Sample records for familiares del instituto

  1. Boletín del Centro Mexicano del Instituto Internacional de Teatro (ITT)

    E-print Network

    1986-04-01

    96 LATIN AMERICAN THEATRE REVIEW Boletín del Centro Mexicano del Instituto Internacional de Teatro (ITT) This tri-lingual (Spanish, English, French) bulletin about recent theatre activities in Mexico is published in collaboration with the Centro... for Children and Youth, University Theatre, the work of the Teatro del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, and a list of productions for the 1984 season. It is hoped that the bulletin will help make Mexican theatre better known both nationally...

  2. Visite el sitio Web del Instituto de Ciencia Regional, donde encontrar informacin

    E-print Network

    Snelting, Gregor

    Visite el sitio Web del Instituto de Ciencia Regional, donde encontrará información detallada Instituto de Ciencia Regional Estado de actualización: Junio del 2005 Universität Karlsruhe (TH) Instituto de Ciencia Regional Programa acreditado de Master ,,Ciencia regional/ Planificaión territorial

  3. Universidad Nacional Autnoma de Mxico Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologa

    E-print Network

    Islas, León

    Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología Informe de Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología Fundamento Legal · Legislación Universitaria · Estatuto General;Informe de actividades 2011 - 2012 Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología Instituto de Ciencias del

  4. Centro de Investigacin y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politcnico Nacional

    E-print Network

    Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional.: Fax: Estado: Municipio: E. Mail: En caso de ser extranjero Forma Migratoria No. de Forma Migratoria a solicitar beca? Institución: Observaciones: Sí No Estudios previos Institución: Carrera: Programa: Titulado

  5. Centro de Investigacin y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politcnico Nacional

    E-print Network

    estudios. 10. En su caso, carta del Centro de trabajo que especifique el permiso para dedicar tiempo1 Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional Unidad. Int. Colonia: C P.: Ciudad: Tel.: Fax: Estado: Municipio: E. Mail: En caso de ser extranjero Forma

  6. [Strengths and future of the Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social].

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Dolci, Germán

    2014-01-01

    The journals of medicine arose as a communication tool more than 200 years ago. At the beginning, their nature was local; later, their aim was to spread medical information along the nation; and, finally, they sought to reach the world distribution. The Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social was published for the first time 52 years ago, and it has walked its way from local to international distribution. This journal has 23 000 subscribers, it is included in Medline and it reached a 0.112 SCImago Journal Rank in 2012. Its website receives around 200 000 visits monthly and 45 % are foreign visits. In the future, the peer review system is going to be strengthened, and the journal is going to offer audio, video, and applications to reinforce interactive participation between authors, readers in order to reach modernity and draw young new attention. PMID:24758842

  7. Centro de Investigacin y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politcnico Nacional

    E-print Network

    Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional permanente Calle: No. Ext. No. Int. Colonia: C P.: Ciudad: Tel.: Fax: Estado: Municipio: E. Mail: En caso de No Institución: Observaciones: Estudios previos Carrera: Programa: Titulado: Sí No Institución: Fecha: Fecha

  8. Centro de Investigacin y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politcnico Nacional

    E-print Network

    Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional Departamento de. Ext. No. Int. Colonia: C P.: Ciudad: Tel.: Fax: Estado: Municipio: E. Mail: En caso de ser extranjero? Institución: Sueldo: Inicio: Sí No ¿Va a solicitar beca? Institución: Observaciones: Sí No Estudios previos

  9. Centro de Investigacin y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politcnico Nacional

    E-print Network

    Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional Solicitud de: Domicilio (en caso de no vivir en el D.F) Calle: No. Ext.: Tel.:CP.: Estado: Municipio: Ciudad: No. Int.: Colonia: Fax: E. Mail: En caso de ser extranjero Forma Migratoria FM2 FM3 No. de Forma Migratoria: No. de

  10. Centro de Investigacin y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politcnico Nacional

    E-print Network

    ) de investigación de interés y expectativas a alcanzar al término de los estudios. 10. En su casoCentro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional Unidad Querétaro. Int. Colonia: C P.: Ciudad: Tel.: Fax: Estado: Municipio: E. Mail: En caso de ser extranjero Forma

  11. Centro de Investigacin y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politcnico Nacional

    E-print Network

    Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional Solicitud de: Municipio: e-mail: En caso de ser extranjero Forma Migratoria No. De Forma Migratoria No. De Expediente FM2 beca? Institución: Observaciones: Si No Estudios previos Institución: Carrera: Programa: Titulado: Si

  12. Localizador de Servicios de Apoyo - Instituto Nacional del Cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    HealthCare.gov es el primer centro de datos de alternativas de cobertura médica del Departamento de Salud y Servicios Humanos de EE. UU. que combina los programas públicos (ej. Medicare, Medicaid) con la información de más de 1 000 planes de seguros privados. El usuario puede buscar en Internet las opciones de cobertura médica específicas a su situación y a su comunidad local. Igualmente, Healthcare.gov tiene información sobre la reforma sanitaria Affordable Care Act.

  13. [Seventy years of medicine in the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social].

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Ortiz, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of these lines is to remember and refer some of the historical landmarks in the evolution of the medical services of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS, according to its initials in Spanish) since it was founded, in 1943. We also want to bring to the reader's attention that the dimensions and impacts on health that IMSS has achieved, throughout its history, have strengthened the citizenship, as well as social sustainability. Also, those impacts have determined the creation and the reinforcement of human capital in México. Throughout this concise balance, all the controversy surrounding the foundation of the Institute is being recalled (the protest in the Mexico City Zócalo, or the attack to an hospital in San Ángel -a neighborhood located in the Southwest of Mexico City-), as well as the way the IMSS incorporated several words into the vocabulary of Mexicans. We also remember the previous antecedent of the Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, as well as the Revista de Enfermería, and the emblematic Archives of Medical Research. The IMSS has 70 years of achievements, seven decades covered. PMID:24758865

  14. DERECHOS Y RESPONSABILIDADES DEL EMPLEADO BAJO LA LEY DE AUSENCIA FAMILIAR Y MDICA

    E-print Network

    Fraden, Seth

    DERECHOS Y RESPONSABILIDADES DEL EMPLEADO BAJO LA LEY DE AUSENCIA FAMILIAR Y MÉDICA Derechos al empleado desempeñar su puesto. Derechos de Ausencia Para Familias Militares Empleados elegibles, pueden usar su derecho de ausencia de 12 semanas para atender ciertas exigencias calificadoras. Las

  15. Bartonelosis aguda en niños: Estudio de 32 casos en el Instituto Especializado de Salud del Niño y el Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia (Período 1993-2003)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BREÑA CHÁVEZ; Judith Patricia; Ciro Peregrino; HERNÁNDEZ DIAZ; Herminio Renán; CASTILLO DÍAZ; María Esther; POZO TOVAR; Wilfredo Erlán

    2006-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective: To determine the epidemiology, clinical presentation, data of laboratory and treatment of Bartonellosis in children. Material and methods: We evaluated clinical histories of 32 patients with acute Bartonellosis, who were seen at Instituto Especializado de Salud del Niño and the Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia from 1993 to 2003. Results: The mean age was 9.8 years, 72% of patients

  16. Instituto Geolgico y Minero de Espaa

    E-print Network

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    Instituto Geológico y Minero de España Información Geocientífica. Sistemas de Información del Instituto Geológico y Minero de España A. Iglesias, Barcelona 7 de abril de 2005 Lámina 1 de 43 Alfredo Sistemas de Información del Instituto Geológico y Minero de España #12;Instituto Geológico y Minero de

  17. UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL AUTNOMA DE MXICO INSTITUTO DE CIENCIAS DEL MAR Y LIMNOLOGIA

    E-print Network

    Islas, León

    Hernández Función Responsable de Personal Representante del Secretario Administrativo Secretaria SERVICIOS DEL PROCESO DE PERSONAL Rev. 1 2/16 Fecha de emisión: 11.02.2013 LISTADO GENERAL DE SERVICIOS administrativo de base (CALEFIB) 30 90 120 DE ACUERDO A LA CONVOCATORIA CADA CUATRIMESTRE Solicitud de personal

  18. Tiene familiares con Alzheimer? La Escuela de Medicina del Recinto de Ciencias Mdicas en colaboracin con la Universidad de Columbia

    E-print Network

    Quirk, Gregory J.

    ¿Tiene familiares con Alzheimer? 25/1/2008 La Escuela de Medicina del Recinto de Ciencias Médicas más con Alzheimer para participar de un estudio genético. La investigación pretende encontrar genes que se encuentren relacionados a la enfermedad de Alzheimer con el propósito de aprender más sobre las

  19. Investigacin Centro de Investigacin y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politcnico Nacional

    E-print Network

    moleculares microbianos en suelos. Ana Carmela Ramos Valdivia Biotecnología del metabolismo secundario y la y de plantas de especies americanas y su producción a nivel de biorreactor. Graciano Calva Calva

  20. INFORME ANUAL 2011 INSTITUTO DE CIENCIAS FSICAS

    E-print Network

    Mejía-Monasterio, Carlos

    - INFORME ANUAL 2011 INSTITUTO DE CIENCIAS FÍSICAS UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL AUT�NOMA DE M�XICO 1 #12;INTRODUCCI�N El Instituto de Ciencias Físicas de la UNAM (ICF) fue creado por el Consejo Universitario el 29 de septiembre de 2006. El ICF surge como una transformación del Centro de Ciencias Físicas (CCF) que inició sus

  1. O PROCESSO HISTÓRICO DO ARQUÉTIPO FAMILIAR CONTEMPORÂNEO E A INVENÇÃO DO INCESTO THE HISTORICAL PROCESS OF THE FAMILY ARCHETYPE COMTEMPORARY AND THE INCEST INVENTION EL PROCESO HISTÓRICO DEL ARQUÉTIPO FAMILIAR CONTEMPORÁNEO Y LA INVENCIÓN DEL INCESTO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Solano LC; Queiroz JC; Carvalho FPV; Timóteo RPS; Monteiro AI

    2009-01-01

    RESUMO: RESUMO: RESUMO: RESUMO: RESUMO: O incesto emerge na atualidade como problema de saúde, já que é definido como situação de violência sexual. O objetivo deste artigo é refletir acerca do caráter natural da gênese do incesto, contextualizando-o nas narrativas históricas familiares. Trata-se de pesquisa bibliográfica buscando aportes de autores com discussão sobre família. Como resultados, expõem-se as inter-relações entre

  2. Mr es el boletn de novedades de la Biblioteca del ICMM Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid-www.icmm.csic.es/es/ .

    E-print Network

    investigación o por donaciones. Todos los títulos de este boletín han sido extraídos del sistema integrado de PARA LAS TECNOLOGIAS DE LA INFORMACION......8 NANOESTRUCTURAS, SUPERFICIES Y RECUBRIMIENTOS

  3. Mr es el boletn de novedades de la Biblioteca del ICMM Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid-www.icmm.csic.es/es/ .

    E-print Network

    investigación o por donaciones. Todos los títulos de este boletín han sido extraídos del sistema integrado de.......6 MATERIALES PARA LAS TECNOLOGIAS DE LA INFORMACION......7 NANOESTRUCTURAS, SUPERFICIES Y

  4. Departamentos -Institutos Departamentos

    E-print Network

    Escolano, Francisco

    Derecho Civil Derecho del Trabajo y de la Seguridad Social Derecho Internacional Público y Derecho Penal Derecho Mercantil y Derecho Procesal Disciplinas Económicas y Financieras Ecología Enfermería Enfermería Literatura Filología Inglesa Filologías Integradas Filosofía del Derecho y Derecho Internacional Privado

  5. Estimado Colega, Es un deseo de muchos de nosotros en Colombia el de poder contar con un Instituto

    E-print Network

    Uribe, Bernardo

    Estimado Colega, Es un deseo de muchos de nosotros en Colombia el de poder contar con un Instituto creación de un Instituto de Matemáticas en Colombia ha existido desde hace varios años. Son muchos los miembros de la comunidad matemática del país y del extranjero que consideran que Colombia ha alcanzado el

  6. U n a V e n t a n a A l F u t u r o El Instituto Weizmann de Ciencias es uno

    E-print Network

    U n a V e n t a n a A l F u t u r o #12;El Instituto Weizmann de Ciencias es uno de los institutos básicas de los científicos del Instituto abarcan toda la gama de las Ciencias de la Naturaleza y las Ciencias Exactas: Ciencias de la Vida, Química, Física, Matemáticas y Ciencias de la Computación. A lo

  7. Cost-effectiveness analysis for joint pain treatment in patients with osteoarthritis treated at the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS): Comparison of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) vs. cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Contreras-Hernández, Iris; Mould-Quevedo, Joaquín F; Torres-González, Rubén; Goycochea-Robles, María Victoria; Pacheco-Domínguez, Reyna Lizette; Sánchez-García, Sergio; Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel; Garduño-Espinosa, Juan

    2008-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the main causes of disability worldwide, especially in persons >55 years of age. Currently, controversy remains about the best therapeutic alternative for this disease when evaluated from a cost-effectiveness viewpoint. For Social Security Institutions in developing countries, it is very important to assess what drugs may decrease the subsequent use of medical care resources, considering their adverse events that are known to have a significant increase in medical care costs of patients with OA. Three treatment alternatives were compared: celecoxib (200 mg twice daily), non-selective NSAIDs (naproxen, 500 mg twice daily; diclofenac, 100 mg twice daily; and piroxicam, 20 mg/day) and acetaminophen, 1000 mg twice daily. The aim of this study was to identify the most cost-effective first-choice pharmacological treatment for the control of joint pain secondary to OA in patients treated at the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS). Methods A cost-effectiveness assessment was carried out. A systematic review of the literature was performed to obtain transition probabilities. In order to evaluate analysis robustness, one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted. Estimations were done for a 6-month period. Results Treatment demonstrating the best cost-effectiveness results [lowest cost-effectiveness ratio $17.5 pesos/patient ($1.75 USD)] was celecoxib. According to the one-way sensitivity analysis, celecoxib would need to markedly decrease its effectiveness in order for it to not be the optimal treatment option. In the probabilistic analysis, both in the construction of the acceptability curves and in the estimation of net economic benefits, the most cost-effective option was celecoxib. Conclusion From a Mexican institutional perspective and probably in other Social Security Institutions in similar developing countries, the most cost-effective option for treatment of knee and/or hip OA would be celecoxib. PMID:19014495

  8. Un/Familiar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meszaros, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    What I put forward here is that the interpretative practices of the museum, whether they take the form of exhibitions, education programs, written texts or digital productions, are fashioned by relationships between the familiar and unfamiliar, which in turn both shape and are shaped by human understanding in general. The development of a new…

  9. Instituto Nacional de Investigacin Dental y Craneofacial

    E-print Network

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    por qué los dientes de leche son importantes, da consejos sobre cómo prevenir la caries dental en la dientes contra la caries dental Este folleto fue diseñado para padres de niños entre 6 y 14 años. ExplicaInstituto Nacional de Investigación Dental y Craneofacial Institutos Nacionales de la Salud

  10. Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid

    E-print Network

    2020: Roadmap de Innovación Tecnológica Plataforma Tecnológica Española de Materiales Avanzados y Plataforma Tecnológica Española de Materiales Avanzados y Nanomateriales ( www.materplat.es ) #12;Instituto: Roadmap de Innovación Tecnológica Plataforma Tecnológica Española de Materiales Avanzados y Nanomateriales

  11. UNIVERSIDADE TCNICA DE LISBOA INSTITUTO SUPERIOR TCNICO

    E-print Network

    da Silva, Alberto Rodrigues

    activos tangíveis. O capital humano, estrutural e relacional é conhecimento essencial nas organizações of Organizational Relational Capital Using SNARE Alexandre Humberto dos Santos Barão Supervisor: Doctor Alberto INSTITUTO SUPERIOR TÉCNICO Social Networks Modeling and Evaluation of Organizational Relational Capital

  12. INFORME ANUAL 2008 INSTITUTO DE CIENCIAS FISICAS

    E-print Network

    Mejía-Monasterio, Carlos

    INFORME ANUAL 2008 INSTITUTO DE CIENCIAS F´ISICAS UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL AUT´ONOMA DE M´EXICO 1 #12´on 17 Biof´isica y Ciencia de Materiales F´isica At´omica Molecular y ´Optica Experimentales F´isica Te estudiantes 64 Seminario interno 66 Correos electr´onicos 69 3 #12;INTRODUCCI´ON El Instituto de Ciencias F

  13. INFORME ANUAL 2009 INSTITUTO DE CIENCIAS FSICAS

    E-print Network

    Mejía-Monasterio, Carlos

    INFORME ANUAL 2009 INSTITUTO DE CIENCIAS FÍSICAS UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL AUT�NOMA DE M�XICO 1 #12 13 Biofísica y Ciencia de Materiales 13 Física Atómica Molecular y �ptica Experimentales 13 Física Correos electrónicos 99 3 #12;INTRODUCCI�N El Instituto de Ciencias Físicas de la UNAM (ICF) fue creado

  14. Gestión del conocimiento y desarrollo rural Enseñanzas a partir del estudio de caso de una empresa familiar innovadora y socialmente responsable en la producción orgánica de leche y lácteos en México

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria del Carmen del Valle Rivera

    2010-01-01

    En la actualidad, la producción y transformación de alimentos son actividades en las que se articulan estrategias locales y globales. De frente a la sociedad del conocimiento, se requiere la incorporación de conocimiento en la generación de valor, en particular el conocimiento introducido mediante la gestión que desempeñan las empresas en su relación con instituciones de investigación y educación superior

  15. Familiares a cargo de pacientes de cáncer (PDQ®)

    Cancer.gov

    Sumario informativo revisado por expertos acerca de los desafíos que enfrentan los familiares a cargo de los pacientes con cáncer. Este resumen se centra en las funciones típicas y las inquietudes de las personas a cargo del paciente y en las intervenciones útiles para esas personas.

  16. Maintaining familiarity through mobile design

    E-print Network

    Nee, Diana

    2007-01-01

    This thesis aims to fulfill the needs for storage, portability, and comfort in the growing population of itinerant young professionals through generating a deployable device that provides a sense of familiarity and ...

  17. Universidade de Braslia Instituto de Cincias Biolgicas

    E-print Network

    Maier, Rudolf Richard

    Universidade de Brasília Instituto de Ciências Biológicas Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia Edital n. 02/2014 1 UNIVERSIDADE DE BRASÍLIA PROGRAMA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM ECOLOGIA EDITAL No. 02/2014 SELEÇÃO DE CANDIDATOS ÀS VAGAS DO PROGRAMA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM ECOLOGIA PARA OS CURSOS DE MESTRADO

  18. Universidade de Braslia Instituto de Cincias Biolgicas

    E-print Network

    Maier, Rudolf Richard

    Universidade de Brasília Instituto de Ciências Biológicas Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia Edital n. 2/2013 1 UNIVERSIDADE DE BRASÍLIA PROGRAMA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM ECOLOGIA EDITAL No. 2/2013 SELEÇÃO DE CANDIDATOS ÀS VAGAS DO PROGRAMA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM ECOLOGIA PARA OS CURSOS DE MESTRADO

  19. Universidade de Braslia Instituto de Cincias Biolgicas

    E-print Network

    Maier, Rudolf Richard

    Universidade de Brasília Instituto de Ciências Biológicas Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia Edital n. 1/2014 1 UNIVERSIDADE DE BRASÍLIA PROGRAMA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM ECOLOGIA EDITAL No. 1/2014 SELEÇÃO DE CANDIDATOS ÀS VAGAS DO PROGRAMA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM ECOLOGIA PARA OS CURSOS DE MESTRADO

  20. UNIVERSIDADE DE BRASLIA INSTITUTO DE CINCIAS BIOLGICAS

    E-print Network

    Lucero, Jorge Carlos

    1 UNIVERSIDADE DE BRASÍLIA INSTITUTO DE CIÊNCIAS BIOLÓGICAS PROGRAMA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM ECOLOGIA EDITAL No. 01/2012 SELEÇÃO DE CANDIDATOS ÀS VAGAS DO PROGRAMA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM ECOLOGIA PARA OS CURSOS.1 A Coordenação do Programa de Pós-Graduação em ECOLOGIA no uso de suas atribuições legais, estabelece e torna

  1. UNIVERSIDADE DE BRASLIA-BRASIL INSTITUTO DE PSICOLOGIA

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 UNIVERSIDADE DE BRASÍLIA-BRASIL INSTITUTO DE PSICOLOGIA PROGRAMA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM PSICOLOGIA SSUUBBJJEETTIIVVAAÇÇÃÃOO EEMM BBAALLZZAACC tel-00813069,version1-15Apr2013 #12;2 UNIVERSIDADE DE BRASÍLIA-BRASIL INSTITUTO-00813069,version1-15Apr2013 #12;3 UNIVERSIDADE DE BRASÍLIA-BRASIL INSTITUTO DE PSICOLOGIA PROGRAMA DE PÓS

  2. Sus Derechos La Ley de Ausencia Familiar y Mdica de 1993

    E-print Network

    Sus Derechos bajo La Ley de Ausencia Familiar y Médica de 1993 La Ley de Ausencia Familiar y Médica ocupan a 50 empleados o más del mismo patrón. Razones para Solicitar Ausencia: Tiene derecho un empleado. · Al regresar de una ausencia los empleados tienen el derecho a su trabajo original o a un trabajo

  3. Instituto Superior Tecnico Departamento de Matematica

    E-print Network

    Abreu, Miguel

    Instituto Superior T´ecnico Departamento de Matem´atica 2 o TESTE DE C´ALCULO DIFERENCIAL E a fun¸c~ao f definida pela s´erie de pot^encias: (3,5 val) f(x) = n=1 (-1)n (2x + 1)n 3n(n + 1) (a) Determine para que valores de x a s´erie de pot^encias ´e absolutamente convergente, simplesmente

  4. Instituto Superior Tecnico Departamento de Matematica

    E-print Network

    Abreu, Miguel

    Instituto Superior T´ecnico Departamento de Matem´atica 2 o TESTE DE C´ALCULO DIFERENCIAL E n! 5. Considere a fun¸c~ao f definida pela s´erie de pot^encias: (3,5 val) f(x) = n=1 (-1)n (3x + 1)n 2n(n + 1) (a) Determine para que valores de x a s´erie de pot^encias ´e absolutamente convergente

  5. UNIVERSIDADE TECNICA DE LISBOA INSTITUTO SUPERIOR TECNICO

    E-print Network

    da Silva, Alberto Rodrigues

    UNIVERSIDADE T´ECNICA DE LISBOA INSTITUTO SUPERIOR T´ECNICO eCT - Biblioteca de Com´ercio Electr´onico No contexto das ´areas de com´ercio electr´onico e sistemas de gest~ao de conte´udo (CMS), analisam-se v´arias extens~oes de com´ercio electr´onico para CMS, com o objectivo de identi- ficar as suas caracter

  6. A language-familiarity effect for speaker discrimination without comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, David; Giordano, Bruno L.; Caldara, Roberto; Belin, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    The influence of language familiarity upon speaker identification is well established, to such an extent that it has been argued that “Human voice recognition depends on language ability” [Perrachione TK, Del Tufo SN, Gabrieli JDE (2011) Science 333(6042):595]. However, 7-mo-old infants discriminate speakers of their mother tongue better than they do foreign speakers [Johnson EK, Westrek E, Nazzi T, Cutler A (2011) Dev Sci 14(5):1002–1011] despite their limited speech comprehension abilities, suggesting that speaker discrimination may rely on familiarity with the sound structure of one’s native language rather than the ability to comprehend speech. To test this hypothesis, we asked Chinese and English adult participants to rate speaker dissimilarity in pairs of sentences in English or Mandarin that were first time-reversed to render them unintelligible. Even in these conditions a language-familiarity effect was observed: Both Chinese and English listeners rated pairs of native-language speakers as more dissimilar than foreign-language speakers, despite their inability to understand the material. Our data indicate that the language familiarity effect is not based on comprehension but rather on familiarity with the phonology of one’s native language. This effect may stem from a mechanism analogous to the “other-race” effect in face recognition. PMID:25201950

  7. A language-familiarity effect for speaker discrimination without comprehension.

    PubMed

    Fleming, David; Giordano, Bruno L; Caldara, Roberto; Belin, Pascal

    2014-09-23

    The influence of language familiarity upon speaker identification is well established, to such an extent that it has been argued that "Human voice recognition depends on language ability" [Perrachione TK, Del Tufo SN, Gabrieli JDE (2011) Science 333(6042):595]. However, 7-mo-old infants discriminate speakers of their mother tongue better than they do foreign speakers [Johnson EK, Westrek E, Nazzi T, Cutler A (2011) Dev Sci 14(5):1002-1011] despite their limited speech comprehension abilities, suggesting that speaker discrimination may rely on familiarity with the sound structure of one's native language rather than the ability to comprehend speech. To test this hypothesis, we asked Chinese and English adult participants to rate speaker dissimilarity in pairs of sentences in English or Mandarin that were first time-reversed to render them unintelligible. Even in these conditions a language-familiarity effect was observed: Both Chinese and English listeners rated pairs of native-language speakers as more dissimilar than foreign-language speakers, despite their inability to understand the material. Our data indicate that the language familiarity effect is not based on comprehension but rather on familiarity with the phonology of one's native language. This effect may stem from a mechanism analogous to the "other-race" effect in face recognition. PMID:25201950

  8. Universidade de Braslia Instituto de Fsica

    E-print Network

    Maier, Rudolf Richard

    Universidade de Brasília Instituto de Física Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ensino de Física ­ Polo 1 NACIONAL PROFISSIONAL EM ENSINO DE FÍSICA - POLO 1 - UnB 1. PRE�MBULO 1.1. A Coordenação do Polo 1- UnB do Profissional em Ensino de Física no Polo 1- UnB. 1.2. O presente Edital complementa, para o Polo 1- UnB, o

  9. Teatro uruguayo hacia el fin del siglo

    E-print Network

    Pignataro Calero, Jorge

    1993-10-01

    ciudad de Montevideo y, como tal, está sometido a las disposiciones presupuestarias de ingresos y gastos que para un período determinado de tiempo realizan las unidades económicas competentes. b. Nuevos grupos y salas. Sometida a análogas disposiciones... desaparecido Instituto Cultural Uruguayo- Soviético donde abrió sus puertas Arteatro; o el garaje del Instituto Cultural Anglo-Uruguayo convertido en la Sala III de dicha institución. Una de las figuras más prestigiosas y de proyección internacional del medio...

  10. Vertical motion simulator familiarization guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danek, George L.

    1993-01-01

    The Vertical Motion Simulator Familiarization Guide provides a synoptic description of the Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) and descriptions of the various simulation components and systems. The intended audience is the community of scientists and engineers who employ the VMS for research and development. The concept of a research simulator system is introduced and the building block nature of the VMS is emphasized. Individual sections describe all the hardware elements in terms of general properties and capabilities. Also included are an example of a typical VMS simulation which graphically illustrates the composition of the system and shows the signal flow among the elements and a glossary of specialized terms, abbreviations, and acronyms.

  11. Probabilistic risk assessment familiarization training

    SciTech Connect

    Phillabaum, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    Philadelphia Electric Company (PECo) created a Nuclear Group Risk and Reliability Assessment Program Plan in order to focus the utilization of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) in support of Limerick Generating Station and Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station. The continuation of a PRA program was committed by PECo to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) prior to be the issuance of an operating license for Limerick Unit 1. It is believed that increased use of PRA techniques to support activities at Limerick and Peach Bottom will enhance PECo's overall nuclear excellence. Training for familiarization with PRA is designed for attendance once by all nuclear group personnel to understand PRA and its potential effect on their jobs. The training content describes the history of PRA and how it applies to PECo's nuclear activities. Key PRA concepts serve as the foundation for the familiarization training. These key concepts are covered in all classes to facilitate an appreciation of the remaining material, which is tailored to the audience. Some of the concepts covered are comparison of regulatory philosophy to PRA techniques, fundamentals of risk/success, risk equation/risk summation, and fault trees and event trees. Building on the concepts, PRA insights and applications are then described that are tailored to the audience.

  12. El papel que desempeña el NCI en la investigación del cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) es el patrocinador más grande del mundo de investigaciones sobre el cáncer y financia investigaciones realizadas en el mismo instituto y en centros oncológicos, hospitales, clínicas comunitarias y universidades en Estados Unidos y en todo el mundo.

  13. Recursos Estratégicos em Propriedades Rurais Familiares

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcelo Fernandes Pacheco Dias; Eugenio Avila Pedrozo

    2008-01-01

    A agricultura familiar tem papel importante nos agronegócios. A manutenção desses agricultores é uma das preocupações prioritárias dos governos. Também é amplamente conhecido o fato que o desempenho das propriedades familiares varia significativamente. Esse artigo busca contribuir para a explicação do porquê dessa variação de desempenho, através da Teoria Baseado em Recursos (RBV). Nesse sentido, foi desenvolvido um estudo exploratório

  14. PROGRAMA PROFESORES PRECIO DEL CURSO

    E-print Network

    PROGRAMA PROFESORES PRECIO DEL CURSO 300,00 (exento I.V.A) (5 becas para estudiantes de doctorado apertura del curso. 10'00 h Cementos alcalinos: Introducción 11'00 h Café. 11,30 h Activación alcalina de (2011 ­ 2012) CURSO DE POSTGRADO DEL CSIC 20 A 21 de Marzo de 2012 Organizado por: INSTITUTO DE CIENCIAS

  15. Universidade de So Paulo Instituto de

    E-print Network

    Morandini, Andre C.

    Matão, trav. 14, 321 Cidade Universitária, São Paulo São Paulo, SP Brasil CEP 05508 Rosana Moreira da Rocha Imagem da capa: Carta geografica del Bresil "Este mapa do Brasil foi publicado do in- terior do Brasil, nessa época, ainda bastante desconhecido dos europeus. Albrizzi, que herdou

  16. Centro Clnico INSTITUTOS NACIONALES DE LA SALUD

    E-print Network

    Baker, Chris I.

    fundamental en la seguridad de investigación en el cual está inscrito del cuidado que recibe. Usted debe ser publicación "To prevent healthcare errors, patients are urged to...Speak Up" (Para prevenir errores en el of Healthcare Organizations) Boletín educativo para el paciente 1 Hágase Escuchar Por Su Seguridad, Haga

  17. The effect of familiarity on perceived interestingness of images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Sharon Lynn; Fedorovskaya, Elena; Quek, Francis; Snyder, Jeffrey

    2013-03-01

    We present an exploration of familiarity as a meaningful dimension for the individualized adaptation of media-rich interfaces. In this paper, we investigate in particular the effect of digital images personalized for familiarity on users' perceived interestingness. Two dimensions of familiarity, facial familiarity and familiarity with image context, are manipulated. Our investigation consisted of three studies: the first two address how morphing technology can be used to convey meaningful familiarity, and the third studies the effect of such familiarity on users' sense of interestingness. Four levels of person familiarity varying in degree of person knowledge, and two levels of context familiarity varying in frequency of exposure, were considered: Self, Friend, Celebrity, and Stranger in Familiar and Unfamiliar contexts. Experimental results showed significant main effects of context and person familiarity. Our findings deepen understanding of the critical element of familiarity in HCI and its relationship to the interestingness of images, and can have great impact for the design of media-rich systems.

  18. Familiares a cargo de pacientes de cáncer: funciones y desafíos–para profesionales de salud (PDQ®)

    Cancer.gov

    Sumario informativo revisado por expertos acerca de los desafíos que enfrentan los familiares a cargo de los pacientes con cáncer. Este resumen se centra en las funciones típicas y las inquietudes de las personas a cargo del paciente y en las intervenciones útiles para esas personas.

  19. Instituto de Astrofísica de Madrid: science fiction or top science?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, J. A.

    2015-05-01

    In Spain, there is an Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias in Tenerife, an Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía in Granada and an Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya in Barcelona. However, there is not an Instituto de Astrofísica de Madrid (IAM). Actually, Madrilenian astronomers are spread over a number of institutions of quite different origin, size and funding source. The IAM, if it existed, would be a catalyzer of ideas and collaborations, an international meeting point, an engine for high-technology industry in the region, and an excellence centre. Furthermore, the IAM would maximise the efficiency in the use of resources, offer a place for finding synergies between research groups and, especially, have a critical mass for embarking in very large projects in the ground and space. I will expose how, in a smooth and democratic way, an IAM might be built step by step. The process may take decades and, thus, young Madrilenian astronomers shall play a rôle on it.

  20. Fundamental Vocabulary Selection Based on Word Familiarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hiroshi; Kasahara, Kaname; Kanasugi, Tomoko; Amano, Shigeaki

    This paper proposes a new method for selecting fundamental vocabulary. We are presently constructing the Fundamental Vocabulary Knowledge-base of Japanese that contains integrated information on syntax, semantics and pragmatics, for the purposes of advanced natural language processing. This database mainly consists of a lexicon and a treebank: Lexeed (a Japanese Semantic Lexicon) and the Hinoki Treebank. Fundamental vocabulary selection is the first step in the construction of Lexeed. The vocabulary should include sufficient words to describe general concepts for self-expandability, and should not be prohibitively large to construct and maintain. There are two conventional methods for selecting fundamental vocabulary. The first is intuition-based selection by experts. This is the traditional method for making dictionaries. A weak point of this method is that the selection strongly depends on personal intuition. The second is corpus-based selection. This method is superior in objectivity to intuition-based selection, however, it is difficult to compile a sufficiently balanced corpora. We propose a psychologically-motivated selection method that adopts word familiarity as the selection criterion. Word familiarity is a rating that represents the familiarity of a word as a real number ranging from 1 (least familiar) to 7 (most familiar). We determined the word familiarity ratings statistically based on psychological experiments over 32 subjects. We selected about 30,000 words as the fundamental vocabulary, based on a minimum word familiarity threshold of 5. We also evaluated the vocabulary by comparing its word coverage with conventional intuition-based and corpus-based selection over dictionary definition sentences and novels, and demonstrated the superior coverage of our lexicon. Based on this, we conclude that the proposed method is superior to conventional methods for fundamental vocabulary selection.

  1. Dynamic Adaptive Meshes IMPA Instituto de Matematica Pura e Aplicada

    E-print Network

    Dynamic Adaptive Meshes LUIZ VELHO IMPA ­ Instituto de Matematica Pura e Aplicada lvelho@impa.br Abstract. In this paper we present dynamic adaptive meshes, a scheme for maintaining a conforming and a set of adaptation criteria. The mesh is automatically modified in order to conform to user defined

  2. Laboratorio VISGRAF Instituto de Matematica Pura e Aplicada

    E-print Network

    . de Inform´atica Campus do Bacanga, SN, S~ao Luis, MA, Brasil paiva@deinf.ufma.br ¾IMPA­Instituto de Matem´atica Pura e Aplicada Estrada Dona Castorina, 110, 22460 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil lvelho-980, Gavea, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil paiva,gattass @tecgraf.puc-rio.br Abstract. We propose a new lossy

  3. Abstract Valuation Semantics SQIG-Instituto de Telecomunicac~oes

    E-print Network

    Lisboa, Universidade Técnica de

    Abstract Valuation Semantics C. Caleiro SQIG-Instituto de Telecomunica¸c~oes Department@fct.unl.pt December 9, 2010 Abstract We define and study abstract valuation semantics for logics, an alge- braically well-behaved version of valuation semantics. In the context of the behavioral approach

  4. Familiar people recognition disorders: an introductory review.

    PubMed

    Gainotti, Guido

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this introduction is to provide a general background for the individual contributions dealing with different aspects of familiar people recognition disorders. Following are the main points considered in this survey: 1) the cognitive models proposed to explain the functional architecture of processes subsuming familiar people recognition; 2) the different roles of the right and left hemisphere in identifying people by face voice and name; 3) the anatomical structures and the cognitive processes involved in face and voice recognition; 4) the interactions that exist among the perceptual processes subsuming face and voice recognition, but not people's faces, voices and proper names; 5) the patterns of multimodal defects of familiar people recognition and their implications for current cognitive models. Finally, there is a short discussion of two models advanced to explain the role of the anterior temporal lobes in people recognition. PMID:24389261

  5. Galp e seis universidades lanam Instituto do Petrleo e do Gs

    E-print Network

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    Galp e seis universidades lançam Instituto do Petróleo e do Gás ? ENSINO A GALP Energia e as seis maiores universidades portuguesas anuncia- ram a criação do Instituto do Petró- leo e do Gás para desenvolver inves- tigação e formação nas áreas do pe- tróleo e do gás no mundo lusófono. O Instituto do

  6. Metropolitan French: Familiarization & Short-Term Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iszkowski, Marie-Charlotte

    The U.S. Department of State's Foreign Service Institute French Familiarization and Short-Term (FAST) course for personnel working and living in France consists of 10 weeks of French language instruction combined with practical and cultural information. An introductory section outlines FAST course objectives and sample teaching techniques in…

  7. Modulation of Brain Activity during Phonological Familiarization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majerus, S.; Van der Linden, M.; Collette, F.; Laureys, S.; Poncelet, M.; Degueldre, C.; Delfiore, G.; Luxen, A.; Salmon, E.

    2005-01-01

    We measured brain activity in 12 adults for the repetition of auditorily presented words and nonwords, before and after repeated exposure to their phonological form. The nonword phoneme combinations were either of high (HF) or low (LF) phonotactic frequency. After familiarization, we observed, for both word and nonword conditions, decreased…

  8. Familiarity Enhances Visual Working Memory for Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Margaret C.; Raymond, Jane E.

    2008-01-01

    Although it is intuitive that familiarity with complex visual objects should aid their preservation in visual working memory (WM), empirical evidence for this is lacking. This study used a conventional change-detection procedure to assess visual WM for unfamiliar and famous faces in healthy adults. Across experiments, faces were upright or…

  9. Microsoft's familiar software is made for

    E-print Network

    Narasayya, Vivek

    Microsoft's familiar software is made for the cloud Industry solutions address key business challenges Enterprise investment areas focused on customer priorities MICROSOFT IN THE ENTERPRISE RESOURCE GUIDE 2010-2011 #12;Microsoft in the Enterprise Resource Guide 2010 ­ 2011 Your complete source

  10. Facelock: familiarity-based graphical authentication.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Rob; McLachlan, Jane L; Renaud, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Authentication codes such as passwords and PIN numbers are widely used to control access to resources. One major drawback of these codes is that they are difficult to remember. Account holders are often faced with a choice between forgetting a code, which can be inconvenient, or writing it down, which compromises security. In two studies, we test a new knowledge-based authentication method that does not impose memory load on the user. Psychological research on face recognition has revealed an important distinction between familiar and unfamiliar face perception: When a face is familiar to the observer, it can be identified across a wide range of images. However, when the face is unfamiliar, generalisation across images is poor. This contrast can be used as the basis for a personalised 'facelock', in which authentication succeeds or fails based on image-invariant recognition of faces that are familiar to the account holder. In Study 1, account holders authenticated easily by detecting familiar targets among other faces (97.5% success rate), even after a one-year delay (86.1% success rate). Zero-acquaintance attackers were reduced to guessing (<1% success rate). Even personal attackers who knew the account holder well were rarely able to authenticate (6.6% success rate). In Study 2, we found that shoulder-surfing attacks by strangers could be defeated by presenting different photos of the same target faces in observed and attacked grids (1.9% success rate). Our findings suggest that the contrast between familiar and unfamiliar face recognition may be useful for developers of graphical authentication systems. PMID:25024913

  11. Instituto de Matemtica Interdisciplinar -Universidad Complutense de Madrid Plaza de las Ciencias, 3 E-28040 Madrid Tel./Fax. +34 9139 44385 e-mail: imi@mat.ucm.es

    E-print Network

    Tradacete, Pedro

    mismo fin y durante el mismo período de tiempo. #12;Instituto de Matemática Interdisciplinar fijada por la Comisión Ejecutiva del IMI, hasta un máximo de 1.000 y siempre que el viaje esté tener derecho a su percepción el beneficiario deberá presentar el billete justificativo de su viaje

  12. MESTRADO EM MICROBIOLOGIA GENMICA FUNCIONAL E COMPARATIVA Instituto Superior Tcnico

    E-print Network

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    MESTRADO EM MICROBIOLOGIA GEN�MICA FUNCIONAL E COMPARATIVA ­ Instituto Superior Técnico Objectivos Genómica Funcional e Comparativa, bem como a sua aplicação ao estudo da biologia à escala do genoma, numa. Metodologias experimentais para o estudo da regulação da expressão genética e genómica. 4. Genómica funcional

  13. Familiarity and Its Impact on Consumer Decision Biases and Heuristics

    E-print Network

    Park, C. Whan; Lessig, V. Parker

    1981-09-01

    The impact of familiarity on consumer decision biases and heuristics is examined. Subjects at three different familiarity levels revealed interesting differences in perceptual category breadth, usage of functional and ...

  14. Examiner Familiarity Effects for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szarko, Julia E.; Brown, Alec J.; Watkins, Marley W.

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the difference in standardized test performance when familiar versus unfamiliar examiners tested 26 preschool and elementary-aged children with autism. The children were matched by age, severity, and developmental level and then randomly placed into familiar and unfamiliar examiner groups. Familiarity with the examiner was…

  15. The Role of Noncriterial Recollection in Estimating Recollection and Familiarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, Colleen M.

    2007-01-01

    Noncriterial recollection (ncR) is recollection of details that are irrelevant to task demands. It has been shown to elevate familiarity estimates and to be functionally equivalent to familiarity in the process dissociation procedure [Yonelinas, A. P., & Jacoby, L. L. (1996). Noncriterial recollection: Familiarity as automatic, irrelevant…

  16. ESTUDIO HIDROQUIMICO DEL ACUFERO DE LA VEGA DE GRANADA

    E-print Network

    Castillo, Antonio

    ESTUDIO HIDROQUIMICO DEL ACUÍFERO DE LA VEGA DE GRANADA CASTILLO, A. (1986) "Estudio hidroquímico del acuífero de la Vega de Granada". Ed. Serv. Publ. Univ. Granada (coedición con Instituto Geológico el título, sobre la hidroquímica (calidad y contaminación) de las aguas de la Vega de Granada. En

  17. Social familiarity and shoal formation in juvenile fishes.

    PubMed

    Lee-Jenkins, S S Y; Godin, J-G J

    2010-02-01

    The potential influence of social familiarity in shoal-choice decisions was investigated in two sympatric species of north temperate fishes, juvenile banded killifish Fundulus diaphanus and juvenile bluegill sunfish Lepomis macrochirus. Groups of socially familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics were formed in the laboratory using wild-caught fishes. Juvenile F. diaphanus demonstrated a strong preference for familiar conspecific shoalmates, whereas juvenile L. macrochirus exhibited no preference for either unfamiliar or familiar conspecific shoalmates. The differential influence of familiarity on shoalmate choice in juveniles of these two species could be due to their different ecologies, local population densities and life histories. PMID:20666898

  18. Process dissociation of familiarity and recollection in children: response deadline affects recollection but not familiarity.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Laura; Wimmer, Marina C; Hollins, Timothy J

    2015-03-01

    According to dual-process theories, recollection (slow and associated with contextual details) and familiarity (fast and automatic) are two independent processes underlying recognition memory. An adapted version of the process dissociation paradigm was used to measure recognition memory in 5-, 7-, and 11-year-olds and adults. In Experiment 1, it was found that 5-year-olds already recollect details of items (i.e., number). Recollection increased particularly between 5 and 7 years. Familiarity differed between 5 years and adulthood. In Experiment 2, under limited response time during retrieval, recollection was eliminated in 5-year-olds and reduced across all ages, whereas familiarity was left unaffected. Together, these findings are consistent with dual-process theories of recognition memory and provide support for two processes underlying recognition memory from a developmental perspective. PMID:25544395

  19. INICIO POLTICA ECONOMA MUNDO ESTADOS CAPITAL SOCIEDAD Y JUSTICIA CIENCIAS CULTURA ESPECTCULOS DEPORTES Noticias del da

    E-print Network

    Islas, León

    INICIO POLÍTICA ECONOMÍA MUNDO ESTADOS CAPITAL SOCIEDAD Y JUSTICIA CIENCIAS CULTURA ESPECTÁCULOS DEPORTES Noticias del día No hay noticias publicadas. Ciencias No hay noticias publicadas. BUSCAR Buscar en, del Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología de la UNAM La Jornada en línea Publicado: 24/01/2012 12

  20. ORIENTANDO AL INSTITUTO HACIA EL SERVICIO DE LA INVESTIGACIN

    E-print Network

    SAP en el marco de una medida que integró el manejo del personal y la gestión financiera y contable, con el fin de poder entrar dentro del nuevo marco presupuestal y contable a principios de 2005. Por

  1. INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE PESQUISAS ESPACIAIS CONCURSO PBLICO PARA PROVIMENTO DE VAGAS EM CARGOS DE

    E-print Network

    INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE PESQUISAS ESPACIAIS CONCURSO PÚBLICO PARA PROVIMENTO DE VAGAS EM CARGOS DE NÍVEL SUPERIOR DA CARREIRA DE PESQUISA EM CIÊNCIA E TECNOLOGIA O DIRETOR DO INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE para o Concurso Público para Provimento de Vagas em Cargos de Nível Superior da Carreira de Pesquisa

  2. FCT Relatrio Cientfico 2008 [Instituto de Sistemas e Robtica -ISR -Lisboa] General Information

    E-print Network

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    FCT Relatório Científico 2008 [Instituto de Sistemas e Robótica - ISR - Lisboa] General Information Name of Research Unit: (LA-LVT-Lisboa-9) Instituto de Sistemas e Robótica - ISR - Lisboa Coordinator coordinator of the ISR-Lisbon. The role of the EB is to ensure the current management of the activities

  3. Shipboard medical information systems: familiarity and receptivity.

    PubMed

    Blood, C G; Brand, D M

    1988-06-01

    Analyses were performed on the perceived automation needs and current medical department computerization status aboard ships of the U.S. Pacific Fleet to determine if present automation status had a bearing on receptivity to further automation. Current medical department automation status consisted of microcomputers and/or the Shipboard Nontactical ADP Program (SNAP). Measures of receptivity to department automation included perceived need for automation of reports and composite scores of perceived need for 12 automated medical capabilities. Those ships with the highest present levels of automation were the most receptive to medical department computerization. Lack of familiarity with benefits to be attained through automation was proposed as responsible for observed decrements in receptivity among medical departments. PMID:3171444

  4. Familiarity with music increases walking speed in rhythmic auditory cuing.

    PubMed

    Leow, Li-Ann; Rinchon, Cricia; Grahn, Jessica

    2015-03-01

    Rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) is a gait rehabilitation method in which patients synchronize footsteps to a metronome or musical beats. Although RAS with music can ameliorate gait abnormalities, outcomes vary, possibly because music properties, such as groove or familiarity, differ across interventions. To optimize future interventions, we assessed how initially familiar and unfamiliar low-groove and high-groove music affected synchronization accuracy and gait in healthy individuals. We also experimentally increased music familiarity using repeated exposure to initially unfamiliar songs. Overall, familiar music elicited faster stride velocity and less variable strides, as well as better synchronization performance (matching of step tempo to beat tempo). High-groove music, as reported previously, led to faster stride velocity than low-groove music. We propose two mechanisms for familiarity's effects. First, familiarity with the beat structure reduces cognitive demands of synchronizing, leading to better synchronization performance and faster, less variable gait. Second, familiarity might have elicited faster gait by increasing enjoyment of the music, as enjoyment was higher after repeated exposure to initially low-enjoyment songs. Future studies are necessary to dissociate the contribution of these mechanisms to the observed RAS effects of familiar music on gait. PMID:25773617

  5. Pigeons combine compass and landmark guidance in familiar route navigation

    E-print Network

    Roberts, Stephen

    Pigeons combine compass and landmark guidance in familiar route navigation Dora Biro* , Robin guidance directly, or birds rely on a compass to home from familiar locations. Using miniature Global Positioning System tracking technology and clock-shift procedures, we set sun-compass and landmark infor

  6. Recollection and Familiarity in Recognition Memory: Evidence from ROC Curves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heathcote, Andrew; Raymond, Frances; Dunn, John

    2006-01-01

    Does recognition memory rely on discrete recollection, continuous evidence, or both? Is continuous evidence sensitive to only the recency and duration of study (familiarity), or is it also sensitive to details of the study episode? Dual process theories assume recognition is based on recollection and familiarity, with only recollection providing…

  7. The Importance of Unitization for Familiarity-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, Colleen M.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    It is often assumed that recollection is necessary to support memory for novel associations, whereas familiarity supports memory for single items. However, the levels of unitization framework assumes that familiarity can support associative memory under conditions in which the components of an association are unitized (i.e., treated as a single…

  8. Choosing Your Informant: Weighing Familiarity and Recent Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corriveau, Kathleen; Harris, Paul L.

    2009-01-01

    In two experiments, children aged 3, 4 and 5 years (N = 61) were given conflicting information about the names and functions of novel objects by two informants, one a familiar teacher, the other an unfamiliar teacher. On pre-test trials, all three age groups invested more trust in the familiar teacher. They preferred to ask for information and to…

  9. Familiar-Strange: Teaching the Scripture as John Would Teach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Tung-Chiew

    2014-01-01

    The Gospel of John teaches through telling the story of Jesus in light of the familiar Hebrew faith stories. It is an interpretive task that presents Jesus to his audience and teaches them adequate faith. John the Teacher skillfully uses narrative skills to create the familiar-strange effect in his storytelling. Each story is followed by a…

  10. The Influence of Familiarity on Affective Responses to Natural Scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanabria Z., Jorge C.; Cho, Youngil; Yamanaka, Toshimasa

    This kansei study explored how familiarity with image-word combinations influences affective states. Stimuli were obtained from Japanese print advertisements (ads), and consisted of images (e.g., natural-scene backgrounds) and their corresponding headlines (advertising copy). Initially, a group of subjects evaluated their level of familiarity with images and headlines independently, and stimuli were filtered based on the results. In the main experiment, a different group of subjects rated their pleasure and arousal to, and familiarity with, image-headline combinations. The Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) scale was used to evaluate pleasure and arousal, and a bipolar scale was used to evaluate familiarity. The results showed a high correlation between familiarity and pleasure, but low correlation between familiarity and arousal. The characteristics of the stimuli, and their effect on the variables of pleasure, arousal and familiarity, were explored through ANOVA. It is suggested that, in the case of natural-scene ads, familiarity with image-headline combinations may increase the pleasure response to the ads, and that certain components in the images (e.g., water) may increase arousal levels.

  11. Gender differences in familiar voice identification.

    PubMed

    Skuk, Verena G; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2013-02-01

    We investigated gender differences in the identification of personally familiar voices in a gender-balanced sample of 40 listeners. From various types of utterances, listeners had to identify by name 20 speakers (10 female) among a set of 70 possible classmates who were all 12th grade pupils from the same local secondary school. Mean identification rates were 67% from sentences, and around 35% for an isolated /Hello/ or a VCV syllable. Even from non-verbal harrumphs, speakers were identified with an accuracy of 18%, i.e. highly above chance levels. Substantial individual differences were observed between listeners. Importantly, superior overall performance of female listeners was qualified by an interaction between voice gender and listener gender. Male listeners exhibited an own-gender bias (i.e. better identification for male than female voices), whereas female listeners identified voices of both genders at similar levels. Individual own-gender identification biases were correlated with differences in reported contact to a speaker's voice and voice distinctiveness. Overall, the present study establishes a number of factors that account for substantial individual differences in personal voice identification. PMID:23168357

  12. Perception of familiar contrasts in unfamiliar positions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broersma, Mirjam

    2005-06-01

    This paper investigates the perception of non-native phoneme contrasts which exist in the native language, but not in the position tested. Like English, Dutch contrasts voiced and voiceless obstruents. Unlike English, Dutch allows only voiceless obstruents in word-final position. Dutch and English listeners' accuracy on English final voicing contrasts and their use of preceding vowel duration as a voicing cue were tested. The phonetic structure of Dutch should provide the necessary experience for a native-like use of this cue. Experiment 1 showed that Dutch listeners categorized English final /zee/-/ess/, /vee/-/eff/, /bee/-/pee/, and /dee/-/tee/ contrasts in nonwords as accurately as initial contrasts, and as accurately as English listeners did, even when release bursts were removed. In experiment 2, English listeners used vowel duration as a cue for one final contrast, although it was uninformative and sometimes mismatched other voicing characteristics, whereas Dutch listeners did not. Although it should be relatively easy for them, Dutch listeners did not use vowel duration. Nevertheless, they attained native-like accuracy, and sometimes even outperformed the native listeners who were liable to be misled by uninformative vowel duration information. Thus, native-like use of cues for non-native but familiar contrasts in unfamiliar positions may hardly ever be attained. .

  13. Smells familiar: group-joining decisions of predatory mites are mediated by olfactory cues of social familiarity?

    PubMed Central

    Muleta, Muluken G.; Schausberger, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Group-living animals frequently have to trade off the costs and benefits of leaving an established group and joining another group. Owing to their high fitness relevance, group-joining decisions are commonly nonrandom and may be based on traits of both individual members and the group such as life stage, body size, social status and group density or size, respectively. Many group-living animals are able to recognize and to associate preferentially with familiar individuals, i.e. those encountered before. Hence, after dispersing from established groups, animals commonly have to decide whether to join a new familiar or unfamiliar group. Using binary choice situations we assessed the effects of social familiarity on group-joining behaviour of the plant-inhabiting predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. Group living in P. persimilis is brought about by the patchy distribution of its spider mite prey and mutual conspecific attraction. In the first experiment, gravid predator females given a choice between spider mite patches occupied by unfamiliar and familiar groups of females strongly preferred to join familiar groups and to deposit their eggs in these patches. Preference for socially familiar groups was robust across biases of spider mite prey densities between choice options. The second experiment revealed that the predatory mite females can smell social familiarity from a distance. Females subjected to odour choice situations in artificial cages were more strongly attracted to the odour of familiar than unfamiliar groups. We argue that P. persimilis females preferentially join socially familiar groups because a familiar social environment relaxes competition and optimizes foraging and reproduction. PMID:24027341

  14. Smells familiar: group-joining decisions of predatory mites are mediated by olfactory cues of social familiarity.

    PubMed

    Muleta, Muluken G; Schausberger, Peter

    2013-09-01

    Group-living animals frequently have to trade off the costs and benefits of leaving an established group and joining another group. Owing to their high fitness relevance, group-joining decisions are commonly nonrandom and may be based on traits of both individual members and the group such as life stage, body size, social status and group density or size, respectively. Many group-living animals are able to recognize and to associate preferentially with familiar individuals, i.e. those encountered before. Hence, after dispersing from established groups, animals commonly have to decide whether to join a new familiar or unfamiliar group. Using binary choice situations we assessed the effects of social familiarity on group-joining behaviour of the plant-inhabiting predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. Group living in P. persimilis is brought about by the patchy distribution of its spider mite prey and mutual conspecific attraction. In the first experiment, gravid predator females given a choice between spider mite patches occupied by unfamiliar and familiar groups of females strongly preferred to join familiar groups and to deposit their eggs in these patches. Preference for socially familiar groups was robust across biases of spider mite prey densities between choice options. The second experiment revealed that the predatory mite females can smell social familiarity from a distance. Females subjected to odour choice situations in artificial cages were more strongly attracted to the odour of familiar than unfamiliar groups. We argue that P. persimilis females preferentially join socially familiar groups because a familiar social environment relaxes competition and optimizes foraging and reproduction. PMID:24027341

  15. Características de los pacientes con poliposis adenomatosa familiar en España. Resultados iniciales del Registro Español de Poliposis Adenomatosa Familiar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ignacio Alfaro; Teresa Ocaña; Antoni Castells; Carmen Cordero; Marta Ponce; Teresa Ramón Y Cajal; Montserrat Andreu; Luis Bujanda; Maite Herráiz; Antonio José Hervás Molina; Fernando Fernández-Bañares; Sabino Riestra-Menéndez; Carla Gargallo; Ana Ruiz; Marco Bustamante; Ignacio Blanco; Fernando Martínez de Juan

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectivesFamilial adenomatous polyposis is an inherited disorder characterized by the presence of multiple colorectal adenomas (more than 100 in the classic form and between 10 and 100 in the attenuated one), with a high risk of colorectal cancer development. To improve the diagnostic and therapeutic management of these patients, the Spanish Registry of Familial Adenomatous Polyposis was created

  16. Face Distortion Aftereffects in Personally Familiar, Famous, and Unfamiliar Faces

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Billy Ronald Peter; Hills, Peter James

    2012-01-01

    The internal face prototype is thought to be a construction of the average of every previously viewed face (Schwaninger et al., 2003). However, the influence of the most frequently encountered faces (i.e., personally familiar faces) has been generally understated. The current research explored the face distortion aftereffect in unfamiliar, famous, and personally familiar (each subject’s parent) faces. Forty-eight adult participants reported whether faces were distorted or not (distorted by shifting the eyes in the vertical axis) of a series of images that included unfamiliar, famous, and personally familiar faces. The number of faces perceived to be “odd” was measured pre- and post-adaptation to the most extreme distortion. Participants were adapted to either an unfamiliar, famous, or personally familiar face. The results indicate that adaptation transferred from unfamiliar faces to personally familiar faces more so than the converse and aftereffects did not transfer from famous faces to unfamiliar faces. These results are indicative of representation differences between unfamiliar, famous, and personally familiar faces, whereby personally familiar faces share representations of both unfamiliar and famous faces. PMID:22870069

  17. Face distortion aftereffects in personally familiar, famous, and unfamiliar faces.

    PubMed

    Walton, Billy Ronald Peter; Hills, Peter James

    2012-01-01

    The internal face prototype is thought to be a construction of the average of every previously viewed face (Schwaninger et al., 2003). However, the influence of the most frequently encountered faces (i.e., personally familiar faces) has been generally understated. The current research explored the face distortion aftereffect in unfamiliar, famous, and personally familiar (each subject's parent) faces. Forty-eight adult participants reported whether faces were distorted or not (distorted by shifting the eyes in the vertical axis) of a series of images that included unfamiliar, famous, and personally familiar faces. The number of faces perceived to be "odd" was measured pre- and post-adaptation to the most extreme distortion. Participants were adapted to either an unfamiliar, famous, or personally familiar face. The results indicate that adaptation transferred from unfamiliar faces to personally familiar faces more so than the converse and aftereffects did not transfer from famous faces to unfamiliar faces. These results are indicative of representation differences between unfamiliar, famous, and personally familiar faces, whereby personally familiar faces share representations of both unfamiliar and famous faces. PMID:22870069

  18. Coordinacin Docente Instituto de Fsica, Universidad Nacional Autnoma de Mxico

    E-print Network

    Islas, León

    considerarse un motivo de orgullo, pero también de responsabilidad, tanto al interior como al exterior del estudios de licenciatura o de posgrado, tesis de licenciatura, servicio social o colabora en proyectos de

  19. JORNADA SOBRE LA TRANSFORMACIN DEL DERECHO PRIVADO ANTE LA CRISIS1

    E-print Network

    Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad

    JORNADA SOBRE LA TRANSFORMACIÓN DEL DERECHO PRIVADO ANTE LA CRISIS1 . Lugar de celebración: Sala Conde. Catedrático de D. Constitucional y Director del Instituto de Derecho Público. URJC. 10:00 Conferencia inaugural Prof. Dr. D. Domingo Bello Janeiro, Catedrático de Derecho Civil. Universidad de

  20. El cuento del cáncer de cérvix podría tener un final feliz

    Cancer.gov

    El cuento del cáncer de cérvix podría tener un final feliz Por el Instituto Nacional del Cáncer El cáncer de cérvix fue en un tiempo la causa principal de muerte por cáncer entre mujeres estadounidenses. Pero, en los últimos 50 años, el número de

  1. FAMILIARITY TRANSFER AS AN EXPLANATION OF THE DÉJÀ VU EFFECT.

    PubMed

    Ma?ecki, M

    2015-06-01

    -Déjà vu is often explained in terms of an unconscious transfer of familiarity between a familiar object or objects and accompanying new objects. However, empirical research tests more the priming effectiveness than such a transfer. This paper reviews the main explanations of déjà vu, proposes a cognitive model of the phenomenon, and tests its six major assumptions. The model states that a sense of familiarity can be felt toward an objectively new stimulus (point 1) and that it can be transferred from a known stimulus to a novel one (point 2) in a situation where the person is unaware of such a transfer (point 3). The criteria for déjà vu are that the known and the novel stimuli may have graphical or semantic similarity, but differences exclude priming explanations (point 4); the familiarity measure should be of an non-rational nature (sense of familiarity rather than recognition; point 5); and that the feeling of familiarity toward a novel stimuli produces a conflict, which could be measured by means of increased reaction (point 6). 119 participants were tested in three experiments. The participants were to assess the novel stimuli in terms of their sense of familiarity. The novel stimuli were primed or were not primed by the known stimulus (Exp. 1) or primed by the known vs a novel stimulus (Exp. 2 and 3). The priming was subliminal in all the experiments. Reaction times were measured in Exps. 2 and 3. The participants assessed the novel stimuli as more familiar when they were preceded by a known stimulus than when they were not (Exp. 1) or when they were preceded by a novel stimulus (Exps. 2 and 3). Reaction times were longer for assessments preceded by known stimulus than for assessments preceded by a novel stimulus, which contradicts the priming explanations. The results seem to support all six points of the proposed model of the mechanisms underlying the déjà vu experience. PMID:25871565

  2. Centro de Investigacin y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politcnico Nacional Comit de Mejora Regulatoria Interna

    E-print Network

    implementadas por el CENTRO a fin de lograr sencillez administrativa y eficiencia en los procesos mediante los regulatoria: El documento administrativo interno que acredita los argumentos y el fundamento, que sirven de

  3. Investigacin Centro de Investigacin y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politcnico Nacional

    E-print Network

    Bioquímica, Biología Molecular e Inmunología de Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania mexicana y Entamoeba - Anopheles; Trypanosoma -Triatomino y el virus dengue- mosquito Aedes. Adolfo Martínez Palomo Biología

  4. Investigacin Centro de Investigacin y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politcnico Nacional

    E-print Network

    variantes con el tiempo. José Manuel Cañedo Castañeda Modelado, diseño y control robusto de maquinas José Bayro Corrochano Desarrollo de algoritmos en tiempo real para el control de percepción de visión

  5. Investigacin Centro de Investigacin y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politcnico Nacional

    E-print Network

    Nacional Departamento de Fisiología, Biofísica y Neurociencias Investigador Línea de Investigación Jorge Nacional Departamento de Fisiología, Biofísica y Neurociencias Investigador Línea de Investigación José

  6. Instituto de Matem'aticas, UNAM Publicaciones Preliminares

    E-print Network

    Rajsbaum, Sergio

    software y sistemas, pasando por problemas de dise~no y an'alisis de algoritmos, e inclusive sistema se­ guro. Por otro lado, se espera lograr que se aprecie la riqueza y lo fascinante del 'area tomando ya inclusive en sistemas de uso cotidiano. 1 Introducci'on La seguridad de los sistemas

  7. The importance of unitization for familiarity-based learning.

    PubMed

    Parks, Colleen M; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2015-05-01

    It is often assumed that recollection is necessary to support memory for novel associations, whereas familiarity supports memory for single items. However, the levels of unitization framework assumes that familiarity can support associative memory under conditions in which the components of an association are unitized (i.e., treated as a single coherent item). In the current study we tested two critical assumptions of this framework. First, does unitization reflect a specialized form of learning or is it simply a form of semantic or elaborative encoding, and, second, can the beneficial effects of unitization on familiarity be observed for across-domain associations or are they limited to creating new associations between items that are from the same stimulus domains? Unitization was found to increase associative recognition but not item recognition. It affected familiarity more than recollection, increased associative but not item priming, and was dissociable from levels of processing effects. Moreover, unitization effects were found to be particularly effective in supporting face-word and fractal-sound pairs. The current results indicate that unitization reflects a specialized form of learning that supports associative familiarity of within- and across-domain associations. PMID:25329077

  8. How familiarization and repetition modulate the picture naming network

    PubMed Central

    Llorens, Anaïs; Trébuchon, Agnès; Riès, Stéphanie; Liégeois-Chauvel, Catherine; Alario, F.-Xavier

    2014-01-01

    A common strategy to reveal the components of the speech production network is to use psycholinguistic manipulations previously tested in behavioral protocols. This often disregards how implementation aspects that are nonessential for interpreting behavior may affect the neural response. We compared the electrophysiological (EEG) signature of two popular picture naming protocols involving either unfamiliar pictures without repetitions or repeated familiar pictures. We observed significant semantic interference effects in behavior but not in the EEG, contrary to some previous findings. Remarkably, the two protocols elicited clearly distinct EEG responses. These were not due to naming latency differences nor did they reflect a homogeneous modulation of amplitude over the trial time-window. The effect of protocol is attributed to the familiarization induced by the first encounter with the materials. Picture naming processes can be substantially modulated by specific protocol requirements controlled by familiarity and, to a much lesser degree, the repetition of materials. PMID:24785306

  9. How familiarization and repetition modulate the picture naming network.

    PubMed

    Llorens, Anaïs; Trébuchon, Agnès; Riès, Stéphanie; Liégeois-Chauvel, Catherine; Alario, F-Xavier

    2014-06-01

    A common strategy to reveal the components of the speech production network is to use psycholinguistic manipulations previously tested in behavioral protocols. This often disregards how implementation aspects that are nonessential for interpreting behavior may affect the neural response. We compared the electrophysiological (EEG) signature of two popular picture naming protocols involving either unfamiliar pictures without repetitions or repeated familiar pictures. We observed significant semantic interference effects in behavior but not in the EEG, contrary to some previous findings. Remarkably, the two protocols elicited clearly distinct EEG responses. These were not due to naming latency differences nor did they reflect a homogeneous modulation of amplitude over the trial time-window. The effect of protocol is attributed to the familiarization induced by the first encounter with the materials. Picture naming processes can be substantially modulated by specific protocol requirements controlled by familiarity and, to a much lesser degree, the repetition of materials. PMID:24785306

  10. A familiar font drives early emotional effects in word recognition.

    PubMed

    Kuchinke, Lars; Krause, Beatrix; Fritsch, Nathalie; Briesemeister, Benny B

    2014-10-01

    The emotional connotation of a word is known to shift the process of word recognition. Using the electroencephalographic event-related potentials (ERPs) approach it has been documented that early attentional processing of high-arousing negative words is shifted at a stage of processing where a presented word cannot have been fully identified. Contextual learning has been discussed to contribute to these effects. The present study shows that a manipulation of the familiarity with a word's shape interferes with these earliest emotional ERP effects. Presenting high-arousing negative and neutral words in a familiar or an unfamiliar font results in very early emotion differences only in case of familiar shapes, whereas later processing stages reveal similar emotional effects in both font conditions. Because these early emotion-related differences predict later behavioral differences, it is suggested that contextual learning of emotional valence comprises more visual features than previously expected to guide early visual-sensory processing. PMID:25226214

  11. Dogs' comprehension of referential emotional expressions: familiar people and familiar emotions are easier.

    PubMed

    Merola, I; Prato-Previde, E; Lazzaroni, M; Marshall-Pescini, S

    2014-03-01

    Dogs have been shown to discriminate between human facial expressions, and they seem to use human emotional communication to regulate their behaviour towards an external object/situation. However, it is still not clear (1) whether they just respond to the emotional message received with a corresponding increase/decrease in their level of activation or whether they perceive that the emotional message refers to a specific object, (2) which emotional message they use to modify their behaviour (i.e. whether they are following the positive message or avoiding the negative one) and (3) whether their familiarity with the informant has an effect on the dogs' behaviour. To address these issues, five groups of dogs were tested in two experiments. The first group observed the owner delivering two different emotional messages (happiness and fear) towards two identical objects hidden behind barriers, and the second group observed the owner delivering the same emotional messages but with no-objects present in the room. The third and the fourth groups observed the owner delivering a happy versus a neutral, and a negative versus a neutral emotional message towards the hidden objects. Finally, the fifth group observed a stranger acting like the owner of the first group. When the owner was acting as the informant, dogs seemed to be capable of distinguishing between a fearful and happy emotional expression and preferentially chose to investigate a box eliciting an expression of happiness rather than of fear or neutrality. Dogs, however, seemed to have greater difficulty in distinguishing between the fearful and neutral emotional messages delivered by the owner and between the happy and fearful expressions delivered by the stranger. Results suggest that dogs have learned to associate their owners' positive emotional messages to positive outcomes, and hence use their communicative messages to guide their actions. However, negative emotional messages and those delivered by strangers are not as clear to dogs. PMID:23955027

  12. Task Familiarity and Interactional Feedback in Child ESL Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, Alison; Kanganas, Alec Peter; Oliver, Rhonda

    2007-01-01

    In this article we report on a study undertaken with ESL children between 7 and 8 years old. They carried out communicative tasks in pairs in second language classrooms. We examined patterns of their task-based conversational interactions while we manipulated their familiarity with the procedure and content of the tasks. We found that learners…

  13. Acquaintanceship, Familiarity, and Coordinated Laughter in Writing Tutorials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thonus, Terese

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the frequency, structure, and purposes of laughter in writing tutorials between 46 acquainted and unacquainted tutor-student pairs. Of particular interest were instances of shared, or coordinated laughter, which took the form of sequenced, simultaneous, and extended laughter. Familiarity, viewed as a continuum, was also…

  14. Electrophysiological Signals of Familiarity and Recency in the Infant Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Kelly A.; Garza, John; Zolot, Liza; Kresse, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Electrophysiological work in nonhuman primates has established the existence of multiple types of signals in the temporal lobe that contribute to recognition memory, including information regarding a stimulus's relative novelty, familiarity, and recency of occurrence. We used high-density event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine whether young…

  15. Familiar Sports and Activities Adapted for Multiply Impaired Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Mary Lou, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Means of adapting some familiar and popular physical activities for multiply impaired persons are described. Games reviewed are dice baseball, one base baseball, in-house bowling, wheelchair bowling, ramp bowling, swing-ball bowling, table tennis, shuffleboard, beanbag bingo and tic-tac-toe, balloon basketball, circle football, and wheelchair…

  16. When Familiarity Breeds Accuracy: Cultural Exposure and Facial Emotion Recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hillary Anger Elfenbein; Nalini Ambady

    2003-01-01

    Two studies provide evidence for the role of cultural familiarity in recognizing facial expressions of emotion. For Chinese located in China and the United States, Chinese Americans, and non-Asian Americans, accuracy and speed in judging Chinese and American emotions was greater with greater participant exposure to the group posing the expressions. Likewise, Tibetans residing in China and Africans residing in

  17. E-commerce: the role of familiarity and trust

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Gefen

    2000-01-01

    Familiarity is a precondition for trust, claims Luhmann [28: Luhmann N. Trust and power. Chichester UK: Wiley, 1979. (translation from German)], and trust is a prerequisite of social behavior, especially regarding important decisions. This study examines this intriguing idea in the context of the E-commerce involved in inquiring about and purchasing books on the Internet. Survey data from 217 potential

  18. Revitalising brands through communication messages: the role of brand familiarity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elena Delgado-Ballester; Angeles Navarro; María Sicilia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – From an integrated marketing communications perspective, this study aims to analyse what level of consistency among brand messages is more effective in terms of customer-based brand equity. In particular it aims to evaluate its impact on brand knowledge structure, and how brand familiarity moderates this influence. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A sample of 194 subjects participated in a between subjects

  19. Context Dependency of Conditioned Aversions to Familiar and Novel Fluids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishii, Kiyoshi; Iguchi, Yoshio; Sawa, Kosuke

    2006-01-01

    Using a context discrimination procedure and rats as the subjects, the formation of context-dependent aversions to novel and familiar fluids was investigated. Experiment 1 revealed that context dependency could be established to a novel fluid (saccharin) after three cycles of context discrimination training and that the acquired context dependency…

  20. Research Methods--Researching Peers and Familiar Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hockey, John

    1993-01-01

    Reviews the research methods literature examining the benefits and pitfalls of doing educational research in familiar settings and among peers. The review encompasses educational literature and material from anthropology and sociology. The impact of structural differences between researcher and researched is discussed, noting problems of antipathy…

  1. The Sensorimotor Contributions to Implicit Memory, Familiarity, and Recollection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topolinski, Sascha

    2012-01-01

    The sensorimotor contributions to memory for prior occurrence were investigated. Previous research has shown that both implicit memory and familiarity draw on gains in stimulus-related processing fluency for old, compared with novel, stimuli, but recollection does not. Recently, it has been demonstrated that processing fluency itself resides in…

  2. Assessing Student Interest and Familiarity with Professional Psychology Specialty Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark-Wroblewski, Kimberly; Wiggins, Tina L.; Ryan, Joseph J.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined undergraduate psychology students' (N = 83) self-reported interest in and familiarity with five specialty areas in professional psychology: counseling psychology, clinical psychology, school psychology, forensic psychology, and criminal profiling. Results suggest that although students are quite interested in careers…

  3. Sustained Effects of Adaptation on the Perception of Familiar Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbon, Claus-Christian; Ditye, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Figural aftereffects are commonly believed to be transient and to fade away in the course of milliseconds. We tested face aftereffects using familiar faces and found sustained effects lasting up to 1 week. In 3 experiments, participants were first exposed to distorted pictures of famous persons and then had to select the veridical face in a…

  4. Effect of Familiarity on the Processing of Human Faces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Dubois; B. Rossion; C. Schiltz; J. M. Bodart; C. Michel; R. Bruyer; M. Crommelinck

    1999-01-01

    Most brain imaging studies on face perception have investigated the processing of unknown faces and addressed mainly the question of specific face processing in the human brain. The goal of this study was to highlight the effects of familiarity on the visual processing of faces. Using [15O]water 3D Positron Emission Tomography, regional cerebral blood flow distribution was measured in 11

  5. Do Tetranychus urticae males avoid mating with familiar females?

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, T; Yano, S

    2014-07-01

    The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, usually lives in kin groups under common webs. Because only the first mating results in fertilisation in female T. urticae, adult males guard quiescent deutonymph females, those at the stage immediately before maturation, to ensure paternity. Therefore, the cost of precopulatory guarding time seems considerable for males. Moreover, the fitness indices of daughters from intra-population crosses were significantly lower than those of daughters from inter-population crosses, indicating that inbreeding depression exists in T. urticae. Therefore, we hypothesised that T. urticae males should be choosy in guarding familiar females to avoid inbreeding depression. Furthermore, webs should be a key element of the environment shared by familiar individuals. In this study, we demonstrated the inbreeding avoidance mechanism of T. urticae males in relation to webs produced by familiar females (known webs) or unfamiliar females (unknown webs). Regardless of surrounding webs (known or unknown), males preferred unfamiliar to familiar females. We further examined whether males detect unfamiliar females by their webs. When males had experienced a female's web without encountering that female, they subsequently preferred females that did not produce the surrounding webs in which the choice experiment was conducted. Results suggest that putative kin recognition for inbreeding avoidance in T. urticae males is based on the relationship between webs and females, and not on the discrimination of webs in shared environments. PMID:24737758

  6. Correctional Training. Institution Familiarization. Part II: The Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Prisons (Dept. of Justice), Washington, DC.

    Designed to assist training coordinators in the initial institution familiarization training for new employees in correctional institutions, this manual consists of two documents: a training coordinator's guide (Part I - CE 017 285) and this document, the training program (Part II). Four training areas are treated: (1) an introduction consisting…

  7. Effective Approaches to Disorientation Familiarization for Aviation Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, William E.

    Techniques are discussed for providing familiarization of aviation personnel with disorientation problems (dizziness). Procedures are spelled out in detail. Methods of modifying existing equipment as well as an evaluation of available commercial equipment, are presented. The techniques have been used with notable success both at the Civil…

  8. Assessing the Dissociability of Recollection and Familiarity in Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratte, Michael S.; Rouder, Jeffrey N.

    2012-01-01

    Recognition memory is often modeled as constituting 2 separate processes, recollection and familiarity, rather than as constituting a single process mediated by a generic latent strength. One way of stating evidence for the more complex 2-process model is to show dissociations with select manipulations, in which one manipulation affects…

  9. COOPERATIVAS COMO FORMA DE ORGANIZAÇÃO DA AGRICULTURA FAMILIAR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nadir Paula Da Rosa; Adriano Lago; Silvio Santos Junior; Erica Silva Mendonca

    2008-01-01

    A agricultura familiar desempenha um importante papel socioeconômico na sociedade, proporcionando a permanência do homem no campo, conseqüentemente evitando o êxodo rural, e reduzindo o crescimento dos cinturões da pobreza em torno das cidades a procura de trabalho. O foco central do presente estudo concentra-se em discutir os motivos que levam as pequenas famílias rurais a buscar diferentes maneiras de

  10. Probability of Equivalence Formation: Familiar Stimuli and Training Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arntzen, Erik

    2004-01-01

    The present study was conducted to show how responding in accord with equivalence relations changes as a function of position of familiar stimuli, pictures, and with the use of nonsense syllables in an MTO-training structure. Fifty college students were tested for responding in accord with equivalence in an AB, CB, DB, and EB training structure.…

  11. The Familiar Observer: Seeing beyond the Expected in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollenbeck, Amy Feiker

    2015-01-01

    Reflection on subjectivity in the qualitative research process is fundamental to the methodology. Although much attention is paid to what to do (identify subjectivities), there is much less emphasis on how one should do this. Furthermore, a researcher engaged in an intimately familiar setting, such as a typical American classroom, faces the unique…

  12. Talker familiarity and spoken word recognition in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Levi, Susannah V

    2015-07-01

    Research with adults has shown that spoken language processing is improved when listeners are familiar with talkers' voices, known as the familiar talker advantage. The current study explored whether this ability extends to school-age children, who are still acquiring language. Children were familiarized with the voices of three German-English bilingual talkers and were tested on the speech of six bilinguals, three of whom were familiar. Results revealed that children do show improved spoken language processing when they are familiar with the talkers, but this improvement was limited to highly familiar lexical items. This restriction of the familiar talker advantage is attributed to differences in the representation of highly familiar and less familiar lexical items. In addition, children did not exhibit accent-general learning; despite having been exposed to German-accented talkers during training, there was no improvement for novel German-accented talkers. PMID:25159173

  13. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais -Laboratrio Associado de Plasma 1 Project ELISA

    E-print Network

    Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais - Laboratório Associado de Plasma 1 Project ELISAnd Workshop on EQUARS Satellite Project, 29-31 July, 2003, INPE, São José dos Campos, SP, Brazil #12 the energy spectrum of (0.1- 40) keV electrons Scientific Objectives: 1. Electron Precipitation in the South

  14. Phase diagram twoleg Kondo ladder Instituto Fsica Gleb Wataghin, Unicamp, Caixa Postal 6165, Campinas 13083970, Brazil

    E-print Network

    Miranda, Eduardo

    Phase diagram two­leg Kondo ladder Xavier E. Miranda Instituto Física Gleb Wataghin, Unicamp, Caixa received April 2004; published 23 November 2004) diagram of two­leg Kondo ladder investigated using computational techniques. Ferromag­ netism is present, small conduction electron densities robust Kondo coupling

  15. SUSANA CARDOSO DE FREITAS, INVESTIGADORA DO INSTITUTO DE ENGENHARIA DE SISTEMAS E COMPUTADORES (INESC-MN)

    E-print Network

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    (INESC-MN) INESC-MN: TRADIÇÃO DE LIGAÇÃO À INDÚSTRIA Não se considera uma pessoa espontaneamente Susana Cardoso de Freitas, Investigadora do Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores (INESC-MN INESC-MN e os desafios que se colocam à investigação em Portugal. ¦ o ano de 1989 nascia |^k Io INESC

  16. Hierarchical Triangle Strips IMPA --Instituto de Matem'atica Pura e Aplicada,

    E-print Network

    Hierarchical Triangle Strips Luiz Velho IMPA -- Instituto de Matem'atica Pura e Aplicada, Estrada introduce a method to construct hierarchical triangle strips that completely cover surfaces given in many applications of geometric modeling and computer graphics. The triangle strips representation

  17. Land Universitet Sprk OBS! Mer info Argentina Instituto Tecnologico de Buenos Aires Spanska Ej fr F

    E-print Network

    Land Universitet Språk OBS! Mer info Argentina Instituto Tecnologico de Buenos Aires Spanska Ej för Melbourne Inst. of Technology Engelska Endast VT14 eller kalenderår 2014 Mer info Australien The University of Melbourne Engelska Endast VT14 eller kalenderår 2014 Mer info Australien University of Adelaide Engelska

  18. Instituto Nacional de la Salud Mental DEPARTAMENTO DE SALUD Y SERVICIOS HUMANOS DE LOS ESTADOS UNIDOS

    E-print Network

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    Instituto Nacional de la Salud Mental Trastornos deAnsiedad DEPARTAMENTO DE SALUD Y SERVICIOS Trastornos de Ansiedad Los trastornos de ansiedad afectan a aproximadamente 40 millones de adultos (tal como hablar en público o una primera cita amorosa), los trastornos de ansiedad duran por lo menos

  19. Visual laterality in dolphins: importance of the familiarity of stimuli

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many studies of cerebral asymmetries in different species lead, on the one hand, to a better understanding of the functions of each cerebral hemisphere and, on the other hand, to develop an evolutionary history of hemispheric laterality. Our animal model is particularly interesting because of its original evolutionary path, i.e. return to aquatic life after a terrestrial phase. The rare reports concerning visual laterality of marine mammals investigated mainly discrimination processes. As dolphins are migrant species they are confronted to a changing environment. Being able to categorize new versus familiar objects would allow dolphins a rapid adaptation to novel environments. Visual laterality could be a prerequisite to this adaptability. To date, no study, to our knowledge, has analyzed the environmental factors that could influence their visual laterality. Results We investigated visual laterality expressed spontaneously at the water surface by a group of five common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in response to various stimuli. The stimuli presented ranged from very familiar objects (known and manipulated previously) to familiar objects (known but never manipulated) to unfamiliar objects (unknown, never seen previously). At the group level, dolphins used their left eye to observe very familiar objects and their right eye to observe unfamiliar objects. However, eyes are used indifferently to observe familiar objects with intermediate valence. Conclusion Our results suggest different visual cerebral processes based either on the global shape of well-known objects or on local details of unknown objects. Moreover, the manipulation of an object appears necessary for these dolphins to construct a global representation of an object enabling its immediate categorization for subsequent use. Our experimental results pointed out some cognitive capacities of dolphins which might be crucial for their wild life given their fission-fusion social system and migratory behaviour. PMID:22239860

  20. Ball Bearings - Investigating the effect of lasting familiar size representations on prehensile movement using tennis balls 

    E-print Network

    Styles, James Edward

    2009-07-03

    This study was designed to examine whether the learned pictorial depth cue of familiar size is a constantly stored artefact. The attempt was to distinguish whether the familiar size effect occurs only after recent ...

  1. The role of language familiarity in voice identification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith P. Goggin; Charles P. Thompson; Gerhard Strube; Liza R. Simental

    1991-01-01

    Four experiments examined the effects of language characteristics on voice identification. In Experiment 1, monolingual English\\u000a listeners identified bilinguals’ voices much betterwhenthey spoke English than whenthey spoke German. The opposite outcome-was-found\\u000a in Experiment 2, in which the listeners were monolingual in German. In Experiment 3, monolingual English listeners also showed\\u000a better voice identification when bilinguals spoke a familiar language (English)

  2. Familiarity effects on categorization levels of faces and objects.

    PubMed

    Anaki, David; Bentin, Shlomo

    2009-04-01

    It is well established that faces, in contrast to objects, are categorized as fast or faster at the individual level (e.g., Bill Clinton) than at the basic-level (e.g., human face). This subordinate-shift from basic-level categorization has been considered an outcome of visual expertise with processing faces. However, in the present study we found that, similar to familiar faces, categorization of individually-known familiar towers is also faster at the individual level than at the basic-level in naïve participants. In addition, category-verification of familiar stimuli, at basic and superordinate levels, was slower and less accurate compared to unfamiliar stimuli. Thus, the existence of detailed semantic information, regardless of expertise, can induce a shift in the default level of object categorization from basic to individual level. Moreover, the individually-specific knowledge is not only more easily-retrieved from memory but it might also interfere with accessing more general category information. PMID:19217085

  3. Aplicaciones del aloinjerto de dermis humana acelular en cirugía plástica oftálmica y reconstructiva

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth Medina-Gutiérrez; José Luis Tovilla-Canales; Angel Nava-Castañeda

    SUMMARY Purpose: To describe the uses and experience of a commercially available acellular dermal allograft (Alloderm®) in oculoplastic surgery in the Servicio de Párpados, Órbita y Vía Lagrimal del Instituto de Oftalmología Conde de Valenciana. Methods: It was a retrospective, noncomparative case series between January 2001 and June 2005. We identified 30 cases (23 patients). Outcome measures included applications of

  4. Centro de Contacto del NCI—Servicio de Información sobre el Cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) ofrece información actualizada, precisa, confiable y fácil de entender sobre diferentes de temas de cáncer. Los especialistas en información le pueden ayudar en el teléfono 1-800-422-6237 (1-800-4-CANCER).

  5. "Buscando un Camino" -Potenciales y Limitaciones en el Fortalecimiento de Innovaciones Locales del Pueblo Kampu

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    revaloración cultural y un desarrollo más sostenible. La estancia de siete meses en el Perú me dio la, 2008 Supervisores: PD Dr. Stephan Rist y Prof. Dr. Urs Wiesmann Centro de Desarrollo y Medioambiente colaboración entre el Centro para el Desarrollo y el Medio Ambiente (CDE) del Instituto de Geografía de la

  6. Familiarity and Sex Based Stereotypes on Instant Impressions of Male and Female Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadler, Joel T.; Berry, Seth A.; Stockdale, Margaret S.

    2013-01-01

    To address the stranger-to-stranger critique of stereotyping research, psychology students (n = 139) and law students (n = 58) rated photographs of familiar or unfamiliar male or female professors on competence. Results from Study 1 indicated that familiar male psychology faculty were rated as more competent than were familiar female faculty,…

  7. Influence of Familiarity on Identifying Prosodic Vocalizations Produced by Children with Severe Dysarthria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Rupal; Schroeder, Bethany

    2007-01-01

    Familiarity is thought to aid listeners in decoding disordered speech; however, as the speech signal degrades, the "familiarity advantage" becomes less beneficial. Despite highly unintelligible speech sound production, many children with dysarthria vocalize when interacting with familiar caregivers. Perhaps listeners can understand these…

  8. AGRICULTURA FAMILIAR E SUSTENTABILIDADE SOCIOAMBIENTAL: UMA RELAÇÃO DE TRABALHO E PODER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marilanda Jesus de Lima; Anderson Alves Santos; Lúcia Gracia Ferreira; Guerra Ferreira; Ineis Ferraz da Silva; Valdeni de Jesus Almeida

    Resumo : Durante décadas presenciamos a importância da agricultura familiar no contexto agropecuário brasileiro. A agricultura familiar proporciona a permanência do homem no campo, geração de renda e sustentabilidade ambiental através da agroecologia. Se levarmos em consideração o local onde a agricultura familiar acontece perceberemos que ela está vinculada a sustentabilidade socioambiental, ligadas as relações de trabalho e poder. Assim,

  9. Investigating Faculty Familiarity with Assessment Terminology by Applying Cluster Analysis to Interpret Survey Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raker, Jeffrey R.; Holme, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    A cluster analysis was conducted with a set of survey data on chemistry faculty familiarity with 13 assessment terms. Cluster groupings suggest a high, middle, and low overall familiarity with the terminology and an independent high and low familiarity with terms related to fundamental statistics. The six resultant clusters were found to be…

  10. Instituto do petrleo e do gs nasce por causa do Brasil e tem

    E-print Network

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    Instituto do petróleo e do gás nasce por causa do Brasil e tem 110 milhões de euros até 2017&D chegam a 775 milhões de dólares em 2025 A Galp Energia vai aplicar 1% das receitas no Brasil em I&D O. As regras de aproveitamento do financiamento proporcionado através do Brasil impõem, contudo, que as verbas

  11. Uneasy money: the Instituto Carlos Slim de la Salud, tobacco philanthropy and conflict of interest in global health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tiffany Burch; Nathaniel Wander; Jeff Collin

    2010-01-01

    In May 2007, the Instituto Carso de la Salud—now Instituto Carlos Slim de la Salud (ICSS)—was endowed with US$500 million to focus on priority health issues in Latin America, notably issues of ‘globalisation and non-communicable diseases’. ICSS was soon criticised, however, on the grounds that its funding was derived from tobacco industry profits and that its founder Carlos Slim Hélu

  12. Preparing for novel versus familiar events: shifts in global and local processing.

    PubMed

    Förster, Jens; Liberman, Nira; Shapira, Oren

    2009-08-01

    Six experiments examined whether novelty versus familiarity influences global versus local processing styles. Novelty and familiarity were manipulated by either framing a task as new versus familiar or by asking participants to reflect upon novel versus familiar events prior to the task (i.e., procedural priming). In Experiments 1-3, global perception was enhanced after novelty priming or framing, whereas familiarity priming facilitated local perception relative to a control group. In Experiment 4, participants used more inclusive categories under novelty priming and narrower categories under familiarity priming. In Experiments 5-6, participants construed actions and products more abstractly when these were framed as novel as compared to familiar. These results support the construal level theory (N. Liberman & Y. Trope, 2008; Y. Trope & N. Liberman, 2003) contention that having less direct experience is associated with using higher construal levels. Implications of the findings for research on mood, processing styles, stereotypes, and consumer research are discussed. PMID:19653797

  13. STS-95 crew members participate in a SPACEHAB familiarization exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-95 Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, who represents the European Space Agency (ESA), checks out a video camera to be used on the mission, during SPACEHAB familiarization at the SPACEHAB Payload Processing Facility, Cape Canaveral. The mission, , scheduled to launch Oct. 29, includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

  14. Familiar and unfamiliar face recognition in crested macaques (Macaca nigra).

    PubMed

    Micheletta, Jérôme; Whitehouse, Jamie; Parr, Lisa A; Marshman, Paul; Engelhardt, Antje; Waller, Bridget M

    2015-05-01

    Many species use facial features to identify conspecifics, which is necessary to navigate a complex social environment. The fundamental mechanisms underlying face processing are starting to be well understood in a variety of primate species. However, most studies focus on a limited subset of species tested with unfamiliar faces. As well as limiting our understanding of how widely distributed across species these skills are, this also limits our understanding of how primates process faces of individuals they know, and whether social factors (e.g. dominance and social bonds) influence how readily they recognize others. In this study, socially housed crested macaques voluntarily participated in a series of computerized matching-to-sample tasks investigating their ability to discriminate (i) unfamiliar individuals and (ii) members of their own social group. The macaques performed above chance on all tasks. Familiar faces were not easier to discriminate than unfamiliar faces. However, the subjects were better at discriminating higher ranking familiar individuals, but not unfamiliar ones. This suggests that our subjects applied their knowledge of their dominance hierarchies to the pictorial representation of their group mates. Faces of high-ranking individuals garner more social attention, and therefore might be more deeply encoded than other individuals. Our results extend the study of face recognition to a novel species, and consequently provide valuable data for future comparative studies. PMID:26064665

  15. Familiar and unfamiliar face recognition in crested macaques (Macaca nigra)

    PubMed Central

    Micheletta, Jérôme; Whitehouse, Jamie; Parr, Lisa A.; Marshman, Paul; Engelhardt, Antje; Waller, Bridget M.

    2015-01-01

    Many species use facial features to identify conspecifics, which is necessary to navigate a complex social environment. The fundamental mechanisms underlying face processing are starting to be well understood in a variety of primate species. However, most studies focus on a limited subset of species tested with unfamiliar faces. As well as limiting our understanding of how widely distributed across species these skills are, this also limits our understanding of how primates process faces of individuals they know, and whether social factors (e.g. dominance and social bonds) influence how readily they recognize others. In this study, socially housed crested macaques voluntarily participated in a series of computerized matching-to-sample tasks investigating their ability to discriminate (i) unfamiliar individuals and (ii) members of their own social group. The macaques performed above chance on all tasks. Familiar faces were not easier to discriminate than unfamiliar faces. However, the subjects were better at discriminating higher ranking familiar individuals, but not unfamiliar ones. This suggests that our subjects applied their knowledge of their dominance hierarchies to the pictorial representation of their group mates. Faces of high-ranking individuals garner more social attention, and therefore might be more deeply encoded than other individuals. Our results extend the study of face recognition to a novel species, and consequently provide valuable data for future comparative studies.

  16. Universidade de Braslia Instituto de Cincias Humanas Programa de Ps-Graduao em Histria

    E-print Network

    Lucero, Jorge Carlos

    Universidade de Brasília Instituto de Ciências Humanas Programa de Pós-Graduação em História UNIVERSIDADE DE BRASÍLIA PROGRAMA DE P�S-GRADUA��O EM HIST�RIA EDITAL Nº 2/2011 EDITAL DE RETIFICA��O A Coordenadora do Programa de Pós-Graduação em História da UnB (PPGHIS ­ UnB), no uso das suas atribuições legais

  17. Identification and Classification of Facial Familiarity in Directed Lying: An ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Delin; Chan, Chetwyn C. H.; Lee, Tatia M. C.

    2012-01-01

    Recognizing familiar faces is essential to social functioning, but little is known about how people identify human faces and classify them in terms of familiarity. Face identification involves discriminating familiar faces from unfamiliar faces, whereas face classification involves making an intentional decision to classify faces as “familiar” or “unfamiliar.” This study used a directed-lying task to explore the differentiation between identification and classification processes involved in the recognition of familiar faces. To explore this issue, the participants in this study were shown familiar and unfamiliar faces. They responded to these faces (i.e., as familiar or unfamiliar) in accordance with the instructions they were given (i.e., to lie or to tell the truth) while their EEG activity was recorded. Familiar faces (regardless of lying vs. truth) elicited significantly less negative-going N400f in the middle and right parietal and temporal regions than unfamiliar faces. Regardless of their actual familiarity, the faces that the participants classified as “familiar” elicited more negative-going N400f in the central and right temporal regions than those classified as “unfamiliar.” The P600 was related primarily with the facial identification process. Familiar faces (regardless of lying vs. truth) elicited more positive-going P600f in the middle parietal and middle occipital regions. The results suggest that N400f and P600f play different roles in the processes involved in facial recognition. The N400f appears to be associated with both the identification (judgment of familiarity) and classification of faces, while it is likely that the P600f is only associated with the identification process (recollection of facial information). Future studies should use different experimental paradigms to validate the generalizability of the results of this study. PMID:22363597

  18. Social familiarity modulates group living and foraging behaviour of juvenile predatory mites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strodl, Markus A.; Schausberger, Peter

    2012-04-01

    Environmental stressors during early life may have persistent consequences for phenotypic development and fitness. In group-living species, an important stressor during juvenile development is the presence and familiarity status of conspecific individuals. To alleviate intraspecific conflicts during juvenile development, many animals evolved the ability to discriminate familiar and unfamiliar individuals based on prior association and use this ability to preferentially associate with familiar individuals. Assuming that familiar neighbours require less attention than unfamiliar ones, as predicted by limited attention theory, assorting with familiar individuals should increase the efficiency in other tasks. We assessed the influence of social familiarity on within-group association behaviour, development and foraging of juvenile life stages of the group-living, plant-inhabiting predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. The observed groups consisted either of mixed-age familiar and unfamiliar juvenile mites or of age-synchronized familiar or unfamiliar juvenile mites or of pairs of familiar or unfamiliar larvae. Overall, familiar mites preferentially grouped together and foraged more efficiently, i.e. needed less prey at similar developmental speed and body size at maturity, than unfamiliar mites. Preferential association of familiar mites was also apparent in the inter-exuviae distances. Social familiarity was established by imprinting in the larval stage, was not cancelled or overridden by later conspecific contacts and persisted into adulthood. Life stage had an effect on grouping with larvae being closer together than nymphal stages. Ultimately, optimized foraging during the developmental phase may relax within-group competition, enhance current and future food supply needed for optimal development and optimize patch exploitation and leaving under limited food.

  19. Social familiarity modulates group living and foraging behaviour of juvenile predatory mites.

    PubMed

    Strodl, Markus A; Schausberger, Peter

    2012-04-01

    Environmental stressors during early life may have persistent consequences for phenotypic development and fitness. In group-living species, an important stressor during juvenile development is the presence and familiarity status of conspecific individuals. To alleviate intraspecific conflicts during juvenile development, many animals evolved the ability to discriminate familiar and unfamiliar individuals based on prior association and use this ability to preferentially associate with familiar individuals. Assuming that familiar neighbours require less attention than unfamiliar ones, as predicted by limited attention theory, assorting with familiar individuals should increase the efficiency in other tasks. We assessed the influence of social familiarity on within-group association behaviour, development and foraging of juvenile life stages of the group-living, plant-inhabiting predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. The observed groups consisted either of mixed-age familiar and unfamiliar juvenile mites or of age-synchronized familiar or unfamiliar juvenile mites or of pairs of familiar or unfamiliar larvae. Overall, familiar mites preferentially grouped together and foraged more efficiently, i.e. needed less prey at similar developmental speed and body size at maturity, than unfamiliar mites. Preferential association of familiar mites was also apparent in the inter-exuviae distances. Social familiarity was established by imprinting in the larval stage, was not cancelled or overridden by later conspecific contacts and persisted into adulthood. Life stage had an effect on grouping with larvae being closer together than nymphal stages. Ultimately, optimized foraging during the developmental phase may relax within-group competition, enhance current and future food supply needed for optimal development and optimize patch exploitation and leaving under limited food. PMID:22418859

  20. From network heterogeneities to familiarity detection and hippocampal memory management

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jane X.; Poe, Gina; Zochowski, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Hippocampal-neocortical interactions are key to the rapid formation of novel associative memories in the hippocampus and consolidation to long term storage sites in the neocortex. We investigated the role of network correlates during information processing in hippocampal-cortical networks. We found that changes in the intrinsic network dynamics due to the formation of structural network heterogeneities alone act as a dynamical and regulatory mechanism for stimulus novelty and familiarity detection, thereby controlling memory management in the context of memory consolidation. This network dynamic, coupled with an anatomically established feedback between the hippocampus and the neocortex, recovered heretofore unexplained properties of neural activity patterns during memory management tasks which we observed during sleep in multiunit recordings from behaving animals. Our simple dynamical mechanism shows an experimentally matched progressive shift of memory activation from the hippocampus to the neocortex and thus provides the means to achieve an autonomous off-line progression of memory consolidation. PMID:18999453

  1. STS-95 crew members participate in a SPACEHAB familiarization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-95 crew members look over the Osteoporosis Experiment in Orbit (OSTEO) during a SPACEHAB familiarization tour and briefing in the SPACEHAB Payload Processing Facility in Cape Canaveral. Seated from left are Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai of the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), and Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., who also is a senator from Ohio. Standing, from left, are STS-95 Commander Curtis L. Brown and Canadian Space Agency representative Duncan Burnside. STS-95 will feature a variety of research payloads, including the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, and experiments on space flight and the aging process. STS-95 is targeted for an Oct. 29 launch aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery.

  2. Rethinking Familiarity: Remember/Know Judgments in Free Recall

    PubMed Central

    Mickes, Laura; Seale-Carlisle, Travis M.; Wixted, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Although frequently used with recognition, a few studies have used the Remember/Know procedure with free recall. In each case, participants gave Know judgments to a significant number of recalled items (items that were presumably not remembered on the basis of familiarity). What do these Know judgments mean? We investigated this issue using a source memory/free-recall procedure. For each word that was recalled, participants were asked to (a) make a confidence rating on a 5-point scale, (b) make a Remember/Know judgment, and (c) recollect a source detail. The large majority of both Remember judgments and Know judgments were made with high confidence and high accuracy, but source memory was nevertheless higher for Remember judgments than for Know judgments. These source memory results correspond to what is found using recognition, and they raise the possibility that Know judgments in free recall identify the cue-dependent retrieval of item-only information from an episodic memory search set. In agreement with this idea, we also found that the temporal dynamics of free recall were similar for high-confidence Remember and high-confidence Know judgments (as if both judgments reflected retrieval from the same search set). If Know judgments in free recall do in fact reflect the episodic retrieval of item-only information, it seems reasonable to suppose that the same might be true of high-confidence Know judgments in recognition. If so, then a longstanding debate about the role of the hippocampus in recollection and familiarity may have a natural resolution. PMID:23637470

  3. Visual search and eye movements in novel and familiar contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDermott, Kyle; Mulligan, Jeffrey B.; Bebis, George; Webster, Michael A.

    2006-02-01

    Adapting to the visual characteristics of a specific environment may facilitate detecting novel stimuli within that environment. We monitored eye movements while subjects searched for a color target on familiar or unfamiliar color backgrounds, in order to test for these performance changes and to explore whether they reflect changes in salience from adaptation vs. changes in search strategies or perceptual learning. The target was an ellipse of variable color presented at a random location on a dense background of ellipses. In one condition, the colors of the background varied along either the LvsM or SvsLM cardinal axes. Observers adapted by viewing a rapid succession of backgrounds drawn from one color axis, and then searched for a target on a background from the same or different color axis. Searches were monitored with a Cambridge Research Systems Video Eyetracker. Targets were located more quickly on the background axis that observers were pre-exposed to, confirming that this exposure can improve search efficiency for stimuli that differ from the background. However, eye movement patterns (e.g. fixation durations and saccade magnitudes) did not clearly differ across the two backgrounds, suggesting that how the novel and familiar backgrounds were sampled remained similar. In a second condition, we compared search on a nonselective color background drawn from a circle of hues at fixed contrast. Prior exposure to this background did not facilitate search compared to an achromatic adapting field, suggesting that subjects were not simply learning the specific colors defining the background distributions. Instead, results for both conditions are consistent with a selective adaptation effect that enhances the salience of novel stimuli by partially discounting the background.

  4. Effects of Individual Health Topic Familiarity on Activity Patterns During Health Information Searches

    PubMed Central

    Moriyama, Koichi; Fukui, Ken–ichi; Numao, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Background Non-medical professionals (consumers) are increasingly using the Internet to support their health information needs. However, the cognitive effort required to perform health information searches is affected by the consumer’s familiarity with health topics. Consumers may have different levels of familiarity with individual health topics. This variation in familiarity may cause misunderstandings because the information presented by search engines may not be understood correctly by the consumers. Objective As a first step toward the improvement of the health information search process, we aimed to examine the effects of health topic familiarity on health information search behaviors by identifying the common search activity patterns exhibited by groups of consumers with different levels of familiarity. Methods Each participant completed a health terminology familiarity questionnaire and health information search tasks. The responses to the familiarity questionnaire were used to grade the familiarity of participants with predefined health topics. The search task data were transcribed into a sequence of search activities using a coding scheme. A computational model was constructed from the sequence data using a Markov chain model to identify the common search patterns in each familiarity group. Results Forty participants were classified into L1 (not familiar), L2 (somewhat familiar), and L3 (familiar) groups based on their questionnaire responses. They had different levels of familiarity with four health topics. The video data obtained from all of the participants were transcribed into 4595 search activities (mean 28.7, SD 23.27 per session). The most frequent search activities and transitions in all the familiarity groups were related to evaluations of the relevancy of selected web pages in the retrieval results. However, the next most frequent transitions differed in each group and a chi-squared test confirmed this finding (P<.001). Next, according to the results of a perplexity evaluation, the health information search patterns were best represented as a 5-gram sequence pattern. The most common patterns in group L1 were frequent query modifications, with relatively low search efficiency, and accessing and evaluating selected results from a health website. Group L2 performed frequent query modifications, but with better search efficiency, and accessed and evaluated selected results from a health website. Finally, the members of group L3 successfully discovered relevant results from the first query submission, performed verification by accessing several health websites after they discovered relevant results, and directly accessed consumer health information websites. Conclusions Familiarity with health topics affects health information search behaviors. Our analysis of state transitions in search activities detected unique behaviors and common search activity patterns in each familiarity group during health information searches. PMID:25783222

  5. Word learning in adults with second language experience: Effects of phonological and referent familiarity

    PubMed Central

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon; Van Hecke, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this research was to examine whether phonological familiarity exerts different effects on novel word learning for familiar vs. unfamiliar referents, and whether successful word-learning is associated with increased second-language experience. Method Eighty-one adult native English speakers with various levels of Spanish knowledge learned phonologically-familiar novel words (constructed using English sounds) or phonologically-unfamiliar novel words (constructed using non-English and non-Spanish sounds) in association with either familiar or unfamiliar referents. Retention was tested via a forced-choice recognition-task. A median-split procedure identified high-ability and low-ability word-learners in each condition, and the two groups were compared on measures of second-language experience. Results Findings suggest that the ability to accurately match newly-learned novel names to their appropriate referents is facilitated by phonological familiarity only for familiar referents but not for unfamiliar referents. Moreover, more extensive second-language learning experience characterized superior learners primarily in one word-learning condition: Where phonologically-unfamiliar novel words were paired with familiar referents. Conclusions Together, these findings indicate that phonological familiarity facilitates novel word learning only for familiar referents, and that experience with learning a second language may have a specific impact on novel vocabulary learning in adults. PMID:22992709

  6. Interdisciplinary Unit: La Isla del Encanto (The Enchanted Island).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford-Guerrera, Rebecca

    This document presents a series of 14 lesson plans in an interdisciplinary Spanish unit on "La isla del encanto/The Enchanted Island." The materials were prepared for students in grades 5 or 6 who have had basic Spanish instruction in previous grades. The students should also be familiar with basic concepts in English such as math computation, map…

  7. Boys Affiliate More than Girls with a Familiar Same-Sex Peer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benenson, Joyce F.; Quinn, Amanda; Stella, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Evidence from ethnographic, observational, and experimental studies with humans converges to suggest that males affiliate more than females with unrelated, familiar same-sex peers, but this has never been examined directly. With this aim, we compared frequency of affiliation with a single, randomly chosen, familiar same-sex peer for the two sexes…

  8. Assessing Recollection and Familiarity in Autistic Spectrum Disorders: Methods and Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigham, Sally; Boucher, Jill; Mayes, Andrew; Anns, Sophie

    2010-01-01

    We hypothesise that of the two processes underlying declarative memory, recollection is impaired in high-functioning autism (HFA) whereas recollection and familiarity are impaired in low-functioning autism (LFA). Testing these hypotheses necessitates assessing recollection and familiarity separately. However, this is difficult, because both…

  9. Neuropsychologia 45 (2007) 3241 Neural systems for recognition of familiar faces

    E-print Network

    Bucci, David J.

    2007-01-01

    Neuropsychologia 45 (2007) 32­41 Neural systems for recognition of familiar faces M. Ida Gobbinia recognition and propose a modified version of our model of neural systems for face perception with a special- tributed neural systems that participate in the recognition of familiar faces, highlighting

  10. Emotion Recognition in EthiopiaThe Effect of Familiarity with Western Culture on Accuracy of Recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luigi Ducci; Luciano Arcuri; Taddese W Georgis; Tilahun Sineshaw

    1982-01-01

    Subjects in Western and westernized literate cultures have always recognized facial expression of emotions more accurately than those tested in nonwesternized cultures. Is this difference attributable only to a different degree of familiarity with the experimental conditions or is this also due to different degrees of familiarity with the expression of the emotions? One hundred Ethiopians (fifty males and fifty

  11. Elementary School Teachers' Familiarity, Conceptual Knowledge, and Interest in Light

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumba, Frackson; Mbewe, Simon; Chabalengula, Vivien M.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored elementary school teachers' familiarity, conceptual knowledge, and interest in learning more about light and its related concepts. This study also sought to establish the relationship between elementary school teachers' familiarity, conceptual knowledge, and interest in learning light concepts. Sixty-six lower and…

  12. THE IMPACT OF BRAND FAMILIARITY, BRANDING AND DISTRIBUTION STRATEGY ON LUXURY BRAND DILUTION

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    than the original lines, under their brand names. Ralph Lauren's downward stretch from the exclusiveTHE IMPACT OF BRAND FAMILIARITY, BRANDING AND DISTRIBUTION STRATEGY ON LUXURY BRAND DILUTION Fanny 60 68 halshs-00644893,version1-25Nov2011 #12;THE IMPACT OF BRAND FAMILIARITY, BRANDING

  13. Reading and Learning from L2 Text: Effects of Reading Goal, Topic Familiarity, and Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horiba, Yukie; Fukaya, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effect of reading goal, topic-familiarity, and language proficiency on text comprehension and learning. English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) students with high and low topic-familiarity read and recalled a text. Some were told in advance to expect a recall task in a particular language--the first language (L1) or second…

  14. Basic Processes in Reading: On the Relation between Spatial Attention and Familiarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risko, Evan F.; Stolz, Jennifer A.; Besner, Derek

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments combined a spatial cueing manipulation (valid vs. invalid spatial cues) with a stimulus repetition manipulation (repeated vs. nonrepeated) in order to assess the hypothesis that familiar items need less spatial attention than less familiar ones. The magnitude of the effect of cueing on reading aloud time for items that were…

  15. Acquiring Proper Names for Familiar and Unfamiliar Animate Objects: Evidence from Two-Year-Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, D. Geoffrey

    Two studies addressed the relative strengths of object kind bias and syntactic knowledge in 2-year-olds' inductions of word meaning. The study looked at children's interpretations of novel proper names for familiar and unfamiliar objects. In each study, 10 children were assigned to each of 2 conditions (familiar and unfamiliar) and shown 2 cats…

  16. Effects of Familiarity and Feeding on Newborn Speech-Voice Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valiante, A. Grace; Barr, Ronald G.; Zelazo, Philip R.; Brant, Rollin; Young, Simon N.

    2013-01-01

    Newborn infants preferentially orient to familiar over unfamiliar speech sounds. They are also better at remembering unfamiliar speech sounds for short periods of time if learning and retention occur after a feed than before. It is unknown whether short-term memory for speech is enhanced when the sound is familiar (versus unfamiliar) and, if so,…

  17. The Influence of Kinship on Familiar Natal Migrant Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Albers, Monika; Widdig, Anja

    2014-01-01

    In most primate species, females remain in the natal group with kin while males disperse away from kin around the time of puberty. Philopatric females bias their social behavior toward familiar maternal and paternal kin in several species, but little is known about kin bias in the dispersing sex. Male dispersal is likely to be costly because males encounter an increased risk of predation and death, which might be reduced by dispersing together with kin and/or familiar males (individuals that were born and grew up in same natal group) or into a group containing kin and/or familiar males. Here we studied the influence of kinship on familiar natal migrant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) on Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico, by combining demographic, behavioral, and genetic data. Our data suggest that kinship influences spatial proximity between recent natal immigrants and males familiar to them. Immigrants were significantly nearer to more closely related familiar males than to more distantly related individuals. Within a familiar subgroup, natal migrants were significantly closer to maternal kin, followed by paternal kin, then non-kin, and finally to males related via both the maternal and paternal line. Spatial proximity between natal immigrants and familiar males did not decrease over time in the new group, suggesting that there is no decline in associations between these individuals within the first months of immigration. Overall, our results might indicate that kinship is important for the dispersing sex, at least during natal dispersal when kin are still available. PMID:24850977

  18. Déjà Vu in the Laboratory: A Behavioral and Experiential Comparison of Posthypnotic Amnesia and Posthypnotic Familiarity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akira R. OConnor; Amanda J. Barnier; Rochelle E. Cox

    2008-01-01

    This experiment aimed to create a laboratory analogue of déjà vu. During hypnosis, 1 group of high hypnotizables completed a puzzle game and then received a posthypnotic amnesia suggestion to forget the game (PHA condition). Another group of highs were not given the game but received a posthypnotic familiarity suggestion that it would feel familiar (PHF condition). After hypnosis, all

  19. Word frequency, familiarity, and laterality effects in a dichotic listening task

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheryl Techentin; Daniel Voyer

    2011-01-01

    Although word frequency and familiarity effects are a well-established finding in visual research (Marlsen-Wilson, 1990), these variables are often overshadowed in the selection of words used in dichotic listening tasks in favour of choosing words that fuse together (Connine, Mullenix, Shernoff, & Yenn, 1990). The present study investigates the influence of word frequency and word familiarity on the right ear

  20. The Relations between Document Familiarity, Frequency, and Prevalence and Document Literacy Performance among Adult Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Dale J.; Snowden, Jessica L.

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the utility of document prevalence and familiarity as predictors of adult document literacy performance. Three indexes--quantifying document prevalence, document familiarity, and the frequency of document use--were constructed using survey responses from an adult community sample and documents collected from government agencies…

  1. Mechanisms Supporting Superior Source Memory for Familiar Items: A Multi-Voxel Pattern Analysis Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poppenk, Jordan; Norman, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent cognitive research has revealed better source memory performance for familiar relative to novel stimuli. Here we consider two possible explanations for this finding. The source memory advantage for familiar stimuli could arise because stimulus novelty induces attention to stimulus features at the expense of contextual processing, resulting…

  2. The Price of Fame: The Impact of Stimulus Familiarity on Proactive Interference Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prabhakaran, Ranjani; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.

    2011-01-01

    Interference from previously learned information, known as proactive interference (PI), limits our memory retrieval abilities. Previous studies of PI resolution have focused on the role of short-term familiarity, or recency, in causing PI. In the present study, we investigated the impact of long-term stimulus familiarity on PI resolution…

  3. Direito de migrar para plano individual ou familiar aproveitando carncia do plano coletivo empresarial.

    E-print Network

    Floeter, Sergio Ricardo

    Direito de migrar para plano individual ou familiar aproveitando carência do plano coletivo extinto terão o direito de se vincular a um plano da mesma operadora, com contração individual ou familiar planos de autogestões. A condição para exercer esse direito é que a operadora comercialize plano

  4. Nestsite selection by male loons leads to sex-biased site familiarity.

    PubMed

    Piper, Walter H; Walcott, Charles; Mager, John N; Spilker, Frank J

    2008-03-01

    1. The concept that animals benefit from gaining familiarity with physical spaces is widespread among ecologists and constitutes a theoretical pillar in studies of territory defence, philopatry and habitat selection. Yet proximate causes and fitness benefits of site familiarity are poorly known. 2. We used data from marked common loons Gavia immer breeding on 98 territories over 14 years to investigate the 'win-stay, lose-switch rule' for nestsite placement (if eggs hatch, reuse nestsite; if predator takes eggs, move nestsite). Males controlled nest placement in this species: pairs used the rule if both members remained the same from the previous nesting attempt or if only the male remained the same but not if only the female remained the same. 3. By means of the nesting rule, male common loons benefited from site familiarity, increasing nesting success by 41% between their first and third years on a territory. In contrast, females exhibited no increase in nesting success with increased territorial tenure. 4. Owing to site familiarity, a male loon competing for a breeding territory faces a considerable 'familiarity deficit' compared with the male breeder already established there. The familiarity deficit probably explains why resident animals often fight hard to retain familiar territories, when challenged, and why animals of many species tend to remain on familiar territories rather than moving when territories of higher intrinsic quality become available nearby. PMID:17976165

  5. Word Learning in Adults with Second-Language Experience: Effects of Phonological and Referent Familiarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon; Van Hecke, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this research was to examine whether phonological familiarity exerts different effects on novel word learning for familiar versus unfamiliar referents and whether successful word learning is associated with increased second-language experience. Method: Eighty-one adult native English speakers with various levels of Spanish…

  6. ESTADO E AGRICULTORES FAMILIARES: UMA ANÁLISE INTERPRETATIVA SOBRE O DESENVOLVIMENTO RURAL NO SUL DE MINAS GERAIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia Aparecida Ferreira; Jose Roberto Pereira; Edgard Alencar; Ana Carolina Santana

    2008-01-01

    Este trabalho procurou identificar como os atores sociais vinculados à agricultura familiar (lideranças de produtores familiares, profissionais de ciências agrárias, autoridades municipais, pesquisadores e professores universitários) interpretam o papel do Estado para o desenvolvimento dessa categoria na Região Sul de Minas Gerais. Com relação à coleta de dados, utilizou-se a técnica \\

  7. Recognition Memory and the Hippocampus: A Test of the Hippocampal Contribution to Recollection and Familiarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeneson, Annette; Kirwan, C. Brock; Hopkins, Ramona O.; Wixted, John T.; Squire, Larry R.

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that the hippocampus selectively supports recollection and that adjacent cortex in the medial temporal lobe can support familiarity. Alternatively, it has been suggested that the hippocampus supports both recollection and familiarity. We tested these suggestions by assessing the performance of patients with hippocampal…

  8. E S P A O L V A L E N C I E N G L I S H Instituto Universitario de Investigacin Informtica

    E-print Network

    Escolano, Francisco

    S C A R Universidad de Alicante Instituto Universitario de Investigación Informática Hacker Club IUII EMPRESAS ORGANISMOS PÚBLICOS OBSERVATORIO HACKER CLUB HA C K E R C L U B El Instituto Universitario de Investigación Informática (IUII) colabora con el Hacker Club en la potenciación de proyectos y start-ups. Hacker

  9. Pequeñas empresas familiares y sus estrategias de negocios

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariana Zerón Félix; Guillermo Mendoza Cavazos; José Iván Lara Treviño

    2009-01-01

    Las estrategias son principios y rutas fundamentales que orientarán el proceso administrativo para alcanzar los objetivos a los que se desea llegar y dependerán en gran medida, de la capacidad para dotarse de recursos y habilidades para buscar nuevas ventajas competitivas. El objetivo del siguiente trabajo es identificar la tipología de las estrategias de éxito que pueden ser utilizadas en

  10. 2006/3/13 IVIGIVIG --Instituto Virtual Internacional de MudanInstituto Virtual Internacional de Mudanas Globaisas Globais Centro de Tecnologia, Bloco I, Sala 129 CEP: 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro RJ

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    PROCESSING FACILITY USING SELF GENERATED WASTE. #12;2006/3/13 IVIGIVIG -- Instituto Virtual Internacional de/TON FOOD WASTE 1.400 KCAL/KG 1.63 MWH/TON 30% CONVERTED TO ELECTRICITY 1 TON PLASTIC = R$ 593 Telefax:(21) 2270-1586 ­ Site:www.Ivig.com.br SUMMARYSUMMARY PART 1 WASTE TO ENERGY CONCEPT. PART 2

  11. Exito para el XVI Festival Internacional de Teatro Hispano del Teatro Avante

    E-print Network

    Marrero, Marí a Teresa

    2002-04-01

    , Baldessare Galupi por Antonio Duque y Quirón por Miguel Ángel López. La dirección musical estuvo a cargo de Madga Zalles y el diseño de iluminación fue de Matías Gorlero. El escenario realmente no lució de adornos particulares, lo cual en algún momento me... simposium. En el 2000 fue tema del Congreso y Encuentro del Instituto Hemisférico de Performance y Política en Río de Janeiro (dirigido por Diana Taylor y auspiciado por New York University y la Universidade de Río de Janeiro en Río); fue el tema eje del...

  12. Innovations in graduate public health education: the Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública.

    PubMed

    Valladares, Laura Magaña; Ávila, Mauricio Hernández

    2015-03-01

    During the past 10 years, the Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública (National Institute of Public Health) in Mexico has meticulously revised its educational model. This analysis resulted in the transformation of its educational model by tracing a new path in the pedagogical structure and faculty development to meet current challenges and students' needs. The first stage dealt with the national and international accreditation standards that came with the 21st century. The second stage responded to evidence of cognitive research showing that students are better prepared when they are engaged, active, and responsible for their own learning. This transformation was grounded on the use of information and communication technologies and on a competency-based educational approach that has led the expansion and innovation of educational practice. PMID:25706028

  13. [Instituto de Investigaciones Clinicas "Dr. Américo Negrette": 55 years of excellent research versus global economic recession].

    PubMed

    Valero Cedeño, Nereida Josefina

    2014-12-01

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas "Dr. Américo Negrette" belongs to the Faculty of Medicine at University of Zulia in Maracaibo, Zulia State, Venezuela. It was created on December 4, 1959 by Dr. Américo Negrette. Today, with 55 years of existence, the Institute seeks to fulfill the mission that characterizes it, based on the values instilled by its founder and maintained by subsequent generations, whose research projects are implemented through seven research sections: Biochemistry, Hematologic Research, Neuropharmacology and Neuroscience, Immunology and Cell Biology, Clinical Neurochemistry, Parasitology and Virology. The research originated in these laboratories have become national and international points of reference, despite the current economic situation with budget deficits that put at risk the quality and originality of their projects with negative consequences on the productivity and applications for health population, reasons of biomedical research. PMID:25558749

  14. Ambient Dose Equivalent measured at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología Department of Nuclear Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ávila, O.; Torres-Ulloa, C. L.; Medina, L. A.; Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.; de Buen, I. Gamboa; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E.

    2010-12-01

    Ambient dose equivalent values were determined in several sites at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Departmento de Medicina Nuclear, using TLD-100 and TLD-900 thermoluminescent dosemeters. Additionally, ambient dose equivalent was measured at a corridor outside the hospitalization room for patients treated with 137Cs brachytherapy. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Laboratorio de Metrología, to known 137Cs gamma radiation air kerma. Radionuclides considered for this study are 131I, 18F, 67Ga, 99mTc, 111In, 201Tl and 137Cs, with main gamma energies between 93 and 662 keV. Dosemeters were placed during a five month period in the nuclear medicine rooms (containing gamma-cameras), injection corridor, patient waiting areas, PET/CT study room, hot lab, waste storage room and corridors next to the hospitalization rooms for patients treated with 131I and 137Cs. High dose values were found at the waste storage room, outside corridor of 137Cs brachytherapy patients and PET/CT area. Ambient dose equivalent rate obtained for the 137Cs brachytherapy corridor is equal to (18.51±0.02)×10-3 mSv/h. Sites with minimum doses are the gamma camera rooms, having ambient dose equivalent rates equal to (0.05±0.03)×10-3 mSv/h. Recommendations have been given to the Department authorities so that further actions are taken to reduce doses at high dose sites in order to comply with the ALARA principle (as low as reasonably achievable).

  15. Ambient Dose Equivalent measured at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia Department of Nuclear Medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Avila, O. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, AP 18-1027, 11801, DF (Mexico); Torres-Ulloa, C. L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, AP 18-1027, 11801, DF (Mexico); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 70-542, 04510, DF (Mexico); Medina, L. A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 20-364, 01000, DF (Mexico); Unidad de Investigacion Biomedica en Cancer INCan-UNAM, Av. San Fernando 22 C.P. 14080 (Mexico); Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E. [Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia (INCan), Av. San Fernando 22, C.P. 14080 (Mexico); Gamboa de Buen, I. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 70-543, 04510 DF (Mexico); Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 20-364, 01000, DF (Mexico)

    2010-12-07

    Ambient dose equivalent values were determined in several sites at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Departmento de Medicina Nuclear, using TLD-100 and TLD-900 thermoluminescent dosemeters. Additionally, ambient dose equivalent was measured at a corridor outside the hospitalization room for patients treated with {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Laboratorio de Metrologia, to known {sup 137}Cs gamma radiation air kerma. Radionuclides considered for this study are {sup 131}I, {sup 18}F, {sup 67}Ga, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 111}In, {sup 201}Tl and {sup 137}Cs, with main gamma energies between 93 and 662 keV. Dosemeters were placed during a five month period in the nuclear medicine rooms (containing gamma-cameras), injection corridor, patient waiting areas, PET/CT study room, hot lab, waste storage room and corridors next to the hospitalization rooms for patients treated with {sup 131}I and {sup 137}Cs. High dose values were found at the waste storage room, outside corridor of {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy patients and PET/CT area. Ambient dose equivalent rate obtained for the {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy corridor is equal to (18.51{+-}0.02)x10{sup -3} mSv/h. Sites with minimum doses are the gamma camera rooms, having ambient dose equivalent rates equal to (0.05{+-}0.03)x10{sup -3} mSv/h. Recommendations have been given to the Department authorities so that further actions are taken to reduce doses at high dose sites in order to comply with the ALARA principle (as low as reasonably achievable).

  16. Stranger to Familiar: Wild Strepsirhines Manage Xenophobia by Playing

    PubMed Central

    Antonacci, Daniela; Norscia, Ivan; Palagi, Elisabetta

    2010-01-01

    The power of play in limiting xenophobia is a well-known phenomenon in humans. Yet, the evidence in social animals remains meager. Here, we aim to determine whether play promotes social tolerance toward strangers in one of the most basal group of primates, the strepsirhines. We observed two groups of wild lemurs (Propithecus verreauxi, Verreaux's sifaka) during the mating season. Data were also collected on nine visiting, outgroup males. We compared the distribution of play, grooming, and aggressive interactions across three conditions: OUT (resident/outgroup interactions), IN (resident/resident interactions in presence of outgroups) and BL-IN (baseline of resident/resident interactions in absence of outgroups). Play frequency between males was higher in OUT than in IN and BL-IN conditions; whereas, grooming was more frequent in IN than in OUT and BL-IN conditions. Aggression rates between resident and outgroup males were significantly higher than those between residents. However, aggressions between resident and outgroup males significantly decreased after the first play session and became comparable with resident-resident aggression levels. The presence of strangers in a well-established group implies the onset of novel social circumstances, which sifaka males cope with by two different tactics: grooming with ingroup males and playing with outgroup ones. The grooming peak, concurrently with the visit of outgroups, probably represents a social shield adopted by resident males to make their pre-existing affiliation more evident to the stranger “audience”. Being mostly restricted to unfamiliar males, adult play in sifaka appears to have a role in managing new social situations more than in maintaining old relationships. In particular, our results indicate not only that play is the interface between strangers but also that it has a specific function in reducing xenophobia. In conclusion, play appears to be an ice-breaker mechanism in the critical process that “upgrades” an individual from stranger to familiar. PMID:20949052

  17. Event-Related Potential (ERP) Indices of Infants' Recognition of Familiar and Unfamiliar Objects in Two and Three Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carver, Leslie J.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Dawson, Geraldine

    2006-01-01

    We measured infants' recognition of familiar and unfamiliar 3-D objects and their 2-D representations using event-related potentials (ERPs). Infants differentiated familiar from unfamiliar objects when viewing them in both two and three dimensions. However, differentiation between the familiar and novel objects occurred more quickly when infants…

  18. Effects On Achievement from Programmed Instruction of Experimentally Induced Familiarization of Content and Different Response Modes. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Theodore; Kagen, Edward

    A study of programed instruction sought to establish an attribute by treatment interaction (ATI) between prior familiarity of material and response mode. Two experimental variables (familiarization and response mode) and two subject attributes (sex and I.Q.) were employed. Junior High (JH) and graduate student (GS) were assigned to familiarization…

  19. The effects of audience pleasantness, audience familiarity, and speaking contexts on public speaking anxiety and willingness to speak

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter D. MacIntyre; Kimly A. Thivierge

    1995-01-01

    Two potential sources of anxiety about public speaking cited in previous research are audience pleasantness and audience familiarity. More familiar audiences, as well as more pleasant ones, usually evoke less anxiety, but research has shown some exceptions to this general rule. In addition, it is expected that as audiences become more pleasant and familiar, individuals would be more willing to

  20. Goal 1: Getting familiar with -Cygwin: a linux emulator for Windows

    E-print Network

    Roussos, George

    Lab 1 Goal 1: Getting familiar with - Cygwin: a linux emulator for Windows - TinyOS: an operating to be removed (using the Windows rename command) #12;Blink application (2/2) Run Cygwin - cd muc - cd Blink

  1. Performance Differences According to Test Mode and Computer Familiarity on a Practice Graduate Record Exam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Amie L.; Pedulla, Joseph J.

    2002-01-01

    Studied the relationship between test mode (paper and pencil or computerized with and without editorial control) and computer familiarity for 222 undergraduates. Results emphasize the importance of evaluating time constraints when converting exams from paper to computer delivery. (SLD)

  2. Long-Term Memory for Odors: Influences of Familiarity and Identification Across 64 Days

    PubMed Central

    Jönsson, Fredrik U.; Willander, Johan; Sikström, Sverker; Larsson, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have investigated long-term odor recognition memory, although some early observations suggested that the forgetting rate of olfactory representations is slower than for other sensory modalities. This study investigated recognition memory across 64 days for high and low familiar odors and faces. Memory was assessed in 83 young participants at 4 occasions; immediate, 4, 16, and 64 days after encoding. The results indicated significant forgetting for odors and faces across the 64 days. The forgetting functions for the 2 modalities were not fundamentally different. Moreover, high familiar odors and faces were better remembered than low familiar ones, indicating an important role of semantic knowledge on recognition proficiency for both modalities. Although odor recognition was significantly better than chance at the 64 days testing, memory for the low familiar odors was relatively poor. Also, the results indicated that odor identification consistency across sessions, irrespective of accuracy, was positively related to successful recognition. PMID:25740304

  3. 14 CFR 91.505 - Familiarity with operating limitations and emergency equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Large and Turbine-Powered Multiengine Airplanes and Fractional Ownership Program Aircraft § 91.505 Familiarity with operating limitations and emergency equipment. (a)...

  4. Neurobiology of Aging 31 (2010) 18141830 Age-related changes in neural activity associated with familiarity,

    E-print Network

    Henson, Rik

    2010-01-01

    with familiarity, recollection and false recognition Audrey Duarte, Kim S. Graham1, Richard N. Henson Medical. Present address: School of Psychology, Georgia Institute of Technology, 654 Cherry Street, Atlanta, GA

  5. The Influence of Incongruity and Preexposure on the Familiarity Effect in Visual Selection of Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemond, L. Charles; Nunnally, Jum C.

    1974-01-01

    Examines the relationship between the magnitude of the stimulus familiarity effect and the level of stimulus incongruity. Results support a theory of visual selection based on information-conflict resolution. (Author/ED)

  6. Volcano Monitoring in Ecuador: Three Decades of Continuous Progress of the Instituto Geofisico - Escuela Politecnica Nacional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, M. C.; Yepes, H. A.; Hall, M. L.; Mothes, P. A.; Ramon, P.; Hidalgo, S.; Andrade, D.; Vallejo Vargas, S.; Steele, A. L.; Anzieta, J. C.; Ortiz, H. D.; Palacios, P.; Alvarado, A. P.; Enriquez, W.; Vasconez, F.; Vaca, M.; Arrais, S.; Viracucha, G.; Bernard, B.

    2014-12-01

    In 1988, the Instituto Geofisico (IG) began a permanent surveillance of Ecuadorian volcanoes, and due to activity on Guagua Pichincha, SP seismic stations and EDM control lines were then installed. Later, with the UNDRO and OAS projects, telemetered seismic monitoring was expanded to Tungurahua, Cotopaxi, Cuicocha, Chimborazo, Antisana, Cayambe, Cerro Negro, and Quilotoa volcanoes. In 1992 an agreement with the Instituto Ecuatoriano de Electrificacion strengthened the monitoring of Tungurahua and Cotopaxi volcanoes with real-time SP seismic networks and EDM lines. Thus, background activity levels became established, which was helpful because of the onset of the 1999 eruptive activity at Tungurahua and Guagua Pichincha. These eruptions had a notable impact on Baños and Quito. Unrest at Cotopaxi volcano was detected in 2001-2002, but waned. In 2002 Reventador began its eruptive period which continues to the present and is closely monitored by the IG. In 2006 permanent seismic BB stations and infrasound sensors were installed at Tungurahua and Cotopaxi under a cooperative program supported by JICA, which allowed us to follow Tungurahua's climatic eruptions of 2006 and subsequent eruptions up to the present. Programs supported by the Ecuadorian Secretaria Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia and the Secretaria Nacional de Planificacion resulted in further expansion of the IG's monitoring infrastructure. Thermal and video imagery, SO2 emission monitoring, geochemical analyses, continuous GPS and tiltmeters, and micro-barometric surveillance have been incorporated. Sangay, Soche, Ninahuilca, Pululahua, and Fernandina, Cerro Azul, Sierra Negra, and Alcedo in the Galapagos Islands are now monitored in real-time. During this time, international cooperation with universities (Blaise Pascal & Nice-France, U. North Carolina, New Mexico Tech, Uppsala-Sweden, Nagoya, etc.), and research centers (USGS & UNAVCO-USA, IRD-France, NIED-Japan, SGC-Colombia, VAAC, MIROVA) has introduced the use of new technologies and methods. An agreement with the Secretaria de Gestion de Riesgos fortifies the communication flow to society, officials, and risk managers. Today the IG has the challenge of offering real-time information through a web-based net of virtual observatories.

  7. Familiar Person Recognition: Is Autonoetic Consciousness More Likely to Accompany Face Recognition Than Voice Recognition?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsics, Catherine; Brédart, Serge

    2010-11-01

    Autonoetic consciousness is a fundamental property of human memory, enabling us to experience mental time travel, to recollect past events with a feeling of self-involvement, and to project ourselves in the future. Autonoetic consciousness is a characteristic of episodic memory. By contrast, awareness of the past associated with a mere feeling of familiarity or knowing relies on noetic consciousness, depending on semantic memory integrity. Present research was aimed at evaluating whether conscious recollection of episodic memories is more likely to occur following the recognition of a familiar face than following the recognition of a familiar voice. Recall of semantic information (biographical information) was also assessed. Previous studies that investigated the recall of biographical information following person recognition used faces and voices of famous people as stimuli. In this study, the participants were presented with personally familiar people's voices and faces, thus avoiding the presence of identity cues in the spoken extracts and allowing a stricter control of frequency exposure with both types of stimuli (voices and faces). In the present study, the rate of retrieved episodic memories, associated with autonoetic awareness, was significantly higher from familiar faces than familiar voices even though the level of overall recognition was similar for both these stimuli domains. The same pattern was observed regarding semantic information retrieval. These results and their implications for current Interactive Activation and Competition person recognition models are discussed.

  8. Laterality effects in normal subjects' recognition of familiar faces, voices and names. Perceptual and representational components.

    PubMed

    Gainotti, Guido

    2013-06-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that a different hemispheric specialization may exist for different modalities of person identification, with a prevalent right lateralization of the sensory-motor systems allowing face and voice recognition and a prevalent left lateralization of the name recognition system. Data supporting this claim concern, however, much more disorders of familiar people recognition observed in patients with focal brain lesions than results of experimental studies conducted in normal subjects. These last data are sparse and in part controversial, but are important from the theoretical point of view, because it is not clear if hemispheric asymmetries in the recognition of faces, voices and names are limited to their perceptual processing, or also extend to the domain of their cortical representations. The present review has tried to clarify this issues, taking into account investigations that have evaluated in normal subjects laterality effects in recognition of familiar names, faces and voices, by means of behavioural, neurophysiological and neuroimaging techniques. Results of this survey indicate that: (a) recognition of familiar faces and voices show a prevalent right lateralization, whereas recognition of familiar names is lateralized to the left hemisphere; (b) the right hemisphere prevalence is greater in tasks involving familiar than unfamiliar faces and voices, and the left hemisphere superiority is greater in the recognition of familiar than unfamiliar names. Taken together, these data suggest that hemispheric asymmetries in the recognition of faces, voices and names are not limited to their perceptual processing, but also extend to the domain of their cortical representations. PMID:23542500

  9. Scent of the familiar: an fMRI study of canine brain responses to familiar and unfamiliar human and dog odors.

    PubMed

    Berns, Gregory S; Brooks, Andrew M; Spivak, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Understanding dogs' perceptual experience of both conspecifics and humans is important to understand how dogs evolved and the nature of their relationships with humans and other dogs. Olfaction is believed to be dogs' most powerful and perhaps important sense and an obvious place to begin for the study of social cognition of conspecifics and humans. We used fMRI in a cohort of dogs (N=12) that had been trained to remain motionless while unsedated and unrestrained in the MRI. By presenting scents from humans and conspecifics, we aimed to identify the dimensions of dogs' responses to salient biological odors - whether they are based on species (dog or human), familiarity, or a specific combination of factors. We focused our analysis on the dog's caudate nucleus because of its well-known association with positive expectations and because of its clearly defined anatomical location. We hypothesized that if dogs' primary association to reward, whether it is based on food or social bonds, is to humans, then the human scents would activate the caudate more than the conspecific scents. Conversely, if the smell of conspecifics activated the caudate more than the smell of humans, dogs' association to reward would be stronger to their fellow canines. Five scents were presented (self, familiar human, strange human, familiar dog, strange dog). While the olfactory bulb/peduncle was activated to a similar degree by all the scents, the caudate was activated maximally to the familiar human. Importantly, the scent of the familiar human was not the handler, meaning that the caudate response differentiated the scent in the absence of the person being present. The caudate activation suggested that not only did the dogs discriminate that scent from the others, they had a positive association with it. This speaks to the power of the dog's sense of smell, and it provides important clues about the importance of humans in dogs' lives. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Canine Behavior. PMID:24607363

  10. La Coordinacin Docente de Postgrados en Ciencia Poltica y El Instituto de Altos Estudios de Amrica Latina

    E-print Network

    Vásquez, Carlos

    La Coordinación Docente de Postgrados en Ciencia Política y El Instituto de Altos Estudios de Ciencia Política Avances, continuidades y retrocesos políticos, sociales y tecnológicos en América Latina Sartenejas, 27, 28, 29 de Julio de 2011 El Simposio Nacional de Ciencia Política es un lugar de encuentro

  11. Os ltimos fins na cultura ibrica dos sculos XV-XVIII (Porto, 19-21 outubre 1995), Porto, Instituto de Cultura Portuguesa, 1997, 113-135.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Os «últimos fins» na cultura ibérica dos séculos XV-XVIII (Porto, 19-21 outubre 1995), Porto, Instituto de Cultura Portuguesa, 1997, 113-135. Mancilla y limpieza: la obsesión por el pecado en Castilla

  12. EVALUACIÓN DEL IMPACTO DE UNA PLATAFORMA PARA LA GESTIÓN DEL APRENDIZAJE UTILIZADA EN CURSOS PRESENCIALES EN EL INSTITUTO TECNOLÓGICO DE SONORA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Omar Cuevas-Salazar; Ciudad Obregón; Ramona Imelda García-López; Roberto Cruz-Medina

    2008-01-01

    OMAR CUEVAS-SALAZAR \\/ RAMONA IMELDA GARCÍA-LÓPEZ \\/ ISIDRO ROBERTO CRUZ-MEDINA Resumen: La finalidad de esta investigación es evaluar el efecto de una plataforma tecnológica en el aprovechamiento escolar de los estudiantes y la percepción de los distintos actores involucrados con respecto a su utilidad. La evaluación de esta plataforma, denominada Sistema de Apoyo a la Educación con Tecnologías de Internet

  13. -GESTIN DE SEGURIDAD, CRSIS Y EMERGENCIAS (Fundacin Instituto Universitario de Investigacin Jos Ortega y Gasset)

    E-print Network

    Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad

    conflictos sociales (6 créditos) Políticas públicas y toma de decisiones (5 créditos) Políticas públicas y toma de decisiones (6 créditos) Ámbito jurídico institucional del sistema de seguridad en España (5

  14. Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid Materials Science Institute of Madrid

    E-print Network

    , y F.J. García de Abajo. Figura 7: Imagen de AFM de una película de carbono amorfo hidro- genado- to de Mateiales Ferroeléctricos. Figura 12: Nanoparticulas de TiO2 (anatasa) generadas sobre fibras del

  15. The Role of Issue Familiarity And Social Norms: Findings on New College Students’ Alcohol Use Intentions

    PubMed Central

    Rimal, Rajiv N.; Mollen, Saar

    2013-01-01

    Background Scholars in a variety of disciplines are interested in understanding the conditions under which social norms affect human behavior. Following the distinction made between descriptive and injunctive norms by the focus theory of normative conduct, the theory of normative social behavior predicts that the influence of descriptive norms on behavior is moderated by injunctive norms, outcome expectations, and group identity. We extended the theory by testing the proposition that the influence of descriptive norms on behavior would be greater under conditions of greater issue familiarity, defined as the ease with which one can cognitively access the behavior or behavioral issue. Design and Methods The model was tested in the domain of alcohol consumption intentions by conducting a survey among incoming students (n=719) to a large university in the United States. Data indicated that students in the sample were well representative of the university population. Results The influence of descriptive norms on behavioral intentions was moderated by issue familiarity, as predicted. Familiarity was a facilitator of behavior: the influence of descriptive norms on behavioral intentions was greater under conditions of high, rather than low, familiarity. The overall model explained 53% of the variance in alcohol consumption intentions. Conclusions Public health interventions promoting health behaviors need to take into account the extent to which the behaviors are familiar to the target audience. The influence of norms appears to be weaker when the behavior is unfamiliar or novel. Implications for theory and interventions for reducing alcohol consumption are discussed. PMID:25170478

  16. Something old, something new: a developmental transition from familiarity to novelty preferences with hidden objects

    PubMed Central

    Shinskey, Jeanne L.; Munakata, Yuko

    2009-01-01

    Novelty seeking is viewed as adaptive, and novelty preferences in infancy predict cognitive performance into adulthood. Yet 7-month-olds prefer familiar stimuli to novel ones when searching for hidden objects, in contrast to their strong novelty preferences with visible objects (Shinskey & Munakata, 2005). According to a graded representations perspective on object knowledge, infants gradually develop stronger object representations through experience, such that representations of familiar objects can be better maintained, supporting greater search than with novel objects. Object representations should strengthen with further development to allow older infants to shift from familiarity to novelty preferences with hidden objects. The current study tested this prediction by presenting 24 11-month-olds with novel and familiar objects that were sometimes visible and sometimes hidden. Unlike 7-month-olds, 11-month-olds showed novelty preferences with both visible and hidden objects. This developmental shift from familiarity to novelty preference with hidden objects parallels one that infants show months earlier with perceptible stimuli, but the two transitions may reflect different underlying mechanisms. The current findings suggest both change and continuity in the adaptive development of object representations and associated cognitive processes. PMID:20136935

  17. Rhesus Monkeys See Who They Hear: Spontaneous Cross-Modal Memory for Familiar Conspecifics

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Ikuma; Hampton, Robert R.

    2011-01-01

    Rhesus monkeys gather much of their knowledge of the social world through visual input and may preferentially represent this knowledge in the visual modality. Recognition of familiar faces is clearly advantageous, and the flexibility and utility of primate social memory would be greatly enhanced if visual memories could be accessed cross-modally either by visual or auditory stimulation. Such cross-modal access to visual memory would facilitate flexible retrieval of the knowledge necessary for adaptive social behavior. We tested whether rhesus monkeys have cross-modal access to visual memory for familiar conspecifics using a delayed matching-to-sample procedure. Monkeys learned visual matching of video clips of familiar individuals to photographs of those individuals, and generalized performance to novel videos. In crossmodal probe trials, coo-calls were played during the memory interval. The calls were either from the monkey just seen in the sample video clip or from a different familiar monkey. Even though the monkeys were trained exclusively in visual matching, the calls influenced choice by causing an increase in the proportion of errors to the picture of the monkey whose voice was heard on incongruent trials. This result demonstrates spontaneous cross-modal recognition. It also shows that viewing videos of familiar monkeys activates naturally formed memories of real monkeys, validating the use of video stimuli in studies of social cognition in monkeys. PMID:21887244

  18. Randomized Controlled Trial of RSS Reader Use and Resident Familiarity With Primary Literature

    PubMed Central

    Jenssen, Brian P.; Desai, Bimal R.; Callahan, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Awareness of the primary literature is important for clinicians. Lack of time, poor access to information, and lack of personal initiative may be barriers for some trainees. Really Simple Syndication (RSS) readers aggregate web content, such as journal abstracts, in a single location for easy viewing. Objective We assessed whether use of an RSS reader would increase resident reading frequency, familiarity, and understanding of the primary literature. Methods We conducted a single-center, prospective, randomized, nonblinded, controlled trial of the effect of RSS reader use on knowledge of recent literature among pediatrics residents. Residents were randomly assigned to the RSS group (education in RSS use and receipt of the Pediatrics RSS feed) or a control group that followed standard reading practices. Outcome measures were differences on baseline and monthly surveys of reading frequency, familiarity with recent publications, and knowledge of recent articles (familiarity validation). Results Of 144 eligible residents, 79 (55%) were enrolled in the survey, with 81% (64 of 79) of participants completing all surveys. The RSS reader use was correlated with greater familiarity with selected articles, but not with improved understanding (as measured by ability to answer multiple-choice questions about content). Participants reported satisfaction with the RSS reader based on its ease of use, accessibility, and as an aid in supplementing reading. Conclusions The RSS reader use was accepted by residents and associated with increased familiarity with the primary literature but not with increased understanding. PMID:24949145

  19. Recognition of familiar food activates feeding via an endocrine serotonin signal in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Song, Bo-mi; Faumont, Serge; Lockery, Shawn; Avery, Leon

    2013-01-01

    Familiarity discrimination has a significant impact on the pattern of food intake across species. However, the mechanism by which the recognition memory controls feeding is unclear. Here, we show that the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans forms a memory of particular foods after experience and displays behavioral plasticity, increasing the feeding response when they subsequently recognize the familiar food. We found that recognition of familiar food activates the pair of ADF chemosensory neurons, which subsequently increase serotonin release. The released serotonin activates the feeding response mainly by acting humorally and directly activates SER-7, a type 7 serotonin receptor, in MC motor neurons in the feeding organ. Our data suggest that worms sense the taste and/or smell of novel bacteria, which overrides the stimulatory effect of familiar bacteria on feeding by suppressing the activity of ADF or its upstream neurons. Our study provides insight into the mechanism by which familiarity discrimination alters behavior. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00329.001 PMID:23390589

  20. The awareness of novelty for strangely familiar words: a laboratory analogue of the déjà vu experience

    PubMed Central

    Urquhart, Josephine A.

    2014-01-01

    Déjà vu is a nebulous memory experience defined by a clash between evaluations of familiarity and novelty for the same stimulus. We sought to generate it in the laboratory by pairing a DRM recognition task, which generates erroneous familiarity for critical words, with a monitoring task by which participants realise that some of these erroneously familiar words are in fact novel. We tested 30 participants in an experiment in which we varied both participant awareness of stimulus novelty and erroneous familiarity strength. We found that déjà vu reports were most frequent for high novelty critical words (?25%), with low novelty critical words yielding only baseline levels of déjà vu report frequency (?10%). There was no significant variation in déjà vu report frequency according to familiarity strength. Discursive accounts of the experimentally-generated déjà vu experience suggest that aspects of the naturalistic déjà vu experience were captured by this analogue, but that the analogue was also limited in its focus and prone to influence by demand characteristics. We discuss theoretical and methodological considerations relevant to further development of this procedure and propose that verifiable novelty is an important component of both naturalistic and experimental analogues of déjà vu. PMID:25401055

  1. The awareness of novelty for strangely familiar words: a laboratory analogue of the déjà vu experience.

    PubMed

    Urquhart, Josephine A; O'Connor, Akira R

    2014-01-01

    Déjà vu is a nebulous memory experience defined by a clash between evaluations of familiarity and novelty for the same stimulus. We sought to generate it in the laboratory by pairing a DRM recognition task, which generates erroneous familiarity for critical words, with a monitoring task by which participants realise that some of these erroneously familiar words are in fact novel. We tested 30 participants in an experiment in which we varied both participant awareness of stimulus novelty and erroneous familiarity strength. We found that déjà vu reports were most frequent for high novelty critical words (?25%), with low novelty critical words yielding only baseline levels of déjà vu report frequency (?10%). There was no significant variation in déjà vu report frequency according to familiarity strength. Discursive accounts of the experimentally-generated déjà vu experience suggest that aspects of the naturalistic déjà vu experience were captured by this analogue, but that the analogue was also limited in its focus and prone to influence by demand characteristics. We discuss theoretical and methodological considerations relevant to further development of this procedure and propose that verifiable novelty is an important component of both naturalistic and experimental analogues of déjà vu. PMID:25401055

  2. Schooling preferences for familiar fish vary with group size in a wild guppy population

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, S. W.; Magurran, A. E.

    1997-01-01

    The ability of fish to recognize and preferentially associate with familiar conspecifics has been well documented in a series of laboratory experiments. In this paper we investigate the schooling preferences of wild female guppies, Poecilia reticulata, in the Upper Tunapuna River in Trinidad and confirm that they do indeed prefer to associate with familiar individuals. The guppies in this river occur in a series of pools that become isolated during the dry season. These fish interact solely with other individuals in their pool for periods of several months at a time and thus have ample opportunity to become accustomed to one another. Our study also reveals that the tendency of female guppies to school with familiar fish declines as the group size in which they naturally live increases. Preferences are strong when there are small numbers of females in a pool, but diminish thereafter. This indicates that the expression of familiarity is constrained by group size. The basis of recognition and the consequences of schooling preferences for familiar individuals are discussed.

  3. Familiarity from the configuration of objects in 3-dimensional space and its relation to déjà vu: a virtual reality investigation.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Anne M; Brown, Alan S; Sawyer, Benjamin D; Nomi, Jason S; Ajoku, Adaeze C; Ryals, Anthony J

    2012-06-01

    Déjà vu is the striking sense that the present situation feels familiar, alongside the realization that it has to be new. According to the Gestalt familiarity hypothesis, déjà vu results when the configuration of elements within a scene maps onto a configuration previously seen, but the previous scene fails to come to mind. We examined this using virtual reality (VR) technology. When a new immersive VR scene resembled a previously-viewed scene in its configuration but people failed to recall the previously-viewed scene, familiarity ratings and reports of déjà vu were indeed higher than for completely novel scenes. People also exhibited the contrasting sense of newness and of familiarity that is characteristic of déjà vu. Familiarity ratings and déjà vu reports among scenes recognized as new increased with increasing feature-match of a scene to one stored in memory, suggesting that feature-matching can produce familiarity and déjà vu when recall fails. PMID:22322010

  4. Visual laterality in dolphins when looking at (un)familiar humans.

    PubMed

    Thieltges, Hélène; Lemasson, Alban; Kuczaj, Stan; Böye, Martin; Blois-Heulin, Catherine

    2011-03-01

    Understanding the evolution of brain lateralisation including the origin of human visual laterality requires an understanding of brain lateralisation in related animal species. However, little is known about the visual laterality of marine mammals. To help correct this lack, we evaluated the influence of familiarity with a human on the visual response of five captive bottlenose dolphins. Dolphins gazed longer at unfamiliar than at familiar humans, revealing their capacity to discriminate between these two types of stimuli. Pooled data for responses to all test stimuli demonstrated a preferential use of left eye by all our five dolphin subjects. However, familiarity with particular humans did not influence preferential use of a given eye. Finally, we compared our results with those on other vertebrates. PMID:21140186

  5. An odd manifestation of the Capgras syndrome: loss of familiarity even with the sexual partner.

    PubMed

    Thomas Antérion, C; Convers, P; Desmales, S; Borg, C; Laurent, B

    2008-06-01

    We report the case of a patient who presented visual hallucinations and identification disorders associated with a Capgras syndrome. During the Capgras periods, there was not only a misidentification of his wife's face, but also a more global perceptive and emotional sexual identification disorder. Thus, he had sexual intercourse with his wife's "double" without having the slightest recollection feeling of familiarity towards his "wife" and even changed his sexual habits. To the best of our knowledge, he is the only neurological patient who made his wife a mistress. Starting from this global familiarity loss, we discuss the mechanism of Capgras delusion with reference to the role of the implicit system of face recognition. Such behavior of familiarity loss not only with face but also with all intimacy aspects argues for a specific disconnection between the ventral visual pathway of face identification and the limbic system involved in emotional and episodic memory contents. PMID:18539251

  6. Familiarity of pediatricians with different commercially available neonatal and infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Teitelbaum, Jonathan E; Lagmay, Joanne P

    2007-06-01

    To assess the familiarity of pediatricians with commercially available formulas and their use for cow's milk protein allergy and colic, a list of formulas was generated by visiting several grocery stores. Pediatricians were ask to indicate their familiarity with these and other "specialized" formulas with regard to protein and carbohydrate sources, energy content, hypoallergenicity, and indication for infant colic. The participants answered an average of 46% of the questions correctly. Respondents were very familiar with 27% of the formulas, and unfamiliar with 35%. The highest score was 70%, and 10% of the responders correctly answered 65% or more of the questions. Fifty-one percent correctly identified the protein source of the formulas; 32% correctly identified the carbohydrate source. The energy content of the formulas was correctly identified by 54%. These data suggest that pediatricians have a poor understanding of the content and appropriate use of neonatal and infant formulas. PMID:17556738

  7. Recognition of personally familiar faces and functional connectivity in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Kurth, Sophie; Moyse, Evelyne; Bahri, Mohamed A; Salmon, Eric; Bastin, Christine

    2015-06-01

    Studies have reported that patients in the severe stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) experience difficulties recognizing their own faces in recent photographs. Two case reports of late-stage AD showed that this loss of self-face recognition was temporally graded: photographs from the remote past were recognized more easily than more recent photographs. Little is known about the neural correlates of own face recognition abilities in AD patients, while neuroimaging studies in healthy adults have related these abilities to a bilateral fronto-parieto-occipital network. In this study, two behavioral experiments (experiments 1 and 2) and one functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment (second part of experiment 2) were conducted to compare mild AD patients (experiment 1) and moderate AD patients (experiment 2) with healthy older participants in a recognition task involving self and familiar faces from different decades of the participants' life. In moderate AD patients, variable performance allowed us to examine correlations between scores and resting-state fMRI in order to link behavioral data to cerebral activity. At the behavioral level, the results revealed that, in mild AD, self and familiar face recognition was preserved. Moreover, mild AD patients and healthy older participants showed an inverse temporal gradient, with faster recognition of self and familiar recent photographs than self and familiar remote photographs. However, in moderate AD, both self and familiar face recognition were affected. fMRI results showed that the higher the connectivity between the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dMPFC) and the right superior frontal gyrus (rSFG), the lower the self and familiar face recognition scores in moderate AD patients. Given that previous studies have related the superior frontal region to control processes rather than face recognition processes, these results might reflect less segregation and more interference between brain networks in AD. In other words, impaired face recognition in AD may be related to functional dedifferentiation of specific brain regions. PMID:25913061

  8. La identidad profesional: una cualidad esencial para la formación inicial del psicopedagogo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ada Yunia Oliva Feria

    2011-01-01

    La formación inicial contemporánea del psicopedagogo es una prioridad en las Universidades de Ciencias Pedagógicas, dada por la implicación social que ejerce este en la orientación y asesoría educativa a estudiantes, familiares, y vecinos de la comunidad entre otras funciones inherentes al Licenciado en Educación, especialidad Pedagogía-Psicología. Para contribuir con la formación de un especialista de excelencia en estas disciplinas

  9. The relationship between social behaviour and habitat familiarity in African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    Pinter-Wollman, Noa; Isbell, Lynne A; Hart, Lynette A

    2009-03-22

    Social associations with conspecifics can expedite animals' acclimation to novel environments. However, the benefits gained from sociality may change as the habitat becomes familiar. Furthermore, the particular individuals with whom animals associate upon arrival at a new place, familiar conspecifics or knowledgeable unfamiliar residents, may influence the type of information they acquire about their new home. To examine animals' social dynamics in novel habitats, we studied the social behaviour of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) translocated into a novel environment. We found that the translocated elephants' association with conspecifics decreased over time supporting our hypothesis that sociality provides added benefits in novel environments. In addition, we found a positive correlation between body condition and social association, suggesting that elephants gain direct benefits from sociality. Furthermore, the translocated elephants associated significantly less than expected with the local residents and more than expected with familiar, but not necessarily genetically related, translocated elephants. The social segregation between the translocated and resident elephants declined over time, suggesting that elephants can integrate into an existing social setting. Knowledge of the relationship between sociality and habitat familiarity is highly important in our constantly changing world to both conservation practice and our understanding of animals' behaviour in novel environments. PMID:19129113

  10. The relationship between social behaviour and habitat familiarity in African elephants (Loxodonta africana)

    PubMed Central

    Pinter-Wollman, Noa; Isbell, Lynne A.; Hart, Lynette A.

    2008-01-01

    Social associations with conspecifics can expedite animals' acclimation to novel environments. However, the benefits gained from sociality may change as the habitat becomes familiar. Furthermore, the particular individuals with whom animals associate upon arrival at a new place, familiar conspecifics or knowledgeable unfamiliar residents, may influence the type of information they acquire about their new home. To examine animals' social dynamics in novel habitats, we studied the social behaviour of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) translocated into a novel environment. We found that the translocated elephants' association with conspecifics decreased over time supporting our hypothesis that sociality provides added benefits in novel environments. In addition, we found a positive correlation between body condition and social association, suggesting that elephants gain direct benefits from sociality. Furthermore, the translocated elephants associated significantly less than expected with the local residents and more than expected with familiar, but not necessarily genetically related, translocated elephants. The social segregation between the translocated and resident elephants declined over time, suggesting that elephants can integrate into an existing social setting. Knowledge of the relationship between sociality and habitat familiarity is highly important in our constantly changing world to both conservation practice and our understanding of animals' behaviour in novel environments. PMID:19129113

  11. The Faculty of Engineering has a new dean, but one with a familiar face.

    E-print Network

    Barthelat, Francois

    as "carbon footprint." Groundwater, which originates in rain, snow or ice, collects or flows beneath groundwater footprint. If you haven't heard that term yet, read on, because it soon could become as familiar the earth's surface, providing the water to replenish aquifers, springs and wells. The groundwater footprint

  12. Perception Precedes Computation: Can Familiarity Preferences Explain Apparent Calculation by Human Babies?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David S. Moore; Laura A. Cocas

    2006-01-01

    Two studies of 5-month-old infants explored whether a phenomenon reported by K. Wynn (1992) reflects a familiarity preference instead of a mathematical competence. Experiment 1 was a conceptual replication of Wynn's study. When data were analyzed with the relatively liberal statistical approach used by Wynn, the original phenomenon was replicated. However, an analysis of variance revealed that girls and boys

  13. Constraints on View Combination: Effects of Self-Occlusion and Differences among Familiar and Novel Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong,Alan C.-N.; Hayward, William G.

    2005-01-01

    The use of multiple familiar views of objects to facilitate recognition of novel views has been addressed in a number of behavioral studies, but the results have not been conclusive. The present study was a comprehensive examination of view combination for different types of novel views (internal or external to the studied views) and different…

  14. Song Recognition without Identification: When People Cannot "Name that Tune" but Can Recognize It as Familiar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostic, Bogdan; Cleary, Anne M.

    2009-01-01

    Recognition without identification (RWI) is a common day-to-day experience (as when recognizing a face or a tune as familiar without being able to identify the person or the song). It is also a well-established laboratory-based empirical phenomenon: When identification of recognition test items is prevented, participants can discriminate between…

  15. Action Prediction in Younger versus Older Adults: Neural Correlates of Motor Familiarity

    PubMed Central

    Diersch, Nadine; Mueller, Karsten; Cross, Emily S.; Stadler, Waltraud; Rieger, Martina; Schütz-Bosbach, Simone

    2013-01-01

    Generating predictions during action observation is essential for efficient navigation through our social environment. With age, the sensitivity in action prediction declines. In younger adults, the action observation network (AON), consisting of premotor, parietal and occipitotemporal cortices, has been implicated in transforming executed and observed actions into a common code. Much less is known about age-related changes in the neural representation of observed actions. Using fMRI, the present study measured brain activity in younger and older adults during the prediction of temporarily occluded actions (figure skating elements and simple movement exercises). All participants were highly familiar with the movement exercises whereas only some participants were experienced figure skaters. With respect to the AON, the results confirm that this network was preferentially engaged for the more familiar movement exercises. Compared to younger adults, older adults recruited visual regions to perform the task and, additionally, the hippocampus and caudate when the observed actions were familiar to them. Thus, instead of effectively exploiting the sensorimotor matching properties of the AON, older adults seemed to rely predominantly on the visual dynamics of the observed actions to perform the task. Our data further suggest that the caudate played an important role during the prediction of the less familiar figure skating elements in better-performing groups. Together, these findings show that action prediction engages a distributed network in the brain, which is modulated by the content of the observed actions and the age and experience of the observer. PMID:23704980

  16. Something Old, Something New: A Developmental Transition from Familiarity to Novelty Preferences with Hidden Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinskey, Jeanne L.; Munakata, Yuko

    2010-01-01

    Novelty seeking is viewed as adaptive, and novelty preferences in infancy predict cognitive performance into adulthood. Yet 7-month-olds prefer familiar stimuli to novel ones when searching for hidden objects, in contrast to their strong novelty preferences with visible objects (Shinskey & Munakata, 2005). According to a graded representations…

  17. Auftaktworkshop "Marie Sklodowska Curie in Horizon 2020 Actions with familiar and novel aspects"

    E-print Network

    Potsdam, Universität

    Auftaktworkshop "Marie Sklodowska Curie in Horizon 2020 ­ Actions with familiar and novel aspects, Universität Potsdam) 10:15 ­ 11:00 Uhr Die Marie Sklodowska Curie Maßnahmen in Horizon 2020 (Victoria Llobet, KoWi, Brüssel) 11:00 ­ 11:45 Uhr Die Bedeutung der Marie Sklodowska Curie Maßnahmen für Deutschland

  18. The Influence of Distracting Familiar Vocal Music on Cognitive Performance of Introverts and Extraverts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avila, Christina; Furnham, Adrian; McClelland, Alastair

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of familiar musical distractors on the cognitive performance of introverts and extraverts. Participants completed a verbal, numerical and logic test in three music conditions: vocal music, instrumental music and silence. It was predicted that introverts would perform worse with vocal music, better with…

  19. Obstacles to Global CO2 Trading: A Familiar Problem A. Denny Ellerman1

    E-print Network

    Obstacles to Global CO2 Trading: A Familiar Problem A. Denny Ellerman1 Abstract There are many obstacles to the development of an international CO2 emissions trading system, but the biggest is a feature, an international system will develop naturally more as a matter of self-interested trade than as international

  20. Unfolding the Spatial and Temporal Neural Processing of Lying about Face Familiarity

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Delin; Lee, Tatia M.C.; Chan, Chetwyn C.H.

    2015-01-01

    To understand the neural processing underpinnings of deception, this study employed both neuroimaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging, fMRI) and neurophysiological (event-related potential, ERP) methodologies to examine the temporal and spatial coupling of the neural correlates and processes that occur when one lies about face familiarity. This was performed using simple directed lying tasks. According to cues provided by the researchers, the 17 participants were required to respond truthfully or with lies to a series of faces. The findings confirmed that lie and truth conditions are associated with different fMRI activations in the ventrolateral, dorsolateral, and dorsal medial-frontal cortices; premotor cortex, and inferior parietal gyrus. They are also associated with different amplitudes within the time interval between 300 and 1000 ms post face stimulus, after the initiation (270 ms) of face familiarity processing. These results support the cognitive model that suggests representations of truthful information are first aroused and then manipulated during deception. Stronger fMRI activations at the left inferior frontal gyrus and more positive-going ERP amplitudes within [1765, 1800] ms were observed in the contrast between lie and truth for familiar than for unfamiliar faces. The fMRI and ERP findings, together with ERP source reconstruction, clearly delineate the neural processing of face familiarity deception. PMID:24186897

  1. Introducing International Accounting Standards to an emerging capital market: relative familiarity and language effect in Egypt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Omneya H. Abd-Elsalam; Pauline Weetman

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the effect of relative familiarity and language accessibility on the International Accounting Standards (IASs) disclosures when IASs are first introduced in an emerging capital market. The study focuses on the annual reports of listed non-financial companies in Egypt when IASs were first introduced. The method used applies a disclosure index measurement to

  2. Assuming too much from `familiar' brain potentials Ken A. Paller1

    E-print Network

    Reber, Paul J.

    by event-related brain potentials', Rosburg and colleagues [1] attempted to identify the source and colleagues must be re-evaluated in light of these ideas. During a recognition test, familiarity transpire even when conceptual implicit memory is not measured by the experimenter. Careful steps must

  3. Familiarity Breeds Contempt: Kangaroos Persistently Avoid Areas with Experimentally Deployed Dingo Scents

    E-print Network

    Grether, Gregory

    Familiarity Breeds Contempt: Kangaroos Persistently Avoid Areas with Experimentally Deployed Dingo). If these predator cues were alarming, we expected that over time, some red kangaroos (Macropus rufous), western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus) and agile wallabies (Macropus agilis) would elect to not participate

  4. Introduction Most biologists are familiar with the idea that a kangaroo's hop is

    E-print Network

    Azizi, Manny

    353 Introduction Most biologists are familiar with the idea that a kangaroo's hop is powered). This mechanism is obvious to any observer, so much so that the kangaroo's hop has become the iconic image and molecular springs within the muscles themselves. Although they may not always be as obvious as a kangaroo

  5. New Uses for a Familiar Technology: Introducing Mobile Phone Polling in Large Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voelkel, Susanne; Bennett, Daimark

    2014-01-01

    We have introduced a real-time polling system to support student engagement and feedback in four large Level 1 and 2 modules in Biological Sciences. The audience response system makes use of a technology that is ubiquitous and familiar to the students. To participate, students send text messages using their mobile phones or send a message via…

  6. Confrontation Naming of Familiar Sounds and Pictures by Individuals with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcell, Michael M.; Busby, Emily Ann; Mansker, Joanne K.; Whelan, Melanie L.

    1998-01-01

    A study investigated whether 26 adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome experienced more difficulty in finding words to name familiar objects and sounds than 26 subjects with mental retardation due to other causes. Results found no evidence of syndrome-specific word-finding difficulty in accuracy or speed. (Author/CR)

  7. Topic Familiarity and Interlanguage Variation: A Study of the Impact of Interactional Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahimpour, Massoud; Hazar, Fatemeh

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study investigating the impact of interactional feedback on interlanguage variation in terms of accuracy, complexity, and fluency of learners' discourse in performing tasks with familiar vs. unfamiliar topics. The participant of the study who were randomly assigned into an experimental and a control group were…

  8. Position Distinctiveness, Item Familiarity, and Presentation Frequency Affect Reconstruction of Order in Immediate Episodic Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Alice F.; Shea, Kathleen M.; Kole, James A.; Cunningham, Thomas F.

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments examined the effects of position distinctiveness, item familiarity, and frequency of presentation on serial position functions in a task involving reconstructing the order of a subset of 12 names in a list of 20 names. Three different serial position conditions were compared in which the subset of names occurred in Positions…

  9. The Persistence of Erroneous Familiarity in an Epileptic Male: Challenging Perceptual Theories of Deja Vu Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Akira R.; Moulin, Christopher J. A.

    2008-01-01

    We report the case of a 39-year-old, temporal lobe epileptic male, MH. Prior to complex partial seizure, experienced up to three times a day, MH often experiences an aura experienced as a persistent sensation of deja vu. Data-driven theories of deja vu formation suggest that partial familiarity for the perceived stimulus is responsible for the…

  10. Relationship between Familiarity, Attitudes and Preferences: Assisted Living Facilities as Compared to Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imamoglu, Cagri; Imamoglu, E. Olcay

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the authors aim to (a) explore attitudes toward and preferences for living in the newly emerging place type of assisted living facilities in comparison to nursing homes, and (b) assess the possible impact of familiarity on those attitudes and preferences. Ninety-eight respondents (with a mean age of 62) were surveyed. Respondents…

  11. Technology shapes every facet of modern life. Familiarity with the characteristics,

    E-print Network

    Ge, Qiaode Jeff

    Technology shapes every facet of modern life. Familiarity with the characteristics, capabilities, and limitations of current and emerging technologies is indispen- sable to wise and effective decisions and address the problems that technology often presents. Technologi- cal developments are indeed re

  12. The Effects of Familiarization with Oral Expository Text on Listening and Reading Comprehension Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diakidoy, Irene-Anna N.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of text type and early familiarization with oral expository text structures on listening and reading comprehension levels. Second-grade students read and listened to narrative and expository texts, and their comprehension was assessed with a sentence verification task. Half of the students had participated in a…

  13. Language Learner Strategy by Chinese-Speaking EFL Readers When Comprehending Familiar and Unfamiliar Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jia-Ying

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the language learner and test-taking strategies used by Chinese-speaking graduate students when confronted with familiar versus unfamiliar topics in an English multiple-choice format reading comprehension test. Thirty-six participants at a large mid-western university performed three tasks: A content knowledge vocabulary…

  14. Panoramic Search: The Interaction of Memory and Vision in Search through a Familiar Scene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliva, Aude; Wolfe, Jeremy M. Arsenio, Helga C.

    2004-01-01

    How do observers search through familiar scenes? A novel panoramic search method is used to study the interaction of memory and vision in natural search behavior. In panoramic search, observers see part of an unchanging scene larger than their current field of view. A target object can be visible, present in the display but hidden from view, or…

  15. Reading in a Regular Orthography: An fMRI Study Investigating the Role of Visual Familiarity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anja Ischebeck; Peter Indefrey; Nobuo Usui; Izuru Nose; Frauke Hellwig; Masato Taira

    2004-01-01

    In order to separate the cognitive processes associated with phonological encoding and the use of a visual word form lexicon in reading, it is desirable to compare the processing of words presented in a visually familiar form with words in a visually unfamiliar form. Japanese Kana orthography offers this possibility. Two phonologically equivalent but visually dissimilar syllabaries allow the writing

  16. Longitudinal Consistency of Matching Familiar Figures Test Performance From Early Childhood to Preadolescence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Per F. Gjerde; Jack Block; Jeanne H. Block

    1985-01-01

    Age-appropriate versions of the Matching Familiar Figures Test (MFFT) were administered to a longitudinally followed sample of children at ages 3, 4, 5, and 11. Uncorrected for attenuation, MFFT error scores were more consistent over time than MFFT latency scores for both girls and boys. When the longitudinal MFFT correlations were corrected for attenuation, the magnitude of the MFFT error

  17. Evidence for a Non-Lexical Influence on Children's Auditory Repetition of Familiar Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, Mary-Jane; Hanley, J. Richard; Nozari, Nazbanou

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines evidence for a nonlexical influence on children's repetition of real words. We investigate the extent to which two computational models of auditory repetition can simulate the performance of 68 children aged between 5 and 11 years-old when they are attempting to repeat familiar words. Both computational accounts were derived…

  18. Centromeres, the chromosomal sites of attachment to the mitotic spindle, have been familiar to cell biologists

    E-print Network

    Henikoff, Steven

    Centromeres, the chromosomal sites of attachment to the mitotic spindle, have been familiar to cell biologists for well over a century (Fig. 1). Centromeres were evident to Walther Flemming in his landmark. It therefore might come as a surprise that although the segregation function of centromeres was understood

  19. Does Topic Familiarity Affect Assessed Difficulty and Actual Performance on Reading Comprehension Tests in LSP?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peretz, Arna S.; Shoham, Miriam

    A study investigated the hypothesis that topic familiarity and assessed difficulty of a second language text correlated positively with performance on reading comprehension tests in languages for special purposes (LSP). Subjects were 177 advanced students of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) at Ben Gurion University (Israel). Faculty from the…

  20. POSIÇÃO RELATIVA DO RENDIMENTO DO TRABALHO DO PEQUENO PRODUTOR FAMILIAR: ALGO MUDOU COM O PRONAF?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge Alexandre Neves; Danielle Cireno Fernandes; Florence Fiuza Carvalho; Daniete Fernandes Rocha; Flavia Pereira Xavier

    2008-01-01

    O presente artigo divide-se em duas partes principais. Na primeira é feita uma discussão sobre os aspectos teóricos referentes à estrutura de estratificação social na agropecuária brasileira. Na segunda, é feita uma análise sobre a posição relativa do rendimento do trabalho do pequeno produtor familiar e se essa posição foi de alguma forma afetada pela criação do Programa Nacional de

  1. Familiarity and Plausibility in Conceptual Combination: Reply to Gagne and Spalding (2006)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Gregory L.; Wisniewski, Edward J.

    2006-01-01

    E. J. Wisniewski and G. L. Murphy (see record EJ689195) suggested that the apparent effects of relation frequency in C. L. Gagne and E. J. Shoben's (1997) conceptual combination experiments could be explained by differences between the familiarity and plausibility of their stimuli (noun-noun phrases). However, C. L. Gagne and T. L. Spalding argued…

  2. Priming of plane-rotated objects depends on attention and view familiarity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Volker Thoma; Jules Davidoff; John E. Hummel

    2007-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the role of attention in visual priming across rotations in the picture plane. Experiment 1 showed that naming latencies increased with the degree of misorientation for objects commonly seen in an upright view (base objects) but not for objects seen familiarly from many views (no-base objects). In Experiment 2, no-base objects revealed a priming pattern identical to

  3. Novelty and Familiarity as Determinants of Infant Attention within the First Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Michael; And Others

    Three related experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of novel and familiar stimuli on infant attention. The procedure in each of the experiments was to place an infant before a matrix panel composed of six rows of six lights. Two patterns of lights were used to obtain the infants' fixation time: (1) a point pattern, a single…

  4. Discrimination of familiarity and sex from chemical cues in the dung by wild southern white rhinoceros.

    PubMed

    Cinková, Ivana; Policht, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Communication in rhinos is primarily mediated by the vocal and olfactory signals as they have relatively poor eyesight. White rhinos are the most social of all the rhinoceros species, they defecate at common dungheaps and the adult bulls use dung and urine to mark their territory. Chemical communication may therefore be particularly important in the social interactions of white rhinos, and its knowledge could be very helpful in their management and conservation. However, no studies have investigated up until now the olfactory discrimination in any rhinoceros species in the wild. We have experimentally studied the reactions of the wild southern white rhinos (Ceratotherium simum) to the dung of familiar and unfamiliar adult females and adult territorial males. We registered the number of sniffing events, the duration of sniffing and the latency of the vigilance posture from the onset of sniffing. The dung of unfamiliar rhinos was sniffed longer than that of familiar rhinos. The rhinos showed a shorter latency of vigilance posture to the familiar dung of males than that of females. For unfamiliar dung, they displayed a shorter latency of vigilance posture to female than male dung. Our results indicate that the rhinos are able to discriminate the familiarity and sex of conspecifics from the smell of their dung. Olfactory cues could therefore play an important role in the social relationships and spatial organization of the southern white rhinoceros. PMID:25273823

  5. Beyond the Memory Mechanism: Person-Selective and Nonselective Processes in Recognition of Personally Familiar Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugiura, Motoaki; Mano, Yoko; Sasaki, Akihiro; Sadato, Norihiro

    2011-01-01

    Special processes recruited during the recognition of personally familiar people have been assumed to reflect the rich episodic and semantic information that selectively represents each person. However, the processes may also include person nonselective ones, which may require interpretation in terms beyond the memory mechanism. To examine this…

  6. Diurnal Cortisol Profile in Williams Syndrome in Novel and Familiar Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lense, Miriam Diane; Tomarken, Andrew J.; Dykens, Elisabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder associated with high rates of anxiety and social issues. We examined diurnal cortisol, a biomarker of the stress response, in adults with WS in novel and familiar settings, and compared these profiles to typically developing (TD) adults. WS and TD participants had similar profiles in…

  7. Electroencephalogram and Heart Rate Regulation to Familiar and Unfamiliar People in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hecke, Amy Vaughan; Lebow, Jocelyn; Bal, Elgiz; Lamb, Damon; Harden, Emily; Kramer, Alexis; Denver, John; Bazhenova, Olga; Porges, Stephen W.

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have examined whether familiarity of partner affects social responses in children with autism. This study investigated heart rate regulation (respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA]: The myelinated vagus nerve's regulation of heart rate) and temporal-parietal electroencephalogram (EEG) activity while nineteen 8- to 12-year-old children with…

  8. Lexical Familiarity and Processing Efficiency: Individual Differences in Naming, Lexical Decision, and Semantic Categorization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Jo Lewellen; Stephen D. Goldinger; David B. Pisoni; Beth G. Greene

    1993-01-01

    College students were separated into 2 groups (high and low) on the basis of 3 measures: subjective familiarity ratings of words, self-reported language experiences, and a test of vocabulary knowledge. Three experiments were conducted to determine if the groups also differed in visual word naming, lexical decision, and semantic categorization. High Ss were consistently faster than low Ss in naming

  9. Effects of Presentation Mode and Computer Familiarity on Summarization of Extended Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Guoxing

    2010-01-01

    Comparability studies on computer- and paper-based reading tests have focused on short texts and selected-response items via almost exclusively statistical modeling of test performance. The psychological effects of presentation mode and computer familiarity on individual students are under-researched. In this study, 157 students read extended…

  10. Agricultura familiar e políticas públicas: impacto do PRONAF no Rio Grande do Sul

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Flávio Sacco dos Anjos; Wilson Itamar Godoy; Nádia Velleda Caldas; Mário Conill Gomes

    2004-01-01

    Resumo - A aparição do Programa Nacional de Fortalecimento da Agricultura Familiar (PRONAF) marca um momento singular na trajetória do processo de intervenção estatal na agricultura e no mundo rural do Brasil. Apesar de avanços no aperfeiçoamento e ampliação do universo de cobertura, o programa permanece ancorado numa ambigüidade básica tanto em termos do público-alvo a ser beneficiado quanto aos

  11. Fiber Handling and Numerical Aperture Measurement To become familiar with fiber cleaving and the relation between

    E-print Network

    Collins, Gary S.

    Fiber Handling and Numerical Aperture Measurement Purpose: To become familiar with fiber cleaving · 16 7 socket/driver For the laser- HeNe laser short rod clamp (340C) laser mount for the fiber- · F-MLD fiber ( ~2 meters) · rotation stage · very small "micro-series" post holder · very small "micro

  12. Aspects of Performance on Line Graph Description Tasks: Influenced by Graph Familiarity and Different Task Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xi, Xiaoming

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by cognitive theories of graph comprehension, this study systematically manipulated characteristics of a line graph description task in a speaking test in ways to mitigate the influence of graph familiarity, a potential source of construct-irrelevant variance. It extends Xi (2005), which found that the differences in holistic scores on…

  13. Bias in Behavioral Observation as a Function of Observer Familiarity with Subjects and Typicality of Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redfield, Joel; Paul, Gordon L.

    1976-01-01

    Four professional observers watched videotapes of the behavior of ex-mental patients (N=20 each). Their recordings showed that the observers were sensitive to any atypical behavior on the part of patients with whom they were familiar. They were equally objective in their observation of behavior of unfamiliar patients. (SE)

  14. The effect of word familiarity on actual and perceived text difficulty.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Gondy; Kauchak, David

    2014-02-01

    There is little evidence that readability formula outcomes relate to text understanding. The potential cause may lie in their strong reliance on word and sentence length. We evaluated word familiarity rather than word length as a stand-in for word difficulty. Word familiarity represents how well known a word is, and is estimated using word frequency in a large text corpus, in this work the Google web corpus. We conducted a study with 239 people, who provided 50 evaluations for each of 275 words. Our study is the first study to focus on actual difficulty, measured with a multiple-choice task, in addition to perceived difficulty, measured with a Likert scale. Actual difficulty was correlated with word familiarity (r=0.219, p<0.001) but not with word length (r=-0.075, p=0.107). Perceived difficulty was correlated with both word familiarity (r=-0.397, p<0.001) and word length (r=0.254, p<0.001). PMID:24100710

  15. Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Effectiveness of familiar kin and unfamiliar nonkin demonstrator

    E-print Network

    Galef Jr., Bennett G.

    to prediction, naive Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus, were marginally more likely to learn to prefer a food eaten. Keywords: familiarity; food choice; kinship; Norway rat; Rattus norvegicus; social learning Although learning in the development of food preferences of Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus. In our basic experiment

  16. Middle school teachers' familiarity with, interest in, performance on, and conceptual and pedagogical knowledge of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbewe, Simeon

    The purpose of this study was threefold: Examine middle school teachers' familiarity with, interest in, conceptual knowledge of and performance on light; Examine their ability to identify misconceptions on light and their suggested pedagogical ideas to address the identified misconceptions; and Establish the relationship between the middle school teachers' interest, familiarity, conceptual understanding, performance, misconception identification, and pedagogical ideas for light. Sixty six (66) middle school science teachers enrolled in three math and science teacher professional development projects at Southern Illinois University Carbondale participated in this study. This study used mixed-methods approach to collect and analyze data. The participants responded in writing to four different instruments: Familiarity and Interest Questionnaire, Conceptual Knowledge Test, Two-tier Performance Test, and Misconceptions Identification Questionnaire. Data was analyzed quantitatively by conducting non-parametric (Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney U, and Kruskal-Wallis) and parametric (paired samples, independent samples, and One-Way ANOVA) tests. Qualitative data was analyzed using thematic analysis and open coding to identify emerging themes and categories. The results showed that the teachers reported high levels of familiarity with and interest in learning more about light concepts. However, they had low conceptual knowledge and performance on light concepts. As such, middle school teachers' perceived knowledge of light concepts was not consistent with their actual knowledge of light. To some extent, the teachers identified students' misconceptions expressed in some scenarios on light and also suggested pedagogical ideas for addressing such misconceptions in middle school science classrooms. However, most teachers did not provide details on their pedagogical ideas for light. Correlations among the four constructs (familiarity, interest, conceptual understanding, and performance) were only significant between performance and conceptual understanding, r (64) = .50, p = .000. There was no significant relationship between conceptual understanding and familiarity, and between performance and familiarity. In view of these findings, it is evident that some teachers did not have sound conceptual understanding and pedagogical ideas to effectively help their students develop the understanding of light concepts accentuated in the US national science education standards. These findings have implications on teacher education and science teaching and learning.

  17. Only One Third of Tehran's Physicians are Familiar with ‘Evidence-Based Clinical Guidelines’

    PubMed Central

    Mounesan, Leila; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Majdzadeh, Reza; Rashidian, Arash; Gholami, Jaleh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Clinical guidelines have increasingly been used as tools for applying new knowledge and research findings. Although, efforts have been made to produce clinical guidelines in Iran, it is not clear whether they have been used by physicians and what factors are associated with them?. Methods: Four hundred and forty three practicing physicians in Tehran were selected from private clinics through weighted random sampling. The data collection tool was a questionnaire on familiarity and attitude toward clinical guidelines. The descriptive and analytical findings were analyzed with t-tests, Chi2, logistic and linear multivariate regression by SPSS, version 16. Results: 31.8% of physicians were familiar with clinical guidelines. Based on the logistic regression model physicians’ familiarity with clinical guidelines was positively and significantly associated with ‘working experience in a health service delivery point’ OR = 2.13 (95% CI, 1.17-3.90), ‘familiarity with therapeutic protocols’ OR = 2.09 (95% CI, 1.22-3.57) and ‘holding a specialty degree’ OR = 2.51 (95% CI, 1.24-5.07). The mean overall attitude scores in the ‘usefulness’, ‘reliability’, and ‘problems and barriers’ domains were, respectively, 78.9 (SD = 16.5), 78.9 (SD = 19.7) and 50.4 (SD = 15.9) out of a total of 100 scores in each domain. No significant association was observed between attitude domains and other independent variables using multivariate linear regression. Conclusions: Little familiarity with clinical guidelines may represent weakness in of production and distribution of domestic evidence. Although, physicians considered guidelines as useful and reliable tools, but problems such as difficult access to guidelines and lack of facilities to apply them were stated as well. PMID:23626893

  18. Attentional biases towards familiar and unfamiliar foods in children. The role of food neophobia.

    PubMed

    Maratos, Frances A; Staples, Paul

    2015-08-01

    Familiarity of food stimuli is one factor that has been proposed to explain food preferences and food neophobia in children, with some research suggesting that food neophobia (and familiarity) is at first a predominant of the visual domain. Considering visual attentional biases are a key factor implicated in a majority of fear-related phobias/anxieties, the purpose of this research was to investigate attentional biases to familiar and unfamiliar fruit and vegetables in 8 to 11 year old children with differing levels of food neophobia. To this end, 70 primary aged children completed a visual-probe task measuring attentional biases towards familiar and unfamiliar fruit/vegetables, as well as the food neophobia, general neophobia and willingness to try self-report measures. Results revealed that as an undifferentiated population all children appeared to demonstrate an attentional bias towards the unfamiliar fruit and vegetable stimuli. However, when considering food neophobia, this bias was significantly exaggerated for children self-reporting high food neophobia and negligible for children self-reporting low food neophobia. In addition, willingness to try the food stimuli was inversely correlated with attentional bias towards the unfamiliar fruits/vegetables. Our results demonstrate that visual aspects of food stimuli (e.g. familiarity) play an important role in childhood food neophobia. This study provides the first empirical test of recent theory/models of food neophobia (e.g. Brown & Harris, 2012). Findings are discussed in light of these models and related anxiety models, along with implications concerning the treatment of childhood food neophobia. PMID:25862982

  19. Perceived familiarity with and importance of family health history among a medically underserved population.

    PubMed

    Ashida, Sato; Goodman, Melody S; Stafford, Jewel; Lachance, Christina; Kaphingst, Kimberly A

    2012-10-01

    Inadequate knowledge of family health history (FHH) continues to be a major obstacle limiting its usefulness in public health and clinical practice; strategies to facilitate FHH dissemination are needed. Data (N?=?1,334) were obtained through waiting-room surveys completed by a diverse sample of patients attending three community health centers. Perceptions about the importance of genetic information (??=?0.13, p?familiarity with and importance of FHH, respectively. Furthermore, beliefs about genetic causation of illnesses (??=?0.12, p?familiarity with one's FHH. Participants in the oldest group (>50 years) reported higher familiarity than those in the youngest (18-25 years). Those with higher familiarity were significantly less likely to answer "don't know" when reporting diabetes and heart disease diagnoses among immediate (OR?=?0.35 and OR?=?0.29, respectively) and extended (OR?=?0.50 and OR?=?0.46, respectively) family members. Having a wider health communication reach within a family may be beneficial in increasing familiarity with FHH; however, the reported levels of communication reach were limited among most participants. Women, older-generation family members, and those who believe in the importance of genetics in health or feel confident about using genetic information may be particularly important as targets of public health interventions to facilitate FHH dissemination within families. PMID:22569765

  20. Many Roads Lead to Recognition: Electrophysiological Correlates of Familiarity Derived from Short-Term Masked Repetition Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Heather D.; Taylor, Jason R.; Henson, Richard N.; Paller, Ken A.

    2012-01-01

    The neural mechanisms that underlie familiarity memory have been extensively investigated, but a consensus understanding remains elusive. Behavioral evidence suggests that familiarity sometimes shares sources with instances of implicit memory known as priming, in that the same increases in processing fluency that give rise to priming can engender…

  1. Facial markings in the hover wasps: quality signals and familiar recognition cues in two species of Stenogastrinae

    E-print Network

    Chittka, Lars

    Facial markings in the hover wasps: quality signals and familiar recognition cues in two species was found in Liostenogaster flavolineata, which instead used facial markings as familiar visual recognition vechti quality signal recognition system social behaviour Both recognition and conventional signals

  2. A Single-Trace Dual-Process Model of Episodic Memory: A Novel Computational Account of Familiarity and Recollection

    E-print Network

    van Rossum, Mark

    processes access the memory. The model is capable of performing familiarity and recollectionA Single-Trace Dual-Process Model of Episodic Memory: A Novel Computational Account of Familiarity and Recollection Andrea Greve,1,2 * David I. Donaldson,3 and Mark C.W. van Rossum2 ABSTRACT: Dual-process theories

  3. Familiarization, Attention, and Recognition Memory in Infancy: An Event-Related Potential and Cortical Source Localization Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Greg D.; Richards, John E.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of familiarization and attention on event-related potential (ERP) correlates of recognition memory in infants. Infants 4.5, 6, or 7.5 months of age were either familiarized with 2 stimuli that were used during later testing or presented 2 stimuli that were not used later. Then, infants were presented with a…

  4. Are there optimal levels of arousal to memory? Effects of arousal, centrality, and familiarity on brand memory in video games

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eui Jun Jeong; Frank A. Biocca

    Using a modified first-person shooter game, Counter Strike 2, this study tested (1) if the Yerkes–Dodson law could be applied to the relationship between physiological arousal (skin conductance) and brand memory in the new interactive technology setting; (2) if central and familiar ads are better recognized; and (3) if there are any interaction effects among arousal, centrality, and familiarity on

  5. The Effects of Topic Familiarity and Passage Sight Vocabulary on L2 Lexical Inferencing and Retention through Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulido, Diana

    2007-01-01

    The study examines the impact of topic familiarity and passage sight vocabulary on lexical inferencing and retention. Independent variables include (a) a topic familiarity questionnaire, and (b) a passage sight vocabulary test. A repeated-measures design was used with a cross-sectional sample of 35 adult L2 learners of Spanish. Ss read narratives…

  6. Familiar Verbs Are Not Always Easier than Novel Verbs: How German Pre-School Children Comprehend Active and Passive Sentences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittmar, Miriam; Abbot-Smith, Kirsten; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Many studies show a developmental advantage for transitive sentences with familiar verbs over those with novel verbs. It might be that once familiar verbs become entrenched in particular constructions, they would be more difficult to understand (than would novel verbs) in non-prototypical constructions. We provide support for this hypothesis…

  7. Familiarity and Recollection Produce Distinct Eye Movement, Pupil and Medial Temporal Lobe Responses when Memory Strength Is Matched

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kafkas, Alexandros; Montaldi, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments explored eye measures (fixations and pupil response patterns) and brain responses (BOLD) accompanying the recognition of visual object stimuli based on familiarity and recollection. In both experiments, the use of a modified remember/know procedure led to high confidence and matched accuracy levels characterising strong familiarity…

  8. Uneasy money: the Instituto Carlos Slim de la Salud, tobacco philanthropy and conflict of interest in global health

    PubMed Central

    Burch, Tiffany; Wander, Nathaniel; Collin, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    In May 2007, the Instituto Carso de la Salud—now Instituto Carlos Slim de la Salud (ICSS)—was endowed with US$500 million to focus on priority health issues in Latin America, notably issues of ‘globalisation and non-communicable diseases’. ICSS was soon criticised, however, on the grounds that its funding was derived from tobacco industry profits and that its founder Carlos Slim Hélu remained an active industry principal. Collaboration with ICSS was said to run counter to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. The Institute's then Executive President Julio Frenk disputed these charges. This research employs an archive of tobacco industry documents triangulated with materials from commercial, media, regulatory and NGO sources to examine the financial relations between Slim and the tobacco industry. The paper analyses Slim's continuing service to the industry and role in ICSS. It demonstrates a prima facie conflict of interest between ICSS's health mission and its founder's involvement in cigarette manufacturing and marketing, reflected on ICSS's website as a resounding silence on issues of tobacco and health. It is concluded that the reliance of international health agencies upon the commercial sector requires more robust institutional policies to effectively regulate conflicts of interest. PMID:21088061

  9. BOLETN OFICIAL DEL ESTADO Nm. 289 Jueves 1 de diciembre de 2011 Sec. III. Pg. 127995

    E-print Network

    Fitze, Patrick

    Investigaciones Biomédicas "Alberto Sols" JAEDOC021 Área 2 1 Neurociencia IN Instituto de Neurociencias JAEDOC022 Neurociencia IC Instituto Cajal JAEDOC024 Área 2 1 Biomedicina IBV Instituto de Biomedicina de Valencia JAEDOC

  10. Gestión del riesgo del cambio (segunda parte)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Pablo Zorrilla Salgador

    1970-01-01

    Segunda parte del artículo acerca del uso de futuros sobre el tipo de cambio. Esta continuación abarca estrategias, definiciones, metodología y explicaciones sobre todo lo relacionado con el Ratio de cobertura de los futuros y la aparición del riesgo base.

  11. Familiarity with interest breeds gossip: contributions of emotion, expectation, and reputation.

    PubMed

    Yao, Bo; Scott, Graham G; McAleer, Phil; O'Donnell, Patrick J; Sereno, Sara C

    2014-01-01

    Although gossip serves several important social functions, it has relatively infrequently been the topic of systematic investigation. In two experiments, we advance a cognitive-informational approach to gossip. Specifically, we sought to determine which informational components engender gossip. In Experiment 1, participants read brief passages about other people and indicated their likelihood to share this information. We manipulated target familiarity (celebrity, non-celebrity) and story interest (interesting, boring). While participants were more likely to gossip about celebrity than non-celebrity targets and interesting than boring stories, they were even more likely to gossip about celebrity targets embedded within interesting stories. In Experiment 2, we additionally probed participants' reactions to the stories concerning emotion, expectation, and reputation information conveyed. Analyses showed that while such information partially mediated target familiarity and story interest effects, only expectation and reputation accounted for the interactive pattern of gossip behavior. Our findings provide novel insights into the essential components and processing mechanisms of gossip. PMID:25119267

  12. The Peer Model Advantage in Infants’ Imitation of Familiar Gestures Performed by Differently Aged Models

    PubMed Central

    Zmyj, Norbert; Aschersleben, Gisa; Prinz, Wolfgang; Daum, Moritz

    2012-01-01

    Infants’ imitation of differently aged models has been predominately investigated with object-related actions and so far has lead to mixed evidence. Whereas some studies reported an increased likelihood of imitating peer models in contrast to adult models, other studies reported the opposite pattern of results. In the present study, 14-month-old infants were presented with four familiar gestures (e.g., clapping) that were demonstrated by differently aged televised models (peer, older child, adult). Results revealed that infants were more likely to imitate the peer model than the older child or the adult. This result is discussed with respect to a social function of imitation and the mechanism of imitating familiar behavior. PMID:22833732

  13. An Inner-face Advantage in Children’s Recognition of Familiar Peers

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Liezhong; Anzures, Gizelle; Wang, Zhe; Kelly, David J.; Pascalis, Olivier; Quinn, Paul C.; Slater, Alan M.; Yang, Zhiliang; Lee, Kang

    2008-01-01

    Children’s recognition of familiar own-age peers was investigated. Four-, 8-, and 14-year-old Chinese children were asked to identify their classmates from photographs showing the entire face, the internal facial features only, the external facial features only, or the eyes, nose, or mouth only. Participants from all age groups were familiar with the faces used as stimuli for one academic year. The results showed that children from all age groups demonstrated an advantage for recognition of the internal facial features relative to their recognition of the external facial features. Previous observations of a shift in reliance from external to internal facial features can, thus, be attributed to experience with faces rather than to age-related changes in face processing. PMID:18639888

  14. The odd-even effect in multiplication: parity rule or familiarity with even numbers?

    PubMed

    Lochy, A; Seron, X; Delazer, M; Butterworth, B

    2000-04-01

    This study questions the evidence that a parity rule is used during the verification of multiplication. Previous studies reported that products are rejected faster when they violate the expected parity, which was attributed to the use of a rule (Krueger, 1986; Lemaire & Fayol, 1995). This experiment tested an alternative explanation of this effect: the familiarity hypothesis. Fifty subjects participated in a verification task with contrasting types of problems (even x even, odd x odd, mixed). Some aspects of our results constitute evidence against the use of the parity rule: False even answers were rejected slowly, even when the two operands were odd. We suggest that the odd-even effect in verification of multiplication could not be due to the use of the parity rule, but rather to a familiarity with even numbers (three quarters of products are indeed even). PMID:10881553

  15. Influence of familiarity with goat meat on liking and preference for capretto and chevon.

    PubMed

    Borgogno, Monica; Corazzin, Mirco; Saccà, Elena; Bovolenta, Stefano; Piasentier, Edi

    2015-08-01

    The research aimed at assessing liking and preference for capretto and chevon as a function of consumer familiarity with goat meat. Five meats were produced: traditional milk capretto (MC), heavy summer capretto (HSC), summering (SCh), fall (FCh) and late fall chevon (LFCh). HSC was the most tender meat, having less cooking losses than both MC and redder chevon types. The instrumental profile corresponded with the appearance and texture attributes perceived by panellists. With aging of kids, meat lost its milk aroma (MC) and sweet taste (HSC) and acquired an increasing intensity of goat flavour and livery notes, partially related to feeding regime and fatty acid profile. A niche market preferred chevon over capretto, while the cluster of consumers who were unfamiliar with chevon showed a decrease in pleasantness when tasting chevon, the familiar group reduced their ratings only for meat from the oldest kids. PMID:25900784

  16. THE IMPACT OF LEFT HEMISPHERE STROKE ON FORCE CONTROL WITH FAMILIAR AND NOVEL OBJECTS: NEUROANATOMIC SUBSTRATES AND RELATIONSHIP TO APRAXIA

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Amanda M.; Buxbaum, Laurel J.; Duff, Susan V.

    2010-01-01

    Fingertip force scaling for lifting objects frequently occurs in anticipation of finger contact. An ongoing question concerns the types of memories that are used to inform predictive control. Object-specific information such as weight may be stored and retrieved when previously encountered objects are lifted again. Alternatively, visual size and shape cues may provide estimates of object density each time objects are encountered. We reasoned that differences in performance with familiar versus novel objects would provide support for the former possibility. Anticipatory force production with both familiar and novel objects was assessed in 6 left hemisphere stroke patients, 2 of whom exhibited deficient actions with familiar objects (ideomotor apraxia; IMA), along with 5 control subjects. In contrast to healthy controls and stroke participants without IMA, participants with IMA displayed poor anticipatory scaling with familiar objects. However, like the other groups, IMA participants learned to differentiate fingertip forces with repeated lifts of both familiar and novel objects. Finally, there was a significant correlation between damage to the inferior parietal and superior and middle temporal lobes, and impaired anticipatory control for familiar objects. These data support the hypotheses that anticipatory control during lifts of familiar objects in IMA patients are based on object-specific memories, and that the ventro-dorsal stream is involved in the long-term storage of internal models used for anticipatory scaling during object manipulation. PMID:19945445

  17. Perirhinal cortex lesions uncover subsidiary systems in the rat for the detection of novel and familiar objects

    PubMed Central

    Albasser, Mathieu M; Amin, Eman; Iordanova, Mihaela D; Brown, Malcolm W; Pearce, John M; Aggleton, John P

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the impact of perirhinal cortex lesions on tests of object recognition. Object recognition was tested directly by looking at the preferential exploration of novel objects over simultaneously presented familiar objects. Object recognition was also tested indirectly by presenting just novel objects or just familiar objects, and recording exploration levels. Rats with perirhinal cortex lesions were severely impaired at discriminating a novel object from a simultaneously presented familiar object (direct test), yet displayed normal levels of exploration to novel objects presented on their own and showed normal declines in exploration times for familiar objects that were repeatedly presented (indirect tests). This effective reduction in the exploration of familiar objects after perirhinal cortex lesions points to the sparing of some recognition mechanisms. This possibility led us to determine whether rats with perirhinal cortex lesions can overcome their preferential exploration deficits when given multiple object familiarisation trials prior to that same (familiar) object being paired with a novel object. It was found that after multiple familiarisation trials, objects could now successfully be recognised as familiar by rats with perirhinal cortex lesions, both following a 90-min delay (the longest delay tested) and when object recognition was tested in the dark after familiarisation trials in the light. These latter findings reveal: (i) the presumed recruitment of other regions to solve recognition memory problems in the absence of perirhinal cortex tissue; and (ii) that these additional recognition mechanisms require more familiarisation trials than perirhinal-based recognition mechanisms. PMID:21707792

  18. Familiarity is more important than phenotypic similarity in shaping social relationships in a facultative female dispersed primate, Colobus vellerosus.

    PubMed

    Wikberg, Eva C; Ting, Nelson; Sicotte, Pascale

    2014-07-01

    Animals often bias affiliative behaviors toward kin, but it is unclear what mechanism most species use to discriminate kin. We investigated if facultative dispersed female primates use phenotype matching and/or familiarity to discriminate female kin. We studied 38 adult female Colobus vellerosus at Boabeng-Fiema, Ghana. We determined dyadic co-residency status and age proximity using long-term demographic data, R-values from 17 short tandem repeat loci, and interaction rates using focal samples collected during one year. Approach rates were not strongly affected by how long females had resided together, which contrasts to the familiarity hypothesis. Females approached and groomed maternal kin more than other females, which supports the mother-mediated familiarity hypothesis. Females did not discriminate paternal half siblings from non-kin, and they did not prefer to interact with females of similar age. Short-term co-resident kin did not bias affiliation toward each other, indicating that female colobus cannot consistently recognize less familiar kin via phenotype matching or that biasing behaviors toward less familiar kin is not beneficial. Despite showing facultative dispersal that may reduce the accuracy of using familiarity as a kin recognition mechanism, female choice of social partners was based on familiarity, which conforms to the pattern observed in many female philopatric primates. PMID:24747067

  19. Educação, antecedentes familiares e desigualdade de renda entre os grupos raciais no Brasil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Omar Arias; Gustavo Yamada; Luis Tejerina

    2002-01-01

    O presente estudo combina dados da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicilios com registros administrativos anuais sobre a proporção professor\\/aluno, abrangendo o período 1940-90, para examinar o papel da raça, antecedentes familiares e educação (em termos de quantidade e qualidade) ao explicar a desigualdade de rendimentos entre brancos e a população negro-descendente (pretos e pardos) no Brasil. Avaliamos as equações

  20. Feature and conjunction effects in recognition memory: Toward specifying familiarity for compound words

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Todd C. Jones; Alan S. Brown; Paul Atchley

    2007-01-01

    In three experiments, we evaluated potential sources of familiarity in the production of feature and conjunction errors with\\u000a both word (Experiments 1 and 3) and nonword (Experiment 2) stimuli and related this work to various dual-process models of\\u000a memory. The contributions of letter, syllable, lexical morpheme, and conceptual information were considered. Lexical morpheme\\u000a information was consistently more potent than syllable

  1. Benefits of kin association: related and familiar zebrafish larvae ( Danio rerio ) show improved growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriele Gerlach; Andrea Hodgins-Davis; Bradley MacDonald; Rebecca C. Hannah

    2007-01-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae prefer the olfactory cues of kin to non-kin. We examined the potential benefits of kin preference by comparing growth\\u000a rate, shoaling, and aggressive behavior in juvenile zebrafish housed in groups of either familiar kin or unfamiliar non-kin.\\u000a Over an observation period of 5 days, the animals grew 33% more in kin groups; however, neither shoaling nor the

  2. Familiarity and purchasing intention of Belgian consumers for fresh and processed tropical fruit products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara Sabbe; Wim Verbeke; Patrick Van Damme

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to focus on tropical fruits, both in fresh and processed form, and on the influence of socio-demographic, psychosocial and socio-environmental factors on their consumption and purchasing intention. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A questionnaire-based survey (n=290) was used to gain insight in the perceived importance of different food choice determinants (i.e. familiarity with tropical fruits,

  3. Detecting personal familiarity depends on static frames in "thin slices" of behavior.

    PubMed

    Saville, Alyson; Balas, Benjamin

    2014-12-01

    Brief glimpses of nonverbal behavior (or "thin slices") offer ample visual information to make reliable judgments about individuals. Previous work has largely focused on the personality characteristics and traits of individuals; however, the nature of dyadic relationships (strangers, lovers, or friends) can also be determined (Ambady & Gray, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 947-961 2002). Judgments from thin slices are known to be accurate, but the motion features supporting accurate performance are unknown. We explored whether personal familiarity was detectable within the context of "thin slices" of genuine interaction, as well as the invariant properties of thin-slice recognition. In two experiments, participants sequentially viewed two 6-s silent videos on each trial of an individual interacting with an unfamiliar partner; the other depicted the same person interacting with a personally familiar partner. All sequences were cropped so that only the target individual was visible. In Experiment 1, participants viewed either the original sequences, reversed sequences, a static-image "slideshow" of the sequence, or a static-image slideshow with blank frames separating the images. In Experiment 2, all participants viewed the original sequences and clips played at either double speed or half speed. Participants' performance was above chance in the forward and reverse conditions, but was significantly better in both the static-image slideshow conditions. When task speed was manipulated, we found a larger performance cost for fast than for slow videos. Detecting personal familiarity via spontaneous natural gestures depends on information in static images more than on face or body movement. Although static images are typically less important for recognizing nonverbal behavior, we argue they may be valuable for making familiarity judgments from thin slices. PMID:24683099

  4. Degree of familiarity ART2 in knowledge-based landmine detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur Filippidis; Lakhmi C. Jain; Peter Lozo

    1999-01-01

    The self-organizing network ART2 is extended to provide a fuzzy output value, which indicates the degree of familiarity of a new analog input pattern to previously stored patterns in the long-term memory of the network. The outputs of the multilayer perceptron and this modified ART2, provide an analog value to a fuzzy rule-based fusion technique which also uses a processed

  5. Familiarity differentially affects right hemisphere contributions to processing metaphors and literals

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Vicky T.; van Dam, Wessel; Conant, Lisa L.; Binder, Jeffrey R.; Desai, Rutvik H.

    2015-01-01

    The role of the two hemispheres in processing metaphoric language is controversial. While some studies have reported a special role of the right hemisphere (RH) in processing metaphors, others indicate no difference in laterality relative to literal language. Some studies have found a role of the RH for novel/unfamiliar metaphors, but not conventional/familiar metaphors. It is not clear, however, whether the role of the RH is specific to metaphor novelty, or whether it reflects processing, reinterpretation or reanalysis of novel/unfamiliar language in general. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the effects of familiarity in both metaphoric and non-metaphoric sentences. A left lateralized network containing the middle and inferior frontal gyri, posterior temporal regions in the left hemisphere (LH), and inferior frontal regions in the RH, was engaged across both metaphoric and non-metaphoric sentences; engagement of this network decreased as familiarity decreased. No region was engaged selectively for greater metaphoric unfamiliarity. An analysis of laterality, however, showed that the contribution of the RH relative to that of LH does increase in a metaphor-specific manner as familiarity decreases. These results show that RH regions, taken by themselves, including commonly reported regions such as the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), are responsive to increased cognitive demands of processing unfamiliar stimuli, rather than being metaphor-selective. The division of labor between the two hemispheres, however, does shift towards the right for metaphoric processing. The shift results not because the RH contributes more to metaphoric processing. Rather, relative to its contribution for processing literals, the LH contributes less. PMID:25713522

  6. Stress affects theta activity in limbic networks and impairs novelty-induced exploration and familiarization

    PubMed Central

    Jacinto, Luis R.; Reis, Joana S.; Dias, Nuno S.; Cerqueira, João J.; Correia, José H.; Sousa, Nuno

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to a novel environment triggers the response of several brain areas that regulate emotional behaviors. Here, we studied theta oscillations within the hippocampus (HPC)-amygdala (AMY)-medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) network in exploration of a novel environment and subsequent familiarization through repeated exposures to that same environment; in addition, we assessed how concomitant stress exposure could disrupt this activity and impair both behavioral processes. Local field potentials (LFP) were simultaneously recorded from dorsal and ventral hippocampus (dHPC and vHPC, respectively), basolateral amygdala (BLA) and mPFC in freely behaving rats while they were exposed to a novel environment, then repeatedly re-exposed over the course of 3 weeks to that same environment and, finally, on re-exposure to a novel unfamiliar environment. A longitudinal analysis of theta activity within this circuit revealed a reduction of vHPC and BLA theta power and vHPC-BLA theta coherence through familiarization which was correlated with a return to normal exploratory behavior in control rats. In contrast, a persistent over-activation of the same brain regions was observed in stressed rats that displayed impairments in novel exploration and familiarization processes. Importantly, we show that stress also affected intra-hippocampal synchrony and heightened the coherence between vHPC and BLA. In summary, we demonstrate that modulatory theta activity in the aforementioned circuit, namely in the vHPC and BLA, is correlated with the expression of anxiety in novelty-induced exploration and familiarization in both normal and pathological conditions. PMID:24137113

  7. The assessment of preschool children's motor skills after familiarization with motor tests.

    PubMed

    Tomac, Zvonimir; Hraski, Zeljko; Sporis, Goran

    2012-07-01

    This research study was conducted to establish the influence of familiarization on the information component of movement in a motor task for the assessment of preschool children's motor skills. The sample included 50 children whose mean age was 5.9 years (71.5 months). The experimental group consisted of 27 children who were 5.9 years (71.5 months) old, and the control group consisted of 23 children who were 5.9 years (71.5 months) old. The examinees performed 2 motor tasks, standing long jump (SJ, explosive strength) and standing on 1 leg on a beam "flamingo test" (FT, balance). The experimental group underwent a period of familiarization with the motor task in 3 sessions with 5 trials every 3 days. The results indicate statistically significant differences in the final testing between both groups of examinees; the experimental group mean was 112.73 cm, and the control group mean was 100.62 in the SJ test (p = 0.00), and the experimental group mean was 27.10 seconds and the control group mean was 15.01 seconds in the FT (for balance) (p = 0.00). The results obtained in this research indicate that children significantly improved the results in the motor test of strength and balance, being influenced by familiarization. It was confirmed that it was necessary for preschool children to be familiar with the test and it is not justified to use testing and assessment protocols and standards for adults. Physical educators and coaches, when testing preschool children, should introduce children to tests to obtain the best result. PMID:22728940

  8. Familiarity differentially affects right hemisphere contributions to processing metaphors and literals.

    PubMed

    Lai, Vicky T; van Dam, Wessel; Conant, Lisa L; Binder, Jeffrey R; Desai, Rutvik H

    2015-01-01

    The role of the two hemispheres in processing metaphoric language is controversial. While some studies have reported a special role of the right hemisphere (RH) in processing metaphors, others indicate no difference in laterality relative to literal language. Some studies have found a role of the RH for novel/unfamiliar metaphors, but not conventional/familiar metaphors. It is not clear, however, whether the role of the RH is specific to metaphor novelty, or whether it reflects processing, reinterpretation or reanalysis of novel/unfamiliar language in general. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the effects of familiarity in both metaphoric and non-metaphoric sentences. A left lateralized network containing the middle and inferior frontal gyri, posterior temporal regions in the left hemisphere (LH), and inferior frontal regions in the RH, was engaged across both metaphoric and non-metaphoric sentences; engagement of this network decreased as familiarity decreased. No region was engaged selectively for greater metaphoric unfamiliarity. An analysis of laterality, however, showed that the contribution of the RH relative to that of LH does increase in a metaphor-specific manner as familiarity decreases. These results show that RH regions, taken by themselves, including commonly reported regions such as the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), are responsive to increased cognitive demands of processing unfamiliar stimuli, rather than being metaphor-selective. The division of labor between the two hemispheres, however, does shift towards the right for metaphoric processing. The shift results not because the RH contributes more to metaphoric processing. Rather, relative to its contribution for processing literals, the LH contributes less. PMID:25713522

  9. Activity reductions in perirhinal cortex predict conceptual priming and familiarity-based recognition

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei-chun; Ranganath, Charan; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2013-01-01

    Although it is well established that regions in the medial temporal lobes are critical for explicit memory, recent work has suggested that one medial temporal lobe subregion – the perirhinal cortex (PRC) – may also support conceptual priming, a form of implicit memory. Here, we sought to investigate whether activity reductions in PRC, previously linked to familiarity-based recognition, might also support conceptual implicit memory retrieval. Using a free association priming task, the current study tested the prediction that PRC indexes conceptual priming independent of contributions from perceptual and response repetition. Participants first completed an incidental semantic encoding task outside of the MRI scanner. Next, they were scanned during performance of a free association priming task, followed by a recognition memory test. Results indicated successful conceptual priming was associated with decreased PRC activity, and that an overlapping region within the PRC also exhibited activity reductions that covaried with familiarity during the recognition memory test. Our results demonstrate that the PRC contributes to both conceptual priming and familiarity-based recognition, which may reflect a common role of this region in implicit and explicit memory retrieval. PMID:24157537

  10. Top-down influence on bottom-up process: the familiarity effect modulates texture segmentation.

    PubMed

    Meinecke, Cristina; Meisel, Christine

    2014-02-01

    This study deals with the familiarity effect (FE), which means that search performance is better when detecting an unfamiliar target in a familiar context compared to the detection performance of a familiar target in an unfamiliar context. In several experiments the spatial and temporal conditions were systematically varied to determine the ones which enable the appearance of the FE. Data were collected as a function of target eccentricity. Results point out the robustness of the FE, showing only two conditions which (nearly) eliminated its appearance: high density of texture elements and short presentation time of 43 ms. Furthermore, evidence for the involvement of bottom-up and top-down processes in the search asymmetry of the FE was delivered. As the FE showed up also at peripheral target positions where letter recognition should be impaired, it is suggested that the asymmetry of the FE is based on a reduction of processing resources in the bottom-up process. This impairment is caused by a higher need of resources in the top-down process when facing unfamiliar context elements (at foveal positions). PMID:24373963

  11. Autonomous visual exploration creates developmental change in familiarity and novelty seeking behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Perone, Sammy; Spencer, John P.

    2013-01-01

    What motivates children to radically transform themselves during early development? We addressed this question in the domain of infant visual exploration. Over the first year, infants' exploration shifts from familiarity to novelty seeking. This shift is delayed in preterm relative to term infants and is stable within individuals over the course of the first year. Laboratory tasks have shed light on the nature of this familiarity-to-novelty shift, but it is not clear what motivates the infant to change her exploratory style. We probed this by letting a Dynamic Neural Field (DNF) model of visual exploration develop itself via accumulating experience in a virtual world. We then situated it in a canonical laboratory task. Much like infants, the model exhibited a familiarity-to-novelty shift. When we manipulated the initial conditions of the model, the model's performance was developmentally delayed much like preterm infants. This delay was overcome by enhancing the model's experience during development. We also found that the model's performance was stable at the level of the individual. Our simulations indicate that novelty seeking emerges with no explicit motivational source via the accumulation of visual experience within a complex, dynamical exploratory system. PMID:24065948

  12. Could masked conceptual primes increase recollection? The subtleties of measuring recollection and familiarity in recognition memory

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jason R.; Henson, Richard N.

    2012-01-01

    We begin with a theoretical overview of the concepts of recollection and familiarity, focusing, in the spirit of this special issue, on the important contributions made by Andrew Mayes. In particular, we discuss the issue of when the generation of semantically-related information in response to a retrieval cue might be experienced as recollection rather than familiarity. We then report a series of experiments in which two different types of masked prime, presented immediately prior to the test cue in a recognition memory paradigm, produced opposite effects on Remember vs. Know judgments. More specifically, primes that were conceptually related to the test item increased the incidence of Remember judgments, though only when intermixed with repetition primes (which increased the incidence of Know judgments instead, as in prior studies). One possible explanation—that the fluency of retrieval of item–context associations can be experienced as recollection, even when the source of that fluency is unknown—is counter to conventional views of recollection and familiarity, though it was anticipated by Andrew in his writings nearly two decades ago. PMID:22898644

  13. Threat perception and familiarity moderate the androgen response to competition in women

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Gonçalo A.; Uceda, Sara; Oliveira, Tânia; Fernandes, Alexandre; Garcia-Marques, Teresa; Oliveira, Rui F.

    2013-01-01

    Social interactions elicit androgen responses whose function has been posited to be the adjustment of androgen-dependent behaviors to social context. The activation of this androgen response is known to be mediated and moderated by psychological factors. In this study we tested the hypothesis that the testosterone (T) changes after a competition are not simply related to its outcome, but rather to the way the subject evaluates the event. In particular we tested two evaluative dimensions of a social interaction: familiarity with the opponent and the subjective evaluation of the outcome as threat or challenge. Challenge/threat occurs in goal relevant situations and represent different motivational states arising from the individuals’ subjective evaluation of the interplay between the task demands and coping resources possessed. For challenge the coping resources exceed the task demands, while threat represents a state where coping resources are insufficient to meet the task demands. In this experiment women competed in pairs, against a same sex opponent using the number tracking test as a competitive task. Losers appraised the competition outcome as more threatening than winners, and displayed higher post-competition T levels than winners. No differences were found either for cortisol (C) or for dehydroepiandrosterone. Threat, familiarity with the opponent and T response were associated only in the loser condition. Moderation analysis suggests that for the women that lost the competition the effect of threat on T is moderated by familiarity with the opponent. PMID:23847564

  14. Selective aggressiveness in European free-tailed bats ( Tadarida teniotis): influence of familiarity, age and sex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancillotto, Leonardo; Russo, Danilo

    2014-03-01

    Bats are highly social mammals that often form large groups and represent good models to test the role played by individual status in shaping social relationships. Social cohesion relies on the ability of group and individual recognition, which is mediated by a range of sensorial cues. In this study, we selected the European free-tailed bat Tadarida teniotis as a model species to test the effects of familiarity, sex and age on aggressiveness and mutual tolerance. We hypothesize that T. teniotis is able to recognize group members and exhibit selective aggressiveness, and thus we predict fewer aggressive events and more amicable encounters between colony mates than between strangers. As female bats are generally more sociable and perform prolonged parental care to juveniles even after weaning, we hypothesize that sex and age of bats have significant influences on aggressive behaviours and thus predict that females will perform more amicable behaviours than males and that adults of both sexes will be less aggressive towards juveniles. Our results confirm that T. teniotis is able to discriminate between familiar and stranger individuals, showing higher rates of aggressive behaviours towards the latter. Females are more prone to exhibit amicable behaviours, particularly during same-sex interactions, while males show higher level of aggressiveness. Juveniles are subjected to fewer aggressive behaviours by adults of both sexes. Familiarity appears crucial for T. teniotis in determining the degree of aggressiveness during social interactions but the rate of aggressive events is also influenced by intrinsic individual factors such as sex and age.

  15. Evidence concerning how neurons of the perirhinal cortex may effect familiarity discrimination.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, M W; Bashir, Z I

    2002-01-01

    Many studies indicate that recognition memory involves at least two separable processes, familiarity discrimination and recollection. Aspects of what is known of potential neuronal substrates of familiarity discrimination are reviewed. Lesion studies have established that familiarity discrimination for individual visual stimuli is effected by a system centred on the perirhinal cortex of the temporal lobe. The fundamental change that encodes prior occurrence of such stimuli appears to be a reduction in the response of neurons in anterior inferior temporal (including perirhinal) cortex when a stimulus is repeated. The neuronal responses rapidly signal the presence of a novel stimulus, and are evidence of long-lasting learning after a single exposure. Computational modelling indicates that a neuronal network based on such a change in responsiveness is potentially highly efficient in information theoretic terms. Processes that occur in long-term depression within the perirhinal cortex provide candidate synaptic plastic mechanisms for that underlying the change, but such linkage remains to be experimentally established. PMID:12217176

  16. Wild African elephants (Loxodonta africana) discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar conspecific seismic alarm calls.

    PubMed

    O'Connell-Rodwell, Caitlin E; Wood, Jason D; Kinzley, Colleen; Rodwell, Timothy C; Poole, Joyce H; Puria, Sunil

    2007-08-01

    The ability to discriminate between call types and callers as well as more subtle information about the importance of a call has been documented in a range of species. This type of discrimination is also important in the vibrotactile environment for species that communicate via vibrations. It has recently been shown that African elephants (Loxodonta africana) can detect seismic cues, but it is not known whether they discriminate seismic information from noise. In a series of experiments, familiar and unfamiliar alarm calls were transmitted seismically to wild African elephant family groups. Elephants respond significantly to the alarm calls of familiar herds (p=0.004) but not to the unfamiliar calls and two different controls, thus demonstrating the ability of elephants to discriminate subtle differences between seismic calls given in the same context. If elephants use the seismic environment to detect and discriminate between conspecific calls, based on the familiarity of the caller or some other physical property, they may be using the ground as a very sophisticated sounding board. PMID:17672633

  17. Adult social behavior with familiar partners following neonatal amygdala or hippocampus damage.

    PubMed

    Moadab, Gilda; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Amaral, David G

    2015-06-01

    The social behavior in a cohort of adult animals who received ibotenic acid lesions of the amygdala (4 female, 3 male) or hippocampus (5 female, 3 male) as neonates, and sham-operated controls (4 female, 4 male) was evaluated in their home environments with the familiar opposite sex monkey (pair-mate) with whom they were housed. Amygdala-lesioned animals spent less time with their familiar partners and engaged in higher frequencies of stress-related behaviors than control animals. Hippocampus-lesioned animals spent significantly more time socially engaging their pair-mates than both control and amygdala-lesioned animals. These results suggest that early damage to the amygdala or hippocampus subtly alter patterns of adult social behavior in a familiar context and stand in sharp contrast to extant studies of early damage to the amygdala or hippocampus and to the more dramatically altered patterns of behavior observed after damage to the adult amygdala. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26030432

  18. The n250 brain potential to personally familiar and newly learned faces and objects.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Lara J; Scott, Lisa S; Boddington, Sophie; Droucker, Danielle; Curran, Tim; Tanaka, James W

    2011-01-01

    Studies employing event-related potentials have shown that when participants are monitoring for a novel target face, the presentation of their own face elicits an enhanced negative brain potential in posterior channels approximately 250?ms after stimulus onset. Here, we investigate whether the own face N250 effect generalizes to other highly familiar objects, specifically, images of the participant's own dog and own car. In our experiments, participants were asked to monitor for a pre-experimentally unfamiliar target face (Joe), a target dog (Experiment 1: Joe's Dog) or a target car (Experiment 2: Joe's Car). The target face and object stimuli were presented with non-target foils that included novel face and object stimuli, the participant's own face, their own dog (Experiment 1), and their own car (Experiment 2). The consistent findings across the two experiments were the following: (1) the N250 potential differentiated the target faces and objects from the non-target face and object foils and (2) despite being non-targets, the own face and own objects produced an N250 response that was equal in magnitude to the target faces and objects by the end of the experiment. Thus, as indicated by its response to personally familiar and recently familiarized faces and objects, the N250 component is a sensitive index of individuated representations in visual memory. PMID:22059071

  19. A cultural side effect: learning to read interferes with identity processing of familiar objects

    PubMed Central

    Kolinsky, Régine; Fernandes, Tânia

    2014-01-01

    Based on the neuronal recycling hypothesis (Dehaene and Cohen, 2007), we examined whether reading acquisition has a cost for the recognition of non-linguistic visual materials. More specifically, we checked whether the ability to discriminate between mirror images, which develops through literacy acquisition, interferes with object identity judgments, and whether interference strength varies as a function of the nature of the non-linguistic material. To these aims we presented illiterate, late literate (who learned to read at adult age), and early literate adults with an orientation-independent, identity-based same-different comparison task in which they had to respond “same” to both physically identical and mirrored or plane-rotated images of pictures of familiar objects (Experiment 1) or of geometric shapes (Experiment 2). Interference from irrelevant orientation variations was stronger with plane rotations than with mirror images, and stronger with geometric shapes than with objects. Illiterates were the only participants almost immune to mirror variations, but only for familiar objects. Thus, the process of unlearning mirror-image generalization, necessary to acquire literacy in the Latin alphabet, has a cost for a basic function of the visual ventral object recognition stream, i.e., identification of familiar objects. This demonstrates that neural recycling is not just an adaptation to multi-use but a process of at least partial exaptation. PMID:25400605

  20. [Institutional renovation and scientific modernization: the creation of the Instituto de Investigaciones Hematológicas during the mid-1950s].

    PubMed

    Buschini, José

    2013-12-01

    Using documentary sources, this work analyzes the creation and initial functioning of the Instituto de Investigaciones Hematológicas (Institute of Hematological Research) of the National Academy of Medicine (Buenos Aires, Argentina) in the context of the scientific modernization initiated within the country during the mid-1950s. Particular attention is paid to the generation of material bases and institutional and cultural mechanisms for the development of scientific research and of clinical practices guided by procedures and techniques rooted in the basic sciences. The formation and development of a research school in the Experimental Leukemia Section of the institute is explored as a case illustrative of the effective consolidation of initiatives oriented towards the organization of a scientific center. PMID:24500546

  1. Instituto de Matemtica Interdisciplinar -Universidad Complutense de Madrid Plaza de las Ciencias, 3 E-28040 Madrid -Spain Tel./Fax. +34 91 394 4385

    E-print Network

    Tradacete, Pedro

    Instituto de Matemática Interdisciplinar - Universidad Complutense de Madrid Plaza de las Ciencias, 3 E- 28040 Madrid - Spain Tel./Fax. +34 91 394 4385 http://www.mat.ucm.es/imi imi@mat.ucm.es Madrid COMPLUTENSE DE MADRID CALL 2011 1. AIM This call aims to enhance cooperation between IMI researchers and high

  2. Instituto de Matemtica Interdisciplinar -Universidad Complutense de Madrid Plaza de las Ciencias, 3 E-28040 Madrid -Spain Tel./Fax. +34 9139 44385

    E-print Network

    Tradacete, Pedro

    Instituto de Matemática Interdisciplinar - Universidad Complutense de Madrid Plaza de las Ciencias, 3 E- 28040 Madrid - Spain Tel./Fax. +34 9139 44385 http://www.mat.ucm.es/imi e-mail: imi@mat.ucm.es Madrid, April 1st, 2009. VISITING PhD AND STUDENTS AT IMI ­ INTERDISCIPLINARY MATHEMATICS INSTITUTE 2009

  3. Instituto de Matemtica Interdisciplinar -Universidad Complutense de Madrid Plaza de las Ciencias, 3 E-28040 Madrid -Spain Tel./Fax. +34 91 394 4385

    E-print Network

    Tradacete, Pedro

    Instituto de Matemática Interdisciplinar - Universidad Complutense de Madrid Plaza de las Ciencias, 3 E- 28040 Madrid - Spain Tel./Fax. +34 91 394 4385 http://www.mat.ucm.es/imi imi@mat.ucm.es Madrid COMPLUTENSE DE MADRID. CALL 2009 AIM This call aims to enhance cooperation between IMI researchers and high

  4. Instituto de Matemtica Interdisciplinar -Universidad Complutense de Madrid Plaza de las Ciencias, 3 E-28040 Madrid -Spain Tel./Fax. +34 91 394 4385

    E-print Network

    Tradacete, Pedro

    Instituto de Matemática Interdisciplinar - Universidad Complutense de Madrid Plaza de las Ciencias, 3 E- 28040 Madrid - Spain Tel./Fax. +34 91 394 4385 http://www.mat.ucm.es/imi imi@mat.ucm.es Madrid COMPLUTENSE DE MADRID CALL 2010 1. AIM This call aims to enhance cooperation between IMI researchers and high

  5. Mechanisms supporting superior source memory for familiar items: a multi-voxel pattern analysis study.

    PubMed

    Poppenk, Jordan; Norman, Kenneth A

    2012-11-01

    Recent cognitive research has revealed better source memory performance for familiar relative to novel stimuli. Here we consider two possible explanations for this finding. The source memory advantage for familiar stimuli could arise because stimulus novelty induces attention to stimulus features at the expense of contextual processing, resulting in diminished overall levels of contextual processing at study for novel (vs. familiar) stimuli. Another possibility is that stimulus information retrieved from long-term memory (LTM) provides scaffolding that facilitates the formation of item-context associations. If contextual features are indeed more effectively bound to familiar (vs. novel) items, the relationship between contextual processing at study and subsequent source memory should be stronger for familiar items. We tested these possibilities by applying multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) to a recently collected functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) dataset, with the goal of measuring contextual processing at study and relating it to subsequent source memory performance. Participants were scanned with fMRI while viewing novel proverbs, repeated proverbs (previously novel proverbs that were shown in a pre-study phase), and previously known proverbs in the context of one of two experimental tasks. After scanning was complete, we evaluated participants' source memory for the task associated with each proverb. Drawing upon fMRI data from the study phase, we trained a classifier to detect on-task processing (i.e., how strongly was the correct task set activated). On-task processing was greater for previously known than novel proverbs and similar for repeated and novel proverbs. However, both within and across participants, the relationship between on-task processing and subsequent source memory was stronger for repeated than novel proverbs and similar for previously known and novel proverbs. Finally, focusing on the repeated condition, we found that higher levels of hippocampal activity during the pre-study phase, which we used as an index of episodic encoding, led to a stronger relationship between on-task processing at study and subsequent memory. Together, these findings suggest different mechanisms may be primarily responsible for superior source memory for repeated and previously known stimuli. Specifically, they suggest that prior stimulus knowledge enhances memory by boosting the overall level of contextual processing, whereas stimulus repetition enhances the probability that contextual features will be successfully bound to item features. Several possible theoretical explanations for this pattern are discussed. PMID:22820636

  6. The Effects of Healthy Aging on Recollection and Familiarity Components of Recognition Memory and Frontal Lobe Function 

    E-print Network

    May, Michelle F M

    2008-06-27

    According to the dual-process hypothesis of memory and aging (DPHMA), aging is associated with a decline in recollection efficiency and a relative stability in familiarity based mechanisms. The current study was carried ...

  7. Cognitive and Anatomical Underpinnings of the Conceptual Knowledge for Common Objects and Familiar People: A Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Campanella, Fabio; Fabbro, Franco; Urgesi, Cosimo

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have addressed the issue of how knowledge of common objects is organized in the brain, whereas the cognitive and anatomical underpinnings of familiar people knowledge have been less explored. Here we applied repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the left and right temporal poles before asking healthy individuals to perform a speeded word-to-picture matching task using familiar people and common objects as stimuli. We manipulated two widely used semantic variables, namely the semantic distance and the familiarity of stimuli, to assess whether the semantic organization of familiar people knowledge is similar to that of common objects. For both objects and faces we reliably found semantic distance and familiarity effects, with less accurate and slower responses for stimulus pairs that were more closely related and less familiar. However, the effects of semantic variables differed across categories, with semantic distance effects larger for objects and familiarity effects larger for faces, suggesting that objects and faces might share a partially comparable organization of their semantic representations. The application of rTMS to the left temporal pole modulated, for both categories, semantic distance, but not familiarity effects, revealing that accessing object and face concepts might rely on overlapping processes within left anterior temporal regions. Crucially, rTMS of the left temporal pole affected only the recognition of pairs of stimuli that could be discriminated at specific levels of categorization (e.g., two kitchen tools or two famous persons), with no effect for discriminations at either superordinate or individual levels. Conversely, rTMS of the right temporal pole induced an overall slowing of reaction times that positively correlated with the visual similarity of the stimuli, suggesting a more perceptual rather than semantic role of the right anterior temporal regions. Results are discussed in the light of current models of face and object semantic representations in the brain. PMID:23704999

  8. Has the butcher on the bus dyed his hair? When color changes modulate ERP correlates of familiarity and recollection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Groh-Bordin; Hubert D. Zimmer; Ullrich K. H. Ecker

    2006-01-01

    Recognition memory is usually thought of as comprising two distinct memory processes, namely familiarity and recollection. This distinction is reflected in specific event-related potential (ERP) components associated with both subprocesses. A mid-frontal attenuated negativity for correctly recognized old items relative to new ones around 400 ms has been typically linked to familiarity, whereas a parietally accentuated, more pronounced positivity for old

  9. The effects of orthographic transparency and familiarity on reading Hebrew words in adults with and without dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Yael, Weiss; Tami, Katzir; Tali, Bitan

    2015-07-01

    The current study examined the effects of transparency and familiarity on word recognition in adult Hebrew dyslexic readers with a phonological processing deficit as compared to typical readers. We measured oral reading response time and accuracy of single nouns in several conditions: diacritics that provide transparent but less familiar information and vowel letters that increase orthographic transparency without compromise familiarity. In line with former studies with adult dyslexics, Hebrew-speaking adults with dyslexia were significantly slower than controls. However, both dyslexic and typical readers read unpointed words faster when vowel letters were present, indicating that they may benefit from increase in orthographic transparency, when the graphemic representations are familiar. Only dyslexics read pointed words slower than unpointed words and were more sensitive to word frequency. In unpointed words, only typical readers benefitted from the reduced competition of orthographic neighbors of longer words. Results indicate that both orthographic transparency and familiarity play an important role in word recognition. Dyslexics are impaired in decoding of smaller units and are more sensitive to reduction in the familiarity of words. PMID:25911275

  10. Effects of familiar contingencies on infants' vocal behavior in new communicative contexts.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jennifer L

    2014-11-01

    Recently, there has been a growing interest in understanding the mechanisms underlying vocal learning in songbirds and human infants. Research has demonstrated how contingent social feedback from social partners to immature vocalizations can play a role during vocal learning in both brown-headed cowbirds and prelinguistic infants. Contingencies in social interactions, particularly familiar contingencies, are important in developing preferences for social partners and shaping social exchanges Bigelow and Birch [1999]. Infant Behavior & Development 22:367-382]; however, little is known about how familiar contingencies that individuals experience during communicative exchanges play a role in new contexts. The current study examined differences in caregiver response patterns to infant vocal behavior and assessed how familiar contingencies influenced infant vocal behavior in novel communicative exchanges with caregivers. Infants were systematically exposed to high and low social feedback schedules during a play session. Results revealed the frequency of caregiver responsiveness to which infants were accustomed to affected infant vocal production during novel communicative situations. Infants with high responding caregivers vocalized with more mature vocalizations and used their vocalizations differently than infants with low responding caregivers during the high, but not low, response period. Specifically, infants with high responding caregivers directed more of their vocalizations at their caregiver and looked more at their caregiver after vocalizing, an indication of anticipating contingent responding. These results suggest that infants with high responding caregivers learned the association between vocalizing and contingent responses during the novel communicative interaction. This study demonstrates the need to understand how infants who experience a variety of contingencies in everyday interactions with caregivers carry over to other interactive situations. PMID:25124029

  11. Oscillatory brain responses to own names uttered by unfamiliar and familiar voices.

    PubMed

    del Giudice, Renata; Lechinger, Julia; Wislowska, Malgorzata; Heib, Dominik P J; Hoedlmoser, Kerstin; Schabus, Manuel

    2014-12-01

    Among auditory stimuli, the own name is one of the most powerful and it is able to automatically capture attention and elicit a robust electrophysiological response. The subject's own name (SON) is preferentially processed in the right hemisphere, mainly because of its self-relevance and emotional content, together with other personally relevant information such as the voice of a familiar person. Whether emotional and self-relevant information are able to attract attention and can be, in future, introduced in clinical studies remains unclear. In the present study we used EEG and asked participants to count a target name (active condition) or to just listen to the SON or other unfamiliar names uttered by a familiar or unfamiliar voice (passive condition). Data reveals that the target name elicits a strong alpha event related desynchronization with respect to non-target names and triggers in addition a left lateralized theta synchronization as well as delta synchronization. In the passive condition alpha desynchronization was observed for familiar voice and SON stimuli in the right hemisphere. Altogether we speculate that participants engage additional attentional resources when counting a target name or when listening to personally relevant stimuli which is indexed by alpha desynchronization whereas left lateralized theta synchronization may be related to verbal working memory load. After validating the present protocol in healthy volunteers it is suggested to move one step further and apply the protocol to patients with disorders of consciousness in which the degree of residual cognitive processing and self-awareness is still insufficiently understood. PMID:25307136

  12. Segmentation of dance movement: effects of expertise, visual familiarity, motor experience and music

    PubMed Central

    Bläsing, Bettina E.

    2015-01-01

    According to event segmentation theory, action perception depends on sensory cues and prior knowledge, and the segmentation of observed actions is crucial for understanding and memorizing these actions. While most activities in everyday life are characterized by external goals and interaction with objects or persons, this does not necessarily apply to dance-like actions. We investigated to what extent visual familiarity of the observed movement and accompanying music influence the segmentation of a dance phrase in dancers of different skill level and non-dancers. In Experiment 1, dancers and non-dancers repeatedly watched a video clip showing a dancer performing a choreographed dance phrase and indicated segment boundaries by key press. Dancers generally defined less segment boundaries than non-dancers, specifically in the first trials in which visual familiarity with the phrase was low. Music increased the number of segment boundaries in the non-dancers and decreased it in the dancers. The results suggest that dance expertise reduces the number of perceived segment boundaries in an observed dance phrase, and that the ways visual familiarity and music affect movement segmentation are modulated by dance expertise. In a second experiment, motor experience was added as factor, based on empirical evidence suggesting that action perception is modified by visual and motor expertise in different ways. In Experiment 2, the same task as in Experiment 1 was performed by dance amateurs, and was repeated by the same participants after they had learned to dance the presented dance phrase. Less segment boundaries were defined in the middle trials after participants had learned to dance the phrase, and music reduced the number of segment boundaries before learning. The results suggest that specific motor experience of the observed movement influences its perception and anticipation and makes segmentation broader, but not to the same degree as dance expertise on a professional level. PMID:25610409

  13. Electrophysiological correlates associated with contributions of perceptual and conceptual fluency to familiarity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Li, Bingbing; Gao, Chuanji; Xiao, Xin; Guo, Chunyan

    2015-01-01

    The present research manipulated the fluency of unstudied items using masked repetition priming procedures during an explicit recognition test. Based on fluency-attribution accounts, which posit that familiarity can be driven by multiple forms of fluency, the relationship between masked priming-induced fluency and familiarity was investigated. We classified pictographic characters into High-Meaningfulness (High-M) and Low-Meaningfulness (Low-M) categories on the basis of subjective meaningfulness ratings and identified the distinct electrophysiological correlates of perceptual and conceptual fluency. The two types of fluency differed in associated ERP effects: 150–250 ms effects for perceptual fluency and FN400 effects for conceptual fluency. The ERPs of Low-M MP-same (items that were preceded by matching masked items) false alarms were more positive than correct rejections during 150–250 ms, whereas the ERPs of High-M MP-same false alarms were more positive than correct rejections during 300–500 ms. The topographic patterns of FN400 effects between High-M MP-same false alarms and Low-M MP-same false alarms were not different from those of High-M hits and Low-M hits. These results indicate that both forms of fluency can contribute to familiarity, and the neural correlates of conceptual fluency are not different from those of conceptual priming induced by prior study-phase exposure. We conclude that multiple neural signals potentially contribute to recognition memory, such as numerous forms of fluency differing in terms of their time courses.

  14. Math Review We are already familiar with the concept of a scalar and vector.

    E-print Network

    Goodman, Louis

    Math Review We are already familiar with the concept of a scalar and vector. Example: Position (x , are unit vectors in the "x" and "y" directions respectively withj G G G 1 1 0 i i j j i j a a a a a a a A a a a § · ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸¨ ¸ © ¹ ),( columnrowAij Concept of vector Magnitude V G is a Vector V G is the magnitude of a three dimensional vector

  15. CARACTERSTICAS Y ARTICULACIN DEL ESPACIO DEL MUNDO TERRENAL Y DEL ESPACIO DEL MS ALL

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 12/03/2009 CARACTERÍSTICAS Y ARTICULACI�N DEL ESPACIO DEL MUNDO TERRENAL Y DEL ESPACIO DEL MÁS "El tiempo y el espacio en Gonzalo de Berceo"1. El estudio concierne toda la obra, y se centra en la las "herramientas mentales" que son la concepción del tiempo y del espacio. En lo que toca al segundo

  16. Use of a Green Familiar Faces Paradigm Improves P300-Speller Brain-Computer Interface Performance

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qi; Liu, Shuai; Li, Jian; Bai, Ou

    2015-01-01

    Background A recent study showed improved performance of the P300-speller when the flashing row or column was overlaid with translucent pictures of familiar faces (FF spelling paradigm). However, the performance of the P300-speller is not yet satisfactory due to its low classification accuracy and information transfer rate. Objective To investigate whether P300-speller performance is further improved when the chromatic property and the FF spelling paradigm are combined. Methods We proposed a new spelling paradigm in which the flashing row or column is overlaid with translucent green pictures of familiar faces (GFF spelling paradigm). We analyzed the ERP waveforms elicited by the FF and proposed GFF spelling paradigms and compared P300-speller performance between the two paradigms. Results Significant differences in the amplitudes of four ERP components (N170, VPP, P300, and P600f) were observed between both spelling paradigms. Compared to the FF spelling paradigm, the GFF spelling paradigm elicited ERP waveforms of higher amplitudes and resulted in improved P300-speller performance. Conclusions Combining the chromatic property (green color) and the FF spelling paradigm led to better classification accuracy and an increased information transfer rate. These findings demonstrate a promising new approach for improving the performance of the P300-speller. PMID:26087308

  17. Overcoming the Effects of Variation in Infant Speech Segmentation: Influences of Word Familiarity

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Leher; Nestor, Sarah S.; Bortfeld, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that 7.5-month-olds can track and encode words in fluent speech, but they fail to equate instances of a word that contrast in talker gender, vocal affect, and fundamental frequency. By 10.5 months, they succeed at generalizing across such variability, marking a clear transition period during which infants’ word recognition skills become qualitatively more mature. Here we explore the role of word familiarity in this critical transition and, in particular, whether words that occur frequently in a child’s listening environment (i.e., “Mommy” and “Daddy”) are more easily recognized when they differ in surface characteristics than those that infants have not previously encountered (termed nonwords). Results demonstrate that words are segmented from continuous speech in a more linguistically mature fashion than nonwords at 7.5 months, but at 10.5 months, both words and nonwords are segmented in a relatively mature fashion. These findings suggest that early word recognition is facilitated in cases where infants have had significant exposure to items, but at later stages, infants are able to segment items regardless of their presumed familiarity. PMID:21088702

  18. The role of familiarity on modeling of eating and food consumption in children

    PubMed Central

    Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne; Vartanian, Lenny R.; Coelho, Jennifer S.; Jarrin, Denise; Pliner, Patricia P.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of peer and sibling influence on the cookie intake of normal-weight children. A total of 44 children (24 girls and 20 boys) aged 5 to 11 participated in this study. Children played a sorting task while being exposed to a large amount of cookies. Children were tested alone or with an unfamiliar peer or with a sibling. Results indicated that the social condition was related to the participants’ energy intake. Children eating with their siblings ate more cookies than did children eating with strangers and also consumed more cookies than did children eating alone. This pattern of results is consistent with previous research in adults indicating that familiarity between co-eaters influence how much one choose to eat. Furthermore, the degree of intake matching was extremely high among strangers, but low and not statistically significant in dyads of siblings. We conclude that matching effect is not ubiquitous and that familiarity affects the level of matching of eating in children. PMID:18068854

  19. A memory-retrieval view of discourse representation: The recollection and familiarity of text ideas

    PubMed Central

    Long, Debra L.; Johns, Clinton L.; Jonathan, Eunike

    2015-01-01

    According to most theories of text comprehension, readers construct and store in memory at least two inter-related representations: a text base containing the explicit ideas in a text and a discourse model that contains the overall meaning or “gist” of a text. The authors propose a refinement of this view in which text representations are distinguished by both encoding and retrieval processes. Some encoding processes “unitize” concepts in a text and some “relate” units to one another. Units are retrieved based on familiarity processes in recognition, whereas related units are retrieved based on recollective processes. This distinction was tested in two experiments. In Experiment 1, readers comprehended sentence pairs in which some could be related by means of a causal inference, whereas others were only temporally related. Overall recognition was high in both conditions, but recollection, much more than familiarity, was sensitive to the causal manipulation. In Experiment 2, sentences began with a definite article as a linguistic cue to connect noun phrases or began with an indefinite article. The discourse manipulation had its primary influence on recollection. The authors suggest that the discourse model may be a collection of text ideas that are available to consciousness at retrieval. The gist-level representation of a text may not be a pre-stored structure; rather, it may be generated, in part, as a summary description of recollected text ideas.

  20. An Efficient ERP-Based Brain-Computer Interface Using Random Set Presentation and Face Familiarity

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Klaus-Robert; Lee, Seong-Whan

    2014-01-01

    Event-related potential (ERP)-based P300 spellers are commonly used in the field of brain-computer interfaces as an alternative channel of communication for people with severe neuro-muscular diseases. This study introduces a novel P300 based brain-computer interface (BCI) stimulus paradigm using a random set presentation pattern and exploiting the effects of face familiarity. The effect of face familiarity is widely studied in the cognitive neurosciences and has recently been addressed for the purpose of BCI. In this study we compare P300-based BCI performances of a conventional row-column (RC)-based paradigm with our approach that combines a random set presentation paradigm with (non-) self-face stimuli. Our experimental results indicate stronger deflections of the ERPs in response to face stimuli, which are further enhanced when using the self-face images, and thereby improving P300-based spelling performance. This lead to a significant reduction of stimulus sequences required for correct character classification. These findings demonstrate a promising new approach for improving the speed and thus fluency of BCI-enhanced communication with the widely used P300-based BCI setup. PMID:25384045

  1. Testosterone response to competition in males is unrelated to opponent familiarity or threat appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Gonçalo A.; Uceda, Sara; Oliveira, Tânia F.; Fernandes, Alexandre C.; Garcia-Marques, Teresa; Oliveira, Rui F.

    2014-01-01

    It has been proposed in the literature that the testosterone (T) response to competition in humans may be modulated by cognitive variables. In a previous experiment with a female sample we have reported that opponent familiarity and threat appraisal moderated the T response to competition in women. With this experiment we aim to investigate if these variables have the same impact on males T response to competition, extending the previous findings in our lab. Forty male participants (20 dyads) were recruited to engage in a same sex, face to face competition using the Number Tracking Test as a competitive task. Levels of T, cortisol (C) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were measured before and 20 min after the competition. Results show that losers report higher levels of threat than winners and increased their T levels after the competition, however this T change was not predicted by opponent familiarity or threat appraisal. No variation was detected for C and DHEA levels. These findings suggest that there could be sex differences for the moderators/mediators of the T response to competition in humans. PMID:25404923

  2. Children's susceptibility to misidentifying a familiar bystander from a lineup: When younger is better.

    PubMed

    Ross, David F; Marsil, Dorothy F; Benton, Tanja Rapus; Hoffman, Rebecca; Warren, Amye R; Lindsay, R C L; Metzger, Richard

    2006-06-01

    Children from 5 to 12 years of age (N = 779) were shown a videotape where a preschool teacher has money stolen from her wallet. Children were shown a lineup, and for children in the bystander condition, the lineup contained a familiar bystander without the thief. Children in the control condition viewed the same lineup but they had not seen the bystander in the videotape. Among the 11-12-year olds, participants in the bystander condition were significantly more likely than control participants to misidentify the familiar bystander. This effect was not found in children from 5 to 10 years of age. When children in the control condition were shown a lineup that contained the thief without the bystander, the 11-12-year olds were significantly more likely than the younger children to correctly identify the thief. These findings demonstrate that age can both increase and decrease the accuracy of children's lineup identification accuracy depending on the task at hand and the content of a lineup. PMID:16729204

  3. A Brazilian in the Reich of Wilhelm II: Henrique da Rocha Lima, Brazil-Germany relations and the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 1901-1909.

    PubMed

    Silva, André Felipe Cândido da

    2013-03-01

    This article follows the career of the Brazilian physician Henrique da Rocha Lima, one of the first to join the group of young researchers working at the Instituto Soroterápico de Manguinhos (Instituto Oswaldo Cruz). It describes his first voyage to Germany where he specialized in microbiology and pathological anatomy, training that shaped his subsequent professional identity. The tensions and dilemmas experienced by Rocha Lima provide an insight into what it meant to dedicate oneself to a scientific career in Brazil at the start of the twentieth century. They also reveal the importance of the relations with the German-speaking world for the experimental medicine that became established under the leadership of Oswaldo Cruz. PMID:23559048

  4. The collection and database of Birds of Angola hosted at IICT (Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical), Lisboa, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Miguel; Reino, Luís; Beja, Pedro; Mills, Michael Stuart Lyne; Bastos-Silveira, Cristiane; Ramos, Manuela; Rodrigues, Diana; Neves, Isabel Queirós; Consciência, Susana; Figueira, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The bird collection of the Instituto de Investigação Cientítica Tropical (Lisbon, Portugal) holds 5598 preserved specimens (skins), mainly from Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau, São Tomé and Principe, and Cape Verde. The subset collection from Angola includes 1560 specimens, which were taxonomically revised and georeferenced for the publication of this data paper. The collection contains a total of 522 taxa, including 161 species and 361 subspecies. Two species are classified by the IUCN Red List as Endangered - the wattled crane (Grus carunculata) and the Gabela bush-shrike (Laniarius amboimensis) - and two are classified as vulnerable - African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) and the white-headed vulture (Trigonoceps occipitalis). The temporal span of the database ranges between 1943 and 1979, but 32% are from years 1958–1959, and 25% from years 1968–1969. The spatial coverage of the collection is uneven, with 2/3 of the records representing only four of the eighteen provinces of the country, namely Huíla, Moxico, Namibe and Cuanza Sul. It adds, however, valuable information for the Huíla area of the Angolan Scarp, which is probably a biodiversity hotspot of global conservation priority. Furthermore, this georeferenced database adds invaluable bird information to the GBIF network, for one of the countries with highest but less known biodiversity in Africa. PMID:24693221

  5. Clinical-epidemiological profile of children with schistosomal myeloradiculopathy attended at the Instituto Materno-Infantil de Pernambuco.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Karina Conceição G M; Rosa e Silva, Cristiana da; Barbosa, Constança Simões; Ferrari, Teresa C A

    2006-09-01

    The most critical phase of exposure to schistosomal infection is the infancy, because of the more frequent contact with contaminated water and the immaturity of the immune system. One of the most severe presentations of this parasitosis is the involvement of the spinal cord, which prognosis is largely dependent on early diagnosis and treatment. Reports on this clinical form of schistosomiasis in children are rare in the literature. We present here the clinical-epidemiological profile of schistosomal myeloradiculopathy (SMR) from ten children who were admitted at the Instituto Materno-Infantil de Pernambuco over a five-year period. They were evaluated according to an investigation protocol. Most of these patients presented an acute neurological picture which included as the main clinical manifestations: sphincteral disorders, low back and lower limbs pain, paresthesia, lower limbs muscle weakness and absence of deep tendon reflex, and impairment of the gait. The diagnosis was presumptive in the majority of the cases. This study emphasizes the importance of considering the diagnosis of SMR in pediatric patients coming from endemic areas who present a low cord syndrome, in order to start the appropriate therapy and avoid future complications. PMID:17308763

  6. Cambios del EEG por habituación y condicionamiento en niños de tres a 15 años que acuden al Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitación (INR)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Héctor Brust-Carmona; Francisco Ramírez-Aboytes; José Martínez; Ángel Rodríguez Miguel; Blanca Flores-Ávalos; Oscar Yáñez-Suárez

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY During waking, stimuli activate the sensory pathways giving rise to sensation and the response to such stimulation. The electrobiochemical changes and modifications in EEG rhythms event- related synchronization or event-related desynchronization, ERD or ERS) propagated in the specific and unspecific cortex are added to the changes elicited by the responses and to the new signals originated by those same

  7. Are faces special for sheep? Evidence from facial and object discrimination learning tests showing effects of inversion and social familiarity.

    PubMed

    Kendrick, K M; Atkins, K; Hinton, M R; Heavens, P; Keverne, B

    1996-10-01

    We have previously shown that sheep, like monkeys, have neural circuits within the temporal lobe that respond preferentially to faces. They can also discriminate between sheep, humans and other animals on the basis of facial cues using an enclosed Y-maze. In the present study we investigated the speed with which Clun Forest sheep learn to discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar faces, as opposed to symbols, in order to gain a food reward using the same Y-maze apparatus. Animals (n = 10) received 1 day of training where projected images of the pairs of faces or symbols were paired for 20 trials with a picture of either an empty or full bucket of food (which indicated which choice of face or symbol would result in the animal receiving a food reward) and on the next 4 days they were given a further 20 trials a day with the faces or symbols alone. Results showed that sheep learned significantly faster (by day 1 or 2 post training) to recognise sheep faces of a familiar breed compared to geometrical symbols (3-4 days post training). Learning using faces of animals of another unfamiliar breed was also significantly better than for symbols but was significantly worse than that seen using faces of a familiar breed. Inverting the faces significantly reduced learning speed for faces of a familiar breed but not for that of an unfamiliar one. Inverting familiar objects, food buckets, also did not impair discriminatory performance. In a further set of trials where discrimination learning was made more difficult by excluding cued trials and reducing the number of daily trials to eight, social familiarity was found to further improve the animal's ability to learn to discriminate between the faces of a familiar breed. Finally, while discriminatory performance for adult sheep faces was very good, that for young lamb faces was poor, with only one animal learning to choose the face associated with food. It was confirmed in maternal ewes that they were also slow to learn to recognise the faces of their lambs (2-3 weeks). Overall these results show that sheep can learn to distinguish between individual adult sheep faces but that breed and social familiarity influence the level of performance. Further, discrimination learning of familiar and unfamiliar facial stimuli is better than between simple geometrical symbols, indicating that faces may be preferentially processed by the brain compared to other objects suggesting that faces are indeed special in this species as has been claimed for human and non-human primates. PMID:24897627

  8. Infants prefer the faces of strangers or mothers to morphed faces: an uncanny valley between social novelty and familiarity

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Yoshi-Taka; Okamoto, Yoko; Ida, Misako; Okanoya, Kazuo; Myowa-Yamakoshi, Masako

    2012-01-01

    The ‘uncanny valley’ response is a phenomenon involving the elicitation of a negative feeling and subsequent avoidant behaviour in human adults and infants as a result of viewing very realistic human-like robots or computer avatars. It is hypothesized that this uncanny feeling occurs because the realistic synthetic characters elicit the concept of ‘human’ but fail to satisfy it. Such violations of our normal expectations regarding social signals generate a feeling of unease. This conflict-induced uncanny valley between mutually exclusive categories (human and synthetic agent) raises a new question: could an uncanny feeling be elicited by other mutually exclusive categories, such as familiarity and novelty? Given that infants prefer both familiarity and novelty in social objects, we address this question as well as the associated developmental profile. Using the morphing technique and a preferential-looking paradigm, we demonstrated uncanny valley responses of infants to faces of mothers (i.e. familiarity) and strangers (i.e. novelty). Furthermore, this effect strengthened with the infant's age. We excluded the possibility that infants detect and avoid traces of morphing. This conclusion follows from our finding that the infants equally preferred strangers’ faces and the morphed faces of two strangers. These results indicate that an uncanny valley between familiarity and novelty may accentuate the categorical perception of familiar and novel objects. PMID:22696289

  9. Drug-scene familiarity and exposure to gang violence among residents in a rural farming community in Baja California, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Volkmann, Tyson; Fraga, Miguel A; Brodine, Stephanie K; Iñiguez-Stevens, Esmeralda; Cepeda, Alice; Elder, John P; Garfein, Richard S; Viidai Team

    2013-01-01

    We examined drug-scene familiarity and exposure to gang violence among residents of a migrant farming community in rural Baja California, Mexico. In October 2010, 164 members of a single colonia (community) underwent an interviewer-administered survey to assess 'exposure to gang violence' and 'drug-scene familiarity', as well as other health indicators. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of exposure to gang violence. Overall, 20% of participants were male, the median age was 27 years, 24% spoke an indigenous language, 42% reported exposure to gang violence and 39% reported drug-scene familiarity. Factors independently associated with exposure to gang violence included being younger (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.80 per 5-year increase, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.67-0.96), living in the community longer (AOR=1.47 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=1.11-1.72), higher educational attainment (AOR=1.70 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=1.07-1.12) and drug-scene familiarity (AOR=5.10, 95% CI=2.39-10.89). Exposure to gang violence was very common in this community and was associated with drug-scene familiarity, suggesting a close relationship between drugs and gang violence in this rural community. In a region characterised by mass migration from poorer parts of Mexico, where drugs and gangs have not been previously reported, emerging social harms may affect these communities unless interventions are implemented. PMID:23072623

  10. Familiarity Perception Call Elicited under Restricted Sensory Cues in Peer-Social Interactions of the Domestic Chick

    PubMed Central

    Koshiba, Mamiko; Shirakawa, Yuka; Mimura, Koki; Senoo, Aya; Karino, Genta; Nakamura, Shun

    2013-01-01

    Social cognitive mechanisms are central to understanding developmental abnormalities, such as autistic spectrum disorder. Peer relations besides parent-infant or pair-bonding interactions are pivotal social relationships that are especially well developed in humans. Cognition of familiarity forms the basis of peer socialization. Domestic chick (Gallus gallus) studies have contributed to our understanding of the developmental process in sensory-motor cognition but many processes remain unknown. In this report, we used chicks, as they are precocial birds, and we could therefore focus on peer interaction without having to consider parenting. The subject chick behavior towards familiar and unfamiliar reference peers was video-recorded, where the subject and the reference were separated by either an opaque or transparent wall. Spectrogram and behavior correlation analyses based on principal component analysis, revealed that chicks elicited an intermediate contact call and a morphologically different distress call, more frequently towards familiar versus unfamiliar chicks in acoustic only conditions. When both visual and acoustic cues were present, subject chicks exhibited approaching and floor pecking behavior, while eliciting joyful (pleasant) calls, irrespective of whether reference peers were familiar or unfamiliar. Our result showed that chicks recognized familiarity using acoustic cues and expressed cognition through modified distress calls. These finding suggests that peer affiliation may be established by acoustic recognition, independent of visual face recognition, and that eventually, both forms of recognition are integrated, with modulation of acoustic recognition. PMID:23520539

  11. INCLUSIÓN DE LA ÉTICA Y BIOÉTICA EN LA FORMACIÓN DE PRE Y POSGRADO DEL CIRUJANO-DENTISTA EN PERÚ

    PubMed Central

    Rupaya, Carmen Rosa García

    2009-01-01

    Se revisan aspectos de la inclusión de la ética y bioética en la formación de pre y posgrado del cirujano-dentista en Perú. Desde el punto de vista de la formación del docente, se analiza la presencia de normatividad ética en la investigación científica que genera la universidad, así como los conocimientos y actitudes vinculados con la ética y bioética en la formación del odontólogo. Se concluye que es un compromiso fomentar un cambio de paradigma, a través de un movimiento masivo que involucre los ámbitos familiar, profesional y académico, con el n de integrar la reflexión ética en nuestro diario proceder. PMID:19946384

  12. Déjà vu in unilateral temporal-lobe epilepsy is associated with selective familiarity impairments on experimental tasks of recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Martin, Chris B; Mirsattari, Seyed M; Pruessner, Jens C; Pietrantonio, Sandra; Burneo, Jorge G; Hayman-Abello, Brent; Köhler, Stefan

    2012-11-01

    In déjà vu, a phenomenological impression of familiarity for the current visual environment is experienced with a sense that it should in fact not feel familiar. The fleeting nature of this phenomenon in daily life, and the difficulty in developing experimental paradigms to elicit it, has hindered progress in understanding déjà vu. Some neurological patients with temporal-lobe epilepsy (TLE) consistently experience déjà vu at the onset of their seizures. An investigation of such patients offers a unique opportunity to shed light on its possible underlying mechanisms. In the present study, we sought to determine whether unilateral TLE patients with déjà vu (TLE+) show a unique pattern of interictal memory deficits that selectively affect familiarity assessment. In Experiment 1, we employed a Remember-Know paradigm for categorized visual scenes and found evidence for impairments that were limited to familiarity-based responses. In Experiment 2, we administered an exclusion task for highly similar categorized visual scenes that placed both recognition processes in opposition. TLE+ patients again displayed recognition impairments, and these impairments spared their ability to engage recollective processes so as to counteract familiarity. The selective deficits we observed in TLE+ patients contrasted with the broader pattern of recognition-memory impairments that was present in a control group of unilateral patients without déjà vu (TLE-). MRI volumetry revealed that ipsilateral medial temporal structures were less broadly affected in TLE+ than in TLE- patients, with a trend for more focal volume reductions in the rhinal cortices of the TLE+ group. The current findings establish a first empirical link between déjà vu in TLE and processes of familiarity assessment, as defined and measured in current cognitive models. They also reveal a pattern of selectivity in recognition impairments that is rarely observed and, thus, of significant theoretical interest to the memory literature at large. PMID:22841992

  13. Familiarity promotes the blurring of self and other in the neural representation of threat.

    PubMed

    Beckes, Lane; Coan, James A; Hasselmo, Karen

    2013-08-01

    Neurobiological investigations of empathy often support an embodied simulation account. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we monitored statistical associations between brain activations indicating self-focused threat to those indicating threats to a familiar friend or an unfamiliar stranger. Results in regions such as the anterior insula, putamen and supramarginal gyrus indicate that self-focused threat activations are robustly correlated with friend-focused threat activations but not stranger-focused threat activations. These results suggest that one of the defining features of human social bonding may be increasing levels of overlap between neural representations of self and other. This article presents a novel and important methodological approach to fMRI empathy studies, which informs how differences in brain activation can be detected in such studies and how covariate approaches can provide novel and important information regarding the brain and empathy. PMID:22563005

  14. Familiarity Bias and Physiological Responses in Contagious Yawning by Dogs Support Link to Empathy

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Teresa; Konno, Akitsugu; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2013-01-01

    In humans, the susceptibility to yawn contagion has been theoretically and empirically related to our capacity for empathy. Because of its relevance to evolutionary biology, this phenomenon has been the focus of recent investigations in non-human species. In line with the empathic hypothesis, contagious yawning has been shown to correlate with the level of social attachment in several primate species. Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) have also shown the ability to yawn contagiously. To date, however, the social modulation of dog contagious yawning has received contradictory support and alternative explanations (i.e., yawn as a mild distress response) could explain positive evidence. The present study aims to replicate contagious yawning in dogs and to discriminate between the two possible mediating mechanisms (i.e., empathic vs. distress related response). Twenty-five dogs observed familiar (dog’s owner) and unfamiliar human models (experimenter) acting out a yawn or control mouth movements. Concurrent physiological measures (heart rate) were additionally monitored for twenty-one of the subjects. The occurrence of yawn contagion was significantly higher during the yawning condition than during the control mouth movements. Furthermore, the dogs yawned more frequently when watching the familiar model than the unfamiliar one demonstrating that the contagiousness of yawning in dogs correlated with the level of emotional proximity. Moreover, subjects’ heart rate did not differ among conditions suggesting that the phenomenon of contagious yawning in dogs is unrelated to stressful events. Our findings are consistent with the view that contagious yawning is modulated by affective components of the behavior and may indicate that rudimentary forms of empathy could be present in domesticated dogs. PMID:23951146

  15. Familiarity bias and physiological responses in contagious yawning by dogs support link to empathy.

    PubMed

    Romero, Teresa; Konno, Akitsugu; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2013-01-01

    In humans, the susceptibility to yawn contagion has been theoretically and empirically related to our capacity for empathy. Because of its relevance to evolutionary biology, this phenomenon has been the focus of recent investigations in non-human species. In line with the empathic hypothesis, contagious yawning has been shown to correlate with the level of social attachment in several primate species. Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) have also shown the ability to yawn contagiously. To date, however, the social modulation of dog contagious yawning has received contradictory support and alternative explanations (i.e., yawn as a mild distress response) could explain positive evidence. The present study aims to replicate contagious yawning in dogs and to discriminate between the two possible mediating mechanisms (i.e., empathic vs. distress related response). Twenty-five dogs observed familiar (dog's owner) and unfamiliar human models (experimenter) acting out a yawn or control mouth movements. Concurrent physiological measures (heart rate) were additionally monitored for twenty-one of the subjects. The occurrence of yawn contagion was significantly higher during the yawning condition than during the control mouth movements. Furthermore, the dogs yawned more frequently when watching the familiar model than the unfamiliar one demonstrating that the contagiousness of yawning in dogs correlated with the level of emotional proximity. Moreover, subjects' heart rate did not differ among conditions suggesting that the phenomenon of contagious yawning in dogs is unrelated to stressful events. Our findings are consistent with the view that contagious yawning is modulated by affective components of the behavior and may indicate that rudimentary forms of empathy could be present in domesticated dogs. PMID:23951146

  16. How the analytic process is captured and absorbed into the familiar, the feared, and the desired.

    PubMed

    Waska, Robert

    2012-10-01

    In their transference efforts to maintain psychic equilibrium (Joseph, 1989), some patients will do their best to convert their analysts into familiar, dreaded, or desired internal objects which they then react to or relate to. The interpersonal, interactional, and intrapsychic pull for the absorption and utilization of the analyst into a predesigned and pathologically limited figure creates countertransference struggles and phases of enactment that can go unnoticed, denied, or justified. Even when analysts maintain their analytic balance, the patient can manipulate, mishear, and transform words, actions, and intentions into very specific archaic objects or part objects. Case material is used to illustrate the way in which patients attempt to turn the analytic process and the therapeutic relationship into an acting out of wished for or painfully familiar self and object interactions. This method of subsuming the analytic method can be quite subtle, or it can be very obvious but still extremely difficult to shift, interpret, or recover from. Indeed, the analyst can easily be drawn into this perversion of analytic procedure and end up participating in various enactments. With such patients, the nature of the unconscious fantasies projected into the transference matrix and the intensity of the patient's object relational conflicts almost guarantee some degree of ongoing countertransference acting out. So, the ongoing and repetitive interpretive style needed with such patients is both helpful and healing as well as often becoming a contribution to the fundamental pathology the patient repeats in the clinical setting. Although the transference dynamic being examined could be understood from a number of theoretical perspectives, the author focuses on the Kleinian psychoanalytic method. PMID:23126413

  17. Familiarization Effects of an Elliptical All-out Test and the Wingate Test Based on Mechanical Power Indices

    PubMed Central

    Ozkaya, Ozgur

    2013-01-01

    The Wingate all-out test (WAT) is commonly used to estimate anaerobic capabilities of athletes by using an upper or lower body cycle ergometer, however, a new test modality called elliptical all-out test (EAT) which measures activated whole-body locomotor tasks has recently been proposed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the familiarization effects of a 30-s EAT versus WAT. Twenty male trained athletes performed pre-familiarization (Trial- I), post-familiarization (Trial-II) and retest of Trial-II (Trial-III) sessions on both cycle ergometer and elliptical trainer. Peak power (PP), average power (AP), power drop (PD) and fatigue index ratio (FI%) were analyzed using student's t-test for paired samples and correlated by intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC). Moreover, an error detection procedure was administered using data attained from illogical interrelations among 5-s segments of 30-s tests. The main results showed that there were significant familiarization effects in all mechanical power outputs obtained from Trial-I and Trial-II in both EAT (ICC = 0.49-0.55) and WAT (ICC = 0.50-0.57) performances (p ? 0.01). Significant segmental disorders were detected in power production during Trial-I of EAT, however, none existed in any of test trails in the WAT (p ? 0.001). After familiarization sessions, reliability coefficients between Trial-II and Trial-III showed moderate to strong-level agreements for both EAT (ICC = 0.74-0.91) and the WAT (ICC=0.76-0.93). Our results suggested that prior to the performance tests, combination of a well designed familiarization session with one full all-out test administration is necessary to estimate the least moderately reliable and accurate test indices for both WAT and EAT. Key Points A well designed familiarization session, and then, one additional all-out test administration, several days prior to main test, is suggested to estimate more accurate and reliable retest correlations for both cycling and elliptical all-out test modalities. Because of greater muscle recruitment and different movement pattern, familiarization seems more effective for a 30-s all-out test performed on an elliptical trainer compared to a cycle ergometer. PMID:24149160

  18. [Occupational health in the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country. OSALAN-Instituto Vasco de Seguridad y Salud Laborales].

    PubMed

    Martínez Castillo, A; Achutegui Basagoiti, G

    1996-01-01

    O.S.A.L.A.N.-Instituto Vasco de Seguridad y Salud Laborales is an autonomous administrative body depending on the Basque Government, ascribed to the Dept. of Justice, Economy, Work and Social Security, which is in charge of managing the general occupational health policies in the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country. Its objectives are: To promote an ongoing improvement in safety and occupational health for all the workers in the Basque Autonomous Region, through the management of programmes in matters affecting safety, hygiene, the environment and occupational health. To co-ordinate and concentrate the different activities related to occupational health, unifying and giving coherence to the functions which were previously the jurisdiction of different departments. Making companies aware of national and E.U. regulations, taking the measures that are set out by the European Directives and the Prevention of Occupational Hazards Act and the rest of the employment regulations, establishing the training and information channels required for promoting and applying these in the companies. It acts: from an overall perspective as regards the prevention of occupational hazards, thanks to co-ordination with all the disciplines involved, applying a multi-disciplinary treatment to the study of each and every one of the occupational hazard factors, which is aimed at the prevention of risks at their source. Providing companies with the ideal means for managing the safety and health of their workers. Promoting the implementation of systems which guarantee an ongoing improvement in occupational safety and health in the companies of the Basque Autonomous Region. Providing the technical and research support that makes it possible to tackle prevention efficiently. The provision established in the Creation Act (O.S.A.L.A.N.) should also be mentioned, as regards its application in public administration and the field of social economy, which was later endorsed and ratified through inclusion in the recent Prevention of Occupational Hazards Act. PMID:8998692

  19. PRODUTORES FAMILIARES E SUAS REPRESENTAÇÕES TERRITORIAIS: AS COMUNIDADES RURAIS NO MUNICÍPIO DE CATALÃO (GO) FAMILIAR PRODUCERS AND THEIR TERRITORIES REPRESENTATIONS: THE RURAL COMMUNITIES IN THE CITY OF CATALÃO (GO)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Estevane de Paula; Pontes MENDES

    The study of the rural communities based in the way of living comprehension of the rural producers families and theirs interactions with the mean where lived. Treat of a discussion about the way of living of the rural producers in the city of Catalão (GO), emphasizing the familiar relations, the interaction between the neighbors and the

  20. Gestión del riesgo del cambio (primera parte)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Pablo Zorrilla Salgador

    1970-01-01

    A partir de la desaparición del sistema Bretton-Woods, y la libre flotación del\\u000atipo de cambio, el mundo se volvió más susceptible a todo tipo de riesgos.\\u000aEl presente artículo pretende explicar a los gestores financieros o empresarios interesados en el tema de instrumentos financieros derivados, a conocer lo\\u000amás relevante y necesario acerca del uso de futuros sobre el

  1. Teacher's Effect in L2 Reading Topic Familiarization: Students' Test Performance and Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pornour, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    With 73 students at an Iranian university, the present study investigated teacher's effect in topic familiarization in L2 reading context. The participants--Group B with and Group A without the presence of a teacher--experienced four pre-reading treatments and read four passages of unfamiliar topics, after which they were tested on…

  2. Viewers base estimates of face matching accuracy on their own familiarity: Explaining the photo-ID paradox.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Kay L; Smith, Finlay G; Jenkins, Rob; Bindemann, Markus; White, David; Burton, A Mike

    2015-08-01

    Matching two different images of a face is a very easy task for familiar viewers, but much harder for unfamiliar viewers. Despite this, use of photo-ID is widespread, and people appear not to know how unreliable it is. We present a series of experiments investigating bias both when performing a matching task and when predicting other people's performance. Participants saw pairs of faces and were asked to make a same/different judgement, after which they were asked to predict how well other people, unfamiliar with these faces, would perform. In four experiments we show different groups of participants familiar and unfamiliar faces, manipulating this in different ways: celebrities in experiments 1-3 and personally familiar faces in experiment 4. The results consistently show that people match images of familiar faces more accurately than unfamiliar faces. However, people also reliably predict that the faces they themselves know will be more accurately matched by different viewers. This bias is discussed in the context of current theoretical debates about face recognition, and we suggest that it may underlie the continued use of photo-ID, despite the availability of evidence about its unreliability. PMID:25988915

  3. Middle School Teachers' Familiarity With, Interest In, Performance On, and Conceptual and Pedagogical Knowledge of Light

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbewe, Simeon

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was threefold: Examine middle school teachers' familiarity with, interest in, conceptual knowledge of and performance on light; Examine their ability to identify misconceptions on light and their suggested pedagogical ideas to address the identified misconceptions; and Establish the relationship between the middle…

  4. Image-Invariant Responses in Face-Selective Regions Do Not Explain the Perceptual Advantage for Familiar Face Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Davies-Thompson, Jodie; Newling, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    The ability to recognize familiar faces across different viewing conditions contrasts with the inherent difficulty in the perception of unfamiliar faces across similar image manipulations. It is widely believed that this difference in perception and recognition is based on the neural representation for familiar faces being less sensitive to changes in the image than it is for unfamiliar faces. Here, we used an functional magnetic resonance-adaptation paradigm to investigate image invariance in face-selective regions of the human brain. We found clear evidence for a degree of image-invariant adaptation to facial identity in face-selective regions, such as the fusiform face area. However, contrary to the predictions of models of face processing, comparable levels of image invariance were evident for both familiar and unfamiliar faces. This suggests that the marked differences in the perception of familiar and unfamiliar faces may not depend on differences in the way multiple images are represented in core face-selective regions of the human brain. PMID:22345357

  5. Derechos Bsicos de Ausencia La Ley de Ausencia Familiar y Mdica (FMLA-por sus siglas en ingls) exige

    E-print Network

    Rock, Chris

    Derechos Básicos de Ausencia La Ley de Ausencia Familiar y Médica (FMLA-por sus siglas en inglés condición de salud seria que le impida al empleado desempeñar su puesto. Derechos de Ausencia Para Familias avisado de una llamada a estado de servicio activo bajo cobertura pueden usar su derecho de ausencia de 12

  6. Infants' Spontaneous Imitation of Novel versus Familiar Words: Relations to Observational and Maternal Report Measures of Their Lexicons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masur, Elise Frank; Eichorst, Doreen L.

    2002-01-01

    Explored relation between infants' early spontaneous imitation of novel and familiar words and subsequent lexicons in longitudinal sample between 13 and 21 months. Found marked contrasts in quantity and proportions of nouns between reported and observed lexicons. When earlier vocabulary levels were controlled, infants' early replication of novel…

  7. Though the name of Chardin may be familiar to those aware of such paintings as Woman taking tea in the

    E-print Network

    Zeki, Semir

    paintings, which brought him so much acclaim, are thought to date from about 1733. However, his greatThough the name of Chardin may be familiar to those aware of such paintings as Woman taking tea of the prestigious French Royal Academy as well as Chardin, and their prints which reproduced his paintings were hung

  8. Reading Erasures and Making the Familiar Strange: Defamiliarizing Methods for Research in Formerly Colonized and Historically Oppressed Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaomea, Julie

    2003-01-01

    Uses an example from a Hawaiian elementary education program in post-colonial Hawaii to suggest that educational investigations into the colonialist and oppressive tendencies of schooling, in Hawaii and elsewhere, should employ defamiliarizing analytic tools borrowed from literary and critical theory to peel back familiar, dominant appearances and…

  9. Acquiring Proper Nouns for Familiar and Unfamiliar Animate Objects: Two-Year-Olds' Word-Learning Biases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, D. Geoffrey

    1991-01-01

    In two studies, two year olds learned a novel word for a particular stuffed animal. When the animal was familiar, children interpreted the novel word as a proper noun. When the animal was unfamiliar, children frequently interpreted the novel word as a count noun referring to a kind of object. (BC)

  10. A Trainer's Guide to El Comienzo & Esto Es Familiar: Keys to Training Spanish-Speaking Family Day Care Providers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellm, Dan

    This set of manuals was developed by the California Child Care Initiative for the training of Spanish-speaking family day care providers. The English-language trainer's guide has been designed to accompany "El Comienzo" ("The Beginner") and "Esto Es Familiar" ("It's a Family Affair"). The Spanish-language "El Comienzo" is an information kit…

  11. School Nurses' Familiarity and Perceptions of Academic Accommodations for Student-Athletes Following Sport-Related Concussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Michelle L.; Welch, Cailee E.; Parsons, John T.; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate school nurses' familiarity and perceptions regarding academic accommodations for student-athletes following sport-related concussion. School nurses (N = 1,246) accessed the survey School Nurses' Beliefs, Attitudes and Knowledge of Pediatric Athletes with Concussions (BAKPAC-SN). The BAKPAC-SN contained…

  12. School nurses' familiarity and perceptions of academic accommodations for student-athletes following sport-related concussion.

    PubMed

    Weber, Michelle L; Welch, Cailee E; Parsons, John T; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate school nurses' familiarity and perceptions regarding academic accommodations for student-athletes following sport-related concussion. School nurses (N = 1,246) accessed the survey School Nurses' Beliefs, Attitudes and Knowledge of Pediatric Athletes with Concussions (BAKPAC-SN). The BAKPAC-SN contained several questions pertaining to concussion management and academic accommodations. There were significant differences regarding personal experience as well as familiarity of academic accommodations (p < .001) between school nurses who work at a school that employs an athletic trainer and school nurses who work at a school that does not employ an athletic trainer. There were significant weak positive relationships between years of experience and familiarity with academic accommodations (r = .210, p < .001), 504 plans (r = .243, p < .001), and individualized education plans (r = .205, p < .001). School nurses employed at a single school were significantly more familiar with academic accommodations (p = .027) and 504 plans (p = .001) than school nurses employed at multiple schools. Health care professionals should collaborate to effectively manage a concussed patient and should consider academic accommodations to ensure whole-person health care. PMID:25015367

  13. Dear Students, I strongly recommend to you to be familiar in-depth with the Complexity Metrics, Software Testing &

    E-print Network

    Riabov, Vladimir V.

    on the Web: = Complexity Metrics links (Organizations, Tools, Journals, McCabe company, Software Quality Engineering/ Complexity-Software Metrics: http://www.cpsc.ucalgary.ca/~mildred/451/Complexity.html = The SEIDear Students, I strongly recommend to you to be familiar in-depth with the Complexity Metrics

  14. A Mobile Device and Online System with Contextual Familiarity and Its Effects on English Learning on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Shu-Chen; Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Wu, Sheng-Yi; Shadiev, Rustam; Xie, Ching-Hwa

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a mobile device and online system, StudentPartner, is proposed to help students learn English on campus using multimedia and GPS support. Two activities, exploring the campus in English and English presentation, were designed to stimulate students' deep engagement and interaction with the system. Since students are very familiar…

  15. CATS AT AUB Cats are a familiar and tolerated presence on the AUB campus. Nonetheless, these cats are

    E-print Network

    Shihadeh, Alan

    CATS AT AUB Preamble Cats are a familiar and tolerated presence on the AUB campus. Nonetheless, these cats are feral (semi-wild), and are not pets. There have been complaints from both, faculty members and students, regarding individuals who allow cats in their offices. AUB cats are outdoor creatures and should

  16. Concrete may be one of the most familiar building materials on Earth, but its underlying structure remains elusive. Scientists

    E-print Network

    Entekhabi, Dara

    Size diversity in cement nanoparticles optimizes their packing density to give concrete its strengthPROBLEM Concrete may be one of the most familiar building materials on Earth, but its underlying paste that works as glue in concrete hardens after water and ce- ment powder are mixed, but they believe

  17. Human Recognition of Familiar and Unfamiliar People in Naturalistic Video D. A. Roark, A. J. O'Toole & H. Abdi

    E-print Network

    Abdi, Hervé

    naturalistic, surveillance-like video. Subjects learned faces from either static photographs or facial speechHuman Recognition of Familiar and Unfamiliar People in Naturalistic Video D. A. Roark, A. J. O videos and were asked to recognize people from whole body gait videos. We found that the more experience

  18. The Role of Book Familiarity and Book Type on Mothers' Reading Strategies and Toddlers' Responsiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Kathryn L.; Finch, W. Holmes

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine how maternal reading strategies and book type would impact on toddlers' responsiveness as they became familiar with three books. Eleven mothers and their 2- to 3-year-olds were recorded reading the same set of three different books (i.e. word book, narrative book and no narrative book) on four…

  19. Assessing False Belief Attribution in Preschool Children: The Validity of the Unexpected-Object/Familiar-Container Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speer, James Ramsey; Wiederhold, Cheryl

    To assess young children's understanding of false belief, investigators often show them a familiar container, then demonstrate that it holds an object different from the one the children expected. The children are then asked what they originally thought the container held, and what another container will hold. Three-year-old children typically…

  20. phonetic details, we extrapolate that familiar words in either dialect should be holistically recognizable to younger toddlers,

    E-print Network

    #12;phonetic details, we extrapolate that familiar words in either dialect should be holistically recognizable to younger toddlers, but that the unfamiliar phonetic specifications of phonemes in nonnative; Saffran, Aslin, & New- port, 1996), forming phonetically detailed word representations (e.g., Swingley

  1. Pre-Experimental Familiarization Increases Hippocampal Activity for Both Targets and Lures in Recognition Memory: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Zubicaray, Greig I.; McMahon, Katie L.; Hayward, Lydia; Dunn, John C.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, items pre-exposed in a familiarization series were included in a list discrimination task to manipulate memory strength. At test, participants were required to discriminate strong targets and strong lures from weak targets and new lures. This resulted in a concordant pattern of increased "old" responses to strong targets and…

  2. Developmental Change in the ERP Responses to Familiar Faces in Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders versus Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Sara Jane; Jones, Emily J. H.; Merkle, Kristen; Venema, Kaitlin; Greenson, Jessica; Murias, Michael; Dawson, Geraldine

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show differences in face processing abilities from early in development. To examine whether these differences reflect an atypical versus delayed developmental trajectory, neural responses to familiar and unfamiliar faces in twenty-four 18- to 47-month-old children with ASD were compared with…

  3. EE/CS 120 Logic Design Course Objectives: 1. Able to perform the conversion among different number systems; Familiar with

    E-print Network

    Fonoberov, Vladimir

    EE/CS 120 Logic Design Course Objectives: 1. Able to perform the conversion among different number systems; Familiar with baisc logic gates -- AND, OR & NOT, XOR, XNOR; Independently or work in team to build simple logic circuits using basic. 2. Understand Boolean algebra and basic properties of Boolean

  4. The Role of Verbal Behavior, Stimulus Nameability, and Familiarity on the Equivalence Performances of Autistic and Normally Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Jennifer; Rafferty, Aoife; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne

    2009-01-01

    The emergence of equivalence relations and the role of overall verbal competence and stimulus nameability and familiarity in this regard were investigated across 3 experiments involving 15 children diagnosed with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), as well as 3 typically developing children. The experimental sequence comprised 4 identical stages,…

  5. Direct Evidence for Two Different Neural Mechanisms for Reading Familiar and Unfamiliar Words: An Intra-Cerebral EEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Juphard, Alexandra; Vidal, Juan R.; Perrone-Bertolotti, Marcela; Minotti, Lorella; Kahane, Philippe; Lachaux, Jean-Philippe; Baciu, Monica

    2011-01-01

    After intensive practice, unfamiliar letter strings become familiar words and reading speed increases strikingly from a slow processing to a fast and with more global recognition of words. While this effect has been well documented at the behavioral level, its neural underpinnings are still unclear. The question is how the brain modulates the activity of the reading network according to the novelty of the items. Several models have proposed that familiar and unfamiliar words are not processed by separate networks but rather by common regions operating differently according to familiarity. This hypothesis has proved difficult to test at the neural level because the effects of familiarity and length on reading occur (a) on a millisecond scale, shorter than the resolution of fMRI and (b) in regions which cannot be isolated with non-invasive EEG or MEG. We overcame these limitations by using invasive intra-cerebral EEG recording in epileptic patients. Neural activity (gamma-band responses, between 50 and 150?Hz) was measured in three major nodes of reading network – left inferior frontal, supramarginal, and inferior temporo-occipital cortices – while patients silently read familiar (words) and unfamiliar (pseudo-words) items of two lengths (short composed of one-syllable vs. long composed of three-syllables). While all items elicited strong neural responses in the three regions, we found that the duration of the neural response increases with length only for pseudo-words, in direct relation to orthographic-to-phonological conversion. Our results validate at the neural level the hypothesis that all words are processed by a common network operating more or less efficiently depending on words’ novelty. PMID:21960968

  6. Role of familiarity and preference in reproductive success in ex situ breeding programs.

    PubMed

    Martin, Meghan S; Shepherdson, David J

    2012-08-01

    Success of captive-breeding programs centers on consistent reproduction among captive animals. However, many individuals do not reproduce even when they are apparently healthy and presented with mates. Mate choice can affect multiple parameters of reproductive success, including mating success, offspring production, offspring survival, and offspring fecundity. We investigated the role of familiarity and preference on reproductive success of female Columbia Basin pygmy rabbits (Brachylagus idahoensis) as measured by litter production, litter size, average number of young that emerged from the burrow, and average number of young that survived to 1 year. We conducted these studies on pygmy rabbits at the Oregon Zoo (Portland, Oregon, U.S.A.) and Washington State University (Pullman, Washington, U.S.A.) from February to June 2006, 2007, and 2008. Before mating, we housed each female adjacent to 2 males (neighbors). Female preference for each potential mate was determined on the basis of behavioral interactions observed and measured between the rabbits. We compared reproductive success between females mated with neighbor and non-neighbor males and between females mated with preferred and nonpreferred males. Our findings suggest that mating with a neighbor compared with a non-neighbor and mating with a preferred neighbor compared with a nonpreferred neighbor increased reproductive success in female pygmy rabbits. Litter production, average number of young that emerged, and average number of young that survived to 1 year were higher in rabbits that were neighbors before mating than in animals who were not neighbors. Pairing rabbits with a preferred partner increased the probability of producing a litter and was significantly associated with increased litter size. In captive breeding programs, mates are traditionally selected on the basis of genetic parameters to minimize loss of genetic diversity and inbreeding coefficients. Our results suggest that integrating genetic information with social dynamics and behavioral measures of preference may increase the reproductive output of the pygmy rabbit captive-breeding program. Our findings are consistent with the idea that allowing mate choice and familiarity increase the reproductive success of captive-breeding programs for endangered species. PMID:22809353

  7. Effect of Social Familiarity on Salivary Cortisol and Self-Reports of Social Anxiety and Stress in Children with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopata, Christopher; Volker, Martin A.; Putnam, Susan K.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Nida, Robert E.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effect of social familiarity on salivary cortisol and social anxiety/stress for a sample of children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders. The relationship between self-reported social anxiety/stress and salivary cortisol was also examined. Participants interacted with a familiar peer on one occasion and an…

  8. The Benefit of Being Naïve and Knowing It: The Unfavourable Impact of Perceived Context Familiarity on Learning in Complex Problem Solving Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckmann, Jens F.; Goode, Natassia

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has found that embedding a problem into a familiar context does not necessarily confer an advantage over a novel context in the acquisition of new knowledge about a complex, dynamic system. In fact, it has been shown that a semantically familiar context can be detrimental to knowledge acquisition. This has been described as the…

  9. Restricting a Familiar Name in Response to Learning a New One: Evidence for the Mutual Exclusivity Bias in Young Two-Year-Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriman, William E.; Stevenson, Colleen M.

    1997-01-01

    Used new test to determine whether 24-month olds interpret novel words in accordance with Mutual Exclusivity Bias. Found that when asked to select exemplars of a familiar noun, they avoided objects from previously read story in which novel nouns were used as atypical exemplars of familiar noun. When pronouns and proper names replaced novel nouns,…

  10. AGRICULTURA FAMILIAR, PLURIATIVIDADE E TURISMO RURAL: reflexões a partir do território fluminense1 FAMILY AGRICULTURE, PLURAL ACTIVITIES AND RURAL TURISM: reflextions concerning the fluminense territory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gláucio José Marafon

    Resumo O Território Fluminense encontra-se marcado por um intenso processo de urbanização que tem provocado profundas transformações socioespaciais. Entre elas destacamos as atividades associadas ao turismo rural contemporâneo, com a proliferação de hotéis- fazenda, spas, pousadas, e casas de segunda residência, e a manutenção e até mesmo o aumento da produção familiar. A proliferação dessas atividades possibilitou aos produtores familiares

  11. Mind over matter From Strange Simplicity to Complex Familiarity: A Treatise on Matter, Information, Life and Thought by Manfred Eigen. Oxford

    E-print Network

    Nowak, Martin A.

    Mind over matter From Strange Simplicity to Complex Familiarity: A Treatise on Matter, Information Simplicity to Complex Familiar- ity: A Treatise on Matter, Information, Life and Thought. In this volume', and how we know it. As Eigen explains, the fundamental physical structures that comprise the matter

  12. Estadísticas del cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Información básica sobre las estadísticas del cáncer, las cuales describen las tendencias en grupos grandes de personas y ofrecen una imagen a través del tiempo de la carga que representa el cáncer en la sociedad.

  13. A dynamically minimalist cognitive explanation of musical preference: is familiarity everything?

    PubMed Central

    Schubert, Emery; Hargreaves, David J.; North, Adrian C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the idea that attraction to music is generated at a cognitive level through the formation and activation of networks of interlinked “nodes.” Although the networks involved are vast, the basic mechanism for activating the links is relatively simple. Two comprehensive cognitive-behavioral models of musical engagement are examined with the aim of identifying the underlying cognitive mechanisms and processes involved in musical experience. A “dynamical minimalism” approach (after Nowak, 2004) is applied to re-interpret musical engagement (listening, performing, composing, or imagining any of these) and to revise the latest version of the reciprocal-feedback model (RFM) of music processing. Specifically, a single cognitive mechanism of “spreading activation” through previously associated networks is proposed as a pleasurable outcome of musical engagement. This mechanism underlies the dynamic interaction of the various components of the RFM, and can thereby explain the generation of positive affects in the listener’s musical experience. This includes determinants of that experience stemming from the characteristics of the individual engaging in the musical activity (whether listener, composer, improviser, or performer), the situation and contexts (e.g., social factors), and the music (e.g., genre, structural features). The theory calls for new directions for future research, two being (1) further investigation of the components of the RFM to better understand musical experience and (2) more rigorous scrutiny of common findings about the salience of familiarity in musical experience and preference. PMID:24567723

  14. Consumer fears and familiarity of processed food. The value of information provided by the FTNS.

    PubMed

    Verneau, Fabio; Caracciolo, Francesco; Coppola, Adele; Lombardi, Pasquale

    2014-02-01

    Food choice and consumption behaviour are influenced by many interacting factors. In this paper we present an empirical effort to enhance understanding of the neophobia-neophilia forces affecting food choice. Starting from the analysis of consumer preferences for some of the most familiar highly processed foods, namely fat-reduced, functional (enriched drinks and yogurt) and ready-to-eat frozen food, our study investigates the role of traditional demographic variables vs attitudes to new food technologies in predicting the consumption behaviour of a sample of Italians buying such products. Consumer attitudes toward food technologies were collected by means of the Food Technology Neophobia Scale (FTNS). Moreover, this paper explicitly analyses the value of the information provided by the FTNS. Underlying the research is the hypothesis that the FTNS may contribute to provide a comprehensive picture of the driving forces behind consumers' behavioural responses towards processed foods which are the end-result of mature technologies. The four FTNS components, once measured and used independently, help clarify the influence on food choices of each neophobia-neophilia force (risk perception and novelty seeking, media influence, own health and environmental concerns) into a single, comprehensive framework. PMID:24231427

  15. The STS-93 crew takes part in payload familiarization of the Chandra X-ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    During payload familiarization, four members of the STS-93 crew pose in front of the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which is in the Vertical Processing Facility. From left are Commander Eileen Collins, Mission Specialists Michel Tognini of France and Catherine G. Coleman, and Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby. Tognini represents the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as a shuttle mission commander. She was the first woman pilot of a Space Shuttle, on mission STS-63, and also served as pilot on mission STS-84. The fifth member of the STS-93 crew is Mission Specialist Steven A. Hawley. Chandra is scheduled for launch July 9 aboard Space Shuttle Columbia, on mission STS-93 . Formerly called the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility, Chandra comprises three major elements: the spacecraft, the science instrument module (SIM), and the world's most powerful X-ray telescope. Chandra will allow scientists from around the world to see previously invisible black holes and high-temperature gas clouds, giving the observatory the potential to rewrite the books on the structure and evolution of our universe.

  16. Degree of familiarity ART2 in knowledge-based landmine detection.

    PubMed

    Filippidis, A; Jain, L C; Lozo, P

    1999-01-01

    The self-organizing network ART2 is extended to provide a fuzzy output value, which indicates the degree of familiarity of a new analog input pattern to previously stored patterns in the long-term memory of the network. The outputs of the multilayer perceptron and this modified ART2 provide an analog value to a fuzzy rule-based fusion technique which also uses a processed polarization resolved image as its third input. In real-time situations these two classifier outputs indicate the likelihood of a surface landmine target when presented with a number of multispectral and textural bands. Due to the modifications in ART2 this updated alternative architecture (to that of a previous network in [3]) has improved real-time landmine detection capabilities although the registration of all bands is more critical to the accuracy of results in this case. The real-time fuzzy rule-based system in preliminary tests has detected two of the three landmines and the landmine surrogate with two false alarms. Advanced tests on 30 images using the fuzzy rule-based system further confirmed the distinct advantages of fusion and improved detection rates. PMID:18252516

  17. Drug Familiarization and Therapeutic Misconception Via Direct-to-Consumer Information.

    PubMed

    Bélisle-Pipon, Jean-Christophe; Williams-Jones, Bryn

    2015-06-01

    Promotion of prescription drugs may appear to be severely limited in some jurisdictions due to restrictions on direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA). However, in most jurisdictions, strategies exist to raise consumer awareness about prescription drugs, notably through the deployment of direct-to-consumer information (DTCI) campaigns that encourage patients to seek help for particular medical conditions. In Canada, DTCI is presented by industry and regulated by Health Canada as being purely informational activities, but their design and integration in broader promotional campaigns raise very similar ethical concerns as those associated with DTCA. Specifically, DTCI can be an effective means of familiarizing the public with the scope and benefits of a particular prescription drug and so, like DTCA, can promote increased patient-consumer demand and thus a problematic rise in the prescribing and use of medications that may be neither the most appropriate nor the most cost-effective. Yet, with DTCI the industry is playing within the existing rules and regulations set by health regulators. To respond appropriately to this regulatory incoherence, we argue that DTCI should be regulated as a type of direct-to-consumer indirect advertising. Even if the case and specific regulations presented here are Canadian, the implications extend to every country that has a partial or total prohibition on DTCA. PMID:25963773

  18. Fortalezas Familiares Program: Building sociocultural and family strengths in Latina women with depression and their families

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Carmen R.; Abegglen, Jessica; Hauser, Claire T.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe Fortalezas Familiares (FF; Family Strengths), a community-based prevention program designed to address relational family processes and promote wellbeing among Latino families when a mother has depression. Although depression in Latina women is becoming increasingly recognized, risk and protective mechanisms associated with children’s outcomes when a mother has depression are not well understood for Latino families. We begin by reviewing the literature on risk and protective psychosocial mechanisms by which maternal depression may affect Latino youth, using family systems theory and a developmental psychopathology framework with an emphasis on sociocultural factors shaping family processes. Next, we describe the theoretical basis and development of the FF program, a community-based 12-week intervention for Latina immigrant women with depression, other caregivers, and their children. Throughout this article, we use a case study to illustrate a Latina mother’s vulnerability to depression and the family’s response to the FF program. Recommendations for future research and practice include consideration of sociocultural processes in shaping both outcomes of Latino families and their response to interventions. PMID:24033237

  19. Fortalezas familiares program: building sociocultural and family strengths in latina women with depression and their families.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Carmen R; Abegglen, Jessica; Hauser, Claire T

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe Fortalezas Familiares (FF; Family Strengths), a community-based prevention program designed to address relational family processes and promote well-being among Latino families when a mother has depression. Although depression in Latina women is becoming increasingly recognized, risk and protective mechanisms associated with children's outcomes when a mother has depression are not well understood for Latino families. We begin by reviewing the literature on risk and protective psychosocial mechanisms by which maternal depression may affect Latino youth, using family systems theory and a developmental psychopathology framework with an emphasis on sociocultural factors shaping family processes. Next, we describe the theoretical basis and development of the FF program, a community-based 12-week intervention for Latina immigrant women with depression, other caregivers, and their children. Throughout this article, we use a case study to illustrate a Latina mother's vulnerability to depression and the family's response to the FF program. Recommendations for future research and practice include consideration of sociocultural processes in shaping both outcomes of Latino families and their response to interventions. PMID:24033237

  20. Grading smart sensors: Performance assessment and ranking using familiar scores like A+ to D-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessel, Ronald T.

    2005-03-01

    Starting with the supposition that the product of smart sensors - whether autonomous, networked, or fused - is in all cases information, it is shown here using information theory how a metric Q, ranging between 0 and 100%, can be derived to assess the quality of the information provided. The analogy with student grades is immediately evident and elaborated. As with student grades, numerical percentages suggest more precision than can be justified, so a conversion to letter grades A+ to D- is desirable. Owing to the close analogy with familiar academic grades, moreover, the new grade is a measure of effectiveness (MOE) that commanders and decision makers should immediately appreciate and find quite natural, even if they do not care to follow the methodology behind the performance test, as they focus on higher-level strategic matters of sensor deployment or procurement. The metric is illustrated by translating three specialist performance tests - the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve, the Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) approach, and confusion matrices - into letter grades for use then by strategists. Actual military and security systems are included among the examples.

  1. La regulación del precio del etanol en Colombia. ¿Teoría del interés general o teoría del interés privado?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luz Marina Romero Alvarado

    2010-01-01

    El objetivo de este artículo es presentar los resultados del trabajo de investigación en el que la unidad de análisis se delimitó a la regulación del precio del etanol en Colombia, desde la perspectiva de la regulación económica, siguiendo los enfoques de la teoría del interés general versus teoría del interés privado. El desarrollo del trabajo consistió en hallar la

  2. Swinging at a cocktail party: voice familiarity aids speech perception in the presence of a competing voice.

    PubMed

    Johnsrude, Ingrid S; Mackey, Allison; Hakyemez, Hélène; Alexander, Elizabeth; Trang, Heather P; Carlyon, Robert P

    2013-10-01

    People often have to listen to someone speak in the presence of competing voices. Much is known about the acoustic cues used to overcome this challenge, but almost nothing is known about the utility of cues derived from experience with particular voices--cues that may be particularly important for older people and others with impaired hearing. Here, we use a version of the coordinate-response-measure procedure to show that people can exploit knowledge of a highly familiar voice (their spouse's) not only to track it better in the presence of an interfering stranger's voice, but also, crucially, to ignore it so as to comprehend a stranger's voice more effectively. Although performance declines with increasing age when the target voice is novel, there is no decline when the target voice belongs to the listener's spouse. This finding indicates that older listeners can exploit their familiarity with a speaker's voice to mitigate the effects of sensory and cognitive decline. PMID:23985575

  3. Déjà vu experiences in healthy subjects are unrelated to laboratory tests of recollection and familiarity for word stimuli.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Akira R; Moulin, Chris J A

    2013-01-01

    Recent neuropsychological and neuroscientific research suggests that people who experience more déjà vu display characteristic patterns in normal recognition memory. We conducted a large individual differences study (n = 206) to test these predictions using recollection and familiarity parameters recovered from a standard memory task. Participants reported déjà vu frequency and a number of its correlates, and completed a recognition memory task analogous to a Remember-Know procedure. The individual difference measures replicated an established correlation between déjà vu frequency and frequency of travel, and recognition performance showed well-established word frequency and accuracy effects. Contrary to predictions, no relationships were found between déjà vu frequency and recollection or familiarity memory parameters from the recognition test. We suggest that déjà vu in the healthy population reflects a mismatch between errant memory signaling and memory monitoring processes not easily characterized by standard recognition memory task performance. PMID:24409159

  4. Infant social behavior in front of a mirror and in front of a familiar and an unfamiliar peer.

    PubMed

    Priel, B; Zeidman, O

    1990-12-01

    In this study, we explored the differences in infant social behaviors in front of the mirror and in front of a familiar and an unfamiliar peer. We assumed that infant social behaviors in front of the mirror constitute mainly an exploration of the mirror image characteristics. Our observations were videotaped and coded according to definitions of social behavior in infant-infant situations. The results obtained indicate that 6- to 13-month-old infants display significantly more frequent social behaviors in front of a mirror than in front of a familiar or an unfamiliar peer. These behaviors are characterized by tactile contact with the mirror surface, adapting the hand to this surface, and very frequent coordinated social behaviors. This pattern of social behaviors in front of the mirror is discussed and linked to the exploration of distinctive characteristics of the self-reflected image such as perfect synchronicity of movement and two-dimensionality. PMID:2074432

  5. Newborn Rabbit Perception of 6-Odorant Mixtures Depends on Configural Processing and Number of Familiar Elements

    PubMed Central

    Romagny, Sébastien; Thomas-Danguin, Thierry; Coureaud, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    Perception of odors, i.e. usually of mixtures of odorants, is elemental (the odorants' odor qualities are perceived in the mixture) or configural (the odor quality of the mixture differs from the one of each odorant). In human adults, the Red Cordial (RC) mixture is a configurally-processed, 6-odorant mixture. It evokes a red cordial odor quality while none of the elements carries that odor. Interestingly, in newborn rabbits, the same RC mixture is weak configurally perceived: the newborns behaviorally respond to all the elements after conditioning to the whole mixture, but not to the mixture after conditioning to a single element. Thus, they perceive in the RC mixture both the odor quality of the RC configuration and the quality of each element. Here, we aimed to determine whether this perception is modulated by quantitative (number of elements) and/or qualitative bits of information (nature of elements) previously learned by the animals. Newborns were conditioned to RC sub-mixtures of different complexity and composition before behavioral testing to RC. Pups generalized their sucking-related response to RC after learning at least 4 odorants. In contrast, after conditioning to sub-mixtures of another 6-odorant mixture, the elementally perceived MV mixture, pups responded to MV after learning one or two odorants. The different generalization to RC and MV mixtures after learning some of their elements is discussed according to three hypotheses: i) the configural perception of RC sub-mixtures, ii) the ratio of familiar/unfamiliar individual information elementally and configurally perceived, iii) the perception of RC becoming purely elemental. The results allow the first hypothesis to be dismissed, while further experiments are required to distinguish between the remaining two. PMID:25248149

  6. Newborn rabbit perception of 6-odorant mixtures depends on configural processing and number of familiar elements.

    PubMed

    Romagny, Sébastien; Thomas-Danguin, Thierry; Coureaud, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    Perception of odors, i.e. usually of mixtures of odorants, is elemental (the odorants' odor qualities are perceived in the mixture) or configural (the odor quality of the mixture differs from the one of each odorant). In human adults, the Red Cordial (RC) mixture is a configurally-processed, 6-odorant mixture. It evokes a red cordial odor quality while none of the elements carries that odor. Interestingly, in newborn rabbits, the same RC mixture is weak configurally perceived: the newborns behaviorally respond to all the elements after conditioning to the whole mixture, but not to the mixture after conditioning to a single element. Thus, they perceive in the RC mixture both the odor quality of the RC configuration and the quality of each element. Here, we aimed to determine whether this perception is modulated by quantitative (number of elements) and/or qualitative bits of information (nature of elements) previously learned by the animals. Newborns were conditioned to RC sub-mixtures of different complexity and composition before behavioral testing to RC. Pups generalized their sucking-related response to RC after learning at least 4 odorants. In contrast, after conditioning to sub-mixtures of another 6-odorant mixture, the elementally perceived MV mixture, pups responded to MV after learning one or two odorants. The different generalization to RC and MV mixtures after learning some of their elements is discussed according to three hypotheses: i) the configural perception of RC sub-mixtures, ii) the ratio of familiar/unfamiliar individual information elementally and configurally perceived, iii) the perception of RC becoming purely elemental. The results allow the first hypothesis to be dismissed, while further experiments are required to distinguish between the remaining two. PMID:25248149

  7. Disregarding familiarity during recollection attempts: content-specific recapitulation as a retrieval orientation strategy.

    PubMed

    Gray, Stephen J; Gallo, David A

    2015-01-01

    People can use a content-specific recapitulation strategy to trigger memories (i.e., mentally reinstating encoding conditions), but how people deploy this strategy is unclear. Is recapitulation naturally used to guide all recollection attempts, or is it only used selectively, after retrieving incomplete information that requires additional monitoring? According to a retrieval orientation model, people use recapitulation whenever they search memory for specific information, regardless of what information might come to mind. In contrast, according to a postretrieval monitoring model, people selectively engage recapitulation only after retrieving ambiguous information in order to evaluate this information and guide additional retrieval attempts. We tested between these models using a criterial recollection task, and by manipulating the strength of ambiguous information associated with to-be-rejected foils (i.e., familiarity or noncriterial information). Replicating prior work, foil rejections were greater when people attempted to recollect targets studied at a semantic level (deep test) compared to an orthographic level (shallow test), implicating more accurate retrieval monitoring. To investigate the role of a recapitulation strategy in this monitoring process, a final test assessed memory for the foils that were earlier processed on these recollection tests. Performance on this foil recognition test suggested that people had engaged in more elaborative content-specific recapitulation when initially tested for deep compared to shallow recollections, and critically, this elaboration effect did not interact with the experimental manipulation of foil strength. These results support the retrieval orientation model, whereby a recapitulation strategy was used to orient retrieval toward specific information during every recollection attempt. PMID:25419819

  8. Right Frontal Lobe Mediation of Recollection and Familiarity-based Verbal Recognition Memory: Evidence from Patients with Tumor Resections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicole D. Anderson; Patrick S. R. Davidson; Warren P. Mason; Fuqiang Gao; Malcolm A. Binns; Gordon Winocur

    2011-01-01

    Medial-temporal, parietal, and pFC regions have been implicated in recollection and familiarity, but existing evidence from neuroimaging and patient studies is limited and conflicting regarding the role of specific regions within pFC in these memory processes. We report a study of 20 patients who had undergone resection of right frontal lobe tumors and 20 matched healthy control participants. The location

  9. Activation of Preexisting and Acquired Face Representations: The N250 Event-related Potential as an Index of Face Familiarity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James W. Tanaka; Tim Curran; Albert L. Porterfield; Daniel Collins

    2006-01-01

    Electrophysiological studies using event-related potentials have demonstrated that face stimuli elicit a greater negative brain potential in right posterior recording sites 170 msec after stimulus onset (N170) relative to nonface stimuli. Results from repetition priming paradigms have shown that repeated exposures of familiar faces elicit a larger negative brainwave (N250r) at inferior temporal sites compared to with repetitions of unfamiliar

  10. The Impact of Audience Age and Familiarity on Children's Drawings of Themselves in Contrasting Affective States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkitt, Esther; Watling, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the impact of familiarity and audience age on children's self-presentation in self-drawings of happy, sad and neutral figures. Two hundred children (100 girls and 100 boys) with the average age of 8 years 2 months, ranging from 6 years 3 months to 10 years 1 month, formed two age groups and five…

  11. Expert athletes activate somatosensory and motor planning regions of the brain when passively listening to familiar sports sounds.

    PubMed

    Woods, Elizabeth A; Hernandez, Arturo E; Wagner, Victoria E; Beilock, Sian L

    2014-06-01

    The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study examined the neural response to familiar and unfamiliar, sport and non-sport environmental sounds in expert and novice athletes. Results revealed differential neural responses dependent on sports expertise. Experts had greater neural activation than novices in focal sensorimotor areas such as the supplementary motor area, and pre- and postcentral gyri. Novices showed greater activation than experts in widespread areas involved in perception (i.e. supramarginal, middle occipital, and calcarine gyri; precuneus; inferior and superior parietal lobules), and motor planning and processing (i.e. inferior frontal, middle frontal, and middle temporal gyri). These between-group neural differences also appeared as an expertise effect within specific conditions. Experts showed greater activation than novices during the sport familiar condition in regions responsible for auditory and motor planning, including the inferior frontal gyrus and the parietal operculum. Novices only showed greater activation than experts in the supramarginal gyrus and pons during the non-sport unfamiliar condition, and in the middle frontal gyrus during the sport unfamiliar condition. These results are consistent with the view that expert athletes are attuned to only the most familiar, highly relevant sounds and tune out unfamiliar, irrelevant sounds. Furthermore, these findings that athletes show activation in areas known to be involved in action planning when passively listening to sounds suggests that auditory perception of action can lead to the re-instantiation of neural areas involved in producing these actions, especially if someone has expertise performing the actions. PMID:24732956

  12. Visual laterality in belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) and Pacific white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens) when viewing familiar and unfamiliar humans.

    PubMed

    Yeater, Deirdre B; Hill, Heather M; Baus, Natalie; Farnell, Heather; Kuczaj, Stan A

    2014-11-01

    Lateralization of cognitive processes and motor functions has been demonstrated in a number of species, including humans, elephants, and cetaceans. For example, bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) have exhibited preferential eye use during a variety of cognitive tasks. The present study investigated the possibility of visual lateralization in 12 belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) and six Pacific white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens) located at two separate marine mammal facilities. During free swim periods, the belugas and Pacific white-sided dolphins were presented a familiar human, an unfamiliar human, or no human during 10-15 min sessions. Session videos were coded for gaze duration, eye presentation at approach, and eye preference while viewing each stimulus. Although we did not find any clear group level lateralization, we found individual left eye lateralized preferences related to social stimuli for most belugas and some Pacific white-sided dolphins. Differences in gaze durations were also observed. The majority of individual belugas had longer gaze durations for unfamiliar rather than familiar stimuli. These results suggest that lateralization occurs during visual processing of human stimuli in belugas and Pacific white-sided dolphins and that these species can distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar humans. PMID:24831888

  13. Changes in visual evoked potentials as a function of long-term familiarity in monkeys and humans JJ Peissig MI Sanderson J Singer J Tanaka T Curran DL Sheinberg

    E-print Network

    Peissig, Jessie J.

    Changes in visual evoked potentials as a function of long-term familiarity in monkeys and humans JJ in monkeys in the perirhinal cortex. They found more neural activity for familiar objects than for novel). Can we detect changes in physiological response as a result of familiarity in monkeys and humans

  14. CS 6501 FPGA Familiarization Assignment The goal of this assignment is to give you an overview of the steps involved in programming an FPGA. As

    E-print Network

    Skadron, Kevin

    CS 6501 FPGA Familiarization Assignment The goal of this assignment is to give you an overview of the steps involved in programming an FPGA. As a simple, illustrative case, you will program the FPGA to detect a specific 4-bit

  15. Estructura del Programa de Grupos Cooperativos del NCI antes de la NCTN (Infographic)

    Cancer.gov

    Desde el inicio de sus actividades en la década de 1950, se realizaron pocos cambios importantes al Programa de Grupos Cooperativos. Durante los 5 últimos años, el Instituto de Medicina y otros comités de expertos reconsideraron en detalle el funcionamiento

  16. Museo Universitario del Chopo Datos del plan de estudio

    E-print Network

    Islas, León

    periodismo cultural para producir información en los diferentes géneros informativos, para su publicación características del fenómeno informativo, delimitando el campo de acción del periodista cultural. Utilizar los elementos del lenguaje periodístico. Distinguir la estructura de los diferentes géneros informativos

  17. N200, N250r, and N400 Event-Related Brain Potentials Reveal Three Loci of Repetition Priming for Familiar Names

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esther C. Pickering; Stefan R. Schweinberger

    2003-01-01

    The authors assessed immediate repetition effects on event-related potentials (ERPs) while participants performed familiarity decisions for written personal names. For immediately repeated familiar names, the authors observed 3 distinct ERP modulations. At 180–220 ms, a posterior N200 effect occurred for names preceded by same-font primes only. In addition, an increased left temporal negativity (N250r, 220–300 ms) and a reduced central-parietal

  18. Can Computer Familiarity Regulate the Benefits of Computer-based Memory Training in Normal Aging? A Study with an Italian Sample of Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara Bottiroli; Elena Cavallini

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we investigated whether computer familiarity could regulate the efficacy of a computer-based memory training intervention in an Italian sample of older adults. Participants were randomly assigned to either the training or the waiting-list control group and were tested on four computerized neuropsychological memory tasks and one paper-pencil task. Computer familiarity measures included a computer questionnaire, reaction times

  19. Acculturation and Familiarity With, Attitudes Towards and Beliefs about Genetic Testing for Cancer Risk Within Latinas in East Harlem, New York City

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katarina M. Sussner; Hayley S. Thompson; Heiddis B. Valdimarsdottir; William H. Redd; Lina Jandorf

    2009-01-01

    Recent research underscores the need for increasing use of genetic testing for cancer risk in Latinos. This study examined\\u000a the influence of acculturation on attitudes, beliefs about and familiarity with genetic testing for cancer risk in a community-based\\u000a sample of Latinas in East Harlem, New York City (N?=?103). Multivariate linear regression models analyzed the relationship of acculturation to: (1) familiarity

  20. Complementary roles of medial temporal lobes and mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for working memory for novel and familiar trial-unique visual stimuli.

    PubMed

    Schon, Karin; Ross, Robert S; Hasselmo, Michael E; Stern, Chantal E

    2013-02-01

    It has been suggested that working memory (WM) for novel information requires the medial temporal lobes (MTL), but is not necessary for WM for familiar stimuli. In previous studies that directly compared WM for novel and familiar stimuli, only the novel stimuli were trial-unique. Here, 16 young human subjects performed a Sternberg WM task with visual scenes while in a functional magnetic resonance imaging scanner. All task stimuli were trial-unique, but were either new (Novel condition) or previously learned (Familiar condition). This design allowed investigation of whether MTL and prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity is related specifically to the novelty/familiarity of the stimuli or to their trial-unique status during WM. We observed greater hippocampal and parahippocampal activity during encoding and maintenance for novel than for familiar stimuli. In contrast, right mid-dorsolateral PFC (dlPFC) activity was greater during encoding of familiar than novel stimuli. The mid-dlPFC was not recruited during maintenance or for retrieval when the Familiar condition was contrasted with the Novel condition. However, left mid-dlPFC activity was present at retrieval when correct Match trials (i.e. hits) were contrasted with correct Non-match trials (i.e. correct rejections) for the Novel condition. The results support the hypothesis that MTL regions are required for the encoding and maintenance of novel stimuli during WM, demonstrating that the observed MTL activity is not related to the trial-uniqueness of the stimuli per se. Furthermore, the observed activation pattern in mid-dlPFC suggests a role for the mid-dlPFC in executive control-associated processes related to monitoring of scene familiarity at encoding and retrieval during WM. PMID:23167976

  1. Instituto de Matemtica Interdisciplinar -Universidad Complutense de Madrid Plaza de las Ciencias, 3 E-28040 Madrid Tel./Fax. +34 9139 44385 e-mail imi@mat.ucm.es

    E-print Network

    Tradacete, Pedro

    Instituto de Matemática Interdisciplinar - Universidad Complutense de Madrid Plaza de las Ciencias, 3 E- 28040 Madrid Tel./Fax. +34 9139 44385 e-mail imi@mat.ucm.es www.mat.ucm.es/imi CONVOCATORIA DE los que al menos uno deberá pertenecer a la Universidad Complutense de Madrid) y breve descripción de

  2. ISR-Lisboa | Instituto de Sistemas e Robtica Lisboa | [Lisboa e Horta] Av. Rovisco Pais 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal Tel: (+351) 218 418 289 Fax: (+351) 218 418 291 URL: http://www.isr.ist.utl.pt

    E-print Network

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    ISR-Lisboa | Instituto de Sistemas e Robótica ­ Lisboa | [Lisboa e Horta] Av. Rovisco Pais · 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal · Tel: (+351) 218 418 289 · Fax: (+351) 218 418 291 · URL: http://www.isr Robótica/IST (ISR-Lisboa) Coordenadora: MARIA ISABEL LOBATO DE FARIA RIBEIRO · Centro de Estudos em

  3. "Phantom ion effect" and the contact potential of the water-vapor interface Instituto de Fsica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Caixa Postal 15051, CEP 91501-970,

    E-print Network

    Levin, Yan

    V for pure water-vapor inter- face, found in the ab initio simulations. If true, this finding could"Phantom ion effect" and the contact potential of the water-vapor interface Yan Levina Instituto de The contact junction potential between water-vapor and water-oil interfaces is studied theoretically. Unlike

  4. Ácaros del mango

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Los ácaros constituyen un grupo abundante y diverso que ocupa diferentes hábitats en árboles frutales y la estructura y disposición del follaje y ramas del mango, contribuyen significativamente a que se presente gran diversidad de ácaros benéficos y dañinos asociados a esta especie frutal. En Colomb...

  5. en Fisioterapia del Deporte

    E-print Network

    Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad

    Experto en Fisioterapia del Deporte III Edición RESERVA DE PLAZAY MATRÍCULA Título: Experto en Fisioterapia del Deporte Precio de título: 1.800 Plazo de preinscripción: hasta 15 de Octubre 2014 Nº de que se encuentra matriculado en cuarto curso de grado en fisioterapia (en caso de alumnos

  6. Avoiding Systematic Errors in Isometric Squat-Related Studies without Pre-Familiarization by Using Sufficient Numbers of Trials

    PubMed Central

    Pekünlü, Ekim; Özsu, ?lbilge

    2014-01-01

    There is no scientific evidence in the literature indicating that maximal isometric strength measures can be assessed within 3 trials. We questioned whether the results of isometric squat-related studies in which maximal isometric squat strength (MISS) testing was performed using limited numbers of trials without pre-familiarization might have included systematic errors, especially those resulting from acute learning effects. Forty resistance-trained male participants performed 8 isometric squat trials without pre-familiarization. The highest measures in the first “n” trials (3 ? n ? 8) of these 8 squats were regarded as MISS obtained using 6 different MISS test methods featuring different numbers of trials (The Best of n Trials Method [BnT]). When B3T and B8T were paired with other methods, high reliability was found between the paired methods in terms of intraclass correlation coefficients (0.93–0.98) and coefficients of variation (3.4–7.0%). The Wilcoxon’s signed rank test indicated that MISS obtained using B3T and B8T were lower (p < 0.001) and higher (p < 0.001), respectively, than those obtained using other methods. The Bland-Altman method revealed a lack of agreement between any of the paired methods. Simulation studies illustrated that increasing the number of trials to 9–10 using a relatively large sample size (i.e., ? 24) could be an effective means of obtaining the actual MISS values of the participants. The common use of a limited number of trials in MISS tests without pre-familiarization appears to have no solid scientific base. Our findings suggest that the number of trials should be increased in commonly used MISS tests to avoid learning effect-related systematic errors. PMID:25414753

  7. Human motion characteristics in relation to feeling familiar or frightened during an announced short interaction with a proactive humanoid

    PubMed Central

    Baddoura, Ritta; Venture, Gentiane

    2014-01-01

    During an unannounced encounter between two humans and a proactive humanoid (NAO, Aldebaran Robotics), we study the dependencies between the human partners' affective experience (measured via the answers to a questionnaire) particularly regarding feeling familiar and feeling frightened, and their arm and head motion [frequency and smoothness using Inertial Measurement Units (IMU)]. NAO starts and ends its interaction with its partners by non-verbally greeting them hello (bowing) and goodbye (moving its arm). The robot is invested with a real and useful task to perform: handing each participant an envelope containing a questionnaire they need to answer. NAO's behavior varies from one partner to the other (Smooth with X vs. Resisting with Y). The results show high positive correlations between feeling familiar while interacting with the robot and: the frequency and smoothness of the human arm movement when waving back goodbye, as well as the smoothness of the head during the whole encounter. Results also show a negative dependency between feeling frightened and the frequency of the human arm movement when waving back goodbye. The principal component analysis (PCA) suggests that, in regards to the various motion measures examined in this paper, the head smoothness and the goodbye gesture frequency are the most reliable measures when it comes to considering the familiar experienced by the participants. The PCA also points out the irrelevance of the goodbye motion frequency when investigating the participants' experience of fear in its relation to their motion characteristics. The results are discussed in light of the major findings of studies on body movements and postures accompanying specific emotions. PMID:24688466

  8. Determinación del perfil instrumental del EBASIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieva, M. F.; Rodriguez, M. V.; Pintado, O. I.

    Se calcula el perfil instrumental para el telescopio de 2,15m del CASLEO con EBASIM. Para ello se usaron flats de cielo y el espectro solar FTS de Kurucz. El método, que se puede utilizar para otras configuraciones instrumentales, es convolucionar ambos espectros para obtener los coeficientes de corrección.

  9. Social Familiarity Governs Prey Patch-Exploitation, - Leaving and Inter-Patch Distribution of the Group-Living Predatory Mite Phytoseiulus persimilis

    PubMed Central

    Zach, Gernot J.; Peneder, Stefan; Strodl, Markus A.; Schausberger, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background In group-living animals, social interactions and their effects on other life activities such as foraging are commonly determined by discrimination among group members. Accordingly, many group-living species evolved sophisticated social recognition abilities such as the ability to recognize familiar individuals, i.e. individuals encountered before. Social familiarity may affect within-group interactions and between-group movements. In environments with patchily distributed prey, group-living predators must repeatedly decide whether to stay with the group in a given prey patch or to leave and search for new prey patches and groups. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on the assumption that in group-living animals social familiarity allows to optimize the performance in other tasks, as for example predicted by limited attention theory, we assessed the influence of social familiarity on prey patch exploitation, patch-leaving, and inter-patch distribution of the group-living, plant-inhabiting predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. P. persimilis is highly specialized on herbivorous spider mite prey such as the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae, which is patchily distributed on its host plants. We conducted two experiments with (1) groups of juvenile P. persimilis under limited food on interconnected detached leaflets, and (2) groups of adult P. persimilis females under limited food on whole plants. Familiar individuals of both juvenile and adult predator groups were more exploratory and dispersed earlier from a given spider mite patch, occupied more leaves and depleted prey more quickly than individuals of unfamiliar groups. Moreover, familiar juvenile predators had higher survival chances than unfamiliar juveniles. Conclusions/Significance We argue that patch-exploitation and -leaving, and inter-patch dispersion were more favorably coordinated in groups of familiar than unfamiliar predators, alleviating intraspecific competition and improving prey utilization and suppression. PMID:22900062

  10. TEORÍAS DEL DESARROLLO A PRINCIPIOS DEL SIGLO XXI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AMARTYA SEN

    1 La evolución de las ideas no sigue el curso de los siglos. Es más, en el transcurso del siglo XX hemos presenciado cambios radicales en lo que a teoría del desarrollo se refiere. Ni siquiera es indispensable definir los siglos de acuerdo con la clasificación del calendario, de cero a noventa y nueve. En su célebre discurso del 8

  11. My owner, right or wrong: the effect of familiarity on the domestic dog's behavior in a food-choice task.

    PubMed

    Cook, Amy; Arter, Jennifer; Jacobs, Lucia F

    2014-03-01

    Dogs are strongly influenced by human behavior, and they readily form bonds with specific humans. Yet these lines of inquiry are not often combined. The goal of this study was to investigate whether such bonds would play a role in how dogs behave in response to human signals. Using various types of signals, we compared dogs' use of information from a familiar human (their owner) versus an unfamiliar human when choosing between two food containers. In some conditions, the owner indicated a container that gave food and a stranger indicated a container that did not; in other conditions, this was reversed. Dogs more often chose the container indicated by or nearest to their owner, even when this container never yielded a food reward. In two conditions, dogs chose at chance: a control condition in which both pointers were strangers and a condition in which the owner and stranger sat reading books and provided no social signal. This is the first study to directly compare owners to strangers in a single food-choice situation. Our results suggest that dogs make decisions by attending preferentially to social signals from humans with whom they have become familiar. PMID:23995771

  12. Chirurgia Videoassistita del Diaframma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesco Quarantotto; Giorgio Cavallesco; Gaetano Rocco

    La chirurgia videoassistita del diaframma rappresenta una naturale evoluzione della videotoracoscopia, volta a superare le\\u000a difficoltà tecniche di quest’ultima; questa metodica si pone come compromesso tra la videotoracoscopia e la toracotomia tradizionale:\\u000a in questo modo il chirurgo ha la possibilità di compiere manovre chirurgiche altrimenti di difficile esecuzione col solo accesso\\u000a toracoscopico, godendo di un’ottima visione del campo operatorio e

  13. Familiarity with the experimenter influences the performance of Common ravens (Corvus corax) and Carrion crows (Corvus corone corone) in cognitive tasks?

    PubMed Central

    Cibulski, Lara; Wascher, Claudia A.F.; Weiß, Brigitte M.; Kotrschal, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    When humans and animals interact with one another over an extended time span they familiarise and may develop a relationship, which can exert an influence on both partners. For example, the behaviour of an animal in experiments may be affected by its relationship to the human experimenter. However, few studies have systematically examined the impact of human–animal relationships on experimental results. In the present study we investigated if familiarity with a human experimenter influences the performance of Common ravens (Corvus corax) and Carrion crows (Corvus corone corone) in interactive tasks. Birds were tested in two interactive cognitive tasks (exchange, object choice) by several experimenters representing different levels of familiarity (long and short-term). Our findings show that the birds participated more often in both tasks and were more successful in the exchange task when working with long-term experimenters than when working with short-term experimenters. Behavioural observations indicate that anxiety did not inhibit experimental performance but that the birds’ motivation to work differed between the two kinds of experimenters, familiar and less familiar. We conclude that human–animal relationships (i.e. familiarity) may affect the experimental performance of corvids in interactive cognitive tasks. PMID:24333226

  14. -DERECHO PBLICO DEL ESTADO AUTONMICO La implantacin del Mster universitario en Derecho Pblico del Estado Autonmico

    E-print Network

    Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad

    - DERECHO PÚBLICO DEL ESTADO AUTONÓMICO La implantación del Máster universitario en Derecho Público del Estado Autonómico extinguirá el Máster Oficial en Derecho Autonómico y Local. Por esta razón se materias del Máster Oficial en Derecho Autonómico y Local. Los estudiantes que comenzaron el Máster Oficial

  15. User Evaluation of the Effects of a Text Simplification Algorithm Using Term Familiarity on Perception, Understanding, Learning, and Information Retention

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adequate health literacy is important for people to maintain good health and manage diseases and injuries. Educational text, either retrieved from the Internet or provided by a doctor’s office, is a popular method to communicate health-related information. Unfortunately, it is difficult to write text that is easy to understand, and existing approaches, mostly the application of readability formulas, have not convincingly been shown to reduce the difficulty of text. Objective To develop an evidence-based writer support tool to improve perceived and actual text difficulty. To this end, we are developing and testing algorithms that automatically identify difficult sections in text and provide appropriate, easier alternatives; algorithms that effectively reduce text difficulty will be included in the support tool. This work describes the user evaluation with an independent writer of an automated simplification algorithm using term familiarity. Methods Term familiarity indicates how easy words are for readers and is estimated using term frequencies in the Google Web Corpus. Unfamiliar words are algorithmically identified and tagged for potential replacement. Easier alternatives consisting of synonyms, hypernyms, definitions, and semantic types are extracted from WordNet, the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS), and Wiktionary and ranked for a writer to choose from to simplify the text. We conducted a controlled user study with a representative writer who used our simplification algorithm to simplify texts. We tested the impact with representative consumers. The key independent variable of our study is lexical simplification, and we measured its effect on both perceived and actual text difficulty. Participants were recruited from Amazon’s Mechanical Turk website. Perceived difficulty was measured with 1 metric, a 5-point Likert scale. Actual difficulty was measured with 3 metrics: 5 multiple-choice questions alongside each text to measure understanding, 7 multiple-choice questions without the text for learning, and 2 free recall questions for information retention. Results Ninety-nine participants completed the study. We found strong beneficial effects on both perceived and actual difficulty. After simplification, the text was perceived as simpler (P<.001) with simplified text scoring 2.3 and original text 3.2 on the 5-point Likert scale (score 1: easiest). It also led to better understanding of the text (P<.001) with 11% more correct answers with simplified text (63% correct) compared to the original (52% correct). There was more learning with 18% more correct answers after reading simplified text compared to 9% more correct answers after reading the original text (P=.003). There was no significant effect on free recall. Conclusions Term familiarity is a valuable feature in simplifying text. Although the topic of the text influences the effect size, the results were convincing and consistent. PMID:23903235

  16. Modelo analítico del efecto de PRS sobre satélites GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meza, A.; Brunini, C.; Usandivaras, J. C.

    El sistema GPS (Global Position System) es, hoy en día, la herramienta de navegación y posicionamiento más potente y lo será sin duda en la próxima década. Gran parte de su valiosa utilidad se debe a la alta precisión que permite lograr y ésta, a su vez, depende, entre otras causas, de la precisión con que se conocen las órbitas de los satélites. La presión de radiación solar (PRS) fija el límite de la precisión con que pueden calcularse en la actualidad las efemérides satelitarias. El objetivo de este trabajo es proponer una mejor resolución de este fenómeno. El modelo analítico aquí presentado, se basa en el análisis del comportamiento de los residuos de un ajuste por mínimos cuadrados en el que se utiliza el modelo de PRS propuesto por Beutler. El mismo consiste en un modelo determinista del fenómeno con dos parámetros libres. Los resultados obtenidos ponen de manifiesto que, aún después de aplicar dichos parámetros, prevalecen en los residuos efectos semidiurnos en las componentes radial,tangencial y normal. Estos resultados obtenidos se comparan con los de un trabajo desarrollado por el Instituto de Berne (Beutler et al., 1994), en el que se utilizaron como pseudo-observaciones las órbitas precisas del IGS (CODE). El intervalo de integración escogido por este centro fueron las semanas 680 y 681. En resumen se tienen arcos de 14 días para todos los satélites, donde las efemérides precisas de los mismos para los 14 días fueron utilizados como pseudo-observaciones. El modelo de fuerza que empleó dicho centro fue básicamente el tradicional en lo que respecta al modelo de las fuerzas gravitacionales, y para la PRS utilizo el modelo standard de Beutler. Los parámetros de este modelo junto con las 6 condiciones iniciales (posición y velocidad) fueron ajustados por el método general de mínimos cuadrados. Los residuos en la componente radial, tangencial y normal, para los satélites con un buen comportamiento, presentan una componente semidiurna. El modelo analítico planteado en este trabajo, predice el comportamiento de los residuos que se observan en las publicaciones más recientes. Esto abre el camino para plantear una estimación distinta de las incógnitas del problema, basado en el método de colocación por mínimos cuadrados. Ello requiere modelar estadísticamente la señal debida a las componentes de la PRS que no son tomadas en cuenta en el modelo determinista.

  17. Oestrous females investigate the unfamiliar male more than the familiar male in both commensal and non-commensal populations of house mice.

    PubMed

    Frynta, Daniel; Volfová, Radka; Franková-Nováková, Marcela; Stejskal, Václav

    2010-01-01

    We studied female preferences for familiar and unfamiliar males. The subjects were laboratory-born house mice: (1) non-commensal Mus musculus domesticus from the eastern part of Syria along the Euphrates River; and (2) commensal M. m. musculus from the Czech Republic. Pair-choice preference tests have revealed that oestrous females of both populations sniffed towards unfamiliar males more than familiar males. In the case of females exhibiting postpartum oestrus, this preference was less pronounced and statistically not significant. Thus, our mice clearly exhibited the behavioural pattern known from commensal populations of polygynous and/or promiscuous M. m. domesticus. We found no inverse tendency to seek proximity to the familiar male that has been previously reported from closely related and presumably monogamous aboriginal mouse Mus spicilegus. We conclude that neither commensal M. m. musculus, nor non-commensal M. m. domesticus, are likely to share a monogamous mating system with mound-building mice. PMID:19850114

  18. Familiarity-connected or stress-based contagious yawning in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris)? Some additional data.

    PubMed

    Silva, Karine; Bessa, Joana; de Sousa, Liliana

    2013-11-01

    The present short note aimed at further exploring data from a recent study showing socially modulated auditory contagious yawning in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). Two independent observers further extended the analysis of all video recordings made in the previous study and coded both the number of yawns performed by the dogs and the frequencies or durations of stress-related behaviors exhibited throughout the presentation of familiar and unfamiliar yawns. By showing no significant difference between conditions in the frequencies or durations of the coded behaviors, nor any association between the number of yawns and the frequencies or durations of stress-related behaviors, results raised doubt on the stress-induced yawn hypothesis, thus supporting social modulation. The exact mechanism underlying contagious yawning, however, needs further research. PMID:23982621

  19. The importance of knowledge in vivid text memory: An individual-differences investigation of recollection and familiarity

    PubMed Central

    Long, Debra L.; Prat, Chantel; Johns, Clinton; Morris, Phillip; Jonathan, Eunike

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine how individual variation in readers’ skills and, in particular, their background knowledge about a text are related to text memory. Recollection and familiarity estimates were obtained from remember and know judgments to text ideas. Recollection estimates to old items were predicted by readers’ background knowledge, but not by other comprehension-related factors, such as word-decoding skill and working memory capacity. False alarms involving recollection of new items (inferences) were diminished as a function of verbal ability, working memory capacity, and reasoning but increased as a function of background knowledge. The results suggest that recollection indexes the reader’s ability to construct a text representation in which text ideas are integrated with relevant domain knowledge. Moreover, these results highlight the importance of background knowledge in explaining individual variation in comprehension and memory for text. PMID:18567262

  20. Estudio del CH interestelar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olano, C.; Lemarchand, G.; Sanz, A. J.; Bava, J. A.

    El objetivo principal de este proyecto consiste en el estudio de la distribución y abundancia del CH en nubes interestelares a través de la observación de las líneas hiperfinas del CH en 3,3 GHz. El CH es una molécula de amplia distribución en el espacio interestelar y una de las pocas especies que han sido observadas tanto con técnicas de radio como ópticas. Desde el punto de vista tecnológico se ha desarrollado un cabezal de receptor que permitirá la realización de observaciones polarimétricas en la frecuencia de 3,3 GHz, con una temperatura del sistema de 60 K y un ancho de banda de 140 MHz, y que será instalado en el foco primario de la antena parabólica del IAR. El cabezal del receptor es capaz de detectar señales polarizadas, separando las componentes de polarización circular derecha e izquierda. Para tal fin el cabezal consta de dos ramas receptoras que amplificarán la señal y la trasladarán a una frecuencia más baja (frecuencia intermedia), permitiendo de esa forma un mejor transporte de la señal a la sala de control para su posterior procesamiento. El receptor además de tener características polarimétricas, podrá ser usado en el continuo y en la línea, utilizando las ventajas observacionales y de procesamiento de señal que actualmente posee el IAR.

  1. Como Solicitar Los Beneficios del Seguro del Desempleo Transcripcin

    E-print Network

    Como Solicitar Los Beneficios del Seguro del Desempleo Transcripción Bienvenido a uno de los de desempleo en California, usted ha venido al lugar correcto, y aquí estamos para servirle. Este es a recibir sus beneficios del desempleo. Cuando usted hace una llamada u oprime su botón en su computadora

  2. Instantánea del cáncer de estómago

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de estómago; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  3. Instantánea del cáncer de ovario

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de ovario; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  4. Instantánea del cáncer de páncreas

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de páncreas; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  5. valorizzazione e fruizione del

    E-print Network

    Di Pillo, Gianni

    prevista per il Museo Orto Botanico di Roma, destinata all'educazione ambientale e alla "citizen science dati sulla biodiversità; un' app per Smartphone e Tablet dedicata alla fruizione del patrimonio storico della Biodiversità. Smartphone e tablet Il Progetto "SmartEcoPhone" ha realizzato una cross platform app

  6. Fisiología del crecimiento

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arlan L. Rosenbloom

    2007-01-01

    ExtractoEl crecimiento humano es un proceso dinámico y complejo que comienza con la fertilización del óvulo y se completa con la fusión de las epífisis y las metáfisis de los huesos largos, que caracteriza la terminación de la adolescencia. El crecimiento ocurre en fases, con características distintivas en términos de influencias dominantes derivadas de factores y patrones genéticos, ambientales\\/nutricionales y

  7. Burkitt, E. & Watling, D. (in press, 2013). The impact of audience age and familiarity on children's drawings of themselves in contrasting affective states. International Journal of

    E-print Network

    Royal Holloway, University of London

    as a means of nonverbal communication by practitioners. For example, clinicians, educationalists, forensic children are drawing for. Keywords: Communication; audience; familiarity; drawing; affect #12 the child perceives will be needed by the audience to understand the character of the drawn figures

  8. Reaction time, memory strength, and fMRI activity during memory retrieval: Hippocampus and default network are differentially responsive during recollection and familiarity judgments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah I. Gimbel; James B. Brewer

    2011-01-01

    Retrieval is often subdivided into recollection and familiarity. Memory strength and reaction time (RT) differ for each, complicating functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of these processes. Recollection leads to greater activity in the hippocampus and default network (DN). Increased DN activity with recollection is thought to reflect self-referential processes, but prior studies have not accounted for varying RT, which

  9. Effects of Anxiety, Response Mode, Subject Matter Familiarity and Learning Time on Achievement in Computer-Assisted Learning. Tech Memo Number 42.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leherissey, Barbara L.; And Others

    Effects of trait and state anxiety levels (low, medium, high), response mode (reading, constructed response), and program length (short, long) on performance for familiar and technical computer-assisted instruction materials were investigated. High trait anxiety was associated with high levels of state anxiety. Constructed response groups had…

  10. Transfer-of-Learning Effect With the Tactual Performance Test Using Familiar and Unfamiliar Shapes With American, Lao, and Senegalese Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Boivin; Kelly A. Ryan; Kelly A. Aldridge; Bruno Giordani

    2011-01-01

    The Tactual Performance Test (TPT) and a version of the TPT with unfamiliar geometric designs were presented to American, Lao, and Senegalese children. The nonstandard TPT was designed to evaluate the importance of familiarity of forms in improved performance between successive TPT learning trials. The nonstandard board was more difficult for all the groups, with poorer time-per-block performance across learning

  11. Novel spatial arrangements of familiar visual stimuli promote activity in the rat hippocampal formation but not the parahippocampal cortices: a c- fos expression study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. JENKINS; E. AMIN; J. M. PEARCE; M. W. BROWNb; J. P. AGGLETONa

    2004-01-01

    The novelty of a cue may arise from the presence of an element that has not previously been experienced or from familiar elements that have been rearranged. The present study mapped the anatomical basis of responding to this second form of novelty. For this, rats were trained on a working memory spatial task in a radial-arm maze in a cue-controlled

  12. Using the Logic Model to Enhance Diversity in the Health Sciences People attending this session will become familiar with the `Logic Model' as a planning and

    E-print Network

    Boone, Randall B.

    Using the Logic Model to Enhance Diversity in the Health Sciences People attending this session will become familiar with the `Logic Model' as a planning and implementation tool and its application and refining their logic model by way of our experience and example. The logic model is a tool that will assist

  13. Brain Regions Involved in the Retrieval of Spatial and Episodic Details Associated with a Familiar Environment: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirshhorn, Marnie; Grady, Cheryl; Rosenbaum, R. Shayna; Winocur, Gordon; Moscovitch, Morris

    2012-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to compare brain activity during the retrieval of coarse- and fine-grained spatial details and episodic details associated with a familiar environment. Long-time Toronto residents compared pairs of landmarks based on their absolute geographic locations (requiring either coarse or fine…

  14. Capgras syndrome: a novel probe for understanding the neural representation of the identity and familiarity of persons.

    PubMed Central

    Hirstein, W; Ramachandran, V S

    1997-01-01

    Patients with Capgras syndrome regard people whom they know well such as their parents or siblings as imposters. Here we describe a case (DS) of this syndrome who presents several novel features. DS was unusual in that his delusion was modality-specific: he claimed that his parents were imposters when he was looking at them but not when speaking to them on the telephone. Unlike normals, DS's skin conductance responses to photographs of familiar people, including his parents, were not larger in magnitude than his responses to photographs of unfamiliar people. We suggest that in this patient connections from face-processing areas in the temporal lobe to the limbic system have been damaged, a loss which may explain why he calls his parents imposters. In addition, DS was very poor at judging gaze direction. Finally, when presented with a sequence of photographs of the same model's face looking in different directions, DS asserted that they were "different women who looked just like each other'. In the absence of limbic activation, DS creates separate memory "files' of the same person, apparently because he is unable to extract and link the common denominator of successive episodic memories. Thus, far from being a medical curiosity. Capgras syndrome may help us to explore the formation of new memories caught in flagrante delicto. PMID:9107057

  15. Nevado del Huila, Columbia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Nevado del Huila Volcano in Colombia is actually a volcanic chain running north to south, capped by a glacier. With peaks ranging in height from 2,600 to 5,780 meters (8,530 to 18,960 feet), Nevado del Huila is a stratovolcano composed of alternating layers of hardened lava, solidified ash, and volcanic rocks. Its first recorded eruption occurred in the mid-sixteenth century. The long-dormant volcano erupted again in mid-April 2007. A few months before the eruption, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of Nevado del Huila, on February 23, 2007. In this image, the bright white area just east of the central summit is ice. Immediately west of the summit are bare rocks, appearing as blue-gray. West of those rocks, white reappears, but this patch of white results from clouds hovering in the nearby valley. In the east, the colors turn to brown (indicating bare rock) and bright green (indicating vegetation). ASTER photographed Nevado del Huila near the end of a long phase of quietude. On April 17, 2007, local authorities recorded seismic activity associated with rock fracturing on the volcano's central summit, according to the ReliefWeb Website. Activity intensified the following day with an eruption and mudflows, forcing thousands of nearby residents to evacuate. As the Associated Press reported, the eruption caused avalanches and floods that wiped away both houses and bridges. It marked the volcano's first recorded eruption since the Spanish colonized the area five centuries earlier. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  16. Instituto de Matemtica Interdisciplinar -Universidad Complutense de Madrid Plaza de las Ciencias, 3 E-28040 Madrid -Spain Tel./Fax. +34 9139 44385

    E-print Network

    Tradacete, Pedro

    fondos públicos españoles percibida con el mismo fin y durante el mismo período de tiempo. 3. DOTACIÓN DE, que será fijada por la Comisión Ejecutiva del IMI, hasta un máximo de 600 y siempre que el viaje esté-mail: imi@mat.ucm.es percepción el beneficiario deberá presentar el billete justificativo de su viaje. Esta

  17. Mineralogy and instrumental neutron activation analysis of seven National Bureau of Standards and three Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas clay reference samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hosterman, John W.; Flanagan, F.J.; Bragg, Anne; Doughten, M.W.; Filby, R.H.; Grimm, Catherine; Mee, J.S.; Potts, P.J.; Rogers, N.W.

    1987-01-01

    The concentrations of 3 oxides and 29 elements in 7 National Bureau of Standards (NBS) and 3 Instituto de Pesquisas Techno16gicas (IPT) reference clay samples were etermined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The analytical work was designed to test the homogeneity of constituents in three new NBS reference clays, NBS-97b, NBS-98b, and NBS-679. The analyses of variance of 276 sets of data for these three standards show that the constituents are distributed homogeneously among bottles of samples for 94 percent of the sets of data. Three of the reference samples (NBS-97, NBS-97a, and NBS-97b) are flint clays; four of the samples (NBS-98, NBS-98a, NBS-98b, and IPT-32) are plastic clays, and three of the samples (NBS-679, IPT-28, and IPT-42) are miscellaneous clays (both sedimentary and residual). Seven clays are predominantly kaolinite; the other three clays contain illite and kaolinite in the approximate ratio 3:2. Seven clays contain quartz as the major nonclay mineral. The mineralogy of the flint and plastic clays from Missouri (NBS-97a and NBS-98a) differs markedly from that of the flint and plastic clays from Pennsylvania (NBS-97, NBS-97b, NBS-98, and NBS-98b). The flint clay NBS-97 has higher average chromium, hafnium, lithium, and zirconium contents than its replacement, reference sample NBS-97b. The differences between the plastic clay NBS-98 and its replacement, NBS-98b, are not as pronounced. The trace element contents of the flint and plastic clays from Missouri, NBS-97a and NBS-98a, differ significantly from those of the clays from Pennsylvania, especially the average rare earth element (REE) contents. The trace element contents of clay sample IPT-32 differ from those of the other plastic clays. IPT-28 and IPT-42 have some average trace element contents that differ not only between these two samples but also from all the other clays. IPT-28 has the highest summation of the average REE contents of the 10 samples. The uranium content of NBS-98a, 46 parts per million, is very much higher than that of the other clays. Plots of average REE contents of the flint and plastic clays, normalized to chondritic abundances, show that the clays from Missouri differ from the same types of clay from Pennsylvania. The plot of REE contents for the miscellaneous clays shows that the normalized means for the elements lanthanum through samarium for IPT-28 are much greater than those for the other miscellaneous clays. The means for the elements europium through lutetium are similar for all three miscellaneous clays.

  18. Space Shuttle Familiarization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mellett, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    This slide presentation visualizes the NASA space center and research facility sites, as well as the geography, launching sites, launching pads, rocket launching, pre-flight activities, and space shuttle ground operations located at NASA Kennedy Space Center. Additionally, highlights the international involvement behind the International Space Station and the space station mobile servicing system. Extraterrestrial landings, surface habitats and habitation systems, outposts, extravehicular activity, and spacecraft rendezvous with the Earth return vehicle are also covered.

  19. A new set of 272 pictures for psycholinguistic studies: Persian norms for name agreement, image agreement, conceptual familiarity, visual complexity, and age of acquisition.

    PubMed

    Ghasisin, Leila; Yadegari, Fariba; Rahgozar, Mehdi; Nazari, Ali; Rastegarianzade, Niloufar

    2014-11-26

    Pictures are often used in studies on memory, perception, and language; normative data are thus needed for such visual stimuli. In the present study, we aimed to obtain normative data for a set of 272 black-and-white pictures from middle-aged and elderly Persian speakers. A total of 206 volunteers were divided into two groups: a middle-aged (40-59 years old) group and an elderly (60 years old and over) group. The groups had similar characteristics in terms of education. Norms for every picture were developed to provide measures of name agreement, image agreement, conceptual familiarity, age of acquisition, and visual complexity. The results revealed that all of these measures vary with age, except for conceptual familiarity. PMID:25425392

  20. Copyrights Reserved by the University of Hong Kong under the Knowledge Exchange Project Tutorial 1: Familiar with iPhone App Development

    E-print Network

    Tam, Vincent W. L.

    1: Familiar with iPhone App Development Overview 1. Introduction 2. Creating a New iPhone App Project 2.1 Creating a New iPhone App Project using Xcode 2.2 Changing Various iPhone App Settings 3 an iPhone app from scratch. You will be able to learn: a. How to create a new iPhone app project b. How

  1. Beyond the abstract—concrete dichotomy: Mode of acquisition, concreteness, imageability, familiarity, age of acquisition, context availability, and abstractness norms for a set of 417 Italian words

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pasquale A. Della Rosa; Eleonora Catricalà; Gabriella Vigliocco; Stefano F. Cappa

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to investigate the abstract-concrete dichotomy by introducing a new variable: the mode\\u000a of acquisition (MoA) of a concept. MoA refers to the way in which concepts are acquired: through experience, through language,\\u000a or through both. We asked 250 participants to rate 417 words on seven dimensions: age of acquisition, concreteness, familiarity,\\u000a context availability,

  2. Festival del Sur '98

    E-print Network

    Má rquez Montes, Carmen

    1999-04-01

    clásico de Rojas se encarna en el actor y hace un recorrido por su historia, rememorando su nacimiento y las diversas etapas de éxito u olvido en su devenir; asimismo menciona los actores que le han interpretado y su opinión sobre ellos. Sobresale en... Angélica en el umbral del cielo de Eduardo Amor; La República con Chatarra, obra de creación colectiva; Clapso con Marea, espectáculo de danza; y Limundi con Fagolera, espectáculo de calle, con el fuego como nexo de unión. Las Palmas de Gran Canaria...

  3. AAnnuuaarriioo Universidad Nacional del Sur

    E-print Network

    Maguitman, Ana Gabriela

    Doctor Hugo Laborde Secretario del Consejo Superior Universitario Abogado Diego Duprat Secretario General Académico Doctor Marcelo Villar Secretario General de Ciencia y Tecnología Doctor Alfredo Juan Secretario

  4. Vistazos Intimos De Puebla; Una Compilacion De Informes Individuales Preparados Por Los Participantes Del Instituto De Verano (NDEA) (Close-ups on Puebla; A Compilation of Individual Reports Prepared by the Participants of the NDEA Summer Institute).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichita State Univ., KS.

    The individual and committee reports on the sociology of Puebla, Mexico, which are collected here, were written by participants in an NDEA Summer Institute program of the University of Wichita, Kansas. The underlying motives of the program, described in the preface, were to provide participants with real language experience and a chance to…

  5. Paul Cockshott, Allin Cottrell Las ideas importantes del socialismo del

    E-print Network

    Cockshott, W. Paul

    : Acabó con la polarización de la sociedad en ricos y pobres Acabó con el desempleo Logró progreso ventajas: Alguna reducción en las desigualdades del ingreso Reducción del desempleo Progreso económico para diferencias grandes entre unos billonarios y los trabajadores ordinarios seguían. El desempleo masivo

  6. Las teorías del desarrollo a principios del siglo XXI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amartya Sen

    1998-01-01

    Este artículo revisa el estado actual de las teorías del desarrollo teniendo en cuenta la experiencia histórica y la evolución interna de la teoría desde finales de la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Aunque la comprensión del desarrollo ha mejorado, se han hecho generalizaciones indebidas y extraído lecciones infundadas. Sen rechaza la oposición entre Estado y mercado y entre planificación y rentabilidad,

  7. LAS UTÓPICAS IGUALDAD Y LEGALIDAD EN EL PROCESO DISCRIMINATORIO DE SELECCIÓN DE PERSONAL EVENTUAL EN EL INSTITUTO FEDERAL ELECTORAL PROCESO ELECTORAL 2008-2009

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerardo Jacinto Gómez Velázquez

    2010-01-01

    Circunscrito el presente trabajo a los acontecimientos jurídico-administrativos-electorales verificados en el Distrito Electoral Federal con cabecera en la ciudad de Lagos de Moreno, Jalisco, México y a aspectos que hacen referencia al exorbitante número de personas interesadas en ejercer sus derechos Políticos-Electorales, la generalidad de las Garantías Constitucionales aplicables a cualquier ciudadano independientemente del lugar en donde se encuentren de

  8. Manejo Ambiental del Asma Peditrica

    E-print Network

    Bezrukov, Sergey M.

    Manejo Ambiental del Asma Pediátrica Guías para el Personal de Salud #12;Aprobado por Ambulatory Nurse Practitioners #12;Manejo Ambiental del Asma Pediátrica Guías para el Personal de Salud Agosto National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. #12;Iniciativa para el Asma Pediátrica Comité

  9. EL ORIGEN BIOLÓGICO DEL DERECHO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Axel P. Retana-Salazar

    En este trabajo se aborda el posible origen evolutivo del derecho como una consecuencia del desarrollo social de nuestra especie. Otras especies con sistemas sociales similares presentan varias reglas para la convivencia en grupo. Algunas de estas reglas son comunes en todas las especies con comportamiento social. El desarrollo de la sociobiología en las últimas décadas es una herramienta importante

  10. Metodologa de investigacin para la restauracin del

    E-print Network

    Rey Benayas, José María

    DESARROLLO SOSTENIBLE DEL MEDIO RURAL LEY DE 28 DE MAYO DE 2007, DE SUELO #12;CAMBIOS EN LOS USOS DEL SUELO sostenible es reivindicar el paisaje como la materialización del encuentro entre el territorio, la acción

  11. Monitor de Pilates Programa del curso

    E-print Network

    Escolano, Francisco

    1 Monitor de Pilates Programa del curso 1. Bases biomédicas del Pilates (15 HORAS). 1 técnicos y comunicativos: aspectos psicosociales y emocionales. Estructura del curso 50 horas. Número: Fútbol · Profesor Master, Posgrados y Cursos Universidad Europea Madrid, Universidad CAECE, Universidad

  12. Los Logros y las Carencias de las Transferencias de Efectivo Condicionadass: Evaluación del Impacto del Programa Tekoporã del Paraguay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabio Veras Soares; Rafael Perez Ribas; Guilherme Issamu Hirata

    2008-01-01

    El Centro Internacional de Pobreza (CIP), con el apoyo del GTZ y el FNUAP, ha llevado a cabo recientemente una evaluación del impacto del programa piloto de Tekoporã, un programa de transferencias de efectivo condicionadas (CCT, en su sigla inglesa) en Paraguay. Previamente, el CIP analizó el marco lógico del programa y sus dificultades de aplicación, y se evaluaron sus

  13. Radical SAM, A Novel Protein Superfamily Linking Unresolved Steps in Familiar Biosynthetic Pathways with Radical Mechanisms: Functional Characterization Using New Analysis and Information Visualization Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Sofia, Heidi J.; Chen, Guang; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Reyes Spindola, Jorge F.; Miller, Nancy E.

    2001-03-01

    A large protein superfamily with over 500 members has been discovered and analyzed using powerful new bioinformatics and information visualization methods. Evidence exists that these proteins generate a 5?-deoxyadenosyl radical by reductive cleavage of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) through an unusual Fe-S center. Radical SAM superfamily proteins function in DNA precursor, vitamin, cofactor, antibiotic, and herbicide biosynthesis in a collection of basic and familiar pathways. One of the members is interferon-inducible and is considered a candidate drug target for osteoporosis. The identification of this superfamily suggests that radical-based catalysis is important in a number of previously well-studied but unresolved biochemical pathways.

  14. Alberto del Pozo

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Cuban Heritage Collection of the University of Miami Libraries was a recipient of 17 original illustrations by Alberto del Pozo in 1998 from the Campilli family. "The Oricha Collection" is their gift, and it contains illustrations in pen, crayon, and ink and the collection "pays homage to the primary gods and goddesses that comprise the Afro-Cuban religion of Santer'a." The "Introduction" near the top of the page, is a good place for visitors to start learning about Pozo, who was a Parson's School of Design-trained, Cuban artist who died at the age of 47. The "Biographical Sketch" is worth looking at as well. Examples of his colorful, heavily patterned and symbolism-intensive drawings of Santeria gods and goddesses can be found in the link "Gallery". The description of each drawing is given in English and Spanish. Finally, visitors interested in more information on the Santeria, can look at the "Further Readings" link for authoritative books on the subject.

  15. I Encuentro del Equipo Ejecutivo Vicerrectorado Administrativo

    E-print Network

    Vásquez, Carlos

    Gestión del Capital Humano · Incremento de la eficacia, eficiencia y rendimiento de la DGCH · Mejoramiento de Gestión del Capital Humano · Digitalización de los EXPEDIENTES · Sistema de Información Gestión del Capital Humano METAS 2009-2013 ·Diagnóstico y Reorganización de la DGCH ·Implantación del

  16. NOTES DEL SEMINARI FUNCIONS THETA

    E-print Network

    Travesa, Artur

    NOTES DEL SEMINARI FUNCIONS THETA Barcelona, 2003 #12;10 Notes del Seminari de Teoria de Nombres (UB-UAB-UPC) Comitè editorial P. Bayer E. Nart J. Quer #12;FUNCIONS THETA Edició a cura de P. Bayer J-02 ISBN: 84-923250-7-0 #12;iv #12;´Index 1 Funcions theta de Jacobi i corbes el·l´iptiques (I) E. Torres 3

  17. INFORME SOBRE L'APLICACI DEL RGIM DE DEDICACI DEL PROFESSORAT DE LA UPC

    E-print Network

    Casanellas, Marta

    ;1 INFORME AVALUACIÓ DEL RÈGIM DE DEDICACIÓ DEL PDI DE LA UPC Convocatòria 2011 PREÀMBUL En data 24 de juliol realitzar la difusió dels resultats del procés entre el PDI afectat, es varen gestionar les incidències'aquesta fase, són Difusió dels resultats · Total PDI avaluat 1.755 · PDI que va accedir a l'aplicació 1.557 (88

  18. Lazamrsa 18: 45-93 (1997> Los macrolquenes del macizo del Calar del Mundo

    E-print Network

    Herrera, Carlos M.

    resvulu dci viul esucíclicí, ciii csitciitueci ílcir(sxictu de ivís niacrvuiíqoenes del nísucizo ciel 0 Sierra de A iccírcí, A ihacereí Vn el - se d u y uunua dci baliacrgtu de cnn tuulcul dc 126 especies y

  19. A database of 629 English compound words: ratings of familiarity, lexeme meaning dominance, semantic transparency, age of acquisition, imageability, and sensory experience.

    PubMed

    Juhasz, Barbara J; Lai, Yun-Hsuan; Woodcock, Michelle L

    2014-11-01

    Since the work of Taft and Forster (1976), a growing literature has examined how English compound words are recognized and organized in the mental lexicon. Much of this research has focused on whether compound words are decomposed during recognition by manipulating the word frequencies of their lexemes. However, many variables may impact morphological processing, including relational semantic variables such as semantic transparency, as well as additional form-related and semantic variables. In the present study, ratings were collected on 629 English compound words for six variables [familiarity, age of acquisition (AoA), semantic transparency, lexeme meaning dominance (LMD), imageability, and sensory experience ratings (SER)]. All of the compound words selected for this study are contained within the English Lexicon Project (Balota et al., 2007), which made it possible to use a regression approach to examine the predictive power of these variables for lexical decision and word naming performance. Analyses indicated that familiarity, AoA, imageability, and SER were all significant predictors of both lexical decision and word naming performance when they were added separately to a model containing the length and frequency of the compounds, as well as the lexeme frequencies. In addition, rated semantic transparency also predicted lexical decision performance. The database of English compound words should be beneficial to word recognition researchers who are interested in selecting items for experiments on compound words, and it will also allow researchers to conduct further analyses using the available data combined with word recognition times included in the English Lexicon Project. PMID:25361864

  20. The utility of placing recollection in opposition to familiarity in early discrimination of healthy aging and very mild dementia of the Alzheimer’s type

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Chi-Shing; Balota, David A.; Moynan, Sarah C.; Duchek, Janet M.; Jacoby, Larry L.

    2009-01-01

    The present study explored the ability to control familiarity-based information in a memory exclusion paradigm in healthy young, older adults, and early-stage DAT individuals. We compared the predictive power of memory exclusion performance to standard psychometric performance in discriminating between healthy aging and the earliest detectable form of DAT and between APOe4-present and APOe4-absent genotype in healthy control individuals. Participants responded “yes” to words that were previously semantically encoded, and “no” to other words. The number of targets and distractors on the read “distractor” list was manipulated to investigate the degree to which aging and DAT influence the ability to recollect specific details of study episodes in the face of distractor familiarity due to repetition. Memory exclusion performance (as reflected by d?) decreased across participant groups (young > healthy old control > very mild DAT). Logistic regression analyses showed that d? increased the discriminative power for healthy older adults vs. very mild DAT individuals above and beyond standard psychometric measures. Memory exclusion d? was also lower for healthy control individuals with APOe4 allele, compared to those without the APOe4 allele after partialing out baseline psychometric performance. Discussion focuses on the importance of attentional control systems in memory retrieval and the utility of the opposition paradigm for early discrimination between healthy and pathological aging. PMID:20063946

  1. Comunicación en la atención del cáncer (PDQ®)

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de la información revisada por expertos acerca de la comunicación con el paciente de cáncer y sus familiares, que incluye los aspectos distintivos de la comunicación con pacientes de cáncer, los factores que afectan la comunicación y la capacitación en aptitudes para la comunicación.

  2. Temas y rumbos del teatro rural hispanoamericano del siglo XX.

    E-print Network

    Neglia, Erminio G.

    1971-10-01

    clima y a la posición económica de los campesinos, está en el centro de la acción y, en ocasiones, se humaniza, convirtiéndose en uno de los protagonistas de la obra, v. gr., Por los caminos van los campesinos del nicaragüense Pablo Antonio Cuadra... mayor importancia para el campesino, cuya susceptibilidad en ciertas materias, v. gr., el honor de la mujer, es extremada y distinta de la del hombre que vive en la ciudad. En Por los caminos van los campesinos de Pablo Antonio Cuadra, Sebastián mata...

  3. EL ROL DEL GNERO DENTRO DEL PROCESO DE APRENDIZAJE COLABORATIVO

    E-print Network

    Guerrero, Luis

    de sexo y la forma en que esto afecta las actividades colaborativas. En el presente trabajo se describen los resultados de un experimento desarrollado con el fin de establecer que la diferencia de sexo]. Varios estudios también han demostrado que las diferencias de sexo en el uso del computador están

  4. ¿Macroeconomía mexicana sana? A tres años del “gobierno del empleo”

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martín Carlos Ramales Osorio

    2009-01-01

    por efectos de la crisis financiera y económica internacional, así como por la aplicación de políticas monetarias y fiscales sumamente restrictivas, a casi tres años de la gestión calderonista los saldos en materia de crecimiento económico y empleo son absolutamente negativos. De cumplirse las previsiones de crecimiento del FMI para este año, que lo ubica en -7.3 por ciento, durante

  5. Auxiliary material for Paper 2012JB009540 Structure of the subduction system in southern Peru from seismic array data

    E-print Network

    Clayton, Robert W.

    in southern Peru from seismic array data Kristin Phillips and Robert W. Clayton, USA Hernando Tavera, Instituto Geofisico del Peru, Lima, Peru, Lima, Peru Victor Aguilar, Instituto Geofisico del Peru, Lima, Peru

  6. A standardized set of 260 pictures for Turkish: norms of name and image agreement, age of acquisition, visual complexity, and conceptual familiarity.

    PubMed

    Raman, Ilhan; Raman, Evren; Mertan, Biran

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, normative data in Turkish are presented for the 260 color versions of the original Snodgrass and Vanderwart (1980) picture set for the first time. Norms are reported for name and image agreement, age of acquisition (AoA), visual complexity, and conceptual familiarity, together with written word frequency, and numbers of letters and syllables. We collected data from 277 native Turkish adults in a variety of tasks. The results indicated that, whilst several measures displayed language-specific variation, we also reported what seem to be language-independent-that is, universal-measures that show a systematic relationship across several languages. The implications of the reported measures in the domain of psycholinguistic research in Turkish and for wider cross-linguistic comparisons are discussed. PMID:23943583

  7. Instantánea del cáncer de seno (mama)

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de seno (mama); así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  8. conomicas.a.esconomicasaes gua del estudiante

    E-print Network

    Escolano, Francisco

    Calendario Académico 2012/13 ..............................................9 Plan de estudios del Grado en Información del Plan de Estudios............................................................. 11 Asignaturas puedes cambiar la contraseña. La contraseña es personal e intransferible. En caso de olvido

  9. NUEVA CONCEPCIÓN DEL TÉRMINO “INTELIGENCIA”

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nelky Urrutia Amable

    2010-01-01

    El presente artículo aborda uno de los temas más controversiales del siglo XXI: la influencia de la Inteligencia Emocional en el liderazgo. Este tema reafirma el valor esencial de las habilidades emocionales en todas las funciones y desafíos que deben enfrentar los líderes en el mundo actual; llevándonos a la conclusión de que el éxito profesional está ligado a un

  10. Del crecimiento al desarrollo sostenible

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lester R. Brown; Sandra Postel; Christopher Flavin

    1992-01-01

    Introducción. Durante gran parte de este siglo los debates económicos se han centrado en la cuestión de si el capitalismo o el socialismo es el mejor procedimiento para la organización de una economía industrial moderna. Esa dsicusión parece haber terminado porque las naciones de Europa Oriental avanzan con rapidez hacia los mecanismos del mercado y la economía soviética se tambalea

  11. Lecciones del de comerciode la

    E-print Network

    Tufts University

    boston University the frederick s. pardee center Universidad nacional aUtónoma de méxico centro de estUdios Derecho de autor y, en su caso, por los tratados internacionales aplicables. IMPRESO EN MÉXICO PRINTED Estudios del Desarrollo Universidad nacional aUtónoma de méxico, Centro de Estudios China-México t

  12. Analisis del sistema Paraguayo de investigacion agropecuaria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Javier M. Ekboir; Gabriel H. Parellada; Andres Molina; Cesar Duarte

    2003-01-01

    En la d?cada del 90, el Gobierno paraguayo implement?, con poco ?xito, varios planes de reforma del Estado. Actualmente conviven en Paraguay un Estado muy centralizado, con poca capacidad de implementar pol?ticas modernas, y una econom?a muy descentralizada (a veces completamente fuera del control del gobierno y de la polic?a), que evoluciona gracias a las acciones e interacciones de agentes

  13. ASSIGNACI DEL COMPLEMENT BSIC DOCENT CONVOCATRIA 2010

    E-print Network

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    ASSIGNACI� DEL COMPLEMENT B�SIC DOCENT CONVOCAT�RIA 2010 Acord núm.113/2011 del Consell de Govern pel qual s'aprova l'assignació del complement bàsic docent. Convocatòria 2010. · Document aprovat per'Avaluació Juliol de 2011 ASSIGNACI� DEL COMPLEMENT B�SIC DOCENT CONVOCAT�RIA 2010 Antecedents El Reial Decret 1086

  14. Consejo Social Principales acuerdos de las sesiones del pleno del Consejo Social durante el curso

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