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1

Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer  

Cancer.gov

La edición electrónica del Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer se publicó mensualmente desde septiembre de 2009 hasta enero de 2013, con el objetivo de difundir información sobre la investigación del cáncer, tanto de estudios financiados por el NCI y otras dependencias federales, así como de investigaciones realizadas por instituciones en Estados Unidos y alrededor del mundo.

2

Harold Varmus investido bajo juramento como 14.º director del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer  

Cancer.gov

Ganador del Premio Nobel, doctor Harold E. Varmus, prestó juramento hoy como 14.º director del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI).  "Es muy estimulante que estés de regreso con nosotros", dijo la secretaria del Departamento de Salud y Servicios Humanos Kathleen Sebelius en la ceremonia de toma de juramento. “Hoy se abre un nuevo capítulo para el Instituto Nacional del Cáncer”.

3

> IRD/J. Orempuller Recursos y pilotaje del instituto  

E-print Network

44 45 s s s > © IRD/J. Orempuller #12;Recursos y pilotaje del instituto s Los medios financieros 46 disfrutado del apoyo de una importante movili- zación de los recursos financieros y de los medios humanos su patrimonio inmobilia- rio e invirtiendo en equipos científicos. medios financieros E L PRESUPUESTO

4

Ayuda para usar el sitio web en español del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer  

Cancer.gov

Página de guía que le permite al lector entender la forma en que está organizado el sitio web del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI), las categorías de información disponibles y las políticas que rigen este sitio web.

5

[History of Instituto Nacional de Salud Ocupacional del Peru].  

PubMed

In Peru, the industry's development has made economic improvements but at the same time, it has had a major impact on the health of the workers; for that reason, it was necessary to generate control mechanisms. So, in 1940 it was created the Departmento de Higiene Industrial, which in 1956 was changed to Instituto de Salud Ocupacional, but it was deactivated in 1994. However, in 2001 it reappeared into the Ministerio de Salud organizational structure with the name of Instituto de Salud Ocupacional "Alberto Hurtado Abadía". Actually, it is the Centro Nacional de Salud Ocupacional y Protección del Ambiente para la Salud (CENSOPAS), organ of the Instituto Nacional de Salud which continues working in synergy with other institutions and sectors, making research to protect the health of exposed persons (workers and community) to contamination and risks associated with economic activities. PMID:22858781

Cossio-Brazzan, Juan M

2012-06-01

6

Estudiantes del Instituto de Economa Internacional de la UA realizarn prcticas en el Puerto de Alicante  

E-print Network

la Universidad de Alicante, IEI, en especial el Máster en Comercio Internacional. El objetivoEstudiantes del Instituto de Economía Internacional de la UA realizarán prácticas en el Puerto de colaboración en el marco de las titulaciones propias coordinadas por el Instituto de Economía Internacional de

Escolano, Francisco

7

El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer publica nuevo atlas de mortalidad por cáncer  

Cancer.gov

El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI, por sus siglas en inglés) ha publicado un nuevo atlas, el Atlas de Mortalidad por Cáncer en los Estados Unidos, 1950-94, que muestra los patrones geográficos de las tasas de mortalidad por cáncer durante más de cuatro décadas, en más de 3.000 condados a lo largo del país.

8

Nuestro Instituto  

Cancer.gov

Información acerca de nuestra misión como Instituto Nacional del Cáncer, así como sobre los diferentes tipos de investigación que apoya nuestro Instituto, el programa de centros oncológicos, y sobre el Informe Anual a la Nación acerca del cáncer, el cual es preparado por las principales organizaciones oncológicas de los Estados Unidos.

9

El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer de EE. UU. y la República del Perú firman una Declaración de Intención  

Cancer.gov

El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer y la República del Perú firmaron una declaración de intención para compartir el interés en fomentar la investigación biomédica de oncología, basándose en la colaboración mutua de ambas entidades, así como el objetivo común de educar y capacitar la futura generación de científicos y clínicos en investigación oncológica.

10

El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer lanza el sitio en la Internet  

Cancer.gov

El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI, por sus siglas en ingls) anunci hoy el lanzamiento de Cancer.gov (http://www.cancer.gov), que ha sido mejorado significativamente, es muy fcil de navegar y brinda en un solo sitio toda la informacin sobre el cáncer

11

Control del cáncer y salud mundial: noticia del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI)  

Cancer.gov

En combinación con una reunión de alto nivel de las Naciones Unidas sobre enfermedades no transmisibles en países en vías de desarrollo, el doctor Harold Varmus, director del NCI, y el doctor Ted L. Trimble, del NCI, han publicado un comentario en Science Translational Medicine sobre “La integración del control del cáncer en la salud mundial" (Integrating Cancer Control into Global Health).

12

Adaptabilidad y cohesión familiar, implicación parental en conductas autorregulatorias, autoconcepto del estudiante y rendimiento académico  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este estudio se analiza la relación existente entre la adaptabilidad y la cohesión familiar, así como la conducta autorregulatoria de los padres en relación a su comportamiento con los hijos, en general, y en su implicación en el ámbito del estudio, en particular. También se estudia el tipo de relación que tales variables familiares mantienen con diferentes dimensiones del

Julio A. González-Pienda; José C. Núñez; Luis Álvarez; Cristina Roces; Soledad González-Pumariega; Paloma González; Roberto Muñiz; Antonio Valle; Ramón G. Cabanach; Susana Rodríguez; Ana Bernardo

13

Influence of capillary pressure on CO2 storage and monitoring Juan E. Santos, CONICET, Instituto del Gas y del Petroleo, Facultad Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires,  

E-print Network

del Gas y del Petr´oleo, Facultad Ingenier´ia, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Department of Mathematics´ias, Instituto del Gas y del Petr´oleo, Facultad Ingenier´ia, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Jos´e M. Carcione

Santos, Juan

14

Nuevo sitio web en español del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer, (NCI, por sus siglas en inglés) Cancer.gov en español - Silvia Inéz Salazar - transcript  

Cancer.gov

Transmisiones de radio para promover Cancer.gov en espa%XF1ol | Nuevo sitio web en espa%XF1ol del Instituto Nacional del C%XE1ncer, (NCI, por sus siglas en ingl%XE9s) Cancer.gov en espa%XF1ol | Transcripci%XF3n Transmisiones de radio para promover

15

[Historical notes about scientific research in the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social.  

PubMed

Medical research in the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social has been considered one of the most important in this country for quality and quantity. Thanks to the work and leadership of Benito Coquet, who initiated the building of the National Medical Center in 1961, and the work of two pillars of research, Luis Castelazo and Bernardo Sepúlveda, the Institute successfully improved scientific research. In the years that followed, the Institute fostered the professionalization of research, the creation of research units in different areas of science, the incorporation of consolidated groups of researchers, the relationship with other institutions, the incorporation to the Sistema Nacional de Investigadores, the editing of a journal to expose outside the work done within the Institute, and the formation of a trust to raise funds for financing. Thanks to all that, institutional research strengthened in all lines, and it was placed first, at certain times, at the national level. PMID:24290017

Zárate, Arturo; Basurto-Acevedo, Lourdes

2013-01-01

16

El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) anuncia su nueva política de reuniones libres de humo de tabaco para abordar peligros graves de salud pública  

Cancer.gov

El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI), que forma parte de los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud, anunció hoy una nueva política que requiere que todas las reuniones y conferencias organizadas o financiadas principalmente por el NCI se lleven a cabo en un estado, condado, ciudad o pueblo que haya adoptado una política integral de ambientes libres de humo de tabaco, a menos que circunstancias especificas justifiquen la exención.

17

Basado en ms de 37 aos de experiencia en la investigacin y comercializacin de la tecnologa en Austin, Texas, y alrededor del mundo, el Instituto IC2  

E-print Network

Austin, Texas, y alrededor del mundo, el Instituto IC2 de la Universidad de Texas en Austin ha creado e) combina la experiencia de una capacitación presencial intensiva en Austin (21 al 30 octubre) con una en Austin (noviembre). Este curso sirve para preparar y desarrollar a especialistas en la

Ghosh, Joydeep

18

FUNCIONAMIENTO Y COMUNICACIÓN FAMILIAR Y CONSUMO DE SUSTANCIAS EN LA ADOLESCENCIA: EL ROL MEDIADOR DEL APOYO SOCIAL1  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN En el presente estudio se analiza el apoyo social como un recurso protector para el ajuste de los adolescentes. Concretamente, se estudian tanto los efectos directos como los mediadores del apoyo social entre las características de funcionamiento y comunicación familiar y el consumo de sustancias de los adolescentes. Con este objetivo, 431 chicos y chicas de 15 a 17

Teresa Isabel Jiménez; Gonzalo Musitu; Sergio Murgui

2006-01-01

19

Tiene familiares con Alzheimer? La Escuela de Medicina del Recinto de Ciencias Mdicas en colaboracin con la Universidad de Columbia  

E-print Network

¿Tiene familiares con Alzheimer? 25/1/2008 La Escuela de Medicina del Recinto de Ciencias Médicas más con Alzheimer para participar de un estudio genético. La investigación pretende encontrar genes que se encuentren relacionados a la enfermedad de Alzheimer con el propósito de aprender más sobre las

Quirk, Gregory J.

20

Investigacin Centro de Investigacin y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politcnico Nacional  

E-print Network

moleculares microbianos en suelos. Ana Carmela Ramos Valdivia Biotecnología del metabolismo secundario y la y de plantas de especies americanas y su producción a nivel de biorreactor. Graciano Calva Calva

21

Investigacin Centro de Investigacin y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politcnico Nacional  

E-print Network

de Luca Instrumentación de control de procesos industriales y de investigación. Pedro Mejía Alvarez García Cómputo inalámbrico, sistemas distribuidos, calidad de servicio, sistemas móviles y empotrados y Mentado Administración del conocimiento y toma de decisiones, control de concurrencia (cómputo distribuido

22

Mr es el boletn de novedades de la Biblioteca del ICMM Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid-www.icmm.csic.es/es/ .  

E-print Network

adquisiciones de monografías que periódicamente van pasando a formar parte del patrimonio bibliográfico de este MATERIALES BIOINSPIRADOS...........................6 ENERGIA, MEDIO AMBIENTE Y TECNOLOGIAS SOSTENIBLES.......6 MATERIALES PARA LAS TECNOLOGIAS DE LA INFORMACION......7 NANOESTRUCTURAS, SUPERFICIES Y

23

Mr es el boletn de novedades de la Biblioteca del ICMM Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid-www.icmm.csic.es/es/ .  

E-print Network

adquisiciones de monografías que periódicamente van pasando a formar parte del patrimonio bibliográfico de este BIOINSPIRADOS...........................6 ENERGIA, MEDIO AMBIENTE Y TECNOLOGIAS SOSTENIBLES.......7 MATERIALES PARA LAS TECNOLOGIAS DE LA INFORMACION......8 NANOESTRUCTURAS, SUPERFICIES Y RECUBRIMIENTOS

24

Estudio de los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud indica que quienes toman café tienen un riesgo menor de muerte  

Cancer.gov

Los adultos mayores que tomaron café, con o sin cafeína, tuvieron un riesgo menor de muerte en general que quienes no tomaron café, según un estudio llevado a cabo por investigadores del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI), parte de los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud, y por la Asociación Estadounidense de Personas Jubiladas (AARP).

25

Atlas del Genoma del Cáncer: Antecedentes  

Cancer.gov

El Atlas del Genoma del Cáncer es una iniciativa de los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud (NIH) para crear mapas multidimensionales completos de los cambios genómicos clave en los tipos y subtipos principales de cáncer.

26

Subprojeto Instituto/ Faculdade Coordenador(a) Valor Aprovado DENISE BOMTEMPO  

E-print Network

JOS� GARROFE D�REA R$ 1.863.679,00 5 Faculdade de Agronomia e Medicina Veterinária JOS� RICARDO PEIXOTO R$ 2.047.173,80 7 Faculdade de Tecnologia JOS� CAMARGO DA COSTA R$ 1.780.470,50 8 Instituto de Ciências Exatas ANDR� COSTA DRUMMOND R$ 920.548,74 9 Faculdade de Tecnologia CLÁUDIO HENRIQUE SOARES DEL

Lucero, Jorge Carlos

27

MINISTRIO DA CINCIA E TECNOLOGIA INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE PESQUISAS  

E-print Network

i MINISTÉRIO DA CIÊNCIA E TECNOLOGIA INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE PESQUISAS ESPACIAIS RELATÓRIO DE GESTÃO DO INPE ANO 2001 Unidade Gestora NATAL - RN #12;ii MINISTÉRIO DA CIÊNCIA E TECNOLOGIA INSTITUTO E TECNOLOGIA INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE PESQUISAS ESPACIAIS CENTRO REGIONAL

Domingues, Margarete Oliveira

28

Redes sociales del NCI  

Cancer.gov

Instituto Nacional del CáncerLa página de Facebook cuenta con información de cáncer dirigida al público de habla hispana. Visite nuestra página para leer noticias sobre la investigación del cáncer, conocer los recursos del NCI y publicar sus comentarios y preguntas relacionadas con el cáncer.

29

Cuestionario avanzado sobre Open Access y repositorios institucionales [Jos Luis Chiara, Instituto de Qumica Orgnica General (IQOG-CSIC)  

E-print Network

en marcha del repositorio institucional Digital.CSIC es una buena noticia para la comunidadCuestionario avanzado sobre Open Access y repositorios institucionales [José Luis Chiara, Instituto del NIH y otros organismos públicos, fundaciones e instituciones de hacer libremente accesibles los

30

Control Familiar y Calidad del resultado  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work examines the relationship between family control and earnings quality in a context where the salient agency problem shifts away from the classical divergence between managers and shareholders to conflicts between the controlling owner and minority shareholders. The results reveal that, compared to non-family firms, family firms reveal higher earnings quality in terms of both lower discretionary accruals and

Carolina Bona Sánchez; Jerónimo Pérez Alemán; Domingo Javier Santana Martín

2007-01-01

31

Baseline familiarity in lie detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subjects judged the veracity of truthful and deceptive communicators after viewing 0, 1, 2, or 4 case?relevant baseline exposures (familiarity) of truthful communication. A positive linear relationship was found between detection accuracy and amount of baseline familiarity. More specifically, observers who viewed four samples of baseline information judged deception more accurately than observers who viewed zero samples of baseline information.

Thomas H. Feeley; Mark A. deTurck; Melissa J. Young

1995-01-01

32

Baseline Familiarity in Lie Detection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a study in which subjects judged the veracity of truthful and deceptive communicators after viewing no, one, two, or four case-relevant baseline exposures (familiarity) of truthful communication. Finds a positive linear relationship between detection accuracy and amount of baseline familiarity. (SR)

Feeley, Thomas H.; And Others

1995-01-01

33

Familiares a cargo de pacientes de cáncer (PDQ®)  

Cancer.gov

Sumario informativo revisado por expertos acerca de los desafíos que enfrentan los familiares a cargo de los pacientes con cáncer. Este resumen se centra en las funciones típicas y las inquietudes de las personas a cargo del paciente y en las intervenciones útiles para esas personas.

34

UNIVERSIDADE DE BRASLIA INSTITUTO DE CINCIAS SOCIAIS  

E-print Network

UNIVERSIDADE DE BRASÍLIA INSTITUTO DE CIÊNCIAS SOCIAIS PROGRAMA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM ANTROPOLOGIA EDITAL No. 02/2013 UNIVERSIDADE DE BRASÍLIA PROGRAMA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM ANTROPOLOGIA SOCIAL EDITAL N o-GRADUAÇÃO EM ANTROPOLOGIA SOCIAL PARA O CURSO DE DOUTORADO PARA O PRIMEIRO PERÍODO LETIVO DE 2014 1. PREÂMBULO

Maier, Rudolf Richard

35

Universidade de Braslia Instituto de Cincias Sociais  

E-print Network

Universidade de Brasília Instituto de Ciências Sociais Programa de Pós-Graduação em Antropologia Edital n. 5/2013 UNIVERSIDADE DE BRASÍLIA PROGRAMA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM ANTROPOLOGIA SOCIAL EDITAL No. 05 2014 PREÂMBULO Coordenadora do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Antropologia Social no uso de suas

Maier, Rudolf Richard

36

UNIVERSIDADE DE BRASLIA INSTITUTO DE CINCIAS SOCIAIS  

E-print Network

UNIVERSIDADE DE BRASÍLIA INSTITUTO DE CIÊNCIAS SOCIAIS PROGRAMA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM ANTROPOLOGIA EDITAL No. 05/2014 UNIVERSIDADE DE BRASÍLIA PROGRAMA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM ANTROPOLOGIA SOCIAL EDITAL Nº 2015 DO CURSO DE MESTRADO DO PROGRAMA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM ANTROPOLOGIA SOCIAL 1. PREÂMBULO 1.1 O

Maier, Rudolf Richard

37

UNIVERSIDADE DE BRASLIA INSTITUTO DE CINCIAS SOCIAIS  

E-print Network

UNIVERSIDADE DE BRASÍLIA INSTITUTO DE CIÊNCIAS SOCIAIS PROGRAMA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM ANTROPOLOGIA EDITAL No. 01/2013 1 UNIVERSIDADE DE BRASÍLIA PROGRAMA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM ANTROPOLOGIA SOCIAL EDITAL N o-GRADUAÇÃO EM ANTROPOLOGIA SOCIAL PARA O CURSO DE MESTRADO ACADÊMICO PARA O PRIMEIRO PERÍODO LETIVO DE 2014 1

Maier, Rudolf Richard

38

UNIVERSIDADE DE BRASLIA INSTITUTO DE CINCIAS SOCIAIS  

E-print Network

UNIVERSIDADE DE BRASÍLIA INSTITUTO DE CIÊNCIAS SOCIAIS PROGRAMA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM ANTROPOLOGIA EDITAL No. 03/2013 UNIVERSIDADE DE BRASÍLIA PROGRAMA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM ANTROPOLOGIA SOCIAL EDITAL No 03/2013 SELEÇÃO DE CANDIDATOS RESIDENTES NO BRASIL ÀS VAGAS DO PROGRAMA DE PÓS- GRADUAÇÃO EM ANTROPOLOGIA SOCIAL

Maier, Rudolf Richard

39

UNIVERSIDADE DE BRASLIA INSTITUTO DE CINCIAS SOCIAIS  

E-print Network

UNIVERSIDADE DE BRASÍLIA INSTITUTO DE CIÊNCIAS SOCIAIS PROGRAMA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM ANTROPOLOGIA EDITAL No. 04/2013 1 UNIVERSIDADE DE BRASÍLIA PROGRAMA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM ANTROPOLOGIA SOCIAL EDITAL Nº. 04/2013 SELEÇÃO DE CANDIDATOS ÀS VAGAS DO PROGRAMA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM ANTROPOLOGIA SOCIAL PARA O

Maier, Rudolf Richard

40

UNIVERSIDADE DE BRASLIA INSTITUTO DE CINCIAS SOCIAIS  

E-print Network

UNIVERSIDADE DE BRASÍLIA INSTITUTO DE CIÊNCIAS SOCIAIS PROGRAMA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM ANTROPOLOGIA EDITAL No. 03/2014 UNIVERSIDADE DE BRASÍLIA PROGRAMA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM ANTROPOLOGIA SOCIAL 03/2014 SELEÇÃO DE CANDIDATOS RESIDENTES NO BRASIL ÀS VAGAS DO PROGRAMA DE PÓS- GRADUAÇÃO EM ANTROPOLOGIA SOCIAL

Maier, Rudolf Richard

41

UNIVERSIDADE DE BRASLIA INSTITUTO DE CINCIAS SOCIAIS  

E-print Network

UNIVERSIDADE DE BRASÍLIA INSTITUTO DE CIÊNCIAS SOCIAIS PROGRAMA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM ANTROPOLOGIA EDITAL No. 06/2014 UNIVERSIDADE DE BRASÍLIA PROGRAMA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM ANTROPOLOGIA SOCIAL EDITAL Nº 2015 DO CURSO DE DOUTORADO DO PROGRAMA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM ANTROPOLOGIA SOCIAL 1. PREÂMBULO 1.1 O

Maier, Rudolf Richard

42

UNIVERSIDADE DE BRASLIA INSTITUTO DE CINCIAS SOCIAIS  

E-print Network

UNIVERSIDADE DE BRASÍLIA INSTITUTO DE CIÊNCIAS SOCIAIS PROGRAMA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM ANTROPOLOGIA EDITAL No. 02/2014 UNIVERSIDADE DE BRASÍLIA PROGRAMA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM ANTROPOLOGIA SOCIAL EDITAL N o-GRADUAÇÃO EM ANTROPOLOGIA SOCIAL PARA O CURSO DE DOUTORADO PARA O PRIMEIRO PERÍODO LETIVO DE 2015 1. PREÂMBULO

Maier, Rudolf Richard

43

UNIVERSIDADE DE BRASLIA INSTITUTO DE CINCIAS SOCIAIS  

E-print Network

UNIVERSIDADE DE BRASÍLIA INSTITUTO DE CIÊNCIAS SOCIAIS PROGRAMA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM ANTROPOLOGIA EDITAL No. 04/2014 1 UNIVERSIDADE DE BRASÍLIA PROGRAMA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM ANTROPOLOGIA SOCIAL EDITAL Nº. 04/2014 SELEÇÃO DE CANDIDATOS/AS ÀS VAGAS DO PROGRAMA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM ANTROPOLOGIA SOCIAL PARA O

Maier, Rudolf Richard

44

Instituto Babcock Pamela Ruegg, Dam Rasmussen, y Doug Reinemann, Universidad de Wisconsin Instituto Babcock  

E-print Network

Instituto Babcock © Pamela Ruegg, Dam Rasmussen, y Doug Reinemann, Universidad de Wisconsin. Pamela Ruegg, Dam Rasmussen, and Doug Reinemann Traductor: Matías Fernandez Introducción La producción y

Sheridan, Jennifer

45

Centro para la Salud Mundial (CGH) del NCI  

Cancer.gov

El Centro para la Salud Mundial (CGH) del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer coordina actividades de investigación y trabaja con socios nacionales e internacionales para comprender y enfrentar la carga que representa el cáncer a nivel mundial.

46

Maintaining familiarity through mobile design  

E-print Network

This thesis aims to fulfill the needs for storage, portability, and comfort in the growing population of itinerant young professionals through generating a deployable device that provides a sense of familiarity and ...

Nee, Diana

2007-01-01

47

LA UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL AUTNOMA DE MXICO A TRAVS DE LA FACULTAD DE ARQUITECTURA, EL INSTITUTO DE INVESTIGACIONES  

E-print Network

LA UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL AUTÓNOMA DE MÉXICO A TRAVÉS DE LA FACULTAD DE ARQUITECTURA, EL INSTITUTO DE SEMESTRE 2014-I A LOS INTERESADOS EN INGRESAR AL PROGRAMA DE MAESTRÍA EN ARQUITECTURA QUE INICIARÁ EL 5 DE AGOSTO DE 2013. LA MAESTRÍA EN ARQUITECTURA PERTENECE AL PADRÓN NACIONAL DE POSGRADOS DE CALIDAD DEL

Arroyo Rodríguez, Víctor

48

Universidade de Braslia Instituto de Cincias Biolgicas  

E-print Network

Universidade de Brasília Instituto de Ciências Biológicas Departamento de Biologia Celular Programa de Pós Graduação em Biologia Molecular Edital No. 02/2012 1 UNIVERSIDADE DE BRASÍLIA PROGRAMA DE P�S-GRADUA��O EM BIOLOGIA MOLECULAR EDITAL Nº 02/2012 SELE��O DE CANDIDATOS �S VAGAS DO PROGRAMA DE P�S

Maier, Rudolf Richard

49

UNIVERSIDADE DE BRASLIA INSTITUTO DE CINCIAS BIOLGICAS  

E-print Network

UNIVERSIDADE DE BRASÍLIA INSTITUTO DE CI�NCIAS BIOL�GICAS PROGRAMA DE P�S-GRADUA��O EM BIOLOGIA MICROBIANA EDITAL No. 01/2014 1 UNIVERSIDADE DE BRASÍLIA PROGRAMA DE P�S-GRADUA��O EM BIOLOGIA MICROBIANA EDITAL No. 01/2014 SELE��O DE CANDIDATOS �S VAGAS DO PROGRAMA DE P�S-GRADUA��O EM BIOLOGIA MICROBIANA

Maier, Rudolf Richard

50

Universidade de Braslia Instituto de Cincias Biolgicas  

E-print Network

Universidade de Brasília Instituto de Ciências Biológicas Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia Animal Edital nº 02/2013 UNIVERSIDADE DE BRASÍLIA PROGRAMA DE P�S-GRADUA��O EM BIOLOGIA ANIMAL EDITAL No. 02/2013 SELE��O DE CANDIDATOS �S VAGAS DO PROGRAMA DE P�S-GRADUA��O EM BIOLOGIA ANIMAL PARA OS CURSOS

Maier, Rudolf Richard

51

Universidade de Braslia Instituto de Cincias Biolgicas  

E-print Network

Universidade de Brasília Instituto de Ciências Biológicas Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia Animal Edital nº 03/2014 UNIVERSIDADE DE BRASÍLIA PROGRAMA DE P�S-GRADUA��O EM BIOLOGIA ANIMAL EDITAL No. 03/2014 SELE��O DE CANDIDATOS �S VAGAS DO PROGRAMA DE P�S-GRADUA��O EM BIOLOGIA ANIMAL PARA OS CURSOS

Maier, Rudolf Richard

52

UNIVERSIDADE DE BRASLIA INSTITUTO DE CINCIAS BIOLGICAS  

E-print Network

UNIVERSIDADE DE BRASÍLIA INSTITUTO DE CI�NCIAS BIOL�GICAS PROGRAMA DE P�S-GRADUA��O EM BIOLOGIA MICROBIANA EDITAL No. 01/2013 1 UNIVERSIDADE DE BRASÍLIA PROGRAMA DE P�S-GRADUA��O EM BIOLOGIA MICROBIANA EDITAL No. 01/2013 SELE��O DE CANDIDATOS �S VAGAS DO PROGRAMA DE P�S-GRADUA��O EM BIOLOGIA MICROBIANA

Maier, Rudolf Richard

53

UNIVERSIDADE DE BRASLIA INSTITUTO DE CINCIAS BIOLGICAS  

E-print Network

UNIVERSIDADE DE BRASÍLIA INSTITUTO DE CI�NCIAS BIOL�GICAS PROGRAMA DE P�S-GRADUA��O EM BIOLOGIA MICROBIANA EDITAL No. 02/2013 1 UNIVERSIDADE DE BRASÍLIA PROGRAMA DE P�S-GRADUA��O EM BIOLOGIA MICROBIANA EDITAL No. 02/2013 SELE��O DE CANDIDATOS �S VAGAS DO PROGRAMA DE P�S-GRADUA��O EM BIOLOGIA MICROBIANA

Maier, Rudolf Richard

54

Universidade de Braslia Instituto de Cincias Biolgicas  

E-print Network

Universidade de Brasília Instituto de Ciências Biológicas Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia Molecular Edital no 02/2013 1 UNIVERSIDADE DE BRASÍLIA PROGRAMA DE P�S GRADUA��O EM BIOLOGIA MOLECULAR Edital No. 02/2013 SELE��O DE CANDIDATOS �S VAGAS DO PROGRAMA DE P�S-GRADUA��O EM BIOLOGIA MOLECULAR PARA

Maier, Rudolf Richard

55

Universidade de Braslia Instituto de Cincias Biolgicas  

E-print Network

Universidade de Brasília Instituto de Ciências Biológicas Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia Molecular Edital no 01/2014 1 UNIVERSIDADE DE BRASÍLIA PROGRAMA DE P�S GRADUA��O EM BIOLOGIA MOLECULAR Edital No. 01/2014 SELE��O DE CANDIDATOS �S VAGAS DO PROGRAMA DE P�S-GRADUA��O EM BIOLOGIA MOLECULAR PARA

Maier, Rudolf Richard

56

Universidade de Braslia Instituto de Cincias Biolgicas  

E-print Network

Universidade de Brasília Instituto de Ciências Biológicas Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia Animal Edital nº 01/2014 UNIVERSIDADE DE BRASÍLIA PROGRAMA DE P�S-GRADUA��O EM BIOLOGIA ANIMAL EDITAL No. 01/2014 SELE��O DE CANDIDATOS �S VAGAS DO PROGRAMA DE P�S-GRADUA��O EM BIOLOGIA ANIMAL PARA OS CURSOS

Maier, Rudolf Richard

57

Universidade de Braslia Instituto de Cincias Biolgicas  

E-print Network

Universidade de Brasília Instituto de Ciências Biológicas Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia Molecular Edital no 03/2014 1 UNIVERSIDADE DE BRASÍLIA PROGRAMA DE P�S GRADUA��O EM BIOLOGIA MOLECULAR EDITAL Nº 03/2014 SELE��O DE CANDIDATOS �S VAGAS DO PROGRAMA DE P�S-GRADUA��O EM BIOLOGIA MOLECULAR PARA

Maier, Rudolf Richard

58

UNIVERSIDADE TECNICA DE LISBOA INSTITUTO SUPERIOR TECNICO  

E-print Network

UNIVERSIDADE T´ECNICA DE LISBOA INSTITUTO SUPERIOR T´ECNICO eCT - Biblioteca de Com´ercio Electr´onico No contexto das ´areas de com´ercio electr´onico e sistemas de gest~ao de conte´udo (CMS), analisam-se v´arias extens~oes de com´ercio electr´onico para CMS, com o objectivo de identi- ficar as suas caracter

da Silva, Alberto Rodrigues

59

Evaluacin de Diseo 2009 del Programa I. DATOS DE IDENTIFICACIN DEL PROGRAMA  

E-print Network

Presupuesto B00 Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Yoloxóchitl Bustamante Díez , Directora General D00 Instituto este análisis puedan retroalimentar el diseño y la gestión del programa VII. Costo total de la evaluación externa, especificando la fuente de financiamiento. Costo total: $500,000 Fuente de financiamiento

60

Inauguracin del "Frum del Mediterrneo" Alicante, 24 de marzo de 2004  

E-print Network

recordar a las víctimas del terror del 11 de marzo, a sus familiares y amigos, y en ellas a todas las nuestros malos sueños y presagios. Como negar que para muchos de nosotros, la percepción del islam por

Escolano, Francisco

61

Acerca del Centro para la Salud Mundial del NCI  

Cancer.gov

El Centro para la Salud Mundial (CGH) coordina y fija las prioridades en las actividades que lleva a cabo el Instituto Nacional del Cáncer a nivel mundial. Su objetivo es avanzar la investigación mundial del cáncer y reducir las muertes causadas por esta enfermedad.

62

Instituto Universitario del Agua y de las Ciencias Ambientales  

E-print Network

Sánchez Sánchez http://iuaca.ua.es Organiza: Patrocina: AGUA, ARQUITECTURA Y PAISAJE EN EUROPA 21 nov ua idraulico Sara Maldina (Universidad de Ferrara) 12:30 Arquitectura, agua y paisaje en algunas ciudades en Europa" 18:00 Exposición de la oferta docente y de investigación en arquitectura, agua y paisaje

Escolano, Francisco

63

The neural system that mediates familiarity memory.  

PubMed

In recognition memory tests, feelings of familiarity for stimuli vary in strength. Increasing levels of felt familiarity should modulate activity in brain structures that mediate familiarity memory. We used this expectation to identify the neural system that underlies scene familiarity memory. Normal subjects studied pictures of scenes and 2 days later while undergoing event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) rated old and new pictures as novel, slightly familiar, moderately familiar, very familiar, or recollected, although they were specifically instructed not to try and recollect. Familiarity strength was, therefore, judged as absent (misses) or present at three levels of increasing strength. A parametric analysis showed that, as perceived strength of familiarity increased activity in the perirhinal cortex, insula and left superior temporal cortex declined linearly whereas activity in the left dorsomedial thalamus, left ventrolateral and anteromedial frontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, and left parietal neocortex increased linearly. Hippocampal activity was not modulated linearly or quadratically by changes in familiarity strength. Recollection activated the hippocampus, and left anterior and inferolateral frontal and parietal cortices more than strong familiarity. In contrast, no brain region that was unaffected by recollection (relative to misses and correct rejections) was modulated by variations in familiarity strength. The implications of these findings for the functional and neural bases of familiarity and recollection are considered. PMID:16634088

Montaldi, Daniela; Spencer, Tom J; Roberts, Neil; Mayes, Andrew R

2006-01-01

64

El papel que desempeña el NCI en la investigación del cáncer  

Cancer.gov

El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) es el patrocinador más grande del mundo de investigaciones sobre el cáncer y financia investigaciones realizadas en el mismo instituto y en centros oncológicos, hospitales, clínicas comunitarias y universidades en Estados Unidos y en todo el mundo.

65

Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Instituto de Biologia  

E-print Network

Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Instituto de Biologia Departamento de Zoologia CCS ­ Bloco A, Ilha do Fundão, 21941-590, Rio de Janeiro - RJ - Brasil ZOOLOGIA II - IBZ 122 Noturno 1o semestre de;Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Instituto de Biologia Departamento de Zoologia CCS ­ Bloco A, Ilha do

Paiva, Paulo Cesar de

66

Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Instituto de Biologia  

E-print Network

Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Instituto de Biologia Departamento de Zoologia CCS ­ Bloco A, Ilha do Fundão, 21941-590, Rio de Janeiro - RJ - Brasil ZOOLOGIA II - IBZ 122 Diurno 1o semestre de #12;Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Instituto de Biologia Departamento de Zoologia CCS ­ Bloco

Paiva, Paulo Cesar de

67

MINISTRIO DA CINCIA E TECNOLOGIA INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE PESQUISAS ESPACIAIS  

E-print Network

MINISTÉRIO DA CIÊNCIA E TECNOLOGIA INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE PESQUISAS ESPACIAIS CENTRO ESPACIAL DE;MINISTÉRIO DA CIÊNCIA E TECNOLOGIA INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE PESQUISAS ESPACIAIS CENTRO ESPACIAL DE CACHOEIRA/CP ÓRGÃO SUBORDINADO AO MINISTÉRIO DE CIÊNCIA E TECNOLOGIA UNIDADE GESTORA No 240108 FINALIDADE ESSENCIAL E

Domingues, Margarete Oliveira

68

Instituto Brasileiro de Informao em Cincia e Tecnologia  

E-print Network

ibict Instituto Brasileiro de Informação em Ciência e Tecnologia OJS em uma Hora 1 OJS em uma hora Meinert ­ 06 de outubro de 2006 #12;ibict Instituto Brasileiro de Informação em Ciência e Tecnologia OJS Brasileiro de Informação em Ciência e Tecnologia OJS em uma Hora 3 Visão GeralVisão GeralVisão Geral

Paraná, Universidade Federal do

69

MINISTRIO DA CINCIA E TECNOLOGIA INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE PESQUISAS ESPACIAIS  

E-print Network

MINISTÉRIO DA CIÊNCIA E TECNOLOGIA INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE PESQUISAS ESPACIAIS CENTRO ESPACIAL DE;MINISTÉRIO DA CIÊNCIA E TECNOLOGIA INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE PESQUISAS ESPACIAIS CENTRO ESPACIAL DE CACHOEIRA SUBORDINADO AO MINISTÉRIO DE CIÊNCIA E TECNOLOGIA UNIDADE GESTORA No 240108 FINALIDADE ESSENCIAL E ATRIBUIÇÕES

Domingues, Margarete Oliveira

70

Vertical motion simulator familiarization guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Vertical Motion Simulator Familiarization Guide provides a synoptic description of the Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) and descriptions of the various simulation components and systems. The intended audience is the community of scientists and engineers who employ the VMS for research and development. The concept of a research simulator system is introduced and the building block nature of the VMS is emphasized. Individual sections describe all the hardware elements in terms of general properties and capabilities. Also included are an example of a typical VMS simulation which graphically illustrates the composition of the system and shows the signal flow among the elements and a glossary of specialized terms, abbreviations, and acronyms.

Danek, George L.

1993-01-01

71

Familiar neighbors enhance breeding success in birds.  

PubMed

We tested the hypothesis that long-term familiarity with neighbors is advantageous by determining whether male red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) breeding adjacent to familiar neighbors have better reproductive success than other males. Using data gathered during a 10-yr study of breeding success, we found that males with familiar neighbors fledged, on average, significantly more offspring annually than males without familiar neighbors. We also found that the same males, breeding in different years on the same territories, had significantly larger harems in the years they had familiar neighbors. Improved reproductive success was due to the males' abilities to attract more females to nest in their territories. Alternative hypotheses to explain the positive relationship between familiar neighbors and breeding success were not supported by our data. Relatively high reproductive success for breeders with long-term neighbors may provide a basis for the evolution of cooperative behavior in this and other species. PMID:2813369

Beletsky, L D; Orians, G H

1989-10-01

72

Familiar neighbors enhance breeding success in birds.  

PubMed Central

We tested the hypothesis that long-term familiarity with neighbors is advantageous by determining whether male red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) breeding adjacent to familiar neighbors have better reproductive success than other males. Using data gathered during a 10-yr study of breeding success, we found that males with familiar neighbors fledged, on average, significantly more offspring annually than males without familiar neighbors. We also found that the same males, breeding in different years on the same territories, had significantly larger harems in the years they had familiar neighbors. Improved reproductive success was due to the males' abilities to attract more females to nest in their territories. Alternative hypotheses to explain the positive relationship between familiar neighbors and breeding success were not supported by our data. Relatively high reproductive success for breeders with long-term neighbors may provide a basis for the evolution of cooperative behavior in this and other species. PMID:2813369

Beletsky, L D; Orians, G H

1989-01-01

73

MESTRADO EM MICROBIOLOGIA BIOTECNOLOGIA AMBIENTAL Instituto Superior Tcnico  

E-print Network

MESTRADO EM MICROBIOLOGIA BIOTECNOLOGIA AMBIENTAL ­ Instituto Superior Técnico Objectivos: Na risco ambiental), e sobre a aplicação de métodos da biotecnologia na resolução de problemas ambientais, desde a monitorização dos poluentes no Ambiente até à biorremediação nos compartimentos ambientais

Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

74

Ministrio da Cincia e Tecnologia Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais  

E-print Network

Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais Plano Diretor 2011 Departamento de Ciência e Tecnologia Aeroespacial DEGRAD Sistema de monitoramento da degradação florestal na da exploração seletiva da floresta Amazônica ETE Coordenação Geral de Engenharia e Tecnologia

75

Ministrio da Cincia e Tecnologia Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais  

E-print Network

Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais Centro Regional Sul de atividades de geração e transferência de tecnologia e na formação de recursos humanos; 3.4 Manter vínculo

76

Brand Familiarity and Advertising Repetition Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

A crucial communication task for unknown brands is to build the knowledge in consumers' minds necessary to become established. However, communication effectiveness may depend on prior familiarity of the advertised brand. The findings of two experiments using television ads and computer Internet ads revealed that brand familiarity influenced repetition effectiveness. In particular, repetition of advertising attributed to an unfamiliar brand

2003-01-01

77

Familiarity of Background Characters in Visual Scanning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is much easier to look for an unfamiliar character (such as an upside down A) embedded among familiar ones than to look for a familiar character (A) among unfamiliar ones. Furthermore, the nature of the background seems more important toperformance than the nature of the target. (Editor)

Reicher, Gerald M.; And Others

1976-01-01

78

Palatability, Familiarity, and Underage, Immoderate Drinking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data gathered in a study of palatability ("liking") and familiarity ratings of alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages by 350 subjects from 12 to 30 years of age included the usual number of drinks consumed. Blind ratings of palatability and familiarity for the beverages were tested for association with immoderate drinking (more than four for males,…

Lemon, Jim; Stevenson, Richard; Gates, Peter; Copeland, Jan

2011-01-01

79

Cross-species familiarity in shoaling fishes.  

PubMed Central

Preferential association with familiar shoal mates confers a number of potentially important benefits to individuals, including improved anti-predator effects and the reduction of aggression in competitive interactions. Until now, however, familiarity has been demonstrated purely between conspecifics. Here, we present evidence that familiarity preferences can override natural preferences for conspecifics. Individual focal fishes (chub, Leuciscus cephalus) were given a choice of two stimulus shoals of the same size composed of conspecifics or of heterospecifics (minnows, Phoxinus phoxinus) in a flow tank. A series of four treatments was carried out to investigate the effects of familiarity, induced by a 15 day association between the focal fish and the stimulus fishes, on the choices made by the focal fish. Focal fishes showed a significant preference for conspecifics over heterospecifics when both stimulus shoals were composed of non-familiar individuals. Focal fishes also showed a significant preference for stimulus shoals composed of familiar fishes over stimulus shoals composed of non-familiar fishes when both shoals were conspecific and when both shoals were heterospecific. Finally, the preference of focal fishes for conspecifics disappeared when the alternative, a shoal of heterospecifics, was composed of familiar individuals. The importance of this work is discussed in the context of species interactions in free-ranging shoals. PMID:12816654

Ward, A J W; Axford, S; Krause, J

2003-01-01

80

Semantic priming of familiar songs.  

PubMed

We explored the functional organization of semantic memory for music by comparing priming across familiar songs both within modalities (Experiment 1, tune to tune; Experiment 3, category label to lyrics) and across modalities (Experiment 2, category label to tune; Experiment 4, tune to lyrics). Participants judged whether or not the target tune or lyrics were real (akin to lexical decision tasks). We found significant priming, analogous to linguistic associative-priming effects, in reaction times for related primes as compared to unrelated primes, but primarily for within-modality comparisons. Reaction times to tunes (e.g., "Silent Night") were faster following related tunes ("Deck the Hall") than following unrelated tunes ("God Bless America"). However, a category label (e.g., Christmas) did not prime tunes from within that category. Lyrics were primed by a related category label, but not by a related tune. These results support the conceptual organization of music in semantic memory, but with potentially weaker associations across modalities. PMID:22227862

Johnson, Sarah K; Halpern, Andrea R

2012-05-01

81

Familiares a cargo de pacientes de cáncer: funciones y desafíos (PDQ®)  

Cancer.gov

Sumario informativo revisado por expertos acerca de los desafíos que enfrentan los familiares a cargo de los pacientes con cáncer. Este resumen se centra en las funciones típicas y las inquietudes de las personas a cargo del paciente y en las intervenciones útiles para esas personas.

82

Pgina 1 de 18 CDIGO DE CONDUCTA DEL CENTRO DE  

E-print Network

Página 1 de 18 C�DIGO DE CONDUCTA DEL CENTRO DE INVESTIGACION Y DE ESTUDIOS AVANZADOS DEL INSTITUTO CONDUCTA: I. Conocimiento y aplicación de las leyes y normas. 1 II. Uso del cargo público. 2 III. Uso y T�RMINOS. 13 #12;Página 2 de 18 C�DIGO DE CONDUCTA DEL CENTRO DE INVESTIGACION Y DE ESTUDIOS AVANZADOS DEL

83

INVESTIGACIN Instituto de Investigaciones sobre Recursos  

E-print Network

la agricultura · Manejo y calidad del agua costera y subterránea · Estudios hidrológicos (H&H) y · Manejo de erosión y sedimentación · Manejo y calidad de agua superficial · Manejo y tratamiento de aguas usadas · Manejo y control de fuentes dispersas · Manejo y control de inundaciones · Mapas de riesgos y

Gilbes, Fernando

84

14 CFR 121.599 - Familiarity with weather conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Familiarity with weather conditions. 121.599 Section 121...Rules § 121.599 Familiarity with weather conditions. (a) Domestic and flag...thoroughly familiar with reported and forecast weather conditions on the route to be...

2010-01-01

85

14 CFR 121.599 - Familiarity with weather conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Familiarity with weather conditions. 121.599 Section 121...Rules § 121.599 Familiarity with weather conditions. (a) Domestic and flag...thoroughly familiar with reported and forecast weather conditions on the route to be...

2014-01-01

86

14 CFR 121.599 - Familiarity with weather conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Familiarity with weather conditions. 121.599 Section 121...Rules § 121.599 Familiarity with weather conditions. (a) Domestic and flag...thoroughly familiar with reported and forecast weather conditions on the route to be...

2012-01-01

87

14 CFR 121.599 - Familiarity with weather conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Familiarity with weather conditions. 121.599 Section 121...Rules § 121.599 Familiarity with weather conditions. (a) Domestic and flag...thoroughly familiar with reported and forecast weather conditions on the route to be...

2013-01-01

88

14 CFR 121.599 - Familiarity with weather conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Familiarity with weather conditions. 121.599 Section 121...Rules § 121.599 Familiarity with weather conditions. (a) Domestic and flag...thoroughly familiar with reported and forecast weather conditions on the route to be...

2011-01-01

89

The effect of familiarity on perceived interestingness of images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an exploration of familiarity as a meaningful dimension for the individualized adaptation of media-rich interfaces. In this paper, we investigate in particular the effect of digital images personalized for familiarity on users' perceived interestingness. Two dimensions of familiarity, facial familiarity and familiarity with image context, are manipulated. Our investigation consisted of three studies: the first two address how morphing technology can be used to convey meaningful familiarity, and the third studies the effect of such familiarity on users' sense of interestingness. Four levels of person familiarity varying in degree of person knowledge, and two levels of context familiarity varying in frequency of exposure, were considered: Self, Friend, Celebrity, and Stranger in Familiar and Unfamiliar contexts. Experimental results showed significant main effects of context and person familiarity. Our findings deepen understanding of the critical element of familiarity in HCI and its relationship to the interestingness of images, and can have great impact for the design of media-rich systems.

Chu, Sharon Lynn; Fedorovskaya, Elena; Quek, Francis; Snyder, Jeffrey

2013-03-01

90

Recollection and Familiarity in Directed Forgetting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The finding of directed,forgetting in familiarity-based,memory,tasks such,as recognition,and,fragment completion has been suggested to be the result of inhibition of familiarity. I n the first experiment, we replicated these directed forgetting results on recognition and fragment completion tests, and also demonstrated similar results for stem completion. I n subsequent experiments, we used the logic of opposition and process dissociation in

John R. Vokey; Scott W. Allen

91

Mild hypoxia disrupts recollection, not familiarity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yonelinas et al. (2002) found that hypoxic patients exhibited deficits in recollection that left familiarity relatively unaffected.\\u000a In contrast, Manns, Hopkins, Reed, Kitchener, and Squire (2003) studied a group of hypoxic patients who suffered severe and\\u000a equivalent deficits in recollection and familiarity. We reexamine those studies and argue that the discrepancy in results\\u000a is likely due to differences in the

A. P. Yonelinas; J. R. Quamme; K. F. Widaman; N. E. A. Kroll; M. J. Sauvé; R. T. Knight

2004-01-01

92

Digital Video, Digital TV IMPA -Instituto de Matemtica Pura e  

E-print Network

Tech Trends Multiple Video Sources Video Analysis Local Processing Interaction Multiple Threads 121 Digital Video, Digital TV and Beyond Luiz Velho IMPA - Instituto de Matemática Pura e Aplicada 2 Outline Video in the Digital Age Deployment of Digital Video Enabling Technologies Research @ VISGRAF

93

MESTRADO EM MICROBIOLOGIA BIOLOGIA ESTRUTURAL Instituto Superior Tcnico  

E-print Network

MESTRADO EM MICROBIOLOGIA BIOLOGIA ESTRUTURAL ­ Instituto Superior Técnico Objectivos: Introduzir e/ou aprofundar técnicas avançadas de Análise Estrutural relevantes em Biologia e sua aplicação na elucidação de

Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

94

MINISTRIO DA CINCIA E TECNOLOGIA INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE PESQUISAS ESPACIAIS  

E-print Network

1 MINISTÉRIO DA CIÊNCIA E TECNOLOGIA INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE PESQUISAS ESPACIAIS RELATÓRIO DE GESTÃO DO INPE ANO 2002 Unidade Gestora São José dos Campos - SP #12;2 MINISTÉRIO DA CIÊNCIA E TECNOLOGIA Regimental do MCT (Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia), em 09.12.2002, através do Decreto n°?3.568, o INPE

Domingues, Margarete Oliveira

95

MINISTRIO DA CINCIA E TECNOLOGIA INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE PESQUISAS ESPACIAIS  

E-print Network

1 MINISTÉRIO DA CIÊNCIA E TECNOLOGIA INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE PESQUISAS ESPACIAIS RELATÓRIO DE GESTÃO DO INPE ANO 2001 Unidade Gestora São José dos Campos - SP #12;2 MINISTÉRIO DA CIÊNCIA E TECNOLOGIA e Tecnologia. Sua principal finalidade é "promover e executar estudos, pesquisas científicas

Domingues, Margarete Oliveira

96

Computer Animation IMPA Instituto de Matemtica Pura e Aplicada  

E-print Network

· Ray Tracing · Blobby Shapes · 3D Cartoon Shading © Luiz Velho 3 Wireframe Animation · My First Steps1 Computer Animation Luiz Velho IMPA ­ Instituto de Matemática Pura e Aplicada © Luiz Velho 2 Outline · Wireframe Animation · Motion Graphics · Procedural Animation · Motion Capture · Facial Animation

97

Laboratorio VISGRAF Instituto de Matematica Pura e Aplicada  

E-print Network

parametrization of a surface, which allows local map- pings with small distortion. Texture atlas generation can maps that is suited to 3D photography. Projective texture atlas serves as a foundation for an attributeLaborat´orio VISGRAF Instituto de Matem´atica Pura e Aplicada Projective Texture Atlas Construction

98

Effects of familiar voices on brain activity.  

PubMed

This study aimed to examine the extent to which a familiar voice influences brain activity. Participants were nine healthy female volunteers aged 21-34 years old (with a mean age of 25.78 ± 4.04 years). Brain activity was recorded during periods of silence, familiar and unfamiliar voices. Electroencephalographic data were collected and analyzed using a frequency rate set at 5 min. To account for emotional influences imbedded into the contents of the voice stimuli, both the voice of a familiar family member and the voice of a stranger were used to record a well-known Japanese fairy tale, 'Momotaro'. Results revealed that listening to familiar voices increased the rate of the ? band (13-30 Hz) in all four brain areas (F3, F4, C3 and C4). In particular, increased activity was observed at F4 and C4. Findings revealed that in study, participants' familiar voices activated cerebral functioning more than unfamiliar voices. PMID:22776531

Tanaka, Yuji L; Kudo, Yumi

2012-07-01

99

NCI ofrece apoyo a quienes están necesitados después del huracane Katrina  

Cancer.gov

El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI), parte de los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud (NIH), está empeñado en ayudar a las miles de personas que han sido asoladas por los efectos del huracán Katrina. NCI está tratando de llegar a los públicos diversos para proporcionarles información relacionada con el cáncer que pueda ser compartida con exactitud y efectividad con quienes han sido afectados por el huracán.

100

Familiar people recognition disorders: an introductory review.  

PubMed

The aim of this introduction is to provide a general background for the individual contributions dealing with different aspects of familiar people recognition disorders. Following are the main points considered in this survey: 1) the cognitive models proposed to explain the functional architecture of processes subsuming familiar people recognition; 2) the different roles of the right and left hemisphere in identifying people by face voice and name; 3) the anatomical structures and the cognitive processes involved in face and voice recognition; 4) the interactions that exist among the perceptual processes subsuming face and voice recognition, but not people's faces, voices and proper names; 5) the patterns of multimodal defects of familiar people recognition and their implications for current cognitive models. Finally, there is a short discussion of two models advanced to explain the role of the anterior temporal lobes in people recognition. PMID:24389261

Gainotti, Guido

2014-01-01

101

Recollection and familiarity in the human thalamus.  

PubMed

Recollection and familiarity are two distinct forms of recognition memory that differ in terms of the associative richness of the memory experience. In recollection, exposure to a previously encountered item cues the recollection of a number of contextual, temporal and other associative information. In the case of familiarity, instead, the item is recognized as previously encountered, but it does not cue any associative information. According to the dual-process theory, the memory processes that underlie recollection and familiarity are qualitatively different and this distinction is reflected in the existence of different neural substrates underlying the two processes. Thus far, research has primarily focused on distinct regions of the medial temporal lobe as implicated mostly in recollection (hippocampus) or familiarity (perirhinal cortex). Aggleton and Brown (1999) suggested extending the neuroanatomical distinction to other cortical and subcortical areas of the brain, including the thalamus. In particular, they proposed the existence of two reciprocally independent neural circuits for recollection and familiarity. The former would include the hippocampus, the fornix, the mammillary bodies and the anterior thalamic nuclei. The second would involve the mesial magnocellular portion of the mediodorsal nucleus connected to the perirhinal cortex through the ventroamygdalofugal pathway. Here we review neuropsychological evidence in experimental animals and brain-damaged individuals and functional neuroimaging evidence in healthy humans that supports Aggleton and Brown's model at the level of the thalamus. The evidence substantially supports the functional relationship between recollection processes and integrity of the thalamic anterior nuclei. Additional evidence, not predicted by the model, has been provided in favour of the reliance of recollection on the integrity of the lateral portion (parvocellular) of the mediodoral nucleus. Finally, there is sparse and controversial evidence in support of the reliance of familiarity on the integrity of the mesial portion of the mediodorsal nucleus, possibly due to neuroimaging methodological limits which did not satisfactorily distinguish between the medial and lateral portions of the mediodorsal nucleus. PMID:25263702

Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto; Lombardi, Maria Giovanna; Caltagirone, Carlo; Barban, Francesco

2014-09-28

102

Se pone en marcha el Programa de Investigación Oncológica Comunitaria (NCORP) del NCI  

Cancer.gov

El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) ha otorgado 53 subvenciones nuevas de 5 años a investigadores de todo el país para realizar estudios clínicos multicéntricos e investigaciones sobre la prestación de cuidados oncológicos en sus comunidades. Las subvenciones se están otorgando dentro del Programa de Investigación Oncológica Comunitaria (Community Oncology Research Program, NCORP) del NCI.

103

The influence of familiarization on preference  

Microsoft Academic Search

The real purpose of this experiment, which was to investigate the extent and nature of the affective changes wrought by repetition of an activity or condition, was concealed from the subjects until the completion of the investigation. The results from 17 separate tests or choice experiments indicate in general that sheer repetition, leading to familiarity, causes a greater liking for

A. H. Maslow

1937-01-01

104

Metropolitan French: Familiarization & Short-Term Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The U.S. Department of State's Foreign Service Institute French Familiarization and Short-Term (FAST) course for personnel working and living in France consists of 10 weeks of French language instruction combined with practical and cultural information. An introductory section outlines FAST course objectives and sample teaching techniques in…

Iszkowski, Marie-Charlotte

105

Facelock: familiarity-based graphical authentication  

PubMed Central

Authentication codes such as passwords and PIN numbers are widely used to control access to resources. One major drawback of these codes is that they are difficult to remember. Account holders are often faced with a choice between forgetting a code, which can be inconvenient, or writing it down, which compromises security. In two studies, we test a new knowledge-based authentication method that does not impose memory load on the user. Psychological research on face recognition has revealed an important distinction between familiar and unfamiliar face perception: When a face is familiar to the observer, it can be identified across a wide range of images. However, when the face is unfamiliar, generalisation across images is poor. This contrast can be used as the basis for a personalised ‘facelock’, in which authentication succeeds or fails based on image-invariant recognition of faces that are familiar to the account holder. In Study 1, account holders authenticated easily by detecting familiar targets among other faces (97.5% success rate), even after a one-year delay (86.1% success rate). Zero-acquaintance attackers were reduced to guessing (<1% success rate). Even personal attackers who knew the account holder well were rarely able to authenticate (6.6% success rate). In Study 2, we found that shoulder-surfing attacks by strangers could be defeated by presenting different photos of the same target faces in observed and attacked grids (1.9% success rate). Our findings suggest that the contrast between familiar and unfamiliar face recognition may be useful for developers of graphical authentication systems. PMID:25024913

McLachlan, Jane L.; Renaud, Karen

2014-01-01

106

Preferring familiar emotions: As you want (and like) it?  

PubMed Central

Do people want to feel emotions that are familiar to them? In two studies, participants rated how much they typically felt various emotions (i.e., familiarity of the emotion) and how much they generally wanted to experience these emotions. We found that, in general, people wanted to feel pleasant emotions more than unpleasant emotions. However, for both pleasant and unpleasant emotions, people more (vs. less) familiar with an emotion also wanted to experience it more. Links between the familiarity of an emotion and wanting to experience that emotion were not explained by the concurrent experience of familiar emotions. Also, we show that although familiar emotions were also liked more, liking did not fully account for wanting familiar emotions. Finally, the familiarity of emotions mediated the links between trait affect and the emotions people wanted to feel. We propose that people are motivated to feel familiar emotions, in part, because of their instrumental value. PMID:23962316

Ford, Brett Q.; Tamir, Maya

2014-01-01

107

Prior familiarity with components enhances unconscious learning of relations.  

PubMed

The influence of prior familiarity with components on the implicit learning of relations was examined using artificial grammar learning. Prior to training on grammar strings, participants were familiarized with either the novel symbols used to construct the strings or with irrelevant geometric shapes. Participants familiarized with the relevant symbols showed greater accuracy when judging the correctness of new grammar strings. Familiarity with elemental components did not increase conscious awareness of the basis for discriminations (structural knowledge) but increased accuracy even in its absence. The subjective familiarity of test strings predicted grammaticality judgments. However, prior exposure to relevant symbols did not increase overall test string familiarity or reliance on familiarity when making grammaticality judgments. Familiarity with the symbols increased the learning of relations between them (bigrams and trigrams) thus resulting in greater familiarity for grammatical versus ungrammatical strings. The results have important implications for models of implicit learning. PMID:20096605

Scott, Ryan B; Dienes, Zoltan

2010-03-01

108

Instituto de Matematica Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro  

E-print Network

Instituto de Matem´atica Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro curso de an´alise real Cassio Neri´atica Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Rio de Janeiro - Brasil C´opias s~ao autorizadas e bem vindas: divulgue - Rio de Janeiro. 163p. Inclui Bibliografia ISBN: 85-906720-0-X ISBN: 978-85-906720-0-5 1. An´alise Real

Cabral, Marco

109

Instituto de Estudios Carballieses Darwin e a expresin das emocins  

E-print Network

Resulta trivial afirmar que o libro máis importante de Charles Darwin é A orixe das especies, de cuxa13 Instituto de Estudios Carballiñeses Darwin e a expresión das emocións O TERCEIRO LIBRO DE DARWIN Diario dun naturalista ó redor do mun- do, cuxa primeira edición estam- pou en 1839, e do cal Darwin se

Belles, Xavier

110

Balance del año teatral 1972 en Lima.  

E-print Network

universitarios como el de la Universidad Villarreal y el de la Universidad San Martín de Porres y con grupos universitarios voca- cionales, como son el TUNI (Teatro de la Universidad Nacional, de Ingeniería) el ISANM o grupo de teatro del Instituto Superior de...), 33-41. 12. El Ingeniero Arturo Nolte, también director de producción del Teatro Nacional Popular, quien gentilmente nos brindó esta información, en entrevista celebrada en Lima, el 8 de mayo de 1972 puso de relieve que los grupos universitarios...

Cajiao Salas, Teresa

1974-10-01

111

Familiarity adds to attractiveness in matters of siskin mate choice  

PubMed Central

There is currently considerable controversy in evolutionary ecology revolving around whether social familiarity brings attraction when a female chooses a mate. The topic of familiarity is significant because by avoiding or preferring familiar individuals as mates, the potential for local adaptation may be reduced or favoured. The topic becomes even more interesting if we simultaneously analyse preferences for familiarity and sexual ornaments, because when familiarity influences female mating preferences, this could very significantly affect the strength of sexual selection on male ornamentation. Here, we have used mate-choice experiments in siskins Carduelis spinus to analyse how familiarity and patterns of ornamentation (i.e. the size of wing patches) interact to influence mating success. Our results show that females clearly prefer familiar individuals when choosing between familiar and unfamiliar males with similar-sized wing patches. Furthermore, when females were given the choice between a highly ornamented unfamiliar male and a less ornamented familiar male, half of the females still preferred the socially familiar birds as mates. Our finding suggests that male familiarity may be as important as sexual ornaments in affecting female behaviour in mate choice. Given that the potential for local adaptation may be favoured by preferring familiar individuals as mates, social familiarity as a mate-choice criterion may become a potential area of fruitful research on sympatric speciation processes. PMID:24174112

Senar, J. C.; Mateos-Gonzalez, F.; Uribe, F.; Arroyo, L.

2013-01-01

112

46 CFR 15.1105 - Familiarization and basic training (BT).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-10-01 false Familiarization and basic training (BT). 15.1105 Section 15.1105 Shipping COAST GUARD...Requirements of STCW § 15.1105 Familiarization and basic training (BT). (a) Onboard a seagoing vessel to which this...

2014-10-01

113

The Role of Noncriterial Recollection in Estimating Recollection and Familiarity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noncriterial recollection (ncR) is recollection of details that are irrelevant to task demands. It has been shown to elevate familiarity estimates and to be functionally equivalent to familiarity in the process dissociation procedure [Yonelinas, A. P., & Jacoby, L. L. (1996). Noncriterial recollection: Familiarity as automatic, irrelevant…

Parks, Colleen M.

2007-01-01

114

Word-Form Familiarity Bootstraps Infant Speech Segmentation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At about 7 months of age, infants listen longer to sentences containing familiar words--but not deviant pronunciations of familiar words (Jusczyk & Aslin, 1995). This finding suggests that infants are able to segment familiar words from fluent speech and that they store words in sufficient phonological detail to recognize deviations from a…

Altvater-Mackensen, Nicole; Mani, Nivedita

2013-01-01

115

La revisión del estudio de prevención de cáncer de próstata indica no haber beneficio del uso de suplementos de selenio y de vitamina E  

Cancer.gov

La revisión inicial, independiente, de los datos del estudio SELECT, sigla en inglés del Estudio del Selenio y la Vitamina E para Prevenir el Cáncer, financiado por el Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) y otros institutos que comprenden los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud (NIH), indica que los suplementos de selenio y de vitamina E, tomados juntos o por separado, no impiden el cáncer de próstata. Los datos indicaron también dos tendencias preocupantes: un pequeño aumento aunque no significativo estadísticamente en el número de casos de cáncer de próstata entre los más de 35 000 hombres de 50 años y mayores en el estudio que tomaron sólo vitamina E, y un aumento pequeño aunque no significativo estadísticamente en el número de casos de diabetes de aparición en edad adulta en los hombres que tomaron sólo el selenio.

116

UNIVERSIDAD DE ALICANTE INSTITUTO UNIVERSITARIO DE INVESTIGACIONES TURSTICAS  

E-print Network

Oficial en Dirección y Planificación del Turismo. Dirigido por Prof. Dr. Moises Hidalgo Moratal Alicante, Profesor Moises Hidalgo Moratal, por sus clases, sus ideas, sus lecturas de las versiones anteriores del

Escolano, Francisco

117

Social familiarity and shoal formation in juvenile fishes.  

PubMed

The potential influence of social familiarity in shoal-choice decisions was investigated in two sympatric species of north temperate fishes, juvenile banded killifish Fundulus diaphanus and juvenile bluegill sunfish Lepomis macrochirus. Groups of socially familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics were formed in the laboratory using wild-caught fishes. Juvenile F. diaphanus demonstrated a strong preference for familiar conspecific shoalmates, whereas juvenile L. macrochirus exhibited no preference for either unfamiliar or familiar conspecific shoalmates. The differential influence of familiarity on shoalmate choice in juveniles of these two species could be due to their different ecologies, local population densities and life histories. PMID:20666898

Lee-Jenkins, S S Y; Godin, J-G J

2010-02-01

118

The hard-won benefits of familiarity in visual search: naturally familiar brand logos are found faster.  

PubMed

Familiar items are found faster than unfamiliar ones in visual search tasks. This effect has important implications for cognitive theory, because it may reveal how mental representations of commonly encountered items are changed by experience to optimize performance. It remains unknown, however, whether everyday items with moderate levels of exposure would show benefits in visual search, and if so, what kind of experience would be required to produce them. Here, we tested whether familiar product logos were searched for faster than unfamiliar ones, and also familiarized subjects with previously unfamiliar logos. Subjects searched for preexperimentally familiar and unfamiliar logos, half of which were familiarized in the laboratory, amongst other, unfamiliar distractor logos. In three experiments, we used an N-back-like familiarization task, and in four others we used a task that asked detailed questions about the perceptual aspects of the logos. The number of familiarization exposures ranged from 30 to 84 per logo across experiments, with two experiments involving across-day familiarization. Preexperimentally familiar target logos were searched for faster than were unfamiliar, nonfamiliarized logos, by 8 % on average. This difference was reliable in all seven experiments. However, familiarization had little or no effect on search speeds; its average effect was to improve search times by 0.7 %, and its effect was significant in only one of the seven experiments. If priming, mere exposure, episodic memory, or relatively modest familiarity were responsible for familiarity's effects on search, then performance should have improved following familiarization. Our results suggest that the search-related advantage of familiar logos does not develop easily or rapidly. PMID:24510424

Qin, Xiaoyan Angela; Koutstaal, Wilma; Engel, Stephen A

2014-05-01

119

Faculdade ou Institutos Total Dem/Ofer Faculdade de Direito -FDD 12  

E-print Network

Educação Física - FEF 17 Faculdade de Medicina - FMD 70 Instituto de Ciência Política - IPOL 15 Instituto Tecnologia em Arquitetura e Urbanismo 8 THA - Dep. de Teoria e História em Arquitetura e Urbanismo 7 de Tecnologia - FT 75 ENC - Engenharia Civil 20 ENE - Engenharia Elétrica 30 EFL - Engenharia

Maier, Rudolf Richard

120

El cuento del cáncer de cérvix podría tener un final feliz  

Cancer.gov

El cuento del cáncer de cérvix podría tener un final feliz Por el Instituto Nacional del Cáncer El cáncer de cérvix fue en un tiempo la causa principal de muerte por cáncer entre mujeres estadounidenses. Pero, en los últimos 50 años, el número de

121

Charge neutrality in heavily doped emitters Jesus A. del Alamo  

E-print Network

Charge neutrality in heavily doped emitters Jesus A. del Alamo Instituto de Energta Solar ETSI fields important enough to invalidate the charge neutrality assumption. Therefore he concludes- jority carrier concentration nIx) and the net concentration of donor atoms in the emitter Nd(x) = ND

del Alamo, Jesús A.

122

Se lanza Red Nacional de Estudios Clínicos del NCI  

Cancer.gov

El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) puso en marcha una nueva red de investigación de estudios clínicos con el objetivo de mejorar el tratamiento de más de 1,6 millones de estadounidenses que reciben un diagnóstico de cáncer cada año.

123

Familiarity with music increases walking speed in rhythmic auditory cuing.  

PubMed

Rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) is a gait rehabilitation method in which patients synchronize footsteps to a metronome or musical beats. Although RAS with music can ameliorate gait abnormalities, outcomes vary, possibly because music properties, such as groove or familiarity, differ across interventions. To optimize future interventions, we assessed how initially familiar and unfamiliar low-groove and high-groove music affected synchronization accuracy and gait in healthy individuals. We also experimentally increased music familiarity using repeated exposure to initially unfamiliar songs. Overall, familiar music elicited faster stride velocity and less variable strides, as well as better synchronization performance (matching of step tempo to beat tempo). High-groove music, as reported previously, led to faster stride velocity than low-groove music. We propose two mechanisms for familiarity's effects. First, familiarity with the beat structure reduces cognitive demands of synchronizing, leading to better synchronization performance and faster, less variable gait. Second, familiarity might have elicited faster gait by increasing enjoyment of the music, as enjoyment was higher after repeated exposure to initially low-enjoyment songs. Future studies are necessary to dissociate the contribution of these mechanisms to the observed RAS effects of familiar music on gait. PMID:25773617

Leow, Li-Ann; Rinchon, Cricia; Grahn, Jessica

2015-03-01

124

Long-term familiarity promotes joining in neighbour nest defence.  

PubMed

Familiarity plays an important role in the evolution of sociality and cooperation. Familiar individuals may gain a reputation for participating in, or defecting from, cooperative tasks. Previous research suggests that long-term familiarity with territorial neighbours benefits breeders. We tested the hypothesis that great tits (Parus major) are more likely to join in neighbours' nest defence if those neighbours are familiar from the previous year. We show that neighbours that shared a territory boundary the previous year are more likely to join their neighbours' nest defence than neighbours that did not share a boundary before. Closer neighbours did not differ from distant neighbours in their latency to join. For familiar neighbours that joined, there was no difference in call rate in relation to whether one or both members of the focal pair were familiar. First-time breeders (by definition unfamiliar) did not join each other's nest defence. This is the first evidence of a relationship between familiarity and joining in nest defence. Such direct benefits of familiarity may have important implications in the evolution of sociality. PMID:22535641

Grabowska-Zhang, A M; Sheldon, B C; Hinde, C A

2012-08-23

125

Choosing Your Informant: Weighing Familiarity and Recent Accuracy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In two experiments, children aged 3, 4 and 5 years (N = 61) were given conflicting information about the names and functions of novel objects by two informants, one a familiar teacher, the other an unfamiliar teacher. On pre-test trials, all three age groups invested more trust in the familiar teacher. They preferred to ask for information and to…

Corriveau, Kathleen; Harris, Paul L.

2009-01-01

126

Long-term familiarity promotes joining in neighbour nest defence  

PubMed Central

Familiarity plays an important role in the evolution of sociality and cooperation. Familiar individuals may gain a reputation for participating in, or defecting from, cooperative tasks. Previous research suggests that long-term familiarity with territorial neighbours benefits breeders. We tested the hypothesis that great tits (Parus major) are more likely to join in neighbours' nest defence if those neighbours are familiar from the previous year. We show that neighbours that shared a territory boundary the previous year are more likely to join their neighbours' nest defence than neighbours that did not share a boundary before. Closer neighbours did not differ from distant neighbours in their latency to join. For familiar neighbours that joined, there was no difference in call rate in relation to whether one or both members of the focal pair were familiar. First-time breeders (by definition unfamiliar) did not join each other's nest defence. This is the first evidence of a relationship between familiarity and joining in nest defence. Such direct benefits of familiarity may have important implications in the evolution of sociality. PMID:22535641

Grabowska-Zhang, A. M.; Sheldon, B. C.; Hinde, C. A.

2012-01-01

127

The Influence of Familiarity on Affective Responses to Natural Scenes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This kansei study explored how familiarity with image-word combinations influences affective states. Stimuli were obtained from Japanese print advertisements (ads), and consisted of images (e.g., natural-scene backgrounds) and their corresponding headlines (advertising copy). Initially, a group of subjects evaluated their level of familiarity with images and headlines independently, and stimuli were filtered based on the results. In the main experiment, a different group of subjects rated their pleasure and arousal to, and familiarity with, image-headline combinations. The Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) scale was used to evaluate pleasure and arousal, and a bipolar scale was used to evaluate familiarity. The results showed a high correlation between familiarity and pleasure, but low correlation between familiarity and arousal. The characteristics of the stimuli, and their effect on the variables of pleasure, arousal and familiarity, were explored through ANOVA. It is suggested that, in the case of natural-scene ads, familiarity with image-headline combinations may increase the pleasure response to the ads, and that certain components in the images (e.g., water) may increase arousal levels.

Sanabria Z., Jorge C.; Cho, Youngil; Yamanaka, Toshimasa

128

When Do Infants Begin Recognizing Familiar Words in Sentences?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous studies have shown that by 11 but not by 10 months infants recognize words that have become familiar from everyday life independently of the experimental setting. This study explored the ability of 10-, 11-, and 12- month-old infants to recognize familiar words in sentential context, without experimental training. The headturn preference…

DePaolis, Rory A.; Vihman, Marilyn M.; Keren-Portnoy, Tamar

2014-01-01

129

Assessing Recollection and Familiarity in Low Functioning Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Methods to assess recollection and familiarity separately in autism spectrum disorder were recently developed and piloted (Bigham et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 40:878-889, 2010). The preliminary data obtained via these methods showed that whereas recollection was mildly impaired in high functioning autism, familiarity was spared. The current study…

Ni Chuileann, Susan; Quigley, Jean

2013-01-01

130

Rats' Novel Object Interaction as a Measure of Environmental Familiarity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Environmental familiarization is a learning phenomenon embedded within most tasks used to study learning and motivation. Given its prevalence there is surprisingly little systematic behavioral research on factors affecting familiarization. The six experiments reported in the present report used rats' tendency to interact more with a novel object…

Wilkinson, Jamie L.; Herrman, Laura; Palmatier, Matthew I.; Bevins, Rick A.

2006-01-01

131

Familiar-Strange: Teaching the Scripture as John Would Teach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Gospel of John teaches through telling the story of Jesus in light of the familiar Hebrew faith stories. It is an interpretive task that presents Jesus to his audience and teaches them adequate faith. John the Teacher skillfully uses narrative skills to create the familiar-strange effect in his storytelling. Each story is followed by a…

Ha, Tung-Chiew

2014-01-01

132

An Inner Face Advantage in Children's Recognition of Familiar Peers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children's recognition of familiar own-age peers was investigated. Chinese children (4-, 8-, and 14-year-olds) were asked to identify their classmates from photographs showing the entire face, the internal facial features only, the external facial features only, or the eyes, nose, or mouth only. Participants from all age groups were familiar with…

Ge, Liezhong; Anzures, Gizelle; Wang, Zhe; Kelly, David J.; Pascalis, Olivier; Quinn, Paul C.; Slater, Alan M.; Yang, Zhiliang; Lee, Kang

2008-01-01

133

Gender differences in familiar voice identification.  

PubMed

We investigated gender differences in the identification of personally familiar voices in a gender-balanced sample of 40 listeners. From various types of utterances, listeners had to identify by name 20 speakers (10 female) among a set of 70 possible classmates who were all 12th grade pupils from the same local secondary school. Mean identification rates were 67% from sentences, and around 35% for an isolated /Hello/ or a VCV syllable. Even from non-verbal harrumphs, speakers were identified with an accuracy of 18%, i.e. highly above chance levels. Substantial individual differences were observed between listeners. Importantly, superior overall performance of female listeners was qualified by an interaction between voice gender and listener gender. Male listeners exhibited an own-gender bias (i.e. better identification for male than female voices), whereas female listeners identified voices of both genders at similar levels. Individual own-gender identification biases were correlated with differences in reported contact to a speaker's voice and voice distinctiveness. Overall, the present study establishes a number of factors that account for substantial individual differences in personal voice identification. PMID:23168357

Skuk, Verena G; Schweinberger, Stefan R

2013-02-01

134

Musical familiarity in congenital amusia: evidence from a gating paradigm.  

PubMed

Congenital amusia has been described as a lifelong deficit of music perception and production, notably including amusic individuals' difficulties to recognize a familiar tune without the aid of lyrics. The present study aimed to evaluate whether amusic individuals might have acquired long-term knowledge of familiar music, and to test for the minimal amount of acoustic information necessary to access this knowledge (if any) in amusia. Segments of familiar and unfamiliar instrumental musical pieces were presented with increasing duration (250, 500, 1000 msec etc.), and participants provided familiarity judgments for each segment. Results showed that amusic individuals succeeded in differentiating familiar from unfamiliar excerpts with as little acoustic information as did control participants (i.e., within 500 msec). The findings reveal that amusic individuals have stored musical pieces in long-term memory (LTM), and, together with other recent findings, they suggest that congenital amusia might impair conscious access to music processing rather than music processing per se. PMID:25151640

Tillmann, Barbara; Albouy, Philippe; Caclin, Anne; Bigand, Emmanuel

2014-10-01

135

Memory Color Effect Induced by Familiarity of Brand Logos  

PubMed Central

Background When people are asked to adjust the color of familiar objects such as fruits until they appear achromatic, the subjective gray points of the objects are shifted away from the physical gray points in a direction opposite to the memory color (memory color effect). It is still unclear whether the discrepancy between memorized and actual colors of objects is dependent on the familiarity of the objects. Here, we conducted two experiments in order to examine the relationship between the degree of a subject’s familiarity with objects and the degree of the memory color effect by using logographs of food and beverage companies. Methods and Findings In Experiment 1, we measured the memory color effects of logos which varied in terms of their familiarity (high, middle, or low). Results demonstrate that the memory color effect occurs only in the high-familiarity condition, but not in the middle- and low-familiarity conditions. Furthermore, there is a positive correlation between the memory color effect and the actual number of domestic stores of the brand. In Experiment 2, we assessed the semantic association between logos and food/beverage names by using a semantic priming task to elucidate whether the memory color effect of logos relates to consumer brand cognition, and found that the semantic associations between logos and food/beverage names in the high-familiarity brands were stronger than those in the low-familiarity brands only when the logos were colored correctly, but not when they were appropriately or inappropriately colored, or achromatic. Conclusion The current results provide behavioral evidence of the relationship between the familiarity of objects and the memory color effect and suggest that the memory color effect increases with the familiarity of objects, albeit not constantly. PMID:23874638

Kimura, Atsushi; Wada, Yuji; Masuda, Tomohiro; Goto, Sho-ichi; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Hibino, Haruo; Cai, Dongsheng; Dan, Ippeita

2013-01-01

136

Smells familiar: group-joining decisions of predatory mites are mediated by olfactory cues of social familiarity?  

PubMed Central

Group-living animals frequently have to trade off the costs and benefits of leaving an established group and joining another group. Owing to their high fitness relevance, group-joining decisions are commonly nonrandom and may be based on traits of both individual members and the group such as life stage, body size, social status and group density or size, respectively. Many group-living animals are able to recognize and to associate preferentially with familiar individuals, i.e. those encountered before. Hence, after dispersing from established groups, animals commonly have to decide whether to join a new familiar or unfamiliar group. Using binary choice situations we assessed the effects of social familiarity on group-joining behaviour of the plant-inhabiting predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. Group living in P. persimilis is brought about by the patchy distribution of its spider mite prey and mutual conspecific attraction. In the first experiment, gravid predator females given a choice between spider mite patches occupied by unfamiliar and familiar groups of females strongly preferred to join familiar groups and to deposit their eggs in these patches. Preference for socially familiar groups was robust across biases of spider mite prey densities between choice options. The second experiment revealed that the predatory mite females can smell social familiarity from a distance. Females subjected to odour choice situations in artificial cages were more strongly attracted to the odour of familiar than unfamiliar groups. We argue that P. persimilis females preferentially join socially familiar groups because a familiar social environment relaxes competition and optimizes foraging and reproduction. PMID:24027341

Muleta, Muluken G.; Schausberger, Peter

2013-01-01

137

Choosing your informant: weighing familiarity and recent accuracy.  

PubMed

In two experiments, children aged 3, 4 and 5 years (N = 61) were given conflicting information about the names and functions of novel objects by two informants, one a familiar teacher, the other an unfamiliar teacher. On pre-test trials, all three age groups invested more trust in the familiar teacher. They preferred to ask for information and to endorse the information that she supplied. In a subsequent phase, children watched as the two teachers differed in the accuracy with which they named a set of familiar objects. Half the children saw the familiar teacher name the objects accurately and the unfamiliar teacher name them inaccurately. The remaining half saw the reverse arrangement. In post-test trials, the selective trust initially displayed by 3-year-olds was minimally affected by this intervening experience of differential accuracy. By contrast, the selective trust of 4- and 5-year-olds was affected. If the familiar teacher had been the more accurate, selective trust in her was intensified. If, on the other hand, the familiar teacher had been the less accurate, it was undermined, particularly among 5-year-olds. Thus, by 4 years of age, children trust familiar informants but moderate that trust depending on the informants' recent history of accuracy or inaccuracy. PMID:19371367

Corriveau, Kathleen; Harris, Paul L

2009-04-01

138

Age and the Neural Network of Personal Familiarity  

PubMed Central

Background Accessing information that defines personally familiar context in real-world situations is essential for the social interactions and the independent functioning of an individual. Personal familiarity is associated with the availability of semantic and episodic information as well as the emotional meaningfulness surrounding a stimulus. These features are known to be associated with neural activity in distinct brain regions across different stimulus conditions (e.g., when perceiving faces, voices, places, objects), which may reflect a shared neural basis. Although perceiving context-rich personal familiarity may appear unchanged in aging on the behavioral level, it has not yet been studied whether this can be supported by neuroimaging data. Methodology/Principal Findings We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neural network associated with personal familiarity during the perception of personally familiar faces and places. Twelve young and twelve elderly cognitively healthy subjects participated in the study. Both age groups showed a similar activation pattern underlying personal familiarity, predominantly in anterior cingulate and posterior cingulate cortices, irrespective of the stimulus type. The young subjects, but not the elderly subjects demonstrated an additional anterior cingulate deactivation when perceiving unfamiliar stimuli. Conclusions/Significance Although we found evidence for an age-dependent reduction in frontal cortical deactivation, our data show that there is a stimulus-independent neural network associated with personal familiarity of faces and places, which is less susceptible to aging-related changes. PMID:21203474

Jurjanz, Luisa; Huebner, Thomas; Herold, Ulf; Baeumler, Damaris; Amanatidis, Eva C.; Poettrich, Katrin; Smolka, Michael N.; Holthoff, Vjera A.

2010-01-01

139

Familiarity is not notoriety: phenomenological accounts of face recognition  

PubMed Central

From a phenomenological perspective, faces are perceived differently from objects as their perception always involves the possibility of a relational engagement (Bredlau, 2011). This is especially true for familiar faces, i.e., faces of people with a history of real relational engagements. Similarly, valence of emotional expressions assumes a key role, as they define the sense and direction of this engagement. Following these premises, the aim of the present study is to demonstrate that face recognition is facilitated by at least two variables, familiarity and emotional expression, and that perception of familiar faces is not influenced by orientation. In order to verify this hypothesis, we implemented a 3 × 3 × 2 factorial design, showing 17 healthy subjects three type of faces (unfamiliar, personally familiar, famous) characterized by three different emotional expressions (happy, hungry/sad, neutral) and in two different orientation (upright vs. inverted). We showed every subject a total of 180 faces with the instructions to give a familiarity judgment. Reaction times (RTs) were recorded and we found that the recognition of a face is facilitated by personal familiarity and emotional expression, and that this process is otherwise independent from a cognitive elaboration of stimuli and remains stable despite orientation. These results highlight the need to make a distinction between famous and personally familiar faces when studying face perception and to consider its historical aspects from a phenomenological point of view. PMID:25225476

Liccione, Davide; Moruzzi, Sara; Rossi, Federica; Manganaro, Alessia; Porta, Marco; Nugrahaningsih, Nahumi; Caserio, Valentina; Allegri, Nicola

2014-01-01

140

How familiar characters influence children's judgments about information and products.  

PubMed

Children are exposed to advertisements and products that incorporate familiar characters, such as Dora the Explorer and Bob the Builder, virtually from birth. How does the presence of these characters influence children's judgments about information and products? Three experiments (N=125) explored how 4-year-olds evaluate messages from familiar characters and how their trust in a familiar character's testimony relates to their product preferences. Children endorsed objective and subjective claims made by a familiar character more often than those made by a perceptually similar but unfamiliar character even in situations where they had evidence that the familiar character was unreliable. Children also preferred low-quality products bearing a familiar character's image over high-quality products without a character image up to 74% of the time (whereas control groups preferred the low-quality products less than 6% of the time when they did not include a character image). These findings suggest that young children are powerfully influenced by familiar characters encountered in the media, leaving them vulnerable to advertising messages and clouding their judgments about products. PMID:25038449

Danovitch, Judith H; Mills, Candice M

2014-12-01

141

Investigacin Centro de Investigacin y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politcnico Nacional  

E-print Network

ecosistemas costeros, calidad e Intrusión de agua costera de mar en acuíferos de agua dulce. Jorge Iván Euán técnicos, biológicos, de manejo y económicos, integralmente e independientemente, de agua dulce y marina

142

Investigacin Centro de Investigacin y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politcnico Nacional  

E-print Network

Nacional Departamento de Fisiología, Biofísica y Neurociencias Investigador Línea de Investigación Jorge Nacional Departamento de Fisiología, Biofísica y Neurociencias Investigador Línea de Investigación José

143

CENTRO DE INVESTIGACIN Y DE ESTUDIOS AVANZADOS DEL INSTITUTO POLITCNICO NACIONAL  

E-print Network

.1. Estudios de Factibilidad, Costo Beneficio e Investigación de Mercado 16 3.2. Consolidación 16 3 Contratación 21 3.15. POBALINES 21 4. Planeación, Programación y Presupuesto 22 4.1. Programa Anual de

144

Measuring recollection and familiarity: Improving the remember/know procedure.  

PubMed

The remember/know (RK) procedure is the most widely used method to investigate recollection and familiarity. It uses trial-by-trial reports to determine how much recollection and familiarity contribute to different kinds of recognition. Few other methods provide information about individual memory judgements and no alternative allows such direct indications of recollection and familiarity influences. Here we review how the RK procedure has been and should be used to help resolve theoretical disagreements about the processing and neural bases of components of recognition memory. Emphasis is placed on procedural weaknesses and a possible confound of recollection and familiarity with recognition memory strength. Recommendations are made about how to minimise these problems including using modified versions of the procedure. The proposals here are important for improving behavioural and lesion research, and vital for brain imaging work. PMID:22846231

Migo, Ellen M; Mayes, Andrew R; Montaldi, Daniela

2012-09-01

145

Facilitated detection of social cues conveyed by familiar faces  

PubMed Central

Recognition of the identity of familiar faces in conditions with poor visibility or over large changes in head angle, lighting and partial occlusion is far more accurate than recognition of unfamiliar faces in similar conditions. Here we used a visual search paradigm to test if one class of social cues transmitted by faces—direction of another's attention as conveyed by gaze direction and head orientation—is perceived more rapidly in personally familiar faces than in unfamiliar faces. We found a strong effect of familiarity on the detection of these social cues, suggesting that the times to process these signals in familiar faces are markedly faster than the corresponding processing times for unfamiliar faces. In the light of these new data, hypotheses on the organization of the visual system for processing faces are formulated and discussed. PMID:25228873

Visconti di Oleggio Castello, Matteo; Guntupalli, J. Swaroop; Yang, Hua; Gobbini, M. Ida

2014-01-01

146

Misgivings about the Matching Familiar Figures Test: Premature or Overdue?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responds to the arguments and evidence adduced by Kagan (1987) in his reply to the Block, Gjerde, and Block (1986) study questioning the validity of the Matching Familiar Figures Test (MFFT) as a measure of "reflection-impulsivity." (Author)

Block, Jack

1987-01-01

147

Image familiarization sharpens response dynamics of neurons in inferotemporal cortex.  

PubMed

Repeated viewing of an image over days and weeks induces a marked reduction in the strength with which neurons in monkey inferotemporal cortex respond to it. The processing advantage that attaches to this reduction is unknown. One possibility is that truncation of the response to a familiar image leaves neurons in a state of readiness to respond to ensuing images and thereby enhances their ability to track rapidly changing displays. We explored this possibility by assessing neuronal responses to familiar and novel images in rapid serial visual displays. Inferotemporal neurons responded more strongly to familiar than to novel images in such displays. The effect was stronger among putative inhibitory neurons than among putative excitatory neurons. A comparable effect occurred at the level of the scalp potential in humans. We conclude that long-term familiarization sharpens the response dynamics of neurons in both monkey and human extrastriate visual cortex. PMID:25151263

Meyer, Travis; Walker, Christopher; Cho, Raymond Y; Olson, Carl R

2014-10-01

148

Music and Emotions in the Brain: Familiarity Matters  

PubMed Central

The importance of music in our daily life has given rise to an increased number of studies addressing the brain regions involved in its appreciation. Some of these studies controlled only for the familiarity of the stimuli, while others relied on pleasantness ratings, and others still on musical preferences. With a listening test and a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment, we wished to clarify the role of familiarity in the brain correlates of music appreciation by controlling, in the same study, for both familiarity and musical preferences. First, we conducted a listening test, in which participants rated the familiarity and liking of song excerpts from the pop/rock repertoire, allowing us to select a personalized set of stimuli per subject. Then, we used a passive listening paradigm in fMRI to study music appreciation in a naturalistic condition with increased ecological value. Brain activation data revealed that broad emotion-related limbic and paralimbic regions as well as the reward circuitry were significantly more active for familiar relative to unfamiliar music. Smaller regions in the cingulate cortex and frontal lobe, including the motor cortex and Broca's area, were found to be more active in response to liked music when compared to disliked one. Hence, familiarity seems to be a crucial factor in making the listeners emotionally engaged with music, as revealed by fMRI data. PMID:22110619

Pereira, Carlos Silva; Teixeira, João; Figueiredo, Patrícia; Xavier, João; Castro, São Luís; Brattico, Elvira

2011-01-01

149

Vulnerabilidad psicosocial del cuidador familiar. Creencias acerca del estado de salud del paciente neurológico y el sentimiento de sobrecarga  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe aim of this study is to evaluate the role of family caregiver's beliefs of health status of neurological patients and its relation with the feeling of burden, as psychosocial factors of risk for their well-being, from the psychological stress model proposed by Lazarus and Folkman.

Carolina Feldberg; María Florencia Tartaglini; María Alejandra Clemente; Gustavo Petracca; Fernando Cáceres; Dorina Stefani

2011-01-01

150

Children do not exhibit ambiguity aversion despite intact familiarity bias  

PubMed Central

The phenomenon of ambiguity aversion, in which risky gambles with known probabilities are preferred over ambiguous gambles with unknown probabilities, has been thoroughly documented in adults but never measured in children. Here, we use two distinct tasks to investigate ambiguity preferences of children (8- to 9-year-olds) and a comparison group of adults (19- to 27-year-olds). Across three separate measures, we found evidence for significant ambiguity aversion in adults but not in children and for greater ambiguity aversion in adults compared to children. As ambiguity aversion in adults has been theorized to result from a preference to bet on the known and avoid the unfamiliar, we separately measured familiarity bias and found that children, like adults, are biased towards the familiar. Our findings indicate that ambiguity aversion emerges across the course of development between childhood and adolescence, while a familiarity bias is already present in childhood. PMID:25601848

Li, Rosa; Brannon, Elizabeth M.; Huettel, Scott A.

2015-01-01

151

A familiar font drives early emotional effects in word recognition.  

PubMed

The emotional connotation of a word is known to shift the process of word recognition. Using the electroencephalographic event-related potentials (ERPs) approach it has been documented that early attentional processing of high-arousing negative words is shifted at a stage of processing where a presented word cannot have been fully identified. Contextual learning has been discussed to contribute to these effects. The present study shows that a manipulation of the familiarity with a word's shape interferes with these earliest emotional ERP effects. Presenting high-arousing negative and neutral words in a familiar or an unfamiliar font results in very early emotion differences only in case of familiar shapes, whereas later processing stages reveal similar emotional effects in both font conditions. Because these early emotion-related differences predict later behavioral differences, it is suggested that contextual learning of emotional valence comprises more visual features than previously expected to guide early visual-sensory processing. PMID:25226214

Kuchinke, Lars; Krause, Beatrix; Fritsch, Nathalie; Briesemeister, Benny B

2014-10-01

152

TRANSNACIONALIZACIN PRODUCTIVA Y CALIDAD DEL EMPLEO EN LA FRUTICULTURA ARGENTINA DE  

E-print Network

­ 3 juillet 2010 Víctor Rau Investigador del CONICET (Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas) / Instituto de Investigaciones Gino Germani (Universidad de Buenos Aires) Pte J. E hemerográficos, y en el análisis de información primaria producida a través de técnicas cualitativas de

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

153

INSTITUTO DE INGENIERA DE PROCESOS QUMICOS Curso: Bsqueda activa de empleo y uso de redes sociales  

E-print Network

INSTITUTO DE INGENIERÍA DE PROCESOS QUÍMICOS Curso: Búsqueda activa de empleo y uso de redes y técnicas para buscar empleo en el universo 2.0 (redes sociales, canales de comunicación, feeds REDES SOCIALES Alicante, 4,7,11,14 y 18 de febrero. Convalidable por 1 crédito de libre elección en la

Escolano, Francisco

154

Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais Av. dos Astronautas, 1758 So Jos dos Campos, SP.  

E-print Network

Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais Av. dos Astronautas, 1758 ­ São José dos Campos, SP? #12;8) Num experimento de espalhamento de partículas de altas energias, verifica- se que as partículas

155

SUSANA CARDOSO DE FREITAS, INVESTIGADORA DO INSTITUTO DE ENGENHARIA DE SISTEMAS E COMPUTADORES (INESC-MN)  

E-print Network

instituto e a formação avançada na área das nanotecnologias. Os seus interesses de investigação incluem Nanotecnologias em Portugal. O grupo de Estado Sólido do INESC individuaíi- ZDU-se em 2002 como INESC-Microsis- temas e Nanotecnologias (INESC-MN), e tem conseguido afirmar-se nacional e internacionalmente em várias

Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

156

Histogram-Based HDR Video IMPA Instituto de Matematica Pura e Aplicada  

E-print Network

Histogram-Based HDR Video Luiz Velho IMPA ­ Instituto de Matematica Pura e Aplicada Figure 1: Captured LDR images with exposures -1.5 EV, 0 EV, +1.5 EV; HDR image in pseudocolor; and tonemapped image programs developed by pioneer researchers, such as HDRShop and Photosphere, HDR support has been

157

Hierarchical Triangle Strips IMPA --Instituto de Matem'atica Pura e Aplicada,  

E-print Network

Hierarchical Triangle Strips Luiz Velho IMPA -- Instituto de Matem'atica Pura e Aplicada, Estrada introduce a method to construct hierarchical triangle strips that completely cover surfaces given in many applications of geometric modeling and computer graphics. The triangle strips representation

158

Enlightenment, Education, and the Republican Project: Chile's "Instituto Nacional" (1810-1830)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article analyses the establishment of the "Instituto Nacional de Chile" between 1810 and 1830 as a crucial element of a political and cultural project advanced from an enlightened and republican elite. Its early inception in 1813 resulted from the necessity of consolidating a republican order, as shown by the different projects between 1810…

Baeza Ruz, Andres

2010-01-01

159

Alma Amparo Pieyro Nelson Instituto de Ecologa, Universidad Nacional Autnoma de Mxico.  

E-print Network

Alma Amparo Piñeyro Nelson Instituto de Ecología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Tercer-language movies for Videomax S.A. de C.V. 2001-2002. Peer-reviewed publications: Piñeyro-Nelson, A., Frank: mapping the road towards homeosis. (in preparation). Cappello, R.E., Piñeyro-Nelson, A., Ferrarini, A

160

Silent Gains: Instituto Buena Bista and Art as Catalyst among Curacaoan Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considering the limited opportunities and resources for creative education, artists David Bade and Tirzo Martha, along with art historian Nancy Hoffmann, developed a dynamic platform to support creative young talent on the Dutch Caribbean island of Curacao. The aim of Instituto Buena Bista (IBB), founded in 2006, is to strengthen the arena of…

Gonzalez, Iberia Perez

2010-01-01

161

Rethinking Familiarity: Remember/Know Judgments in Free Recall  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although frequently used with recognition, a few studies have used the Remember/Know procedure with free recall. In each case, participants gave Know judgments to a significant number of recalled items (items that were presumably not remembered on the basis of familiarity). What do these Know judgments mean? We investigated this issue using a…

Mickes, Laura; Seale-Carlisle, Travis M.; Wixted, John T.

2013-01-01

162

Prejudice, Social Distance, and Familiarity with Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the paths between two prejudicial attitudes (authoritarianism and benevolence) and a proxy measure of behavioral discrimination (social distance) were examined in a sample drawn from the general public. Moreover, the effects of two person variables (familiarity with mental illness and ethnicity) on prejudice were examined in the path analysis. One hundred fifty-one research participants completed measures of

Patrick W. Corrigan; Annette Backs Edwards; Amy Green; Sarah Lickey Diwan; David L. Penn

2001-01-01

163

Bluetooth Familiarity: Methods of Calculation, Applications and Limitations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an approach for utilising a mobile device's Bluetooth sensor to automatically identify social interactions and relationships between individuals in the real world. We show that a high degree of accuracy is achievable in the automatic identification of mobile devices of familiar individuals. This has implications for mobile device security, social networking and in context aware information access on

Barry Lavelle; Daragh Byrne; Cathal Gurrin; Alan F. Smeaton; Gareth J. F. Jones

164

Use of Interdisciplinary Education to Foster Familiarization among Health Professionals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a pilot interdisciplinary experience between the dental hygiene and medical technology programs at Marquette University. It was designed, in part, to familiarize dental hygiene students with the medical technology profession. Comments solicited from students on the final evaluation form indicated that this pilot project was highly…

Laatsch, Linda J.; And Others

1986-01-01

165

Sustained Effects of Adaptation on the Perception of Familiar Faces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Figural aftereffects are commonly believed to be transient and to fade away in the course of milliseconds. We tested face aftereffects using familiar faces and found sustained effects lasting up to 1 week. In 3 experiments, participants were first exposed to distorted pictures of famous persons and then had to select the veridical face in a…

Carbon, Claus-Christian; Ditye, Thomas

2011-01-01

166

Most people are familiar with the beautiful and often strikingly  

E-print Network

Most people are familiar with the beautiful and often strikingly unusual koi and goldfish used-green or brownish color with deep bodies and unre- markable fins. It is believed that the koi and goldfish varieties of koi and goldfish. "Fancy" varieties exhibit body parts in unusual shapes, positions or colors

Hill, Jeffrey E.

167

Nonagonistic familiarity decreases aggression in male Turkish hamsters, Mesocricetus brandti  

Microsoft Academic Search

In laboratory studies, hamsters (Mesocricetus spp.) show intense male-male aggression, thus making them an excellent model system for studies of the functional and mechanistic bases of aggression. In a field study of golden hamsters, M. auratus, in the wild, however, the few documented male-male interactions were not highly aggressive. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that familiarity modulates aggression in hamsters.

Javier delBarco-Trillo; M. Elsbeth McPhee; Robert E. Johnston

2009-01-01

168

Context Dependency of Conditioned Aversions to Familiar and Novel Fluids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a context discrimination procedure and rats as the subjects, the formation of context-dependent aversions to novel and familiar fluids was investigated. Experiment 1 revealed that context dependency could be established to a novel fluid (saccharin) after three cycles of context discrimination training and that the acquired context dependency…

Ishii, Kiyoshi; Iguchi, Yoshio; Sawa, Kosuke

2006-01-01

169

The Familiar Observer: Seeing beyond the Expected in Educational Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reflection on subjectivity in the qualitative research process is fundamental to the methodology. Although much attention is paid to what to do (identify subjectivities), there is much less emphasis on how one should do this. Furthermore, a researcher engaged in an intimately familiar setting, such as a typical American classroom, faces the unique…

Hollenbeck, Amy Feiker

2015-01-01

170

The Sensorimotor Contributions to Implicit Memory, Familiarity, and Recollection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The sensorimotor contributions to memory for prior occurrence were investigated. Previous research has shown that both implicit memory and familiarity draw on gains in stimulus-related processing fluency for old, compared with novel, stimuli, but recollection does not. Recently, it has been demonstrated that processing fluency itself resides in…

Topolinski, Sascha

2012-01-01

171

Effects of Adult Familiarity on Social Behaviours in Angelman Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Individuals with Angelman syndrome appear strongly motivated by social contact, but there have been few studies that have examined the relationship between sociability and familiarity. In this study we compared social behaviour in Angelman syndrome when in contact with mothers and strangers. Methods: We systematically manipulated adult…

Mount, R.; Oliver, C.; Berg, K.; Horsler, K.

2011-01-01

172

Familiarity and lie detection: A replication and extension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies of the relations among observer familiarity, perceived behavioral discrepancy, and judgmental accuracy in detecting deception are reported. In Study I, observers receiving either no prior exposure to baseline information on a communicator, one prior exposure, or repeated exposure made judgments of truthfulness or deceit on the part of 16 different communicators. Results indicated that observers having prior exposure

David R. Brandt; Gerald R. Miller; John E. Hocking

1982-01-01

173

Familiarity and Lie Detection: A Replication and Extension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reported two studies on the relations among observer familiarity, perceived behavioral discrepancy, and judgmental accuracy in detecting deceptions. Results indicated, among other findings, that observers having prior exposure to baseline information were significantly better at detecting deception, though repeated exposure did not significantly…

Brandt, David R.; And Others

1982-01-01

174

The Effect of Conceptual and Contextual Familiarity on Transfer Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Applying a previously learned concept to a novel problem is an important but difficult process called transfer. It is suggested that a commonsense analogy aids in transfer by linking novel concepts to familiar ones. How the context of practice affects transfer when learning using analogies is still unclear. This study investigated the effect of a…

Kulasegaram, Kulamakan; Min, Cynthia; Ames, Kimberly; Howey, Elizabeth; Neville, Alan; Norman, Geoffrey

2012-01-01

175

Familiarity Does Indeed Promote Attraction in Live Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Does familiarity promote attraction? Prior research has generally suggested that it does, but a recent set of studies by Norton, Frost, and Ariely (2007) challenged that assumption. Instead, they found that more information about another person, when that information was randomly selected from lists of trait adjectives, using a trait evaluation paradigm, promoted perceptions of dissimilarity and, hence, disliking. The

Harry T. Reis; Michael R. Maniaci; Peter A. Caprariello; Paul W. Eastwick; Eli J. Finkel

2011-01-01

176

Object Familiarity Facilitates Foreign Word Learning in Preschoolers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studying how children learn words in a foreign language can shed light on how language learning changes with development. In one experiment, we examined whether three-, four-, and five-year-olds could learn and remember words for familiar and unfamiliar objects in their native English and a foreign language. All age groups could learn and remember…

Sera, Maria D.; Cole, Caitlin A.; Oromendia, Mercedes; Koenig, Melissa A.

2014-01-01

177

Lesson Summary Students play a board game to become familiar  

E-print Network

Lesson Summary Students play a board game to become familiar with the hazards of space travel Prior Knowledge & Skills Understanding of: · Space travel · Radiation and other energy forms Ability to: · Perform with the relative hazards associated with space travel, and the attendant personal and governmental problems

Mojzsis, Stephen J.

178

Familiar Sports and Activities Adapted for Multiply Impaired Persons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Means of adapting some familiar and popular physical activities for multiply impaired persons are described. Games reviewed are dice baseball, one base baseball, in-house bowling, wheelchair bowling, ramp bowling, swing-ball bowling, table tennis, shuffleboard, beanbag bingo and tic-tac-toe, balloon basketball, circle football, and wheelchair…

Schilling, Mary Lou, Ed.

1984-01-01

179

Assessing Student Interest and Familiarity with Professional Psychology Specialty Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined undergraduate psychology students' (N = 83) self-reported interest in and familiarity with five specialty areas in professional psychology: counseling psychology, clinical psychology, school psychology, forensic psychology, and criminal profiling. Results suggest that although students are quite interested in careers…

Stark-Wroblewski, Kimberly; Wiggins, Tina L.; Ryan, Joseph J.

2006-01-01

180

Se inicia estudio de los NIH sobre respuestas excepcionales al tratamiento del cáncer  

Cancer.gov

La Iniciativa de Respuestas Excepcionales (Exceptional Responders Initiative), un estudio que investiga los factores moleculares de los tumores en pacientes de cáncer que responden en forma excepcional al tratamiento con medicamentos, se inició hoy bajo la guía del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI). Los científicos tratarán de identificar en los tumores las características moleculares que predicen si un medicamento o una clase de medicamento en particular será beneficioso o no.

181

In the Beginning Was the Familiar Voice Personally Familiar Voices in the Evolutionary and Contemporary Biology of Communication  

PubMed Central

The human voice is described in dialogic linguistics as an embodiment of self in a social context, contributing to expression, perception and mutual exchange of self, consciousness, inner life, and personhood. While these approaches are subjective and arise from phenomenological perspectives, scientific facts about personal vocal identity, and its role in biological development, support these views. It is our purpose to review studies of the biology of personal vocal identity -- the familiar voice pattern-- as providing an empirical foundation for the view that the human voice is an embodiment of self in the social context. Recent developments in the biology and evolution of communication are concordant with these notions, revealing that familiar voice recognition (also known as vocal identity recognition or individual vocal recognition) or contributed to survival in the earliest vocalizing species. Contemporary ethology documents the crucial role of familiar voices across animal species in signaling and perceiving internal states and personal identities. Neuropsychological studies of voice reveal multimodal cerebral associations arising across brain structures involved in memory, emotion, attention, and arousal in vocal perception and production, such that the voice represents the whole person. Although its roots are in evolutionary biology, human competence for processing layered social and personal meanings in the voice, as well as personal identity in a large repertory of familiar voice patterns, has achieved an immense sophistication. PMID:21710374

Sidtis, Diana; Kreiman, Jody

2011-01-01

182

Children's identification of familiar songs from pitch and timing cues  

PubMed Central

The goal of the present study was to ascertain whether children with normal hearing and prelingually deaf children with cochlear implants could use pitch or timing cues alone or in combination to identify familiar songs. Children 4–7 years of age were required to identify the theme songs of familiar TV shows in a simple task with excerpts that preserved (1) the relative pitch and timing cues of the melody but not the original instrumentation, (2) the timing cues only (rhythm, meter, and tempo), and (3) the relative pitch cues only (pitch contour and intervals). Children with normal hearing performed at high levels and comparably across the three conditions. The performance of child implant users was well above chance levels when both pitch and timing cues were available, marginally above chance with timing cues only, and at chance with pitch cues only. This is the first demonstration that children can identify familiar songs from monotonic versions—timing cues but no pitch cues—and from isochronous versions—pitch cues but no timing cues. The study also indicates that, in the context of a very simple task, young implant users readily identify songs from melodic versions that preserve pitch and timing cues. PMID:25147537

Volkova, Anna; Trehub, Sandra E.; Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Papsin, Blake C.; Gordon, Karen A.

2014-01-01

183

Familiarity effects on categorization levels of faces and objects  

PubMed Central

It is well established that faces, in contrast to objects, are categorized as fast or faster at the individual level (e.g., Bill Clinton) than at the basic-level (e.g., human face). This subordinate-shift from basic-level categorization has been considered an outcome of visual expertise with processing faces. However, in the present study we found that, similar to familiar faces, categorization of individually-known familiar towers is also faster at the individual level than at the basic-level in naïve participants. In addition, category-verification of familiar stimuli, at basic and superordinate levels, was slower and less accurate compared to unfamiliar stimuli. Thus, the existence of detailed semantic information, regardless of expertise, can induce a shift in the default level of object categorization from basic to individual level. Moreover, the individually-specific knowledge is not only more easily-retrieved from memory but it might also interfere with accessing more general category information. PMID:19217085

Anaki, David; Bentin, Shlomo

2009-01-01

184

Familiarity and Retrieval Processes in Delayed Judgments of Learning  

PubMed Central

Two processes are postulated to underlie delayed judgments of learning (JOLs) -- cue familiarity and target retrievability. The two processes are distinguishable because the familiarity-based judgments are thought to be faster than the retrieval-based processes, because only retrieval-based JOLs should enhance the relative accuracy of the correlations between the JOLs and criterion test performance, and because only retrieval-based judgments should enhance memory. To test these predictions, in three experiments, we either speeded people’s JOLs or allowed them to be unspeeded. The relative accuracy of the JOLs in predicting performance on the criterion test was higher for the unspeeded JOLs than for the speeded JOLs, as predicted. The unspeeded JOL conditions showed enhanced memory as compared to the speeded JOL conditions, as predicted. And finally, the unspeeded JOLs were sensitive to manipulations that modified recallability of the target, while the speeded JOLs were selectively sensitive to experimental variations in the familiarity of the cues. Thus, all three of the predictions about the consequences of the two processes potentially underlying delayed JOLs were borne out. A model of the processes underlying delayed JOLs, based on these and earlier results is presented. PMID:18763893

Metcalfe, Janet; Finn, Bridgid

2008-01-01

185

Ball Bearings - Investigating the effect of lasting familiar size representations on prehensile movement using tennis balls   

E-print Network

This study was designed to examine whether the learned pictorial depth cue of familiar size is a constantly stored artefact. The attempt was to distinguish whether the familiar size effect occurs only after recent ...

Styles, James Edward

2009-07-03

186

Recollection, Familiarity and the frontal lobes: the effects of healthy adult aging   

E-print Network

According to the dual process theory of memory there are two processes that contribute to recognition memory: familiarity and recollection. The present study looks at the effects of healthy adult aging on recollection and familiarity...

Allan, Elizabeth

2008-06-28

187

Investigating Faculty Familiarity with Assessment Terminology by Applying Cluster Analysis to Interpret Survey Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A cluster analysis was conducted with a set of survey data on chemistry faculty familiarity with 13 assessment terms. Cluster groupings suggest a high, middle, and low overall familiarity with the terminology and an independent high and low familiarity with terms related to fundamental statistics. The six resultant clusters were found to be…

Raker, Jeffrey R.; Holme, Thomas A.

2014-01-01

188

Familiarity and Sex Based Stereotypes on Instant Impressions of Male and Female Faculty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To address the stranger-to-stranger critique of stereotyping research, psychology students (n = 139) and law students (n = 58) rated photographs of familiar or unfamiliar male or female professors on competence. Results from Study 1 indicated that familiar male psychology faculty were rated as more competent than were familiar female faculty,…

Nadler, Joel T.; Berry, Seth A.; Stockdale, Margaret S.

2013-01-01

189

Influence of Familiarity on Identifying Prosodic Vocalizations Produced by Children with Severe Dysarthria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Familiarity is thought to aid listeners in decoding disordered speech; however, as the speech signal degrades, the "familiarity advantage" becomes less beneficial. Despite highly unintelligible speech sound production, many children with dysarthria vocalize when interacting with familiar caregivers. Perhaps listeners can understand these…

Patel, Rupal; Schroeder, Bethany

2007-01-01

190

Temporal Aspects of the Feeling of Familiarity for Music and the Emergence of Conceptual Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We tested whether the emergence of familiarity to a melody may trigger or co-occur with the processing of the concept(s) conveyed by emotions to, or semantic association with, the melody. With this objective, we recorded ERPs while participants were presented with highly familiar and less familiar melodies in a gating paradigm. The ERPs time…

Daltrozzo, Jerome; Tillmann, Barbara; Platel, Herve; Schon, Daniele

2010-01-01

191

ROLE OF FAMILIARITY IN AUDITORY DISCRIMINATION OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENT: A LATERALITY STUDY  

E-print Network

representation of the familiar instrument timbres, may recruit more of the left-hemisphere structures and henceROLE OF FAMILIARITY IN AUDITORY DISCRIMINATION OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENT: A LATERALITY STUDY Claude by familiar natural instruments (violin, flute, guitar and drum), and the other subjects performed the same

192

Lay causal theories and familiarity with mental illness 1 The Blame Game  

E-print Network

Lay causal theories and familiarity with mental illness 1 The Blame Game: Lay causal theories and familiarity with mental illness Margaret A. Martinez Senior Thesis in Psychology Advisor: Susan Nolen-Hoeksema April 19, 2010 #12;Lay causal theories and familiarity with mental illness 2 Abstract The present study

Scholl, Brian

193

Face familiarity feelings, the right temporal lobe and the possible underlying neural mechanisms.  

PubMed

A comprehensive review was made of the relationships between right hemisphere and face familiarity feelings, taking separately into account: (a) studies of patients with unilateral lesions of the anterior or the posterior parts of the right and left temporal lobes, who showed a familiar people recognition disorder, (b) studies of right and left brain-damaged patients, presenting an increased familiarity for unknown persons or abnormal familiarity feelings for well known people, (c) results of studies conducted in normal subjects to evaluate the lateralization of face familiarity feelings. In this last section, we separately reviewed: results obtained by means of separate presentation of familiar and unfamiliar faces to the right and left visual fields; lateralization of event-related potentials evoked by familiar vs unfamiliar faces; results of activation studies presenting familiar and unfamiliar faces. Taken together, results of this review have shown that face familiarity feelings are specifically generated by the right hemisphere. Clinical and neurophysiological data suggest that familiarity feelings: (1) are probably due to a lateralized subcortical route, allowing a first, unconscious, global recognition of familiar faces and (2) facilitate the subsequent distinction of known faces (unconsciously detected) from unfamiliar faces. Results of the review have also shown that the right frontal areas play an important role in the production or monitoring of inappropriate familiarity decisions. PMID:17822771

Gainotti, Guido

2007-11-01

194

How Does the Brain Discriminate Familiar and Unfamiliar Faces?: A PET Study of Face Categorical Perception  

E-print Network

How Does the Brain Discriminate Familiar and Unfamiliar Faces?: A PET Study of Face Categorical Abstract & Where and how does the brain discriminate familiar and unfamiliar faces? This question has and unfamiliar faces, or because familiar faces were associated with semantic and lexical information. Here eight

Rossion, Bruno

195

ANTECEDENTES TEÓRICOS Y EMPÍRICOS DEL USO DE MÉTODOS DE PLANIFICACIÓN FAMILIAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document presents a theoretical and empirical review on main determinants that influence the family planning use. Some of the variables analyzed are civil status of women, educational level, knowledge and use of family planning methods, family planning of teenage population, among others. Within empirical evidence was found that the knowledge of anticonception methods is generalized, existing a high use

MARISOL TORRES RODRÍGUEZ; PATRICIA GONZÁLEZ ROMÁN

2009-01-01

196

Discrimination of familiar human faces in dogs (Canis familiaris)  

PubMed Central

Faces are an important visual category for many taxa, and the human face is no exception to this. Because faces differ in subtle ways and possess many idiosyncratic features, they provide a rich source of perceptual cues. A fair amount of those cues are learned through social interactions and are used for future identification of individual humans. These effects of individual experience can be studied particularly well in hetero-specific face perception. Domestic dogs represent a perfect model in this respect, due to their proved ability to extract important information from the human face in socio-communicative interactions. There is also suggestive evidence that dogs can identify their owner or other familiar human individuals by using visual information from the face. However, most studies have used only dogs’ looking behavior to examine their visual processing of human faces and it has been demonstrated only that dogs can differentiate between familiar and unknown human faces. Here, we examined the dog's ability to discriminate the faces of two familiar persons by active choice (approach and touch). Furthermore, in successive stages of the experiment we investigated how well dogs discriminate humans in different representations by systematically reducing the informational richness and the quality of the stimuli. We found a huge inter-individual and inter-stage variance in performance, indicating differences across dogs in their learning ability as well as their selection of discriminative cues. On a group level, the performance of dogs significantly decreased when they were presented with pictures of human heads after having learned to discriminate the real heads, and when – after relearning – confronted with the same pictures showing only the inner parts of the heads. However, as two dogs quickly mastered all stages, we conclude that dogs are in principle able to discriminate people on the basis of visual information from their faces and by making active choices. PMID:24187385

Huber, Ludwig; Racca, Anaïs; Scaf, Billy; Virányi, Zsófia; Range, Friederike

2013-01-01

197

STS-95 crew members participate in a SPACEHAB familiarization exercise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Inside the SPACECHAB training module, STS-95 Payload Specialist John Glenn, who is a senator from Ohio, tries on the mesh cap that he will wear on the mission to monitor and record brain waves during sleep. Mission Specialist Scott Parazynski, M.D., watches. Parazynski and Glenn are participating in SPACEHAB familiarization at the SPACEHAB Payload Processing Facility, Cape Canaveral. The mission, scheduled to launch Oct. 29, includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

1998-01-01

198

You sound familiar: carrion crows can differentiate between the calls of known and unknown heterospecifics.  

PubMed

In group-living animals, it is adaptive to recognize conspecifics on the basis of familiarity or group membership as it allows association with preferred social partners and avoidance of competitors. However, animals do not only associate with conspecifics but also with heterospecifics, for example in mixed-species flocks. Consequently, between-species recognition, based either on familiarity or even individual recognition, is likely to be beneficial. The extent to which animals can distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar heterospecifics is currently unclear. In the present study, we investigated the ability of eight carrion crows to differentiate between the voices and calls of familiar and unfamiliar humans and jackdaws. The crows responded significantly more often to unfamiliar than familiar human playbacks and, conversely, responded more to familiar than unfamiliar jackdaw calls. Our results provide the first evidence that birds can discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar heterospecific individuals using auditory stimuli. PMID:22538713

Wascher, Claudia A F; Szipl, Georgine; Boeckle, Markus; Wilkinson, Anna

2012-09-01

199

Jacopo del Sellaio, "The Adoration of the Magi."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers a full-color reproduction of Jacopo del Sellaio's painting, "The Adoration of the Magi," and a lesson plan for using it with children in grades four through six. The goal of the lesson is to familiarize students with the concept of symbolism and its use in early Christian art. (JDH)

Linerode, Darla

1986-01-01

200

Miami: Meca del exilio cubano y escenario medido aunque efervescente  

E-print Network

exiliados que viajan a la isla a visitar a sus familiares conocen de primera mano. Este sentido de la marginalidad, del exilio interno, lo explora Sarraín, de nuevo, en lo que ha sido posiblemente su montaje más brillante, Delirio habanero, de Pedro...

Rizk, Beatriz J.

2000-10-01

201

Content of methylated inositols in familiar edible plants.  

PubMed

Familiar plants contain large amounts of inositols; soybean, white clover, red clover, bush clover, locust tree, wisteria, and kudzu of the legume family contain pinitol (3-O-methyl-chiro-inositol) at approximately 200-600 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW). The contents of pinitol in other plants were 260 mg/100 g FW for sticky mouse-ear, 275 mg/100 g FW for chickweed, and 332 mg/100 g FW for ginkgo. chiro-Inositol of 191 and 156 mg/100 g FW was also found in dandelion and Japanese mallotus, respectively. Ononitol (4-O-methyl-myo-inositol) of 166 mg/100 g FW was found in sticky mouse-ear. Furthermore, young leaves of ginkgo contained sequoyitol (5-O-methyl-myo-inositol) of 287 mg/100 g FW. Hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of the methylated inositols were higher than those of the original inositols. Effective uses of these familiar edible plants are expected to promote good health. PMID:25734537

Negishi, Osamu; Mun'im, Abdul; Negishi, Yukiko

2015-03-18

202

Two separate, but interacting, neural systems for familiarity and novelty detection: a dual-route mechanism.  

PubMed

It has long been assumed that familiarity- and novelty-related processes fall on a single continuum drawing on the same cognitive and neural mechanisms. The possibility that familiarity and novelty processing involve distinct neural networks was explored in a functional magnetic resonance imaging study (fMRI), in which familiarity and novelty judgments were made in contexts emphasizing either familiarity or novelty decisions. Parametrically modulated BOLD responses to familiarity and novelty strength were isolated in two separate, nonoverlapping brain networks. The novelty system involved brain regions along the ventral visual stream, the hippocampus, and the perirhinal and parahippocampal cortices. The familiarity system, on the other hand, involved the dorsomedial thalamic nucleus, and regions within the medial prefrontal cortex and the medial and lateral parietal cortex. Convergence of the two networks, treating familiarity and novelty as a single continuum was only found in a fronto-parietal network. Finally, the orbitomedial prefrontal cortex was found to be sensitive to reported strength/confidence, irrespective of stimulus' familiarity or novelty. This pattern of results suggests a dual-route mechanism supported by the existence of two distinct but interacting functional systems for familiarity and novelty. Overall, these findings challenge current assumptions regarding the neural systems that support the processing of novel and familiar information, and have important implications for research into the neural bases of recognition memory. PMID:24436072

Kafkas, Alexandros; Montaldi, Daniela

2014-05-01

203

STS-95 crew members participate in a SPACEHAB familiarization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-95 crew members look over the Osteoporosis Experiment in Orbit (OSTEO) during a SPACEHAB familiarization tour and briefing in the SPACEHAB Payload Processing Facility in Cape Canaveral. Seated from left are Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai of the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), and Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., who also is a senator from Ohio. Standing, from left, are STS-95 Commander Curtis L. Brown and Canadian Space Agency representative Duncan Burnside. STS-95 will feature a variety of research payloads, including the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, and experiments on space flight and the aging process. STS-95 is targeted for an Oct. 29 launch aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery.

1998-01-01

204

From novel to familiar: Tuning the brain for metaphors  

PubMed Central

Metaphors are fundamental to creative thought and expression. Newly coined metaphors regularly infiltrate our collective vocabulary and gradually become familiar, but how does this shift from novel to conventionalized meaning happen in the brain? We investigated the neural career of metaphors in a functional magnetic resonance imaging study using extensively normed new metaphors and simulated the ordinary, gradual experience of metaphor conventionalization by manipulating participants’ exposure to these metaphors. Results showed that the conventionalization of novel metaphors specifically tunes activity within bilateral inferior prefrontal cortex, left posterior middle temporal gyrus, and right postero-lateral occipital cortex. These results support theoretical accounts attributing a role for the right hemisphere in processing novel, low salience figurative meanings, but also show that conventionalization of metaphoric meaning is a bilaterally-mediated process. Metaphor conventionalization entails a decreased neural load within semantic networks rather than a hemispheric or regional shift across brain areas. PMID:22155328

Cardillo, Eileen R.; Watson, Christine E.; Schmidt, Gwenda L.; Kranjec, Alexander; Chatterjee, Anjan

2012-01-01

205

Monodialectal and multidialectal infants' representation of familiar words.  

PubMed

Monolingual infants are typically studied as a homogenous group and compared to bilingual infants. This study looks further into two subgroups of monolingual infants, monodialectal and multidialectal, to identify the effects of dialect-related variation on the phonological representation of words. Using an Intermodal Preferential Looking task, the detection of mispronunciations in familiar words was compared in infants aged 1;8 exposed to consistent (monodialectal) or variable (multidialectal) pronunciations of words in their daily input. Only monodialectal infants detected the mispronunciations whereas multidialectal infants looked longer at the target following naming whether the label was correctly produced or not. This suggests that variable phonological input in the form of dialect variation impacts the degree of specificity of lexical representations in early infancy. PMID:24655564

Durrant, Samantha; Delle Luche, Claire; Cattani, Allegra; Floccia, Caroline

2015-03-01

206

Does familiarity with computers affect computerized neuropsychological test performance?  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine whether self-reported computer familiarity is related to performance on computerized neurocognitive testing. Participants were 130 healthy adults who self-reported whether their computer use was "some" (n = 65) or "frequent" (n = 65). The two groups were individually matched on age, education, sex, and race. All completed the CNS Vital Signs (Gualtieri & Johnson, 2006b) computerized neurocognitive battery. There were significant differences on 6 of the 23 scores, including scores derived from the Symbol-Digit Coding Test, Stroop Test, and the Shifting Attention Test. The two groups were also significantly different on the Psychomotor Speed (Cohen's d = 0.37), Reaction Time (d = 0.68), Complex Attention (d = 0.40), and Cognitive Flexibility (d = 0.64) domain scores. People with "frequent" computer use performed better than people with "some" computer use on some tests requiring rapid visual scanning and keyboard work. PMID:18972312

Iverson, Grant L; Brooks, Brian L; Ashton, V Lynn; Johnson, Lynda G; Gualtieri, C Thomas

2009-07-01

207

From network heterogeneities to familiarity detection and hippocampal memory management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hippocampal-neocortical interactions are key to the rapid formation of novel associative memories in the hippocampus and consolidation to long term storage sites in the neocortex. We investigated the role of network correlates during information processing in hippocampal-cortical networks. We found that changes in the intrinsic network dynamics due to the formation of structural network heterogeneities alone act as a dynamical and regulatory mechanism for stimulus novelty and familiarity detection, thereby controlling memory management in the context of memory consolidation. This network dynamic, coupled with an anatomically established feedback between the hippocampus and the neocortex, recovered heretofore unexplained properties of neural activity patterns during memory management tasks which we observed during sleep in multiunit recordings from behaving animals. Our simple dynamical mechanism shows an experimentally matched progressive shift of memory activation from the hippocampus to the neocortex and thus provides the means to achieve an autonomous off-line progression of memory consolidation.

Wang, Jane X.; Poe, Gina; Zochowski, Michal

2008-10-01

208

STS-95 crew members participate in a SPACEHAB familiarization exercise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Inside the SPACEHAB training module, STS-95 Mission Specialist Scott Parazynski, M.D., helps with connections on the mesh cap worn by Payload Specialist John Glenn, who is a senator from Ohio. Glenn is also wearing the Respiratory Inductance Plethysmograph (RIP) suit he will wear on the mission to monitor respiration. The cap and suit are part of the equipment that will be used to seek to improve the quality of sleep for future astronauts. The STS-95 crew are participating in SPACEHAB familiarization at the SPACEHAB Payload Processing Facility, Cape Canaveral. The mission, scheduled to launch Oct. 29, includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

1998-01-01

209

STS-95 crew members participate in a SPACEHAB familiarization exercise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Inside the SPACEHAB training module, STS-95 Mission Specialist Scott Parazynski, M.D., helps adjust connections for the mesh cap and the Respiratory Inductance Plethysmograph (RIP) suit worn by Payload Specialist John Glenn, who is a senator from Ohio. The cap and suit, which Glenn will wear on the mission, are part of the equipment that will be used to seek to improve the quality of sleep for future astronauts. The STS-95 crew are participating in SPACEHAB familiarization at the SPACEHAB Payload Processing Facility, Cape Canaveral. The mission, scheduled to launch Oct. 29, includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar- observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

1998-01-01

210

STS-95 crew members participate in a SPACEHAB familiarization exercise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Inside the SPACEHAB training module, STS-95 Mission Specialist Scott Parazynski, M.D. (right), attaches sensors to the mesh cap worn by Payload Specialist John Glenn (back to camera). In the background is Ann Elliott, University of California, San Diego. Glenn will wear the cap on the mission to monitor and record brain waves during sleep. Parazynski and Glenn are participating in SPACEHAB familiarization at the SPACEHAB Payload Processing Facility, Cape Canaveral. The mission, scheduled to launch Oct. 29, includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar- observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

1998-01-01

211

Social familiarity modulates group living and foraging behaviour of juvenile predatory mites.  

PubMed

Environmental stressors during early life may have persistent consequences for phenotypic development and fitness. In group-living species, an important stressor during juvenile development is the presence and familiarity status of conspecific individuals. To alleviate intraspecific conflicts during juvenile development, many animals evolved the ability to discriminate familiar and unfamiliar individuals based on prior association and use this ability to preferentially associate with familiar individuals. Assuming that familiar neighbours require less attention than unfamiliar ones, as predicted by limited attention theory, assorting with familiar individuals should increase the efficiency in other tasks. We assessed the influence of social familiarity on within-group association behaviour, development and foraging of juvenile life stages of the group-living, plant-inhabiting predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. The observed groups consisted either of mixed-age familiar and unfamiliar juvenile mites or of age-synchronized familiar or unfamiliar juvenile mites or of pairs of familiar or unfamiliar larvae. Overall, familiar mites preferentially grouped together and foraged more efficiently, i.e. needed less prey at similar developmental speed and body size at maturity, than unfamiliar mites. Preferential association of familiar mites was also apparent in the inter-exuviae distances. Social familiarity was established by imprinting in the larval stage, was not cancelled or overridden by later conspecific contacts and persisted into adulthood. Life stage had an effect on grouping with larvae being closer together than nymphal stages. Ultimately, optimized foraging during the developmental phase may relax within-group competition, enhance current and future food supply needed for optimal development and optimize patch exploitation and leaving under limited food. PMID:22418859

Strodl, Markus A; Schausberger, Peter

2012-04-01

212

Social familiarity modulates group living and foraging behaviour of juvenile predatory mites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental stressors during early life may have persistent consequences for phenotypic development and fitness. In group-living species, an important stressor during juvenile development is the presence and familiarity status of conspecific individuals. To alleviate intraspecific conflicts during juvenile development, many animals evolved the ability to discriminate familiar and unfamiliar individuals based on prior association and use this ability to preferentially associate with familiar individuals. Assuming that familiar neighbours require less attention than unfamiliar ones, as predicted by limited attention theory, assorting with familiar individuals should increase the efficiency in other tasks. We assessed the influence of social familiarity on within-group association behaviour, development and foraging of juvenile life stages of the group-living, plant-inhabiting predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. The observed groups consisted either of mixed-age familiar and unfamiliar juvenile mites or of age-synchronized familiar or unfamiliar juvenile mites or of pairs of familiar or unfamiliar larvae. Overall, familiar mites preferentially grouped together and foraged more efficiently, i.e. needed less prey at similar developmental speed and body size at maturity, than unfamiliar mites. Preferential association of familiar mites was also apparent in the inter-exuviae distances. Social familiarity was established by imprinting in the larval stage, was not cancelled or overridden by later conspecific contacts and persisted into adulthood. Life stage had an effect on grouping with larvae being closer together than nymphal stages. Ultimately, optimized foraging during the developmental phase may relax within-group competition, enhance current and future food supply needed for optimal development and optimize patch exploitation and leaving under limited food.

Strodl, Markus A.; Schausberger, Peter

2012-04-01

213

Effects of Individual Health Topic Familiarity on Activity Patterns During Health Information Searches  

PubMed Central

Background Non-medical professionals (consumers) are increasingly using the Internet to support their health information needs. However, the cognitive effort required to perform health information searches is affected by the consumer’s familiarity with health topics. Consumers may have different levels of familiarity with individual health topics. This variation in familiarity may cause misunderstandings because the information presented by search engines may not be understood correctly by the consumers. Objective As a first step toward the improvement of the health information search process, we aimed to examine the effects of health topic familiarity on health information search behaviors by identifying the common search activity patterns exhibited by groups of consumers with different levels of familiarity. Methods Each participant completed a health terminology familiarity questionnaire and health information search tasks. The responses to the familiarity questionnaire were used to grade the familiarity of participants with predefined health topics. The search task data were transcribed into a sequence of search activities using a coding scheme. A computational model was constructed from the sequence data using a Markov chain model to identify the common search patterns in each familiarity group. Results Forty participants were classified into L1 (not familiar), L2 (somewhat familiar), and L3 (familiar) groups based on their questionnaire responses. They had different levels of familiarity with four health topics. The video data obtained from all of the participants were transcribed into 4595 search activities (mean 28.7, SD 23.27 per session). The most frequent search activities and transitions in all the familiarity groups were related to evaluations of the relevancy of selected web pages in the retrieval results. However, the next most frequent transitions differed in each group and a chi-squared test confirmed this finding (P<.001). Next, according to the results of a perplexity evaluation, the health information search patterns were best represented as a 5-gram sequence pattern. The most common patterns in group L1 were frequent query modifications, with relatively low search efficiency, and accessing and evaluating selected results from a health website. Group L2 performed frequent query modifications, but with better search efficiency, and accessed and evaluated selected results from a health website. Finally, the members of group L3 successfully discovered relevant results from the first query submission, performed verification by accessing several health websites after they discovered relevant results, and directly accessed consumer health information websites. Conclusions Familiarity with health topics affects health information search behaviors. Our analysis of state transitions in search activities detected unique behaviors and common search activity patterns in each familiarity group during health information searches. PMID:25783222

Moriyama, Koichi; Fukui, Ken–ichi; Numao, Masayuki

2015-01-01

214

Sex-specific responses to sexual familiarity, and the role of olfaction in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Studies of mating preferences have largely neglected the potential effects of individuals encountering their previous mates (‘directly sexually familiar’), or new mates that share similarities to previous mates, e.g. from the same family and/or environment (‘phenotypically sexually familiar’). Here, we show that male and female Drosophila melanogaster respond to the direct and phenotypic sexual familiarity of potential mates in fundamentally different ways. We exposed a single focal male or female to two potential partners. In the first experiment, one potential partner was novel (not previously encountered) and one was directly familiar (their previous mate); in the second experiment, one potential partner was novel (unrelated, and from a different environment from the previous mate) and one was phenotypically familiar (from the same family and rearing environment as the previous mate). We found that males preferentially courted novel females over directly or phenotypically familiar females. By contrast, females displayed a weak preference for directly and phenotypically familiar males over novel males. Sex-specific responses to the familiarity of potential mates were significantly weaker or absent in Orco1 mutants, which lack a co-receptor essential for olfaction, indicating a role for olfactory cues in mate choice over novelty. Collectively, our results show that direct and phenotypic sexual familiarity is detected through olfactory cues and play an important role in sex-specific sexual behaviour. PMID:24068355

Tan, Cedric K. W.; Løvlie, Hanne; Greenway, Elisabeth; Goodwin, Stephen F.; Pizzari, Tommaso; Wigby, Stuart

2013-01-01

215

Sex-specific responses to sexual familiarity, and the role of olfaction in Drosophila.  

PubMed

Studies of mating preferences have largely neglected the potential effects of individuals encountering their previous mates ('directly sexually familiar'), or new mates that share similarities to previous mates, e.g. from the same family and/or environment ('phenotypically sexually familiar'). Here, we show that male and female Drosophila melanogaster respond to the direct and phenotypic sexual familiarity of potential mates in fundamentally different ways. We exposed a single focal male or female to two potential partners. In the first experiment, one potential partner was novel (not previously encountered) and one was directly familiar (their previous mate); in the second experiment, one potential partner was novel (unrelated, and from a different environment from the previous mate) and one was phenotypically familiar (from the same family and rearing environment as the previous mate). We found that males preferentially courted novel females over directly or phenotypically familiar females. By contrast, females displayed a weak preference for directly and phenotypically familiar males over novel males. Sex-specific responses to the familiarity of potential mates were significantly weaker or absent in Orco(1) mutants, which lack a co-receptor essential for olfaction, indicating a role for olfactory cues in mate choice over novelty. Collectively, our results show that direct and phenotypic sexual familiarity is detected through olfactory cues and play an important role in sex-specific sexual behaviour. PMID:24068355

Tan, Cedric K W; Løvlie, Hanne; Greenway, Elisabeth; Goodwin, Stephen F; Pizzari, Tommaso; Wigby, Stuart

2013-11-22

216

E S P A O L V A L E N C I E N G L I S H Instituto Universitario de Investigacin Informtica  

E-print Network

S C A R Universidad de Alicante Instituto Universitario de Investigación Informática Hacker Club IUII EMPRESAS ORGANISMOS PÚBLICOS OBSERVATORIO HACKER CLUB HA C K E R C L U B El Instituto Universitario de Investigación Informática (IUII) colabora con el Hacker Club en la potenciación de proyectos y start-ups. Hacker

Escolano, Francisco

217

2006/3/13 IVIGIVIG --Instituto Virtual Internacional de MudanInstituto Virtual Internacional de Mudanas Globaisas Globais Centro de Tecnologia, Bloco I, Sala 129 CEP: 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro RJ  

E-print Network

Mudançças Globaisas Globais Centro de Tecnologia, Bloco I, Sala 129 ­ CEP: 21945-970 ­ Rio de Janeiro ­ RJ Mudançças Globaisas Globais Centro de Tecnologia, Bloco I, Sala 129 ­ CEP: 21945-970 ­ Rio de Janeiro ­ RJ MudanInstituto Virtual Internacional de Mudançças Globaisas Globais Centro de Tecnologia, Bloco I, Sala

Columbia University

218

Responsibilities During Emergencies Faculty and Instructors: Be familiar with emergency procedures and evacuation  

E-print Network

in your class. Supervisors: Be familiar with emergency procedures and evacuation routes and account and evacuation routes. Keep a cell phone programmed with emergency numbers. IT IS CRITICAL THAT SOMEONE KNOWS the building specific evacuation diagrams. Staff: Be familiar with emergency procedures and evacuation routes

219

Basic Processes in Reading: On the Relation between Spatial Attention and Familiarity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments combined a spatial cueing manipulation (valid vs. invalid spatial cues) with a stimulus repetition manipulation (repeated vs. nonrepeated) in order to assess the hypothesis that familiar items need less spatial attention than less familiar ones. The magnitude of the effect of cueing on reading aloud time for items that were…

Risko, Evan F.; Stolz, Jennifer A.; Besner, Derek

2011-01-01

220

Searching for "Familiar Strangers" on Blogosphere: Problems and Challenges Nitin Agarwal*, Huan Liu*, John Salerno+  

E-print Network

of fellow bloggers, and these blogging groups are largely disconnected from each other. Familiar strangers or community blog sites. The nature of the Web is a scale-free network, which determines that a power law. Finding familiar strangers on Blogosphere presents a challenge resulting from their disconnectedness. We

Liu, Huan

221

LETTER Communicated by Rafal Bogacz Dynamics and Robustness of Familiarity Memory  

E-print Network

'Reilly, 2003). It appears that the medial temporal lobe, in addition to the prefrontal cortex, plays a critical role in familiarity memory. One patient with an in- tact prefrontal cortex but impaired medial temporal lobe revealed severe deficits in familiarity processing (Bowles et al., 2007). (For recent reviews

Cortes, Jesus

222

Word Learning in Adults with Second-Language Experience: Effects of Phonological and Referent Familiarity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The goal of this research was to examine whether phonological familiarity exerts different effects on novel word learning for familiar versus unfamiliar referents and whether successful word learning is associated with increased second-language experience. Method: Eighty-one adult native English speakers with various levels of Spanish…

Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon; Van Hecke, Stephanie

2013-01-01

223

Young Malaysians' chocolate brand familiarity: the effect of brand's country of origin and consumer consumption level  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Consumer brand familiarity influences product judgment and the purchase decision. This study aims to examine consumer familiarity towards local and foreign chocolate brands and how it is related to brands' country of origin and their consumption level. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The methodology was convenience sampling collected from a 100-student sample. Findings – The findings indicate that a chocolate brand's

Teo Poh Chuin; Osman Mohamad

2012-01-01

224

Boys Affiliate More than Girls with a Familiar Same-Sex Peer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence from ethnographic, observational, and experimental studies with humans converges to suggest that males affiliate more than females with unrelated, familiar same-sex peers, but this has never been examined directly. With this aim, we compared frequency of affiliation with a single, randomly chosen, familiar same-sex peer for the two sexes…

Benenson, Joyce F.; Quinn, Amanda; Stella, Sandra

2012-01-01

225

Recognition Memory: Adding a Response Deadline Eliminates Recollection but Spares Familiarity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A current controversy in memory research concerns whether recognition is supported by distinct processes of familiarity and recollection, or instead by a single process wherein familiarity and recollection reflect weak and strong memories, respectively. Recent studies using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses in an animal model have…

Sauvage, Magdalena M.; Beer, Zachery; Eichenbaum, Howard

2010-01-01

226

Effects of Long-Term Object Familiarity on Event-Related Potentials in the Monkey  

E-print Network

and the task conditions leading to familiarity affect the brain's evoked neural response to known objects. Many signals recorded from the brain. The ability to recognize familiar objects or individuals seen before, such as con- specifics or particular food items, have a high likelihood of being important because these items

Peissig, Jessie J.

227

Recognition Memory and the Hippocampus: A Test of the Hippocampal Contribution to Recollection and Familiarity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has been suggested that the hippocampus selectively supports recollection and that adjacent cortex in the medial temporal lobe can support familiarity. Alternatively, it has been suggested that the hippocampus supports both recollection and familiarity. We tested these suggestions by assessing the performance of patients with hippocampal…

Jeneson, Annette; Kirwan, C. Brock; Hopkins, Ramona O.; Wixted, John T.; Squire, Larry R.

2010-01-01

228

Elementary School Teachers' Familiarity, Conceptual Knowledge, and Interest in Light  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored elementary school teachers' familiarity, conceptual knowledge, and interest in learning more about light and its related concepts. This study also sought to establish the relationship between elementary school teachers' familiarity, conceptual knowledge, and interest in learning light concepts. Sixty-six lower and…

Mumba, Frackson; Mbewe, Simon; Chabalengula, Vivien M.

2015-01-01

229

Value-Centric Trust Model with Improved Familiarity Measurement Jie Zhang and Ali. A. Ghorbani  

E-print Network

- bani, 2004]. The new model proposes that trust is a combina- tion of self-esteem, reputationValue-Centric Trust Model with Improved Familiarity Measurement Jie Zhang and Ali. A. Ghorbani propose an improved familiarity mea- surement. Experiments are carried out to compare the stability

Ghorbani, Ali

230

Mechanisms Supporting Superior Source Memory for Familiar Items: A Multi-Voxel Pattern Analysis Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent cognitive research has revealed better source memory performance for familiar relative to novel stimuli. Here we consider two possible explanations for this finding. The source memory advantage for familiar stimuli could arise because stimulus novelty induces attention to stimulus features at the expense of contextual processing, resulting…

Poppenk, Jordan; Norman, Kenneth A.

2012-01-01

231

The Role of Face Familiarity in Eye Tracking of Faces by Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has been shown that individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) demonstrate normal activation in the fusiform gyrus when viewing familiar, but not unfamiliar faces. The current study utilized eye tracking to investigate patterns of attention underlying familiar versus unfamiliar face processing in ASD. Eye movements of 18 typically…

Sterling, Lindsey; Dawson, Geraldine; Webb, Sara; Murias, Michael; Munson, Jeffrey; Panagiotides, Heracles; Aylward, Elizabeth

2008-01-01

232

Nestsite selection by male loons leads to sex-biased site familiarity.  

PubMed

1. The concept that animals benefit from gaining familiarity with physical spaces is widespread among ecologists and constitutes a theoretical pillar in studies of territory defence, philopatry and habitat selection. Yet proximate causes and fitness benefits of site familiarity are poorly known. 2. We used data from marked common loons Gavia immer breeding on 98 territories over 14 years to investigate the 'win-stay, lose-switch rule' for nestsite placement (if eggs hatch, reuse nestsite; if predator takes eggs, move nestsite). Males controlled nest placement in this species: pairs used the rule if both members remained the same from the previous nesting attempt or if only the male remained the same but not if only the female remained the same. 3. By means of the nesting rule, male common loons benefited from site familiarity, increasing nesting success by 41% between their first and third years on a territory. In contrast, females exhibited no increase in nesting success with increased territorial tenure. 4. Owing to site familiarity, a male loon competing for a breeding territory faces a considerable 'familiarity deficit' compared with the male breeder already established there. The familiarity deficit probably explains why resident animals often fight hard to retain familiar territories, when challenged, and why animals of many species tend to remain on familiar territories rather than moving when territories of higher intrinsic quality become available nearby. PMID:17976165

Piper, Walter H; Walcott, Charles; Mager, John N; Spilker, Frank J

2008-03-01

233

Familiarity and Personal Experience as Mediators of Recall when Planning for Future Contingencies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we demonstrate that planning tasks enhance recall when the context of planning (a) is self-referential and (b) draws on familiar scenarios represented in episodic memory. Specifically, we show that when planning tasks are sorted according to the degree to which they evoke memories of personally familiar scenarios (e.g., planning a…

Klein, Stanley B.; Robertson, Theresa E.; Delton, Andrew W.; Lax, Moshe L.

2012-01-01

234

Liking to Be Liked: Imitation, Familiarity and Pedagogy in the First Years of Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper offers a review of the literature on the role of imitation in the earliest stages of social interaction between babies and familiar partners. The review focuses on the ways in which reciprocal imitation marks familiar relationships that provide special contexts for babies to engage actively and exuberantly in the construction of a…

Parker-Rees, Rod

2007-01-01

235

Role of Featural and Configural Information in Familiar and Unfamiliar Face Recognition  

E-print Network

643 Role of Featural and Configural Information in Familiar and Unfamiliar Face Recognition Adrian to what extent human face recognition relies on local information in parts (featural information. In Experiment 2 we replicated these results for familiar face recognition. Both Experiments provide evidence

236

Familiar Face Recognition in Children with Autism: The Differential Use of Inner and Outer Face Parts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated whether children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) have a deficit in recognising familiar faces. Children with ASD were given a forced choice familiar face recognition task with three conditions: full faces, inner face parts and outer face parts. Control groups were children with developmental delay (DD) and typically…

Wilson, Rebecca; Pascalis, Olivier; Blades, Mark

2007-01-01

237

Effects of Familiarity and Feeding on Newborn Speech-Voice Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Newborn infants preferentially orient to familiar over unfamiliar speech sounds. They are also better at remembering unfamiliar speech sounds for short periods of time if learning and retention occur after a feed than before. It is unknown whether short-term memory for speech is enhanced when the sound is familiar (versus unfamiliar) and, if so,…

Valiante, A. Grace; Barr, Ronald G.; Zelazo, Philip R.; Brant, Rollin; Young, Simon N.

2013-01-01

238

What Do Children Look at in an Adult Face with Which They Are Personally Familiar?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adults recognize familiar faces better by their internal than external face parts. It is not clear when children achieve this internal face part advantage, however, previous research has suggested that it emerges after the age of seven years. The present study was the first study to show personally familiar adult faces (school staff) to children…

Wilson, Rebecca R.; Blades, Mark; Pascalis, Olivier

2007-01-01

239

Linguistic Familiarity in Short-Term Memory: A Role for (Co-)Articulatory Fluency?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Enhanced serial recall for linguistically familiar material is usually attributed to a process of item redintegration. The possibility tested here is that familiarity influences memory at the sequence level by enhancing the fluency with which items may be assembled into sequences. Experiment 1 showed that with practice, serial recall of nonwords…

Woodward, Amelia J.; Macken, William J.; Jones, Dylan M.

2008-01-01

240

Olfactory Identification Test Using Familiar Distracters for Koreans  

PubMed Central

Objectives Odors used in an odor identification test should be familiar to the subject, but there are some unfamiliar distracters in Korean version of Sniffin' stick (KVSS) II identification test. In this study, we used the results of the original version of KVSS II identification to modify the KVSS II identification test. Methods Eighty-three participants took an original version of KVSS II identification test and a visual analogue scale of subjective odor function. KVSS II identification which has 16 items was performed to choose one out of four odors items. And visual analogue scale was checked from 0 to 10 points of their subjective olfactory function. Two weeks later they took the modified version of KVSS II identification test. Hyposmic or anosmic patients were excluded. Results The mean score of the original version of KVSS II identification and modified version of KVSS II identification were 11.3 and 12.5, respectively (P<0.05). The KVSS II identification test and subjective olfactory function were positively correlated (r=0.247, P<0.05), as were the modified KVSS II identification test and subjective olfactory function (r=0.329, P<0.05). Conclusion After modification of distracters, KVSS II identification test appears to be suited for assessment of olfactory function. PMID:24587876

Kim, Jae-Myung; Jeong, Mi Soon; Shin, Dong-Hyuk; Seol, Jeong-Hun; Hong, Seok-Chan; Cho, Jae Hoon

2014-01-01

241

Health professionals' familiarity and attributions to mental illness  

PubMed Central

A few months from the time of this survey, the nearly completed inpatient psychiatric facility within the Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital's complex would be ready for admissions. Understanding the health workers' level of experience of mental illness and their likely behavioural responses towards people with psychiatric illness, therefore, should be a good baseline to understanding their likely reactions towards admitting such patients within a general hospital setting. The study, which used a pre-tested and adapted attribution questionnaire, was prospective and cross-sectional. Randomly selected health workers in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital had their level of familiarity and attributions towards psychiatric patients assessed. The respondents showed a high level of experience with mental illness, with more than 3 in 5 of them having watched movies on mental illness before. More than half of them held positive (favorable) attributions towards persons with mental illness on nine of the ten assessed attribution factors. Almost all held negative (unfavourable) opinion towards intimate relationships with such persons. Attribution factors, “Responsibility, “Anger”, “Dangerousness”, “Fear” and “Segregation” were significantly related to the respondents' level of education (P<0.05). Marital status of the respondents related significantly to “Pity” and “Avoidance” factors (P<0.05). Having watched movies on mental illness significantly related to “Responsibility” and “Fear” factors (P<0.05). Programs designed to improve the health workers mental health literacy, and increased positive professional contacts with mentally ill persons on treatment, would further enhance their perceived positive attributions towards them. PMID:25478083

Chikaodiri, Aghukwa Nkereuwem

2010-01-01

242

Neuronal correlates of perception, imagery, and memory for familiar tunes.  

PubMed

We used fMRI to investigate the neuronal correlates of encoding and recognizing heard and imagined melodies. Ten participants were shown lyrics of familiar verbal tunes; they either heard the tune along with the lyrics, or they had to imagine it. In a subsequent surprise recognition test, they had to identify the titles of tunes that they had heard or imagined earlier. The functional data showed substantial overlap during melody perception and imagery, including secondary auditory areas. During imagery compared with perception, an extended network including pFC, SMA, intraparietal sulcus, and cerebellum showed increased activity, in line with the increased processing demands of imagery. Functional connectivity of anterior right temporal cortex with frontal areas was increased during imagery compared with perception, indicating that these areas form an imagery-related network. Activity in right superior temporal gyrus and pFC was correlated with the subjective rating of imagery vividness. Similar to the encoding phase, the recognition task recruited overlapping areas, including inferior frontal cortex associated with memory retrieval, as well as left middle temporal gyrus. The results present new evidence for the cortical network underlying goal-directed auditory imagery, with a prominent role of the right pFC both for the subjective impression of imagery vividness and for on-line mental monitoring of imagery-related activity in auditory areas. PMID:22360595

Herholz, Sibylle C; Halpern, Andrea R; Zatorre, Robert J

2012-06-01

243

Haptic recognition of familiar objects: examining lateralization of specificity effects.  

PubMed

Previous research has found evidence in favor of two subsystems underlying object recognition: an abstract-category subsystem that mainly works in the left hemisphere (LH) and a specific-exemplar subsystem that mainly works in the right hemisphere (RH). This asymmetry has been observed in both the visual and auditory domains by means of long-term repetition priming experiments. This study explored whether this asymmetrical pattern extends to the haptic domain through an experiment in which 30 right-handed participants (24 women) ages 18 to 38 years could identify familiar objects with a single hand. The procedure included two blocks of trials, the study (presentation of primes) and the test phase (presentation of targets), separated by a short distractor task. Of interest was if repetition of the same exemplar object (e.g., the same cigarette lighter) produced more priming than repetition of a different exemplar of the same object category (e.g., a different cigarette lighter), and, crucially, if this hypothetical same-exemplar advantage (specificity) was larger when objects were identified with the left hand (RH). An ANOVA was performed on RTs with priming type (same-exemplar primed, different-exemplar primed and unprimed) and hand (left, right) as within-participants factors. Results showed a main effect of priming type due to a same-exemplar advantage (shorter RTs) both for the left and the right hand, but a non-significant interaction between specificity effects and hands. PMID:25310231

González-Alvarez, Julio; Palomar-García, María-Ángeles

2014-10-01

244

The role of oxytocin in familiarization-habituation responses to social novelty  

PubMed Central

Stress or arousal responses to novel social contexts ease off when individuals get familiar with the social context. In the present study we investigated whether oxytocin is involved in this process of familiarization-habituation as oxytocin is known to increase trust and decrease anxiety. Fifty-nine healthy female subjects took part in the same experimental procedure in two sessions separated by 4 weeks. In the first (novelty) session state trust scores were significantly positively correlated with salivary oxytocin levels while in the second (familiarity) session state trust scores were significantly negatively correlated with salivary oxytocin levels. In a path model oxytocin was associated with increased trust in the novelty session and trust was associated with decreased oxytocin levels in the familiarity session. The results are consistent with the idea that oxytocin decreases stress-to-novelty responses by promoting familiarization to novel social contexts. PMID:24151482

Tops, Mattie; Huffmeijer, Renske; Linting, Mariëlle; Grewen, Karen M.; Light, Kathleen C.; Koole, Sander L.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

2013-01-01

245

[Instituto de Investigaciones Clinicas "Dr. Américo Negrette": 55 years of excellent research versus global economic recession].  

PubMed

The Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas "Dr. Américo Negrette" belongs to the Faculty of Medicine at University of Zulia in Maracaibo, Zulia State, Venezuela. It was created on December 4, 1959 by Dr. Américo Negrette. Today, with 55 years of existence, the Institute seeks to fulfill the mission that characterizes it, based on the values instilled by its founder and maintained by subsequent generations, whose research projects are implemented through seven research sections: Biochemistry, Hematologic Research, Neuropharmacology and Neuroscience, Immunology and Cell Biology, Clinical Neurochemistry, Parasitology and Virology. The research originated in these laboratories have become national and international points of reference, despite the current economic situation with budget deficits that put at risk the quality and originality of their projects with negative consequences on the productivity and applications for health population, reasons of biomedical research. PMID:25558749

Valero Cedeño, Nereida Josefina

2014-12-01

246

Innovations in graduate public health education: the instituto nacional de salud pública.  

PubMed

During the past 10 years, the Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública (National Institute of Public Health) in Mexico has meticulously revised its educational model. This analysis resulted in the transformation of its educational model by tracing a new path in the pedagogical structure and faculty development to meet current challenges and students' needs. The first stage dealt with the national and international accreditation standards that came with the 21st century. The second stage responded to evidence of cognitive research showing that students are better prepared when they are engaged, active, and responsible for their own learning. This transformation was grounded on the use of information and communication technologies and on a competency-based educational approach that has led the expansion and innovation of educational practice. PMID:25706028

Valladares, Laura Magaña; Ávila, Mauricio Hernández

2015-03-01

247

LA UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL AUTNOMA DE MXICO DE LA FACULTAD DE ARQUITECTURA, EL INSTITUTO DE INVESTIGACIONES HISTRICAS Y LA  

E-print Network

LA UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL AUTÓNOMA DE MÉXICO A TRAVÉS DE LA FACULTAD DE ARQUITECTURA, EL INSTITUTO DE DE MAESTRÍA EN ARQUITECTURA A PARTICIPAR EN EL PROCESO DE SELECCIÓN AL SEMESTRE 2013-I, QUE INICIARÁ EL 6 DE AGOSTO DE 2012. LA MAESTRÍA EN ARQUITECTURA PERTENECE AL PADRÓN NACIONAL DE POSGRADOS DE

Islas, León

248

The role of the medial prefrontal cortex in regulating social familiarity-induced anxiolysis.  

PubMed

Overcoming specific fears and subsequent anxiety can be greatly enhanced by the presence of familiar social partners, but the neural circuitry that controls this phenomenon remains unclear. To overcome this, the social interaction (SI) habituation test was developed in this lab to systematically investigate the effects of social familiarity on anxiety-like behavior in rats. Here, we show that social familiarity selectively reduced anxiety-like behaviors induced by an ethological anxiogenic stimulus. The anxiolytic effect of social familiarity could be elicited over multiple training sessions and was specific to both the presence of the anxiogenic stimulus and the familiar social partner. In addition, socially familiar conspecifics served as a safety signal, as anxiety-like responses returned in the absence of the familiar partner. The expression of the social familiarity-induced anxiolysis (SFiA) appears dependent on the prefrontal cortex (PFC), an area associated with cortical regulation of fear and anxiety behaviors. Inhibition of the PFC, with bilateral injections of the GABAA agonist muscimol, selectively blocked the expression of SFiA while having no effect on SI with a novel partner. Finally, the effect of D-cycloserine, a cognitive enhancer that clinically enhances behavioral treatments for anxiety, was investigated with SFiA. D-cycloserine, when paired with familiarity training sessions, selectively enhanced the rate at which SFiA was acquired. Collectively, these outcomes suggest that the PFC has a pivotal role in SFiA, a complex behavior involving the integration of social cues of familiarity with contextual and emotional information to regulate anxiety-like behavior. PMID:24157502

Lungwitz, Elizabeth A; Stuber, Garret D; Johnson, Philip L; Dietrich, Amy D; Schartz, Nicole; Hanrahan, Brian; Shekhar, Anantha; Truitt, William A

2014-03-01

249

Fast, but not slow, familiarity is preserved in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment.  

PubMed

Recognition memory - affected early in the course of Alzheimer Disease (AD) - is supposed to rely on two processes: recollection (i.e., retrieval of details from the encoding episode) and familiarity (i.e., acontextual sense of prior exposure). Recollection has repeatedly been shown to be impaired in patients with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI) - known to be at high risk for AD. However, studies that evaluated familiarity in these patients have reported conflicting results. Here, we assessed familiarity in single-domain aMCI patients (n = 19) and healthy matched controls (n = 22). All participants underwent a classic yes/no recognition memory paradigm with confidence judgements, allowing an estimation of familiarity and recollection similar to the approach used in previous studies. In addition, they underwent a novel speeded recognition memory task, the Speed and Accuracy Boosting procedure, based on the idea that familiarity is fast and hence that fast answers rely on familiarity. On the classic yes/no task, aMCI patients were found to have impaired performance, reaction times, recollection and familiarity. However, performance and reaction times of aMCI patients did not differ from that of controls in the speeded task. This is noteworthy since this task was comparatively difficult for control subjects. This dissociation within familiarity suggests that a very basic component of declarative memory, probably at the interface between implicit and explicit memory, may be preserved, or possibly released, in patients with aMCI. It is suggested that early subprocesses (e.g., fluency based familiarity) could be preserved in aMCI patients, while delayed ones (e.g., conceptual fluency, post-retrieval monitoring, confidence assessment, or even access to awareness) may be impaired. These findings may provide support for recent suggestions that familiarity may result from the combination of a set of subprocesses, each with its specific temporal signature. PMID:25618326

Besson, Gabriel; Ceccaldi, Mathieu; Tramoni, Eve; Felician, Olivier; Didic, Mira; Barbeau, Emmanuel J

2015-04-01

250

Ambient Dose Equivalent measured at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología Department of Nuclear Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ambient dose equivalent values were determined in several sites at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Departmento de Medicina Nuclear, using TLD-100 and TLD-900 thermoluminescent dosemeters. Additionally, ambient dose equivalent was measured at a corridor outside the hospitalization room for patients treated with 137Cs brachytherapy. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Laboratorio de Metrología, to known 137Cs gamma radiation air kerma. Radionuclides considered for this study are 131I, 18F, 67Ga, 99mTc, 111In, 201Tl and 137Cs, with main gamma energies between 93 and 662 keV. Dosemeters were placed during a five month period in the nuclear medicine rooms (containing gamma-cameras), injection corridor, patient waiting areas, PET/CT study room, hot lab, waste storage room and corridors next to the hospitalization rooms for patients treated with 131I and 137Cs. High dose values were found at the waste storage room, outside corridor of 137Cs brachytherapy patients and PET/CT area. Ambient dose equivalent rate obtained for the 137Cs brachytherapy corridor is equal to (18.51±0.02)×10-3 mSv/h. Sites with minimum doses are the gamma camera rooms, having ambient dose equivalent rates equal to (0.05±0.03)×10-3 mSv/h. Recommendations have been given to the Department authorities so that further actions are taken to reduce doses at high dose sites in order to comply with the ALARA principle (as low as reasonably achievable).

Ávila, O.; Torres-Ulloa, C. L.; Medina, L. A.; Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.; de Buen, I. Gamboa; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E.

2010-12-01

251

Ambient Dose Equivalent measured at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia Department of Nuclear Medicine  

SciTech Connect

Ambient dose equivalent values were determined in several sites at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Departmento de Medicina Nuclear, using TLD-100 and TLD-900 thermoluminescent dosemeters. Additionally, ambient dose equivalent was measured at a corridor outside the hospitalization room for patients treated with {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Laboratorio de Metrologia, to known {sup 137}Cs gamma radiation air kerma. Radionuclides considered for this study are {sup 131}I, {sup 18}F, {sup 67}Ga, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 111}In, {sup 201}Tl and {sup 137}Cs, with main gamma energies between 93 and 662 keV. Dosemeters were placed during a five month period in the nuclear medicine rooms (containing gamma-cameras), injection corridor, patient waiting areas, PET/CT study room, hot lab, waste storage room and corridors next to the hospitalization rooms for patients treated with {sup 131}I and {sup 137}Cs. High dose values were found at the waste storage room, outside corridor of {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy patients and PET/CT area. Ambient dose equivalent rate obtained for the {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy corridor is equal to (18.51{+-}0.02)x10{sup -3} mSv/h. Sites with minimum doses are the gamma camera rooms, having ambient dose equivalent rates equal to (0.05{+-}0.03)x10{sup -3} mSv/h. Recommendations have been given to the Department authorities so that further actions are taken to reduce doses at high dose sites in order to comply with the ALARA principle (as low as reasonably achievable).

Avila, O. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, AP 18-1027, 11801, DF (Mexico); Torres-Ulloa, C. L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, AP 18-1027, 11801, DF (Mexico); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 70-542, 04510, DF (Mexico); Medina, L. A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 20-364, 01000, DF (Mexico); Unidad de Investigacion Biomedica en Cancer INCan-UNAM, Av. San Fernando 22 C.P. 14080 (Mexico); Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E. [Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia (INCan), Av. San Fernando 22, C.P. 14080 (Mexico); Gamboa de Buen, I. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 70-543, 04510 DF (Mexico); Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 20-364, 01000, DF (Mexico)

2010-12-07

252

[The "familiarity" variable in maternal role playing in preschool children].  

PubMed

The present investigation was effected in the context of several other studies involving mother role playing with dolls in children of both sexes aged 2 to 6. Previous studies had shown an interaction between several variables: sex of the child and of the doll, absence of toys representing maternal activities, naked or clothed dolls, playing in couples of same sex or different sexes. The present study involves a new factor: degree of familiarity between children. Three variables can be distinguished in the analysis of couples of friends: (1) exploratory activities of the body of the dolls: smaller children (boys and girls) explore the body for itself whereas older girls do it while assuming a maternal role and older boys take distance from this activity. (2) Involvement in mother role playing: girls are more involved than boys, older children have richer activities than the younger. (3) Choice of activity (mother role playing or other). Observation of activities in non-friends couples emphasize two factors. The first is the same as in couples of friends (exploration of the body of the dolls), the second being the emotional tone of play sessions. Children of both sexes are diversely tolerant of the non-friends situation. This has an important impact on the quality of playing and therefore on representations of playing and on identification behaviors. Analysis of this last factor in the context of the other findings on mother role playing suggests an evolution of mother role playing behaviors and leads to reformulate the parameters involved in the construction of representations of parental roles. PMID:7972535

Gourdon, B; Laflaquière, A; Barré, I

1994-01-01

253

Stranger to Familiar: Wild Strepsirhines Manage Xenophobia by Playing  

PubMed Central

The power of play in limiting xenophobia is a well-known phenomenon in humans. Yet, the evidence in social animals remains meager. Here, we aim to determine whether play promotes social tolerance toward strangers in one of the most basal group of primates, the strepsirhines. We observed two groups of wild lemurs (Propithecus verreauxi, Verreaux's sifaka) during the mating season. Data were also collected on nine visiting, outgroup males. We compared the distribution of play, grooming, and aggressive interactions across three conditions: OUT (resident/outgroup interactions), IN (resident/resident interactions in presence of outgroups) and BL-IN (baseline of resident/resident interactions in absence of outgroups). Play frequency between males was higher in OUT than in IN and BL-IN conditions; whereas, grooming was more frequent in IN than in OUT and BL-IN conditions. Aggression rates between resident and outgroup males were significantly higher than those between residents. However, aggressions between resident and outgroup males significantly decreased after the first play session and became comparable with resident-resident aggression levels. The presence of strangers in a well-established group implies the onset of novel social circumstances, which sifaka males cope with by two different tactics: grooming with ingroup males and playing with outgroup ones. The grooming peak, concurrently with the visit of outgroups, probably represents a social shield adopted by resident males to make their pre-existing affiliation more evident to the stranger “audience”. Being mostly restricted to unfamiliar males, adult play in sifaka appears to have a role in managing new social situations more than in maintaining old relationships. In particular, our results indicate not only that play is the interface between strangers but also that it has a specific function in reducing xenophobia. In conclusion, play appears to be an ice-breaker mechanism in the critical process that “upgrades” an individual from stranger to familiar. PMID:20949052

Antonacci, Daniela; Norscia, Ivan; Palagi, Elisabetta

2010-01-01

254

Stranger to familiar: wild strepsirhines manage xenophobia by playing.  

PubMed

The power of play in limiting xenophobia is a well-known phenomenon in humans. Yet, the evidence in social animals remains meager. Here, we aim to determine whether play promotes social tolerance toward strangers in one of the most basal group of primates, the strepsirhines. We observed two groups of wild lemurs (Propithecus verreauxi, Verreaux's sifaka) during the mating season. Data were also collected on nine visiting, outgroup males. We compared the distribution of play, grooming, and aggressive interactions across three conditions: OUT (resident/outgroup interactions), IN (resident/resident interactions in presence of outgroups) and BL-IN (baseline of resident/resident interactions in absence of outgroups). Play frequency between males was higher in OUT than in IN and BL-IN conditions; whereas, grooming was more frequent in IN than in OUT and BL-IN conditions. Aggression rates between resident and outgroup males were significantly higher than those between residents. However, aggressions between resident and outgroup males significantly decreased after the first play session and became comparable with resident-resident aggression levels. The presence of strangers in a well-established group implies the onset of novel social circumstances, which sifaka males cope with by two different tactics: grooming with ingroup males and playing with outgroup ones. The grooming peak, concurrently with the visit of outgroups, probably represents a social shield adopted by resident males to make their pre-existing affiliation more evident to the stranger "audience". Being mostly restricted to unfamiliar males, adult play in sifaka appears to have a role in managing new social situations more than in maintaining old relationships. In particular, our results indicate not only that play is the interface between strangers but also that it has a specific function in reducing xenophobia. In conclusion, play appears to be an ice-breaker mechanism in the critical process that "upgrades" an individual from stranger to familiar. PMID:20949052

Antonacci, Daniela; Norscia, Ivan; Palagi, Elisabetta

2010-01-01

255

Response to familiar faces, newly familiar faces, and novel faces as assessed by ERPs is intact in adults with autism spectrum disorders  

PubMed Central

Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have pervasive impairments in social functioning, which may include problems with processing and remembering faces. In this study, we examined whether posterior ERP components associated with identity processing (P2, N250 and face-N400) and components associated with early-stage face processing (P1 and N170) are atypical in ASD. We collected ERP responses to a familiar repeated face (Familiar), an unfamiliar repeated face (Other) and novel faces (Novels) in 29 high functioning adults with ASD and matched controls. For both groups, the P2 and N250 were sensitive to repetition (Other vs. Novels) and personal familiarity (Familiar vs. Other), and the face-N400 was sensitive to repetition. Adults with ASD did not show significantly atypical processing of facial familiarity and repetition in an ERP paradigm, despite showing significantly poorer performance than controls on a behavioral test of face memory. This study found no evidence that early-stage facial identity processing is a primary contributor to the face recognition deficit in high functioning ASD. PMID:20452382

Webb, Sara J.; Jones, Emily; Merkle, Kristen; Murias, Michael; Greenson, Jessica; Richards, Todd; Aylward, Elizabeth; Dawson, Geraldine

2010-01-01

256

The use of cue familiarity during retrieval failure is affected by past versus future orientation.  

PubMed

Cue familiarity that is brought on by cue resemblance to memory representations is useful for judging the likelihood of a past occurrence with an item that fails to actually be retrieved from memory. The present study examined the extent to which this type of resemblance-based cue familiarity is used in future-oriented judgments made during retrieval failure. Cue familiarity was manipulated using a previously-established method of creating differing degrees of feature overlap between the cue and studied items in memory, and the primary interest was in how these varying degrees of cue familiarity would influence future-oriented feeling-of-knowing (FOK) judgments given in instances of cued recall failure. The present results suggest that participants do use increases in resemblance-based cue familiarity to infer an increased likelihood of future recognition of an unretrieved target, but not to the extent that they use it to infer an increased likelihood of past experience with an unretrieved target. During retrieval failure, the increase in future-oriented FOK judgments with increasing cue familiarity was significantly less than the increase in past-oriented recognition judgments with increasing cue familiarity. PMID:24786966

Cleary, Anne M

2015-06-01

257

Spatiotemporal changes in neural response patterns to faces varying in visual familiarity.  

PubMed

Increasing experience with a previously unfamiliar face improves human ability to recognize it in challenging and novel viewing conditions. Differential neural responses to familiar versus unfamiliar faces in multiple regions of the ventral-temporal and parietal cortex have been reported in previous work, but with limited attention to how behavioral and neural measures change with increasing familiarity. We examined changes in the spatial and temporal characteristics of neural response patterns elicited by faces that vary in their degree of visual familiarity. First, we developed a behavioral paradigm to familiarize participants to low-, medium-, and high-levels of familiarity with faces. Recognition of novel, naturalistic images of the learned individuals improved with increasing familiarity with faces. Next, a new set of participants learned faces using the behavioral paradigm, outside the fMRI scanner, and subsequently viewed blocks of whole-body images of the learned and novel people, inside the scanner. We found that the face-selective FFA and OFA, and a combination of the ventral-temporal areas (e.g., fusiform gyrus) and parietal areas (e.g., precuneus) contained patterns useful for classifying highly familiar versus unfamiliar faces. Classification along the temporal-sequence of the face blocks revealed an early separation of neural patterns elicited in response to highly familiar versus unfamiliar faces in the FFA and OFA, but not in other regions of interest. This indicates the potential for a rapid assessment of the "known versus unknown" status of faces in core face-selective regions of the brain. The present study provides a first look at the perceptual and neural correlates underlying experience gains with faces as they become familiar. PMID:25524650

Natu, Vaidehi S; O'Toole, Alice J

2015-03-01

258

On familiarity deficits in mild cognitive impairment: a reply to Migo and Westerberg.  

PubMed

In this brief response to Migo and Westerberg we explain why we think that their criticism of our previous research showing familiarity deficits in mild cognitive impairment patients (MCI) is not sound. More concretely, we have replicated the effect several times previously, and we justify statistically the fact that in the previous paper we had to combine two MCI samples to demonstrate a reliable familiarity deficit. We note that there are several studies showing conflicting results. However, although the basis for these discrepancies remains uncertain, a new report has replicated the presence of deficits in familiarity, and more importantly, demonstrated its correlation with structural imaging biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:23980648

Algarabel, Salvador; Fuentes, Manuel; Escudero, Joaquín

2014-01-01

259

Differential response of coyotes to novel stimuli in familiar and unfamiliar environments  

SciTech Connect

The behavioral responses shown by captive coyotes, Canis latrans, to novel objects and artificial scent stations in familiar and unfamiliar environments were studied to determine how coyotes potentially respond to novel stimuli used in coyote management and research. Coyotes showed little avoidance of novel objects and scent stations when they were encountered in unfamiliar environments while avoidance was frequently observed with the same stimuli encountered in familiar environments, and supported the hypothesis that coyotes are more vulnerable to trapping and man-induced mortality when outside of the familiar environment of their territories.

Harris, C.E.; Knowlton, F.F.

1986-01-01

260

EFFECTS OF FAMILIARITY AND AGE ON DRIVER SAFETY ERRORS DURING WAYFINDING.  

PubMed

Wayfinding is a critical skill that enables drivers to navigate from one location to another. Wayfinding abilities decline as individuals age, which may increase older driver reliance on directional cues (e.g. signs) and divert cognitive resources at the expense of vehicle control and safety. Familiarity with an environment can facilitate wayfinding due to previous knowledge of the route. This study examines the role of familiarity in driving safety errors committed during a wayfinding task. Results suggest that age-related driving difficulties can be lessened by familiarity with the environment. The results underscore the need to consider geographical license restrictions in administrative policies aimed at improving older driver safety. PMID:24273758

Read, Katherine; Yu, Lixi; Emerson, Jamie; Dawson, Jeffrey; Aksan, Nazan; Rizzo, Matthew

2011-12-01

261

Effects of novelty and familiarity on illness-induced aversions to food and place cues in coyotes (Canis latrans)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments investigated the effects of novelty and familiarity on illness-induced aversions to taste and place cues in 10 coyotes. Ss were made ill on familiar food laced with Li2CO3 in a novel place and then received preference tests. In Exp I, Ss avoided the previously poisoned familiar food in the novel treatment place but readily ate the same familiar

Stuart R. Ellins; Lucien Thompson; William E. Swanson

1983-01-01

262

Social familiarity relaxes the constraints of limited attention and enhances reproduction of group-living predatory mites.  

PubMed

In many group-living animals, within-group associations are determined by familiarity, i.e. familiar individuals, independent of genetic relatedness, preferentially associate with each other. The ultimate causes of this behaviour are poorly understood and rigorous documentation of its adaptive significance is scarce. Limited attention theory states that focusing on a given task has interrelated cognitive, behavioural and physiological costs with respect to the attention paid to other tasks. In multiple signal environments attention has thus to be shared among signals. Assuming that familiar neighbours require less attention than unfamiliar ones, associating with familiar individuals should increase the efficiency in other tasks and ultimately increase fitness. We tested this prediction in adult females of the group-living, plant-inhabiting predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. We evaluated the influence of social familiarity on within-group association behaviour, activity, predation and reproduction. In mixed groups (familiar and unfamiliar), familiar predator females preferentially associated with each other. In pure groups (either familiar or unfamiliar), familiar predator females produced more eggs than unfamiliar females at similar predation rates. Higher egg production was correlated with lower activity levels, indicating decreased restlessness. In light of limited attention theory, we argue that the ability to discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar individuals and preferential association with familiar individuals confers a selective advantage because familiar social environments are cognitively and physiologically less taxing than unfamiliar social environments. PMID:24273345

Strodl, Markus A; Schausberger, Peter

2013-08-01

263

Long-Term Memory for Odors: Influences of Familiarity and Identification Across 64 Days  

PubMed Central

Few studies have investigated long-term odor recognition memory, although some early observations suggested that the forgetting rate of olfactory representations is slower than for other sensory modalities. This study investigated recognition memory across 64 days for high and low familiar odors and faces. Memory was assessed in 83 young participants at 4 occasions; immediate, 4, 16, and 64 days after encoding. The results indicated significant forgetting for odors and faces across the 64 days. The forgetting functions for the 2 modalities were not fundamentally different. Moreover, high familiar odors and faces were better remembered than low familiar ones, indicating an important role of semantic knowledge on recognition proficiency for both modalities. Although odor recognition was significantly better than chance at the 64 days testing, memory for the low familiar odors was relatively poor. Also, the results indicated that odor identification consistency across sessions, irrespective of accuracy, was positively related to successful recognition. PMID:25740304

Jönsson, Fredrik U.; Willander, Johan; Sikström, Sverker; Larsson, Maria

2015-01-01

264

Familiarity with Speech Affects Cortical Processing of Auditory Distance Cues and Increases Acuity  

PubMed Central

Several acoustic cues contribute to auditory distance estimation. Nonacoustic cues, including familiarity, may also play a role. We tested participants’ ability to distinguish the distances of acoustically similar sounds that differed in familiarity. Participants were better able to judge the distances of familiar sounds. Electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings collected while participants performed this auditory distance judgment task revealed that several cortical regions responded in different ways depending on sound familiarity. Surprisingly, these differences were observed in auditory cortical regions as well as other cortical regions distributed throughout both hemispheres. These data suggest that learning about subtle, distance-dependent variations in complex speech sounds involves processing in a broad cortical network that contributes both to speech recognition and to how spatial information is extracted from speech. PMID:22911734

Wisniewski, Matthew G.; Mercado, Eduardo; Gramann, Klaus; Makeig, Scott

2012-01-01

265

The Development of Differential Use of Inner and Outer Face Features in Familiar Face Identification.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied 4- to 10-year-olds' familiarity judgments of peers. Found that, contrary to adults, external facial features were key. Also found that the switch to adult recognition pattern takes place after the ninth year. (ETB)

Campbell, Ruth; And Others

1995-01-01

266

Familiar Music as an Enhancer of Self-Consciousness in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

The main objective of this paper is to examine the impact of familiar music on self-consciousness (SC) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). For this purpose, two AD groups of 20 patients matched by age, educational level, gender, illness duration, and cognitive state were assessed using an SC questionnaire before and after music intervention. The SC questionnaire measured several aspects: personal identity, anosognosia, affective state, body representation, prospective memory, introspection and moral judgments. One AD group received familiar music stimulation and another AD group unfamiliar music stimulation over three months. The AD patients who received a familiar music intervention showed a stabilization or improvement in aspects of SC. By contrast, control AD group showed a deterioration of most of the SC aspects after unfamiliar music stimulation, except the SC aspects of body representation and affective state. Familiar music stimulation could be considered as an enhancer of SC in patients with Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24106716

Arroyo-Anlló, Eva M.; Díaz, Juan Poveda; Gil, Roger

2013-01-01

267

Long-term memory for odors: influences of familiarity and identification across 64 days.  

PubMed

Few studies have investigated long-term odor recognition memory, although some early observations suggested that the forgetting rate of olfactory representations is slower than for other sensory modalities. This study investigated recognition memory across 64 days for high and low familiar odors and faces. Memory was assessed in 83 young participants at 4 occasions; immediate, 4, 16, and 64 days after encoding. The results indicated significant forgetting for odors and faces across the 64 days. The forgetting functions for the 2 modalities were not fundamentally different. Moreover, high familiar odors and faces were better remembered than low familiar ones, indicating an important role of semantic knowledge on recognition proficiency for both modalities. Although odor recognition was significantly better than chance at the 64 days testing, memory for the low familiar odors was relatively poor. Also, the results indicated that odor identification consistency across sessions, irrespective of accuracy, was positively related to successful recognition. PMID:25740304

Cornell Kärnekull, Stina; Jönsson, Fredrik U; Willander, Johan; Sikström, Sverker; Larsson, Maria

2015-05-01

268

The Influence of Perceptual and Knowledge-based Familiarity on the Neural Substrates of Face Perception  

PubMed Central

This study examined the neural substrates of facial familiarity and person-knowledge. Based on current neural models of face perception, it was hypothesized that distinct extended networks of brain regions differentiate the perception of (a) novel faces, (b) novel faces associated with person-knowledge, (c) perceptually familiar faces and (d) familiar faces for which person-knowledge was learned. To test this hypothesis, we conducted an event-related fMRI experiment during which participants viewed faces experimentally manipulated to represent these different levels of familiarity. Results confirmed that distinct networks of brain regions, particularly the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), underlie the perception of faces for which person-knowledge is available. PMID:20379899

Cloutier, J.; Kelley, W.M.; Heatherton, T.F.

2010-01-01

269

The influence of perceptual and knowledge-based familiarity on the neural substrates of face perception.  

PubMed

This study examined the neural substrates of facial familiarity and person-knowledge. Based on current neural models of face perception, it was hypothesized that distinct extended networks of brain regions differentiate the perception of (a) novel faces, (b) novel faces associated with person-knowledge, (c) perceptually familiar faces and (d) familiar faces for which person-knowledge was learned. To test this hypothesis, we conducted an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment during which participants viewed faces experimentally manipulated to represent these different levels of familiarity. Results confirmed that distinct networks of brain regions, particularly the medial prefrontal cortex, underlie the perception of faces for which person-knowledge is available. PMID:20379899

Cloutier, Jasmin; Kelley, William M; Heatherton, Todd F

2011-01-01

270

Damage to the lateral prefrontal cortex impairs familiarity but not recollection  

PubMed Central

Frontal lobe lesions impair recognition memory but it is unclear whether the deficits arise from impaired recollection, impaired familiarity, or both. In the current study, recognition memory for verbal materials was examined in patients with damage to the left or right lateral prefrontal cortex. Words were incidentally encoded under semantic or phonological orienting conditions, and recognition memory was tested using a 6-point confidence procedure. Receiver operating characteristics (ROCs) were examined in order to measure the contributions of recollection and familiarity to recognition memory. In both encoding conditions, lateral prefrontal cortex damage led to a deficit in familiarity but not recollection. Similar deficits were observed in left and right hemisphere patients. The results indicate that the lateral prefrontal cortex plays a critical role in the monitoring or decision processes required for accurate familiarity-based recognition responses. PMID:21827792

Aly, Mariam; Yonelinas, Andrew P.; Kishiyama, Mark M.; Knight, Robert T.

2011-01-01

271

Apollo lunar surface experiments package. Apollo 17 ALSEP (array E) familiarization course handout  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The familiarization course for the Apollo 17 ALSEP (ARRAY E) is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) power and data subsystems, (2) lunar surface gravimeter, (3) lunar mass spectrometer, (4) lunar seismic profiling experiment, and (5) heat flow experiment.

1972-01-01

272

Primacy Performance of Normal and Retarded Children: Stimulus Familiarity or Spatial Memory?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the effect of stimulus familiarity on the spatial primacy performance of normal and retarded children. Assumes that serial recall tasks reflect spatial memory rather than verbal rehearsal. (BD)

Swanson, Lee

1978-01-01

273

The relationship between social behaviour and habitat familiarity in African elephants  

E-print Network

The relationship between social behaviour and habitat familiarity in African elephants (Loxodonta behaviour of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) translocated into a novel environment. We found that the translocated elephants' association with conspecifics decreased over time supporting our hypothesis

Pinter-Wollman, Noa

274

The effect of familiarity of conversation partners on conversation turns contributed by augmented and typical speakers.  

PubMed

The purpose of this current research was to determine the effect of familiarity of conversation partners on contributed conversation turns to dyadic conversation between individuals who use AAC and typically speaking conversation partners. Three groups (G1-G3) participated in this study. Each group contained seven participants, including an individual who used a speech-generating device (SGD) and familiar and unfamiliar conversation partners. Each 20-min dyadic conversation was video-recorded for analysis of contributed conversation turns. The findings of the current study showed that the asymmetries of contributed conversation turns exist in both familiar and unfamiliar dyadic conversation between AAC users and typically speaking conversation partners. In addition, the asymmetry in the familiar dyadic conversation did not differ from that in the unfamiliar dyadic conversation. PMID:23708708

Tsai, Meng-Ju

2013-08-01

275

Asymmetry in pay-off predicts how familiar individuals respond to one another  

PubMed Central

Familiarity influences individual decision-making in many vertebrate species. Here, we propose that familiarity modulates behaviour to different extents depending on the social context of the interaction. Specifically, the more that one player stands to gain relative to the other, the less important familiarity will be in influencing their responses to one another. We test this prediction using pairs of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in three competitive scenarios of increasing asymmetry in outcome to the two players: schooling under potential threat (similar outcomes), competing for a defensible food source (some asymmetry) and competing for a receptive female (strongly asymmetrical outcomes). Males show a graded response as asymmetry increases, with familiarity producing marked behavioural differences under potential threat, minor changes when competing for food, but none at all in competition for mating opportunities. This suggests that mutualistic benefits can arise as a by-product of selfish behaviour, supporting the role of pseudo-reciprocity in the evolution of cooperation. PMID:23576778

Granroth-Wilding, Hanna M. V.; Magurran, Anne E.

2013-01-01

276

The effect of processing fluency on impressions of familiarity and liking.  

PubMed

Processing fluency has been shown to have wide-ranging effects on disparate evaluative judgments, including judgments of liking and familiarity. One account of such effects is the hedonic marking hypothesis (Winkielman, Schwarz, Fazendeiro, & Reber, 2003), which posits that fluency is directly linked to affective preferences via a positive emotional reaction that is triggered by fluent processing. The evidence supporting this account suggests that fluency may exert a stronger influence on affective judgments than other judgments. The current study compared the effect of fluency on judgments of familiarity and liking. Contrary to predictions, liking judgments were not more strongly affected by fluency than familiarity judgments. In fact, the balance of the results showed the opposite pattern. When the type of judgment was manipulated between subjects (Experiment 1) or in a blocked design (Experiment 2), fluency had comparable effects on impressions of liking and familiarity. But when the type of judgment was manipulated in a mixed design (Experiments 3 and 6), or when both familiarity and liking judgments were given for all items (Experiments 4 and 5), only familiarity judgments were affected by the fluency manipulation. The dominance of the familiarity interpretation was found when fluency was manipulated artificially, via priming, and when inherent variations in fluency across the stimuli were considered. These results suggest that, within a given context, participants adopt a single interpretation for fluency, and the sense of familiarity that arises from fluent processing overshadows the sense of positivity, thus questioning aspects of the hedonic marking hypothesis. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25528088

Westerman, Deanne L; Lanska, Meredith; Olds, Justin M

2015-03-01

277

Distinguishing between mnemonic and attributional sources of familiarity: Positive emotion bias as a case study  

E-print Network

the perceptual fluency of geometric figures by varying factors such as figure–ground contrast and presentation duration. Figures that were more easily perceived due to higher contrast or longer presentation were rated as more pretty and also less ugly... that the he- donic marking of fluency serves such a function. Fluency indicates familiarity, and familiar things are less likely to be dangerous than unfamiliar things. Fluency is associ- ated with prototypicality, which is indicative of biological 144...

Verde, Michael F.; Stone, Laura K.; Hatch, Hannah S.; Schnall, Simone

2010-01-01

278

Familiarity affects social network structure and discovery of prey patch locations in foraging stickleback shoals  

PubMed Central

Numerous factors affect the fine-scale social structure of animal groups, but it is unclear how important such factors are in determining how individuals encounter resources. Familiarity affects shoal choice and structure in many social fishes. Here, we show that familiarity between shoal members of sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) affects both fine-scale social organization and the discovery of resources. Social network analysis revealed that sticklebacks remained closer to familiar than to unfamiliar individuals within the same shoal. Network-based diffusion analysis revealed that there was a strong untransmitted social effect on patch discovery, with individuals tending to discover a task sooner if a familiar individual from their group had previously done so than if an unfamiliar fish had done so. However, in contrast to the effect of familiarity, the frequency with which individuals had previously associated with one another had no effect upon the likelihood of prey patch discovery. This may have been due to the influence of fish on one another's movements; the effect of familiarity on discovery of an empty ‘control’ patch was as strong as for discovery of an actual prey patch. Our results demonstrate that factors affecting fine-scale social interactions can also influence how individuals encounter and exploit resources. PMID:25009061

Atton, N.; Galef, B. J.; Hoppitt, W.; Webster, M. M.; Laland, K. N.

2014-01-01

279

Managing by passion, professionalism and performance : the MBP³ model : an alternative management framework developed for the Instituto de Ciencias Terra-Mar (ICTM)  

E-print Network

The objective of this thesis is to develop a new, tailor-made and innovative managerial framework for the Instituto de Ciencias Terra-Mar (ICTM). The ICTM is a multi-functional science and technology institute dedicated ...

Coelho, Alexandre C. (Alexandre Costa)

2007-01-01

280

Experience with Adults Shapes Multisensory Representation of Social Familiarity in the Brain of a Songbird  

PubMed Central

Social animals learn to perceive their social environment, and their social skills and preferences are thought to emerge from greater exposure to and hence familiarity with some social signals rather than others. Familiarity appears to be tightly linked to multisensory integration. The ability to differentiate and categorize familiar and unfamiliar individuals and to build a multisensory representation of known individuals emerges from successive social interactions, in particular with adult, experienced models. In different species, adults have been shown to shape the social behavior of young by promoting selective attention to multisensory cues. The question of what representation of known conspecifics adult-deprived animals may build therefore arises. Here we show that starlings raised with no experience with adults fail to develop a multisensory representation of familiar and unfamiliar starlings. Electrophysiological recordings of neuronal activity throughout the primary auditory area of these birds, while they were exposed to audio-only or audiovisual familiar and unfamiliar cues, showed that visual stimuli did, as in wild-caught starlings, modulate auditory responses but that, unlike what was observed in wild-caught birds, this modulation was not influenced by familiarity. Thus, adult-deprived starlings seem to fail to discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar individuals. This suggests that adults may shape multisensory representation of known individuals in the brain, possibly by focusing the young’s attention on relevant, multisensory cues. Multisensory stimulation by experienced, adult models may thus be ubiquitously important for the development of social skills (and of the neural properties underlying such skills) in a variety of species. PMID:22723887

George, Isabelle; Cousillas, Hugo; Richard, Jean-Pierre; Hausberger, Martine

2012-01-01

281

Effect of Familiarity on Reward Anticipation in Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders  

PubMed Central

Background Previous research on the reward system in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) suggests that children with ASD anticipate and process social rewards differently than typically developing (TD) children—but has focused on the reward value of unfamiliar face stimuli. Children with ASD process faces differently than their TD peers. Previous research has focused on face processing of unfamiliar faces, but less is known about how children with ASD process familiar faces. The current study investigated how children with ASD anticipate rewards accompanied by familiar versus unfamiliar faces. Methods The stimulus preceding negativity (SPN) of the event-related potential (ERP) was utilized to measure reward anticipation. Participants were 6- to 10-year-olds with (N?=?14) and without (N?=?14) ASD. Children were presented with rewards accompanied by incidental face or non-face stimuli that were either familiar (caregivers) or unfamiliar. All non-face stimuli were composed of scrambled face elements in the shape of arrows, controlling for visual properties. Results No significant differences between familiar versus unfamiliar faces were found for either group. When collapsing across familiarity, TD children showed larger reward anticipation to face versus non-face stimuli, whereas children with ASD did not show differential responses to these stimulus types. Magnitude of reward anticipation to faces was significantly correlated with behavioral measures of social impairment in the ASD group. Conclusions The findings do not provide evidence for differential reward anticipation for familiar versus unfamiliar face stimuli in children with or without ASD. These findings replicate previous work suggesting that TD children anticipate rewards accompanied by social stimuli more than rewards accompanied by non-social stimuli. The results do not support the idea that familiarity normalizes reward anticipation in children with ASD. Our findings also suggest that magnitude of reward anticipation to faces is correlated with levels of social impairment for children with ASD. PMID:25184524

Stavropoulos, Katherine K. M.; Carver, Leslie J.

2014-01-01

282

Dogs and their human companions: the effect of familiarity on dog-human interactions.  

PubMed

There are few quantitative examinations of the extent to which dogs discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar persons. In our study we have investigated whether dogs show differential behaviour towards humans of different degrees of familiarity (owner, familiar person, unfamiliar person). Dogs and humans were observed in eight test situations: (1) Three-way strange situation test, (2) Calling in from food, (3) Obedience test, (4) Walking away, (5) Threatening approach, (6) Playful interaction, (7) Food inhibition test and (8) Manipulation of the dog's body. Dogs distinguished between the owner and the two other test partners in those tests which involved separation from the owner (Test 1, 4), were aversive for the dog (Test 5) or involved playing interaction (Test 6). Our results revealed that the owner cannot be replaced by a familiar person in situations provoking elevated anxiety and fear. In contrasts, dogs did not discriminate between the owner and the familiar person in those tests that were based on obedient behaviour or behaviour towards an assertive person (Tests 2, 3, 7 and 8). Dogs' former training experience reduced the difference between their behaviour towards the owner and the familiar person in situations requiring obedience but it did not mask it totally. The dogs' behaviour towards each of the humans participating in the tests was consistent all over the test series. In summary, dogs discriminated between their owner and the unfamiliar person and always preferred the owner to the unfamiliar person. However, the discrimination between the owner and the familiar person is context-specific. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Canine Behavior. PMID:24548652

Kerepesi, Andrea; Dóka, Antal; Miklósi, Ádám

2015-01-01

283

Profile of patients with Baggio-Yoshinari Syndrome admitted at "Instituto de Infectologia Emilio Ribas".  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological, clinical and laboratorial profile of patients with Baggio-Yoshinari Syndrome (BYS), who underwent internment at the Instituto de Infectologia Emilio Ribas in São Paulo, Brazil, during the period from July 1990 to July 2006. BYS is a new Brazilian tick-borne disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato microorganisms that resembles features of Lyme disease (LD), except for its epidemiological, clinical and laboratorial particularities. From 60 patients' records with positive serology to B. burgdorferi done by ELISA and Western-blotting methods, 19 cases were diagnosed as having BYS, according to criteria adopted at LIM-17 HCFMUSP, the Brazilian Reference Laboratory for the research of BYS. The other 41 remaining patients displayed miscellaneous infections or auto-immune processes. The beginning of symptoms in BYS group varied from one day to six years, from the onset of the disease. Four of 19 patients were included in acute disease stage, and 15 in latent. General unspecific symptoms were identified in almost all cases, with high frequencies of fever (78.9%) and lymphadenomegaly (36.8%). Six patients had skin lesions (31.5%); six arthralgia or arthritis (31.5%) and eight neurological symptoms (42%). Interestingly, two patients showed antibodies directed to B. burgdorferi exclusively in cerebrospinal fluid. Since BYS is a new emergent Brazilian zoonosis and its diagnosis is sometimes complex, all the new knowledge about BYS must be scattered to Brazilian Medical specialists, aiming to teach them how to diagnose this amazing tick-borne disease and to avoid its progression to chronic irreversible sequels. PMID:21225212

Gouveia, Emy Akiyama; Alves, Mayra Fernanda; Mantovani, Elenice; Oyafuso, Luiza Keiko; Bonoldi, Virgínia Lucia Nazario; Yoshinari, Natalino Hajime

2010-01-01

284

Familiarity and recollection produce distinct eye movement, pupil and medial temporal lobe responses when memory strength is matched.  

PubMed

Two experiments explored eye measures (fixations and pupil response patterns) and brain responses (BOLD) accompanying the recognition of visual object stimuli based on familiarity and recollection. In both experiments, the use of a modified remember/know procedure led to high confidence and matched accuracy levels characterising strong familiarity (F3) and recollection (R) responses. In Experiment 1, visual scanning behaviour at retrieval distinguished familiarity-based from recollection-based recognition. Recollection, relative to strength-matched familiarity, involved significantly larger pupil dilations and more dispersed fixation patterns. In Experiment 2, the hippocampus was selectively activated for recollected stimuli, while no evidence of activation was observed in the hippocampus for strong familiarity of matched accuracy. Recollection also activated the parahippocampal cortex (PHC), while the adjacent perirhinal cortex (PRC) was actively engaged in response to strong familiarity (than to recollection). Activity in prefrontal and parietal areas differentiated familiarity and recollection in both the extent and the magnitude of activity they exhibited, while the dorsomedial thalamus showed selective familiarity-related activity, and the ventrolateral and anterior thalamus selective recollection-related activity. These findings are consistent with the view that the hippocampus and PRC play contrasting roles in supporting recollection and familiarity and that these differences are not a result of differences in memory strength. Overall, the combined pupil dilation, eye movement and fMRI data suggest the operation of recognition mechanisms drawing differentially on familiarity and recollection, whose neural bases are distinct within the MTL. PMID:22902538

Kafkas, Alexandros; Montaldi, Daniela

2012-11-01

285

Left-Right Facial Orientation of Familiar Faces: Developmental Aspects of « the Mere Exposure Hypothesis »  

PubMed Central

We investigated the developmental aspect of sensitivity to the orientation of familiar faces by asking 38 adults and 72 children from 3 to 12 years old to make a preference choice between standard and mirror images of themselves and of familiar faces, presented side-by-side or successively. When familiar (parental) faces were presented simultaneously, 3- to 5-year-olds showed no preference, but by age 5–7 years an adult-like preference for the standard image emerged. Similarly, the adult-like preference for the mirror image of their own face emerged by 5–7 years of age. When familiar or self faces were presented successively, 3- to 7-year-olds showed no preference, and adult-like preference for the standard image emerged by age 7–12 years. These results suggest the occurrence of a developmental process in the perception of familiar face asymmetries which is retained in memory related to knowledge about faces. PMID:21833208

Amestoy, Anouck; Bouvard, Manuel P.; Cazalets, Jean-René

2010-01-01

286

Rhesus Monkeys See Who They Hear: Spontaneous Cross-Modal Memory for Familiar Conspecifics  

PubMed Central

Rhesus monkeys gather much of their knowledge of the social world through visual input and may preferentially represent this knowledge in the visual modality. Recognition of familiar faces is clearly advantageous, and the flexibility and utility of primate social memory would be greatly enhanced if visual memories could be accessed cross-modally either by visual or auditory stimulation. Such cross-modal access to visual memory would facilitate flexible retrieval of the knowledge necessary for adaptive social behavior. We tested whether rhesus monkeys have cross-modal access to visual memory for familiar conspecifics using a delayed matching-to-sample procedure. Monkeys learned visual matching of video clips of familiar individuals to photographs of those individuals, and generalized performance to novel videos. In crossmodal probe trials, coo-calls were played during the memory interval. The calls were either from the monkey just seen in the sample video clip or from a different familiar monkey. Even though the monkeys were trained exclusively in visual matching, the calls influenced choice by causing an increase in the proportion of errors to the picture of the monkey whose voice was heard on incongruent trials. This result demonstrates spontaneous cross-modal recognition. It also shows that viewing videos of familiar monkeys activates naturally formed memories of real monkeys, validating the use of video stimuli in studies of social cognition in monkeys. PMID:21887244

Adachi, Ikuma; Hampton, Robert R.

2011-01-01

287

Neural Representations of Personally Familiar and Unfamiliar Faces in the Anterior Inferior Temporal Cortex of Monkeys  

PubMed Central

To investigate the neural representations of faces in primates, particularly in relation to their personal familiarity or unfamiliarity, neuronal activities were chronically recorded from the ventral portion of the anterior inferior temporal cortex (AITv) of macaque monkeys during the performance of a facial identification task using either personally familiar or unfamiliar faces as stimuli. By calculating the correlation coefficients between neuronal responses to the faces for all possible pairs of faces given in the task and then using the coefficients as neuronal population-based similarity measures between the faces in pairs, we analyzed the similarity/dissimilarity relationship between the faces, which were potentially represented by the activities of a population of the face-responsive neurons recorded in the area AITv. The results showed that, for personally familiar faces, different identities were represented by different patterns of activities of the population of AITv neurons irrespective of the view (e.g., front, 90° left, etc.), while different views were not represented independently of their facial identities, which was consistent with our previous report. In the case of personally unfamiliar faces, the faces possessing different identities but presented in the same frontal view were represented as similar, which contrasts with the results for personally familiar faces. These results, taken together, outline the neuronal representations of personally familiar and unfamiliar faces in the AITv neuronal population. PMID:21526206

Eifuku, Satoshi; De Souza, Wania C.; Nakata, Ryuzaburo; Ono, Taketoshi; Tamura, Ryoi

2011-01-01

288

The Role of Issue Familiarity And Social Norms: Findings on New College Students’ Alcohol Use Intentions  

PubMed Central

Background Scholars in a variety of disciplines are interested in understanding the conditions under which social norms affect human behavior. Following the distinction made between descriptive and injunctive norms by the focus theory of normative conduct, the theory of normative social behavior predicts that the influence of descriptive norms on behavior is moderated by injunctive norms, outcome expectations, and group identity. We extended the theory by testing the proposition that the influence of descriptive norms on behavior would be greater under conditions of greater issue familiarity, defined as the ease with which one can cognitively access the behavior or behavioral issue. Design and Methods The model was tested in the domain of alcohol consumption intentions by conducting a survey among incoming students (n=719) to a large university in the United States. Data indicated that students in the sample were well representative of the university population. Results The influence of descriptive norms on behavioral intentions was moderated by issue familiarity, as predicted. Familiarity was a facilitator of behavior: the influence of descriptive norms on behavioral intentions was greater under conditions of high, rather than low, familiarity. The overall model explained 53% of the variance in alcohol consumption intentions. Conclusions Public health interventions promoting health behaviors need to take into account the extent to which the behaviors are familiar to the target audience. The influence of norms appears to be weaker when the behavior is unfamiliar or novel. Implications for theory and interventions for reducing alcohol consumption are discussed. PMID:25170478

Rimal, Rajiv N.; Mollen, Saar

2013-01-01

289

Dogs’ attention towards humans depends on their relationship, not only on social familiarity  

PubMed Central

Both in humans and non-human animals it has been shown that individuals attend more to those they have previously interacted with and/or that they are more closely associated with than to unfamiliar individuals. Whether this preference is mediated by mere social familiarity based on exposure or by the specific relationship between the two individuals, however, remains unclear. The domestic dog is an interesting subject in this line of research as it lives in the human environment and regularly interacts with numerous humans, yet it often has a particularly close relationship with its owner. Therefore, we investigated how long dogs (Canis familiaris) would attend to the actions of two familiar humans and one unfamiliar experimenter, while varying whether dogs had a close relationship with only one or both familiar humans. Our data provide evidence that social familiarity by itself cannot account for dogs’ increased attention towards their owners since they only attended more to those familiar humans with whom they also had a close relationship. PMID:23224364

Horn, Lisa; Range, Friederike; Huber, Ludwig

2014-01-01

290

Recognition of familiar food activates feeding via an endocrine serotonin signal in Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

Familiarity discrimination has a significant impact on the pattern of food intake across species. However, the mechanism by which the recognition memory controls feeding is unclear. Here, we show that the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans forms a memory of particular foods after experience and displays behavioral plasticity, increasing the feeding response when they subsequently recognize the familiar food. We found that recognition of familiar food activates the pair of ADF chemosensory neurons, which subsequently increase serotonin release. The released serotonin activates the feeding response mainly by acting humorally and directly activates SER-7, a type 7 serotonin receptor, in MC motor neurons in the feeding organ. Our data suggest that worms sense the taste and/or smell of novel bacteria, which overrides the stimulatory effect of familiar bacteria on feeding by suppressing the activity of ADF or its upstream neurons. Our study provides insight into the mechanism by which familiarity discrimination alters behavior. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00329.001 PMID:23390589

Song, Bo-mi; Faumont, Serge; Lockery, Shawn; Avery, Leon

2013-01-01

291

Motor synergies during manual tracking differ between familiar and unfamiliar trajectories.  

PubMed

Synergistic control of the effector space allows high precision in task-relevant degrees of freedom, while noise is limited to task-irrelevant degrees of freedom. The present study investigates whether this typical structure of the variance-covariance matrix of the joint angles during manual tracking differs between familiar and unfamiliar trajectories. Subjects tracked a target moving in 2D on a graphics tablet with a hand-held pen, while their arm movements were not restricted. Subjects familiarized themselves with one target trajectory during an initial training block with 40 periodic trials. In the following test block, this familiar trajectory and several unfamiliar trajectories were presented in a mixed-block design to study prediction effects at the level of endpoint and joint trajectories. The differences in the synergistic control of arm movements were analyzed using the "uncontrolled manifold method." The results showed smaller variances and weaker motor synergies during tracking of familiar trajectories than during tracking of unfamiliar trajectories. The decrease in the synergy index was due to a stronger decrease in the variance irrelevant than of the variance relevant for pen position. In the context of motor control theory, these results suggest that tracking movements on familiar and unfamiliar target trajectories do not only differ in the available knowledge about target location but also apply different strategies to control the effector space. PMID:24352608

Borbély, Bence J; Straube, Andreas; Eggert, Thomas

2014-03-01

292

The awareness of novelty for strangely familiar words: a laboratory analogue of the déjà vu experience.  

PubMed

Déjà vu is a nebulous memory experience defined by a clash between evaluations of familiarity and novelty for the same stimulus. We sought to generate it in the laboratory by pairing a DRM recognition task, which generates erroneous familiarity for critical words, with a monitoring task by which participants realise that some of these erroneously familiar words are in fact novel. We tested 30 participants in an experiment in which we varied both participant awareness of stimulus novelty and erroneous familiarity strength. We found that déjà vu reports were most frequent for high novelty critical words (?25%), with low novelty critical words yielding only baseline levels of déjà vu report frequency (?10%). There was no significant variation in déjà vu report frequency according to familiarity strength. Discursive accounts of the experimentally-generated déjà vu experience suggest that aspects of the naturalistic déjà vu experience were captured by this analogue, but that the analogue was also limited in its focus and prone to influence by demand characteristics. We discuss theoretical and methodological considerations relevant to further development of this procedure and propose that verifiable novelty is an important component of both naturalistic and experimental analogues of déjà vu. PMID:25401055

Urquhart, Josephine A; O'Connor, Akira R

2014-01-01

293

The awareness of novelty for strangely familiar words: a laboratory analogue of the déjà vu experience  

PubMed Central

Déjà vu is a nebulous memory experience defined by a clash between evaluations of familiarity and novelty for the same stimulus. We sought to generate it in the laboratory by pairing a DRM recognition task, which generates erroneous familiarity for critical words, with a monitoring task by which participants realise that some of these erroneously familiar words are in fact novel. We tested 30 participants in an experiment in which we varied both participant awareness of stimulus novelty and erroneous familiarity strength. We found that déjà vu reports were most frequent for high novelty critical words (?25%), with low novelty critical words yielding only baseline levels of déjà vu report frequency (?10%). There was no significant variation in déjà vu report frequency according to familiarity strength. Discursive accounts of the experimentally-generated déjà vu experience suggest that aspects of the naturalistic déjà vu experience were captured by this analogue, but that the analogue was also limited in its focus and prone to influence by demand characteristics. We discuss theoretical and methodological considerations relevant to further development of this procedure and propose that verifiable novelty is an important component of both naturalistic and experimental analogues of déjà vu. PMID:25401055

Urquhart, Josephine A.

2014-01-01

294

Déjà vu in the laboratory: a behavioral and experiential comparison of posthypnotic amnesia and posthypnotic familiarity.  

PubMed

This experiment aimed to create a laboratory analogue of déjà vu. During hypnosis, 1 group of high hypnotizables completed a puzzle game and then received a posthypnotic amnesia suggestion to forget the game (PHA condition). Another group of highs were not given the game but received a posthypnotic familiarity suggestion that it would feel familiar (PHF condition). After hypnosis, all participants were given the game and described their reactions to it. Whereas 83% of participants in both conditions passed their respective suggestions, more in the PHF condition felt a sense of déjà vu. An EAT inquiry revealed that they experienced sensory fascination and confusion about the source of familiarity, akin to everyday déjà vu. These findings highlight the value of using hypnosis as a laboratory analogue of déjà vu and provide a framework for investigating clinical manifestations of this phenomenon. PMID:18726806

O'Connor, Akira R; Barnier, Amanda J; Cox, Rochelle E

2008-10-01

295

Familiarity from the configuration of objects in 3-dimensional space and its relation to déjà vu: a virtual reality investigation.  

PubMed

Déjà vu is the striking sense that the present situation feels familiar, alongside the realization that it has to be new. According to the Gestalt familiarity hypothesis, déjà vu results when the configuration of elements within a scene maps onto a configuration previously seen, but the previous scene fails to come to mind. We examined this using virtual reality (VR) technology. When a new immersive VR scene resembled a previously-viewed scene in its configuration but people failed to recall the previously-viewed scene, familiarity ratings and reports of déjà vu were indeed higher than for completely novel scenes. People also exhibited the contrasting sense of newness and of familiarity that is characteristic of déjà vu. Familiarity ratings and déjà vu reports among scenes recognized as new increased with increasing feature-match of a scene to one stored in memory, suggesting that feature-matching can produce familiarity and déjà vu when recall fails. PMID:22322010

Cleary, Anne M; Brown, Alan S; Sawyer, Benjamin D; Nomi, Jason S; Ajoku, Adaeze C; Ryals, Anthony J

2012-06-01

296

Familiarity mediates the relationship between emotional arousal and pleasure during music listening  

PubMed Central

Emotional arousal appears to be a major contributing factor to the pleasure that listeners experience in response to music. Accordingly, a strong positive correlation between self-reported pleasure and electrodermal activity (EDA), an objective indicator of emotional arousal, has been demonstrated when individuals listen to familiar music. However, it is not yet known to what extent familiarity contributes to this relationship. In particular, as listening to familiar music involves expectations and predictions over time based on veridical knowledge of the piece, it could be that such memory factors plays a major role. Here, we tested such a contribution by using musical stimuli entirely unfamiliar to listeners. In a second experiment we repeated the novel music to experimentally establish a sense of familiarity. We aimed to determine whether (1) pleasure and emotional arousal would continue to correlate when listeners have no explicit knowledge of how the tones will unfold, and (2) whether this could be enhanced by experimentally-induced familiarity. In the first experiment, we presented 33 listeners with 70 unfamiliar musical excerpts in two sessions. There was no relationship between the degree of experienced pleasure and emotional arousal as measured by EDA. In the second experiment, 7 participants listened to 35 unfamiliar excerpts over two sessions separated by 30 min. Repeated exposure significantly increased EDA, even though individuals did not explicitly recall having heard all the pieces before. Furthermore, increases in self-reported familiarity significantly enhanced experienced pleasure and there was a general, though not significant, increase in EDA. These results suggest that some level of expectation and predictability mediated by prior exposure to a given piece of music play an important role in the experience of emotional arousal in response to music. PMID:24046738

van den Bosch, Iris; Salimpoor, Valorie N.; Zatorre, Robert J.

2013-01-01

297

Effects of familiar and unfamiliar objects on mother-infant interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine whether the dynamics and structure of mother-child interactions around toys vary\\u000a with the familiarity of toys. Twelve mother-child dyads with a 5- or 9-month-old infant were filmed two consecutive 5-minute\\u000a sessions in the presence of familiar or novel objects. By relating the mother’s behaviour to her infant’s, we were able to\\u000a define

Agnés Danis

1997-01-01

298

BOLETN OFICIAL DEL ESTADO Nm. 289 Jueves 1 de diciembre de 2011 Sec. III. Pg. 127995  

E-print Network

Investigaciones Biomédicas "Alberto Sols" JAEDOC021 Área 2 1 Neurociencia IN Instituto de Neurociencias JAEDOC022 Neurociencia IC Instituto Cajal JAEDOC024 Área 2 1 Biomedicina IBV Instituto de Biomedicina de Valencia JAEDOC

Fitze, Patrick

299

The dilemmas of a scientific tradition: higher education, science, and public health at the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 1908-1953.  

PubMed

The article analyzes the tradition in medical and scientific teaching that was established at the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz starting in 1908, introducing an innovative standard in training researchers and public health workers that combined teaching and research activities. Forerunner of the university model, this tradition came up against the question of what social role the institute should play in the new institutional organization of public health and education implemented during the Vargas era: should the Institute serve public health or adopt a university-like format? PMID:22872396

Azevedo, Nara; Ferreira, Luiz Otávio

2012-06-01

300

Sátira del dinero y el linaje en las crónicas familiares narradas en Gran señor y rajadiablos de Eduardo Barrios  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this essay, I analyze how Eduardo Barrios articulates a bidimensional type of satire in his novel Gran Señor y rajadiablos (Great Lord and Hellraiser), underscoring both the anachronism linked to the ideological perception that favored Peninsular lineages as hegemonic signs of aristocratic status, generally associated with the traditional sector of the hacienda, and the preference of the bourgeoisie for

Luis Hermosilla

2010-01-01

301

Instantánea del cáncer infantil  

Cancer.gov

Información sobre la incidencia y mortalidad del cáncer en los niños, tendencias en el financiamiento del NCI para la investigación del cáncer infantil; así como ejemplos de actividades y adelantos en la investigación relevantes para esta población.

302

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Effectiveness of familiar kin and unfamiliar nonkin demonstrator  

E-print Network

to prediction, naive Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus, were marginally more likely to learn to prefer a food eaten. Keywords: familiarity; food choice; kinship; Norway rat; Rattus norvegicus; social learning Although learning in the development of food preferences of Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus. In our basic experiment

Galef Jr., Bennett G.

303

Internal Consistency of Performance Evaluations as a Function of Music Expertise and Excerpt Familiarity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of music experience and excerpt familiarity on the internal consistency of performance evaluations. Participants included nonmusic majors who had not participated in high school music ensembles, nonmusic majors who had participated in high school music ensembles, music majors, and experts…

Kinney, Daryl W.

2009-01-01

304

The effect of exercise-induced arousal on chosen tempi for familiar melodies.  

PubMed

Many previous studies have shown that arousal affects time perception, suggesting a direct influence of arousal on the speed of the pacemaker of the internal clock. However, it is unknown whether arousal influences the mental representation of tempo (speed) for highly familiar and complex stimuli, such as well-known melodies, that have long-term representations in memory. Previous research suggests that mental representations of the tempo of familiar melodies are stable over time; the aim of the present study was to investigate whether these representations can be systematically altered via an increase in physiological arousal. Participants adjusted the tempo of 14 familiar melodies in real time until they found a tempo that matched their internal representation of the appropriate tempo for that piece. The task was carried out before and after a physiologically arousing (exercise) or nonarousing (anagrams) manipulation. Participants completed this task both while hearing the melodies aloud and while imagining them. Chosen tempi increased significantly following exercise-induced arousal, regardless of whether a melody was heard aloud or imagined. These findings suggest that a change in internal clock speed affects temporal judgments even for highly familiar and complex stimuli such as music. PMID:25056004

Jakubowski, Kelly; Halpern, Andrea R; Grierson, Mick; Stewart, Lauren

2015-04-01

305

No need to Talk, I Know You: Familiarity Influences Early Multisensory Integration in a Songbird's Brain  

PubMed Central

It is well known that visual information can affect auditory perception, as in the famous “McGurk effect,” but little is known concerning the processes involved. To address this issue, we used the best-developed animal model to study language-related processes in the brain: songbirds. European starlings were exposed to audiovisual compared to auditory-only playback of conspecific songs, while electrophysiological recordings were made in their primary auditory area (Field L). The results show that the audiovisual condition modulated the auditory responses. Enhancement and suppression were both observed, depending on the stimulus familiarity. Seeing a familiar bird led to suppressed auditory responses while seeing an unfamiliar bird led to response enhancement, suggesting that unisensory perception may be enough if the stimulus is familiar while redundancy may be required for unfamiliar items. This is to our knowledge the first evidence that multisensory integration may occur in a low-level, putatively unisensory area of a non-mammalian vertebrate brain, and also that familiarity of the stimuli may influence modulation of auditory responses by vision. PMID:21283531

George, Isabelle; Richard, Jean-Pierre; Cousillas, Hugo; Hausberger, Martine

2011-01-01

306

Cross-modal individual recognition in domestic horses (Equus caballus) extends to familiar humans  

PubMed Central

It has recently been shown that some non-human animals can cross-modally recognize members of their own taxon. What is unclear is just how plastic this recognition system can be. In this study, we investigate whether an animal, the domestic horse, is capable of spontaneous cross-modal recognition of individuals from a morphologically very different species. We also provide the first insights into how cross-modal identity information is processed by examining whether there are hemispheric biases in this important social skill. In our preferential looking paradigm, subjects were presented with two people and playbacks of their voices to determine whether they were able to match the voice with the person. When presented with familiar handlers subjects could match the specific familiar person with the correct familiar voice. Horses were significantly better at performing the matching task when the congruent person was standing on their right, indicating marked hemispheric specialization (left hemisphere bias) in this ability. These results are the first to demonstrate that cross-modal recognition in animals can extend to individuals from phylogenetically very distant species. They also indicate that processes governed by the left hemisphere are central to the cross-modal matching of visual and auditory information from familiar individuals in a naturalistic setting. PMID:22593108

Proops, Leanne; McComb, Karen

2012-01-01

307

Cross-modal individual recognition in domestic horses (Equus caballus) extends to familiar humans.  

PubMed

It has recently been shown that some non-human animals can cross-modally recognize members of their own taxon. What is unclear is just how plastic this recognition system can be. In this study, we investigate whether an animal, the domestic horse, is capable of spontaneous cross-modal recognition of individuals from a morphologically very different species. We also provide the first insights into how cross-modal identity information is processed by examining whether there are hemispheric biases in this important social skill. In our preferential looking paradigm, subjects were presented with two people and playbacks of their voices to determine whether they were able to match the voice with the person. When presented with familiar handlers subjects could match the specific familiar person with the correct familiar voice. Horses were significantly better at performing the matching task when the congruent person was standing on their right, indicating marked hemispheric specialization (left hemisphere bias) in this ability. These results are the first to demonstrate that cross-modal recognition in animals can extend to individuals from phylogenetically very distant species. They also indicate that processes governed by the left hemisphere are central to the cross-modal matching of visual and auditory information from familiar individuals in a naturalistic setting. PMID:22593108

Proops, Leanne; McComb, Karen

2012-08-22

308

Individual differences in forced-choice recognition memory: partitioning contributions of recollection and familiarity.  

PubMed

In forced-choice recognition memory, two different testing formats are possible under conditions of high target-foil similarity: Each target can be presented alongside foils similar to itself (forced-choice corresponding; FCC), or alongside foils similar to other targets (forced-choice noncorresponding; FCNC). Recent behavioural and neuropsychological studies suggest that FCC performance can be supported by familiarity whereas FCNC performance is supported primarily by recollection. In this paper, we corroborate this finding from an individual differences perspective. A group of older adults were given a test of FCC and FCNC recognition for object pictures, as well as standardized tests of recall, recognition, and IQ. Recall measures were found to predict FCNC, but not FCC performance, consistent with a critical role for recollection in FCNC only. After the common influence of recall was removed, standardized tests of recognition predicted FCC, but not FCNC performance. This is consistent with a contribution of only familiarity in FCC. Simulations show that a two-process model, where familiarity and recollection make separate contributions to recognition, is 10 times more likely to give these results than a single-process model. This evidence highlights the importance of recognition memory test design when examining the involvement of recollection and familiarity. PMID:24796268

Migo, Ellen M; Quamme, Joel R; Holmes, Selina; Bendell, Andrew; Norman, Kenneth A; Mayes, Andrew R; Montaldi, Daniela

2014-01-01

309

Making the Familiar Strange: Creative Cultural Storytelling within the Communication Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this activity, students employ mock campfire storytelling to "make the familiar strange" in the same spirit as Horace Miner's (1956) classic tale of the "Nacirema." Students work individually, in pairs, or as small groups (around three) to create a whimsical story that deconstructs a mundane, everyday ritual (event, activity, practice) into a…

Blinne, Kristen C.

2012-01-01

310

Diurnal Cortisol Profile in Williams Syndrome in Novel and Familiar Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder associated with high rates of anxiety and social issues. We examined diurnal cortisol, a biomarker of the stress response, in adults with WS in novel and familiar settings, and compared these profiles to typically developing (TD) adults. WS and TD participants had similar profiles in…

Lense, Miriam Diane; Tomarken, Andrew J.; Dykens, Elisabeth M.

2013-01-01

311

Aspects of Performance on Line Graph Description Tasks: Influenced by Graph Familiarity and Different Task Features  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Motivated by cognitive theories of graph comprehension, this study systematically manipulated characteristics of a line graph description task in a speaking test in ways to mitigate the influence of graph familiarity, a potential source of construct-irrelevant variance. It extends Xi (2005), which found that the differences in holistic scores on…

Xi, Xiaoming

2010-01-01

312

The Hippocampal Role in Spatial Memory and the FamiliarityRecollection Distinction: A Case Study  

E-print Network

). Tests used virtual reality environments and forced-choice recognition with foils chosen to equalize recognition memory paradigms. We investigate his tightly circumscribed deficits in recognizing spatial and familiarity-based recognition. When tested within the recognition memory paradigm, this dis- tinction

Burgess, Neil

313

Effects of Familiarity with a Melody Prior to Instruction on Children's Piano Performance Accuracy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of this study was to examine the effects of familiarity with the sound of a melody on children's performance of the melody. Children in kindergarten through fourth grade (N = 97) with no previous formal instrumental instruction were taught to play a four-measure melody on a keyboard during an individual instruction session. Before…

Frewen, Katherine Goins

2010-01-01

314

Beyond the Memory Mechanism: Person-Selective and Nonselective Processes in Recognition of Personally Familiar Faces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Special processes recruited during the recognition of personally familiar people have been assumed to reflect the rich episodic and semantic information that selectively represents each person. However, the processes may also include person nonselective ones, which may require interpretation in terms beyond the memory mechanism. To examine this…

Sugiura, Motoaki; Mano, Yoko; Sasaki, Akihiro; Sadato, Norihiro

2011-01-01

315

Listen to Your Mother!: The Role of Talker Familiarity in Infant Streaming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little is known about the acoustic cues infants might use to selectively attend to one talker in the presence of background noise. This study examined the role of talker familiarity as a possible cue. Infants either heard their own mothers (maternal-voice condition) or a different infant's mother (novel-voice condition) repeating isolated words…

Barker, Brittan A.; Newman, Rochelle S.

2004-01-01

316

Familiarizing Students with the Empirically Supported Treatment Approaches for Substance Abuse Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When training counseling students, it is important to familiarize them with the clinical research literature exploring the efficacy of particular treatments. The bulk of the document is comprised of a review of empirically supported treatments (ESTs). ESTs or evidence-based treatments are grounded in studies recommended by the American…

Wilkins, Victoria; Chambliss, Catherine

317

No Measured Effect of a Familiar Contextual Object on Color Constancy.  

PubMed

Some familiar objects have a typical color, such as the yellow of a banana. The presence of such objects in a scene is a potential cue to the scene illumination, since the light reflected from them should on average be consistent with their typical surface reflectance. Although there are many studies on how the identity of an object affects how its color is perceived, little is known about whether the presence of a familiar object in a scene helps the visual system stabilize the color appearance of other objects with respect to changes in illumination. We used a successive color matching procedure in three experiments designed to address this question. Across the experiments we studied a total of 6 subjects (2 in Experiment 1, 3 in Experiment 2, and 4 in Experiment 3) with partial overlap of subjects between experiments. We compared measured color constancy across conditions in which a familiar object cue to the illuminant was available with conditions in which such a cue was not present. Overall, our results do not reveal a reliable improvement in color constancy with the addition of a familiar object to a scene. An analysis of the experimental power of our data suggests that if there is such an effect, it is small: less than approximately a change of 0.09 in a constancy index where an absence of constancy corresponds to an index value of 0 and perfect constancy corresponds to an index value of 1. PMID:25313267

Kanematsu, Erika; Brainard, David H

2014-08-01

318

Down Syndrome and Automatic Processing of Familiar and Unfamiliar Emotional Faces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participants with Down syndrome (DS) were required to participate in a face recognition experiment to recognize familiar (DS faces) and unfamiliar emotional faces (non DS faces), by using an affective priming paradigm. Pairs of emotional facial stimuli were presented (one face after another) with a short Stimulus Onset Asynchrony of 300…

Morales, Guadalupe E.; Lopez, Ernesto O.

2010-01-01

319

The Influence of Distracting Familiar Vocal Music on Cognitive Performance of Introverts and Extraverts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the effect of familiar musical distractors on the cognitive performance of introverts and extraverts. Participants completed a verbal, numerical and logic test in three music conditions: vocal music, instrumental music and silence. It was predicted that introverts would perform worse with vocal music, better with…

Avila, Christina; Furnham, Adrian; McClelland, Alastair

2012-01-01

320

Most Americans are familiar with the Republic of Korea through either K-pop  

E-print Network

Most Americans are familiar with the Republic of Korea through either K-pop music, the North-South political issues or the spicy, delicious cuisine. But for me, my awareness and interest grew through Korea's association with the U.S. Peace Corps. My dad, a Returned Peace Corps Volunteer (RPCV), served in Korea

321

Aesthetic Education in the Early Years: Exploring Familiar and Unfamiliar Personal-Cultural Landscapes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores a double-bind in early schooling: a persistent value placed upon presenting multicultural art forms to a child constructed as incapable of grasping what is not familiar. The author argues that this bind is situated within dominant developmental discourses that emphasize the appropriateness of concrete and sequential…

Blank, Jolyn

2012-01-01

322

Electroencephalogram and Heart Rate Regulation to Familiar and Unfamiliar People in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few studies have examined whether familiarity of partner affects social responses in children with autism. This study investigated heart rate regulation (respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA]: The myelinated vagus nerve's regulation of heart rate) and temporal-parietal electroencephalogram (EEG) activity while nineteen 8- to 12-year-old children with…

Van Hecke, Amy Vaughan; Lebow, Jocelyn; Bal, Elgiz; Lamb, Damon; Harden, Emily; Kramer, Alexis; Denver, John; Bazhenova, Olga; Porges, Stephen W.

2009-01-01

323

In Live Interaction, Does Familiarity Promote Attraction or Contempt? Reply to Norton, Frost, and Ariely (2011)  

E-print Network

REPLY In Live Interaction, Does Familiarity Promote Attraction or Contempt? Reply to Norton, Frost and refute each of Norton, Frost, and Ariely's (2011) specific objections to the conclusion that, ceteris concur with Norton et al.'s call for an integrative model that encompasses both Norton, Frost, and Ariely

Reber, Paul J.

2011-01-01

324

CELLS: The smallest living things... Purpose: To gain familiarity with cell structures and to learn  

E-print Network

1 CELLS: The smallest living things... Purpose: To gain familiarity with cell structures and to learn the differences between plant cells and animal cells. You have already learned about the parts of these cells in class; in this lab we will observe celery cells (plant cells) and human cheek cells (animal

Rose, Michael R.

325

The Effects of Familiarization with Oral Expository Text on Listening and Reading Comprehension Levels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of text type and early familiarization with oral expository text structures on listening and reading comprehension levels. Second-grade students read and listened to narrative and expository texts, and their comprehension was assessed with a sentence verification task. Half of the students had participated in a…

Diakidoy, Irene-Anna N.

2014-01-01

326

Medial Temporal and Prefrontal Contributions to Working Memory Tasks With Novel and Familiar  

E-print Network

and trial-unique stimuli in nonhuman primate studies. We used fMRI to ex- amine prefrontal and temporal lobe prefrontal activation. These results are consistent with- out hypothesis that the medial temporal lobeMedial Temporal and Prefrontal Contributions to Working Memory Tasks With Novel and Familiar

Rotstein, Horacio G.

327

Technology shapes every facet of modern life. Familiarity with the characteristics,  

E-print Network

Technology shapes every facet of modern life. Familiarity with the characteristics, capabilities, and limitations of current and emerging technologies is indispen- sable to wise and effective decisions and address the problems that technology often presents. Technologi- cal developments are indeed re

Ge, Qiaode Jeff

328

Unfolding the Spatial and Temporal Neural Processing of Lying about Face Familiarity  

PubMed Central

To understand the neural processing underpinnings of deception, this study employed both neuroimaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging, fMRI) and neurophysiological (event-related potential, ERP) methodologies to examine the temporal and spatial coupling of the neural correlates and processes that occur when one lies about face familiarity. This was performed using simple directed lying tasks. According to cues provided by the researchers, the 17 participants were required to respond truthfully or with lies to a series of faces. The findings confirmed that lie and truth conditions are associated with different fMRI activations in the ventrolateral, dorsolateral, and dorsal medial-frontal cortices; premotor cortex, and inferior parietal gyrus. They are also associated with different amplitudes within the time interval between 300 and 1000 ms post face stimulus, after the initiation (270 ms) of face familiarity processing. These results support the cognitive model that suggests representations of truthful information are first aroused and then manipulated during deception. Stronger fMRI activations at the left inferior frontal gyrus and more positive-going ERP amplitudes within [1765, 1800] ms were observed in the contrast between lie and truth for familiar than for unfamiliar faces. The fMRI and ERP findings, together with ERP source reconstruction, clearly delineate the neural processing of face familiarity deception. PMID:24186897

Sun, Delin; Lee, Tatia M.C.; Chan, Chetwyn C.H.

2015-01-01

329

ing...ggg. The sound of a sonar transmission is familiar from clas-  

E-print Network

P ing...ggg.Ã? The sound of a sonar transmission is familiar from clas- sic Ã?lms on submarine creatures such as snapping shrimp all contribute to this cacopho- ny. It is only to be expected that sonar- rent sonar systems, which have found widespread military, commercial and scientiÃ?c application, have

Buckingham, Michael

330

Does Topic Familiarity Affect Assessed Difficulty and Actual Performance on Reading Comprehension Tests in LSP?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated the hypothesis that topic familiarity and assessed difficulty of a second language text correlated positively with performance on reading comprehension tests in languages for special purposes (LSP). Subjects were 177 advanced students of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) at Ben Gurion University (Israel). Faculty from the…

Peretz, Arna S.; Shoham, Miriam

331

Effects of Lexical Prosody and Word Familiarity on Lexical Access of Spoken Japanese Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lexical prosody (e.g., stress and pitch accent) has been shown to constrain lexical activation of spoken words in various languages. In the present study, whether or not the constraint of lexical prosody is affected by word familiarity in lexical access of Japanese words was examined using a cross-modal priming task. The stimuli were pairs of…

Sekiguchi, Takahiro

2006-01-01

332

Orangutans (Pongo abelii) and a gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) match features in familiar and unfamiliar individuals.  

PubMed

Great apes can perceive images as representative of corresponding real-life objects. Coupled with the potential advantages of identifying specific members of one's species and mounting evidence for individual recognition in other non-humans, it seems likely that great apes would have the ability to identify conspecifics in photographs. The ability of four orangutans and a gorilla to match images of individuals of their own and a closely related but unfamiliar species was examined here for the first time. First, the subjects matched photographs of familiar conspecifics taken at various time points in a delayed matching-to-sample procedure (Experiment 1). Second, they matched different photographs of unfamiliar individuals of a different species (Experiment 2) at above chance levels. These results suggest that the subjects matched photographs by matching physical features, not necessarily by recognizing the identity of the individuals depicted. However, they also quickly learned to select photographs of familiar individuals when these photographs were paired with photographs of unfamiliar individuals of their own species (Experiment 3), and three subjects showed transfer to novel images of familiar and unfamiliar individuals. Thus, the findings support the idea that subjects attended to physical features to identify individuals that they could categorize on the basis of familiarity. PMID:24623526

Vonk, Jennifer; Hamilton, Jennifer

2014-09-01

333

Action Prediction in Younger versus Older Adults: Neural Correlates of Motor Familiarity  

PubMed Central

Generating predictions during action observation is essential for efficient navigation through our social environment. With age, the sensitivity in action prediction declines. In younger adults, the action observation network (AON), consisting of premotor, parietal and occipitotemporal cortices, has been implicated in transforming executed and observed actions into a common code. Much less is known about age-related changes in the neural representation of observed actions. Using fMRI, the present study measured brain activity in younger and older adults during the prediction of temporarily occluded actions (figure skating elements and simple movement exercises). All participants were highly familiar with the movement exercises whereas only some participants were experienced figure skaters. With respect to the AON, the results confirm that this network was preferentially engaged for the more familiar movement exercises. Compared to younger adults, older adults recruited visual regions to perform the task and, additionally, the hippocampus and caudate when the observed actions were familiar to them. Thus, instead of effectively exploiting the sensorimotor matching properties of the AON, older adults seemed to rely predominantly on the visual dynamics of the observed actions to perform the task. Our data further suggest that the caudate played an important role during the prediction of the less familiar figure skating elements in better-performing groups. Together, these findings show that action prediction engages a distributed network in the brain, which is modulated by the content of the observed actions and the age and experience of the observer. PMID:23704980

Diersch, Nadine; Mueller, Karsten; Cross, Emily S.; Stadler, Waltraud; Rieger, Martina; Schütz-Bosbach, Simone

2013-01-01

334

Effects of Multimodal Presentation and Stimulus Familiarity on Auditory and Visual Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments examined the effects of multimodal presentation and stimulus familiarity on auditory and visual processing. In Experiment 1, 10-month-olds were habituated to either an auditory stimulus, a visual stimulus, or an auditory-visual multimodal stimulus. Processing time was assessed during the habituation phase, and discrimination of…

Robinson, Christopher W.; Sloutsky, Vladimir M.

2010-01-01

335

Evidence for a Non-Lexical Influence on Children's Auditory Repetition of Familiar Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines evidence for a nonlexical influence on children's repetition of real words. We investigate the extent to which two computational models of auditory repetition can simulate the performance of 68 children aged between 5 and 11 years-old when they are attempting to repeat familiar words. Both computational accounts were derived…

Budd, Mary-Jane; Hanley, J. Richard; Nozari, Nazbanou

2012-01-01

336

A Familiar Face(book): Profile Elements as Signals in an Online Social Network  

E-print Network

A Familiar Face(book): Profile Elements as Signals in an Online Social Network Cliff Lampe, Nicole elements in the formation of online connections, we focus on Facebook.com, an online social network site lampecli@msu.edu, nellison@msu.edu, steinfie@msu.edu ABSTRACT Using data from a popular online social

Steinfield, Charles

337

The role of context in remembering familiar persons: Insights from semantic dementia  

E-print Network

by an insidious and gradual breakdown in semantic knowledge. Patients suffering from this condition gradually lose was to examine in a patient suffering from SD the role of context in the ability to recall knowledge of familiar and certain words quickly become apparent. Patients suffering from SD appear to be in- dependent in daily life

Barbeau, Emmanuel J.

338

Consequences of consumer trust in PDO food products: the role of familiarity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This research proposes studying how the moderating role of consumers' familiarity with a food product with a protected denomination of origin (PDO) influences consumer behavior. Past research has ascertained that consumers confuse different brands and PDOs. For this reason, it is important to analyze whether the level of consumers' experience with PDO food products influences their decisions. Design\\/methodology\\/approach

Carmina Fandos Herrera; Carlos Flavián Blanco

2011-01-01

339

The Role of Familiarity in Daily Well-Being: Developmental and Cultural Variation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined life stage and cultural differences in the degree to which familiarity of one's physical location and interaction partner is associated with daily well-being. Participants reported all the activities they engaged in and how they felt during these activities on a previous day using the Day Reconstruction Method (Kahneman,…

Oishi, Shigehiro; Kurtz, Jaime L.; Miao, Felicity F.; Park, Jina; Whitchurch, Erin

2011-01-01

340

Searching for Something Familiar or Novel: TopDown Attentional Selection of Specific  

E-print Network

bias processing in visual cortical areas in a top­down fashion in favor of visual features and objectsSearching for Something Familiar or Novel: Top­Down Attentional Selection of Specific Items , and Martin Eimer3 Abstract Visual search is often guided by top­down attentional tem- plates that specify

Aslin, Richard N.

341

Selective Familiarity Deficits after Left Anterior Temporal-Lobe Removal with Hippocampal Sparing Are Material Specific  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has firmly established a link between recognition memory and the functional integrity of the medial temporal lobes (MTL). Dual-process models of MTL organization maintain that there is a division of labour within the MTL, with the hippocampus (HC) supporting recollective processes and perirhinal cortex (PRc) supporting familiarity…

Martin, Chris B.; Bowles, Ben; Mirsattari, Seyed M.; Kohler, Stefan

2011-01-01

342

L'univers familier de l'enfant africain (The Familiar Surroundings of the African Child).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study on the African child had three objectives: (1) to become familiar with the environment of the African child, (2) to investigate the vocabulary to which the child is exposed at home and at school, and (3) to compare the vocabulary of the native language with that of the school. The first part of the study constituted a linguistic study…

Njock, Pierre-Emmanuel

343

New Uses for a Familiar Technology: Introducing Mobile Phone Polling in Large Classes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We have introduced a real-time polling system to support student engagement and feedback in four large Level 1 and 2 modules in Biological Sciences. The audience response system makes use of a technology that is ubiquitous and familiar to the students. To participate, students send text messages using their mobile phones or send a message via…

Voelkel, Susanne; Bennett, Daimark

2014-01-01

344

Effects of Long-Term Object Familiarity on Event-Related Potentials in the Monkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although some change in the neural representation of an object must occur as it becomes familiar, the nature of this change is not fully understood. In humans, it has been shown that the N170—an evoked visual potential—is enhanced for classes of objects for which people have visual expertise. In this study, we explored whether monkeys show a similar modulation in

Jessie J. Peissig; Jedediah Singer; Keisuke Kawasaki; David L. Sheinberg

2007-01-01

345

Familiarity-based memory as an early cognitive marker of preclinical and prodromal AD  

E-print Network

Familiarity-based memory as an early cognitive marker of preclinical and prodromal AD David A. Wolk Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA f Athinoula A. Martinos Center Alzheimer's disease Medial temporal lobe Preclinical Alzheimer's disease Mild cognitive impairment a b s t r

Dickerson, Brad

346

Simplicity, consistency, universality and familiarity: applying ‘SCUF’ principles to technology for assisted living  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the user interface design, and subsequent usability evaluation of assistive technology to support elderly and disabled people in their interaction with kitchen appliances in their homes. We have applied the four design principles of simplicity, consistency, universality and familiarity to a range of devices that can be used within the home environment. Our evaluations suggest that this

Rich Picking; Vic Grout; Jodi Crisp; Helen Grout

2009-01-01

347

Learning to Interpret Cultural Meaning through an Etic Description of a Familiar Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Undergraduate students often have trouble interpreting cultures other than that with which they are familiar in a way that takes into account the symbols and meanings that explain behaviors, objects, and ideologies. Instead, many fall into the trap of making ethnocentric assumptions and coming to conclusions that are informed by their own cultural…

Miller, Elizabeth

2014-01-01

348

Unfolding the Spatial and Temporal Neural Processing of Lying about Face Familiarity.  

PubMed

To understand the neural processing underpinnings of deception, this study employed both neuroimaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging, fMRI) and neurophysiological (event-related potential, ERP) methodologies to examine the temporal and spatial coupling of the neural correlates and processes that occur when one lies about face familiarity. This was performed using simple directed lying tasks. According to cues provided by the researchers, the 17 participants were required to respond truthfully or with lies to a series of faces. The findings confirmed that lie and truth conditions are associated with different fMRI activations in the ventrolateral, dorsolateral, and dorsal medial-frontal cortices; premotor cortex, and inferior parietal gyrus. They are also associated with different amplitudes within the time interval between 300 and 1000 ms post face stimulus, after the initiation (270 ms) of face familiarity processing. These results support the cognitive model that suggests representations of truthful information are first aroused and then manipulated during deception. Stronger fMRI activations at the left inferior frontal gyrus and more positive-going ERP amplitudes within [1765, 1800] ms were observed in the contrast between lie and truth for familiar than for unfamiliar faces. The fMRI and ERP findings, together with ERP source reconstruction, clearly delineate the neural processing of face familiarity deception. PMID:24186897

Sun, Delin; Lee, Tatia M C; Chan, Chetwyn C H

2015-04-01

349

Familiarity Breeds Contempt: Kangaroos Persistently Avoid Areas with Experimentally Deployed Dingo Scents  

E-print Network

Familiarity Breeds Contempt: Kangaroos Persistently Avoid Areas with Experimentally Deployed Dingo scents (urine, feces) from a sympatric predator (Canis lupus dingo), along with a control (water with 40 ml of dingo urine, X = 986.7563.97 g food remained as compared to the tap water control, X = 209

Grether, Gregory

350

Potential of Technology and a Familiar Context to Enhance Students' Concept of Rate of Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students' concept image of rate of change may be in complete or erroneous This paper reports a pilot study, with secondary school studen ts, which explores the potential of technology (JavaMathWorlds), depicting a familiar c ontext of motion, to develop students' existing schema of informal understandings of rate of change to more formal mathematical representations Students developed numerous 'models of'

Sandra Herbert; Robyn Pierce

351

Recognition Errors Suggest Fast Familiarity and Slow Recollection in Rhesus Monkeys  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One influential model of recognition posits two underlying memory processes: recollection, which is detailed but relatively slow, and familiarity, which is quick but lacks detail. Most of the evidence for this dual-process model in nonhumans has come from analyses of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves in rats, but whether ROC analyses…

Basile, Benjamin M.; Hampton, Robert R.

2013-01-01

352

Age-of-acquisition, imagery, concreteness, familiarity, and ambiguity measures for 1,944 words  

Microsoft Academic Search

Age-of-acquisition, imagery, concreteness, familiarity, and ambiguity measures for 1,944 words of varying length and frequency\\u000a of occurrence are presented. The words can all be used as nouns. Intergroup reliabilities are satisfactory on all attributes.\\u000a Correlations with previous word lists are significant, and the intercorrelations between measures match previous findings.

K. J. Gilhooly; R. H. Logie

1980-01-01

353

Medical School Students' Knowledge of and Familiarity with Visual Impairments: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A limited amount of research has been conducted on the knowledge of and familiarity with individuals with disabilities of medical students. There have been studies on these individuals' satisfaction with medical services and the accessibility of medical services to them, the role of health care providers in working with these individuals, and the…

McKenzie, Amy R.; Henzi, David L.

2010-01-01

354

Journal of Fish Biology (1997) 50, 799808 The effect of physical condition and shoalmate familiarity on  

E-print Network

of these cells was demonstrated. Fathead minnows Pimephales promelas were maintained on high or low food rations: Pimephales promelas; condition; alarm substance cells; shoalmate familiarity; predator­prey. INTRODUCTION Fathead minnows Pimephales promelas (Rafinesque), and other members of the superorder Ostariophysi

Wisenden, Brian D.

355

When Familiar Is Not Better: 12-Month-Old Infants Respond to Talk about Absent Objects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments that demonstrate a novel constraint on infants' language skills are described. Across the experiments it is shown that as babies near their 1st birthday, their ability to respond to talk about an absent object is influenced by a referent's spatiotemporal history: familiarizing infants with an object in 1 or several nontest…

Osina, Maria A.; Saylor, Megan M.; Ganea, Patricia A.

2013-01-01

356

Familiar trajectories facilitate the interpretation of physical forces when intercepting a moving target.  

PubMed

Familiarity with the visual environment affects our expectations about the objects in a scene, aiding in recognition and interaction. Here we tested whether the familiarity with the specific trajectory followed by a moving target facilitates the interpretation of the effects of underlying physical forces. Participants intercepted a target sliding down either an inclined plane or a tautochrone. Gravity accelerated the target by the same amount in both cases, but the inclined plane represented a familiar trajectory whereas the tautochrone was unfamiliar to the participants. In separate sessions, the gravity field was consistent with either natural gravity or artificial reversed gravity. Target motion was occluded from view over the last segment. We found that the responses in the session with unnatural forces were systematically delayed relative to those with natural forces, but only for the inclined plane. The time shift is consistent with a bias for natural gravity, in so far as it reflects an a priori expectation that a target not affected by natural forces will arrive later than one accelerated downwards by gravity. Instead, we did not find any significant time shift with unnatural forces in the case of the tautochrone. We argue that interception of a moving target relies on the integration of the high-level cue of trajectory familiarity with low-level cues related to target kinematics. PMID:25142150

Mijatovi?, Antonija; La Scaleia, Barbara; Mercuri, Nicola; Lacquaniti, Francesco; Zago, Myrka

2014-12-01

357

Students' Difficulties with Applying a Familiar Formula in an Unfamiliar Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses problems many tenth grade students have when asked to apply a familiar formula in an unfamiliar context: specifically factoring a compound expression. Some of their attempts at solution are presented and discussed in terms of structure sense. (Contains 1 table.) [For complete proceedings, see ED496848.

Hoch, Maureen; Dreyfus, Tommy

2005-01-01

358

The effect of word familiarity on actual and perceived text difficulty  

PubMed Central

There is little evidence that readability formula outcomes relate to text understanding. The potential cause may lie in their strong reliance on word and sentence length. We evaluated word familiarity rather than word length as a stand-in for word difficulty. Word familiarity represents how well known a word is, and is estimated using word frequency in a large text corpus, in this work the Google web corpus. We conducted a study with 239 people, who provided 50 evaluations for each of 275 words. Our study is the first study to focus on actual difficulty, measured with a multiple-choice task, in addition to perceived difficulty, measured with a Likert scale. Actual difficulty was correlated with word familiarity (r=0.219, p<0.001) but not with word length (r=?0.075, p=0.107). Perceived difficulty was correlated with both word familiarity (r=?0.397, p<0.001) and word length (r=0.254, p<0.001). PMID:24100710

Leroy, Gondy; Kauchak, David

2014-01-01

359

Effects of Presentation Mode and Computer Familiarity on Summarization of Extended Texts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comparability studies on computer- and paper-based reading tests have focused on short texts and selected-response items via almost exclusively statistical modeling of test performance. The psychological effects of presentation mode and computer familiarity on individual students are under-researched. In this study, 157 students read extended…

Yu, Guoxing

2010-01-01

360

Effects of extensive temporal lobe damage or mild hypoxia on recollection and familiarity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memory for past events can be based on recollection or on assessments of familiarity. These two forms of human memory have been studied extensively by philosophers and psychologists, but their neuroanatomical substrates are largely unknown. Here we examined the brain regions that are involved in these two forms of memory by studying patients with damage to different temporal lobe regions.

Neal E. A. Kroll; Joel R. Quamme; Michele M. Lazzara; Mary-Jane Sauvé; Keith F. Widaman; Robert T. Knight; Andrew P. Yonelinas

2002-01-01

361

Familiarization and Dissemination of Selected Vocational-Technical Curriculum and Resource Materials. A Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because the insular nature of the State of Hawaii limits easy access to materials available nationally and even curtails dissemination of locally developed curricular materials, the materials familiarization and dissemination portion of an educational development project was designed to provide educators throughout Hawaii with an information…

Boggs, Minnie, Ed.; Luckner, Barbara, Ed.

362

FLYING FISH GLIDE AS WELL We're all familiar with birds that are as  

E-print Network

Inside JEB i FLYING FISH GLIDE AS WELL AS BIRDS We're all familiar with birds that are as comfortable diving as they are flying but only one family of fish has made the reverse journey. Flying fish Choi, a mechanical engineer from Seoul National University, Korea, became fascinated by flying fish

Moss, Cynthia

363

The Persistence of Erroneous Familiarity in an Epileptic Male: Challenging Perceptual Theories of Deja Vu Activation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report the case of a 39-year-old, temporal lobe epileptic male, MH. Prior to complex partial seizure, experienced up to three times a day, MH often experiences an aura experienced as a persistent sensation of deja vu. Data-driven theories of deja vu formation suggest that partial familiarity for the perceived stimulus is responsible for the…

O'Connor, Akira R.; Moulin, Christopher J. A.

2008-01-01

364

Middle school teachers' familiarity with, interest in, performance on, and conceptual and pedagogical knowledge of light  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was threefold: Examine middle school teachers' familiarity with, interest in, conceptual knowledge of and performance on light; Examine their ability to identify misconceptions on light and their suggested pedagogical ideas to address the identified misconceptions; and Establish the relationship between the middle school teachers' interest, familiarity, conceptual understanding, performance, misconception identification, and pedagogical ideas for light. Sixty six (66) middle school science teachers enrolled in three math and science teacher professional development projects at Southern Illinois University Carbondale participated in this study. This study used mixed-methods approach to collect and analyze data. The participants responded in writing to four different instruments: Familiarity and Interest Questionnaire, Conceptual Knowledge Test, Two-tier Performance Test, and Misconceptions Identification Questionnaire. Data was analyzed quantitatively by conducting non-parametric (Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney U, and Kruskal-Wallis) and parametric (paired samples, independent samples, and One-Way ANOVA) tests. Qualitative data was analyzed using thematic analysis and open coding to identify emerging themes and categories. The results showed that the teachers reported high levels of familiarity with and interest in learning more about light concepts. However, they had low conceptual knowledge and performance on light concepts. As such, middle school teachers' perceived knowledge of light concepts was not consistent with their actual knowledge of light. To some extent, the teachers identified students' misconceptions expressed in some scenarios on light and also suggested pedagogical ideas for addressing such misconceptions in middle school science classrooms. However, most teachers did not provide details on their pedagogical ideas for light. Correlations among the four constructs (familiarity, interest, conceptual understanding, and performance) were only significant between performance and conceptual understanding, r (64) = .50, p = .000. There was no significant relationship between conceptual understanding and familiarity, and between performance and familiarity. In view of these findings, it is evident that some teachers did not have sound conceptual understanding and pedagogical ideas to effectively help their students develop the understanding of light concepts accentuated in the US national science education standards. These findings have implications on teacher education and science teaching and learning.

Mbewe, Simeon

365

Uneasy money: the Instituto Carlos Slim de la Salud, tobacco philanthropy and conflict of interest in global health.  

PubMed

In May 2007, the Instituto Carso de la Salud-now Instituto Carlos Slim de la Salud (ICSS)-was endowed with US$500 million to focus on priority health issues in Latin America, notably issues of 'globalisation and non-communicable diseases'. ICSS was soon criticised, however, on the grounds that its funding was derived from tobacco industry profits and that its founder Carlos Slim Hélu remained an active industry principal. Collaboration with ICSS was said to run counter to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. The Institute's then Executive President Julio Frenk disputed these charges. This research employs an archive of tobacco industry documents triangulated with materials from commercial, media, regulatory and NGO sources to examine the financial relations between Slim and the tobacco industry. The paper analyses Slim's continuing service to the industry and role in ICSS. It demonstrates a prima facie conflict of interest between ICSS's health mission and its founder's involvement in cigarette manufacturing and marketing, reflected on ICSS's website as a resounding silence on issues of tobacco and health. It is concluded that the reliance of international health agencies upon the commercial sector requires more robust institutional policies to effectively regulate conflicts of interest. PMID:21088061

Burch, Tiffany; Wander, Nathaniel; Collin, Jeff

2010-12-01

366

The role of recollection and familiarity in the functional differentiation of the medial temporal lobes.  

PubMed

The components of the medial temporal lobes (MTL) receive different kinds of input. The perirhinal cortex receives primarily object/item information, the parahippocampal cortex receives contextual information, and the hippocampus receives high-level inputs that include object/item, context, and other information. Critically, the perirhinal and parahippocampal cortices have similar cytoarchitectonics, which differ considerably from that of the hippocampus and suggest that these cortices process their inputs differently from the way that the hippocampus processes its inputs. Much evidence indicates that the hippocampus is designed to rapidly bind together pattern-separated representations that support recall/recollection well. In contrast, the newer MTL cortices rapidly create poorly pattern-separated memories that support familiarity well, but recall/recollection very poorly. For over a decade, there has been disagreement about whether recall/recollection is primarily mediated by the hippocampus and familiarity by the evolutionarily newer MTL cortices or whether the MTL mediates these kinds of memory in an integrated, homogeneous fashion. Common misconceptions about familiarity, recollection, item, and associative memory are discussed as are methodological problems with MTL lesion and functional imaging research. The possible confound of familiarity with weaker memory and recollection with stronger memory is discussed and the implications of the Montaldi et al. (2006) functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) study, which matched memory strength between strong familiarity and recollection, finding that only recollection activated the hippocampus, are discussed. A suggestion is made about how the long-running conflict of findings in the human hippocampal lesion literature may be resolved. PMID:20928828

Montaldi, Daniela; Mayes, Andrew R

2010-11-01

367

Neural Correlates of Metaphor Processing: The Roles of Figurativeness, Familiarity and Difficulty  

PubMed Central

There is currently much interest in investigating the neural substrates of metaphor processing. In particular, it has been suggested that the right hemisphere plays a special role in the comprehension of figurative (non-literal) language, and in particular metaphors. However, some studies find no evidence of right hemisphere involvement in metaphor comprehension (e.g. Lee & Dapretto, 2006; Rapp et al., 2004). We suggest that lateralization differences between literal and metaphorical language may be due to factors such as differences in familiarity (Schmidt et al., 2007), or difficulty (Bookheimer, 2002; Rapp et al., 2004) in addition to figurativeness. The purpose of this study was to separate the effects of figurativeness, familiarity, and difficulty on the recruitment of neural systems involved in language, in particular right hemisphere mechanisms. This was achieved by comparing neural activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) between four conditions: literal sentences, familiar and easy to understand metaphors, unfamiliar and easy to understand metaphors, and unfamiliar and difficult to understand metaphors. Metaphors recruited the right insula, left temporal pole and right inferior frontal gyrus in comparison with literal sentences. Familiar metaphors recruited the right middle frontal gyrus when contrasted with unfamiliar metaphors. Easy metaphors showed higher activation in the left middle frontal gyrus as compared to difficult metaphors, while difficult metaphors showed selective activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus as compared to easy metaphors. We conclude that the right hemisphere is involved in metaphor processing and that the factors of figurativeness, familiarity and difficulty are important in determining neural recruitment of semantic processing. PMID:19586700

Schmidt, Gwenda L.; Seger, Carol A.

2009-01-01

368

Neural substrates for semantic memory of familiar songs: is there an interface between lyrics and melodies?  

PubMed

Findings on song perception and song production have increasingly suggested that common but partially distinct neural networks exist for processing lyrics and melody. However, the neural substrates of song recognition remain to be investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the neural substrates involved in the accessing "song lexicon" as corresponding to a representational system that might provide links between the musical and phonological lexicons using positron emission tomography (PET). We exposed participants to auditory stimuli consisting of familiar and unfamiliar songs presented in three ways: sung lyrics (song), sung lyrics on a single pitch (lyrics), and the sung syllable 'la' on original pitches (melody). The auditory stimuli were designed to have equivalent familiarity to participants, and they were recorded at exactly the same tempo. Eleven right-handed nonmusicians participated in four conditions: three familiarity decision tasks using song, lyrics, and melody and a sound type decision task (control) that was designed to engage perceptual and prelexical processing but not lexical processing. The contrasts (familiarity decision tasks versus control) showed no common areas of activation between lyrics and melody. This result indicates that essentially separate neural networks exist in semantic memory for the verbal and melodic processing of familiar songs. Verbal lexical processing recruited the left fusiform gyrus and the left inferior occipital gyrus, whereas melodic lexical processing engaged the right middle temporal sulcus and the bilateral temporo-occipital cortices. Moreover, we found that song specifically activated the left posterior inferior temporal cortex, which may serve as an interface between verbal and musical representations in order to facilitate song recognition. PMID:23029492

Saito, Yoko; Ishii, Kenji; Sakuma, Naoko; Kawasaki, Keiichi; Oda, Keiichi; Mizusawa, Hidehiro

2012-01-01

369

Faces are special but not too special: Spared face recognition in amnesia is based on familiarity  

PubMed Central

Most current theories of human memory are material-general in the sense that they assume that the medial temporal lobe (MTL) is important for retrieving the details of prior events, regardless of the specific type of materials. Recent studies of amnesia have challenged the material-general assumption by suggesting that the MTL may be necessary for remembering words, but is not involved in remembering faces. We examined recognition memory for faces and words in a group of amnesic patients, which included hypoxic patients and patients with extensive left or right MTL lesions. Recognition confidence judgments were used to plot receiver operating characteristics (ROCs) in order to more fully quantify recognition performance and to estimate the contributions of recollection and familiarity. Consistent with the extant literature, an analysis of overall recognition accuracy showed that the patients were impaired at word memory but had spared face memory. However, the ROC analysis indicated that the patients were generally impaired at high confidence recognition responses for faces and words, and they exhibited significant recollection impairments for both types of materials. Familiarity for faces was preserved in all patients, but extensive left MTL damage impaired familiarity for words. These results suggest that face recognition may appear to be spared because performance tends to rely heavily on familiarity, a process that is relatively well preserved in amnesia. The findings challenge material-general theories of memory, and suggest that both material and process are important determinants of memory performance in amnesia, and different types of materials may depend more or less on recollection and familiarity. PMID:20833190

Aly, Mariam; Knight, Robert T.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.

2014-01-01

370

Familiarity and Recollection Produce Distinct Eye Movement, Pupil and Medial Temporal Lobe Responses when Memory Strength Is Matched  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments explored eye measures (fixations and pupil response patterns) and brain responses (BOLD) accompanying the recognition of visual object stimuli based on familiarity and recollection. In both experiments, the use of a modified remember/know procedure led to high confidence and matched accuracy levels characterising strong familiarity…

Kafkas, Alexandros; Montaldi, Daniela

2012-01-01

371

Many Roads Lead to Recognition: Electrophysiological Correlates of Familiarity Derived from Short-Term Masked Repetition Priming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The neural mechanisms that underlie familiarity memory have been extensively investigated, but a consensus understanding remains elusive. Behavioral evidence suggests that familiarity sometimes shares sources with instances of implicit memory known as priming, in that the same increases in processing fluency that give rise to priming can engender…

Lucas, Heather D.; Taylor, Jason R.; Henson, Richard N.; Paller, Ken A.

2012-01-01

372

Human-animal relationships in zoo-housed orangutans (P. abelii) and gorillas (G. g. gorilla): the effects of familiarity.  

PubMed

I examined human-animal relationships (HARs) in zoo-housed orangutans (Pongo abelii) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) to see if they followed patterns similar to conspecific relationships in great apes and humans. Familiarity and social relationships guide humans' and great apes' behaviors with conspecifics. Inter-individual relationships, based on shared social history, and "generalized" relationships, based on a history of interactions with relevant classes of individuals, guide behavior with familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics, respectively. I examined whether both familiarity and social relationships similarly guides great apes' cross-species interactions with humans. I used repeated measures MANOVA to compare hourly rates and average durations of ape-initiated human-directed behaviors (HDBs) between familiar and unfamiliar humans and between great ape species. HDB patterns were consistent with familiarity-based HAR predictions, indicating more negative relationships with unfamiliar humans and more positive relationships with familiar humans. Findings for unfamiliar humans are consistent with negative effects of humans on apes' behavior reported in traditional visitor effect studies (VES). However, findings for familiar humans may be overlooked in VES due to pooling across levels of human familiarity or failure to consider humans other than primarily unfamiliar visitors. Additionally, species differences in apes' HDBs suggest that data pooling across species, common in many zoo studies, may mask important differences. These findings have important methodological implications for studies of human-animal interaction as well as for captive animal wellbeing. PMID:24687450

Smith, Joshua J

2014-10-01

373

Rugby versus Soccer in South Africa: Content Familiarity Contributes to Cross-Cultural Differences in Cognitive Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, cross-cultural differences in cognitive test scores are hypothesized to depend on a test's cultural complexity (Cultural Complexity Hypothesis: CCH), here conceptualized as its content familiarity, rather than on its cognitive complexity (Spearman's Hypothesis: SH). The content familiarity of tests assessing short-term memory,…

Malda, Maike; van de Vijver, Fons J. R.; Temane, Q. Michael

2010-01-01

374

Peer Exclusion Is Linked to Inhibition with Familiar but Not Unfamiliar Peers at Two Years of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the extent that inhibition among familiar peers was related to inhibition among unfamiliar peers versus exclusion by familiar peers at 2?years of age. Peer inhibition at 2?years of age was assessed by both mothers and teachers on versions of the Behavioral Inhibition Questionnaire and the Preschool Play Behavior Scale (N?=?141…

Gazelle, Heidi; Faldowski, Richard A.

2014-01-01

375

Facial markings in the hover wasps: quality signals and familiar recognition cues in two species of Stenogastrinae  

E-print Network

Facial markings in the hover wasps: quality signals and familiar recognition cues in two species was found in Liostenogaster flavolineata, which instead used facial markings as familiar visual recognition vechti quality signal recognition system social behaviour Both recognition and conventional signals

Chittka, Lars

376

Deja Vu in Unilateral Temporal-Lobe Epilepsy Is Associated with Selective Familiarity Impairments on Experimental Tasks of Recognition Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In deja vu, a phenomenological impression of familiarity for the current visual environment is experienced with a sense that it should in fact not feel familiar. The fleeting nature of this phenomenon in daily life, and the difficulty in developing experimental paradigms to elicit it, has hindered progress in understanding deja vu. Some…

Martin, Chris B.; Mirsattari, Seyed M.; Pruessner, Jens C.; Pietrantonio, Sandra; Burneo, Jorge G.; Hayman-Abello, Brent; Kohler, Stefan

2012-01-01

377

Reactivity to fearful expressions of familiar and unfamiliar people in children with autism: an eye-tracking pupillometry study  

PubMed Central

Background Individuals with autism are often reported to have difficulty with emotion processing. However, clinical and experimental data show that they are sensitive to familiarity; for example, they show normative attachment to familiar people, and have normative brain activity in response to familiar faces. To date, no study has measured their reactivity to the emotions of familiar vs. unfamiliar people. Thus, our aim was to determine whether individuals with autism would show normative reactivity to emotion in familiar people. Methods Participants were 21 children with autism and 21 children with typical development, aged two to five years, matched on age and gender. The children observed videos of familiar people (their child-care teachers) and unfamiliar people expressing fear, whilst their visual attention and pupillary reactions were recorded (the latter as an index of emotional reactivity), using eye tracking technology. Results The children with autism showed normative pupillary reactions (peak magnitude) to fear expressed by familiar people, but a reduced response to fear expressed by unfamiliar people. However, across familiarity conditions, the children with autism had longer latency peak responses than the typically developing children. This pattern of findings was independent of cognitive factors or visual attention as visual attention by group was not related to familiarity condition. The children with autism had reduced visual attention to neutral faces; however, on fearful faces there were no group differences. Abnormalities in pupillary reactivity in the autism group were related to less prosocial behaviour and more severe play and communication deficits. Conclusions Children with autism were less atypical in their responses to fearful expressions of people they know, arguing against a pervasive emotional impairment in autism, but rather one that may be mediated by familiarity. PMID:24982695

2014-01-01

378

Políticas del sitio web  

Cancer.gov

En el sitio web del NCI se proporcionan enlaces a otros sitios web con fines informativos y para conveniencia del público. Si el usuario selecciona un sitio web externo, saldrá del sitio web del NCI y estará sujeto a las políticas de privacidad y seguridad de dicho sitio.

379

Spontaneous voice–face identity matching by rhesus monkeys for familiar conspecifics and humans  

PubMed Central

Recognition of a particular individual occurs when we reactivate links between current perceptual inputs and the previously formed representation of that person. This recognition can be achieved by identifying, separately or simultaneously, distinct elements such as the face, silhouette, or voice as belonging to one individual. In humans, those different cues are linked into one complex conceptual representation of individual identity. Here we tested whether rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) also have a cognitive representation of identity by evaluating whether they exhibit cross-modal individual recognition. Further, we assessed individual recognition of familiar conspecifics and familiar humans. In a free preferential looking time paradigm, we found that, for both species, monkeys spontaneously matched the faces of known individuals to their voices. This finding demonstrates that rhesus macaques possess a cross-modal cognitive representation of individuals that extends from conspecifics to humans, revealing the adaptive potential of identity recognition for individuals of socioecological relevance. PMID:21220340

Sliwa, Julia; Duhamel, Jean-René; Pascalis, Olivier; Wirth, Sylvia

2011-01-01

380

Picture Norms for Chinese Preschool Children: Name Agreement, Familiarity, and Visual Complexity  

PubMed Central

Pictorial stimuli standardized for Chinese children are still absent although it is needed in order to test the development of children's cognitive functions. This study presents normative measures for Snodgrass and Vanderwart pictures, viewed by 4- and 6-year old Chinese children. Name agreement, familiarity, and visual complexity were obtained for each age group. The data indicate substantial differences between young and older children in name agreement based on expected name, familiarity and visual complexity. The correlation pattern of the variables collected in the present study were consistent with children's norms in other languages and norms of Chinese adults, while there are cross-age and cross-culture differences in specific variables. The obtained measures represent a useful tool for further research on Chinese children's pictorial processing and constitute the first picture normative study for children in this language. PMID:24599271

Wang, Lamei; Chen, Chia-Wen; Zhu, Liqi

2014-01-01

381

Familiarity with Interest Breeds Gossip: Contributions of Emotion, Expectation, and Reputation  

PubMed Central

Although gossip serves several important social functions, it has relatively infrequently been the topic of systematic investigation. In two experiments, we advance a cognitive-informational approach to gossip. Specifically, we sought to determine which informational components engender gossip. In Experiment 1, participants read brief passages about other people and indicated their likelihood to share this information. We manipulated target familiarity (celebrity, non-celebrity) and story interest (interesting, boring). While participants were more likely to gossip about celebrity than non-celebrity targets and interesting than boring stories, they were even more likely to gossip about celebrity targets embedded within interesting stories. In Experiment 2, we additionally probed participants' reactions to the stories concerning emotion, expectation, and reputation information conveyed. Analyses showed that while such information partially mediated target familiarity and story interest effects, only expectation and reputation accounted for the interactive pattern of gossip behavior. Our findings provide novel insights into the essential components and processing mechanisms of gossip. PMID:25119267

Yao, Bo; Scott, Graham G.; McAleer, Phil; O'Donnell, Patrick J.; Sereno, Sara C.

2014-01-01

382

Increasing food familiarity without the tears. A role for visual exposure?  

PubMed

Research has established the success of taste exposure paradigms as a means of increasing children's acceptance, and liking, of previously unfamiliar or disliked foods. Yet, parents report that they tend to avoid the stress associated with repeatedly offering their children foods that are likely to be rejected. Given that successful taste exposure programmes often enhance children's familiarity with a food's appearance, as well as its taste, this article reviews the potential for exposure interventions that do not require repeated tastings to bring about positive attitude changes towards healthy foods. Recent evidence from studies that expose toddlers to picture books about fruit and vegetables suggest that familiarity with the origins and appearance of unfamiliar foods might increase children's willingness to accept these into their diets. PMID:21683747

Heath, Philippa; Houston-Price, Carmel; Kennedy, Orla B

2011-12-01

383

Benefits of kin association: related and familiar zebrafish larvae ( Danio rerio ) show improved growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae prefer the olfactory cues of kin to non-kin. We examined the potential benefits of kin preference by comparing growth\\u000a rate, shoaling, and aggressive behavior in juvenile zebrafish housed in groups of either familiar kin or unfamiliar non-kin.\\u000a Over an observation period of 5 days, the animals grew 33% more in kin groups; however, neither shoaling nor the

Gabriele Gerlach; Andrea Hodgins-Davis; Bradley MacDonald; Rebecca C. Hannah

2007-01-01

384

How dogs scan familiar and inverted faces: an eye movement study.  

PubMed

Faces play an important role in communication and identity recognition in social animals. Domestic dogs often respond to human facial cues, but their face processing is weakly understood. In this study, facial inversion effect (deficits in face processing when the image is turned upside down) and responses to personal familiarity were tested using eye movement tracking. A total of 23 pet dogs and eight kennel dogs were compared to establish the effects of life experiences on their scanning behavior. All dogs preferred conspecific faces and showed great interest in the eye area, suggesting that they perceived images representing faces. Dogs fixated at the upright faces as long as the inverted faces, but the eye area of upright faces gathered longer total duration and greater relative fixation duration than the eye area of inverted stimuli, regardless of the species (dog or human) shown in the image. Personally, familiar faces and eyes attracted more fixations than the strange ones, suggesting that dogs are likely to recognize conspecific and human faces in photographs. The results imply that face scanning in dogs is guided not only by the physical properties of images, but also by semantic factors. In conclusion, in a free-viewing task, dogs seem to target their fixations at naturally salient and familiar items. Facial images were generally more attractive for pet dogs than kennel dogs, but living environment did not affect conspecific preference or inversion and familiarity responses, suggesting that the basic mechanisms of face processing in dogs could be hardwired or might develop under limited exposure. PMID:24305996

Somppi, Sanni; Törnqvist, Heini; Hänninen, Laura; Krause, Christina M; Vainio, Outi

2014-05-01

385

Detecting personal familiarity depends on static frames in "thin slices" of behavior.  

PubMed

Brief glimpses of nonverbal behavior (or "thin slices") offer ample visual information to make reliable judgments about individuals. Previous work has largely focused on the personality characteristics and traits of individuals; however, the nature of dyadic relationships (strangers, lovers, or friends) can also be determined (Ambady & Gray, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 947-961 2002). Judgments from thin slices are known to be accurate, but the motion features supporting accurate performance are unknown. We explored whether personal familiarity was detectable within the context of "thin slices" of genuine interaction, as well as the invariant properties of thin-slice recognition. In two experiments, participants sequentially viewed two 6-s silent videos on each trial of an individual interacting with an unfamiliar partner; the other depicted the same person interacting with a personally familiar partner. All sequences were cropped so that only the target individual was visible. In Experiment 1, participants viewed either the original sequences, reversed sequences, a static-image "slideshow" of the sequence, or a static-image slideshow with blank frames separating the images. In Experiment 2, all participants viewed the original sequences and clips played at either double speed or half speed. Participants' performance was above chance in the forward and reverse conditions, but was significantly better in both the static-image slideshow conditions. When task speed was manipulated, we found a larger performance cost for fast than for slow videos. Detecting personal familiarity via spontaneous natural gestures depends on information in static images more than on face or body movement. Although static images are typically less important for recognizing nonverbal behavior, we argue they may be valuable for making familiarity judgments from thin slices. PMID:24683099

Saville, Alyson; Balas, Benjamin

2014-12-01

386

Impaired familiarity with preserved recollection after anterior temporal-lobe resection that spares the hippocampus.  

PubMed

It is well established that the medial-temporal lobe (MTL) is critical for recognition memory. The MTL is known to be composed of distinct structures that are organized in a hierarchical manner. At present, it remains controversial whether lower structures in this hierarchy, such as perirhinal cortex, support memory functions that are distinct from those of higher structures, in particular the hippocampus. Perirhinal cortex has been proposed to play a specific role in the assessment of familiarity during recognition, which can be distinguished from the selective contributions of the hippocampus to the recollection of episodic detail. Some researchers have argued, however, that the distinction between familiarity and recollection cannot capture functional specialization within the MTL and have proposed single-process accounts. Evidence supporting the dual-process view comes from demonstrations that selective hippocampal damage can produce isolated recollection impairments. It is unclear, however, whether temporal-lobe lesions that spare the hippocampus can produce selective familiarity impairments. Without this demonstration, single-process accounts cannot be ruled out. We examined recognition memory in NB, an individual who underwent surgical resection of left anterior temporal-lobe structures for treatment of intractable epilepsy. Her resection included a large portion of perirhinal cortex but spared the hippocampus. The results of four experiments based on three different experimental procedures (remember-know paradigm, receiver operating characteristics, and response-deadline procedure) indicate that NB exhibits impaired familiarity with preserved recollection. The present findings thus provide a crucial missing piece of support for functional specialization in the MTL. PMID:17905870

Bowles, Ben; Crupi, Carina; Mirsattari, Seyed M; Pigott, Susan E; Parrent, Andrew G; Pruessner, Jens C; Yonelinas, Andrew P; Köhler, Stefan

2007-10-01

387

Stress affects theta activity in limbic networks and impairs novelty-induced exploration and familiarization  

PubMed Central

Exposure to a novel environment triggers the response of several brain areas that regulate emotional behaviors. Here, we studied theta oscillations within the hippocampus (HPC)-amygdala (AMY)-medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) network in exploration of a novel environment and subsequent familiarization through repeated exposures to that same environment; in addition, we assessed how concomitant stress exposure could disrupt this activity and impair both behavioral processes. Local field potentials (LFP) were simultaneously recorded from dorsal and ventral hippocampus (dHPC and vHPC, respectively), basolateral amygdala (BLA) and mPFC in freely behaving rats while they were exposed to a novel environment, then repeatedly re-exposed over the course of 3 weeks to that same environment and, finally, on re-exposure to a novel unfamiliar environment. A longitudinal analysis of theta activity within this circuit revealed a reduction of vHPC and BLA theta power and vHPC-BLA theta coherence through familiarization which was correlated with a return to normal exploratory behavior in control rats. In contrast, a persistent over-activation of the same brain regions was observed in stressed rats that displayed impairments in novel exploration and familiarization processes. Importantly, we show that stress also affected intra-hippocampal synchrony and heightened the coherence between vHPC and BLA. In summary, we demonstrate that modulatory theta activity in the aforementioned circuit, namely in the vHPC and BLA, is correlated with the expression of anxiety in novelty-induced exploration and familiarization in both normal and pathological conditions. PMID:24137113

Jacinto, Luis R.; Reis, Joana S.; Dias, Nuno S.; Cerqueira, João J.; Correia, José H.; Sousa, Nuno

2013-01-01

388

Familiarity differentially affects right hemisphere contributions to processing metaphors and literals  

PubMed Central

The role of the two hemispheres in processing metaphoric language is controversial. While some studies have reported a special role of the right hemisphere (RH) in processing metaphors, others indicate no difference in laterality relative to literal language. Some studies have found a role of the RH for novel/unfamiliar metaphors, but not conventional/familiar metaphors. It is not clear, however, whether the role of the RH is specific to metaphor novelty, or whether it reflects processing, reinterpretation or reanalysis of novel/unfamiliar language in general. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the effects of familiarity in both metaphoric and non-metaphoric sentences. A left lateralized network containing the middle and inferior frontal gyri, posterior temporal regions in the left hemisphere (LH), and inferior frontal regions in the RH, was engaged across both metaphoric and non-metaphoric sentences; engagement of this network decreased as familiarity decreased. No region was engaged selectively for greater metaphoric unfamiliarity. An analysis of laterality, however, showed that the contribution of the RH relative to that of LH does increase in a metaphor-specific manner as familiarity decreases. These results show that RH regions, taken by themselves, including commonly reported regions such as the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), are responsive to increased cognitive demands of processing unfamiliar stimuli, rather than being metaphor-selective. The division of labor between the two hemispheres, however, does shift towards the right for metaphoric processing. The shift results not because the RH contributes more to metaphoric processing. Rather, relative to its contribution for processing literals, the LH contributes less. PMID:25713522

Lai, Vicky T.; van Dam, Wessel; Conant, Lisa L.; Binder, Jeffrey R.; Desai, Rutvik H.

2015-01-01

389

Auftaktworkshop "Marie Sklodowska Curie in Horizon 2020 Actions with familiar and novel aspects"  

E-print Network

Auftaktworkshop "Marie Sklodowska Curie in Horizon 2020 ­ Actions with familiar and novel aspects, Universität Potsdam) 10:15 ­ 11:00 Uhr Die Marie Sklodowska Curie Ma�nahmen in Horizon 2020 (Victoria Llobet, KoWi, Brüssel) 11:00 ­ 11:45 Uhr Die Bedeutung der Marie Sklodowska Curie Ma�nahmen für Deutschland

Potsdam, Universität

390

Familiar verbs are not always easier than novel verbs: how German pre-school children comprehend active and passive sentences.  

PubMed

Many studies show a developmental advantage for transitive sentences with familiar verbs over those with novel verbs. It might be that once familiar verbs become entrenched in particular constructions, they would be more difficult to understand (than would novel verbs) in non-prototypical constructions. We provide support for this hypothesis investigating German children using a forced-choice pointing paradigm with reversed agent-patient roles. We tested active transitive verbs in study 1. The 2-year olds were better with familiar than novel verbs, while the 2½-year olds pointed correctly for both. In study 2, we tested passives: 2½-year olds were significantly below chance for familiar verbs and at chance for novel verbs, supporting the hypothesis that the entrenchment of the familiar verbs in the active transitive voice was interfering with interpreting them in the passive voice construction. The 3½-year olds were also at chance for novel verbs but above chance with familiar verbs. We interpret this as reflecting a lessening of the verb-in-construction entrenchment as the child develops knowledge that particular verbs can occur in a range of constructions. The 4½-year olds were above chance for both familiar and novel verbs. We discuss our findings in terms of the relative entrenchment of lexical and syntactic information and to interference between them. PMID:23895387

Dittmar, Miriam; Abbot-Smith, Kirsten; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

2014-01-01

391

Familiarity is more important than phenotypic similarity in shaping social relationships in a facultative female dispersed primate, Colobus vellerosus.  

PubMed

Animals often bias affiliative behaviors toward kin, but it is unclear what mechanism most species use to discriminate kin. We investigated if facultative dispersed female primates use phenotype matching and/or familiarity to discriminate female kin. We studied 38 adult female Colobus vellerosus at Boabeng-Fiema, Ghana. We determined dyadic co-residency status and age proximity using long-term demographic data, R-values from 17 short tandem repeat loci, and interaction rates using focal samples collected during one year. Approach rates were not strongly affected by how long females had resided together, which contrasts to the familiarity hypothesis. Females approached and groomed maternal kin more than other females, which supports the mother-mediated familiarity hypothesis. Females did not discriminate paternal half siblings from non-kin, and they did not prefer to interact with females of similar age. Short-term co-resident kin did not bias affiliation toward each other, indicating that female colobus cannot consistently recognize less familiar kin via phenotype matching or that biasing behaviors toward less familiar kin is not beneficial. Despite showing facultative dispersal that may reduce the accuracy of using familiarity as a kin recognition mechanism, female choice of social partners was based on familiarity, which conforms to the pattern observed in many female philopatric primates. PMID:24747067

Wikberg, Eva C; Ting, Nelson; Sicotte, Pascale

2014-07-01

392

Social Familiarity Reduces Reaction Times and Enhances Survival of Group-Living Predatory Mites under the Risk of Predation  

PubMed Central

Background Social familiarity, which is based on the ability to recognise familiar conspecific individuals following prior association, may affect all major life activities of group-living animals such as foraging, reproduction and anti-predator behaviours. A scarcely experimentally tested explanation why social familiarity is beneficial for group-living animals is provided by limited attention theory. Limited attention theory postulates that focusing on a given task, such as inspection and assessment of unfamiliar group members, has cognitive and associated physiological and behavioural costs with respect to the attention paid to other tasks, such as anti-predator vigilance and response. Accordingly, we hypothesised that social familiarity enhances the anti-predator success of group-living predatory mites, Phytoseiulus persimilis, confronted with an intraguild predator, the predatory mite Amblyseius andersoni. Methodology/Principal Findings We videotaped and analysed the response of two P. persimilis larvae, held in familiar or unfamiliar pairs, to attacks by a gravid A. andersoni female, using the behavioural analyses software EthoVision Pro®. Familiar larvae were more frequently close together, reacted more quickly to predator attacks, survived more predator encounters and survived longer than unfamiliar larvae. Significance In line with the predictions of limited attention theory, we suggest that social familiarity improves anti-predator behaviours because it allows prey to shift attention to other tasks rather than group member assessment. PMID:22927997

Strodl, Markus Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

2012-01-01

393

Instituto para la Promocion de la Cultura Civica, A.C.: Mission; Philosophy; Goals and Objectives; Challenge and Commitment; Activities; Publications and Essays; Presence in the Mass Media.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report discusses the activities of the Instituto para la Promocion de la Culture Civica (ICC), a non-partisan, not-for-profit Mexican nongovernmental organization (NGO) that has as its mission: to promote the advancement of a civic culture understood as a system of values, ideas, traits of character, dispositions, inclinations, attitudes,…

Instituto para la Promocion de la Cultura Civica. Mexico City (Mexico).

394

Dual hidden landscapes in Anderson localization on discrete lattices Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, 57072-970 Maceio, AL, Brazil  

E-print Network

Dual hidden landscapes in Anderson localization on discrete lattices M.L.Lyra Instituto de F in continuous disordered media have been recently demon- strated to be governed by a hidden landscape of the first Brillouin zone are as localized as the low energy ones. Here we show that in a 1D discrete lattice

Mayboroda, Svitlana

395

Dissociation between singing and speaking in expressive aphasia: the role of song familiarity.  

PubMed

There are several reports on the ability aphasic patients have to sing familiar songs, despite having severe speech impairments. Based on these observations it was also suggested that singing might improve speech production. However, recent experimental studies with aphasic patients found no evidence to illustrate that singing improves word production under controlled experimental conditions. This study investigated the role of singing during repetition of word phrases in a patient severely affected with non-fluent aphasia (GS) who had an almost complete lesion of the left hemisphere. GS showed a pronounced increase in the number of correctly reproduced words during singing as compared to speaking excerpts of familiar lyrics. This dissociation between singing and speaking was not seen for novel song lyrics, regardless of whether these were coupled with an unfamiliar, a familiar, or a spontaneously generated melody during the singing conditions. These findings propose that singing might help word phrase production in at least some cases of severe expressive aphasia. However, the association of melody and text in long-term memory seems to be responsible for this effect. PMID:18294661

Straube, Thomas; Schulz, Alexander; Geipel, Katja; Mentzel, Hans-Joachim; Miltner, Wolfgang H R

2008-04-01

396

Selective aggressiveness in European free-tailed bats ( Tadarida teniotis): influence of familiarity, age and sex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bats are highly social mammals that often form large groups and represent good models to test the role played by individual status in shaping social relationships. Social cohesion relies on the ability of group and individual recognition, which is mediated by a range of sensorial cues. In this study, we selected the European free-tailed bat Tadarida teniotis as a model species to test the effects of familiarity, sex and age on aggressiveness and mutual tolerance. We hypothesize that T. teniotis is able to recognize group members and exhibit selective aggressiveness, and thus we predict fewer aggressive events and more amicable encounters between colony mates than between strangers. As female bats are generally more sociable and perform prolonged parental care to juveniles even after weaning, we hypothesize that sex and age of bats have significant influences on aggressive behaviours and thus predict that females will perform more amicable behaviours than males and that adults of both sexes will be less aggressive towards juveniles. Our results confirm that T. teniotis is able to discriminate between familiar and stranger individuals, showing higher rates of aggressive behaviours towards the latter. Females are more prone to exhibit amicable behaviours, particularly during same-sex interactions, while males show higher level of aggressiveness. Juveniles are subjected to fewer aggressive behaviours by adults of both sexes. Familiarity appears crucial for T. teniotis in determining the degree of aggressiveness during social interactions but the rate of aggressive events is also influenced by intrinsic individual factors such as sex and age.

Ancillotto, Leonardo; Russo, Danilo

2014-03-01

397

Recollection and familiarity exhibit dissociable similarity gradients: a test of the complementary learning systems model.  

PubMed

Memory can often be triggered by retrieval cues that are quite different from the originally encoded events, but how different memory processes respond to variations in cue-target similarity is poorly understood. We begin by presenting simulations using a neurocomputational model of recognition memory (i.e., the complementary learning systems model), which proposes that the hippocampus supports recollection of associative information whereas the surrounding cortex supports assessments of item familiarity. The simulations showed that increases in the similarity between retrieval cues and learned items led to relatively linear increases in a cortex-based memory signal but led to steeper and more thresholded increases in the hippocampal signal. We then tested the predictions of the model by examining the effects of varying cue-target similarity in two recognition memory experiments in which participants studied a list of computer-generated faces and then, at test, gave confidence and remember/know responses to morphed faces. In both experiments, as cue-target similarity was increased, familiarity-based recognition increased in a gradual and relatively linear fashion, whereas recollection showed significantly steeper gradients. The results show that recollection and familiarity exhibit distinct similarity functions in recognition memory that correspond with predicted retrieval dynamics of the hippocampus and cortex, respectively. PMID:25390205

Elfman, Kane W; Yonelinas, Andrew P

2015-05-01

398

Role of familiarity versus interleukin-1 genes cluster polymorphisms in chronic periodontitis.  

PubMed

Periodontitis (PO) is a multifactorial disease affecting about 10% to 20% of the general population. Several studies have suggested that part of the clinical variability in PO might be explained by genetic factors. Among the candidate genes for PO, IL1 gene polymorphisms have been broadly investigated, with variable results, for their relationship with the disease. We studied three IL1 polymorphisms, IL1A C[-889]T (rs1800587), IL1B C[3953/4]T (rs1143634), and IL1RN VNTR [+2018] (rs419598) in relation to different life styles and familiarities. We did not find correlation between these IL1 polymorphisms and chronic PO, as well as between chronic PO and life styles (smoking, alcohol, coffee, fizzy drink and fish). We found a strong correlation, also after adjustment for age, between familiarity and PO onset (P=0.0062; OR 5.754, 95% CI 1.644-20.145). In conclusion, we did confirm the previously suggested association between PO and IL1 gene cluster polymorphisms, and between PO and four common risk factors (coffee, smoking, alcohol and fizzy drinks) and one common protective factor (fish). On the contrary, we found a strong role of familiarity. PMID:24275344

Zuccarello, Daniela; Bazzato, M Federica; Ferlin, Alberto; Pengo, Manuel; Frigo, Anna Chiara; Favero, Giovanni; Foresta, Carlo; Stellini, Edoardo

2014-02-10

399

A cultural side effect: learning to read interferes with identity processing of familiar objects  

PubMed Central

Based on the neuronal recycling hypothesis (Dehaene and Cohen, 2007), we examined whether reading acquisition has a cost for the recognition of non-linguistic visual materials. More specifically, we checked whether the ability to discriminate between mirror images, which develops through literacy acquisition, interferes with object identity judgments, and whether interference strength varies as a function of the nature of the non-linguistic material. To these aims we presented illiterate, late literate (who learned to read at adult age), and early literate adults with an orientation-independent, identity-based same-different comparison task in which they had to respond “same” to both physically identical and mirrored or plane-rotated images of pictures of familiar objects (Experiment 1) or of geometric shapes (Experiment 2). Interference from irrelevant orientation variations was stronger with plane rotations than with mirror images, and stronger with geometric shapes than with objects. Illiterates were the only participants almost immune to mirror variations, but only for familiar objects. Thus, the process of unlearning mirror-image generalization, necessary to acquire literacy in the Latin alphabet, has a cost for a basic function of the visual ventral object recognition stream, i.e., identification of familiar objects. This demonstrates that neural recycling is not just an adaptation to multi-use but a process of at least partial exaptation. PMID:25400605

Kolinsky, Régine; Fernandes, Tânia

2014-01-01

400

Infant perception of audio-visual speech synchrony in familiar and unfamiliar fluent speech.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of linguistic experience and language familiarity on the perception of audio-visual (A-V) synchrony in fluent speech. In Experiment 1, we tested a group of monolingual Spanish- and Catalan-learning 8-month-old infants to a video clip of a person speaking Spanish. Following habituation to the audiovisually synchronous video, infants saw and heard desynchronized clips of the same video where the audio stream now preceded the video stream by 366, 500, or 666 ms. In Experiment 2, monolingual Catalan and Spanish infants were tested with a video clip of a person speaking English. Results indicated that in both experiments, infants detected a 666 and a 500 ms asynchrony. That is, their responsiveness to A-V synchrony was the same regardless of their specific linguistic experience or familiarity with the tested language. Compared to previous results from infant studies with isolated audiovisual syllables, these results show that infants are more sensitive to A-V temporal relations inherent in fluent speech. Furthermore, the absence of a language familiarity effect on the detection of A-V speech asynchrony at eight months of age is consistent with the broad perceptual tuning usually observed in infant response to linguistic input at this age. PMID:24576508

Pons, Ferran; Lewkowicz, David J

2014-06-01

401

Responsivity to familiar versus unfamiliar social reward in children with autism.  

PubMed

In autism spectrum disorders (ASD), social motivation theories suggest that the core social communication problems seen in children with ASD arise from diminished responsiveness to social reward. Although clinical and experimental data support these theories, the extent to which the reward deficit in ASD is unique for social rewards remains unclear. With the present investigation, we aimed to provide insight into the degree to which sociality as well as familiarity of reward incentives impact motivated goal-directed behavior in children with ASD. To do so, we directly compared the influence of familiar versus unfamiliar social reward relative to nonsocial, monetary reward in children with ASD relative to age- and IQ-matched typically developing controls (TDC) using a visual and auditory incentive go/nogo task with reward contingencies for successful response inhibitions. We found that children with ASD responded stronger to visual familiar and unfamiliar social reward as well as to nonsocial, monetary reward than TDC. While the present data are at odds with predictions made by social motivation theories, individual variations beyond clinical diagnosis, such as reward exposure across various social settings, help explain the pattern of results. The findings of this study stress the necessity for additional research on intra-individual as well as environmental factors that contribute to social reward responsiveness in individuals with ASD versus other neuropsychiatric disorders such as ADHD or conduct disorder. PMID:24728874

Pankert, Azarakhsh; Pankert, Kilian; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin; Kohls, Gregor

2014-09-01

402

The persistence of erroneous familiarity in an epileptic male: challenging perceptual theories of déjà vu activation.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 39-year-old, temporal lobe epileptic male, MH. Prior to complex partial seizure, experienced up to three times a day, MH often experiences an aura experienced as a persistent sensation of déjà vu. Data-driven theories of déjà vu formation suggest that partial familiarity for the perceived stimulus is responsible for the sensation. Consequently, diverting attention away from this stimulus should cause the sensation to dissipate. MH, whose sensations of déjà vu persist long enough for him to shift his perceptual focus a number of times during the experience, spontaneously reports that these shifts make no difference to the sensation experienced. This novel observation challenges data-driven theories of déjà vu formation which have been used to explain the occurrence of déjà vu in those with temporal lobe epilepsy and the general population. Clearly, in epilepsy, erratic neuronal firing is the likely contributor, and in this paper we postulate that such brain firing causes higher-order erroneous 'cognitive feelings'. We tentatively extend this account to the general population. Rather than being a reaction to familiar elements in perceptual stimuli, déjà vu is likely to be the result of a cognitive feeling borne of the erroneous activation of neural familiarity circuits such as the parahippocampal gyrus, persisting as long as this activation persists. PMID:18440689

O'Connor, Akira R; Moulin, Christopher J A

2008-11-01

403

Learning to Recognize Patterns: Changes in the Visual Field with Familiarity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two studies were conducted to investigate changes which take place in the visual information processing of novel stimuli as they become familiar. Japanese writing characters (Hiragana and Kanji) which were unfamiliar to two native English speaking subjects were presented using a moving window technique to restrict their visual fields. Study time for visual recognition was recorded across repeated sessions, and with varying visual field restrictions. The critical visual field was defined as the size of the visual field beyond which further increases did not improve the speed of recognition performance. In the first study, when the Hiragana patterns were novel, subjects needed to see about half of the entire pattern simultaneously to maintain optimal performance. However, the critical visual field size decreased as familiarity with the patterns increased. These results were replicated in the second study with more complex Kanji characters. In addition, the critical field size decreased as pattern complexity decreased. We propose a three component model of pattern perception. In the first stage a representation of the stimulus must be constructed by the subject, and restricting of the visual field interferes dramatically with this component when stimuli are unfamiliar. With increased familiarity, subjects become able to reconstruct a previous representation from very small, unique segments of the pattern, analogous to the informativeness areas hypothesized by Loftus and Mackworth [J. Exp. Psychol., 4 (1978) 565].

Bebko, James M.; Uchikawa, Keiji; Saida, Shinya; Ikeda, Mitsuo

1995-01-01

404

Roles of familiarity and novelty in visual preference judgments are segregated across object categories  

PubMed Central

Understanding preference decision making is a challenging problem because the underlying process is often implicit and dependent on context, including past experience. There is evidence for both familiarity and novelty as critical factors for preference in adults and infants. To resolve this puzzling contradiction, we examined the cumulative effects of visual exposure in different object categories, including faces, natural scenes, and geometric figures, in a two-alternative preference task. The results show a clear segregation of preference across object categories, with familiarity preference dominant in faces and novelty preference dominant in natural scenes. No strong bias was observed in geometric figures. The effects were replicated even when images were converted to line drawings, inverted, or presented only briefly, and also when spatial frequency and contour distribution were controlled. The effects of exposure were reset by a blank of 1 wk or 3 wk. Thus, the category-specific segregation of familiarity and novelty preferences is based on quick visual categorization and cannot be caused by the difference in low-level visual features between object categories. Instead, it could be due either to different biological significances/attractiveness criteria across these categories, or to some other factors, such as differences in within-category variance and adaptive tuning of the perceptual system. PMID:20679235

Park, Junghyun; Shimojo, Eiko; Shimojo, Shinsuke

2010-01-01

405

Hot dogs and zavy cats: preschoolers' and adults' expectations about familiar and novel adjectives.  

PubMed

In recent years, a growing body of research has begun to examine the processes that underlie young children's acquisition of adjectival meanings. In the present studies, we examined whether preschoolers' willingness to extend adjectives was influenced by the type of property labeled by familiar adjectives (Experiment 1) and by semantic information conveyed in the sentence used to introduce novel adjectives (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, we examined preschoolers' and adults' expectations about the generalizability of familiar adjectives of three different types: emotional state terms, physiological state terms, and stable trait terms. On each trial, we labeled a target animal with one of the three different types of adjectives and asked whether these terms could apply to a subordinate-level match, a basic-level match, a superordinate-level match, or an inanimate object. Results indicated that 4-year-olds and adults extended the trait terms, but not the emotional or physiological terms, to members of the same basic-level category. In Experiment 2, we presented 4-year-olds and adults with novel adjectives in one of two verb frames: stable ("This X is very daxy") or transient ("This X feels very daxy"). Participants were more likely to extend the novel adjective to subordinate matches if they were in the Stable frame group than if they were in the Transient frame group. These findings are discussed in terms of implications for young children's expectations about familiar and novel adjectives. PMID:12537949

Graham, Susan A; Welder, Andrea N; McCrimmon, Adam W

2003-01-01

406

Neural Evidence for Reduced Apprehensiveness of Familiarized Stimuli in a Mere Exposure Paradigm  

PubMed Central

Mere familiarization with a stimulus increases liking for it or similar stimuli (‘mere exposure’ effects) as well as perceptual fluency, indexed by the speed and accuracy of categorizing it or similar stimuli (‘priming’ effects). Candidate mechanisms proposed to explain mere exposure effects include both increased positive affect associated with greater perceptual fluency, and also reduced negative affect associated with diminished apprehensiveness of novel stimuli. Although these two mechanisms are not mutually exclusive, it is difficult for behavioral measures to disentangle them, since increased liking or other indices of greater positive affect toward exposed stimuli could result from increases in positive feelings or decreases in negative feelings or both. The present study sought to clarify this issue by building on research showing a dissociation at the neural level in which the lateral orbital frontal cortex (LOFC) is activated more by negatively valenced than by neutral or positively valenced stimuli, with the reverse effect for medial orbital frontal cortex (MOFC). Supporting the reduced apprehensiveness hypothesis, we found lower LOFC activation to familiarized faces and objects (repetition suppression). We did not find evidence to support the positive affect hypothesis in increased activation to familiarized stimuli in MOFC or in other parts of the reward circuit that respond more to positively valenced stimuli (repetiton enhancement), although enhancement effects were shown in some regions. PMID:22017290

Zebrowitz, Leslie A.; Zhang, Yi

2012-01-01

407

Event-Related Potential and Looking-Time Analysis of Infants’ Responses to Familiar and Novel Events: Implications for Visual Recognition Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Event-related potentials (ERPs) and fixation duration were used to examine 6-month-old infants’ responses to frequently and infrequently presented familiar and novel events. ERPs, but not looking time, were found to distinguish between familiar events presented frequently versus infrequently and between familiar and novel events presented infrequently. We propose that the ERPs invoked by an infrequently presented familiar stimulus reflect the

Charles A. Nelson; Paul F. Collins

1991-01-01

408

A Single-Rate Context-Dependent Learning Process Underlies Rapid Adaptation to Familiar Object Dynamics  

PubMed Central

Motor learning has been extensively studied using dynamic (force-field) perturbations. These induce movement errors that result in adaptive changes to the motor commands. Several state-space models have been developed to explain how trial-by-trial errors drive the progressive adaptation observed in such studies. These models have been applied to adaptation involving novel dynamics, which typically occurs over tens to hundreds of trials, and which appears to be mediated by a dual-rate adaptation process. In contrast, when manipulating objects with familiar dynamics, subjects adapt rapidly within a few trials. Here, we apply state-space models to familiar dynamics, asking whether adaptation is mediated by a single-rate or dual-rate process. Previously, we reported a task in which subjects rotate an object with known dynamics. By presenting the object at different visual orientations, adaptation was shown to be context-specific, with limited generalization to novel orientations. Here we show that a multiple-context state-space model, with a generalization function tuned to visual object orientation, can reproduce the time-course of adaptation and de-adaptation as well as the observed context-dependent behavior. In contrast to the dual-rate process associated with novel dynamics, we show that a single-rate process mediates adaptation to familiar object dynamics. The model predicts that during exposure to the object across multiple orientations, there will be a degree of independence for adaptation and de-adaptation within each context, and that the states associated with all contexts will slowly de-adapt during exposure in one particular context. We confirm these predictions in two new experiments. Results of the current study thus highlight similarities and differences in the processes engaged during exposure to novel versus familiar dynamics. In both cases, adaptation is mediated by multiple context-specific representations. In the case of familiar object dynamics, however, the representations can be engaged based on visual context, and are updated by a single-rate process. PMID:21980277

Ingram, James N.; Howard, Ian S.; Flanagan, J. Randall; Wolpert, Daniel M.

2011-01-01

409

Territory ownership and familiarity status affect how much male root voles ( Microtus oeconomus) invest in territory defence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neighbour–stranger discrimination occurs when individuals respond with more aggression to strangers than to territorial neighbours—a\\u000a phenomenon termed the “dear enemy phenomenon” (DEP). We investigated the DEP with male and female root voles (Microtus oeconomus Pallas 1776) using field dyadic arena tests conducted in enclosures where we could test for the effects of familiarity (familiar\\u000a versus stranger), ownership (resident versus intruder

Frank Rosell; Gry Gundersen; Jean-François Le Galliard

2008-01-01

410

Easy on the mind, easy on the wallet: The roles of familiarity and processing fluency in valuation judgments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although people routinely estimate the value of items in their environment, from goods and services to natural resources and\\u000a lost earnings following an accident, the processes that underlie human valuation estimates are not well understood. We show\\u000a that people use familiarity and fluency—the ease with which they process information—to determine an item’s value. In three\\u000a experiments, participants believed that familiar

Adam L. Alter; Daniel M. Oppenheimer

2008-01-01

411

Face familiarity decisions take 200 msec in the human brain: electrophysiological evidence from a go/no-go speeded task.  

PubMed

Recognizing a familiar face rapidly is a fundamental human brain function. Here we used scalp EEG to determine the minimal time needed to classify a face as personally familiar or unfamiliar. Go (familiar) and no-go (unfamiliar) responses elicited clear differential waveforms from 210 msec onward, this difference being first observed at right occipito-temporal electrode sites. Similar but delayed (by about 40 msec) responses were observed when go response were required to the unfamiliar rather than familiar faces, in a second group of participants. In both groups, a small increase of amplitude was also observed on the right hemisphere N170 face-sensitive component for familiar faces. However, unlike the post-200 msec differential go/no-go effect, this effect was unrelated to behavior and disappeared with repetition of unfamiliar faces. These observations indicate that accumulation of evidence within the first 200 msec poststimulus onset is sufficient for the human brain to decide whether a person is familiar based on his or her face, a time frame that puts strong constraints on the time course of face processing. PMID:23915049

Caharel, Stephanie; Ramon, Meike; Rossion, Bruno

2014-01-01

412

Memorial familiarity remains intact for pictures but not for words in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment  

PubMed Central

Understanding how memory breaks down in the earliest stages of the Alzheimer’s disease (AD) process has significant implications, both clinically and with respect to intervention development. Previous work has highlighted a robust picture superiority effect in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). However, it remains unclear as to how pictures improve memory compared to words in this patient population. In the current study, we utilized receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to obtain estimates of familiarity and recollection for pictures and words in patients with aMCI and healthy older controls. Analysis of accuracy shows that even when performance is matched between pictures and words in the healthy control group, patients with aMCI continue to show a significant picture superiority effect. The results of the ROC analysis showed that patients demonstrated significantly impaired recollection and familiarity for words compared controls. In contrast, patients with aMCI demonstrated impaired recollection, but intact familiarity for pictures, compared to controls. Based on previous work from our lab, we speculate that patients can utilize the rich conceptual information provided by pictures to enhance familiarity, and perceptual information may allow for post-retrieval monitoring or verification of the enhanced sense of familiarity. Alternatively, the combination of enhanced conceptual and perceptual fluency of the test item might drive a stronger or more robust sense of familiarity that can be accurately attributed to a studied item. PMID:22705441

Embree, Lindsay M.; Budson, Andrew E.; Ally, Brandon A.

2012-01-01

413

Omnipresencia del paralelismo Objetivos del proyecto  

E-print Network

-Secundaria Incorporaci´on de contenidos de programaci´on paralela en la rama de tecnolog´ias inform´aticas Facultad;Omnipresencia del paralelismo Objetivos del proyecto Material a desarrollar Programaci´on paralela Para explotar componentes computacionales, para lo que se utiliza la programaci´on paralela. Tipos b´asicos: Dentro de un

Giménez, Domingo

414

Instantánea del cáncer colorrectal  

Cancer.gov

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer colorrectal; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

415

Perceptual discrimination difficulty and familiarity in the Uncanny Valley: more like a “Happy Valley”  

PubMed Central

The Uncanny Valley Hypothesis (UVH) predicts that greater difficulty perceptually discriminating between categorically ambiguous human and humanlike characters (e.g., highly realistic robot) evokes negatively valenced (i.e., uncanny) affect. An ABX perceptual discrimination task and signal detection analysis was used to examine the profile of perceptual discrimination (PD) difficulty along the UVH' dimension of human likeness (DHL). This was represented using avatar-to-human morph continua. Rejecting the implicitly assumed profile of PD difficulty underlying the UVH' prediction, Experiment 1 showed that PD difficulty was reduced for categorically ambiguous faces but, notably, enhanced for human faces. Rejecting the UVH' predicted relationship between PD difficulty and negative affect (assessed in terms of the UVH' familiarity dimension), Experiment 2 demonstrated that greater PD difficulty correlates with more positively valenced affect. Critically, this effect was strongest for the ambiguous faces, suggesting a correlative relationship between PD difficulty and feelings of familiarity more consistent with the metaphor happy valley. This relationship is also consistent with a fluency amplification instead of the hitherto proposed hedonic fluency account of affect along the DHL. Experiment 3 found no evidence that the asymmetry in the profile of PD along the DHL is attributable to a differential processing bias (cf. other-race effect), i.e., processing avatars at a category level but human faces at an individual level. In conclusion, the present data for static faces show clear effects that, however, strongly challenge the UVH' implicitly assumed profile of PD difficulty along the DHL and the predicted relationship between this and feelings of familiarity. PMID:25477829

Cheetham, Marcus; Suter, Pascal; Jancke, Lutz

2014-01-01

416

Effect of training and familiarity on responsiveness to human cues in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris).  

PubMed

Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) seem to possess an evolved competency to follow human-given cues, often out-performing their wild progenitor the wolf (Canis lupus) on cue-following tasks. However, domestication may not be solely responsible for the socio-cognitive skills of dogs, with ontogenetic experience also playing a role. This research evaluated the effects of intensive training on cue-following behaviour using an unreinforced object-choice paradigm. The responses of dogs that were trained to competitive levels were compared to those of pet dogs with only basic training, and dogs living in an animal shelter that demonstrated no or only rudimentary following of basic commands. Using a cue-following task where three types of cues were presented by familiar and unfamiliar human partners, the number of cues followed by each training group were recorded. All dogs found cues where gesture was combined with a congruent head and eye movement easier to follow than either gesture or eye gaze alone. Whether the cue-giver was familiar or not had a significant effect on number of cues followed in homed dogs, and the performance of shelter dogs was comparable to the other groups when faced with an unfamiliar cue-giver. Contrary to predictions, level of training did not improve performance on the cue-following task. This work does provide support for the presence of an evolved adaptation to exploit social cues provided by humans that can be augmented by familiarity with the cue giver. However, additional joint activity as experienced in an intensive training regime does not seem to increase accuracy in following human-given cues. PMID:24318516

Cunningham, Clare L; Ramos, Mari F

2014-05-01

417

Oscillatory brain responses to own names uttered by unfamiliar and familiar voices.  

PubMed

Among auditory stimuli, the own name is one of the most powerful and it is able to automatically capture attention and elicit a robust electrophysiological response. The subject's own name (SON) is preferentially processed in the right hemisphere, mainly because of its self-relevance and emotional content, together with other personally relevant information such as the voice of a familiar person. Whether emotional and self-relevant information are able to attract attention and can be, in future, introduced in clinical studies remains unclear. In the present study we used EEG and asked participants to count a target name (active condition) or to just listen to the SON or other unfamiliar names uttered by a familiar or unfamiliar voice (passive condition). Data reveals that the target name elicits a strong alpha event related desynchronization with respect to non-target names and triggers in addition a left lateralized theta synchronization as well as delta synchronization. In the passive condition alpha desynchronization was observed for familiar voice and SON stimuli in the right hemisphere. Altogether we speculate that participants engage additional attentional resources when counting a target name or when listening to personally relevant stimuli which is indexed by alpha desynchronization whereas left lateralized theta synchronization may be related to verbal working memory load. After validating the present protocol in healthy volunteers it is suggested to move one step further and apply the protocol to patients with disorders of consciousness in which the degree of residual cognitive processing and self-awareness is still insufficiently understood. PMID:25307136

del Giudice, Renata; Lechinger, Julia; Wislowska, Malgorzata; Heib, Dominik P J; Hoedlmoser, Kerstin; Schabus, Manuel

2014-12-01

418

Motor familiarity: brain activation when watching kinematic displays of one's own movements.  

PubMed

The perception of action is influenced by the observer's familiarity with its movement. However, how does motor familiarity with own movement patterns modulate the visual perception of action effects? Cortical activation was examined with fMRI while 20 observers were watching videotaped point-light displays of markers on the shoulders, the right elbow, and wrist of an opposing table tennis player. The racket and ball were not displayed. Participants were asked to predict the invisible effect of the stroke, that is, the ball flight direction. Different table tennis models were used without the observers knowing and being informed in advance that some of the presented videos displayed their own movements from earlier training sessions. Prediction had to be made irrespective of the identity of the player represented by the four moving markers. Results showed that participants performed better when observing their "own" strokes. Using a region-of-interest approach, fMRI data showed that observing own videos was accompanied by stronger activation (compared to other videos) in the left angular gyrus of the inferior parietal lobe and the anterior rostral medial frontal cortex. Other videos elicited stronger activation than own videos in the left intraparietal sulcus and right supramarginal gyrus. We suggest that during action observation of motorically familiar movements, the compatibility between the observed action and the observers' motor representation is already coded in the parietal angular gyrus--in addition to the paracingulate gyrus. The activation in angular gyrus is presumably part of an action-specific effect retrieval that accompanies actor-specific prefrontal processing. The intraparietal sulcus seems to be sensitive to incongruence between observed kinematics and internal model representations, and this also influences processing in the supramarginal gyrus. PMID:22609578

Bischoff, Matthias; Zentgraf, Karen; Lorey, Britta; Pilgramm, Sebastian; Balser, Nils; Baumgartner, Elisabeth; Hohmann, Tanja; Stark, Rudolf; Vaitl, Dieter; Munzert, Jörn

2012-07-01

419

Been there before? Examining "familiarity" as a moderator for discriminating between true and false intentions.  

PubMed

Prospection is thinking about possible future states of the world. Commitment to perform a future action-commonly referred to as intention-is a specific type of prospection. This knowledge is relevant when trying to assess whether a stated intention is a lie or the truth. An important observation is that thinking of, and committing to, future actions often evoke vivid and detailed mental images. One factor that affects how specific a person experiences these simulations is location-familiarity. The purpose of this study was to examine to what extent location-familiarity moderates how liars and truth tellers describe a mental image in an investigative interview. Liars were instructed to plan a criminal act and truth tellers were instructed to plan a non-criminal act. Before they could carry out these acts, the participants were intercepted and interviewed about the mental images they may have had experienced in this planning phase. Truth tellers told the truth whereas liars used a cover story to mask their criminal intentions. As predicted, the results showed that the truth tellers reported a mental image significantly more often than the liars. If a mental image was reported, the content of the descriptions did not differ between liars and truth tellers. In a post interview questionnaire, the participants rated the vividness (i.e., content and clarity) of their mental images. The ratings revealed that the truth tellers had experienced their mental images more vividly during the planning phase than the liars. In conclusion, this study indicates that both prototypical and specific representations play a role in prospection. Although location-familiarity did not moderate how liars and truth tellers describe their mental images of the future, this study allows some interesting insights into human future thinking. How these findings can be helpful for distinguishing between true and false intentions will be discussed. PMID:25071648

Knieps, Melanie; Granhag, Pär A; Vrij, Aldert

2014-01-01

420

Been there before? Examining “familiarity” as a moderator for discriminating between true and false intentions  

PubMed Central

Prospection is thinking about possible future states of the world. Commitment to perform a future action—commonly referred to as intention—is a specific type of prospection. This knowledge is relevant when trying to assess whether a stated intention is a lie or the truth. An important observation is that thinking of, and committing to, future actions often evoke vivid and detailed mental images. One factor that affects how specific a person experiences these simulations is location-familiarity. The purpose of this study was to examine to what extent location-familiarity moderates how liars and truth tellers describe a mental image in an investigative interview. Liars were instructed to plan a criminal act and truth tellers were instructed to plan a non-criminal act. Before they could carry out these acts, the participants were intercepted and interviewed about the mental images they may have had experienced in this planning phase. Truth tellers told the truth whereas liars used a cover story to mask their criminal intentions. As predicted, the results showed that the truth tellers reported a mental image significantly more often than the liars. If a mental image was reported, the content of the descriptions did not differ between liars and truth tellers. In a post interview questionnaire, the participants rated the vividness (i.e., content and clarity) of their mental images. The ratings revealed that the truth tellers had experienced their mental images more vividly during the planning phase than the liars. In conclusion, this study indicates that both prototypical and specific representations play a role in prospection. Although location-familiarity did not moderate how liars and truth tellers describe their mental images of the future, this study allows some interesting insights into human future thinking. How these findings can be helpful for distinguishing between true and false intentions will be discussed. PMID:25071648

Knieps, Melanie; Granhag, Pär A.; Vrij, Aldert

2014-01-01

421

Segmentation of dance movement: effects of expertise, visual familiarity, motor experience and music  

PubMed Central

According to event segmentation theory, action perception depends on sensory cues and prior knowledge, and the segmentation of observed actions is crucial for understanding and memorizing these actions. While most activities in everyday life are characterized by external goals and interaction with objects or persons, this does not necessarily apply to dance-like actions. We investigated to what extent visual familiarity of the observed movement and accompanying music influence the segmentation of a dance phrase in dancers of different skill level and non-dancers. In Experiment 1, dancers and non-dancers repeatedly watched a video clip showing a dancer performing a choreographed dance phrase and indicated segment boundaries by key press. Dancers generally defined less segment boundaries than non-dancers, specifically in the first trials in which visual familiarity with the phrase was low. Music increased the number of segment boundaries in the non-dancers and decreased it in the dancers. The results suggest that dance expertise reduces the number of perceived segment boundaries in an observed dance phrase, and that the ways visual familiarity and music affect movement segmentation are modulated by dance expertise. In a second experiment, motor experience was added as factor, based on empirical evidence suggesting that action perception is modified by visual and motor expertise in different ways. In Experiment 2, the same task as in Experiment 1 was performed by dance amateurs, and was repeated by the same participants after they had learned to dance the presented dance phrase. Less segment boundaries were defined in the middle trials after participants had learned to dance the phrase, and music reduced the number of segment boundaries before learning. The results suggest that specific motor experience of the observed movement influences its perception and anticipation and makes segmentation broader, but not to the same degree as dance expertise on a professional level. PMID:25610409

Bläsing, Bettina E.

2015-01-01

422

Oscillatory brain responses to own names uttered by unfamiliar and familiar voices  

PubMed Central

Among auditory stimuli, the own name is one of the most powerful and it is able to automatically capture attention and elicit a robust electrophysiological response. The subject’s own name (SON) is preferentially processed in the right hemisphere, mainly because of its self-relevance and emotional content, together with other personally relevant information such as the voice of a familiar person. Whether emotional and self-relevant information are able to attract attention and can be, in future, introduced in clinical studies remains unclear. In the present study we used EEG and asked participants to count a target name (active condition) or to just listen to the SON or other unfamiliar names uttered by a familiar or unfamiliar voice (passive condition). Data reveals that the target name elicits a strong alpha event related desynchronization with respect to non-target names and triggers in addition a left lateralized theta synchronization as well as delta synchronization. In the passive condition alpha desynchronization was observed for familiar voice and SON stimuli in the right hemisphere. Altogether we speculate that participants engage additional attentional resources when counting a target name or when listening to personally relevant stimuli which is indexed by alpha desynchronization whereas left lateralized theta synchronization may be related to verbal working memory load. After validating the present protocol in healthy volunteers it is suggested to move one step further and apply the protocol to patients with disorders of consciousness in which the degree of residual cognitive processing and self-awareness is still insufficiently understood. PMID:25307136

del Giudice, Renata; Lechinger, Julia; Wislowska, Malgorzata; Heib, Dominik P.J.; Hoedlmoser, Kerstin; Schabus, Manuel

2014-01-01

423

INTRODUCCION DESCRIPCION DEL PROGRAMA  

E-print Network

INTRODUCCION DESCRIPCION DEL PROGRAMA ADMISION, BECAS E INSTRUMENTOS DE APOYO Programa de Doctorado´atica, U. de Concepci´on, Chile #12;INTRODUCCION DESCRIPCION DEL PROGRAMA ADMISION, BECAS E INSTRUMENTOS DE´on, Chile #12;INTRODUCCION DESCRIPCION DEL PROGRAMA ADMISION, BECAS E INSTRUMENTOS DE APOYO ENTORNO LA

Bürger, Raimund

424

Sparing of the familiarity component of recognition memory in a patient with hippocampal pathology.  

PubMed

Subject KN has a persistent anterograde amnesia as a result of brain injury following meningitis in 1993. MRI scans reveal a bilateral decrease in the volume of his hippocampal region (dentate gyrus, CA1-4, subicular cortices) of approximately 45% in both the right and left hemispheres, although the volume of his perirhinal cortex appears normal. Aside from some changes to his occipital lobe and bilateral shrinkage of the amygdala, the rest of his brain appears normal on recent quantitative MRI scans. A striking feature of his memory loss is his ability to perform at normal levels on some tests of recognition, despite his consistent deficit on tests of recall. Two tests designed specifically to distinguish performance of two putative divisions of recognition memory (the Remember/Know procedure and the use of receiver operating characteristics to distinguish familiarity and recollection), provide evidence for a selective sparing of the familiarity component of recognition. The dissociation within recognition memory supports dual-process models of recognition, and also supports proposals that anatomically linked regions within the medial temporal lobe make qualitatively different contributions to recognition. PMID:16154457

Aggleton, John P; Vann, Seralynne D; Denby, Christine; Dix, Sophie; Mayes, Andrew R; Roberts, Neil; Yonelinas, Andrew P

2005-01-01

425

Testosterone response to competition in males is unrelated to opponent familiarity or threat appraisal  

PubMed Central

It has been proposed in the literature that the testosterone (T) response to competition in humans may be modulated by cognitive variables. In a previous experiment with a female sample we have reported that opponent familiarity and threat appraisal moderated the T response to competition in women. With this experiment we aim to investigate if these variables have the same impact on males T response to competition, extending the previous findings in our lab. Forty male participants (20 dyads) were recruited to engage in a same sex, face to face competition using the Number Tracking Test as a competitive task. Levels of T, cortisol (C) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were measured before and 20 min after the competition. Results show that losers report higher levels of threat than winners and increased their T levels after the competition, however this T change was not predicted by opponent familiarity or threat appraisal. No variation was detected for C and DHEA levels. These findings suggest that there could be sex differences for the moderators/mediators of the T response to competition in humans. PMID:25404923

Oliveira, Gonçalo A.; Uceda, Sara; Oliveira, Tânia F.; Fernandes, Alexandre C.; Garcia-Marques, Teresa; Oliveira, Rui F.

2014-01-01

426

Feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary outcomes of the Fortalezas Familiares intervention for Latino families facing maternal depression  

PubMed Central

This pilot study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary outcomes of a linguistically- and culturally-adapted intervention for immigrant Latina mothers with depression and their families. Fortalezas Familiares (Family Strengths) is a community-based, 12-week, multi-family group intervention that aims to increase communication about family processes leading up to and affected by the mother’s depression, build child coping and efficacy, enhance parenting competence and skills, and promote cultural and social assets within the family. In terms of feasibility, of 16 families who enrolled and participated in the intervention, 13 families attended more than 90% of meetings and completed the intervention. Post-tests reported positive changes following the intervention, including improved psychological functioning, increased family and marital support, and enhanced family functioning, as reported by mothers and other caregivers. Mothers also reported decreased conduct and hyperactivity problems among their children. Children reported positive changes in their psychological functioning and coping, peer relations, parenting warmth and acceptance, and overall family functioning. Post-intervention focus groups and surveys measuring acceptability revealed families’ satisfaction with the intervention and suggested areas of improvement. We discuss similarities and differences in outcomes between the adapted intervention, Fortalezas Familiares, and the original intervention, Keeping Families Strong, and propose future areas of intervention adaptation and development. PMID:24033238

Valdez, Carmen R.; Padilla, Brian; Moore, Sarah; Magaña, Sandra

2014-01-01

427

An Efficient ERP-Based Brain-Computer Interface Using Random Set Presentation and Face Familiarity  

PubMed Central

Event-related potential (ERP)-based P300 spellers are commonly used in the field of brain-computer interfaces as an alternative channel of communication for people with severe neuro-muscular diseases. This study introduces a novel P300 based brain-computer interface (BCI) stimulus paradigm using a random set presentation pattern and exploiting the effects of face familiarity. The effect of face familiarity is widely studied in the cognitive neurosciences and has recently been addressed for the purpose of BCI. In this study we compare P300-based BCI performances of a conventional row-column (RC)-based paradigm with our approach that combines a random set presentation paradigm with (non-) self-face stimuli. Our experimental results indicate stronger deflections of the ERPs in response to face stimuli, which are further enhanced when using the self-face images, and thereby improving P300-based spelling performance. This lead to a significant reduction of stimulus sequences required for correct character classification. These findings demonstrate a promising new approach for improving the speed and thus fluency of BCI-enhanced communication with the widely used P300-based BCI setup. PMID:25384045

Müller, Klaus-Robert; Lee, Seong-Whan

2014-01-01

428

[Severe malnutrition: epidemiological and clinical characteristics of children hospitalized in the Instituto Materno Infantil de Pernambuco (IMIP), Brazil].  

PubMed

Ninety-nine children admitted to the Instituto Materno Infantil de Pernambuco with severe malnutrition from May 1999 to May 2000 were investigated in a cross-sectional study focusing on key epidemiological and clinical variables. The majority of the children (88.9%) were less than 6 months of age, 42.4% had a history of low birth weight, and 36.4% were premature. Some 19.2% had never been breastfed, and 49.5% had been breastfed for less than 2 months. Some 15.2% of the mothers were illiterate. Most of the families (86.1%) had incomes less than twice the minimum wage (approximately US$150/month), and 51.5% had migrated from rural areas. Only 26.3% of the homes had running water, and 40.4% lacked sewage disposal facilities. Diarrhea was the reason for hospital admission in 55.6% of the cases. Hospital mortality was 34.3% in this group. PMID:12244381

Falbo, Ana Rodrigues; Alves, João Guilherme Bezerra

2002-01-01

429

The collection and database of Birds of Angola hosted at IICT (Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical), Lisboa, Portugal.  

PubMed

The bird collection of the Instituto de Investigação Cientítica Tropical (Lisbon, Portugal) holds 5598 preserved specimens (skins), mainly from Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau, São Tomé and Principe, and Cape Verde. The subset collection from Angola includes 1560 specimens, which were taxonomically revised and georeferenced for the publication of this data paper. The collection contains a total of 522 taxa, including 161 species and 361 subspecies. Two species are classified by the IUCN Red List as Endangered - the wattled crane (Grus carunculata) and the Gabela bush-shrike (Laniarius amboimensis) - and two are classified as vulnerable - African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) and the white-headed vulture (Trigonoceps occipitalis). The temporal span of the database ranges between 1943 and 1979, but 32% are from years 1958-1959, and 25% from years 1968-1969. The spatial coverage of the collection is uneven, with 2/3 of the records representing only four of the eighteen provinces of the country, namely Huíla, Moxico, Namibe and Cuanza Sul. It adds, however, valuable information for the Huíla area of the Angolan Scarp, which is probably a biodiversity hotspot of global conservation priority. Furthermore, this georeferenced database adds invaluable bird information to the GBIF network, for one of the countries with highest but less known biodiversity in Africa. PMID:24693221

Monteiro, Miguel; Reino, Luís; Beja, Pedro; Mills, Michael Stuart Lyne; Bastos-Silveira, Cristiane; Ramos, Manuela; Rodrigues, Diana; Neves, Isabel Queirós; Consciência, Susana; Figueira, Rui

2014-01-01

430

The collection and database of Birds of Angola hosted at IICT (Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical), Lisboa, Portugal  

PubMed Central

Abstract The bird collection of the Instituto de Investigação Cientítica Tropical (Lisbon, Portugal) holds 5598 preserved specimens (skins), mainly from Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau, São Tomé and Principe, and Cape Verde. The subset collection from Angola includes 1560 specimens, which were taxonomically revised and georeferenced for the publication of this data paper. The collection contains a total of 522 taxa, including 161 species and 361 subspecies. Two species are classified by the IUCN Red List as Endangered - the wattled crane (Grus carunculata) and the Gabela bush-shrike (Laniarius amboimensis) - and two are classified as vulnerable - African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) and the white-headed vulture (Trigonoceps occipitalis). The temporal span of the database ranges between 1943 and 1979, but 32% are from years 1958–1959, and 25% from years 1968–1969. The spatial coverage of the collection is uneven, with 2/3 of the records representing only four of the eighteen provinces of the country, namely Huíla, Moxico, Namibe and Cuanza Sul. It adds, however, valuable information for the Huíla area of the Angolan Scarp, which is probably a biodiversity hotspot of global conservation priority. Furthermore, this georeferenced database adds invaluable bird information to the GBIF network, for one of the countries with highest but less known biodiversity in Africa. PMID:24693221

Monteiro, Miguel; Reino, Luís; Beja, Pedro; Mills, Michael Stuart Lyne; Bastos-Silveira, Cristiane; Ramos, Manuela; Rodrigues, Diana; Neves, Isabel Queirós; Consciência, Susana; Figueira, Rui

2014-01-01

431

Drug-scene familiarity and exposure to gang violence among residents in a rural farming community in Baja California, Mexico.  

PubMed

We examined drug-scene familiarity and exposure to gang violence among residents of a migrant farming community in rural Baja California, Mexico. In October 2010, 164 members of a single colonia (community) underwent an interviewer-administered survey to assess 'exposure to gang violence' and 'drug-scene familiarity', as well as other health indicators. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of exposure to gang violence. Overall, 20% of participants were male, the median age was 27 years, 24% spoke an indigenous language, 42% reported exposure to gang violence and 39% reported drug-scene familiarity. Factors independently associated with exposure to gang violence included being younger (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.80 per 5-year increase, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.67-0.96), living in the community longer (AOR=1.47 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=1.11-1.72), higher educational attainment (AOR=1.70 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=1.07-1.12) and drug-scene familiarity (AOR=5.10, 95% CI=2.39-10.89). Exposure to gang violence was very common in this community and was associated with drug-scene familiarity, suggesting a close relationship between drugs and gang violence in this rural community. In a region characterised by mass migration from poorer parts of Mexico, where drugs and gangs have not been previously reported, emerging social harms may affect these communities unless interventions are implemented. PMID:23072623

Volkmann, Tyson; Fraga, Miguel A; Brodine, Stephanie K; Iñiguez-Stevens, Esmeralda; Cepeda, Alice; Elder, John P; Garfein, Richard S; Viidai Team

2013-01-01

432

Familiarity Perception Call Elicited under Restricted Sensory Cues in Peer-Social Interactions of the Domestic Chick  

PubMed Central

Social cognitive mechanisms are central to understanding developmental abnormalities, such as autistic spectrum disorder. Peer relations besides parent-infant or pair-bonding interactions are pivotal social relationships that are especially well developed in humans. Cognition of familiarity forms the basis of peer socialization. Domestic chick (Gallus gallus) studies have contributed to our understanding of the developmental process in sensory-motor cognition but many processes remain unknown. In this report, we used chicks, as they are precocial birds, and we could therefore focus on peer interaction without having to consider parenting. The subject chick behavior towards familiar and unfamiliar reference peers was video-recorded, where the subject and the reference were separated by either an opaque or transparent wall. Spectrogram and behavior correlation analyses based on principal component analysis, revealed that chicks elicited an intermediate contact call and a morphologically different distress call, more frequently towards familiar versus unfamiliar chicks in acoustic only conditions. When both visual and acoustic cues were present, subject chicks exhibited approaching and floor pecking behavior, while eliciting joyful (pleasant) calls, irrespective of whether reference peers were familiar or unfamiliar. Our result showed that chicks recognized familiarity using acoustic cues and expressed cognition through modified distress calls. These finding suggests that peer affiliation may be established by acoustic recognition, independent of visual face recognition, and that eventually, both forms of recognition are integrated, with modulation of acoustic recognition. PMID:23520539

Koshiba, Mamiko; Shirakawa, Yuka; Mimura, Koki; Senoo, Aya; Karino, Genta; Nakamura, Shun

2013-01-01

433

Drug-scene familiarity and exposure to gang violence among residents in a rural farming community in Baja California, Mexico  

PubMed Central

We examined drug-scene familiarity and exposure to gang violence among residents of a migrant farming community in rural Baja California, Mexico. In October 2010, 164 members of a single colonia (community) underwent an interviewer-administered survey to assess ‘exposure to gang violence’ and ‘drug-scene familiarity’, as well as other health indicators. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of exposure to gang violence. Overall, 20% of participants were male, the median age was 27 years, 24% spoke an indigenous language, 42% reported exposure to gang violence, and 39% reported drug-scene familiarity. Factors independently associated with exposure to gang violence included being younger (AOR=0.80 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=0.67–0.96), living in the community longer (AOR=1.47 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=1.11–1.72), higher educational attainment (AOR=1.70 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=1.07–1.12), and drug-scene familiarity (AOR=5.10, 95%CI=2.39–10.89). Exposure to gang violence was very common in this community and was associated with drug-scene familiarity, suggesting a close relationship between drugs and gang violence in this rural community. In a region characterised by mass migration from poorer parts of Mexico, where drugs and gangs have not been previously reported, emerging social harms may affect these communities unless interventions are implemented. PMID:23072623

Volkmann, Tyson; Fraga, Miguel A.; Brodine, Stephanie K.; Iñiguez-Stevens, Esmeralda; Cepeda, Alice; Elder, John P.; Garfein, Richard S.

2012-01-01

434

Infants prefer the faces of strangers or mothers to morphed faces: an uncanny valley between social novelty and familiarity  

PubMed Central

The ‘uncanny valley’ response is a phenomenon involving the elicitation of a negative feeling and subsequent avoidant behaviour in human adults and infants as a result of viewing very realistic human-like robots or computer avatars. It is hypothesized that this uncanny feeling occurs because the realistic synthetic characters elicit the concept of ‘human’ but fail to satisfy it. Such violations of our normal expectations regarding social signals generate a feeling of unease. This conflict-induced uncanny valley between mutually exclusive categories (human and synthetic agent) raises a new question: could an uncanny feeling be elicited by other mutually exclusive categories, such as familiarity and novelty? Given that infants prefer both familiarity and novelty in social objects, we address this question as well as the associated developmental profile. Using the morphing technique and a preferential-looking paradigm, we demonstrated uncanny valley responses of infants to faces of mothers (i.e. familiarity) and strangers (i.e. novelty). Furthermore, this effect strengthened with the infant's age. We excluded the possibility that infants detect and avoid traces of morphing. This conclusion follows from our finding that the infants equally preferred strangers’ faces and the morphed faces of two strangers. These results indicate that an uncanny valley between familiarity and novelty may accentuate the categorical perception of familiar and novel objects. PMID:22696289

Matsuda, Yoshi-Taka; Okamoto, Yoko; Ida, Misako; Okanoya, Kazuo; Myowa-Yamakoshi, Masako

2012-01-01

435

Pro-inflammatory genetic profile and familiarity of acute myocardial infarction  

PubMed Central

Background Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a multifactorial disease with a complex pathogenesis where lifestyle, individual genetic background and environmental risk factors are involved. Altered inflammatory responses are implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and a premature AMI of parents is associated with an increased risk of the disease in their offspring (Offs). However, the genetic background of familiarity for AMI is still largely unknown. To understand which genes may predispose to increased risk of cardiovascular disease gene polymorphism of immune regulatory genes, and clinical events from the Offs of parents with an early AMI were investigated. Genetics data from Offs were compared with those obtained from healthy subjects and an independent cohort of patients with clinical sporadic AMI. Rates of clinical events during a 24?years follow up from Offs and from an independent Italian population survey were also evaluated. Results This study showed that a genetic signature consisting of the concomitant presence of the CC genotype of VEGF, the A allele of IL-10 and the A allele of IFN-? was indeed present in the Offs population. In fact, the above genetic markers were more frequent in unaffected Offs (46.4%) and patients with sporadic AMI (31.8%) than in the CTR (17.3%) and the differences were highly statistically significant (Offs vs CTR: p?=?0.0001, OR?=?4.129; AMI vs CTR: p?=?0.0001, OR?=?2.224). During the 24-year follow-up, Offs with a positive familiarity in spite of a relatively young age showed an increased prevalence of diabetes, ischemic heart disease and stroke. These findings reinforce the notion that subjects with a familial history of AMI are at risk of an accelerated aging of cardiovascular system resulting in cardiovascular events. Conclusion Our data suggest that selected genes with immune regulatory functions are part of the complex genetic background contributing to familiarity for cardiovascular diseases. This inflammatory genetic profile, along with classical cardiovascular risk factors, may be used for better defining individual risk of AMI in unaffected subjects. PMID:22726231

2012-01-01

436

Modulation of cortical activity during comprehension of familiar and unfamiliar text topics in speed reading and speed listening.  

PubMed

Brain activation associated with normal and speeded comprehension of expository texts on familiar and unfamiliar topics was investigated in reading and listening. The goal was to determine how brain activation and the comprehension processes it reflects are modulated by comprehension speed and topic familiarity. Passages on more familiar topics differentially activated a set of areas in the anterior temporal lobe and medial frontal gyrus, areas often associated with text-level integration processes, which we interpret to reflect integration of previous knowledge with the passage content. Passages presented at the faster presentation resulted in more activation of a network of frontal areas associated with strategic and working-memory processes (as well as visual or auditory sensory-related regions), which we interpret to reflect maintenance of local coherence among briefly available passage segments. The implications of this research is that the brain system for text comprehension adapts to varying perceptual and knowledge conditions. PMID:25463816

Buchweitz, Augusto; Mason, Robert A; Meschyan, Gayane; Keller, Timothy A; Just, Marcel Adam

2014-12-01

437

Cortisol Reactivity, Maternal Sensitivity, and Infant Preference for Mother's Familiar Face and Rhyme in 6-Month-Old Infants  

PubMed Central

This study investigated how cortisol (stress) reactivity and mothers' behavioral sensitivity affect familiarity preferences in 6-month-old infants. Relations between sensitivity and stress were explored using saliva samples taken from mothers and infants before, and 20-min after, two preferential looking experiments. Photographs and voice recordings from infants' mothers were incorporated into standard visual preference tasks. Sensitivity was assessed by determining the degree of behavioral synchrony between mother and infant from a 10-min interaction period preceding the preferential looking experiments. Results showed that decreasing infant cortisol reactivity and greater maternal sensitivity were associated with familiarity preferences for mother's face stimuli. For the experiment with voice stimuli, a sex difference was obtained in the relationship between the directionality of cortisol reactivity and familiarity preferences. Results are related to a parallel study with 3-month-old infants (Thompson & Trevathan, 2008), and issues are discussed in terms of infants' developing emotional independence from mother. PMID:20046939

Thompson, Laura A.; Trevathan, Wenda R.

2009-01-01

438

Modulation of cortical activity during comprehension of familiar and unfamiliar text topics in speed reading and speed listening  

PubMed Central

Brain activation associated with normal and speeded comprehension of expository texts on familiar and unfamiliar topics was investigated in reading and listening. The goal was to determine how brain activation and the comprehension processes it reflects are modulated by comprehension speed and topic familiarity. Passages on more familiar topics differentially activated a set of areas in the anterior temporal lobe and medial frontal gyrus, areas often associated with text-level integration processes, which we interpret to reflect integration of previous knowledge with the passage content. Passages presented at the faster presentation resulted in more activation of a network of frontal areas associated with strategic and working-memory processes (as well as visual or auditory sensory-related regions), which we interpret to reflect maintenance of local coherence among briefly available passage segments. The implications of this research is to demonstrate how the brain system for text comprehension adapts to varying perceptual and knowledge conditions. PMID:25463816

Buchweitz, Augusto; Mason, Robert A.; Meschyan, Gayane; Keller, Timothy A.; Just, Marcel Adam

2014-01-01

439

Déjà vu in unilateral temporal-lobe epilepsy is associated with selective familiarity impairments on experimental tasks of recognition memory.  

PubMed

In déjà vu, a phenomenological impression of familiarity for the current visual environment is experienced with a sense that it should in fact not feel familiar. The fleeting nature of this phenomenon in daily life, and the difficulty in developing experimental paradigms to elicit it, has hindered progress in understanding déjà vu. Some neurological patients with temporal-lobe epilepsy (TLE) consistently experience déjà vu at the onset of their seizures. An investigation of such patients offers a unique opportunity to shed light on its possible underlying mechanisms. In the present study, we sought to determine whether unilateral TLE patients with déjà vu (TLE+) show a unique pattern of interictal memory deficits that selectively affect familiarity assessment. In Experiment 1, we employed a Remember-Know paradigm for categorized visual scenes and found evidence for impairments that were limited to familiarity-based responses. In Experiment 2, we administered an exclusion task for highly similar categorized visual scenes that placed both recognition processes in opposition. TLE+ patients again displayed recognition impairments, and these impairments spared their ability to engage recollective processes so as to counteract familiarity. The selective deficits we observed in TLE+ patients contrasted with the broader pattern of recognition-memory impairments that was present in a control group of unilateral patients without déjà vu (TLE-). MRI volumetry revealed that ipsilateral medial temporal structures were less broadly affected in TLE+ than in TLE- patients, with a trend for more focal volume reductions in the rhinal cortices of the TLE+ group. The current findings establish a first empirical link between déjà vu in TLE and processes of familiarity assessment, as defined and measured in current cognitive models. They also reveal a pattern of selectivity in recognition impairments that is rarely observed and, thus, of significant theoretical interest to the memory literature at large. PMID:22841992

Martin, Chris B; Mirsattari, Seyed M; Pruessner, Jens C; Pietrantonio, Sandra; Burneo, Jorge G; Hayman-Abello, Brent; Köhler, Stefan

2012-11-01

440

Familiarity with and intentions to use Internet-delivered mental health treatments among older rural adults.  

PubMed

Objectives: Older adults are the fastest growing age group in Australia, necessitating an increase in appropriate mental health services in the coming years. While Internet-delivered mental health treatments have been established as acceptable and efficacious among younger samples, little research has explored whether they would be similarly useful in older populations. Methods: The participants were part of the Australian Rural Mental Health study, which explores mental health and well-being in residents of non-metropolitan New South Wales. A postal survey was used to assess knowledge of and intentions to use Internet-delivered mental health treatments. Demographics, mental health, and frequency of Internet use were also measured. Results: The survey was completed by 950 adults aged 50-93. The sample was largely unfamiliar with Internet mental health services, with 75% reporting that they had never heard of them and a further 20% not knowing any details of what they involved. Intentions to use these services were also low, at 13.5%; however, this increased with level of familiarity. Respondents with higher psychological distress, higher education, and more frequent Internet use were significantly more likely to consider using Internet treatments. Conclusions: Among older adults, overall awareness of Internet-delivered mental health treatments appears to be limited; however, higher familiarity contributes to higher intentions to use these treatments. Importantly, respondents with higher distress and greater computer literacy were more likely to consider mental health treatments delivered via the Internet. Future research exploring strategies to increase the promotion of these services to older samples may further improve their perceptions and use. PMID:25420968

Handley, Tonelle; Perkins, David; Kay-Lambkin, Frances; Lewin, Terry; Kelly, Brian

2014-11-24

441

Familiarization Effects of an Elliptical All-out Test and the Wingate Test Based on Mechanical Power Indices  

PubMed Central

The Wingate all-out test (WAT) is commonly used to estimate anaerobic capabilities of athletes by using an upper or lower body cycle ergometer, however, a new test modality called elliptical all-out test (EAT) which measures activated whole-body locomotor tasks has recently been proposed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the familiarization effects of a 30-s EAT versus WAT. Twenty male trained athletes performed pre-familiarization (Trial- I), post-familiarization (Trial-II) and retest of Trial-II (Trial-III) sessions on both cycle ergometer and elliptical trainer. Peak power (PP), average power (AP), power drop (PD) and fatigue index ratio (FI%) were analyzed using student's t-test for paired samples and correlated by intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC). Moreover, an error detection procedure was administered using data attained from illogical interrelations among 5-s segments of 30-s tests. The main results showed that there were significant familiarization effects in all mechanical power outputs obtained from Trial-I and Trial-II in both EAT (ICC = 0.49-0.55) and WAT (ICC = 0.50-0.57) performances (p ? 0.01). Significant segmental disorders were detected in power production during Trial-I of EAT, however, none existed in any of test trails in the WAT (p ? 0.001). After familiarization sessions, reliability coefficients between Trial-II and Trial-III showed moderate to strong-level agreements for both EAT (ICC = 0.74-0.91) and the WAT (ICC=0.76-0.93). Our results suggested that prior to the performance tests, combination of a well designed familiarization session with one full all-out test administration is necessary to estimate the least moderately reliable and accurate test indices for both WAT and EAT. Key Points A well designed familiarization session, and then, one additional all-out test administration, several days prior to main test, is suggested to estimate more accurate and reliable retest correlations for both cycling and elliptical all-out test modalities. Because of greater muscle recruitment and different movement pattern, familiarization seems more effective for a 30-s all-out test performed on an elliptical trainer compared to a cycle ergometer. PMID:24149160

Ozkaya, Ozgur

2013-01-01

442

Familiarization Effects of an Elliptical All-out Test and the Wingate Test Based on Mechanical Power Indices.  

PubMed

The Wingate all-out test (WAT) is commonly used to estimate anaerobic capabilities of athletes by using an upper or lower body cycle ergometer, however, a new test modality called elliptical all-out test (EAT) which measures activated whole-body locomotor tasks has recently been proposed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the familiarization effects of a 30-s EAT versus WAT. Twenty male trained athletes performed pre-familiarization (Trial- I), post-familiarization (Trial-II) and retest of Trial-II (Trial-III) sessions on both cycle ergometer and elliptical trainer. Peak power (PP), average power (AP), power drop (PD) and fatigue index ratio (FI%) were analyzed using student's t-test for paired samples and correlated by intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC). Moreover, an error detection procedure was administered using data attained from illogical interrelations among 5-s segments of 30-s tests. The main results showed that there were significant familiarization effects in all mechanical power outputs obtained from Trial-I and Trial-II in both EAT (ICC = 0.49-0.55) and WAT (ICC = 0.50-0.57) performances (p ? 0.01). Significant segmental disorders were detected in power production during Trial-I of EAT, however, none existed in any of test trails in the WAT (p ? 0.001). After familiarization sessions, reliability coefficients between Trial-II and Trial-III showed moderate to strong-level agreements for both EAT (ICC = 0.74-0.91) and the WAT (ICC=0.76-0.93). Our results suggested that prior to the performance tests, combination of a well designed familiarization session with one full all-out test administration is necessary to estimate the least moderately reliable and accurate test indices for both WAT and EAT. Key PointsA well designed familiarization session, and then, one additional all-out test administration, several days prior to main test, is suggested to estimate more accurate and reliable retest correlations for both cycling and elliptical all-out test modalities.Because of greater muscle recruitment and different movement pattern, familiarization seems more effective for a 30-s all-out test performed on an elliptical trainer compared to a cycle ergometer. PMID:24149160

Ozkaya, Ozgur

2013-01-01

443

Acuerdo del Programa del Mal Comportamiento Nombre del Nio: _______________________ Fecha_____________________  

E-print Network

: _______________________ Fecha_____________________ Nombre del padre_______________________ Problemas de la conducta son niño es capaz a esta edad de aprender esta conducta? Sí____ No____ ¿Se portan los otros niños de la misma edad con la conducta deseada? Sí_____ No_____ Si el niño nunca se ha portado con la conducta

444

Cuestionario avanzado sobre Open Access y repositorios institucionales [Remedios Melero, Instituto de Agroqumica y Tecnologa de Alimentos (IATA)  

E-print Network

publicaciones de su interés? Sí 3.- ¿Cree que la puesta en marcha del repositorio institucional Digital.CSIC es en archivar sus artículos en un repositorio institucional? No, desde mi punto de vista este miedo investigadores en su repositorio institucional a la hora de evaluar la actividad científica personal o

445

Cuestionario avanzado sobre Open Access y repositorios institucionales [Isidro Aguillo, Instituto de Estudios Documentales sobre Ciencia y Tecnologa  

E-print Network

repositorio institucional Digital.CSIC es una buena noticia para la comunidad científica del Consejo? ¿Por qué parecería razonable tener en cuenta la participación de los investigadores en su repositorio institucional su producción científica? ¿Cree que el repositorio institucional podría aumentar el interés de la

446

Cuestionario avanzado sobre Open Access y repositorios institucionales [Jorge M. Garca Martnez, Instituto de Microelectrnica de Madrid (IMM-CNM)  

E-print Network

interés? No 3.- ¿Cree que la puesta en marcha del repositorio institucional Digital.CSIC es una buena investigadores cuando piensan en archivar sus artículos en un repositorio institucional? No 6.- ¿Le parecería razonable tener en cuenta la participación de los investigadores en su repositorio institucional a la hora

447

Influencia familiar sobre la conducta alimentaria y su relación con la obesidad infantil  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN. La conducta alimentaria es el conjunto de acciones que establecen la relación del ser humano con los alimentos. Se acepta generalmente que los comportamientos frente a la alimentación se adquieren a través de la experiencia directa con la comida, por la imitación de modelos, la disponibilidad de alimentos, el estatus social, los simbolismos afectivos y las tradiciones culturales. Además

Santos JL

448

PIANIFICAZIONE FAMILIARE E COMPORTAMENTI RIPRODUTTIVI NEI PAESI ISLAMICI DELL'AREA MEDITERRANEA  

Microsoft Academic Search

I livelli di fecondità dei paesi islamici del Mediterraneo sono tra i più elevati nel mondo e nella maggior parte di essi solo da pochi anni può considerarsi avviato il processo di transizione demografica. La conoscenza dei livelli e delle differenze di fecondità, dell'utilizzo degli strumenti di pianificazione nonché delle caratteristiche delle politiche governative è condizione necessaria per poter giungere

AURORA ANGELI; SILVANA SALVINI

1990-01-01

449

EVALUACIN DEL IMPACTO AMBIENTAL  

E-print Network

EVALUACIÓN DEL IMPACTO AMBIENTAL Grado en Ciencias Ambientales Universidad de Alcalá Curso DEL IMPACTO AMBIENTAL Código: 670020 Titulación en la que se imparte: Grado en Ciencias Ambientales que se imparte: Español 1. PRESENTACIÓN La evaluación de impacto ambiental de proyectos es un

Espigares, Tíscar

450

MEMORIA DEL DEPARTAMENTO  

E-print Network

ESCUELA UNIVERSITARIA Masó Pareja, Alfredo - 4 - #12;Memoria del Departamento de Fundamentos del Análisis. Mariscal Arlabán, Asier, doctor por la University of Chicago. Martínez Gorricho, Silvia, doctora por la Chicago. Turino, Francesco, doctor por la Universitat Pompeu Fabra. PROFESORES ASOCIADOS Ariza Jiménez

Escolano, Francisco

451

The Role of Book Familiarity and Book Type on Mothers' Reading Strategies and Toddlers' Responsiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the current study was to examine how maternal reading strategies and book type would impact on toddlers' responsiveness as they became familiar with three books. Eleven mothers and their 2- to 3-year-olds were recorded reading the same set of three different books (i.e. word book, narrative book and no narrative book) on four…

Fletcher, Kathryn L.; Finch, W. Holmes

2015-01-01

452

EVALUATION OF THREE STRATEGIES OF COMMUNICATION IN A PROMOTIONAL CAMPAIGN OF FAMILIAR ORGANIC GARDENS. QUITO - PICHINCHA, 2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY In three educative extensions of IRFEYAL, Quito-Pichincha, the effectiveness of three strategies of communication in a promotional campaign of Familiar Organic Gardens was evaluated. (1 Actor's Theatrical Piece, 2. Radio Program, and 3. Television Program, each one with popularization brochures). Its effect on the understanding of a message related to the \\

María del Pilar Bonilla; Manuel Suquilanda

453

The contribution of familiarity to recognition memory is a function of test format when using similar foils.  

PubMed

Patient Y.R., who suffered hippocampal damage that disrupted recollection but not familiarity, was impaired on a yes/no (YN) object recognition memory test with similar foils. However, she was not impaired on a forced-choice corresponding (FCC) version of the test that paired targets with corresponding similar foils (Holdstock et al., 2002). This dissociation is explained by the Complementary Learning Systems (CLS) neural-network model (Norman & O'Reilly, 2003) if recollection is impaired but familiarity is preserved. The CLS model also predicts that participants relying exclusively on familiarity should be impaired on forced-choice noncorresponding (FCNC) tests, where targets are presented with foils similar to other targets. The present study tests these predictions for all three test formats (YN, FCC, FCNC) in normal participants using two variants of the remember/know procedure. As predicted, performance using familiarity alone was significantly worse than standard recognition on the YN and FCNC tests, but not on the FCC test. Recollection in the form of recall-to-reject was the major process driving YN recognition. This adds support to the interpretation of patient data, according to which hippocampal damage causes a recollection deficit that leads to poor performance on the YN test relative to FCC. PMID:19096990

Migo, Ellen; Montaldi, Daniela; Norman, Kenneth A; Quamme, Joel; Mayes, Andrew

2009-06-01

454

The contribution of familiarity to recognition memory is a function of test format when using similar foils  

PubMed Central

Patient Y.R., who suffered hippocampal damage that disrupted recollection but not familiarity, was impaired on a yes/no (YN) object recognition memory test with similar foils. However, she was not impaired on a forced-choice corresponding (FCC) version of the test that paired targets with corresponding similar foils (Holdstock et al. 2002). This dissociation is explained by the Complementary Learning Systems (CLS) neural-network model (Norman & O'Reilly 2003) if recollection is impaired but familiarity is preserved. The CLS model also predicts that participants relying exclusively on familiarity should be impaired on forced-choice non-corresponding (FCNC) tests, where targets are presented with foils similar to other targets. The present study tests these predictions for all three test formats (YN, FCC, FCNC) in normal participants using two variants of the remember/know procedure. As predicted, performance using familiarity alone was significantly worse than standard recognition on the YN and FCNC tests, but not on the FCC test. Recollection in the form of recall-to-reject was the major process driving YN recognition. This adds support to the interpretation of patient data according to which, hippocampal damage causes a recollection deficit that leads to poor performance on the YN test relative to FCC. PMID:19096990

Migo, Ellen; Montaldi, Daniela; Norman, Kenneth A.; Quamme, Joel; Mayes, Andrew

2010-01-01

455

The First Slow Step: Differential Effects of Object and Word-Form Familiarization on Retention of Fast-Mapped Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research demonstrated that although 24-month-old infants do well on the initial pairing of a novel word and novel object in fast-mapping tasks, they are unable to retain the mapping after a 5 min delay. The current study examines the role of familiarity with the objects and words on infants' ability to bridge between the initial fast…

Kucker, Sarah C.; Samuelson, Larissa K.

2012-01-01

456

Mere Exposure Revisited: The Influence of Growth versus Security Cues on Evaluations of Novel and Familiar Stimuli  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Combining regulatory focus theory (Higgins, 1997) and novelty categorization theory (Forster, Marguc, & Gillebaart, 2010), we predicted that novel stimuli would be more positively evaluated when focused on growth as compared with security and that familiar stimuli would be more negatively evaluated when focused on growth as compared with security.…

Gillebaart, Marleen; Forster, Jens; Rotteveel, Mark

2012-01-01

457

Infants' ERP Responses to Novel and Familiar Stimuli Change over Time: Implications for Novelty Detection and Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Detection of novelty is an important cognitive ability early in development, when infants must learn a great deal about their world. Work with adults has identified networks of brain areas involved in novelty detection; this study investigated electro-physiological correlates of detection of novelty and recognition of familiarity in 9-month-old…

Wiebe, Sandra A.; Cheatham, Carol L.; Lukowski, Angela F.; Haight, Jennifer C.; Muehleck, Abigail J.; Bauer, Patricia J.

2006-01-01

458

Image-Invariant Responses in Face-Selective Regions Do Not Explain the Perceptual Advantage for Familiar Face Recognition  

PubMed Central

The ability to recognize familiar faces across different viewing conditions contrasts with the inherent difficulty in the perception of unfamiliar faces across similar image manipulations. It is widely believed that this difference in perception and recognition is based on the neural representation for familiar faces being less sensitive to changes in the image than it is for unfamiliar faces. Here, we used an functional magnetic resonance-adaptation paradigm to investigate image invariance in face-selective regions of the human brain. We found clear evidence for a degree of image-invariant adaptation to facial identity in face-selective regions, such as the fusiform face area. However, contrary to the predictions of models of face processing, comparable levels of image invariance were evident for both familiar and unfamiliar faces. This suggests that the marked differences in the perception of familiar and unfamiliar faces may not depend on differences in the way multiple images are represented in core face-selective regions of the human brain. PMID:22345357

Davies-Thompson, Jodie; Newling, Katherine

2013-01-01

459

A Trainer's Guide to El Comienzo & Esto Es Familiar: Keys to Training Spanish-Speaking Family Day Care Providers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This set of manuals was developed by the California Child Care Initiative for the training of Spanish-speaking family day care providers. The English-language trainer's guide has been designed to accompany "El Comienzo" ("The Beginner") and "Esto Es Familiar" ("It's a Family Affair"). The Spanish-language "El Comienzo" is an information kit…

Bellm, Dan

460

The coat-tail effect in merged flocks of dark-eyed juncos: social status depends on familiarity  

Microsoft Academic Search

When two groups of social animals combine to form a larger group, new social relationships must be formed. Among dark-eyed juncos,Junco hyemalis hyemalis, it has been reported that most members of one flock attain higher ranks than those of another flock when two groups are combined. A possible mechanism for this effect involves differential treatment of familiar and unfamiliar individuals

DANIEL A. CRISTOL

1995-01-01

461

EE/CS 120 Logic Design Course Objectives: 1. Able to perform the conversion among different number systems; Familiar with  

E-print Network

EE/CS 120 Logic Design Course Objectives: 1. Able to perform the conversion among different number systems; Familiar with baisc logic gates -- AND, OR & NOT, XOR, XNOR; Independently or work in team to build simple logic circuits using basic. 2. Understand Boolean algebra and basic properties of Boolean

Fonoberov, Vladimir

462

The effects of familiarity and emotional expression on face processing examined by ERPs in patients with schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe main objective of the study was to determine whether patients with schizophrenia are deficient relative to controls in the processing of faces at different levels of familiarity and types of emotion and the stage where such differences may occur.

Stéphanie Caharel; Christian Bernard; Florence Thibaut; Sadec Haouzir; Carole Di Maggio-Clozel; Gabrielle Allio; Gaël Fouldrin; Michel Petit; Robert Lalonde; Mohamed Rebaï

2007-01-01

463

Learner-Based Factors in L2 Reading Comprehension and Processing Grammatical Form: Topic Familiarity and Working Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines how topic familiarity and working memory capacity affect beginning Spanish learners' reading comprehension and their processing of future tense morphology. Participants included 94 adult learners from an accelerated, beginning Spanish course. In addition to completing a computerized version of a reading span test as a measure…

Leeser, Michael J.

2007-01-01

464

Effects of Working Memory Capacity and Content Familiarity on Literal and Inferential Comprehension in L2 Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the effects of working memory capacity and content familiarity on literal and inferential comprehension in second language (L2) reading. Participants were 62 Turkish university students with an advanced English proficiency level. Working memory capacity was measured through a computerized version of a reading span test, whereas…

Alptekin, Cem; Ercetin, Gulcan

2011-01-01

465

Exploring the Role of Bases and Suffixes when Reading Familiar and Unfamiliar Words: Evidence from French Young Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined whether French third- and fifth-grade children rely on morphemes when recognizing words and whether this reliance depends on word familiarity. We manipulated the presence of bases and suffixes in words and pseudowords to compare their contribution in a lexical decision task. Both bases and suffixes facilitated word reading accuracy and…

Quemart, Pauline; Casalis, Severine; Duncan, Lynne G.

2012-01-01

466

CATS AT AUB Cats are a familiar and tolerated presence on the AUB campus. Nonetheless, these cats are  

E-print Network

CATS AT AUB Preamble Cats are a familiar and tolerated presence on the AUB campus. Nonetheless, these cats are feral (semi-wild), and are not pets. There have been complaints from both, faculty members and students, regarding individuals who allow cats in their offices. AUB cats are outdoor creatures and should

Shihadeh, Alan

467

School nurses' familiarity and perceptions of academic accommodations for student-athletes following sport-related concussion.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate school nurses' familiarity and perceptions regarding academic accommodations for student-athletes following sport-related concussion. School nurses (N = 1,246) accessed the survey School Nurses' Beliefs, Attitudes and Knowledge of Pediatric Athletes with Concussions (BAKPAC-SN). The BAKPAC-SN contained several questions pertaining to concussion management and academic accommodations. There were significant differences regarding personal experience as well as familiarity of academic accommodations (p < .001) between school nurses who work at a school that employs an athletic trainer and school nurses who work at a school that does not employ an athletic trainer. There were significant weak positive relationships between years of experience and familiarity with academic accommodations (r = .210, p < .001), 504 plans (r = .243, p < .001), and individualized education plans (r = .205, p < .001). School nurses employed at a single school were significantly more familiar with academic accommodations (p = .027) and 504 plans (p = .001) than school nurses employed at multiple schools. Health care professionals should collaborate to effectively manage a concussed patient and should consider academic accommodations to ensure whole-person health care. PMID:25015367

Weber, Michelle L; Welch, Cailee E; Parsons, John T; McLeod, Tamara C Valovich

2015-04-01

468

This demo guide is a tool to gain familiarity with the basic functions and features of the Agilent  

E-print Network

This demo guide is a tool to gain familiarity with the basic functions and features of the Agilent cable, Agilent part number 10503A. Key names surrounded by [ ] indicate hard keys located on the front. Agilent ESA Series Spectrum Analyzers Demonstration Guide and Application Note #12;2 Part 1. The Basics

Anlage, Steven

469

The Effects of Unitization on Familiarity-Based Source Memory: Testing a Behavioral Prediction Derived From Neuroimaging Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance on tests of source memory is typically based on recollection of contextual information associated with an item. However, recent neuroimaging results have suggested that the perirhinal cortex, a region thought to support familiarity-based item recognition, may support source attributions if source information is encoded as a feature of the relevant item (i.e., \\

Rachel A. Diana; Andrew P. Yonelinas; Charan Ranganath

2008-01-01

470

Infants of Depressed Mothers Exhibit Atypical Frontal Electrical Brain Activity during Interactions with Mother and with a Familiar, Nondepressed Adult.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined whether the atypical pattern of brain activity found in infants of depressed mothers generalized to situations not involving the mother. Found that 13- to 15-month-olds of depressed mothers exhibited reduced left--relative to right--frontal activity during baseline and during interactions with mother and familiar experimenter. This…

Dawson, Geraldine; Frey, Karin; Panagiotides, Heracles; Yamada, Emily; Hessl, David; Osterling, Julie

1999-01-01

471

Effects of Familiarity with Sender on Response Rate of Mail Questionnaires and Their Implications for Program Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects on response rate of familiarity with survey sender was investigated in a study involving the University of Florida's Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences faculty. The study was part of a mail survey of 3,467 citrus producers in 23 counties in Florida. Half (1,790) of the producers on the agricultural agent's mailing lists were…

Taylor, C. L.; And Others

472

Improving English as a Foreign Language Writing in Elementary Schools Using Mobile Devices in Familiar Situational Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research proposed a situational learning system to help elementary school students practice and improve their English as a foreign language (EFL) writing skills. Students carried out assigned writing tasks using the support of mobile devices in situations deemed to be familiar to the students, such as on the school playground, within…

Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Chen, Holly S. L.; Shadiev, Rustam; Huang, Ray Yueh-Min; Chen, Chia-Yu

2014-01-01

473

phonetic details, we extrapolate that familiar words in either dialect should be holistically recognizable to younger toddlers,  

E-print Network

#12;phonetic details, we extrapolate that familiar words in either dialect should be holistically recognizable to younger toddlers, but that the unfamiliar phonetic specifications of phonemes in nonnative; Saffran, Aslin, & New- port, 1996), forming phonetically detailed word representations (e.g., Swingley

474

Musical Preference, Identification, and Familiarity: A Multicultural Comparison of Secondary Students from Singapore and the United Kingdom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors investigate whether there were significant differences in preferences for, familiarity with, and identification of Chinese, Malay, and Indian music between adolescent students from Singapore (n = 78) and the United Kingdom (n = 53). Also explored are the relationships among these three variables. Students were asked to rate their…

Teo, Timothy; Hargreaves, David J.; Lee, June

2008-01-01

475

Developmental Change in the ERP Responses to Familiar Faces in Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders versus Typical Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show differences in face processing abilities from early in development. To examine whether these differences reflect an atypical versus delayed developmental trajectory, neural responses to familiar and unfamiliar faces in twenty-four 18- to 47-month-old children with ASD were compared with…

Webb, Sara Jane; Jones, Emily J. H.; Merkle, Kristen; Venema, Kaitlin; Greenson, Jessica; Murias, Michael; Dawson, Geraldine

2011-01-01

476

Teacher's Effect in L2 Reading Topic Familiarization: Students' Test Performance and Perceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With 73 students at an Iranian university, the present study investigated teacher's effect in topic familiarization in L2 reading context. The participants--Group B with and Group A without the presence of a teacher--experienced four pre-reading treatments and read four passages of unfamiliar topics, after which they were tested on…

Pornour, Mohsen

2014-01-01

477

Recollection and familiarity deficits in amnesia: Convergence of remember-know, process dissociation, and receiver operating characteristic data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies using the process dissociation and the remember—know procedures led to conflicting conclusions regarding the effects of anterograde amnesia on recollection and familiarity. We argue that these apparent contradictions arose because different models were used to interpret the results and because differences in false-alarm rates between groups biased the estimates provided by those models. A reanalysis of those studies

Andrew P. Yonelinas; Neal E. A. Kroll; Ian Dobbins; Michele Lazzara; Robert T. Knight

1998-01-01

478

Role of familiarity and preference in reproductive success in ex situ breeding programs.  

PubMed

Success of captive-breeding programs centers on consistent reproduction among captive animals. However, many individuals do not reproduce even when they are apparently healthy and presented with mates. Mate choice can affect multiple parameters of reproductive success, including mating success, offspring production, offspring survival, and offspring fecundity. We investigated the role of familiarity and preference on reproductive success of female Columbia Basin pygmy rabbits (Brachylagus idahoensis) as measured by litter production, litter size, average number of young that emerged from the burrow, and average number of young that survived to 1 year. We conducted these studies on pygmy rabbits at the Oregon Zoo (Portland, Oregon, U.S.A.) and Washington State University (Pullman, Washington, U.S.A.) from February to June 2006, 2007, and 2008. Before mating, we housed each female adjacent to 2 males (neighbors). Female preference for each potential mate was determined on the basis of behavioral interactions observed and measured between the rabbits. We compared reproductive success between females mated with neighbor and non-neighbor males and between females mated with preferred and nonpreferred males. Our findings suggest that mating with a neighbor compared with a non-neighbor and mating with a preferred neighbor compared with a nonpreferred neighbor increased reproductive success in female pygmy rabbits. Litter production, average number of young that emerged, and average number of young that survived to 1 year were higher in rabbits that were neighbors before mating than in animals who were not neighbors. Pairing rabbits with a preferred partner increased the probability of producing a litter and was significantly associated with increased litter size. In captive breeding programs, mates are traditionally selected on the basis of genetic parameters to minimize loss of genetic diversity and inbreeding coefficients. Our results suggest that integrating genetic information with social dynamics and behavioral measures of preference may increase the reproductive output of the pygmy rabbit captive-breeding program. Our findings are consistent with the idea that allowing mate choice and familiarity increase the reproductive success of captive-breeding programs for endangered species. PMID:22809353

Martin, Meghan S; Shepherdson, David J

2012-08-01

479

Impaired recollection but spared familiarity in patients with extended hippocampal system damage revealed by 3 convergent methods.  

PubMed

To understand recognition memory, the detection of stimulus repetition, it first is necessary to resolve the debate between 2 fundamentally different models of recognition. Contemporary single-process models assume that recognition memory relies solely on the neural system required for the recall of prior events. Dual-process models assume that recognition comprises 2 independent forms of memory: one supports recall, and the other detects repeated stimuli by signaling their familiarity, the feeling of previous occurrence without the recall of any associated information. These 2 models were contrasted in patients who had undergone surgical removal of a colloid cyst, a condition associated with memory loss when accompanied by fornix and/or mammillary body atrophy. Comparisons were made between 2 groups of 9 patients that differed only with respect to the extent of mammillary body atrophy. Only the more atrophied group was impaired on tests of recall, but both groups showed normal recognition levels on a task that equates recall and recognition performance in normal participants. To explore the nature of this spared recognition, we estimated recall-based recognition and familiarity-based recognition using 3 distinct methods: self-report, receiver operating characteristics, and structural equation modeling. All 3 methods showed impaired recall-based recognition accompanied by intact familiarity in the most atrophied group, as predicted only by dual-process models. When structural equation modeling was applied to all 62 colloid cyst patients, the recall/familiarity dual-process model best explained the patients' memory pattern. The convergent evidence that mammillary body atrophy impairs recall but spares familiarity-based recognition appears irreconcilable with single-process models. PMID:19289844

Vann, Seralynne D; Tsivilis, Dimitris; Denby, Christine E; Quamme, Joel R; Yonelinas, Andrew P; Aggleton, John P; Montaldi, Daniela; Mayes, Andrew R

2009-03-31

480

Impaired recollection but spared familiarity in patients with extended hippocampal system damage revealed by 3 convergent methods  

PubMed Central

To understand recognition memory, the detection of stimulus repetition, it first is necessary to resolve the debate between 2 fundamentally different models of recognition. Contemporary single-process models assume that recognition memory relies solely on the neural system required for the recall of prior events. Dual-process models assume that recognition comprises 2 independent forms of memory: one supports recall, and the other detects repeated stimuli by signaling their familiarity, the feeling of previous occurrence without the recall of any associated information. These 2 models were contrasted in patients who had undergone surgical removal of a colloid cyst, a condition associated with memory loss when accompanied by fornix and/or mammillary body atrophy. Comparisons were made between 2 groups of 9 patients that differed only with respect to the extent of mammillary body atrophy. Only the more atrophied group was impaired on tests of recall, but both groups showed normal recognition levels on a task that equates recall and recognition performance in normal participants. To explore the nature of this spared recognition, we estimated recall-based recognition and familiarity-based recognition using 3 distinct methods: self-report, receiver operating characteristics, and structural equation modeling. All 3 methods showed impaired recall-based recognition accompanied by intact familiarity in the most atrophied group, as predicted only by dual-process models. When structural equation modeling was applied to all 62 colloid cyst patients, the recall/familiarity dual-process model best explained the patients' memory pattern. The convergent evidence that mammillary body atrophy impairs recall but spares familiarity-based recognition appears irreconcilable with single-process models. PMID:19289844

Vann, Seralynne D.; Tsivilis, Dimitris; Denby, Christine E.; Quamme, Joel R.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.; Aggleton, John P.; Montaldi, Daniela; Mayes, Andrew R.

2009-01-01

481

http://www.mat.ucm.es/imi/ J.I. Cirac, Instituto Max Planck Institute de p-  

E-print Network

DelConcurso.htm Congreso The 8 th International FLINS Conference on Compu- tational Intelligence in Decision and Control Investigación Matemática (con Mención de Calidad MCD2006 00482) y el grupo de investigación Cálculo Fraccionario Posgrado en Investiga- ción Matemática (con Mención de Calidad MCD2006 00482). Programa ACTINT. Theoretical

Tradacete, Pedro

482

The Benefit of Being Naïve and Knowing It: The Unfavourable Impact of Perceived Context Familiarity on Learning in Complex Problem Solving Tasks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research has found that embedding a problem into a familiar context does not necessarily confer an advantage over a novel context in the acquisition of new knowledge about a complex, dynamic system. In fact, it has been shown that a semantically familiar context can be detrimental to knowledge acquisition. This has been described as the…

Beckmann, Jens F.; Goode, Natassia

2014-01-01

483

Effect of Social Familiarity on Salivary Cortisol and Self-Reports of Social Anxiety and Stress in Children with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effect of social familiarity on salivary cortisol and social anxiety/stress for a sample of children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders. The relationship between self-reported social anxiety/stress and salivary cortisol was also examined. Participants interacted with a familiar peer on one occasion and an…

Lopata, Christopher; Volker, Martin A.; Putnam, Susan K.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Nida, Robert E.

2008-01-01

484

Fortalezas Familiares Program: Building sociocultural and family strengths in Latina women with depression and their families  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this article is to describe Fortalezas Familiares (FF; Family Strengths), a community-based prevention program designed to address relational family processes and promote wellbeing among Latino families when a mother has depression. Although depression in Latina women is becoming increasingly recognized, risk and protective mechanisms associated with children’s outcomes when a mother has depression are not well understood for Latino families. We begin by reviewing the literature on risk and protective psychosocial mechanisms by which maternal depression may affect Latino youth, using family systems theory and a developmental psychopathology framework with an emphasis on sociocultural factors shaping family processes. Next, we describe the theoretical basis and development of the FF program, a community-based 12-week intervention for Latina immigrant women with depression, other caregivers, and their children. Throughout this article, we use a case study to illustrate a Latina mother’s vulnerability to depression and the family’s response to the FF program. Recommendations for future research and practice include consideration of sociocultural processes in shaping both outcomes of Latino families and their response to interventions. PMID:24033237

Valdez, Carmen R.; Abegglen, Jessica; Hauser, Claire T.

2013-01-01

485

Fortalezas familiares program: building sociocultural and family strengths in latina women with depression and their families.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article is to describe Fortalezas Familiares (FF; Family Strengths), a community-based prevention program designed to address relational family processes and promote well-being among Latino families when a mother has depression. Although depression in Latina women is becoming increasingly recognized, risk and protective mechanisms associated with children's outcomes when a mother has depression are not well understood for Latino families. We begin by reviewing the literature on risk and protective psychosocial mechanisms by which maternal depression may affect Latino youth, using family systems theory and a developmental psychopathology framework with an emphasis on sociocultural factors shaping family processes. Next, we describe the theoretical basis and development of the FF program, a community-based 12-week intervention for Latina immigrant women with depression, other caregivers, and their children. Throughout this article, we use a case study to illustrate a Latina mother's vulnerability to depression and the family's response to the FF program. Recommendations for future research and practice include consideration of sociocultural processes in shaping both outcomes of Latino families and their response to interventions. PMID:24033237

Valdez, Carmen R; Abegglen, Jessica; Hauser, Claire T

2013-09-01

486

The mere exposure effect for consumer products as a consequence of existing familiarity and controlled exposure.  

PubMed

The finding that repeated exposure to a stimulus enhances attitudes directed towards it is a well-established phenomenon. Despite this, the effects of exposure to products are difficult to determine given that they could have previously been exposed to participants any number of times. Furthermore, factors other than simple repeated exposure can influence affective evaluations for stimuli that are meaningful. In our first study, we examined the influence of existing familiarity with common objects and showed that the attractiveness of shapes representing common objects increases with their rated commonness. In our second study, we eliminated the effects of prior exposure by creating fictitious yet plausible products; thus, exposure frequency was under complete experimental control. We also manipulated the attention to be drawn to the products' designs by placing them in contexts where their visual appearance was stressed to be important versus contexts in which it was indicated that little attention had been paid to their design. Following mere exposure, attractiveness ratings increased linearly with exposure frequency, with the slope of the function being steeper for stimuli presented in an inconspicuous context-indicating that individuals engage in more deliberate processing of the stimuli when attention is drawn to their visual appearance. PMID:24012724

Hekkert, Paul; Thurgood, Clementine; Whitfield, T W Allan

2013-10-01

487

A pleasant familiar odor influences perceived stress and peripheral nervous system activity during normal aging  

PubMed Central

Effects of smells on stress have been demonstrated in animals and humans, suggesting that inhaling certain odorants may counteract the negative effects of stress. Because stress plays a key role in cerebral aging, the present study set out to examine whether positive odor effects on perceived stress can be achieved in elderly individuals. To this end, two groups of aged individuals (n = 36 women, aged from 55 to 65 years), were tested. The first group was exposed for 5 days to a pleasant and, by end of exposure, familiar odor (“exposure odor”), whereas the other was exposed to a non-scented control stimulus. Stress and mood states were assessed before and after the 5-day odor exposure period. Psychophysiological markers were also assessed at the end of exposure, in response to the “exposure odor” and to a “new odor.” Results revealed that stress on this second exposure was decreased and zygomatic electromyogram activity was increased specifically in the group previously exposed to the odor (p < 0.05). Taken as a whole, these findings offer a new look at the relationship between perceived stress, olfaction and normal aging, opening up new research perspectives on the effect of olfaction on quality of life and well-being in aged individuals. PMID:24596564

Joussain, Pauline; Rouby, Catherine; Bensafi, Moustafa

2014-01-01

488

Planet X probe: A fresh new look at an old familiar place  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Planet X Probe utilizes a Get Away Special (GAS) payload to provide a large student population with a remote Earth sensing experimental package. To provide a cooperative as well as a competitive environment, the effort is targeted at all grade levels and at schools in different geographical regions. LANDSAT capability allows students to investigate the Earth, its physical makeup, its resources, and the impact of man. This project also serves as an educational device to get students to stand back and take a fresh look at their home planet. The key element is to treat the familiar Earth as an unknown planet with knowledge based only on what is observable and provable from the images obtained. Through participation, a whole range of experiences will include: (1) mission planning; (2) research and pilot projects to train teams; (3) identification and recruitment of scientific mentors and dialogue; (4) selection of a student advisory team to be available during the mission; (5) analysis of data and compilation of findings; (6) report preparation, constucted along sound scientific principles; and (7) presentation and defense of findings before a meeting of competitive student groups and scientist in the field.

Nicholson, James; Obrien, Tom; Brower, Sharon; Canright, Shelley

1988-01-01

489

Consistency of Leadership in Shoals of Mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) in Novel and in Familiar Environments  

PubMed Central

In social animal groups, an individual's spatial position is a major determinant of both predation risk and foraging rewards. Additionally, the occupation of positions in the front of moving groups is generally assumed to correlate with the initiation of group movements. However, whether some individuals are predisposed to consistently occupy certain positions and, in some instances, to consistently lead groups over time is as yet unresolved in many species. Using the mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki), we examined the consistency of individuals' spatial positions within a moving group over successive trials. We found that certain individuals consistently occupied front positions in moving groups and also that it was typically these individuals that initiated group decisions. The number of individuals involved in leading the group varied according to the amount of information held by group members, with a greater number of changes in leadership in a novel compared to a relatively familiar environment. Finally, our results show that the occupation of lead positions in moving groups was not explained by characteristics such as dominance, size or sex, suggesting that certain individuals are predisposed to leadership roles. This suggests that being a leader or a follower may to some extent be an intrinsic property of the individual. PMID:22590568

Burns, Alicia L. J.; Herbert-Read, James E.; Morrell, Lesley J.; Ward, Ashley J. W.

2012-01-01

490

A dynamically minimalist cognitive explanation of musical preference: is familiarity everything?  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the idea that attraction to music is generated at a cognitive level through the formation and activation of networks of interlinked “nodes.” Although the networks involved are vast, the basic mechanism for activating the links is relatively simple. Two comprehensive cognitive-behavioral models of musical engagement are examined with the aim of identifying the underlying cognitive mechanisms and processes involved in musical experience. A “dynamical minimalism” approach (after Nowak, 2004) is applied to re-interpret musical engagement (listening, performing, composing, or imagining any of these) and to revise the latest version of the reciprocal-feedback model (RFM) of music processing. Specifically, a single cognitive mechanism of “spreading activation” through previously associated networks is proposed as a pleasurable outcome of musical engagement. This mechanism underlies the dynamic interaction of the various components of the RFM, and can thereby explain the generation of positive affects in the listener’s musical experience. This includes determinants of that experience stemming from the characteristics of the individual engaging in the musical activity (whether listener, composer, improviser, or performer), the situation and contexts (e.g., social factors), and the music (e.g., genre, structural features). The theory calls for new directions for future research, two being (1) further investigation of the components of the RFM to better understand musical experience and (2) more rigorous scrutiny of common findings about the salience of familiarity in musical experience and preference. PMID:24567723

Schubert, Emery; Hargreaves, David J.; North, Adrian C.

2014-01-01

491

Making technology familiar: orthodox Jews and infertility support, advice, and inspiration.  

PubMed

This paper examines how orthodox Jews use traditional strategies and new media simultaneously to cope with infertility in the age of new reproductive technologies. Not only have they used the Internet to establish support, information, and educational networks, but also they have created frameworks for unique professional collaborations among rabbis, doctors, and clinic personnel in order to ensure that their fertility treatments are conducted with strict attention to Jewish legal concerns, particularly with regard to incest, adultery, and traditional practices regarding bodily emissions. Throughout these processes, they have innovated a hybrid language for describing and explaining infertility treatments that blends Hebrew prayers, Yiddish aphorisms, English slang, Gematria (numerology), and biomedical terminology. By using idiomatic language and folk practice, orthodox Jews construct a unique terrain that shapes and makes familiar their experience and understanding of fertility treatment. Biomedicine in this context is understood as a set of tools and strategies that can be readily appropriated and harnessed to a particular set of individual and collective goals. PMID:17082984

Kahn, Susan Martha

2006-12-01

492

Hojas informativas del NCI  

Cancer.gov

La colección de hojas informativas del NCI trata de una var