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Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer - 16 de enero 2013  

Cancer.gov

El Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer ha suspendido su publicación a partir del 16 de enero de 2013. El archivo del Boletín, que cuenta con todas las ediciones publicadas desde 2009 a 2013, permanecerá a disposición de los lectores en el sitio web del NCI.

2

Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer - 07-20-2010  

Cancer.gov

El doctor Harold Varmus, acompañado de su esposa Constance Casey (centro), presta juramento como director del NCI ante la Secretaria del Departamento de Salud y Servicios Humanos, Kathleen Sebelius, el lunes 12 de julio. (Foto cortesía de Chris Smith) El 12 de julio, el doctor Harold Varmus prestó juramento ante la Secretaria del Departamento de Salud y Servicios Humanos de los Estados Unidos, Kathleen Sebelios, como el decimocuarto director del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer.

3

Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer  

Cancer.gov

No se puede negar que vivimos en una comunidad global, en la que los eventos de una ciudad o país pueden tener graves consecuencias para los residentes de otra ciudad o país a miles de kilómetros de distancia. Ya sea la pandemia del virus H1N1, los recientes disturbios en Irán o la recesión económica mundial, es evidente que esta interconectividad trae consigo retos importantes. Pero también puede crear oportunidades sin precedentes, en particular aquellas que podrían mejorar sustancialmente la salud pública.

4

Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer - 28 de febrero de 2012  

Cancer.gov

Los artículos originales en inglés están disponibles en las páginas del NCI Cancer Bulletin. El Boletín es una publicación del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI), una entidad gubernamental de los Estados Unidos creada en 1937.

5

Ayuda para usar el sitio web en español del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer  

Cancer.gov

Página de guía que le permite al lector entender la forma en que está organizado el sitio web del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI), las categorías de información disponibles y las políticas que rigen este sitio web.

6

Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer - 02-02-2010  

Cancer.gov

En un estudio clínico en fase inicial que probó una vacuna terapéutica en pacientes con leucemia mieloide crónica (LMC) que tomaban el fármaco imatinib (Gleevec), no se pudieron detectar células cancerosas en 7 de los 19 participantes por un tiempo promedio de 22 meses. Los resultados del estudio fueron publicados en el número del 1º de enero de la revista Clinical Cancer Research.

7

Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer - 05-25-2010  

Cancer.gov

Aproximadamente 41.000 participantes en un estudio en el Reino Unido se sometieron una sola vez a una examen de detección en la parte inferior del colon mediante el uso de un sigmoidoscopio, un instrumento delgado en forma de tubo que se inserta a través del recto para buscar lesiones precancerosas o cancerosas. Este dispositivo también tiene una herramienta para extraer pólipos potencialmente precancerosos.

8

Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer - 01-05-2010  

Cancer.gov

Al caminar por los pasillos del nuevo centro oncológico integral en la sede de Ciencias Médicas de la Universidad de Puerto Rico (UPR) en San Juan, uno debe mantener los ojos abiertos. La mujer que pasa caminando vigorosamente podría ser la doctora Marcia Roxana Cruz-Correa, y no debe uno perderse la oportunidad de conocerla.

9

Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer - 04-27-2010  

Cancer.gov

Cada vez es más evidente que los esfuerzos mundiales de salud de mayor éxito dependen no solo del aporte de las mentes más brillantes, sino de la colaboración entre ellas para marcar la diferencia en el escenario global. Este enfoque es el motor impulsor detrás de una asociación excepcional con el NCI, financiada en parte por Susan G.

10

Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer - 8 de noviembre de 2011  

Cancer.gov

Le invitamos a que comparta esta publicación con sus amigos, familiares y colegas y nos ayude a continuar nuestra misión de difundir las investigaciones más recientes sobre la prevención, el tratamiento y la información del cáncer.

11

Se da a conocer el plan del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para acelerar la investigación del cáncer  

Cancer.gov

En la 100va Reunión Anual de la Asociación Estadounidense de Investigación del Cáncer realizada en Denver, el director del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer, doctor John E. Niederhuber, dio a conocer detalles importantes, tales como financiamiento de más subvenciones, creación de una plataforma para atención personalizada del cáncer y un programa acelerado de genética del cáncer que hará avanzar la investigación oncológica en este nuevo ambiente económico.

12

El Servicio de Información sobre el Cáncer del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer  

Cancer.gov

El Servicio de Información del Cáncer (CIS) del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer facilita la información más actualizada y precisa sobre el cáncer a pacientes, a sus familias, al público en general y a profesionales médicos. El CIS brinda respuestas personalizadas a preguntas específicas sobre el cáncer y asistencia a los fumadores que quieren abandonar el hábito. Comuníquese con el CIS al 1-800-422-6237 (1-800-4-CANCER) o al 1-877-448-7848 (1-877-44U-QUIT).

13

[Giardia duodenalis genotypes found in the Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar day care centers and dogs in Ibagué, Colombia].  

PubMed

Introduction: Eight Giardia duodenalis genotypes (A-H) have been described to date. Genotypes A and B have been isolated from humans and a wide range of mammals; however, genotypes C-H have shown greater host specificity. Objective: Identifying G. duodenalis genotypes from cysts in faeces obtained from children attending the Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar (ICBF) day care centres and from dogs in Ibagué by PCR-RFLP targeting both the b -giardin and glutamate dehydrogenase genes. Materials and methods: Cysts from G. duodenalis positive samples were concentrated, DNA was extracted and the b -giardin and glutamate dehydrogenase genes were analysed by PCR-RFLP. The MHOM/CO/04/G40 strain was used as positive control (this was obtained from the Grupo de Parasitología at the Instituto Nacional de Salud ). Results: Of the total human samples, 11/23 (48%) were genotyped as A and 12/23 (52%) as B; PCR-RFLP revealed that four canine samples were genotypes C and D, these being host-specific. Conclusions: Only genotypes associated with human infection (AII, BIII and BIV) were found in the children and host-specific genotypes were observed in canines (C and D). No interaction could be established between animal and human transmission cycles due to the small canine sample size and as the former did not come into contact with children attending ICBF day-care centres. PMID:24967932

Rodríguez, Victoria; Espinosa, Oneida; Carranza, Julio César; Duque, Sofía; Arévalo, Adriana; Clavijo, Jairo Alfonso; Urrea, Daniel Alfonso; Vallejo, Gustavo Adolfo

2014-06-01

14

El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer publica nuevo atlas de mortalidad por cáncer  

Cancer.gov

El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI, por sus siglas en inglés) ha publicado un nuevo atlas, el Atlas de Mortalidad por Cáncer en los Estados Unidos, 1950-94, que muestra los patrones geográficos de las tasas de mortalidad por cáncer durante más de cuatro décadas, en más de 3.000 condados a lo largo del país.

15

[Strengths and future of the Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social].  

PubMed

The journals of medicine arose as a communication tool more than 200 years ago. At the beginning, their nature was local; later, their aim was to spread medical information along the nation; and, finally, they sought to reach the world distribution. The Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social was published for the first time 52 years ago, and it has walked its way from local to international distribution. This journal has 23 000 subscribers, it is included in Medline and it reached a 0.112 SCImago Journal Rank in 2012. Its website receives around 200 000 visits monthly and 45 % are foreign visits. In the future, the peer review system is going to be strengthened, and the journal is going to offer audio, video, and applications to reinforce interactive participation between authors, readers in order to reach modernity and draw young new attention. PMID:24758842

Fajardo-Dolci, Germán

2014-01-01

16

El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer de EE. UU. y la República del Perú firman una Declaración de Intención  

Cancer.gov

El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer y la República del Perú firmaron una declaración de intención para compartir el interés en fomentar la investigación biomédica de oncología, basándose en la colaboración mutua de ambas entidades, así como el objetivo común de educar y capacitar la futura generación de científicos y clínicos en investigación oncológica.

17

El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer lanza el sitio en la Internet  

Cancer.gov

El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI, por sus siglas en ingls) anunci hoy el lanzamiento de Cancer.gov (http://www.cancer.gov), que ha sido mejorado significativamente, es muy fcil de navegar y brinda en un solo sitio toda la informacin sobre el cáncer

18

Los Alamos National Laboratory (USA): Instituto Mexicano Del Petroleo Cooperative Program for the ASPEN Flowsheet Simulator: Status Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On June 20, 1983, the Los Alamos National Laboratory, the US Department of Energy, and the Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (IMP) signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) that established a program of cooperation between the Los Alamos National Laborator...

T. T. Phillips

1987-01-01

19

[Seventy years of medicine in the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social].  

PubMed

The purpose of these lines is to remember and refer some of the historical landmarks in the evolution of the medical services of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS, according to its initials in Spanish) since it was founded, in 1943. We also want to bring to the reader's attention that the dimensions and impacts on health that IMSS has achieved, throughout its history, have strengthened the citizenship, as well as social sustainability. Also, those impacts have determined the creation and the reinforcement of human capital in México. Throughout this concise balance, all the controversy surrounding the foundation of the Institute is being recalled (the protest in the Mexico City Zócalo, or the attack to an hospital in San Ángel -a neighborhood located in the Southwest of Mexico City-), as well as the way the IMSS incorporated several words into the vocabulary of Mexicans. We also remember the previous antecedent of the Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, as well as the Revista de Enfermería, and the emblematic Archives of Medical Research. The IMSS has 70 years of achievements, seven decades covered. PMID:24758865

Fajardo-Ortiz, Guillermo

2014-01-01

20

Nuevo sitio web en español del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer, (NCI, por sus siglas en inglés) Cancer.gov en español - Silvia Inéz Salazar - transcript  

Cancer.gov

Transmisiones de radio para promover Cancer.gov en espa%XF1ol | Nuevo sitio web en espa%XF1ol del Instituto Nacional del C%XE1ncer, (NCI, por sus siglas en ingl%XE9s) Cancer.gov en espa%XF1ol | Transcripci%XF3n Transmisiones de radio para promover

21

Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer - 31 de enero de 2012  

Cancer.gov

Dr. Nils Daulaire Salud mundial a través de la colaboración y el liderazgo Para conmemorar el Día Mundial del Cáncer que tuvo lugar el 4 febrero, el doctor Nils Daulaire, director de la Oficina de Asuntos Internacionales del Departamento de Salud y Servicios Humanos de los Estados Unidos habla sobre las razones por las cuales los Estados Unidos deben participar en iniciativas para mejorar la salud mundial.

22

Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer - 11 de septiembre de 2012  

Cancer.gov

Con la ayuda de herramientas genéticas, investigadores han identificado subconjuntos de células que parecen impulsar el crecimiento de tumores en ratones. Estos resultados ofrecen factores adicionales que sustentan la hipótesis de la existencia de células madre del cáncer, es decir, la idea de que algunos tumores contienen células que se autorenuevan y dan origen a todo tipo de células tumorales.

23

El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) anuncia su nueva política de reuniones libres de humo de tabaco para abordar peligros graves de salud pública  

Cancer.gov

El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI), que forma parte de los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud, anunció hoy una nueva política que requiere que todas las reuniones y conferencias organizadas o financiadas principalmente por el NCI se lleven a cabo en un estado, condado, ciudad o pueblo que haya adoptado una política integral de ambientes libres de humo de tabaco, a menos que circunstancias especificas justifiquen la exención.

24

MEDICIÓN DE HABILIDADES DIRECTIVAS EN LOS INSTITUTOS TECNOLÓGICOS DEL SURESTE DE MÉXICO. AVANCE DE INVESTIGACIÓN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Se presentan los avances de la investigacion doctoral con los resultados del estudio piloto. En la primera fase se obtuvo la opinion de un grupo de expertos de las habilidades que requieren tener los jefes de deprtamento, los subdirectores y directores para desempeñarse en su funcion. En una segunda fase se toma una muestra representativa de los directivos de los

Gloria Pérez Garmendia; Francisco Gerardo Barroso Tanoira; José Juan Escalante Fernández; Hortensia Eliseo Dantes

2008-01-01

25

The Los Alamos National Laboratory (USA): Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo cooperative program for the ASPEN flowsheet simulator: Status report  

SciTech Connect

On June 20, 1983, the Los Alamos National Laboratory, the US Department of Energy, and the Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (IMP) signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) that established a program of cooperation between the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the IMP. This report describes the work done under Annex II of the MOU, which set up a program in the area of process simulation using the ASPEN flowsheet simulator. As a part of this program, two IMP engineers were trained at Los Alamos: one as an ASPEN system administrator and the other as an ASPEN applications engineer. After returning to Mexico, these engineers installed ASPEN on the IMP VAX computer and trained 30 other IMP engineers and scientists to use ASPEN. To date, IMP used ASPEN to simulate four major process plants. In addition, engineers from Los Alamos and IMP worked together during the summer of 1986 to develop an implementation of the UNIFAC method for predicting liquid-phase activity coefficients. The code was written and installed in ASPEN and has passed a series of initial test cases. The UNIFAC model will be released to the public domain when testing is complete. IMP has also developed and shared with Los Alamos some enhancements to a computer code that predicts physical property correlation constants for petroleum fractions. The success of the Los Alamos/IMP cooperative program for the ASPEN flowsheet simulator demonstrates that technology transfer can work in both directions. 18 refs.

Phillips, T.T.

1987-01-01

26

La democracia constitucional en América Latina y las evoluciones recientes del presidencialismo. Memorias Encuentro del Instituto Iberoamericano de Derecho Constitucional  

Microsoft Academic Search

Siempre será oportuno reflexionar sobre la democracia, su contenido, sus desafíos, su presente y su futuro, las transformaciones y percepciones que de ella se tienen. No son pocas las preocupaciones o inquietudes que la democracia suscita en esta parte del mundo, y muestra de ello son los más variados estudios e informes sobre el estado actual de la democracia y

Pedro Pablo Vanegas

27

Frequency of cancer in children residing in Mexico City and treated in the hospitals of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (1996-2001)  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this article is to present the frequency of cancer in Mexican children who were treated in the hospitals of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social in Mexico City (IMSS-MC) in the period 1996–2001. Methods The Registry of Cancer in Children, started in 1996 in the IMSS-MC, is an on-going, prospective register. The data from 1996 through 2001 were analyzed and the different types of cancer were grouped according to the International Classification for Cancer in Children (ICCC). From this analysis, the general and specific frequencies by age and by sex were obtained for the different groups of neoplasms. Also, the frequency of the stage of the disease that had been diagnosed in cases of children with solid tumors was obtained. Results A total of 1,702 new cases of children with cancer were registered, with the male/female ratio at 1.1/1. Leukemias had the highest frequency with 784 cases (46.1%) and, of these, acute lymphoblastic leukemias were the most prevalent with 614 cases (78.3%). Thereafter, in descending order of frequency, were tumors of the central nervous system (CNST) with 197 cases (11.6%), lymphomas with 194 cases (11.4%), germinal cell tumors with 110 cases (6.5%), and bone tumors with 97 cases (5.7%). The highest frequency of cancer was found in the group of one to four year-olds that had 627 cases (36.8%). In all the age groups, leukemias were the most frequent. In the present work, the frequency of Hodgkin's disease (~4%) was found to be lower than that (~10%) in previous studies and the frequency of tumors of the sympathetic nervous system was low (2.3%). Of those cases of solid tumors for which the stage of the disease had been determined, 66.9% were diagnosed as being Stage III or IV. Conclusions The principal cancers in the children treated in the IMSS-MC were leukemias, CNST, and lymphomas, consistent with those reported by developed countries. A 2.5-fold reduction in the frequency of Hodgkin's disease was found. Of the children, the stage of whose disease had been determined, two thirds were diagnosed as having advanced stages of the disease.

Juarez-Ocana, Servando; Gonzalez-Miranda, Guadalupe; Mejia-Arangure, Juan Manuel; Rendon-Macias, Mario Enrique; Martinez-Garcia, Maria del Carmen; Fajardo-Gutierrez, Arturo

2004-01-01

28

Estudio de los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud indica que quienes toman café tienen un riesgo menor de muerte  

Cancer.gov

Los adultos mayores que tomaron café, con o sin cafeína, tuvieron un riesgo menor de muerte en general que quienes no tomaron café, según un estudio llevado a cabo por investigadores del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI), parte de los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud, y por la Asociación Estadounidense de Personas Jubiladas (AARP).

29

Familiarity in Source Memory  

PubMed Central

Familiarity and recollection are thought to be separate processes underlying recognition memory. Event-related potentials (ERPs) dissociate these processes, with an early (approximately 300–500 ms) frontal effect relating to familiarity (the FN400) and a later (500–800 ms) parietal old/new effect relating to recollection. It has been debated whether source information for a studied item (i.e., contextual associations from when the item was previously encountered) is only accessible through recollection, or whether familiarity can contribute to successful source recognition. It has been shown that familiarity can assist in perceptual source monitoring when the source attribute is an intrinsic property of the item (e.g., an object’s surface color), but few studies have examined its contribution to recognizing extrinsic source associations. Extrinsic source associations were examined in three experiments involving memory judgments for pictures of common objects. In Experiment 1, source information was spatial and results suggested that familiarity contributed to accurate source recognition: the FN400 ERP component showed a source accuracy effect, and source accuracy was above chance for items judged to only feel familiar. Source information in Experiment 2 was an extrinsic color association; source accuracy was at chance for familiar items and the FN400 did not differ between correct and incorrect source judgments. Experiment 3 replicated the results using a within-subjects manipulation of spatial vs. color source. Overall, the results suggest that familiarity’s contribution to extrinsic source monitoring depends on the type of source information being remembered.

Mollison, Matthew V.; Curran, Tim

2012-01-01

30

Un/Familiar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What I put forward here is that the interpretative practices of the museum, whether they take the form of exhibitions, education programs, written texts or digital productions, are fashioned by relationships between the familiar and unfamiliar, which in turn both shape and are shaped by human understanding in general. The development of a new…

Meszaros, Cheryl

2008-01-01

31

First results of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias infrared camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have just finished the first tests at the telescope of an infrared camera designed and developed at the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC). This camera, based on a 256 X 256 focal plane array, has been built to operate at the 1.5 m Carlos Sanchez IR telescope (CST) in the Observatorio del Teide (Canary Islands, Spain). In this paper we describe the final configuration and performance of the camera. Some images taken during two telescope commissioning periods are shown.

Fuentes, F. Javier; Gonzalez, Juan C.; Cadavid, E.; Diaz, Jose J.; Hammersley, Peter; Hernandez, B.; Jimenez, J.; Joven-Alvarez, Enrique; Mampaso, A.; Manescau, Antonio; Martin, Carlos; Paez, E.; Espinosa, Jose M.; Rodriguez-Mora, A.; Rodriguez-Ramos, Luis F.; Sanchez, Vicente; Sosa, Nicolas A.; Williams, Mark R.

1995-06-01

32

Empresa Familiar, Mecanismos de Gobierno y Discrecionalidad Directiva  

Microsoft Academic Search

El presente trabajo analiza la interacci¢n entre los mecanismos de gobierno de la empresa ?estructura de propiedad, consejo de administraci¢n y deuda-, centr ndonos especialmente en el estudio de la estructura de propiedad, en concreto, el control familiar, como mecanismo de supervisi¢n y control de la direcci¢n. Tras comprobar que la propiedad familiar constituye un elemento disciplinador del equipo directivo,

Luis Castrillo Lara

2006-01-01

33

Gestión del conocimiento y desarrollo rural Enseñanzas a partir del estudio de caso de una empresa familiar innovadora y socialmente responsable en la producción orgánica de leche y lácteos en México  

Microsoft Academic Search

En la actualidad, la producción y transformación de alimentos son actividades en las que se articulan estrategias locales y globales. De frente a la sociedad del conocimiento, se requiere la incorporación de conocimiento en la generación de valor, en particular el conocimiento introducido mediante la gestión que desempeñan las empresas en su relación con instituciones de investigación y educación superior

Maria del Carmen del Valle Rivera

2010-01-01

34

Familiares a cargo de pacientes de cáncer (PDQ®)  

Cancer.gov

Sumario informativo revisado por expertos acerca de los desafíos que enfrentan los familiares a cargo de los pacientes con cáncer. Este resumen se centra en las funciones típicas y las inquietudes de las personas a cargo del paciente y en las intervenciones útiles para esas personas.

35

Contratos de alta dirección en empresas familiares  

Microsoft Academic Search

La presencia de la empresa familiar en el panorama empresarial español configura la realidad empresarial de nuestro país y su importancia es capital para el desarrollo de la economía española. Uno de los problemas más recurrentes en la bibliografía sobre empresa familiar es el tipo de contrato que vincula la empresa familiar con los miembros familiares que trabajan en ella.

Ignacio Contreras; Sandalio Gomez; Josep Tapies

2007-01-01

36

Preschoolers' Extension of Familiar Adjectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In two experiments, we examined the role of labels in guiding preschoolers' extension of three types of familiar adjectives: emotional state adjectives, physiological state adjectives, and trait adjectives. On each trial, we labeled a target animal with one of the three different types of adjectives and asked whether these terms could apply to a…

Graham, Susan A.; Cameron, Christopher L.; Welder, Andrea N.

2005-01-01

37

Linguistic Activities of the Instituto Caro y Cuervo.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Instituto Caro y Cuervo of Bogota, Colombia, named after two outstanding Colombian intellectuals, was established in 1942 primarily to complete the lexicographic work of Rufino Jose Cuervo. It has continued its work through several reorganizations, and in 1947 was charged with the study of the present state of the Spanish language in various…

Champion, James J.

38

EFICACIA EN LAS REUNIONES DE ACADEMIAS DE LOS INSTITUTOS TECNOLÓGICOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

La importancia que tienen los grupos de trabajo académicos para alcanzar objetivos que propicien la realización de investigación y desarrollo tecnológico en el Sistema Nacional de Institutos Tecnológicos hace imperativo su buen funcionamiento; de esto depende el poder alcanzar los objetivos o desviarse hacia actividades triviales. En ocasiones se realizan juntas pero no son productivas, con planeación defectuosa de las

Gloria Pérez Garmendia; Francisco Gerardo Barroso Tanoira; Concepción Mánica Zuccolotto

2007-01-01

39

El doctor Varmus dirigirá una institución "inigualable", afirma el director del NCI, doctor John Niederhuber  

Cancer.gov

En un mensaje dirigido al personal del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) y a quienes se interesan por la oncología, el doctor John Niederhuber, director del NCI, aplaude el nombramiento de Harold Varmus y afirma que esta designación le "dará al NCI un liderazgo fuerte no solo en la institución sino mas allá de ella, así como una voz muy respetada en el Congreso, que abogue por los recursos que son tan necesarios para sostener la misión del Instituto.

40

The Conscious, the Unconscious, and Familiarity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the role of subjective familiarity in the implicit and explicit learning of artificial grammars. Experiment 1 found that objective measures of similarity (including fragment frequency and repetition structure) predicted ratings of familiarity, that familiarity ratings predicted grammaticality judgments, and that the extremity…

Scott, Ryan B.; Dienes, Zoltan

2008-01-01

41

Vertical motion simulator familiarization guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Vertical Motion Simulator Familiarization Guide provides a synoptic description of the Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) and descriptions of the various simulation components and systems. The intended audience is the community of scientists and engineers who employ the VMS for research and development. The concept of a research simulator system is introduced and the building block nature of the VMS is emphasized. Individual sections describe all the hardware elements in terms of general properties and capabilities. Also included are an example of a typical VMS simulation which graphically illustrates the composition of the system and shows the signal flow among the elements and a glossary of specialized terms, abbreviations, and acronyms.

Danek, George L.

1993-01-01

42

Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer - 17 de julio de 2012  

Cancer.gov

La salud de los adolescentes y adultos jóvenes supervivientes de cáncer es peor que la salud de las personas que no tienen antecedentes de la enfermedad, y sus conductas son menos saludables, según un estudio. Estos supervivientes fuman más y se ejercitan menos, sufren una mayor cantidad de enfermedades crónicas, son obesos, tienen una salud mental y física precaria y enfrentan más obstáculos financieros para el acceso a la atención médica.

43

Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer - 4 de diciembre de 2012  

Cancer.gov

Los pacientes con cáncer avanzado que hablaron con sus médicos sobre su cuidado durante sus últimos días de vida en las etapas más tempranas de la enfermedad, recibieron un cuidado menos agresivo en su último mes de vida. Asimismo, tuvieron una probabilidad menor de usar servicios para enfermos terminales, según indican los resultados de un nuevo estudio.

44

Niveles de plomo sanguíneo en madres y recién nacidos derechohabientes del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To establish the relation between maternal blood lead (MBL) and umbilical cord blood lead (CBL) levels during delivery, and to determine the major predictors for MBL in women covered by the Mexican Institute of Social Security (MISS), in Mexico City. Material and methods. From 1991 to 1993, a cross-sectional study was conducted in four MISS hospitals, among normal pregnant

Joel Navarrete-Espinosa; Luz Helena Sanín-Aguirre; Celia Escandón-Romero; Guadalupe Benitez-Martínez; Gustavo Olaiz-Fernández; Mauricio Hernández-Avila

2000-01-01

45

Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer - 6 de noviembre de 2012  

Cancer.gov

Nuevos resultados de tres estudios clínicos resaltan la evolución de opciones de tratamiento para mujeres con cáncer de mama HER2 positivo. Estos cánceres, los cuales producen demasiada proteína HER2, constituyen una forma maligna de la enfermedad y representan aproximadamente 20 por ciento de todos los casos de cáncer de mama diagnosticados.

46

Happiness cools the glow of familiarity: Psychophysiological evidence that mood modulates the familiarity-affect link  

PubMed Central

People often prefer familiar stimuli, presumably because familiarity signals safety. This preference can occur with merely repeated “old” stimuli, but it is most robust with “new” but highly familiar prototypes of a known category (beauty-in-averages effect). However, is familiarity always warm? Tuning accounts of mood hold that positive mood signals a safe environment whereas negative mood signals an unsafe environment. Thus, the value of familiarity should depend on mood. We show that compared to a sad mood, a happy mood eliminates the preference for familiar stimuli, as shown in measures of self-reported liking and physiological measures of affect (EMG indicator of spontaneous smiling). The basic effect of exposure on preference and its modulation by mood were most robust on prototypes (category averages). All this occurs even though prototypes might be more familiar in a happy mood. We conclude that mood changes the hedonic implications of familiarity cues.

de Vries, Marieke; Holland, Rob W.; Chenier, Troy; Starr, Mark J.; Winkielman, Piotr

2010-01-01

47

Palatability, Familiarity, and Underage, Immoderate Drinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data gathered in a study of palatability (“liking”) and familiarity ratings of alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages by 350 subjects from 12 to 30 years of age included the usual number of drinks consumed. Blind ratings of palatability and familiarity for the beverages were tested for association with immoderate drinking (more than four for males, two for females). Palatability ratings were

Jim Lemon; Richard Stevenson; Peter Gates; Jan Copeland

2011-01-01

48

Palatability, Familiarity, and Underage, Immoderate Drinking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data gathered in a study of palatability ("liking") and familiarity ratings of alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages by 350 subjects from 12 to 30 years of age included the usual number of drinks consumed. Blind ratings of palatability and familiarity for the beverages were tested for association with immoderate drinking (more than four for males,…

Lemon, Jim; Stevenson, Richard; Gates, Peter; Copeland, Jan

2011-01-01

49

Prioritized Detection of Personally Familiar Faces  

PubMed Central

We investigated whether personally familiar faces are preferentially processed in conditions of reduced attentional resources and in the absence of conscious awareness. In the first experiment, we used Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) to test the susceptibility of familiar faces and faces of strangers to the attentional blink. In the second experiment, we used continuous flash interocular suppression to render stimuli invisible and measured face detection time for personally familiar faces as compared to faces of strangers. In both experiments we found an advantage for detection of personally familiar faces as compared to faces of strangers. Our data suggest that the identity of faces is processed with reduced attentional resources and even in the absence of awareness. Our results show that this facilitated processing of familiar faces cannot be attributed to detection of low-level visual features and that a learned unique configuration of facial features can influence preconscious perceptual processing.

Gobbini, Maria Ida; Gors, Jason D.; Halchenko, Yaroslav O.; Rogers, Courtney; Guntupalli, J. Swaroop; Hughes, Howard; Cipolli, Carlo

2013-01-01

50

Semantic priming of familiar songs.  

PubMed

We explored the functional organization of semantic memory for music by comparing priming across familiar songs both within modalities (Experiment 1, tune to tune; Experiment 3, category label to lyrics) and across modalities (Experiment 2, category label to tune; Experiment 4, tune to lyrics). Participants judged whether or not the target tune or lyrics were real (akin to lexical decision tasks). We found significant priming, analogous to linguistic associative-priming effects, in reaction times for related primes as compared to unrelated primes, but primarily for within-modality comparisons. Reaction times to tunes (e.g., "Silent Night") were faster following related tunes ("Deck the Hall") than following unrelated tunes ("God Bless America"). However, a category label (e.g., Christmas) did not prime tunes from within that category. Lyrics were primed by a related category label, but not by a related tune. These results support the conceptual organization of music in semantic memory, but with potentially weaker associations across modalities. PMID:22227862

Johnson, Sarah K; Halpern, Andrea R

2012-05-01

51

Familiares a cargo de pacientes de cáncer: funciones y desafíos (PDQ®)  

Cancer.gov

Sumario informativo revisado por expertos acerca de los desafíos que enfrentan los familiares a cargo de los pacientes con cáncer. Este resumen se centra en las funciones típicas y las inquietudes de las personas a cargo del paciente y en las intervenciones útiles para esas personas.

52

Both predictability and familiarity facilitate contour integration.  

PubMed

Research has shown that contour detection is impaired in the visual periphery for snake-shaped Gabor contours but not for circular and elliptical contours. This discrepancy in findings could be due to differences in intrinsic shape properties, including shape closure and curvature variation, as well as to differences in stimulus predictability and familiarity. In a detection task using only circular contours, the target shape is both more familiar and more predictable to the observer compared with a detection task in which a different snake-shaped contour is presented on each trial. In this study, we investigated the effects of stimulus familiarity and predictability on contour integration by manipulating and disentangling the familiarity and predictability of snakelike stimuli. We manipulated stimulus familiarity by extensively training observers with one particular snake shape. Predictability was varied by alternating trial blocks with only a single target shape and trial blocks with multiple target shapes. Our results show that both predictability and familiarity facilitated contour integration, which constitutes novel behavioral evidence for the adaptivity of the contour integration mechanism in humans. If familiarity or predictability facilitated contour integration in the periphery specifically, this could explain the discrepant findings obtained with snake contours as compared with circles or ellipses. However, we found that their facilitatory effects did not differ between central and peripheral vision and thus cannot explain that particular discrepancy in the literature. PMID:24879858

Sassi, Michaël; Demeyer, Maarten; Machilsen, Bart; Putzeys, Tom; Wagemans, Johan

2014-01-01

53

Ambient Dose Equivalent measured at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología Department of Nuclear Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ambient dose equivalent values were determined in several sites at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Departmento de Medicina Nuclear, using TLD-100 and TLD-900 thermoluminescent dosemeters. Additionally, ambient dose equivalent was measured at a corridor outside the hospitalization room for patients treated with 137Cs brachytherapy. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Laboratorio de Metrología, to known

O. Ávila; C. L. Torres-Ulloa; L. A. Medina; F. E. Trujillo-Zamudio; I. Gamboa de Buen; A. E. Buenfil; M. E. Brandan

2010-01-01

54

Violencia contra la mujer: conocimiento y actitud del personal médico del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Morelos, México  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To asses the affective, cognitive, and behavioral attitudes of healthcare providers at the Mexican Institute of Social Security (MISS) in Morelos, Mexico; to identify the institutional and medical practice barriers that hinder scree- ning and reference of battered women. Material and Me- thods. A cross-sectional study was conducted between September and December 1999. A self-administered ques- tionnaire was applied

Pablo Méndez-Hernández; Rosario Valdez-Santiago; Leonardo Viniegra-Velázquez; Leonor Rivera-Rivera; Jorge Salmerón-Castro

2003-01-01

55

Evidence for Dissociable Neural Mechanisms Underlying Inference Generation in Familiar and Less-Familiar Scenarios  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we investigated whether the left and right hemispheres are differentially involved in causal inference generation. Participants read short inference-promoting texts that described either familiar or less-familiar scenarios. After each text, they performed a lexical decision on a letter string (which sometimes constituted an…

Sundermeier, Brian A.; Virtue, Sandra M.; Marsolek, Chad J.; van den Broek, Paul

2005-01-01

56

Fomento de la investigación del cáncer en América Latina  

Cancer.gov

La Oficina para el Desarrollo de Programas de Cáncer en América Latina (OLACPD), fruto de una alianza innovadora entre el Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) y el Centro Internacional Fogarty (FIC), fue creada en reconocimiento de la oportunidad de apoyar y mejorar la investigación y el tratamiento del cáncer en América Latina.

57

El presidente Obama anuncia nombramiento del doctor Harold Varmus  

Cancer.gov

En los últimos cinco años como director del NCI, y en otras funciones ejercidas durante muchos años, he disfrutado ampliamente cada oportunidad que he tenido de visitar los laboratorios y las oficinas, desde Bethesda hasta Frederick, para conocer en persona a los miembros del personal y compartir mis opiniones sobre temas importantes en torno a la ciencia y al manejo de este gran Instituto.

58

The Warm Glow Heuristic: When Liking Leads to Familiarity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five studies demonstrate that the positive valence of a stimulus increases its perceived familiarity, even in the absence of prior exposure. For example, beautiful faces feel familiar. Two explanations for this effect stand out: (a) Stimulus prototypicality leads both to positivity and familiarity, and (b) positive affect is used to infer familiarity in a heuristic fashion. Studies 1 and 2

Benoît Monin

2003-01-01

59

Culturally familiar environment among immigrant Korean elders.  

PubMed

This study's purpose was to describe the concept of familiarity for immigrant Korean elders as expressed through clothing, objects, songs/music, foods, and associated feelings. A descriptive exploratory design with in-depth, face-to-face interviews was used. A convenience sample of 14 immigrant Korean elders, age 63 to 82 years, was recruited from a Korean senior apartment complex. Interviews were tape-recorded and then transcribed in Korean by the first author. Constant comparative analysis was used to derive eight themes related to feelings and practice associated with culturally familiar items: homesickness, comfort, pleasure, mixed feelings, attachment, pride, nostalgic practice, and essentiality. These findings about familiarity could be utilized with ethnic minority elders to enhance their sense of belonging and physical and psychological comfort. PMID:16758718

Son, Gwi-Ryung; Kim, Hye-Ryoung

2006-01-01

60

Familiar people recognition disorders: an introductory review.  

PubMed

The aim of this introduction is to provide a general background for the individual contributions dealing with different aspects of familiar people recognition disorders. Following are the main points considered in this survey: 1) the cognitive models proposed to explain the functional architecture of processes subsuming familiar people recognition; 2) the different roles of the right and left hemisphere in identifying people by face voice and name; 3) the anatomical structures and the cognitive processes involved in face and voice recognition; 4) the interactions that exist among the perceptual processes subsuming face and voice recognition, but not people's faces, voices and proper names; 5) the patterns of multimodal defects of familiar people recognition and their implications for current cognitive models. Finally, there is a short discussion of two models advanced to explain the role of the anterior temporal lobes in people recognition. PMID:24389261

Gainotti, Guido

2014-01-01

61

The cue-familiarity heuristic in metacognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four experiments contrasted the cue-familiarity hypothesis of feeling-of-knowing judgments (FKJs) and tip-of-the-tongue feelings (TOTs) to the target-retrievability hypothesis. Familiarity of the cues was contrasted to memorability of the targets in a paired-associate design (e.g., A-B A-B, A-B A-B', A-B A-D, A-B C-D), in which the number of repetitions of the cue A terms was dissociated from the memorability of the

Janet Metcalfe; Bennett L. Schwartz; Scott G. Joaquim

1993-01-01

62

The Instituto Gulbenkian de Ci?ncia and its Outreach  

PubMed Central

The Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência (IGC) is biomedical research institute that acts as a host institution for small research groups, in Portugal. Most of its activities reach out to the scientific community in several ways. The IGC organizes regular series of seminars with invited international speakers, workshops, courses and conferences, and an in-house PhD programme. Specific outreach needs had to be met in the two instances that are described here. GTPB The Gulbenkian Training Programme in Bioinformatics (GTPB) started as a regular activity in 1999 in response to the demand of users seeking opportunities to acquire hands-on practical skills in Bioinformatics in an effective way. Training provision in Bioinformatics requires the conciliation of a variety of interests into a series of highly effective training events, in which scientists can acquire skills and a high degree of independence in their usage. The GTPB programme currently offers more than 30 themes, of which 15 to 20 are chosen for single events in each year. The GTPB has provided training to more than 2000 researchers and students, so far. IGC Outreach A dedicated outreach programme targets science education and public engagement in science, for different audience groups. The aim of the outreach programme is to promote scientific literacy, foster careers in science and empower citizens to engage in cutting-edge biomedical research. Activities include Open Days, seminars and laboratory workshops for teachers, development of online, multimedia and hard-copy resources and experimental protocols to be used in schools, visits to schools with hands-on experiments and career talks by researchers and facility staff. Less conventional outreach activities include direct participation in venues for the general public (such a a music festival, for example) have created unexpected opportunities for fundraising and direct financial support for students engaged in research projects.

Leao, Maria Joao; Godinho, Ana; Fernandes, Pedro

2012-01-01

63

IEN (Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear) Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The low-level radioactive waste produced in Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear is generated basically from three distinct modes: a particle accelerator (CV-28 Cyclotron), radiochemistry laboratories, and the operation of a nuclear research reactor (Argonaut ...

A. C. S. Rocha J. L. S. Pina S. Silva J. J. G. Silva

1986-01-01

64

Commercial Use for Taro (A Project of the Instituto Matia Mulumba in Colombia).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The name of the organization for the project studied was the Instituto Matia Mulumba, a multipurpose agency which promotes the social, cultural and economic development of poor Black and Indian communities in the Pacific Coast region of Colombia. The proj...

B. Myers

1982-01-01

65

Ambient Dose Equivalent measured at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologi´a Department of Nuclear Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ambient dose equivalent values were determined in several sites at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologi´a, Departmento de Medicina Nuclear, using TLD-100 and TLD-900 thermoluminescent dosemeters. Additionally, ambient dose equivalent was measured at a corridor outside the hospitalization room for patients treated with 137Cs brachytherapy. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Laboratorio de Metrologi´a, to known

O. A´vila; C. L. Torres-Ulloa; L. A. Medina; F. E. Trujillo-Zamudio; I. Gamboa de Buen; A. E. Buenfil; M. E. Brandan

2010-01-01

66

Familiarity Enhances Visual Working Memory for Faces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although it is intuitive that familiarity with complex visual objects should aid their preservation in visual working memory (WM), empirical evidence for this is lacking. This study used a conventional change-detection procedure to assess visual WM for unfamiliar and famous faces in healthy adults. Across experiments, faces were upright or…

Jackson, Margaret C.; Raymond, Jane E.

2008-01-01

67

Facelock: familiarity-based graphical authentication  

PubMed Central

Authentication codes such as passwords and PIN numbers are widely used to control access to resources. One major drawback of these codes is that they are difficult to remember. Account holders are often faced with a choice between forgetting a code, which can be inconvenient, or writing it down, which compromises security. In two studies, we test a new knowledge-based authentication method that does not impose memory load on the user. Psychological research on face recognition has revealed an important distinction between familiar and unfamiliar face perception: When a face is familiar to the observer, it can be identified across a wide range of images. However, when the face is unfamiliar, generalisation across images is poor. This contrast can be used as the basis for a personalised ‘facelock’, in which authentication succeeds or fails based on image-invariant recognition of faces that are familiar to the account holder. In Study 1, account holders authenticated easily by detecting familiar targets among other faces (97.5% success rate), even after a one-year delay (86.1% success rate). Zero-acquaintance attackers were reduced to guessing (<1% success rate). Even personal attackers who knew the account holder well were rarely able to authenticate (6.6% success rate). In Study 2, we found that shoulder-surfing attacks by strangers could be defeated by presenting different photos of the same target faces in observed and attacked grids (1.9% success rate). Our findings suggest that the contrast between familiar and unfamiliar face recognition may be useful for developers of graphical authentication systems.

McLachlan, Jane L.; Renaud, Karen

2014-01-01

68

Preferring familiar emotions: As you want (and like) it?  

PubMed Central

Do people want to feel emotions that are familiar to them? In two studies, participants rated how much they typically felt various emotions (i.e., familiarity of the emotion) and how much they generally wanted to experience these emotions. We found that, in general, people wanted to feel pleasant emotions more than unpleasant emotions. However, for both pleasant and unpleasant emotions, people more (vs. less) familiar with an emotion also wanted to experience it more. Links between the familiarity of an emotion and wanting to experience that emotion were not explained by the concurrent experience of familiar emotions. Also, we show that although familiar emotions were also liked more, liking did not fully account for wanting familiar emotions. Finally, the familiarity of emotions mediated the links between trait affect and the emotions people wanted to feel. We propose that people are motivated to feel familiar emotions, in part, because of their instrumental value.

Ford, Brett Q.; Tamir, Maya

2014-01-01

69

Cálculo automatizado de la supervivencia relativa vía web. El proyecto WAERS del Instituto Catalán de Oncología  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most commonly used measure to estimate cancer survival is relative survival, defined as the ratio between observed and expected survival. Expected survival is computed on the basis of the mortality of a reference population. Mortality tables for the general population are not always available and their calculation requires specific software. For that purpose, the Catalan Institute of Oncology developed

Ramon Clèries; Josepa Ribes; Jordi Gálvez; Àngels Melià; Víctor Moreno; Francesc Xavier Bosch

2005-01-01

70

Las Ideas Eugenésicas en la Creación del Instituto de Medicina Social  

Microsoft Academic Search

EUGENIC IDEAS AND THE FOUNDATION OF THE INSTITUTE OF SOCIAL MEDICINE SUMMARY Here we discuss about the influence of eugenic ideas on the foundation and performance of the Faculty of Medicine Institute of Social Medicine (1927). Academic publications from 1910 to 1950, mainly those of Dr. Carlos Enrique Paz Soldan, support our analysis. In the first half of this century,

WALTER MENDOZA; OSCAR MARTÍNEZ

1999-01-01

71

Conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas sobre el tabaquismo en estudiantes de Enfermería y Obstetricia del Instituto \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of smoking in people in the phase of academic education is important considering that they will orientate about the risks of chronic diseases in the future. This cross-sectional observational descriptive study with an analytical component determined prevalence, characteristics of the smoking habit, knowledge and attitudes towards the smoking in students registered in 2007 in the Institute \\

Morel de Festner JC; Andrés Barbero

2008-01-01

72

General and Familiar Trust in Websites  

Microsoft Academic Search

When people rely on the web to gather and distribute information, they can build a sense of trust in the websites with which\\u000a they interact. Understanding the correlates of trust in most websites (general website trust) and trust in websites that one\\u000a frequently visits (familiar website trust) is crucial for constructing better models of risk perception and online behavior.\\u000a We

Coye Cheshire; Judd Antin; Karen S. Cook; Elizabeth Churchill

2010-01-01

73

Variation in Emergency Medical Technician Partner Familiarity  

PubMed Central

Objective To characterize patterns of Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) partner familiarity in three Emergency Medical Services (EMS) agencies. Study Design/Data Sources We utilized a case study design and retrospective review of administrative data from three EMS agencies and 182 EMTs over 12 months. We used the Kruskal–Wallis test and Bonferroni corrected p-values to compare measures of partner familiarity. Measures included the annual mean number of partners, rate of partners per 10 shifts, mean shifts per EMT, and proportion of shifts worked with same partner. We standardized select measures by size of agency to account for a greater number of possible partnerships in larger agencies. Principal Findings Across all agencies, the mean number of shifts worked annually by EMTs was (mean [SD]) 77.3 (59.8). The unstandardized mean number of EMT partnerships was 19.3 (12.4) and did not vary across EMS agencies after standardizing by agency size (p = .328). The unstandardized mean rate of EMT partnerships for every 10 shifts worked was 4.0 (2.7) and varied across agencies after standardizing (p<.001). The mean proportion of shifts worked with the same partner was 34.8 percent and varied across agencies (p<.001). Conclusions There was wide variation in select measures of EMT partner familiarity.

Daniel Patterson, P; Arnold, Robert M; Abebe, Kaleab; Lave, Judith R; Krackhardt, David; Carr, Matthew; Weaver, Matthew D; Yealy, Donald M

2011-01-01

74

Influence of group member familiarity on online collaborative learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of group member familiarity during computer- supported collaborative learning. Familiarity may have an impact on online collaboration, because it may help group members to progress more quickly through the stages of group development, and may lead to higher group cohesion. It was therefore hypothesized that increased familiarity would lead to (a) more critical and exploratory

Jeroen Janssen; Gijsbert Erkens; Paul A. Kirschner; Gellof Kanselaar

2009-01-01

75

Examiner Familiarity Effects for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined the difference in standardized test performance when familiar versus unfamiliar examiners tested 26 preschool and elementary-aged children with autism. The children were matched by age, severity, and developmental level and then randomly placed into familiar and unfamiliar examiner groups. Familiarity with the examiner was…

Szarko, Julia E.; Brown, Alec J.; Watkins, Marley W.

2013-01-01

76

Exploring Familiarity and Destination Choice in International Tourism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to identify the characteristics of prospective and experienced tourists to international tourism destinations. More specifically, this study examines how the differences in the level of familiarity with the host country (i.e., informational familiarity and experiential familiarity) influence sub-destination choice in terms of its scale and popularity. A survey was conducted with Korean nationals as

Geunhee Lee; Iis P. Tussyadiah

2012-01-01

77

Exploring Familiarity and Destination Choice in International Tourism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to identify the characteristics of prospective and experienced tourists to international tourism destinations. More specifically, this study examines how the differences in the level of familiarity with the host country (i.e., informational familiarity and experiential familiarity) influence sub-destination choice in terms of its scale and popularity. A survey was conducted with Korean nationals as

Geunhee Lee; Iis P. Tussyadiah

2011-01-01

78

Word-Form Familiarity Bootstraps Infant Speech Segmentation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At about 7 months of age, infants listen longer to sentences containing familiar words--but not deviant pronunciations of familiar words (Jusczyk & Aslin, 1995). This finding suggests that infants are able to segment familiar words from fluent speech and that they store words in sufficient phonological detail to recognize deviations from a…

Altvater-Mackensen, Nicole; Mani, Nivedita

2013-01-01

79

The Influence of Topic and Listener Familiarity on Aphasic Discourse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thirty-two subjects (5 Broca's, 7 conduction, and 10 anomic aphasics and 10 normal controls) performed story retell and procedural discourse tasks containing familiar and unfamiliar topics, with familiar and unfamiliar listeners. Results indicated that topic familiarity significantly influenced verbal output in both normal and aphasic subjects.…

Williams, Sarah E.; And Others

1994-01-01

80

El cuento del cáncer de cérvix podría tener un final feliz  

Cancer.gov

El cuento del cáncer de cérvix podría tener un final feliz Por el Instituto Nacional del Cáncer El cáncer de cérvix fue en un tiempo la causa principal de muerte por cáncer entre mujeres estadounidenses. Pero, en los últimos 50 años, el número de

81

Enlightenment, Education, and the Republican Project: Chile's "Instituto Nacional" (1810-1830)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article analyses the establishment of the "Instituto Nacional de Chile" between 1810 and 1830 as a crucial element of a political and cultural project advanced from an enlightened and republican elite. Its early inception in 1813 resulted from the necessity of consolidating a republican order, as shown by the different projects between 1810…

Baeza Ruz, Andres

2010-01-01

82

Se lanza Red Nacional de Estudios Clínicos del NCI  

Cancer.gov

El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) puso en marcha una nueva red de investigación de estudios clínicos con el objetivo de mejorar el tratamiento de más de 1,6 millones de estadounidenses que reciben un diagnóstico de cáncer cada año.

83

Role of the insular cortex in taste familiarity.  

PubMed

Determining the role of the main gustatory cortical area within the insular cortex (IC), in conditioned taste aversion (CTA) has been elusive due to effective compensatory mechanisms that allow animals to learn in spite of lacking IC. IC lesions performed before CTA training induces mild if any memory impairments, while IC lesions done weeks after CTA produce amnesia. IC lesions before taste presentation have also been shown not to affect taste familiarity learning (attenuation of neophobia). This lack of effect could be either explained by compensation from other brain areas or by a lack of involvement of the IC in taste familiarity. To assess this issue, rats were bilaterally IC lesioned with ibotenic acid (200-300 nl.; 15 mg/ml) one week before or after taste familiarity, using either a preferred (0.1%) or a non-preferred (0.5%) saccharin solution. Rats lesioned before familiarity showed a decrease in neophobia to both solutions but no difference in their familiarity curve or their slope. When animals were familiarized and then IC lesioned, both IC lesioned groups treated the solutions as familiar, showing no differences from sham animals in their retention of familiarity. However, both lesioned groups showed increased latent inhibition (or impaired CTA) when CTA trained after repeated pre-exposures. The role of the IC in familiarity was also assessed using temporary inactivation of the IC, using bilateral micro-infusions of sodium channel blocker bupivacaine before each of 3 saccharin daily presentations. Intra-insular bupivacaine had no effects on familiarity acquisition, but did impair CTA learning in a different group of rats micro-infused before saccharin presentation in a CTA training protocol. Our data indicate that the IC is not essentially involved in acquisition or retention of taste familiarity, suggesting regional dissociation of areas involved in CTA and taste familiarity. PMID:24296461

Moraga-Amaro, Rodrigo; Cortés-Rojas, Andrés; Simon, Felipe; Stehberg, Jimmy

2014-03-01

84

Assessing Recollection and Familiarity in Low Functioning Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Methods to assess recollection and familiarity separately in autism spectrum disorder were recently developed and piloted (Bigham et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 40:878-889, 2010). The preliminary data obtained via these methods showed that whereas recollection was mildly impaired in high functioning autism, familiarity was spared. The current study…

Ni Chuileann, Susan; Quigley, Jean

2013-01-01

85

When Do Infants Begin Recognizing Familiar Words in Sentences?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous studies have shown that by 11 but not by 10 months infants recognize words that have become familiar from everyday life independently of the experimental setting. This study explored the ability of 10-, 11-, and 12- month-old infants to recognize familiar words in sentential context, without experimental training. The headturn preference…

DePaolis, Rory A.; Vihman, Marilyn M.; Keren-Portnoy, Tamar

2014-01-01

86

Familiar-Strange: Teaching the Scripture as John Would Teach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Gospel of John teaches through telling the story of Jesus in light of the familiar Hebrew faith stories. It is an interpretive task that presents Jesus to his audience and teaches them adequate faith. John the Teacher skillfully uses narrative skills to create the familiar-strange effect in his storytelling. Each story is followed by a…

Ha, Tung-Chiew

2014-01-01

87

Recollection and Familiarity in Recognition Memory: Evidence from ROC Curves  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Does recognition memory rely on discrete recollection, continuous evidence, or both? Is continuous evidence sensitive to only the recency and duration of study (familiarity), or is it also sensitive to details of the study episode? Dual process theories assume recognition is based on recollection and familiarity, with only recollection providing…

Heathcote, Andrew; Raymond, Frances; Dunn, John

2006-01-01

88

Long-term familiarity promotes joining in neighbour nest defence  

PubMed Central

Familiarity plays an important role in the evolution of sociality and cooperation. Familiar individuals may gain a reputation for participating in, or defecting from, cooperative tasks. Previous research suggests that long-term familiarity with territorial neighbours benefits breeders. We tested the hypothesis that great tits (Parus major) are more likely to join in neighbours' nest defence if those neighbours are familiar from the previous year. We show that neighbours that shared a territory boundary the previous year are more likely to join their neighbours' nest defence than neighbours that did not share a boundary before. Closer neighbours did not differ from distant neighbours in their latency to join. For familiar neighbours that joined, there was no difference in call rate in relation to whether one or both members of the focal pair were familiar. First-time breeders (by definition unfamiliar) did not join each other's nest defence. This is the first evidence of a relationship between familiarity and joining in nest defence. Such direct benefits of familiarity may have important implications in the evolution of sociality.

Grabowska-Zhang, A. M.; Sheldon, B. C.; Hinde, C. A.

2012-01-01

89

Effect of familiar content on paragraph comprehension in aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Previous research has shown that context improves aphasic individuals' auditory comprehension. The specific contextual information that has been identified as beneficial includes semantic constraints, semantic plausibility, both predictive and non?predictive information, and familiar topics. However, context can also include familiar content such as the names of relatives, friends, local schools, and local stores.Aims: The purpose of the present study

Doreen Krackenfels Jones; Robert S. Pierce; Molly Mahoney; Kim Smeach

2007-01-01

90

Distinguishing Novelty and Familiarity Effects in Infant Preference Procedures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers possible problems researchers might face when interpreting the results of studies that employ variants of the preference procedure. Infants show a tendency to shift their preference from familiar to novel stimuli with increasing exposure to the familiar stimulus, a behaviour that is exploited by the habituation paradigm. This…

Houston-Price, Carmel; Nakai, Satsuki

2004-01-01

91

The Influence of Familiarity on Affective Responses to Natural Scenes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This kansei study explored how familiarity with image-word combinations influences affective states. Stimuli were obtained from Japanese print advertisements (ads), and consisted of images (e.g., natural-scene backgrounds) and their corresponding headlines (advertising copy). Initially, a group of subjects evaluated their level of familiarity with images and headlines independently, and stimuli were filtered based on the results. In the main experiment, a different group of subjects rated their pleasure and arousal to, and familiarity with, image-headline combinations. The Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) scale was used to evaluate pleasure and arousal, and a bipolar scale was used to evaluate familiarity. The results showed a high correlation between familiarity and pleasure, but low correlation between familiarity and arousal. The characteristics of the stimuli, and their effect on the variables of pleasure, arousal and familiarity, were explored through ANOVA. It is suggested that, in the case of natural-scene ads, familiarity with image-headline combinations may increase the pleasure response to the ads, and that certain components in the images (e.g., water) may increase arousal levels.

Sanabria Z., Jorge C.; Cho, Youngil; Yamanaka, Toshimasa

92

Revisiting the Novelty Effect: When Familiarity, Not Novelty, Enhances Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports of superior memory for novel relative to familiar material have figured prominently in recent theories of memory. However, such "novelty effects" are incongruous with long-standing observations that familiar items are remembered better. In 2 experiments, we explored whether this discrepancy was explained by differences in the type of…

Poppenk, J.; Kohler, S.; Moscovitch, M.

2010-01-01

93

As Atividades de Treinamento Em Sensoriamento Remoto No Instituto de Pesquisas Espaciais-Inpe/Brasil (Training Activities in Remote Sensing at the Instituto de Pesquisas Espaciais-Inpe/Brazil).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Institute for Space Research (Instituto de Pesquisas Espaciais - INPE) began its research program in remote sensing in 1972, with the launching of the American LANDSAT satellites. Research was developed mainly in the field of natural resources, throug...

T. M. Sausen R. Pereiradacunha

1988-01-01

94

Effect of facial familiarity and task requirement on electrodermal activity.  

PubMed

We examined the effect of facial familiarity and task requirement on electrodermal activity (EDA). Proposed models of facial recognition suggest a sequential process wherein a recognition of familiarity precedes any identity-specific search. Prior research has indicated that an automatic increase in EDA occurs to familiar faces. We reexamined this effect while manipulating the task requirement. One group of subjects was required to identify (name) faces, and a control group was required to rate facial attractiveness. The results indicated that an increase in EDA to familiar faces occurred only when coupled with the identification task. No increase in EDA occurred when subjects were rating facial attractiveness and presented with a familiar face. PMID:8714454

Shearer, D; Mikulka, P

1996-01-01

95

Intuitive reasoning about abstract and familiar physics problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previous research has demonstrated that many people have misconceptions about basic properties of motion. Two experiments examined whether people are more likely to produce dynamically correct predictions about basic motion problems involving situations with which they are familiar, and whether solving such problems enhances performance on a subsequent abstract problem. In experiment 1, college students were asked to predict the trajectories of objects exiting a curved tube. Subjects were more accurate on the familiar version of the problem, and there was no evidence of transfer to the abstract problem. In experiment 2, two familiar problems were provided in an attempt to enhance subjects' tendency to extract the general structure of the problems. Once again, they gave more correct responses to the familiar problems but failed to generalize to the abstract problem. Formal physics training was associated with correct predictions for the abstract problem but was unrelated to performance on the familiar problems.

Kaiser, Mary Kister; Jonides, John; Alexander, Joanne

1986-01-01

96

Memory Color Effect Induced by Familiarity of Brand Logos  

PubMed Central

Background When people are asked to adjust the color of familiar objects such as fruits until they appear achromatic, the subjective gray points of the objects are shifted away from the physical gray points in a direction opposite to the memory color (memory color effect). It is still unclear whether the discrepancy between memorized and actual colors of objects is dependent on the familiarity of the objects. Here, we conducted two experiments in order to examine the relationship between the degree of a subject’s familiarity with objects and the degree of the memory color effect by using logographs of food and beverage companies. Methods and Findings In Experiment 1, we measured the memory color effects of logos which varied in terms of their familiarity (high, middle, or low). Results demonstrate that the memory color effect occurs only in the high-familiarity condition, but not in the middle- and low-familiarity conditions. Furthermore, there is a positive correlation between the memory color effect and the actual number of domestic stores of the brand. In Experiment 2, we assessed the semantic association between logos and food/beverage names by using a semantic priming task to elucidate whether the memory color effect of logos relates to consumer brand cognition, and found that the semantic associations between logos and food/beverage names in the high-familiarity brands were stronger than those in the low-familiarity brands only when the logos were colored correctly, but not when they were appropriately or inappropriately colored, or achromatic. Conclusion The current results provide behavioral evidence of the relationship between the familiarity of objects and the memory color effect and suggest that the memory color effect increases with the familiarity of objects, albeit not constantly.

Kimura, Atsushi; Wada, Yuji; Masuda, Tomohiro; Goto, Sho-ichi; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Hibino, Haruo; Cai, Dongsheng; Dan, Ippeita

2013-01-01

97

GOBIERNO CORPORATIVO EN LA EMPRESA FAMILIAR. Una Arquitectura de Organización orientada a la supervivencia de la Empresa Familiar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Para superar la crisis de delegación y avanzar hacia nuevas etapas de desarrollo que faciliten la separación de la propiedad y el control, las Empresas Familiares necesitan realizar la consolidación de las instituciones de gobierno corporativo y familiar. En este trabajo progresamos sobre aspectos particulares de la arquitectura de la organización que facilitan la afirmación de dichas instituciones. Para ello

Ernesto A. Barugel

2012-01-01

98

Uneasy money: the Instituto Carlos Slim de la Salud, tobacco philanthropy and conflict of interest in global health  

Microsoft Academic Search

In May 2007, the Instituto Carso de la Salud—now Instituto Carlos Slim de la Salud (ICSS)—was endowed with US$500 million to focus on priority health issues in Latin America, notably issues of ‘globalisation and non-communicable diseases’. ICSS was soon criticised, however, on the grounds that its funding was derived from tobacco industry profits and that its founder Carlos Slim Hélu

Tiffany Burch; Nathaniel Wander; Jeff Collin

2010-01-01

99

EL TRASPATIO UN RECURSO LOCAL EN LOS SERVICIOS DE “TURISMO RURAL FAMILIAR” ALTERNATIVA DE DESARROLLO SUSTENTABLE MUNICIPAL - CASO: SAN CARLOS, TAMAULIPAS, MÈXICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Al turismo rural familiar, se le considera como alternativa de bienestar local y regional. Es un mecanismo de difusión de la riqueza natural y cultural del municipio a través de actividades cotidianas y fuente de ingresos a través de la prestación de servicios. Permite a los habitantes de la comunidad mejorar su nivel y calidad de vida, fortaleciendo a la

María Cecilia Montemayor Marín; Pedro Carlos Estrada Bellmann; Jane M. Packard; Eduardo Javier Treviño Garza; Horacio Villaón Mendoza

2007-01-01

100

Neural representation of face familiarity in an awake chimpanzee.  

PubMed

Evaluating the familiarity of faces is critical for social animals as it is the basis of individual recognition. In the present study, we examined how face familiarity is reflected in neural activities in our closest living relative, the chimpanzee. Skin-surface event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were measured while a fully awake chimpanzee observed photographs of familiar and unfamiliar chimpanzee faces (Experiment 1) and human faces (Experiment 2). The ERPs evoked by chimpanzee faces differentiated unfamiliar individuals from familiar ones around midline areas centered on vertex sites at approximately 200 ms after the stimulus onset. In addition, the ERP response to the image of the subject's own face did not significantly diverge from those evoked by familiar chimpanzees, suggesting that the subject's brain at a minimum remembered the image of her own face. The ERPs evoked by human faces were not influenced by the familiarity of target individuals. These results indicate that chimpanzee neural representations are more sensitive to the familiarity of conspecific than allospecific faces. PMID:24392287

Fukushima, Hirokata; Hirata, Satoshi; Matsuda, Goh; Ueno, Ari; Fuwa, Kohki; Sugama, Keiko; Kusunoki, Kiyo; Hiraki, Kazuo; Tomonaga, Masaki; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

2013-01-01

101

Age and the Neural Network of Personal Familiarity  

PubMed Central

Background Accessing information that defines personally familiar context in real-world situations is essential for the social interactions and the independent functioning of an individual. Personal familiarity is associated with the availability of semantic and episodic information as well as the emotional meaningfulness surrounding a stimulus. These features are known to be associated with neural activity in distinct brain regions across different stimulus conditions (e.g., when perceiving faces, voices, places, objects), which may reflect a shared neural basis. Although perceiving context-rich personal familiarity may appear unchanged in aging on the behavioral level, it has not yet been studied whether this can be supported by neuroimaging data. Methodology/Principal Findings We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neural network associated with personal familiarity during the perception of personally familiar faces and places. Twelve young and twelve elderly cognitively healthy subjects participated in the study. Both age groups showed a similar activation pattern underlying personal familiarity, predominantly in anterior cingulate and posterior cingulate cortices, irrespective of the stimulus type. The young subjects, but not the elderly subjects demonstrated an additional anterior cingulate deactivation when perceiving unfamiliar stimuli. Conclusions/Significance Although we found evidence for an age-dependent reduction in frontal cortical deactivation, our data show that there is a stimulus-independent neural network associated with personal familiarity of faces and places, which is less susceptible to aging-related changes.

Jurjanz, Luisa; Huebner, Thomas; Herold, Ulf; Baeumler, Damaris; Amanatidis, Eva C.; Poettrich, Katrin; Smolka, Michael N.; Holthoff, Vjera A.

2010-01-01

102

The shadow of familiarity: a contributor to the intersubjective field.  

PubMed

This paper examines the influence of familiarity on the progress of analysis. It is proposed that familiarity is a particular aspect of the intersubjective field which emerges over time and begins to shape and influence the behaviours, perceptions, thoughts, and feelings of the participants. It is also proposed that states of familiarity can have facilitative or defensive functions in an analytic relationship and that it is an influence co-created in the field. The experience of familiarity operates as background to our various foreground concerns in analytic work and therefore exists primarily as an implicit, rather than explicit, experience in analysis. Defensive familiarity often creates a feeling of relatedness that is subtly unrelated, a form of pseudo-intimacy. Parallels between defensive familiarity and related concepts are examined including defences against the unknown, role responsiveness, romantic love, the image of the stranger, and unformulated experience. This paper concludes with two case examples and a discussion of procedural knowledge in the implicit domain as an explanatory framework for the understanding of familiarity states in the analytic setting. PMID:22444355

Winborn, Mark

2012-04-01

103

When do infants begin recognizing familiar words in sentences?  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that by 11 but not by 10 months infants recognize words that have become familiar from everyday life independently of the experimental setting. This study explored the ability of 10-, 11-, and 12-month-old infants to recognize familiar words in sentential context, without experimental training. The headturn preference procedure was used to contrast passages containing words likely to be familiar to the infants with passages containing words unlikely to have been previously heard. Two stimulus words were inserted near the beginning and end of each of a set of simple sentence frames. The ability to recognize the familiar words within sentences emerged only at 12 months of age. The contrast between segmentation abilities as they emerge as a result of everyday exposure to language, as assessed here, and those abilities as measured in studies in which words are experimentally trained is discussed in terms of memory-based mechanisms. PMID:23253168

Depaolis, Rory A; Vihman, Marilyn M; Keren-Portnoy, Tamar

2014-01-01

104

Relations of familiarity with reasoning strategies in conspiracy beliefs.  

PubMed

The prevalence and resilience of conspiracy beliefs suggest that such beliefs may derive in part from general information-processing mechanisms. Two predictions were tested: conspiracy beliefs would increase as familiarity with the conspiracy increased, and conspiracy beliefs would rest in part on the perception of the alleged conspirators' motive. Participants read condensed versions of four real-life conspiracy theories of varying familiarity, rated their belief in the conspiracies, and explained their ratings. Although belief was not associated with familiarity, participants used different justifications for their beliefs about familiar and unfamiliar conspiracies, relying prominently on motive when the conspiracy was unfamiliar. Preliminary data suggested that participants' beliefs in conspiracies may have been equally strong when they reasoned only in terms of motive as when they reasoned in terms of documented evidence. An additional finding suggested also that beliefs in conspiracies may increase as affiliation with the victim of the alleged conspiracy increases. PMID:21117487

Bost, Preston R; Prunier, Stephen G; Piper, Allen J

2010-10-01

105

Does familiarity facilitate the cortical processing of music sounds?  

PubMed

Automatic cortical sound discrimination, as indexed by the mismatch negativity (MMN) component of the auditory evoked potential, is facilitated for familiar speech sounds (phonemes). In musicians as compared to non-musicians, an enhanced MMN has been observed for complex non-speech sounds. Here, musically trained subjects were presented with sequences of either familiar (tonal) or structurally matched unfamiliar (atonal) triad chords, both with either fixed or randomly transposed chord root pitch. The MMN elicited by deviant chords did not differ for familiar and unfamiliar triad sequences, and was undiminished even to unfamiliar deviant sounds which were consciously undetectable. Only subsequent attention-related components indicated facilitated cognitive processing of familiar sounds, corresponding to higher behavioral detection scores. PMID:15538177

Neuloh, Georg; Curio, Gabriel

2004-11-15

106

Neuropsychological correlates of recollection and familiarity in normal aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dual-process model of recognition memory proposed by Jacoby (1991; see also Mandler, 1980) postulates the existence of\\u000a two independent components of recognition memory: a conscious retrieval process (recollection) and an automatic component ( familiarity). Older adults appear to be impaired in recollection, but findings with respect to familiarity have been mixed. Studies of\\u000a the brain bases of these components,

Patrick S. R. Davidson; Elizabeth L. Glisky

2002-01-01

107

Reminiscence of My Time in Manuel's Group at the Instituto Pluridisciplinar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I joined Manuel's group at the Instituto Pluridisciplinar (IP) in April 1994. The year before, Manuel had been one of its cofounders at Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM). Although up to then I had not worked in fluid dynamics, he accepted me under the condition to build up a lab from scratch to carry out experiments on convection. I agreed enthusiastically, yet not every Ph.D. student has the opportunity to carry out his research in a new lab—and on top of this, a lab one has a lot of freedom to design.

Wierschem, A.

108

Music and Emotions in the Brain: Familiarity Matters  

PubMed Central

The importance of music in our daily life has given rise to an increased number of studies addressing the brain regions involved in its appreciation. Some of these studies controlled only for the familiarity of the stimuli, while others relied on pleasantness ratings, and others still on musical preferences. With a listening test and a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment, we wished to clarify the role of familiarity in the brain correlates of music appreciation by controlling, in the same study, for both familiarity and musical preferences. First, we conducted a listening test, in which participants rated the familiarity and liking of song excerpts from the pop/rock repertoire, allowing us to select a personalized set of stimuli per subject. Then, we used a passive listening paradigm in fMRI to study music appreciation in a naturalistic condition with increased ecological value. Brain activation data revealed that broad emotion-related limbic and paralimbic regions as well as the reward circuitry were significantly more active for familiar relative to unfamiliar music. Smaller regions in the cingulate cortex and frontal lobe, including the motor cortex and Broca's area, were found to be more active in response to liked music when compared to disliked one. Hence, familiarity seems to be a crucial factor in making the listeners emotionally engaged with music, as revealed by fMRI data.

Pereira, Carlos Silva; Teixeira, Joao; Figueiredo, Patricia; Xavier, Joao; Castro, Sao Luis; Brattico, Elvira

2011-01-01

109

Observation of Simple Intransitive Actions: The Effect of Familiarity  

PubMed Central

Introduction Humans are more familiar with index – thumb than with any other finger to thumb grasping. The effect of familiarity has been previously tested with complex, specialized and/or transitive movements, but not with simple intransitive ones. The aim of this study is to evaluate brain activity patterns during the observation of simple and intransitive finger movements with differing degrees of familiarity. Methodology A functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) study was performed using a paradigm consisting of the observation of 4 videos showing a finger opposition task between the thumb and the other fingers (index, middle, ring and little) in a repetitive manner with a fixed frequency (1 Hz). This movement is considered as the pantomime of a precision grasping action. Results Significant activity was identified in the bilateral Inferior Parietal Lobule and premotor regions with the selected level of significance (FDR [False Discovery Rate]?=?0.01). The extent of the activation in both regions tended to decrease when the finger that performed the action was further from the thumb. More specifically, this effect showed a linear trend (index>middle>ring>little) in the right parietal and premotor regions. Conclusions The observation of less familiar simple intransitive movements produces less activation of parietal and premotor areas than familiar ones. The most important implication of this study is the identification of differences in brain activity during the observation of simple intransitive movements with different degrees of familiarity.

Plata Bello, Julio; Modrono, Cristian; Marcano, Francisco; Gonzalez-Mora, Jose Luis

2013-01-01

110

Vulnerabilidad psicosocial del cuidador familiar. Creencias acerca del estado de salud del paciente neurológico y el sentimiento de sobrecarga  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe aim of this study is to evaluate the role of family caregiver's beliefs of health status of neurological patients and its relation with the feeling of burden, as psychosocial factors of risk for their well-being, from the psychological stress model proposed by Lazarus and Folkman.

Carolina Feldberg; María Florencia Tartaglini; María Alejandra Clemente; Gustavo Petracca; Fernando Cáceres; Dorina Stefani

2011-01-01

111

Assessing food neophobia: the role of stimulus familiarity.  

PubMed

The present study assesses the effects of food familiarity on food ratings of neophobics and neophilics by having them sample and evaluate familiar and novel foods. Level of neophobia was assessed using the Food Neophobia Scale (FNS). Participants rated their familiarity with each food, their willingness to try the foods and expected liking for the foods, as well as their actual liking for the foods after they were sampled. Willingness to try the foods again in the future, and the amount of food sampled were also assessed. Evaluations of the foods were more positive for familiar vs. unfamiliar foods across all study participants. The responses of neophobics and neophilics were similar for familiar foods, but differed when the foods were unfamiliar, with neophobics making more negative evaluations. Neophobics and neophilics differed least in their liking ratings of the stimuli that were made after the foods were actually sampled, and differed most in their ratings of willingness to try the foods. It is concluded that neophobics have different expectancies about unfamiliar foods, and that these expectancies influence food sampling and rating behaviors. The neophobic's negative attitude toward an unfamiliar food may be ameliorated, but is not eliminated, once sensory information about the food is obtained. PMID:10097030

Raudenbush, B; Frank, R A

1999-04-01

112

Route familiarity breeds inattention: a driving simulator study.  

PubMed

Inattention is a major cause of traffic accidents. Here, we show that, contrary to common-sense expectation, familiarity with a route is itself a source of driving impairment. This effect may be attributed to increased mind-wandering along familiar routes. In the present work, participants followed a vehicle along a route with which they were either familiar or unfamiliar. During the experimental session, the lead-vehicle braked at random locations, forcing participants to brake to avoid a collision. Participants were also required to respond with a button press when they noticed pedestrians heading toward the road from a sidewalk. In Experiment 1 we found that familiar drivers follow the lead vehicle more closely and are slower to notice approaching pedestrians. In Experiment 2, with following distance held constant, reaction times to central and peripheral events were longer for familiar drivers. Consistent with the mind-wandering hypothesis, all these effects were eliminated in Experiment 3 when drivers were made to focus on the driving task. PMID:23643937

Yanko, Matthew R; Spalek, Thomas M

2013-08-01

113

Timing and Tuning for Familiarity of Cortical Responses to Faces  

PubMed Central

Different kinds of known faces activate brain areas to dissimilar degrees. However, the tuning to type of knowledge, and the temporal course of activation, of each area have not been well characterized. Here we measured, with functional magnetic resonance imaging, brain activity elicited by unfamiliar, visually familiar, and personally-familiar faces. We assessed response amplitude and duration using flexible hemodynamic response functions, as well as the tuning to face type, of regions within the face processing system. Core face processing areas (occipital and fusiform face areas) responded to all types of faces with only small differences in amplitude and duration. In contrast, most areas of the extended face processing system (medial orbito-frontal, anterior and posterior cingulate) had weak responses to unfamiliar and visually-familiar faces, but were highly tuned and exhibited prolonged responses to personally-familiar faces. This indicates that the neural processing of different types of familiar faces not only differs in degree, but is probably mediated by qualitatively distinct mechanisms.

Bobes, Maria A.; Lage Castellanos, Agustin; Quinones, Ileana; Garcia, Lorna; Valdes-Sosa, Mitchell

2013-01-01

114

Familiarity, Ambivalence, and Firm Reputation: Is Corporate Fame a Double-Edged Sword?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research questioned the proposition that corporate familiarity is positively associated with firm reputation. Student images of familiar and unfamiliar Fortune 500 corporations were examined in 4 experiments. The results suggested that, consistent with behavioral decision theory and attitude theory, highly familiar corporations provide information that is more compatible with the tasks of both admiring and condemning than less familiar

Margaret E. Brooks; Scott Highhouse; Steven S. Russell; David C. Mohr

2003-01-01

115

How familiarization and repetition modulate the picture naming network.  

PubMed

A common strategy to reveal the components of the speech production network is to use psycholinguistic manipulations previously tested in behavioral protocols. This often disregards how implementation aspects that are nonessential for interpreting behavior may affect the neural response. We compared the electrophysiological (EEG) signature of two popular picture naming protocols involving either unfamiliar pictures without repetitions or repeated familiar pictures. We observed significant semantic interference effects in behavior but not in the EEG, contrary to some previous findings. Remarkably, the two protocols elicited clearly distinct EEG responses. These were not due to naming latency differences nor did they reflect a homogeneous modulation of amplitude over the trial time-window. The effect of protocol is attributed to the familiarization induced by the first encounter with the materials. Picture naming processes can be substantially modulated by specific protocol requirements controlled by familiarity and, to a much lesser degree, the repetition of materials. PMID:24785306

Llorens, Anaïs; Trébuchon, Agnès; Riès, Stéphanie; Liégeois-Chauvel, Catherine; Alario, F-Xavier

2014-06-01

116

[The Bernardino Álvarez Farm Hospital and Farm School: antecedents to Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía].  

PubMed

By 1960, México's Manicomio General (General Asylum) could no longer fulfill the functions for which it was created so implementation of the so-called Castañeda Operation began, an initiative designed to close down and relocate psychiatric patients to other institutions. At that time, Dr. Manuel Velasco-Suárez was in charge of the General Direction of Neurology, Mental Health and Rehabilitation, and planned to create the Institute of Neurology on a site he already possessed for its construction. The Asylum was a dependency of the aforementioned Direction and Velasco- Suárez decided that some patients at the Castañeda could be moved to the old hacienda house that stood on that terrain. Thus was born the Bernardino Álvarez Farm Hospital. A year later, in 1961, the Farm School for the Weak-Minded, also named Bernardino Álvarez was established there as well. This paper examines the history of these two institutions as antecedents to the Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía. PMID:24687360

Rodríguez-de Romo, Ana Cecilia; Castañeda-López, Gabriela

2013-01-01

117

Observations with the Real Instituto y Observatorio de la Armada CCD transit circle in Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Real Instituto y Observatorio de la Armada (ROA) meridian circle was moved to the Estación de Altura Carlos Ulrrico Cesco in the República Argentina in 1996. Until November 1999 the observations were carried out with a moving slit micrometer. In spring 2001 the result of these observations has been published, forming the first Hispano-Argentinian Meridian Catalogue (HAMC). In December 1999 was installed a SpectraSource CCD camera of 1552×1024 pixels of 9 ?. The CCD camera observes in drift scan mode. A survey of the southern hemisphere is being observed from +3° to -60° of declination. In this contribution is presented a description of the telescope and the automatic control system, the results of observations carried out with the slit micrometer, and the observational and preliminary reduction techniques with the CCD camera, the present state of the southern hemisphere survey and the future possibilities.

Muiños, J. I.; Belizón, F.; Vallejo, M.; Mallamaci, C.; Pérez, J. A.

118

Catalogue of the type material of Phlebotominae (Diptera, Psychodidae) deposited in the Instituto Evandro Chagas, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Abstract The available type material of Phlebotominae (Diptera, Psychodidae) deposited in the “Coleção de Flebotomíneos” of the Instituto Evandro Chagas (ColFleb IEC) is now presented in an annotated catalogue comprising a total of 121 type specimens belonging to 12 species as follow: Nyssomyia richardwardi (2 female paratypes), Nyssomyia shawi (9 male and 25 female paratypes), Nyssomyia umbratilis (female holotype and 1 female paratype), Nyssomyia yuilli yuilli (1 male and 1 female paratypes), Pintomyia gruta (1 male and 2 female paratypes), Psychodopygus lainsoni (2 male syntypes), Psychodopygus leonidasdeanei (male holotype, female “allotype” and 45 female paratypes), Psychodopygus llanosmartinsi (2 female paratypes), Psychodopygus wellcomei (1 male and 4 female “syntypes”), Trichophoromyia readyi (male holotype, female “allotype” and 1 male paratype), Trichophoromyia adelsonsouzai (male holotype, 13 male 5 female paratypes), and Trichophoromyia brachipyga (1 male paratype).

dos Santos, Thiago Vasconcelos; Pinheiro, Maria Sueli Barros; de Andrade, Andrey Jose

2014-01-01

119

Ambient Dose Equivalent measured at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología Department of Nuclear Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ambient dose equivalent values were determined in several sites at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Departmento de Medicina Nuclear, using TLD-100 and TLD-900 thermoluminescent dosemeters. Additionally, ambient dose equivalent was measured at a corridor outside the hospitalization room for patients treated with 137Cs brachytherapy. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Laboratorio de Metrología, to known 137Cs gamma radiation air kerma. Radionuclides considered for this study are 131I, 18F, 67Ga, 99mTc, 111In, 201Tl and 137Cs, with main gamma energies between 93 and 662 keV. Dosemeters were placed during a five month period in the nuclear medicine rooms (containing gamma-cameras), injection corridor, patient waiting areas, PET/CT study room, hot lab, waste storage room and corridors next to the hospitalization rooms for patients treated with 131I and 137Cs. High dose values were found at the waste storage room, outside corridor of 137Cs brachytherapy patients and PET/CT area. Ambient dose equivalent rate obtained for the 137Cs brachytherapy corridor is equal to (18.51+/-0.02)×10-3 mSv/h. Sites with minimum doses are the gamma camera rooms, having ambient dose equivalent rates equal to (0.05+/-0.03)×10-3 mSv/h. Recommendations have been given to the Department authorities so that further actions are taken to reduce doses at high dose sites in order to comply with the ALARA principle (as low as reasonably achievable).

Ávila, O.; Torres-Ulloa, C. L.; Medina, L. A.; Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.; de Buen, I. Gamboa; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E.

2010-12-01

120

Ambient Dose Equivalent measured at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia Department of Nuclear Medicine  

SciTech Connect

Ambient dose equivalent values were determined in several sites at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Departmento de Medicina Nuclear, using TLD-100 and TLD-900 thermoluminescent dosemeters. Additionally, ambient dose equivalent was measured at a corridor outside the hospitalization room for patients treated with {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Laboratorio de Metrologia, to known {sup 137}Cs gamma radiation air kerma. Radionuclides considered for this study are {sup 131}I, {sup 18}F, {sup 67}Ga, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 111}In, {sup 201}Tl and {sup 137}Cs, with main gamma energies between 93 and 662 keV. Dosemeters were placed during a five month period in the nuclear medicine rooms (containing gamma-cameras), injection corridor, patient waiting areas, PET/CT study room, hot lab, waste storage room and corridors next to the hospitalization rooms for patients treated with {sup 131}I and {sup 137}Cs. High dose values were found at the waste storage room, outside corridor of {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy patients and PET/CT area. Ambient dose equivalent rate obtained for the {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy corridor is equal to (18.51{+-}0.02)x10{sup -3} mSv/h. Sites with minimum doses are the gamma camera rooms, having ambient dose equivalent rates equal to (0.05{+-}0.03)x10{sup -3} mSv/h. Recommendations have been given to the Department authorities so that further actions are taken to reduce doses at high dose sites in order to comply with the ALARA principle (as low as reasonably achievable).

Avila, O. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, AP 18-1027, 11801, DF (Mexico); Torres-Ulloa, C. L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, AP 18-1027, 11801, DF (Mexico); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 70-542, 04510, DF (Mexico); Medina, L. A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 20-364, 01000, DF (Mexico); Unidad de Investigacion Biomedica en Cancer INCan-UNAM, Av. San Fernando 22 C.P. 14080 (Mexico); Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E. [Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia (INCan), Av. San Fernando 22, C.P. 14080 (Mexico); Gamboa de Buen, I. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 70-543, 04510 DF (Mexico); Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 20-364, 01000, DF (Mexico)

2010-12-07

121

Nurturing Global Listeners: Increasing Familiarity and Appreciation for World Englishes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The acknowledgment of world Englishes highlights the need for engendering greater linguistic flexibility among students and educators. Pertaining to listening, such flexibility can be addressed partially through materials and experiences providing increased familiarity with varieties of world Englishes. Examples of world Englishes should be…

Morrison, Richard; White, Mathew

2005-01-01

122

Music and Emotions in the Brain: Familiarity Matters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of music in our daily life has given rise to an increased number of studies addressing the brain regions involved in its appreciation. Some of these studies controlled only for the familiarity of the stimuli, while others relied on pleasantness ratings, and others still on musical preferences. With a listening test and a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

Carlos Silva Pereira; João Teixeira; Patrícia Figueiredo; João Xavier; São Luís Castro; Elvira Brattico

2011-01-01

123

Prefrontal Control of Familiarity and Recollection in Working Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) is a critical neural substrate for the resolution of proactive interference (PI) in working memory. We hypothesized that left IFG achieves this by controlling the influence of familiarity- versus recollection-based information about memory probes. Consistent with this idea, we observed evidence for an "early" (200…

Feredoes, Eva; Postle, Bradley R.

2010-01-01

124

Electrophysiological Signals of Familiarity and Recency in the Infant Brain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Electrophysiological work in nonhuman primates has established the existence of multiple types of signals in the temporal lobe that contribute to recognition memory, including information regarding a stimulus's relative novelty, familiarity, and recency of occurrence. We used high-density event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine whether young…

Snyder, Kelly A.; Garza, John; Zolot, Liza; Kresse, Anna

2010-01-01

125

Color preference and familiarity in performance on brand logo recall.  

PubMed

Two experiments assessed effects of color preference and brand-logo familiarity on recall performance. Exp. 1 explored the color preferences, using a forced-choice technique, of 189 women and 63 men, Taiwanese college students ages 18 to 20 years (M = 19.4, SD = 1.5). The sequence of the three most preferred colors was white, light blue, and black and of the three least preferred colors was light orange, dark violet, and dark brown. Exp. 2 investigated the effects of color preference based on the results of Exp. 1 and brand-logo familiarity on recall. A total of 27 women and 21 men, Taiwanese college students ages 18 to 20 years (M = 19.2, SD = 1.2) participated. They memorized a list of 24 logos (four logos shown in six colors) and then performed sequential recall. Analyses showed color preference significantly affected recall accuracy. Accuracy for high color preference was significantly greater than that for low preferences. Results showed no significant effects of brand-logo familiarity or sex on accuracy. In addition, the interactive effect of color preference and brand-logo familiarity on accuracy was significant. These results have implications for the design of brand logos to create and sustain memory of brand images. PMID:19093619

Huang, Kuo-Chen; Lin, Chin-Chiuan; Chiang, Shu-Ying

2008-10-01

126

A Multidimensional Scaling Model Accommodating Differential Stimulus Familiarity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A multidimensional scaling procedure is introduced that attempts to derive a spatial representation of stimuli unconfounded by the effect of subjects' degrees of familiarity with these stimuli. A Monte Carlo study investigating the extent to which the procedure recovers known parameters shows that the procedure succeeds in adjusting for…

Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; DeSarbo, Wayne S.; Wedel, Michel

1998-01-01

127

Familiar Sports and Activities Adapted for Multiply Impaired Persons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Means of adapting some familiar and popular physical activities for multiply impaired persons are described. Games reviewed are dice baseball, one base baseball, in-house bowling, wheelchair bowling, ramp bowling, swing-ball bowling, table tennis, shuffleboard, beanbag bingo and tic-tac-toe, balloon basketball, circle football, and wheelchair…

Schilling, Mary Lou, Ed.

1984-01-01

128

Assessing the Dissociability of Recollection and Familiarity in Recognition Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognition memory is often modeled as constituting 2 separate processes, recollection and familiarity, rather than as constituting a single process mediated by a generic latent strength. One way of stating evidence for the more complex 2-process model is to show dissociations with select manipulations, in which one manipulation affects…

Pratte, Michael S.; Rouder, Jeffrey N.

2012-01-01

129

Alteration of adults' subjective feeling of familiarity toward infants' sounds.  

PubMed

Many adults may have lower subjective feelings of familiarity toward infants' vocalizations since infants' sounds are different from those of adults. However, mothers frequently exposed to infants' vocalizations may be more familiar and less averse. To test this hypothesis, 21 mothers (M age = 31.1 yr., SD = 4.3) of infants (M age = 8.2 mo., SD = 3.5), 18 mothers (M age = 34.4 yr., SD = 4.8) of children between two and five years of age (M age = 2.8 yr., SD = 1.0), and 17 women (M age = 29.2 yr., SD = ll.1) with no children were exposed to 20 types of sounds. Of these sounds, 14 were produced by infants. Although the mothers of infants did not recognize sounds as those of an infant's vocalization, they showed higher subjective feelings of familiarity toward the timbres of the vowel-like stimuli than did the other groups. By contrast, the subjective feelings of familiarity for nonspeech sounds did not differ among groups. Maternal experiences may change women's recognition of perceived sounds. PMID:18986049

Shimada, Y; Itakura, S

2008-08-01

130

Effect of late familiarization on human mating preferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male and female students were asked to select from groups of photographs projected on slides the individual preferred as a mate in a long?term husband?wife relationship. The students were later shown some of the same photographs several times to familiarize them with these individuals. The students were subsequently shown the same groups of photographs from which they initially indicated mating

Thomas H. Thelen

1988-01-01

131

The Sensorimotor Contributions to Implicit Memory, Familiarity, and Recollection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The sensorimotor contributions to memory for prior occurrence were investigated. Previous research has shown that both implicit memory and familiarity draw on gains in stimulus-related processing fluency for old, compared with novel, stimuli, but recollection does not. Recently, it has been demonstrated that processing fluency itself resides in…

Topolinski, Sascha

2012-01-01

132

The Role of Decision Support in Alleviating the Familiarity Bias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decision support systems (DSS) have been designed in part to help circumvent human cognitive biases that hinder effective decision making. One bias that has been overlooked in the area of DSS is the familiarity bias. It has been researched primarily for making probability comparisons in the field of social psychology and for making investment decisions in finance, and it has

Kent Marett; Garry Adams

2006-01-01

133

Category Typicality, Cultural Familiarity, and the Development of Category Knowledge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A total of 30 kindergarten and second, fourth, and sixth grade students from Taiwan and the United States were asked to make category inclusion and typicality judgments for 6 categories. Findings suggested that cultural familiarity with instances plays an important role in the development of category knowledge. (RH)

Lin, Pei-Jung; And Others

1990-01-01

134

Sensitivity to orthographic familiarity in the occipito-temporal region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The involvement of the left hemisphere occipito-temporal (OT) junction in reading has been established, yet there is current controversy over the region's specificity for reading and the nature of its role in the reading process. Recent neuroimaging findings suggest that the region is sensitive to orthographic familiarity [Kronbichler, M., Bergmann, J., Hutzler, F., Staffen, W., Mair, A., Ladurner, G., Wimmer,

Jennifer Lynn Bruno; Allison Zumberge; Franklin R. Manis; Zhong-Lin Lu; Jason G. Goldman

2008-01-01

135

Sustained Effects of Adaptation on the Perception of Familiar Faces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Figural aftereffects are commonly believed to be transient and to fade away in the course of milliseconds. We tested face aftereffects using familiar faces and found sustained effects lasting up to 1 week. In 3 experiments, participants were first exposed to distorted pictures of famous persons and then had to select the veridical face in a…

Carbon, Claus-Christian; Ditye, Thomas

2011-01-01

136

The Contributions of Talker Familiarity and Individual Talker Characteristics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article details a two-phase study investigating the relative contributions of talker-familiarity and talker-intelligibility to L2 listening comprehension by learners in a classroom setting. Students from beginning to low-intermediate German FL classes participated in German language listening tasks, being exposed to speech by their German…

Schierloh, Maren; Hayes-Harb, Rachel

2008-01-01

137

The Effect of Conceptual and Contextual Familiarity on Transfer Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Applying a previously learned concept to a novel problem is an important but difficult process called transfer. It is suggested that a commonsense analogy aids in transfer by linking novel concepts to familiar ones. How the context of practice affects transfer when learning using analogies is still unclear. This study investigated the effect of a…

Kulasegaram, Kulamakan; Min, Cynthia; Ames, Kimberly; Howey, Elizabeth; Neville, Alan; Norman, Geoffrey

2012-01-01

138

Effects of Adult Familiarity on Social Behaviours in Angelman Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Individuals with Angelman syndrome appear strongly motivated by social contact, but there have been few studies that have examined the relationship between sociability and familiarity. In this study we compared social behaviour in Angelman syndrome when in contact with mothers and strangers. Methods: We systematically manipulated adult…

Mount, R.; Oliver, C.; Berg, K.; Horsler, K.

2011-01-01

139

The name of the journal fame game: Quality or familiarity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comments on D. Koulack and H. J. Keselman's ranking of psychology journals by American Psychological Association members and argues that there is a familiarity bias in addition to perceived journal quality. The same is true of K. C. Mace and H. D. Warner's (1973) survey of department chairpersons.

Joel R. Levin; Thomas R. Kratochwill

1976-01-01

140

Adjustment to change in familiar and unfamiliar task constraints.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the rate of adjustment to changes in task constraints that are familiar and unfamiliar when a change in the pattern of sequencing of segmental movements is not required. The selected task was underwater flutter kicking with flippers (familiar) and without flippers (unfamiliar). Nine male competitive age-group swimmers were assigned either to an unfamiliar "leg flipper" task, a familiar "foot flipper" task or a "control" group to perform five trials without flippers (all groups), 60 trials with flippers, and a post-test comprising 10 trials without flippers (all groups). Kinematic variables were calculated from digitized video data. Whether the movement pattern was appropriate for the task was indicated by the percent power in the fundamental Fourier frequency harmonic of the vertical oscillations of the hip, knee, and ankle, and by a "velocity index" that was defined as the ratio of the hip-to-knee and knee-to-ankle velocities of the fundamental Fourier waveform. Adjustment to reproduce the appropriate movement pattern occurred within the first block of 10 trials regardless of whether the constraints were familiar or unfamiliar. However, optimal performance in terms of swimming speed was not obtained following change to the unfamiliar constraint until after 10 trials. PMID:19296364

Sanders, Ross; Li, Shuping; Hamill, Joseph

2009-04-01

141

Effective Approaches to Disorientation Familiarization for Aviation Personnel.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Techniques are discussed for providing familiarization of aviation personnel with disorientation problems (dizziness). Procedures are spelled out in detail. Methods of modifying existing equipment as well as an evaluation of available commercial equipment, are presented. The techniques have been used with notable success both at the Civil…

Collins, William E.

142

Assessing Student Interest and Familiarity with Professional Psychology Specialty Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined undergraduate psychology students' (N = 83) self-reported interest in and familiarity with five specialty areas in professional psychology: counseling psychology, clinical psychology, school psychology, forensic psychology, and criminal profiling. Results suggest that although students are quite interested in careers…

Stark-Wroblewski, Kimberly; Wiggins, Tina L.; Ryan, Joseph J.

2006-01-01

143

Prejudice, Social Distance, and Familiarity with Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the paths between two prejudicial atti- tudes (authoritarianism and benevolence) and a proxy measure of behavioral discrimination (social distance) were examined in a sample drawn from the general public Moreover, the effects of two person variables (familiarity with mental illness and ethnicity) on prej- udice were examined in the path analysis. One hun- dred fifty-one research participants

Patrick W. Corrigan; Annette Backs Edwards; Amy Qreen; Sarah Lickey Thwart; David L. Perm

144

Sustained Effects of Adaptation on the Perception of Familiar Faces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Figural aftereffects are commonly believed to be transient and to fade away in the course of milliseconds. We tested face aftereffects using familiar faces and found sustained effects lasting up to 1 week. In 3 experiments, participants were first exposed to distorted pictures of famous persons and then had to select the veridical face in a 2-alternative forced choice task.

Claus-Christian Carbon; Thomas Ditye

2011-01-01

145

Domain familiarity as a cue for judgments of learning.  

PubMed

Students differ in how much they already know about topics within and across their courses. Few studies, however, have examined the relationship between participants' levels of knowledge across topics (i.e., their "domain familiarity") and their learning of information from those topics, their study choices related to those topics, and their subjective self-assessments of their learning about the topics. As such, in two studies we had participants (Study 1, college students; Study 2, Mturk workers) rank their domain familiarity for several to-be-studied domains (e.g., chemistry, history), rate their efficacy and interest in those domains, study and make judgments of learning (JOLs) for facts from each domain, and finally complete a short-answer test over those facts. Participants' efficacy and interest ratings for the topics were linearly related to their topic rankings, as were their recall of and JOLs for facts from those domains. Although the JOLs were consistently overconfident, they were more overconfident for better-known than for lesser-known topics. Participants' study times were not related to their topic rankings (Studies 1 and 2), but participants did use domain familiarity to strategically decide which domains to restudy before the test (Study 2). Participants typically chose to restudy their least-familiar topics, but chose to restudy their best-known topic under extremely limited restudy conditions. As a whole, the results suggest that participants effectively use their domain familiarity as a basis for their JOLs and restudy choices, but to some extent overuse this factor to assess their learning, and underuse it to guide initial study. PMID:24072595

Shanks, Lindzi L; Serra, Michael J

2014-04-01

146

Familiarity modulates mirror neuron and mentalizing regions during intention understanding.  

PubMed

Recent research suggests that the inference of others' intentions from their observed actions is supported by two neural systems that perform complementary roles. The human putative mirror neuron system (pMNS) is thought to support automatic motor simulations of observed actions, with increased activity for previously experienced actions, whereas the mentalizing system provides reflective, non-intuitive reasoning of others' perspectives, particularly in the absence of prior experience. In the current fMRI study, we show how motor familiarity with an action and perceptual familiarity with the race of an actor uniquely modulate these two systems. Chinese participants were asked to infer the intentions of actors performing symbolic gestures, an important form of non-verbal communication that has been shown to activate both mentalizing and mirror neuron regions. Stimuli were manipulated along two dimensions: (1) actor's race (Caucasian vs. Chinese actors) and (2) participants' level of experience with the gestures (familiar or unfamiliar). We found that observing all gestures compared to observing still images was associated with increased activity in key regions of both the pMNS and mentalizing systems. In addition, observations of one's same race generated greater activity in the posterior pMNS-related regions and the insula than observations of a different race. Surprisingly, however, familiar gestures more strongly activated regions associated with mentalizing, while unfamiliar gestures more strongly activated the posterior region of the pMNS, a finding that is contrary to prior literature and demonstrates the powerful modulatory effects of both motor and perceptual familiarity on pMNS and mentalizing regions when asked to infer the intentions of intransitive gestures. PMID:20882581

Liew, Sook-Lei; Han, Shihui; Aziz-Zadeh, Lisa

2011-11-01

147

Visual laterality in dolphins: importance of the familiarity of stimuli  

PubMed Central

Background Many studies of cerebral asymmetries in different species lead, on the one hand, to a better understanding of the functions of each cerebral hemisphere and, on the other hand, to develop an evolutionary history of hemispheric laterality. Our animal model is particularly interesting because of its original evolutionary path, i.e. return to aquatic life after a terrestrial phase. The rare reports concerning visual laterality of marine mammals investigated mainly discrimination processes. As dolphins are migrant species they are confronted to a changing environment. Being able to categorize new versus familiar objects would allow dolphins a rapid adaptation to novel environments. Visual laterality could be a prerequisite to this adaptability. To date, no study, to our knowledge, has analyzed the environmental factors that could influence their visual laterality. Results We investigated visual laterality expressed spontaneously at the water surface by a group of five common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in response to various stimuli. The stimuli presented ranged from very familiar objects (known and manipulated previously) to familiar objects (known but never manipulated) to unfamiliar objects (unknown, never seen previously). At the group level, dolphins used their left eye to observe very familiar objects and their right eye to observe unfamiliar objects. However, eyes are used indifferently to observe familiar objects with intermediate valence. Conclusion Our results suggest different visual cerebral processes based either on the global shape of well-known objects or on local details of unknown objects. Moreover, the manipulation of an object appears necessary for these dolphins to construct a global representation of an object enabling its immediate categorization for subsequent use. Our experimental results pointed out some cognitive capacities of dolphins which might be crucial for their wild life given their fission-fusion social system and migratory behaviour.

2012-01-01

148

Familiarity, ambivalence, and firm reputation: is corporate fame a double-edged sword?  

PubMed

This research questioned the proposition that corporate familiarity is positively associated with firm reputation. Student images of familiar and unfamiliar Fortune 500 corporations were examined in 4 experiments. The results suggested that, consistent with behavioral decision theory and attitude theory, highly familiar corporations provide information that is more compatible with the tasks of both admiring and condemning than less familiar corporations. Furthermore, the judgment context may determine whether positive or negative judgments are reported about familiar companies. The notion that people can simultaneously hold contradictory images of well-known firms may help to explain the inconsistent findings on the relation between familiarity and reputation. PMID:14516252

Brooks, Margaret E; Highhouse, Scott; Russell, Steven S; Mohr, David C

2003-10-01

149

The Effect of Playmate Familiarity on the Social Interactions of Young Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of peer familiarity on social interactions were studied by observing pairs of preschool children who were either familiar or unfamiliar with each other in 50-minute free-play sessions. (CM)

Doyle, Anna-Beth; And Others

1980-01-01

150

Exploring recollection and familiarity impairments in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

There is conflicting evidence on whether patients diagnosed with Parkinson's disease (PD) have cognitive deficits associated with episodic memory and particularly with recognition memory. The aim of the present study was to explore whether PD patients exhibit deficits in recollection and familiarity, the two processes involved in recognition. A sample of young healthy participants (22) was tested to verify that the experimental tasks were useful estimators of recognition processes. Two further samples-one of elderly controls (16) and one of PD patients (20)-were the main focus of this research. All participants were exposed to an associative recognition test aimed at estimating recollection followed by a two-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) test designed to estimate familiarity. The analyses showed a deficit in associative recognition in PD patients and no difference between elderly controls and PD patients in the 2AFC test. By contrast, young healthy participants were better than elderly controls and PD patients in both components of recognition. Further analyses of results of the 2AFC test indicated that the measure chosen to estimate conceptual familiarity was adequate. PMID:24766315

Rodríguez, Lucía-Azahara; Algarabel, Salvador; Escudero, Joaquín

2014-06-01

151

The impacts of perceived fit, brand familiarity, and status consciousness on fashion brand extension evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined how strongly consumers’ evaluations of vertical and horizontal fashion brand extensions are influenced by perceived fit, brand familiarity and status consciousness. Data were collected from 187 female consumers aged 18 and older who were familiar with Giorgio Armani, the parent brand chosen for this study. Regression analyses revealed that brand familiarity was a positive predictor of vertical

Soyoung Kim; Hyunjong Chung

2012-01-01

152

Temporal Aspects of the Feeling of Familiarity for Music and the Emergence of Conceptual Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We tested whether the emergence of familiarity to a melody may trigger or co-occur with the processing of the concept(s) conveyed by emotions to, or semantic association with, the melody. With this objective, we recorded ERPs while participants were presented with highly familiar and less familiar melodies in a gating paradigm. The ERPs time…

Daltrozzo, Jerome; Tillmann, Barbara; Platel, Herve; Schon, Daniele

2010-01-01

153

Familiarity breeds dissent: Reliability analyses for British-English idioms on measures of familiarity, meaning, literality, and decomposability.  

PubMed

To date, there have been several attempts made to build a database of normative data for English idiomatic expressions (e.g., Libben & Titone, 2008; Titone & Connine, 1994), however, there has been some discussion in the literature as to the validity and reliability of the data obtained, particularly for decomposability ratings. Our work aimed to address these issues by looking at ratings from native and non-native speakers and to extend the deeper investigation and analysis of decomposability to other aspects of idiomatic expressions, namely familiarly, meaning and literality. Poor reliability was observed on all types of ratings, suggesting that rather than decomposability being a special case, individual variability plays a large role in how participants rate idiomatic phrases in general. Ratings from native and non-native speakers were positively correlated and an analysis of covariance found that once familiarity with an idiom was accounted for, most of the differences between native and non-native ratings were not significant. Overall, the results suggest that individual experience with idioms plays an important role in how they are perceived and this should be taken into account when selecting stimuli for experimental studies. Furthermore, the results are suggestive of the inability of speakers to inhibit the figurative meanings for idioms that they are highly familiar with. PMID:24747270

Nordmann, Emily; Cleland, Alexandra A; Bull, Rebecca

2014-06-01

154

Sex differences in attraction to familiar and unfamiliar opposite-sex faces: men prefer novelty and women prefer familiarity.  

PubMed

Familiarity is attractive in many types of stimuli and exposure generally increases feelings of liking. However, men desire a greater number of sexual partners than women, suggesting a preference for novelty. We examined sex differences in preferences for familiarity. In Study 1 (N = 83 women, 63 men), we exposed individuals to faces twice and found that faces were judged as more attractive on the second rating, reflecting attraction to familiar faces, with the exception that men's ratings of female faces decreased on the second rating, demonstrating attraction to novelty. In Studies 2 (N = 42 women, 28 men) and 3 (N = 51 women, 25 men), exposure particularly decreased men's ratings of women's attractiveness for short-term relationships and their sexiness. In Study 4 (N = 64 women, 50 men), women's attraction to faces was positively related to self-rated similarity to their current partner's face, while the effect was significantly weaker for men. Potentially, men's attraction to novelty may reflect an adaptation promoting the acquisition of a high number of sexual partners. PMID:23740467

Little, Anthony C; DeBruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C

2014-07-01

155

A neural mechanism underlying mating preferences for familiar individuals in medaka fish.  

PubMed

Social familiarity affects mating preference among various vertebrates. Here, we show that visual contact of a potential mating partner before mating (visual familiarization) enhances female preference for the familiarized male, but not for an unfamiliarized male, in medaka fish. Terminal-nerve gonadotropin-releasing hormone 3 (TN-GnRH3) neurons, an extrahypothalamic neuromodulatory system, function as a gate for activating mating preferences based on familiarity. Basal levels of TN-GnRH3 neuronal activity suppress female receptivity for any male (default mode). Visual familiarization facilitates TN-GnRH3 neuron activity (preference mode), which correlates with female preference for the familiarized male. GnRH3 peptides, which are synthesized specifically in TN-GnRH3 neurons, are required for the mode-switching via self-facilitation. Our study demonstrates the central neural mechanisms underlying the regulation of medaka female mating preference based on visual social familiarity. PMID:24385628

Okuyama, Teruhiro; Yokoi, Saori; Abe, Hideki; Isoe, Yasuko; Suehiro, Yuji; Imada, Haruka; Tanaka, Minoru; Kawasaki, Takashi; Yuba, Shunsuke; Taniguchi, Yoshihito; Kamei, Yasuhiro; Okubo, Kataaki; Shimada, Atsuko; Naruse, Kiyoshi; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Oka, Yoshitaka; Kubo, Takeo; Takeuchi, Hideaki

2014-01-01

156

STS-95 crew members participate in a SPACEHAB familiarization exercise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

(Left to right) STS-95 Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, who represents the European Space Agency (ESA), Mission Commander Curtis Brown Jr., and Mission Specialist Stephen Robinson, Ph.D., chat during SPACEHAB familiarization at the SPACEHAB Payload Processing Facility, Cape Canaveral. The mission, scheduled to launch Oct. 29, includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

1998-01-01

157

Neural Correlates of Familiarity-Based Associative Retrieval  

PubMed Central

The current study compared the neural correlates of associative retrieval of compound (unitized) stimuli and unrelated (non-unitized) stimuli. Although associative recognition was nearly identical for compounds and unrelated pairs, accurate recognition of these different pair types was associated with activation in distinct regions within the medial temporal lobe (MTL). Recognition of previously presented compound words was associated with left perirhinal activity, whereas recognition of unrelated word pairs was associated with activity in left hippocampus. These results provide evidence that perirhinal cortex mediates familiarity-based associative memory of stimuli unitized at encoding, while the hippocampus is required for recollection-based associative memory.

Ford, Jaclyn Hennessey; Verfaellie, Mieke; Giovanello, K.S.

2010-01-01

158

Interdisciplinary Unit: La Isla del Encanto (The Enchanted Island).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents a series of 14 lesson plans in an interdisciplinary Spanish unit on "La isla del encanto/The Enchanted Island." The materials were prepared for students in grades 5 or 6 who have had basic Spanish instruction in previous grades. The students should also be familiar with basic concepts in English such as math computation, map…

Ford-Guerrera, Rebecca

159

Two separate, but interacting, neural systems for familiarity and novelty detection: A dual-route mechanism.  

PubMed

It has long been assumed that familiarity- and novelty-related processes fall on a single continuum drawing on the same cognitive and neural mechanisms. The possibility that familiarity and novelty processing involve distinct neural networks was explored in a functional magnetic resonance imaging study (fMRI), in which familiarity and novelty judgments were made in contexts emphasizing either familiarity or novelty decisions. Parametrically modulated BOLD responses to familiarity and novelty strength were isolated in two separate, nonoverlapping brain networks. The novelty system involved brain regions along the ventral visual stream, the hippocampus, and the perirhinal and parahippocampal cortices. The familiarity system, on the other hand, involved the dorsomedial thalamic nucleus, and regions within the medial prefrontal cortex and the medial and lateral parietal cortex. Convergence of the two networks, treating familiarity and novelty as a single continuum was only found in a fronto-parietal network. Finally, the orbitomedial prefrontal cortex was found to be sensitive to reported strength/confidence, irrespective of stimulus' familiarity or novelty. This pattern of results suggests a dual-route mechanism supported by the existence of two distinct but interacting functional systems for familiarity and novelty. Overall, these findings challenge current assumptions regarding the neural systems that support the processing of novel and familiar information, and have important implications for research into the neural bases of recognition memory. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24436072

Kafkas, Alexandros; Montaldi, Daniela

2014-05-01

160

The dilemmas of a scientific tradition: higher education, science, and public health at the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 1908-1953.  

PubMed

The article analyzes the tradition in medical and scientific teaching that was established at the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz starting in 1908, introducing an innovative standard in training researchers and public health workers that combined teaching and research activities. Forerunner of the university model, this tradition came up against the question of what social role the institute should play in the new institutional organization of public health and education implemented during the Vargas era: should the Institute serve public health or adopt a university-like format? PMID:22872396

Azevedo, Nara; Ferreira, Luiz Otávio

2012-06-01

161

Familiarity is related to conceptual implicit memory: An examination of individual differences  

PubMed Central

Explicit memory is thought to be distinct from implicit memory. However growing evidence indicates that explicit familiarity-based recognition memory judgments rely on the same process that supports conceptual implicit memory. We tested this hypothesis by examining individual differences using a paradigm wherein we measured both familiarity and conceptual implicit memory within the same participants. In Experiments 1a–b, we examined recognition memory confidence ROCs and remember/know responses, respectively, to estimate recollection and familiarity, and used a free association task to measure conceptual implicit memory. Results demonstrated that, across subjects, familiarity, but not recollection, was significantly correlated with conceptual priming. In contrast, in Experiment 2, utilizing a similar paradigm, a comparison of recognition memory ROCs and explicit associative cued recall performance indicated that cued recall was related to both recollection and familiarity. These results are consistent with models assuming that familiarity-based recognition and conceptual implicit memory rely on similar underlying processes.

Wang, Wei-chun; Yonelinas, Andrew P.

2014-01-01

162

Predictive codes of familiarity and context during the perceptual learning of facial identities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Face recognition is a key component of successful social behaviour. However, the computational processes that underpin perceptual learning and recognition as faces transition from unfamiliar to familiar are poorly understood. In predictive coding, learning occurs through prediction errors that update stimulus familiarity, but recognition is a function of both stimulus and contextual familiarity. Here we show that behavioural responses on a two-option face recognition task can be predicted by the level of contextual and facial familiarity in a computational model derived from predictive-coding principles. Using fMRI, we show that activity in the superior temporal sulcus varies with the contextual familiarity in the model, whereas activity in the fusiform face area covaries with the prediction error parameter that updated facial familiarity. Our results characterize the key computations underpinning the perceptual learning of faces, highlighting that the functional properties of face-processing areas conform to the principles of predictive coding.

Apps, Matthew A. J.; Tsakiris, Manos

2013-11-01

163

Familiarity is related to conceptual implicit memory: An examination of individual differences  

PubMed Central

Explicit memory is thought to be distinct from implicit memory. However, growing evidence has indicated that explicit familiarity-based recognition memory judgments rely on the same process that supports conceptual implicit memory. We tested this hypothesis by examining individual differences using a paradigm wherein we measured both familiarity and conceptual implicit memory within the same participants. In Experiments 1a and 1b, we examined recognition memory confidence ROCs and remember/know responses, respectively, to estimate recollection and familiarity, and used a free association task to measure conceptual implicit memory. The results demonstrated that, across participants, familiarity, but not recollection, was significantly correlated with conceptual priming. In contrast, in Experiment 2, utilizing a similar paradigm, a comparison of recognition memory ROCs and explicit associative cued-recall performance indicated that cued recall was related to both recollection and familiarity. These results are consistent with models assuming that familiarity-based recognition and conceptual implicit memory rely on similar underlying processes.

Wang, Wei-chun; Yonelinas, Andrew P.

2012-01-01

164

STS-95 crew members participate in a SPACEHAB familiarization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-95 crew members look over the Osteoporosis Experiment in Orbit (OSTEO) during a SPACEHAB familiarization tour and briefing in the SPACEHAB Payload Processing Facility in Cape Canaveral. Seated from left are Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai of the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), and Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., who also is a senator from Ohio. Standing, from left, are STS-95 Commander Curtis L. Brown and Canadian Space Agency representative Duncan Burnside. STS-95 will feature a variety of research payloads, including the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, and experiments on space flight and the aging process. STS-95 is targeted for an Oct. 29 launch aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery.

1998-01-01

165

Identification and Classification of Facial Familiarity in Directed Lying: An ERP Study  

PubMed Central

Recognizing familiar faces is essential to social functioning, but little is known about how people identify human faces and classify them in terms of familiarity. Face identification involves discriminating familiar faces from unfamiliar faces, whereas face classification involves making an intentional decision to classify faces as “familiar” or “unfamiliar.” This study used a directed-lying task to explore the differentiation between identification and classification processes involved in the recognition of familiar faces. To explore this issue, the participants in this study were shown familiar and unfamiliar faces. They responded to these faces (i.e., as familiar or unfamiliar) in accordance with the instructions they were given (i.e., to lie or to tell the truth) while their EEG activity was recorded. Familiar faces (regardless of lying vs. truth) elicited significantly less negative-going N400f in the middle and right parietal and temporal regions than unfamiliar faces. Regardless of their actual familiarity, the faces that the participants classified as “familiar” elicited more negative-going N400f in the central and right temporal regions than those classified as “unfamiliar.” The P600 was related primarily with the facial identification process. Familiar faces (regardless of lying vs. truth) elicited more positive-going P600f in the middle parietal and middle occipital regions. The results suggest that N400f and P600f play different roles in the processes involved in facial recognition. The N400f appears to be associated with both the identification (judgment of familiarity) and classification of faces, while it is likely that the P600f is only associated with the identification process (recollection of facial information). Future studies should use different experimental paradigms to validate the generalizability of the results of this study.

Sun, Delin; Chan, Chetwyn C. H.; Lee, Tatia M. C.

2012-01-01

166

FUSION: a plan for developing a familiar user-system interface for the IC fabrication industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author discusses the concept of developing a set of industry guidelines for a familiar user-system interface (USI) for IC-fabrication equipment called FUSION (familiar user-system interface operation). A familiar USI across the industry would allow process engineers, operators, and service technicians to learn only one set of interface conventions. Successful standardization would lead to reduced training and operational errors, faster

Dwight P. Miller

1990-01-01

167

Recognition memory: opposite effects of hippocampal damage on recollection and familiarity  

PubMed Central

A major controversy in memory research concerns whether recognition is subdivided into distinct cognitive mechanisms of recollection and familiarity that are supported by different neural substrates. Here we developed a new associative recognition protocol for rats that enabled us to show that recollection is reduced, whereas familiarity is increased following hippocampal damage. These results provide strong evidence that these processes are qualitatively different and that the hippocampus supports recollection and not familiarity.

Sauvage, Magdalena M; Fortin, Norbert J; Owens, Cullen B; Yonelinas, Andrew P; Eichenbaum, Howard

2010-01-01

168

Sex-specific responses to sexual familiarity, and the role of olfaction in Drosophila.  

PubMed

Studies of mating preferences have largely neglected the potential effects of individuals encountering their previous mates ('directly sexually familiar'), or new mates that share similarities to previous mates, e.g. from the same family and/or environment ('phenotypically sexually familiar'). Here, we show that male and female Drosophila melanogaster respond to the direct and phenotypic sexual familiarity of potential mates in fundamentally different ways. We exposed a single focal male or female to two potential partners. In the first experiment, one potential partner was novel (not previously encountered) and one was directly familiar (their previous mate); in the second experiment, one potential partner was novel (unrelated, and from a different environment from the previous mate) and one was phenotypically familiar (from the same family and rearing environment as the previous mate). We found that males preferentially courted novel females over directly or phenotypically familiar females. By contrast, females displayed a weak preference for directly and phenotypically familiar males over novel males. Sex-specific responses to the familiarity of potential mates were significantly weaker or absent in Orco(1) mutants, which lack a co-receptor essential for olfaction, indicating a role for olfactory cues in mate choice over novelty. Collectively, our results show that direct and phenotypic sexual familiarity is detected through olfactory cues and play an important role in sex-specific sexual behaviour. PMID:24068355

Tan, Cedric K W; Løvlie, Hanne; Greenway, Elisabeth; Goodwin, Stephen F; Pizzari, Tommaso; Wigby, Stuart

2013-11-22

169

The Relationship Between Text Comprehension and Second Language Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition: A Matter of Topic Familiarity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examines the relationship between second language (L2) passage comprehension and intake (form recognition), gain (meaning recognition and production), and retention of new lexical items from the passages. The effect of topic familiarity on the above relationships is also examined. Participants were a cross-sectional sample of L2 learners. All participants read more and less familiar script- based narratives containing

Diana Pulido

2004-01-01

170

The Impact of Familiarity and Reputation on Consumer Trust in E-Commerce  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lack of trust is one of the most important factors slowing down the growth of B2C electronic commerce. When rules and customs are not sufficient, consumers rely on familiarity and reputation as primary mechanisms to reduce transaction uncertainty. This study validates the impacts of perceived familiarity and perceived reputation on consumer trust in B2C electronic commerce. A research model is

Gongan Yao; Qi Li

2008-01-01

171

The Role of Familiarity in Determining Typicality. Technical Report No. 250.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

M.H. Ashcraft found that people tend to know more properties of items they rate as typical of a category than of items they rate as atypical, suggesting that variations in typicality result from variations in familiarity. Three experiments were designed to challenge this suggestion. The first investigated whether familiarity is necessarily…

Malt, Barbara C.; Smith, Edward E.

172

Effect of relation availability on the interpretation and access of familiar noun–noun compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments investigate whether relations that link the constituents of compounds during compound formation (e.g., teapot is formed by combining tea and pot using the relation head noun FOR modifier) also influence the processing of familiar compounds. Although there is evidence for the use of such relations in forming compounds, whether such relations affect the processing of familiar compounds is

Christina L Gagné; Thomas L Spalding

2004-01-01

173

Recognition Memory: Adding a Response Deadline Eliminates Recollection but Spares Familiarity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A current controversy in memory research concerns whether recognition is supported by distinct processes of familiarity and recollection, or instead by a single process wherein familiarity and recollection reflect weak and strong memories, respectively. Recent studies using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses in an animal model have…

Sauvage, Magdalena M.; Beer, Zachery; Eichenbaum, Howard

2010-01-01

174

Problems in Depth Perception: Perceived Size and Distance of Familiar Objects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Judgments of the distance of familiar objects, especially other aircraft, are critical aspects of flight safety. In this study, the perception of distance as a function of the retinal size of a familiar object was investigated by simulating a stationary o...

W. C. Gogel H. W. Mertens

1966-01-01

175

The effects of familiarization on intelligibility and lexical segmentation in hypokinetic and ataxic dysarthria  

PubMed Central

This study is the third in a series that has explored the source of intelligibility decrement in dysarthria by jointly considering signal characteristics and the cognitive–perceptual processes employed by listeners. A paradigm of lexical boundary error analysis was used to examine this interface by manipulating listener constraints with a brief familiarization procedure. If familiarization allows listeners to extract relevant segmental and suprasegmental information from dysarthric speech, they should obtain higher intelligibility scores than nonfamiliarized listeners, and their lexical boundary error patterns should approximate those obtained in misperceptions of normal speech. Listeners transcribed phrases produced by speakers with either hypokinetic or ataxic dysarthria after being familiarized with other phrases produced by these speakers. Data were compared to those of nonfamiliarized listeners [Liss et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 107, 3415–3424 (2000)]. The familiarized groups obtained higher intelligibility scores than nonfamiliarized groups, and the effects were greater when the dysarthria type of the familiarization procedure matched the dysarthria type of the transcription task. Remarkably, no differences in lexical boundary error patterns were discovered between the familiarized and nonfamiliarized groups. Transcribers of the ataxic speech appeared to have difficulty distinguishing strong and weak syllables in spite of the familiarization. Results suggest that intelligibility decrements arise from the perceptual challenges posed by the degraded segmental and suprasegmental aspects of the signal, but that this type of familiarization process may differentially facilitate mapping segmental information onto existing phonological categories.

Liss, Julie M.; Spitzer, Stephanie M.; Caviness, John N.; Adler, Charles

2014-01-01

176

Anatomical segregation of representations of personally familiar and famous people in the temporal and parietal cortices.  

PubMed

Person recognition has been assumed to entail many types of person-specific cognitive responses, including retrieval of knowledge, episodic recollection, and emotional responses. To demonstrate the cortical correlates of this modular structure of multimodal person representation, we investigated neural responses preferential to personally familiar people and responses dependent on familiarity with famous people in the temporal and parietal cortices. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measurements, normal subjects recognized personally familiar names (personal) or famous names with high or low degrees of familiarity (high or low, respectively). Effects of familiarity with famous people (i.e., high-low) were identified in the bilateral angular gyri, the left supramarginal gyrus, the middle part of the bilateral posterior cingulate cortices, and the left precuneus. Activation preferentially relevant to personally familiar people (i.e., personal-high) was identified in the bilateral temporo-parietal junctions, the right anterolateral temporal cortices, posterior middle temporal gyrus, posterior cingulate cortex (with a peak in the posterodorsal part), and the left precuneus; these activation foci exhibited varying degrees of activation for high and low names. An equivalent extent of activation was observed for all familiar names in the bilateral temporal poles, the left orbito-insular junction, the middle temporal gyrus, and the anterior part of the posterior cingulate cortex. The results demonstrated that distinct cortical areas supported different types of cognitive responses, induced to different degrees during recognition of famous and personally familiar people, providing neuroscientific evidence for the modularity of multimodal person representation. PMID:18855557

Sugiura, Motoaki; Sassa, Yuko; Watanabe, Jobu; Akitsuki, Yuko; Maeda, Yasuhiro; Matsue, Yoshihiko; Kawashima, Ryuta

2009-10-01

177

Configurational coding, familiarity and the right hemisphere advantage for face recognition in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined characteristics of visual recognition of familiar and unfamiliar faces in sheep using a 2-way discrimination task. Of particular interest were effects of lateralisation and the differential use of internal (configurational) vs external features of the stimuli. Animals were trained in a Y-maze to identify target faces from pairs, both of which were familiar (same flock as the

J. W. Peirce; A. E. Leigh; K. M. Kendrick

2000-01-01

178

Influence of Text Type, Topic Familiarity, and Stuttering Frequency on Listener Recall, Comprehension, and Mental Effort  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To determine how text type, topic familiarity, and stuttering frequency influence listener recall, comprehension, and perceived mental effort. Method: Sixty adults listened to familiar and unfamiliar narrative and expository texts produced with 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% stuttering. Participants listened to 4 experimental text samples at only 1…

Panico, James; Healey, E. Charles

2009-01-01

179

Basic Processes in Reading: On the Relation between Spatial Attention and Familiarity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments combined a spatial cueing manipulation (valid vs. invalid spatial cues) with a stimulus repetition manipulation (repeated vs. nonrepeated) in order to assess the hypothesis that familiar items need less spatial attention than less familiar ones. The magnitude of the effect of cueing on reading aloud time for items that were…

Risko, Evan F.; Stolz, Jennifer A.; Besner, Derek

2011-01-01

180

The Role of Face Familiarity in Eye Tracking of Faces by Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has been shown that individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) demonstrate normal activation in the fusiform gyrus when viewing familiar, but not unfamiliar faces. The current study utilized eye tracking to investigate patterns of attention underlying familiar versus unfamiliar face processing in ASD. Eye movements of 18 typically…

Sterling, Lindsey; Dawson, Geraldine; Webb, Sara; Murias, Michael; Munson, Jeffrey; Panagiotides, Heracles; Aylward, Elizabeth

2008-01-01

181

Boys Affiliate More than Girls with a Familiar Same-Sex Peer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence from ethnographic, observational, and experimental studies with humans converges to suggest that males affiliate more than females with unrelated, familiar same-sex peers, but this has never been examined directly. With this aim, we compared frequency of affiliation with a single, randomly chosen, familiar same-sex peer for the two sexes…

Benenson, Joyce F.; Quinn, Amanda; Stella, Sandra

2012-01-01

182

Prosopagnosia: a double dissociation between the recognition of familiar and unfamiliar faces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two cases of a dissociation between prosopagnosia and impaired capacity to match familiar faces were studied. Recognition of familiar faces recovered in the first patient, whereas prosopagnosia persisted in the second patient despite recovery of matching unfamiliar faces and other visuoperceptive skills. This double dissociation is discussed in relation to current views of prosopagnosia.

D R Malone; H H Morris; M C Kay; H S Levin

1982-01-01

183

Mechanisms Supporting Superior Source Memory for Familiar Items: A Multi-Voxel Pattern Analysis Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent cognitive research has revealed better source memory performance for familiar relative to novel stimuli. Here we consider two possible explanations for this finding. The source memory advantage for familiar stimuli could arise because stimulus novelty induces attention to stimulus features at the expense of contextual processing, resulting…

Poppenk, Jordan; Norman, Kenneth A.

2012-01-01

184

Effects of Familiarity and Feeding on Newborn Speech-Voice Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Newborn infants preferentially orient to familiar over unfamiliar speech sounds. They are also better at remembering unfamiliar speech sounds for short periods of time if learning and retention occur after a feed than before. It is unknown whether short-term memory for speech is enhanced when the sound is familiar (versus unfamiliar) and, if so,…

Valiante, A. Grace; Barr, Ronald G.; Zelazo, Philip R.; Brant, Rollin; Young, Simon N.

2013-01-01

185

False fame, perceptual clarity, or persuasion? Flexible fluency attribution in spokesperson familiarity effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Familiar people are especially persuasive spokespersons. Here, a fluency attribution model of spokesperson familiarity was tested. Specifically, it was hypothesized that repeated exposure to a spokesperson would create fluency that, in a persuasive context, could be attributed to the persuasive message or to another fluency-relevant cue (e.g., the fame of the spokesperson). In three experiments a woman's photo was repeatedly

Max Weisbuch; Diane Mackie

2009-01-01

186

Triple dissociation in the medial temporal lobes: recollection, familiarity, and novelty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memory for past events may be based on retrieval accompanied by specific contextual details (recollection) or on the feeling that an item is old (familiarity) or new (novelty) in the absence of contextual details. There are indications that recollection, familiarity, and novelty involve different medial temporal lobe subregions, but available evidence is scarce and inconclusive. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging

S. M. Daselaar; M. S. Fleck; R. Cabeza

2006-01-01

187

A emergência da categoria “agricultor familiar” como sujeito de direitos na trajetória do sindicalismo rural brasileiro  

Microsoft Academic Search

O processo de reconhecimento dos agricultores familiares como sujeitos de direitos apesar de ser recente quando pensado a partir da trajetória do sindicalismo rural brasileiro demonstra ter suas primeiras raízes ainda na constituição da legislação trabalhista-sindical dos anos de 1930. Visando explorar esse processo o artigo tem por objetivo analisar a emergência dos agricultores familiares como sujeitos de direitos na

Everton Lazzaretti Picolotto

2008-01-01

188

The Role of Person Familiarity in Young Infants' Perception of Emotional Expressions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the role of person familiarity in 3.5-month-olds' ability to recognize emotional expressions. Found that when more contextual information such as person familiarity was available, infants as young as 3.5 months recognized happy and sad expressions. Findings suggest that in early stages, infants are sensitive to contextual information…

Kahana-Kalman, Ronit; Walker-Andrews, Arlene S.

2001-01-01

189

The Influence of Kinship on Familiar Natal Migrant Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)  

PubMed Central

In most primate species, females remain in the natal group with kin while males disperse away from kin around the time of puberty. Philopatric females bias their social behavior toward familiar maternal and paternal kin in several species, but little is known about kin bias in the dispersing sex. Male dispersal is likely to be costly because males encounter an increased risk of predation and death, which might be reduced by dispersing together with kin and/or familiar males (individuals that were born and grew up in same natal group) or into a group containing kin and/or familiar males. Here we studied the influence of kinship on familiar natal migrant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) on Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico, by combining demographic, behavioral, and genetic data. Our data suggest that kinship influences spatial proximity between recent natal immigrants and males familiar to them. Immigrants were significantly nearer to more closely related familiar males than to more distantly related individuals. Within a familiar subgroup, natal migrants were significantly closer to maternal kin, followed by paternal kin, then non-kin, and finally to males related via both the maternal and paternal line. Spatial proximity between natal immigrants and familiar males did not decrease over time in the new group, suggesting that there is no decline in associations between these individuals within the first months of immigration. Overall, our results might indicate that kinship is important for the dispersing sex, at least during natal dispersal when kin are still available.

Albers, Monika; Widdig, Anja

2014-01-01

190

Familiarity and environmental representations of a city: a self-report study.  

PubMed

"Sense of direction" is usually assessed by self-report. Several internal factors contribute to proficiency in navigation: spatial cognitive style, respondent's sex, and familiarity with the environment; however, questionnaires assessing sense of direction do not include all these factors. In a recent study, Nori and Piccardi reported that environmental familiarity was crucial for topographical orientation. Regardless of a person's spatial cognitive style (i.e., landmark, route, or survey), the greater their familiarity with the environment, the better their performance. In this study, a questionnaire was used, the Familiarity and Spatial Cognitive Style Scale, to measure 208 women's sense of direction and knowledge of their city of residence. Analysis showed that Spatial Cognitive Style predicted sense of direction but not town knowledge. By contrast, familiarity played a crucial role in both areas, confirming the importance of having a tool to assess this factor. PMID:22049671

Piccardi, L; Risetti, M; Nori, R

2011-08-01

191

Neuronal correlates of perception, imagery, and memory for familiar tunes.  

PubMed

We used fMRI to investigate the neuronal correlates of encoding and recognizing heard and imagined melodies. Ten participants were shown lyrics of familiar verbal tunes; they either heard the tune along with the lyrics, or they had to imagine it. In a subsequent surprise recognition test, they had to identify the titles of tunes that they had heard or imagined earlier. The functional data showed substantial overlap during melody perception and imagery, including secondary auditory areas. During imagery compared with perception, an extended network including pFC, SMA, intraparietal sulcus, and cerebellum showed increased activity, in line with the increased processing demands of imagery. Functional connectivity of anterior right temporal cortex with frontal areas was increased during imagery compared with perception, indicating that these areas form an imagery-related network. Activity in right superior temporal gyrus and pFC was correlated with the subjective rating of imagery vividness. Similar to the encoding phase, the recognition task recruited overlapping areas, including inferior frontal cortex associated with memory retrieval, as well as left middle temporal gyrus. The results present new evidence for the cortical network underlying goal-directed auditory imagery, with a prominent role of the right pFC both for the subjective impression of imagery vividness and for on-line mental monitoring of imagery-related activity in auditory areas. PMID:22360595

Herholz, Sibylle C; Halpern, Andrea R; Zatorre, Robert J

2012-06-01

192

Neuroimaging studies on recognition of personally familiar people.  

PubMed

From an evolutionary viewpoint, readiness to engage in appropriate behavior toward a recognized person seems to be inherent in the human brain. In support of this hypothesis, functional neuroimaging studies have demonstrated activation in regions relevant to relationship-appropriate behavior during the recognition of personally familiar (PF) people. Recognition of friends and colleagues activates regions involved in real-time communication, including the regions for inference about the other's mental state, autobiographical memory retrieval, and self-referential processes. Recognition of people related by romantic love, maternal love, and lost love induces activation in regions involved in motivational, reward, and affective processes, reflecting behavioral readiness for mating, caretaking, and yearning, respectively. The involvement of motor-associated cortices during recognition of a personal enemy may reflect readiness for attack or defense. Self-recognition in a body-related modality uniquely activates sensory and motor association cortices reflecting the sensorimotor origin of the bodily self-concept, with social cognitive processes being suppressed or context dependent. Issues and future directions are also discussed. PMID:24389212

Sugiura, Motoaki

2014-01-01

193

[Institutional renovation and scientific modernization: the creation of the Instituto de Investigaciones Hematológicas during the mid-1950s].  

PubMed

Using documentary sources, this work analyzes the creation and initial functioning of the Instituto de Investigaciones Hematológicas (Institute of Hematological Research) of the National Academy of Medicine (Buenos Aires, Argentina) in the context of the scientific modernization initiated within the country during the mid-1950s. Particular attention is paid to the generation of material bases and institutional and cultural mechanisms for the development of scientific research and of clinical practices guided by procedures and techniques rooted in the basic sciences. The formation and development of a research school in the Experimental Leukemia Section of the institute is explored as a case illustrative of the effective consolidation of initiatives oriented towards the organization of a scientific center. PMID:24500546

Buschini, José

2013-12-01

194

The type specimens of mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) deposited in the entomological collection of the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A list of type specimens of 100 mosquito species deposited in the Entomological collection of the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz is presented. It includes five holotypes belonging to the subfamily Anophelinae; 56 holotypes of Culicinae and two of Toxorhynchitinae. A lectotype is designated for Toxorhynchites fluminensis. The holotypes of six nominal species - Psorophora chiquitana, Psorophora circunflava, Psorophora melanota, Psorophora lanei,

Verônica Marchon-Silva; Ricardo Lourenço-de-Oliveira; Magaly Dolsan de Almeida; Adenildo da Silva-Vasconcelos; Jane Costa

1996-01-01

195

Calibracao de dosimetro de neutrons de albedo no ciclotron do IEN. (Calibration of the albedo neutron personnel dosimeter at the cyclotron of the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The general method of calibration of the albedo neutron personnel dosimeter at the neutron field of the cyclotron of the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear are described. This method is based on the single sphere albedo developed by KfK, Germany. The calibra...

P. W. Fajardo C. L. P. Mauricio

1990-01-01

196

The type specimens of sucking lice (Anoplura) deposited in the entomological collection of Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.  

PubMed

This study presents a list of 34 Anoplura type specimens deposited in the Werneck Collection of Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. It includes 18 holotypes, 16 allotypes, 88 paratypes and 10 neotypes, distributed among the genera: Enderleinellus, Fahrenholzia, Haematopinus, Hoplopleura, Linognathus, Microthoracius, Pecaroecus, Polyplax and Pterophthirus. The types are related according to their respective data and literature. PMID:10464405

Cardozo-de-Almeida, M; Linardi, P M; Costa, J

1999-01-01

197

The effect of familiarity on aggregation and social behaviour in juvenile small spotted catsharks Scyliorhinus canicula.  

PubMed

This study was designed to address whether juvenile small spotted catsharks Scyliorhinus canicula aggregate and to determine whether potential aggregation is underpinned by social preferences for conspecifics. Using controlled and replicated experiments, the role of familiarity as a potential mechanism driving aggregation and social behaviour in this species was considered. Observed S. canicula association data compared to null model simulations of random distributions revealed differences in aggregation under different social contexts. Only familiar juvenile S. canicula aggregated more than would be expected from random distribution across their habitat. Familiarity increased the mean number of groups but did not significantly affect mean group size. Significant preference and avoidance behaviour across all groups were also observed. Furthermore, the strength of social attraction, quantified by the mean association index, was significantly higher in groups containing familiar individuals. Mixed familiar and unfamiliar treatments were also conducted to test for within- and between-group effects, finding high variation across replicates with some groups assorting by familiarity and others not. It is believed that this study is the first to examine experimentally the influence of conspecific familiarity on aggregation behaviour in sharks. These results not only imply a functional benefit to aggregation, but also suggest that persistent social affiliation is likely to influence dispersal following hatching in this small benthic elasmobranch. PMID:23020563

Jacoby, D M P; Sims, D W; Croft, D P

2012-10-01

198

The price of fame: the impact of stimulus familiarity on proactive interference resolution.  

PubMed

Interference from previously learned information, known as proactive interference (PI), limits our memory retrieval abilities. Previous studies of PI resolution have focused on the role of short-term familiarity, or recency, in causing PI. In the present study, we investigated the impact of long-term stimulus familiarity on PI resolution processes. In two behavioral experiments and one event-related fMRI experiment, long-term familiarity was manipulated through the use of famous and nonfamous stimuli, and short-term familiarity was manipulated through the use of recent and nonrecent probe items in an item recognition task. The right middle frontal gyrus demonstrated greater sensitivity to famous stimuli, suggesting that long-term stimulus familiarity plays a role in influencing PI resolution processes. Further examination of the effect of long-term stimulus familiarity on PI resolution revealed a larger behavioral interference effect for famous stimuli, but only under speeded response conditions. Thus, models of memory retrieval--and of the cognitive control mechanisms that guide retrieval processes--should consider the impact of and interactions among sources of familiarity on multiple time scales. PMID:20429858

Prabhakaran, Ranjani; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L

2011-04-01

199

The Price of Fame: The Impact of Stimulus Familiarity on Proactive Interference Resolution  

PubMed Central

Interference from previously learned information, known as proactive interference (PI), limits our memory retrieval abilities. Previous studies of PI resolution have focused on the role of short-term familiarity, or recency, in causing PI. In the present study, we investigated the impact of long-term stimulus familiarity on PI resolution processes. In two behavioral experiments and one event-related fMRI experiment, long-term familiarity was manipulated through the use of famous and nonfamous stimuli, and short-term familiarity was manipulated through the use of recent and nonrecent probe items in an item recognition task. The right middle frontal gyrus demonstrated greater sensitivity to famous stimuli, suggesting that long-term stimulus familiarity plays a role in influencing PI resolution processes. Further examination of the effect of long-term stimulus familiarity on PI resolution revealed a larger behavioral interference effect for famous stimuli, but only under speeded response conditions. Thus, models of memory retrieval—and of the cognitive control mechanisms that guide retrieval processes—should consider the impact of and interactions among sources of familiarity on multiple time scales.

Prabhakaran, Ranjani; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.

2013-01-01

200

[The effect of familiarity on eyewitness identification testimony: the relationship between accuracy and confidence].  

PubMed

In this study, we examined eyewitness identification involving a person who was slightly familiar to the witness. Although identification of a familiar person has been believed to be more accurate than that of a stranger, we expected that misidentification of a familiar distracter as the target would occur, and in such cases, the witness would be more confidence than when correctly rejecting the familiar person. A total of 102 participants were assigned to one of four conditions where familiarity with the distracter and the visibility of the target's photo were manipulated. First, they rated impressions of several photos in terms of personality traits to increase familiarity of some, then were presented with the target photo in either dark or bright condition. Finally, they were asked to identify the target in a two-photo lineup, where the critical trial included a familiar distracter. Results indicated that 66.7 per cent of subjects who saw the target photo in the dark condition misidentified the distracter as the target. At the same time, confidence for the choice (misidentification) was significantly higher than that of correct rejection. The findings were discussed from the forensic viewpoint. PMID:11797328

Asai, C

2001-10-01

201

Gendered information on sensory, hedonic and familiarity ratings of green tea by female Japanese students.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of gendered information (masculine and feminine) on sensory, hedonic, and familiarity ratings by Japanese female undergraduate students. Japanese green tea, Chinese sweet tea, and Chinese bitter tea were used. After listening to gendered information, participants tasted samples and scored them. The results showed that participants scored the samples of Japanese green tea as more aromatic, sweet, pleasant, and familiar when they were subjected to feminine rather than masculine information. Gendered information may influence on sensory, hedonic, and familiarity ratings. PMID:18468724

Hirokawa, Kumi; Yamazawa, Kazuko

2008-09-01

202

Effect of relation availability on the interpretation and access of familiar noun-noun compounds.  

PubMed

Two experiments investigate whether relations that link the constituents of compounds during compound formation (e.g., teapot is formed by combining tea and pot using the relation head noun FOR modifier) also influence the processing of familiar compounds. Although there is evidence for the use of such relations in forming compounds, whether such relations affect the processing of familiar compounds is unknown. The data show clear effects of repetition and relational priming for written words on both a sense-nonsense task and a lexical decision task. These results indicate that the relation linking the constituents of familiar compounds is important to their access and use. PMID:15172564

Gagné, Christina L; Spalding, Thomas L

2004-01-01

203

Foreign Policy Decision Making in Familiar and Unfamiliar SettingsAn Experimental Study of High-Ranking Military Officers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of policy makers’ familiarity with a decision task has received considerable attention in recent years in the literature on decision making by analogy, intuitive decision making, and dynamic versus static decision making. The effect of familiarity on the decision strategy change of high-ranking officers of the U.S. Air Force is tested to see whether and how familiar versus

Alex Mintz

2004-01-01

204

Familiar music as an enhancer of self-consciousness in patients with Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

The main objective of this paper is to examine the impact of familiar music on self-consciousness (SC) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). For this purpose, two AD groups of 20 patients matched by age, educational level, gender, illness duration, and cognitive state were assessed using an SC questionnaire before and after music intervention. The SC questionnaire measured several aspects: personal identity, anosognosia, affective state, body representation, prospective memory, introspection and moral judgments. One AD group received familiar music stimulation and another AD group unfamiliar music stimulation over three months. The AD patients who received a familiar music intervention showed a stabilization or improvement in aspects of SC. By contrast, control AD group showed a deterioration of most of the SC aspects after unfamiliar music stimulation, except the SC aspects of body representation and affective state. Familiar music stimulation could be considered as an enhancer of SC in patients with Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24106716

Arroyo-Anlló, Eva M; Díaz, Juan Poveda; Gil, Roger

2013-01-01

205

Children and adults recall the names of highly familiar faces faster than semantic information.  

PubMed

Adults find it harder to remember the names of familiar people than other biographical information such as occupation or nationality. It has been suggested that the opposite effect occurs in children (Scanlan & Johnston, 1997). We failed to replicate the effects found by Scanlan and Johnston and instead found that children were slower to match a name than an occupation to a famous face (Experiment 1). In Experiments 2 and 3, however, we show a temporal advantage for names in both adults and children when highly familiar faces are used. This is the case for famous and personally known faces. These results show that the speed of name retrieval is influenced by familiarity in the same way in both children and adults and indicate that children do not represent knowledge for familiar people differently from adults. The implications of these results for current models of name retrieval difficulties are discussed. PMID:17018182

Calderwood, L; Burton, A M

2006-11-01

206

Asymmetry in pay-off predicts how familiar individuals respond to one another  

PubMed Central

Familiarity influences individual decision-making in many vertebrate species. Here, we propose that familiarity modulates behaviour to different extents depending on the social context of the interaction. Specifically, the more that one player stands to gain relative to the other, the less important familiarity will be in influencing their responses to one another. We test this prediction using pairs of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in three competitive scenarios of increasing asymmetry in outcome to the two players: schooling under potential threat (similar outcomes), competing for a defensible food source (some asymmetry) and competing for a receptive female (strongly asymmetrical outcomes). Males show a graded response as asymmetry increases, with familiarity producing marked behavioural differences under potential threat, minor changes when competing for food, but none at all in competition for mating opportunities. This suggests that mutualistic benefits can arise as a by-product of selfish behaviour, supporting the role of pseudo-reciprocity in the evolution of cooperation.

Granroth-Wilding, Hanna M. V.; Magurran, Anne E.

2013-01-01

207

Teacher Familiarity with and Use of Project Social Studies Materials in the Midwest  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the degree to which social studies teachers in Kansas and Missouri are familiar with and use the materials published by various social studies projects appropriate to high schools. (Author)

Guenther, John; Dumas, Wayne

1973-01-01

208

Familiar Music as an Enhancer of Self-Consciousness in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

The main objective of this paper is to examine the impact of familiar music on self-consciousness (SC) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). For this purpose, two AD groups of 20 patients matched by age, educational level, gender, illness duration, and cognitive state were assessed using an SC questionnaire before and after music intervention. The SC questionnaire measured several aspects: personal identity, anosognosia, affective state, body representation, prospective memory, introspection and moral judgments. One AD group received familiar music stimulation and another AD group unfamiliar music stimulation over three months. The AD patients who received a familiar music intervention showed a stabilization or improvement in aspects of SC. By contrast, control AD group showed a deterioration of most of the SC aspects after unfamiliar music stimulation, except the SC aspects of body representation and affective state. Familiar music stimulation could be considered as an enhancer of SC in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

Arroyo-Anllo, Eva M.; Diaz, Juan Poveda; Gil, Roger

2013-01-01

209

Neurophysiological evidence for a recollection impairment in amnesia patients that leaves familiarity intact  

PubMed Central

In several previous behavioral studies, we have identified a group of amnestic patients that, behaviorally, appear to exhibit severe deficits in recollection with relative preservation of familiarity-based recognition. However, these studies have relied exclusively on behavioral measures, rather than direct measures of physiology. Event-related potentials (ERPs) have been used to identify putative neural correlates of familiarity- and recollection-based recognition memory, but little work has been done to determine the extent to which these ERP correlates are spared in patients with relatively specific memory disorders. ERP studies of recognition in healthy subjects have indicated that recollection and familiarity are related to a parietal old-new effect characterized as a late positive component (LPC) and an earlier mid-frontal old-new effect referred to as an ‘FN400’, respectively. Here, we sought to determine the extent to which the putative ERP correlates of recollection and familiarity are intact or impaired in these patients. We recorded ERPs in three amnestic patients and six age matched controls while they made item recognition and source recognition judgments. The current patients were able to discriminate between old and new items fairly well, but showed nearly chance-level performance at source recognition. Moreover, whereas control subjects exhibited ERP correlates of memory that have been linked to recollection and familiarity, the patients only exhibited the mid-frontal FN400 ERP effect related to familiarity-based recognition. The results show that recollection can be severely impaired in amnesia even when familiarity-related processing is relatively spared, and they also provide further evidence that ERPs can be used to distinguish between neural correlates of familiarity and recollection.

Addante, Richard J.; Ranganath, Charan; Olichney, John; Yonelinas, Andrew P.

2012-01-01

210

Changes in familiarity and recollection across the lifespan: An ERP perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to recognize previous experience depends on two neurocognitive processes, familiarity, fast-acting and relatively automatic, and recollection, slower-acting and more effortful. Familiarity appears to mature relatively early in development and is maintained with aging, whereas recollection shows protracted development and deteriorates with aging. To assess this model, ERP and behavioral data were recorded in children (9–10 years), adolescents (13–14),

David Friedman; Marianne de Chastelaine; Doreen Nessler; Brenda Malcolm

2010-01-01

211

Brand familiarity and tasting in conjoint analysis : An experimental study with Croatian beer consumers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aims of this paper is to determine, via an empirical study of beer consumers in Croatia, the influence of tasting on the validity of conjoint analysis (CA) under presence of familiar or unfamiliar brands. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The research comprised a face-to-face survey with 403 beer consumers. The respondents were divided into four groups regarding CA experiment (familiar\\/unfamiliar

Marija Cerjak; Rainer Haas; Damir Kova?i?

2010-01-01

212

Recollection and Familiarity in Recognition Memory: Adult Age Differences and Neuropsychological Test Correlates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dual process theories account for age-related changes in memory by proposing that old age is associated with deficits in recollection together with invariance in familiarity. The authors evaluated this proposal in recognition by examining recollection and familiarity estimates in young and older adults across 3 process estimation methods: inclusion\\/exclusion, remember\\/know, and receiver operating characteristics (ROC). Consistent with a previous literature

Matthew W. Prull; Leslie L. Crandell Dawes; A. McLeish Martin; Heather F. Rosenberg; Leah L. Light

2006-01-01

213

Familiarity affects social network structure and discovery of prey patch locations in foraging stickleback shoals.  

PubMed

Numerous factors affect the fine-scale social structure of animal groups, but it is unclear how important such factors are in determining how individuals encounter resources. Familiarity affects shoal choice and structure in many social fishes. Here, we show that familiarity between shoal members of sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) affects both fine-scale social organization and the discovery of resources. Social network analysis revealed that sticklebacks remained closer to familiar than to unfamiliar individuals within the same shoal. Network-based diffusion analysis revealed that there was a strong untransmitted social effect on patch discovery, with individuals tending to discover a task sooner if a familiar individual from their group had previously done so than if an unfamiliar fish had done so. However, in contrast to the effect of familiarity, the frequency with which individuals had previously associated with one another had no effect upon the likelihood of prey patch discovery. This may have been due to the influence of fish on one another's movements; the effect of familiarity on discovery of an empty 'control' patch was as strong as for discovery of an actual prey patch. Our results demonstrate that factors affecting fine-scale social interactions can also influence how individuals encounter and exploit resources. PMID:25009061

Atton, N; Galef, B J; Hoppitt, W; Webster, M M; Laland, K N

2014-08-22

214

Birds of a feather... Generalization of facial structures following massive familiarization.  

PubMed

Three experiments examined the effects of symmetry and complexity, as facial structures, on the aesthetic judgments of faces, and how these effects are modulated by moderate or massive familiarization. Results showed that symmetrical faces were judged as more attractive than nonsymmetrical faces, and simple faces were judged as more attractive than complex faces-with complexity defined as the number of facial elements. Complexity in faces seemed to have overridden the usually positive effects of facial symmetry. Moreover, while moderate familiarization did not modulate the effects, massive familiarization to a specific face type resulted in structural generalization effects: participants provided higher aesthetic judgments to faces that were new, but similarly structured to those which they were familiarized. This latter result contrasts previous studies that have found structural contrast effects following familiarization to meaningless, abstract stimuli. Taken together, these results reflect the greater biological and social significance of faces as compared to other objects in the world. They also show that people are drawn to those with familiar characteristics. PMID:24076329

Tinio, Pablo P L; Gerger, Gernot; Leder, Helmut

2013-11-01

215

Assessment of familiarity and recollection in the false fame paradigm using a modified process dissociation procedure.  

PubMed

A modified way of administering the process dissociation procedure to the false fame paradigm is described. Multidimensional signal detection theory (SDT) is used to correct for recollection as well as familiarity false alarms, and two experiments are reported that compare this method of false alarm correction with the hybrid procedure preferred by Jacoby et al. (1993). In experiment 1, it is shown that recollection and familiarity are lost at the same rate in normal subjects over a delay of 1 d when an SDT analysis is used. Analysis with the hybrid procedure fails to find any forgetting over the 1-d delay. In experiment 2, amnesics are shown to have preserved familiarity in the face of impaired recollection for names when the results are analyzed by either method. An additional analysis showed that the amnesics' familiarity was normal even for relatively novel surnames. The SDT analysis also revealed that the amnesics, relative to controls, showed a conservative recollection and a liberal familiarity response bias. The results indicate that it is important to correct for recollection as well as familiarity false alarms. PMID:9375232

Mayes, A R; Van Eijk, R; Isaac, C L

1995-09-01

216

Familiar Person Recognition: Is Autonoetic Consciousness More Likely to Accompany Face Recognition Than Voice Recognition?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Autonoetic consciousness is a fundamental property of human memory, enabling us to experience mental time travel, to recollect past events with a feeling of self-involvement, and to project ourselves in the future. Autonoetic consciousness is a characteristic of episodic memory. By contrast, awareness of the past associated with a mere feeling of familiarity or knowing relies on noetic consciousness, depending on semantic memory integrity. Present research was aimed at evaluating whether conscious recollection of episodic memories is more likely to occur following the recognition of a familiar face than following the recognition of a familiar voice. Recall of semantic information (biographical information) was also assessed. Previous studies that investigated the recall of biographical information following person recognition used faces and voices of famous people as stimuli. In this study, the participants were presented with personally familiar people's voices and faces, thus avoiding the presence of identity cues in the spoken extracts and allowing a stricter control of frequency exposure with both types of stimuli (voices and faces). In the present study, the rate of retrieved episodic memories, associated with autonoetic awareness, was significantly higher from familiar faces than familiar voices even though the level of overall recognition was similar for both these stimuli domains. The same pattern was observed regarding semantic information retrieval. These results and their implications for current Interactive Activation and Competition person recognition models are discussed.

Barsics, Catherine; Brédart, Serge

2010-11-01

217

The Similarities (and Familiarities) of Pseudowords and Extremely High-Frequency Words: Examining a Familiarity-Based Explanation of the Pseudoword Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The pseudoword effect is the finding that pseudowords (i.e., rare words or pronounceable nonwords) give rise to more hits and false alarms than words. Using the retrieving effectively from memory (REM) model of recognition memory, we tested a familiarity-based account of the pseudoword effect: Specifically, the pseudoword effect arises because…

Ozubko, Jason D.; Joordens, Steve

2011-01-01

218

The collection and database of Birds of Angola hosted at IICT (Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical), Lisboa, Portugal.  

PubMed

The bird collection of the Instituto de Investigação Cientítica Tropical (Lisbon, Portugal) holds 5598 preserved specimens (skins), mainly from Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau, São Tomé and Principe, and Cape Verde. The subset collection from Angola includes 1560 specimens, which were taxonomically revised and georeferenced for the publication of this data paper. The collection contains a total of 522 taxa, including 161 species and 361 subspecies. Two species are classified by the IUCN Red List as Endangered - the wattled crane (Grus carunculata) and the Gabela bush-shrike (Laniarius amboimensis) - and two are classified as vulnerable - African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) and the white-headed vulture (Trigonoceps occipitalis). The temporal span of the database ranges between 1943 and 1979, but 32% are from years 1958-1959, and 25% from years 1968-1969. The spatial coverage of the collection is uneven, with 2/3 of the records representing only four of the eighteen provinces of the country, namely Huíla, Moxico, Namibe and Cuanza Sul. It adds, however, valuable information for the Huíla area of the Angolan Scarp, which is probably a biodiversity hotspot of global conservation priority. Furthermore, this georeferenced database adds invaluable bird information to the GBIF network, for one of the countries with highest but less known biodiversity in Africa. PMID:24693221

Monteiro, Miguel; Reino, Luís; Beja, Pedro; Mills, Michael Stuart Lyne; Bastos-Silveira, Cristiane; Ramos, Manuela; Rodrigues, Diana; Neves, Isabel Queirós; Consciência, Susana; Figueira, Rui

2014-01-01

219

[Eccrine Porocarcinoma: clinical-pathological study of 19 cases in the Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplásicas, Lima - Peru].  

PubMed

In order to describe the clinical-pathological characteristics of the cases of Eccrine Porocarcinoma (EP) found in the Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplásicas (INEN), a cross-sectional study was carried out, including all EP cases recorded between 1998 and 2009. A revision of the clinical-pathological records indentified and a new reading of the pathology slides of the cases found were performed. 19 EP cases were found, the median age of which was 64 years (range: 37-98). EP was primarily found on male patients (57.9%) and was most commonly located on the foot (21.1%), followed by the head, thorax and thigh (15.8%, respectively). In one case, EP was located on the gluteal region, and showed an unusually invasive behavior and rectal involvement. We conclude that EP is a rather uncommon entity in Peru. Its most common location is on the foot and it affects mostly male patients for the most part. PMID:24100819

Casavilca, Sandro; Lama, Anny; Guerrero, Melvy; Essary, Lydia R; Mantilla, Raúl; Cano, Luis; Barrionuevo, Carlos

2013-07-01

220

UN HERMANO DEL PADRE ANTONIO SOLER, FAGOTISTA DE LA REAL CAPILLA MADRILEÑA  

Microsoft Academic Search

El P. Antonio Soler tuvo al menos un hermano que también era músico y compositor: Mateo Soler, que actuó como fagotista de la Real Capilla en Madrid de 1780 a 1799, año en que murió. Damos cuenta de los pormenores biográficos tanto familiares como profesionales que hemos podido averiguar sobre este músico olvidado, del que incluso se conserva una sonata

Guy Bourligueux

1985-01-01

221

Experience with Adults Shapes Multisensory Representation of Social Familiarity in the Brain of a Songbird  

PubMed Central

Social animals learn to perceive their social environment, and their social skills and preferences are thought to emerge from greater exposure to and hence familiarity with some social signals rather than others. Familiarity appears to be tightly linked to multisensory integration. The ability to differentiate and categorize familiar and unfamiliar individuals and to build a multisensory representation of known individuals emerges from successive social interactions, in particular with adult, experienced models. In different species, adults have been shown to shape the social behavior of young by promoting selective attention to multisensory cues. The question of what representation of known conspecifics adult-deprived animals may build therefore arises. Here we show that starlings raised with no experience with adults fail to develop a multisensory representation of familiar and unfamiliar starlings. Electrophysiological recordings of neuronal activity throughout the primary auditory area of these birds, while they were exposed to audio-only or audiovisual familiar and unfamiliar cues, showed that visual stimuli did, as in wild-caught starlings, modulate auditory responses but that, unlike what was observed in wild-caught birds, this modulation was not influenced by familiarity. Thus, adult-deprived starlings seem to fail to discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar individuals. This suggests that adults may shape multisensory representation of known individuals in the brain, possibly by focusing the young’s attention on relevant, multisensory cues. Multisensory stimulation by experienced, adult models may thus be ubiquitously important for the development of social skills (and of the neural properties underlying such skills) in a variety of species.

George, Isabelle; Cousillas, Hugo; Richard, Jean-Pierre; Hausberger, Martine

2012-01-01

222

Experience with adults shapes multisensory representation of social familiarity in the brain of a songbird.  

PubMed

Social animals learn to perceive their social environment, and their social skills and preferences are thought to emerge from greater exposure to and hence familiarity with some social signals rather than others. Familiarity appears to be tightly linked to multisensory integration. The ability to differentiate and categorize familiar and unfamiliar individuals and to build a multisensory representation of known individuals emerges from successive social interactions, in particular with adult, experienced models. In different species, adults have been shown to shape the social behavior of young by promoting selective attention to multisensory cues. The question of what representation of known conspecifics adult-deprived animals may build therefore arises. Here we show that starlings raised with no experience with adults fail to develop a multisensory representation of familiar and unfamiliar starlings. Electrophysiological recordings of neuronal activity throughout the primary auditory area of these birds, while they were exposed to audio-only or audiovisual familiar and unfamiliar cues, showed that visual stimuli did, as in wild-caught starlings, modulate auditory responses but that, unlike what was observed in wild-caught birds, this modulation was not influenced by familiarity. Thus, adult-deprived starlings seem to fail to discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar individuals. This suggests that adults may shape multisensory representation of known individuals in the brain, possibly by focusing the young's attention on relevant, multisensory cues. Multisensory stimulation by experienced, adult models may thus be ubiquitously important for the development of social skills (and of the neural properties underlying such skills) in a variety of species. PMID:22723887

George, Isabelle; Cousillas, Hugo; Richard, Jean-Pierre; Hausberger, Martine

2012-01-01

223

Cambios del EEG por habituación y condicionamiento en niños de tres a 15 años que acuden al Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitación (INR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY During waking, stimuli activate the sensory pathways giving rise to sensation and the response to such stimulation. The electrobiochemical changes and modifications in EEG rhythms event- related synchronization or event-related desynchronization, ERD or ERS) propagated in the specific and unspecific cortex are added to the changes elicited by the responses and to the new signals originated by those same

Héctor Brust-Carmona; Francisco Ramírez-Aboytes; José Martínez; Ángel Rodríguez Miguel; Blanca Flores-Ávalos; Oscar Yáñez-Suárez

2009-01-01

224

EL USO DE ATLAS.TI Y LA CREATIVIDAD DEL INVESTIGADOR EN EL ANÁLISIS CUALITATIVO DE CONTENIDO UPEL. INSTITUTO PEDAGÓGICO RURAL EL MÁCARO  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the report consists on offering a group of methodological recommendations that you\\/they facilitate the process of qualitative analysis of the information. After having gathered the information, by means of interviews, observations, printed documents and audiovisual recordings, among other, the qualitative investigator assumes the responsibility of interpreting what is observed, he listens or he reads. Nevertheless, in spite

Carmen Varguillas

2006-01-01

225

International Institute of Tropical Forestry Annual Letter, 1995-96 (Carta Anual del Instituto International de Dasonomia Tropical, 1995-96).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Ecological Research; Historical Perspectives; Tropical Forestry Technology Transfer; Watershed Research; Forest Management and Rehabilitation; Research Plantations as Catalysts for Natural Forest Succession; Silviculture Research; Wildlife Resea...

1998-01-01

226

Familiarity knowledge in student nurses' clinical studies: exemplified by student nurses in palliative care.  

PubMed

In this article based on a literary study, the form of knowledge named familiarity knowledge is examined. Although rooted in the philosophical tradition of Wittgenstein and Polanyi, the development of familiarity knowledge is tied in with clinical practice and particular patients and contexts while paying attention to the framework factors influencing the setting as a whole as well as with theoretical knowledge relevant to the situation at hand. Palliative care makes a backdrop for some of the discussion. Familiarity knowledge can never be context free and attends to that which is unique in every nurse-patient relationship. Both assertive and familiarity knowledge are needed to care for dying patients in a competent, sensitive, and truly caring manner. Mentors need to help students synthesize assertive knowledge and familiarity knowledge during their clinical studies to enrich both kinds of knowledge and deepen their understanding. Student nurses expertly mentored and tutored while caring for dying patients living at home become, for instance, less apprehensive about facing dying patients than students not so mentored. Nurses need to understand the complexity of nursing care to be able to see the uniqueness of the situation and approach the individual patient on the bases of experience and insight. PMID:22908430

Haugan, Grethe; Hanssen, Ingrid

2012-01-01

227

Recognition of familiar food activates feeding via an endocrine serotonin signal in Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

Familiarity discrimination has a significant impact on the pattern of food intake across species. However, the mechanism by which the recognition memory controls feeding is unclear. Here, we show that the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans forms a memory of particular foods after experience and displays behavioral plasticity, increasing the feeding response when they subsequently recognize the familiar food. We found that recognition of familiar food activates the pair of ADF chemosensory neurons, which subsequently increase serotonin release. The released serotonin activates the feeding response mainly by acting humorally and directly activates SER-7, a type 7 serotonin receptor, in MC motor neurons in the feeding organ. Our data suggest that worms sense the taste and/or smell of novel bacteria, which overrides the stimulatory effect of familiar bacteria on feeding by suppressing the activity of ADF or its upstream neurons. Our study provides insight into the mechanism by which familiarity discrimination alters behavior. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00329.001

Song, Bo-mi; Faumont, Serge; Lockery, Shawn; Avery, Leon

2013-01-01

228

Dogs' attention towards humans depends on their relationship, not only on social familiarity  

PubMed Central

Both in humans and non-human animals it has been shown that individuals attend more to those they have previously interacted with and/or that they are more closely associated with than to unfamiliar individuals. Whether this preference is mediated by mere social familiarity based on exposure or by the specific relationship between the two individuals, however, remains unclear. The domestic dog is an interesting subject in this line of research as it lives in the human environment and regularly interacts with numerous humans, yet it often has a particularly close relationship with its owner. Therefore, we investigated how long dogs (Canis familiaris) would attend to the actions of two familiar humans and one unfamiliar experimenter, while varying whether dogs had a close relationship with only one or both familiar humans. Our data provide evidence that social familiarity by itself cannot account for dogs’ increased attention towards their owners since they only attended more to those familiar humans with whom they also had a close relationship.

Horn, Lisa; Range, Friederike; Huber, Ludwig

2014-01-01

229

Rhesus Monkeys See Who They Hear: Spontaneous Cross-Modal Memory for Familiar Conspecifics  

PubMed Central

Rhesus monkeys gather much of their knowledge of the social world through visual input and may preferentially represent this knowledge in the visual modality. Recognition of familiar faces is clearly advantageous, and the flexibility and utility of primate social memory would be greatly enhanced if visual memories could be accessed cross-modally either by visual or auditory stimulation. Such cross-modal access to visual memory would facilitate flexible retrieval of the knowledge necessary for adaptive social behavior. We tested whether rhesus monkeys have cross-modal access to visual memory for familiar conspecifics using a delayed matching-to-sample procedure. Monkeys learned visual matching of video clips of familiar individuals to photographs of those individuals, and generalized performance to novel videos. In crossmodal probe trials, coo-calls were played during the memory interval. The calls were either from the monkey just seen in the sample video clip or from a different familiar monkey. Even though the monkeys were trained exclusively in visual matching, the calls influenced choice by causing an increase in the proportion of errors to the picture of the monkey whose voice was heard on incongruent trials. This result demonstrates spontaneous cross-modal recognition. It also shows that viewing videos of familiar monkeys activates naturally formed memories of real monkeys, validating the use of video stimuli in studies of social cognition in monkeys.

Adachi, Ikuma; Hampton, Robert R.

2011-01-01

230

Análisis descriptivo del tamaño relativo del gasto del gobierno chileno  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este trabajo se examina el tamaño relativo del Gobierno chileno a través de una comparación internacional con valores equivalentes de otros países. Adicionalmente hay un análisis similar para dos componentes importantes del gasto público: educación y salud. El gasto del Gobierno de Chile, valor en torno del 20% (PIB), está junto al tercio inferior de países que poseen un

Eduardo Engel; Patricio Meller; Claudio Bravo

1998-01-01

231

Evidence concerning how neurons of the perirhinal cortex may effect familiarity discrimination.  

PubMed Central

Many studies indicate that recognition memory involves at least two separable processes, familiarity discrimination and recollection. Aspects of what is known of potential neuronal substrates of familiarity discrimination are reviewed. Lesion studies have established that familiarity discrimination for individual visual stimuli is effected by a system centred on the perirhinal cortex of the temporal lobe. The fundamental change that encodes prior occurrence of such stimuli appears to be a reduction in the response of neurons in anterior inferior temporal (including perirhinal) cortex when a stimulus is repeated. The neuronal responses rapidly signal the presence of a novel stimulus, and are evidence of long-lasting learning after a single exposure. Computational modelling indicates that a neuronal network based on such a change in responsiveness is potentially highly efficient in information theoretic terms. Processes that occur in long-term depression within the perirhinal cortex provide candidate synaptic plastic mechanisms for that underlying the change, but such linkage remains to be experimentally established.

Brown, M W; Bashir, Z I

2002-01-01

232

Familiarity or conceptual priming? Good question! Comment on Stenberg, Hellman, Johansson, and Rosén (2009).  

PubMed

Stenberg et al. argued that FN400 brain potentials index familiarity rather than conceptual priming. Their data from a test of name recognition showed that both familiarity and FN400s were influenced by frequency but not fame, whereas separate behavioral measures of priming were influenced by fame but not frequency. However, this apparent dissociation was gravely weakened by confounds in task demands and inadequate behavioral measures of priming. Although Stenberg et al. failed to provide evidence suitable for disentangling neural correlates of familiarity from those of conceptual priming, an analysis of their report can be used to highlight difficulties that remain to be surmounted to understand recognition and the neural events that signal distinct memory functions engaged during recognition. PMID:19422289

Lucas, Heather D; Voss, Joel L; Paller, Ken A

2010-04-01

233

Familiarity mediates the relationship between emotional arousal and pleasure during music listening  

PubMed Central

Emotional arousal appears to be a major contributing factor to the pleasure that listeners experience in response to music. Accordingly, a strong positive correlation between self-reported pleasure and electrodermal activity (EDA), an objective indicator of emotional arousal, has been demonstrated when individuals listen to familiar music. However, it is not yet known to what extent familiarity contributes to this relationship. In particular, as listening to familiar music involves expectations and predictions over time based on veridical knowledge of the piece, it could be that such memory factors plays a major role. Here, we tested such a contribution by using musical stimuli entirely unfamiliar to listeners. In a second experiment we repeated the novel music to experimentally establish a sense of familiarity. We aimed to determine whether (1) pleasure and emotional arousal would continue to correlate when listeners have no explicit knowledge of how the tones will unfold, and (2) whether this could be enhanced by experimentally-induced familiarity. In the first experiment, we presented 33 listeners with 70 unfamiliar musical excerpts in two sessions. There was no relationship between the degree of experienced pleasure and emotional arousal as measured by EDA. In the second experiment, 7 participants listened to 35 unfamiliar excerpts over two sessions separated by 30 min. Repeated exposure significantly increased EDA, even though individuals did not explicitly recall having heard all the pieces before. Furthermore, increases in self-reported familiarity significantly enhanced experienced pleasure and there was a general, though not significant, increase in EDA. These results suggest that some level of expectation and predictability mediated by prior exposure to a given piece of music play an important role in the experience of emotional arousal in response to music.

van den Bosch, Iris; Salimpoor, Valorie N.; Zatorre, Robert J.

2013-01-01

234

Development of visual expertise for reading: rapid emergence of visual familiarity for an artificial script  

PubMed Central

Adults produce left-lateralized N170 responses to visual words relative to control stimuli, even within tasks that do not require active reading. This specialization begins in preschoolers as a right-lateralized N170 effect. We investigated whether this developmental shift reflects an early learning phenomenon, such as attaining visual familiarity with a script, by training adults in an artificial script and measuring N170 responses before and afterward. Training enhanced the N170 response, especially over the right hemisphere. This suggests N170 sensitivity to visual familiarity with a script before reading becomes sufficiently automatic to drive left-lateralized effects in a shallow encoding task.

Maurer, Urs; Blau, Vera C.; Yoncheva, Yuliya N.; McCandliss, Bruce D.

2010-01-01

235

Aesthetic Education in the Early Years: Exploring Familiar and Unfamiliar Personal-Cultural Landscapes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores a double-bind in early schooling: a persistent value placed upon presenting multicultural art forms to a child constructed as incapable of grasping what is not familiar. The author argues that this bind is situated within dominant developmental discourses that emphasize the appropriateness of concrete and sequential…

Blank, Jolyn

2012-01-01

236

Effect of Relation Availability on the Interpretation and Access of Familiar Noun-Noun Compounds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments investigate whether relations that link the constituents of compounds during compound formation (e.g., "teapot" is formed by combining "tea" and "pot" using the relation "head noun FOR modifier") also influence the processing of familiar compounds. Although there is evidence for the use of such relations in forming compounds,…

Gagne, Christina L.; Spalding, Thomas L.

2004-01-01

237

Making the Familiar Strange: Creative Cultural Storytelling within the Communication Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this activity, students employ mock campfire storytelling to "make the familiar strange" in the same spirit as Horace Miner's (1956) classic tale of the "Nacirema." Students work individually, in pairs, or as small groups (around three) to create a whimsical story that deconstructs a mundane, everyday ritual (event, activity, practice) into a…

Blinne, Kristen C.

2012-01-01

238

THE EFFECTS OF FAMILIARITY ON THE PERCEPTUAL RECOGNITION AND CATEGORIZATION OF VERBAL INFORMATION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE EFFECTS OF FAMILIARITY ON THE PROCESSING OF STIMULUS AND MEMORIAL INFORMATION WERE INVESTIGATED IN TWO TASKS--ONE WHICH SUPPOSEDLY REQUIRED ONLY THE PERCEPTUAL RECOGNITION OF EACH STIMULUS WORD (E TASK) AND ONE WHICH REQUIRED A MEANINGFUL CATEGORIZATION OF EACH STIMULUS WORD (C TASK). FIFTY UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN UNDERGRADUATES WHO WERE PAID…

SMITH, EDWARD

239

Variability of Classification by the Matching Familiar Figures Test as a Function of Grade Level Medians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the variability of classification by the Matching Familiar Figures Test (MFF) as a function of grade level medians. MFF classification was highly dependent upon which sample medians were used. Analysis revealed for the majority (65 percent) of children, change in classification was due to change in the median error cutoff.…

Ames, Steven G.

1977-01-01

240

Studies of the Cognitive Representation of Spatial Relations: II. A Familiar Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment tested the ability of people to recall the locations of buildings in a familiar campus setting. Ten graduate students represented the relative locations of buildings by pairwise distance judgments and by direct mapping of locations on a Tektronix cathode ray terminal. Both methods led to accurate judgments. (Author/CTM)

And Others; Baird, John C.

1979-01-01

241

Enhancing Negotiation of Meaning through Task Familiarity Using Subtitled Videos in an Online TBLL Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the effects of task familiarity through the use of subtitled videos on negotiation of meaning in an online task-based language learning (TBLL) environment. It explores the amount of negotiation of meaning produced by non-native speakers (NNSs) aimed at improving input comprehension to enhance second language acquisition. Ten…

Arslanyilmaz, Abdurrahman; Pedersen, Susan

2010-01-01

242

No need to Talk, I Know You: Familiarity Influences Early Multisensory Integration in a Songbird's Brain  

PubMed Central

It is well known that visual information can affect auditory perception, as in the famous “McGurk effect,” but little is known concerning the processes involved. To address this issue, we used the best-developed animal model to study language-related processes in the brain: songbirds. European starlings were exposed to audiovisual compared to auditory-only playback of conspecific songs, while electrophysiological recordings were made in their primary auditory area (Field L). The results show that the audiovisual condition modulated the auditory responses. Enhancement and suppression were both observed, depending on the stimulus familiarity. Seeing a familiar bird led to suppressed auditory responses while seeing an unfamiliar bird led to response enhancement, suggesting that unisensory perception may be enough if the stimulus is familiar while redundancy may be required for unfamiliar items. This is to our knowledge the first evidence that multisensory integration may occur in a low-level, putatively unisensory area of a non-mammalian vertebrate brain, and also that familiarity of the stimuli may influence modulation of auditory responses by vision.

George, Isabelle; Richard, Jean-Pierre; Cousillas, Hugo; Hausberger, Martine

2011-01-01

243

No need to Talk, I Know You: Familiarity Influences Early Multisensory Integration in a Songbird's Brain.  

PubMed

It is well known that visual information can affect auditory perception, as in the famous "McGurk effect," but little is known concerning the processes involved. To address this issue, we used the best-developed animal model to study language-related processes in the brain: songbirds. European starlings were exposed to audiovisual compared to auditory-only playback of conspecific songs, while electrophysiological recordings were made in their primary auditory area (Field L). The results show that the audiovisual condition modulated the auditory responses. Enhancement and suppression were both observed, depending on the stimulus familiarity. Seeing a familiar bird led to suppressed auditory responses while seeing an unfamiliar bird led to response enhancement, suggesting that unisensory perception may be enough if the stimulus is familiar while redundancy may be required for unfamiliar items. This is to our knowledge the first evidence that multisensory integration may occur in a low-level, putatively unisensory area of a non-mammalian vertebrate brain, and also that familiarity of the stimuli may influence modulation of auditory responses by vision. PMID:21283531

George, Isabelle; Richard, Jean-Pierre; Cousillas, Hugo; Hausberger, Martine

2011-01-01

244

Electroencephalogram and Heart Rate Regulation to Familiar and Unfamiliar People in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few studies have examined whether familiarity of partner affects social responses in children with autism. This study investigated heart rate regulation (respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA]: The myelinated vagus nerve's regulation of heart rate) and temporal-parietal electroencephalogram (EEG) activity while nineteen 8- to 12-year-old children with…

Van Hecke, Amy Vaughan; Lebow, Jocelyn; Bal, Elgiz; Lamb, Damon; Harden, Emily; Kramer, Alexis; Denver, John; Bazhenova, Olga; Porges, Stephen W.

2009-01-01

245

Beyond the Memory Mechanism: Person-Selective and Nonselective Processes in Recognition of Personally Familiar Faces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Special processes recruited during the recognition of personally familiar people have been assumed to reflect the rich episodic and semantic information that selectively represents each person. However, the processes may also include person nonselective ones, which may require interpretation in terms beyond the memory mechanism. To examine this…

Sugiura, Motoaki; Mano, Yoko; Sasaki, Akihiro; Sadato, Norihiro

2011-01-01

246

Gobierno corporativo en la empresa familiar. Arquitecturas diseñadas para superar la crisis de la delegación  

Microsoft Academic Search

En la vida de toda empresa familiar se producen crisis sucesivas de crecimiento. Quizás la más difícil de superar sea la denominada “Crisis de Autonomía Gerencial”. Este trance, que muchas veces produce seria parálisis en el crecimiento de la firma y consecuentemente fuertes pérdidas de valor, se genera cuando la organización adopta evolutivamente una determinada estructura con el fin de

Ernesto A. Barugel

2010-01-01

247

POSIÇÃO RELATIVA DO RENDIMENTO DO TRABALHO DO PEQUENO PRODUTOR FAMILIAR: ALGO MUDOU COM O PRONAF?  

Microsoft Academic Search

O presente artigo divide-se em duas partes principais. Na primeira é feita uma discussão sobre os aspectos teóricos referentes à estrutura de estratificação social na agropecuária brasileira. Na segunda, é feita uma análise sobre a posição relativa do rendimento do trabalho do pequeno produtor familiar e se essa posição foi de alguma forma afetada pela criação do Programa Nacional de

Jorge Alexandre Neves; Danielle Cireno Fernandes; Florence Fiuza Carvalho; Daniete Fernandes Rocha; Flavia Pereira Xavier

2008-01-01

248

New Uses for a Familiar Technology: Introducing Mobile Phone Polling in Large Classes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We have introduced a real-time polling system to support student engagement and feedback in four large Level 1 and 2 modules in Biological Sciences. The audience response system makes use of a technology that is ubiquitous and familiar to the students. To participate, students send text messages using their mobile phones or send a message via…

Voelkel, Susanne; Bennett, Daimark

2014-01-01

249

Brain Dynamics of Word Familiarization in 20-Month-Olds: Effects of Productive Vocabulary Size  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated the brain mechanisms involved during young children's receptive familiarization with new words, and whether the dynamics of these mechanisms are related to the child's productive vocabulary size. To this end, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) from 20-month-old children in a pseudoword repetition task.…

Torkildsen, Janne von Koss; Hansen, Hanna Friis; Svangstu, Janne Mari; Smith, Lars; Simonsen, Hanne Gram; Moen, Inger; Lindgren, Magnus

2009-01-01

250

Users’ familiar situational contexts facilitate the practice of EFL in elementary schools with mobile devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is beneficial for students to experience situational learning, especially for English as a foreign language (EFL) learning. Providing more listening and speaking opportunities could help EFL students with English learning. Our research proposes a listening and speaking practice system employing personal digital assistants (PDAs) for situated learning using contexts with which students would be familiar. The proposed system attempts

Wu-Yuin Hwang; Holly S. L. Chen

2011-01-01

251

Internal Consistency of Performance Evaluations as a Function of Music Expertise and Excerpt Familiarity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of music experience and excerpt familiarity on the internal consistency of performance evaluations. Participants included nonmusic majors who had not participated in high school music ensembles, nonmusic majors who had participated in high school music ensembles, music majors, and experts…

Kinney, Daryl W.

2009-01-01

252

Song Recognition without Identification: When People Cannot "Name that Tune" but Can Recognize It as Familiar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognition without identification (RWI) is a common day-to-day experience (as when recognizing a face or a tune as familiar without being able to identify the person or the song). It is also a well-established laboratory-based empirical phenomenon: When identification of recognition test items is prevented, participants can discriminate between…

Kostic, Bogdan; Cleary, Anne M.

2009-01-01

253

The Influence of Distracting Familiar Vocal Music on Cognitive Performance of Introverts and Extraverts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the effect of familiar musical distractors on the cognitive performance of introverts and extraverts. Participants completed a verbal, numerical and logic test in three music conditions: vocal music, instrumental music and silence. It was predicted that introverts would perform worse with vocal music, better with…

Avila, Christina; Furnham, Adrian; McClelland, Alastair

2012-01-01

254

Effects of Interlocutor Familiarity on Second Language Learning in Group Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research in second language acquisition has focused on the effects of group work on learning by examining various factors (i.e., motivation, age, task, gender differences, etc.). One particular factor that has not been heavily investigated is interlocutor familiarity, which is at the forefront of the present study. Two separate classes (in…

Poteau, Christine E.

2011-01-01

255

Diurnal Cortisol Profile in Williams Syndrome in Novel and Familiar Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder associated with high rates of anxiety and social issues. We examined diurnal cortisol, a biomarker of the stress response, in adults with WS in novel and familiar settings, and compared these profiles to typically developing (TD) adults. WS and TD participants had similar profiles in…

Lense, Miriam Diane; Tomarken, Andrew J.; Dykens, Elisabeth M.

2013-01-01

256

Novelty and Familiarity as Determinants of Infant Attention within the First Year.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three related experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of novel and familiar stimuli on infant attention. The procedure in each of the experiments was to place an infant before a matrix panel composed of six rows of six lights. Two patterns of lights were used to obtain the infants' fixation time: (1) a point pattern, a single…

Lewis, Michael; And Others

257

Medical School Students' Knowledge of and Familiarity with Visual Impairments: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A limited amount of research has been conducted on the knowledge of and familiarity with individuals with disabilities of medical students. There have been studies on these individuals' satisfaction with medical services and the accessibility of medical services to them, the role of health care providers in working with these individuals, and the…

McKenzie, Amy R.; Henzi, David L.

2010-01-01

258

Aspects of Performance on Line Graph Description Tasks: Influenced by Graph Familiarity and Different Task Features  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Motivated by cognitive theories of graph comprehension, this study systematically manipulated characteristics of a line graph description task in a speaking test in ways to mitigate the influence of graph familiarity, a potential source of construct-irrelevant variance. It extends Xi (2005), which found that the differences in holistic scores on…

Xi, Xiaoming

2010-01-01

259

Perceptual learning and inversion effects: Recognition of prototype-defined familiar checkerboards.  

PubMed

The face inversion effect is a defection in performance in recognizing inverted faces compared with faces presented in their usual upright orientation typically believed to be specific for facial stimuli. McLaren (1997) was able to demonstrate that (a) an inversion effect could be obtained with exemplars drawn from a familiar category, such that upright exemplars were better discriminated than inverted exemplars; and (b) that the inversion effect required that the familiar category be prototype-defined. In this article, we replicate and extend these findings. We show that the inversion effect can be obtained in a standard old/new recognition memory paradigm, demonstrate that it is contingent on familiarization with a prototype-defined category, and establish that the effect is made up of two components. We confirm the advantage for upright exemplars drawn from a familiar, prototype-defined category, and show that there is a disadvantage for inverted exemplars drawn from this category relative to suitable controls. We also provide evidence that there is an N170 event-related potential signature for this effect. These results allow us to integrate a theory of perceptual learning originally proposed by McLaren, Kaye, and Mackintosh (1989) with explanations of the face inversion effect, first reported by Yin. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24364668

Civile, Ciro; Zhao, Di; Ku, Yixuan; Elchlepp, Heike; Lavric, Aureliu; McLaren, I P L

2014-04-01

260

Tolerance for distorted faces: Challenges to a configural processing account of familiar face recognition.  

PubMed

Face recognition is widely held to rely on 'configural processing', an analysis of spatial relations between facial features. We present three experiments in which viewers were shown distorted faces, and asked to resize these to their correct shape. Based on configural theories appealing to metric distances between features, we reason that this should be an easier task for familiar than unfamiliar faces (whose subtle arrangements of features are unknown). In fact, participants were inaccurate at this task, making between 8% and 13% errors across experiments. Importantly, we observed no advantage for familiar faces: in one experiment participants were more accurate with unfamiliars, and in two experiments there was no difference. These findings were not due to general task difficulty - participants were able to resize blocks of colour to target shapes (squares) more accurately. We also found an advantage of familiarity for resizing other stimuli (brand logos). If configural processing does underlie face recognition, these results place constraints on the definition of 'configural'. Alternatively, familiar face recognition might rely on more complex criteria - based on tolerance to within-person variation rather than highly specific measurement. PMID:24853629

Sandford, Adam; Burton, A Mike

2014-09-01

261

Evidence for a Non-Lexical Influence on Children's Auditory Repetition of Familiar Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines evidence for a nonlexical influence on children's repetition of real words. We investigate the extent to which two computational models of auditory repetition can simulate the performance of 68 children aged between 5 and 11 years-old when they are attempting to repeat familiar words. Both computational accounts were derived…

Budd, Mary-Jane; Hanley, J. Richard; Nozari, Nazbanou

2012-01-01

262

The Role of Familiarity in Daily Well-Being: Developmental and Cultural Variation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined life stage and cultural differences in the degree to which familiarity of one's physical location and interaction partner is associated with daily well-being. Participants reported all the activities they engaged in and how they felt during these activities on a previous day using the Day Reconstruction Method (Kahneman,…

Oishi, Shigehiro; Kurtz, Jaime L.; Miao, Felicity F.; Park, Jina; Whitchurch, Erin

2011-01-01

263

Down Syndrome and Automatic Processing of Familiar and Unfamiliar Emotional Faces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participants with Down syndrome (DS) were required to participate in a face recognition experiment to recognize familiar (DS faces) and unfamiliar emotional faces (non DS faces), by using an affective priming paradigm. Pairs of emotional facial stimuli were presented (one face after another) with a short Stimulus Onset Asynchrony of 300…

Morales, Guadalupe E.; Lopez, Ernesto O.

2010-01-01

264

Recognition Errors Suggest Fast Familiarity and Slow Recollection in Rhesus Monkeys  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One influential model of recognition posits two underlying memory processes: recollection, which is detailed but relatively slow, and familiarity, which is quick but lacks detail. Most of the evidence for this dual-process model in nonhumans has come from analyses of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves in rats, but whether ROC analyses…

Basile, Benjamin M.; Hampton, Robert R.

2013-01-01

265

Comprehension of Familiar and Unfamiliar Native Accents under Adverse Listening Conditions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to determine the relative processing cost associated with comprehension of an unfamiliar native accent under adverse listening conditions. Two sentence verification experiments were conducted in which listeners heard sentences at various signal-to-noise ratios. In Experiment 1, these sentences were spoken in a familiar or an…

Adank, Patti; Evans, Bronwen G.; Stuart-Smith, Jane; Scott, Sophie K.

2009-01-01

266

Processing Social Information in Messages: Social Group Familiarity, Fiction/Non-fiction Labels, and Subsequent Beliefs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined how the relative familiarity of a social group described in a message may affect the impact of ostensibly fiction and nonfiction messages on subsequent beliefs about social groups. The 24 paid subjects each received one of four sets of prose excerpts. Each set consisted of four excerpts that were labelled as fiction or nonfiction…

Slater, Michael D.

267

The Influence of Test Familiarity and Student Disability Status upon Teachers' Judgments of Students' Test Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two questions motivated this study: (a) Does test familiarity influence teachers' judgments of their students' test performance? and (b) Does the disability status of students influence their teachers' judgments? Teachers (n=19) judged item performances for one student with disabilities and one student without disabilities (n pairs=19) from their…

Hurwitz, Jason T.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Braden, Jeffery P.

2007-01-01

268

Age-of-acquisition, imagery, concreteness, familiarity, and ambiguity measures for 1,944 words  

Microsoft Academic Search

Age-of-acquisition, imagery, concreteness, familiarity, and ambiguity measures for 1,944 words of varying length and frequency\\u000a of occurrence are presented. The words can all be used as nouns. Intergroup reliabilities are satisfactory on all attributes.\\u000a Correlations with previous word lists are significant, and the intercorrelations between measures match previous findings.

K. J. Gilhooly; R. H. Logie

1980-01-01

269

The importance of cue familiarity and cue distinctiveness in prospective memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both retrospective cued-memory tasks and event-based prospective memory tasks require that cue and target information be associated, and that aspects of that association be reinstated for successful remembering. These functional similarities between retrospective memory and prospective memory were the bases for the hypothesis that the familiarity and the distinctiveness of the target event (cue) would influence prospective memory performance. Experiment

Mark A. McDaniel; Gilles O. Einstein

1993-01-01

270

Familiarity or Conceptual Priming: Event-Related Potentials in Name Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent interest has been drawn to the separate components of recognition memory, as studied by event-related potentials (ERPs). In ERPs, recollection is usually accompanied by a late, parietal positive deflection. An earlier, frontal component has been suggested to be a counterpart, accompanying recognition by familiarity. However, this component,…

Stenberg, Georg; Hellman, Johan; Johansson, Mikael; Rosen, Ingmar

2009-01-01

271

Effects of Familiarity with a Melody Prior to Instruction on Children's Piano Performance Accuracy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of this study was to examine the effects of familiarity with the sound of a melody on children's performance of the melody. Children in kindergarten through fourth grade (N = 97) with no previous formal instrumental instruction were taught to play a four-measure melody on a keyboard during an individual instruction session. Before…

Frewen, Katherine Goins

2010-01-01

272

Selective Familiarity Deficits after Left Anterior Temporal-Lobe Removal with Hippocampal Sparing Are Material Specific  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has firmly established a link between recognition memory and the functional integrity of the medial temporal lobes (MTL). Dual-process models of MTL organization maintain that there is a division of labour within the MTL, with the hippocampus (HC) supporting recollective processes and perirhinal cortex (PRc) supporting familiarity

Martin, Chris B.; Bowles, Ben; Mirsattari, Seyed M.; Kohler, Stefan

2011-01-01

273

Some Misgivings About the Matching Familiar Figures Test as a Measure of Reflection-Impulsivity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The performances of 100 4-year olds on the Matching Familiar Figures Test were analyzed in terms of decision time and decision accuracy. The subjects were divided into four groups: (1) the fast/inaccurates, (2) the slow/accurates, (3) the slow inaccurates, and (4) the fast/accurates. Assessment of individual personality characteristics showed that…

Block, Jack; And Others

274

Effects of Multimodal Presentation and Stimulus Familiarity on Auditory and Visual Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments examined the effects of multimodal presentation and stimulus familiarity on auditory and visual processing. In Experiment 1, 10-month-olds were habituated to either an auditory stimulus, a visual stimulus, or an auditory-visual multimodal stimulus. Processing time was assessed during the habituation phase, and discrimination of…

Robinson, Christopher W.; Sloutsky, Vladimir M.

2010-01-01

275

Something Old, Something New: A Developmental Transition from Familiarity to Novelty Preferences with Hidden Objects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Novelty seeking is viewed as adaptive, and novelty preferences in infancy predict cognitive performance into adulthood. Yet 7-month-olds prefer familiar stimuli to novel ones when searching for hidden objects, in contrast to their strong novelty preferences with visible objects (Shinskey & Munakata, 2005). According to a graded representations…

Shinskey, Jeanne L.; Munakata, Yuko

2010-01-01

276

Paleoecology of the familiar trilobite Elrathia kingii: An early exaerobic zone inhabitant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ``ptychopariid'' Elrathia kingii is the most familiar and abundant trilobite in North America, but it occurs at only a few localities in the Middle Cambrian Wheeler Formation of Utah. E. kingii's unusual abundance and typically monospecific community association resulted from a novel, opportunistic ecological strategy. We infer that the trilobite occupied the exaerobic zone, at the boundary of anoxic

Robert R. Gaines; Mary L. Droser

2003-01-01

277

The Persistence of Erroneous Familiarity in an Epileptic Male: Challenging Perceptual Theories of Deja Vu Activation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report the case of a 39-year-old, temporal lobe epileptic male, MH. Prior to complex partial seizure, experienced up to three times a day, MH often experiences an aura experienced as a persistent sensation of deja vu. Data-driven theories of deja vu formation suggest that partial familiarity for the perceived stimulus is responsible for the…

O'Connor, Akira R.; Moulin, Christopher J. A.

2008-01-01

278

Action Prediction in Younger versus Older Adults: Neural Correlates of Motor Familiarity  

PubMed Central

Generating predictions during action observation is essential for efficient navigation through our social environment. With age, the sensitivity in action prediction declines. In younger adults, the action observation network (AON), consisting of premotor, parietal and occipitotemporal cortices, has been implicated in transforming executed and observed actions into a common code. Much less is known about age-related changes in the neural representation of observed actions. Using fMRI, the present study measured brain activity in younger and older adults during the prediction of temporarily occluded actions (figure skating elements and simple movement exercises). All participants were highly familiar with the movement exercises whereas only some participants were experienced figure skaters. With respect to the AON, the results confirm that this network was preferentially engaged for the more familiar movement exercises. Compared to younger adults, older adults recruited visual regions to perform the task and, additionally, the hippocampus and caudate when the observed actions were familiar to them. Thus, instead of effectively exploiting the sensorimotor matching properties of the AON, older adults seemed to rely predominantly on the visual dynamics of the observed actions to perform the task. Our data further suggest that the caudate played an important role during the prediction of the less familiar figure skating elements in better-performing groups. Together, these findings show that action prediction engages a distributed network in the brain, which is modulated by the content of the observed actions and the age and experience of the observer.

Diersch, Nadine; Mueller, Karsten; Cross, Emily S.; Stadler, Waltraud; Rieger, Martina; Schutz-Bosbach, Simone

2013-01-01

279

Position Distinctiveness, Item Familiarity, and Presentation Frequency Affect Reconstruction of Order in Immediate Episodic Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments examined the effects of position distinctiveness, item familiarity, and frequency of presentation on serial position functions in a task involving reconstructing the order of a subset of 12 names in a list of 20 names. Three different serial position conditions were compared in which the subset of names occurred in Positions…

Healy, Alice F.; Shea, Kathleen M.; Kole, James A.; Cunningham, Thomas F.

2008-01-01

280

Acquiring Noun Plurals in Palestinian Arabic: Morphology, Familiarity, and Pattern Frequency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined the acquisition of two morphological procedures of noun pluralization in Palestinian Arabic: "Sound Feminine Plural" (SFP) and "Broken Plural" (BP). We tested if noun pluralization was affected by (1) the type of morphological procedure, (2) the degree of familiarity with the singular noun stem, and (3) the frequency of plural…

Saiegh-Haddad, Elinor; Hadieh, Areen; Ravid, Dorit

2012-01-01

281

Implicit Referring as an Indication of Familiarity in Face-to-Face and Phone Conversations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large body of research shows that familiarity between speakers makes their use of referring expressions more effective. This paper presents two studies that suggest that it's also the other way around, i.e. effective referring, in this case implicit referring, suggests a relation between the speakers. Further, a third study, based on naturalistic observations of both work and private conversation,

Gunnvald B. Svendsen; Bente Evjemo

2003-01-01

282

Middle school teachers' familiarity with, interest in, performance on, and conceptual and pedagogical knowledge of light  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was threefold: Examine middle school teachers' familiarity with, interest in, conceptual knowledge of and performance on light; Examine their ability to identify misconceptions on light and their suggested pedagogical ideas to address the identified misconceptions; and Establish the relationship between the middle school teachers' interest, familiarity, conceptual understanding, performance, misconception identification, and pedagogical ideas for light. Sixty six (66) middle school science teachers enrolled in three math and science teacher professional development projects at Southern Illinois University Carbondale participated in this study. This study used mixed-methods approach to collect and analyze data. The participants responded in writing to four different instruments: Familiarity and Interest Questionnaire, Conceptual Knowledge Test, Two-tier Performance Test, and Misconceptions Identification Questionnaire. Data was analyzed quantitatively by conducting non-parametric (Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney U, and Kruskal-Wallis) and parametric (paired samples, independent samples, and One-Way ANOVA) tests. Qualitative data was analyzed using thematic analysis and open coding to identify emerging themes and categories. The results showed that the teachers reported high levels of familiarity with and interest in learning more about light concepts. However, they had low conceptual knowledge and performance on light concepts. As such, middle school teachers' perceived knowledge of light concepts was not consistent with their actual knowledge of light. To some extent, the teachers identified students' misconceptions expressed in some scenarios on light and also suggested pedagogical ideas for addressing such misconceptions in middle school science classrooms. However, most teachers did not provide details on their pedagogical ideas for light. Correlations among the four constructs (familiarity, interest, conceptual understanding, and performance) were only significant between performance and conceptual understanding, r (64) = .50, p = .000. There was no significant relationship between conceptual understanding and familiarity, and between performance and familiarity. In view of these findings, it is evident that some teachers did not have sound conceptual understanding and pedagogical ideas to effectively help their students develop the understanding of light concepts accentuated in the US national science education standards. These findings have implications on teacher education and science teaching and learning.

Mbewe, Simeon

283

Delito del Secuestro Familiar: La Perspectiva de Hijos y Padres (Crime of Family Abduction: A Child's and Parent's Perspective).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The abduction of a child by another family member is one of the most devastating crises that a parent could ever encounter. The impact on the abducted child is also traumatic, as he or she grapples with a host of feelings, above all, a sense of betrayal a...

2010-01-01

284

En el seno del hogar. Experiencias familiares para desarrollar el alfabetismo (Right at Home. Family Experiences for Building Literacy).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication, a Spanish translation of "Right at Home," is a family involvement program in the form of easy-to-read cartoon-style letters to be used at home by parents or other family members with their preschool or kindergarten-age children. The book is designed to be used independently by parents, or to be reproduced and distributed to…

Hansen, Merrily P.; Armstrong, Gloria

285

Familiarity of medical residents at Kerman Medical University with evidence based medicine databases  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Using Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) in clinical practice is an important strategy for improving and updating medical services. Therefore, EBM has recently attracted a lot of attention in many medical schools around the world. In this study we tried to evaluate the familiarity of clinical residents who are one of the main clinical decision makers in public hospitals and also the next generation of specialists with EBM and EBM databases. METHODS: This was a cross–sectional study in 2010 in which clinical residents of Kerman Medical University (KMU) participated. Residents were asked about the four main EBM databases. The data was collected by a self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: The data showed that from the respondents only 26.6% knew about EBM and only 28.7% of the respondents were familiar with “Up to Date”, 22.3% were familiar with “Ovid EBM Reviews”, 6.4% were familiar with “Cochrane” and 5.3% were familiar with “BMJ Clinical Evidence”. The frequencies of those that actually used the databases for clinical decision making and could answer the search questions were even less. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed most of the residents lack sufficient knowledge about EBM and its databases. The reason is probably the inexistence of a systematic and comprehensive curriculum for EBM education during their residency program or undergraduate program. Thus, due to the importance of learning EBM in this group, there is a necessity to plan a comprehensive and proper education schedule for EBM and EBM database use at the beginning or further stages of residency.

Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Khanjani, Narges; Motamedi, Fatemeh; Saber, Maryam; Rad, Gholamreza Sharifi

2011-01-01

286

Neural substrates for semantic memory of familiar songs: is there an interface between lyrics and melodies?  

PubMed

Findings on song perception and song production have increasingly suggested that common but partially distinct neural networks exist for processing lyrics and melody. However, the neural substrates of song recognition remain to be investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the neural substrates involved in the accessing "song lexicon" as corresponding to a representational system that might provide links between the musical and phonological lexicons using positron emission tomography (PET). We exposed participants to auditory stimuli consisting of familiar and unfamiliar songs presented in three ways: sung lyrics (song), sung lyrics on a single pitch (lyrics), and the sung syllable 'la' on original pitches (melody). The auditory stimuli were designed to have equivalent familiarity to participants, and they were recorded at exactly the same tempo. Eleven right-handed nonmusicians participated in four conditions: three familiarity decision tasks using song, lyrics, and melody and a sound type decision task (control) that was designed to engage perceptual and prelexical processing but not lexical processing. The contrasts (familiarity decision tasks versus control) showed no common areas of activation between lyrics and melody. This result indicates that essentially separate neural networks exist in semantic memory for the verbal and melodic processing of familiar songs. Verbal lexical processing recruited the left fusiform gyrus and the left inferior occipital gyrus, whereas melodic lexical processing engaged the right middle temporal sulcus and the bilateral temporo-occipital cortices. Moreover, we found that song specifically activated the left posterior inferior temporal cortex, which may serve as an interface between verbal and musical representations in order to facilitate song recognition. PMID:23029492

Saito, Yoko; Ishii, Kenji; Sakuma, Naoko; Kawasaki, Keiichi; Oda, Keiichi; Mizusawa, Hidehiro

2012-01-01

287

Faces are special but not too special: Spared face recognition in amnesia is based on familiarity  

PubMed Central

Most current theories of human memory are material-general in the sense that they assume that the medial temporal lobe (MTL) is important for retrieving the details of prior events, regardless of the specific type of materials. Recent studies of amnesia have challenged the material-general assumption by suggesting that the MTL may be necessary for remembering words, but is not involved in remembering faces. We examined recognition memory for faces and words in a group of amnesic patients, which included hypoxic patients and patients with extensive left or right MTL lesions. Recognition confidence judgments were used to plot receiver operating characteristics (ROCs) in order to more fully quantify recognition performance and to estimate the contributions of recollection and familiarity. Consistent with the extant literature, an analysis of overall recognition accuracy showed that the patients were impaired at word memory but had spared face memory. However, the ROC analysis indicated that the patients were generally impaired at high confidence recognition responses for faces and words, and they exhibited significant recollection impairments for both types of materials. Familiarity for faces was preserved in all patients, but extensive left MTL damage impaired familiarity for words. These results suggest that face recognition may appear to be spared because performance tends to rely heavily on familiarity, a process that is relatively well preserved in amnesia. The findings challenge material-general theories of memory, and suggest that both material and process are important determinants of memory performance in amnesia, and different types of materials may depend more or less on recollection and familiarity.

Aly, Mariam; Knight, Robert T.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.

2014-01-01

288

Only One Third of Tehran's Physicians are Familiar with 'Evidence-Based Clinical Guidelines'  

PubMed Central

Background: Clinical guidelines have increasingly been used as tools for applying new knowledge and research findings. Although, efforts have been made to produce clinical guidelines in Iran, it is not clear whether they have been used by physicians and what factors are associated with them?. Methods: Four hundred and forty three practicing physicians in Tehran were selected from private clinics through weighted random sampling. The data collection tool was a questionnaire on familiarity and attitude toward clinical guidelines. The descriptive and analytical findings were analyzed with t-tests, Chi2, logistic and linear multivariate regression by SPSS, version 16. Results: 31.8% of physicians were familiar with clinical guidelines. Based on the logistic regression model physicians’ familiarity with clinical guidelines was positively and significantly associated with ‘working experience in a health service delivery point’ OR = 2.13 (95% CI, 1.17-3.90), ‘familiarity with therapeutic protocols’ OR = 2.09 (95% CI, 1.22-3.57) and ‘holding a specialty degree’ OR = 2.51 (95% CI, 1.24-5.07). The mean overall attitude scores in the ‘usefulness’, ‘reliability’, and ‘problems and barriers’ domains were, respectively, 78.9 (SD = 16.5), 78.9 (SD = 19.7) and 50.4 (SD = 15.9) out of a total of 100 scores in each domain. No significant association was observed between attitude domains and other independent variables using multivariate linear regression. Conclusions: Little familiarity with clinical guidelines may represent weakness in of production and distribution of domestic evidence. Although, physicians considered guidelines as useful and reliable tools, but problems such as difficult access to guidelines and lack of facilities to apply them were stated as well.

Mounesan, Leila; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Majdzadeh, Reza; Rashidian, Arash; Gholami, Jaleh

2013-01-01

289

Neural Substrates for Semantic Memory of Familiar Songs: Is There an Interface between Lyrics and Melodies?  

PubMed Central

Findings on song perception and song production have increasingly suggested that common but partially distinct neural networks exist for processing lyrics and melody. However, the neural substrates of song recognition remain to be investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the neural substrates involved in the accessing “song lexicon” as corresponding to a representational system that might provide links between the musical and phonological lexicons using positron emission tomography (PET). We exposed participants to auditory stimuli consisting of familiar and unfamiliar songs presented in three ways: sung lyrics (song), sung lyrics on a single pitch (lyrics), and the sung syllable ‘la’ on original pitches (melody). The auditory stimuli were designed to have equivalent familiarity to participants, and they were recorded at exactly the same tempo. Eleven right-handed nonmusicians participated in four conditions: three familiarity decision tasks using song, lyrics, and melody and a sound type decision task (control) that was designed to engage perceptual and prelexical processing but not lexical processing. The contrasts (familiarity decision tasks versus control) showed no common areas of activation between lyrics and melody. This result indicates that essentially separate neural networks exist in semantic memory for the verbal and melodic processing of familiar songs. Verbal lexical processing recruited the left fusiform gyrus and the left inferior occipital gyrus, whereas melodic lexical processing engaged the right middle temporal sulcus and the bilateral temporo-occipital cortices. Moreover, we found that song specifically activated the left posterior inferior temporal cortex, which may serve as an interface between verbal and musical representations in order to facilitate song recognition.

Saito, Yoko; Ishii, Kenji; Sakuma, Naoko; Kawasaki, Keiichi; Oda, Keiichi; Mizusawa, Hidehiro

2012-01-01

290

Rugby versus Soccer in South Africa: Content Familiarity Contributes to Cross-Cultural Differences in Cognitive Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, cross-cultural differences in cognitive test scores are hypothesized to depend on a test's cultural complexity (Cultural Complexity Hypothesis: CCH), here conceptualized as its content familiarity, rather than on its cognitive complexity (Spearman's Hypothesis: SH). The content familiarity of tests assessing short-term memory,…

Malda, Maike; van de Vijver, Fons J. R.; Temane, Q. Michael

2010-01-01

291

Familiarization, Attention, and Recognition Memory in Infancy: An Event-Related Potential and Cortical Source Localization Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of familiarization and attention on event-related potential (ERP) correlates of recognition memory in infants. Infants 4.5, 6, or 7.5 months of age were either familiarized with 2 stimuli that were used during later testing or presented 2 stimuli that were not used later. Then, infants were presented with a…

Reynolds, Greg D.; Richards, John E.

2005-01-01

292

Community pharmacists' involvement in smoking cessation: familiarity and implementation of the National smoking cessation guideline in Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Guidelines on smoking cessation (SC) emphasize healthcare cooperation and community pharmacists' involvement. This study explored the familiarity and implementation of the National SC Guideline in Finnish community pharmacies, factors relating to Guideline familiarity, implementation and provision of SC services. METHODS: A nationwide mail survey was sent to a systematic, sample of community pharmacy owners and staff pharmacists (total n

Terhi Kurko; Kari Linden; Kirsi Pietilä; Patrick Sandström; Marja Airaksinen

2010-01-01

293

Familiarity and Recollection Produce Distinct Eye Movement, Pupil and Medial Temporal Lobe Responses when Memory Strength Is Matched  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments explored eye measures (fixations and pupil response patterns) and brain responses (BOLD) accompanying the recognition of visual object stimuli based on familiarity and recollection. In both experiments, the use of a modified remember/know procedure led to high confidence and matched accuracy levels characterising strong familiarity

Kafkas, Alexandros; Montaldi, Daniela

2012-01-01

294

Deja Vu in Unilateral Temporal-Lobe Epilepsy Is Associated with Selective Familiarity Impairments on Experimental Tasks of Recognition Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In deja vu, a phenomenological impression of familiarity for the current visual environment is experienced with a sense that it should in fact not feel familiar. The fleeting nature of this phenomenon in daily life, and the difficulty in developing experimental paradigms to elicit it, has hindered progress in understanding deja vu. Some…

Martin, Chris B.; Mirsattari, Seyed M.; Pruessner, Jens C.; Pietrantonio, Sandra; Burneo, Jorge G.; Hayman-Abello, Brent; Kohler, Stefan

2012-01-01

295

Familiar Verbs Are Not Always Easier than Novel Verbs: How German Pre-School Children Comprehend Active and Passive Sentences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many studies show a developmental advantage for transitive sentences with familiar verbs over those with novel verbs. It might be that once familiar verbs become entrenched in particular constructions, they would be more difficult to understand (than would novel verbs) in non-prototypical constructions. We provide support for this hypothesis…

Dittmar, Miriam; Abbot-Smith, Kirsten; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

2014-01-01

296

Atlas del Genoma del Cáncer  

Cancer.gov

Es posible que haya más de 200 tipos diferentes de cáncer y muchos subtipos más, cada uno de estos causado por errores en el ADN que desencadenan el crecimiento descontrolado de las células. La identificación de los cambios en el conjunto completo de ADN de cada tipo de cáncer, su genoma, y el entendimiento de cómo interactúan dichos cambios para impulsar el proceso de la enfermedad sentarán las bases de una era individualizada de tratamiento del cáncer.

297

Right frontal lobe mediation of recollection- and familiarity-based verbal recognition memory: evidence from patients with tumor resections.  

PubMed

Medial-temporal, parietal, and pFC regions have been implicated in recollection and familiarity, but existing evidence from neuroimaging and patient studies is limited and conflicting regarding the role of specific regions within pFC in these memory processes. We report a study of 20 patients who had undergone resection of right frontal lobe tumors and 20 matched healthy control participants. The location and extent of lesions were traced on the patients' scans. A process dissociation procedure was employed to yield estimates of the contributions of recollection and familiarity in verbal recognition performance. Group comparisons revealed deficits in recollection but not familiarity in the patient group relative to their healthy counterparts. We found a positive relationship between estimates of familiarity and lesion sizes in the right inferior pFC (BA 11, 47) which was significant upon bootstrap resampling. These results are discussed in terms of prior work linking this area to an overextended sense of familiarity. PMID:21563887

Anderson, Nicole D; Davidson, Patrick S R; Mason, Warren P; Gao, Fuqiang; Binns, Malcolm A; Winocur, Gordon

2011-12-01

298

Reactivity to fearful expressions of familiar and unfamiliar people in children with autism: an eye-tracking pupillometry study  

PubMed Central

Background Individuals with autism are often reported to have difficulty with emotion processing. However, clinical and experimental data show that they are sensitive to familiarity; for example, they show normative attachment to familiar people, and have normative brain activity in response to familiar faces. To date, no study has measured their reactivity to the emotions of familiar vs. unfamiliar people. Thus, our aim was to determine whether individuals with autism would show normative reactivity to emotion in familiar people. Methods Participants were 21 children with autism and 21 children with typical development, aged two to five years, matched on age and gender. The children observed videos of familiar people (their child-care teachers) and unfamiliar people expressing fear, whilst their visual attention and pupillary reactions were recorded (the latter as an index of emotional reactivity), using eye tracking technology. Results The children with autism showed normative pupillary reactions (peak magnitude) to fear expressed by familiar people, but a reduced response to fear expressed by unfamiliar people. However, across familiarity conditions, the children with autism had longer latency peak responses than the typically developing children. This pattern of findings was independent of cognitive factors or visual attention as visual attention by group was not related to familiarity condition. The children with autism had reduced visual attention to neutral faces; however, on fearful faces there were no group differences. Abnormalities in pupillary reactivity in the autism group were related to less prosocial behaviour and more severe play and communication deficits. Conclusions Children with autism were less atypical in their responses to fearful expressions of people they know, arguing against a pervasive emotional impairment in autism, but rather one that may be mediated by familiarity.

2014-01-01

299

Instantánea del cáncer infantil  

Cancer.gov

Información sobre la incidencia y mortalidad del cáncer en los niños, tendencias en el financiamiento del NCI para la investigación del cáncer infantil; así como ejemplos de actividades y adelantos en la investigación relevantes para esta población.

300

Lexical Familiarity and Processing Efficiency: Individual Differences in Naming, Lexical Decision, and Semantic Categorization  

PubMed Central

College students were separated into 2 groups (high and low) on the basis of 3 measures: subjective familiarity ratings of words, self-reported language experiences, and a test of vocabulary knowledge. Three experiments were conducted to determine if the groups also differed in visual word naming, lexical decision, and semantic categorization. High Ss were consistently faster than low Ss in naming visually presented words. They were also faster and more accurate in making difficult lexical decisions and in rejecting homophone foils in semantic categorization. Taken together, the results demonstrate that Ss who differ in lexical familiarity also differ in processing efficiency. The relationship between processing efficiency and working memory accounts of individual differences in language processing is also discussed.

Lewellen, Mary Jo; Goldinger, Stephen D.; Pisoni, David B.; Greene, Beth G.

2012-01-01

301

STS-54 MS1 Runco participates in camera familiarization in JSC's CCT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-54 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, Mission Specialist 1 (MS1) Mario Runco, Jr holds a CANNON video camcorder on the middeck of JSC's Crew Compartment Trainer (CCT) during a camera familiarization session. Runco is seated on a stowed mission specialist seat in front of the forward middeck lockers as he contemplates how to best capture the subject (activity). The CCT is located in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9NE.

1992-01-01

302

Stress affects theta activity in limbic networks and impairs novelty-induced exploration and familiarization.  

PubMed

Exposure to a novel environment triggers the response of several brain areas that regulate emotional behaviors. Here, we studied theta oscillations within the hippocampus (HPC)-amygdala (AMY)-medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) network in exploration of a novel environment and subsequent familiarization through repeated exposures to that same environment; in addition, we assessed how concomitant stress exposure could disrupt this activity and impair both behavioral processes. Local field potentials (LFP) were simultaneously recorded from dorsal and ventral hippocampus (dHPC and vHPC, respectively), basolateral amygdala (BLA) and mPFC in freely behaving rats while they were exposed to a novel environment, then repeatedly re-exposed over the course of 3 weeks to that same environment and, finally, on re-exposure to a novel unfamiliar environment. A longitudinal analysis of theta activity within this circuit revealed a reduction of vHPC and BLA theta power and vHPC-BLA theta coherence through familiarization which was correlated with a return to normal exploratory behavior in control rats. In contrast, a persistent over-activation of the same brain regions was observed in stressed rats that displayed impairments in novel exploration and familiarization processes. Importantly, we show that stress also affected intra-hippocampal synchrony and heightened the coherence between vHPC and BLA. In summary, we demonstrate that modulatory theta activity in the aforementioned circuit, namely in the vHPC and BLA, is correlated with the expression of anxiety in novelty-induced exploration and familiarization in both normal and pathological conditions. PMID:24137113

Jacinto, Luis R; Reis, Joana S; Dias, Nuno S; Cerqueira, João J; Correia, José H; Sousa, Nuno

2013-01-01

303

Lifting a familiar object: visual size analysis, not memory for object weight, scales lift force  

Microsoft Academic Search

The brain can accurately predict the forces needed to efficiently manipulate familiar objects in relation to mechanical properties\\u000a such as weight. These predictions involve memory or some type of central representation, but visual analysis of size also\\u000a yields accurate predictions of the needed fingertip forces. This raises the issue of which process (weight memory or visual\\u000a size analysis) is used

Kelly J. Cole

2008-01-01

304

Parallel effects of processing fluency and positive affect on familiarity-based recognition decisions for faces  

PubMed Central

According to attribution models of familiarity assessment, people can use a heuristic in recognition-memory decisions, in which they attribute the subjective ease of processing of a memory probe to a prior encounter with the stimulus in question. Research in social cognition suggests that experienced positive affect may be the proximal cue that signals fluency in various experimental contexts. In the present study, we compared the effects of positive affect and fluency on recognition-memory judgments for faces with neutral emotional expression. We predicted that if positive affect is indeed the critical cue that signals processing fluency at retrieval, then its manipulation should produce effects that closely mirror those produced by manipulations of processing fluency. In two experiments, we employed a masked-priming procedure in combination with a Remember-Know (RK) paradigm that aimed to separate familiarity- from recollection-based memory decisions. In addition, participants performed a prime-discrimination task that allowed us to take inter-individual differences in prime awareness into account. We found highly similar effects of our priming manipulations of processing fluency and of positive affect. In both cases, the critical effect was specific to familiarity-based recognition responses. Moreover, in both experiments it was reflected in a shift toward a more liberal response bias, rather than in changed discrimination. Finally, in both experiments, the effect was found to be related to prime awareness; it was present only in participants who reported a lack of such awareness on the prime-discrimination task. These findings add to a growing body of evidence that points not only to a role of fluency, but also of positive affect in familiarity assessment. As such they are consistent with the idea that fluency itself may be hedonically marked.

Duke, Devin; Fiacconi, Chris M.; Kohler, Stefan

2014-01-01

305

The assessment of preschool children's motor skills after familiarization with motor tests.  

PubMed

This research study was conducted to establish the influence of familiarization on the information component of movement in a motor task for the assessment of preschool children's motor skills. The sample included 50 children whose mean age was 5.9 years (71.5 months). The experimental group consisted of 27 children who were 5.9 years (71.5 months) old, and the control group consisted of 23 children who were 5.9 years (71.5 months) old. The examinees performed 2 motor tasks, standing long jump (SJ, explosive strength) and standing on 1 leg on a beam "flamingo test" (FT, balance). The experimental group underwent a period of familiarization with the motor task in 3 sessions with 5 trials every 3 days. The results indicate statistically significant differences in the final testing between both groups of examinees; the experimental group mean was 112.73 cm, and the control group mean was 100.62 in the SJ test (p = 0.00), and the experimental group mean was 27.10 seconds and the control group mean was 15.01 seconds in the FT (for balance) (p = 0.00). The results obtained in this research indicate that children significantly improved the results in the motor test of strength and balance, being influenced by familiarization. It was confirmed that it was necessary for preschool children to be familiar with the test and it is not justified to use testing and assessment protocols and standards for adults. Physical educators and coaches, when testing preschool children, should introduce children to tests to obtain the best result. PMID:22728940

Tomac, Zvonimir; Hraski, Zeljko; Sporis, Goran

2012-07-01

306

Stress affects theta activity in limbic networks and impairs novelty-induced exploration and familiarization  

PubMed Central

Exposure to a novel environment triggers the response of several brain areas that regulate emotional behaviors. Here, we studied theta oscillations within the hippocampus (HPC)-amygdala (AMY)-medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) network in exploration of a novel environment and subsequent familiarization through repeated exposures to that same environment; in addition, we assessed how concomitant stress exposure could disrupt this activity and impair both behavioral processes. Local field potentials (LFP) were simultaneously recorded from dorsal and ventral hippocampus (dHPC and vHPC, respectively), basolateral amygdala (BLA) and mPFC in freely behaving rats while they were exposed to a novel environment, then repeatedly re-exposed over the course of 3 weeks to that same environment and, finally, on re-exposure to a novel unfamiliar environment. A longitudinal analysis of theta activity within this circuit revealed a reduction of vHPC and BLA theta power and vHPC-BLA theta coherence through familiarization which was correlated with a return to normal exploratory behavior in control rats. In contrast, a persistent over-activation of the same brain regions was observed in stressed rats that displayed impairments in novel exploration and familiarization processes. Importantly, we show that stress also affected intra-hippocampal synchrony and heightened the coherence between vHPC and BLA. In summary, we demonstrate that modulatory theta activity in the aforementioned circuit, namely in the vHPC and BLA, is correlated with the expression of anxiety in novelty-induced exploration and familiarization in both normal and pathological conditions.

Jacinto, Luis R.; Reis, Joana S.; Dias, Nuno S.; Cerqueira, Joao J.; Correia, Jose H.; Sousa, Nuno

2013-01-01

307

Perception of Everyday OdorsCorrelation between Intensity, Familiarity and Strength of Hedonic Judgement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, 40 Japanese, 44 German and 39 Mexican women were presented with 18 everyday odorants. They were asked to rate them for intensity on a six-point scale from not detectable to very strong, for pleasantness on an 11-point scale from -5, to neutral at 0, to +5, and for familiarity on a six-point scale from completely unknown to

Hans Distel; Saho Ayabe-Kanamura; Margarita Martínez-Gómez; Ina Schicker; Tatsu Kobayakawa; Sachiko Saito; Robyn Hudson

1999-01-01

308

Unexpected novelty and familiarity orienting responses in lateral parietal cortex during recognition judgment  

PubMed Central

The role of lateral parietal cortex during recognition memory is heavily debated. We examined parietal activation during an Explicit Memory Cueing recognition paradigm that biases participants towards expecting novel or familiar stimuli on a trial-by-trial basis using anticipatory cues (“Likely Old”, “Likely New”), compared to trials with neutral cues (“????”). Three qualitatively distinct patterns were observed in the left lateral parietal cortex. An unexpected novelty response occurred in left anterior intraparietal cortex (IPS)/post-central gyrus (PoCG) in which greater activation was observed for new versus old materials following the “Likely Old” cue, but not following the “Likely New” cue. In contrast, anterior angular gyrus demonstrated an unexpected familiarity response with greater activation for old versus new materials following the “Likely New” cue, but not the “Likely Old” cue. Thus these two regions demonstrated increased responses that were selective for either new or old materials respectively, but only when they were unexpected. In contrast, a mid IPS area demonstrated greater response for whichever class of memoranda was unanticipated given the cue condition (an unexpected memory response). Analogous response patterns in regions outside of parietal cortex, and the results of a resting state connectivity analysis, suggested these three response patterns were associated with visuo-spatial orienting following unexpected novelty, source monitoring operations following unexpected familiarity, and general executive control processes following violated expectations. These findings support a Memory Orienting Model of the left lateral parietal cortex in which the region is linked to the investigation of unexpected novelty or familiarity in the environment.

Jaeger, Antonio; Konkel, Alex

2013-01-01

309

How dogs scan familiar and inverted faces: an eye movement study.  

PubMed

Faces play an important role in communication and identity recognition in social animals. Domestic dogs often respond to human facial cues, but their face processing is weakly understood. In this study, facial inversion effect (deficits in face processing when the image is turned upside down) and responses to personal familiarity were tested using eye movement tracking. A total of 23 pet dogs and eight kennel dogs were compared to establish the effects of life experiences on their scanning behavior. All dogs preferred conspecific faces and showed great interest in the eye area, suggesting that they perceived images representing faces. Dogs fixated at the upright faces as long as the inverted faces, but the eye area of upright faces gathered longer total duration and greater relative fixation duration than the eye area of inverted stimuli, regardless of the species (dog or human) shown in the image. Personally, familiar faces and eyes attracted more fixations than the strange ones, suggesting that dogs are likely to recognize conspecific and human faces in photographs. The results imply that face scanning in dogs is guided not only by the physical properties of images, but also by semantic factors. In conclusion, in a free-viewing task, dogs seem to target their fixations at naturally salient and familiar items. Facial images were generally more attractive for pet dogs than kennel dogs, but living environment did not affect conspecific preference or inversion and familiarity responses, suggesting that the basic mechanisms of face processing in dogs could be hardwired or might develop under limited exposure. PMID:24305996

Somppi, Sanni; Törnqvist, Heini; Hänninen, Laura; Krause, Christina M; Vainio, Outi

2014-05-01

310

Familiarity and Concern in the Radio Voice of a Networked Diaspora Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

eRadio1 proposes to increase interaction and reduce alienation in diaspora communities. We report on our holistic approach to interactive radio production (including audio production, Internet exchange, and radio broadcasting) intended to foster participatory community self-discovery, identification, and assimilation in a community dispersed between the USA and Mexico. Our hypothesis is that speaking with familiarity and concern to a dispersed audience

Carla Gomez-Monroy; Schlumberger SEED Cambridge; Stephen Schultze; Walter Bender

311

Social Familiarity Reduces Reaction Times and Enhances Survival of Group-Living Predatory Mites under the Risk of Predation  

PubMed Central

Background Social familiarity, which is based on the ability to recognise familiar conspecific individuals following prior association, may affect all major life activities of group-living animals such as foraging, reproduction and anti-predator behaviours. A scarcely experimentally tested explanation why social familiarity is beneficial for group-living animals is provided by limited attention theory. Limited attention theory postulates that focusing on a given task, such as inspection and assessment of unfamiliar group members, has cognitive and associated physiological and behavioural costs with respect to the attention paid to other tasks, such as anti-predator vigilance and response. Accordingly, we hypothesised that social familiarity enhances the anti-predator success of group-living predatory mites, Phytoseiulus persimilis, confronted with an intraguild predator, the predatory mite Amblyseius andersoni. Methodology/Principal Findings We videotaped and analysed the response of two P. persimilis larvae, held in familiar or unfamiliar pairs, to attacks by a gravid A. andersoni female, using the behavioural analyses software EthoVision Pro®. Familiar larvae were more frequently close together, reacted more quickly to predator attacks, survived more predator encounters and survived longer than unfamiliar larvae. Significance In line with the predictions of limited attention theory, we suggest that social familiarity improves anti-predator behaviours because it allows prey to shift attention to other tasks rather than group member assessment.

Strodl, Markus Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

2012-01-01

312

Could masked conceptual primes increase recollection? The subtleties of measuring recollection and familiarity in recognition memory  

PubMed Central

We begin with a theoretical overview of the concepts of recollection and familiarity, focusing, in the spirit of this special issue, on the important contributions made by Andrew Mayes. In particular, we discuss the issue of when the generation of semantically-related information in response to a retrieval cue might be experienced as recollection rather than familiarity. We then report a series of experiments in which two different types of masked prime, presented immediately prior to the test cue in a recognition memory paradigm, produced opposite effects on Remember vs. Know judgments. More specifically, primes that were conceptually related to the test item increased the incidence of Remember judgments, though only when intermixed with repetition primes (which increased the incidence of Know judgments instead, as in prior studies). One possible explanation—that the fluency of retrieval of item–context associations can be experienced as recollection, even when the source of that fluency is unknown—is counter to conventional views of recollection and familiarity, though it was anticipated by Andrew in his writings nearly two decades ago.

Taylor, Jason R.; Henson, Richard N.

2012-01-01

313

Familiarity or conceptual priming: event-related potentials in name recognition.  

PubMed

Recent interest has been drawn to the separate components of recognition memory, as studied by event-related potentials (ERPs). In ERPs, recollection is usually accompanied by a late, parietal positive deflection. An earlier, frontal component has been suggested to be a counterpart, accompanying recognition by familiarity. However, this component, the FN400, has alternatively been suggested to reflect a form of implicit memory, conceptual priming. The present study examined the ERP components of recognition memory using an episodic memory task with a stimulus material consisting of names, half of which were famous. Along a different dimension, the names varied in how rare or common they were. These dimensions, frequency and fame, exerted powerful effects on memory accuracy, and dissociated the two recognition processes, such that frequency gave rise to familiarity and fame fostered recollection, when the receiver operating characteristics data were analyzed with Yonelinas' dual-process signal detection model. The ERPs corresponded fully to the behavioral data because frequency affected the frontal component exclusively, and fame affected the parietal component exclusively. Moreover, a separate behavioral experiment showed that conceptual priming was sensitive to fame, but not to frequency. Our data therefore indicate that the FN400 varies jointly with familiarity, but independently of conceptual priming. PMID:18564050

Stenberg, Georg; Hellman, Johan; Johansson, Mikael; Rosén, Ingmar

2009-03-01

314

Role of familiarity versus interleukin-1 genes cluster polymorphisms in chronic periodontitis.  

PubMed

Periodontitis (PO) is a multifactorial disease affecting about 10% to 20% of the general population. Several studies have suggested that part of the clinical variability in PO might be explained by genetic factors. Among the candidate genes for PO, IL1 gene polymorphisms have been broadly investigated, with variable results, for their relationship with the disease. We studied three IL1 polymorphisms, IL1A C[-889]T (rs1800587), IL1B C[3953/4]T (rs1143634), and IL1RN VNTR [+2018] (rs419598) in relation to different life styles and familiarities. We did not find correlation between these IL1 polymorphisms and chronic PO, as well as between chronic PO and life styles (smoking, alcohol, coffee, fizzy drink and fish). We found a strong correlation, also after adjustment for age, between familiarity and PO onset (P=0.0062; OR 5.754, 95% CI 1.644-20.145). In conclusion, we did confirm the previously suggested association between PO and IL1 gene cluster polymorphisms, and between PO and four common risk factors (coffee, smoking, alcohol and fizzy drinks) and one common protective factor (fish). On the contrary, we found a strong role of familiarity. PMID:24275344

Zuccarello, Daniela; Bazzato, M Federica; Ferlin, Alberto; Pengo, Manuel; Frigo, Anna Chiara; Favero, Giovanni; Foresta, Carlo; Stellini, Edoardo

2014-02-10

315

Selective aggressiveness in European free-tailed bats ( Tadarida teniotis): influence of familiarity, age and sex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bats are highly social mammals that often form large groups and represent good models to test the role played by individual status in shaping social relationships. Social cohesion relies on the ability of group and individual recognition, which is mediated by a range of sensorial cues. In this study, we selected the European free-tailed bat Tadarida teniotis as a model species to test the effects of familiarity, sex and age on aggressiveness and mutual tolerance. We hypothesize that T. teniotis is able to recognize group members and exhibit selective aggressiveness, and thus we predict fewer aggressive events and more amicable encounters between colony mates than between strangers. As female bats are generally more sociable and perform prolonged parental care to juveniles even after weaning, we hypothesize that sex and age of bats have significant influences on aggressive behaviours and thus predict that females will perform more amicable behaviours than males and that adults of both sexes will be less aggressive towards juveniles. Our results confirm that T. teniotis is able to discriminate between familiar and stranger individuals, showing higher rates of aggressive behaviours towards the latter. Females are more prone to exhibit amicable behaviours, particularly during same-sex interactions, while males show higher level of aggressiveness. Juveniles are subjected to fewer aggressive behaviours by adults of both sexes. Familiarity appears crucial for T. teniotis in determining the degree of aggressiveness during social interactions but the rate of aggressive events is also influenced by intrinsic individual factors such as sex and age.

Ancillotto, Leonardo; Russo, Danilo

2014-03-01

316

Infant perception of audio-visual speech synchrony in familiar and unfamiliar fluent speech.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of linguistic experience and language familiarity on the perception of audio-visual (A-V) synchrony in fluent speech. In Experiment 1, we tested a group of monolingual Spanish- and Catalan-learning 8-month-old infants to a video clip of a person speaking Spanish. Following habituation to the audiovisually synchronous video, infants saw and heard desynchronized clips of the same video where the audio stream now preceded the video stream by 366, 500, or 666ms. In Experiment 2, monolingual Catalan and Spanish infants were tested with a video clip of a person speaking English. Results indicated that in both experiments, infants detected a 666 and a 500ms asynchrony. That is, their responsiveness to A-V synchrony was the same regardless of their specific linguistic experience or familiarity with the tested language. Compared to previous results from infant studies with isolated audiovisual syllables, these results show that infants are more sensitive to A-V temporal relations inherent in fluent speech. Furthermore, the absence of a language familiarity effect on the detection of A-V speech asynchrony at eight months of age is consistent with the broad perceptual tuning usually observed in infant response to linguistic input at this age. PMID:24576508

Pons, Ferran; Lewkowicz, David J

2014-06-01

317

Políticas del sitio web  

Cancer.gov

En el sitio web del NCI se proporcionan enlaces a otros sitios web con fines informativos y para conveniencia del público. Si el usuario selecciona un sitio web externo, saldrá del sitio web del NCI y estará sujeto a las políticas de privacidad y seguridad de dicho sitio.

318

It is more difficult to retrieve a familiar person's name and occupation from their voice than from their blurred face.  

PubMed

Damjanovic and Hanley (2007) showed that episodic information is more readily retrieved from familiar faces than familiar voices, even when the two presentation modalities are matched for overall recognition rates by blurring the faces. This pattern of performance contrasts with the results obtained by Hanley and Turner (2000) who showed that semantic information could be recalled equally easily from familiar blurred faces and voices. The current study used the procedure developed by Hanley and Turner (2000) and applied it to the stimuli used by Damjanovic and Hanley (2007). The findings showed a marked decrease in retrieval of occupations and names from familiar voices relative to blurred faces even though the two modalities were matched for overall levels of recognition and rated familiarity. Similar results were obtained in Experiment 2 in which the same participants were asked to recognise both faces and voices. It is argued that these findings pose problems for any model of person recognition (e.g., Burton, Bruce, & Johnston, 1990) in which familiarity decisions occur beyond the point at which information from different modalities has been integrated. PMID:19882434

Hanley, J Richard; Damjanovic, Ljubica

2009-11-01

319

Memorial familiarity remains intact for pictures but not for words in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment  

PubMed Central

Understanding how memory breaks down in the earliest stages of the Alzheimer’s disease (AD) process has significant implications, both clinically and with respect to intervention development. Previous work has highlighted a robust picture superiority effect in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). However, it remains unclear as to how pictures improve memory compared to words in this patient population. In the current study, we utilized receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to obtain estimates of familiarity and recollection for pictures and words in patients with aMCI and healthy older controls. Analysis of accuracy shows that even when performance is matched between pictures and words in the healthy control group, patients with aMCI continue to show a significant picture superiority effect. The results of the ROC analysis showed that patients demonstrated significantly impaired recollection and familiarity for words compared controls. In contrast, patients with aMCI demonstrated impaired recollection, but intact familiarity for pictures, compared to controls. Based on previous work from our lab, we speculate that patients can utilize the rich conceptual information provided by pictures to enhance familiarity, and perceptual information may allow for post-retrieval monitoring or verification of the enhanced sense of familiarity. Alternatively, the combination of enhanced conceptual and perceptual fluency of the test item might drive a stronger or more robust sense of familiarity that can be accurately attributed to a studied item.

Embree, Lindsay M.; Budson, Andrew E.; Ally, Brandon A.

2012-01-01

320

An evaluation of recollection and familiarity in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment using receiver operating characteristics.  

PubMed

There is a need to investigate exactly how memory breaks down in the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Examining what aspects of memorial processing remain relatively intact early in the disease process will allow us to develop behavioral interventions and possible drug therapies focused on these intact processes. Several recent studies have worked to understand the processes of recollection and familiarity in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and very mild AD. Although there is general agreement that these patient groups are relatively unable to use recollection to support veridical recognition decisions, there has been some question as to how well these patients can use familiarity. The current study used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and a depth of processing manipulation to understand the effect of MCI and AD on the estimates of recollection and familiarity. Results showed that patients with MCI and AD were impaired in both recollection and familiarity, regardless of the depth of encoding. These results are discussed in relation to disease pathology and in the context of recent conflicting evidence as to whether familiarity remains intact in patients with MCI. The authors highlight differences in stimuli type and task difficulty as possibly modulating the ability of these patients to successfully use familiarity in support of memorial decisions. PMID:19101064

Ally, Brandon A; Gold, Carl A; Budson, Andrew E

2009-04-01

321

Is the N170 for faces cognitively penetrable? Evidence from repetition priming of Mooney faces of familiar and unfamiliar persons.  

PubMed

Impoverished images of faces, two-tone Mooney faces, severely impair the ability to recognize to whom the face pertains. However, previously seeing the corresponding face in a clear format helps fame-judgments to Mooney faces. In the present experiment, we sought to demonstrate that enhancement in the perceptual encoding of Mooney faces results from top-down effects, due to previous activation of familiar face representation. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were obtained for target Mooney images of familiar and unfamiliar faces preceded by clear pictures portraying either the same photo (same photo prime), or a different photo of the same person (different photo prime) or a new unfamiliar face (no-prime). In agreement with previous findings the use of primes was effective in enhancing the recognition of familiar faces in Mooney images; this priming effect was larger in the same than in different photo priming condition. ERP data revealed that the amplitude of the N170 face-sensitive component was smaller when elicited by familiar than by unfamiliar face targets, and for familiar face targets primed by the same than by different photos (a graded priming effect). Because the priming effect was restricted to familiar faces and occurred at the peak of the N170, we suggest that the early perceptual stage of face processing is likely to be penetrable by the top-down effect due to the activation of face representations within the face recognition system. PMID:12880913

Jemel, Boutheina; Pisani, Michèle; Calabria, Marco; Crommelinck, Marc; Bruyer, Raymond

2003-07-01

322

Dissociable neural mechanisms underlying response-based and familiarity-based conflict in working memory.  

PubMed

Cognitive control requires the resolution of interference among competing and potentially conflicting representations. Such conflict can emerge at different points between stimulus input and response generation, with the net effect being that of compromising performance. The goal of this article was to dissociate the neural mechanisms underlying different sources of conflict to elucidate the architecture of the neural systems that implement cognitive control. By using functional magnetic resonance imaging and a verbal working memory task (item recognition), we examined brain activity related to two kinds of conflict with comparable behavioral consequences. In a trial of our item-recognition task, participants saw four letters, followed by a retention interval, and a probe letter that did or did not match one of the letters held in working memory (positive probe and negative probe, respectively). On some trials, conflict arose solely because of the current negative probe having a high familiarity, due to its membership in the immediately preceding trial's target set. On other trials, additional conflict arose because of the current negative probe having also been a positive probe on the immediately preceding trial, producing response-level conflict. Consistent with previous work, conflict due to high familiarity was associated with left prefrontal activation, but not with anterior cingulate activation. The response-conflict condition, when compared with high-familiarity conflict trials, was associated with anterior cingulate cortex activation, but with no additional left prefrontal activation. This double dissociation points to differing contributions of specific cortical areas to cognitive control, which are based on the source of conflict. PMID:12958206

Nelson, James K; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A; Sylvester, Ching-Yune C; Jonides, John; Smith, Edward E

2003-09-16

323

Motor familiarity: brain activation when watching kinematic displays of one's own movements.  

PubMed

The perception of action is influenced by the observer's familiarity with its movement. However, how does motor familiarity with own movement patterns modulate the visual perception of action effects? Cortical activation was examined with fMRI while 20 observers were watching videotaped point-light displays of markers on the shoulders, the right elbow, and wrist of an opposing table tennis player. The racket and ball were not displayed. Participants were asked to predict the invisible effect of the stroke, that is, the ball flight direction. Different table tennis models were used without the observers knowing and being informed in advance that some of the presented videos displayed their own movements from earlier training sessions. Prediction had to be made irrespective of the identity of the player represented by the four moving markers. Results showed that participants performed better when observing their "own" strokes. Using a region-of-interest approach, fMRI data showed that observing own videos was accompanied by stronger activation (compared to other videos) in the left angular gyrus of the inferior parietal lobe and the anterior rostral medial frontal cortex. Other videos elicited stronger activation than own videos in the left intraparietal sulcus and right supramarginal gyrus. We suggest that during action observation of motorically familiar movements, the compatibility between the observed action and the observers' motor representation is already coded in the parietal angular gyrus--in addition to the paracingulate gyrus. The activation in angular gyrus is presumably part of an action-specific effect retrieval that accompanies actor-specific prefrontal processing. The intraparietal sulcus seems to be sensitive to incongruence between observed kinematics and internal model representations, and this also influences processing in the supramarginal gyrus. PMID:22609578

Bischoff, Matthias; Zentgraf, Karen; Lorey, Britta; Pilgramm, Sebastian; Balser, Nils; Baumgartner, Elisabeth; Hohmann, Tanja; Stark, Rudolf; Vaitl, Dieter; Munzert, Jörn

2012-07-01

324

Been there before? Examining "familiarity" as a moderator for discriminating between true and false intentions  

PubMed Central

Prospection is thinking about possible future states of the world. Commitment to perform a future action—commonly referred to as intention—is a specific type of prospection. This knowledge is relevant when trying to assess whether a stated intention is a lie or the truth. An important observation is that thinking of, and committing to, future actions often evoke vivid and detailed mental images. One factor that affects how specific a person experiences these simulations is location-familiarity. The purpose of this study was to examine to what extent location-familiarity moderates how liars and truth tellers describe a mental image in an investigative interview. Liars were instructed to plan a criminal act and truth tellers were instructed to plan a non-criminal act. Before they could carry out these acts, the participants were intercepted and interviewed about the mental images they may have had experienced in this planning phase. Truth tellers told the truth whereas liars used a cover story to mask their criminal intentions. As predicted, the results showed that the truth tellers reported a mental image significantly more often than the liars. If a mental image was reported, the content of the descriptions did not differ between liars and truth tellers. In a post interview questionnaire, the participants rated the vividness (i.e., content and clarity) of their mental images. The ratings revealed that the truth tellers had experienced their mental images more vividly during the planning phase than the liars. In conclusion, this study indicates that both prototypical and specific representations play a role in prospection. Although location-familiarity did not moderate how liars and truth tellers describe their mental images of the future, this study allows some interesting insights into human future thinking. How these findings can be helpful for distinguishing between true and false intentions will be discussed.

Knieps, Melanie; Granhag, Par A.; Vrij, Aldert

2014-01-01

325

Feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary outcomes of the Fortalezas Familiares intervention for latino families facing maternal depression.  

PubMed

This pilot study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary outcomes of a linguistically and culturally adapted intervention for immigrant Latina mothers with depression and their families. Fortalezas Familiares (Family Strengths) is a community-based, 12-week, multifamily group intervention that aims to increase communication about family processes leading up to and affected by the mother's depression, build child coping and efficacy, enhance parenting competence and skills, and promote cultural and social assets within the family. In terms of feasibility, of 16 families who enrolled and participated in the intervention, 13 families attended more than 90% of meetings and completed the intervention. Posttests reported positive changes following the intervention, including improved psychological functioning, increased family and marital support, and enhanced family functioning, as reported by mothers and other caregivers. Mothers also reported decreased conduct and hyperactivity problems among their children. Children reported positive changes in their psychological functioning and coping, parenting warmth and acceptance, and overall family functioning. Postintervention focus groups and surveys measuring acceptability revealed families' satisfaction with the intervention and suggested areas of improvement. We discuss similarities and differences in outcomes between the adapted intervention, Fortalezas Familiares, and the original intervention, Keeping Families Strong, and propose future areas of intervention adaptation and development. PMID:24033238

Valdez, Carmen R; Padilla, Brian; Moore, Sarah McArdell; Magaña, Sandra

2013-09-01

326

Using Lexical Familiarity Judgments to Assess Verbally-Mediated Intelligence in Aphasia  

PubMed Central

In this study, a task using forced-choice lexical familiarity judgments of irregular versus archaic words (a newly developed measure called the Lexical Orthographic Familiarity Test; LOFT) was compared to a standardized oral word-reading measure (the Wechsler Test of Adult Reading; WTAR) in a group of 35 aphasic adults and a comparison group of 125 community dwelling, non-brain damaged adults. When compared to non-brain damaged adults, aphasics had significantly lower scores on the WTAR but not the LOFT. Although both the WTAR and LOFT were significantly correlated with education in the non-brain damaged group, only the LOFT was correlated with education and also with the Barona full scale IQ index in the aphasic group. Lastly, WTAR performance showed a significantly greater relationship to the severity of language disorder in the aphasic group than did the LOFT. These results have both theoretical and clinical implications for the assessment of language disordered adults, as they indicate that patients with aphasia may retain aspects of verbally mediated intelligence, and that the LOFT may provide a better estimate of premorbid functioning in aphasia than other currently available measures.

Leritz, Elizabeth C.; McGlinchey, Regina E.; Lundgren, Kristine; Grande, Laura J.; Milberg, William P.

2010-01-01

327

The visuomotor mental rotation task: visuomotor transformation times are reduced for small and perceptually familiar angles.  

PubMed

In the visuomotor mental rotation (VMR) task, participants point to a location that deviates from a visual cue by a predetermined angle. This task elicits longer reaction times (RT) relative to tasks wherein the visual cue is spatially compatible with the movement goal. The authors previously reported that visuomotor transformations are faster and more efficient when VMR responses elicit a degree of dimensional overlap (i.e., 0° and 5°) or when the transformation involves a perceptually familiar angle (i.e., 90° or 180°; K. A. Neely & M. Heath, 2010b). One caveat to this finding is that standard and VMR responses were completed in separate blocks of trials. Thus, between-task differences not only reflect the temporal demands of the visuomotor transformations, but also reflect the temporal cost of response inhibition. The goal of this study was to isolate the time cost of visuomotor transformations in the VMR task. The results demonstrated that visuomotor transformations are more efficient and effective when the response entails a degree of dimensional overlap between target and response (i.e., when the angular disparity between the responses is small) or when the transformation angle is perceptually familiar. PMID:21978212

Neely, Kristina A; Heath, Matthew

2011-01-01

328

Instantánea del cáncer colorrectal  

Cancer.gov

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer colorrectal; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

329

Dear enemies and nasty neighbors in crayfish: effects of social status and sex on responses to familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics.  

PubMed

Our experiment examined the ability of crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) to discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics of equivalent social status, and investigated whether this species displays dear enemy or nasty neighbor effects. Pairs of size and sex matched crayfish fought to establish social status and the resulting dominant and subordinate crayfish then participated in a choice phase in which they interacted with two conspecifics tethered in an arena. Both choice conspecifics had the same social status and sex, but one was familiar (the focal animal's previous opponent) and the other was novel. We found that subordinate focal animals of both sexes spent significantly more time in proximity to the unfamiliar choice animal, behavior inconsistent with the dear enemy and nasty neighbor hypotheses. In contrast, male and female dominant focals differed significantly: females spent more time close to and fighting with the familiar choice animal while male dominants responded equivalently to the two choice animals. Thus the response of crayfish toward familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics was complex and not explained by a single hypothesis. We suggest that, in addition to familiarity and unfamiliarity, the perceived threat-level of opponents influences the behavior of crayfish toward conspecifics. PMID:23769936

Tierney, A J; Andrews, K; Happer, K R; White, M K M

2013-10-01

330

Familiarity perception call elicited under restricted sensory cues in peer-social interactions of the domestic chick.  

PubMed

Social cognitive mechanisms are central to understanding developmental abnormalities, such as autistic spectrum disorder. Peer relations besides parent-infant or pair-bonding interactions are pivotal social relationships that are especially well developed in humans. Cognition of familiarity forms the basis of peer socialization. Domestic chick (Gallus gallus) studies have contributed to our understanding of the developmental process in sensory-motor cognition but many processes remain unknown. In this report, we used chicks, as they are precocial birds, and we could therefore focus on peer interaction without having to consider parenting. The subject chick behavior towards familiar and unfamiliar reference peers was video-recorded, where the subject and the reference were separated by either an opaque or transparent wall. Spectrogram and behavior correlation analyses based on principal component analysis, revealed that chicks elicited an intermediate contact call and a morphologically different distress call, more frequently towards familiar versus unfamiliar chicks in acoustic only conditions. When both visual and acoustic cues were present, subject chicks exhibited approaching and floor pecking behavior, while eliciting joyful (pleasant) calls, irrespective of whether reference peers were familiar or unfamiliar. Our result showed that chicks recognized familiarity using acoustic cues and expressed cognition through modified distress calls. These finding suggests that peer affiliation may be established by acoustic recognition, independent of visual face recognition, and that eventually, both forms of recognition are integrated, with modulation of acoustic recognition. PMID:23520539

Koshiba, Mamiko; Shirakawa, Yuka; Mimura, Koki; Senoo, Aya; Karino, Genta; Nakamura, Shun

2013-01-01

331

Familiarity Perception Call Elicited under Restricted Sensory Cues in Peer-Social Interactions of the Domestic Chick  

PubMed Central

Social cognitive mechanisms are central to understanding developmental abnormalities, such as autistic spectrum disorder. Peer relations besides parent-infant or pair-bonding interactions are pivotal social relationships that are especially well developed in humans. Cognition of familiarity forms the basis of peer socialization. Domestic chick (Gallus gallus) studies have contributed to our understanding of the developmental process in sensory-motor cognition but many processes remain unknown. In this report, we used chicks, as they are precocial birds, and we could therefore focus on peer interaction without having to consider parenting. The subject chick behavior towards familiar and unfamiliar reference peers was video-recorded, where the subject and the reference were separated by either an opaque or transparent wall. Spectrogram and behavior correlation analyses based on principal component analysis, revealed that chicks elicited an intermediate contact call and a morphologically different distress call, more frequently towards familiar versus unfamiliar chicks in acoustic only conditions. When both visual and acoustic cues were present, subject chicks exhibited approaching and floor pecking behavior, while eliciting joyful (pleasant) calls, irrespective of whether reference peers were familiar or unfamiliar. Our result showed that chicks recognized familiarity using acoustic cues and expressed cognition through modified distress calls. These finding suggests that peer affiliation may be established by acoustic recognition, independent of visual face recognition, and that eventually, both forms of recognition are integrated, with modulation of acoustic recognition.

Koshiba, Mamiko; Shirakawa, Yuka; Mimura, Koki; Senoo, Aya; Karino, Genta; Nakamura, Shun

2013-01-01

332

A familiar conspecific is more effective than an unfamiliar conspecific for social buffering of conditioned fear responses in male rats.  

PubMed

In social animals, the presence of an affiliative conspecific alleviates acute stress responses, and this is called social buffering. We previously reported in male rats that the presence of a conspecific mitigates conditioned fear responses to auditory conditioned stimulus paired with foot shocks. Subsequent studies revealed that we could observe this social buffering when rats were tested in a box odorized by a conspecific. Because we previously used an unfamiliar conspecific, the effects of familiarity with a conspecific on the intensity of social buffering remain unclear. Here, we examine this question by preparing a familiar conspecific that had been housed with a subject for 3 weeks in the same cage. We exposed fear-conditioned subjects to a conditioned stimulus in either a clean control box or a box odorized beforehand by either an unfamiliar or a familiar conspecific. When the subjects were tested in the control box, they showed freezing and Fos expression in the paraventricular nucleus. These responses were suppressed when we placed rats in the box odorized by a conspecific. However, the suppression was greater when the box was odorized by a familiar conspecific rather than by an unfamiliar conspecific. Fos expression in the lateral amygdala was also suppressed in the same manner. These results suggest that a familiar conspecific is more effective for social buffering of conditioned fear responses. PMID:24698797

Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Honda, Akira; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

2014-07-01

333

Boosting Cholinergic Activity in Gustatory Cortex Enhances the Salience of a Familiar CS in Taste Aversion Learning  

PubMed Central

The cholinergic system is important for learning, memory and responses to novel stimuli. Exposure to novel, but not familiar, tastes increases extracellular acetylcholine (ACh) levels in insular cortex (IC). To further examine whether cholinergic activation is a critical signal of taste novelty the present studies infused carbachol, a direct cholinergic agonist, into IC prior to conditioned taste aversion (CTA) training with a familiar taste. By mimicking the cholinergic activation generated by novel taste exposure, it was hypothesized that a familiar taste would be treated as “novel”, and therefore a salient target for aversion learning. As predicted, rats infused with the agonist were able to acquire CTAs to familiar saccharin. Effects of carbachol infusion on patterns of neuronal activation during CS-US pairing were assessed using Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI). Familiar taste-illness pairing following carbachol, but not vehicle, induced significant elevations of FLI in amygdala, a region with reciprocal connections to IC that is also important for CTA learning. These results support the view that IC ACh activity provides a critical signal of taste novelty which facilitates CTA acquisition.

Clark, Emily Wilkins; Bernstein, Ilene L.

2009-01-01

334

Familiarization, reliability, and comparability of a 40-m maximal shuttle run test  

PubMed Central

The aims of this study were to examine familiarization and reliability associated with a 40-m maximal shuttle run test (40-m MST), and to compare performance measures from the test with those of a typical unidirectional multiple sprint running test (UMSRT). 12 men and 4 women completed four trials of the 40-m MST (8 × 40-m; 20 s rest periods) followed by one trial of a UMSRT (12 × 30-m; repeated every 35 s); with seven days between trials. All trials were conducted indoors and performance times were recorded via twin-beam photocells. Significant between-trial differences in mean 40-m MST times were indicative of learning effects between trials 1 and 2. Test-retest reliability across the remaining trials as determined by coefficient of variation (CV) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) revealed: a) very good reliability for measures of fastest and mean shuttle time (CV = 1.1 - 1.3%; ICC = 0.91 - 0.92); b) good reliability for measures of blood lactate (CV = 10.1 - 23.9%; ICC = 0.74 - 0.82) and ratings of perceived exertion (CV = 5.3 - 7.6%; ICC = 0.79 - 0.84); and c) poor reliability for measures of fatigue (CV = 38.7%; ICC = 0.59). Comparisons between performance indices of the 40-m MST and the UMSRT revealed significant correlations between all measures, except pre-test blood lactate concentration (r = 0. 47). Whilst the 40-m MST does not appear to provide more information than can be gleaned from a typical UMSRT, following the completion of a familiarization trial, the 40-m MST provides an alternative and, except for fatigue measures, reliable means of evaluating repeated sprint ability. Key points Tests of multiple sprint performance are a popular means of evaluating repeated sprint ability. Multiple sprint tests incorporating changes of direction may be more ecologically valid than unidirectional protocols. The 40-m maximal shuttle run test is a reliable way of evaluating repeated sprint ability following the completion of one familiarization trial. The 40-m maximal shuttle run test shows no clear advantage over a standard unidirectional multiple sprint test.

Glaister, Mark; Hauck, Hanna; Abraham, Corinne S.; Merry, Kevin L.; Beaver, Dean; Woods, Bernadette; McInnes, Gillian

2009-01-01

335

Relevance of visual cues for orientation at familiar sites by homing pigeons: an experiment in a circular arena.  

PubMed Central

Whether pigeons use visual landmarks for orientation from familiar locations has been a subject of debate. By recording the directional choices of both anosmic and control pigeons while exiting from a circular arena we were able to assess the relevance of olfactory and visual cues for orientation from familiar sites. When the birds could see the surroundings, both anosmic and control pigeons were homeward oriented. When the view of the landscape was prevented by screens that surrounded the arena, the control pigeons exited from the arena approximately in the home direction, while the anosmic pigeons' distribution was not different from random. Our data suggest that olfactory and visual cues play a critical, but interchangeable, role for orientation at familiar sites.

Gagliardo, A.; Odetti, F.; Ioale, P.

2001-01-01

336

The Reverse-Caricature Effect Revisited: Familiarization With Frontal Facial Caricatures Improves Veridical Face Recognition  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Prior research suggests that recognition of a person's face can be facilitated by exaggerating the distinctive features of the face during training. We tested if this ‘reverse-caricature effect’ would be robust to procedural variations that created more difficult learning environments. Specifically, we examined whether the effect would emerge with frontal rather than three-quarter views, after very brief exposure to caricatures during the learning phase and after modest rotations of faces during the recognition phase. Results indicate that, even under these difficult training conditions, people are more accurate at recognizing unaltered faces if they are first familiarized with caricatures of the faces, rather than with the unaltered faces. These findings support the development of new training methods to improve face recognition.

RODRIGUEZ, JOBANY; BORTFELD, HEATHER; RUDOMIN, ISAAC; HERNANDEZ, BENJAMIN; GUTIERREZ-OSUNA, RICARDO

2010-01-01

337

Using morphs of familiar objects to examine how shape discriminability influences view sensitivity.  

PubMed

We investigated how the difficulty of detecting a shape change influenced the achievement of object constancy across depth rotations for object identification and categorization tasks. In three sequential matching experiments, people saw pictures of morphs between two everyday, nameable objects (e.g., bath-sink morphs, along a continuum between "bath" and "sink" end-point shapes). In each experiment, both view changes and shape changes influenced performance. Furthermore, the deleterious effects of view changes were strongest when shape discrimination was hardest. In our earlier research, using morphs of novel objects, we found a similar interaction between view sensitivity and shape sensitivity (Lawson, 2004b; Lawson & Bülthoff, 2006; Lawson, Bülthoff, & Dumbell, 2003). The present results extend these findings to familiar-object morphs. They suggest that recognition remains view-sensitive at the basic level of identification for everyday, nameable objects, and that the difficulty of shape discrimination plays a critical role in determining the degree of this view sensitivity. PMID:18613633

Lawson, Rebecca; Bülthoff, Heinrich H

2008-07-01

338

Associative and familiarity-based effects of environmental context on memory.  

PubMed

Previous research has shown that hit and false alarm rates and claims of remembering are greater when test items are shown in the same context that was present at study. In the present article, the effects of environmental context (photographs of scenes shown in the background) were evaluated in a yes-no recognition task when context was manipulated on the computer screen compared with when subjects were wearing virtual reality glasses (Experiment 1), in a forced-choice recognition task to address the question of criterion changes (Experiment 2), and in a free-recall task (Experiment 3) to address the issue of generality. The results show that both specific item-context associations and the familiarity of an old context influence memory performance. We suggest that the effects of environmental context are like other instances of reconstructive memory and can both support and distort recognition memory. PMID:22686156

Hockley, William E; Bancroft, Tyler D; Bryant, Elizabeth

2012-06-01

339

Déjà vu in unilateral temporal-lobe epilepsy is associated with selective familiarity impairments on experimental tasks of recognition memory.  

PubMed

In déjà vu, a phenomenological impression of familiarity for the current visual environment is experienced with a sense that it should in fact not feel familiar. The fleeting nature of this phenomenon in daily life, and the difficulty in developing experimental paradigms to elicit it, has hindered progress in understanding déjà vu. Some neurological patients with temporal-lobe epilepsy (TLE) consistently experience déjà vu at the onset of their seizures. An investigation of such patients offers a unique opportunity to shed light on its possible underlying mechanisms. In the present study, we sought to determine whether unilateral TLE patients with déjà vu (TLE+) show a unique pattern of interictal memory deficits that selectively affect familiarity assessment. In Experiment 1, we employed a Remember-Know paradigm for categorized visual scenes and found evidence for impairments that were limited to familiarity-based responses. In Experiment 2, we administered an exclusion task for highly similar categorized visual scenes that placed both recognition processes in opposition. TLE+ patients again displayed recognition impairments, and these impairments spared their ability to engage recollective processes so as to counteract familiarity. The selective deficits we observed in TLE+ patients contrasted with the broader pattern of recognition-memory impairments that was present in a control group of unilateral patients without déjà vu (TLE-). MRI volumetry revealed that ipsilateral medial temporal structures were less broadly affected in TLE+ than in TLE- patients, with a trend for more focal volume reductions in the rhinal cortices of the TLE+ group. The current findings establish a first empirical link between déjà vu in TLE and processes of familiarity assessment, as defined and measured in current cognitive models. They also reveal a pattern of selectivity in recognition impairments that is rarely observed and, thus, of significant theoretical interest to the memory literature at large. PMID:22841992

Martin, Chris B; Mirsattari, Seyed M; Pruessner, Jens C; Pietrantonio, Sandra; Burneo, Jorge G; Hayman-Abello, Brent; Köhler, Stefan

2012-11-01

340

Recognition of personally familiar scenes in patients with very mild Alzheimer's disease: effects of spatial frequency and luminance.  

PubMed

Many community-residing patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have way-finding problems, particularly at twilight or on rainy days. In an attempt to understand the mechanism, we prepared pictures of street scenes, including 8 personally familiar and 8 unfamiliar, divided into Low Spatial Frequency (LSF) and Low Luminance (LL) conditions to simulate foggy or rainy days and nighttime. Each picture was presented from the most difficult (level 10) to the easiest (level 1). The participants, including 20 very mild AD patients and 20 normal controls (NC) with equal basic visual acuity, were asked to judge whether a picture was familiar or not and to describe how they came to that conclusion. The accuracy of familiar scene recognition was measured by the number of pictures successfully recognized and the ability thereof by the level needed. Compared with NC, AD patients showed poorer accuracy (2.7 ± 0.2 versus 3.6 ± 0.1, mean ± SEM, p = 0.003 under LSF; 2.8 ± 0.2 versus 3.8 ± 0.1, p = 0.001 under LL) and poorer ability (2.2 ± 0.4 versus 4.3 ± 0.4 p = 0.000 under LSF; 2.9 ± 0.3 versus 5.2 ± 0.5, p = 0.000 under LL) for both conditions. The AD patients used a global element to help judge when personally familiar scenes were displayed, which was the method NC usually adopted when presented with novel scenes. In summary, this study demonstrated poorer recognition ability in very mild AD patients when personally familiar street scenes were displayed, and the underlying mechanisms may include impaired visual search performance and efficiency. The deficits also reflect their difficulty in real life situations when their familiar environments become blurred or dark. PMID:22330822

Lee, Yen-Ti; Pai, Ming-Chyi

2012-01-01

341

Imagining Other People's Experiences in a Person with Impaired Episodic Memory: The Role of Personal Familiarity  

PubMed Central

Difficulties remembering one’s own experiences via episodic memory may affect the ability to imagine other people’s experiences during theory of mind (ToM). Previous work shows that the same set of brain regions recruited during tests of episodic memory and future imagining are also engaged during standard laboratory tests of ToM. However, hippocampal amnesic patients who show deficits in past and future thinking, show intact performance on ToM tests, which involve unknown people or fictional characters. Here we present data from a developmental amnesic person (H.C.) and a group of demographically matched controls, who were tested on a naturalistic test of ToM that involved describing other people’s experiences in response to photos of personally familiar others (“pToM” condition) and unfamiliar others (“ToM” condition). We also included a condition that involved recollecting past experiences in response to personal photos (“EM” condition). Narratives were scored using an adapted Autobiographical Interview scoring procedure. Due to the visually rich stimuli, internal details were further classified as either descriptive (i.e., details that describe the visual content of the photo) or elaborative (i.e., details that go beyond what is visually depicted in the photo). Relative to controls, H.C. generated significantly fewer elaborative details in response to the pToM and EM photos and an equivalent number of elaborative details in response to the ToM photos. These data converge with previous neuroimaging results showing that the brain regions underlying pToM and episodic memory overlap to a greater extent than those supporting ToM. Taken together, these results suggest that detailed episodic representations supported by the hippocampus may be pivotal for imagining the experiences of personally familiar, but not unfamiliar, others.

Rabin, Jennifer S.; Carson, Nicole; Gilboa, Asaf; Stuss, Donald T.; Rosenbaum, R. Shayna

2013-01-01

342

The collection and database of Birds of Angola hosted at IICT (Instituto de Investiga??o Cient?fica Tropical), Lisboa, Portugal  

PubMed Central

Abstract The bird collection of the Instituto de Investigação Cientítica Tropical (Lisbon, Portugal) holds 5598 preserved specimens (skins), mainly from Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau, São Tomé and Principe, and Cape Verde. The subset collection from Angola includes 1560 specimens, which were taxonomically revised and georeferenced for the publication of this data paper. The collection contains a total of 522 taxa, including 161 species and 361 subspecies. Two species are classified by the IUCN Red List as Endangered - the wattled crane (Grus carunculata) and the Gabela bush-shrike (Laniarius amboimensis) - and two are classified as vulnerable - African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) and the white-headed vulture (Trigonoceps occipitalis). The temporal span of the database ranges between 1943 and 1979, but 32% are from years 1958–1959, and 25% from years 1968–1969. The spatial coverage of the collection is uneven, with 2/3 of the records representing only four of the eighteen provinces of the country, namely Huíla, Moxico, Namibe and Cuanza Sul. It adds, however, valuable information for the Huíla area of the Angolan Scarp, which is probably a biodiversity hotspot of global conservation priority. Furthermore, this georeferenced database adds invaluable bird information to the GBIF network, for one of the countries with highest but less known biodiversity in Africa.

Monteiro, Miguel; Reino, Luis; Beja, Pedro; Mills, Michael Stuart Lyne; Bastos-Silveira, Cristiane; Ramos, Manuela; Rodrigues, Diana; Neves, Isabel Queiros; Consciencia, Susana; Figueira, Rui

2014-01-01

343

Familiarization Effects of an Elliptical All-out Test and the Wingate Test Based on Mechanical Power Indices  

PubMed Central

The Wingate all-out test (WAT) is commonly used to estimate anaerobic capabilities of athletes by using an upper or lower body cycle ergometer, however, a new test modality called elliptical all-out test (EAT) which measures activated whole-body locomotor tasks has recently been proposed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the familiarization effects of a 30-s EAT versus WAT. Twenty male trained athletes performed pre-familiarization (Trial- I), post-familiarization (Trial-II) and retest of Trial-II (Trial-III) sessions on both cycle ergometer and elliptical trainer. Peak power (PP), average power (AP), power drop (PD) and fatigue index ratio (FI%) were analyzed using student's t-test for paired samples and correlated by intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC). Moreover, an error detection procedure was administered using data attained from illogical interrelations among 5-s segments of 30-s tests. The main results showed that there were significant familiarization effects in all mechanical power outputs obtained from Trial-I and Trial-II in both EAT (ICC = 0.49-0.55) and WAT (ICC = 0.50-0.57) performances (p ? 0.01). Significant segmental disorders were detected in power production during Trial-I of EAT, however, none existed in any of test trails in the WAT (p ? 0.001). After familiarization sessions, reliability coefficients between Trial-II and Trial-III showed moderate to strong-level agreements for both EAT (ICC = 0.74-0.91) and the WAT (ICC=0.76-0.93). Our results suggested that prior to the performance tests, combination of a well designed familiarization session with one full all-out test administration is necessary to estimate the least moderately reliable and accurate test indices for both WAT and EAT. Key Points A well designed familiarization session, and then, one additional all-out test administration, several days prior to main test, is suggested to estimate more accurate and reliable retest correlations for both cycling and elliptical all-out test modalities. Because of greater muscle recruitment and different movement pattern, familiarization seems more effective for a 30-s all-out test performed on an elliptical trainer compared to a cycle ergometer.

Ozkaya, Ozgur

2013-01-01

344

Familiarization Effects of an Elliptical All-out Test and the Wingate Test Based on Mechanical Power Indices.  

PubMed

The Wingate all-out test (WAT) is commonly used to estimate anaerobic capabilities of athletes by using an upper or lower body cycle ergometer, however, a new test modality called elliptical all-out test (EAT) which measures activated whole-body locomotor tasks has recently been proposed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the familiarization effects of a 30-s EAT versus WAT. Twenty male trained athletes performed pre-familiarization (Trial- I), post-familiarization (Trial-II) and retest of Trial-II (Trial-III) sessions on both cycle ergometer and elliptical trainer. Peak power (PP), average power (AP), power drop (PD) and fatigue index ratio (FI%) were analyzed using student's t-test for paired samples and correlated by intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC). Moreover, an error detection procedure was administered using data attained from illogical interrelations among 5-s segments of 30-s tests. The main results showed that there were significant familiarization effects in all mechanical power outputs obtained from Trial-I and Trial-II in both EAT (ICC = 0.49-0.55) and WAT (ICC = 0.50-0.57) performances (p ? 0.01). Significant segmental disorders were detected in power production during Trial-I of EAT, however, none existed in any of test trails in the WAT (p ? 0.001). After familiarization sessions, reliability coefficients between Trial-II and Trial-III showed moderate to strong-level agreements for both EAT (ICC = 0.74-0.91) and the WAT (ICC=0.76-0.93). Our results suggested that prior to the performance tests, combination of a well designed familiarization session with one full all-out test administration is necessary to estimate the least moderately reliable and accurate test indices for both WAT and EAT. Key PointsA well designed familiarization session, and then, one additional all-out test administration, several days prior to main test, is suggested to estimate more accurate and reliable retest correlations for both cycling and elliptical all-out test modalities.Because of greater muscle recruitment and different movement pattern, familiarization seems more effective for a 30-s all-out test performed on an elliptical trainer compared to a cycle ergometer. PMID:24149160

Ozkaya, Ozgur

2013-01-01

345

PIANIFICAZIONE FAMILIARE E COMPORTAMENTI RIPRODUTTIVI NEI PAESI ISLAMICI DELL'AREA MEDITERRANEA  

Microsoft Academic Search

I livelli di fecondità dei paesi islamici del Mediterraneo sono tra i più elevati nel mondo e nella maggior parte di essi solo da pochi anni può considerarsi avviato il processo di transizione demografica. La conoscenza dei livelli e delle differenze di fecondità, dell'utilizzo degli strumenti di pianificazione nonché delle caratteristiche delle politiche governative è condizione necessaria per poter giungere

AURORA ANGELI; SILVANA SALVINI

1990-01-01

346

Mere Exposure Revisited: The Influence of Growth versus Security Cues on Evaluations of Novel and Familiar Stimuli  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Combining regulatory focus theory (Higgins, 1997) and novelty categorization theory (Forster, Marguc, & Gillebaart, 2010), we predicted that novel stimuli would be more positively evaluated when focused on growth as compared with security and that familiar stimuli would be more negatively evaluated when focused on growth as compared with security.…

Gillebaart, Marleen; Forster, Jens; Rotteveel, Mark

2012-01-01

347

The contribution of familiarity to recognition memory is a function of test format when using similar foils.  

PubMed

Patient Y.R., who suffered hippocampal damage that disrupted recollection but not familiarity, was impaired on a yes/no (YN) object recognition memory test with similar foils. However, she was not impaired on a forced-choice corresponding (FCC) version of the test that paired targets with corresponding similar foils (Holdstock et al., 2002). This dissociation is explained by the Complementary Learning Systems (CLS) neural-network model (Norman & O'Reilly, 2003) if recollection is impaired but familiarity is preserved. The CLS model also predicts that participants relying exclusively on familiarity should be impaired on forced-choice noncorresponding (FCNC) tests, where targets are presented with foils similar to other targets. The present study tests these predictions for all three test formats (YN, FCC, FCNC) in normal participants using two variants of the remember/know procedure. As predicted, performance using familiarity alone was significantly worse than standard recognition on the YN and FCNC tests, but not on the FCC test. Recollection in the form of recall-to-reject was the major process driving YN recognition. This adds support to the interpretation of patient data, according to which hippocampal damage causes a recollection deficit that leads to poor performance on the YN test relative to FCC. PMID:19096990

Migo, Ellen; Montaldi, Daniela; Norman, Kenneth A; Quamme, Joel; Mayes, Andrew

2009-06-01

348

The First Slow Step: Differential Effects of Object and Word-Form Familiarization on Retention of Fast-Mapped Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research demonstrated that although 24-month-old infants do well on the initial pairing of a novel word and novel object in fast-mapping tasks, they are unable to retain the mapping after a 5 min delay. The current study examines the role of familiarity with the objects and words on infants' ability to bridge between the initial fast…

Kucker, Sarah C.; Samuelson, Larissa K.

2012-01-01

349

Developmental Change in the ERP Responses to Familiar Faces in Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders versus Typical Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show differences in face processing abilities from early in development. To examine whether these differences reflect an atypical versus delayed developmental trajectory, neural responses to familiar and unfamiliar faces in twenty-four 18- to 47-month-old children with ASD were compared with…

Webb, Sara Jane; Jones, Emily J. H.; Merkle, Kristen; Venema, Kaitlin; Greenson, Jessica; Murias, Michael; Dawson, Geraldine

2011-01-01

350

Context But Not Familiarity-Dependent Forms of Object Recognition Are Impaired Following Excitotoxic Hippocampal Lesions in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dual-process models of recognition memory in animals propose that recognition memory is supported by two independent processes that reflect the operation of distinct brain structures: a familiarity process that operates independently of the hippocampus and a context-dependent (episodic) memory process that is dependent on the hippocampus. A novel variant of an object recognition procedure was used to examine this proposal.

M. A. Good; P. Barnes; V. Staal; A. McGregor; R. C. Honey

2007-01-01

351

A Mobile Device and Online System with Contextual Familiarity and Its Effects on English Learning on Campus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, a mobile device and online system, StudentPartner, is proposed to help students learn English on campus using multimedia and GPS support. Two activities, exploring the campus in English and English presentation, were designed to stimulate students' deep engagement and interaction with the system. Since students are very familiar

Cheng, Shu-Chen; Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Wu, Sheng-Yi; Shadiev, Rustam; Xie, Ching-Hwa

2010-01-01

352

EVALUATION OF THREE STRATEGIES OF COMMUNICATION IN A PROMOTIONAL CAMPAIGN OF FAMILIAR ORGANIC GARDENS. QUITO - PICHINCHA, 2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY In three educative extensions of IRFEYAL, Quito-Pichincha, the effectiveness of three strategies of communication in a promotional campaign of Familiar Organic Gardens was evaluated. (1 Actor's Theatrical Piece, 2. Radio Program, and 3. Television Program, each one with popularization brochures). Its effect on the understanding of a message related to the \\

María del Pilar Bonilla; Manuel Suquilanda

353

Effects of Panel Experience on Olfactory Memory Performance: Influence of Stimuli Familiarity and Labeling Ability of Subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work attempted to define the impact of panel experience on olfactory memory performance by comparing scores in an odor recognition task obtained from a highly trained descriptive panel (17 subjects) and a naive one (33 subjects with no experience in sensory analysis). During the inspection phase, 16 odorants were presented monadically to subjects for familiarity rating and a written

Isabelle Lesschaeve; Sylvie Issanchou

2010-01-01

354

A Familiar-Size Stroop Effect: Real-World Size Is an Automatic Property of Object Representation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When we recognize an object, do we automatically know how big it is in the world? We employed a Stroop-like paradigm, in which two familiar objects were presented at different visual sizes on the screen. Observers were faster to indicate which was bigger or smaller on the screen when the real-world size of the objects was congruent with the visual…

Konkle, Talia; Oliva, Aude

2012-01-01

355

When We like What We Know--A Parametric fMRI Analysis of Beauty and Familiarity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a neuroscientific study of aesthetic judgments on written texts. In an fMRI experiment participants read a number of proverbs without explicitly evaluating them. In a post-scan rating they rated each item for familiarity and beauty. These individual ratings were correlated with the functional data to investigate the neural…

Bohrn, Isabel C.; Altmann, Ulrike; Lubrich, Oliver; Menninghaus, Winfried; Jacobs, Arthur M.

2013-01-01

356

Second Language Reading Topic Familiarity and Test Score: Test-Taking Strategies for Multiple-Choice Comprehension Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of this study was to compare the strategies used by Chinese-speaking students when confronted with familiar versus unfamiliar topics in a multiple-choice format reading comprehension test. The focus was on describing what students do when they are taking reading comprehension tests by asking students to verbalize their thoughts.…

Lee, Jia-Ying

2011-01-01

357

Recollection and familiarity deficits in amnesia: Convergence of remember-know, process dissociation, and receiver operating characteristic data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies using the process dissociation and the remember—know procedures led to conflicting conclusions regarding the effects of anterograde amnesia on recollection and familiarity. We argue that these apparent contradictions arose because different models were used to interpret the results and because differences in false-alarm rates between groups biased the estimates provided by those models. A reanalysis of those studies

Andrew P. Yonelinas; Neal E. A. Kroll; Ian Dobbins; Michele Lazzara; Robert T. Knight

1998-01-01

358

The practice of evidence-based medicine (EBM) in gastroenterology: discrepancies between EBM familiarity and EBM competency  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Evidence-based medicine (EBM) has become increasingly important in the practice of gastroenterology and endoscopy, and the training of future gastroenterology physicians. The objectives were to assess the attitudes/opinions of gastroenterology specialists towards EBM, and evaluate possible gaps in education for certain EBM-related concepts. Methods: An internet-based survey was emailed to 4073 gastroenterology specialists. The main outcome measurements were physicians’ endorsement of EBM, impact of EBM on clinical practice, utilization of EBM-specific resources, self-assessed understanding of EBM concepts (EBM familiarity score), and actual knowledge of EBM concepts (EBM competency score). Results: A total of 337 gastroenterology specialists participated. On a sale of 1–10, there was widespread agreement that EBM improves patient care (median score?=?9, interquartile range (IQR)?=?7–10), and physicians should be familiar with techniques for critical appraisal of studies (median?=?9, IQR?=?8–10). Most (64.0%) utilized the EBM-related resource UpToDate™ regularly, as opposed to PubMed™ (47.1%) or Clinical Evidence™ (5.4%). The mean EBM familiarity score was 3.4?±?0.6 on a scale of 1–4. Out of a maximum 49 points, the mean EBM competency score was 35?±?4.9. There was poor concordance among EBM familiarity and competency scores (r?=?0.161; p?=?0.005). Academic practice (p?familiarity with most EBM-related concepts, there is poor correlation with their actual knowledge of EBM. Further educational initiatives should be undertaken to address methods in which EBM skills are reinforced among all gastroenterology practitioners.

Buscaglia, Jonathan; Nagula, Satish; Yuan, Jay; Bucobo, Juan Carlos; Kumar, Atul; Forsmark, Chris E.; Draganov, Peter V.

2011-01-01

359

Impaired recollection but spared familiarity in patients with extended hippocampal system damage revealed by 3 convergent methods  

PubMed Central

To understand recognition memory, the detection of stimulus repetition, it first is necessary to resolve the debate between 2 fundamentally different models of recognition. Contemporary single-process models assume that recognition memory relies solely on the neural system required for the recall of prior events. Dual-process models assume that recognition comprises 2 independent forms of memory: one supports recall, and the other detects repeated stimuli by signaling their familiarity, the feeling of previous occurrence without the recall of any associated information. These 2 models were contrasted in patients who had undergone surgical removal of a colloid cyst, a condition associated with memory loss when accompanied by fornix and/or mammillary body atrophy. Comparisons were made between 2 groups of 9 patients that differed only with respect to the extent of mammillary body atrophy. Only the more atrophied group was impaired on tests of recall, but both groups showed normal recognition levels on a task that equates recall and recognition performance in normal participants. To explore the nature of this spared recognition, we estimated recall-based recognition and familiarity-based recognition using 3 distinct methods: self-report, receiver operating characteristics, and structural equation modeling. All 3 methods showed impaired recall-based recognition accompanied by intact familiarity in the most atrophied group, as predicted only by dual-process models. When structural equation modeling was applied to all 62 colloid cyst patients, the recall/familiarity dual-process model best explained the patients' memory pattern. The convergent evidence that mammillary body atrophy impairs recall but spares familiarity-based recognition appears irreconcilable with single-process models.

Vann, Seralynne D.; Tsivilis, Dimitris; Denby, Christine E.; Quamme, Joel R.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.; Aggleton, John P.; Montaldi, Daniela; Mayes, Andrew R.

2009-01-01

360

7–11?year?old children show an advantage for matching and recognizing the internal features of familiar faces: Evidence against a developmental shift  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adults are better at recognizing familiar faces from the internal facial features (eyes, nose, mouth) than from the external facial features (hair, face outline). However, previous research suggests that this “internal advantage” does not appear until relatively late in childhood, and some studies suggest that children rely on external features to recognize all faces, whether familiar or not. We use

Lesley Bonner; A. Mike Burton

2004-01-01

361

Aprovechamiento del Falso Fruto del Jocote Maranon (Utilization of the Pseudofruit of the Cashew Trees).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document is a summary of the work done by the Instituto Centroamericano de Investigacion Aplicada, in coordination with El Banco Centroamericano de Integracion Economica, aimed to promote the growth of cashew trees in Central America. It also studies ...

R. Garcia

1980-01-01

362

A familiar pattern? Semantic memory contributes to the enhancement of visuo-spatial memories.  

PubMed

In this study we quantify for the first time electrophysiological components associated with incorporating long-term semantic knowledge with visuo-spatial information using two variants of a traditional matrix patterns task. Results indicated that the matrix task with greater semantic content was associated with enhanced accuracy and RTs in a change-detection paradigm; this was also associated with increased P300 and N400 components as well as a sustained negative slow wave (NSW). In contrast, processing of the low semantic stimuli was associated with an increased N200 and a reduction in the P300. These findings suggest that semantic content can aid in reducing early visual processing of information and subsequent memory load by unitizing complex patterns into familiar forms. The N400/NSW may be associated with the requirements for maintaining visuo-spatial information about semantic forms such as orientation and relative location. Evidence for individual differences in semantic elaboration strategies used by participants is also discussed. PMID:23262176

Riby, Leigh M; Orme, Elizabeth

2013-03-01

363

A dynamically minimalist cognitive explanation of musical preference: is familiarity everything?  

PubMed

This paper examines the idea that attraction to music is generated at a cognitive level through the formation and activation of networks of interlinked "nodes." Although the networks involved are vast, the basic mechanism for activating the links is relatively simple. Two comprehensive cognitive-behavioral models of musical engagement are examined with the aim of identifying the underlying cognitive mechanisms and processes involved in musical experience. A "dynamical minimalism" approach (after Nowak, 2004) is applied to re-interpret musical engagement (listening, performing, composing, or imagining any of these) and to revise the latest version of the reciprocal-feedback model (RFM) of music processing. Specifically, a single cognitive mechanism of "spreading activation" through previously associated networks is proposed as a pleasurable outcome of musical engagement. This mechanism underlies the dynamic interaction of the various components of the RFM, and can thereby explain the generation of positive affects in the listener's musical experience. This includes determinants of that experience stemming from the characteristics of the individual engaging in the musical activity (whether listener, composer, improviser, or performer), the situation and contexts (e.g., social factors), and the music (e.g., genre, structural features). The theory calls for new directions for future research, two being (1) further investigation of the components of the RFM to better understand musical experience and (2) more rigorous scrutiny of common findings about the salience of familiarity in musical experience and preference. PMID:24567723

Schubert, Emery; Hargreaves, David J; North, Adrian C

2014-01-01

364

Fortalezas Familiares Program: Building sociocultural and family strengths in Latina women with depression and their families  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this article is to describe Fortalezas Familiares (FF; Family Strengths), a community-based prevention program designed to address relational family processes and promote wellbeing among Latino families when a mother has depression. Although depression in Latina women is becoming increasingly recognized, risk and protective mechanisms associated with children’s outcomes when a mother has depression are not well understood for Latino families. We begin by reviewing the literature on risk and protective psychosocial mechanisms by which maternal depression may affect Latino youth, using family systems theory and a developmental psychopathology framework with an emphasis on sociocultural factors shaping family processes. Next, we describe the theoretical basis and development of the FF program, a community-based 12-week intervention for Latina immigrant women with depression, other caregivers, and their children. Throughout this article, we use a case study to illustrate a Latina mother’s vulnerability to depression and the family’s response to the FF program. Recommendations for future research and practice include consideration of sociocultural processes in shaping both outcomes of Latino families and their response to interventions.

Valdez, Carmen R.; Abegglen, Jessica; Hauser, Claire T.

2013-01-01

365

View-invariant representations of familiar objects by neurons in the inferior temporal visual cortex.  

PubMed

A view-invariant representation of objects in the brain would have many computational advantages. Here we describe a population of single neurons in the temporal visual cortex (IT) that have view-invariant representations of familiar objects. Ten real plastic objects were placed in the monkeys' home cages for a period of time before neurophysiological experiments in which neuronal responses were measured to four views of each object. The macaques performed a visual fixation task, and had never been trained in object discrimination. The majority of the visual neurons recorded were responsive to some views of some objects and/or to the control stimuli, as would be expected from previous studies. However, a small subset of these neurons were responsive to all views of one or more of the objects, providing evidence that these neurons were coding for objects, rather than simply for individual views or visual features within the image. This result was confirmed by information theoretic analyses, which showed that the neurons provided information about which object was being seen, independently of the view. The coding scheme was shown to be sparse distributed, with relatively independent information being provided by the different neurons. Hypotheses about how these view-invariant cells are formed are described. PMID:9758214

Booth, M C; Rolls, E T

1998-09-01

366

The representation and processing of familiar faces in dyslexia: differences in age of acquisition effects.  

PubMed

Two under-explored areas of developmental dyslexia research, face naming and age of acquisition (AoA), were investigated. Eighteen dyslexic and 18 non-dyslexic university students named the faces of 50 well-known celebrities, matched for facial distinctiveness and familiarity. Twenty-five of the famous people were learned early in life, while the remaining 25 were first encountered more recently. There was no overall difference between the dyslexics and the non-dyslexics in the speed or the accuracy with which they named faces, suggesting that face naming is unimpaired in dyslexic adults. In keeping with previous findings, the results indicated a speed and accuracy advantage for early-acquired over late-acquired faces. In addition, a significant participant group x AoA interaction demonstrated that the non-dyslexic group was significantly faster to name early- than late-acquired faces, while the dyslexic group showed a much smaller and non-significant effect of AoA. The results suggest that there are differences in representation in dyslexia and that these may be linked to problems with attentional/executive function and automaticity. It is proposed that a more fine-grained approach to investigating dyslexia in adulthood should be adopted, in order to uncover cognitive as well as behavioural differences between dyslexics and non-dyslexics. PMID:18523956

Smith-Spark, James H; Moore, Viv

2009-05-01

367

Word Learning by Preschoolers with SLI: Effect of Phonotactic Probability and Object Familiarity  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study investigated whether previous findings of a low phonotactic probability/unfamiliar object word learning advantage in preschoolers could be replicated, whether this advantage would be apparent at different ‘stages’ of word learning, and whether findings would differ for preschoolers with specific language impairment (SLI) and typical development (TD). Method One hundred fourteen children participated: 40 with SLI, 39 with TD matched for age and gender, and 35 with TD matched for expressive vocabulary and gender. Comprehension and production were assessed during word learning and at post-test for words that varied in phonotactic probability and object familiarity. Results Across groups, comprehension performance increased significantly from days 1–3, but there was no significant word/object type effect. Production performance increased significantly for days 1–4 for all groups and there was a clear low phonotactic probability/unfamiliar object advantage during word learning, but not at post-test. Conclusions Results help to establish that preschoolers with TD and SLI show a low phonotactic probability/unfamiliar object production advantage during word learning that is not restricted to the first few exposures to words, but continues over time. This study illustrates how the interaction of phonological characteristics in nascent and extant words can affect word learning.

Gray, Shelley; Brinkley, Shara; Svetina, Dubravka

2012-01-01

368

Regulatory focus and food choice motives. Prevention orientation associated with mood, convenience, and familiarity.  

PubMed

The authors tested the robustness of the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) with a U.S. sample and examined the relationship between individual differences in regulatory focus and everyday food choice motives. Although a popular measure in cross-culture research, the FCQ has seen limited use with U.S. samples, and its psychometric properties have not been tested in this population. American participants (n = 408) completed the Regulatory Focus Questionnaire and a measure of food choice motives. The data did not support the nine-factor FCQ structure. An ad hoc revised measure of food choice motives showed complete measurement invariance (loadings, intercepts, and residuals) across regulatory focus. Regarding everyday food choices, participants with a prevention focus placed greater importance on mood, convenience, and familiarity than participants with a promotion focus. There were no significant differences regarding the importance of health, environmental protection, impression management, natural content, price, and sensory appeal. Several food choice motives were positively correlated. Compared with the promotion-focused participants, the prevention-focused participants more strongly associated the importance of sensory appeal with the importance of natural content and the importance of price. PMID:24583413

Pula, Kacy; Parks, Craig D; Ross, Carolyn F

2014-07-01

369

Complementary and Alternative Medicine Familiarization: What's happening in Medical Schools in Wales?  

PubMed Central

Despite recommendations that complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) familiarization should be offered to UK medical students, in Wales little such teaching was offered. We decided to assess medical students’ knowledge of CAMs, perceived training needs in CAMs, their view of its role in the National Health Service (NHS) and current teaching given. Analysis of data from a questionnaire given to medical students and direct questioning of senior academic medical school staff in Cardiff and Swansea Medical Schools was carried out. The participants comprised 78 first year medical students in the undergraduate entry program in Cardiff and 58 first year medical students from the graduate entry program in Swansea. Senior academic medical school staff at Cardiff and Swansea Medical Schools were asked about current CAM teaching. Results revealed that 32% of undergraduate entry students (UGES) had previous knowledge of CAMs compared with 51% of graduate entry students (GES). Of the UGES, 62% believed they should be taught about CAM's compared with 94% of GES. Of UGES 31% felt that CAMs have a role in the NHS compared with 50% of GES. None of the students had received teaching about CAMs and little formal CAM teaching is currently included in the curricula at each site. The majority of medical students in Wales would like to receive CAM teaching and significant numbers support a role for CAMs in the NHS. Little formal teaching is currently provided.

Taylor, Natalie

2010-01-01

370

Consistency of leadership in shoals of mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) in novel and in familiar environments.  

PubMed

In social animal groups, an individual's spatial position is a major determinant of both predation risk and foraging rewards. Additionally, the occupation of positions in the front of moving groups is generally assumed to correlate with the initiation of group movements. However, whether some individuals are predisposed to consistently occupy certain positions and, in some instances, to consistently lead groups over time is as yet unresolved in many species. Using the mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki), we examined the consistency of individuals' spatial positions within a moving group over successive trials. We found that certain individuals consistently occupied front positions in moving groups and also that it was typically these individuals that initiated group decisions. The number of individuals involved in leading the group varied according to the amount of information held by group members, with a greater number of changes in leadership in a novel compared to a relatively familiar environment. Finally, our results show that the occupation of lead positions in moving groups was not explained by characteristics such as dominance, size or sex, suggesting that certain individuals are predisposed to leadership roles. This suggests that being a leader or a follower may to some extent be an intrinsic property of the individual. PMID:22590568

Burns, Alicia L J; Herbert-Read, James E; Morrell, Lesley J; Ward, Ashley J W

2012-01-01

371

Fortalezas familiares program: building sociocultural and family strengths in latina women with depression and their families.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article is to describe Fortalezas Familiares (FF; Family Strengths), a community-based prevention program designed to address relational family processes and promote well-being among Latino families when a mother has depression. Although depression in Latina women is becoming increasingly recognized, risk and protective mechanisms associated with children's outcomes when a mother has depression are not well understood for Latino families. We begin by reviewing the literature on risk and protective psychosocial mechanisms by which maternal depression may affect Latino youth, using family systems theory and a developmental psychopathology framework with an emphasis on sociocultural factors shaping family processes. Next, we describe the theoretical basis and development of the FF program, a community-based 12-week intervention for Latina immigrant women with depression, other caregivers, and their children. Throughout this article, we use a case study to illustrate a Latina mother's vulnerability to depression and the family's response to the FF program. Recommendations for future research and practice include consideration of sociocultural processes in shaping both outcomes of Latino families and their response to interventions. PMID:24033237

Valdez, Carmen R; Abegglen, Jessica; Hauser, Claire T

2013-09-01

372

The mere exposure effect for consumer products as a consequence of existing familiarity and controlled exposure.  

PubMed

The finding that repeated exposure to a stimulus enhances attitudes directed towards it is a well-established phenomenon. Despite this, the effects of exposure to products are difficult to determine given that they could have previously been exposed to participants any number of times. Furthermore, factors other than simple repeated exposure can influence affective evaluations for stimuli that are meaningful. In our first study, we examined the influence of existing familiarity with common objects and showed that the attractiveness of shapes representing common objects increases with their rated commonness. In our second study, we eliminated the effects of prior exposure by creating fictitious yet plausible products; thus, exposure frequency was under complete experimental control. We also manipulated the attention to be drawn to the products' designs by placing them in contexts where their visual appearance was stressed to be important versus contexts in which it was indicated that little attention had been paid to their design. Following mere exposure, attractiveness ratings increased linearly with exposure frequency, with the slope of the function being steeper for stimuli presented in an inconspicuous context-indicating that individuals engage in more deliberate processing of the stimuli when attention is drawn to their visual appearance. PMID:24012724

Hekkert, Paul; Thurgood, Clementine; Whitfield, T W Allan

2013-10-01

373

Breeding dispersal in black-headed gull: the value of familiarity in a contrasted environment.  

PubMed

1. Some species (e.g. migratory species with high movement ability) are unlikely to experience any physical cost when dispersing, at least at the landscape scale. In these species dispersal is nevertheless behaviourally constrained to avoid non-physical costs such as the loss of familiarity with the breeding environment, and these constraints can be maladaptive in a fast-changing environment. 2. We evaluated such constraints using multievent modelling of a 20-year capture-mark-recapture data set from a multisite population of black-headed gull (Chroicocephalus ridibundus). The population undertakes seasonal migrations that are very large compared with the size of the study area. 3. Distances between colonies appeared as a strong predictor of breeding adults' dispersal rates, confirming behavioural constraints on dispersal. In addition, birds that had recruited outside their colony of birth (natal dispersers) tended to return to their colony of birth later in life (long-term memory effect). 4. An attraction for larger colonies was also visible in breeding adult dispersal patterns. The fact that distance and memory still constrained dispersal although the largest colony provided higher breeding success indicated departures from the ideal-free distribution, probably linked with the lack of information about distant colonies. Moreover, the regional population apparently functioned as a meta-colony where individuals frequently bred in suboptimal-choice locations before being able to recruit in their preferred colony. PMID:19891713

Péron, Guillaume; Lebreton, Jean-Dominique; Crochet, Pierre-André

2010-03-01

374

Circulating mitochondrial DNA increases with age and is a familiar trait: Implications for "inflamm-aging".  

PubMed

Mitochondrial components, including mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), when released extracellularly, can act as "damage-associated molecular pattern" (DAMP) agents and cause inflammation. As many elderly people are characterized by a low-grade, chronic inflammatory status defined "inflamm-aging," we evaluated if circulating mtDNA can contribute to this phenomenon. Eight hundred and thirty-one Caucasian subjects were enrolled in the study, including 429 siblings aged 90-104 (90+ siblings). mtDNA plasma levels increased gradually after the fifth decade of life. In 90+ subjects, mtDNA values of two members of the same sibling relationship were directly correlated, suggesting a role for familiar/genetic background in controlling the levels of circulating mtDNA. The subjects with the highest mtDNA plasma levels had the highest amounts of TNF-?, IL-6, RANTES, and IL-1ra; the subjects with the lowest mtDNA levels had the lowest levels of the same cytokines. In vitro stimulation of monocytes with mtDNA concentrations similar to the highest levels observed in vivo resulted in an increased production of TNF-?, suggesting that mtDNA can modulate the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Our findings therefore show that circulating mtDNA increases with age, and can significantly contribute to the maintenance of the low-grade, chronic inflammation observed in elderly people. PMID:24470107

Pinti, Marcello; Cevenini, Elisa; Nasi, Milena; De Biasi, Sara; Salvioli, Stefano; Monti, Daniela; Benatti, Stefania; Gibellini, Lara; Cotichini, Rodolfo; Stazi, Maria Antonietta; Trenti, Tommaso; Franceschi, Claudio; Cossarizza, Andrea

2014-05-01

375

La teoria del pendolo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Il silenzio era tale che, ascoltando attentamente, si sarebbe potuto udire la voce dell'anima. Era proprio questo il motivo per cui Galileo si alzava ogni mattina di buon ora per dire le sue orazioni innanzi al maestoso altare del duomo. Guardava a lungo le volte intorno a lui cercando con lo sguardo la perfezione del creato e poi, con l'ambiguità

Di Claudio Chillemi

376

Un estudio de los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud indica que dos dosis de vacuna contra los VPH pueden proteger tanto como el tratamiento completo  

Cancer.gov

Dos dosis de Cervarix, la vacuna contra virus del papiloma humano (VPH), fueron tan efectivas como la pauta normal actual de tres dosis después de cuatro años de seguimiento. El estudio de vacuna en Costa Rica, patrocinado por el NCI, fue diseñado para evaluar la eficacia de Cervarix en una población determinada.

377

Evaluación del desempeño integral del sector transporte  

Microsoft Academic Search

Las organizaciones hoy por hoy buscan aplicar un sistema de indicadores que evalúe la gestión y el desempeño del sector transporte en materia económica, social, ambiental e integral, con el fin de garantizar a las partes interesadas una información confiable sobre los resultados de desempeño frente al desarrollo sostenible, que facilite el ingreso a mercados nacionales e internacionales a partir

Clara Inés Pardo Martínez

2007-01-01

378

Perception and conception: temporal lobe activity during complex discriminations of familiar and novel faces and objects.  

PubMed

Recent studies indicate that medial-temporal lobe (MTL) damage, either from focal lesions or neurodegenerative disease (e.g., semantic dementia), impairs perception as well as long-term declarative memory. Notably, however, these two patient groups show different performance for meaningful versus unfamiliar stimuli. In amnesics with nonprogressive MTL lesions, the use of meaningful stimuli, compared with unfamiliar items, boosted discrimination performance. In semantic dementia, a condition characterized by progressive deterioration of conceptual knowledge in the context of anterolateral temporal lobe damage, performance for meaningful stimuli was equivalent to that for unfamiliar items. To further investigate these findings, we scanned healthy volunteers while they performed odd-one-out discriminations involving familiar (i.e., meaningful/famous) and unfamiliar (i.e., novel) objects and faces and a baseline task of size oddity. Outside the scanner, volunteers' recognition memory was assessed. We found above baseline activity in the perirhinal cortex and hippocampus for all object and face discriminations and above baseline activity in the temporal pole for all face discriminations. The comparison of meaningful, relative to novel, faces and objects, revealed increased activity in the perirhinal cortex and hippocampus. In the temporal pole, we also found activity related to meaningfulness for faces but not for objects. Importantly, these meaningfulness effects were evident even for discriminations that were not subsequently well remembered, suggesting that the difference between meaningful and novel stimuli reflects perceptual or conceptual processes rather than solely incidental encoding into long-term memory. The results provide further evidence that the MTL is recruited during complex perceptual discrimination and additionally suggest that these structures are recruited in semantic processing of objects and faces. PMID:21391761

Barense, Morgan D; Henson, Richard N A; Graham, Kim S

2011-10-01

379

Mineralogy and instrumental neutron activation analysis of seven National Bureau of Standards and three Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas clay reference samples  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The concentrations of 3 oxides and 29 elements in 7 National Bureau of Standards (NBS) and 3 Instituto de Pesquisas Techno16gicas (IPT) reference clay samples were etermined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The analytical work was designed to test the homogeneity of constituents in three new NBS reference clays, NBS-97b, NBS-98b, and NBS-679. The analyses of variance of 276 sets of data for these three standards show that the constituents are distributed homogeneously among bottles of samples for 94 percent of the sets of data. Three of the reference samples (NBS-97, NBS-97a, and NBS-97b) are flint clays; four of the samples (NBS-98, NBS-98a, NBS-98b, and IPT-32) are plastic clays, and three of the samples (NBS-679, IPT-28, and IPT-42) are miscellaneous clays (both sedimentary and residual). Seven clays are predominantly kaolinite; the other three clays contain illite and kaolinite in the approximate ratio 3:2. Seven clays contain quartz as the major nonclay mineral. The mineralogy of the flint and plastic clays from Missouri (NBS-97a and NBS-98a) differs markedly from that of the flint and plastic clays from Pennsylvania (NBS-97, NBS-97b, NBS-98, and NBS-98b). The flint clay NBS-97 has higher average chromium, hafnium, lithium, and zirconium contents than its replacement, reference sample NBS-97b. The differences between the plastic clay NBS-98 and its replacement, NBS-98b, are not as pronounced. The trace element contents of the flint and plastic clays from Missouri, NBS-97a and NBS-98a, differ significantly from those of the clays from Pennsylvania, especially the average rare earth element (REE) contents. The trace element contents of clay sample IPT-32 differ from those of the other plastic clays. IPT-28 and IPT-42 have some average trace element contents that differ not only between these two samples but also from all the other clays. IPT-28 has the highest summation of the average REE contents of the 10 samples. The uranium content of NBS-98a, 46 parts per million, is very much higher than that of the other clays. Plots of average REE contents of the flint and plastic clays, normalized to chondritic abundances, show that the clays from Missouri differ from the same types of clay from Pennsylvania. The plot of REE contents for the miscellaneous clays shows that the normalized means for the elements lanthanum through samarium for IPT-28 are much greater than those for the other miscellaneous clays. The means for the elements europium through lutetium are similar for all three miscellaneous clays.

Hosterman, John W.; Flanagan, F. J.; Bragg, Anne; Doughten, M. W.; Filby, R. H.; Grimm, Catherine; Mee, J. S.; Potts, P. J.; Rogers, N. W.

1987-01-01

380

Eye movements in reading versus nonreading tasks: Using EZ Reader to understand the role of word\\/stimulus familiarity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we extend our previous work (Reichle, Pollatsek, & Rayner, 2012) using the principles of the E-Z Reader model to examine the factors that determine when and where the eyes move in both reading and nonreading tasks, and in particular the role that word\\/stimulus familiarity plays in determining when the eyes move from one word\\/stimulus to the next.

Erik D. Reichle; Keith Rayner; Alexander Pollatsek

2012-01-01

381

Effect of spatial uncertainty and familiarity on memory for surface colour in natural scenes and Mondrian patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

How does memory affect surface-colour matching and is there any advantage with familiar scenes? A computer- controlled colour display system was used to present images of natural scenes and Mondrian patterns under two different daylights of correlated colour temperatures 25000 K and 6500 K, each lasting 1 s and separated by an interval lasting 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2,

Kinjiro Amano; David H. Foster

2008-01-01

382

Age-related differences in warning symbol comprehension and training effectiveness: effects of familiarity, complexity, and comprehensibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Age-related changes in selective attention, inhibitory efficiency, and the ability to form new associations suggest that older adults may have greater difficulty with more complex and less comprehensible symbols. We examined comprehension of symbols varying in terms of ratings of familiarity, complexity, and comprehensibility, by younger (aged 18–35) and older (aged 55–70) adults. It was found that older adults have

M. F. Lesch; W. J. Horrey; M. S. Wogalter; W. R. Powell

2011-01-01

383

Expert athletes activate somatosensory and motor planning regions of the brain when passively listening to familiar sports sounds.  

PubMed

The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study examined the neural response to familiar and unfamiliar, sport and non-sport environmental sounds in expert and novice athletes. Results revealed differential neural responses dependent on sports expertise. Experts had greater neural activation than novices in focal sensorimotor areas such as the supplementary motor area, and pre- and postcentral gyri. Novices showed greater activation than experts in widespread areas involved in perception (i.e. supramarginal, middle occipital, and calcarine gyri; precuneus; inferior and superior parietal lobules), and motor planning and processing (i.e. inferior frontal, middle frontal, and middle temporal gyri). These between-group neural differences also appeared as an expertise effect within specific conditions. Experts showed greater activation than novices during the sport familiar condition in regions responsible for auditory and motor planning, including the inferior frontal gyrus and the parietal operculum. Novices only showed greater activation than experts in the supramarginal gyrus and pons during the non-sport unfamiliar condition, and in the middle frontal gyrus during the sport unfamiliar condition. These results are consistent with the view that expert athletes are attuned to only the most familiar, highly relevant sounds and tune out unfamiliar, irrelevant sounds. Furthermore, these findings that athletes show activation in areas known to be involved in action planning when passively listening to sounds suggests that auditory perception of action can lead to the re-instantiation of neural areas involved in producing these actions, especially if someone has expertise performing the actions. PMID:24732956

Woods, Elizabeth A; Hernandez, Arturo E; Wagner, Victoria E; Beilock, Sian L

2014-06-01

384

Hojas informativas del NCI  

Cancer.gov

La colección de hojas informativas del NCI trata de una variedad de temas relacionados con el cáncer. Las hojas informativas se revisan y ponen al día de acuerdo a las investigaciones más recientes sobre el cáncer.

385

Il problema del litio.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contents: 1. Introduzione. 2. La nucleosintesi del Big Bang. 3. Il litio nelle stelle di popolazione II. 4. I modelli stellari standard. 5. Il litio negli ammassi aperti. 6. Meccanismi di distruzione "non standard". 7. I modelli non-standard applicati alla popolazione II. 8. L'evoluzione Galattica del litio. 9. Quali stelle producono litio? 10. Il litio come elemento chiave per dare un nome agli oggetti stellari più minuscoli. 11. Conclusioni.

D'Antona, F.

1995-03-01

386

Amenazas comerciales del Acuerdo Can-Mercosur para los sectores productivos del Valle del Cauca  

Microsoft Academic Search

El Acuerdo de Complementación Económica, suscrito entre la Comunidad Andina (CAN) y el Mercado Común del Sur (MERCOSUR), marca un avance hacia una integración económica y política más profunda en América Latina. Por tal razón, el objetivo del presente artículo es identificar los sectores del Valle del Cauca que revelan desventajas competitivas relativas, por lo que se pueden ver potencialmente

Lya Paola Sierra Suárez; José Tomás Peláez Soto

2008-01-01

387

EL DESARROLLO DEL PENSAMIENTO CRÍTICO DEL ESTUDIANTE. UNA FINALIDAD EDUCATIVA PENDIENTE DEL ÁREA CURRICULAR ESTUDIOS SOCIALES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo determinar las características del proceso instruccional en la tercera etapa del nivel de Educación Básica que contribuyen al desarrollo del pensamiento crítico del estudiante para satisfacer el imperativo legal vigente desde julio de 1980, particularmente para el área curricular Estudios Sociales. Durante cuatro años escolares en dos instituciones educativas que ofrecen el precitado nivel se

Haydée Páez

388

Espectroscopia del Cometa Halley  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Se reportan observaciones espectroscópicas del cometa Halley. Los espectros fueron tomados usando el espectrógrafo del telescopio reflector de 1 metro del Observatorio Nacional de Venezuela. Se utilizó óptica azul, con una red de difracción de 600 lineas/min, obteniéndose una dispersión de 74.2 A/mm y una resolución de 2.5 A, en el rango espectral de 3500 a 6500 A. Seis placas fueron tomadas con emulsión IIa-O y dos con IIa-D. Los tiempos de exposición fueron entre 10 y 150 minutos. El cometa se encontraba entre 0.70 y 1.04 UA del Sol, y entre 1.28 y 0.73 UA de la Tierra. Las emisiones más prominentes en el espectro, son las del CN, C2, y C3. Otras emisiones detectadas corresponden a CH, NH2 y Na. Los espectros muestran un fuerte continuo, indicando un contenido significativo de polvo. Se detectó mayor intensidad del contínuo, en la dirección anti solar, lo cual es evidencia de la cola de polvo.

Naranjo, O.; Fuenmayor, F.; Ferrin, L.; Bulka, P.; Mendoza, C.

1987-05-01

389

Familiarization, reliability, and evaluation of a multiple sprint running test using self-selected recovery periods.  

PubMed

The aims of the present study were to investigate the process of self-selected recovery in a multiple sprint test with a view to using self-selected recovery time as a means of reliably quantifying an individual's ability to resist fatigue in this type of exercise. Twenty physically active exercise science students (means ± SD for age, height, body mass, body fat, and VO2max of the subjects were 21 ± 2 yr, 1.79 ± 0.09 m, 83.7 ± 10.8 kg, 16.6 ± 3.9%, and 52.7 ± 7.2 ml·kg·min, respectively) completed 4 trials of a 12 × 30 m multiple sprint running test under the instruction that they should allow sufficient recovery time between sprints to enable maximal sprint performance to be maintained throughout each trial. Mean recovery times across the 4 trials were 73.9 ± 24.7, 82.3 ± 23.8, 77.6 ± 19.1, and 77.5 ± 13.9 seconds, respectively, with variability across the first 3 trials considered evidence of learning effects. Test-retest reliability across trials 3 to 4 revealed a good level of reliability as evidenced by a coefficient of variation of 11.1% (95% likely range: 8.0-18.1%) and an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.76 (95% likely range: 0.40-0.91). Despite no change in sprint performance throughout the trials, ratings of perceived exertion increased progressively and significantly (p < 0.001) from a value of 10 ± 2 after sprint 3 to 14 ± 2 after sprint 12. The correlation between relative VO2max and mean recovery time was 0.14 (95% likely range: -0.37-0.58). The results of the present study show that after the completion of 2 familiarization trials, the ability to maintain sprinting performance in a series of repeated sprints can be self-regulated by an athlete to a high degree of accuracy without the need for external timepieces. PMID:19966582

Glaister, Mark; Witmer, Chad; Clarke, Dustin W; Guers, John J; Heller, Justin L; Moir, Gavin L

2010-12-01

390

The relation between person identity nodes, familiarity judgment and biographical information. Evidence from two patients with right and left anterior temporal atrophy.  

PubMed

The aim of this study consisted of using neuropsychological data obtained in two patients (VL and StG) showing a selective atrophy of the anterior parts of the right (VL) and left (StG) temporal lobes to check current cognitive models of familiar people identification. According to these models, information coming from modality-specific "face", "voice" and "name" recognition units converge into "Person Identity Nodes" (PINs) where familiarity feelings are generated and which provide a modality-free gateway to a unitary semantic system, where information about people is stored in an amodal format. Data obtained in patient VL (and to a lesser degree in StG) were at variance with this model because VL showed: (1) a very impaired familiarity for faces, contrasting with a spared familiarity for names, indicating that familiarity judgments are generated at the level of modality-specific recognition units and not at a supramodal PIN; (2) a prevalent impairment of person-specific information available from faces rather than from names also for people that (being recognized as familiar from both their face and their name) should be normally represented at the PINs level. This last finding is at variance with the hypothesis assuming that the PINs may provide a modality-free gateway to a unitary semantic system, where information about people is stored in an amodal format. PMID:19836361

Gainotti, Guido; Ferraccioli, Monica; Marra, Camillo

2010-01-11

391

Human motion characteristics in relation to feeling familiar or frightened during an announced short interaction with a proactive humanoid  

PubMed Central

During an unannounced encounter between two humans and a proactive humanoid (NAO, Aldebaran Robotics), we study the dependencies between the human partners' affective experience (measured via the answers to a questionnaire) particularly regarding feeling familiar and feeling frightened, and their arm and head motion [frequency and smoothness using Inertial Measurement Units (IMU)]. NAO starts and ends its interaction with its partners by non-verbally greeting them hello (bowing) and goodbye (moving its arm). The robot is invested with a real and useful task to perform: handing each participant an envelope containing a questionnaire they need to answer. NAO's behavior varies from one partner to the other (Smooth with X vs. Resisting with Y). The results show high positive correlations between feeling familiar while interacting with the robot and: the frequency and smoothness of the human arm movement when waving back goodbye, as well as the smoothness of the head during the whole encounter. Results also show a negative dependency between feeling frightened and the frequency of the human arm movement when waving back goodbye. The principal component analysis (PCA) suggests that, in regards to the various motion measures examined in this paper, the head smoothness and the goodbye gesture frequency are the most reliable measures when it comes to considering the familiar experienced by the participants. The PCA also points out the irrelevance of the goodbye motion frequency when investigating the participants' experience of fear in its relation to their motion characteristics. The results are discussed in light of the major findings of studies on body movements and postures accompanying specific emotions.

Baddoura, Ritta; Venture, Gentiane

2014-01-01

392

Pruebas de Papanicolaou y del virus del papiloma humano (VPH)  

Cancer.gov

Hoja informativa que describe los exámenes selectivos de detección del cáncer de cérvix, los cuales incluyen la prueba de Papanicolaou y la prueba de los virus del papiloma humano. La hoja informativa incluye también información acerca de las pautas de exámenes de detección del cáncer de cérvix.

393

Instantánea del cáncer de esófago  

Cancer.gov

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de esófago; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

394

Instantánea del cáncer de próstata  

Cancer.gov

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de próstata; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

395

Instantánea del cáncer de estómago  

Cancer.gov

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de estómago; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

396

Instantánea del sarcoma de Kaposi  

Cancer.gov

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el sarcoma de Kaposi; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

397

Instantánea del cáncer de tiroides  

Cancer.gov

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de tiroides; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

398

Instantánea del cáncer de ovario  

Cancer.gov

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de ovario; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

399

Instantánea del cáncer de endometrio  

Cancer.gov

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de endometrio; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

400

Instantánea del cáncer de vejiga  

Cancer.gov

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de vejiga; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

401

Instantánea del cáncer de riñón  

Cancer.gov

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de riñón; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

402

Instantánea del cáncer de páncreas  

Cancer.gov

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de páncreas; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

403

Instantánea del cáncer de pulmón  

Cancer.gov

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de pulmón; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

404

Knowing too little or too much: the effects of familiarity with a co-performer's part on interpersonal coordination in musical ensembles.  

PubMed

Expert ensemble musicians produce exquisitely coordinated sounds, but rehearsal is typically required to do so. Ensemble coordination may thus be influenced by the degree to which individuals are familiar with each other's parts. Such familiarity may affect the ability to predict and synchronize with co-performers' actions. Internal models related to action simulation and anticipatory musical imagery may be affected by knowledge of (1) the musical structure of a co-performer's part (e.g., in terms of its rhythm and phrase structure) and/or (2) the co-performer's idiosyncratic playing style (e.g., expressive micro-timing variations). The current study investigated the effects of familiarity on interpersonal coordination in piano duos. Skilled pianists were required to play several duets with different partners. One condition included duets for which co-performers had previously practiced both parts, while another condition included duets for which each performer had practiced only their own part. Each piece was recorded six times without joint rehearsal or visual contact to examine the effects of increasing familiarity. Interpersonal coordination was quantified by measuring asynchronies between pianists' keystroke timing and the correlation of their body (head and torso) movements, which were recorded with a motion capture system. The results suggest that familiarity with a co-performer's part, in the absence of familiarity with their playing style, engenders predictions about micro-timing variations that are based instead upon one's own playing style, leading to a mismatch between predictions and actual events at short timescales. Predictions at longer timescales-that is, those related to musical measures and phrases, and reflected in head movements and body sway-are, however, facilitated by familiarity with the structure of a co-performer's part. These findings point to a dissociation between interpersonal coordination at the level of keystrokes and body movements. PMID:23805116

Ragert, Marie; Schroeder, Tim; Keller, Peter E

2013-01-01

405

Odor-Based Recognition of Familiar and Related Conspecifics: A First Test Conducted on Captive Humboldt Penguins (Spheniscus humboldti)  

PubMed Central

Studies of kin recognition in birds have largely focused on parent-offspring recognition using auditory or visual discrimination. Recent studies indicate that birds use odors during social and familial interactions and possibly for mate choice, suggesting olfactory cues may mediate kin recognition as well. Here, we show that Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti), a natally philopatric species with lifetime monogamy, discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar non-kin odors (using prior association) and between unfamiliar kin and non-kin odors (using phenotype matching). Penguins preferred familiar non-kin odors, which may be associated with the recognition of nest mates and colony mates and with locating burrows at night after foraging. In tests of kin recognition, penguins preferred unfamiliar non-kin odors. Penguins may have perceived non-kin odors as novel because they did not match the birds' recognition templates. Phenotype matching is likely the primary mechanism for kin recognition within the colony to avoid inbreeding. To our knowledge this is the first study to provide evidence of odor-based kin discrimination in a bird.

Coffin, Heather R.; Watters, Jason V.; Mateo, Jill M.

2011-01-01

406

Familiarity with the experimenter influences the performance of Common ravens (Corvus corax) and Carrion crows (Corvus corone corone) in cognitive tasks?  

PubMed Central

When humans and animals interact with one another over an extended time span they familiarise and may develop a relationship, which can exert an influence on both partners. For example, the behaviour of an animal in experiments may be affected by its relationship to the human experimenter. However, few studies have systematically examined the impact of human–animal relationships on experimental results. In the present study we investigated if familiarity with a human experimenter influences the performance of Common ravens (Corvus corax) and Carrion crows (Corvus corone corone) in interactive tasks. Birds were tested in two interactive cognitive tasks (exchange, object choice) by several experimenters representing different levels of familiarity (long and short-term). Our findings show that the birds participated more often in both tasks and were more successful in the exchange task when working with long-term experimenters than when working with short-term experimenters. Behavioural observations indicate that anxiety did not inhibit experimental performance but that the birds’ motivation to work differed between the two kinds of experimenters, familiar and less familiar. We conclude that human–animal relationships (i.e. familiarity) may affect the experimental performance of corvids in interactive cognitive tasks.

Cibulski, Lara; Wascher, Claudia A.F.; Weiss, Brigitte M.; Kotrschal, Kurt

2014-01-01

407

Confirming and denying in co-construction processes: a case study of an adult with cerebral palsy and two familiar partners.  

PubMed

For individuals with complex communication needs, one of the most frequent communicative strategies is the co-construction of meaning with familiar partners. This preliminary single-case study gives insight into a special sequential pattern of co-construction processes - the search sequence - particularly in relation to the processes of confirming and denying meanings proposed by familiar interaction partners. Five different conversations between an adult with cerebral palsy and complex communication needs and two familiar co-participants were videotaped and analyzed using the methodology of conversation analysis (CA). The study revealed that confirmations and denials are not simply two alternative actions, but that several possibilities to realize confirmations and denials exist that differ in their frequency and that have different consequences for the sequential context. This study of confirmations and denials demonstrates that co-construction processes are more complex than have previously been documented. PMID:23952567

Hörmeyer, Ina; Renner, Gregor

2013-09-01

408

Oestrous females investigate the unfamiliar male more than the familiar male in both commensal and non-commensal populations of house mice.  

PubMed

We studied female preferences for familiar and unfamiliar males. The subjects were laboratory-born house mice: (1) non-commensal Mus musculus domesticus from the eastern part of Syria along the Euphrates River; and (2) commensal M. m. musculus from the Czech Republic. Pair-choice preference tests have revealed that oestrous females of both populations sniffed towards unfamiliar males more than familiar males. In the case of females exhibiting postpartum oestrus, this preference was less pronounced and statistically not significant. Thus, our mice clearly exhibited the behavioural pattern known from commensal populations of polygynous and/or promiscuous M. m. domesticus. We found no inverse tendency to seek proximity to the familiar male that has been previously reported from closely related and presumably monogamous aboriginal mouse Mus spicilegus. We conclude that neither commensal M. m. musculus, nor non-commensal M. m. domesticus, are likely to share a monogamous mating system with mound-building mice. PMID:19850114

Frynta, Daniel; Volfová, Radka; Franková-Nováková, Marcela; Stejskal, Václav

2010-01-01

409

Documenting Endangered Languages (DEL)  

NSF Publications Database

Full Proposal Preparation Instructions: This solicitation contains information that supplements the standard Grant Proposal Guide (GPG) proposal preparation guidelines. All DEL proposals for project grants and fellowships will receive specialist (ad hoc) and panel review within the NSF review process. More comprehensive information on NSF Award Conditions is contained in the NSF Grant Policy Manual (GPM) Chapter II, available electronically on the NSF Website at http://www.nsf.gov/...

410

Nevado del Huila, Columbia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nevado del Huila Volcano in Colombia is actually a volcanic chain running north to south, capped by a glacier. With peaks ranging in height from 2,600 to 5,780 meters (8,530 to 18,960 feet), Nevado del Huila is a stratovolcano composed of alternating layers of hardened lava, solidified ash, and volcanic rocks. Its first recorded eruption occurred in the mid-sixteenth century. The long-dormant volcano erupted again in mid-April 2007. A few months before the eruption, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of Nevado del Huila, on February 23, 2007. In this image, the bright white area just east of the central summit is ice. Immediately west of the summit are bare rocks, appearing as blue-gray. West of those rocks, white reappears, but this patch of white results from clouds hovering in the nearby valley. In the east, the colors turn to brown (indicating bare rock) and bright green (indicating vegetation). ASTER photographed Nevado del Huila near the end of a long phase of quietude. On April 17, 2007, local authorities recorded seismic activity associated with rock fracturing on the volcano's central summit, according to the ReliefWeb Website. Activity intensified the following day with an eruption and mudflows, forcing thousands of nearby residents to evacuate. As the Associated Press reported, the eruption caused avalanches and floods that wiped away both houses and bridges. It marked the volcano's first recorded eruption since the Spanish colonized the area five centuries earlier. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

2007-01-01

411

5-HT1a receptor antagonists block perforant path-dentate LTP induced in novel, but not familiar, environments  

PubMed Central

Numerous studies suggest roles for monoamines in modulating long-term potentiation (LTP). Previously, we reported that both induction and maintenance of perforant path-dentate gyrus LTP is enhanced when induced while animals explore novel environments. Here we investigate the contribution of serotonin and 5-HT1a receptors to the novelty-mediated enhancement of LTP. In freely moving animals, systemic administration of the selective 5-HT1a antagonist WAY-100635 (WAY) attenuated LTP in a dose-dependent manner when LTP was induced while animals explored novel cages. In contrast, LTP was completely unaffected by WAY when induced in familiar environments. LTP was also blocked in anesthetized animals by direct application of WAY to the dentate gyrus, but not to the median raphe nucleus (MRN), suggesting the effect of systemic WAY is mediated by a block of dentate 5-HT1a receptors. Paradoxically, systemic administration of the 5-HT1a agonist 8-OH-DPAT also attenuated LTP. This attenuation was mimicked in anesthetized animals following application of 8-OH-DPAT to the MRN, but not the dentate gyrus. In addition, application of a 5-HT1a agonist to the dentate gyrus reduced somatic GABAergic inhibition. Because serotonergic projections from the MRN terminate on dentate inhibitory interneurons, these data suggest 5-HT1a receptors contribute to LTP induction via inhibition of GABAergic interneurons. Moreover, activation of raphe 5-HT1a autoreceptors, which inhibits serotonin release, attenuated LTP induction even in familiar environments. This suggests that serotonin normally contributes to dentate LTP induction in a variety of behavioral states. Together, these data suggest that serotonin and dentate 5-HT1a receptors play a permissive role in dentate LTP induction, particularly in novel conditions, and presumably, during the encoding of novel, hippocampus-relevant information.

Sanberg, Cyndy Davis; Jones, Floretta L.; Do, Viet H.; Dieguez, Dario; Derrick, Brian E.

2006-01-01

412

Effect of reference foods in repeated acceptability tests: testing familiar and novel foods using 2 acceptability scales.  

PubMed

Hedonic tests are routinely used to assess the acceptance of food products. However, these single tests may not be the best approach for predicting long-term use. The objectives of this study were, first, to check whether a difference from reference score is more sensitive to changes in hedonic scores, second, to assess whether the labeled affective scale (LAM) is more sensitive to differences than the 9-point scale, and third, to assess the effect of repeated exposure on the hedonic scores of neophilic and neophobic panelists for familiar and novel foods. Two groups of 41 panelists were tested with either the 9-point hedonic scale or LAM scale. Panelists received a food neophobia questionnaire and were subsequently classified to neophobic, neophilic, or neutral. Ten foods, including 5 novel and 5 familiar, were used. In each session, 5 to 6 foods were served twice/week for 4 wk. Serving frequency ranged between 1 and 8 times (1, 2, 4, 6, 8). Data analyses were performed 3 times, using either absolute acceptability scores or relative scores, that is, the difference between absolute scores and scores for either the reference (cracker, RELFAM) or a novel food (pickled-ginger, RELNOV) served in every session. The 3 analyses (absolute, RELFAM, and RELNOV) generated similar results with respect to the number of significant differences between foods. There was no major drift in acceptability scores with sessions. A significant food effect was obtained (P < 0.05) and a significant food x neophobia (P < 0.05) was noted for 2 novel foods, pickled ginger, and lychee, whereby neophobic panelists were less accepting of them. Both scales were equally sensitive with some advantages for LAM over the 9-point hedonic scale. PMID:19323773

El Dine, A Nasser; Olabi, A

2009-03-01

413

Primary care physicians' familiarity, beliefs, and perceived barriers to practice guidelines in non-diabetic CKD: a survey study  

PubMed Central

Background Most non-dialysis dependent chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are cared for by their primary care physicians (PCPs). Studies suggest many CKD patients receive suboptimal care. Recently, CKD clinical practice guidelines were updated with additional emphasis on albuminuria. Methods We performed an internet-based, cross-sectional survey of active PCPs in the United States using the American Medical Association Physician Masterfile. We explored CKD guideline familiarity, self-reported practice behaviors, and attitudinal and external barriers to implementing guideline recommendations, including albuminuria testing. Results Of 12,034 PCPs targeted, 848 opened a study email, 165 (19.5%) responded. Most respondents (88%) spent ?50% of their time in clinical care. Respondents were generally in private practice (46%). Most PCPs (96%) felt that eGFR values were helpful. Approximately, 75% and 91% of PCPs reported testing for albuminuria in non-diabetic hypertensive patients with an eGFR?>?60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and?familiarity with CKD guidelines, overcome barriers to albuminuria testing and, assist PCPs in targeting ACEi/ARBs to the patients most likely to benefit.

2014-01-01

414

Pheromones from males of different familiarity exert divergent effects on adult neurogenesis in the female accessory olfactory bulb.  

PubMed

Pheromones from urine of unfamiliar conspecific male animals can reinitiate a female's estrus cycle to cause pregnancy block through the vomeronasal organ (VNO)-accessory olfactory bulb (AOB)-hypothalamic pathway. This phenomenon is called the Bruce effect. Pheromones from the mate of the female, however, do not trigger re-entrance of the estrus cycle because an olfactory memory toward its mate is formed. The activity of the VNO-AOB-hypothalamic pathway is negatively modulated by GABAergic granule cells in the AOB. Since these cells are constantly replenished by neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle throughout adulthood and adult neurogenesis is required for mate recognition and fertility, we tested the hypothesis that pheromones from familiar and unfamiliar males may have different effects on adult AOB neurogenesis in female mice. When female mice were exposed to bedding used by a male or lived with one, cell proliferation and neuroblast production in the SVZ were increased. Furthermore, survival of newly generated cells in the AOB was enhanced. This survival effect was transient and mediated by norepinephrine. Interestingly, male bedding-induced newborn cell survival in the AOB but not cell proliferation in the SVZ was attenuated when females were subjected to bedding from an unfamiliar male. Our results indicate that male pheromones from familiar and unfamiliar males exert different effects on neurogenesis in the adult female AOB. Given that adult neurogenesis is required for reproductive behaviors, these divergent pheromonal effects may provide a mechanism for the Bruce effect. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 73: 632-645, 2013. PMID:23696538

Wu, Jyun-Han; Han, Yueh-Ting; Yu, Jenn-Yah; Wang, Tsu-Wei

2013-08-01

415

The Fabra-ROA Baker-Nunn Camera at Observatori Astronòmic del Montsec: A Wide-field Imaging Facility for Exoplanet Transit Detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of Baker-Nunn Camera (BNC) were manufactured by Smithsonian Institution during the 60’s as optical tracking systems for artificial satellites with optimal optical and mechanical specifications. One of them was installed at the Real Instituto y Observatorio de la Armada (ROA). We have conducted a profound refurbishment project of the telescope to be installed at Observatori Astronòmic del Montsec (OAdM) (Fors 2009). As a result, the BNC offers the largest combination of a huge FOV (4.4°×4.4°) and aperture (leading to a limiting magnitude of V˜20). These specifications, together with their remote and robotic natures, allows this instrument to face an observational program of exoplanets detection by means of transit technique with high signal-to-noise ratio in the appropiate magnitude range.

Fors, O.; Núñez, J.; Muiños, J. L.; Montojo, F. J.; Baena, R.; Merino, M.; Morcillo, R.; Blanco, V.

2010-10-01

416

View-independent coding of face identity in frontal and temporal cortices is modulated by familiarity: an event-related fMRI study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Face recognition is a unique visual skill enabling us to recognize a large number of person identities, despite many differences in the visual image from one exposure to another due to changes in viewpoint, illumination, or simply passage of time. Previous familiarity with a face may facilitate recognition when visual changes are important. Using event-related fMRI in 13 healthy observers,

Gilles Pourtois; Sophie Schwartz; Mohamed L. Seghier; François Lazeyras; Patrik Vuilleumier

2005-01-01

417

Brain Regions Involved in the Retrieval of Spatial and Episodic Details Associated with a Familiar Environment: An fMRI Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to compare brain activity during the retrieval of coarse- and fine-grained spatial details and episodic details associated with a familiar environment. Long-time Toronto residents compared pairs of landmarks based on their absolute geographic locations (requiring either coarse or fine…

Hirshhorn, Marnie; Grady, Cheryl; Rosenbaum, R. Shayna; Winocur, Gordon; Moscovitch, Morris

2012-01-01

418

Fast Mapping and Word Learning by Preschoolers with Specific Language Impairment in a Supported Learning Context: Effect of Encoding Cues, Phonotactic Probability, and Object Familiarity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To investigate whether phonological or semantic encoding cues improved the fast mapping or word learning performance of preschoolers with specific language impairment (SLI) or typical development (TD) and whether performance varied for words containing high- or low-frequency sublexical sequences that named familiar or unfamiliar objects.…

Gray, Shelley; Brinkley, Shara

2011-01-01

419

IRecogniseYoubut ICan't PlaceYou: AnInvestigationofFamiliar-onlyExperiences duringTestsof VoiceandFaceRecognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we examine in detail the situation in which a subject ® nds that a face or voice is familiar but is unable to retrieve any biographical information about the person concerned. In two experiments, subjects were asked to identify a set of 40 celebrities either from hearing their voice or from seeing their face. Although many more

J. Richard Hanley; S. Tanya Smith

420

Is Familiarity the All-Purpose Reading Tool? The Case of the Missing-Letter Effect for Self-Generated Texts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participants performed a letter detection task on a self-generated and on an unfamiliar text to address two questions: Will letter processing differ for self-generated and unfamiliar texts? Is the missing-letter effect immune from text familiarity? The 36 participants were asked to write an essay and then to read it along with an unfamiliar text…

Saint-Aubin, Jean; Roy-Charland, Annie

2012-01-01

421

The Relationship between the Shape of the Mental Number Line and Familiarity with Numbers in 5- to 9-Year Old Children: Evidence for a Segmented Linear Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment aimed to expand previous findings on the development of mental number representation. We tested the hypothesis that children's familiarity with numbers is directly reflected by the shape of their mental number line. This mental number line was expected to be linear as long as numbers lay within the range of numbers children were…

Ebersbach, Mirjam; Luwel, Koen; Frick, Andrea; Onghena, Patrick; Verschaffel, Lieven

2008-01-01

422

Ipercolesterolemia Familiare e Difetti del Gene del Recettore delle Lipoproteine a Bassa Densita: Mutazioni Italiane e Loro Analisi (Familial Hypercholesterolemia Due to Defects in the Gene Encoding the LDL Receptor. Mutations Occurring in Italy and Their Analysis).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor (LDLR) gene undergoes a great number of either small or gross mutations that cause in their homozygote and heterozygote carriers the classical familial hypercholesterolemia. In spite of the great advances in the developmen...

A. Cantafora F. Prestinaci I. Blotta

2006-01-01

423

Vacunas contra los virus del papiloma humano  

Cancer.gov

Hoja informativa acerca de las vacunas contra los virus del papiloma humano (VPH) para prevenir infecciones con ciertos tipos de VPH, los cuales son la causa principal del cáncer de cuello del útero o cérvix.

424

What the study of voice recognition in normal subjects and brain-damaged patients tells us about models of familiar people recognition.  

PubMed

In recent years it has been shown that a disorder in recognizing familiar people can be observed in patients with lesions affecting the anterior parts of the temporal lobes and that these disorders can be multi-modal, simultaneously affecting the visual, auditory and linguistic channels that allow person identification. Several authors have also shown that patients with right anterior temporal atrophy are more impaired in assessing familiarity and in retrieving person-specific semantic information from faces than from names, whereas the opposite pattern of performance can be observed in patients with left temporal lobe atrophy. Voice recognition disorders have been studied much less even despite their clinical and theoretical importance. The aim of the present review, therefore, was to compare recognition of familiar faces and voices, taking into account not only results obtained in individual patients with right anterior temporal lesions, but also those of group studies of unselected right- and left brain-damaged patients and results of experimental investigations conducted on face and voice recognition in normal subjects. Results of the review showed that: (1) voice recognition disorders are mainly due to right temporal lesions, similarly to face recognition disorders; (2) famous voice recognition disorders can be dissociated from unfamiliar voice discrimination impairments; (3) although face and voice recognition disorders tend to co-occur, they can also dissociate and in these patients there is a prevalent involvement of the right fusiform gyrus when face recognition disorders are on the foreground, and of the right superior temporal gyrus when voice recognition disorders are prominent; (4) normal subjects have greater difficulty evaluating familiarity and drawing semantic information from the voices than from the faces of celebrities. These data are at variance with models which assume that familiarity feelings may be generated at the level of person identity nodes (PINs) and that the latter may be considered as modality-free gateways to single semantic systems in which information about people is stored in an amodal format. PMID:21569784

Gainotti, Guido

2011-07-01

425

Inhibition of Protein Kinase M? Disrupts the Stable Spatial Discharge of Hippocampal Place Cells in a Familiar Environment  

PubMed Central

It is widely held that spatial computations in the rodent hippocampus require the location-specific discharge of place cells that together form a stable cognitive map used to solve and perform spatial tasks. It is not known, however, if map stability requires persistent hippocampal synaptic strength changes that are vulnerable to blockade of protein kinase M? (PKM?) phosphorylation activity, a manipulation that reverses hippocampal LTP and disrupts multiple forms of long-term memory. Here we report that acute intrahippocampal inhibition of PKM? disrupts place cell activity in a familiar environment, where the map is expected to be stable. After this disruption, new, stable spatial firing patterns can later form, but the new and original maps are unrelated even though the rat is exposed to a constant environment. We therefore propose that the previously demonstrated erasure of stored spatial memory and the disruption of place cell firing are parallel effects of PKM? blockade. We similarly propose that the known sparing of new spatial memory formation depends on the sparing of new map formation. On these bases, we argue that the loss of the map used to perform a practiced spatial task leads to behavioral performance deficits, and that synaptic plasticity maintained by PKM?, which stabilizes the map, is essential for the proper expression of spatial memory.

Barry, Jeremy M.; Rivard, Bruno; Fox, Steven E.; Fenton, Andre A.; Sacktor, Todd C.

2012-01-01

426

Longer visits on familiar plants?: testing a regular visitor's tendency to probe more flowers than occasional visitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An individual pollinator may tend to consecutively probe more flowers on a plant to which it returns at shorter intervals than other plants. In a large net cage, I let individually marked bumble bees forage on flowering heads of red clovers arranged in 37 bottles (plants), each of which was monitored by an observer to record every visit and probe for 2.5 h on each of 3 days. The data of collective visits by marked individuals revealed that the bees had their own foraging areas, in which they visited a set of plants frequently and others less often, i.e., the same individual bee repeatedly returned to certain plants as a regular visitor while sampling others as an occasional visitor. I further found that as a regular visitor, an individual bee tended to probe more flowering heads on familiar plants while probing fewer on unfamiliar plants as an occasional visitor. The mean number of consecutive probes by a bee was also positively correlated with its activity (the total number of plant visits made during the observation period). The fact that each bee behaves differently on different plants indicates that the same individual pollinator can exert different influence on the reproductive success of each plant: apparently, a pollinator likely reduces the potential for geitonogamous self-pollination when foraging as an occasional visitor. Attracting occasional visitors therefore may be beneficial for plants to avoid geitonogamy. This study thus emphasizes the importance of paying attention to pollinator individuality in pollination ecology.

Makino, Takashi T.

2013-07-01

427

Mondegreens and soramimi as a method to induce misperceptions of speech content--influence of familiarity, wittiness, and language competence.  

PubMed

Expectations and prior knowledge can strongly influence our perception. In vision research, such top-down modulation of perceptual processing has been extensively studied using ambiguous stimuli, such as reversible figures. Here, we propose a novel method to address this issue in the auditory modality during speech perception by means of Mondgreens and Soramimi which represent song lyrics with the potential for misperception within one or across two languages, respectively. We demonstrate that such phenomena can be induced by visual presentation of the alternative percept and occur with a sufficient probability to exploit them in neuroscientific experiments. Song familiarity did not influence the occurrence of such altered perception indicating that this tool can be employed irrespective of the participants' knowledge of music. On the other hand, previous knowledge of the alternative percept had a strong impact on the strength of altered perception which is in line with frequent reports that these phenomena can have long-lasting effects. Finally, we demonstrate that the strength of changes in perception correlated with the extent to which they were experienced as amusing as well as the vocabulary of the participants as source of potential interpretations. These findings suggest that such perceptional phenomena might be linked to the pleasant experience of resolving ambiguity which is in line with the long-existing theory of Hermann von Helmholtz that perception and problem-solving recruit similar processes. PMID:24416261

Beck, Claudia; Kardatzki, Bernd; Ethofer, Thomas

2014-01-01

428

'Familiarity' as a key factor influencing rural family carers' experience of the nursing home placement of an older relative: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Admission to a nursing home is generally regarded as a stressful time for older people and their carers. Although the choice of home is significant in facilitating a more positive transition, few studies have explored this issue in detail, particularly in the context of rural communities. With a worldwide ageing population and an increasing demand for long-term care facilities, it is important to highlight the factors that can improve the experience of entry to long-term care and the role of nursing home staff in facilitating a more positive transition for older people and their families. Methods The overall aim of this qualitative study was to explore rural family carers’ experience of the nursing home placement of an older relative. Semi structured interviews were conducted with 29 relatives of nursing home residents. Participants were selected from a large health and social care trust in the United Kingdom. Data were analysed using grounded theory principles and procedures and NVivo software. Results Rural family carers had a strong sense of familiarity with the nursing homes in their area and this appeared to permeate all aspects of their experience. Carers who reported a high degree of familiarity appeared to experience a more positive transition than others. This familiarity was influenced by the high degree of social capital that was present in the rural community where the study was conducted. This familiarity, in turn, influenced the choice of nursing home and the responses of family carers. The theory that emerged suggests that familiarity was the key factor influencing rural family carers’ experience of the nursing home placement of an older relative. Conclusions The population of the world is ageing and nursing homes are increasingly providing care to older people with multiple and complex needs. This study makes an important contribution to the ways in which the move to long term care can be managed more effectively by increasing awareness of the importance of familiarity, stability and social capital in the lives of older people and their carers.

2013-01-01

429

Siga adelante: la vida después del tratamiento del cáncer  

Cancer.gov

Consejos para supervivientes de cáncer con información sobre temas relacionados con la vida después del tratamiento, entre ellos, la atención médica de seguimiento, los cambios físicos y emocionales y los cambios en el estilo de vida.

430

Siga adelante: la vida después del tratamiento del cáncer  

Cancer.gov

E-book con consejos para supervivientes de cáncer e información sobre temas relacionados con la vida después del tratamiento, entre ellos, la atención médica de seguimiento, los cambios físicos y emocionales y los cambios en el estilo de vida.

431

Cáncer de hígado  

Cancer.gov

Información acerca del cáncer de hígado, lo cual incluye temas como tratamiento, prevención, genética, causas, exámenes selectivos de detección, estudios clínicos y estadísticas del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer.

432

MODELADO Y SIMULACION DEL SISTEMA CARDIOVASCULAR FETAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen: En el modelado fisiológico, el propósito es comprender las funciones del cuerpo humano. Con este propósito, se abordan problemas del embarazo y el parto para minimizar las cesáreas innecesarias en mujeres propensas a cursar con Sufrimiento Fetal Agudo (SFA). En el presente estudio se realizó: el Modelado Matemático del Sistema Cardiovascular Fetal (SCVF), la Simulación y Validación del SCVF.

Rubén Moreno

433

Familiarity Breeds Investment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shareholders of a Regional Bell Operating Company (RBOC) tend to live in the area which it serves, and an RBOC's customers tend to hold its shares rather than other RBOCs' equity. The geographic bias of the RBOC investors is closely related to the general tendency of households' portfolios to be concentrated, of employees' tendency to own their employers' stocks in

Gur Huberman

2001-01-01

434

Space Shuttle Familiarization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation visualizes the NASA space center and research facility sites, as well as the geography, launching sites, launching pads, rocket launching, pre-flight activities, and space shuttle ground operations located at NASA Kennedy Space Center. Additionally, highlights the international involvement behind the International Space Station and the space station mobile servicing system. Extraterrestrial landings, surface habitats and habitation systems, outposts, extravehicular activity, and spacecraft rendezvous with the Earth return vehicle are also covered.

Mellett, Kevin

2006-01-01

435

Vietnamese Familiarization Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This course provides an introduction to Vietnamese as spoken in South Vietnam. The most basic structural patterns of the language have been introduced along with vocabulary that is considered to be useful for Americans in Vietnam. The course, designed for classroom use, is suitable for self-instructional use with the use of accompanying tape…

Quang, Nguyen-Hy; Jorden, Eleanor H.

436

Effect of social familiarity on salivary cortisol and self-reports of social anxiety and stress in children with high functioning autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

This study examined the effect of social familiarity on salivary cortisol and social anxiety/stress for a sample of children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders. The relationship between self-reported social anxiety/stress and salivary cortisol was also examined. Participants interacted with a familiar peer on one occasion and an unfamiliar peer on another occasion. Data were collected using salivary cortisol and a scale measuring subjective stress. Results indicated a significant condition by order interaction for salivary cortisol levels, while self-rated stress did not differ significantly across situations. A mild-moderate correlation was found between self-reported distress and salivary cortisol within each condition. Examination of self-rated distress vs. cortisol scatter plots suggested a more complex relationship than the correlation coefficient could adequately convey. PMID:18483844

Lopata, Christopher; Volker, Martin A; Putnam, Susan K; Thomeer, Marcus L; Nida, Robert E

2008-11-01

437

Antioxidantes y prevención del cáncer  

Cancer.gov

Hoja informativa acerca de los antioxidantes, sustancias que pueden proteger las células del daño causado por moléculas inestables conocidas como radicales libres. El daño de los radicales libres puede resultar en cáncer.

438

Case Study: del Amo Bioventing  

EPA Science Inventory

The attached presentation discusses the fundamentals of bioventing in the vadose zone. The basics of bioventing are presented. The experience to date with the del Amo Superfund Site is presented as a case study....

439

Beyond the abstract—concrete dichotomy: Mode of acquisition, concreteness, imageability, familiarity, age of acquisition, context availability, and abstractness norms for a set of 417 Italian words  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this study is to investigate the abstract-concrete dichotomy by introducing a new variable: the mode\\u000a of acquisition (MoA) of a concept. MoA refers to the way in which concepts are acquired: through experience, through language,\\u000a or through both. We asked 250 participants to rate 417 words on seven dimensions: age of acquisition, concreteness, familiarity,\\u000a context availability,

Pasquale A. Della Rosa; Eleonora Catricalà; Gabriella Vigliocco; Stefano F. Cappa

2010-01-01

440

Alberto del Pozo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Cuban Heritage Collection of the University of Miami Libraries was a recipient of 17 original illustrations by Alberto del Pozo in 1998 from the Campilli family. "The Oricha Collection" is their gift, and it contains illustrations in pen, crayon, and ink and the collection "pays homage to the primary gods and goddesses that comprise the Afro-Cuban religion of Santer'a." The "Introduction" near the top of the page, is a good place for visitors to start learning about Pozo, who was a Parson's School of Design-trained, Cuban artist who died at the age of 47. The "Biographical Sketch" is worth looking at as well. Examples of his colorful, heavily patterned and symbolism-intensive drawings of Santeria gods and goddesses can be found in the link "Gallery". The description of each drawing is given in English and Spanish. Finally, visitors interested in more information on the Santeria, can look at the "Further Readings" link for authoritative books on the subject.

441

La Investigación del Cáncer en América Latina  

Cancer.gov

Este programa busca fomentar los esfuerzos locales y mundiales de prevención, diagnóstico y tratamiento del cáncer facilitando la creación de una infraestructura integral para la investigación del cáncer en América Latina.

442

Instantánea del cáncer de cuello uterino  

Cancer.gov

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de cuello uterino; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

443

Instantánea del cáncer de seno (mama)  

Cancer.gov

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de seno (mama); así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

444

Seguridad del paciente en los estudios clínicos  

Cancer.gov

Información para pacientes, sus familiares y amigos, y el público en general, sobre cómo se protegen los derechos y la seguridad de las personas que participan en estudios clínicos. Conozca sobre el consentimiento formal, los consejos institucionales de revisión (IRB) y cómo se realiza la vigilancia continua de los estudios.

445

Geología y registros magnéticos entre arroyo La Tapera y Santa Clara del Mar, Mar del Plata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geology and magnetic records between Arroyo La Tapera and Santa Clara del Mar, Mar del Plata. Paleomagnetic studies were carried out in Pleistocene-Holocene sedimentary sequences exposed between Arroyo La Tapera and Santa Clara del Mar in Mar del Plata. The sediments exposed in the lower part of the La Tapera and Camet sections, which apparently belong to the Ensenada Formation,

Juan Carlos BIDEGAIN; Margarita L. OSTERRIETH; Adrianus J. VAN VELZEN; Yamile RICO

446

Variabilità interannuale del fi toplancton del Lago di Tovel (Trentino, Italia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

RIASSUNTO - Variabilità interannuale del fi toplancton del Lago di Tovel (Trentino, Italia) - Lo studio del fi toplancton del Lago di Tovel nel periodo 2002-2004 ha avuto come principali obiettivi l'analisi della variabilità interannuale delle dinamiche stagionali nel Bacino Principale e nella Baia Rossa, il confronto tra le associazioni fi toplanctoniche attuali e passate (prima e dopo la scomparsa

Monica TOLOTTI; Dámaso CALLIARI; Flavio CORRADINI

447

Propofol and midazolam inhibit conscious memory processes very soon after encoding: An event related potential study of familiarity and recollection in volunteers  

PubMed Central

Background Intravenous drugs active via gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors produce memory impairment during conscious sedation. Memory function was assessed using event related potentials (ERPs) while drug was present. Methods The continuous recognition task measured recognition of photographs from working (6 seconds) and long term (27 seconds) memory while ERPs were recorded from Cz (familiarity recognition) and Pz electrodes (recollection recognition). Volunteer participants received sequential doses of one of placebo (n=11), propofol 0.45 and 0.9 ug/ml (n=10), midazolam 20 and 40 ng/ml (n=12), thiopental 1.5 and 3 ug/ml (n=11), or dexmedetomidine 0.25 and 0.4 ng/ml (n=11). End of day yes/no recognition 225 minutes after the end of drug infusion tested memory retention of pictures encoded on the continuous recognition tasks. Results Active drugs increased reaction times and impaired memory on the continuous recognition task equally, except for a greater effect of midazolam (p<0.04). Forgetting from continuous recognition tasks to end of day was similar for all drugs (p=0.40), greater than placebo (p<0.001). Propofol and midazolam decreased the area between first presentation (new) and recognized (old, 27 seconds later) ERP waveforms from long term memory for familiarity (p=0.03) and possibly for recollection processes (p=0.12). Propofol shifted ERP amplitudes to smaller voltages (p<0.002). Dexmedetomidine may have impaired familiarity more than recollection processes (p=0.10). Thiopental had no effect on ERPs. Conclusion Propofol and midazolam impaired recognition ERPs from long term, but not working memory. ERP measures of memory revealed different pathways to end of day memory loss as early as 27 seconds after encoding.

Veselis, Robert A.; Pryor, Kane O.; Reinsel, Ruth A.; Li, Yuelin; Mehta, Meghana; Johnson, Ray

2009-01-01

448

Radical SAM, A Novel Protein Superfamily Linking Unresolved Steps in Familiar Biosynthetic Pathways with Radical Mechanisms: Functional Characterization Using New Analysis and Information Visualization Methods  

SciTech Connect

A large protein superfamily with over 500 members has been discovered and analyzed using powerful new bioinformatics and information visualization methods. Evidence exists that these proteins generate a 5?-deoxyadenosyl radical by reductive cleavage of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) through an unusual Fe-S center. Radical SAM superfamily proteins function in DNA precursor, vitamin, cofactor, antibiotic, and herbicide biosynthesis in a collection of basic and familiar pathways. One of the members is interferon-inducible and is considered a candidate drug target for osteoporosis. The identification of this superfamily suggests that radical-based catalysis is important in a number of previously well-studied but unresolved biochemical pathways.

Sofia, Heidi J.; Chen, Guang; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Reyes Spindola, Jorge F.; Miller, Nancy E.

2001-03-01

449

Características del desplazamiento forzado en Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN El presente estudio es una contribución a la explicación y comprensión de la problemática del desplazamiento forzado interno en Colombia, fenómeno considerado como violación masiva y múltiple de los derechos humanos, circunstancia de lesa humanidad además de ser infracción grave del Derecho Internacional Humanitario. Se identificaron los antecedentes históricos, la dinámica regional del fenómeno, la existencia de factores estructurales

Henry Fernández Pinto; JIMMY SÁNCHEZ REYEZ

2011-01-01

450

Del Mar College GIS Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Del Mar College offers a comprehensive geospatial program with certificates and Associates degrees in GIS. This site includes description of the program and courses, along with further contact information. By clicking on the link for "Geographic Information Systems" you may download a PDF with information about the program.

2010-10-28

451

Los cuatro entornos del procomún  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bastan unos minutos para entender la inmensa complejidad que tiene la noción de procomún. Disponemos de muchas definiciones aceptables, aunque las más frecuentes bordean de una u otra manera el problema de la propiedad y la teoría del valor. Cuando decimos que pertenece al procomún todo cuanto es de todos y de nadie a mismo tiempo estamos pensando en un

Antonio Lafuente

452

Fabra-ROA Baker-Nunn Camera at Observatori Astronòmic del Montsec: An Instrument Update for Space Debris Observation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of Baker-Nunn Cameras (BNC) were manufactured by Smithsonian Institution during the 60s as optical tracking systems for artificial satellites. They were designed to perform optimal optical and mechanical specifications. One of these BNCs was installed at the Real Instituto y Observatorio de la Armada (ROA). An extensive refurbishment project has been conducted over this camera, turning it into a CCD remote and robotic facility. It has been installed at the Observatori Astronòmic del Montsec (OAdM), in the Catalan Pre-Pyrenees. As a result, this BNC offers an optimal combination of instrumental specifications for observing space debris, namely: a huge FOV (4.4ºx4.4º), limiting magnitude (V~20) with 30s integration time, capabilities of tracking at arbitrary RA and DEC rates, and opening and closing CCD shutter at will during the exposure. All this performance, together with their remote and robotic natures, allows the refurbished Baker-Nunn camera to revisit an observational program very similar to which was conceived.

Fors, O.; Montojo, F.; Baena, R.; Muiños, J.; Núñez, J.; Boloix, J.; Merino, M.; Morcillo, R.

2010-09-01

453

Memory for familiar environments learned in the remote past: fMRI studies of healthy people and an amnesic person with extensive bilateral hippocampal lesions.  

PubMed

Preserved remote spatial memory in amnesic people with bilateral hippocampal damage, including the well-studied case K.C., challenges spatial theories, which assume that the hippocampus is needed to support all allocentric spatial representations, old or new. It remains possible, however, that residual hippocampal tissue is functional and contributes to successful performance. Here, we examine brain activity with fMRI during the retrieval of spatial information in K.C. and in healthy controls using landmark and route stimuli from a premorbidly familiar neighborhood that K.C. can navigate normally. In all participants, activity was found in the parahippocampal cortex, but not in the hippocampus itself, during all navigational tasks on which K.C. performs well, even though part of his hippocampus remains viable. The opposite pattern was observed on a house recognition task, which is inconsequential to navigation, and on which K.C. performed poorly. On that task, K.C. recruited the right hippocampus presumably because even "familiar" houses were treated as novel by him, whereas controls recruited occipitotemporal cortex, including parahippocampal cortex. The distinction between recent and remote memory, therefore, may apply as much to spatial theories of hippocampal function as it does to theories emphasizing the role of the hippocampus in other types of explicit memory. PMID:17853413

Rosenbaum, R Shayna; Winocur, Gordon; Grady, Cheryl L; Ziegler, Marilyne; Moscovitch, Morris

2007-01-01

454

Trasformazioni e patologie del paesaggio  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Anche il paesaggio, come vedremo, si evolve. Ma parlare oggi di evoluzione è assai problematico e quindi non si può fare a\\u000a meno di un inquadramento più generale del fenomeno. Quando oggi si parla di evoluzione si presenta sovente un quadro che,\\u000a purtroppo, non ha sempre i caratteri della scienza e un dibattito che, di conseguenza, trascina polemiche anche fra

Vittorio Ingegnoli

455

The Feasibility of Achieving Low-Sodium Intake in Diets That Are Also Nutritious, Low-Cost, and Have Familiar Meal Components  

PubMed Central

Objective Given the importance of high sodium diets as a risk factor for disease burden (ranked 11th in importance in the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010), we aimed to determine the feasibility of low-sodium diets that were also low-cost, nutritious and (for some scenarios) included familiar meals. Methods The mathematical technique of “linear programming” was used to model eight optimized daily diets (some with uncertainty), including some diets that contained “familiar meals” for New Zealanders or were Mediterranean-, Asian- and Pacific-style diets. Data inputs included nutrients in foods, food prices and food wastage. Findings Using nutrient recommendations for men and a cost constraint of familiar meals. Policy makers could consider ways to promote such optimized diets and foods, including regulations on maximum salt levels in processed foods, and taxes on alternative foods that are high in salt, sugar and saturated fat.

Wilson, Nick; Nghiem, Nhung; Foster, Rachel H.

2013-01-01

456

A standardized set of 260 pictures for Turkish: norms of name and image agreement, age of acquisition, visual complexity, and conceptual familiarity.  

PubMed

In the present study, normative data in Turkish are presented for the 260 color versions of the original Snodgrass and Vanderwart (1980) picture set for the first time. Norms are reported for name and image agreement, age of acquisition (AoA), visual complexity, and conceptual familiarity, together with written word frequency, and numbers of letters and syllables. We collected data from 277 native Turkish adults in a variety of tasks. The results indicated that, whilst several measures displayed language-specific variation, we also reported what seem to be language-independent-that is, universal-measures that show a systematic relationship across several languages. The implications of the reported measures in the domain of psycholinguistic research in Turkish and for wider cross-linguistic comparisons are discussed. PMID:23943583

Raman, Ilhan; Raman, Evren; Mertan, Biran

2014-06-01

457

The hippocampus is involved in mental navigation for a recently learned, but not a highly familiar environment: a longitudinal fMRI study.  

PubMed

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to investigate the hypothesis that memory for a large-scale environment is initially dependent on the hippocampus but is later supported by extra-hippocampal structures (e.g., precuneus, posterior parahippocampal cortex, and lingual gyrus) once the environment is well-learned. Participants were scanned during mental navigation tasks initially when they were newly arrived to the city of Toronto, and later after having lived and navigated within the city for 1 yr. In the first session, activation was observed in the right hippocampus, left precuneus, and postcentral gyrus. The second session revealed activation in the caudate and lateral temporal cortex, but not in the right hippocampus; additional activation was instead observed in the posterior parahippocampal cortex, lingual gyrus, and precuneus. These findings suggest that the right hippocampus is required for the acquisition of new spatial information but is not needed to represent this information when the environment is highly familiar. PMID:21584904

Hirshhorn, Marnie; Grady, Cheryl; Rosenbaum, R Shayna; Winocur, Gordon; Moscovitch, Morris

2012-04-01

458

Aplicación del cálculo de las diferencias al problema del efecto de embalse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen Presentamos una solución numérica del problema del efecto de embalse con ayuda de una ecuación lineal inhomogénea en diferencias finitas de primer orden, suponiendo una ley lineal del desagüe. Este método numérico es de maneje cómodo para un cálculo aproximado.

Hans Ertel

1962-01-01

459

Control del dolor: Apoyo para las personas con cáncer  

Cancer.gov

Libro sobre el control del dolor en pacientes con cáncer. Cubre los métodos y medicinas, así como los efectos físicos y emocionales del dolor. Es una adaptación cultural para el público de habla hispana del libro en inglés Pain Control.

460

Fractional Indices of Log del Pezzo Surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fractional index of a (possibly singular) Q-Gorenstein del Pezzo surface X is the greatest rational number r such that -K_X\\equiv rH, where H is a primitive Cartier divisor. This paper describes the set of values taken by fractional indices of del Pezzo surfaces with log terminal singularities. Bibliography: 7 titles.

Alekseev, V. A.

1989-06-01

461

Fisiología del embarazo: Interacción materno-infantil  

Microsoft Academic Search

ResumenEn los últimos años los datos han demostrado de qué manera el bienestar vitalicio depende considerablemente del crecimiento y el desarrollo intrauterinos durante la vida dentro del útero. El crecimiento fetal puede alcanzar únicamente su potencial íntegro mediante una interacción adecuada y armonizada entre la madre, la placenta y el feto. Este delicado equilibrio puede ser alterado por varios factores

Irene Cetin; Manuela Cardellicchio

2010-01-01

462

La gestione perioperatoria del paziente diabetico  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Il continuo aumento dei pazienti diabetici che giungono all’osservazione degli anestesisti rende sempre più importante la\\u000a conoscenza delle patologie comunemente associate al diabete e delle strategie da attuare per mantenere un equilibrio glicemico\\u000a ottimale nel periodo perioperatorio.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Per questa ragione, dopo aver sinteticamente descritto il metabolismo del glucosio, verrà trattato in questo capitolo il problema\\u000a del corretto trattamento insulinico del

Biagio Allaria

463

Brain regions involved in the retrieval of spatial and episodic details associated with a familiar environment: an fMRI study.  

PubMed

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to compare brain activity during the retrieval of coarse- and fine-grained spatial details and episodic details associated with a familiar environment. Long-time Toronto residents compared pairs of landmarks based on their absolute geographic locations (requiring either coarse or fine discriminations) or based on previous visits to those landmarks (requiring episodic details). An ROI analysis of the hippocampus showed that all three conditions activated the hippocampus bilaterally. Fine-grained spatial judgments recruited an additional region of the right posterior hippocampus, while episodic judgments recruited an additional region of the right anterior hippocampus, and a more extensive region along the length of the left hippocampus. To examine whole-brain patterns of activity, Partial Least Squares (PLS) analysis was used to identify sets of brain regions whose activity covaried with the three conditions. All three comparison judgments recruited the default mode network including the posterior cingulate/retrosplenial cortex, middle frontal gyrus, hippocampus, and precuneus. Fine-grained spatial judgments also recruited additional regions of the precuneus, parahippocampal cortex and the supramarginal gyrus. Episodic judgments recruited the posterior cingulate and medial frontal lobes as well as the angular gyrus. These results are discussed in terms of their implications for theories of hippocampal function and spatial and episodic memory. PMID:22910274

Hirshhorn, Marnie; Grady, Cheryl; Rosenbaum, R Shayna; Winocur, Gordon; Moscovitch, Morris

2012-11-01

464

Centro para la Salud Mundial del NCI  

Cancer.gov

El Centro para la Salud Mundial del NCI coordina actividades de investigación y trabaja con socios nacionales e internacionales para entender y enfrentar la carga que representa el cáncer a nivel mundial.

465