avoid familiar items) but were subsequently unimpaired at acquiring new constant negative problems, thus displaying intact familiarity recognition. The same monkeys were impaired in the acquisition of the DNMS task, as well as memory for lists of objects. This dissociation between two tests of recognition memory is best explained in terms of our general hypothesis that PFC-IT interactions support the representation of temporally complex events, which is necessary in DNMS but not in Constant Negative. These findings, furthermore, indicate that stimulus familiarity can be represented in the temporal cortex without input from the prefrontal cortex. PMID:23739963

Browning, Philip G.F.; Baxter, Mark G.; Gaffan, David

2013-01-01

282

Effects of familiar and unfamiliar objects on mother-infant interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine whether the dynamics and structure of mother-child interactions around toys vary\\u000a with the familiarity of toys. Twelve mother-child dyads with a 5- or 9-month-old infant were filmed two consecutive 5-minute\\u000a sessions in the presence of familiar or novel objects. By relating the mother’s behaviour to her infant’s, we were able to\\u000a define

Agnés Danis

1997-01-01

283

The Mission Operations Directorate's International Space Station Alpha Hardware Familiarization Role  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Mission Operation Directorate's (MOD) On-Orbit Maintenance Operations Mission Controllers are participating in space station hardware tests and demonstrations in multiple neutral buoyancy facilities. This is part of the controllers' hardware familiarization world in preparation to support the astronauts in the operation and maintenance of the hardware. This paper describes the larger context of Mission Controller hardware familiarization with specifics of participation in the Boeing neutral buoyancy tests. Also covered is what participation has occurred in the past and future plans.

Zingrebe, Kenneth W., II

1995-01-01

284

Identificación y caracterización preliminar del agente causal de la mancha necrótica de las hojas de la mora (Rubus glaucus) en el muncipio de  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification and characterization of the leaf necrotic spot of blackberry (Rubus glaucus) in the municipality of Trujillo (Valle del Cauca, Colombia) The blackberry crop in the Chuscales and Monteloro regions of the municipality of Trujillo (Valle del Cauca, Colombia) generates 100% of the familiar income. To improve productivity and income of these communities, a diagnostic and development of disease control

María José Botero; Germán Franco

2007-01-01

285

Distinguishing familiarity-based from source-based memory performance in patients with schizophrenia  

E-print Network

with these responses. Results: Patients with schizophrenia showed an impaired ability to distinguish old from new items, these responses were slowed in patients with schizophrenia. This was not attributable to a generalized diminution not differ between the two groups. Conclusions: Patients with schizophrenia demonstrated impaired familiarity

Schacter, Daniel

286

The Persistence of Erroneous Familiarity in an Epileptic Male: Challenging Perceptual Theories of Deja Vu Activation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report the case of a 39-year-old, temporal lobe epileptic male, MH. Prior to complex partial seizure, experienced up to three times a day, MH often experiences an aura experienced as a persistent sensation of deja vu. Data-driven theories of deja vu formation suggest that partial familiarity for the perceived stimulus is responsible for the…

O'Connor, Akira R.; Moulin, Christopher J. A.

2008-01-01

287

Age-of-acquisition, imagery, concreteness, familiarity, and ambiguity measures for 1,944 words  

Microsoft Academic Search

Age-of-acquisition, imagery, concreteness, familiarity, and ambiguity measures for 1,944 words of varying length and frequency\\u000a of occurrence are presented. The words can all be used as nouns. Intergroup reliabilities are satisfactory on all attributes.\\u000a Correlations with previous word lists are significant, and the intercorrelations between measures match previous findings.

K. J. Gilhooly; R. H. Logie

1980-01-01

288

FLYING FISH GLIDE AS WELL We're all familiar with birds that are as  

E-print Network

Inside JEB i FLYING FISH GLIDE AS WELL AS BIRDS We're all familiar with birds that are as comfortable diving as they are flying but only one family of fish has made the reverse journey. Flying fish Choi, a mechanical engineer from Seoul National University, Korea, became fascinated by flying fish

Moss, Cynthia

289

In Live Interaction, Does Familiarity Promote Attraction or Contempt? Reply to Norton, Frost, and Ariely (2011)  

E-print Network

REPLY In Live Interaction, Does Familiarity Promote Attraction or Contempt? Reply to Norton, Frost and refute each of Norton, Frost, and Ariely's (2011) specific objections to the conclusion that, ceteris concur with Norton et al.'s call for an integrative model that encompasses both Norton, Frost, and Ariely

Reber, Paul J.

290

Build-a-Case: A Brand New Continuing Medical Education Technique that Is Peculiarly Familiar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An observation at a problem-based learning, case-building meeting prompted the realization that building cases might itself be an effective educational intervention. We developed a process for a new continuing medical education technique that is peculiarly familiar that we call "build-a-case." Build-a-case has now been used for teaching and…

Ryan, David Patrick; Marlow, Bernard

2004-01-01

291

Aspects of Performance on Line Graph Description Tasks: Influenced by Graph Familiarity and Different Task Features  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Motivated by cognitive theories of graph comprehension, this study systematically manipulated characteristics of a line graph description task in a speaking test in ways to mitigate the influence of graph familiarity, a potential source of construct-irrelevant variance. It extends Xi (2005), which found that the differences in holistic scores on…

Xi, Xiaoming

2010-01-01

292

Processing Social Information in Messages: Social Group Familiarity, Fiction/Non-fiction Labels, and Subsequent Beliefs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined how the relative familiarity of a social group described in a message may affect the impact of ostensibly fiction and nonfiction messages on subsequent beliefs about social groups. The 24 paid subjects each received one of four sets of prose excerpts. Each set consisted of four excerpts that were labelled as fiction or nonfiction…

Slater, Michael D.

293

What's in a Forename? Cue Familiarity and Stereotypical Thinking C. Neil Macrae  

E-print Network

What's in a Forename? Cue Familiarity and Stereotypical Thinking C. Neil Macrae Dartmouth College at various stages of the project. Address correspondence and reprint requests to Neil Macrae, Depart- ment-cog- nitive outputs in a timely and economical manner (Bodenhausen & Macrae, 1998; Macrae & Bodenhausen, 2000

Mitchell, Jason

294

Medical School Students' Knowledge of and Familiarity with Visual Impairments: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A limited amount of research has been conducted on the knowledge of and familiarity with individuals with disabilities of medical students. There have been studies on these individuals' satisfaction with medical services and the accessibility of medical services to them, the role of health care providers in working with these individuals, and the…

McKenzie, Amy R.; Henzi, David L.

2010-01-01

295

The Effects of Familiarization with Oral Expository Text on Listening and Reading Comprehension Levels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of text type and early familiarization with oral expository text structures on listening and reading comprehension levels. Second-grade students read and listened to narrative and expository texts, and their comprehension was assessed with a sentence verification task. Half of the students had participated in a…

Diakidoy, Irene-Anna N.

2014-01-01

296

Interactive Effects of Age and Familiarization in Paired-Associate Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a study of paired-associative learning involving a total of 80 preschool and second grade children. Four familiarization categories of pretraining were utilized; results are discussed in terms of the effects of pretraining conditions and age on paired-associative learning and their consistency with some developmental hypotheses and phase…

Baumeister, Alfred A.; Maisto, Albert A.

1974-01-01

297

Effects of Food Neophobia, Familiarity, and Nutrition Information on Consumer Acceptance of Asian Menu Items  

Microsoft Academic Search

As obesity and cancer threaten Americans' quality of life, eating more vegetables and lighter foods is becoming the new trend with Asian foods being a good source of vegetables. The primary finding of this study indicates that food neophobia (defined as a reluctance to eat and\\/or avoidance of new foods) plays an important role in influencing consumer familiarity with Asian

Johye Hwang; Ting-Ning Lin

2010-01-01

298

The posterior parietal cortex: comparing remember/know and source memory tests of recollection and familiarity.  

PubMed

Numerous neuroimaging studies have shown a dissociation within the left posterior parietal cortex (PPC) between recollection and familiarity, with dorsal regions routinely active during familiarity and ventral regions active during recollection. The two most common methods for separating the neural correlates of these retrieval states are the remember/know paradigm and tests probing source memory. While relatively converging results have been found using these methods, the literature is lacking an adequate and direct comparison of the two procedures. We directly compared these two methodologies and found differences in both the magnitude and extent of activation within the left PPC. During familiarity, dorsal PPC regions were more strongly activated by the source test, while the remember/know test led to stronger recollection-related activations within the ventral regions of the PPC. This modulation of PPC activity is particularly important because it suggests that the neural correlates of familiarity and recollection depend on how they are operationalized. Previous assumptions that remember/know and source memory tests are functionally equivalent should therefore be re-evaluated. Additionally, any theories attempting to explain the functional role of the PPC during memory retrieval must take these differences into account. PMID:24949554

Frithsen, Amy; Miller, Michael B

2014-08-01

299

Simplicity, consistency, universality and familiarity: applying `SCUF' principles to technology for assisted  

E-print Network

and blue) buttons of a typical television remote-control (even on devices not associated with the TV developed user interfaces situated in modified familiar home devices, specifically television sets, mobile to interact with the home environment. Human activity is monitored by an intelligent server, which we call

Davies, John N.

300

Journal of Fish Biology (1997) 50, 799808 The effect of physical condition and shoalmate familiarity on  

E-print Network

of these cells was demonstrated. Fathead minnows Pimephales promelas were maintained on high or low food rations: Pimephales promelas; condition; alarm substance cells; shoalmate familiarity; predator­prey. INTRODUCTION Fathead minnows Pimephales promelas (Rafinesque), and other members of the superorder Ostariophysi

Wisenden, Brian D.

301

Adult Age Differences in Performance on the Matching Familiar Figures Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The notion that elderly adults respond more slowly than younger adults in order to ensure accuracy was investigated. The Matching Familiar Figures Test was administered to 10 males and 10 females from each of the following age groups: 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and 70-79 years old. (Author/SS)

Denney, N. W.; List, J. A.

1979-01-01

302

Many testers are familiar with the most basic form of combinatorial testing  

E-print Network

as the standard approach to combina- torial testing because it is computationally tractable and can effectively in all failures for the applications studied, so 6-way test- ing could, in theory, detect all of the failMany testers are familiar with the most basic form of combinatorial testing ­ all pairs or pairwise

Perkins, Richard A.

303

Implicit memory and consumer choice: the mediating role of brand familiarity  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Two experiments investigated the influence of implicit memory on consumer choice for brands with varying levels of familiarity. Priming was measured using a consideration-choice task, developed by Coates, Butler and Berry (2004). Experiment 1 employed a coupon-rating task at encoding that required participants to meaningfully process individual brand names, to assess whether priming could affect participants' final (preferred) choices

Sarah L. Coates; Laurie T. Butler; Dianne C. Berry

2006-01-01

304

Aesthetic Education in the Early Years: Exploring Familiar and Unfamiliar Personal-Cultural Landscapes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores a double-bind in early schooling: a persistent value placed upon presenting multicultural art forms to a child constructed as incapable of grasping what is not familiar. The author argues that this bind is situated within dominant developmental discourses that emphasize the appropriateness of concrete and sequential…

Blank, Jolyn

2012-01-01

305

The Influence of Distracting Familiar Vocal Music on Cognitive Performance of Introverts and Extraverts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the effect of familiar musical distractors on the cognitive performance of introverts and extraverts. Participants completed a verbal, numerical and logic test in three music conditions: vocal music, instrumental music and silence. It was predicted that introverts would perform worse with vocal music, better with…

Avila, Christina; Furnham, Adrian; McClelland, Alastair

2012-01-01

306

As Stories Become Familiar: Mother-Child Conversations During Shared Reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interactions of 24-, 30-, and 36-month-old children and their mothers reading two initially unfamiliar books were observed three times over a 2-week period. Coding characterized both the content and the role of their utterances as they discussed the stories. Utterance content depended on child age but changed little with increasing story familiarity. Focus on narrative intangibles such as characters’

Duncan McArthur; Lauren B. Adamson; Deborah F. Deckner

2005-01-01

307

Perception of Gated, Highly Familiar Spoken Monosyllabic Nouns by Children with and without Learning Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A forward-gating procedure employing familiar monosyllabic words was used in auditory testing of age- and gender-matched elementary students with and without learning disabilities. Results indicate auditory closure skills were comparable between disabled and nondisabled subjects, but sensory discrimination problems may contribute significantly to…

Elliott, Lois L.; And Others

1990-01-01

308

The Effect of Creativity, Response Mode, and Subject Matter Familiarity on Achievement from Programmed Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation in programed instruction between creativity, response mode, and familiarity of the material to the subject. Creativity was defined by scores on the Remote Associations Test. The two response modes were constructing responses and simply reading them. The material, drawn from a long program…

Tobias, Sigmund

309

Cross-modal individual recognition in domestic horses (Equus caballus) extends to familiar humans.  

PubMed

It has recently been shown that some non-human animals can cross-modally recognize members of their own taxon. What is unclear is just how plastic this recognition system can be. In this study, we investigate whether an animal, the domestic horse, is capable of spontaneous cross-modal recognition of individuals from a morphologically very different species. We also provide the first insights into how cross-modal identity information is processed by examining whether there are hemispheric biases in this important social skill. In our preferential looking paradigm, subjects were presented with two people and playbacks of their voices to determine whether they were able to match the voice with the person. When presented with familiar handlers subjects could match the specific familiar person with the correct familiar voice. Horses were significantly better at performing the matching task when the congruent person was standing on their right, indicating marked hemispheric specialization (left hemisphere bias) in this ability. These results are the first to demonstrate that cross-modal recognition in animals can extend to individuals from phylogenetically very distant species. They also indicate that processes governed by the left hemisphere are central to the cross-modal matching of visual and auditory information from familiar individuals in a naturalistic setting. PMID:22593108

Proops, Leanne; McComb, Karen

2012-08-22

310

Beyond the Memory Mechanism: Person-selective and Nonselective Processes in Recognition of Personally Familiar Faces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Special processes recruited during the recognition of personally familiar people have been assumed to reflect the rich episodic and semantic information that selectively represents each person. However, the processes may also include person nonselective ones, which may require interpretation in terms beyond the memory mechanism. To examine this possibility, we assessed decrease in differential activation during the second presentation of

Motoaki Sugiura; Yoko Mano; Akihiro Sasaki; Norihiro Sadato

2011-01-01

311

Individual differences in forced-choice recognition memory: Partitioning contributions of recollection and familiarity.  

PubMed

In forced-choice recognition memory, two different testing formats are possible under conditions of high target-foil similarity: Each target can be presented alongside foils similar to itself (forced-choice corresponding; FCC), or alongside foils similar to other targets (forced-choice noncorresponding; FCNC). Recent behavioural and neuropsychological studies suggest that FCC performance can be supported by familiarity whereas FCNC performance is supported primarily by recollection. In this paper, we corroborate this finding from an individual differences perspective. A group of older adults were given a test of FCC and FCNC recognition for object pictures, as well as standardized tests of recall, recognition, and IQ. Recall measures were found to predict FCNC, but not FCC performance, consistent with a critical role for recollection in FCNC only. After the common influence of recall was removed, standardized tests of recognition predicted FCC, but not FCNC performance. This is consistent with a contribution of only familiarity in FCC. Simulations show that a two-process model, where familiarity and recollection make separate contributions to recognition, is 10 times more likely to give these results than a single-process model. This evidence highlights the importance of recognition memory test design when examining the involvement of recollection and familiarity. PMID:24796268

Migo, Ellen M; Quamme, Joel R; Holmes, Selina; Bendell, Andrew; Norman, Kenneth A; Mayes, Andrew R; Montaldi, Daniela

2014-11-01

312

Differential effects of aging on the neural correlates of recollection and familiarity.  

PubMed

The present experiment aimed to investigate age differences in the neural correlates of familiarity and recollection, while keeping performance similar across age groups by varying task difficulty. Twenty young and 20 older adults performed an episodic memory task in an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) design. At encoding, participants were presented with pictures, either once or twice. Then, they performed a recognition task, with a Remember/Know paradigm. A similar performance was observed for the two groups in the Easy condition for recollection and in the Hard condition for familiarity. Imaging data revealed the classic recollection-related and familiarity-related networks, common to young and older groups. In addition, we observed that some activity related to recollection (left frontal, left temporal, left parietal cortices and left parahippocampus) and familiarity (bilateral anterior cingulate, right frontal gyrus and left superior temporal gyrus) was reduced in older compared to young adults. However, for recollection processes only, older adults additionally recruited the right precuneus, possibly to successfully compensate for their difficulties, as suggested by a positive correlation between recollection and precuneus activity. PMID:23206530

Angel, Lucie; Bastin, Christine; Genon, Sarah; Balteau, Evelyne; Phillips, Christophe; Luxen, André; Maquet, Pierre; Salmon, Eric; Collette, Fabienne

2013-06-01

313

Topic Familiarity and Interlanguage Variation: A Study of the Impact of Interactional Feedback  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the results of a study investigating the impact of interactional feedback on interlanguage variation in terms of accuracy, complexity, and fluency of learners' discourse in performing tasks with familiar vs. unfamiliar topics. The participant of the study who were randomly assigned into an experimental and a control group were…

Rahimpour, Massoud; Hazar, Fatemeh

2009-01-01

314

Technology shapes every facet of modern life. Familiarity with the characteristics,  

E-print Network

Technology shapes every facet of modern life. Familiarity with the characteristics, capabilities, and limitations of current and emerging technologies is indispen- sable to wise and effective decisions and address the problems that technology often presents. Technologi- cal developments are indeed re

Ge, Qiaode Jeff

315

Anxious Solitude across Contexts: Girls' Interactions with Familiar and Unfamiliar Peers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cross-situational continuity and change in anxious solitary girls' behavior and peer relations were examined in interactions with familiar versus unfamiliar playmates. Fourth-grade girls (N=209, M age 9.77 years, half African American, half European American) were identified as anxious solitary or behaviorally normative using observed and…

Gazelle, Heidi; Putallaz, Martha; Li, Yan; Grimes, Christina L.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.; Coie, John D.

2005-01-01

316

Familiarity effects in the construction of facial-composite images using modern software systems.  

PubMed

We investigate the effect of target familiarity on the construction of facial composites, as used by law enforcement to locate criminal suspects. Two popular software construction methods were investigated. Participants were shown a target face that was either familiar or unfamiliar to them and constructed a composite of it from memory using a typical 'feature' system, involving selection of individual facial features, or one of the newer 'holistic' types, involving repeated selection and breeding from arrays of whole faces. This study found that composites constructed of a familiar face were named more successfully than composites of an unfamiliar face; also, naming of composites of internal and external features was equivalent for construction of unfamiliar targets, but internal features were better named than the external features for familiar targets. These findings applied to both systems, although benefit emerged for the holistic type due to more accurate construction of internal features and evidence for a whole-face advantage. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This work is of relevance to practitioners who construct facial composites with witnesses to and victims of crime, as well as for software designers to help them improve the effectiveness of their composite systems. PMID:22103723

Frowd, Charlie D; Skelton, Faye C; Butt, Neelam; Hassan, Amal; Fields, Stephen; Hancock, Peter J B

2011-12-01

317

Effects of Familiarity and Type of Encoding on Proofreading of Text  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A handful of studies have claimed that error detection is improved by a proofreader's prior encounter with the text to be scanned for errors. In these studies, however, the beneficial effect of text familiarity on proofreading has been obtained via surface encoding tasks (prior reading or proofreading). This raises the question of whether the…

Pilott, Maura; Chodorow, Martin; Thornton, Kendell C.

2005-01-01

318

The effect of implied harmony, contour and musical expertise on judgments of similarity of familiar melodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to Western music theory, familiar melodies containing alterations which shift them a long distance (harmonically) from the original should be considered perceptually dissimilar relative to the original. It is possible to obtain such a large shift with a small change in melodic pitch. However, this creates a paradox with pitch (contour) shifting, which is known to reduce similarity minimally

Emery Schubert; Catherine Stevens

2006-01-01

319

Picture book selection behaviors of emergent readers: Influence of genre, familiarity, and book attributes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical studies with school?aged children have led to assumptions that emergent readers do not have specific reading preferences or demonstrate patterns in their book selections. This study was designed to determine whether emergent readers demonstrate reading preferences based upon genre, familiarity and four other book attributes. Over a seven?week period, 53 preschoolers and 49 kindergartners from two socioeconomic levels were

Clyde C. Robinson; Jean M. Larsen; Julia H. Haupt; Jeannette Mohlman

1997-01-01

320

The Role of Familiarity in Daily Well-Being: Developmental and Cultural Variation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined life stage and cultural differences in the degree to which familiarity of one's physical location and interaction partner is associated with daily well-being. Participants reported all the activities they engaged in and how they felt during these activities on a previous day using the Day Reconstruction Method (Kahneman,…

Oishi, Shigehiro; Kurtz, Jaime L.; Miao, Felicity F.; Park, Jina; Whitchurch, Erin

2011-01-01

321

The Influence of Second Language Experience and Accent Familiarity on Oral Proficiency Rating: A Qualitative Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates whether raters' knowledge of test takers' first language (L1) affects how the raters orient themselves to the task of rating oral speech. The authors qualitatively investigated the effects of accent familiarity on raters' score assignment processes. Twenty-six trained raters with a second language of Mandarin…

Winke, Paula; Gass, Susan

2013-01-01

322

Planning in the Real World: Preschool Children's Scripts and Plans for Familiar Events.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines preschool children's ability for advance planning and mishap prevention or remediation related to familiar events. Indicates that children three to five years old appear to use general event knowledge in constructing verbal plans. However, developmental differences in the quality of plans suggests that the ability of using general…

Hudson, Judith A.; And Others

1995-01-01

323

Users’ familiar situational contexts facilitate the practice of EFL in elementary schools with mobile devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is beneficial for students to experience situational learning, especially for English as a foreign language (EFL) learning. Providing more listening and speaking opportunities could help EFL students with English learning. Our research proposes a listening and speaking practice system employing personal digital assistants (PDAs) for situated learning using contexts with which students would be familiar. The proposed system attempts

Wu-Yuin Hwang; Holly S. L. Chen

2011-01-01

324

Effects of Presentation Mode and Computer Familiarity on Summarization of Extended Texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparability studies on computer- and paper-based reading tests have focused on short texts and selected-response items via almost exclusively statistical modeling of test performance. The psychological effects of presentation mode and computer familiarity on individual students are underresearched. In this study, 157 students read extended English texts, presented on computer or in print, and then wrote summaries on paper in

Guoxing Yu

2010-01-01

325

Song Recognition without Identification: When People Cannot "Name that Tune" but Can Recognize It as Familiar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognition without identification (RWI) is a common day-to-day experience (as when recognizing a face or a tune as familiar without being able to identify the person or the song). It is also a well-established laboratory-based empirical phenomenon: When identification of recognition test items is prevented, participants can discriminate between…

Kostic, Bogdan; Cleary, Anne M.

2009-01-01

326

Consequences of consumer trust in PDO food products: the role of familiarity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This research proposes studying how the moderating role of consumers' familiarity with a food product with a protected denomination of origin (PDO) influences consumer behavior. Past research has ascertained that consumers confuse different brands and PDOs. For this reason, it is important to analyze whether the level of consumers' experience with PDO food products influences their decisions. Design\\/methodology\\/approach

Carmina Fandos Herrera; Carlos Flavián Blanco

2011-01-01

327

Listen to Your Mother!: The Role of Talker Familiarity in Infant Streaming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little is known about the acoustic cues infants might use to selectively attend to one talker in the presence of background noise. This study examined the role of talker familiarity as a possible cue. Infants either heard their own mothers (maternal-voice condition) or a different infant's mother (novel-voice condition) repeating isolated words…

Barker, Brittan A.; Newman, Rochelle S.

2004-01-01

328

Effects of Interlocutor Familiarity on Second Language Learning in Group Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research in second language acquisition has focused on the effects of group work on learning by examining various factors (i.e., motivation, age, task, gender differences, etc.). One particular factor that has not been heavily investigated is interlocutor familiarity, which is at the forefront of the present study. Two separate classes (in…

Poteau, Christine E.

2011-01-01

329

Diurnal Cortisol Profile in Williams Syndrome in Novel and Familiar Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder associated with high rates of anxiety and social issues. We examined diurnal cortisol, a biomarker of the stress response, in adults with WS in novel and familiar settings, and compared these profiles to typically developing (TD) adults. WS and TD participants had similar profiles in…

Lense, Miriam Diane; Tomarken, Andrew J.; Dykens, Elisabeth M.

2013-01-01

330

Down Syndrome and Automatic Processing of Familiar and Unfamiliar Emotional Faces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participants with Down syndrome (DS) were required to participate in a face recognition experiment to recognize familiar (DS faces) and unfamiliar emotional faces (non DS faces), by using an affective priming paradigm. Pairs of emotional facial stimuli were presented (one face after another) with a short Stimulus Onset Asynchrony of 300…

Morales, Guadalupe E.; Lopez, Ernesto O.

2010-01-01

331

Effects of communication apprehension, familiarity of partner, and topic on selected “women's language” features  

Microsoft Academic Search

In keeping with Lakoff's (1975) notion that the use of “women's language” (WL) conveys uncertainty on the part of the speaker, the influence of communication apprehension, familiarity of partner, and topic on the use of selected WL forms was investigated. In dyadic conversation with a female friend or stranger, 71 female university students, who had completed the Personal Report of

Linda M. McMullen; Deborah D. Pasloski

1992-01-01

332

Familiarizing Students with the Empirically Supported Treatment Approaches for Substance Abuse Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When training counseling students, it is important to familiarize them with the clinical research literature exploring the efficacy of particular treatments. The bulk of the document is comprised of a review of empirically supported treatments (ESTs). ESTs or evidence-based treatments are grounded in studies recommended by the American…

Wilkins, Victoria; Chambliss, Catherine

333

Kinship, familiarity and social status modulate social learning about “micropredators” (biting flies) in deer mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animals can learn to recognize and respond to dangerous, threatening factors through either individual or social learning, whereby an individual learns and acquires the defensive behaviors and avoidance responses of another. Here we show that kinship, familiarity, and relative dominance of the interacting individuals affect social learning of defensive responses to “micropredators” in deer mice, Peromyscus maniculatus. Brief exposure of

Martin Kavaliers; Douglas D. Colwell; Elena Choleris

2005-01-01

334

Familiarity with and Advocacy of Healthy People 2010 Goals by Mississippi Chiropractic Association Members  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the familiarity with and stated advocacy of Healthy People 2010 objectives by member doctors of the Mississippi Chiropractic Association (MCA).Methods: Peer experts established face validity of a questionnaire regarding the Leading Health Indicators. This survey was distributed to 157 MCA members in 2009 during a conference and a follow up by

Robert A. Leach; Ronald E. Cossman; Joyce M. Yates

335

Electroencephalogram and Heart Rate Regulation to Familiar and Unfamiliar People in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few studies have examined whether familiarity of partner affects social responses in children with autism. This study investigated heart rate regulation (respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA]: The myelinated vagus nerve's regulation of heart rate) and temporal-parietal electroencephalogram (EEG) activity while nineteen 8- to 12-year-old children with…

Van Hecke, Amy Vaughan; Lebow, Jocelyn; Bal, Elgiz; Lamb, Damon; Harden, Emily; Kramer, Alexis; Denver, John; Bazhenova, Olga; Porges, Stephen W.

2009-01-01

336

Proceedings of the ICIP 2001, Oct. 2001 Thessaloniki, Greece VISUAL PERCEPTION IN FAMILIAR, COMPLEX TASKS  

E-print Network

while they performed the familiar, complex task of hand-washing. Analysis revealed a novel perceptual in the hand-washing task, their frequency fell to less than 1% in a control experiment. We propose significant overt attentional resources. Perhaps a less obvious example is hand-washing. The ease with which

Pelz, Jeff

337

Mathematical induction (Weak) mathematical induction (which you are probably already familiar with)  

E-print Network

Mathematical induction (Weak) mathematical induction (which you are probably already familiar with) is a special case of structural induction. Consider the inductive definition of a set S of integers, as follows: I Basis: n0 2 S. I Induction: If n 2 S, then so is n + 1. Then, to prove P(n) for all n 2 S, it su

Turner, Hudson

338

Mathematical induction (Weak) mathematical induction (which you are probably already familiar with)  

E-print Network

Mathematical induction (Weak) mathematical induction (which you are probably already familiar with) is a special case of structural induction. Consider the inductive definition of a set S of integers, as follows: Basis: n0 S. Induction: If n S, then so is n + 1. Then, to prove P(n) for all n S, it suffices

Dunham, Doug

339

Examining the impact of familiarity on faucet usability for older adults with dementia  

PubMed Central

Background Changes in cognition caused by dementia can significantly alter how a person perceives familiarity, impacting the recognition and usability of everyday products. A person who is unable to use products cannot autonomously complete associated activities, resulting in increased dependence on a caregiver and potential move to assisted living facilities. The research presented in this paper hypothesised that products that are more familiar will result in better usability for older adults with dementia. Better product usability could, in turn, potentially support independence and autonomy. Methods This research investigated the impact of familiarity on the use of five faucet designs during 1309 handwashing trials by 27 older adults, who ranged from cognitively intact to the advanced (severe) stages of dementia. Human factors methods were used to collect empirical and self-reported data to gauge faucets’ usability. Participants’ data were grouped according to cognition (i.e., no/mild, moderate, or severe dementia). Logistic regression, ranking by odds, and Wald tests of odds ratios were used to compare performance of the three groups on the different faucets. Qualitative data were used in the interpretation of quantitative results. Results Results indicated that more familiar faucets correlated with lower levels of assistance from a caregiver, fewer operational errors, and greater levels of operator satisfaction. Aspects such as the ability to control water temperature and flow as well as pleasing aesthetics appeared to positively impact participants’ acceptance of a faucet. The dual lever design achieved the best overall usability. Conclusions While work must be done to expand these findings to other products and tasks, this research provides evidence that familiarity plays a substantial role in product usability for older adults that appears to become more influential as dementia progresses. The methods used in this research could be adapted to analyse usability for other products by older adults with dementia. PMID:23786533

2013-01-01

340

Neural Correlates of Metaphor Processing: The Roles of Figurativeness, Familiarity and Difficulty  

PubMed Central

There is currently much interest in investigating the neural substrates of metaphor processing. In particular, it has been suggested that the right hemisphere plays a special role in the comprehension of figurative (non-literal) language, and in particular metaphors. However, some studies find no evidence of right hemisphere involvement in metaphor comprehension (e.g. Lee & Dapretto, 2006; Rapp et al., 2004). We suggest that lateralization differences between literal and metaphorical language may be due to factors such as differences in familiarity (Schmidt et al., 2007), or difficulty (Bookheimer, 2002; Rapp et al., 2004) in addition to figurativeness. The purpose of this study was to separate the effects of figurativeness, familiarity, and difficulty on the recruitment of neural systems involved in language, in particular right hemisphere mechanisms. This was achieved by comparing neural activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) between four conditions: literal sentences, familiar and easy to understand metaphors, unfamiliar and easy to understand metaphors, and unfamiliar and difficult to understand metaphors. Metaphors recruited the right insula, left temporal pole and right inferior frontal gyrus in comparison with literal sentences. Familiar metaphors recruited the right middle frontal gyrus when contrasted with unfamiliar metaphors. Easy metaphors showed higher activation in the left middle frontal gyrus as compared to difficult metaphors, while difficult metaphors showed selective activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus as compared to easy metaphors. We conclude that the right hemisphere is involved in metaphor processing and that the factors of figurativeness, familiarity and difficulty are important in determining neural recruitment of semantic processing. PMID:19586700

Schmidt, Gwenda L.; Seger, Carol A.

2009-01-01

341

Familiarity of medical residents at Kerman Medical University with evidence based medicine databases  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Using Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) in clinical practice is an important strategy for improving and updating medical services. Therefore, EBM has recently attracted a lot of attention in many medical schools around the world. In this study we tried to evaluate the familiarity of clinical residents who are one of the main clinical decision makers in public hospitals and also the next generation of specialists with EBM and EBM databases. METHODS: This was a cross–sectional study in 2010 in which clinical residents of Kerman Medical University (KMU) participated. Residents were asked about the four main EBM databases. The data was collected by a self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: The data showed that from the respondents only 26.6% knew about EBM and only 28.7% of the respondents were familiar with “Up to Date”, 22.3% were familiar with “Ovid EBM Reviews”, 6.4% were familiar with “Cochrane” and 5.3% were familiar with “BMJ Clinical Evidence”. The frequencies of those that actually used the databases for clinical decision making and could answer the search questions were even less. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed most of the residents lack sufficient knowledge about EBM and its databases. The reason is probably the inexistence of a systematic and comprehensive curriculum for EBM education during their residency program or undergraduate program. Thus, due to the importance of learning EBM in this group, there is a necessity to plan a comprehensive and proper education schedule for EBM and EBM database use at the beginning or further stages of residency. PMID:22973334

Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Khanjani, Narges; Motamedi, Fatemeh; Saber, Maryam; Rad, Gholamreza Sharifi

2011-01-01

342

Mechanisms of Visual Object Recognition in Infancy: Five-Month-Olds Generalize beyond the Interpolation of Familiar Views  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This work examined predictions of the interpolation of familiar views (IFV) account of object recognition performance in 5-month-olds. Infants were familiarized to an object either from a single viewpoint or from multiple viewpoints varying in rotation around a single axis. Object recognition was then tested in both conditions with the same object…

Mash, Clay; Arterberry, Martha E.; Bornstein, Marc H.

2007-01-01

343

Long-Term Retention in 3.5-Month-Olds: Familiarization Time and Individual Differences in Attentional Style.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined effect of familiarization on 3.5-month-olds' retention of visual stimuli with varying delay times. Found support for retention models in which direction of attentional preferences (novel, familiar, or null) depends on memory accessibility. Short lookers showed better retention over time than long lookers, indicating that much of the…

Courage, Mary L.; Howe, Mark L.

2001-01-01

344

Deja Vu in Unilateral Temporal-Lobe Epilepsy Is Associated with Selective Familiarity Impairments on Experimental Tasks of Recognition Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In deja vu, a phenomenological impression of familiarity for the current visual environment is experienced with a sense that it should in fact not feel familiar. The fleeting nature of this phenomenon in daily life, and the difficulty in developing experimental paradigms to elicit it, has hindered progress in understanding deja vu. Some…

Martin, Chris B.; Mirsattari, Seyed M.; Pruessner, Jens C.; Pietrantonio, Sandra; Burneo, Jorge G.; Hayman-Abello, Brent; Kohler, Stefan

2012-01-01

345

Familiarity and Recollection Produce Distinct Eye Movement, Pupil and Medial Temporal Lobe Responses when Memory Strength Is Matched  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments explored eye measures (fixations and pupil response patterns) and brain responses (BOLD) accompanying the recognition of visual object stimuli based on familiarity and recollection. In both experiments, the use of a modified remember/know procedure led to high confidence and matched accuracy levels characterising strong familiarity…

Kafkas, Alexandros; Montaldi, Daniela

2012-01-01

346

Human-animal relationships in zoo-housed orangutans (P. abelii) and gorillas (G. g. gorilla): The effects of familiarity.  

PubMed

I examined human-animal relationships (HARs) in zoo-housed orangutans (Pongo abelii) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) to see if they followed patterns similar to conspecific relationships in great apes and humans. Familiarity and social relationships guide humans' and great apes' behaviors with conspecifics. Inter-individual relationships, based on shared social history, and "generalized" relationships, based on a history of interactions with relevant classes of individuals, guide behavior with familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics, respectively. I examined whether both familiarity and social relationships similarly guides great apes' cross-species interactions with humans. I used repeated measures MANOVA to compare hourly rates and average durations of ape-initiated human-directed behaviors (HDBs) between familiar and unfamiliar humans and between great ape species. HDB patterns were consistent with familiarity-based HAR predictions, indicating more negative relationships with unfamiliar humans and more positive relationships with familiar humans. Findings for unfamiliar humans are consistent with negative effects of humans on apes' behavior reported in traditional visitor effect studies (VES). However, findings for familiar humans may be overlooked in VES due to pooling across levels of human familiarity or failure to consider humans other than primarily unfamiliar visitors. Additionally, species differences in apes' HDBs suggest that data pooling across species, common in many zoo studies, may mask important differences. These findings have important methodological implications for studies of human-animal interaction as well as for captive animal wellbeing. Am. J. Primatol. 76:942-955, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24687450

Smith, Joshua J

2014-10-01

347

Many Roads Lead to Recognition: Electrophysiological Correlates of Familiarity Derived from Short-Term Masked Repetition Priming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The neural mechanisms that underlie familiarity memory have been extensively investigated, but a consensus understanding remains elusive. Behavioral evidence suggests that familiarity sometimes shares sources with instances of implicit memory known as priming, in that the same increases in processing fluency that give rise to priming can engender…

Lucas, Heather D.; Taylor, Jason R.; Henson, Richard N.; Paller, Ken A.

2012-01-01

348

Familiar Verbs Are Not Always Easier than Novel Verbs: How German Pre-School Children Comprehend Active and Passive Sentences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many studies show a developmental advantage for transitive sentences with familiar verbs over those with novel verbs. It might be that once familiar verbs become entrenched in particular constructions, they would be more difficult to understand (than would novel verbs) in non-prototypical constructions. We provide support for this hypothesis…

Dittmar, Miriam; Abbot-Smith, Kirsten; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

2014-01-01

349

Familiarity, Cued and Free Odor Identification and Their Association with Cognitive Functioning in Middle Aged and Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to examine the association between familiarity of odors, cued and free odor identification performance and cognitive function in elderly adults. It was further investigated how age affects performance on the various odor tasks. A third aim was to investigate the role of familiarity in explaining performance on the free identification task. One hundred

Eike Ines Wehling; Steven Nordin; Thomas Espeseth; Ivar Reinvang; Astri J. Lundervold

2010-01-01

350

The Influence of Job Familiarity and Impression Management on Self-Report Measure Scale Scores and Response Latencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies were conducted to examine the effects of job familiarity and impression management on response latencies and scale scores for measures of personality and situational judgment. In a laboratory study using university students and a field study using U.S. Border Patrol Agent applicants, impression management was generally associated with faster personality item responses when job familiarity was high and

Nicholas L. Vasilopoulos; Richard R. Reilly; Julia A. Leaman

2000-01-01

351

Peer Exclusion Is Linked to Inhibition with Familiar but Not Unfamiliar Peers at Two Years of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the extent that inhibition among familiar peers was related to inhibition among unfamiliar peers versus exclusion by familiar peers at 2?years of age. Peer inhibition at 2?years of age was assessed by both mothers and teachers on versions of the Behavioral Inhibition Questionnaire and the Preschool Play Behavior Scale (N?=?141…

Gazelle, Heidi; Faldowski, Richard A.

2014-01-01

352

Reactivity to fearful expressions of familiar and unfamiliar people in children with autism: an eye-tracking pupillometry study  

PubMed Central

Background Individuals with autism are often reported to have difficulty with emotion processing. However, clinical and experimental data show that they are sensitive to familiarity; for example, they show normative attachment to familiar people, and have normative brain activity in response to familiar faces. To date, no study has measured their reactivity to the emotions of familiar vs. unfamiliar people. Thus, our aim was to determine whether individuals with autism would show normative reactivity to emotion in familiar people. Methods Participants were 21 children with autism and 21 children with typical development, aged two to five years, matched on age and gender. The children observed videos of familiar people (their child-care teachers) and unfamiliar people expressing fear, whilst their visual attention and pupillary reactions were recorded (the latter as an index of emotional reactivity), using eye tracking technology. Results The children with autism showed normative pupillary reactions (peak magnitude) to fear expressed by familiar people, but a reduced response to fear expressed by unfamiliar people. However, across familiarity conditions, the children with autism had longer latency peak responses than the typically developing children. This pattern of findings was independent of cognitive factors or visual attention as visual attention by group was not related to familiarity condition. The children with autism had reduced visual attention to neutral faces; however, on fearful faces there were no group differences. Abnormalities in pupillary reactivity in the autism group were related to less prosocial behaviour and more severe play and communication deficits. Conclusions Children with autism were less atypical in their responses to fearful expressions of people they know, arguing against a pervasive emotional impairment in autism, but rather one that may be mediated by familiarity. PMID:24982695

2014-01-01

353

Reactions to familiar and novel objects in infant monkeys with neonatal temporal lesions.  

PubMed

Adult monkeys with late temporal lobe damage are known to touch and mouth objects compulsively, even unknown objects. To determine whether infants with early temporal damage display this symptom as well, 9-month-old rhesus monkeys with neonatal ablations of either the medial temporal lobe or inferior temporal cortex were exposed to four objects, two familiar and two novel. All operated infants were less active/more withdrawn than controls and showed neither exaggerated object manipulation nor hyperorality. Furthermore, like controls, they touched novel objects less than they touched familiar ones. Thus, infants with neonatal medial or inferior temporal ablations did not display the compulsive exploration evidenced after similar lesions in adulthood and retained some ability to detect novelty despite their known memory impairments. PMID:12848121

Meunier, Martine; Nalwa, Vanit; Bachevalier, Jocelyne

2003-01-01

354

Familiarity with School English in African American children and its relation to early reading achievement.  

PubMed

For children whose everyday speech differs greatly from the School English (SE) they encounter in academic materials and settings, it was hypothesized that greater familiarity with SE would be associated with more successful early reading acquisition. Sentence imitation and reading skills of 217 urban African American students in kindergarten through second grade (ages 5 to 8 years) were assessed. Children in each grade varied widely in the extent to which their imitations of SE sentences included phonological and grammatical forms that are acceptable in African American Vernacular English but not in SE. Higher familiarity with SE (reproducing SE features more often when imitating) was associated with better reading achievement, and these relationships were independent of memory ability. PMID:15369518

Charity, Anne H; Scarborough, Hollis S; Griffin, Darion M

2004-01-01

355

Aging Effects on Recollection and Familiarity: The Role of White Matter Hyperintensities  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have indicated that aging is associated with declines in recollection whereas familiarity-based recognition is left largely unaffected. The brain changes underlying these recollection declines are yet not well understood. In the current study we examined the role of white matter integrity as measured by white matter hyperintensities (WMH) on age-related changes in recollection and familiarity. Recognition was measured using a remember/know procedure (Experiment 1) and a source-memory process-dissociation procedure (Experiment 2). Robust age related declines in recollection were observed, but there was no evidence that white matter damage was related to the observed memory declines. Although future studies with larger samples will be necessary to fully characterize the role of WMH in normal age-related declines in different types of memory, the results suggest that declines in recollection are not strongly related to the brain changes indexed by WMHs. PMID:20175007

Parks, Colleen M.; Decarli, Charles; Jacoby, Larry L.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.

2010-01-01

356

The Peer Model Advantage in Infants' Imitation of Familiar Gestures Performed by Differently Aged Models  

PubMed Central

Infants’ imitation of differently aged models has been predominately investigated with object-related actions and so far has lead to mixed evidence. Whereas some studies reported an increased likelihood of imitating peer models in contrast to adult models, other studies reported the opposite pattern of results. In the present study, 14-month-old infants were presented with four familiar gestures (e.g., clapping) that were demonstrated by differently aged televised models (peer, older child, adult). Results revealed that infants were more likely to imitate the peer model than the older child or the adult. This result is discussed with respect to a social function of imitation and the mechanism of imitating familiar behavior. PMID:22833732

Zmyj, Norbert; Aschersleben, Gisa; Prinz, Wolfgang; Daum, Moritz

2012-01-01

357

THE IMPACT OF LEFT HEMISPHERE STROKE ON FORCE CONTROL WITH FAMILIAR AND NOVEL OBJECTS: NEUROANATOMIC SUBSTRATES AND RELATIONSHIP TO APRAXIA  

PubMed Central

Fingertip force scaling for lifting objects frequently occurs in anticipation of finger contact. An ongoing question concerns the types of memories that are used to inform predictive control. Object-specific information such as weight may be stored and retrieved when previously encountered objects are lifted again. Alternatively, visual size and shape cues may provide estimates of object density each time objects are encountered. We reasoned that differences in performance with familiar versus novel objects would provide support for the former possibility. Anticipatory force production with both familiar and novel objects was assessed in 6 left hemisphere stroke patients, 2 of whom exhibited deficient actions with familiar objects (ideomotor apraxia; IMA), along with 5 control subjects. In contrast to healthy controls and stroke participants without IMA, participants with IMA displayed poor anticipatory scaling with familiar objects. However, like the other groups, IMA participants learned to differentiate fingertip forces with repeated lifts of both familiar and novel objects. Finally, there was a significant correlation between damage to the inferior parietal and superior and middle temporal lobes, and impaired anticipatory control for familiar objects. These data support the hypotheses that anticipatory control during lifts of familiar objects in IMA patients are based on object-specific memories, and that the ventro-dorsal stream is involved in the long-term storage of internal models used for anticipatory scaling during object manipulation. PMID:19945445

Dawson, Amanda M.; Buxbaum, Laurel J.; Duff, Susan V.

2010-01-01

358

Social Familiarity Reduces Reaction Times and Enhances Survival of Group-Living Predatory Mites under the Risk of Predation  

PubMed Central

Background Social familiarity, which is based on the ability to recognise familiar conspecific individuals following prior association, may affect all major life activities of group-living animals such as foraging, reproduction and anti-predator behaviours. A scarcely experimentally tested explanation why social familiarity is beneficial for group-living animals is provided by limited attention theory. Limited attention theory postulates that focusing on a given task, such as inspection and assessment of unfamiliar group members, has cognitive and associated physiological and behavioural costs with respect to the attention paid to other tasks, such as anti-predator vigilance and response. Accordingly, we hypothesised that social familiarity enhances the anti-predator success of group-living predatory mites, Phytoseiulus persimilis, confronted with an intraguild predator, the predatory mite Amblyseius andersoni. Methodology/Principal Findings We videotaped and analysed the response of two P. persimilis larvae, held in familiar or unfamiliar pairs, to attacks by a gravid A. andersoni female, using the behavioural analyses software EthoVision Pro®. Familiar larvae were more frequently close together, reacted more quickly to predator attacks, survived more predator encounters and survived longer than unfamiliar larvae. Significance In line with the predictions of limited attention theory, we suggest that social familiarity improves anti-predator behaviours because it allows prey to shift attention to other tasks rather than group member assessment. PMID:22927997

Strodl, Markus Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

2012-01-01

359

Familiarity is more important than phenotypic similarity in shaping social relationships in a facultative female dispersed primate, Colobus vellerosus.  

PubMed

Animals often bias affiliative behaviors toward kin, but it is unclear what mechanism most species use to discriminate kin. We investigated if facultative dispersed female primates use phenotype matching and/or familiarity to discriminate female kin. We studied 38 adult female Colobus vellerosus at Boabeng-Fiema, Ghana. We determined dyadic co-residency status and age proximity using long-term demographic data, R-values from 17 short tandem repeat loci, and interaction rates using focal samples collected during one year. Approach rates were not strongly affected by how long females had resided together, which contrasts to the familiarity hypothesis. Females approached and groomed maternal kin more than other females, which supports the mother-mediated familiarity hypothesis. Females did not discriminate paternal half siblings from non-kin, and they did not prefer to interact with females of similar age. Short-term co-resident kin did not bias affiliation toward each other, indicating that female colobus cannot consistently recognize less familiar kin via phenotype matching or that biasing behaviors toward less familiar kin is not beneficial. Despite showing facultative dispersal that may reduce the accuracy of using familiarity as a kin recognition mechanism, female choice of social partners was based on familiarity, which conforms to the pattern observed in many female philopatric primates. PMID:24747067

Wikberg, Eva C; Ting, Nelson; Sicotte, Pascale

2014-07-01

360

Perirhinal cortex lesions uncover subsidiary systems in the rat for the detection of novel and familiar objects  

PubMed Central

The present study compared the impact of perirhinal cortex lesions on tests of object recognition. Object recognition was tested directly by looking at the preferential exploration of novel objects over simultaneously presented familiar objects. Object recognition was also tested indirectly by presenting just novel objects or just familiar objects, and recording exploration levels. Rats with perirhinal cortex lesions were severely impaired at discriminating a novel object from a simultaneously presented familiar object (direct test), yet displayed normal levels of exploration to novel objects presented on their own and showed normal declines in exploration times for familiar objects that were repeatedly presented (indirect tests). This effective reduction in the exploration of familiar objects after perirhinal cortex lesions points to the sparing of some recognition mechanisms. This possibility led us to determine whether rats with perirhinal cortex lesions can overcome their preferential exploration deficits when given multiple object familiarisation trials prior to that same (familiar) object being paired with a novel object. It was found that after multiple familiarisation trials, objects could now successfully be recognised as familiar by rats with perirhinal cortex lesions, both following a 90-min delay (the longest delay tested) and when object recognition was tested in the dark after familiarisation trials in the light. These latter findings reveal: (i) the presumed recruitment of other regions to solve recognition memory problems in the absence of perirhinal cortex tissue; and (ii) that these additional recognition mechanisms require more familiarisation trials than perirhinal-based recognition mechanisms. PMID:21707792

Albasser, Mathieu M; Amin, Eman; Iordanova, Mihaela D; Brown, Malcolm W; Pearce, John M; Aggleton, John P

2011-01-01

361

The role of familiarity in olfactory discrimination, extinction, and a reversal of training conditions  

E-print Network

& Payne, 1974) . Although reward/non-reward odors may be serving as discriminative cues it is not known whether these cues function in the same manner if the odor recipient is "familiar" or "alien" with respect to the odor donor or vice versa. Schultz... & Tapp (1973) have suggested that the functional use of ol faction by rodents mi ght be better understood by rigorously ex- amining normal behaviors in natural social contexts rather than loosely selected odorants and Krames & Shaw (1973) demonstrated...

Matheny, Jimmy Lee

2012-06-07

362

STS-54 MS1 Runco participates in camera familiarization in JSC's CCT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-54 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, Mission Specialist 1 (MS1) Mario Runco, Jr holds a CANNON video camcorder on the middeck of JSC's Crew Compartment Trainer (CCT) during a camera familiarization session. Runco is seated on a stowed mission specialist seat in front of the forward middeck lockers as he contemplates how to best capture the subject (activity). The CCT is located in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9NE.

1992-01-01

363

Detecting personal familiarity depends on static frames in "thin slices" of behavior.  

PubMed

Brief glimpses of nonverbal behavior (or "thin slices") offer ample visual information to make reliable judgments about individuals. Previous work has largely focused on the personality characteristics and traits of individuals; however, the nature of dyadic relationships (strangers, lovers, or friends) can also be determined (Ambady & Gray, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 947-961 2002). Judgments from thin slices are known to be accurate, but the motion features supporting accurate performance are unknown. We explored whether personal familiarity was detectable within the context of "thin slices" of genuine interaction, as well as the invariant properties of thin-slice recognition. In two experiments, participants sequentially viewed two 6-s silent videos on each trial of an individual interacting with an unfamiliar partner; the other depicted the same person interacting with a personally familiar partner. All sequences were cropped so that only the target individual was visible. In Experiment 1, participants viewed either the original sequences, reversed sequences, a static-image "slideshow" of the sequence, or a static-image slideshow with blank frames separating the images. In Experiment 2, all participants viewed the original sequences and clips played at either double speed or half speed. Participants' performance was above chance in the forward and reverse conditions, but was significantly better in both the static-image slideshow conditions. When task speed was manipulated, we found a larger performance cost for fast than for slow videos. Detecting personal familiarity via spontaneous natural gestures depends on information in static images more than on face or body movement. Although static images are typically less important for recognizing nonverbal behavior, we argue they may be valuable for making familiarity judgments from thin slices. PMID:24683099

Saville, Alyson; Balas, Benjamin

2014-12-01

364

Familiar group singing: Addressing mood and social behaviour of residents with dementia displaying sundowning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the effects of a Music Therapy (MT) intervention adopting familiar group singing during sundowning, a period of disorientation and\\/or agitation in the evening hours (Cohen-Mansfield, Garfinkel, & Lipson, 2000), to address the negative mood and non-social behaviour observed in residents diagnosed with dementia. A music therapist, over four consecutive days in the late afternoon, engaged four female

Barnetta Lesta; Peter Petocz

2006-01-01

365

Response speeding mediates the contributions of cue familiarity and target retrievability to metamnemonic judgments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metamnemonic judgments are influenced by the retrievability of the target memory in question, but also by the familiarity\\u000a of the cue used to elicit such judgments. However, there have been few suggestions as to what factors mediate the influence\\u000a of these different sources of information on metamnemonic judgments. In this experiment, I examined the interactions between\\u000a prediction time pressure and

Aaron S. Benjamin

2005-01-01

366

Are affective events richly recollected or simply familiar? The experience and process of recognizing feelings past  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author used the remember\\/know paradigm and the dual process recognition model ofA. P. Yonelinas, N. E. A. KroU, I. Dobbins, M. Lazzara, and R. T. Knight (1998) to study the states of awareness accompanying recognition of affective images and the processes of recollection and familiarity that may underlie them. Results from all experiments showed that (a) negative stimuli tended

Kevin N. Ochsner

2000-01-01

367

Cattle discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics by using only head visual cues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Faces have features characteristic of the identity, age and sex of an individual. In the context of social communication and\\u000a social recognition in various animal species, facial information is relevant for discriminating between familiar and unfamiliar\\u000a individuals. Here, we present two experiments aimed at testing the ability of cattle (Bos taurus) to visually discriminate between heads (including face views) of

Marjorie Coulon; Claude Baudoin; Yvan Heyman; Bertrand L. Deputte

2011-01-01

368

Wayfinding in familiar and unfamiliar environments in a case of progressive topographical agnosia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 71-year-old right-handed man (F.G.) presents with prosopagnosia and with an inability to recognize famous and familiar buildings. Despite his deficit, F.G. obtained normal scores on neuropsychological tests of executive functions, language, praxis and primary visuoperceptual skills. Brain MRI showed atrophy predominantly in the right temporal lobe, particularly in the fusiform gyrus and the parahippocampal cortex. The present study investigated

Constant Rainville; Sven Joubert; Olivier Felician; Vanessa Chabanne; Mathieu Ceccaldi; Patrick Péruch

2005-01-01

369

Parallel effects of processing fluency and positive affect on familiarity-based recognition decisions for faces  

PubMed Central

According to attribution models of familiarity assessment, people can use a heuristic in recognition-memory decisions, in which they attribute the subjective ease of processing of a memory probe to a prior encounter with the stimulus in question. Research in social cognition suggests that experienced positive affect may be the proximal cue that signals fluency in various experimental contexts. In the present study, we compared the effects of positive affect and fluency on recognition-memory judgments for faces with neutral emotional expression. We predicted that if positive affect is indeed the critical cue that signals processing fluency at retrieval, then its manipulation should produce effects that closely mirror those produced by manipulations of processing fluency. In two experiments, we employed a masked-priming procedure in combination with a Remember-Know (RK) paradigm that aimed to separate familiarity- from recollection-based memory decisions. In addition, participants performed a prime-discrimination task that allowed us to take inter-individual differences in prime awareness into account. We found highly similar effects of our priming manipulations of processing fluency and of positive affect. In both cases, the critical effect was specific to familiarity-based recognition responses. Moreover, in both experiments it was reflected in a shift toward a more liberal response bias, rather than in changed discrimination. Finally, in both experiments, the effect was found to be related to prime awareness; it was present only in participants who reported a lack of such awareness on the prime-discrimination task. These findings add to a growing body of evidence that points not only to a role of fluency, but also of positive affect in familiarity assessment. As such they are consistent with the idea that fluency itself may be hedonically marked. PMID:24795678

Duke, Devin; Fiacconi, Chris M.; Kohler, Stefan

2014-01-01

370

Role of familiarity versus interleukin-1 genes cluster polymorphisms in chronic periodontitis.  

PubMed

Periodontitis (PO) is a multifactorial disease affecting about 10% to 20% of the general population. Several studies have suggested that part of the clinical variability in PO might be explained by genetic factors. Among the candidate genes for PO, IL1 gene polymorphisms have been broadly investigated, with variable results, for their relationship with the disease. We studied three IL1 polymorphisms, IL1A C[-889]T (rs1800587), IL1B C[3953/4]T (rs1143634), and IL1RN VNTR [+2018] (rs419598) in relation to different life styles and familiarities. We did not find correlation between these IL1 polymorphisms and chronic PO, as well as between chronic PO and life styles (smoking, alcohol, coffee, fizzy drink and fish). We found a strong correlation, also after adjustment for age, between familiarity and PO onset (P=0.0062; OR 5.754, 95% CI 1.644-20.145). In conclusion, we did confirm the previously suggested association between PO and IL1 gene cluster polymorphisms, and between PO and four common risk factors (coffee, smoking, alcohol and fizzy drinks) and one common protective factor (fish). On the contrary, we found a strong role of familiarity. PMID:24275344

Zuccarello, Daniela; Bazzato, M Federica; Ferlin, Alberto; Pengo, Manuel; Frigo, Anna Chiara; Favero, Giovanni; Foresta, Carlo; Stellini, Edoardo

2014-02-10

371

A cultural side effect: learning to read interferes with identity processing of familiar objects  

PubMed Central

Based on the neuronal recycling hypothesis (Dehaene and Cohen, 2007), we examined whether reading acquisition has a cost for the recognition of non-linguistic visual materials. More specifically, we checked whether the ability to discriminate between mirror images, which develops through literacy acquisition, interferes with object identity judgments, and whether interference strength varies as a function of the nature of the non-linguistic material. To these aims we presented illiterate, late literate (who learned to read at adult age), and early literate adults with an orientation-independent, identity-based same-different comparison task in which they had to respond “same” to both physically identical and mirrored or plane-rotated images of pictures of familiar objects (Experiment 1) or of geometric shapes (Experiment 2). Interference from irrelevant orientation variations was stronger with plane rotations than with mirror images, and stronger with geometric shapes than with objects. Illiterates were the only participants almost immune to mirror variations, but only for familiar objects. Thus, the process of unlearning mirror-image generalization, necessary to acquire literacy in the Latin alphabet, has a cost for a basic function of the visual ventral object recognition stream, i.e., identification of familiar objects. This demonstrates that neural recycling is not just an adaptation to multi-use but a process of at least partial exaptation. PMID:25400605

Kolinsky, Régine; Fernandes, Tânia

2014-01-01

372

The N250 Brain Potential to Personally Familiar and Newly Learned Faces and Objects  

PubMed Central

Studies employing event-related potentials have shown that when participants are monitoring for a novel target face, the presentation of their own face elicits an enhanced negative brain potential in posterior channels approximately 250?ms after stimulus onset. Here, we investigate whether the own face N250 effect generalizes to other highly familiar objects, specifically, images of the participant’s own dog and own car. In our experiments, participants were asked to monitor for a pre-experimentally unfamiliar target face (Joe), a target dog (Experiment 1: Joe’s Dog) or a target car (Experiment 2: Joe’s Car). The target face and object stimuli were presented with non-target foils that included novel face and object stimuli, the participant’s own face, their own dog (Experiment 1), and their own car (Experiment 2). The consistent findings across the two experiments were the following: (1) the N250 potential differentiated the target faces and objects from the non-target face and object foils and (2) despite being non-targets, the own face and own objects produced an N250 response that was equal in magnitude to the target faces and objects by the end of the experiment. Thus, as indicated by its response to personally familiar and recently familiarized faces and objects, the N250 component is a sensitive index of individuated representations in visual memory. PMID:22059071

Pierce, Lara J.; Scott, Lisa S.; Boddington, Sophie; Droucker, Danielle; Curran, Tim; Tanaka, James W.

2011-01-01

373

The role of familiarity in associative recognition of unitized compound word pairs.  

PubMed

This study examined the effect of unitization and contribution of familiarity in the recognition of word pairs. Compound words were presented as word pairs and were contrasted with noncompound word pairs in an associative recognition task. In Experiments 1 and 2, yes-no recognition hit and false-alarm rates were significantly higher for compound than for noncompound word pairs, with no difference in discrimination in both within- and between-subject comparisons. Experiment 2 also showed that item recognition was reduced for words from compound compared to noncompound word pairs, providing evidence of the unitization of the compound pairs. A two-alternative forced-choice test used in Experiments 3A and 3B provided evidence that the concordant effect for compound word pairs was largely due to familiarity. A discrimination advantage for compound word pairs was also seen in these experiments. Experiment 4A showed that a different pattern of results is seen when repeated noncompound word pairs are compared to compound word pairs. Experiment 4B showed that memory for the individual items of compound word pairs was impaired relative to items in repeated and nonrepeated noncompound word pairs, and Experiment 5 demonstrated that this effect is eliminated when the elements of compound word pairs are not unitized. The concordant pattern seen in yes-no recognition and the discrimination advantage in forced-choice recognition for compound relative to noncompound word pairs is due to greater reliance on familiarity at test when pairs are unitized. PMID:24873736

Ahmad, Fahad N; Hockley, William E

2014-12-01

374

Threat perception and familiarity moderate the androgen response to competition in women  

PubMed Central

Social interactions elicit androgen responses whose function has been posited to be the adjustment of androgen-dependent behaviors to social context. The activation of this androgen response is known to be mediated and moderated by psychological factors. In this study we tested the hypothesis that the testosterone (T) changes after a competition are not simply related to its outcome, but rather to the way the subject evaluates the event. In particular we tested two evaluative dimensions of a social interaction: familiarity with the opponent and the subjective evaluation of the outcome as threat or challenge. Challenge/threat occurs in goal relevant situations and represent different motivational states arising from the individuals’ subjective evaluation of the interplay between the task demands and coping resources possessed. For challenge the coping resources exceed the task demands, while threat represents a state where coping resources are insufficient to meet the task demands. In this experiment women competed in pairs, against a same sex opponent using the number tracking test as a competitive task. Losers appraised the competition outcome as more threatening than winners, and displayed higher post-competition T levels than winners. No differences were found either for cortisol (C) or for dehydroepiandrosterone. Threat, familiarity with the opponent and T response were associated only in the loser condition. Moderation analysis suggests that for the women that lost the competition the effect of threat on T is moderated by familiarity with the opponent. PMID:23847564

Oliveira, Goncalo A.; Uceda, Sara; Oliveira, Tania; Fernandes, Alexandre; Garcia-Marques, Teresa; Oliveira, Rui F.

2013-01-01

375

Responsivity to familiar versus unfamiliar social reward in children with autism.  

PubMed

In autism spectrum disorders (ASD), social motivation theories suggest that the core social communication problems seen in children with ASD arise from diminished responsiveness to social reward. Although clinical and experimental data support these theories, the extent to which the reward deficit in ASD is unique for social rewards remains unclear. With the present investigation, we aimed to provide insight into the degree to which sociality as well as familiarity of reward incentives impact motivated goal-directed behavior in children with ASD. To do so, we directly compared the influence of familiar versus unfamiliar social reward relative to nonsocial, monetary reward in children with ASD relative to age- and IQ-matched typically developing controls (TDC) using a visual and auditory incentive go/nogo task with reward contingencies for successful response inhibitions. We found that children with ASD responded stronger to visual familiar and unfamiliar social reward as well as to nonsocial, monetary reward than TDC. While the present data are at odds with predictions made by social motivation theories, individual variations beyond clinical diagnosis, such as reward exposure across various social settings, help explain the pattern of results. The findings of this study stress the necessity for additional research on intra-individual as well as environmental factors that contribute to social reward responsiveness in individuals with ASD versus other neuropsychiatric disorders such as ADHD or conduct disorder. PMID:24728874

Pankert, Azarakhsh; Pankert, Kilian; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin; Kohls, Gregor

2014-09-01

376

Activity reductions in perirhinal cortex predict conceptual priming and familiarity-based recognition.  

PubMed

Although it is well established that regions in the medial temporal lobes are critical for explicit memory, recent work has suggested that one medial temporal lobe subregion--the perirhinal cortex (PRC)--may also support conceptual priming, a form of implicit memory. Here, we sought to investigate whether activity reductions in PRC, previously linked to familiarity-based recognition, might also support conceptual implicit memory retrieval. Using a free association priming task, the current study tested the prediction that PRC indexes conceptual priming independent of contributions from perceptual and response repetition. Participants first completed an incidental semantic encoding task outside of the MRI scanner. Next, they were scanned during performance of a free association priming task, followed by a recognition memory test. Results indicated successful conceptual priming was associated with decreased PRC activity, and that an overlapping region within the PRC also exhibited activity reductions that covaried with familiarity during the recognition memory test. Our results demonstrate that the PRC contributes to both conceptual priming and familiarity-based recognition, which may reflect a common role of this region in implicit and explicit memory retrieval. PMID:24157537

Wang, Wei-Chun; Ranganath, Charan; Yonelinas, Andrew P

2014-01-01

377

Familiarity or conceptual priming: event-related potentials in name recognition.  

PubMed

Recent interest has been drawn to the separate components of recognition memory, as studied by event-related potentials (ERPs). In ERPs, recollection is usually accompanied by a late, parietal positive deflection. An earlier, frontal component has been suggested to be a counterpart, accompanying recognition by familiarity. However, this component, the FN400, has alternatively been suggested to reflect a form of implicit memory, conceptual priming. The present study examined the ERP components of recognition memory using an episodic memory task with a stimulus material consisting of names, half of which were famous. Along a different dimension, the names varied in how rare or common they were. These dimensions, frequency and fame, exerted powerful effects on memory accuracy, and dissociated the two recognition processes, such that frequency gave rise to familiarity and fame fostered recollection, when the receiver operating characteristics data were analyzed with Yonelinas' dual-process signal detection model. The ERPs corresponded fully to the behavioral data because frequency affected the frontal component exclusively, and fame affected the parietal component exclusively. Moreover, a separate behavioral experiment showed that conceptual priming was sensitive to fame, but not to frequency. Our data therefore indicate that the FN400 varies jointly with familiarity, but independently of conceptual priming. PMID:18564050

Stenberg, Georg; Hellman, Johan; Johansson, Mikael; Rosén, Ingmar

2009-03-01

378

Recall versus familiarity when recall fails for words and scenes: The differential roles of the hippocampus, perirhinal cortex, and category-specific cortical regions?  

PubMed Central

This fMRI study examined recall and familiarity for words and scenes using the novel recognition without cued recall (RWCR) paradigm. Subjects performed a cued recall task in which half of the test cues resembled studied items (and thus were familiar) and half did not. Subjects also judged the familiarity of the cue itself. RWCR is the finding that, among cues for which recall fails, subjects generally rate cues that resemble studied items as more familiar than cues that do not. For words, left and right hippocampal activity increased when recall succeeded relative to when it failed. When recall failed, right hippocampal activity was decreased for familiar relative to unfamiliar cues. In contrast, right Prc activity increased for familiar cues for which recall failed relative to both familiar cues for which recall succeeded and to unfamiliar cues. For scenes, left hippocampal activity increased when recall succeeded relative to when it failed but did not differentiate familiar from unfamiliar cues when recall failed. In contrast, right Prc activity increased for familiar relative to unfamiliar cues when recall failed. Category-specific cortical regions showed effects unique to their respective stimulus types: The visual word form area (VWFA) showed effects for recall vs. familiarity specific to words, and the parahippocampal place area (PPA) showed effects for recall vs. familiarity specific to scenes. In both cases, these effects were such that there was increased activity occurring during recall relative to when recall failed, and decreased activity occurring for familiar relative to unfamiliar cues when recall failed. PMID:23142268

Ryals, Anthony J.; Cleary, Anne M.; Seger, Carol A.

2013-01-01

379

Mechanisms supporting superior source memory for familiar items: A multi-voxel pattern analysis study  

PubMed Central

Recent cognitive research has revealed better source memory performance for familiar relative to novel stimuli. Here we consider two possible explanations for this finding. The source memory advantage for familiar stimuli could arise because stimulus novelty induces attention to stimulus features at the expense of contextual processing, resulting in diminished overall levels of contextual processing at study for novel (vs. familiar) stimuli. Another possibility is that stimulus information retrieved from long-term memory (LTM) provides scaffolding that facilitates the formation of item-context associations. If contextual features are indeed more effectively bound to familiar (vs. novel) items, the relationship between contextual processing at study and subsequent source memory should be stronger for familiar items. We tested these possibilities by applying multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) to a recently collected functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) dataset, with the goal of measuring contextual processing at study and relating it to subsequent source memory performance. Participants were scanned with fMRI while viewing novel proverbs, repeated proverbs (previously novel proverbs that were shown in a pre-study phase), and previously known proverbs in the context of one of two experimental tasks. After scanning was complete, we evaluated participants’ source memory for the task associated with each proverb. Drawing upon fMRI data from the study phase, we trained a classifier to detect on-task processing (i.e., how strongly was the correct task set activated). On-task processing was greater for previously known than novel proverbs and similar for repeated and novel proverbs. However, both within- and across participants, the relationship between on-task processing and subsequent source memory was stronger for repeated than novel proverbs and similar for previously known and novel proverbs. Finally, focusing on the repeated condition, we found that higher levels of hippocampal activity during the pre-study phase, which we used as an index of episodic encoding, led to a stronger relationship between on-task processing at study and subsequent memory. Together, these findings suggest different mechanisms may be primarily responsible for superior source memory for repeated and previously known stimuli. Specifically, they suggest that prior stimulus knowledge enhances memory by boosting the overall level of contextual processing, whereas stimulus repetition enhances the probability that contextual features will be successfully bound to item features. Several possible theoretical explanations for this pattern are discussed. PMID:22820636

Poppenk, Jordan; Norman, Kenneth A.

2012-01-01

380

Easy on the mind, easy on the wallet: the roles of familiarity and processing fluency in valuation judgments.  

PubMed

Although people routinely estimate the value of items in their environment, from goods and services to natural resources and lost earnings following an accident, the processes that underlie human valuation estimates are not well understood. We show that people use familiarity and fluency-the ease with which they process information-to determine an item's value. In three experiments, participants believed that familiar forms of currency (e.g., a familiar $1 bill) had greater purchasing power than their unfamiliar counterparts (e.g., a rare and unfamiliar coin). Mechanistic analyses showed a positive correlation between participants' familiarity with the unfamiliar currency and their estimates of its value. We conclude by discussing the theoretical and practical implications of our findings for researchers, marketing experts, and policymakers alike. PMID:18926993

Alter, Adam L; Oppenheimer, Daniel M

2008-10-01

381

The influence of job familiarity and impression management on self-report measure scale scores and response latencies.  

PubMed

Two studies were conducted to examine the effects of job familiarity and impression management on response latencies and scale scores for measures of personality and situational judgment. In a laboratory study using university students and a field study using U.S. Border Patrol Agent applicants, impression management was generally associated with faster personality item responses when job familiarity was high and with slower responses when job familiarity was low. Both impression management and job familiarity were associated with personality item responses that were more likely to lead to a job offer. The field study revealed a similar pattern of results for situational judgment scale response latencies, although only impression management was associated with item responses that were more likely to lead to a job offer. The implications for using response latencies to detect impression management on self-report measures are discussed. PMID:10740956

Vasilopoulos, N L; Reilly, R R; Leaman, J A

2000-02-01

382

Cognitive and Anatomical Underpinnings of the Conceptual Knowledge for Common Objects and Familiar People: A Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Study  

PubMed Central

Several studies have addressed the issue of how knowledge of common objects is organized in the brain, whereas the cognitive and anatomical underpinnings of familiar people knowledge have been less explored. Here we applied repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the left and right temporal poles before asking healthy individuals to perform a speeded word-to-picture matching task using familiar people and common objects as stimuli. We manipulated two widely used semantic variables, namely the semantic distance and the familiarity of stimuli, to assess whether the semantic organization of familiar people knowledge is similar to that of common objects. For both objects and faces we reliably found semantic distance and familiarity effects, with less accurate and slower responses for stimulus pairs that were more closely related and less familiar. However, the effects of semantic variables differed across categories, with semantic distance effects larger for objects and familiarity effects larger for faces, suggesting that objects and faces might share a partially comparable organization of their semantic representations. The application of rTMS to the left temporal pole modulated, for both categories, semantic distance, but not familiarity effects, revealing that accessing object and face concepts might rely on overlapping processes within left anterior temporal regions. Crucially, rTMS of the left temporal pole affected only the recognition of pairs of stimuli that could be discriminated at specific levels of categorization (e.g., two kitchen tools or two famous persons), with no effect for discriminations at either superordinate or individual levels. Conversely, rTMS of the right temporal pole induced an overall slowing of reaction times that positively correlated with the visual similarity of the stimuli, suggesting a more perceptual rather than semantic role of the right anterior temporal regions. Results are discussed in the light of current models of face and object semantic representations in the brain. PMID:23704999

Campanella, Fabio; Fabbro, Franco; Urgesi, Cosimo

2013-01-01

383

Avoidance of interspecific mating in female Syrian hamsters is stronger toward familiar than toward unfamiliar heterospecific males  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult Syrian hamster females (Mesocricetus auratus) learn to discriminate against familiar heterospecific males (Turkish hamster, M. brandti). We investigated whether females learn to avoid any heterospecific male after exposure to just one heterospecific male.\\u000a We predicted that, after being exposed to one heterospecific male, a female would avoid mating not only with that familiar\\u000a male but also with any unfamiliar

Javier delBarco-Trillo; Robert E. Johnston

2011-01-01

384

Long-term memory traces for familiar spoken words in tonal languages as revealed by the Mismatch Negativity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Sittiprapaporn, W., Chindaduangratn,C. and Kotchabhakdi, N. Long-term memory traces for familiar spoken words in tonal languages as revealed by the Mismatch negativity Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol., 2004, 26(6) : 779-786 Mismatch negativity (MMN), a primary response to an acoustic change and an index of sensory memory, was used to investigate the processing of the discrimination between familiar and unfamiliar

Wichian Sittiprapaporn; Chittin Chindaduangratn; Naiphinich Kotchabhakdi

2004-01-01

385

Familiarization, Attention, and Recognition Memory in Infancy: An Event-Related Potential and Cortical Source Localization Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of familiarization and attention on event-related potential (ERP) correlates of recognition memory in infants. Infants 4.5, 6, or 7.5 months of age were either familiarized with 2 stimuli that were used during later testing or presented 2 stimuli that were not used later. Then, infants were presented with a recording of Sesame Street to elicit

Greg D. Reynolds; John E. Richards

2005-01-01

386

Effects of familiar contingencies on infants' vocal behavior in new communicative contexts.  

PubMed

Recently, there has been a growing interest in understanding the mechanisms underlying vocal learning in songbirds and human infants. Research has demonstrated how contingent social feedback from social partners to immature vocalizations can play a role during vocal learning in both brown-headed cowbirds and prelinguistic infants. Contingencies in social interactions, particularly familiar contingencies, are important in developing preferences for social partners and shaping social exchanges Bigelow and Birch [1999]. Infant Behavior & Development 22:367-382]; however, little is known about how familiar contingencies that individuals experience during communicative exchanges play a role in new contexts. The current study examined differences in caregiver response patterns to infant vocal behavior and assessed how familiar contingencies influenced infant vocal behavior in novel communicative exchanges with caregivers. Infants were systematically exposed to high and low social feedback schedules during a play session. Results revealed the frequency of caregiver responsiveness to which infants were accustomed to affected infant vocal production during novel communicative situations. Infants with high responding caregivers vocalized with more mature vocalizations and used their vocalizations differently than infants with low responding caregivers during the high, but not low, response period. Specifically, infants with high responding caregivers directed more of their vocalizations at their caregiver and looked more at their caregiver after vocalizing, an indication of anticipating contingent responding. These results suggest that infants with high responding caregivers learned the association between vocalizing and contingent responses during the novel communicative interaction. This study demonstrates the need to understand how infants who experience a variety of contingencies in everyday interactions with caregivers carry over to other interactive situations. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 56: 1518-1527, 2014. PMID:25124029

Miller, Jennifer L

2014-11-01

387

Cold-Pressor Stress After Learning Enhances Familiarity-Based Recognition Memory in Men  

PubMed Central

Stress that is experienced after items have been encoded into memory can protect memories from the effects of forgetting. However, very little is known about how stress impacts recognition memory. The current study investigated how an aversive laboratory stressor (i.e., the cold-pressor test) that occurs after information has been encoded into memory affects subsequent recognition memory in an immediate and a delayed test (i.e., 2-hour and 3-month retention interval). Recognition was assessed for negative and neutral photographs using a hybrid remember/know confidence procedure in order to characterize overall performance and to separate recollection- and familiarity-based responses. The results indicated that relative to a non-stress control condition, post-encoding stress significantly improved familiarity but not recollection-based recognition memory or free recall. The beneficial effects of stress were observed in males for negative and neutral materials at both immediate and long-term delays, but were not significant in females. The results indicate that aversive stress can have long-lasting beneficial effects on the memory strength of information encountered prior to the stressful event. PMID:23823181

McCullough, Andrew M.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.

2013-01-01

388

Cognitive control of familiarity: directed forgetting reduces proactive interference in working memory.  

PubMed

Proactive interference (PI) occurs when previously learned information interferes with new learning. In a working memory task, PI induces longer response times and more errors to recent negative probes than to new probes, presumably because the recent probe's familiarity invites a "yes" response. Warnings, longer intertrial intervals, and the increased contextual salience of the probes can reduce but not eliminate PI, suggesting that cognitive control over PI is limited. Here we tested whether control exerted in the form of intentional forgetting performed during working memory can reduce the magnitude of PI. In two experiments, participants performed a working memory task with directed-forgetting instructions and the occasional presentation of recent probes. Surprise long-term memory testing indicated better memory for to-be-remembered than for to-be-forgotten items, documenting the classic directed-forgetting effect. Critically, in working memory, PI was virtually eliminated for recent probes from prior to-be-forgotten lists, as compared to recent probes from prior to-be-remembered lists. Thus cognitive control, when executed via directed forgetting, can reduce the adverse and otherwise persistent interference from familiarity, an effect that we attribute to attenuated memory representations of the to-be-forgotten items. PMID:24323705

Festini, Sara B; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A

2014-03-01

389

Assessing Recollection and Familiarity of Similar Lures in a Behavioral Pattern Separation Task  

PubMed Central

The relationship between recollection-mediated recognition memory and behavioral pattern separation is poorly understood. In two separate experiments, we modified a well-validated object discrimination task with previously demonstrated sensitivity to neural pattern separation with instructions to assess recollection and familiarity. In the first experiment, we included a Remember/Know (R/K) judgment, and in the second we included a source memory judgment. We found that both “Remember” and correct source judgments were higher for lures labeled “similar” (where pattern separation is engaged) but also higher on lures called “old” (where pattern separation is absent), suggesting that false alarms in pattern separation tasks are frequently mediated by recollection. As one might expect, “Remember” judgments and correct source decisions increased with greater dissimilarity for “similar” responses and increased with greater similarity for “old” responses. This suggests that recollection can occur in the presence and in the absence of pattern separation and that false alarms to similar lures are not simply driven by familiarity. PMID:23401187

Kim, Jennifer; Yassa, Michael A.

2014-01-01

390

Exploring the influence of cultural familiarity and expertise on neurological responses to music.  

PubMed

Contemporary music education in many countries has begun to incorporate not only the dominant music of the culture, but also a variety of music from around the world. Although the desirability of such a broadened curriculum is virtually unquestioned, the specific function of these musical encounters and their potential role in children's cognitive development remain unclear. We do not know if studying a variety of world music traditions involves the acquisition of new skills or an extension and refinement of traditional skills long addressed by music teachers. Is a student's familiarity with a variety of musical traditions a manifestation of a single overarching "musicianship" or is knowledge of these various musical styles more similar to a collection of discrete skills much like learning a second language? Research on the comprehension of spoken language has disclosed a neurologically distinct response among subjects listening to their native language rather than an unfamiliar language. In a recent study comparing Western subjects' responses to music of their native culture and music of an unfamiliar culture, we found that subjects' activation did not differ on the basis of the cultural familiarity of the music, but on the basis of musical expertise. We discuss possible interpretations of these findings in relation to the concept of musical universals, cross-cultural stimulus characteristics, cross-cultural judgment tasks, and the influence of musical expertise. We conclude with suggestions for future research. PMID:14681123

Demorest, Steven M; Morrison, Steven J

2003-11-01

391

Familiarity does not affect the unilateral field advantage for repetition detection.  

PubMed

We have previously reported evidence that repetitions of letters, colors, sizes, and common motion paths are more rapidly detected when they are presented unilaterally (i.e., both in the same visual field) versus bilaterally (one element in each visual field; Butcher and Cavanagh (Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics 70:714-724, 2008). Here, we report evidence that this unilateral field advantage (UFA) for repetition detection does not depend on prior experience with the elements that comprise the repetition. In Experiment 1, native English, Persian, and Japanese speakers were tested on a repetition detection task involving characters from Western, Arabic, and Japanese character sets. The character sets were tested in blocks, in each of which subjects were presented with four characters for 16 ms and asked to report whether any two of the characters were identical. The subjects were faster detecting repetitions that were presented unilaterally rather than bilaterally, and there was no interaction with stimulus familiarity. A second experiment replicated this finding with native English speakers only, using a longer stimulus duration (150 ms). We had previously proposed that the UFA arises because the low-level processes that group physically identical items operate more efficiently within than across hemifields. Our data now indicate that this grouping process is insensitive to item familiarity, supporting the claim that the process is low-level. PMID:22532384

Butcher, Serena J; Cavanagh, Patrick

2012-08-01

392

Testosterone response to competition in males is unrelated to opponent familiarity or threat appraisal  

PubMed Central

It has been proposed in the literature that the testosterone (T) response to competition in humans may be modulated by cognitive variables. In a previous experiment with a female sample we have reported that opponent familiarity and threat appraisal moderated the T response to competition in women. With this experiment we aim to investigate if these variables have the same impact on males T response to competition, extending the previous findings in our lab. Forty male participants (20 dyads) were recruited to engage in a same sex, face to face competition using the Number Tracking Test as a competitive task. Levels of T, cortisol (C) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were measured before and 20 min after the competition. Results show that losers report higher levels of threat than winners and increased their T levels after the competition, however this T change was not predicted by opponent familiarity or threat appraisal. No variation was detected for C and DHEA levels. These findings suggest that there could be sex differences for the moderators/mediators of the T response to competition in humans.

Oliveira, Goncalo A.; Uceda, Sara; Oliveira, Tania F.; Fernandes, Alexandre C.; Garcia-Marques, Teresa; Oliveira, Rui F.

2014-01-01

393

An Efficient ERP-Based Brain-Computer Interface Using Random Set Presentation and Face Familiarity  

PubMed Central

Event-related potential (ERP)-based P300 spellers are commonly used in the field of brain-computer interfaces as an alternative channel of communication for people with severe neuro-muscular diseases. This study introduces a novel P300 based brain-computer interface (BCI) stimulus paradigm using a random set presentation pattern and exploiting the effects of face familiarity. The effect of face familiarity is widely studied in the cognitive neurosciences and has recently been addressed for the purpose of BCI. In this study we compare P300-based BCI performances of a conventional row-column (RC)-based paradigm with our approach that combines a random set presentation paradigm with (non-) self-face stimuli. Our experimental results indicate stronger deflections of the ERPs in response to face stimuli, which are further enhanced when using the self-face images, and thereby improving P300-based spelling performance. This lead to a significant reduction of stimulus sequences required for correct character classification. These findings demonstrate a promising new approach for improving the speed and thus fluency of BCI-enhanced communication with the widely used P300-based BCI setup. PMID:25384045

Muller, Klaus-Robert; Lee, Seong-Whan

2014-01-01

394

Atlas del Genoma del Cáncer  

Cancer.gov

Es posible que haya más de 200 tipos diferentes de cáncer y muchos subtipos más, cada uno de estos causado por errores en el ADN que desencadenan el crecimiento descontrolado de las células. La identificación de los cambios en el conjunto completo de ADN de cada tipo de cáncer, su genoma, y el entendimiento de cómo interactúan dichos cambios para impulsar el proceso de la enfermedad sentarán las bases de una era individualizada de tratamiento del cáncer.

395

"Phantom ion effect" and the contact potential of the water-vapor interface Instituto de Fsica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Caixa Postal 15051, CEP 91501-970,  

E-print Network

"Phantom ion effect" and the contact potential of the water-vapor interface Yan Levina Instituto de The contact junction potential between water-vapor and water-oil interfaces is studied theoretically. Unlike potential for a pure water-vapor interface remains controversial,6 with values ranging from -1.1 to +0.5 V

Levin, Yan

396

The awareness of novelty for strangely familiar words: a laboratory analogue of the d?j? vu experience  

PubMed Central

Déjà vu is a nebulous memory experience defined by a clash between evaluations of familiarity and novelty for the same stimulus. We sought to generate it in the laboratory by pairing a DRM recognition task, which generates erroneous familiarity for critical words, with a monitoring task by which participants realise that some of these erroneously familiar words are in fact novel. We tested 30 participants in an experiment in which we varied both participant awareness of stimulus novelty and erroneous familiarity strength. We found that déjà vu reports were most frequent for high novelty critical words (?25%), with low novelty critical words yielding only baseline levels of déjà vu report frequency (?10%). There was no significant variation in déjà vu report frequency according to familiarity strength. Discursive accounts of the experimentally-generated déjà vu experience suggest that aspects of the naturalistic déjà vu experience were captured by this analogue, but that the analogue was also limited in its focus and prone to influence by demand characteristics. We discuss theoretical and methodological considerations relevant to further development of this procedure and propose that verifiable novelty is an important component of both naturalistic and experimental analogues of déjà vu.

Urquhart, Josephine A.

2014-01-01

397

Drug-scene familiarity and exposure to gang violence among residents in a rural farming community in Baja California, Mexico  

PubMed Central

We examined drug-scene familiarity and exposure to gang violence among residents of a migrant farming community in rural Baja California, Mexico. In October 2010, 164 members of a single colonia (community) underwent an interviewer-administered survey to assess ‘exposure to gang violence’ and ‘drug-scene familiarity’, as well as other health indicators. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of exposure to gang violence. Overall, 20% of participants were male, the median age was 27 years, 24% spoke an indigenous language, 42% reported exposure to gang violence, and 39% reported drug-scene familiarity. Factors independently associated with exposure to gang violence included being younger (AOR=0.80 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=0.67–0.96), living in the community longer (AOR=1.47 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=1.11–1.72), higher educational attainment (AOR=1.70 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=1.07–1.12), and drug-scene familiarity (AOR=5.10, 95%CI=2.39–10.89). Exposure to gang violence was very common in this community and was associated with drug-scene familiarity, suggesting a close relationship between drugs and gang violence in this rural community. In a region characterised by mass migration from poorer parts of Mexico, where drugs and gangs have not been previously reported, emerging social harms may affect these communities unless interventions are implemented. PMID:23072623

Volkmann, Tyson; Fraga, Miguel A.; Brodine, Stephanie K.; Iniguez-Stevens, Esmeralda; Cepeda, Alice; Elder, John P.; Garfein, Richard S.

2012-01-01

398

Dear enemies and nasty neighbors in crayfish: effects of social status and sex on responses to familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics.  

PubMed

Our experiment examined the ability of crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) to discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics of equivalent social status, and investigated whether this species displays dear enemy or nasty neighbor effects. Pairs of size and sex matched crayfish fought to establish social status and the resulting dominant and subordinate crayfish then participated in a choice phase in which they interacted with two conspecifics tethered in an arena. Both choice conspecifics had the same social status and sex, but one was familiar (the focal animal's previous opponent) and the other was novel. We found that subordinate focal animals of both sexes spent significantly more time in proximity to the unfamiliar choice animal, behavior inconsistent with the dear enemy and nasty neighbor hypotheses. In contrast, male and female dominant focals differed significantly: females spent more time close to and fighting with the familiar choice animal while male dominants responded equivalently to the two choice animals. Thus the response of crayfish toward familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics was complex and not explained by a single hypothesis. We suggest that, in addition to familiarity and unfamiliarity, the perceived threat-level of opponents influences the behavior of crayfish toward conspecifics. PMID:23769936

Tierney, A J; Andrews, K; Happer, K R; White, M K M

2013-10-01

399

When we like what we know--a parametric fMRI analysis of beauty and familiarity.  

PubMed

This paper presents a neuroscientific study of aesthetic judgments on written texts. In an fMRI experiment participants read a number of proverbs without explicitly evaluating them. In a post-scan rating they rated each item for familiarity and beauty. These individual ratings were correlated with the functional data to investigate the neural correlates of implicit aesthetic judgments. We identified clusters in which BOLD activity was correlated with individual post-scan beauty ratings. This indicates that some spontaneous aesthetic evaluation takes place during reading, even if not required by the task. Positive correlations were found in the ventral striatum and in medial prefrontal cortex, likely reflecting the rewarding nature of sentences that are aesthetically pleasing. On the contrary, negative correlations were observed in the classic left frontotemporal reading network. Midline structures and bilateral temporo-parietal regions correlated positively with familiarity, suggesting a shift from the task-network towards the default network with increasing familiarity. PMID:23332807

Bohrn, Isabel C; Altmann, Ulrike; Lubrich, Oliver; Menninghaus, Winfried; Jacobs, Arthur M

2013-01-01

400

Recognition of personally familiar scenes in patients with very mild Alzheimer's disease: effects of spatial frequency and luminance.  

PubMed

Many community-residing patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have way-finding problems, particularly at twilight or on rainy days. In an attempt to understand the mechanism, we prepared pictures of street scenes, including 8 personally familiar and 8 unfamiliar, divided into Low Spatial Frequency (LSF) and Low Luminance (LL) conditions to simulate foggy or rainy days and nighttime. Each picture was presented from the most difficult (level 10) to the easiest (level 1). The participants, including 20 very mild AD patients and 20 normal controls (NC) with equal basic visual acuity, were asked to judge whether a picture was familiar or not and to describe how they came to that conclusion. The accuracy of familiar scene recognition was measured by the number of pictures successfully recognized and the ability thereof by the level needed. Compared with NC, AD patients showed poorer accuracy (2.7 ± 0.2 versus 3.6 ± 0.1, mean ± SEM, p = 0.003 under LSF; 2.8 ± 0.2 versus 3.8 ± 0.1, p = 0.001 under LL) and poorer ability (2.2 ± 0.4 versus 4.3 ± 0.4 p = 0.000 under LSF; 2.9 ± 0.3 versus 5.2 ± 0.5, p = 0.000 under LL) for both conditions. The AD patients used a global element to help judge when personally familiar scenes were displayed, which was the method NC usually adopted when presented with novel scenes. In summary, this study demonstrated poorer recognition ability in very mild AD patients when personally familiar street scenes were displayed, and the underlying mechanisms may include impaired visual search performance and efficiency. The deficits also reflect their difficulty in real life situations when their familiar environments become blurred or dark. PMID:22330822

Lee, Yen-Ti; Pai, Ming-Chyi

2012-01-01

401

Déjà vu in unilateral temporal-lobe epilepsy is associated with selective familiarity impairments on experimental tasks of recognition memory.  

PubMed

In déjà vu, a phenomenological impression of familiarity for the current visual environment is experienced with a sense that it should in fact not feel familiar. The fleeting nature of this phenomenon in daily life, and the difficulty in developing experimental paradigms to elicit it, has hindered progress in understanding déjà vu. Some neurological patients with temporal-lobe epilepsy (TLE) consistently experience déjà vu at the onset of their seizures. An investigation of such patients offers a unique opportunity to shed light on its possible underlying mechanisms. In the present study, we sought to determine whether unilateral TLE patients with déjà vu (TLE+) show a unique pattern of interictal memory deficits that selectively affect familiarity assessment. In Experiment 1, we employed a Remember-Know paradigm for categorized visual scenes and found evidence for impairments that were limited to familiarity-based responses. In Experiment 2, we administered an exclusion task for highly similar categorized visual scenes that placed both recognition processes in opposition. TLE+ patients again displayed recognition impairments, and these impairments spared their ability to engage recollective processes so as to counteract familiarity. The selective deficits we observed in TLE+ patients contrasted with the broader pattern of recognition-memory impairments that was present in a control group of unilateral patients without déjà vu (TLE-). MRI volumetry revealed that ipsilateral medial temporal structures were less broadly affected in TLE+ than in TLE- patients, with a trend for more focal volume reductions in the rhinal cortices of the TLE+ group. The current findings establish a first empirical link between déjà vu in TLE and processes of familiarity assessment, as defined and measured in current cognitive models. They also reveal a pattern of selectivity in recognition impairments that is rarely observed and, thus, of significant theoretical interest to the memory literature at large. PMID:22841992

Martin, Chris B; Mirsattari, Seyed M; Pruessner, Jens C; Pietrantonio, Sandra; Burneo, Jorge G; Hayman-Abello, Brent; Köhler, Stefan

2012-11-01

402

Effects of context novelty vs. familiarity on latent inhibition with a conditioned taste aversion procedure.  

PubMed

The latent inhibition phenomenon is observed when a conditioned stimulus is preexposed without any consequence before conditioning. The result of this manipulation is a reduction in conditioned response intensity to such a stimulus. In this study, we analyse the role of context novelty/familiarity on LI modulation by changing the context using a three-stage conditioned taste aversion procedure. Experiment 1 revealed that, similar to other learning procedures, a context change between preexposure and conditioning/testing (but not between preexposure/conditioning and testing) resulted in LI attenuation when the experimental contexts were novel. Experiment 2, using animals' home cages as one of the contexts, revealed a different pattern of results, with an unexpected increase in LI magnitude when the context change was introduced between conditioning and test stages. The Schmajuk et al. (1996) computational model explains these results in terms of the increased novelty of the conditioned stimulus during preexposure, conditioning, and testing. PMID:21193021

Quintero, E; Díaz, E; Vargas, J P; Schmajuk, N; López, J C; De la Casa, L G

2011-02-01

403

Spontaneous trait transference to familiar communicators: is a little knowledge a dangerous thing?  

PubMed

In most social cognition research participants are presented with unattributed information about unfamiliar stimulus persons. However, in the real world it is more common for people to learn about others through social communication and to know something about those with whom they communicate. Such issues are explored in relation to spontaneous trait transference, a phenomenon in which communicators are perceived as having traits that they merely describe in others. Three studies show that even familiar communicators became associated with, and attributed, the traits implied by their remarks. Surprisingly, these effects occurred even when the implied traits were incongruent with participants' prior knowledge about these communicators. The results are discussed in terms of (a) the generalizability of social cognition research, (b) the automaticity of simple associative phenomena, and (c) the interplay of simple associative and higher level processes. PMID:10474209

Mae, L; Carlston, D E; Skowronski, J J

1999-08-01

404

Human herpesvirus type 6 hepatitis or familiar intrahepatic cholestasis: the importance of follow-up  

PubMed Central

A 1-month-old child presented to our unit with jaundice and raised aminotransferases, ?-glutamyltranspeptidase and bilirubin. Metabolic diseases were ruled out and ultrasound found no alterations. Human herpesvirus type 6 (HHV-6) DNA was found in blood and saliva and IgG anti-HHV-6 in serum, and a diagnosis of HHV-6 hepatitis was made. In the following weeks, aminotransferase values remained raised while ?-glutamyltranspeptidase levels returned to normal in 45 days. At the age of 5 months symptoms and elevated aminotransferases persisted and immunohistochemistry performed on liver tissue allowed a diagnosis of progressive familiar intrahepatic cholestasis type 2 to be made. The patient is now 7 months old, and cholestatic jaundice and pruritus continue to be present. PMID:21686719

Nobili, Valerio; Pietrobattista, Andrea; Francalanci, Paola; Giovannoni, Ilaria; Marcellini, Matilde; Vento, Sandro

2009-01-01

405

Familiarity Bias and Physiological Responses in Contagious Yawning by Dogs Support Link to Empathy  

PubMed Central

In humans, the susceptibility to yawn contagion has been theoretically and empirically related to our capacity for empathy. Because of its relevance to evolutionary biology, this phenomenon has been the focus of recent investigations in non-human species. In line with the empathic hypothesis, contagious yawning has been shown to correlate with the level of social attachment in several primate species. Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) have also shown the ability to yawn contagiously. To date, however, the social modulation of dog contagious yawning has received contradictory support and alternative explanations (i.e., yawn as a mild distress response) could explain positive evidence. The present study aims to replicate contagious yawning in dogs and to discriminate between the two possible mediating mechanisms (i.e., empathic vs. distress related response). Twenty-five dogs observed familiar (dog’s owner) and unfamiliar human models (experimenter) acting out a yawn or control mouth movements. Concurrent physiological measures (heart rate) were additionally monitored for twenty-one of the subjects. The occurrence of yawn contagion was significantly higher during the yawning condition than during the control mouth movements. Furthermore, the dogs yawned more frequently when watching the familiar model than the unfamiliar one demonstrating that the contagiousness of yawning in dogs correlated with the level of emotional proximity. Moreover, subjects’ heart rate did not differ among conditions suggesting that the phenomenon of contagious yawning in dogs is unrelated to stressful events. Our findings are consistent with the view that contagious yawning is modulated by affective components of the behavior and may indicate that rudimentary forms of empathy could be present in domesticated dogs. PMID:23951146

Romero, Teresa; Konno, Akitsugu; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

2013-01-01

406

Disentangling the influence of salience and familiarity on infant word learning: methodological advances  

PubMed Central

The initial stages of language learning involve a critical interaction between infants' environmental experience and their developing brains. The past several decades of research have produced important behavioral evidence of the many factors influencing this process, both on the part of the child and on the part of the environment that the child is in. The application of neurophysiological techniques to the study of early development has been augmenting these findings at a rapid pace. While the result is an accrual of data bridging the gap between brain and behavior, much work remains to make the link between behavioral evidence of infants' emerging sensitivities and neurophysiological evidence of changes in how their brains process information. Here we review the background behavioral data on how salience and familiarity in the auditory signal shape initial language learning. We follow this with a summary of more recent evidence of changes in infants' brain activity in response to specific aspects of speech. Our goal is to examine language learning through the lens of brain/environment interactions, ultimately focusing on changes in cortical processing of speech across the first year of life. We will ground our examination of recent brain data in the two auditory features initially outlined: salience and familiarity. Our own and others' findings on the influence of these two features reveal that they are key parameters in infants' emerging recognition of structure in the speech signal. Importantly, the evidence we review makes the critical link between behavioral and brain data. We discuss the importance of future work that makes this bridge as a means of moving the study of language development solidly into the domain of brain science. PMID:23616775

Bortfeld, Heather; Shaw, Katie; Depowski, Nicole

2013-01-01

407

Imagining Other People's Experiences in a Person with Impaired Episodic Memory: The Role of Personal Familiarity  

PubMed Central

Difficulties remembering one’s own experiences via episodic memory may affect the ability to imagine other people’s experiences during theory of mind (ToM). Previous work shows that the same set of brain regions recruited during tests of episodic memory and future imagining are also engaged during standard laboratory tests of ToM. However, hippocampal amnesic patients who show deficits in past and future thinking, show intact performance on ToM tests, which involve unknown people or fictional characters. Here we present data from a developmental amnesic person (H.C.) and a group of demographically matched controls, who were tested on a naturalistic test of ToM that involved describing other people’s experiences in response to photos of personally familiar others (“pToM” condition) and unfamiliar others (“ToM” condition). We also included a condition that involved recollecting past experiences in response to personal photos (“EM” condition). Narratives were scored using an adapted Autobiographical Interview scoring procedure. Due to the visually rich stimuli, internal details were further classified as either descriptive (i.e., details that describe the visual content of the photo) or elaborative (i.e., details that go beyond what is visually depicted in the photo). Relative to controls, H.C. generated significantly fewer elaborative details in response to the pToM and EM photos and an equivalent number of elaborative details in response to the ToM photos. These data converge with previous neuroimaging results showing that the brain regions underlying pToM and episodic memory overlap to a greater extent than those supporting ToM. Taken together, these results suggest that detailed episodic representations supported by the hippocampus may be pivotal for imagining the experiences of personally familiar, but not unfamiliar, others. PMID:23355827

Rabin, Jennifer S.; Carson, Nicole; Gilboa, Asaf; Stuss, Donald T.; Rosenbaum, R. Shayna

2013-01-01

408

Inferring the popularity of an opinion from its familiarity: a repetitive voice can sound like a chorus.  

PubMed

Despite the importance of doing so, people do not always correctly estimate the distribution of opinions within their group. One important mechanism underlying such misjudgments is people's tendency to infer that a familiar opinion is a prevalent one, even when its familiarity derives solely from the repeated expression of 1 group member. Six experiments demonstrate this effect and show that it holds even when perceivers are consciously aware that the opinions come from 1 speaker. The results also indicate that the effect is due to opinion accessibility rather than a conscious inference about the meaning of opinion repetition in a group. Implications for social consensus estimation and social influence are discussed. PMID:17484607

Weaver, Kimberlee; Garcia, Stephen M; Schwarz, Norbert; Miller, Dale T

2007-05-01

409

Graellsia, 61(1): 19-29 (2005) Unidade de Investigao em Eco-Etologia. Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada, 34. 1149-041 Lisboa. Portugal.  

E-print Network

(Actynopterigii, Cyprinidae) del oeste de Portugal Se describe una nueva especie de ciprínido endémico del oeste, taxonomía. xx x xx x NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS CHONDROSTOMA AGASSIZ, 1832 (ACTYNOPTERIGII, CYPRINIDAE) FROM

410

Five- and Eight-Month-Old Infants Recognize Their Faces and Voices as Familiar and Social Stimuli.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented five- and eight-month olds with silent moving and static video images of self, peer, and doll, and sounds of self and nonsocial objects. Found that recognition of one's image develops through experience with dynamic facial stimulation during first eight months. By five months, infants treat their faces and voices as familiar and social…

Legerstee, Maria; Anderson, Diane; Schaffer, Alliza

1998-01-01

411

Brief Introduction to Tensor Calculus I assume that you are familiar with the ordinary vector calculus (if not, let me  

E-print Network

Brief Introduction to Tensor Calculus I assume that you are familiar with the ordinary vector calculus (if not, let me know). The tensor calculus is basically the same as the vector calculus, but you can deal with many indices than just vectors. For instance, an inner product of two vectors a and b

Murayama, Hitoshi

412

AN EXPLORATORY ANALYSIS OF FAMILIARITY AND WILLINGNESS TO USE ONLINE FOOD SHOPPING SERVICES IN A LOCAL AREA OF TEXAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Online food shopping is not only one of the newest innovations in grocery shopping but also one of the many services integrating the changing needs of consumers and the increasing use of modern technology. A survey was conducted in the Bryan\\/College Station area of Texas to determine a quantitative profile of consumers, via logit analysis, who are familiar with the

Jennifer Hiser; Rodolfo M. Nayga Jr.; Oral Capps Jr.

1999-01-01

413

When We like What We Know--A Parametric fMRI Analysis of Beauty and Familiarity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a neuroscientific study of aesthetic judgments on written texts. In an fMRI experiment participants read a number of proverbs without explicitly evaluating them. In a post-scan rating they rated each item for familiarity and beauty. These individual ratings were correlated with the functional data to investigate the neural…

Bohrn, Isabel C.; Altmann, Ulrike; Lubrich, Oliver; Menninghaus, Winfried; Jacobs, Arthur M.

2013-01-01

414

A Familiar-Size Stroop Effect: Real-World Size Is an Automatic Property of Object Representation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When we recognize an object, do we automatically know how big it is in the world? We employed a Stroop-like paradigm, in which two familiar objects were presented at different visual sizes on the screen. Observers were faster to indicate which was bigger or smaller on the screen when the real-world size of the objects was congruent with the visual…

Konkle, Talia; Oliva, Aude

2012-01-01

415

The Role of Verbal Behavior, Stimulus Nameability, and Familiarity on the Equivalence Performances of Autistic and Normally Developing Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The emergence of equivalence relations and the role of overall verbal competence and stimulus nameability and familiarity in this regard were investigated across 3 experiments involving 15 children diagnosed with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), as well as 3 typically developing children. The experimental sequence comprised 4 identical stages,…

O'Connor, Jennifer; Rafferty, Aoife; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne

2009-01-01

416

The effects of inversion and eye displacements of familiar and unknown faces on early and late-stage ERPs  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThe objective of this study is to examine whether configural alterations of faces affect early or late processing stages as a function of their familiarity and their level of representation in memory. We then sought to verify whether the structural encoding stage is susceptible to top-down influences.

Stéphanie Caharel; Nicole Fiori; Christian Bernard; Robert Lalonde; Mohamed Rebaï

2006-01-01

417

Switching Between Tasks of Unequal Familiarity: The Role of Stimulus-Attribute and Response-Set Selection  

E-print Network

Switching Between Tasks of Unequal Familiarity: The Role of Stimulus-Attribute and Response to switch to a strong, well-practiced task from a weaker, less-practiced task than vice versa. Three of switch costs, resulting in a larger cost of switching to the weaker task. The results are interpreted

Yeung, Nick

418

Boosting Cholinergic Activity in Gustatory Cortex Enhances the Salience of a Familiar Conditioned Stimulus in Taste Aversion Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cholinergic system is important for learning, memory, and responses to novel stimuli. Exposure to novel, but not familiar, tastes increases extracellular acetylcholine (ACh) levels in insular cortex (IC). To further examine whether cholinergic activation is a critical signal of taste novelty, in these studies carbachol, a direct cholinergic agonist, was infused into IC before conditioned taste aversion (CTA) training

Emily Wilkins Clark; Ilene L. Bernstein

2009-01-01

419

Infants' ERP Responses to Novel and Familiar Stimuli Change over Time: Implications for Novelty Detection and Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Detection of novelty is an important cognitive ability early in development, when infants must learn a great deal about their world. Work with adults has identified networks of brain areas involved in novelty detection; this study investigated electro-physiological correlates of detection of novelty and recognition of familiarity in 9-month-old…

Wiebe, Sandra A.; Cheatham, Carol L.; Lukowski, Angela F.; Haight, Jennifer C.; Muehleck, Abigail J.; Bauer, Patricia J.

2006-01-01

420

Improving English as a Foreign Language Writing in Elementary Schools Using Mobile Devices in Familiar Situational Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research proposed a situational learning system to help elementary school students practice and improve their English as a foreign language (EFL) writing skills. Students carried out assigned writing tasks using the support of mobile devices in situations deemed to be familiar to the students, such as on the school playground, within…

Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Chen, Holly S. L.; Shadiev, Rustam; Huang, Ray Yueh-Min; Chen, Chia-Yu

2014-01-01

421

Exploring the Role of Bases and Suffixes when Reading Familiar and Unfamiliar Words: Evidence from French Young Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined whether French third- and fifth-grade children rely on morphemes when recognizing words and whether this reliance depends on word familiarity. We manipulated the presence of bases and suffixes in words and pseudowords to compare their contribution in a lexical decision task. Both bases and suffixes facilitated word reading accuracy and…

Quemart, Pauline; Casalis, Severine; Duncan, Lynne G.

2012-01-01

422

A Mobile Device and Online System with Contextual Familiarity and Its Effects on English Learning on Campus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, a mobile device and online system, StudentPartner, is proposed to help students learn English on campus using multimedia and GPS support. Two activities, exploring the campus in English and English presentation, were designed to stimulate students' deep engagement and interaction with the system. Since students are very familiar…

Cheng, Shu-Chen; Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Wu, Sheng-Yi; Shadiev, Rustam; Xie, Ching-Hwa

2010-01-01

423

Common, and familiar summer visitor to coastal areas (and resident in much of FL). Scarcer inland. Winters  

E-print Network

. Winters in s.; numbers increasing rapidly. Often known as `fish hawk,' is frequently seen hunting, diving, or carrying fish from lakes, rivers, or the ocean. Builds large stick nests on conspicuous man-made nest boxes result in envious fisher- men. Familiar call when flying or sitting - a high-pitched `choop.' ID: Often

Landweber, Laura

424

The coat-tail effect in merged flocks of dark-eyed juncos: social status depends on familiarity  

Microsoft Academic Search

When two groups of social animals combine to form a larger group, new social relationships must be formed. Among dark-eyed juncos,Junco hyemalis hyemalis, it has been reported that most members of one flock attain higher ranks than those of another flock when two groups are combined. A possible mechanism for this effect involves differential treatment of familiar and unfamiliar individuals

DANIEL A. CRISTOL

1995-01-01

425

The presence of an audience modulates responses to familiar call stimuli in the male zebra finch forebrain.  

PubMed

The ability to recognize familiar individuals is crucial for establishing social relationships. The zebra finch, a highly social songbird species that forms lifelong pair bonds, uses a vocalization, the distance call, to identify its mate. However, in males, this ability depends on social conditions, requiring the presence of an audience. To evaluate whether the presence of bystanders modulates the auditory processing underlying recognition abilities, we assessed, by using a lightweight telemetry system, whether electrophysiological responses driven by familiar and unfamiliar female calls in a high-level auditory area [the caudomedial nidopallium (NCM)] were modulated by the presence of conspecific males. Males had experienced the call of their mate for several months and the call of a familiar female for several days. When they were exposed to female calls in the presence of two male conspecifics, NCM neurons showed greater responses to the playback of familiar female calls, including the mate's call, than to unfamiliar ones. In contrast, no such discrimination was observed in males when they were alone or when call-evoked responses were collected under anaesthesia. Together, these results suggest that NCM neuronal activity is profoundly influenced by social conditions, providing new evidence that the properties of NCM neurons are not simply determined by the acoustic structure of auditory stimuli. They also show that neurons in the NCM form part of a network that can be shaped by experience and that probably plays an important role in the emergence of communication sound recognition. PMID:25145963

Menardy, F; Giret, N; Del Negro, C

2014-11-01

426

Role of familiarity and preference in reproductive success in ex situ breeding programs.  

PubMed

Success of captive-breeding programs centers on consistent reproduction among captive animals. However, many individuals do not reproduce even when they are apparently healthy and presented with mates. Mate choice can affect multiple parameters of reproductive success, including mating success, offspring production, offspring survival, and offspring fecundity. We investigated the role of familiarity and preference on reproductive success of female Columbia Basin pygmy rabbits (Brachylagus idahoensis) as measured by litter production, litter size, average number of young that emerged from the burrow, and average number of young that survived to 1 year. We conducted these studies on pygmy rabbits at the Oregon Zoo (Portland, Oregon, U.S.A.) and Washington State University (Pullman, Washington, U.S.A.) from February to June 2006, 2007, and 2008. Before mating, we housed each female adjacent to 2 males (neighbors). Female preference for each potential mate was determined on the basis of behavioral interactions observed and measured between the rabbits. We compared reproductive success between females mated with neighbor and non-neighbor males and between females mated with preferred and nonpreferred males. Our findings suggest that mating with a neighbor compared with a non-neighbor and mating with a preferred neighbor compared with a nonpreferred neighbor increased reproductive success in female pygmy rabbits. Litter production, average number of young that emerged, and average number of young that survived to 1 year were higher in rabbits that were neighbors before mating than in animals who were not neighbors. Pairing rabbits with a preferred partner increased the probability of producing a litter and was significantly associated with increased litter size. In captive breeding programs, mates are traditionally selected on the basis of genetic parameters to minimize loss of genetic diversity and inbreeding coefficients. Our results suggest that integrating genetic information with social dynamics and behavioral measures of preference may increase the reproductive output of the pygmy rabbit captive-breeding program. Our findings are consistent with the idea that allowing mate choice and familiarity increase the reproductive success of captive-breeding programs for endangered species. PMID:22809353

Martin, Meghan S; Shepherdson, David J

2012-08-01

427

The Benefit of Being Naïve and Knowing It: The Unfavourable Impact of Perceived Context Familiarity on Learning in Complex Problem Solving Tasks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research has found that embedding a problem into a familiar context does not necessarily confer an advantage over a novel context in the acquisition of new knowledge about a complex, dynamic system. In fact, it has been shown that a semantically familiar context can be detrimental to knowledge acquisition. This has been described as the…

Beckmann, Jens F.; Goode, Natassia

2014-01-01

428

A new hypothesis for scorpion naviga3on: chemo-textural familiarity. Douglas D. Gaffin & Kyven Zhao; Department of Biology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA 73019  

E-print Network

Navigation Driven by Scene Familiarity. PLoS Computational Biology 8:1-16. Gaffin DD (2011) In situ infrared JE, Barker TN (2012) Initial evidence of path integration in desert sand scorpions. 10th sufficient complexity for navigation via chemo- textural familiarity. � Scorpion habitat has sufficient

Gaffin, Doug

429

Effect of Social Familiarity on Salivary Cortisol and Self-Reports of Social Anxiety and Stress in Children with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effect of social familiarity on salivary cortisol and social anxiety/stress for a sample of children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders. The relationship between self-reported social anxiety/stress and salivary cortisol was also examined. Participants interacted with a familiar peer on one occasion and an…

Lopata, Christopher; Volker, Martin A.; Putnam, Susan K.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Nida, Robert E.

2008-01-01

430

Breeding dispersal in black-headed gull: the value of familiarity in a contrasted environment.  

PubMed

1. Some species (e.g. migratory species with high movement ability) are unlikely to experience any physical cost when dispersing, at least at the landscape scale. In these species dispersal is nevertheless behaviourally constrained to avoid non-physical costs such as the loss of familiarity with the breeding environment, and these constraints can be maladaptive in a fast-changing environment. 2. We evaluated such constraints using multievent modelling of a 20-year capture-mark-recapture data set from a multisite population of black-headed gull (Chroicocephalus ridibundus). The population undertakes seasonal migrations that are very large compared with the size of the study area. 3. Distances between colonies appeared as a strong predictor of breeding adults' dispersal rates, confirming behavioural constraints on dispersal. In addition, birds that had recruited outside their colony of birth (natal dispersers) tended to return to their colony of birth later in life (long-term memory effect). 4. An attraction for larger colonies was also visible in breeding adult dispersal patterns. The fact that distance and memory still constrained dispersal although the largest colony provided higher breeding success indicated departures from the ideal-free distribution, probably linked with the lack of information about distant colonies. Moreover, the regional population apparently functioned as a meta-colony where individuals frequently bred in suboptimal-choice locations before being able to recruit in their preferred colony. PMID:19891713

Péron, Guillaume; Lebreton, Jean-Dominique; Crochet, Pierre-André

2010-03-01

431

A pleasant familiar odor influences perceived stress and peripheral nervous system activity during normal aging  

PubMed Central

Effects of smells on stress have been demonstrated in animals and humans, suggesting that inhaling certain odorants may counteract the negative effects of stress. Because stress plays a key role in cerebral aging, the present study set out to examine whether positive odor effects on perceived stress can be achieved in elderly individuals. To this end, two groups of aged individuals (n = 36 women, aged from 55 to 65 years), were tested. The first group was exposed for 5 days to a pleasant and, by end of exposure, familiar odor (“exposure odor”), whereas the other was exposed to a non-scented control stimulus. Stress and mood states were assessed before and after the 5-day odor exposure period. Psychophysiological markers were also assessed at the end of exposure, in response to the “exposure odor” and to a “new odor.” Results revealed that stress on this second exposure was decreased and zygomatic electromyogram activity was increased specifically in the group previously exposed to the odor (p < 0.05). Taken as a whole, these findings offer a new look at the relationship between perceived stress, olfaction and normal aging, opening up new research perspectives on the effect of olfaction on quality of life and well-being in aged individuals. PMID:24596564

Joussain, Pauline; Rouby, Catherine; Bensafi, Moustafa

2014-01-01

432

A dynamically minimalist cognitive explanation of musical preference: is familiarity everything?  

PubMed

This paper examines the idea that attraction to music is generated at a cognitive level through the formation and activation of networks of interlinked "nodes." Although the networks involved are vast, the basic mechanism for activating the links is relatively simple. Two comprehensive cognitive-behavioral models of musical engagement are examined with the aim of identifying the underlying cognitive mechanisms and processes involved in musical experience. A "dynamical minimalism" approach (after Nowak, 2004) is applied to re-interpret musical engagement (listening, performing, composing, or imagining any of these) and to revise the latest version of the reciprocal-feedback model (RFM) of music processing. Specifically, a single cognitive mechanism of "spreading activation" through previously associated networks is proposed as a pleasurable outcome of musical engagement. This mechanism underlies the dynamic interaction of the various components of the RFM, and can thereby explain the generation of positive affects in the listener's musical experience. This includes determinants of that experience stemming from the characteristics of the individual engaging in the musical activity (whether listener, composer, improviser, or performer), the situation and contexts (e.g., social factors), and the music (e.g., genre, structural features). The theory calls for new directions for future research, two being (1) further investigation of the components of the RFM to better understand musical experience and (2) more rigorous scrutiny of common findings about the salience of familiarity in musical experience and preference. PMID:24567723

Schubert, Emery; Hargreaves, David J; North, Adrian C

2014-01-01

433

Consistency of Leadership in Shoals of Mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) in Novel and in Familiar Environments  

PubMed Central

In social animal groups, an individual's spatial position is a major determinant of both predation risk and foraging rewards. Additionally, the occupation of positions in the front of moving groups is generally assumed to correlate with the initiation of group movements. However, whether some individuals are predisposed to consistently occupy certain positions and, in some instances, to consistently lead groups over time is as yet unresolved in many species. Using the mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki), we examined the consistency of individuals' spatial positions within a moving group over successive trials. We found that certain individuals consistently occupied front positions in moving groups and also that it was typically these individuals that initiated group decisions. The number of individuals involved in leading the group varied according to the amount of information held by group members, with a greater number of changes in leadership in a novel compared to a relatively familiar environment. Finally, our results show that the occupation of lead positions in moving groups was not explained by characteristics such as dominance, size or sex, suggesting that certain individuals are predisposed to leadership roles. This suggests that being a leader or a follower may to some extent be an intrinsic property of the individual. PMID:22590568

Burns, Alicia L. J.; Herbert-Read, James E.; Morrell, Lesley J.; Ward, Ashley J. W.

2012-01-01

434

Fortalezas Familiares Program: Building sociocultural and family strengths in Latina women with depression and their families  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this article is to describe Fortalezas Familiares (FF; Family Strengths), a community-based prevention program designed to address relational family processes and promote wellbeing among Latino families when a mother has depression. Although depression in Latina women is becoming increasingly recognized, risk and protective mechanisms associated with children’s outcomes when a mother has depression are not well understood for Latino families. We begin by reviewing the literature on risk and protective psychosocial mechanisms by which maternal depression may affect Latino youth, using family systems theory and a developmental psychopathology framework with an emphasis on sociocultural factors shaping family processes. Next, we describe the theoretical basis and development of the FF program, a community-based 12-week intervention for Latina immigrant women with depression, other caregivers, and their children. Throughout this article, we use a case study to illustrate a Latina mother’s vulnerability to depression and the family’s response to the FF program. Recommendations for future research and practice include consideration of sociocultural processes in shaping both outcomes of Latino families and their response to interventions. PMID:24033237

Valdez, Carmen R.; Abegglen, Jessica; Hauser, Claire T.

2013-01-01

435

Consumer fears and familiarity of processed food. The value of information provided by the FTNS.  

PubMed

Food choice and consumption behaviour are influenced by many interacting factors. In this paper we present an empirical effort to enhance understanding of the neophobia-neophilia forces affecting food choice. Starting from the analysis of consumer preferences for some of the most familiar highly processed foods, namely fat-reduced, functional (enriched drinks and yogurt) and ready-to-eat frozen food, our study investigates the role of traditional demographic variables vs attitudes to new food technologies in predicting the consumption behaviour of a sample of Italians buying such products. Consumer attitudes toward food technologies were collected by means of the Food Technology Neophobia Scale (FTNS). Moreover, this paper explicitly analyses the value of the information provided by the FTNS. Underlying the research is the hypothesis that the FTNS may contribute to provide a comprehensive picture of the driving forces behind consumers' behavioural responses towards processed foods which are the end-result of mature technologies. The four FTNS components, once measured and used independently, help clarify the influence on food choices of each neophobia-neophilia force (risk perception and novelty seeking, media influence, own health and environmental concerns) into a single, comprehensive framework. PMID:24231427

Verneau, Fabio; Caracciolo, Francesco; Coppola, Adele; Lombardi, Pasquale

2014-02-01

436

Newborn Rabbit Perception of 6-Odorant Mixtures Depends on Configural Processing and Number of Familiar Elements  

PubMed Central

Perception of odors, i.e. usually of mixtures of odorants, is elemental (the odorants' odor qualities are perceived in the mixture) or configural (the odor quality of the mixture differs from the one of each odorant). In human adults, the Red Cordial (RC) mixture is a configurally-processed, 6-odorant mixture. It evokes a red cordial odor quality while none of the elements carries that odor. Interestingly, in newborn rabbits, the same RC mixture is weak configurally perceived: the newborns behaviorally respond to all the elements after conditioning to the whole mixture, but not to the mixture after conditioning to a single element. Thus, they perceive in the RC mixture both the odor quality of the RC configuration and the quality of each element. Here, we aimed to determine whether this perception is modulated by quantitative (number of elements) and/or qualitative bits of information (nature of elements) previously learned by the animals. Newborns were conditioned to RC sub-mixtures of different complexity and composition before behavioral testing to RC. Pups generalized their sucking-related response to RC after learning at least 4 odorants. In contrast, after conditioning to sub-mixtures of another 6-odorant mixture, the elementally perceived MV mixture, pups responded to MV after learning one or two odorants. The different generalization to RC and MV mixtures after learning some of their elements is discussed according to three hypotheses: i) the configural perception of RC sub-mixtures, ii) the ratio of familiar/unfamiliar individual information elementally and configurally perceived, iii) the perception of RC becoming purely elemental. The results allow the first hypothesis to be dismissed, while further experiments are required to distinguish between the remaining two. PMID:25248149

Romagny, Sebastien; Thomas-Danguin, Thierry; Coureaud, Gerard

2014-01-01

437

Familiarity with breeding habitat improves daily survival in colonial cliff swallows.  

PubMed

One probable cost of dispersing to a new breeding habitat is unfamiliarity with local conditions such as the whereabouts of food or the habits of local predators, and consequently immigrants may have lower probabilities of survival than more experienced residents. Within a breeding season, estimated daily survival probabilities of cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) at colonies in southwestern Nebraska were highest for birds that had always nested at the same site, followed by those for birds that had nested there in some (but not all) past years. Daily survival probabilities were lowest for birds that were naïve immigrants to a colony site and for yearling birds that were nesting for the first time. Birds with past experience at a colony site had monthly survival 8.6% greater than that of naïve immigrants. All colonies where experienced residents did better than immigrants were smaller than 750 nests in size, and in colonies greater than 750 nests, naïve immigrants paid no survival costs relative to experienced residents. Removal of nest ectoparasites by fumigation resulted in higher survival probabilities for all birds, on average, and diminished the differences between immigrants and past residents, probably by improving bird condition to the extent that effects of past experience were relatively less important and harder to detect. The greater survival of experienced residents could not be explained by condition or territory quality, suggesting that familiarity with a local area confers survival advantages during the breeding season for cliff swallows. Colonial nesting may help to moderate the cost of unfamiliarity with an area, likely through social transfer of information about food sources and enhanced vigilance in large groups. PMID:19802326

Brown, Charles R; Brown, Mary Bomberger; Brazeal, Kathleen R

2008-10-01

438

Familiarity with breeding habitat improves daily survival in colonial cliff swallows  

PubMed Central

One probable cost of dispersing to a new breeding habitat is unfamiliarity with local conditions such as the whereabouts of food or the habits of local predators, and consequently immigrants may have lower probabilities of survival than more experienced residents. Within a breeding season, estimated daily survival probabilities of cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) at colonies in southwestern Nebraska were highest for birds that had always nested at the same site, followed by those for birds that had nested there in some (but not all) past years. Daily survival probabilities were lowest for birds that were naïve immigrants to a colony site and for yearling birds that were nesting for the first time. Birds with past experience at a colony site had monthly survival 8.6% greater than that of naïve immigrants. All colonies where experienced residents did better than immigrants were smaller than 750 nests in size, and in colonies greater than 750 nests, naïve immigrants paid no survival costs relative to experienced residents. Removal of nest ectoparasites by fumigation resulted in higher survival probabilities for all birds, on average, and diminished the differences between immigrants and past residents, probably by improving bird condition to the extent that effects of past experience were relatively less important and harder to detect. The greater survival of experienced residents could not be explained by condition or territory quality, suggesting that familiarity with a local area confers survival advantages during the breeding season for cliff swallows. Colonial nesting may help to moderate the cost of unfamiliarity with an area, likely through social transfer of information about food sources and enhanced vigilance in large groups. PMID:19802326

BROWN, CHARLES R.; BROWN, MARY BOMBERGER; BRAZEAL, KATHLEEN R.

2008-01-01

439

Déjà vu experiences in healthy subjects are unrelated to laboratory tests of recollection and familiarity for word stimuli.  

PubMed

Recent neuropsychological and neuroscientific research suggests that people who experience more déjà vu display characteristic patterns in normal recognition memory. We conducted a large individual differences study (n = 206) to test these predictions using recollection and familiarity parameters recovered from a standard memory task. Participants reported déjà vu frequency and a number of its correlates, and completed a recognition memory task analogous to a Remember-Know procedure. The individual difference measures replicated an established correlation between déjà vu frequency and frequency of travel, and recognition performance showed well-established word frequency and accuracy effects. Contrary to predictions, no relationships were found between déjà vu frequency and recollection or familiarity memory parameters from the recognition test. We suggest that déjà vu in the healthy population reflects a mismatch between errant memory signaling and memory monitoring processes not easily characterized by standard recognition memory task performance. PMID:24409159

O'Connor, Akira R; Moulin, Chris J A

2013-01-01

440

Déjà vu experiences in healthy subjects are unrelated to laboratory tests of recollection and familiarity for word stimuli  

PubMed Central

Recent neuropsychological and neuroscientific research suggests that people who experience more déjà vu display characteristic patterns in normal recognition memory. We conducted a large individual differences study (n = 206) to test these predictions using recollection and familiarity parameters recovered from a standard memory task. Participants reported déjà vu frequency and a number of its correlates, and completed a recognition memory task analogous to a Remember-Know procedure. The individual difference measures replicated an established correlation between déjà vu frequency and frequency of travel, and recognition performance showed well-established word frequency and accuracy effects. Contrary to predictions, no relationships were found between déjà vu frequency and recollection or familiarity memory parameters from the recognition test. We suggest that déjà vu in the healthy population reflects a mismatch between errant memory signaling and memory monitoring processes not easily characterized by standard recognition memory task performance. PMID:24409159

O’Connor, Akira R.; Moulin, Chris J. A.

2013-01-01

441

How Useful are the Concepts of Familiarity, Biological Integrity, and Ecosystem Health for Evaluating Damages by GM Crops?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the discussion about consequences of the release of genetically modified (GM) crops, the meaning of the term “environmental\\u000a damage” is difficult to pin down. We discuss some established concepts and criteria for understanding and evaluating such\\u000a damages. Focusing on the concepts of familiarity, biological integrity, and ecosystem health, we argue that, for the most\\u000a part, these concepts are highly

Ulrich Heink; Robert Bartz; Ingo Kowarik

442

Schooling decisions in guppies ( Poecilia reticulata ) are based on familiarity rather than kin recognition by phenotype matching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence from a number of freshwater species indicates that fish prefer to school with familiar individuals. Do they also\\u000a choose to associate with kin? Our experiment tested this idea using the Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata, a species whose reproductive biology favours the association of kin groups. Juveniles reared together were able to recognise\\u000a one another on the basis of either

Siân W. Griffiths; Anne E. Magurran

1999-01-01

443

The contribution of recollection and familiarity to yesno and forced-choice recognition tests in healthy subjects and amnesics  

E-print Network

that recognition is impaired [3,9±11,13,19,24]. In a recent meta-analysis of amnesic data, Aggleton and Shaw [1¯ect the fact that the test relies more heavily on assessments of familiarity, a process that is relatively¯ect the fact that the test is based on a forced-choice procedure. This type of procedure may rely more heavily

Dobbins, Ian G.

444

The Impact of Audience Age and Familiarity on Children's Drawings of Themselves in Contrasting Affective States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study was designed to investigate the impact of familiarity and audience age on children's self-presentation in self-drawings of happy, sad and neutral figures. Two hundred children (100 girls and 100 boys) with the average age of 8 years 2 months, ranging from 6 years 3 months to 10 years 1 month, formed two age groups and five…

Burkitt, Esther; Watling, Dawn

2013-01-01

445

Medial temporal lobe function and recognition memory: A novel approach to separating the contribution of recollection and familiarity  

PubMed Central

Human neuroimaging studies of recognition memory have often been interpreted to mean that the hippocampus supports recollection but not familiarity. This interpretation is complicated by the fact that recollection-based decisions are typically associated with stronger memories than familiarity-based decisions. Some studies of source memory controlled for this difference in memory strength and found that hippocampal activity during learning predicted subsequent item memory strength while recollection-based memory (performance on source memory questions) was held at chance. This result suggested that the hippocampus is important for familiarity. However, a difficulty with this approach is that when source memory is assessed by asking specific, task-relevant source memory questions, participants who fail to answer the prescribed questions might nevertheless have available other (task-irrelevant) source information. Accordingly, successful item memory could still be associated with recollection. The present study used a novel method to assess item memory and source memory. Instead of responding to specific source questions, participants rated their source memory strength based on any information about the learning episode that was available to them. When subsequent source memory strength was held constant at the lowest possible level, we identified regions bilaterally in hippocampus, as well as in perirhinal cortex, where activity during learning increased as subsequent item memory increased in strength. In addition, activity in cortical regions (including prefrontal cortex) was related to source memory success independently of item memory strength. These findings suggest that activity in the hippocampus is related to the encoding of familiarity-based item memory, independently of subsequent recollection-based success. PMID:22049444

SONG, Z.; JENESON, A.; SQUIRE, L. R.

2011-01-01

446

Derechos Bsicos de Ausencia La Ley de Ausencia Familiar y Mdica (FMLA-por sus siglas en ingls) exige  

E-print Network

Derechos Básicos de Ausencia La Ley de Ausencia Familiar y Médica (FMLA-por sus siglas en inglés condición de salud seria que le impida al empleado desempeñar su puesto. Derechos de Ausencia Para Familias avisado de una llamada a estado de servicio activo bajo cobertura pueden usar su derecho de ausencia de 12

Rock, Chris

447

Instantánea del cáncer colorrectal  

Cancer.gov

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer colorrectal; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

448

Visual laterality in belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) and Pacific white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens) when viewing familiar and unfamiliar humans.  

PubMed

Lateralization of cognitive processes and motor functions has been demonstrated in a number of species, including humans, elephants, and cetaceans. For example, bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) have exhibited preferential eye use during a variety of cognitive tasks. The present study investigated the possibility of visual lateralization in 12 belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) and six Pacific white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens) located at two separate marine mammal facilities. During free swim periods, the belugas and Pacific white-sided dolphins were presented a familiar human, an unfamiliar human, or no human during 10-15 min sessions. Session videos were coded for gaze duration, eye presentation at approach, and eye preference while viewing each stimulus. Although we did not find any clear group level lateralization, we found individual left eye lateralized preferences related to social stimuli for most belugas and some Pacific white-sided dolphins. Differences in gaze durations were also observed. The majority of individual belugas had longer gaze durations for unfamiliar rather than familiar stimuli. These results suggest that lateralization occurs during visual processing of human stimuli in belugas and Pacific white-sided dolphins and that these species can distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar humans. PMID:24831888

Yeater, Deirdre B; Hill, Heather M; Baus, Natalie; Farnell, Heather; Kuczaj, Stan A

2014-11-01

449

Neural processing of recollection, familiarity and priming at encoding: evidence from a forced-choice recognition paradigm.  

PubMed

The distinction between neural mechanisms of explicit and implicit expressions of memory has been well studied at the retrieval stage, but less at encoding. In addition, dissociations obtained in many studies are complicated by methodological difficulties in obtaining process-pure measures of different types of memory. In this experiment, we applied a subsequent memory paradigm and a two-stage forced-choice recognition test to classify study ERP data into four categories: subsequent remembered (later retrieved accompanied by detailed information), subsequent known (later retrieved accompanied by a feeling of familiarity), subsequent primed (later retrieved without conscious awareness) and subsequent forgotten (not retrieved). Differences in subsequent memory effects (DM effects) were measured by comparing ERP waveform associated with later memory based on recollection, familiarity or priming with ERP waveform for later forgotten items. The recollection DM effect involved a robust sustained (onset at 300 ms) prefrontal positive-going DM effect which was right-lateralized, and a later (onset at 800 ms) occipital negative-going DM effect. Familiarity involved an earlier (300-400 ms) prefrontal positive-going DM effect and a later (500-600 ms) parietal positive-going DM effect. Priming involved a negative-going DM effect which onset at 600 ms, mainly distributed over anterior brain sites. These results revealed a sequence of components that represented cognitive processes underlying the encoding of verbal information into episodic memory, and separately supported later remembering, knowing and priming. PMID:25139420

Meng, Yingfang; Ye, Xiaohong; Gonsalves, Brian D

2014-10-17

450

Expert athletes activate somatosensory and motor planning regions of the brain when passively listening to familiar sports sounds.  

PubMed

The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study examined the neural response to familiar and unfamiliar, sport and non-sport environmental sounds in expert and novice athletes. Results revealed differential neural responses dependent on sports expertise. Experts had greater neural activation than novices in focal sensorimotor areas such as the supplementary motor area, and pre- and postcentral gyri. Novices showed greater activation than experts in widespread areas involved in perception (i.e. supramarginal, middle occipital, and calcarine gyri; precuneus; inferior and superior parietal lobules), and motor planning and processing (i.e. inferior frontal, middle frontal, and middle temporal gyri). These between-group neural differences also appeared as an expertise effect within specific conditions. Experts showed greater activation than novices during the sport familiar condition in regions responsible for auditory and motor planning, including the inferior frontal gyrus and the parietal operculum. Novices only showed greater activation than experts in the supramarginal gyrus and pons during the non-sport unfamiliar condition, and in the middle frontal gyrus during the sport unfamiliar condition. These results are consistent with the view that expert athletes are attuned to only the most familiar, highly relevant sounds and tune out unfamiliar, irrelevant sounds. Furthermore, these findings that athletes show activation in areas known to be involved in action planning when passively listening to sounds suggests that auditory perception of action can lead to the re-instantiation of neural areas involved in producing these actions, especially if someone has expertise performing the actions. PMID:24732956

Woods, Elizabeth A; Hernandez, Arturo E; Wagner, Victoria E; Beilock, Sian L

2014-06-01

451

Knowing your partner is not enough: spousal importance moderates the link between attitude familiarity and ambulatory blood pressure.  

PubMed

Close relationships have been linked to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. More research is needed, however, on the social and biological processes responsible for such links. In this study, we examined the role of relationship-based attitudinal processes (i.e., attitude familiarity and partner importance) on ambulatory blood pressure during daily life. Forty-seven married couples completed a questionnaire regarding their own attitudes, perceptions of their partner's attitudes, and perceptions of partner importance. They also underwent a 1-day ambulatory assessments of daily spousal interactions and blood pressure. Partner importance was related to better interpersonal functioning (e.g., partner responsiveness) and lower ambulatory systolic blood pressure. More interestingly, partner importance moderated the links between attitude familiarity and both ambulatory systolic and diastolic blood pressure. This statistical interaction revealed that simply knowing a partner's attitudes was not enough as partner knowledge was primarily related to lower ambulatory blood pressure when they were also viewed as more important. These data are discussed in light of how attitude familiarity and spousal importance may jointly influence health outcomes and the social-cognitive mechanisms potentially responsible for such links. PMID:22714654

Uchino, Bert N; Sanbonmatsu, David M; Birmingham, Wendy

2013-12-01

452

The effect of a fictitious peer on young children's choice of familiar v. unfamiliar low- and high-energy-dense foods.  

PubMed

The present experimental study was the first to investigate the impact of a remote (non-existent) peer on children's food choice of familiar v. unfamiliar low- and high-energy-dense food products. In a computer task, children (n 316; 50·3 % boys; mean age 7·13 (SD 0·75) years) were asked to choose between pictures of familiar and unfamiliar foods in four different choice blocks using the following pairs: (1) familiar v. unfamiliar low-energy-dense foods (fruits and vegetables), (2) familiar v. unfamiliar high-energy-dense foods (high sugar, salt and/or fat content), (3) familiar low-energy-dense v. unfamiliar high-energy-dense foods and (4) unfamiliar low-energy-dense v. familiar high-energy-dense foods. Participants who were not in the control group were exposed to the food choices (either always the familiar or always the unfamiliar food product) of a same-sex and same-age fictitious peer who was supposedly completing the same task at another school. The present study provided insights into children's choices between (un)familiar low- and high-energy-dense foods in an everyday situation. The findings revealed that the use of fictitious peers increased children's willingness to try unfamiliar foods, although children tended to choose high-energy-dense foods over low-energy-dense foods. Intervention programmes that use peer influence to focus on improving children's choice of healthy foods should take into account children's strong aversion to unfamiliar low-energy-dense foods as well as their general preference for familiar and unfamiliar high-energy-dense foods. PMID:22313605

Bevelander, Kirsten E; Anschütz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E

2012-09-28

453

INCLUSI?N DE LA ?TICA Y BIO?TICA EN LA FORMACI?N DE PRE Y POSGRADO DEL CIRUJANO-DENTISTA EN PER?  

PubMed Central

Se revisan aspectos de la inclusión de la ética y bioética en la formación de pre y posgrado del cirujano-dentista en Perú. Desde el punto de vista de la formación del docente, se analiza la presencia de normatividad ética en la investigación científica que genera la universidad, así como los conocimientos y actitudes vinculados con la ética y bioética en la formación del odontólogo. Se concluye que es un compromiso fomentar un cambio de paradigma, a través de un movimiento masivo que involucre los ámbitos familiar, profesional y académico, con el n de integrar la reflexión ética en nuestro diario proceder. PMID:19946384

Rupaya, Carmen Rosa Garcia

2009-01-01

454

Mineralogy and instrumental neutron activation analysis of seven National Bureau of Standards and three Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas clay reference samples  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The concentrations of 3 oxides and 29 elements in 7 National Bureau of Standards (NBS) and 3 Instituto de Pesquisas Techno16gicas (IPT) reference clay samples were etermined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The analytical work was designed to test the homogeneity of constituents in three new NBS reference clays, NBS-97b, NBS-98b, and NBS-679. The analyses of variance of 276 sets of data for these three standards show that the constituents are distributed homogeneously among bottles of samples for 94 percent of the sets of data. Three of the reference samples (NBS-97, NBS-97a, and NBS-97b) are flint clays; four of the samples (NBS-98, NBS-98a, NBS-98b, and IPT-32) are plastic clays, and three of the samples (NBS-679, IPT-28, and IPT-42) are miscellaneous clays (both sedimentary and residual). Seven clays are predominantly kaolinite; the other three clays contain illite and kaolinite in the approximate ratio 3:2. Seven clays contain quartz as the major nonclay mineral. The mineralogy of the flint and plastic clays from Missouri (NBS-97a and NBS-98a) differs markedly from that of the flint and plastic clays from Pennsylvania (NBS-97, NBS-97b, NBS-98, and NBS-98b). The flint clay NBS-97 has higher average chromium, hafnium, lithium, and zirconium contents than its replacement, reference sample NBS-97b. The differences between the plastic clay NBS-98 and its replacement, NBS-98b, are not as pronounced. The trace element contents of the flint and plastic clays from Missouri, NBS-97a and NBS-98a, differ significantly from those of the clays from Pennsylvania, especially the average rare earth element (REE) contents. The trace element contents of clay sample IPT-32 differ from those of the other plastic clays. IPT-28 and IPT-42 have some average trace element contents that differ not only between these two samples but also from all the other clays. IPT-28 has the highest summation of the average REE contents of the 10 samples. The uranium content of NBS-98a, 46 parts per million, is very much higher than that of the other clays. Plots of average REE contents of the flint and plastic clays, normalized to chondritic abundances, show that the clays from Missouri differ from the same types of clay from Pennsylvania. The plot of REE contents for the miscellaneous clays shows that the normalized means for the elements lanthanum through samarium for IPT-28 are much greater than those for the other miscellaneous clays. The means for the elements europium through lutetium are similar for all three miscellaneous clays.

Hosterman, John W.; Flanagan, F.J.; Bragg, Anne; Doughten, M.W.; Filby, R.H.; Grimm, Catherine; Mee, J.S.; Potts, P.J.; Rogers, N.W.

1987-01-01

455

Un estudio de los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud indica que dos dosis de vacuna contra los VPH pueden proteger tanto como el tratamiento completo  

Cancer.gov

Dos dosis de Cervarix, la vacuna contra virus del papiloma humano (VPH), fueron tan efectivas como la pauta normal actual de tres dosis después de cuatro años de seguimiento. El estudio de vacuna en Costa Rica, patrocinado por el NCI, fue diseñado para evaluar la eficacia de Cervarix en una población determinada.

456

Familiarization, reliability, and evaluation of a multiple sprint running test using self-selected recovery periods.  

PubMed

The aims of the present study were to investigate the process of self-selected recovery in a multiple sprint test with a view to using self-selected recovery time as a means of reliably quantifying an individual's ability to resist fatigue in this type of exercise. Twenty physically active exercise science students (means ± SD for age, height, body mass, body fat, and VO2max of the subjects were 21 ± 2 yr, 1.79 ± 0.09 m, 83.7 ± 10.8 kg, 16.6 ± 3.9%, and 52.7 ± 7.2 ml·kg·min, respectively) completed 4 trials of a 12 × 30 m multiple sprint running test under the instruction that they should allow sufficient recovery time between sprints to enable maximal sprint performance to be maintained throughout each trial. Mean recovery times across the 4 trials were 73.9 ± 24.7, 82.3 ± 23.8, 77.6 ± 19.1, and 77.5 ± 13.9 seconds, respectively, with variability across the first 3 trials considered evidence of learning effects. Test-retest reliability across trials 3 to 4 revealed a good level of reliability as evidenced by a coefficient of variation of 11.1% (95% likely range: 8.0-18.1%) and an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.76 (95% likely range: 0.40-0.91). Despite no change in sprint performance throughout the trials, ratings of perceived exertion increased progressively and significantly (p < 0.001) from a value of 10 ± 2 after sprint 3 to 14 ± 2 after sprint 12. The correlation between relative VO2max and mean recovery time was 0.14 (95% likely range: -0.37-0.58). The results of the present study show that after the completion of 2 familiarization trials, the ability to maintain sprinting performance in a series of repeated sprints can be self-regulated by an athlete to a high degree of accuracy without the need for external timepieces. PMID:19966582

Glaister, Mark; Witmer, Chad; Clarke, Dustin W; Guers, John J; Heller, Justin L; Moir, Gavin L

2010-12-01

457

Un estudio financiado por los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud (NIH) muestra reducción en la mortalidad entre hombres con cáncer de próstata en grado intermedio:  

Cancer.gov

Terapia hormonal por corto tiempo administrada en combinación con radioterapia a hombres con cáncer de próstata en estadio inicial aumentó sus posibilidades de vivir más en comparación con tratamiento de radioterapia sola, según un estudio clínico patrocinado por el NCI. Los beneficios del tratamiento combinado se limitaron principalmente a pacientes con enfermedad de riesgo intermedio y no se observaron en hombres con cáncer de próstata de riesgo bajo, indican los investigadores.

458

Human motion characteristics in relation to feeling familiar or frightened during an announced short interaction with a proactive humanoid  

PubMed Central

During an unannounced encounter between two humans and a proactive humanoid (NAO, Aldebaran Robotics), we study the dependencies between the human partners' affective experience (measured via the answers to a questionnaire) particularly regarding feeling familiar and feeling frightened, and their arm and head motion [frequency and smoothness using Inertial Measurement Units (IMU)]. NAO starts and ends its interaction with its partners by non-verbally greeting them hello (bowing) and goodbye (moving its arm). The robot is invested with a real and useful task to perform: handing each participant an envelope containing a questionnaire they need to answer. NAO's behavior varies from one partner to the other (Smooth with X vs. Resisting with Y). The results show high positive correlations between feeling familiar while interacting with the robot and: the frequency and smoothness of the human arm movement when waving back goodbye, as well as the smoothness of the head during the whole encounter. Results also show a negative dependency between feeling frightened and the frequency of the human arm movement when waving back goodbye. The principal component analysis (PCA) suggests that, in regards to the various motion measures examined in this paper, the head smoothness and the goodbye gesture frequency are the most reliable measures when it comes to considering the familiar experienced by the participants. The PCA also points out the irrelevance of the goodbye motion frequency when investigating the participants' experience of fear in its relation to their motion characteristics. The results are discussed in light of the major findings of studies on body movements and postures accompanying specific emotions. PMID:24688466

Baddoura, Ritta; Venture, Gentiane

2014-01-01

459

Human motion characteristics in relation to feeling familiar or frightened during an announced short interaction with a proactive humanoid.  

PubMed

During an unannounced encounter between two humans and a proactive humanoid (NAO, Aldebaran Robotics), we study the dependencies between the human partners' affective experience (measured via the answers to a questionnaire) particularly regarding feeling familiar and feeling frightened, and their arm and head motion [frequency and smoothness using Inertial Measurement Units (IMU)]. NAO starts and ends its interaction with its partners by non-verbally greeting them hello (bowing) and goodbye (moving its arm). The robot is invested with a real and useful task to perform: handing each participant an envelope containing a questionnaire they need to answer. NAO's behavior varies from one partner to the other (Smooth with X vs. Resisting with Y). The results show high positive correlations between feeling familiar while interacting with the robot and: the frequency and smoothness of the human arm movement when waving back goodbye, as well as the smoothness of the head during the whole encounter. Results also show a negative dependency between feeling frightened and the frequency of the human arm movement when waving back goodbye. The principal component analysis (PCA) suggests that, in regards to the various motion measures examined in this paper, the head smoothness and the goodbye gesture frequency are the most reliable measures when it comes to considering the familiar experienced by the participants. The PCA also points out the irrelevance of the goodbye motion frequency when investigating the participants' experience of fear in its relation to their motion characteristics. The results are discussed in light of the major findings of studies on body movements and postures accompanying specific emotions. PMID:24688466

Baddoura, Ritta; Venture, Gentiane

2014-01-01

460

Avoiding Systematic Errors in Isometric Squat-Related Studies without Pre-Familiarization by Using Sufficient Numbers of Trials  

PubMed Central

There is no scientific evidence in the literature indicating that maximal isometric strength measures can be assessed within 3 trials. We questioned whether the results of isometric squat-related studies in which maximal isometric squat strength (MISS) testing was performed using limited numbers of trials without pre-familiarization might have included systematic errors, especially those resulting from acute learning effects. Forty resistance-trained male participants performed 8 isometric squat trials without pre-familiarization. The highest measures in the first “n” trials (3 ? n ? 8) of these 8 squats were regarded as MISS obtained using 6 different MISS test methods featuring different numbers of trials (The Best of n Trials Method [BnT]). When B3T and B8T were paired with other methods, high reliability was found between the paired methods in terms of intraclass correlation coefficients (0.93–0.98) and coefficients of variation (3.4–7.0%). The Wilcoxon’s signed rank test indicated that MISS obtained using B3T and B8T were lower (p < 0.001) and higher (p < 0.001), respectively, than those obtained using other methods. The Bland-Altman method revealed a lack of agreement between any of the paired methods. Simulation studies illustrated that increasing the number of trials to 9–10 using a relatively large sample size (i.e., ? 24) could be an effective means of obtaining the actual MISS values of the participants. The common use of a limited number of trials in MISS tests without pre-familiarization appears to have no solid scientific base. Our findings suggest that the number of trials should be increased in commonly used MISS tests to avoid learning effect-related systematic errors.

Pekünlü, Ekim; Özsu, ?lbilge

2014-01-01

461

Temas y rumbos del teatro rural hispanoamericano del siglo XX.  

E-print Network

de peculiaridades fonéticas. Son pocos, en realidad, los autores de dramas campesinos que no se han servido del pintoresco lenguaje del campo.1 Algunos autores utilizan fábulas del acervo folklórico para montar piezas de teatro con el fin de...

Neglia, Erminio G.

1971-10-01

462

¿Seguimos descuidando a los padres? El papel del padre en la dinámica familiar y su influencia en el bienestar psíquico de sus componentes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Title: Are we still neglecting fathers? the role of the father in family dy- namics and its impact on family member's psychological well-being. Abstract: A review of the research carried out on fatherhood in the last 30 years is described in this article. From the first descriptive-comparative studies on how fathers and mothers behave toward their children, the field has

Sagrario Yárnoz Yaben

2006-01-01

463

Investigación translacional para generar datos a favor de la introducción racional y eficiente de vacunas nuevas en países en vías de desarrollo: La experiencia del Instituto Internacional de Vacunas  

Microsoft Academic Search

ExtractoEn los últimos años, la introducción de vacunas nuevas en países opulentos ha tenido lugar a un ritmo asombroso. En comparación, se han introducido pocas vacunas de nueva generación en los programas de salud pública para los pobres de los países en vías de desarrollo, y para aquéllos que sí los tienen, la introducción ha sido penosamente lenta. Los recursos

John Clemens

2008-01-01

464

Vistazos Intimos De Puebla; Una Compilacion De Informes Individuales Preparados Por Los Participantes Del Instituto De Verano (NDEA) (Close-ups on Puebla; A Compilation of Individual Reports Prepared by the Participants of the NDEA Summer Institute).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The individual and committee reports on the sociology of Puebla, Mexico, which are collected here, were written by participants in an NDEA Summer Institute program of the University of Wichita, Kansas. The underlying motives of the program, described in the preface, were to provide participants with real language experience and a chance to…

Wichita State Univ., KS.

465

Knowing too little or too much: the effects of familiarity with a co-performer's part on interpersonal coordination in musical ensembles  

PubMed Central

Expert ensemble musicians produce exquisitely coordinated sounds, but rehearsal is typically required to do so. Ensemble coordination may thus be influenced by the degree to which individuals are familiar with each other's parts. Such familiarity may affect the ability to predict and synchronize with co-performers' actions. Internal models related to action simulation and anticipatory musical imagery may be affected by knowledge of (1) the musical structure of a co-performer's part (e.g., in terms of its rhythm and phrase structure) and/or (2) the co-performer's idiosyncratic playing style (e.g., expressive micro-timing variations). The current study investigated the effects of familiarity on interpersonal coordination in piano duos. Skilled pianists were required to play several duets with different partners. One condition included duets for which co-performers had previously practiced both parts, while another condition included duets for which each performer had practiced only their own part. Each piece was recorded six times without joint rehearsal or visual contact to examine the effects of increasing familiarity. Interpersonal coordination was quantified by measuring asynchronies between pianists' keystroke timing and the correlation of their body (head and torso) movements, which were recorded with a motion capture system. The results suggest that familiarity with a co-performer's part, in the absence of familiarity with their playing style, engenders predictions about micro-timing variations that are based instead upon one's own playing style, leading to a mismatch between predictions and actual events at short timescales. Predictions at longer timescales—that is, those related to musical measures and phrases, and reflected in head movements and body sway—are, however, facilitated by familiarity with the structure of a co-performer's part. These findings point to a dissociation between interpersonal coordination at the level of keystrokes and body movements. PMID:23805116

Ragert, Marie; Schroeder, Tim; Keller, Peter E.

2013-01-01

466

Knowing too little or too much: the effects of familiarity with a co-performer's part on interpersonal coordination in musical ensembles.  

PubMed

Expert ensemble musicians produce exquisitely coordinated sounds, but rehearsal is typically required to do so. Ensemble coordination may thus be influenced by the degree to which individuals are familiar with each other's parts. Such familiarity may affect the ability to predict and synchronize with co-performers' actions. Internal models related to action simulation and anticipatory musical imagery may be affected by knowledge of (1) the musical structure of a co-performer's part (e.g., in terms of its rhythm and phrase structure) and/or (2) the co-performer's idiosyncratic playing style (e.g., expressive micro-timing variations). The current study investigated the effects of familiarity on interpersonal coordination in piano duos. Skilled pianists were required to play several duets with different partners. One condition included duets for which co-performers had previously practiced both parts, while another condition included duets for which each performer had practiced only their own part. Each piece was recorded six times without joint rehearsal or visual contact to examine the effects of increasing familiarity. Interpersonal coordination was quantified by measuring asynchronies between pianists' keystroke timing and the correlation of their body (head and torso) movements, which were recorded with a motion capture system. The results suggest that familiarity with a co-performer's part, in the absence of familiarity with their playing style, engenders predictions about micro-timing variations that are based instead upon one's own playing style, leading to a mismatch between predictions and actual events at short timescales. Predictions at longer timescales-that is, those related to musical measures and phrases, and reflected in head movements and body sway-are, however, facilitated by familiarity with the structure of a co-performer's part. These findings point to a dissociation between interpersonal coordination at the level of keystrokes and body movements. PMID:23805116

Ragert, Marie; Schroeder, Tim; Keller, Peter E

2013-01-01

467

Centrally-administered oxytocin promotes preference for familiar objects at a short delay in ovariectomized female rats.  

PubMed

Oxytocin has been previously associated with social attachment behaviors in various species, however, most studies focused on partner preference in the socially-monogamous prairie vole. In these, oxytocin treatment was shown to promote partner preference, such that females receiving either central or pulsatile peripheral administration would spend more time with a familiar male. This behavioral outcome was blocked by oxytocin receptor antagonist treatment. The aim of the current study was to further explore the preference-inducing properties of oxytocin by examining its effects on object preference on ovariectomized female rats. In other words, we assessed whether these effects would apply to objects and if they would be persistent across species. Eight rats were infused with oxytocin into the left ventricle and object preference was assessed at two delays: 30min and 4h. At the 30min delay, oxytocin-treated animals showed preference for the familiar object, whereas saline-treated controls exhibited preference for the novel object. At the 4h delay, both groups showed novel-object preference. Our findings show that oxytocin modulates object preference in the female rat at a shorter delay, similar to the findings from partner-preference studies in the prairie vole, suggesting that the mechanisms driving object preference might be in part similar to those responsible for partner preference. PMID:25127685

Madularu, Dan; Athanassiou, Maria; Yee, Jason R; Mumby, Dave G

2014-11-01

468

Eye movements in reading versus nonreading tasks: Using E-Z Reader to understand the role of word/stimulus familiarity  

PubMed Central

In this article, we extend our previous work (Reichle, Pollatsek, & Rayner, 2012) using the principles of the E-Z Reader model to examine the factors that determine when and where the eyes move in both reading and non-reading tasks, and in particular the role that word/stimulus familiarity plays in determining when the eyes move from one word/stimulus to the next. In doing this, we first provide a brief overview of E-Z Reader, including its assumption that word familiarity is the “engine” driving eye movements during reading. We then review the theoretical considerations that motivated this assumption, as well as recent empirical evidence supporting its validity. We also report the results of three new simulations that were intended to demonstrate the utility of the familiarity check in three tasks: (1) reading; (2) searching for a target word in embedded in text; and (3) searching for the letter O in linear arrays of Landolt Cs. The results of these simulations suggest that the familiarity check always improves task efficiency by speeding its rate of performance. We provide several arguments as to why this conclusion is not likely to be true for the two non-reading tasks, and in the final section of the paper, we provide a fourth simulation to test the hypothesis that problems associated with the mis-identification of words may also curtail the too liberal use of word familiarity. PMID:22707910

Reichle, Erik D.; Rayner, Keith; Pollatsek, Alexander

2012-01-01

469

Oestrous females investigate the unfamiliar male more than the familiar male in both commensal and non-commensal populations of house mice.  

PubMed

We studied female preferences for familiar and unfamiliar males. The subjects were laboratory-born house mice: (1) non-commensal Mus musculus domesticus from the eastern part of Syria along the Euphrates River; and (2) commensal M. m. musculus from the Czech Republic. Pair-choice preference tests have revealed that oestrous females of both populations sniffed towards unfamiliar males more than familiar males. In the case of females exhibiting postpartum oestrus, this preference was less pronounced and statistically not significant. Thus, our mice clearly exhibited the behavioural pattern known from commensal populations of polygynous and/or promiscuous M. m. domesticus. We found no inverse tendency to seek proximity to the familiar male that has been previously reported from closely related and presumably monogamous aboriginal mouse Mus spicilegus. We conclude that neither commensal M. m. musculus, nor non-commensal M. m. domesticus, are likely to share a monogamous mating system with mound-building mice. PMID:19850114

Frynta, Daniel; Volfová, Radka; Franková-Nováková, Marcela; Stejskal, Václav

2010-01-01

470

Contributions of familiarity and recollection rejection to recognition: Evidence from the time course of false recognition for semantic and conjunction lures  

PubMed Central

It has been suggested that both familiarity and recollection contribute to the recognition decision process. In this paper, we leverage the form of false alarm rate functions—in which false-alarm rates describe an inverted U-shaped function as the time between study and test increases—to assess how these processes support retention of semantic and surface form information from previously studied words. We directly compare the maxima of these functions for lures that are semantically related and lures that are related by surface form to previously studied material. This analysis reveals a more rapid loss of access to surface form than to semantic information. To separate the contributions of item familiarity and reminding-induced recollection rejection to this effect, we use a simple multinomial process model; this analysis reveals that this loss of access reflects both a more rapid loss of familiarity and lower rates of recollection for surface form information. PMID:21240745

Matzen, Laura E.; Taylor, Eric G.; Benjamin, Aaron S.

2010-01-01

471

Qualitatively different modes of perirhinal - hippocampal engagement when rats explore novel versus familiar objects as revealed by c-Fos imaging  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Expression of the immediate-early gene c-fos was used to test for different patterns of temporal lobe interactions when rats explore either novel or familiar objects. A new behavioural test of recognition memory was first devised to generate robust levels of novelty discrimination and to provide a matched control condition using familiar objects. Increased c-Fos activity was found in caudal, but not rostral portions, of perirhinal cortex (areas 35/36) and in area Te2 in rats showing object recognition i.e. preferential exploration of novel versus familiar objects. The findings are presented at a higher anatomical resolution than previous studies of immediate-early gene expression and object novelty and, crucially, provide the first analyses when animals are actively discriminating the novel objects. Novel versus familiar object comparisons also revealed altered c-Fos patterns in hippocampal subfields, with relative increases in CA3 and CA1 and decreases in the dentate gyrus. These hippocampal changes match those previously reported for the automatic coding of object-spatial associations. Additional analyses of the c-Fos data using structural equation modelling indicated the presence of pathways starting in the caudal perirhinal cortex that display a direction of effects from the entorhinal cortex to the CA1 field (temporo-ammonic) when presented with familiar objects, but switch to the engagement of the direct entorhinal cortex pathway to the dentate gyrus (perforant) with novel object discrimination. This entorhinal switch provides a potential route by which the rhinal cortex can moderate hippocampal processing, with a dynamic change from temporo-ammonic (familiar stimuli) to perforant pathway (novel stimuli) influences. PMID:20092559

Albasser, Mathieu M.; Poirier, Guillaume L.; Aggleton, John P.

2014-01-01

472

The importance of knowledge in vivid text memory: An individual-differences investigation of recollection and familiarity  

PubMed Central

The goal of this study was to examine how individual variation in readers’ skills and, in particular, their background knowledge about a text are related to text memory. Recollection and familiarity estimates were obtained from remember and know judgments to text ideas. Recollection estimates to old items were predicted by readers’ background knowledge, but not by other comprehension-related factors, such as word-decoding skill and working memory capacity. False alarms involving recollection of new items (inferences) were diminished as a function of verbal ability, working memory capacity, and reasoning but increased as a function of background knowledge. The results suggest that recollection indexes the reader’s ability to construct a text representation in which text ideas are integrated with relevant domain knowledge. Moreover, these results highlight the importance of background knowledge in explaining individual variation in comprehension and memory for text. PMID:18567262

Long, Debra L.; Prat, Chantel; Johns, Clinton; Morris, Phillip; Jonathan, Eunike

2009-01-01

473

Primary care physicians' familiarity, beliefs, and perceived barriers to practice guidelines in non-diabetic CKD: a survey study  

PubMed Central

Background Most non-dialysis dependent chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are cared for by their primary care physicians (PCPs). Studies suggest many CKD patients receive suboptimal care. Recently, CKD clinical practice guidelines were updated with additional emphasis on albuminuria. Methods We performed an internet-based, cross-sectional survey of active PCPs in the United States using the American Medical Association Physician Masterfile. We explored CKD guideline familiarity, self-reported practice behaviors, and attitudinal and external barriers to implementing guideline recommendations, including albuminuria testing. Results Of 12,034 PCPs targeted, 848 opened a study email, 165 (19.5%) responded. Most respondents (88%) spent ?50% of their time in clinical care. Respondents were generally in private practice (46%). Most PCPs (96%) felt that eGFR values were helpful. Approximately, 75% and 91% of PCPs reported testing for albuminuria in non-diabetic hypertensive patients with an eGFR?>?60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and?familiarity with CKD guidelines, overcome barriers to albuminuria testing and, assist PCPs in targeting ACEi/ARBs to the patients most likely to benefit. PMID:24755164

2014-01-01

474

5-HT1a receptor antagonists block perforant path-dentate LTP induced in novel, but not familiar, environments  

PubMed Central

Numerous studies suggest roles for monoamines in modulating long-term potentiation (LTP). Previously, we reported that both induction and maintenance of perforant path-dentate gyrus LTP is enhanced when induced while animals explore novel environments. Here we investigate the contribution of serotonin and 5-HT1a receptors to the novelty-mediated enhancement of LTP. In freely moving animals, systemic administration of the selective 5-HT1a antagonist WAY-100635 (WAY) attenuated LTP in a dose-dependent manner when LTP was induced while animals explored novel cages. In contrast, LTP was completely unaffected by WAY when induced in familiar environments. LTP was also blocked in anesthetized animals by direct application of WAY to the dentate gyrus, but not to the median raphe nucleus (MRN), suggesting the effect of systemic WAY is mediated by a block of dentate 5-HT1a receptors. Paradoxically, systemic administration of the 5-HT1a agonist 8-OH-DPAT also attenuated LTP. This attenuation was mimicked in anesthetized animals following application of 8-OH-DPAT to the MRN, but not the dentate gyrus. In addition, application of a 5-HT1a agonist to the dentate gyrus reduced somatic GABAergic inhibition. Because serotonergic projections from the MRN terminate on dentate inhibitory interneurons, these data suggest 5-HT1a receptors contribute to LTP induction via inhibition of GABAergic interneurons. Moreover, activation of raphe 5-HT1a autoreceptors, which inhibits serotonin release, attenuated LTP induction even in familiar environments. This suggests that serotonin normally contributes to dentate LTP induction in a variety of behavioral states. Together, these data suggest that serotonin and dentate 5-HT1a receptors play a permissive role in dentate LTP induction, particularly in novel conditions, and presumably, during the encoding of novel, hippocampus-relevant information. PMID:16452654

Sanberg, Cyndy Davis; Jones, Floretta L.; Do, Viet H.; Dieguez, Dario; Derrick, Brian E.

2006-01-01

475

First Impressions with Websites: The Effect of the Familiarity and Credibility of Corporate Logos on Perceived Consumer Swift Trust of Websites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study extends theory related to the truth effect and mere-exposure effect by detailing how increased familiarity\\u000a with third-party vendor logos will increase consumer short-term trust in unfamiliar websites, based on short-term impressions.\\u000a The study uses a controlled 254-participant experiment. The results indicate that familiarity with a third-party logo positively\\u000a impacts the credibility and short-term (swift) trust of an

Paul Benjamin Lowry; Tom L. Roberts; Trevor Higbee

2007-01-01

476

El pronóstico del cáncer  

Cancer.gov

Hoja informativa sobre la predicción de resultados y recuperación de una enfermedad, y sobre cómo las estadísticas ayudan a los médicos a hacer una estimación del pronóstico de un paciente con cáncer.

477

Espectroscopia del Cometa Halley  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Se reportan observaciones espectroscópicas del cometa Halley. Los espectros fueron tomados usando el espectrógrafo del telescopio reflector de 1 metro del Observatorio Nacional de Venezuela. Se utilizó óptica azul, con una red de difracción de 600 lineas/min, obteniéndose una dispersión de 74.2 A/mm y una resolución de 2.5 A, en el rango espectral de 3500 a 6500 A. Seis placas fueron tomadas con emulsión IIa-O y dos con IIa-D. Los tiempos de exposición fueron entre 10 y 150 minutos. El cometa se encontraba entre 0.70 y 1.04 UA del Sol, y entre 1.28 y 0.73 UA de la Tierra. Las emisiones más prominentes en el espectro, son las del CN, C2, y C3. Otras emisiones detectadas corresponden a CH, NH2 y Na. Los espectros muestran un fuerte continuo, indicando un contenido significativo de polvo. Se detectó mayor intensidad del contínuo, en la dirección anti solar, lo cual es evidencia de la cola de polvo.

Naranjo, O.; Fuenmayor, F.; Ferrin, L.; Bulka, P.; Mendoza, C.

1987-05-01

478

Help-Seeking Behaviour Regarding Mental Health Problems of Mediterranean Migrants in the Netherlands: Familiarity with Care, Consultation Attitude and Use of Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Ethnic minority groups differ in the pattern of their seeking help, and in their use of and attitude towards mental health systems. To meet the mental health needs of ethnic minority populations, insights into determinants of their help-seeking orientations are of great concern. Aim: To investigate help-seeking behaviour regarding mental health problems in terms of familiarity, attitude and service