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1

Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer  

Cancer.gov

La edición electrónica del Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer se publicó mensualmente desde septiembre de 2009 hasta enero de 2013, con el objetivo de difundir información sobre la investigación del cáncer, tanto de estudios financiados por el NCI y otras dependencias federales, así como de investigaciones realizadas por instituciones en Estados Unidos y alrededor del mundo.

2

Harold Varmus investido bajo juramento como 14.º director del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer  

Cancer.gov

Ganador del Premio Nobel, doctor Harold E. Varmus, prestó juramento hoy como 14.º director del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI).  "Es muy estimulante que estés de regreso con nosotros", dijo la secretaria del Departamento de Salud y Servicios Humanos Kathleen Sebelius en la ceremonia de toma de juramento. “Hoy se abre un nuevo capítulo para el Instituto Nacional del Cáncer”.

3

Universidad Nacional Autnoma de Mxico Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologa  

E-print Network

Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología Informe de Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología Fundamento Legal · Legislación Universitaria · Estatuto General;Informe de actividades 2011 - 2012 Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología Instituto de Ciencias del

Islas, León

4

Ayuda para usar el sitio web en español del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer  

Cancer.gov

Página de guía que le permite al lector entender la forma en que está organizado el sitio web del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI), las categorías de información disponibles y las políticas que rigen este sitio web.

5

Visite el sitio Web del Instituto de Ciencia Regional, donde encontrar informacin  

E-print Network

Visite el sitio Web del Instituto de Ciencia Regional, donde encontrará información detallada Instituto de Ciencia Regional Estado de actualización: Junio del 2005 Universität Karlsruhe (TH) Instituto de Ciencia Regional Programa acreditado de Master ,,Ciencia regional/ Planificaión territorial

Snelting, Gregor

6

Se da a conocer el plan del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para acelerar la investigación del cáncer  

Cancer.gov

En la 100va Reunión Anual de la Asociación Estadounidense de Investigación del Cáncer realizada en Denver, el director del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer, doctor John E. Niederhuber, dio a conocer detalles importantes, tales como financiamiento de más subvenciones, creación de una plataforma para atención personalizada del cáncer y un programa acelerado de genética del cáncer que hará avanzar la investigación oncológica en este nuevo ambiente económico.

7

El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer publica nuevo atlas de mortalidad por cáncer  

Cancer.gov

El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI, por sus siglas en inglés) ha publicado un nuevo atlas, el Atlas de Mortalidad por Cáncer en los Estados Unidos, 1950-94, que muestra los patrones geográficos de las tasas de mortalidad por cáncer durante más de cuatro décadas, en más de 3.000 condados a lo largo del país.

8

Nuestro Instituto  

Cancer.gov

Información acerca de nuestra misión como Instituto Nacional del Cáncer, así como sobre los diferentes tipos de investigación que apoya nuestro Instituto, el programa de centros oncológicos, y sobre el Informe Anual a la Nación acerca del cáncer, el cual es preparado por las principales organizaciones oncológicas de los Estados Unidos.

9

El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer de EE. UU. y la República del Perú firman una Declaración de Intención  

Cancer.gov

El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer y la República del Perú firmaron una declaración de intención para compartir el interés en fomentar la investigación biomédica de oncología, basándose en la colaboración mutua de ambas entidades, así como el objetivo común de educar y capacitar la futura generación de científicos y clínicos en investigación oncológica.

10

El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer lanza el sitio en la Internet  

Cancer.gov

El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI, por sus siglas en ingls) anunci hoy el lanzamiento de Cancer.gov (http://www.cancer.gov), que ha sido mejorado significativamente, es muy fcil de navegar y brinda en un solo sitio toda la informacin sobre el cáncer

11

Control del cáncer y salud mundial: noticia del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI)  

Cancer.gov

En combinación con una reunión de alto nivel de las Naciones Unidas sobre enfermedades no transmisibles en países en vías de desarrollo, el doctor Harold Varmus, director del NCI, y el doctor Ted L. Trimble, del NCI, han publicado un comentario en Science Translational Medicine sobre “La integración del control del cáncer en la salud mundial" (Integrating Cancer Control into Global Health).

12

[Seventy years of medicine in the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social].  

PubMed

The purpose of these lines is to remember and refer some of the historical landmarks in the evolution of the medical services of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS, according to its initials in Spanish) since it was founded, in 1943. We also want to bring to the reader's attention that the dimensions and impacts on health that IMSS has achieved, throughout its history, have strengthened the citizenship, as well as social sustainability. Also, those impacts have determined the creation and the reinforcement of human capital in México. Throughout this concise balance, all the controversy surrounding the foundation of the Institute is being recalled (the protest in the Mexico City Zócalo, or the attack to an hospital in San Ángel -a neighborhood located in the Southwest of Mexico City-), as well as the way the IMSS incorporated several words into the vocabulary of Mexicans. We also remember the previous antecedent of the Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, as well as the Revista de Enfermería, and the emblematic Archives of Medical Research. The IMSS has 70 years of achievements, seven decades covered. PMID:24758865

Fajardo-Ortiz, Guillermo

2014-01-01

13

Nuevo sitio web en español del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer, (NCI, por sus siglas en inglés) Cancer.gov en español - Silvia Inéz Salazar - transcript  

Cancer.gov

Transmisiones de radio para promover Cancer.gov en espa%XF1ol | Nuevo sitio web en espa%XF1ol del Instituto Nacional del C%XE1ncer, (NCI, por sus siglas en ingl%XE9s) Cancer.gov en espa%XF1ol | Transcripci%XF3n Transmisiones de radio para promover

14

[Historical notes about scientific research in the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social.  

PubMed

Medical research in the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social has been considered one of the most important in this country for quality and quantity. Thanks to the work and leadership of Benito Coquet, who initiated the building of the National Medical Center in 1961, and the work of two pillars of research, Luis Castelazo and Bernardo Sepúlveda, the Institute successfully improved scientific research. In the years that followed, the Institute fostered the professionalization of research, the creation of research units in different areas of science, the incorporation of consolidated groups of researchers, the relationship with other institutions, the incorporation to the Sistema Nacional de Investigadores, the editing of a journal to expose outside the work done within the Institute, and the formation of a trust to raise funds for financing. Thanks to all that, institutional research strengthened in all lines, and it was placed first, at certain times, at the national level. PMID:24290017

Zárate, Arturo; Basurto-Acevedo, Lourdes

2013-01-01

15

El Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologa, organiza el "Da Mundial del Agua 2012", un evento de Puertas Abiertas para celebrar "El Agua y la seguridad alimentara" tema  

E-print Network

El Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología, organiza el "Día Mundial del Agua 2012", un evento AYALA-CASTA�ARES" INSTITUTO DE CIENCIAS DEL MAR Y LIMNOLOGÍA, UNAM PROGRAMA 09:30 - 09:35 Inauguración y

Islas, León

16

DERECHOS Y RESPONSABILIDADES DEL EMPLEADO BAJO LA LEY DE AUSENCIA FAMILIAR Y MDICA  

E-print Network

DERECHOS Y RESPONSABILIDADES DEL EMPLEADO BAJO LA LEY DE AUSENCIA FAMILIAR Y M�DICA Derechos al empleado desempeñar su puesto. Derechos de Ausencia Para Familias Militares Empleados elegibles, pueden usar su derecho de ausencia de 12 semanas para atender ciertas exigencias calificadoras. Las

Fraden, Seth

17

El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) anuncia su nueva política de reuniones libres de humo de tabaco para abordar peligros graves de salud pública  

Cancer.gov

El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI), que forma parte de los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud, anunció hoy una nueva política que requiere que todas las reuniones y conferencias organizadas o financiadas principalmente por el NCI se lleven a cabo en un estado, condado, ciudad o pueblo que haya adoptado una política integral de ambientes libres de humo de tabaco, a menos que circunstancias especificas justifiquen la exención.

18

En el ao 1991se creaba el Insti-tuto Universitario del Agua y las  

E-print Network

en el tratamiento de aguas residuales industriales, experien- cias de reutilización de aguas resiEn el año 1991se creaba el Insti- tuto Universitario del Agua y las Ciencias otra denominación, se imparte el máster Gestión Sostenible y Tec- nología del Agua, adaptado al Es

Escolano, Francisco

19

Investigacin Centro de Investigacin y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politcnico Nacional  

E-print Network

Nacional Unidad Mérida Recursos del Mar Investigador Línea de Investigación Luz María Dalila Aldana Aranda, fitoplancton, pastos marinos y manglares. Jesús Ernesto Arias González Ecología del paisaje, conectividad

20

FUNCIONAMIENTO Y COMUNICACIÓN FAMILIAR Y CONSUMO DE SUSTANCIAS EN LA ADOLESCENCIA: EL ROL MEDIADOR DEL APOYO SOCIAL1  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN En el presente estudio se analiza el apoyo social como un recurso protector para el ajuste de los adolescentes. Concretamente, se estudian tanto los efectos directos como los mediadores del apoyo social entre las características de funcionamiento y comunicación familiar y el consumo de sustancias de los adolescentes. Con este objetivo, 431 chicos y chicas de 15 a 17

Teresa Isabel Jiménez; Gonzalo Musitu; Sergio Murgui

2006-01-01

21

Investigacin Centro de Investigacin y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politcnico Nacional  

E-print Network

y redes neuronales Identificación paramétrica servomecanismos. Juan Manuel Ibarra Zannatha Modelado combinatoria, matemáticas discretas (Grafos, conjuntos parcialmente ordenados), fundamentos matemáticos del ramificación controlada, grupos de automorfismos. Wen Yu Liu Identificación y control de sistemas usando redes

22

Declaración del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer sobre la aprobación de la vacuna de VPH por la FDA  

Cancer.gov

Hace casi dos décadas que los investigadores del NCI y de otras instituciones comenzaron a investigar las causas fundamentales del cáncer cervical. Esta búsqueda científica resultó en la aprobación de hoy de la vacuna GardasilTM por la Food and Drug Administration.

23

Tiene familiares con Alzheimer? La Escuela de Medicina del Recinto de Ciencias Mdicas en colaboracin con la Universidad de Columbia  

E-print Network

¿Tiene familiares con Alzheimer? 25/1/2008 La Escuela de Medicina del Recinto de Ciencias Médicas más con Alzheimer para participar de un estudio genético. La investigación pretende encontrar genes que se encuentren relacionados a la enfermedad de Alzheimer con el propósito de aprender más sobre las

Quirk, Gregory J.

24

Datos estadsticos sobre la primera fase del programa de difusin Digital.CSIC Actividades de formacin. Sesiones de difusin en centros e institutos del CSIC  

E-print Network

/01/2008 11:30 30 007 Instituto de Microelectrónica de Madrid (IMM-CNM) IMM-CNM 01/02/2008 12:00 15 008 Centro IMB-CNM 018 Institut Botánic de Barcelona (IBB) IBB 18/02/2008 10:00 20 019 Institució Milà i Instituto de Microelectrónica de Sevilla (IMSE-CNM) IMSE-CNM 31/03/2008 10:00 7 040 Centro Andaluz de

25

INFORME ANUAL 2011 INSTITUTO DE CIENCIAS FSICAS  

E-print Network

- INFORME ANUAL 2011 INSTITUTO DE CIENCIAS FÍSICAS UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL AUT�NOMA DE M�XICO 1 #12;INTRODUCCI�N El Instituto de Ciencias Físicas de la UNAM (ICF) fue creado por el Consejo Universitario el 29 de septiembre de 2006. El ICF surge como una transformación del Centro de Ciencias Físicas (CCF) que inició sus

Mejía-Monasterio, Carlos

26

Frequency of cancer in children residing in Mexico City and treated in the hospitals of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (1996–2001)  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this article is to present the frequency of cancer in Mexican children who were treated in the hospitals of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social in Mexico City (IMSS-MC) in the period 1996–2001. Methods The Registry of Cancer in Children, started in 1996 in the IMSS-MC, is an on-going, prospective register. The data from 1996 through 2001 were analyzed and the different types of cancer were grouped according to the International Classification for Cancer in Children (ICCC). From this analysis, the general and specific frequencies by age and by sex were obtained for the different groups of neoplasms. Also, the frequency of the stage of the disease that had been diagnosed in cases of children with solid tumors was obtained. Results A total of 1,702 new cases of children with cancer were registered, with the male/female ratio at 1.1/1. Leukemias had the highest frequency with 784 cases (46.1%) and, of these, acute lymphoblastic leukemias were the most prevalent with 614 cases (78.3%). Thereafter, in descending order of frequency, were tumors of the central nervous system (CNST) with 197 cases (11.6%), lymphomas with 194 cases (11.4%), germinal cell tumors with 110 cases (6.5%), and bone tumors with 97 cases (5.7%). The highest frequency of cancer was found in the group of one to four year-olds that had 627 cases (36.8%). In all the age groups, leukemias were the most frequent. In the present work, the frequency of Hodgkin's disease (~4%) was found to be lower than that (~10%) in previous studies and the frequency of tumors of the sympathetic nervous system was low (2.3%). Of those cases of solid tumors for which the stage of the disease had been determined, 66.9% were diagnosed as being Stage III or IV. Conclusions The principal cancers in the children treated in the IMSS-MC were leukemias, CNST, and lymphomas, consistent with those reported by developed countries. A 2.5-fold reduction in the frequency of Hodgkin's disease was found. Of the children, the stage of whose disease had been determined, two thirds were diagnosed as having advanced stages of the disease. PMID:15310396

Juárez-Ocaña, Servando; González-Miranda, Guadalupe; Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel; Rendón-Macías, Mario Enrique; Martínez-García, María del Carmen; Fajardo-Gutiérrez, Arturo

2004-01-01

27

Instituto Nm. reg. (01/10/2009) Instituto de Historia (IH) 838  

E-print Network

Microelectrónica de Sevilla (IMS-CNM) 120 Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Barcelona (ICMAB) 117 Instituto de (IMM-CNM) 115 Instituto de Recursos Naturales (IRN) 114 Instituto de Fermentaciones Industriales (IFI

28

Departamentos -Institutos Departamentos  

E-print Network

Derecho Civil Derecho del Trabajo y de la Seguridad Social Derecho Internacional Público y Derecho Penal Derecho Mercantil y Derecho Procesal Disciplinas Económicas y Financieras Ecología Enfermería Enfermería Literatura Filología Inglesa Filologías Integradas Filosofía del Derecho y Derecho Internacional Privado

Escolano, Francisco

29

Estudio de los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud indica que quienes toman café tienen un riesgo menor de muerte  

Cancer.gov

Los adultos mayores que tomaron café, con o sin cafeína, tuvieron un riesgo menor de muerte en general que quienes no tomaron café, según un estudio llevado a cabo por investigadores del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI), parte de los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud, y por la Asociación Estadounidense de Personas Jubiladas (AARP).

30

Cost-effectiveness analysis for joint pain treatment in patients with osteoarthritis treated at the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS): Comparison of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) vs. cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Background Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the main causes of disability worldwide, especially in persons >55 years of age. Currently, controversy remains about the best therapeutic alternative for this disease when evaluated from a cost-effectiveness viewpoint. For Social Security Institutions in developing countries, it is very important to assess what drugs may decrease the subsequent use of medical care resources, considering their adverse events that are known to have a significant increase in medical care costs of patients with OA. Three treatment alternatives were compared: celecoxib (200 mg twice daily), non-selective NSAIDs (naproxen, 500 mg twice daily; diclofenac, 100 mg twice daily; and piroxicam, 20 mg/day) and acetaminophen, 1000 mg twice daily. The aim of this study was to identify the most cost-effective first-choice pharmacological treatment for the control of joint pain secondary to OA in patients treated at the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS). Methods A cost-effectiveness assessment was carried out. A systematic review of the literature was performed to obtain transition probabilities. In order to evaluate analysis robustness, one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted. Estimations were done for a 6-month period. Results Treatment demonstrating the best cost-effectiveness results [lowest cost-effectiveness ratio $17.5 pesos/patient ($1.75 USD)] was celecoxib. According to the one-way sensitivity analysis, celecoxib would need to markedly decrease its effectiveness in order for it to not be the optimal treatment option. In the probabilistic analysis, both in the construction of the acceptability curves and in the estimation of net economic benefits, the most cost-effective option was celecoxib. Conclusion From a Mexican institutional perspective and probably in other Social Security Institutions in similar developing countries, the most cost-effective option for treatment of knee and/or hip OA would be celecoxib. PMID:19014495

Contreras-Hernández, Iris; Mould-Quevedo, Joaquín F; Torres-González, Rubén; Goycochea-Robles, María Victoria; Pacheco-Domínguez, Reyna Lizette; Sánchez-García, Sergio; Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel; Garduño-Espinosa, Juan

2008-01-01

31

Atlas del Genoma del Cáncer: Antecedentes  

Cancer.gov

El Atlas del Genoma del Cáncer es una iniciativa de los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud (NIH) para crear mapas multidimensionales completos de los cambios genómicos clave en los tipos y subtipos principales de cáncer.

32

Síndromes colestáticos familiares  

Microsoft Academic Search

ResumenEl término ‘familiar’ es, en realidad, desafortunado. Aunque en la definición se incluye la palabra ‘hereditario’, la inferencia es que tendrá que aparecer habitualmente en otros miembros de la familia. En muchos de los procesos que se describen en este artículo esto a menudo no sucede y, por este motivo, las condiciones ‘familiares’ pueden ser pasadas por alto cuando se

Richard Thompson

2008-01-01

33

Familiarity impacts person perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects of familiarity on person perception. We predicted that familiarity would increase non-analytic processing, reducing attention to and the impact of individuating information, and increasing the impact of category labels on judgments about a target person. In two studies participants read either incriminating orexculpatory individuating information about a defendant in a criminal case and made judgments of

Teresa Garcia-Marques; Diane M. Mackie

2007-01-01

34

U n a V e n t a n a A l F u t u r o El Instituto Weizmann de Ciencias es uno  

E-print Network

U n a V e n t a n a A l F u t u r o #12;El Instituto Weizmann de Ciencias es uno de los institutos básicas de los científicos del Instituto abarcan toda la gama de las Ciencias de la Naturaleza y las Ciencias Exactas: Ciencias de la Vida, Química, Física, Matemáticas y Ciencias de la Computación. A lo

35

INFORME ANUAL 2009 INSTITUTO DE CIENCIAS FSICAS  

E-print Network

INFORME ANUAL 2009 INSTITUTO DE CIENCIAS FÍSICAS UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL AUT�NOMA DE M�XICO 1 #12 13 Biofísica y Ciencia de Materiales 13 Física Atómica Molecular y �ptica Experimentales 13 Física Correos electrónicos 99 3 #12;INTRODUCCI�N El Instituto de Ciencias Físicas de la UNAM (ICF) fue creado

Mejía-Monasterio, Carlos

36

Does face familiarity influence speechreadability?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of face familiarity on the speechreadability of faces is examined. First we measured the baseline speechreading performance of participants, from unfamiliar faces. Next, participants were familiarized with the face and voice of either the same or a different speaker, or were asked to take part in a word puzzle instead. Speechreading performance was measured again, before participants completed

Karen Lander; Rebecca Davies

2008-01-01

37

Familiares a cargo de pacientes de cáncer (PDQ®)  

Cancer.gov

Sumario informativo revisado por expertos acerca de los desafíos que enfrentan los familiares a cargo de los pacientes con cáncer. Este resumen se centra en las funciones típicas y las inquietudes de las personas a cargo del paciente y en las intervenciones útiles para esas personas.

38

Instituto Babcock Pamela Ruegg, Dam Rasmussen, y Doug Reinemann, Universidad de Wisconsin Instituto Babcock  

E-print Network

Instituto Babcock © Pamela Ruegg, Dam Rasmussen, y Doug Reinemann, Universidad de Wisconsin. Pamela Ruegg, Dam Rasmussen, and Doug Reinemann Traductor: Matías Fernandez Introducción La producción y

Sheridan, Jennifer

39

1993 ECEMA Familiarization 1.1 FAMILIARIZATION WITH VHDL  

E-print Network

of abstraction (from gate level up). · Both machine and human readable. · To support the communication of design, verification, synthesis and testing of hardware designs as a common description between tools. © 1993 ECEMA Familiarization 1.4 Characteristics · Support of modular hierarchical design. · Separate interface and body

Aboulhamid, El Mostapha

40

INFORME ANUAL 2008 INSTITUTO DE CIENCIAS FISICAS  

E-print Network

INFORME ANUAL 2008 INSTITUTO DE CIENCIAS F´ISICAS UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL AUT´ONOMA DE M´EXICO 1 #12´on 17 Biof´isica y Ciencia de Materiales F´isica At´omica Molecular y ´Optica Experimentales F´isica Te´isticos 32 Cap´itulos en libros 34 Memorias de la XV Escuela de Verano en F´isica 35 Premios y distinciones

Mejía-Monasterio, Carlos

41

Centro para la Salud Mundial (CGH) del NCI  

Cancer.gov

El Centro para la Salud Mundial (CGH) del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer coordina actividades de investigación y trabaja con socios nacionales e internacionales para comprender y enfrentar la carga que representa el cáncer a nivel mundial.

42

A language-familiarity effect for speaker discrimination without comprehension.  

PubMed

The influence of language familiarity upon speaker identification is well established, to such an extent that it has been argued that "Human voice recognition depends on language ability" [Perrachione TK, Del Tufo SN, Gabrieli JDE (2011) Science 333(6042):595]. However, 7-mo-old infants discriminate speakers of their mother tongue better than they do foreign speakers [Johnson EK, Westrek E, Nazzi T, Cutler A (2011) Dev Sci 14(5):1002-1011] despite their limited speech comprehension abilities, suggesting that speaker discrimination may rely on familiarity with the sound structure of one's native language rather than the ability to comprehend speech. To test this hypothesis, we asked Chinese and English adult participants to rate speaker dissimilarity in pairs of sentences in English or Mandarin that were first time-reversed to render them unintelligible. Even in these conditions a language-familiarity effect was observed: Both Chinese and English listeners rated pairs of native-language speakers as more dissimilar than foreign-language speakers, despite their inability to understand the material. Our data indicate that the language familiarity effect is not based on comprehension but rather on familiarity with the phonology of one's native language. This effect may stem from a mechanism analogous to the "other-race" effect in face recognition. PMID:25201950

Fleming, David; Giordano, Bruno L; Caldara, Roberto; Belin, Pascal

2014-09-23

43

A language-familiarity effect for speaker discrimination without comprehension  

PubMed Central

The influence of language familiarity upon speaker identification is well established, to such an extent that it has been argued that “Human voice recognition depends on language ability” [Perrachione TK, Del Tufo SN, Gabrieli JDE (2011) Science 333(6042):595]. However, 7-mo-old infants discriminate speakers of their mother tongue better than they do foreign speakers [Johnson EK, Westrek E, Nazzi T, Cutler A (2011) Dev Sci 14(5):1002–1011] despite their limited speech comprehension abilities, suggesting that speaker discrimination may rely on familiarity with the sound structure of one’s native language rather than the ability to comprehend speech. To test this hypothesis, we asked Chinese and English adult participants to rate speaker dissimilarity in pairs of sentences in English or Mandarin that were first time-reversed to render them unintelligible. Even in these conditions a language-familiarity effect was observed: Both Chinese and English listeners rated pairs of native-language speakers as more dissimilar than foreign-language speakers, despite their inability to understand the material. Our data indicate that the language familiarity effect is not based on comprehension but rather on familiarity with the phonology of one’s native language. This effect may stem from a mechanism analogous to the “other-race” effect in face recognition. PMID:25201950

Fleming, David; Giordano, Bruno L.; Caldara, Roberto; Belin, Pascal

2014-01-01

44

Mothers Respond Differently to Infants' Familiar versus Non-Familiar Verbal Imitations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mothers' verbal responses to their infants' spontaneous imitations of familiar and non-familiar words during naturally occurring interactions were examined in a longitudinal sample observed at 1 ; 1, 1 ; 5 and 1 ; 9. Maternal responses to both familiar and non-familiar imitations exhibited structural characteristics likely to be facilitative of…

Olson, Janet; Masur, Elise Frank

2012-01-01

45

Acerca del Centro para la Salud Mundial del NCI  

Cancer.gov

El Centro para la Salud Mundial (CGH) coordina y fija las prioridades en las actividades que lleva a cabo el Instituto Nacional del Cáncer a nivel mundial. Su objetivo es avanzar la investigación mundial del cáncer y reducir las muertes causadas por esta enfermedad.

46

Sus Derechos La Ley de Ausencia Familiar y Mdica de 1993  

E-print Network

Sus Derechos bajo La Ley de Ausencia Familiar y Médica de 1993 La Ley de Ausencia Familiar y Médica ocupan a 50 empleados o más del mismo patrón. Razones para Solicitar Ausencia: Tiene derecho un empleado. · Al regresar de una ausencia los empleados tienen el derecho a su trabajo original o a un trabajo

47

Vertical motion simulator familiarization guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Vertical Motion Simulator Familiarization Guide provides a synoptic description of the Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) and descriptions of the various simulation components and systems. The intended audience is the community of scientists and engineers who employ the VMS for research and development. The concept of a research simulator system is introduced and the building block nature of the VMS is emphasized. Individual sections describe all the hardware elements in terms of general properties and capabilities. Also included are an example of a typical VMS simulation which graphically illustrates the composition of the system and shows the signal flow among the elements and a glossary of specialized terms, abbreviations, and acronyms.

Danek, George L.

1993-01-01

48

Happiness cools the glow of familiarity: Psychophysiological evidence that mood modulates the familiarity-affect link  

PubMed Central

People often prefer familiar stimuli, presumably because familiarity signals safety. This preference can occur with merely repeated “old” stimuli, but it is most robust with “new” but highly familiar prototypes of a known category (beauty-in-averages effect). However, is familiarity always warm? Tuning accounts of mood hold that positive mood signals a safe environment whereas negative mood signals an unsafe environment. Thus, the value of familiarity should depend on mood. We show that compared to a sad mood, a happy mood eliminates the preference for familiar stimuli, as shown in measures of self-reported liking and physiological measures of affect (EMG indicator of spontaneous smiling). The basic effect of exposure on preference and its modulation by mood were most robust on prototypes (category averages). All this occurs even though prototypes might be more familiar in a happy mood. We conclude that mood changes the hedonic implications of familiarity cues. PMID:20424063

de Vries, Marieke; Holland, Rob W.; Chenier, Troy; Starr, Mark J.; Winkielman, Piotr

2010-01-01

49

El doctor Varmus dirigirá una institución "inigualable", afirma el director del NCI, doctor John Niederhuber  

Cancer.gov

En un mensaje dirigido al personal del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) y a quienes se interesan por la oncología, el doctor John Niederhuber, director del NCI, aplaude el nombramiento de Harold Varmus y afirma que esta designación le "dará al NCI un liderazgo fuerte no solo en la institución sino mas allá de ella, así como una voz muy respetada en el Congreso, que abogue por los recursos que son tan necesarios para sostener la misión del Instituto.

50

Palatability, Familiarity, and Underage, Immoderate Drinking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data gathered in a study of palatability ("liking") and familiarity ratings of alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages by 350 subjects from 12 to 30 years of age included the usual number of drinks consumed. Blind ratings of palatability and familiarity for the beverages were tested for association with immoderate drinking (more than four for males,…

Lemon, Jim; Stevenson, Richard; Gates, Peter; Copeland, Jan

2011-01-01

51

Cross-species familiarity in shoaling fishes.  

PubMed Central

Preferential association with familiar shoal mates confers a number of potentially important benefits to individuals, including improved anti-predator effects and the reduction of aggression in competitive interactions. Until now, however, familiarity has been demonstrated purely between conspecifics. Here, we present evidence that familiarity preferences can override natural preferences for conspecifics. Individual focal fishes (chub, Leuciscus cephalus) were given a choice of two stimulus shoals of the same size composed of conspecifics or of heterospecifics (minnows, Phoxinus phoxinus) in a flow tank. A series of four treatments was carried out to investigate the effects of familiarity, induced by a 15 day association between the focal fish and the stimulus fishes, on the choices made by the focal fish. Focal fishes showed a significant preference for conspecifics over heterospecifics when both stimulus shoals were composed of non-familiar individuals. Focal fishes also showed a significant preference for stimulus shoals composed of familiar fishes over stimulus shoals composed of non-familiar fishes when both shoals were conspecific and when both shoals were heterospecific. Finally, the preference of focal fishes for conspecifics disappeared when the alternative, a shoal of heterospecifics, was composed of familiar individuals. The importance of this work is discussed in the context of species interactions in free-ranging shoals. PMID:12816654

Ward, A J W; Axford, S; Krause, J

2003-01-01

52

Familiares a cargo de pacientes de cáncer: funciones y desafíos (PDQ®)  

Cancer.gov

Sumario informativo revisado por expertos acerca de los desafíos que enfrentan los familiares a cargo de los pacientes con cáncer. Este resumen se centra en las funciones típicas y las inquietudes de las personas a cargo del paciente y en las intervenciones útiles para esas personas.

53

The effect of familiarity on perceived interestingness of images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an exploration of familiarity as a meaningful dimension for the individualized adaptation of media-rich interfaces. In this paper, we investigate in particular the effect of digital images personalized for familiarity on users' perceived interestingness. Two dimensions of familiarity, facial familiarity and familiarity with image context, are manipulated. Our investigation consisted of three studies: the first two address how morphing technology can be used to convey meaningful familiarity, and the third studies the effect of such familiarity on users' sense of interestingness. Four levels of person familiarity varying in degree of person knowledge, and two levels of context familiarity varying in frequency of exposure, were considered: Self, Friend, Celebrity, and Stranger in Familiar and Unfamiliar contexts. Experimental results showed significant main effects of context and person familiarity. Our findings deepen understanding of the critical element of familiarity in HCI and its relationship to the interestingness of images, and can have great impact for the design of media-rich systems.

Chu, Sharon Lynn; Fedorovskaya, Elena; Quek, Francis; Snyder, Jeffrey

2013-03-01

54

Familiarity and recollection in Williams syndrome.  

PubMed

Interest is being shown in a componential analysis of performance on declarative memory tasks that distinguishes two different kinds of access to stored memories, recollection and familiarity. From a developmental perspective, it has been hypothesized that recollection emerges later and shows more developmental changes than familiarity. Nevertheless, the contribution of recollection and familiarity to the recognition performance of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) has been rarely examined. The present study was aimed at investigating the qualitative profile of declarative long-term memory in a group of individuals with Williams syndrome (WS). We compared 13 individuals with WS and 13 mental-age-matched typically developing children in two different experimental paradigms to assess the contribution of familiarity and recollection to recognition performance. We adopted a modified version of the process dissociation procedure and a task dissociation procedure, both of which are suited to individuals with ID. Results of both experimental paradigms demonstrated reduced recollection and spared familiarity in the declarative memory performances of individuals with WS. These results provide direct evidence of a dissociation between recollection and familiarity in a neurodevelopmental disorder and are discussed in relation to alternative approaches for explaining abnormal cognition in individuals with ID. PMID:21774924

Costanzo, Floriana; Vicari, Stefano; Carlesimo, Giovanni A

2013-01-01

55

Fundamental Vocabulary Selection Based on Word Familiarity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a new method for selecting fundamental vocabulary. We are presently constructing the Fundamental Vocabulary Knowledge-base of Japanese that contains integrated information on syntax, semantics and pragmatics, for the purposes of advanced natural language processing. This database mainly consists of a lexicon and a treebank: Lexeed (a Japanese Semantic Lexicon) and the Hinoki Treebank. Fundamental vocabulary selection is the first step in the construction of Lexeed. The vocabulary should include sufficient words to describe general concepts for self-expandability, and should not be prohibitively large to construct and maintain. There are two conventional methods for selecting fundamental vocabulary. The first is intuition-based selection by experts. This is the traditional method for making dictionaries. A weak point of this method is that the selection strongly depends on personal intuition. The second is corpus-based selection. This method is superior in objectivity to intuition-based selection, however, it is difficult to compile a sufficiently balanced corpora. We propose a psychologically-motivated selection method that adopts word familiarity as the selection criterion. Word familiarity is a rating that represents the familiarity of a word as a real number ranging from 1 (least familiar) to 7 (most familiar). We determined the word familiarity ratings statistically based on psychological experiments over 32 subjects. We selected about 30,000 words as the fundamental vocabulary, based on a minimum word familiarity threshold of 5. We also evaluated the vocabulary by comparing its word coverage with conventional intuition-based and corpus-based selection over dictionary definition sentences and novels, and demonstrated the superior coverage of our lexicon. Based on this, we conclude that the proposed method is superior to conventional methods for fundamental vocabulary selection.

Sato, Hiroshi; Kasahara, Kaname; Kanasugi, Tomoko; Amano, Shigeaki

56

Effects of familiar voices on brain activity.  

PubMed

This study aimed to examine the extent to which a familiar voice influences brain activity. Participants were nine healthy female volunteers aged 21-34 years old (with a mean age of 25.78 ± 4.04 years). Brain activity was recorded during periods of silence, familiar and unfamiliar voices. Electroencephalographic data were collected and analyzed using a frequency rate set at 5 min. To account for emotional influences imbedded into the contents of the voice stimuli, both the voice of a familiar family member and the voice of a stranger were used to record a well-known Japanese fairy tale, 'Momotaro'. Results revealed that listening to familiar voices increased the rate of the ? band (13-30 Hz) in all four brain areas (F3, F4, C3 and C4). In particular, increased activity was observed at F4 and C4. Findings revealed that in study, participants' familiar voices activated cerebral functioning more than unfamiliar voices. PMID:22776531

Tanaka, Yuji L; Kudo, Yumi

2012-07-01

57

Digital Video, Digital TV IMPA -Instituto de Matemtica Pura e  

E-print Network

1 Digital Video, Digital TV and Beyond Luiz Velho IMPA - Instituto de Matemática Pura e Aplicada 2 Outline Video in the Digital Age Deployment of Digital Video Enabling Technologies Research @ VISGRAF Laboratory Trends and the Future... 3 Evolution of Digital Video 1st Generation - Analog / Digital Conversion

58

Laboratorio VISGRAF Instituto de Matematica Pura e Aplicada  

E-print Network

, the more precise will the diagnosis be. Solitary lung nodules are an approximately round lesion less than 3Laborat´orio VISGRAF Instituto de Matem´atica Pura e Aplicada Algorithms for Assisted Diagnosiscm in diameter and completely surrounded by pulmonary parenchyma. Larger lesions should be referred

59

Laboratorio VISGRAF Instituto de Matematica Pura e Aplicada  

E-print Network

Laborat´orio VISGRAF Instituto de Matem´atica Pura e Aplicada Some Case Studies in Automatic responsibility of the authors. O conte´udo do presente relat´orio ´e de ´unica responsabilidade dos autores. #12 8, Rue du Capitaine Scott 75015 Paris, France {Giordano.CABRAL, Jean- Pierre.BRIOT}@lip6.fr Sergio

60

MESTRADO EM MICROBIOLOGIA FBRICAS CELULARES MICROBIANAS Instituto Superior Tcnico  

E-print Network

MESTRADO EM MICROBIOLOGIA FÁBRICAS CELULARES MICROBIANAS ­ Instituto Superior Técnico Objectivos: O microbiologia celular e molecular com as novas abordagens da engenharia metabólica à escala do genoma procariotas e eucariotas: - Estruturas celulares e compartimentalização; - Sistemas de transporte; - Fluxo de

Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

61

Laboratorio VISGRAF Instituto de Matematica Pura e Aplicada  

E-print Network

Laborat´orio VISGRAF Instituto de Matem´atica Pura e Aplicada Mundos Virtuais e Jogos por- vidos. Apresenta a implementac¸~ao do jogo Pong Game em um ambiente distribu´ido e mostra sua relac¸~ao com Mundos Virtuais. O jogo foi desenvolvido em uma estrutura Cliente-Servidor, na plataforma Linux

62

Recollection and familiarity in the human thalamus.  

PubMed

Recollection and familiarity are two distinct forms of recognition memory that differ in terms of the associative richness of the memory experience. In recollection, exposure to a previously encountered item cues the recollection of a number of contextual, temporal and other associative information. In the case of familiarity, instead, the item is recognized as previously encountered, but it does not cue any associative information. According to the dual-process theory, the memory processes that underlie recollection and familiarity are qualitatively different and this distinction is reflected in the existence of different neural substrates underlying the two processes. Thus far, research has primarily focused on distinct regions of the medial temporal lobe as implicated mostly in recollection (hippocampus) or familiarity (perirhinal cortex). Aggleton and Brown (1999) suggested extending the neuroanatomical distinction to other cortical and subcortical areas of the brain, including the thalamus. In particular, they proposed the existence of two reciprocally independent neural circuits for recollection and familiarity. The former would include the hippocampus, the fornix, the mammillary bodies and the anterior thalamic nuclei. The second would involve the mesial magnocellular portion of the mediodorsal nucleus connected to the perirhinal cortex through the ventroamygdalofugal pathway. Here we review neuropsychological evidence in experimental animals and brain-damaged individuals and functional neuroimaging evidence in healthy humans that supports Aggleton and Brown's model at the level of the thalamus. The evidence substantially supports the functional relationship between recollection processes and integrity of the thalamic anterior nuclei. Additional evidence, not predicted by the model, has been provided in favour of the reliance of recollection on the integrity of the lateral portion (parvocellular) of the mediodoral nucleus. Finally, there is sparse and controversial evidence in support of the reliance of familiarity on the integrity of the mesial portion of the mediodorsal nucleus, possibly due to neuroimaging methodological limits which did not satisfactorily distinguish between the medial and lateral portions of the mediodorsal nucleus. PMID:25263702

Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto; Lombardi, Maria Giovanna; Caltagirone, Carlo; Barban, Francesco

2014-09-28

63

Autores ms prolficos en Digital.CSIC (Ms de 20 trabajos depositados) AUTOR CENTRO/INSTITUTO CSIC TOTAL  

E-print Network

/INSTITUTO CSIC TOTAL Díaz Rojo, José Antonio IHCD 84 Rosa Utrera, José Manuel de la IMSE-CNM 79 Rodríguez Vázquez, Angel IMSE-CNM 65 Sanz Menéndez, Luis IPP-CCHS 56 Cernicharo, José IEM-CFMAC 55 Pérez Verdú, Belén IMSE-CNM IMSE-CNM 45 Río Fernández, Rocío del IMSE-CNM 44 Martínez-Alonso, Carlos CNB 38 Corma, Avelino ITQ 32

64

Instituto de Historia (IH) 556 Estacin Experimental de Aula Dei (EEAD) 535  

E-print Network

Alimentos (IATA) 120 Instituto de Microelectrónica de Sevilla (IMS-CNM) 120 Instituto Mediterráneo de Microelectrónica de Madrid (IMM-CNM) 102 Instituto de �ptica "Daza de Valdés" (IO) 99 Unidad de Coordinación de

65

The Paradox of the "Familiar Outsider."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes role of "familiar outsider," the "transplant" reformer who rejects personal power while aiding community. Focuses on four outsiders assisting Virginia town's developing commission. Details relationship and leadership problems among commission, technical assistant, and community leaders during development of sewing factory. Suggests…

Daley, Nelda Knelson; Kobak, Sue Ella

1990-01-01

66

Age and Familiarity in Memory Scanning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A sample of 65 healthy males (31 to 75 years old) memorized lists of six letters (familiar or unfamiliar organization). Age-related differences in the unfamiliar condition could not be wholly accounted for by psychomotor factors. The distributions of response latencies in the oldest groups had greater variance and skew. (Author)

Thomas, John C.; And Others

1978-01-01

67

Contemporary Art: Familiar Objects in New Contexts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes objects from everyday life and analyzes artworks by four contemporary artists whose works make use of familiar objects (Louise Nevelson, Claes Oldenburg, Mitchell Syrop, and Betye Sarr). Divides lesson into four steps: (1) discussing everyday objects; (2) viewing artworks; (3) studying artists; and (4) class activities related to the…

Prabhu, Vas

1990-01-01

68

Familiarity Enhances Visual Working Memory for Faces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although it is intuitive that familiarity with complex visual objects should aid their preservation in visual working memory (WM), empirical evidence for this is lacking. This study used a conventional change-detection procedure to assess visual WM for unfamiliar and famous faces in healthy adults. Across experiments, faces were upright or…

Jackson, Margaret C.; Raymond, Jane E.

2008-01-01

69

Preferring familiar emotions: As you want (and like) it?  

PubMed Central

Do people want to feel emotions that are familiar to them? In two studies, participants rated how much they typically felt various emotions (i.e., familiarity of the emotion) and how much they generally wanted to experience these emotions. We found that, in general, people wanted to feel pleasant emotions more than unpleasant emotions. However, for both pleasant and unpleasant emotions, people more (vs. less) familiar with an emotion also wanted to experience it more. Links between the familiarity of an emotion and wanting to experience that emotion were not explained by the concurrent experience of familiar emotions. Also, we show that although familiar emotions were also liked more, liking did not fully account for wanting familiar emotions. Finally, the familiarity of emotions mediated the links between trait affect and the emotions people wanted to feel. We propose that people are motivated to feel familiar emotions, in part, because of their instrumental value. PMID:23962316

Ford, Brett Q.; Tamir, Maya

2014-01-01

70

Facelock: familiarity-based graphical authentication  

PubMed Central

Authentication codes such as passwords and PIN numbers are widely used to control access to resources. One major drawback of these codes is that they are difficult to remember. Account holders are often faced with a choice between forgetting a code, which can be inconvenient, or writing it down, which compromises security. In two studies, we test a new knowledge-based authentication method that does not impose memory load on the user. Psychological research on face recognition has revealed an important distinction between familiar and unfamiliar face perception: When a face is familiar to the observer, it can be identified across a wide range of images. However, when the face is unfamiliar, generalisation across images is poor. This contrast can be used as the basis for a personalised ‘facelock’, in which authentication succeeds or fails based on image-invariant recognition of faces that are familiar to the account holder. In Study 1, account holders authenticated easily by detecting familiar targets among other faces (97.5% success rate), even after a one-year delay (86.1% success rate). Zero-acquaintance attackers were reduced to guessing (<1% success rate). Even personal attackers who knew the account holder well were rarely able to authenticate (6.6% success rate). In Study 2, we found that shoulder-surfing attacks by strangers could be defeated by presenting different photos of the same target faces in observed and attacked grids (1.9% success rate). Our findings suggest that the contrast between familiar and unfamiliar face recognition may be useful for developers of graphical authentication systems. PMID:25024913

McLachlan, Jane L.; Renaud, Karen

2014-01-01

71

Familiarity adds to attractiveness in matters of siskin mate choice.  

PubMed

There is currently considerable controversy in evolutionary ecology revolving around whether social familiarity brings attraction when a female chooses a mate. The topic of familiarity is significant because by avoiding or preferring familiar individuals as mates, the potential for local adaptation may be reduced or favoured. The topic becomes even more interesting if we simultaneously analyse preferences for familiarity and sexual ornaments, because when familiarity influences female mating preferences, this could very significantly affect the strength of sexual selection on male ornamentation. Here, we have used mate-choice experiments in siskins Carduelis spinus to analyse how familiarity and patterns of ornamentation (i.e. the size of wing patches) interact to influence mating success. Our results show that females clearly prefer familiar individuals when choosing between familiar and unfamiliar males with similar-sized wing patches. Furthermore, when females were given the choice between a highly ornamented unfamiliar male and a less ornamented familiar male, half of the females still preferred the socially familiar birds as mates. Our finding suggests that male familiarity may be as important as sexual ornaments in affecting female behaviour in mate choice. Given that the potential for local adaptation may be favoured by preferring familiar individuals as mates, social familiarity as a mate-choice criterion may become a potential area of fruitful research on sympatric speciation processes. PMID:24174112

Senar, J C; Mateos-Gonzalez, F; Uribe, F; Arroyo, L

2013-12-22

72

Familiarity adds to attractiveness in matters of siskin mate choice  

PubMed Central

There is currently considerable controversy in evolutionary ecology revolving around whether social familiarity brings attraction when a female chooses a mate. The topic of familiarity is significant because by avoiding or preferring familiar individuals as mates, the potential for local adaptation may be reduced or favoured. The topic becomes even more interesting if we simultaneously analyse preferences for familiarity and sexual ornaments, because when familiarity influences female mating preferences, this could very significantly affect the strength of sexual selection on male ornamentation. Here, we have used mate-choice experiments in siskins Carduelis spinus to analyse how familiarity and patterns of ornamentation (i.e. the size of wing patches) interact to influence mating success. Our results show that females clearly prefer familiar individuals when choosing between familiar and unfamiliar males with similar-sized wing patches. Furthermore, when females were given the choice between a highly ornamented unfamiliar male and a less ornamented familiar male, half of the females still preferred the socially familiar birds as mates. Our finding suggests that male familiarity may be as important as sexual ornaments in affecting female behaviour in mate choice. Given that the potential for local adaptation may be favoured by preferring familiar individuals as mates, social familiarity as a mate-choice criterion may become a potential area of fruitful research on sympatric speciation processes. PMID:24174112

Senar, J. C.; Mateos-Gonzalez, F.; Uribe, F.; Arroyo, L.

2013-01-01

73

NCI ofrece apoyo a quienes están necesitados después del huracane Katrina  

Cancer.gov

El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI), parte de los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud (NIH), está empeñado en ayudar a las miles de personas que han sido asoladas por los efectos del huracán Katrina. NCI está tratando de llegar a los públicos diversos para proporcionarles información relacionada con el cáncer que pueda ser compartida con exactitud y efectividad con quienes han sido afectados por el huracán.

74

Familiarity Enhances Visual Working Memory for Faces  

PubMed Central

Although it is intuitive that familiarity with complex visual objects should aid their preservation in visual working memory (WM), empirical evidence for this is lacking. This study used a conventional change-detection procedure to assess visual WM for unfamiliar and famous faces in healthy adults. Across experiments, faces were upright or inverted and a low- or high-load concurrent verbal WM task was administered to suppress contribution from verbal WM. Even with a high verbal memory load, visual WM performance was significantly better and capacity estimated as significantly greater for famous versus unfamiliar faces. Face inversion abolished this effect. Thus, neither strategic, explicit support from verbal WM nor low-level feature processing easily accounts for the observed benefit of high familiarity for visual WM. These results demonstrate that storage of items in visual WM can be enhanced if robust visual representations of them already exist in long-term memory. PMID:18505323

Jackson, Margaret C.; Raymond, Jane E.

2014-01-01

75

El presidente Obama anuncia nombramiento del doctor Harold Varmus  

Cancer.gov

En los últimos cinco años como director del NCI, y en otras funciones ejercidas durante muchos años, he disfrutado ampliamente cada oportunidad que he tenido de visitar los laboratorios y las oficinas, desde Bethesda hasta Frederick, para conocer en persona a los miembros del personal y compartir mis opiniones sobre temas importantes en torno a la ciencia y al manejo de este gran Instituto.

76

Model of Familiarity Discrimination in the Perirhinal Cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much evidence indicates that recognition memory involves two separable processes, recollection and familiarity discrimination, with familiarity discrimination being dependent on the perirhinal cortex of the temporal lobe. Here, we describe a new neural network model designed to mimic the response patterns of perirhinal neurons that signal information concerning the novelty or familiarity of stimuli. The model achieves very fast and

Rafal Bogacz; Malcolm W. Brown; Christophe G. Giraud-carrier

2001-01-01

77

Happiness cools the warm glow of familiarity: psychophysiological evidence that mood modulates the familiarity-affect link.  

PubMed

People often prefer familiar stimuli, presumably because familiarity signals safety. This preference can occur with merely repeated old stimuli, but it is most robust with new but highly familiar prototypes of a known category (beauty-in-averageness effect). However, is familiarity always warm? Tuning accounts of mood hold that positive mood signals a safe environment, whereas negative mood signals an unsafe environment. Thus, the value of familiarity should depend on mood. We show that compared with a sad mood, a happy mood eliminates the preference for familiar stimuli, as shown in measures of self-reported liking and physiological measures of affect (electromyographic indicator of spontaneous smiling). The basic effect of exposure on preference and its modulation by mood were most robust for prototypes (category averages). All this occurs even though prototypes might be more familiar in a happy mood. We conclude that mood changes the hedonic implications of familiarity cues. PMID:20424063

de Vries, Marieke; Holland, Rob W; Chenier, Troy; Starr, Mark J; Winkielman, Piotr

2010-03-01

78

Se pone en marcha el Programa de Investigación Oncológica Comunitaria (NCORP) del NCI  

Cancer.gov

El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) ha otorgado 53 subvenciones nuevas de 5 años a investigadores de todo el país para realizar estudios clínicos multicéntricos e investigaciones sobre la prestación de cuidados oncológicos en sus comunidades. Las subvenciones se están otorgando dentro del Programa de Investigación Oncológica Comunitaria (Community Oncology Research Program, NCORP) del NCI.

79

INICIO POLTICA ECONOMA MUNDO ESTADOS CAPITAL SOCIEDAD Y JUSTICIA CIENCIAS CULTURA ESPECTCULOS DEPORTES Noticias del da  

E-print Network

INICIO POLÍTICA ECONOMÍA MUNDO ESTADOS CAPITAL SOCIEDAD Y JUSTICIA CIENCIAS CULTURA ESPECTÁCULOS DEPORTES Noticias del día No hay noticias publicadas. Ciencias No hay noticias publicadas. BUSCAR Buscar en, del Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología de la UNAM La Jornada en línea Publicado: 24/01/2012 12

Islas, León

80

The hard-won benefits of familiarity in visual search: naturally familiar brand logos are found faster  

E-print Network

The hard-won benefits of familiarity in visual search: naturally familiar brand logos are found Familiar items are found faster than unfamiliar ones in visual search tasks. This effect has important items with moderate levels of exposure would show benefits in visual search, and if so, what kind

Koutstaal, Wilma

81

Social familiarity and shoal formation in juvenile fishes.  

PubMed

The potential influence of social familiarity in shoal-choice decisions was investigated in two sympatric species of north temperate fishes, juvenile banded killifish Fundulus diaphanus and juvenile bluegill sunfish Lepomis macrochirus. Groups of socially familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics were formed in the laboratory using wild-caught fishes. Juvenile F. diaphanus demonstrated a strong preference for familiar conspecific shoalmates, whereas juvenile L. macrochirus exhibited no preference for either unfamiliar or familiar conspecific shoalmates. The differential influence of familiarity on shoalmate choice in juveniles of these two species could be due to their different ecologies, local population densities and life histories. PMID:20666898

Lee-Jenkins, S S Y; Godin, J-G J

2010-02-01

82

Process dissociation of familiarity and recollection in children: Response deadline affects recollection but not familiarity.  

PubMed

According to dual-process theories, recollection (slow and associated with contextual details) and familiarity (fast and automatic) are two independent processes underlying recognition memory. An adapted version of the process dissociation paradigm was used to measure recognition memory in 5-, 7-, and 11-year-olds and adults. In Experiment 1, it was found that 5-year-olds already recollect details of items (i.e., number). Recollection increased particularly between 5 and 7years. Familiarity differed between 5years and adulthood. In Experiment 2, under limited response time during retrieval, recollection was eliminated in 5-year-olds and reduced across all ages, whereas familiarity was left unaffected. Together, these findings are consistent with dual-process theories of recognition memory and provide support for two processes underlying recognition memory from a developmental perspective. PMID:25544395

Koenig, Laura; Wimmer, Marina C; Hollins, Timothy J

2015-03-01

83

Computerizing a house organ: recharting familiar territory  

SciTech Connect

Computerization can offer great advantages. But one publication ideally suited to computerization was slow to take advantage of the new technology. The main reason was reluctance to try an unfamiliar way of doing things. Having now switched to computerization, the publication has reaped many benefits. Among them: production time is faster; costs are lower; errors are fewer. Computerization has not been without minor problems. The most obvious is vulnerability to the rarity of a system failure. Others include the technology's potential reinforcement of overediting and of excessive reliance on extremely rapid response. Such problems, however, do not indicate weaknesses in the technology itself; rather, they reflect an incomplete adaption to it and the need for more realistic expectations. An unwarranted reluctance to innovate can slow advances in communication. Technical communicators must be willing to rechart their own familiar territory.

none,

1982-01-01

84

Electrophysiological dissociation of the neural correlates of recollection and familiarity.  

PubMed

Event-related potentials (ERPs) were employed to investigate electrophysiological correlates of recognition memory in a task that allowed segregation of test items according to whether they were recollected (operationalized by introspective report) or, if recollection failed, their level of familiarity (operationalized by recognition confidence). The amplitude of a negative-going ERP deflection that onsets around 300 ms post-stimulus varied inversely with familiarity strength. This effect was maximal over the left frontal scalp. It did not differ between the ERPs elicited by highly familiar versus recollected items, indicating that the recollection is not merely a consequence of strong familiarity. By contrast, a later positive deflection (onset ca. 500 ms post-stimulus) was enhanced in ERPs elicited by recollected relative to highly familiar items. This effect was maximal over the left posterior scalp and was insensitive to familiarity, as indicated by its absence in the contrast between items judged highly familiar versus highly unfamiliar. The findings constitute a double dissociation between the neural correlates of recollection and familiarity. Together with the results of a parallel functional magnetic resonance imaging study (A.P. Yonelinas et al., J. Neurosci. (2005), 25, 3002-3008), they indicate that recollection and familiarity rely on qualitatively distinct neural systems and strongly support dual-process models of recognition memory. PMID:16774746

Woodruff, C Chad; Hayama, Hiroki R; Rugg, Michael D

2006-07-19

85

La revisión del estudio de prevención de cáncer de próstata indica no haber beneficio del uso de suplementos de selenio y de vitamina E  

Cancer.gov

La revisión inicial, independiente, de los datos del estudio SELECT, sigla en inglés del Estudio del Selenio y la Vitamina E para Prevenir el Cáncer, financiado por el Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) y otros institutos que comprenden los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud (NIH), indica que los suplementos de selenio y de vitamina E, tomados juntos o por separado, no impiden el cáncer de próstata. Los datos indicaron también dos tendencias preocupantes: un pequeño aumento aunque no significativo estadísticamente en el número de casos de cáncer de próstata entre los más de 35 000 hombres de 50 años y mayores en el estudio que tomaron sólo vitamina E, y un aumento pequeño aunque no significativo estadísticamente en el número de casos de diabetes de aparición en edad adulta en los hombres que tomaron sólo el selenio.

86

Choosing Your Informant: Weighing Familiarity and Recent Accuracy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In two experiments, children aged 3, 4 and 5 years (N = 61) were given conflicting information about the names and functions of novel objects by two informants, one a familiar teacher, the other an unfamiliar teacher. On pre-test trials, all three age groups invested more trust in the familiar teacher. They preferred to ask for information and to…

Corriveau, Kathleen; Harris, Paul L.

2009-01-01

87

The effects of cultural familiarity on reading comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated whether cultural familiarity influences comprehension of short stories and whether nativizing the story or using reading activities can compensate for the lack of such familiarity. The study was conducted with 44 advanced-level students of English at a state university in Turkey. In a 2 × 2 experimental research design, the 1st group of students read an original

Hakki Erten; Salim Razi

88

When Do Infants Begin Recognizing Familiar Words in Sentences?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous studies have shown that by 11 but not by 10 months infants recognize words that have become familiar from everyday life independently of the experimental setting. This study explored the ability of 10-, 11-, and 12- month-old infants to recognize familiar words in sentential context, without experimental training. The headturn preference…

DePaolis, Rory A.; Vihman, Marilyn M.; Keren-Portnoy, Tamar

2014-01-01

89

Familiar-Strange: Teaching the Scripture as John Would Teach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Gospel of John teaches through telling the story of Jesus in light of the familiar Hebrew faith stories. It is an interpretive task that presents Jesus to his audience and teaches them adequate faith. John the Teacher skillfully uses narrative skills to create the familiar-strange effect in his storytelling. Each story is followed by a…

Ha, Tung-Chiew

2014-01-01

90

Assessing Recollection and Familiarity in Low Functioning Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Methods to assess recollection and familiarity separately in autism spectrum disorder were recently developed and piloted (Bigham et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 40:878-889, 2010). The preliminary data obtained via these methods showed that whereas recollection was mildly impaired in high functioning autism, familiarity was spared. The current study…

Ni Chuileann, Susan; Quigley, Jean

2013-01-01

91

Familiarity for Associations? A Test of the Domain Dichotomy Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Episodic recognition memory is mediated by functionally separable retrieval processes, notably familiarity (a general sense of prior exposure) and recollection (the retrieval of contextual details), whose relative engagement depends partly on the nature of the information being retrieved. Currently, the specific contribution of familiarity to…

Harlow, Iain M.; Mackenzie, Graham; Donaldson, David I.

2010-01-01

92

Distinguishing Novelty and Familiarity Effects in Infant Preference Procedures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers possible problems researchers might face when interpreting the results of studies that employ variants of the preference procedure. Infants show a tendency to shift their preference from familiar to novel stimuli with increasing exposure to the familiar stimulus, a behaviour that is exploited by the habituation paradigm. This…

Houston-Price, Carmel; Nakai, Satsuki

2004-01-01

93

Recollection and Familiarity in Recognition Memory: Evidence from ROC Curves  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Does recognition memory rely on discrete recollection, continuous evidence, or both? Is continuous evidence sensitive to only the recency and duration of study (familiarity), or is it also sensitive to details of the study episode? Dual process theories assume recognition is based on recollection and familiarity, with only recollection providing…

Heathcote, Andrew; Raymond, Frances; Dunn, John

2006-01-01

94

CAPTCHA Challenge Tradeoffs: Familiarity of Strings versus Degradation of Images  

E-print Network

CAPTCHA Challenge Tradeoffs: Familiarity of Strings versus Degradation of Images Sui-Yu Wang, Henry in ability may allow us to design stronger CAPTCHAs. We measure the familiarity of challenge strings generated by four methods (described by Bentley and Mallows) and we use the ScatterType CAPTCHA to degrade

Baird, Henry S.

95

Familiarity and Retrieval Processes in Delayed Judgments of Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two processes are postulated to underlie delayed judgments of learning (JOLs)--cue familiarity and target retrievability. The two processes are distinguishable because the familiarity-based judgments are thought to be faster than the retrieval-based processes, because only retrieval-based JOLs should enhance the relative accuracy of the…

Metcalfe, Janet; Finn, Bridgid

2008-01-01

96

Intuitive reasoning about abstract and familiar physics problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previous research has demonstrated that many people have misconceptions about basic properties of motion. Two experiments examined whether people are more likely to produce dynamically correct predictions about basic motion problems involving situations with which they are familiar, and whether solving such problems enhances performance on a subsequent abstract problem. In experiment 1, college students were asked to predict the trajectories of objects exiting a curved tube. Subjects were more accurate on the familiar version of the problem, and there was no evidence of transfer to the abstract problem. In experiment 2, two familiar problems were provided in an attempt to enhance subjects' tendency to extract the general structure of the problems. Once again, they gave more correct responses to the familiar problems but failed to generalize to the abstract problem. Formal physics training was associated with correct predictions for the abstract problem but was unrelated to performance on the familiar problems.

Kaiser, Mary Kister; Jonides, John; Alexander, Joanne

1986-01-01

97

Musical familiarity in congenital amusia: Evidence from a gating paradigm.  

PubMed

Congenital amusia has been described as a lifelong deficit of music perception and production, notably including amusic individuals' difficulties to recognize a familiar tune without the aid of lyrics. The present study aimed to evaluate whether amusic individuals might have acquired long-term knowledge of familiar music, and to test for the minimal amount of acoustic information necessary to access this knowledge (if any) in amusia. Segments of familiar and unfamiliar instrumental musical pieces were presented with increasing duration (250, 500, 1000 msec etc.), and participants provided familiarity judgments for each segment. Results showed that amusic individuals succeeded in differentiating familiar from unfamiliar excerpts with as little acoustic information as did control participants (i.e., within 500 msec). The findings reveal that amusic individuals have stored musical pieces in long-term memory (LTM), and, together with other recent findings, they suggest that congenital amusia might impair conscious access to music processing rather than music processing per se. PMID:25151640

Tillmann, Barbara; Albouy, Philippe; Caclin, Anne; Bigand, Emmanuel

2014-10-01

98

Familiarity and categorization processes in memory search.  

PubMed

A fundamental distinction in tasks of memory search is whether items receive varied mappings (targets and distractors switch roles across trials) or consistent mappings (targets and distractors never switch roles). The type of mapping often produces markedly different performance patterns, but formal memory-based models that account quantitatively for detailed aspects of the results have not yet been developed and evaluated. Experiments were conducted to test a modern exemplar-retrieval model on its ability to account for memory-search performance involving a wide range of memory-set sizes in both varied-mapping (VM) and consistent-mapping (CM) probe-recognition tasks. The model formalized the idea that both familiarity-based and categorization-based processes operate. The model was required to fit detailed response-time (RT) distributions of individual, highly practiced subjects. A key manipulation involved the repetition of negative probes across trials. This manipulation produced a dramatic dissociation: False-alarm rates increased and correct-rejection RTs got longer in VM, but not in CM. The qualitative pattern of results and modeling analyses provided evidence for a strong form of categorization-based processing in CM, in which observers made use of the membership of negative probes in the "new" category to make old-new recognition decisions. PMID:25240209

Nosofsky, Robert M; Cao, Rui; Cox, Gregory E; Shiffrin, Richard M

2014-12-01

99

Memory Color Effect Induced by Familiarity of Brand Logos  

PubMed Central

Background When people are asked to adjust the color of familiar objects such as fruits until they appear achromatic, the subjective gray points of the objects are shifted away from the physical gray points in a direction opposite to the memory color (memory color effect). It is still unclear whether the discrepancy between memorized and actual colors of objects is dependent on the familiarity of the objects. Here, we conducted two experiments in order to examine the relationship between the degree of a subject’s familiarity with objects and the degree of the memory color effect by using logographs of food and beverage companies. Methods and Findings In Experiment 1, we measured the memory color effects of logos which varied in terms of their familiarity (high, middle, or low). Results demonstrate that the memory color effect occurs only in the high-familiarity condition, but not in the middle- and low-familiarity conditions. Furthermore, there is a positive correlation between the memory color effect and the actual number of domestic stores of the brand. In Experiment 2, we assessed the semantic association between logos and food/beverage names by using a semantic priming task to elucidate whether the memory color effect of logos relates to consumer brand cognition, and found that the semantic associations between logos and food/beverage names in the high-familiarity brands were stronger than those in the low-familiarity brands only when the logos were colored correctly, but not when they were appropriately or inappropriately colored, or achromatic. Conclusion The current results provide behavioral evidence of the relationship between the familiarity of objects and the memory color effect and suggest that the memory color effect increases with the familiarity of objects, albeit not constantly. PMID:23874638

Kimura, Atsushi; Wada, Yuji; Masuda, Tomohiro; Goto, Sho-ichi; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Hibino, Haruo; Cai, Dongsheng; Dan, Ippeita

2013-01-01

100

¿Cómo puedo usar los servicios del CIS?  

Cancer.gov

El Servicio de Información sobre el Cáncer del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer maneja también la línea telefónica para dejar de fumar 1-877-448-7848 (1-877-44U-QUIT), la cual proporciona información gratuita para dejar de fumar y apoyo a fumadores que desean dejar el tabaco. Nuestro servicio no tiene ningún costo ni cuota de pago. El servicio se brinda en inglés y en español, de lunes a viernes de 8 de la mañana a 8 de la noche, hora del Este.

101

El cuento del cáncer de cérvix podría tener un final feliz  

Cancer.gov

El cuento del cáncer de cérvix podría tener un final feliz Por el Instituto Nacional del Cáncer El cáncer de cérvix fue en un tiempo la causa principal de muerte por cáncer entre mujeres estadounidenses. Pero, en los últimos 50 años, el número de

102

JORNADA SOBRE LA TRANSFORMACIN DEL DERECHO PRIVADO ANTE LA CRISIS1  

E-print Network

JORNADA SOBRE LA TRANSFORMACI�N DEL DERECHO PRIVADO ANTE LA CRISIS1 . Lugar de celebración: Sala Conde. Catedrático de D. Constitucional y Director del Instituto de Derecho Público. URJC. 10:00 Conferencia inaugural Prof. Dr. D. Domingo Bello Janeiro, Catedrático de Derecho Civil. Universidad de

Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad

103

Smells familiar: group-joining decisions of predatory mites are mediated by olfactory cues of social familiarity?  

PubMed Central

Group-living animals frequently have to trade off the costs and benefits of leaving an established group and joining another group. Owing to their high fitness relevance, group-joining decisions are commonly nonrandom and may be based on traits of both individual members and the group such as life stage, body size, social status and group density or size, respectively. Many group-living animals are able to recognize and to associate preferentially with familiar individuals, i.e. those encountered before. Hence, after dispersing from established groups, animals commonly have to decide whether to join a new familiar or unfamiliar group. Using binary choice situations we assessed the effects of social familiarity on group-joining behaviour of the plant-inhabiting predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. Group living in P. persimilis is brought about by the patchy distribution of its spider mite prey and mutual conspecific attraction. In the first experiment, gravid predator females given a choice between spider mite patches occupied by unfamiliar and familiar groups of females strongly preferred to join familiar groups and to deposit their eggs in these patches. Preference for socially familiar groups was robust across biases of spider mite prey densities between choice options. The second experiment revealed that the predatory mite females can smell social familiarity from a distance. Females subjected to odour choice situations in artificial cages were more strongly attracted to the odour of familiar than unfamiliar groups. We argue that P. persimilis females preferentially join socially familiar groups because a familiar social environment relaxes competition and optimizes foraging and reproduction. PMID:24027341

Muleta, Muluken G.; Schausberger, Peter

2013-01-01

104

Judging the familiarity of strangers: does the context matter?  

PubMed

Context affects face recognition, with people more likely to recognize an acquaintance when that person is encountered in an expected and familiar place. However, we demonstrate that a familiar context can also incorrectly lead to feeling that a stranger is known. More specifically, we asked whether a familiar place can increase the belief that a stranger has been encountered outside of the experimental context (e.g., in the news or in real life). Novel faces were paired with novel places, famous places (landmarks), or neutral (solid color) backgrounds, and participants rated the pre-experimental familiarity of each novel face. Across four experiments, participants misinterpreted the familiarity of the landmark backgrounds as evidence of knowing the faces outside of the experimental context. This effect only disappeared when participants failed to integrate the face with the place, judging that the two did not fit together. Our findings suggest that familiarity is not judged in isolation; rather, people are unable to completely disentangle the familiarity of the individual components of a scene. PMID:25410252

Deffler, Samantha A; Brown, Alan S; Marsh, Elizabeth J

2014-11-20

105

Dynamic modulation of the action observation network by movement familiarity.  

PubMed

When watching another person's actions, a network of sensorimotor brain regions, collectively termed the action observation network (AON), is engaged. Previous research suggests that the AON is more responsive when watching familiar compared with unfamiliar actions. However, most research into AON function is premised on comparisons of AON engagement during different types of task using univariate, magnitude-based approaches. To better understand the relationship between action familiarity and AON engagement, here we examine how observed movement familiarity modulates AON activity in humans using dynamic causal modeling, a type of effective connectivity analysis. Twenty-one subjects underwent fMRI scanning while viewing whole-body dance movements that varied in terms of their familiarity. Participants' task was to either predict the next posture the dancer's body would assume or to respond to a non-action-related attentional control question. To assess individuals' familiarity with each movement, participants rated each video on a measure of visual familiarity after being scanned. Parametric analyses showed more activity in left middle temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, and inferior frontal gyrus as videos were rated as increasingly familiar. These clusters of activity formed the regions of interest for dynamic causal modeling analyses, which revealed attenuation of effective connectivity bidirectionally between parietal and temporal AON nodes when participants observed videos they rated as increasingly familiar. As such, the findings provide partial support for a predictive coding model of the AON, as well as illuminate how action familiarity manipulations can be used to explore simulation-based accounts of action understanding. PMID:25632133

Gardner, Tom; Goulden, Nia; Cross, Emily S

2015-01-28

106

Dynamic Modulation of the Action Observation Network by Movement Familiarity  

PubMed Central

When watching another person's actions, a network of sensorimotor brain regions, collectively termed the action observation network (AON), is engaged. Previous research suggests that the AON is more responsive when watching familiar compared with unfamiliar actions. However, most research into AON function is premised on comparisons of AON engagement during different types of task using univariate, magnitude-based approaches. To better understand the relationship between action familiarity and AON engagement, here we examine how observed movement familiarity modulates AON activity in humans using dynamic causal modeling, a type of effective connectivity analysis. Twenty-one subjects underwent fMRI scanning while viewing whole-body dance movements that varied in terms of their familiarity. Participants' task was to either predict the next posture the dancer's body would assume or to respond to a non–action-related attentional control question. To assess individuals' familiarity with each movement, participants rated each video on a measure of visual familiarity after being scanned. Parametric analyses showed more activity in left middle temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, and inferior frontal gyrus as videos were rated as increasingly familiar. These clusters of activity formed the regions of interest for dynamic causal modeling analyses, which revealed attenuation of effective connectivity bidirectionally between parietal and temporal AON nodes when participants observed videos they rated as increasingly familiar. As such, the findings provide partial support for a predictive coding model of the AON, as well as illuminate how action familiarity manipulations can be used to explore simulation-based accounts of action understanding. PMID:25632133

Gardner, Tom; Goulden, Nia

2015-01-01

107

INSTITUTO DE ASTROFSICA DE CANARIAS 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife, (Islas Canarias)  

E-print Network

INSTITUTO DE ASTROFÍSICA DE CANARIAS 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife, (Islas Canarias) Teléfono: 922 605 in the exoplanet's atmosphere as a reflection of the redistribution of energy of the exoplanet (e.g. Burrows et al

Pinfield, David J.

108

Misgivings about the Matching Familiar Figures Test: Premature or Overdue?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responds to the arguments and evidence adduced by Kagan (1987) in his reply to the Block, Gjerde, and Block (1986) study questioning the validity of the Matching Familiar Figures Test (MFFT) as a measure of "reflection-impulsivity." (Author)

Block, Jack

1987-01-01

109

Facilitated detection of social cues conveyed by familiar faces  

PubMed Central

Recognition of the identity of familiar faces in conditions with poor visibility or over large changes in head angle, lighting and partial occlusion is far more accurate than recognition of unfamiliar faces in similar conditions. Here we used a visual search paradigm to test if one class of social cues transmitted by faces—direction of another's attention as conveyed by gaze direction and head orientation—is perceived more rapidly in personally familiar faces than in unfamiliar faces. We found a strong effect of familiarity on the detection of these social cues, suggesting that the times to process these signals in familiar faces are markedly faster than the corresponding processing times for unfamiliar faces. In the light of these new data, hypotheses on the organization of the visual system for processing faces are formulated and discussed. PMID:25228873

Visconti di Oleggio Castello, Matteo; Guntupalli, J. Swaroop; Yang, Hua; Gobbini, M. Ida

2014-01-01

110

Neuropsychological correlates of recollection and familiarity in normal aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dual-process model of recognition memory proposed by Jacoby (1991; see also Mandler, 1980) postulates the existence of\\u000a two independent components of recognition memory: a conscious retrieval process (recollection) and an automatic component ( familiarity). Older adults appear to be impaired in recollection, but findings with respect to familiarity have been mixed. Studies of\\u000a the brain bases of these components,

Patrick S. R. Davidson; Elizabeth L. Glisky

2002-01-01

111

Investigacin Centro de Investigacin y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politcnico Nacional  

E-print Network

Varaldo Biorrefinería de residuales orgánicos: Bioenergías (biohidrógeno, biometano, bioelectricidad) y interés industrial Refugio Rodríguez Vázquez Biorremediación de suelo y agua. Aplicación de residuos persistentes. y aplicación de la nanotecnología en el tratamiento biológico de efluentes industriales. Junio

112

El subregistro potencial de accidentes de trabajo en el Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To assess the potential under-registration of work-related accidents in the Mexican Institute of Social Security. Material and Methods. A countrywide cross- sectional study was carried out with information collected from 27 district offices of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (MISS), on workers seen at MISS emergency rooms during November 2001 because of a probable accident at work. We

José Santiago Salinas-Tovar; Pablo López-Rojas; María Oralia Soto-Navarro; David Efraín Caudillo-Araujo; Francisco Raúl Sánchez-Román; Víctor Hugo Borja-Aburto

2004-01-01

113

Investigacin Centro de Investigacin y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politcnico Nacional  

E-print Network

superiores. Edgar Nelson Sánchez Camperos Control inteligente, en particular control neuronal y control variantes con el tiempo. José Manuel Cañedo Castañeda Modelado, diseño y control robusto de maquinas inteligente de recursos amnientales. Amner Israel Ramírez Vázquez Modelado de dispositivos eléctricos y

114

Investigacin Centro de Investigacin y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politcnico Nacional  

E-print Network

exactas en relatividad general. Gerardo Acacio González de la Cruz Materia condensada (T): Propiedades): Relatividad general, soluciones exactas en: Agujeros negros, modelos cosmológicos, ondas gravitacionales alta TC y fotoluminiscencia. Alberto Alejandro García Díaz Relatividad y gravitación (T): Soluciones

115

Investigacin Centro de Investigacin y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politcnico Nacional  

E-print Network

datos activas, redes sociales Luis Gerardo de la Fraga Procesamiento digital de imágenes, seguridad en redes de computadoras, manipulación de objetos deformables, visión por computadora. Carlos Artemio cómputo inalámbrico. Debrup Chakraborty Reconocimiento de patrones, redes neuronales, criptografía. Junio

116

Orlando Silva Instituto de Diagnstico Ambiental y Estudios del Agua, IDA-CSIC.  

E-print Network

( )[ ] ( )lllsslll SS t qsaltsalt -=+ 2. Balance of CO2 3. Balance of salt (1.2) (1.3) ( )[ ] ( ) ( )ggglllggglll pressure) = 0.457 [ ] -- --= 1 0 1SPPc lr lrl S SS S - - = 1 Slr = 0.00 = 0.457 P0 = 19.61 kPa residual Initial and boundary conditions Permeability Porosity Pore compressibility Aquifer thickness k0 = 10-13 m2

Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

117

[Familiarization to treadmill walking in unimpaired Parkinson's disease patients.  

PubMed

Familiarization to treadmill walking in unimpaired Parkinson's disease (PD) patients is assessed, across multiple treadmill walking sessions. Thirteen PD subjects were enrolled into the study (Eight were in a moderate stage of the disease, and 5 in an advanced stage). PD subjects attended a progressive program consisting of 12 sessions of 20 min. Walking speed, cadence, step length and coefficient of variation were assessed. ANOVA test were used to evaluate progression of disease and time influence over familiarization. PD Subjects baseline characteristics did not differ significantly between both groups and typical dependencies over progression of disease and velocity were found for cadence, step length and coefficient of variation. However, we showed that some PD subjects may require longer familiarization times and that familiarization is an adaptation process which involves parameters as velocity, cadence and gait stability. A better definition of familiarization to treadmill is needed since some parameters such as step length does not change significantly while others such as cadence, coefficient of variation and intraclass correlation coefficient does. Therefore familiarization to treadmill walking should remain on measures of velocity, cadence, reliability and variability. However, a bigger sample size is needed in order to improve the results of the present study. PMID:25264794

Pérez-Sanpablo, Alberto Isaac; Hernández-Arenas, Claudia; Rodríguez-Reyes, Gerardo; Quiñones-Uriostegui, Ivett; Alessi Montero, Aldo; Núñez-Carrera, Lidia; Boll-Woehrlen, Marie Catherine; Galván Duque-Gastélum, Carlos

2014-07-01

118

Music and Emotions in the Brain: Familiarity Matters  

PubMed Central

The importance of music in our daily life has given rise to an increased number of studies addressing the brain regions involved in its appreciation. Some of these studies controlled only for the familiarity of the stimuli, while others relied on pleasantness ratings, and others still on musical preferences. With a listening test and a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment, we wished to clarify the role of familiarity in the brain correlates of music appreciation by controlling, in the same study, for both familiarity and musical preferences. First, we conducted a listening test, in which participants rated the familiarity and liking of song excerpts from the pop/rock repertoire, allowing us to select a personalized set of stimuli per subject. Then, we used a passive listening paradigm in fMRI to study music appreciation in a naturalistic condition with increased ecological value. Brain activation data revealed that broad emotion-related limbic and paralimbic regions as well as the reward circuitry were significantly more active for familiar relative to unfamiliar music. Smaller regions in the cingulate cortex and frontal lobe, including the motor cortex and Broca's area, were found to be more active in response to liked music when compared to disliked one. Hence, familiarity seems to be a crucial factor in making the listeners emotionally engaged with music, as revealed by fMRI data. PMID:22110619

Pereira, Carlos Silva; Teixeira, João; Figueiredo, Patrícia; Xavier, João; Castro, São Luís; Brattico, Elvira

2011-01-01

119

Pigeons discriminate objects on the basis of abstract familiarity.  

PubMed

Knowledge of previous encounters with conspecifics is thought to be beneficial as it allows fast and appropriate behavioral responses toward those animals. This level of categorization goes beyond perceptual similarity and requires the individual to refer to a more abstract common referent, namely familiarity. It has been shown that pigeons are able to form functional classes of conspecifics that are based on familiarity. To date, we do not know whether this ability is restricted to the social context (including heterospecifics) or if it can also be used to classify inanimate objects. Furthermore, the factors influencing the formation of this functional class are still unknown. Here, we show that pigeons (Columba livia) are able to use a categorical rule of familiarity to classify previously unseen photographs of objects from their living environment. Pigeons that lacked real-life experience with the objects were not able to do so. This suggests that perceptual features alone were not sufficient for class recognition. To investigate the impact of additional functional properties of the objects, familiar objects were further divided into two subcategories, namely those that were considered functionally relevant to the birds and those that were not. Although the majority of pigeons learned to categorize photographs of objects based on familiarity alone, our results also suggest an unlearned preference for "relevant" familiar objects. The results presented here suggest that pigeons are able to learn to extract the discriminative feature of abstract familiarity from pictures by referring to previous real-life experience but that additional functions of objects lead to a preference of these objects. PMID:23584617

Stephan, Claudia; Wilkinson, Anna; Huber, Ludwig

2013-11-01

120

Timing and Tuning for Familiarity of Cortical Responses to Faces  

PubMed Central

Different kinds of known faces activate brain areas to dissimilar degrees. However, the tuning to type of knowledge, and the temporal course of activation, of each area have not been well characterized. Here we measured, with functional magnetic resonance imaging, brain activity elicited by unfamiliar, visually familiar, and personally-familiar faces. We assessed response amplitude and duration using flexible hemodynamic response functions, as well as the tuning to face type, of regions within the face processing system. Core face processing areas (occipital and fusiform face areas) responded to all types of faces with only small differences in amplitude and duration. In contrast, most areas of the extended face processing system (medial orbito-frontal, anterior and posterior cingulate) had weak responses to unfamiliar and visually-familiar faces, but were highly tuned and exhibited prolonged responses to personally-familiar faces. This indicates that the neural processing of different types of familiar faces not only differs in degree, but is probably mediated by qualitatively distinct mechanisms. PMID:24130761

Bobes, Maria A.; Lage Castellanos, Agustin; Quiñones, Ileana; García, Lorna; Valdes-Sosa, Mitchell

2013-01-01

121

The Importance of Unitization for Familiarity-Based Learning.  

PubMed

It is often assumed that recollection is necessary to support memory for novel associations, whereas familiarity supports memory for single items. However, the levels of unitization framework assumes that familiarity can support associative memory under conditions in which the components of an association are unitized (i.e., treated as a single coherent item). In the current study we tested two critical assumptions of this framework. First, does unitization reflect a specialized form of learning or is it simply a form of semantic or elaborative encoding, and, second, can the beneficial effects of unitization on familiarity be observed for across-domain associations or are they limited to creating new associations between items that are from the same stimulus domains? Unitization was found to increase associative recognition but not item recognition. It affected familiarity more than recollection, increased associative but not item priming, and was dissociable from levels of processing effects. Moreover, unitization effects were found to be particularly effective in supporting face-word and fractal-sound pairs. The current results indicate that unitization reflects a specialized form of learning that supports associative familiarity of within- and across-domain associations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25329077

Parks, Colleen M; Yonelinas, Andrew P

2014-10-20

122

Familiar shapes attract attention in figure-ground displays.  

PubMed

We report five experiments that explore the effect of figure-ground factors on attention. We hypothesized that figural cues, such as familiar shape, would draw attention to the figural side in an attentional cuing task using bipartite figure-ground displays. The first two experiments used faces in profile as the familiar shape and found a perceptual advantage for targets presented on the meaningful side of the central contour in detection speed (Experiment 1) and discrimination accuracy (Experiment 2). The third experiment demonstrated the figural advantage in response time (RT) with nine other familiar shapes (including a sea horse, a guitar, a fir tree, etc.), but only when targets appeared in close proximity to the contour. A fourth experiment obtained a figural advantage in a discrimination task with the larger set of familiar shapes. The final experiment ruled out eye movements as a possible confounding factor by replicating the RT advantage for targets on the figural side of face displays when all trials containing eye movements were eliminated. The results are discussed in terms of ecological influences on attention, and are cast within the framework of Yantis and Jonides's hypothesis that attention is exogenously drawn to the onset of new perceptual objects. We argue that the figural side constitutes an "object" whereas the ground side does not, and that figural cues such as shape familiarity are effective in determining which areas represent objects. PMID:17672426

Nelson, Rolf A; Palmer, Stephen E

2007-04-01

123

Children do not exhibit ambiguity aversion despite intact familiarity bias  

PubMed Central

The phenomenon of ambiguity aversion, in which risky gambles with known probabilities are preferred over ambiguous gambles with unknown probabilities, has been thoroughly documented in adults but never measured in children. Here, we use two distinct tasks to investigate ambiguity preferences of children (8- to 9-year-olds) and a comparison group of adults (19- to 27-year-olds). Across three separate measures, we found evidence for significant ambiguity aversion in adults but not in children and for greater ambiguity aversion in adults compared to children. As ambiguity aversion in adults has been theorized to result from a preference to bet on the known and avoid the unfamiliar, we separately measured familiarity bias and found that children, like adults, are biased towards the familiar. Our findings indicate that ambiguity aversion emerges across the course of development between childhood and adolescence, while a familiarity bias is already present in childhood. PMID:25601848

Li, Rosa; Brannon, Elizabeth M.; Huettel, Scott A.

2015-01-01

124

How familiarization and repetition modulate the picture naming network.  

PubMed

A common strategy to reveal the components of the speech production network is to use psycholinguistic manipulations previously tested in behavioral protocols. This often disregards how implementation aspects that are nonessential for interpreting behavior may affect the neural response. We compared the electrophysiological (EEG) signature of two popular picture naming protocols involving either unfamiliar pictures without repetitions or repeated familiar pictures. We observed significant semantic interference effects in behavior but not in the EEG, contrary to some previous findings. Remarkably, the two protocols elicited clearly distinct EEG responses. These were not due to naming latency differences nor did they reflect a homogeneous modulation of amplitude over the trial time-window. The effect of protocol is attributed to the familiarization induced by the first encounter with the materials. Picture naming processes can be substantially modulated by specific protocol requirements controlled by familiarity and, to a much lesser degree, the repetition of materials. PMID:24785306

Llorens, Anaïs; Trébuchon, Agnès; Riès, Stéphanie; Liégeois-Chauvel, Catherine; Alario, F-Xavier

2014-06-01

125

A familiar font drives early emotional effects in word recognition.  

PubMed

The emotional connotation of a word is known to shift the process of word recognition. Using the electroencephalographic event-related potentials (ERPs) approach it has been documented that early attentional processing of high-arousing negative words is shifted at a stage of processing where a presented word cannot have been fully identified. Contextual learning has been discussed to contribute to these effects. The present study shows that a manipulation of the familiarity with a word's shape interferes with these earliest emotional ERP effects. Presenting high-arousing negative and neutral words in a familiar or an unfamiliar font results in very early emotion differences only in case of familiar shapes, whereas later processing stages reveal similar emotional effects in both font conditions. Because these early emotion-related differences predict later behavioral differences, it is suggested that contextual learning of emotional valence comprises more visual features than previously expected to guide early visual-sensory processing. PMID:25226214

Kuchinke, Lars; Krause, Beatrix; Fritsch, Nathalie; Briesemeister, Benny B

2014-10-01

126

Route following and the pigeon's familiar area map.  

PubMed

Homing pigeons (Columba livia) have been the central model of avian navigation research for many decades, but only more recently has research extended into understanding their mechanisms of orientation in the familiar area. The discovery (facilitated by GPS tracking) that pigeons gradually acquire with experience individually idiosyncratic routes home to which they remain faithful on repeated releases, even if displaced off-route, has helped uncover the fundamental role of familiar visual landmarks in the avian familiar area map. We evaluate the robustness and generality of the route-following phenomenon by examining extant studies in depth, including the single published counter-example, providing a detailed comparison of route efficiencies, flight corridor widths and fidelity. We combine this analysis with a review of inferences that can be drawn from other experimental approaches to understanding the nature of familiar area orientation in pigeons, including experiments on landmark recognition, and response to clock-shift, to build the first detailed picture of how bird orientation develops with experience of the familiar area. We articulate alternative hypotheses for how guidance might be controlled during route following, concluding that although much remains unknown, the details of route following strongly support a pilotage interpretation. Predictable patterns of efficiency increase, but limited to the local route, typical corridor widths of 100-200 m, high-fidelity pinch-points on route, attraction to landscape edges, and a robustness to clock-shift procedures, all demonstrate that birds can associatively acquire a map of their familiar area guided (at least partially) by direct visual control from memorised local landscape features. PMID:24431141

Guilford, Tim; Biro, Dora

2014-01-15

127

Familiarity, expertise, and change detection: change deafness is worse in your native language.  

PubMed

We first replicated the language-familiarity effect for voice discrimination and found better voice discrimination in familiar languages. However, when listeners were not cued to listen for changes, both English and Spanish speakers exhibited greater change deafness in their familiar language. Results suggest that lexical/semantic attention in a familiar language and increased indexical processing in an unfamiliar language can produce greater change deafness in familiar languages. PMID:24919355

Neuhoff, John G; Schott, Steven A; Kropf, Adam J; Neuhoff, Emily M

2014-01-01

128

Gasto publico en educacion y distribucion del ingreso en el Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

El estudio evalúa los efectos que el gasto público en educación ha tenido sobre la distribución del ingreso en el Perú. Las transferencias desde el presupuesto público son analizados revisando el destino del gasto en educación por estratos socioeconómicos, y su impacto de corto plazo en términos de la mejora del ingreso familiar y la modificación de la estructura distributiva.

José Rodríguez

1992-01-01

129

Assessing Student Interest and Familiarity with Professional Psychology Specialty Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined undergraduate psychology students' (N = 83) self-reported interest in and familiarity with five specialty areas in professional psychology: counseling psychology, clinical psychology, school psychology, forensic psychology, and criminal profiling. Results suggest that although students are quite interested in careers…

Stark-Wroblewski, Kimberly; Wiggins, Tina L.; Ryan, Joseph J.

2006-01-01

130

Does Familiarity with Text Breed Complacency or Vigilance?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proofreading one's own writing is difficult due to the overfamiliarity of one's writing, which has been claimed to conceal errors, even extraneous errors inserted by someone else (as in collaborative writing). In the present research, we examined whether increasing one's familiarity with text can indeed have a negative influence on error…

Pilotti, Maura; Chodorow, Martin

2012-01-01

131

The Effect of Conceptual and Contextual Familiarity on Transfer Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Applying a previously learned concept to a novel problem is an important but difficult process called transfer. It is suggested that a commonsense analogy aids in transfer by linking novel concepts to familiar ones. How the context of practice affects transfer when learning using analogies is still unclear. This study investigated the effect of a…

Kulasegaram, Kulamakan; Min, Cynthia; Ames, Kimberly; Howey, Elizabeth; Neville, Alan; Norman, Geoffrey

2012-01-01

132

Recollection- and Familiarity-Based Decisions Reflect Memory Strength  

PubMed Central

We used event-related fMRI to investigate whether recollection- and familiarity-based memory judgments are modulated by the degree of visual similarity between old and new art paintings. Subjects performed a flower detection task, followed by a Remember/Know/New surprise memory test. The old paintings were randomly presented with new paintings, which were either visually similar or visually different. Consistent with our prediction, subjects were significantly faster and more accurate to reject new, visually different paintings than new, visually similar ones. The proportion of false alarms, namely remember and know responses to new paintings, was significantly reduced with decreased visual similarity. The retrieval task evoked activation in multiple visual, parietal and prefrontal regions, within which remember judgments elicited stronger activation than know judgments. New, visually different paintings evoked weaker activation than new, visually similar items in the intraparietal sulcus. Contrasting recollection with familiarity revealed activation predominantly within the precuneus, where the BOLD response elicited by recollection peaked significantly earlier than the BOLD response evoked by familiarity judgments. These findings suggest that successful memory retrieval of pictures is mediated by activation in a distributed cortical network, where memory strength is manifested by differential hemodynamic profiles. Recollection- and familiarity-based memory decisions may therefore reflect strong memories and weak memories, respectively. PMID:18958245

Wiesmann, Martin; Ishai, Alumit

2008-01-01

133

The Concept Smacks of Magic: Fighting Familiarity Today  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Good educational ethnography whether done by sociologists or anthropologists, makes the familiar strange. The history of that proposition is outlined, and five strategies available to all ethnographers focused on teaching and learning, whether sociologists or anthropologists of education or not, are outlined. The vital importance of the working…

Delamont, Sara; Atkinson, Paul; Pugsley, Lesley

2010-01-01

134

Changes in Conceptual Tempo Over Time: Development vs. Logical Familiarization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Age-related and test-retest changes in reflection and impulsivity were investigated among preschool and school age subjects and senior adults. A study of each age group was conducted using either the Matching Familiar Figures test (MFF) or the Kansas Reflection-Impulsivity Scale for Preschoolers (KRISP). In all three studies the procedure was to…

Wright, John C.; And Others

135

The Familiar Observer: Seeing beyond the Expected in Educational Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reflection on subjectivity in the qualitative research process is fundamental to the methodology. Although much attention is paid to what to do (identify subjectivities), there is much less emphasis on how one should do this. Furthermore, a researcher engaged in an intimately familiar setting, such as a typical American classroom, faces the unique…

Hollenbeck, Amy Feiker

2015-01-01

136

The Sensorimotor Contributions to Implicit Memory, Familiarity, and Recollection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The sensorimotor contributions to memory for prior occurrence were investigated. Previous research has shown that both implicit memory and familiarity draw on gains in stimulus-related processing fluency for old, compared with novel, stimuli, but recollection does not. Recently, it has been demonstrated that processing fluency itself resides in…

Topolinski, Sascha

2012-01-01

137

In situ stem cell therapy: novel targets, familiar challenges  

E-print Network

stem cells: the goal of control Stem cell research has escalated significantly in recent yearsIn situ stem cell therapy: novel targets, familiar challenges Smita Agrawal and David V. Schaffer and engrafting embryonic or adult stem cells have significant potential for tissue repair but harnessing endo

Schaffer, David V.

138

Music and Emotions in the Brain: Familiarity Matters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of music in our daily life has given rise to an increased number of studies addressing the brain regions involved in its appreciation. Some of these studies controlled only for the familiarity of the stimuli, while others relied on pleasantness ratings, and others still on musical preferences. With a listening test and a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

Carlos Silva Pereira; João Teixeira; Patrícia Figueiredo; João Xavier; São Luís Castro; Elvira Brattico

2011-01-01

139

Estudio sobre el desarrollo de protocolos familiars en Galicia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A research project on Galician family business, financed by the Coruña University during years 2004 and 2005, has allowed to analyze the answers, coming from 57 Galician familiar companies that invoiced in year 2003 more than 5 million euro. One of the aspects gathered in this project, and that constitutes the object of study of this article, shows as it

Susana BARBEITO ROIBAL; Diego CRESPO PEREIRA; Manuel MARTÍNEZ CARBALLO; Eduardo GUILLÉN SOLÓRZANO

2008-01-01

140

Color preference and familiarity in performance on brand logo recall.  

PubMed

Two experiments assessed effects of color preference and brand-logo familiarity on recall performance. Exp. 1 explored the color preferences, using a forced-choice technique, of 189 women and 63 men, Taiwanese college students ages 18 to 20 years (M = 19.4, SD = 1.5). The sequence of the three most preferred colors was white, light blue, and black and of the three least preferred colors was light orange, dark violet, and dark brown. Exp. 2 investigated the effects of color preference based on the results of Exp. 1 and brand-logo familiarity on recall. A total of 27 women and 21 men, Taiwanese college students ages 18 to 20 years (M = 19.2, SD = 1.2) participated. They memorized a list of 24 logos (four logos shown in six colors) and then performed sequential recall. Analyses showed color preference significantly affected recall accuracy. Accuracy for high color preference was significantly greater than that for low preferences. Results showed no significant effects of brand-logo familiarity or sex on accuracy. In addition, the interactive effect of color preference and brand-logo familiarity on accuracy was significant. These results have implications for the design of brand logos to create and sustain memory of brand images. PMID:19093619

Huang, Kuo-Chen; Lin, Chin-Chiuan; Chiang, Shu-Ying

2008-10-01

141

Infants' Tactual Discrimination of Novel and Familiar Tactual Stimuli.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forty 10-month-old infants were given two minutes to explore tactually an object in a totally darkened room. Subsequently, during a two-minute test trial in the dark, 10 infants were given the same object and 10 were given a novel shape. Novel shapes were manipulated significantly longer than familiar forms. (RH)

Soroka, Sherri MacKay; And Others

1979-01-01

142

Effects of Adult Familiarity on Social Behaviours in Angelman Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Individuals with Angelman syndrome appear strongly motivated by social contact, but there have been few studies that have examined the relationship between sociability and familiarity. In this study we compared social behaviour in Angelman syndrome when in contact with mothers and strangers. Methods: We systematically manipulated adult…

Mount, R.; Oliver, C.; Berg, K.; Horsler, K.

2011-01-01

143

Electrophysiological Signals of Familiarity and Recency in the Infant Brain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Electrophysiological work in nonhuman primates has established the existence of multiple types of signals in the temporal lobe that contribute to recognition memory, including information regarding a stimulus's relative novelty, familiarity, and recency of occurrence. We used high-density event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine whether young…

Snyder, Kelly A.; Garza, John; Zolot, Liza; Kresse, Anna

2010-01-01

144

Sustained Effects of Adaptation on the Perception of Familiar Faces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Figural aftereffects are commonly believed to be transient and to fade away in the course of milliseconds. We tested face aftereffects using familiar faces and found sustained effects lasting up to 1 week. In 3 experiments, participants were first exposed to distorted pictures of famous persons and then had to select the veridical face in a…

Carbon, Claus-Christian; Ditye, Thomas

2011-01-01

145

Lesson Summary Students play a board game to become familiar  

E-print Network

Lesson Summary Students play a board game to become familiar with the hazards of space travel Prior Knowledge & Skills Understanding of: · Space travel · Radiation and other energy forms Ability to: · Perform with the relative hazards associated with space travel, and the attendant personal and governmental problems

Mojzsis, Stephen J.

146

CAPTCHA Challenge Tradeoffs: Familiarity of Strings versus Degradation of Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is a well documented fact that, for human readers, familiar text is more legible than unfamiliar text. Current-generation com- puter vision systems also are able to exploit some kinds of prior knowledge of linguistic context: for example, many OCR systems can use known lexica (word-lists, such as of commonly occurring English words) to disambiguate interpretations. It is interesting that

Sui-yu Wang; Jon Louis Bentley

2006-01-01

147

Assessing the Dissociability of Recollection and Familiarity in Recognition Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognition memory is often modeled as constituting 2 separate processes, recollection and familiarity, rather than as constituting a single process mediated by a generic latent strength. One way of stating evidence for the more complex 2-process model is to show dissociations with select manipulations, in which one manipulation affects…

Pratte, Michael S.; Rouder, Jeffrey N.

2012-01-01

148

Visual laterality in dolphins: importance of the familiarity of stimuli  

PubMed Central

Background Many studies of cerebral asymmetries in different species lead, on the one hand, to a better understanding of the functions of each cerebral hemisphere and, on the other hand, to develop an evolutionary history of hemispheric laterality. Our animal model is particularly interesting because of its original evolutionary path, i.e. return to aquatic life after a terrestrial phase. The rare reports concerning visual laterality of marine mammals investigated mainly discrimination processes. As dolphins are migrant species they are confronted to a changing environment. Being able to categorize new versus familiar objects would allow dolphins a rapid adaptation to novel environments. Visual laterality could be a prerequisite to this adaptability. To date, no study, to our knowledge, has analyzed the environmental factors that could influence their visual laterality. Results We investigated visual laterality expressed spontaneously at the water surface by a group of five common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in response to various stimuli. The stimuli presented ranged from very familiar objects (known and manipulated previously) to familiar objects (known but never manipulated) to unfamiliar objects (unknown, never seen previously). At the group level, dolphins used their left eye to observe very familiar objects and their right eye to observe unfamiliar objects. However, eyes are used indifferently to observe familiar objects with intermediate valence. Conclusion Our results suggest different visual cerebral processes based either on the global shape of well-known objects or on local details of unknown objects. Moreover, the manipulation of an object appears necessary for these dolphins to construct a global representation of an object enabling its immediate categorization for subsequent use. Our experimental results pointed out some cognitive capacities of dolphins which might be crucial for their wild life given their fission-fusion social system and migratory behaviour. PMID:22239860

2012-01-01

149

Silent Gains: Instituto Buena Bista and Art as Catalyst among Curacaoan Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considering the limited opportunities and resources for creative education, artists David Bade and Tirzo Martha, along with art historian Nancy Hoffmann, developed a dynamic platform to support creative young talent on the Dutch Caribbean island of Curacao. The aim of Instituto Buena Bista (IBB), founded in 2006, is to strengthen the arena of…

Gonzalez, Iberia Perez

2010-01-01

150

Enlightenment, Education, and the Republican Project: Chile's "Instituto Nacional" (1810-1830)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article analyses the establishment of the "Instituto Nacional de Chile" between 1810 and 1830 as a crucial element of a political and cultural project advanced from an enlightened and republican elite. Its early inception in 1813 resulted from the necessity of consolidating a republican order, as shown by the different projects between 1810…

Baeza Ruz, Andres

2010-01-01

151

Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais -Laboratrio Associado de Plasma 1 Project ELISA  

E-print Network

- Laboratório Associado de Plasma 14 Project ELISA: costs and timetable Launching06/2006 Construction of the electron beam can corroborate indirect evidences. 2. Study of electron heating by wave.0 Range(cm) Energy (MeV) protons electrons #12;Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais - Laboratório

152

In the Beginning Was the Familiar Voice Personally Familiar Voices in the Evolutionary and Contemporary Biology of Communication  

PubMed Central

The human voice is described in dialogic linguistics as an embodiment of self in a social context, contributing to expression, perception and mutual exchange of self, consciousness, inner life, and personhood. While these approaches are subjective and arise from phenomenological perspectives, scientific facts about personal vocal identity, and its role in biological development, support these views. It is our purpose to review studies of the biology of personal vocal identity -- the familiar voice pattern-- as providing an empirical foundation for the view that the human voice is an embodiment of self in the social context. Recent developments in the biology and evolution of communication are concordant with these notions, revealing that familiar voice recognition (also known as vocal identity recognition or individual vocal recognition) or contributed to survival in the earliest vocalizing species. Contemporary ethology documents the crucial role of familiar voices across animal species in signaling and perceiving internal states and personal identities. Neuropsychological studies of voice reveal multimodal cerebral associations arising across brain structures involved in memory, emotion, attention, and arousal in vocal perception and production, such that the voice represents the whole person. Although its roots are in evolutionary biology, human competence for processing layered social and personal meanings in the voice, as well as personal identity in a large repertory of familiar voice patterns, has achieved an immense sophistication. PMID:21710374

Sidtis, Diana; Kreiman, Jody

2011-01-01

153

In the beginning was the familiar voice: personally familiar voices in the evolutionary and contemporary biology of communication.  

PubMed

The human voice is described in dialogic linguistics as an embodiment of self in a social context, contributing to expression, perception and mutual exchange of self, consciousness, inner life, and personhood. While these approaches are subjective and arise from phenomenological perspectives, scientific facts about personal vocal identity, and its role in biological development, support these views. It is our purpose to review studies of the biology of personal vocal identity-the familiar voice pattern-as providing an empirical foundation for the view that the human voice is an embodiment of self in the social context. Recent developments in the biology and evolution of communication are concordant with these notions, revealing that familiar voice recognition (also known as vocal identity recognition or individual vocal recognition) has contributed to survival in the earliest vocalizing species. Contemporary ethology documents the crucial role of familiar voices across animal species in signaling and perceiving internal states and personal identities. Neuropsychological studies of voice reveal multimodal cerebral associations arising across brain structures involved in memory, emotion, attention, and arousal in vocal perception and production, such that the voice represents the whole person. Although its roots are in evolutionary biology, human competence for processing layered social and personal meanings in the voice, as well as personal identity in a large repertory of familiar voice patterns, has achieved an immense sophistication. PMID:21710374

Sidtis, Diana; Kreiman, Jody

2012-06-01

154

AMRICA LATINA -AFRICA -ASIA -MEDITERRNEO -ULTRAMAR TROPICAL FRANCS s En los pases del Sur 36  

E-print Network

información 50 s La evaluación 51 s La deontología y la ética 52 Recursos y pilotaje del instituto s El en el conjunto de la zona intertropical, el IRD cumple tres misiones fundamentales: inves- tigación

155

Humans have precise knowledge of familiar geographical slants  

PubMed Central

Whereas maps primarily represent the 2D layout of the environment, people are also aware of the 3D layout of their environment. An experiment conducted on a small college campus tested whether the remembered slants of familiar paths were precisely represented. Three measures of slant (verbal, manual and pictorial) were collected in two different between-subject conditions (perception and memory) for five familiar paths on the campus of Swarthmore College ranging in slant from 0.5° to 8.6°. Estimates from memory and from perception did not differ for any of the measures. Moreover, estimates from all measures, though different in mean value, were correlated within participants, suggesting a common underlying representation was consulted in all cases. PMID:23895446

Stigliani, Anthony; Li, Zhi; Durgin, Frank H.

2014-01-01

156

Involvement of right piriform cortex in olfactory familiarity judgments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown activation of right orbitofrontal cortex during judgments of odor familiarity. In the present study, we sought to extend our knowledge about the neural circuits involved in such a task by exploring the involvement of the right prefrontal areas and limbic\\/primary olfactory structures. Fourteen right-handed male subjects were tested using fMRI with a single functional run of

Jane Plailly; Moustafa Bensafi; Mathilde Pachot-Clouard; Chantal Delon-Martin; David A. Kareken; Catherine Rouby; Christoph Segebarth; Jean-P. Royet

2005-01-01

157

Interaction Between Agents in Routine, Familiar and Unfamiliar Situation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A framework for designing a multiagent system (MAS) in which agents are capable of coordinatingtheir activities in routine, familiar, and unfamiliar situations is proposed. This frameworkis based on the skills, rules and knowledge (S-R-K) taxonomy of Rasmussen. Thus, the proposedframework should allow agents to prefer the lower skill-based and rule-based levels rather thanthe higher knowledge-based level because it is generally

Brahim Chaib-draa

1996-01-01

158

Recollection, Familiarity and the frontal lobes: the effects of healthy adult aging   

E-print Network

According to the dual process theory of memory there are two processes that contribute to recognition memory: familiarity and recollection. The present study looks at the effects of healthy adult aging on recollection and familiarity...

Allan, Elizabeth

2008-06-28

159

Children's identification of familiar songs from pitch and timing cues.  

PubMed

The goal of the present study was to ascertain whether children with normal hearing and prelingually deaf children with cochlear implants could use pitch or timing cues alone or in combination to identify familiar songs. Children 4-7 years of age were required to identify the theme songs of familiar TV shows in a simple task with excerpts that preserved (1) the relative pitch and timing cues of the melody but not the original instrumentation, (2) the timing cues only (rhythm, meter, and tempo), and (3) the relative pitch cues only (pitch contour and intervals). Children with normal hearing performed at high levels and comparably across the three conditions. The performance of child implant users was well above chance levels when both pitch and timing cues were available, marginally above chance with timing cues only, and at chance with pitch cues only. This is the first demonstration that children can identify familiar songs from monotonic versions-timing cues but no pitch cues-and from isochronous versions-pitch cues but no timing cues. The study also indicates that, in the context of a very simple task, young implant users readily identify songs from melodic versions that preserve pitch and timing cues. PMID:25147537

Volkova, Anna; Trehub, Sandra E; Schellenberg, E Glenn; Papsin, Blake C; Gordon, Karen A

2014-01-01

160

Children's identification of familiar songs from pitch and timing cues  

PubMed Central

The goal of the present study was to ascertain whether children with normal hearing and prelingually deaf children with cochlear implants could use pitch or timing cues alone or in combination to identify familiar songs. Children 4–7 years of age were required to identify the theme songs of familiar TV shows in a simple task with excerpts that preserved (1) the relative pitch and timing cues of the melody but not the original instrumentation, (2) the timing cues only (rhythm, meter, and tempo), and (3) the relative pitch cues only (pitch contour and intervals). Children with normal hearing performed at high levels and comparably across the three conditions. The performance of child implant users was well above chance levels when both pitch and timing cues were available, marginally above chance with timing cues only, and at chance with pitch cues only. This is the first demonstration that children can identify familiar songs from monotonic versions—timing cues but no pitch cues—and from isochronous versions—pitch cues but no timing cues. The study also indicates that, in the context of a very simple task, young implant users readily identify songs from melodic versions that preserve pitch and timing cues. PMID:25147537

Volkova, Anna; Trehub, Sandra E.; Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Papsin, Blake C.; Gordon, Karen A.

2014-01-01

161

Familiarity effects on categorization levels of faces and objects  

PubMed Central

It is well established that faces, in contrast to objects, are categorized as fast or faster at the individual level (e.g., Bill Clinton) than at the basic-level (e.g., human face). This subordinate-shift from basic-level categorization has been considered an outcome of visual expertise with processing faces. However, in the present study we found that, similar to familiar faces, categorization of individually-known familiar towers is also faster at the individual level than at the basic-level in naïve participants. In addition, category-verification of familiar stimuli, at basic and superordinate levels, was slower and less accurate compared to unfamiliar stimuli. Thus, the existence of detailed semantic information, regardless of expertise, can induce a shift in the default level of object categorization from basic to individual level. Moreover, the individually-specific knowledge is not only more easily-retrieved from memory but it might also interfere with accessing more general category information. PMID:19217085

Anaki, David; Bentin, Shlomo

2009-01-01

162

Lay causal theories and familiarity with mental illness 1 The Blame Game  

E-print Network

Lay causal theories and familiarity with mental illness 1 The Blame Game: Lay causal theories and familiarity with mental illness Margaret A. Martinez Senior Thesis in Psychology Advisor: Susan Nolen-Hoeksema April 19, 2010 #12;Lay causal theories and familiarity with mental illness 2 Abstract The present study

Scholl, Brian

163

Investigating Faculty Familiarity with Assessment Terminology by Applying Cluster Analysis to Interpret Survey Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A cluster analysis was conducted with a set of survey data on chemistry faculty familiarity with 13 assessment terms. Cluster groupings suggest a high, middle, and low overall familiarity with the terminology and an independent high and low familiarity with terms related to fundamental statistics. The six resultant clusters were found to be…

Raker, Jeffrey R.; Holme, Thomas A.

2014-01-01

164

Sex differences in attraction to familiar and unfamiliar opposite-sex faces: men prefer novelty and women prefer familiarity.  

PubMed

Familiarity is attractive in many types of stimuli and exposure generally increases feelings of liking. However, men desire a greater number of sexual partners than women, suggesting a preference for novelty. We examined sex differences in preferences for familiarity. In Study 1 (N = 83 women, 63 men), we exposed individuals to faces twice and found that faces were judged as more attractive on the second rating, reflecting attraction to familiar faces, with the exception that men's ratings of female faces decreased on the second rating, demonstrating attraction to novelty. In Studies 2 (N = 42 women, 28 men) and 3 (N = 51 women, 25 men), exposure particularly decreased men's ratings of women's attractiveness for short-term relationships and their sexiness. In Study 4 (N = 64 women, 50 men), women's attraction to faces was positively related to self-rated similarity to their current partner's face, while the effect was significantly weaker for men. Potentially, men's attraction to novelty may reflect an adaptation promoting the acquisition of a high number of sexual partners. PMID:23740467

Little, Anthony C; DeBruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C

2014-07-01

165

El presidente Obama anuncia nombramiento del doctor Harold Varmus  

Cancer.gov

En un correo electrónico enviado al personal del NCI, el doctor Francis Collins, director de los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud, dijo que Varmus “trae consigo un experiencia sin igual a todo nivel, no solo en la investigación científica más avanzada, sino también como líder en la creación de estrategias para mejorar el cuidado de los pacientes, la educación científica, la capacitación y el diseño de novedosas alianzas entre el sector público y el privado”.

166

Se inicia estudio de los NIH sobre respuestas excepcionales al tratamiento del cáncer  

Cancer.gov

La Iniciativa de Respuestas Excepcionales (Exceptional Responders Initiative), un estudio que investiga los factores moleculares de los tumores en pacientes de cáncer que responden en forma excepcional al tratamiento con medicamentos, se inició hoy bajo la guía del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI). Los científicos tratarán de identificar en los tumores las características moleculares que predicen si un medicamento o una clase de medicamento en particular será beneficioso o no.

167

Faculdade ou Institutos Total Dem/Ofer Faculdade de Direito -FDD 12  

E-print Network

Tecnologia em Arquitetura e Urbanismo 8 THA - Dep. de Teoria e História em Arquitetura e Urbanismo 7. Teorias e Fundamentos 9 FACE 45 ADM 21 CCA - Ciências Contábeis 5 Gestão de políticas Públicas - FACE 5 Instituto de Ciências Biológicas - IB 51 CEL - Biologia Celular 8 BOT - Botânica 10 CFS - Ciência

Maier, Rudolf Richard

168

ON PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF PAHs Mrcia M. C. Ferreira (PQ) and Rudolf Kiralj (PQ), Instituto de Qumica, Universidade  

E-print Network

ON PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF PAHs Márcia M. C. Ferreira (PQ) and Rudolf Kiralj (PQ), Instituto. Jacob, Pure Appl. Chem., 68 (1996) 301-308. 3 M. M. C. Ferreira, Chemosphere, 44 (2001) 125-146. FAPESP

Ferreira, Márcia M. C.

169

A neural mechanism underlying mating preferences for familiar individuals in medaka fish.  

PubMed

Social familiarity affects mating preference among various vertebrates. Here, we show that visual contact of a potential mating partner before mating (visual familiarization) enhances female preference for the familiarized male, but not for an unfamiliarized male, in medaka fish. Terminal-nerve gonadotropin-releasing hormone 3 (TN-GnRH3) neurons, an extrahypothalamic neuromodulatory system, function as a gate for activating mating preferences based on familiarity. Basal levels of TN-GnRH3 neuronal activity suppress female receptivity for any male (default mode). Visual familiarization facilitates TN-GnRH3 neuron activity (preference mode), which correlates with female preference for the familiarized male. GnRH3 peptides, which are synthesized specifically in TN-GnRH3 neurons, are required for the mode-switching via self-facilitation. Our study demonstrates the central neural mechanisms underlying the regulation of medaka female mating preference based on visual social familiarity. PMID:24385628

Okuyama, Teruhiro; Yokoi, Saori; Abe, Hideki; Isoe, Yasuko; Suehiro, Yuji; Imada, Haruka; Tanaka, Minoru; Kawasaki, Takashi; Yuba, Shunsuke; Taniguchi, Yoshihito; Kamei, Yasuhiro; Okubo, Kataaki; Shimada, Atsuko; Naruse, Kiyoshi; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Oka, Yoshitaka; Kubo, Takeo; Takeuchi, Hideaki

2014-01-01

170

Emotional contagion in mice: the role of familiarity.  

PubMed

Empathy is a complex emotional process that involves sharing an emotional state with another organism. The extent to which nonhuman animals are capable of empathizing with others is still far from clear, partly due to a lack of empirical work in this domain, but also due to definitional confusion of empathy with emotional contagion and other related terms. In this study, an observer mouse witnessed a familiar cagemate or an unfamiliar non-cagemate receiving electric foot shocks in an experiment that consisted of three periods: baseline (no shocks), test (shocks) and recovery (no shocks). Freezing behavior in the observer was significantly increased in the cagemate, as opposed to the non-cagemate condition during the test period, but not during baseline or recovery, emphasizing the role of familiarity in empathy-like processes. In agreement with this, we also found a correlation that approached significance between the total number of fecal droppings of the observers, as an indication of distress, and those of the demonstrator in the cagemate, but not in the non-cagemate, condition. While the freezing behavior of the demonstrators increased with time, reaching a maximum at the recovery period, the observers froze the most during the test period while the demonstrators were receiving the electric foot shocks. The observation that the freezing response of the observers ceased when the shocks in the adjacent compartment stopped could be due to a decrease in saliency of the demonstrators' behavioral response. Finally, the presence of a cagemate, as compared to a stranger, possibly reduced the demonstrator's pain-induced behavior, suggesting an ameliorating effect of familiarity on stress responses. PMID:24480421

Gonzalez-Liencres, Cristina; Juckel, Georg; Tas, Cumhur; Friebe, Astrid; Brüne, Martin

2014-04-15

171

STS-95 crew members participate in a SPACEHAB familiarization exercise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Inside the SPACECHAB training module, STS-95 Payload Specialist John Glenn, who is a senator from Ohio, tries on the mesh cap that he will wear on the mission to monitor and record brain waves during sleep. Mission Specialist Scott Parazynski, M.D., watches. Parazynski and Glenn are participating in SPACEHAB familiarization at the SPACEHAB Payload Processing Facility, Cape Canaveral. The mission, scheduled to launch Oct. 29, includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

1998-01-01

172

Not enough familiarity for fluency: Definitional encoding increases familiarity but does not lead to fluency attribution in associative recognition.  

PubMed

Five experiments were conducted to test whether encoding manipulations thought to encourage unitization would affect fluency attribution in associative recognition memory. Experiments 1a and 1b, which utilized a speeded recognition memory test, demonstrated that definitional encoding increased reliance on familiarity during the recognition memory test. Experiments 2a, 2b, and 3, however, replicated previous research that had shown that fluency is unlikely to be attributed as evidence of previous occurrence in associative recognition (Westerman, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 27:723-732, 2001). The results put limits on the degree to which fluency can influence recognition memory judgments, even in cases of enhanced familiarity, and are consistent with previous work suggesting that participants have preexperimental expectations about fluency that are difficult to change (e.g., Miller, Lloyd, & Westerman, Journal of Memory and Language 58:1080-1094, 2008), as well as with work suggesting that fluency has less of an influence on recognition memory decisions that are conceptual in nature (Parks, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 39:1280-1286, 2013). PMID:25035187

Lloyd, Marianne E; Hartman, Ashley; Ngo, Chi T; Ruser, Nicole; Westerman, Deanne L; Miller, Jeremy K

2015-01-01

173

Personality correlates of the Matching Familiar Figures Test in adults.  

PubMed

The Matching Familiar Figures Test (MFFT) measures a dimension of cognitive style known as reflection-impulsivity. Interpretations of the MFFT sometimes supplement its cognitive implications with one of two personality models, impulsivity and/or ego-resilience. Both models have received some research support from studies that used preadolescent subjects. The applicability of these two personality models to adults was evaluated in this research. In three studies on college students, one personality characteristic within the ego-resilience position, independent-oriented achievement, was found to differentiate between impulsive and reflective scorers on the MFFT. No support was found for the impulsivity position. Implications were drawn for the influence of personality on the MFFT. PMID:16367509

Davidson, W B

1984-10-01

174

Performance of normal adults on the Matching Familiar Figures Test.  

PubMed

Seventy-seven subjects underwent the Matching Familiar Figures Test (MFFT) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Mean latency to the first response (L) and square-root-transformed error score (T) on the MFFT were normally distributed in the sample. T was correlated positively with age and negatively with IQ; L was not significantly correlated with either. Orthogonal 'impulsiveness' (I) and 'efficiency' (E) indices were derived from the standard scores for L (zL) and T (zT) using the formulae I = zT - zE, and E = -(zT + zL). The interpretation of I and E, and the potential usefulness of the MFFT as a neuropsychological test, are discussed. PMID:3828604

van den Broek, M D; Bradshaw, C M; Szabadi, E

1987-02-01

175

Monodialectal and multidialectal infants' representation of familiar words.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Monolingual infants are typically studied as a homogenous group and compared to bilingual infants. This study looks further into two subgroups of monolingual infants, monodialectal and multidialectal, to identify the effects of dialect-related variation on the phonological representation of words. Using an Intermodal Preferential Looking task, the detection of mispronunciations in familiar words was compared in infants aged 1;8 exposed to consistent (monodialectal) or variable (multidialectal) pronunciations of words in their daily input. Only monodialectal infants detected the mispronunciations whereas multidialectal infants looked longer at the target following naming whether the label was correctly produced or not. This suggests that variable phonological input in the form of dialect variation impacts the degree of specificity of lexical representations in early infancy. PMID:24655564

Durrant, Samantha; Delle Luche, Claire; Cattani, Allegra; Floccia, Caroline

2015-03-01

176

From novel to familiar: tuning the brain for metaphors.  

PubMed

Metaphors are fundamental to creative thought and expression. Newly coined metaphors regularly infiltrate our collective vocabulary and gradually become familiar, but it is unclear how this shift from novel to conventionalized meaning happens in the brain. We investigated the neural career of metaphors in a functional magnetic resonance imaging study using extensively normed new metaphors and simulated the ordinary, gradual experience of metaphor conventionalization by manipulating participants' exposure to these metaphors. Results showed that the conventionalization of novel metaphors specifically tunes activity within bilateral inferior prefrontal cortex, left posterior middle temporal gyrus, and right postero-lateral occipital cortex. These results support theoretical accounts attributing a role for the right hemisphere in processing novel, low salience figurative meanings, but also show that conventionalization of metaphoric meaning is a bilaterally-mediated process. Metaphor conventionalization entails a decreased neural load within semantic networks rather than a hemispheric or regional shift across brain areas. PMID:22155328

Cardillo, Eileen R; Watson, Christine E; Schmidt, Gwenda L; Kranjec, Alexander; Chatterjee, Anjan

2012-02-15

177

STS-95 crew members participate in a SPACEHAB familiarization exercise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Inside the SPACEHAB training module, STS-95 Mission Specialist Scott Parazynski, M.D. (right), attaches sensors to the mesh cap worn by Payload Specialist John Glenn (back to camera). In the background is Ann Elliott, University of California, San Diego. Glenn will wear the cap on the mission to monitor and record brain waves during sleep. Parazynski and Glenn are participating in SPACEHAB familiarization at the SPACEHAB Payload Processing Facility, Cape Canaveral. The mission, scheduled to launch Oct. 29, includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar- observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

1998-01-01

178

From novel to familiar: Tuning the brain for metaphors  

PubMed Central

Metaphors are fundamental to creative thought and expression. Newly coined metaphors regularly infiltrate our collective vocabulary and gradually become familiar, but how does this shift from novel to conventionalized meaning happen in the brain? We investigated the neural career of metaphors in a functional magnetic resonance imaging study using extensively normed new metaphors and simulated the ordinary, gradual experience of metaphor conventionalization by manipulating participants’ exposure to these metaphors. Results showed that the conventionalization of novel metaphors specifically tunes activity within bilateral inferior prefrontal cortex, left posterior middle temporal gyrus, and right postero-lateral occipital cortex. These results support theoretical accounts attributing a role for the right hemisphere in processing novel, low salience figurative meanings, but also show that conventionalization of metaphoric meaning is a bilaterally-mediated process. Metaphor conventionalization entails a decreased neural load within semantic networks rather than a hemispheric or regional shift across brain areas. PMID:22155328

Cardillo, Eileen R.; Watson, Christine E.; Schmidt, Gwenda L.; Kranjec, Alexander; Chatterjee, Anjan

2012-01-01

179

Social familiarity modulates group living and foraging behaviour of juvenile predatory mites.  

PubMed

Environmental stressors during early life may have persistent consequences for phenotypic development and fitness. In group-living species, an important stressor during juvenile development is the presence and familiarity status of conspecific individuals. To alleviate intraspecific conflicts during juvenile development, many animals evolved the ability to discriminate familiar and unfamiliar individuals based on prior association and use this ability to preferentially associate with familiar individuals. Assuming that familiar neighbours require less attention than unfamiliar ones, as predicted by limited attention theory, assorting with familiar individuals should increase the efficiency in other tasks. We assessed the influence of social familiarity on within-group association behaviour, development and foraging of juvenile life stages of the group-living, plant-inhabiting predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. The observed groups consisted either of mixed-age familiar and unfamiliar juvenile mites or of age-synchronized familiar or unfamiliar juvenile mites or of pairs of familiar or unfamiliar larvae. Overall, familiar mites preferentially grouped together and foraged more efficiently, i.e. needed less prey at similar developmental speed and body size at maturity, than unfamiliar mites. Preferential association of familiar mites was also apparent in the inter-exuviae distances. Social familiarity was established by imprinting in the larval stage, was not cancelled or overridden by later conspecific contacts and persisted into adulthood. Life stage had an effect on grouping with larvae being closer together than nymphal stages. Ultimately, optimized foraging during the developmental phase may relax within-group competition, enhance current and future food supply needed for optimal development and optimize patch exploitation and leaving under limited food. PMID:22418859

Strodl, Markus A; Schausberger, Peter

2012-04-01

180

Social familiarity modulates group living and foraging behaviour of juvenile predatory mites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental stressors during early life may have persistent consequences for phenotypic development and fitness. In group-living species, an important stressor during juvenile development is the presence and familiarity status of conspecific individuals. To alleviate intraspecific conflicts during juvenile development, many animals evolved the ability to discriminate familiar and unfamiliar individuals based on prior association and use this ability to preferentially associate with familiar individuals. Assuming that familiar neighbours require less attention than unfamiliar ones, as predicted by limited attention theory, assorting with familiar individuals should increase the efficiency in other tasks. We assessed the influence of social familiarity on within-group association behaviour, development and foraging of juvenile life stages of the group-living, plant-inhabiting predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. The observed groups consisted either of mixed-age familiar and unfamiliar juvenile mites or of age-synchronized familiar or unfamiliar juvenile mites or of pairs of familiar or unfamiliar larvae. Overall, familiar mites preferentially grouped together and foraged more efficiently, i.e. needed less prey at similar developmental speed and body size at maturity, than unfamiliar mites. Preferential association of familiar mites was also apparent in the inter-exuviae distances. Social familiarity was established by imprinting in the larval stage, was not cancelled or overridden by later conspecific contacts and persisted into adulthood. Life stage had an effect on grouping with larvae being closer together than nymphal stages. Ultimately, optimized foraging during the developmental phase may relax within-group competition, enhance current and future food supply needed for optimal development and optimize patch exploitation and leaving under limited food.

Strodl, Markus A.; Schausberger, Peter

2012-04-01

181

Word learning in adults with second language experience: Effects of phonological and referent familiarity  

PubMed Central

Purpose The goal of this research was to examine whether phonological familiarity exerts different effects on novel word learning for familiar vs. unfamiliar referents, and whether successful word-learning is associated with increased second-language experience. Method Eighty-one adult native English speakers with various levels of Spanish knowledge learned phonologically-familiar novel words (constructed using English sounds) or phonologically-unfamiliar novel words (constructed using non-English and non-Spanish sounds) in association with either familiar or unfamiliar referents. Retention was tested via a forced-choice recognition-task. A median-split procedure identified high-ability and low-ability word-learners in each condition, and the two groups were compared on measures of second-language experience. Results Findings suggest that the ability to accurately match newly-learned novel names to their appropriate referents is facilitated by phonological familiarity only for familiar referents but not for unfamiliar referents. Moreover, more extensive second-language learning experience characterized superior learners primarily in one word-learning condition: Where phonologically-unfamiliar novel words were paired with familiar referents. Conclusions Together, these findings indicate that phonological familiarity facilitates novel word learning only for familiar referents, and that experience with learning a second language may have a specific impact on novel vocabulary learning in adults. PMID:22992709

Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon; Van Hecke, Stephanie

2014-01-01

182

You can't drink a word: lexical and individual emotionality affect subjective familiarity judgments.  

PubMed

For almost 30 years, subjective familiarity has been used in psycholinguistics as an explanatory variable, allegedly able to explain many phenomena that have no other obvious explanation (Gernsbacher in J Exp Psychol General 113:256-281, 1984). In this paper, the hypothesis tested is that the subjective familiarity of words is reflecting personal familiarity with or importance of the referents of words. Using an empirically-grounded model of affective force derived from Wundt (Grundriss der Psychologie [Outlines of Psychology]. Engelmann, Leibzig, 1896) and based in a co-occurrence model of semantics (which involves no human judgment), it is shown that affective force can account for the same variance in a large set of human subjective familiarity judgments as other human subjective familiarity judgments, can predict whether people will rate new words of the same objective frequency as more or less familiar, can predict lexical access as well as human subjective familiarity judgments do, and has a predicted relationship to age of acquisition norms. Individuals who have highly affective reactivity [as measured by Carver and White's (J Pers Soc Psychol 67(2):319-333, 1994) Behavioral Inhibition Scale and Behavioral Activation Scales] rate words as significantly more familiar than individuals who have low affective reactivity. PMID:24061785

Westbury, Chris

2014-10-01

183

The Price of Fame: The Impact of Stimulus Familiarity on Proactive Interference Resolution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interference from previously learned information, known as proactive interference (PI), limits our memory retrieval abilities. Previous studies of PI resolution have focused on the role of short-term familiarity, or recency, in causing PI. In the present study, we investigated the impact of long-term stimulus familiarity on PI resolution…

Prabhakaran, Ranjani; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.

2011-01-01

184

THE IMPACT OF BRAND FAMILIARITY, BRANDING AND DISTRIBUTION STRATEGY ON LUXURY BRAND DILUTION  

E-print Network

THE IMPACT OF BRAND FAMILIARITY, BRANDING AND DISTRIBUTION STRATEGY ON LUXURY BRAND DILUTION Fanny 60 68 halshs-00644893,version1-25Nov2011 #12;THE IMPACT OF BRAND FAMILIARITY, BRANDING AND DISTRIBUTION STRATEGY ON LUXURY BRAND DILUTION Fanny Magnoni, Cerag IAE Grenoble, Pierre Mendès France

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

185

Recognition Memory: Adding a Response Deadline Eliminates Recollection but Spares Familiarity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A current controversy in memory research concerns whether recognition is supported by distinct processes of familiarity and recollection, or instead by a single process wherein familiarity and recollection reflect weak and strong memories, respectively. Recent studies using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses in an animal model have…

Sauvage, Magdalena M.; Beer, Zachery; Eichenbaum, Howard

2010-01-01

186

Effect of brand familiarity, experience and information on online apparel purchase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of brand familiarity, the number of pieces of product information presented on a web site, and previous online apparel shopping experience on perceived risk and purchase intention. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The experiment was 2 (brand familiarity)×2 (information availability) factorial design and 166 students participated in this study. Findings –

Jihye Park; Leslie Stoel

2005-01-01

187

Effects of Familiarity and Feeding on Newborn Speech-Voice Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Newborn infants preferentially orient to familiar over unfamiliar speech sounds. They are also better at remembering unfamiliar speech sounds for short periods of time if learning and retention occur after a feed than before. It is unknown whether short-term memory for speech is enhanced when the sound is familiar (versus unfamiliar) and, if so,…

Valiante, A. Grace; Barr, Ronald G.; Zelazo, Philip R.; Brant, Rollin; Young, Simon N.

2013-01-01

188

The Role of Person Familiarity in Young Infants' Perception of Emotional Expressions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the role of person familiarity in 3.5-month-olds' ability to recognize emotional expressions. Found that when more contextual information such as person familiarity was available, infants as young as 3.5 months recognized happy and sad expressions. Findings suggest that in early stages, infants are sensitive to contextual information…

Kahana-Kalman, Ronit; Walker-Andrews, Arlene S.

2001-01-01

189

Familiar Face Recognition in Children with Autism: The Differential Use of Inner and Outer Face Parts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated whether children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) have a deficit in recognising familiar faces. Children with ASD were given a forced choice familiar face recognition task with three conditions: full faces, inner face parts and outer face parts. Control groups were children with developmental delay (DD) and typically…

Wilson, Rebecca; Pascalis, Olivier; Blades, Mark

2007-01-01

190

Congurational coding, familiarity and the right hemisphere advantage for face recognition in sheep  

E-print Network

Con®gurational coding, familiarity and the right hemisphere advantage for face recognition in sheep of familiar and unfamiliar faces in sheep using a 2-way discrimination task. Of particular interest were eects face a series of stimuli were presented to the sheep, designed to test for the use of each visual hemi

Nottingham, University of

191

Familiarity and Personal Experience as Mediators of Recall when Planning for Future Contingencies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we demonstrate that planning tasks enhance recall when the context of planning (a) is self-referential and (b) draws on familiar scenarios represented in episodic memory. Specifically, we show that when planning tasks are sorted according to the degree to which they evoke memories of personally familiar scenarios (e.g., planning a…

Klein, Stanley B.; Robertson, Theresa E.; Delton, Andrew W.; Lax, Moshe L.

2012-01-01

192

Involvement of the right piriform cortex in the familiarity judgment task of odors  

E-print Network

of two olfactory conditions (detection and familiarity judgment). Within each condition, three epochs study gives supports to the notion that PC participates in the processing of odor memory. It further; Familiarity judgment; Recognition memory; Piriform cortex; fMRI 2 inserm-00391173,version1-29Jul2011 #12

Boyer, Edmond

193

Eye Movement Control during Reading: Effects of Word Frequency and Orthographic Familiarity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Word frequency and orthographic familiarity were independently manipulated as readers' eye movements were recorded. Word frequency influenced fixation durations and the probability of word skipping when orthographic familiarity was controlled. These results indicate that lexical processing of words can influence saccade programming (as shown by…

White, Sarah J.

2008-01-01

194

The relationship between social behaviour and habitat familiarity in African elephants ( Loxodonta africana )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social associations with conspecifics can expedite animals' acclimation to novel environments. However, the benefits gained from sociality may change as the habitat becomes familiar. Furthermore, the particular individuals with whom animals associate upon arrival at a new place, familiar conspecifics or knowledgeable unfamiliar residents, may influence the type of information they acquire about their new home. To examine animals' social

Noa Pinter-Wollman; Lynne A. Isbell; Lynette A. Hart

2009-01-01

195

Prosopagnosia: a double dissociation between the recognition of familiar and unfamiliar faces.  

PubMed Central

Two cases of a dissociation between prosopagnosia and impaired capacity to match familiar faces were studied. Recognition of familiar faces recovered in the first patient, whereas prosopagnosia persisted in the second patient despite recovery of matching unfamiliar faces and other visuoperceptive skills. This double dissociation is discussed in relation to current views of prosopagnosia. Images PMID:7131015

Malone, D R; Morris, H H; Kay, M C; Levin, H S

1982-01-01

196

Recognition Memory and the Hippocampus: A Test of the Hippocampal Contribution to Recollection and Familiarity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has been suggested that the hippocampus selectively supports recollection and that adjacent cortex in the medial temporal lobe can support familiarity. Alternatively, it has been suggested that the hippocampus supports both recollection and familiarity. We tested these suggestions by assessing the performance of patients with hippocampal…

Jeneson, Annette; Kirwan, C. Brock; Hopkins, Ramona O.; Wixted, John T.; Squire, Larry R.

2010-01-01

197

Contribution of Familiarity and Recollection to Associative Recognition Memory: Insights from Event-related Potentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the dual-process perspective of recognition memory, it has been claimed that familiarity is sufficient to support recognition of single items, but recollection is necessary for associative recognition of item pairs. However, there are some reports suggesting that familiarity might support associative recognition judgments when the items form an easy to access bound representation. In contrast, recollection seems to be

Bertram Opitz; Sonia Cornell

2006-01-01

198

Boys Affiliate More than Girls with a Familiar Same-Sex Peer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence from ethnographic, observational, and experimental studies with humans converges to suggest that males affiliate more than females with unrelated, familiar same-sex peers, but this has never been examined directly. With this aim, we compared frequency of affiliation with a single, randomly chosen, familiar same-sex peer for the two sexes…

Benenson, Joyce F.; Quinn, Amanda; Stella, Sandra

2012-01-01

199

The Role of Face Familiarity in Eye Tracking of Faces by Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has been shown that individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) demonstrate normal activation in the fusiform gyrus when viewing familiar, but not unfamiliar faces. The current study utilized eye tracking to investigate patterns of attention underlying familiar versus unfamiliar face processing in ASD. Eye movements of 18 typically…

Sterling, Lindsey; Dawson, Geraldine; Webb, Sara; Murias, Michael; Munson, Jeffrey; Panagiotides, Heracles; Aylward, Elizabeth

2008-01-01

200

Mechanisms Supporting Superior Source Memory for Familiar Items: A Multi-Voxel Pattern Analysis Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent cognitive research has revealed better source memory performance for familiar relative to novel stimuli. Here we consider two possible explanations for this finding. The source memory advantage for familiar stimuli could arise because stimulus novelty induces attention to stimulus features at the expense of contextual processing, resulting…

Poppenk, Jordan; Norman, Kenneth A.

2012-01-01

201

Elementary School Teachers' Familiarity, Conceptual Knowledge, and Interest in Light  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored elementary school teachers' familiarity, conceptual knowledge, and interest in learning more about light and its related concepts. This study also sought to establish the relationship between elementary school teachers' familiarity, conceptual knowledge, and interest in learning light concepts. Sixty-six lower and…

Mumba, Frackson; Mbewe, Simon; Chabalengula, Vivien M.

2015-01-01

202

Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid Size-Dependent Chemosensory Responses to Familiar and  

E-print Network

and Unfamiliar Conspeci®c Faecal Pellets by the Iberian Rock-Lizard, Lacerta monticola Pedro Arago� n, Pilar Lo responses to familiar and unfa- miliar conspeci®c faecal pellets by the Iberian rock-lizard, Lacerta between males of the Iberian rock lizard (Lacerta monticola). The degree of familiarity was deter- mined

Alvarez, Nadir

203

Rapid Acquisition of a Novelty Versus Familiarity Concept by Pigeons (Columba livia )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pigeons performed a successive discrimination task in which responding to novel slides was rewarded, and responding to familiar slides, seen once previously, was not rewarded. In Experiment 1, naive Ss initially responded more rapidly to familiar slides, but all Ss learned to respond more rapidly to novel slides within a few sessions. In Experiment 2, Ss transferred immediately to novel

Euan M. Macphail; Steve Reilly

1989-01-01

204

Rhesus Monkeys See Who They Hear: Spontaneous Cross-Modal Memory for Familiar Conspecifics  

E-print Network

Rhesus Monkeys See Who They Hear: Spontaneous Cross-Modal Memory for Familiar Conspecifics Ikuma of America Abstract Rhesus monkeys gather much of their knowledge of the social world through visual input social behavior. We tested whether rhesus monkeys have cross-modal access to visual memory for familiar

Hampton, Robert

205

The Influence of Kinship on Familiar Natal Migrant Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)  

PubMed Central

In most primate species, females remain in the natal group with kin while males disperse away from kin around the time of puberty. Philopatric females bias their social behavior toward familiar maternal and paternal kin in several species, but little is known about kin bias in the dispersing sex. Male dispersal is likely to be costly because males encounter an increased risk of predation and death, which might be reduced by dispersing together with kin and/or familiar males (individuals that were born and grew up in same natal group) or into a group containing kin and/or familiar males. Here we studied the influence of kinship on familiar natal migrant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) on Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico, by combining demographic, behavioral, and genetic data. Our data suggest that kinship influences spatial proximity between recent natal immigrants and males familiar to them. Immigrants were significantly nearer to more closely related familiar males than to more distantly related individuals. Within a familiar subgroup, natal migrants were significantly closer to maternal kin, followed by paternal kin, then non-kin, and finally to males related via both the maternal and paternal line. Spatial proximity between natal immigrants and familiar males did not decrease over time in the new group, suggesting that there is no decline in associations between these individuals within the first months of immigration. Overall, our results might indicate that kinship is important for the dispersing sex, at least during natal dispersal when kin are still available. PMID:24850977

Albers, Monika; Widdig, Anja

2014-01-01

206

Basic Processes in Reading: On the Relation between Spatial Attention and Familiarity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments combined a spatial cueing manipulation (valid vs. invalid spatial cues) with a stimulus repetition manipulation (repeated vs. nonrepeated) in order to assess the hypothesis that familiar items need less spatial attention than less familiar ones. The magnitude of the effect of cueing on reading aloud time for items that were…

Risko, Evan F.; Stolz, Jennifer A.; Besner, Derek

2011-01-01

207

Female familiarity influences odor preferences and plasma estradiol levels in the meadow vole, Microtus pennsylvanicus.  

PubMed

To determine whether neighbor familiarity can affect reproduction, we studied the relationship between familiarity, odor preference, and plasma estradiol levels in the meadow vole, Microtus pennsylvanicus. Bedding was switched between pairs of female meadow voles for 2 wk to allow them to develop olfactory familiarity. When familiarization was complete animals were reexposed, after 24 h of no exposure to conspecific odors, to either the bedding of the familiar female or to the bedding of a new, unfamiliar female. Voles exposed to the bedding of unfamiliar females experienced a dramatic reversal in odor preference and failed to orient towards male odors. This behavioral change was accompanied by a significant decrease in plasma estradiol levels. These changes suggest that exposure to unfamiliar conspecifics may result in reproductive inhibition. Excessive contact between unfamiliar females in the field may be indicative of environmental conditions unfavorable to breeding. PMID:8848484

Fortier, G M; Erskine, M S; Tamarin, R H

1996-01-01

208

The Role of Face Familiarity in Eye Tracking of Faces by Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

PubMed Central

It has been shown that individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) demonstrate normal activation in the fusiform gyrus when viewing familiar, but not unfamiliar faces. The current study utilized eye tracking to investigate patterns of attention underlying familiar versus unfamiliar face processing in ASD. Eye movements of 18 typically developing participants and 17 individuals with ASD were recorded while passively viewing three face categories: unfamiliar non-repeating faces, a repeating highly familiar face, and a repeating previously unfamiliar face. Results suggest that individuals with ASD do not exhibit more normative gaze patterns when viewing familiar faces. A second task assessed facial recognition accuracy and response time for familiar and novel faces. The groups did not differ on accuracy or reaction times. PMID:18306030

Dawson, Geraldine; Webb, Sara; Murias, Michael; Munson, Jeffrey; Panagiotides, Heracles; Aylward, Elizabeth

2010-01-01

209

The role of oxytocin in familiarization-habituation responses to social novelty  

PubMed Central

Stress or arousal responses to novel social contexts ease off when individuals get familiar with the social context. In the present study we investigated whether oxytocin is involved in this process of familiarization-habituation as oxytocin is known to increase trust and decrease anxiety. Fifty-nine healthy female subjects took part in the same experimental procedure in two sessions separated by 4 weeks. In the first (novelty) session state trust scores were significantly positively correlated with salivary oxytocin levels while in the second (familiarity) session state trust scores were significantly negatively correlated with salivary oxytocin levels. In a path model oxytocin was associated with increased trust in the novelty session and trust was associated with decreased oxytocin levels in the familiarity session. The results are consistent with the idea that oxytocin decreases stress-to-novelty responses by promoting familiarization to novel social contexts. PMID:24151482

Tops, Mattie; Huffmeijer, Renske; Linting, Mariëlle; Grewen, Karen M.; Light, Kathleen C.; Koole, Sander L.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

2013-01-01

210

Feature diagnosticity affects representations of novel and familiar objects  

PubMed Central

Many features can describe a concept, but only some features define a concept in that they enable discrimination of items that are instances of a concept from (similar) items that are not. We refer to this property of some features as feature diagnosticity. Previous work has described the behavioral effects of feature diagnosticity, but there has been little work on explaining why and how these effects arise. In this study, we aimed to understand the impact of feature diagnosticity on concept representations across two complementary experiments. In Experiment 1, we manipulated the diagnosticity of one feature, color, for a set of novel objects that human subjects learned over the course of one week. We report behavioral and neural evidence that diagnostic features are likely to be automatically recruited during remembering. Specifically, individuals activated color-selective regions of ventral temporal cortex (specifically, left fusiform gyrus and left inferior temporal gyrus) when thinking about the novel objects, even though color information was never explicitly probed during the task. Moreover, multiple behavioral and neural measures of the effects of feature diagnosticity were correlated across subjects. In Experiment 2, we examined relative color association in familiar object categories, which varied in feature diagnosticity (fruits and vegetables, household items). Taken together, these results offer novel insights into the neural mechanisms underlying concept representations by demonstrating that automatic recruitment of diagnostic information gives rise to behavioral effects of feature diagnosticity. PMID:24800630

Hsu, Nina S.; Schlichting, Margaret L.; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.

2014-01-01

211

Olfactory Identification Test Using Familiar Distracters for Koreans  

PubMed Central

Objectives Odors used in an odor identification test should be familiar to the subject, but there are some unfamiliar distracters in Korean version of Sniffin' stick (KVSS) II identification test. In this study, we used the results of the original version of KVSS II identification to modify the KVSS II identification test. Methods Eighty-three participants took an original version of KVSS II identification test and a visual analogue scale of subjective odor function. KVSS II identification which has 16 items was performed to choose one out of four odors items. And visual analogue scale was checked from 0 to 10 points of their subjective olfactory function. Two weeks later they took the modified version of KVSS II identification test. Hyposmic or anosmic patients were excluded. Results The mean score of the original version of KVSS II identification and modified version of KVSS II identification were 11.3 and 12.5, respectively (P<0.05). The KVSS II identification test and subjective olfactory function were positively correlated (r=0.247, P<0.05), as were the modified KVSS II identification test and subjective olfactory function (r=0.329, P<0.05). Conclusion After modification of distracters, KVSS II identification test appears to be suited for assessment of olfactory function. PMID:24587876

Kim, Jae-Myung; Jeong, Mi Soon; Shin, Dong-Hyuk; Seol, Jeong-Hun; Hong, Seok-Chan; Cho, Jae Hoon

2014-01-01

212

Haptic recognition of familiar objects: examining lateralization of specificity effects.  

PubMed

Previous research has found evidence in favor of two subsystems underlying object recognition: an abstract-category subsystem that mainly works in the left hemisphere (LH) and a specific-exemplar subsystem that mainly works in the right hemisphere (RH). This asymmetry has been observed in both the visual and auditory domains by means of long-term repetition priming experiments. This study explored whether this asymmetrical pattern extends to the haptic domain through an experiment in which 30 right-handed participants (24 women) ages 18 to 38 years could identify familiar objects with a single hand. The procedure included two blocks of trials, the study (presentation of primes) and the test phase (presentation of targets), separated by a short distractor task. Of interest was if repetition of the same exemplar object (e.g., the same cigarette lighter) produced more priming than repetition of a different exemplar of the same object category (e.g., a different cigarette lighter), and, crucially, if this hypothetical same-exemplar advantage (specificity) was larger when objects were identified with the left hand (RH). An ANOVA was performed on RTs with priming type (same-exemplar primed, different-exemplar primed and unprimed) and hand (left, right) as within-participants factors. Results showed a main effect of priming type due to a same-exemplar advantage (shorter RTs) both for the left and the right hand, but a non-significant interaction between specificity effects and hands. PMID:25310231

González-Alvarez, Julio; Palomar-García, María-Ángeles

2014-10-01

213

[Instituto de Investigaciones Clinicas "Dr. Américo Negrette": 55 years of excellent research versus global economic recession].  

PubMed

The Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas "Dr. Américo Negrette" belongs to the Faculty of Medicine at University of Zulia in Maracaibo, Zulia State, Venezuela. It was created on December 4, 1959 by Dr. Américo Negrette. Today, with 55 years of existence, the Institute seeks to fulfill the mission that characterizes it, based on the values instilled by its founder and maintained by subsequent generations, whose research projects are implemented through seven research sections: Biochemistry, Hematologic Research, Neuropharmacology and Neuroscience, Immunology and Cell Biology, Clinical Neurochemistry, Parasitology and Virology. The research originated in these laboratories have become national and international points of reference, despite the current economic situation with budget deficits that put at risk the quality and originality of their projects with negative consequences on the productivity and applications for health population, reasons of biomedical research. PMID:25558749

Valero Cedeño, Nereida Josefina

2014-12-01

214

Silent gains: Instituto Buena Bista and art as catalyst among Curaçaoan youth.  

PubMed

Considering the limited opportunities and resources for creative education, artists David Bade and Tirzo Martha, along with art historian Nancy Hoffmann, developed a dynamic platform to support creative young talent on the Dutch Caribbean island of Curaçao. The aim of Instituto Buena Bista (IBB), founded in 2006, is to strengthen the arena of culture and the visual arts by offering young Curaçaoans a basic but thorough course in art education that is meant to function as a springboard to more advanced art schools. With only two years of operation, the IBB is already seeing how some of its students go to art academies abroad and participate in art contests in the Netherlands. An exploration of how the IBB is filling up a cultural void by proposing an alternative to local youth education that allows them to develop a buena bista-a new and different view of their island, their futures, and themselves. PMID:20391617

González, Iberia Pérez

2010-01-01

215

Ambient Dose Equivalent measured at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología Department of Nuclear Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ambient dose equivalent values were determined in several sites at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Departmento de Medicina Nuclear, using TLD-100 and TLD-900 thermoluminescent dosemeters. Additionally, ambient dose equivalent was measured at a corridor outside the hospitalization room for patients treated with 137Cs brachytherapy. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Laboratorio de Metrología, to known 137Cs gamma radiation air kerma. Radionuclides considered for this study are 131I, 18F, 67Ga, 99mTc, 111In, 201Tl and 137Cs, with main gamma energies between 93 and 662 keV. Dosemeters were placed during a five month period in the nuclear medicine rooms (containing gamma-cameras), injection corridor, patient waiting areas, PET/CT study room, hot lab, waste storage room and corridors next to the hospitalization rooms for patients treated with 131I and 137Cs. High dose values were found at the waste storage room, outside corridor of 137Cs brachytherapy patients and PET/CT area. Ambient dose equivalent rate obtained for the 137Cs brachytherapy corridor is equal to (18.51±0.02)×10-3 mSv/h. Sites with minimum doses are the gamma camera rooms, having ambient dose equivalent rates equal to (0.05±0.03)×10-3 mSv/h. Recommendations have been given to the Department authorities so that further actions are taken to reduce doses at high dose sites in order to comply with the ALARA principle (as low as reasonably achievable).

Ávila, O.; Torres-Ulloa, C. L.; Medina, L. A.; Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.; de Buen, I. Gamboa; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E.

2010-12-01

216

Ambient Dose Equivalent measured at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia Department of Nuclear Medicine  

SciTech Connect

Ambient dose equivalent values were determined in several sites at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Departmento de Medicina Nuclear, using TLD-100 and TLD-900 thermoluminescent dosemeters. Additionally, ambient dose equivalent was measured at a corridor outside the hospitalization room for patients treated with {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Laboratorio de Metrologia, to known {sup 137}Cs gamma radiation air kerma. Radionuclides considered for this study are {sup 131}I, {sup 18}F, {sup 67}Ga, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 111}In, {sup 201}Tl and {sup 137}Cs, with main gamma energies between 93 and 662 keV. Dosemeters were placed during a five month period in the nuclear medicine rooms (containing gamma-cameras), injection corridor, patient waiting areas, PET/CT study room, hot lab, waste storage room and corridors next to the hospitalization rooms for patients treated with {sup 131}I and {sup 137}Cs. High dose values were found at the waste storage room, outside corridor of {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy patients and PET/CT area. Ambient dose equivalent rate obtained for the {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy corridor is equal to (18.51{+-}0.02)x10{sup -3} mSv/h. Sites with minimum doses are the gamma camera rooms, having ambient dose equivalent rates equal to (0.05{+-}0.03)x10{sup -3} mSv/h. Recommendations have been given to the Department authorities so that further actions are taken to reduce doses at high dose sites in order to comply with the ALARA principle (as low as reasonably achievable).

Avila, O. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, AP 18-1027, 11801, DF (Mexico); Torres-Ulloa, C. L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, AP 18-1027, 11801, DF (Mexico); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 70-542, 04510, DF (Mexico); Medina, L. A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 20-364, 01000, DF (Mexico); Unidad de Investigacion Biomedica en Cancer INCan-UNAM, Av. San Fernando 22 C.P. 14080 (Mexico); Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E. [Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia (INCan), Av. San Fernando 22, C.P. 14080 (Mexico); Gamboa de Buen, I. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 70-543, 04510 DF (Mexico); Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 20-364, 01000, DF (Mexico)

2010-12-07

217

Instituto de Fsica Interdisciplinaria y Sistemas Complejos (IFISC) El IFISC (Instituto de Fsica Interdisciplinaria y Sistemas Complejos) es un centro de titularidad compartida  

E-print Network

and Mechanisms of Social Interactions in the Big Data Era, con la colaboración de la Universidad Carlos III de ecología y fisiología -- Dinámica y efectos colectivos en sistemas sociales Resumen de las actividades y, International Federation for Information Processing y la Network of Excellence in Internet Science (del 9 al 10

Oro, Daniel

218

Cortical representations of personally familiar objects and places: functional organization of the human posterior cingulate cortex.  

PubMed

The recognition of both personally familiar objects and places involves nonspatial memory retrieval processes, but only personally familiar places are represented as space. Although the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) is considered to process both types of such memories, its functional organization is poorly understood. In this event-related fMRI study, normal subjects judged familiar/unfamiliar pictures in four categories: familiar places (FP), familiar objects (FO), unfamiliar places (UP), and unfamiliar objects (UO), thus constituting a two-factorial design. A significant main effect of stimuli with greater activation in the place (FP and UP) than object (FO and UO) trials was observed bilaterally in several medial temporo-occipito-parietal regions, including the caudal PCC (cPCC) and parahippocampal gyrus. The reverse comparison revealed greater activation in the lateral inferior occipito-temporal junctions and intraparietal sulci bilaterally. A significant main effect of familiarity with greater activation in the familiar (FP and FO) than unfamiliar (UP and UO) trials was observed in the mid-dorsal PCC (mPCC), retrosplenial cortex, posterior precuneus, and the left intraparietal sulcus. Activation specific to the FP trials (as assessed by the interaction) was observed in the right posterodorsal PCC (pPCC) only. Together with data from previous functional imaging studies, the results suggest a functional segregation of human PCC with differential involvement of pPCC in spatial representations of personally familiar places and of the mPCC and retrosplenial cortex in episodic retrieval of personally familiar places and objects. Activation of the left intraparietal sulcus may reflect retrieval of memories related to object manipulation. PMID:15811232

Sugiura, Motoaki; Shah, Nadim J; Zilles, Karl; Fink, Gereon R

2005-02-01

219

Effects of novelty and familiarity on illness-induced aversions to food and place cues in coyotes (Canis latrans)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments investigated the effects of novelty and familiarity on illness-induced aversions to taste and place cues in 10 coyotes. Ss were made ill on familiar food laced with Li2CO3 in a novel place and then received preference tests. In Exp I, Ss avoided the previously poisoned familiar food in the novel treatment place but readily ate the same familiar

Stuart R. Ellins; Lucien Thompson; William E. Swanson

1983-01-01

220

Differential response of coyotes to novel stimuli in familiar and unfamiliar environments  

SciTech Connect

The behavioral responses shown by captive coyotes, Canis latrans, to novel objects and artificial scent stations in familiar and unfamiliar environments were studied to determine how coyotes potentially respond to novel stimuli used in coyote management and research. Coyotes showed little avoidance of novel objects and scent stations when they were encountered in unfamiliar environments while avoidance was frequently observed with the same stimuli encountered in familiar environments, and supported the hypothesis that coyotes are more vulnerable to trapping and man-induced mortality when outside of the familiar environment of their territories.

Harris, C.E.; Knowlton, F.F.

1986-01-01

221

Social familiarity relaxes the constraints of limited attention and enhances reproduction of group-living predatory mites  

PubMed Central

In many group-living animals, within-group associations are determined by familiarity, i.e. familiar individuals, independent of genetic relatedness, preferentially associate with each other. The ultimate causes of this behaviour are poorly understood and rigorous documentation of its adaptive significance is scarce. Limited attention theory states that focusing on a given task has interrelated cognitive, behavioural and physiological costs with respect to the attention paid to other tasks. In multiple signal environments attention has thus to be shared among signals. Assuming that familiar neighbours require less attention than unfamiliar ones, associating with familiar individuals should increase the efficiency in other tasks and ultimately increase fitness. We tested this prediction in adult females of the group-living, plant-inhabiting predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. We evaluated the influence of social familiarity on within-group association behaviour, activity, predation and reproduction. In mixed groups (familiar and unfamiliar), familiar predator females preferentially associated with each other. In pure groups (either familiar or unfamiliar), familiar predator females produced more eggs than unfamiliar females at similar predation rates. Higher egg production was correlated with lower activity levels, indicating decreased restlessness. In light of limited attention theory, we argue that the ability to discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar individuals and preferential association with familiar individuals confers a selective advantage because familiar social environments are cognitively and physiologically less taxing than unfamiliar social environments. PMID:24273345

Strodl, Markus A.; Schausberger, Peter

2013-01-01

222

Social modelling of food intake. The role of familiarity of the dining partners and food type.  

PubMed

In a social eating context, people tend to model the food intake of their dining companions. In general, people tend to eat more when their dining companion eats more and less when their eating companion eats less. In the present paper we investigate 1) whether familiarity of dining partners affects modelling and 2) whether modelling is affected by whether familiar partners consume the same versus different foods. In both studies, female dyads completed a task together whilst having access to high energy dense snack foods. Modelling was observed regardless of the familiarity of the dining partners and food types consumed. These findings confirm that social modelling of food intake is a robust phenomenon that occurs even among familiar dining partners and when partners are consuming different types of snack food. PMID:25308433

Kaisari, Panagiota; Higgs, Suzanne

2015-03-01

223

Alumni Admission Program Guidelines Alumni Admission Program (AAP) members are expected to be familiar with the  

E-print Network

to be familiar with the University's basic facts and must abide by the ethical recruiting standards of our Be approachable and friendly (a smile and handshake are great ice o breakers). Establish eye contact

Heller, Barbara

224

The relationship between social behaviour and habitat familiarity in African elephants  

E-print Network

The relationship between social behaviour and habitat familiarity in African elephants (Loxodonta behaviour of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) translocated into a novel environment. We found that the translocated elephants' association with conspecifics decreased over time supporting our hypothesis

Pinter-Wollman, Noa

225

Visual influence of shapes and semantic familiarity on human sweet sensitivity.  

PubMed

Vision influences taste. It is known that color plays an important role in flavor perception. However, the effect of other features of visual information such as shapes and semantic familiarity of words on the taste perception, particularly on taste sensitivity, is not clear yet. Here we study whether the sweet taste sensitivity of the subjects is affected by such visual inputs. By displaying basic geometric patterns or words with different degrees of semantic familiarity as visual inputs, the subjects rate the hedonic and semantic familiar scores, and taste a series of sucrose solutions, and their sweet sensitivities are accordingly analyzed. Our results show (1) shapes with curvature like circle and ellipse, with higher hedonic scores, increase the sweet sensitivity, whereas angular shapes like square, rectangle, triangle and pentagram do not affect sweet sensitivity; (2) semantic familiar words, with higher hedonic ratings as well, increase sweet sensitivity, whereas unfamiliar words do not affect or even reduce sweet sensitivities. PMID:23835044

Liang, Pei; Roy, Soumyajit; Chen, Meng-Ling; Zhang, Gen-Hua

2013-09-15

226

Apollo lunar surface experiments package. Apollo 17 ALSEP (array E) familiarization course handout  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The familiarization course for the Apollo 17 ALSEP (ARRAY E) is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) power and data subsystems, (2) lunar surface gravimeter, (3) lunar mass spectrometer, (4) lunar seismic profiling experiment, and (5) heat flow experiment.

1972-01-01

227

Familiar music as an enhancer of self-consciousness in patients with Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

The main objective of this paper is to examine the impact of familiar music on self-consciousness (SC) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). For this purpose, two AD groups of 20 patients matched by age, educational level, gender, illness duration, and cognitive state were assessed using an SC questionnaire before and after music intervention. The SC questionnaire measured several aspects: personal identity, anosognosia, affective state, body representation, prospective memory, introspection and moral judgments. One AD group received familiar music stimulation and another AD group unfamiliar music stimulation over three months. The AD patients who received a familiar music intervention showed a stabilization or improvement in aspects of SC. By contrast, control AD group showed a deterioration of most of the SC aspects after unfamiliar music stimulation, except the SC aspects of body representation and affective state. Familiar music stimulation could be considered as an enhancer of SC in patients with Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24106716

Arroyo-Anlló, Eva M; Díaz, Juan Poveda; Gil, Roger

2013-01-01

228

Asymmetry in pay-off predicts how familiar individuals respond to one another  

PubMed Central

Familiarity influences individual decision-making in many vertebrate species. Here, we propose that familiarity modulates behaviour to different extents depending on the social context of the interaction. Specifically, the more that one player stands to gain relative to the other, the less important familiarity will be in influencing their responses to one another. We test this prediction using pairs of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in three competitive scenarios of increasing asymmetry in outcome to the two players: schooling under potential threat (similar outcomes), competing for a defensible food source (some asymmetry) and competing for a receptive female (strongly asymmetrical outcomes). Males show a graded response as asymmetry increases, with familiarity producing marked behavioural differences under potential threat, minor changes when competing for food, but none at all in competition for mating opportunities. This suggests that mutualistic benefits can arise as a by-product of selfish behaviour, supporting the role of pseudo-reciprocity in the evolution of cooperation. PMID:23576778

Granroth-Wilding, Hanna M. V.; Magurran, Anne E.

2013-01-01

229

Brand familiarity and tasting in conjoint analysis : An experimental study with Croatian beer consumers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aims of this paper is to determine, via an empirical study of beer consumers in Croatia, the influence of tasting on the validity of conjoint analysis (CA) under presence of familiar or unfamiliar brands. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The research comprised a face-to-face survey with 403 beer consumers. The respondents were divided into four groups regarding CA experiment (familiar\\/unfamiliar

Marija Cerjak; Rainer Haas; Damir Kova?i?

2010-01-01

230

Familiarization (n) as a stimulus factor in paired-associate verbal learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

120 Ss practiced paired-associate lists with different degrees of stimulus or response familiarity. It was found that familiarization (n) and meaningfulness (m) operations do not produce equivalent effects on verbal behavior. Findings from other studies were discussed, and a tentative 2-factor hypothesis was presented to account for the differential roles played by m and n in paired-associate learning. (27 ref.)

Donald R. Gannon; Clyde E. Noble

1961-01-01

231

Contextual influences on the relationship between familiarity and hedonicity of odors.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate how the presence or absence of a verbal label of an odor affects its familiarity or hedonicity. In addition, we wanted to examine how the participants' age or sex influences the effect of odor-label presentation on familiarity and hedonicity. A total of 12 odorants from the "Sniffin' Sticks" odor identification test were presented to 133 participants (50 men and 83 women) with an age range from 5 to 74 y. Familiarity and hedonicity of the odorants were assessed by using a 6-point scoring scale both before and after participants received the odor label. In 5 and 8 odorants, respectively, odor familiarity and hedonicity were significantly different between before and after participants had received the label. Moreover, the relationship between the odor familiarity and hedonicity was different between the situation when participants had an odor label or not. Specifically, in odors that had been perceived as relatively pleasant without a label (orange, cinnamon, lemon, and banana) the correlation between hedonicity and familiarity decreased after the label had been presented. This was the other way around for odors that had been rated as relatively unpleasant when presented without a label (shoe leather, coffee, clove, and fish). Moreover, the odor label effects on the relationship between odor familiarity and hedonicity seemed to be influenced by the participants' age and sex. In conclusion, our results indicate that the relationship between odor familiarity and hedonicity is not always positive, and is influenced by the presence of an odor label and other variables, including the participants' sex, age, and expectations. PMID:19241571

Seo, H S; Buschhüter, D; Hummel, T

2008-08-01

232

ERP correlates of source memory: Unitized source information increases familiarity-based retrieval  

PubMed Central

Source memory tests typically require subjects to make decisions about the context in which an item was encoded and are thought to depend on recollection of details from the study episode. Although it is generally believed that familiarity does not contribute to source memory, recent behavioral studies have suggested that familiarity may also support source recognition when item and source information are integrated, or “unitized”, during study (Diana, Yonelinas, and Ranganath 2008). However, an alternative explanation of these behavioral findings is that unitization affects the manner in which recollection contributes to performance, rather than increasing familiarity-based source memory. To discriminate between these possibilities, we conducted an event-related potential (ERP) study testing the hypothesis that unitization increases the contribution of familiarity to source recognition. Participants studied associations between words and background colors using tasks that either encouraged or discouraged unitization. ERPs were recorded during a source memory test for background color. The results revealed two distinct neural correlates of source recognition: a frontally-distributed positivity that was associated with familiarity-based source memory in the high unitization condition only and a parietally-distributed positivity that was associated with recollection-based source memory in both the high unitization and low unitization conditions. The ERP and behavioral findings provide converging evidence for the idea that familiarity can contribute to source recognition, particularly when source information is encoded as an item detail. PMID:20965154

Diana, Rachel A.; Van den Boom, Wijnand; Yonelinas, Andrew P.; Ranganath, Charan

2011-01-01

233

ERP correlates of source memory: unitized source information increases familiarity-based retrieval.  

PubMed

Source memory tests typically require subjects to make decisions about the context in which an item was encoded and are thought to depend on recollection of details from the study episode. Although it is generally believed that familiarity does not contribute to source memory, recent behavioral studies have suggested that familiarity may also support source recognition when item and source information are integrated, or "unitized," during study (Diana, Yonelinas, and Ranganath, 2008). However, an alternative explanation of these behavioral findings is that unitization affects the manner in which recollection contributes to performance, rather than increasing familiarity-based source memory. To discriminate between these possibilities, we conducted an event-related potential (ERP) study testing the hypothesis that unitization increases the contribution of familiarity to source recognition. Participants studied associations between words and background colors using tasks that either encouraged or discouraged unitization. ERPs were recorded during a source memory test for background color. The results revealed two distinct neural correlates of source recognition: a frontally distributed positivity that was associated with familiarity-based source memory in the high-unitization condition only and a parietally distributed positivity that was associated with recollection-based source memory in both the high- and low-unitization conditions. The ERP and behavioral findings provide converging evidence for the idea that familiarity can contribute to source recognition, particularly when source information is encoded as an item detail. PMID:20965154

Diana, Rachel A; Van den Boom, Wijnand; Yonelinas, Andrew P; Ranganath, Charan

2011-01-01

234

Familiar Person Recognition: Is Autonoetic Consciousness More Likely to Accompany Face Recognition Than Voice Recognition?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Autonoetic consciousness is a fundamental property of human memory, enabling us to experience mental time travel, to recollect past events with a feeling of self-involvement, and to project ourselves in the future. Autonoetic consciousness is a characteristic of episodic memory. By contrast, awareness of the past associated with a mere feeling of familiarity or knowing relies on noetic consciousness, depending on semantic memory integrity. Present research was aimed at evaluating whether conscious recollection of episodic memories is more likely to occur following the recognition of a familiar face than following the recognition of a familiar voice. Recall of semantic information (biographical information) was also assessed. Previous studies that investigated the recall of biographical information following person recognition used faces and voices of famous people as stimuli. In this study, the participants were presented with personally familiar people's voices and faces, thus avoiding the presence of identity cues in the spoken extracts and allowing a stricter control of frequency exposure with both types of stimuli (voices and faces). In the present study, the rate of retrieved episodic memories, associated with autonoetic awareness, was significantly higher from familiar faces than familiar voices even though the level of overall recognition was similar for both these stimuli domains. The same pattern was observed regarding semantic information retrieval. These results and their implications for current Interactive Activation and Competition person recognition models are discussed.

Barsics, Catherine; Brédart, Serge

2010-11-01

235

Familiarity affects social network structure and discovery of prey patch locations in foraging stickleback shoals  

PubMed Central

Numerous factors affect the fine-scale social structure of animal groups, but it is unclear how important such factors are in determining how individuals encounter resources. Familiarity affects shoal choice and structure in many social fishes. Here, we show that familiarity between shoal members of sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) affects both fine-scale social organization and the discovery of resources. Social network analysis revealed that sticklebacks remained closer to familiar than to unfamiliar individuals within the same shoal. Network-based diffusion analysis revealed that there was a strong untransmitted social effect on patch discovery, with individuals tending to discover a task sooner if a familiar individual from their group had previously done so than if an unfamiliar fish had done so. However, in contrast to the effect of familiarity, the frequency with which individuals had previously associated with one another had no effect upon the likelihood of prey patch discovery. This may have been due to the influence of fish on one another's movements; the effect of familiarity on discovery of an empty ‘control’ patch was as strong as for discovery of an actual prey patch. Our results demonstrate that factors affecting fine-scale social interactions can also influence how individuals encounter and exploit resources. PMID:25009061

Atton, N.; Galef, B. J.; Hoppitt, W.; Webster, M. M.; Laland, K. N.

2014-01-01

236

Recollection, not familiarity, decreases in healthy ageing: Converging evidence from four estimation methods.  

PubMed

Although it is generally accepted that ageing is associated with recollection impairments, there is considerable disagreement surrounding how healthy ageing influences familiarity-based recognition. One factor that might contribute to the mixed findings regarding age differences in familiarity is the estimation method used to quantify the two mnemonic processes. Here, this issue is examined by having a group of older adults (N = 39) between 40 and 81 years of age complete remember/know (RK), receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) and process dissociation (PD) recognition tests. Estimates of recollection, but not familiarity, showed a significant negative correlation with chronological age. Inconsistent with previous findings, the estimation method did not moderate the relationship between age and estimates of recollection and familiarity. In a final analysis, recollection and familiarity were estimated as latent factors in a confirmatory factor analysis that modelled the covariance between measures of free recall and recognition, and the results converged with the results from the RK, PD and ROC tasks. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that episodic memory declines in older adults are primary driven by recollection deficits, and also suggest that the estimation method plays little to no role in age-related decreases in familiarity. PMID:25485974

Koen, Joshua D; Yonelinas, Andrew P

2014-12-01

237

Birds of a feather... Generalization of facial structures following massive familiarization.  

PubMed

Three experiments examined the effects of symmetry and complexity, as facial structures, on the aesthetic judgments of faces, and how these effects are modulated by moderate or massive familiarization. Results showed that symmetrical faces were judged as more attractive than nonsymmetrical faces, and simple faces were judged as more attractive than complex faces-with complexity defined as the number of facial elements. Complexity in faces seemed to have overridden the usually positive effects of facial symmetry. Moreover, while moderate familiarization did not modulate the effects, massive familiarization to a specific face type resulted in structural generalization effects: participants provided higher aesthetic judgments to faces that were new, but similarly structured to those which they were familiarized. This latter result contrasts previous studies that have found structural contrast effects following familiarization to meaningless, abstract stimuli. Taken together, these results reflect the greater biological and social significance of faces as compared to other objects in the world. They also show that people are drawn to those with familiar characteristics. PMID:24076329

Tinio, Pablo P L; Gerger, Gernot; Leder, Helmut

2013-11-01

238

Scent of the familiar: An fMRI study of canine brain responses to familiar and unfamiliar human and dog odors.  

PubMed

Understanding dogs' perceptual experience of both conspecifics and humans is important to understand how dogs evolved and the nature of their relationships with humans and other dogs. Olfaction is believed to be dogs' most powerful and perhaps important sense and an obvious place to begin for the study of social cognition of conspecifics and humans. We used fMRI in a cohort of dogs (N=12) that had been trained to remain motionless while unsedated and unrestrained in the MRI. By presenting scents from humans and conspecifics, we aimed to identify the dimensions of dogs' responses to salient biological odors - whether they are based on species (dog or human), familiarity, or a specific combination of factors. We focused our analysis on the dog's caudate nucleus because of its well-known association with positive expectations and because of its clearly defined anatomical location. We hypothesized that if dogs' primary association to reward, whether it is based on food or social bonds, is to humans, then the human scents would activate the caudate more than the conspecific scents. Conversely, if the smell of conspecifics activated the caudate more than the smell of humans, dogs' association to reward would be stronger to their fellow canines. Five scents were presented (self, familiar human, strange human, familiar dog, strange dog). While the olfactory bulb/peduncle was activated to a similar degree by all the scents, the caudate was activated maximally to the familiar human. Importantly, the scent of the familiar human was not the handler, meaning that the caudate response differentiated the scent in the absence of the person being present. The caudate activation suggested that not only did the dogs discriminate that scent from the others, they had a positive association with it. This speaks to the power of the dog's sense of smell, and it provides important clues about the importance of humans in dogs' lives. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Canine Behavior. PMID:24607363

Berns, Gregory S; Brooks, Andrew M; Spivak, Mark

2015-01-01

239

Managing by passion, professionalism and performance : the MBP³ model : an alternative management framework developed for the Instituto de Ciencias Terra-Mar (ICTM)  

E-print Network

The objective of this thesis is to develop a new, tailor-made and innovative managerial framework for the Instituto de Ciencias Terra-Mar (ICTM). The ICTM is a multi-functional science and technology institute dedicated ...

Coelho, Alexandre C. (Alexandre Costa)

2007-01-01

240

Dogs and their human companions: The effect of familiarity on dog-human interactions.  

PubMed

There are few quantitative examinations of the extent to which dogs discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar persons. In our study we have investigated whether dogs show differential behaviour towards humans of different degrees of familiarity (owner, familiar person, unfamiliar person). Dogs and humans were observed in eight test situations: (1) Three-way strange situation test, (2) Calling in from food, (3) Obedience test, (4) Walking away, (5) Threatening approach, (6) Playful interaction, (7) Food inhibition test and (8) Manipulation of the dog's body. Dogs distinguished between the owner and the two other test partners in those tests which involved separation from the owner (Test 1, 4), were aversive for the dog (Test 5) or involved playing interaction (Test 6). Our results revealed that the owner cannot be replaced by a familiar person in situations provoking elevated anxiety and fear. In contrasts, dogs did not discriminate between the owner and the familiar person in those tests that were based on obedient behaviour or behaviour towards an assertive person (Tests 2, 3, 7 and 8). Dogs' former training experience reduced the difference between their behaviour towards the owner and the familiar person in situations requiring obedience but it did not mask it totally. The dogs' behaviour towards each of the humans participating in the tests was consistent all over the test series. In summary, dogs discriminated between their owner and the unfamiliar person and always preferred the owner to the unfamiliar person. However, the discrimination between the owner and the familiar person is context-specific. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Canine Behavior. PMID:24548652

Kerepesi, Andrea; Dóka, Antal; Miklósi, Ádám

2015-01-01

241

Effect of Familiarity on Reward Anticipation in Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders  

PubMed Central

Background Previous research on the reward system in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) suggests that children with ASD anticipate and process social rewards differently than typically developing (TD) children—but has focused on the reward value of unfamiliar face stimuli. Children with ASD process faces differently than their TD peers. Previous research has focused on face processing of unfamiliar faces, but less is known about how children with ASD process familiar faces. The current study investigated how children with ASD anticipate rewards accompanied by familiar versus unfamiliar faces. Methods The stimulus preceding negativity (SPN) of the event-related potential (ERP) was utilized to measure reward anticipation. Participants were 6- to 10-year-olds with (N?=?14) and without (N?=?14) ASD. Children were presented with rewards accompanied by incidental face or non-face stimuli that were either familiar (caregivers) or unfamiliar. All non-face stimuli were composed of scrambled face elements in the shape of arrows, controlling for visual properties. Results No significant differences between familiar versus unfamiliar faces were found for either group. When collapsing across familiarity, TD children showed larger reward anticipation to face versus non-face stimuli, whereas children with ASD did not show differential responses to these stimulus types. Magnitude of reward anticipation to faces was significantly correlated with behavioral measures of social impairment in the ASD group. Conclusions The findings do not provide evidence for differential reward anticipation for familiar versus unfamiliar face stimuli in children with or without ASD. These findings replicate previous work suggesting that TD children anticipate rewards accompanied by social stimuli more than rewards accompanied by non-social stimuli. The results do not support the idea that familiarity normalizes reward anticipation in children with ASD. Our findings also suggest that magnitude of reward anticipation to faces is correlated with levels of social impairment for children with ASD. PMID:25184524

Stavropoulos, Katherine K. M.; Carver, Leslie J.

2014-01-01

242

Historia del IAC HISTORIA RECIENTE DEL IAC  

E-print Network

a Canarias con un claro objetivo: estudiar la calidad astronómica de las cumbres de Tenerife. Previamente astronómica de las cumbres de Tenerife y La Palma y que, al final, se reconozca internacionalmente la Cabildos de la provincia de Santa Cruz de Tenerife. En él se integra el Instituto Universitario de

243

Something old, something new: a developmental transition from familiarity to novelty preferences with hidden objects  

PubMed Central

Novelty seeking is viewed as adaptive, and novelty preferences in infancy predict cognitive performance into adulthood. Yet 7-month-olds prefer familiar stimuli to novel ones when searching for hidden objects, in contrast to their strong novelty preferences with visible objects (Shinskey & Munakata, 2005). According to a graded representations perspective on object knowledge, infants gradually develop stronger object representations through experience, such that representations of familiar objects can be better maintained, supporting greater search than with novel objects. Object representations should strengthen with further development to allow older infants to shift from familiarity to novelty preferences with hidden objects. The current study tested this prediction by presenting 24 11-month-olds with novel and familiar objects that were sometimes visible and sometimes hidden. Unlike 7-month-olds, 11-month-olds showed novelty preferences with both visible and hidden objects. This developmental shift from familiarity to novelty preference with hidden objects parallels one that infants show months earlier with perceptible stimuli, but the two transitions may reflect different underlying mechanisms. The current findings suggest both change and continuity in the adaptive development of object representations and associated cognitive processes. PMID:20136935

Shinskey, Jeanne L.; Munakata, Yuko

2009-01-01

244

The effect of familiarity on behavior of kenneled dogs during interactions with conspecifics.  

PubMed

Kenneled environments often prevent direct physical contact between dogs, potentially causing stress, and so it has been recommended that such contact should be provided. This study examined the effect of familiarity on the behavior of dogs during off-lead interaction. Kenneled dogs (3 breeds) were given 15-min off-lead interactions with a familiar dog and an unfamiliar dog; the behavior of the focal dog and the distance between the dogs were recorded. More time in contact and interaction behaviors were recorded at 0 to 3 min with unfamiliar dogs than with familiar dogs. At 9 to 12 min, familiar pairs spent more time within 5 body lengths and more time being followed than unfamiliar pairs, who spent more time at more than 5 body lengths apart. This suggests that the initial interaction is more important when dogs are unfamiliar, but once this "greeting" has occurred, unfamiliar pairs are more likely to investigate their surroundings independently rather than together. Breed differences were observed only at 0 to 3 min. The study suggests that familiarity should be taken into account when assessing the effectiveness of conspecific contact as a potential enrichment for kennel-housed dogs. PMID:23282294

Pullen, Anne J; Merrill, Ralph J N; Bradshaw, John W S

2013-01-01

245

The awareness of novelty for strangely familiar words: a laboratory analogue of the déjà vu experience.  

PubMed

Déjà vu is a nebulous memory experience defined by a clash between evaluations of familiarity and novelty for the same stimulus. We sought to generate it in the laboratory by pairing a DRM recognition task, which generates erroneous familiarity for critical words, with a monitoring task by which participants realise that some of these erroneously familiar words are in fact novel. We tested 30 participants in an experiment in which we varied both participant awareness of stimulus novelty and erroneous familiarity strength. We found that déjà vu reports were most frequent for high novelty critical words (?25%), with low novelty critical words yielding only baseline levels of déjà vu report frequency (?10%). There was no significant variation in déjà vu report frequency according to familiarity strength. Discursive accounts of the experimentally-generated déjà vu experience suggest that aspects of the naturalistic déjà vu experience were captured by this analogue, but that the analogue was also limited in its focus and prone to influence by demand characteristics. We discuss theoretical and methodological considerations relevant to further development of this procedure and propose that verifiable novelty is an important component of both naturalistic and experimental analogues of déjà vu. PMID:25401055

Urquhart, Josephine A; O'Connor, Akira R

2014-01-01

246

The awareness of novelty for strangely familiar words: a laboratory analogue of the déjà vu experience  

PubMed Central

Déjà vu is a nebulous memory experience defined by a clash between evaluations of familiarity and novelty for the same stimulus. We sought to generate it in the laboratory by pairing a DRM recognition task, which generates erroneous familiarity for critical words, with a monitoring task by which participants realise that some of these erroneously familiar words are in fact novel. We tested 30 participants in an experiment in which we varied both participant awareness of stimulus novelty and erroneous familiarity strength. We found that déjà vu reports were most frequent for high novelty critical words (?25%), with low novelty critical words yielding only baseline levels of déjà vu report frequency (?10%). There was no significant variation in déjà vu report frequency according to familiarity strength. Discursive accounts of the experimentally-generated déjà vu experience suggest that aspects of the naturalistic déjà vu experience were captured by this analogue, but that the analogue was also limited in its focus and prone to influence by demand characteristics. We discuss theoretical and methodological considerations relevant to further development of this procedure and propose that verifiable novelty is an important component of both naturalistic and experimental analogues of déjà vu. PMID:25401055

Urquhart, Josephine A.

2014-01-01

247

Profile of patients with Baggio-Yoshinari Syndrome admitted at "Instituto de Infectologia Emilio Ribas".  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological, clinical and laboratorial profile of patients with Baggio-Yoshinari Syndrome (BYS), who underwent internment at the Instituto de Infectologia Emilio Ribas in São Paulo, Brazil, during the period from July 1990 to July 2006. BYS is a new Brazilian tick-borne disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato microorganisms that resembles features of Lyme disease (LD), except for its epidemiological, clinical and laboratorial particularities. From 60 patients' records with positive serology to B. burgdorferi done by ELISA and Western-blotting methods, 19 cases were diagnosed as having BYS, according to criteria adopted at LIM-17 HCFMUSP, the Brazilian Reference Laboratory for the research of BYS. The other 41 remaining patients displayed miscellaneous infections or auto-immune processes. The beginning of symptoms in BYS group varied from one day to six years, from the onset of the disease. Four of 19 patients were included in acute disease stage, and 15 in latent. General unspecific symptoms were identified in almost all cases, with high frequencies of fever (78.9%) and lymphadenomegaly (36.8%). Six patients had skin lesions (31.5%); six arthralgia or arthritis (31.5%) and eight neurological symptoms (42%). Interestingly, two patients showed antibodies directed to B. burgdorferi exclusively in cerebrospinal fluid. Since BYS is a new emergent Brazilian zoonosis and its diagnosis is sometimes complex, all the new knowledge about BYS must be scattered to Brazilian Medical specialists, aiming to teach them how to diagnose this amazing tick-borne disease and to avoid its progression to chronic irreversible sequels. PMID:21225212

Gouveia, Emy Akiyama; Alves, Mayra Fernanda; Mantovani, Elenice; Oyafuso, Luiza Keiko; Bonoldi, Virgínia Lucia Nazario; Yoshinari, Natalino Hajime

2010-01-01

248

Familiarity from the configuration of objects in 3-dimensional space and its relation to déjà vu: a virtual reality investigation.  

PubMed

Déjà vu is the striking sense that the present situation feels familiar, alongside the realization that it has to be new. According to the Gestalt familiarity hypothesis, déjà vu results when the configuration of elements within a scene maps onto a configuration previously seen, but the previous scene fails to come to mind. We examined this using virtual reality (VR) technology. When a new immersive VR scene resembled a previously-viewed scene in its configuration but people failed to recall the previously-viewed scene, familiarity ratings and reports of déjà vu were indeed higher than for completely novel scenes. People also exhibited the contrasting sense of newness and of familiarity that is characteristic of déjà vu. Familiarity ratings and déjà vu reports among scenes recognized as new increased with increasing feature-match of a scene to one stored in memory, suggesting that feature-matching can produce familiarity and déjà vu when recall fails. PMID:22322010

Cleary, Anne M; Brown, Alan S; Sawyer, Benjamin D; Nomi, Jason S; Ajoku, Adaeze C; Ryals, Anthony J

2012-06-01

249

Dissociable parietal regions facilitate successful retrieval of recently learned and personally familiar information.  

PubMed

In fMRI analyses, the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is particularly active during the successful retrieval of episodic memory. To delineate the neural correlates of episodic retrieval more succinctly, we compared retrieval of recently learned spatial locations (photographs of buildings) with retrieval of previously familiar locations (photographs of familiar campus buildings). Episodic retrieval of recently learned locations activated a circumscribed region within the ventral PPC (anterior angular gyrus and adjacent regions in the supramarginal gyrus) as well as medial PPC regions (posterior cingulated gyrus and posterior precuneus). Retrieval of familiar locations activated more posterior regions in the ventral PPC (posterior angular gyrus, LOC) and more anterior regions in the medial PPC (anterior precuneus and retrosplenial cortex). These dissociable effects define more precisely PPC regions involved in the retrieval of recent, contextually bound information as opposed to regions involved in other processes, such as visual imagery, scene reconstruction, and self-referential processing. PMID:23287568

Elman, Jeremy A; Cohn-Sheehy, Brendan I; Shimamura, Arthur P

2013-03-01

250

False recognition across meaning, language, and stimulus format: conceptual relatedness and the feeling of familiarity.  

PubMed

Four experiments examined contributions of conceptual relatedness and feelings of familiarity to false recognition. Participants first studied lists of unrelated items (e.g., table, lock) followed by a recognition test with three types of items: (1) studied items (e.g., table), (2) semantically related lures (e.g., key), and (3) unrelated lures (e.g., cup). Participants falsely recognized more related than unrelated lures when the stimuli were words (Experiment 1A) and pictures (Experiment 1B), when the studied items and related lures differed in language (Experiment 2), and when they differed in perceptual format (Experiment 3). In Experiment 4, an attribution manipulation, designed to make feelings of familiarity nondiagnostic for memory judgments, eliminated the false-recognition effect obtained in Experiment 3. Overall, the study suggests that conceptual relatedness produces false recognition even in the absence of shared perceptual surface features between study and test items, and it does so by generating feelings of familiarity. PMID:16028580

Fazendeiro, Tedra; Winkielman, Piotr; Luo, Chun; Lorah, Christopher

2005-03-01

251

Anxious solitude across contexts: girls' interactions with familiar and unfamiliar peers.  

PubMed

Cross-situational continuity and change in anxious solitary girls' behavior and peer relations were examined in interactions with familiar versus unfamiliar playmates. Fourth-grade girls (N=209, M age=9.77 years, half African American, half European American) were identified as anxious solitary or behaviorally normative using observed and teacher-reported behavior among classmates. Subsequently, girls participated in 1-hr play groups containing 5 same-race familiar or unfamiliar girls for 5 consecutive days. Results support both cross-situational continuity and change in anxious solitary girls' behavior and peer relations. Although anxious solitary girls exhibited difficulty interacting with both familiar and unfamiliar playmates relative to behaviorally normative girls, elements of their behavior improved in unfamiliar play groups, a context in which they received less peer mistreatment. PMID:15693769

Gazelle, Heidi; Putallaz, Martha; Li, Yan; Grimes, Christina L; Kupersmidt, Janis B; Coie, John D

2005-01-01

252

Familiarity mediates the relationship between emotional arousal and pleasure during music listening  

PubMed Central

Emotional arousal appears to be a major contributing factor to the pleasure that listeners experience in response to music. Accordingly, a strong positive correlation between self-reported pleasure and electrodermal activity (EDA), an objective indicator of emotional arousal, has been demonstrated when individuals listen to familiar music. However, it is not yet known to what extent familiarity contributes to this relationship. In particular, as listening to familiar music involves expectations and predictions over time based on veridical knowledge of the piece, it could be that such memory factors plays a major role. Here, we tested such a contribution by using musical stimuli entirely unfamiliar to listeners. In a second experiment we repeated the novel music to experimentally establish a sense of familiarity. We aimed to determine whether (1) pleasure and emotional arousal would continue to correlate when listeners have no explicit knowledge of how the tones will unfold, and (2) whether this could be enhanced by experimentally-induced familiarity. In the first experiment, we presented 33 listeners with 70 unfamiliar musical excerpts in two sessions. There was no relationship between the degree of experienced pleasure and emotional arousal as measured by EDA. In the second experiment, 7 participants listened to 35 unfamiliar excerpts over two sessions separated by 30 min. Repeated exposure significantly increased EDA, even though individuals did not explicitly recall having heard all the pieces before. Furthermore, increases in self-reported familiarity significantly enhanced experienced pleasure and there was a general, though not significant, increase in EDA. These results suggest that some level of expectation and predictability mediated by prior exposure to a given piece of music play an important role in the experience of emotional arousal in response to music. PMID:24046738

van den Bosch, Iris; Salimpoor, Valorie N.; Zatorre, Robert J.

2013-01-01

253

Familiarity mediates the relationship between emotional arousal and pleasure during music listening.  

PubMed

Emotional arousal appears to be a major contributing factor to the pleasure that listeners experience in response to music. Accordingly, a strong positive correlation between self-reported pleasure and electrodermal activity (EDA), an objective indicator of emotional arousal, has been demonstrated when individuals listen to familiar music. However, it is not yet known to what extent familiarity contributes to this relationship. In particular, as listening to familiar music involves expectations and predictions over time based on veridical knowledge of the piece, it could be that such memory factors plays a major role. Here, we tested such a contribution by using musical stimuli entirely unfamiliar to listeners. In a second experiment we repeated the novel music to experimentally establish a sense of familiarity. We aimed to determine whether (1) pleasure and emotional arousal would continue to correlate when listeners have no explicit knowledge of how the tones will unfold, and (2) whether this could be enhanced by experimentally-induced familiarity. In the first experiment, we presented 33 listeners with 70 unfamiliar musical excerpts in two sessions. There was no relationship between the degree of experienced pleasure and emotional arousal as measured by EDA. In the second experiment, 7 participants listened to 35 unfamiliar excerpts over two sessions separated by 30 min. Repeated exposure significantly increased EDA, even though individuals did not explicitly recall having heard all the pieces before. Furthermore, increases in self-reported familiarity significantly enhanced experienced pleasure and there was a general, though not significant, increase in EDA. These results suggest that some level of expectation and predictability mediated by prior exposure to a given piece of music play an important role in the experience of emotional arousal in response to music. PMID:24046738

van den Bosch, Iris; Salimpoor, Valorie N; Zatorre, Robert J

2013-01-01

254

Development of visual expertise for reading: rapid emergence of visual familiarity for an artificial script  

PubMed Central

Adults produce left-lateralized N170 responses to visual words relative to control stimuli, even within tasks that do not require active reading. This specialization begins in preschoolers as a right-lateralized N170 effect. We investigated whether this developmental shift reflects an early learning phenomenon, such as attaining visual familiarity with a script, by training adults in an artificial script and measuring N170 responses before and afterward. Training enhanced the N170 response, especially over the right hemisphere. This suggests N170 sensitivity to visual familiarity with a script before reading becomes sufficiently automatic to drive left-lateralized effects in a shallow encoding task. PMID:20614357

Maurer, Urs; Blau, Vera C.; Yoncheva, Yuliya N.; McCandliss, Bruce D.

2010-01-01

255

Autores ms presentes en Digital.CSIC (25 o ms trabajos depositados) AUTOR CENTRO/INSTITUTO CSIC TOTAL  

E-print Network

/INSTITUTO CSIC TOTAL Corma, Avelino ITQ 118 Díaz Rojo, José Antonio IHCD 84 Rosa Utrera, José Manuel de la IMSE-CNM 79 Rodríguez Vázquez, Angel IMSE-CNM 65 Rodríguez Badiola, Eduardo MNCN 56 Sanz Menéndez, Luis IPP-CCHS 56 Cernicharo, José IEM-CFMAC 55 Sesé, Carmen MNCN 51 Pérez Verdú, Belén IMSE-CNM 50 Moreno, Luis IPP

256

INSTITUTO DE INGENIERA DE PROCESOS QUMICOS Curso: Bsqueda activa de empleo y uso de redes sociales  

E-print Network

y técnicas para buscar empleo en el universo 2.0 (redes sociales, canales de comunicación, feeds REDES SOCIALES Alicante, 4,7,11,14 y 18 de febrero. Convalidable por 1 crédito de libre elección en la uso de redes sociales Diciembre 2012 - 2 - PROGRAMA DEL CURSO 1. La Búsqueda de Empleo 1.1 La Búsqueda

Escolano, Francisco

257

Effects of Multimodal Presentation and Stimulus Familiarity on Auditory and Visual Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments examined the effects of multimodal presentation and stimulus familiarity on auditory and visual processing. In Experiment 1, 10-month-olds were habituated to either an auditory stimulus, a visual stimulus, or an auditory-visual multimodal stimulus. Processing time was assessed during the habituation phase, and discrimination of…

Robinson, Christopher W.; Sloutsky, Vladimir M.

2010-01-01

258

Orangutans (Pongo abelii) and a gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) match features in familiar and unfamiliar individuals.  

PubMed

Great apes can perceive images as representative of corresponding real-life objects. Coupled with the potential advantages of identifying specific members of one's species and mounting evidence for individual recognition in other non-humans, it seems likely that great apes would have the ability to identify conspecifics in photographs. The ability of four orangutans and a gorilla to match images of individuals of their own and a closely related but unfamiliar species was examined here for the first time. First, the subjects matched photographs of familiar conspecifics taken at various time points in a delayed matching-to-sample procedure (Experiment 1). Second, they matched different photographs of unfamiliar individuals of a different species (Experiment 2) at above chance levels. These results suggest that the subjects matched photographs by matching physical features, not necessarily by recognizing the identity of the individuals depicted. However, they also quickly learned to select photographs of familiar individuals when these photographs were paired with photographs of unfamiliar individuals of their own species (Experiment 3), and three subjects showed transfer to novel images of familiar and unfamiliar individuals. Thus, the findings support the idea that subjects attended to physical features to identify individuals that they could categorize on the basis of familiarity. PMID:24623526

Vonk, Jennifer; Hamilton, Jennifer

2014-09-01

259

Familiarity or Conceptual Priming: Event-Related Potentials in Name Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent interest has been drawn to the separate components of recognition memory, as studied by event-related potentials (ERPs). In ERPs, recollection is usually accompanied by a late, parietal positive deflection. An earlier, frontal component has been suggested to be a counterpart, accompanying recognition by familiarity. However, this component,…

Stenberg, Georg; Hellman, Johan; Johansson, Mikael; Rosen, Ingmar

2009-01-01

260

ing...ggg. The sound of a sonar transmission is familiar from clas-  

E-print Network

P ing...ggg.Ã? The sound of a sonar transmission is familiar from clas- sic Ã?lms on submarine creatures such as snapping shrimp all contribute to this cacopho- ny. It is only to be expected that sonar- rent sonar systems, which have found widespread military, commercial and scientiÃ?c application, have

Buckingham, Michael

261

Action Prediction in Younger versus Older Adults: Neural Correlates of Motor Familiarity  

PubMed Central

Generating predictions during action observation is essential for efficient navigation through our social environment. With age, the sensitivity in action prediction declines. In younger adults, the action observation network (AON), consisting of premotor, parietal and occipitotemporal cortices, has been implicated in transforming executed and observed actions into a common code. Much less is known about age-related changes in the neural representation of observed actions. Using fMRI, the present study measured brain activity in younger and older adults during the prediction of temporarily occluded actions (figure skating elements and simple movement exercises). All participants were highly familiar with the movement exercises whereas only some participants were experienced figure skaters. With respect to the AON, the results confirm that this network was preferentially engaged for the more familiar movement exercises. Compared to younger adults, older adults recruited visual regions to perform the task and, additionally, the hippocampus and caudate when the observed actions were familiar to them. Thus, instead of effectively exploiting the sensorimotor matching properties of the AON, older adults seemed to rely predominantly on the visual dynamics of the observed actions to perform the task. Our data further suggest that the caudate played an important role during the prediction of the less familiar figure skating elements in better-performing groups. Together, these findings show that action prediction engages a distributed network in the brain, which is modulated by the content of the observed actions and the age and experience of the observer. PMID:23704980

Diersch, Nadine; Mueller, Karsten; Cross, Emily S.; Stadler, Waltraud; Rieger, Martina; Schütz-Bosbach, Simone

2013-01-01

262

Discrimination of familiarity and sex from chemical cues in the dung by wild southern white rhinoceros.  

PubMed

Communication in rhinos is primarily mediated by the vocal and olfactory signals as they have relatively poor eyesight. White rhinos are the most social of all the rhinoceros species, they defecate at common dungheaps and the adult bulls use dung and urine to mark their territory. Chemical communication may therefore be particularly important in the social interactions of white rhinos, and its knowledge could be very helpful in their management and conservation. However, no studies have investigated up until now the olfactory discrimination in any rhinoceros species in the wild. We have experimentally studied the reactions of the wild southern white rhinos (Ceratotherium simum) to the dung of familiar and unfamiliar adult females and adult territorial males. We registered the number of sniffing events, the duration of sniffing and the latency of the vigilance posture from the onset of sniffing. The dung of unfamiliar rhinos was sniffed longer than that of familiar rhinos. The rhinos showed a shorter latency of vigilance posture to the familiar dung of males than that of females. For unfamiliar dung, they displayed a shorter latency of vigilance posture to female than male dung. Our results indicate that the rhinos are able to discriminate the familiarity and sex of conspecifics from the smell of their dung. Olfactory cues could therefore play an important role in the social relationships and spatial organization of the southern white rhinoceros. PMID:25273823

Cinková, Ivana; Policht, Richard

2015-01-01

263

Most Americans are familiar with the Republic of Korea through either K-pop  

E-print Network

Most Americans are familiar with the Republic of Korea through either K-pop music, the North-South political issues or the spicy, delicious cuisine. But for me, my awareness and interest grew through Korea's association with the U.S. Peace Corps. My dad, a Returned Peace Corps Volunteer (RPCV), served in Korea

264

Does Topic Familiarity Affect Assessed Difficulty and Actual Performance on Reading Comprehension Tests in LSP?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated the hypothesis that topic familiarity and assessed difficulty of a second language text correlated positively with performance on reading comprehension tests in languages for special purposes (LSP). Subjects were 177 advanced students of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) at Ben Gurion University (Israel). Faculty from the…

Peretz, Arna S.; Shoham, Miriam

265

Sentence repetition in preschoolers: Effects of length, complexity, and word familiarity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventy-two sentences presented to ten preschool children for repetition were designed so that three sentence construction factors varied independently. The factors were (1) length in number of words, (2) complexity of personal pronouns and main verbs as scaled by Lee (1974), and (3) word familiarity, defined as common vocabulary or the substitution of a nonsense word in place of a

Marcia M. Montgomery; Allen A. Montgomery; M. Irene Stephens

1978-01-01

266

Aspects of Performance on Line Graph Description Tasks: Influenced by Graph Familiarity and Different Task Features  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Motivated by cognitive theories of graph comprehension, this study systematically manipulated characteristics of a line graph description task in a speaking test in ways to mitigate the influence of graph familiarity, a potential source of construct-irrelevant variance. It extends Xi (2005), which found that the differences in holistic scores on…

Xi, Xiaoming

2010-01-01

267

Relations among Spontaneous Preferences, Familiarized Preferences, and Novelty Effects: Measurements with Forced-Choice Techniques  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We here describe a discrete trial, forced-choice, combined spontaneous preference and novelty preference technique. In this technique, spontaneous preferences and familiarized (postfamiliarization) preferences are measured with the same stimulus pairs under closely parallel conditions. A variety of systematic stimulus variations were used in…

Civan, Andrea; Teller, Davida Y.; Palmer, John

2005-01-01

268

Agricultura familiar e políticas públicas: impacto do PRONAF no Rio Grande do Sul  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo - A aparição do Programa Nacional de Fortalecimento da Agricultura Familiar (PRONAF) marca um momento singular na trajetória do processo de intervenção estatal na agricultura e no mundo rural do Brasil. Apesar de avanços no aperfeiçoamento e ampliação do universo de cobertura, o programa permanece ancorado numa ambigüidade básica tanto em termos do público-alvo a ser beneficiado quanto aos

Flávio Sacco dos Anjos; Wilson Itamar Godoy; Nádia Velleda Caldas; Mário Conill Gomes

2004-01-01

269

In Live Interaction, Does Familiarity Promote Attraction or Contempt? Reply to Norton, Frost, and Ariely (2011)  

E-print Network

of the traditional literature) and Norton et al.'s, we sought to move researchers toward precisely the kindREPLY In Live Interaction, Does Familiarity Promote Attraction or Contempt? Reply to Norton, Frost and refute each of Norton, Frost, and Ariely's (2011) specific objections to the conclusion that, ceteris

Reber, Paul J.

270

The Role of Familiarity in Daily Well-Being: Developmental and Cultural Variation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined life stage and cultural differences in the degree to which familiarity of one's physical location and interaction partner is associated with daily well-being. Participants reported all the activities they engaged in and how they felt during these activities on a previous day using the Day Reconstruction Method (Kahneman,…

Oishi, Shigehiro; Kurtz, Jaime L.; Miao, Felicity F.; Park, Jina; Whitchurch, Erin

2011-01-01

271

Rethinking familiarity: Remember/Know judgments in free Laura Mickes a  

E-print Network

. Although both are cue-dependent, episodic memories are linked to time and space and involve self-referential to time and space and do not involve self-referential information (e.g., remem- bering the number of bones/Know procedure to distinguish between recol- lection and familiarity. According to dual process theories

Wixted, John T.

272

RESEARCH REPORT Familiarity and Personal Experience as Mediators of Recall When Planning  

E-print Network

when the context of planning (a) is self-referential and (b) draws on familiar scenarios represented with a mindset of planning for an event (future oriented processing) promotes better recall of those items than oriented processing) or judging the items' relevance to that type of event without regard to either

Cosmides, Leda

273

Familiarity effects in the construction of facial-composite images using modern software systems.  

PubMed

We investigate the effect of target familiarity on the construction of facial composites, as used by law enforcement to locate criminal suspects. Two popular software construction methods were investigated. Participants were shown a target face that was either familiar or unfamiliar to them and constructed a composite of it from memory using a typical 'feature' system, involving selection of individual facial features, or one of the newer 'holistic' types, involving repeated selection and breeding from arrays of whole faces. This study found that composites constructed of a familiar face were named more successfully than composites of an unfamiliar face; also, naming of composites of internal and external features was equivalent for construction of unfamiliar targets, but internal features were better named than the external features for familiar targets. These findings applied to both systems, although benefit emerged for the holistic type due to more accurate construction of internal features and evidence for a whole-face advantage. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This work is of relevance to practitioners who construct facial composites with witnesses to and victims of crime, as well as for software designers to help them improve the effectiveness of their composite systems. PMID:22103723

Frowd, Charlie D; Skelton, Faye C; Butt, Neelam; Hassan, Amal; Fields, Stephen; Hancock, Peter J B

2011-12-01

274

Medical School Students' Knowledge of and Familiarity with Visual Impairments: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A limited amount of research has been conducted on the knowledge of and familiarity with individuals with disabilities of medical students. There have been studies on these individuals' satisfaction with medical services and the accessibility of medical services to them, the role of health care providers in working with these individuals, and the…

McKenzie, Amy R.; Henzi, David L.

2010-01-01

275

Down Syndrome and Automatic Processing of Familiar and Unfamiliar Emotional Faces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participants with Down syndrome (DS) were required to participate in a face recognition experiment to recognize familiar (DS faces) and unfamiliar emotional faces (non DS faces), by using an affective priming paradigm. Pairs of emotional facial stimuli were presented (one face after another) with a short Stimulus Onset Asynchrony of 300…

Morales, Guadalupe E.; Lopez, Ernesto O.

2010-01-01

276

The effect of word familiarity on actual and perceived text difficulty  

PubMed Central

There is little evidence that readability formula outcomes relate to text understanding. The potential cause may lie in their strong reliance on word and sentence length. We evaluated word familiarity rather than word length as a stand-in for word difficulty. Word familiarity represents how well known a word is, and is estimated using word frequency in a large text corpus, in this work the Google web corpus. We conducted a study with 239 people, who provided 50 evaluations for each of 275 words. Our study is the first study to focus on actual difficulty, measured with a multiple-choice task, in addition to perceived difficulty, measured with a Likert scale. Actual difficulty was correlated with word familiarity (r=0.219, p<0.001) but not with word length (r=?0.075, p=0.107). Perceived difficulty was correlated with both word familiarity (r=?0.397, p<0.001) and word length (r=0.254, p<0.001). PMID:24100710

Leroy, Gondy; Kauchak, David

2014-01-01

277

Longitudinal Consistency of Matching Familiar Figures Test Performance from Early Childhood to Preadolescence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a longitudinal sample of three- through 11-year-olds, age-appropriate versions of the Matching Familiar Figures Test (MFFT) were administered. Uncorrected for attenuation, MFFT error scores were more consistent over time than MFFT latency scores for both girls and boys. Implications of results for validity of MFFT as a measure of cognitive…

Gjerde, Per F.; And Others

1985-01-01

278

The Matching Familiar Figures Test: A Look as Its Psychometric Credibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an attempt to evaluate the psychometric credibility of the Matching Familiar Figures Test (MFFT) as the operational measure of reflection-impulsivity, a study of the short-term (1 week) reliability of different versions of MFFT for boys and girls at kindergarten, second, and fifth grades was conducted. (Author/SB)

Egeland, Byron; Weinberg, Richard A.

1976-01-01

279

Estabilidades e mudanças em padrões familiares de crianças com problemas de comportamento exteriorizado  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: A literatura sobre crianças com problemas de comportamento exteriorizado tem enfatizado a necessidade de descrever a origem e a evolução desses comportamentos. Este estudo visa comparar as continuidades e mudanças no perfil cognitivo, no estresse parental e na qualidade das relações familiares de crianças com problemas de comportamento exteriorizado. Participaram da coleta de dados sete crianças pré-escolares morando com

Maria Auxiliadora Dessen; Adriane Corrêa Szelbracikowski

2006-01-01

280

Topic Familiarity and Interlanguage Variation: A Study of the Impact of Interactional Feedback  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the results of a study investigating the impact of interactional feedback on interlanguage variation in terms of accuracy, complexity, and fluency of learners' discourse in performing tasks with familiar vs. unfamiliar topics. The participant of the study who were randomly assigned into an experimental and a control group were…

Rahimpour, Massoud; Hazar, Fatemeh

2009-01-01

281

Action prediction in younger versus older adults: neural correlates of motor familiarity.  

PubMed

Generating predictions during action observation is essential for efficient navigation through our social environment. With age, the sensitivity in action prediction declines. In younger adults, the action observation network (AON), consisting of premotor, parietal and occipitotemporal cortices, has been implicated in transforming executed and observed actions into a common code. Much less is known about age-related changes in the neural representation of observed actions. Using fMRI, the present study measured brain activity in younger and older adults during the prediction of temporarily occluded actions (figure skating elements and simple movement exercises). All participants were highly familiar with the movement exercises whereas only some participants were experienced figure skaters. With respect to the AON, the results confirm that this network was preferentially engaged for the more familiar movement exercises. Compared to younger adults, older adults recruited visual regions to perform the task and, additionally, the hippocampus and caudate when the observed actions were familiar to them. Thus, instead of effectively exploiting the sensorimotor matching properties of the AON, older adults seemed to rely predominantly on the visual dynamics of the observed actions to perform the task. Our data further suggest that the caudate played an important role during the prediction of the less familiar figure skating elements in better-performing groups. Together, these findings show that action prediction engages a distributed network in the brain, which is modulated by the content of the observed actions and the age and experience of the observer. PMID:23704980

Diersch, Nadine; Mueller, Karsten; Cross, Emily S; Stadler, Waltraud; Rieger, Martina; Schütz-Bosbach, Simone

2013-01-01

282

Beyond the Memory Mechanism: Person-Selective and Nonselective Processes in Recognition of Personally Familiar Faces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Special processes recruited during the recognition of personally familiar people have been assumed to reflect the rich episodic and semantic information that selectively represents each person. However, the processes may also include person nonselective ones, which may require interpretation in terms beyond the memory mechanism. To examine this…

Sugiura, Motoaki; Mano, Yoko; Sasaki, Akihiro; Sadato, Norihiro

2011-01-01

283

Song Recognition without Identification: When People Cannot "Name that Tune" but Can Recognize It as Familiar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognition without identification (RWI) is a common day-to-day experience (as when recognizing a face or a tune as familiar without being able to identify the person or the song). It is also a well-established laboratory-based empirical phenomenon: When identification of recognition test items is prevented, participants can discriminate between…

Kostic, Bogdan; Cleary, Anne M.

2009-01-01

284

Panoramic Search: The Interaction of Memory and Vision in Search through a Familiar Scene  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How do observers search through familiar scenes? A novel panoramic search method is used to study the interaction of memory and vision in natural search behavior. In panoramic search, observers see part of an unchanging scene larger than their current field of view. A target object can be visible, present in the display but hidden from view, or…

Oliva, Aude; Wolfe, Jeremy M. Arsenio, Helga C.

2004-01-01

285

Position Distinctiveness, Item Familiarity, and Presentation Frequency Affect Reconstruction of Order in Immediate Episodic Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments examined the effects of position distinctiveness, item familiarity, and frequency of presentation on serial position functions in a task involving reconstructing the order of a subset of 12 names in a list of 20 names. Three different serial position conditions were compared in which the subset of names occurred in Positions…

Healy, Alice F.; Shea, Kathleen M.; Kole, James A.; Cunningham, Thomas F.

2008-01-01

286

Anxious Solitude across Contexts: Girls' Interactions with Familiar and Unfamiliar Peers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cross-situational continuity and change in anxious solitary girls' behavior and peer relations were examined in interactions with familiar versus unfamiliar playmates. Fourth-grade girls (N=209, M age 9.77 years, half African American, half European American) were identified as anxious solitary or behaviorally normative using observed and…

Gazelle, Heidi; Putallaz, Martha; Li, Yan; Grimes, Christina L.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.; Coie, John D.

2005-01-01

287

CELLS: The smallest living things... Purpose: To gain familiarity with cell structures and to learn  

E-print Network

1 CELLS: The smallest living things... Purpose: To gain familiarity with cell structures and to learn the differences between plant cells and animal cells. You have already learned about the parts of these cells in class; in this lab we will observe celery cells (plant cells) and human cheek cells (animal

Rose, Michael R.

288

Enhancing Negotiation of Meaning through Task Familiarity Using Subtitled Videos in an Online TBLL Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the effects of task familiarity through the use of subtitled videos on negotiation of meaning in an online task-based language learning (TBLL) environment. It explores the amount of negotiation of meaning produced by non-native speakers (NNSs) aimed at improving input comprehension to enhance second language acquisition. Ten…

Arslanyilmaz, Abdurrahman; Pedersen, Susan

2010-01-01

289

The Influence of Test Familiarity and Student Disability Status upon Teachers' Judgments of Students' Test Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two questions motivated this study: (a) Does test familiarity influence teachers' judgments of their students' test performance? and (b) Does the disability status of students influence their teachers' judgments? Teachers (n=19) judged item performances for one student with disabilities and one student without disabilities (n pairs=19) from their…

Hurwitz, Jason T.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Braden, Jeffery P.

2007-01-01

290

Cross-modal individual recognition in domestic horses (Equus caballus) extends to familiar humans.  

PubMed

It has recently been shown that some non-human animals can cross-modally recognize members of their own taxon. What is unclear is just how plastic this recognition system can be. In this study, we investigate whether an animal, the domestic horse, is capable of spontaneous cross-modal recognition of individuals from a morphologically very different species. We also provide the first insights into how cross-modal identity information is processed by examining whether there are hemispheric biases in this important social skill. In our preferential looking paradigm, subjects were presented with two people and playbacks of their voices to determine whether they were able to match the voice with the person. When presented with familiar handlers subjects could match the specific familiar person with the correct familiar voice. Horses were significantly better at performing the matching task when the congruent person was standing on their right, indicating marked hemispheric specialization (left hemisphere bias) in this ability. These results are the first to demonstrate that cross-modal recognition in animals can extend to individuals from phylogenetically very distant species. They also indicate that processes governed by the left hemisphere are central to the cross-modal matching of visual and auditory information from familiar individuals in a naturalistic setting. PMID:22593108

Proops, Leanne; McComb, Karen

2012-08-22

291

Familiarity and Emotional Expression Influence an Early Stage of Face Processing: An Electrophysiological Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent data indicate that the familiarity and the emotional expression of faces occur at an early stage of information processing. The goal of the present study was to determine whether these two aspects interact at the structural encoding stage as reflected by the N170 component of event-related potentials in tasks requiring the subjects either…

Caharel, Stephanie; Courtay, Nolwenn; Bernard, Christian; Lalonde, Robert; Rebai, Mohamed

2005-01-01

292

Familiarity Breeds Contempt: Kangaroos Persistently Avoid Areas with Experimentally Deployed Dingo Scents  

E-print Network

Familiarity Breeds Contempt: Kangaroos Persistently Avoid Areas with Experimentally Deployed Dingo scents (urine, feces) from a sympatric predator (Canis lupus dingo), along with a control (water with 40 ml of dingo urine, X = 986.7563.97 g food remained as compared to the tap water control, X = 209

Grether, Gregory

293

The Persistence of Erroneous Familiarity in an Epileptic Male: Challenging Perceptual Theories of Deja Vu Activation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report the case of a 39-year-old, temporal lobe epileptic male, MH. Prior to complex partial seizure, experienced up to three times a day, MH often experiences an aura experienced as a persistent sensation of deja vu. Data-driven theories of deja vu formation suggest that partial familiarity for the perceived stimulus is responsible for the…

O'Connor, Akira R.; Moulin, Christopher J. A.

2008-01-01

294

Familiarizing Students with the Empirically Supported Treatment Approaches for Substance Abuse Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When training counseling students, it is important to familiarize them with the clinical research literature exploring the efficacy of particular treatments. The bulk of the document is comprised of a review of empirically supported treatments (ESTs). ESTs or evidence-based treatments are grounded in studies recommended by the American…

Wilkins, Victoria; Chambliss, Catherine

295

Aesthetic Education in the Early Years: Exploring Familiar and Unfamiliar Personal-Cultural Landscapes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores a double-bind in early schooling: a persistent value placed upon presenting multicultural art forms to a child constructed as incapable of grasping what is not familiar. The author argues that this bind is situated within dominant developmental discourses that emphasize the appropriateness of concrete and sequential…

Blank, Jolyn

2012-01-01

296

Recognition Errors Suggest Fast Familiarity and Slow Recollection in Rhesus Monkeys  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One influential model of recognition posits two underlying memory processes: recollection, which is detailed but relatively slow, and familiarity, which is quick but lacks detail. Most of the evidence for this dual-process model in nonhumans has come from analyses of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves in rats, but whether ROC analyses…

Basile, Benjamin M.; Hampton, Robert R.

2013-01-01

297

Análisis descriptivo del tamaño relativo del gasto del gobierno chileno  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este trabajo se examina el tamaño relativo del Gobierno chileno a través de una comparación internacional con valores equivalentes de otros países. Adicionalmente hay un análisis similar para dos componentes importantes del gasto público: educación y salud. El gasto del Gobierno de Chile, valor en torno del 20% (PIB), está junto al tercio inferior de países que poseen un

Eduardo Engel; Patricio Meller; Claudio Bravo

1998-01-01

298

Familiar Verbs Are Not Always Easier than Novel Verbs: How German Pre-School Children Comprehend Active and Passive Sentences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many studies show a developmental advantage for transitive sentences with familiar verbs over those with novel verbs. It might be that once familiar verbs become entrenched in particular constructions, they would be more difficult to understand (than would novel verbs) in non-prototypical constructions. We provide support for this hypothesis…

Dittmar, Miriam; Abbot-Smith, Kirsten; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

2014-01-01

299

Peer Exclusion Is Linked to Inhibition with Familiar but Not Unfamiliar Peers at Two Years of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the extent that inhibition among familiar peers was related to inhibition among unfamiliar peers versus exclusion by familiar peers at 2?years of age. Peer inhibition at 2?years of age was assessed by both mothers and teachers on versions of the Behavioral Inhibition Questionnaire and the Preschool Play Behavior Scale (N?=?141…

Gazelle, Heidi; Faldowski, Richard A.

2014-01-01

300

Deja Vu in Unilateral Temporal-Lobe Epilepsy Is Associated with Selective Familiarity Impairments on Experimental Tasks of Recognition Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In deja vu, a phenomenological impression of familiarity for the current visual environment is experienced with a sense that it should in fact not feel familiar. The fleeting nature of this phenomenon in daily life, and the difficulty in developing experimental paradigms to elicit it, has hindered progress in understanding deja vu. Some…

Martin, Chris B.; Mirsattari, Seyed M.; Pruessner, Jens C.; Pietrantonio, Sandra; Burneo, Jorge G.; Hayman-Abello, Brent; Kohler, Stefan

2012-01-01

301

Reactivity to fearful expressions of familiar and unfamiliar people in children with autism: an eye-tracking pupillometry study  

PubMed Central

Background Individuals with autism are often reported to have difficulty with emotion processing. However, clinical and experimental data show that they are sensitive to familiarity; for example, they show normative attachment to familiar people, and have normative brain activity in response to familiar faces. To date, no study has measured their reactivity to the emotions of familiar vs. unfamiliar people. Thus, our aim was to determine whether individuals with autism would show normative reactivity to emotion in familiar people. Methods Participants were 21 children with autism and 21 children with typical development, aged two to five years, matched on age and gender. The children observed videos of familiar people (their child-care teachers) and unfamiliar people expressing fear, whilst their visual attention and pupillary reactions were recorded (the latter as an index of emotional reactivity), using eye tracking technology. Results The children with autism showed normative pupillary reactions (peak magnitude) to fear expressed by familiar people, but a reduced response to fear expressed by unfamiliar people. However, across familiarity conditions, the children with autism had longer latency peak responses than the typically developing children. This pattern of findings was independent of cognitive factors or visual attention as visual attention by group was not related to familiarity condition. The children with autism had reduced visual attention to neutral faces; however, on fearful faces there were no group differences. Abnormalities in pupillary reactivity in the autism group were related to less prosocial behaviour and more severe play and communication deficits. Conclusions Children with autism were less atypical in their responses to fearful expressions of people they know, arguing against a pervasive emotional impairment in autism, but rather one that may be mediated by familiarity. PMID:24982695

2014-01-01

302

Picture Norms for Chinese Preschool Children: Name Agreement, Familiarity, and Visual Complexity  

PubMed Central

Pictorial stimuli standardized for Chinese children are still absent although it is needed in order to test the development of children's cognitive functions. This study presents normative measures for Snodgrass and Vanderwart pictures, viewed by 4- and 6-year old Chinese children. Name agreement, familiarity, and visual complexity were obtained for each age group. The data indicate substantial differences between young and older children in name agreement based on expected name, familiarity and visual complexity. The correlation pattern of the variables collected in the present study were consistent with children's norms in other languages and norms of Chinese adults, while there are cross-age and cross-culture differences in specific variables. The obtained measures represent a useful tool for further research on Chinese children's pictorial processing and constitute the first picture normative study for children in this language. PMID:24599271

Wang, Lamei; Chen, Chia-Wen; Zhu, Liqi

2014-01-01

303

Spontaneous voice-face identity matching by rhesus monkeys for familiar conspecifics and humans.  

PubMed

Recognition of a particular individual occurs when we reactivate links between current perceptual inputs and the previously formed representation of that person. This recognition can be achieved by identifying, separately or simultaneously, distinct elements such as the face, silhouette, or voice as belonging to one individual. In humans, those different cues are linked into one complex conceptual representation of individual identity. Here we tested whether rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) also have a cognitive representation of identity by evaluating whether they exhibit cross-modal individual recognition. Further, we assessed individual recognition of familiar conspecifics and familiar humans. In a free preferential looking time paradigm, we found that, for both species, monkeys spontaneously matched the faces of known individuals to their voices. This finding demonstrates that rhesus macaques possess a cross-modal cognitive representation of individuals that extends from conspecifics to humans, revealing the adaptive potential of identity recognition for individuals of socioecological relevance. PMID:21220340

Sliwa, Julia; Duhamel, Jean-René; Pascalis, Olivier; Wirth, Sylvia

2011-01-25

304

Familiarity with Interest Breeds Gossip: Contributions of Emotion, Expectation, and Reputation  

PubMed Central

Although gossip serves several important social functions, it has relatively infrequently been the topic of systematic investigation. In two experiments, we advance a cognitive-informational approach to gossip. Specifically, we sought to determine which informational components engender gossip. In Experiment 1, participants read brief passages about other people and indicated their likelihood to share this information. We manipulated target familiarity (celebrity, non-celebrity) and story interest (interesting, boring). While participants were more likely to gossip about celebrity than non-celebrity targets and interesting than boring stories, they were even more likely to gossip about celebrity targets embedded within interesting stories. In Experiment 2, we additionally probed participants' reactions to the stories concerning emotion, expectation, and reputation information conveyed. Analyses showed that while such information partially mediated target familiarity and story interest effects, only expectation and reputation accounted for the interactive pattern of gossip behavior. Our findings provide novel insights into the essential components and processing mechanisms of gossip. PMID:25119267

Yao, Bo; Scott, Graham G.; McAleer, Phil; O'Donnell, Patrick J.; Sereno, Sara C.

2014-01-01

305

Aging Effects on Recollection and Familiarity: The Role of White Matter Hyperintensities  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have indicated that aging is associated with declines in recollection whereas familiarity-based recognition is left largely unaffected. The brain changes underlying these recollection declines are yet not well understood. In the current study we examined the role of white matter integrity as measured by white matter hyperintensities (WMH) on age-related changes in recollection and familiarity. Recognition was measured using a remember/know procedure (Experiment 1) and a source-memory process-dissociation procedure (Experiment 2). Robust age related declines in recollection were observed, but there was no evidence that white matter damage was related to the observed memory declines. Although future studies with larger samples will be necessary to fully characterize the role of WMH in normal age-related declines in different types of memory, the results suggest that declines in recollection are not strongly related to the brain changes indexed by WMHs. PMID:20175007

Parks, Colleen M.; Decarli, Charles; Jacoby, Larry L.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.

2010-01-01

306

Adult Age Differences in Errand Planning: The Role of Task Familiarity and Cognitive Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the effects of age, cognitive resources, and task familiarity on planning performance. Fifty-two young and 52 old adults completed one of two errand-planning tasks. The tasks were matched for structure, difficulty, and format, but differed in content, such that one planning task required planning a real-world shopping tour whereas the other involved planning an unfamiliar space tour.

Matthias Kliegel; Mike Martin; Mark A McDaniel; Louise H Phillips

2007-01-01

307

Familiar group singing: Addressing mood and social behaviour of residents with dementia displaying sundowning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the effects of a Music Therapy (MT) intervention adopting familiar group singing during sundowning, a period of disorientation and\\/or agitation in the evening hours (Cohen-Mansfield, Garfinkel, & Lipson, 2000), to address the negative mood and non-social behaviour observed in residents diagnosed with dementia. A music therapist, over four consecutive days in the late afternoon, engaged four female

Barnetta Lesta; Peter Petocz

2006-01-01

308

Parallel effects of processing fluency and positive affect on familiarity-based recognition decisions for faces.  

PubMed

According to attribution models of familiarity assessment, people can use a heuristic in recognition-memory decisions, in which they attribute the subjective ease of processing of a memory probe to a prior encounter with the stimulus in question. Research in social cognition suggests that experienced positive affect may be the proximal cue that signals fluency in various experimental contexts. In the present study, we compared the effects of positive affect and fluency on recognition-memory judgments for faces with neutral emotional expression. We predicted that if positive affect is indeed the critical cue that signals processing fluency at retrieval, then its manipulation should produce effects that closely mirror those produced by manipulations of processing fluency. In two experiments, we employed a masked-priming procedure in combination with a Remember-Know (RK) paradigm that aimed to separate familiarity- from recollection-based memory decisions. In addition, participants performed a prime-discrimination task that allowed us to take inter-individual differences in prime awareness into account. We found highly similar effects of our priming manipulations of processing fluency and of positive affect. In both cases, the critical effect was specific to familiarity-based recognition responses. Moreover, in both experiments it was reflected in a shift toward a more liberal response bias, rather than in changed discrimination. Finally, in both experiments, the effect was found to be related to prime awareness; it was present only in participants who reported a lack of such awareness on the prime-discrimination task. These findings add to a growing body of evidence that points not only to a role of fluency, but also of positive affect in familiarity assessment. As such they are consistent with the idea that fluency itself may be hedonically marked. PMID:24795678

Duke, Devin; Fiacconi, Chris M; Köhler, Stefan

2014-01-01

309

The role of familiarity in olfactory discrimination, extinction, and a reversal of training conditions  

E-print Network

THE ROLE OF FAMII IARITY IN OLFACTORY DISCRIMINATION, EXTINCTION, AND A REVERSAL OF TRAINING CONDITIONS A Thesis by JII'IMY LEE MATHENY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1977 Major Subject: Psychology THE ROLE OF FAMILIARITY IN OLFACTORY DISCRIMINATION, EXTINCTION, AND A REVERSAL OF TRAINING CONDITIONS A Thesis by JIMMY LLE MATHENY Approved as to style and content by: Cl...

Matheny, Jimmy Lee

2012-06-07

310

Auftaktworkshop "Marie Sklodowska Curie in Horizon 2020 Actions with familiar and novel aspects"  

E-print Network

Auftaktworkshop "Marie Sklodowska Curie in Horizon 2020 ­ Actions with familiar and novel aspects, Universität Potsdam) 10:15 ­ 11:00 Uhr Die Marie Sklodowska Curie Ma�nahmen in Horizon 2020 (Victoria Llobet, KoWi, Brüssel) 11:00 ­ 11:45 Uhr Die Bedeutung der Marie Sklodowska Curie Ma�nahmen für Deutschland

Potsdam, Universität

311

Unexpected novelty and familiarity orienting responses in lateral parietal cortex during recognition judgment  

PubMed Central

The role of lateral parietal cortex during recognition memory is heavily debated. We examined parietal activation during an Explicit Memory Cueing recognition paradigm that biases participants towards expecting novel or familiar stimuli on a trial-by-trial basis using anticipatory cues (“Likely Old”, “Likely New”), compared to trials with neutral cues (“????”). Three qualitatively distinct patterns were observed in the left lateral parietal cortex. An unexpected novelty response occurred in left anterior intraparietal cortex (IPS)/post-central gyrus (PoCG) in which greater activation was observed for new versus old materials following the “Likely Old” cue, but not following the “Likely New” cue. In contrast, anterior angular gyrus demonstrated an unexpected familiarity response with greater activation for old versus new materials following the “Likely New” cue, but not the “Likely Old” cue. Thus these two regions demonstrated increased responses that were selective for either new or old materials respectively, but only when they were unexpected. In contrast, a mid IPS area demonstrated greater response for whichever class of memoranda was unanticipated given the cue condition (an unexpected memory response). Analogous response patterns in regions outside of parietal cortex, and the results of a resting state connectivity analysis, suggested these three response patterns were associated with visuo-spatial orienting following unexpected novelty, source monitoring operations following unexpected familiarity, and general executive control processes following violated expectations. These findings support a Memory Orienting Model of the left lateral parietal cortex in which the region is linked to the investigation of unexpected novelty or familiarity in the environment. PMID:23499719

Jaeger, Antonio; Konkel, Alex

2013-01-01

312

Parallel effects of processing fluency and positive affect on familiarity-based recognition decisions for faces  

PubMed Central

According to attribution models of familiarity assessment, people can use a heuristic in recognition-memory decisions, in which they attribute the subjective ease of processing of a memory probe to a prior encounter with the stimulus in question. Research in social cognition suggests that experienced positive affect may be the proximal cue that signals fluency in various experimental contexts. In the present study, we compared the effects of positive affect and fluency on recognition-memory judgments for faces with neutral emotional expression. We predicted that if positive affect is indeed the critical cue that signals processing fluency at retrieval, then its manipulation should produce effects that closely mirror those produced by manipulations of processing fluency. In two experiments, we employed a masked-priming procedure in combination with a Remember-Know (RK) paradigm that aimed to separate familiarity- from recollection-based memory decisions. In addition, participants performed a prime-discrimination task that allowed us to take inter-individual differences in prime awareness into account. We found highly similar effects of our priming manipulations of processing fluency and of positive affect. In both cases, the critical effect was specific to familiarity-based recognition responses. Moreover, in both experiments it was reflected in a shift toward a more liberal response bias, rather than in changed discrimination. Finally, in both experiments, the effect was found to be related to prime awareness; it was present only in participants who reported a lack of such awareness on the prime-discrimination task. These findings add to a growing body of evidence that points not only to a role of fluency, but also of positive affect in familiarity assessment. As such they are consistent with the idea that fluency itself may be hedonically marked. PMID:24795678

Duke, Devin; Fiacconi, Chris M.; Köhler, Stefan

2014-01-01

313

Detecting personal familiarity depends on static frames in "thin slices" of behavior.  

PubMed

Brief glimpses of nonverbal behavior (or "thin slices") offer ample visual information to make reliable judgments about individuals. Previous work has largely focused on the personality characteristics and traits of individuals; however, the nature of dyadic relationships (strangers, lovers, or friends) can also be determined (Ambady & Gray, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 947-961 2002). Judgments from thin slices are known to be accurate, but the motion features supporting accurate performance are unknown. We explored whether personal familiarity was detectable within the context of "thin slices" of genuine interaction, as well as the invariant properties of thin-slice recognition. In two experiments, participants sequentially viewed two 6-s silent videos on each trial of an individual interacting with an unfamiliar partner; the other depicted the same person interacting with a personally familiar partner. All sequences were cropped so that only the target individual was visible. In Experiment 1, participants viewed either the original sequences, reversed sequences, a static-image "slideshow" of the sequence, or a static-image slideshow with blank frames separating the images. In Experiment 2, all participants viewed the original sequences and clips played at either double speed or half speed. Participants' performance was above chance in the forward and reverse conditions, but was significantly better in both the static-image slideshow conditions. When task speed was manipulated, we found a larger performance cost for fast than for slow videos. Detecting personal familiarity via spontaneous natural gestures depends on information in static images more than on face or body movement. Although static images are typically less important for recognizing nonverbal behavior, we argue they may be valuable for making familiarity judgments from thin slices. PMID:24683099

Saville, Alyson; Balas, Benjamin

2014-12-01

314

A cultural side effect: learning to read interferes with identity processing of familiar objects  

PubMed Central

Based on the neuronal recycling hypothesis (Dehaene and Cohen, 2007), we examined whether reading acquisition has a cost for the recognition of non-linguistic visual materials. More specifically, we checked whether the ability to discriminate between mirror images, which develops through literacy acquisition, interferes with object identity judgments, and whether interference strength varies as a function of the nature of the non-linguistic material. To these aims we presented illiterate, late literate (who learned to read at adult age), and early literate adults with an orientation-independent, identity-based same-different comparison task in which they had to respond “same” to both physically identical and mirrored or plane-rotated images of pictures of familiar objects (Experiment 1) or of geometric shapes (Experiment 2). Interference from irrelevant orientation variations was stronger with plane rotations than with mirror images, and stronger with geometric shapes than with objects. Illiterates were the only participants almost immune to mirror variations, but only for familiar objects. Thus, the process of unlearning mirror-image generalization, necessary to acquire literacy in the Latin alphabet, has a cost for a basic function of the visual ventral object recognition stream, i.e., identification of familiar objects. This demonstrates that neural recycling is not just an adaptation to multi-use but a process of at least partial exaptation. PMID:25400605

Kolinsky, Régine; Fernandes, Tânia

2014-01-01

315

Personality traits predict response to novel and familiar stimuli in the hippocampal region.  

PubMed

Current evidence from genetic, neurochemical, and clinical research supports the notion that a combination of high novelty seeking and low harm avoidance traits (NS-ha) is reliably dissociable from the opposite personality profile (i.e., low novelty seeking and high harm avoidance, ns-HA). Little is known, however, about how the differences between these two types of personality are regulated by brain function. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and recruited two groups of individuals, one group with the NS-ha profile and the other group with the ns-HA profile, to examine whether there is a difference between the two groups in their brain response to novel versus familiar word stimuli. Results revealed a differential pattern of response in an area in the hippocampal region, with the NS-ha group showing a greater sensitivity to novel stimuli and the ns-HA group demonstrating a greater response to familiar stimuli. We conclude that the response pattern to novel and familiar stimuli in the hippocampal region has a role in mediating differences between the NS-ha and ns-HA temperamental profiles. PMID:19541459

Naghavi, Hamid Reza; Lind, Johanna; Nilsson, Lars-Göran; Adolfsson, Rolf; Nyberg, Lars

2009-08-30

316

Asymmetries in gender-related familiarity with different semantic categories. Data from normal adults.  

PubMed

The mechanisms subsuming the brain organization of categories and the corresponding gender related asymmetries are controversial. Some authors believe that the brain organization of categories is innate, whereas other authors maintain that it is shaped by experience. According to these interpretations, gender-related asymmetries should respectively be inborn or result from the influence of social roles. In a previous study, assessing the familiarity of young students with different 'biological' and 'artefact' categories, we had observed no gender-related difference on any of these categories. Since these data could be due to the fact that our students belonged to a generation in which the traditional social roles have almost completely disappeared, we predicted that gender-related asymmetries should be found in older men and women. The familiarity of young and elderly men and women with various semantic categories was, therefore, studied presenting in the verbal and pictorial modality different kinds of living and artefact categories. Results confirmed the hypothesis, because elderly women showed a greater familiarity for flowers and elderly men for animals. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis assuming that gender-related asymmetries for different semantic categories is due to the influence of gender-related social roles. PMID:23242352

Gainotti, Guido; Spinelli, Pietro; Scaricamazza, Eugenia; Marra, Camillo

2013-01-01

317

Selective aggressiveness in European free-tailed bats ( Tadarida teniotis): influence of familiarity, age and sex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bats are highly social mammals that often form large groups and represent good models to test the role played by individual status in shaping social relationships. Social cohesion relies on the ability of group and individual recognition, which is mediated by a range of sensorial cues. In this study, we selected the European free-tailed bat Tadarida teniotis as a model species to test the effects of familiarity, sex and age on aggressiveness and mutual tolerance. We hypothesize that T. teniotis is able to recognize group members and exhibit selective aggressiveness, and thus we predict fewer aggressive events and more amicable encounters between colony mates than between strangers. As female bats are generally more sociable and perform prolonged parental care to juveniles even after weaning, we hypothesize that sex and age of bats have significant influences on aggressive behaviours and thus predict that females will perform more amicable behaviours than males and that adults of both sexes will be less aggressive towards juveniles. Our results confirm that T. teniotis is able to discriminate between familiar and stranger individuals, showing higher rates of aggressive behaviours towards the latter. Females are more prone to exhibit amicable behaviours, particularly during same-sex interactions, while males show higher level of aggressiveness. Juveniles are subjected to fewer aggressive behaviours by adults of both sexes. Familiarity appears crucial for T. teniotis in determining the degree of aggressiveness during social interactions but the rate of aggressive events is also influenced by intrinsic individual factors such as sex and age.

Ancillotto, Leonardo; Russo, Danilo

2014-03-01

318

Could masked conceptual primes increase recollection? The subtleties of measuring recollection and familiarity in recognition memory  

PubMed Central

We begin with a theoretical overview of the concepts of recollection and familiarity, focusing, in the spirit of this special issue, on the important contributions made by Andrew Mayes. In particular, we discuss the issue of when the generation of semantically-related information in response to a retrieval cue might be experienced as recollection rather than familiarity. We then report a series of experiments in which two different types of masked prime, presented immediately prior to the test cue in a recognition memory paradigm, produced opposite effects on Remember vs. Know judgments. More specifically, primes that were conceptually related to the test item increased the incidence of Remember judgments, though only when intermixed with repetition primes (which increased the incidence of Know judgments instead, as in prior studies). One possible explanation—that the fluency of retrieval of item–context associations can be experienced as recollection, even when the source of that fluency is unknown—is counter to conventional views of recollection and familiarity, though it was anticipated by Andrew in his writings nearly two decades ago. PMID:22898644

Taylor, Jason R.; Henson, Richard N.

2012-01-01

319

Autonomous visual exploration creates developmental change in familiarity and novelty seeking behaviors  

PubMed Central

What motivates children to radically transform themselves during early development? We addressed this question in the domain of infant visual exploration. Over the first year, infants' exploration shifts from familiarity to novelty seeking. This shift is delayed in preterm relative to term infants and is stable within individuals over the course of the first year. Laboratory tasks have shed light on the nature of this familiarity-to-novelty shift, but it is not clear what motivates the infant to change her exploratory style. We probed this by letting a Dynamic Neural Field (DNF) model of visual exploration develop itself via accumulating experience in a virtual world. We then situated it in a canonical laboratory task. Much like infants, the model exhibited a familiarity-to-novelty shift. When we manipulated the initial conditions of the model, the model's performance was developmentally delayed much like preterm infants. This delay was overcome by enhancing the model's experience during development. We also found that the model's performance was stable at the level of the individual. Our simulations indicate that novelty seeking emerges with no explicit motivational source via the accumulation of visual experience within a complex, dynamical exploratory system. PMID:24065948

Perone, Sammy; Spencer, John P.

2013-01-01

320

Viability and molecular authentication of Coccidioides spp. isolates from the Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo culture collection, Brazil.  

PubMed

Coccidioidomycosis is an emerging fungal disease in Brazil; adequate maintenance and authentication of Coccidioides isolates are essential for research into genetic diversity of the environmental organisms, as well as for understanding the human disease. Seventeen Coccidioides isolates maintained under mineral oil since 1975 in the Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo (IMTSP) culture collection, Brazil, were evaluated with respect to their viability, morphological characteristics and genetic features in order to authenticate these fungal cultures. Only five isolates were viable after almost 30 years, showing typical morphological characteristics, and sequencing analysis using Coi-F and Coi-R primers revealed 99% identity with Coccidioides genera. These five isolates were then preserved in liquid nitrogen and sterile water, and remained viable after two years of storage under these conditions, maintaining the same features. PMID:23328719

Cavalcanti, Sarah Desirée Barbosa; Vidal, Mônica Scarpelli Martinelli; Sousa, Maria da Glória Teixeira de; Del Negro, Gilda Maria Barbaro

2013-01-01

321

Recall versus familiarity when recall fails for words and scenes: The differential roles of the hippocampus, perirhinal cortex, and category-specific cortical regions?  

PubMed Central

This fMRI study examined recall and familiarity for words and scenes using the novel recognition without cued recall (RWCR) paradigm. Subjects performed a cued recall task in which half of the test cues resembled studied items (and thus were familiar) and half did not. Subjects also judged the familiarity of the cue itself. RWCR is the finding that, among cues for which recall fails, subjects generally rate cues that resemble studied items as more familiar than cues that do not. For words, left and right hippocampal activity increased when recall succeeded relative to when it failed. When recall failed, right hippocampal activity was decreased for familiar relative to unfamiliar cues. In contrast, right Prc activity increased for familiar cues for which recall failed relative to both familiar cues for which recall succeeded and to unfamiliar cues. For scenes, left hippocampal activity increased when recall succeeded relative to when it failed but did not differentiate familiar from unfamiliar cues when recall failed. In contrast, right Prc activity increased for familiar relative to unfamiliar cues when recall failed. Category-specific cortical regions showed effects unique to their respective stimulus types: The visual word form area (VWFA) showed effects for recall vs. familiarity specific to words, and the parahippocampal place area (PPA) showed effects for recall vs. familiarity specific to scenes. In both cases, these effects were such that there was increased activity occurring during recall relative to when recall failed, and decreased activity occurring for familiar relative to unfamiliar cues when recall failed. PMID:23142268

Ryals, Anthony J.; Cleary, Anne M.; Seger, Carol A.

2013-01-01

322

Instantánea del cáncer infantil  

Cancer.gov

Información sobre la incidencia y mortalidad del cáncer en los niños, tendencias en el financiamiento del NCI para la investigación del cáncer infantil; así como ejemplos de actividades y adelantos en la investigación relevantes para esta población.

323

Stimulus familiarity modulates functional connectivity of the perirhinal cortex and anterior hippocampus during visual discrimination of faces and objects  

PubMed Central

Recent research suggests that the medial temporal lobe (MTL) is involved in perception as well as in declarative memory. Amnesic patients with focal MTL lesions and semantic dementia patients showed perceptual deficits when discriminating faces and objects. Interestingly, these two patient groups showed different profiles of impairment for familiar and unfamiliar stimuli. For MTL amnesics, the use of familiar relative to unfamiliar stimuli improved discrimination performance. By contrast, patients with semantic dementia—a neurodegenerative condition associated with anterolateral temporal lobe damage—showed no such facilitation from familiar stimuli. Given that the two patient groups had highly overlapping patterns of damage to the perirhinal cortex, hippocampus, and temporal pole, the neuroanatomical substrates underlying their performance discrepancy were unclear. Here, we addressed this question with a multivariate reanalysis of the data presented by Barense et al. (2011), using functional connectivity to examine how stimulus familiarity affected the broader networks with which the perirhinal cortex, hippocampus, and temporal poles interact. In this study, healthy participants were scanned while they performed an odd-one-out perceptual task involving familiar and novel faces or objects. Seed-based analyses revealed that functional connectivity of the right perirhinal cortex and right anterior hippocampus was modulated by the degree of stimulus familiarity. For familiar relative to unfamiliar faces and objects, both right perirhinal cortex and right anterior hippocampus showed enhanced functional correlations with anterior/lateral temporal cortex, temporal pole, and medial/lateral parietal cortex. These findings suggest that in order to benefit from stimulus familiarity, it is necessary to engage not only the perirhinal cortex and hippocampus, but also a network of regions known to represent semantic information. PMID:24624075

McLelland, Victoria C.; Chan, David; Ferber, Susanne; Barense, Morgan D.

2014-01-01

324

An evaluation of recollection and familiarity in Alzheimer’s disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment using receiver operating characteristics  

PubMed Central

There is a need to investigate exactly how memory breaks down in the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Examining what aspects of memorial processing remain relatively intact early in the disease process will allow us to develop behavioral interventions and possible drug therapies focused on these intact processes. Several recent studies have worked to understand the processes of recollection and familiarity in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and very mild AD. Although there is general agreement that these patient groups are relatively unable to use recollection to support veridical recognition decisions, there has been some question as to how well these patients can use familiarity. The current study used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and a levels of processing manipulation to understand the effect of MCI and AD on the estimates of recollection and familiarity. Results showed that patients with MCI and AD were impaired in both recollection and familiarity, regardless of the depth of encoding. These results are discussed in relation to disease pathology and in the context of recent conflicting evidence as to whether familiarity remains intact in patients with MCI. The authors highlight differences in stimuli type and task difficulty as possibly modulating the ability of these patients to successfully use familiarity in support of memorial decisions. PMID:19101064

Ally, Brandon A.; Gold, Carl A.; Budson, Andrew E.

2009-01-01

325

Memorial familiarity remains intact for pictures but not for words in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment  

PubMed Central

Understanding how memory breaks down in the earliest stages of the Alzheimer’s disease (AD) process has significant implications, both clinically and with respect to intervention development. Previous work has highlighted a robust picture superiority effect in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). However, it remains unclear as to how pictures improve memory compared to words in this patient population. In the current study, we utilized receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to obtain estimates of familiarity and recollection for pictures and words in patients with aMCI and healthy older controls. Analysis of accuracy shows that even when performance is matched between pictures and words in the healthy control group, patients with aMCI continue to show a significant picture superiority effect. The results of the ROC analysis showed that patients demonstrated significantly impaired recollection and familiarity for words compared controls. In contrast, patients with aMCI demonstrated impaired recollection, but intact familiarity for pictures, compared to controls. Based on previous work from our lab, we speculate that patients can utilize the rich conceptual information provided by pictures to enhance familiarity, and perceptual information may allow for post-retrieval monitoring or verification of the enhanced sense of familiarity. Alternatively, the combination of enhanced conceptual and perceptual fluency of the test item might drive a stronger or more robust sense of familiarity that can be accurately attributed to a studied item. PMID:22705441

Embree, Lindsay M.; Budson, Andrew E.; Ally, Brandon A.

2012-01-01

326

Segmentation of dance movement: effects of expertise, visual familiarity, motor experience and music.  

PubMed

According to event segmentation theory, action perception depends on sensory cues and prior knowledge, and the segmentation of observed actions is crucial for understanding and memorizing these actions. While most activities in everyday life are characterized by external goals and interaction with objects or persons, this does not necessarily apply to dance-like actions. We investigated to what extent visual familiarity of the observed movement and accompanying music influence the segmentation of a dance phrase in dancers of different skill level and non-dancers. In Experiment 1, dancers and non-dancers repeatedly watched a video clip showing a dancer performing a choreographed dance phrase and indicated segment boundaries by key press. Dancers generally defined less segment boundaries than non-dancers, specifically in the first trials in which visual familiarity with the phrase was low. Music increased the number of segment boundaries in the non-dancers and decreased it in the dancers. The results suggest that dance expertise reduces the number of perceived segment boundaries in an observed dance phrase, and that the ways visual familiarity and music affect movement segmentation are modulated by dance expertise. In a second experiment, motor experience was added as factor, based on empirical evidence suggesting that action perception is modified by visual and motor expertise in different ways. In Experiment 2, the same task as in Experiment 1 was performed by dance amateurs, and was repeated by the same participants after they had learned to dance the presented dance phrase. Less segment boundaries were defined in the middle trials after participants had learned to dance the phrase, and music reduced the number of segment boundaries before learning. The results suggest that specific motor experience of the observed movement influences its perception and anticipation and makes segmentation broader, but not to the same degree as dance expertise on a professional level. PMID:25610409

Bläsing, Bettina E

2014-01-01

327

Oscillatory brain responses to own names uttered by unfamiliar and familiar voices.  

PubMed

Among auditory stimuli, the own name is one of the most powerful and it is able to automatically capture attention and elicit a robust electrophysiological response. The subject's own name (SON) is preferentially processed in the right hemisphere, mainly because of its self-relevance and emotional content, together with other personally relevant information such as the voice of a familiar person. Whether emotional and self-relevant information are able to attract attention and can be, in future, introduced in clinical studies remains unclear. In the present study we used EEG and asked participants to count a target name (active condition) or to just listen to the SON or other unfamiliar names uttered by a familiar or unfamiliar voice (passive condition). Data reveals that the target name elicits a strong alpha event related desynchronization with respect to non-target names and triggers in addition a left lateralized theta synchronization as well as delta synchronization. In the passive condition alpha desynchronization was observed for familiar voice and SON stimuli in the right hemisphere. Altogether we speculate that participants engage additional attentional resources when counting a target name or when listening to personally relevant stimuli which is indexed by alpha desynchronization whereas left lateralized theta synchronization may be related to verbal working memory load. After validating the present protocol in healthy volunteers it is suggested to move one step further and apply the protocol to patients with disorders of consciousness in which the degree of residual cognitive processing and self-awareness is still insufficiently understood. PMID:25307136

del Giudice, Renata; Lechinger, Julia; Wislowska, Malgorzata; Heib, Dominik P J; Hoedlmoser, Kerstin; Schabus, Manuel

2014-12-01

328

Segmentation of dance movement: effects of expertise, visual familiarity, motor experience and music  

PubMed Central

According to event segmentation theory, action perception depends on sensory cues and prior knowledge, and the segmentation of observed actions is crucial for understanding and memorizing these actions. While most activities in everyday life are characterized by external goals and interaction with objects or persons, this does not necessarily apply to dance-like actions. We investigated to what extent visual familiarity of the observed movement and accompanying music influence the segmentation of a dance phrase in dancers of different skill level and non-dancers. In Experiment 1, dancers and non-dancers repeatedly watched a video clip showing a dancer performing a choreographed dance phrase and indicated segment boundaries by key press. Dancers generally defined less segment boundaries than non-dancers, specifically in the first trials in which visual familiarity with the phrase was low. Music increased the number of segment boundaries in the non-dancers and decreased it in the dancers. The results suggest that dance expertise reduces the number of perceived segment boundaries in an observed dance phrase, and that the ways visual familiarity and music affect movement segmentation are modulated by dance expertise. In a second experiment, motor experience was added as factor, based on empirical evidence suggesting that action perception is modified by visual and motor expertise in different ways. In Experiment 2, the same task as in Experiment 1 was performed by dance amateurs, and was repeated by the same participants after they had learned to dance the presented dance phrase. Less segment boundaries were defined in the middle trials after participants had learned to dance the phrase, and music reduced the number of segment boundaries before learning. The results suggest that specific motor experience of the observed movement influences its perception and anticipation and makes segmentation broader, but not to the same degree as dance expertise on a professional level. PMID:25610409

Bläsing, Bettina E.

2015-01-01

329

INCLUSIÓN DE LA ÉTICA Y BIOÉTICA EN LA FORMACIÓN DE PRE Y POSGRADO DEL CIRUJANO-DENTISTA EN PERÚ  

PubMed Central

Se revisan aspectos de la inclusión de la ética y bioética en la formación de pre y posgrado del cirujano-dentista en Perú. Desde el punto de vista de la formación del docente, se analiza la presencia de normatividad ética en la investigación científica que genera la universidad, así como los conocimientos y actitudes vinculados con la ética y bioética en la formación del odontólogo. Se concluye que es un compromiso fomentar un cambio de paradigma, a través de un movimiento masivo que involucre los ámbitos familiar, profesional y académico, con el n de integrar la reflexión ética en nuestro diario proceder. PMID:19946384

Rupaya, Carmen Rosa García

2009-01-01

330

Políticas del sitio web  

Cancer.gov

En el sitio web del NCI se proporcionan enlaces a otros sitios web con fines informativos y para conveniencia del público. Si el usuario selecciona un sitio web externo, saldrá del sitio web del NCI y estará sujeto a las políticas de privacidad y seguridad de dicho sitio.

331

Kindergarten food familiarization. An exploratory study of teachers' perspectives on food and nutrition in kindergartens.  

PubMed

This exploratory study employed a netnographic approach (netnography being a research methodology that adopts the practices of ethnography in an Internet-based setting) to reveal opportunities for kindergarten food familiarization. The study analyses kindergarten teachers' discussions on seven Internet message boards regarding the various food and nutrition experiences in their classes. Semi-structured interviews were then conducted with seven kindergarten teachers to explore further the message board findings. Five opportunities for how food familiarization occurs in kindergartens emerged from the analysis. These opportunities were categorized as being either "overt": (1) nutrition lessons, (2) snack times, (3) cooking experiences, or "covert" (4) food as teaching materials, and (5) dramatic play centres. Overt refers to any opportunity centred on food, healthy eating, or nutrition, whereas covert refers to opportunities where food was involved but in a non-exclusive manner. The five opportunities are examined and discussed in terms of their implications for children's food preference development. Results should be useful for future researchers for two main reasons. First, the results demonstrate the wide variety of food and nutrition experiences kindergarten students encounter throughout the day, beyond healthy eating interventions or foods served during meals. And second, because the findings are preliminary they require further research using various methods of data collection and samples of teachers. PMID:25526827

Lynch, Meghan

2015-04-01

332

No Evidence for Emotional Empathy in Chickens Observing Familiar Adult Conspecifics  

PubMed Central

The capacity of animals to empathise is of high potential relevance to the welfare of group-housed domestic animals. Emotional empathy is a multifaceted and multilayered phenomenon which ranges from relatively simple processes such as emotional matching behaviour to more complex processes involving interaction between emotional and cognitive perspective taking systems. Our previous research has demonstrated that hens show clear behavioural and physiological responses to the mild distress of their chicks. To investigate whether this capacity exists outside the mother/offspring bond, we conducted a similar experiment in which domestic hens were exposed to the mild distress of unrelated, but familiar adult conspecifics. Each observer hen was exposed to two replicates of four conditions, in counterbalanced order; control (C); control with noise of air puff (CN); air puff to conspecific hen (APC); air puff to observer hen (APH). During each test, the observer hens' behaviour and physiology were measured throughout a 10 min pre-treatment and a 10 min treatment period. Despite showing signs of distress in response to an aversive stimulus directed at themselves (APH), and using methodology sufficiently sensitive to detect empathy-like responses previously, observer hens showed no behavioural or physiological responses to the mild distress of a familiar adult conspecific. The lack of behavioural and physiological response indicates that hens show no basis for emotional empathy in this context. PMID:22348100

Edgar, Joanne L.; Paul, Elizabeth S.; Harris, Lauren; Penturn, Sarah; Nicol, Christine J.

2012-01-01

333

Effects of number, complexity, and familiarity of flankers on crowded letter identification.  

PubMed

We tested identification of target letters surrounded by a varying number (2, 4, 6) of horizontally aligned flanking elements. Strings were presented left or right of a central fixation dot, and targets were always at the center of the string. Flankers could be other letters, digits, symbols, simple shapes, or false fonts, and thus varied both in terms of visual complexity and familiarity. Two-alternative forced choice (2AFC) speed and accuracy was measured for choosing the target letter versus an alternative letter that was not present in the string. Letter identification became harder as the number of flankers increased. Greater flanker complexity led to more interference in target identification, whereas more complex targets were easier to identify. Effects of flanker complexity were found to depend on visual field and position of flankers, with the strongest effects seen for leftward flankers in the left visual field. Visual complexity predicted flanker interference better than familiarity, and better than target-flanker similarity. These results provide further support for an excessive feature-integration account of the interfering effects of both adjacent and nonadjacent flanking elements in horizontally aligned strings. PMID:25384390

Chanceaux, Myriam; Mathôt, Sebastiaan; Grainger, Jonathan

2014-01-01

334

Familiarity does not affect the unilateral field advantage for repetition detection.  

PubMed

We have previously reported evidence that repetitions of letters, colors, sizes, and common motion paths are more rapidly detected when they are presented unilaterally (i.e., both in the same visual field) versus bilaterally (one element in each visual field; Butcher and Cavanagh (Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics 70:714-724, 2008). Here, we report evidence that this unilateral field advantage (UFA) for repetition detection does not depend on prior experience with the elements that comprise the repetition. In Experiment 1, native English, Persian, and Japanese speakers were tested on a repetition detection task involving characters from Western, Arabic, and Japanese character sets. The character sets were tested in blocks, in each of which subjects were presented with four characters for 16 ms and asked to report whether any two of the characters were identical. The subjects were faster detecting repetitions that were presented unilaterally rather than bilaterally, and there was no interaction with stimulus familiarity. A second experiment replicated this finding with native English speakers only, using a longer stimulus duration (150 ms). We had previously proposed that the UFA arises because the low-level processes that group physically identical items operate more efficiently within than across hemifields. Our data now indicate that this grouping process is insensitive to item familiarity, supporting the claim that the process is low-level. PMID:22532384

Butcher, Serena J; Cavanagh, Patrick

2012-08-01

335

An Efficient ERP-Based Brain-Computer Interface Using Random Set Presentation and Face Familiarity  

PubMed Central

Event-related potential (ERP)-based P300 spellers are commonly used in the field of brain-computer interfaces as an alternative channel of communication for people with severe neuro-muscular diseases. This study introduces a novel P300 based brain-computer interface (BCI) stimulus paradigm using a random set presentation pattern and exploiting the effects of face familiarity. The effect of face familiarity is widely studied in the cognitive neurosciences and has recently been addressed for the purpose of BCI. In this study we compare P300-based BCI performances of a conventional row-column (RC)-based paradigm with our approach that combines a random set presentation paradigm with (non-) self-face stimuli. Our experimental results indicate stronger deflections of the ERPs in response to face stimuli, which are further enhanced when using the self-face images, and thereby improving P300-based spelling performance. This lead to a significant reduction of stimulus sequences required for correct character classification. These findings demonstrate a promising new approach for improving the speed and thus fluency of BCI-enhanced communication with the widely used P300-based BCI setup. PMID:25384045

Müller, Klaus-Robert; Lee, Seong-Whan

2014-01-01

336

An efficient ERP-based brain-computer interface using random set presentation and face familiarity.  

PubMed

Event-related potential (ERP)-based P300 spellers are commonly used in the field of brain-computer interfaces as an alternative channel of communication for people with severe neuro-muscular diseases. This study introduces a novel P300 based brain-computer interface (BCI) stimulus paradigm using a random set presentation pattern and exploiting the effects of face familiarity. The effect of face familiarity is widely studied in the cognitive neurosciences and has recently been addressed for the purpose of BCI. In this study we compare P300-based BCI performances of a conventional row-column (RC)-based paradigm with our approach that combines a random set presentation paradigm with (non-) self-face stimuli. Our experimental results indicate stronger deflections of the ERPs in response to face stimuli, which are further enhanced when using the self-face images, and thereby improving P300-based spelling performance. This lead to a significant reduction of stimulus sequences required for correct character classification. These findings demonstrate a promising new approach for improving the speed and thus fluency of BCI-enhanced communication with the widely used P300-based BCI setup. PMID:25384045

Yeom, Seul-Ki; Fazli, Siamac; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Lee, Seong-Whan

2014-01-01

337

Feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary outcomes of the Fortalezas Familiares intervention for Latino families facing maternal depression  

PubMed Central

This pilot study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary outcomes of a linguistically- and culturally-adapted intervention for immigrant Latina mothers with depression and their families. Fortalezas Familiares (Family Strengths) is a community-based, 12-week, multi-family group intervention that aims to increase communication about family processes leading up to and affected by the mother’s depression, build child coping and efficacy, enhance parenting competence and skills, and promote cultural and social assets within the family. In terms of feasibility, of 16 families who enrolled and participated in the intervention, 13 families attended more than 90% of meetings and completed the intervention. Post-tests reported positive changes following the intervention, including improved psychological functioning, increased family and marital support, and enhanced family functioning, as reported by mothers and other caregivers. Mothers also reported decreased conduct and hyperactivity problems among their children. Children reported positive changes in their psychological functioning and coping, peer relations, parenting warmth and acceptance, and overall family functioning. Post-intervention focus groups and surveys measuring acceptability revealed families’ satisfaction with the intervention and suggested areas of improvement. We discuss similarities and differences in outcomes between the adapted intervention, Fortalezas Familiares, and the original intervention, Keeping Families Strong, and propose future areas of intervention adaptation and development. PMID:24033238

Valdez, Carmen R.; Padilla, Brian; Moore, Sarah; Magaña, Sandra

2014-01-01

338

EVALUACIÓN DE LA CALIDAD DE LOS ESTUDIOS DE MAMOGRAFÍA EN EL SERVICIO DE RADIODIAGNÓSTICO DEL INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE CANCEROLOGÍA, E.S.E  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: The development of mammography quality control programs at radiology services has had an important progress in the last decades, mainly in developed countries. Although breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer mortality and incidence in Colombia, quality control programs for mammography screening are just beginning to be considered. Objective: This article describes the results of a

Alba Lucía; Rubio Laverde; Marion Piñeros Petersen; Claudia Betancourt Gil

339

The collection and database of Birds of Angola hosted at IICT (Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical), Lisboa, Portugal  

PubMed Central

Abstract The bird collection of the Instituto de Investigação Cientítica Tropical (Lisbon, Portugal) holds 5598 preserved specimens (skins), mainly from Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau, São Tomé and Principe, and Cape Verde. The subset collection from Angola includes 1560 specimens, which were taxonomically revised and georeferenced for the publication of this data paper. The collection contains a total of 522 taxa, including 161 species and 361 subspecies. Two species are classified by the IUCN Red List as Endangered - the wattled crane (Grus carunculata) and the Gabela bush-shrike (Laniarius amboimensis) - and two are classified as vulnerable - African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) and the white-headed vulture (Trigonoceps occipitalis). The temporal span of the database ranges between 1943 and 1979, but 32% are from years 1958–1959, and 25% from years 1968–1969. The spatial coverage of the collection is uneven, with 2/3 of the records representing only four of the eighteen provinces of the country, namely Huíla, Moxico, Namibe and Cuanza Sul. It adds, however, valuable information for the Huíla area of the Angolan Scarp, which is probably a biodiversity hotspot of global conservation priority. Furthermore, this georeferenced database adds invaluable bird information to the GBIF network, for one of the countries with highest but less known biodiversity in Africa. PMID:24693221

Monteiro, Miguel; Reino, Luís; Beja, Pedro; Mills, Michael Stuart Lyne; Bastos-Silveira, Cristiane; Ramos, Manuela; Rodrigues, Diana; Neves, Isabel Queirós; Consciência, Susana; Figueira, Rui

2014-01-01

340

[Eccrine Porocarcinoma: clinical-pathological study of 19 cases in the Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplásicas, Lima - Peru].  

PubMed

In order to describe the clinical-pathological characteristics of the cases of Eccrine Porocarcinoma (EP) found in the Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplásicas (INEN), a cross-sectional study was carried out, including all EP cases recorded between 1998 and 2009. A revision of the clinical-pathological records indentified and a new reading of the pathology slides of the cases found were performed. 19 EP cases were found, the median age of which was 64 years (range: 37-98). EP was primarily found on male patients (57.9%) and was most commonly located on the foot (21.1%), followed by the head, thorax and thigh (15.8%, respectively). In one case, EP was located on the gluteal region, and showed an unusually invasive behavior and rectal involvement. We conclude that EP is a rather uncommon entity in Peru. Its most common location is on the foot and it affects mostly male patients for the most part. PMID:24100819

Casavilca, Sandro; Lama, Anny; Guerrero, Melvy; Essary, Lydia R; Mantilla, Raúl; Cano, Luis; Barrionuevo, Carlos

2013-07-01

341

The role of chunk tightness and chunk familiarity in problem solving: evidence from ERPs and fMRI.  

PubMed

Multiple factors of task difficulty keep problem solvers from finding the crucial thinking steps required to solve insight problems. In this study, we distinguished two difficulty factors, chunk familiarity and chunk tightness, and investigated their effects on chunk decomposition--a specific type of insight that depends on the process of breaking up perceptual patterns or chunks into elements so that they can be reorganized to form a new meaning. Subjects solved problems that required decomposing Chinese characters that differed in chunk familiarity and chunk tightness. Brain activity was recorded using the electroencephalogram and functional magnetic resonance imaging. The results showed that chunk familiarity could be overcome through an inhibition of familiar meanings, whereas overcoming chunk tightness required visual-spatial processing. Furthermore, chunk familiarity posed an additional difficulty when chunk tightness was high. This result demonstrates that the difficulty sources in a problem do not always simply add up. Rather, the difficulty of a problem can reside in the interaction of particular sources of difficulty. PMID:22328466

Wu, Lili; Knoblich, Guenther; Luo, Jing

2013-05-01

342

A familiar conspecific is more effective than an unfamiliar conspecific for social buffering of conditioned fear responses in male rats.  

PubMed

In social animals, the presence of an affiliative conspecific alleviates acute stress responses, and this is called social buffering. We previously reported in male rats that the presence of a conspecific mitigates conditioned fear responses to auditory conditioned stimulus paired with foot shocks. Subsequent studies revealed that we could observe this social buffering when rats were tested in a box odorized by a conspecific. Because we previously used an unfamiliar conspecific, the effects of familiarity with a conspecific on the intensity of social buffering remain unclear. Here, we examine this question by preparing a familiar conspecific that had been housed with a subject for 3 weeks in the same cage. We exposed fear-conditioned subjects to a conditioned stimulus in either a clean control box or a box odorized beforehand by either an unfamiliar or a familiar conspecific. When the subjects were tested in the control box, they showed freezing and Fos expression in the paraventricular nucleus. These responses were suppressed when we placed rats in the box odorized by a conspecific. However, the suppression was greater when the box was odorized by a familiar conspecific rather than by an unfamiliar conspecific. Fos expression in the lateral amygdala was also suppressed in the same manner. These results suggest that a familiar conspecific is more effective for social buffering of conditioned fear responses. PMID:24698797

Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Honda, Akira; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

2014-07-01

343

Familiarity Perception Call Elicited under Restricted Sensory Cues in Peer-Social Interactions of the Domestic Chick  

PubMed Central

Social cognitive mechanisms are central to understanding developmental abnormalities, such as autistic spectrum disorder. Peer relations besides parent-infant or pair-bonding interactions are pivotal social relationships that are especially well developed in humans. Cognition of familiarity forms the basis of peer socialization. Domestic chick (Gallus gallus) studies have contributed to our understanding of the developmental process in sensory-motor cognition but many processes remain unknown. In this report, we used chicks, as they are precocial birds, and we could therefore focus on peer interaction without having to consider parenting. The subject chick behavior towards familiar and unfamiliar reference peers was video-recorded, where the subject and the reference were separated by either an opaque or transparent wall. Spectrogram and behavior correlation analyses based on principal component analysis, revealed that chicks elicited an intermediate contact call and a morphologically different distress call, more frequently towards familiar versus unfamiliar chicks in acoustic only conditions. When both visual and acoustic cues were present, subject chicks exhibited approaching and floor pecking behavior, while eliciting joyful (pleasant) calls, irrespective of whether reference peers were familiar or unfamiliar. Our result showed that chicks recognized familiarity using acoustic cues and expressed cognition through modified distress calls. These finding suggests that peer affiliation may be established by acoustic recognition, independent of visual face recognition, and that eventually, both forms of recognition are integrated, with modulation of acoustic recognition. PMID:23520539

Koshiba, Mamiko; Shirakawa, Yuka; Mimura, Koki; Senoo, Aya; Karino, Genta; Nakamura, Shun

2013-01-01

344

Drug-scene familiarity and exposure to gang violence among residents in a rural farming community in Baja California, Mexico  

PubMed Central

We examined drug-scene familiarity and exposure to gang violence among residents of a migrant farming community in rural Baja California, Mexico. In October 2010, 164 members of a single colonia (community) underwent an interviewer-administered survey to assess ‘exposure to gang violence’ and ‘drug-scene familiarity’, as well as other health indicators. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of exposure to gang violence. Overall, 20% of participants were male, the median age was 27 years, 24% spoke an indigenous language, 42% reported exposure to gang violence, and 39% reported drug-scene familiarity. Factors independently associated with exposure to gang violence included being younger (AOR=0.80 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=0.67–0.96), living in the community longer (AOR=1.47 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=1.11–1.72), higher educational attainment (AOR=1.70 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=1.07–1.12), and drug-scene familiarity (AOR=5.10, 95%CI=2.39–10.89). Exposure to gang violence was very common in this community and was associated with drug-scene familiarity, suggesting a close relationship between drugs and gang violence in this rural community. In a region characterised by mass migration from poorer parts of Mexico, where drugs and gangs have not been previously reported, emerging social harms may affect these communities unless interventions are implemented. PMID:23072623

Volkmann, Tyson; Fraga, Miguel A.; Brodine, Stephanie K.; Iñiguez-Stevens, Esmeralda; Cepeda, Alice; Elder, John P.; Garfein, Richard S.

2012-01-01

345

Relevance of visual cues for orientation at familiar sites by homing pigeons: an experiment in a circular arena.  

PubMed Central

Whether pigeons use visual landmarks for orientation from familiar locations has been a subject of debate. By recording the directional choices of both anosmic and control pigeons while exiting from a circular arena we were able to assess the relevance of olfactory and visual cues for orientation from familiar sites. When the birds could see the surroundings, both anosmic and control pigeons were homeward oriented. When the view of the landscape was prevented by screens that surrounded the arena, the control pigeons exited from the arena approximately in the home direction, while the anosmic pigeons' distribution was not different from random. Our data suggest that olfactory and visual cues play a critical, but interchangeable, role for orientation at familiar sites. PMID:11571054

Gagliardo, A.; Odetti, F.; Ioalè, P.

2001-01-01

346

Modulation of cortical activity during comprehension of familiar and unfamiliar text topics in speed reading and speed listening.  

PubMed

Brain activation associated with normal and speeded comprehension of expository texts on familiar and unfamiliar topics was investigated in reading and listening. The goal was to determine how brain activation and the comprehension processes it reflects are modulated by comprehension speed and topic familiarity. Passages on more familiar topics differentially activated a set of areas in the anterior temporal lobe and medial frontal gyrus, areas often associated with text-level integration processes, which we interpret to reflect integration of previous knowledge with the passage content. Passages presented at the faster presentation resulted in more activation of a network of frontal areas associated with strategic and working-memory processes (as well as visual or auditory sensory-related regions), which we interpret to reflect maintenance of local coherence among briefly available passage segments. The implications of this research is that the brain system for text comprehension adapts to varying perceptual and knowledge conditions. PMID:25463816

Buchweitz, Augusto; Mason, Robert A; Meschyan, Gayane; Keller, Timothy A; Just, Marcel Adam

2014-10-28

347

Emotionality as a moderator of cognitive style on the Matching Familiar Figures Test in adults.  

PubMed

This study examined whether an emotional temperament moderated scores on the Matching Familiar Figures Test (MFFT) in adults. It was predicted that people who were high in fear would score in the impulsive and reflective quadrants of the MFFT, and those who were low in fear would score in the other two quadrants of the MFFT. Eighty-five college students completed the EASI Temperament Survey and later the MFFT. The results supported the prediction. Relative to others, subjects who scored in the impulsive and reflective quadrants of the MFFT also scored significantly higher on the Fear subscale of the EASI Temperament Survey. Implications for the role of fear in interpreting scores on the MFFT were drawn. PMID:3210123

Davidson, W B

1988-01-01

348

Is the matching familiar figures test a measure of cognitive style? A warning for users.  

PubMed

A probabilistic model of reflection-impulsivity as measured by the Matching Familiar Figures Test (MFFT) is presented and tested on 77 fourth graders. In testing the model two groups emerged, a random response group (n = 22) and a cognitive response group (n = 55), who use the evaluation process. Correlations among latencies, total errors, initial errors, school-scores, and IQs were compared for our total sample and the two groups. The correlation of MFFT latencies and errors disappeared for the random-response group and new correlations with errors appeared while the cognitive response group kept a statistically significant correlation of latencies with errors and no other error correlation was shown. This last group was classified by Kagan's median-split procedure showing that most reflective subjects kept their classification. Preliminary results suggest a reinterpretation of reflection-impulsivity literature, especially as related to the impulsive style. PMID:3562193

Solís-Cámara, P; Solís-Cámara, P

1987-02-01

349

Familiarity of physicians, translational researchers, nurses, and other health professionals with evidence-based medicine terms and resources.  

PubMed

Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is a central theme in health practice and training. The understanding of EBM technical terms and the familiarity with EBM resources were surveyed in four different health professional categories. A self-administered questionnaire on the familiarity with EBM terminology and resources was proposed to 218 health professionals (physicians, translational researchers, nurses, and others) working in the oncology field. Relationships between variable and familiarity were examined: Pearson ?(2) or exact Fisher test was used for the categorical variables and one-way ANOVA for the continuous ones. The odds of familiarity for subjects, who had followed or not at least one EBM course, were estimated fitting a multiple logistic regression model adjusted for age, gender, and profession. All subjects completed the questionnaire. The majority of health personnel seemed to lack a sound knowledge of key EBM terms and sources. Physicians showed the highest knowledge of terms, nurses the lowest. Physicians also declared the largest familiarity with the widest variety of resources, followed by others and the researchers. The most popular resource was PLNG, the Italian Guideline System. People who attended at least one EBM course showed consistently higher percentages of knowledge, but the association was irrelevant for nurses. The main perceived barrier to implement EBM in practice was a lack of personal time. Familiarity of health professionals with EBM terminology and resources is still limited to the medical field and needs to be improved. Increasing education may be pivotal, even if different approaches should be developed for different professional categories. PMID:24585401

Ugolini, Donatella; Casanova, Georgia; Ceppi, Marcello; Mattei, Francesca; Neri, Monica

2014-09-01

350

Déjà vu in unilateral temporal-lobe epilepsy is associated with selective familiarity impairments on experimental tasks of recognition memory.  

PubMed

In déjà vu, a phenomenological impression of familiarity for the current visual environment is experienced with a sense that it should in fact not feel familiar. The fleeting nature of this phenomenon in daily life, and the difficulty in developing experimental paradigms to elicit it, has hindered progress in understanding déjà vu. Some neurological patients with temporal-lobe epilepsy (TLE) consistently experience déjà vu at the onset of their seizures. An investigation of such patients offers a unique opportunity to shed light on its possible underlying mechanisms. In the present study, we sought to determine whether unilateral TLE patients with déjà vu (TLE+) show a unique pattern of interictal memory deficits that selectively affect familiarity assessment. In Experiment 1, we employed a Remember-Know paradigm for categorized visual scenes and found evidence for impairments that were limited to familiarity-based responses. In Experiment 2, we administered an exclusion task for highly similar categorized visual scenes that placed both recognition processes in opposition. TLE+ patients again displayed recognition impairments, and these impairments spared their ability to engage recollective processes so as to counteract familiarity. The selective deficits we observed in TLE+ patients contrasted with the broader pattern of recognition-memory impairments that was present in a control group of unilateral patients without déjà vu (TLE-). MRI volumetry revealed that ipsilateral medial temporal structures were less broadly affected in TLE+ than in TLE- patients, with a trend for more focal volume reductions in the rhinal cortices of the TLE+ group. The current findings establish a first empirical link between déjà vu in TLE and processes of familiarity assessment, as defined and measured in current cognitive models. They also reveal a pattern of selectivity in recognition impairments that is rarely observed and, thus, of significant theoretical interest to the memory literature at large. PMID:22841992

Martin, Chris B; Mirsattari, Seyed M; Pruessner, Jens C; Pietrantonio, Sandra; Burneo, Jorge G; Hayman-Abello, Brent; Köhler, Stefan

2012-11-01

351

Familiarity bias and physiological responses in contagious yawning by dogs support link to empathy.  

PubMed

In humans, the susceptibility to yawn contagion has been theoretically and empirically related to our capacity for empathy. Because of its relevance to evolutionary biology, this phenomenon has been the focus of recent investigations in non-human species. In line with the empathic hypothesis, contagious yawning has been shown to correlate with the level of social attachment in several primate species. Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) have also shown the ability to yawn contagiously. To date, however, the social modulation of dog contagious yawning has received contradictory support and alternative explanations (i.e., yawn as a mild distress response) could explain positive evidence. The present study aims to replicate contagious yawning in dogs and to discriminate between the two possible mediating mechanisms (i.e., empathic vs. distress related response). Twenty-five dogs observed familiar (dog's owner) and unfamiliar human models (experimenter) acting out a yawn or control mouth movements. Concurrent physiological measures (heart rate) were additionally monitored for twenty-one of the subjects. The occurrence of yawn contagion was significantly higher during the yawning condition than during the control mouth movements. Furthermore, the dogs yawned more frequently when watching the familiar model than the unfamiliar one demonstrating that the contagiousness of yawning in dogs correlated with the level of emotional proximity. Moreover, subjects' heart rate did not differ among conditions suggesting that the phenomenon of contagious yawning in dogs is unrelated to stressful events. Our findings are consistent with the view that contagious yawning is modulated by affective components of the behavior and may indicate that rudimentary forms of empathy could be present in domesticated dogs. PMID:23951146

Romero, Teresa; Konno, Akitsugu; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

2013-01-01

352

Familiarity with and intentions to use Internet-delivered mental health treatments among older rural adults.  

PubMed

Objectives: Older adults are the fastest growing age group in Australia, necessitating an increase in appropriate mental health services in the coming years. While Internet-delivered mental health treatments have been established as acceptable and efficacious among younger samples, little research has explored whether they would be similarly useful in older populations. Methods: The participants were part of the Australian Rural Mental Health study, which explores mental health and well-being in residents of non-metropolitan New South Wales. A postal survey was used to assess knowledge of and intentions to use Internet-delivered mental health treatments. Demographics, mental health, and frequency of Internet use were also measured. Results: The survey was completed by 950 adults aged 50-93. The sample was largely unfamiliar with Internet mental health services, with 75% reporting that they had never heard of them and a further 20% not knowing any details of what they involved. Intentions to use these services were also low, at 13.5%; however, this increased with level of familiarity. Respondents with higher psychological distress, higher education, and more frequent Internet use were significantly more likely to consider using Internet treatments. Conclusions: Among older adults, overall awareness of Internet-delivered mental health treatments appears to be limited; however, higher familiarity contributes to higher intentions to use these treatments. Importantly, respondents with higher distress and greater computer literacy were more likely to consider mental health treatments delivered via the Internet. Future research exploring strategies to increase the promotion of these services to older samples may further improve their perceptions and use. PMID:25420968

Handley, Tonelle; Perkins, David; Kay-Lambkin, Frances; Lewin, Terry; Kelly, Brian

2014-11-24

353

Familiarization Effects of an Elliptical All-out Test and the Wingate Test Based on Mechanical Power Indices  

PubMed Central

The Wingate all-out test (WAT) is commonly used to estimate anaerobic capabilities of athletes by using an upper or lower body cycle ergometer, however, a new test modality called elliptical all-out test (EAT) which measures activated whole-body locomotor tasks has recently been proposed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the familiarization effects of a 30-s EAT versus WAT. Twenty male trained athletes performed pre-familiarization (Trial- I), post-familiarization (Trial-II) and retest of Trial-II (Trial-III) sessions on both cycle ergometer and elliptical trainer. Peak power (PP), average power (AP), power drop (PD) and fatigue index ratio (FI%) were analyzed using student's t-test for paired samples and correlated by intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC). Moreover, an error detection procedure was administered using data attained from illogical interrelations among 5-s segments of 30-s tests. The main results showed that there were significant familiarization effects in all mechanical power outputs obtained from Trial-I and Trial-II in both EAT (ICC = 0.49-0.55) and WAT (ICC = 0.50-0.57) performances (p ? 0.01). Significant segmental disorders were detected in power production during Trial-I of EAT, however, none existed in any of test trails in the WAT (p ? 0.001). After familiarization sessions, reliability coefficients between Trial-II and Trial-III showed moderate to strong-level agreements for both EAT (ICC = 0.74-0.91) and the WAT (ICC=0.76-0.93). Our results suggested that prior to the performance tests, combination of a well designed familiarization session with one full all-out test administration is necessary to estimate the least moderately reliable and accurate test indices for both WAT and EAT. Key Points A well designed familiarization session, and then, one additional all-out test administration, several days prior to main test, is suggested to estimate more accurate and reliable retest correlations for both cycling and elliptical all-out test modalities. Because of greater muscle recruitment and different movement pattern, familiarization seems more effective for a 30-s all-out test performed on an elliptical trainer compared to a cycle ergometer. PMID:24149160

Ozkaya, Ozgur

2013-01-01

354

Instantánea del cáncer colorrectal  

Cancer.gov

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer colorrectal; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

355

Introduction A circle is one of the most familiar geometrical figures. In this brief Section we discuss the basic  

E-print Network

The Circle 2.6 Introduction A circle is one of the most familiar geometrical figures. In this brief Section we discuss the basic coordinate geometry of a circle - in particular the basic equation representing a circle in terms of its centre and radius. 1 0 ( ) Prerequisites Before starting this Section you

Vickers, James

356

The presence of an audience modulates responses to familiar call stimuli in the male zebra finch forebrain.  

PubMed

The ability to recognize familiar individuals is crucial for establishing social relationships. The zebra finch, a highly social songbird species that forms lifelong pair bonds, uses a vocalization, the distance call, to identify its mate. However, in males, this ability depends on social conditions, requiring the presence of an audience. To evaluate whether the presence of bystanders modulates the auditory processing underlying recognition abilities, we assessed, by using a lightweight telemetry system, whether electrophysiological responses driven by familiar and unfamiliar female calls in a high-level auditory area [the caudomedial nidopallium (NCM)] were modulated by the presence of conspecific males. Males had experienced the call of their mate for several months and the call of a familiar female for several days. When they were exposed to female calls in the presence of two male conspecifics, NCM neurons showed greater responses to the playback of familiar female calls, including the mate's call, than to unfamiliar ones. In contrast, no such discrimination was observed in males when they were alone or when call-evoked responses were collected under anaesthesia. Together, these results suggest that NCM neuronal activity is profoundly influenced by social conditions, providing new evidence that the properties of NCM neurons are not simply determined by the acoustic structure of auditory stimuli. They also show that neurons in the NCM form part of a network that can be shaped by experience and that probably plays an important role in the emergence of communication sound recognition. PMID:25145963

Menardy, F; Giret, N; Del Negro, C

2014-11-01

357

EE/CS 120 Logic Design Course Objectives: 1. Able to perform the conversion among different number systems; Familiar with  

E-print Network

EE/CS 120 Logic Design Course Objectives: 1. Able to perform the conversion among different number systems; Familiar with baisc logic gates -- AND, OR & NOT, XOR, XNOR; Independently or work in team to build simple logic circuits using basic. 2. Understand Boolean algebra and basic properties of Boolean

Fonoberov, Vladimir

358

Teacher's Effect in L2 Reading Topic Familiarization: Students' Test Performance and Perceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With 73 students at an Iranian university, the present study investigated teacher's effect in topic familiarization in L2 reading context. The participants--Group B with and Group A without the presence of a teacher--experienced four pre-reading treatments and read four passages of unfamiliar topics, after which they were tested on…

Pornour, Mohsen

2014-01-01

359

CATS AT AUB Cats are a familiar and tolerated presence on the AUB campus. Nonetheless, these cats are  

E-print Network

CATS AT AUB Preamble Cats are a familiar and tolerated presence on the AUB campus. Nonetheless, these cats are feral (semi-wild), and are not pets. There have been complaints from both, faculty members and students, regarding individuals who allow cats in their offices. AUB cats are outdoor creatures and should

Shihadeh, Alan

360

The Role of Verbal Behavior, Stimulus Nameability, and Familiarity on the Equivalence Performances of Autistic and Normally Developing Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The emergence of equivalence relations and the role of overall verbal competence and stimulus nameability and familiarity in this regard were investigated across 3 experiments involving 15 children diagnosed with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), as well as 3 typically developing children. The experimental sequence comprised 4 identical stages,…

O'Connor, Jennifer; Rafferty, Aoife; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne

2009-01-01

361

The Effects of Online Shopping Familiarity and Internet Self-Efficacy on the Formation of Trust Toward Online Shopping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insufficient trust is one of the reasons suggested that individuals hesitate to purchase via Internet. This study integrates the literature on familiarity and self efficacy to determine their joint impact upon individual trust toward shopping online. Based on social cognition theory, we advance a new nomological structure that positions online shopping anxiety as a proximal mediating construct between online shopping

Gongan Yao; Qi Li

2009-01-01

362

Effects of Familiarity with Sender on Response Rate of Mail Questionnaires and Their Implications for Program Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects on response rate of familiarity with survey sender was investigated in a study involving the University of Florida's Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences faculty. The study was part of a mail survey of 3,467 citrus producers in 23 counties in Florida. Half (1,790) of the producers on the agricultural agent's mailing lists were…

Taylor, C. L.; And Others

363

phonetic details, we extrapolate that familiar words in either dialect should be holistically recognizable to younger toddlers,  

E-print Network

#12;phonetic details, we extrapolate that familiar words in either dialect should be holistically recognizable to younger toddlers, but that the unfamiliar phonetic specifications of phonemes in nonnative; Saffran, Aslin, & New- port, 1996), forming phonetically detailed word representations (e.g., Swingley

364

The coat-tail effect in merged flocks of dark-eyed juncos: social status depends on familiarity  

Microsoft Academic Search

When two groups of social animals combine to form a larger group, new social relationships must be formed. Among dark-eyed juncos,Junco hyemalis hyemalis, it has been reported that most members of one flock attain higher ranks than those of another flock when two groups are combined. A possible mechanism for this effect involves differential treatment of familiar and unfamiliar individuals

DANIEL A. CRISTOL

1995-01-01

365

Effects of Panel Experience on Olfactory Memory Performance: Influence of Stimuli Familiarity and Labeling Ability of Subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work attempted to define the impact of panel experience on olfactory memory performance by comparing scores in an odor recognition task obtained from a highly trained descriptive panel (17 subjects) and a naive one (33 subjects with no experience in sensory analysis). During the inspection phase, 16 odorants were presented monadically to subjects for familiarity rating and a written

Isabelle Lesschaeve; Sylvie Issanchou

2010-01-01

366

Mere Exposure Revisited: The Influence of Growth versus Security Cues on Evaluations of Novel and Familiar Stimuli  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Combining regulatory focus theory (Higgins, 1997) and novelty categorization theory (Forster, Marguc, & Gillebaart, 2010), we predicted that novel stimuli would be more positively evaluated when focused on growth as compared with security and that familiar stimuli would be more negatively evaluated when focused on growth as compared with security.…

Gillebaart, Marleen; Forster, Jens; Rotteveel, Mark

2012-01-01

367

The False Memory and the Mirror Effects: The Role of Familiarity and Backward Association in Creating False Recollections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The mirror effect refers to a phenomenon where the hit rate is higher for low frequency words while the false alarm rate is higher for high frequency distractors. Using a false memory paradigm (Roediger & McDermott, 1995), we examined whether false memory for non-presented lures would be influenced by the lure's familiarity. The results revealed…

Anaki, D.; Faran, Y.; Ben-Shalom, D.; Henik, A.

2005-01-01

368

Infants' ERP Responses to Novel and Familiar Stimuli Change over Time: Implications for Novelty Detection and Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Detection of novelty is an important cognitive ability early in development, when infants must learn a great deal about their world. Work with adults has identified networks of brain areas involved in novelty detection; this study investigated electro-physiological correlates of detection of novelty and recognition of familiarity in 9-month-old…

Wiebe, Sandra A.; Cheatham, Carol L.; Lukowski, Angela F.; Haight, Jennifer C.; Muehleck, Abigail J.; Bauer, Patricia J.

2006-01-01

369

Musical Preference, Identification, and Familiarity: A Multicultural Comparison of Secondary Students from Singapore and the United Kingdom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors investigate whether there were significant differences in preferences for, familiarity with, and identification of Chinese, Malay, and Indian music between adolescent students from Singapore (n = 78) and the United Kingdom (n = 53). Also explored are the relationships among these three variables. Students were asked to rate their…

Teo, Timothy; Hargreaves, David J.; Lee, June

2008-01-01

370

Scales and Intervals By now you should be familiar with the concept that musical notes are complex tones  

E-print Network

Scales and Intervals By now you should be familiar with the concept that musical notes are complex of the strategies that have been used to build musical scales eventually outlining our current practice of using the so-called equal tempered scale. I am not delving into the musical niceties of this process rather I

Robertson, William

371

Five- and Eight-Month-Old Infants Recognize Their Faces and Voices as Familiar and Social Stimuli.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented five- and eight-month olds with silent moving and static video images of self, peer, and doll, and sounds of self and nonsocial objects. Found that recognition of one's image develops through experience with dynamic facial stimulation during first eight months. By five months, infants treat their faces and voices as familiar and social…

Legerstee, Maria; Anderson, Diane; Schaffer, Alliza

1998-01-01

372

Infants of Depressed Mothers Exhibit Atypical Frontal Electrical Brain Activity during Interactions with Mother and with a Familiar, Nondepressed Adult.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined whether the atypical pattern of brain activity found in infants of depressed mothers generalized to situations not involving the mother. Found that 13- to 15-month-olds of depressed mothers exhibited reduced left--relative to right--frontal activity during baseline and during interactions with mother and familiar experimenter. This…

Dawson, Geraldine; Frey, Karin; Panagiotides, Heracles; Yamada, Emily; Hessl, David; Osterling, Julie

1999-01-01

373

Middle School Teachers' Familiarity With, Interest In, Performance On, and Conceptual and Pedagogical Knowledge of Light  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was threefold: Examine middle school teachers' familiarity with, interest in, conceptual knowledge of and performance on light; Examine their ability to identify misconceptions on light and their suggested pedagogical ideas to address the identified misconceptions; and Establish the relationship between the middle…

Mbewe, Simeon

2012-01-01

374

The Effects of Unitization on Familiarity-Based Source Memory: Testing a Behavioral Prediction Derived From Neuroimaging Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Performance on tests of source memory is typically based on recollection of contextual information associated with an item. However, recent neuroimaging results have suggested that the perirhinal cortex, a region thought to support familiarity-based item recognition, may support source attributions if source information is encoded as a feature of…

Diana, Rachel A.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.; Ranganath, Charan

2008-01-01

375

Double dissociation of selective recollection and familiarity impairments following two different surgical treatments for temporal-lobe epilepsy.  

PubMed

Research has firmly established that the integrity of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) is critical for recognition memory. This ability is supported by recollection, which involves recovery of contextual details of a past stimulus encounter, and familiarity assessment, which leads to awareness of prior occurrence without such recovery. Dual-process models of MTL organization posit that recollection and familiarity are supported by the hippocampus and perirhinal cortex, respectively. Alternatively, it has been argued that both structures support these recognition processes similarly as part of a more integrated declarative memory system; from this perspective, reported selective recollection impairments with circumscribed hippocampal lesions may reflect differential sensitivity to overall memory strength, rather than a deficit in a distinct recognition process. Findings from past neuropsychological research remain inconsistent and controversial, in part due to biases in patient selection, variability in clinical etiology, and limited lesion documentation. Here, we administered a verbal recognition-memory task in combination with remember-know judgements to 10 individuals who had undergone left- or right-sided stereotactic amygdalo-hippocampotomy as a surgical treatment for intractable temporal-lobe epilepsy. Comparisons with healthy control participants revealed isolated impairments in recollection with preserved familiarity, regardless of hemispheric site of lesion. In addition, we show that this impairment can be observed at a comparable level of memory strength (i.e., overall recognition performance) as the selective familiarity impairment we previously described in N.B.--an individual who underwent a tailored surgical resection of the left anterior temporal lobe with hippocampal sparing for treatment of temporal-lobe epilepsy. By revealing a double dissociation concerning temporal-lobe mechanisms for recollection and familiarity, this evidence argues against a unitary, strength-based account of MTL organization. PMID:20466009

Bowles, Ben; Crupi, Carina; Pigott, Susan; Parrent, Andrew; Wiebe, Sam; Janzen, Laura; Köhler, Stefan

2010-07-01

376

Role of familiarity and preference in reproductive success in ex situ breeding programs.  

PubMed

Success of captive-breeding programs centers on consistent reproduction among captive animals. However, many individuals do not reproduce even when they are apparently healthy and presented with mates. Mate choice can affect multiple parameters of reproductive success, including mating success, offspring production, offspring survival, and offspring fecundity. We investigated the role of familiarity and preference on reproductive success of female Columbia Basin pygmy rabbits (Brachylagus idahoensis) as measured by litter production, litter size, average number of young that emerged from the burrow, and average number of young that survived to 1 year. We conducted these studies on pygmy rabbits at the Oregon Zoo (Portland, Oregon, U.S.A.) and Washington State University (Pullman, Washington, U.S.A.) from February to June 2006, 2007, and 2008. Before mating, we housed each female adjacent to 2 males (neighbors). Female preference for each potential mate was determined on the basis of behavioral interactions observed and measured between the rabbits. We compared reproductive success between females mated with neighbor and non-neighbor males and between females mated with preferred and nonpreferred males. Our findings suggest that mating with a neighbor compared with a non-neighbor and mating with a preferred neighbor compared with a nonpreferred neighbor increased reproductive success in female pygmy rabbits. Litter production, average number of young that emerged, and average number of young that survived to 1 year were higher in rabbits that were neighbors before mating than in animals who were not neighbors. Pairing rabbits with a preferred partner increased the probability of producing a litter and was significantly associated with increased litter size. In captive breeding programs, mates are traditionally selected on the basis of genetic parameters to minimize loss of genetic diversity and inbreeding coefficients. Our results suggest that integrating genetic information with social dynamics and behavioral measures of preference may increase the reproductive output of the pygmy rabbit captive-breeding program. Our findings are consistent with the idea that allowing mate choice and familiarity increase the reproductive success of captive-breeding programs for endangered species. PMID:22809353

Martin, Meghan S; Shepherdson, David J

2012-08-01

377

Influence of the Difficulty of the Matching Familiar Figures Test-20 on the Assessment of Reflection-Impulsivity: An Item Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is an item analysis of the Matching Familiar Figures Test-20. We examined error scores in the Matching Familiar Figures Test-20 to determine the influence of the difficulty of the test on the assessment of reflection-impulsivity. The sample included 700 participants aged between 6 and 12 years. The results obtained from the corrected…

Carretero-Dios, Hugo; Macarena, De los Santos-Roig; Buela-Casal, Gualberto

2008-01-01

378

Breeding dispersal in black-headed gull: the value of familiarity in a contrasted environment.  

PubMed

1. Some species (e.g. migratory species with high movement ability) are unlikely to experience any physical cost when dispersing, at least at the landscape scale. In these species dispersal is nevertheless behaviourally constrained to avoid non-physical costs such as the loss of familiarity with the breeding environment, and these constraints can be maladaptive in a fast-changing environment. 2. We evaluated such constraints using multievent modelling of a 20-year capture-mark-recapture data set from a multisite population of black-headed gull (Chroicocephalus ridibundus). The population undertakes seasonal migrations that are very large compared with the size of the study area. 3. Distances between colonies appeared as a strong predictor of breeding adults' dispersal rates, confirming behavioural constraints on dispersal. In addition, birds that had recruited outside their colony of birth (natal dispersers) tended to return to their colony of birth later in life (long-term memory effect). 4. An attraction for larger colonies was also visible in breeding adult dispersal patterns. The fact that distance and memory still constrained dispersal although the largest colony provided higher breeding success indicated departures from the ideal-free distribution, probably linked with the lack of information about distant colonies. Moreover, the regional population apparently functioned as a meta-colony where individuals frequently bred in suboptimal-choice locations before being able to recruit in their preferred colony. PMID:19891713

Péron, Guillaume; Lebreton, Jean-Dominique; Crochet, Pierre-André

2010-03-01

379

Making technology familiar: orthodox Jews and infertility support, advice, and inspiration.  

PubMed

This paper examines how orthodox Jews use traditional strategies and new media simultaneously to cope with infertility in the age of new reproductive technologies. Not only have they used the Internet to establish support, information, and educational networks, but also they have created frameworks for unique professional collaborations among rabbis, doctors, and clinic personnel in order to ensure that their fertility treatments are conducted with strict attention to Jewish legal concerns, particularly with regard to incest, adultery, and traditional practices regarding bodily emissions. Throughout these processes, they have innovated a hybrid language for describing and explaining infertility treatments that blends Hebrew prayers, Yiddish aphorisms, English slang, Gematria (numerology), and biomedical terminology. By using idiomatic language and folk practice, orthodox Jews construct a unique terrain that shapes and makes familiar their experience and understanding of fertility treatment. Biomedicine in this context is understood as a set of tools and strategies that can be readily appropriated and harnessed to a particular set of individual and collective goals. PMID:17082984

Kahn, Susan Martha

2006-12-01

380

Consistency of Leadership in Shoals of Mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) in Novel and in Familiar Environments  

PubMed Central

In social animal groups, an individual's spatial position is a major determinant of both predation risk and foraging rewards. Additionally, the occupation of positions in the front of moving groups is generally assumed to correlate with the initiation of group movements. However, whether some individuals are predisposed to consistently occupy certain positions and, in some instances, to consistently lead groups over time is as yet unresolved in many species. Using the mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki), we examined the consistency of individuals' spatial positions within a moving group over successive trials. We found that certain individuals consistently occupied front positions in moving groups and also that it was typically these individuals that initiated group decisions. The number of individuals involved in leading the group varied according to the amount of information held by group members, with a greater number of changes in leadership in a novel compared to a relatively familiar environment. Finally, our results show that the occupation of lead positions in moving groups was not explained by characteristics such as dominance, size or sex, suggesting that certain individuals are predisposed to leadership roles. This suggests that being a leader or a follower may to some extent be an intrinsic property of the individual. PMID:22590568

Burns, Alicia L. J.; Herbert-Read, James E.; Morrell, Lesley J.; Ward, Ashley J. W.

2012-01-01

381

Fortalezas Familiares Program: Building sociocultural and family strengths in Latina women with depression and their families  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this article is to describe Fortalezas Familiares (FF; Family Strengths), a community-based prevention program designed to address relational family processes and promote wellbeing among Latino families when a mother has depression. Although depression in Latina women is becoming increasingly recognized, risk and protective mechanisms associated with children’s outcomes when a mother has depression are not well understood for Latino families. We begin by reviewing the literature on risk and protective psychosocial mechanisms by which maternal depression may affect Latino youth, using family systems theory and a developmental psychopathology framework with an emphasis on sociocultural factors shaping family processes. Next, we describe the theoretical basis and development of the FF program, a community-based 12-week intervention for Latina immigrant women with depression, other caregivers, and their children. Throughout this article, we use a case study to illustrate a Latina mother’s vulnerability to depression and the family’s response to the FF program. Recommendations for future research and practice include consideration of sociocultural processes in shaping both outcomes of Latino families and their response to interventions. PMID:24033237

Valdez, Carmen R.; Abegglen, Jessica; Hauser, Claire T.

2013-01-01

382

The STS-93 crew takes part in payload familiarization of the Chandra X-ray Observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Vertical Processing Facility, STS-93 Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby and Commander Eileen Collins join a TRW technician observing the Chandra X-ray Observatory on top of a work stand. Other members of the STS-93 crew who are at KSC for payload familiarization are Mission Specialists Catherine G. Coleman and Michel Tognini of France, who represents the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as a shuttle mission commander. She was the first woman pilot of a Space Shuttle, on mission STS-63, and also served as pilot on mission STS-84. The fifth member of the crew is Mission Specialist Steven A. Hawley. Chandra is scheduled for launch July 9 aboard Space Shuttle Columbia, on mission STS-93 . Formerly called the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility, Chandra comprises three major elements: the spacecraft, the science instrument module (SIM), and the world's most powerful X-ray telescope. Chandra will allow scientists from around the world to see previously invisible black holes and high-temperature gas clouds, giving the observatory the potential to rewrite the books on the structure and evolution of our universe.

1999-01-01

383

The STS-93 crew takes part in payload familiarization of the Chandra X-ray Observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A TRW technician joins STS-93 Commander Eileen Collins (center) and Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby (right) as they observe the Chandra X- ray Observatory on its work stand inside the Vertical Processing Facility. Other members of the STS-93 crew who are at KSC for payload familiarization are Mission Specialists Catherine G. Coleman and Michel Tognini of France, who represents the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as a shuttle mission commander. She was the first woman pilot of a Space Shuttle, on mission STS-63, and also served as pilot on mission STS-84. The fifth member of the crew is Mission Specialist Steven A. Hawley. Chandra is scheduled for launch July 9 aboard Space Shuttle Columbia, on mission STS-93 . Formerly called the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility, Chandra comprises three major elements: the spacecraft, the science instrument module (SIM), and the world's most powerful X-ray telescope. Chandra will allow scientists from around the world to see previously invisible black holes and high-temperature gas clouds, giving the observatory the potential to rewrite the books on the structure and evolution of our universe.

1999-01-01

384

A pleasant familiar odor influences perceived stress and peripheral nervous system activity during normal aging  

PubMed Central

Effects of smells on stress have been demonstrated in animals and humans, suggesting that inhaling certain odorants may counteract the negative effects of stress. Because stress plays a key role in cerebral aging, the present study set out to examine whether positive odor effects on perceived stress can be achieved in elderly individuals. To this end, two groups of aged individuals (n = 36 women, aged from 55 to 65 years), were tested. The first group was exposed for 5 days to a pleasant and, by end of exposure, familiar odor (“exposure odor”), whereas the other was exposed to a non-scented control stimulus. Stress and mood states were assessed before and after the 5-day odor exposure period. Psychophysiological markers were also assessed at the end of exposure, in response to the “exposure odor” and to a “new odor.” Results revealed that stress on this second exposure was decreased and zygomatic electromyogram activity was increased specifically in the group previously exposed to the odor (p < 0.05). Taken as a whole, these findings offer a new look at the relationship between perceived stress, olfaction and normal aging, opening up new research perspectives on the effect of olfaction on quality of life and well-being in aged individuals. PMID:24596564

Joussain, Pauline; Rouby, Catherine; Bensafi, Moustafa

2014-01-01

385

Drosophila melanogaster virgins are more likely to mate with strangers than familiar flies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent evidence shows that females of many species can discriminate against males and/or male phenotypes they have mated with previously. However, these studies have not tested whether actual mating is necessary to induce the avoidance behaviour. A preference for strangers may have evolved because it avoids multiple matings with similar genotypes. Alternatively, there may be selection against mating with familiar individuals directly. By choosing its first mate among unfamiliar individuals (which are less likely close relatives than are those encountered early in life), a virgin might disentangle some of the potential benefits of avoiding genetic incompatibility and inbreeding in the offspring from the costs of remating. In this study, we test whether Drosophila melanogaster flies bias their mate choice towards strangers according to previous, non-copulatory, experience. Based on 173 trials over 12 weeks, virgin females presented with two virgin males were 59% more likely to mate with a novel male than the one which she had been housed with for 8 h the day before. Hence we present the first report showing that a dipteran can distinguish between previously encountered and not previously encountered conspecifics.

Ödeen, Anders; Moray, Clea M.

2008-03-01

386

Planet X probe: A fresh new look at an old familiar place  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Planet X Probe utilizes a Get Away Special (GAS) payload to provide a large student population with a remote Earth sensing experimental package. To provide a cooperative as well as a competitive environment, the effort is targeted at all grade levels and at schools in different geographical regions. LANDSAT capability allows students to investigate the Earth, its physical makeup, its resources, and the impact of man. This project also serves as an educational device to get students to stand back and take a fresh look at their home planet. The key element is to treat the familiar Earth as an unknown planet with knowledge based only on what is observable and provable from the images obtained. Through participation, a whole range of experiences will include: (1) mission planning; (2) research and pilot projects to train teams; (3) identification and recruitment of scientific mentors and dialogue; (4) selection of a student advisory team to be available during the mission; (5) analysis of data and compilation of findings; (6) report preparation, constucted along sound scientific principles; and (7) presentation and defense of findings before a meeting of competitive student groups and scientist in the field.

Nicholson, James; Obrien, Tom; Brower, Sharon; Canright, Shelley

1988-01-01

387

Fortalezas familiares program: building sociocultural and family strengths in latina women with depression and their families.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article is to describe Fortalezas Familiares (FF; Family Strengths), a community-based prevention program designed to address relational family processes and promote well-being among Latino families when a mother has depression. Although depression in Latina women is becoming increasingly recognized, risk and protective mechanisms associated with children's outcomes when a mother has depression are not well understood for Latino families. We begin by reviewing the literature on risk and protective psychosocial mechanisms by which maternal depression may affect Latino youth, using family systems theory and a developmental psychopathology framework with an emphasis on sociocultural factors shaping family processes. Next, we describe the theoretical basis and development of the FF program, a community-based 12-week intervention for Latina immigrant women with depression, other caregivers, and their children. Throughout this article, we use a case study to illustrate a Latina mother's vulnerability to depression and the family's response to the FF program. Recommendations for future research and practice include consideration of sociocultural processes in shaping both outcomes of Latino families and their response to interventions. PMID:24033237

Valdez, Carmen R; Abegglen, Jessica; Hauser, Claire T

2013-09-01

388

La Coordinacin Docente de Postgrados en Ciencia Poltica y El Instituto de Altos Estudios de Amrica Latina  

E-print Network

Declaración de Independencia de Venezuela y el inicio de la segunda década del siglo XXI. La década pasada avances, continuidades y retrocesos políticos, sociales y tecnológicos en Venezuela y América Latina Universidad Simón Bolívar Venezuela telf: +58 212 9063611/3612 #12;

Vásquez, Carlos

389

Victoria Alonso (Dir.Glob.Neg.) (2-10-2012) Pgina 1  

E-print Network

) ARG1 INSTITUTO TECNOLOGICO DE BUENOS AIRES ARG2 INSTITUTO UNIVERSITARIO CEMIC ARG3 INSTITUTO UNIVERSITARIO DE CIENCIAS DE LA SALUD (FUNDACIÃ?N BARCELÃ?) ARG4 INSTITUTO UNIVERSITARIO DEL GRAN ROSARIO ARG5 INSTITUTO UNIVERSITARIO ESCUELA ARGENTINA DE NEGOCIOS ARG6 INSTITUTO UNIVERSITARIO ESEADE ARG7 INSTITUTO

Miranda, Eduardo Reck

390

Festival del Sur '98  

E-print Network

andaluz dedicándole una noche temática con dos espectáculos, el de los cubanos Galiano 108 Federico-La Habana-Lorca y el del chileno Franklin Caicedo Lorca y sus amigos poetas; asimismo, se proyectaron varios vídeos sobre su vida y montajes emblemáticos... a veces hacían difícil la comprensión del texto. Todo ello redundó en crear una atmósfera asfixiante y la repulsión del público ante esta lucha entre los sexos y las clases sociales. Desde Bolivia vino Amalilef Teatro con Jamás diré adiós, un...

Má rquez Montes, Carmen

1999-04-01

391

Disregarding Familiarity During Recollection Attempts: Content-Specific Recapitulation as a Retrieval Orientation Strategy.  

PubMed

People can use a content-specific recapitulation strategy to trigger memories (i.e., mentally reinstating encoding conditions), but how people deploy this strategy is unclear. Is recapitulation naturally used to guide all recollection attempts, or is it only used selectively, after retrieving incomplete information that requires additional monitoring? According to a retrieval orientation model, people use recapitulation whenever they search memory for specific information, regardless of what information might come to mind. In contrast, according to a postretrieval monitoring model, people selectively engage recapitulation only after retrieving ambiguous information in order to evaluate this information and guide additional retrieval attempts. We tested between these models using a criterial recollection task, and by manipulating the strength of ambiguous information associated with to-be-rejected foils (i.e., familiarity or noncriterial information). Replicating prior work, foil rejections were greater when people attempted to recollect targets studied at a semantic level (deep test) compared to an orthographic level (shallow test), implicating more accurate retrieval monitoring. To investigate the role of a recapitulation strategy in this monitoring process, a final test assessed memory for the foils that were earlier processed on these recollection tests. Performance on this foil recognition test suggested that people had engaged in more elaborative content-specific recapitulation when initially tested for deep compared to shallow recollections, and critically, this elaboration effect did not interact with the experimental manipulation of foil strength. These results support the retrieval orientation model, whereby a recapitulation strategy was used to orient retrieval toward specific information during every recollection attempt. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25419819

Gray, Stephen J; Gallo, David A

2014-11-24

392

Swinging at a cocktail party: voice familiarity aids speech perception in the presence of a competing voice.  

PubMed

People often have to listen to someone speak in the presence of competing voices. Much is known about the acoustic cues used to overcome this challenge, but almost nothing is known about the utility of cues derived from experience with particular voices--cues that may be particularly important for older people and others with impaired hearing. Here, we use a version of the coordinate-response-measure procedure to show that people can exploit knowledge of a highly familiar voice (their spouse's) not only to track it better in the presence of an interfering stranger's voice, but also, crucially, to ignore it so as to comprehend a stranger's voice more effectively. Although performance declines with increasing age when the target voice is novel, there is no decline when the target voice belongs to the listener's spouse. This finding indicates that older listeners can exploit their familiarity with a speaker's voice to mitigate the effects of sensory and cognitive decline. PMID:23985575

Johnsrude, Ingrid S; Mackey, Allison; Hakyemez, Hélène; Alexander, Elizabeth; Trang, Heather P; Carlyon, Robert P

2013-10-01

393

Déjà vu experiences in healthy subjects are unrelated to laboratory tests of recollection and familiarity for word stimuli.  

PubMed

Recent neuropsychological and neuroscientific research suggests that people who experience more déjà vu display characteristic patterns in normal recognition memory. We conducted a large individual differences study (n = 206) to test these predictions using recollection and familiarity parameters recovered from a standard memory task. Participants reported déjà vu frequency and a number of its correlates, and completed a recognition memory task analogous to a Remember-Know procedure. The individual difference measures replicated an established correlation between déjà vu frequency and frequency of travel, and recognition performance showed well-established word frequency and accuracy effects. Contrary to predictions, no relationships were found between déjà vu frequency and recollection or familiarity memory parameters from the recognition test. We suggest that déjà vu in the healthy population reflects a mismatch between errant memory signaling and memory monitoring processes not easily characterized by standard recognition memory task performance. PMID:24409159

O'Connor, Akira R; Moulin, Chris J A

2013-01-01

394

Two-way interactions between music and language: Evidence from priming recognition of tune and lyrics in familiar songs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A priming technique was employed to study the relations between melody and lyrics in song memory. The procedure involved the\\u000a auditory presentation of a prime and a target taken from the same song, or from unrelated but equally familiar songs. To promote\\u000a access to memory representations of songs, we varied the format of primes and targets, which were either spoken

Isabelle Peretz; Monique Radeau; Martin Arguin

2004-01-01

395

Training of familiar face recognition and visual scan paths for faces in a child with congenital prosopagnosia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current report we describe a successful training study aimed at improving recognition of a set of familiar face photographs in K., a 4-year-old girl with congenital prosopagnosia (CP). A detailed assessment of K.'s face-processing skills showed a deficit in structural encoding, most pronounced in the processing of facial features within the face. In addition, eye movement recordings revealed

Laura Schmalzl; Romina Palermo; Melissa Green; Ruth Brunsdon; Max Coltheart

2008-01-01

396

Derechos Bsicos de Ausencia La Ley de Ausencia Familiar y Mdica (FMLA-por sus siglas en ingls) exige  

E-print Network

Derechos Básicos de Ausencia La Ley de Ausencia Familiar y Médica (FMLA-por sus siglas en inglés condición de salud seria que le impida al empleado desempeñar su puesto. Derechos de Ausencia Para Familias avisado de una llamada a estado de servicio activo bajo cobertura pueden usar su derecho de ausencia de 12

Rock, Chris

397

The Impact of Audience Age and Familiarity on Children's Drawings of Themselves in Contrasting Affective States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study was designed to investigate the impact of familiarity and audience age on children's self-presentation in self-drawings of happy, sad and neutral figures. Two hundred children (100 girls and 100 boys) with the average age of 8 years 2 months, ranging from 6 years 3 months to 10 years 1 month, formed two age groups and five…

Burkitt, Esther; Watling, Dawn

2013-01-01

398

Visual laterality in belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) and Pacific white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens) when viewing familiar and unfamiliar humans.  

PubMed

Lateralization of cognitive processes and motor functions has been demonstrated in a number of species, including humans, elephants, and cetaceans. For example, bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) have exhibited preferential eye use during a variety of cognitive tasks. The present study investigated the possibility of visual lateralization in 12 belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) and six Pacific white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens) located at two separate marine mammal facilities. During free swim periods, the belugas and Pacific white-sided dolphins were presented a familiar human, an unfamiliar human, or no human during 10-15 min sessions. Session videos were coded for gaze duration, eye presentation at approach, and eye preference while viewing each stimulus. Although we did not find any clear group level lateralization, we found individual left eye lateralized preferences related to social stimuli for most belugas and some Pacific white-sided dolphins. Differences in gaze durations were also observed. The majority of individual belugas had longer gaze durations for unfamiliar rather than familiar stimuli. These results suggest that lateralization occurs during visual processing of human stimuli in belugas and Pacific white-sided dolphins and that these species can distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar humans. PMID:24831888

Yeater, Deirdre B; Hill, Heather M; Baus, Natalie; Farnell, Heather; Kuczaj, Stan A

2014-11-01

399

The importance of multiple assessments of object knowledge in semantic dementia: The case of the familiar objects task  

PubMed Central

Semantic dementia (SD) is characterized by a dramatic loss of conceptual knowledge about the meaning of words and the identity of objects. Previous research has suggested that SD patients’ knowledge is differentially influenced by the disease and may decline at different degrees depending on a patient’s everyday familiarity with certain items. However, no study has examined (a) semantic knowledge deterioration and (b) the potential significance of autobiographical experience for the maintenance of object concepts in the same cohort of SD patients by using comprehensive assessments of different aspects of object knowledge across an experience-based, distributed semantic memory network. Here, we tested four SD patients and three Alzheimer’s disease (AD) control patients using a range of tasks – including naming, gesture generation, and autobiographical knowledge – with personally familiar objects or perceptually similar or different object analogs. Our results showed dissociations between performance on naming relative to other assessments of object knowledge between SD and AD patients, though we did not observe a reliable familiar objects advantage. We discuss different factors that may account for these findings, as well as their implications for research on SD. PMID:20812137

Chrysikou, Evangelia G.; Giovannetti, Tania; Wambach, Denene M.; Lyon, Abigail C.; Grossman, Murray; Libon, David J.

2012-01-01

400

Transformaciones del Estado y del Derecho  

Microsoft Academic Search

El concepto de derecho asentado en la mentalidad jurídica actual responde a un modelo profundamente “estatista”, racional y formal. Sus premisas se construyen de acuerdo con las estructuras y los discursos políticos que se desarrollan durante las postrimerías de la Edad Moderna en Europa y triunfa definitivamente con las revoluciones burguesas. Las formas jurídicas desarrolladas como fundamento y sostén del

Manuel Calvo García

401

TEORÍAS DEL DESARROLLO A PRINCIPIOS DEL SIGLO XXI  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 La evolución de las ideas no sigue el curso de los siglos. Es más, en el transcurso del siglo XX hemos presenciado cambios radicales en lo que a teoría del desarrollo se refiere. Ni siquiera es indispensable definir los siglos de acuerdo con la clasificación del calendario, de cero a noventa y nueve. En su célebre discurso del 8

AMARTYA SEN

402

Object familiarity and acculturation do not explain performance difference between spanish-english bilinguals and english monolinguals on the Boston naming test.  

PubMed

This study investigates bilingual performance on the English and Spanish Boston Naming Tests (BNTs) while controlling for object familiarity and U.S. acculturation. Previous studies suggest that bilingualism negatively affects naming skill; however, object familiarity, which may be culturally influenced, and U.S. acculturation level have not been formally investigated. The current sample comprised 74 well-acculturated bilinguals and 52 English monolinguals. Participants judged their familiarity with BNT objects and later named the objects in either English or Spanish. Both groups rated BNT objects to be comparably familiar. However, bilinguals underperformed relative to monolinguals. In fact, those bilinguals born and raised in the USA and educated solely under English instruction were unable to match monolinguals' superior naming performance. These results underscore a language disadvantage in naming even for native-born, highly acculturated, English proficient bilinguals and suggest that the BNT is language specific and perhaps unsuitable for testing bilingual populations. PMID:25421571

Misdraji-Hammond, Esther; Lim, Nicholas K; Fernandez, Mercedes; Burke, Maria E

2015-02-01

403

Hojas informativas del NCI  

Cancer.gov

La colección de hojas informativas del NCI trata de una variedad de temas relacionados con el cáncer. Las hojas informativas se revisan y ponen al día de acuerdo a las investigaciones más recientes sobre el cáncer.

404

Avoiding Systematic Errors in Isometric Squat-Related Studies without Pre-Familiarization by Using Sufficient Numbers of Trials.  

PubMed

There is no scientific evidence in the literature indicating that maximal isometric strength measures can be assessed within 3 trials. We questioned whether the results of isometric squat-related studies in which maximal isometric squat strength (MISS) testing was performed using limited numbers of trials without pre-familiarization might have included systematic errors, especially those resulting from acute learning effects. Forty resistance-trained male participants performed 8 isometric squat trials without pre-familiarization. The highest measures in the first "n" trials (3 ? n ? 8) of these 8 squats were regarded as MISS obtained using 6 different MISS test methods featuring different numbers of trials (The Best of n Trials Method [BnT]). When B3T and B8T were paired with other methods, high reliability was found between the paired methods in terms of intraclass correlation coefficients (0.93-0.98) and coefficients of variation (3.4-7.0%). The Wilcoxon's signed rank test indicated that MISS obtained using B3T and B8T were lower (p < 0.001) and higher (p < 0.001), respectively, than those obtained using other methods. The Bland-Altman method revealed a lack of agreement between any of the paired methods. Simulation studies illustrated that increasing the number of trials to 9-10 using a relatively large sample size (i.e., ? 24) could be an effective means of obtaining the actual MISS values of the participants. The common use of a limited number of trials in MISS tests without pre-familiarization appears to have no solid scientific base. Our findings suggest that the number of trials should be increased in commonly used MISS tests to avoid learning effect-related systematic errors. PMID:25414753

Pekünlü, Ekim; Ozsu, Ilbilge

2014-09-29

405

en Fisioterapia del Deporte  

E-print Network

Experto en Fisioterapia del Deporte III Edición RESERVA DE PLAZAY MATRÍCULA Título: Experto en Fisioterapia del Deporte Precio de título: 1.800 Plazo de preinscripción: hasta 15 de Octubre 2014 Nº de: TRATAMIENTO DE LA LESI�N DEPORTIVA EN AGUA BLOQUEV: TERAPIAS MANUALES APLICADAS AL DEPORTE BLOQUEVI: PUNCI�N

Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad

406

Vasopressin eliminates the expression of familiar odor bias in neonatal female mice through V1aR  

PubMed Central

Summary V1aR has a well established role in the neural regulation of adult mammalian social behavior. The role of V1aR in developmentally emerging social behavior is less well understood. We mapped V1aR at post-natal day 8 (P8) and demonstrate developmentally-specific expression in the neocortex and hippocampus. We tested the ability of male and female C57BL/6J mice to show orienting bias to a familiar odor at this age. We demonstrate that females, but not males, show an orienting bias for odors previously paired with the mother, which is eliminated by V1aR signaling. Arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and the vasopressin V1a receptor (V1aR) acting within the forebrain are involved in social behavior in adult animals. Much less is known about the function of V1aR in neurobehavioral development. In the present study, at post-natal day 8 (P8) in neonatal C57BL/6J mice, we map V1aR and use an olfactory exposure paradigm to assess a role for V1aR on olfactory preferences. In addition to V1aR in the lateral septum and ventral tegmental area, we observe V1aR in the neocortex and hippocampus, not typically observed in adult mice, implicating a developmental sensitive period for V1aR to modulate these brain areas in an experience-dependent manner. Males and females were tested on P8 for orienting preferences after exposure to a non-social odor, presented either when the mother was in the home cage (contingent) or when the mother had been removed from the home cage (not contingent). Wild-type female mice show a selective orienting bias toward the exposed odor, but only in the contingent condition. Males did not show orienting bias after either training condition. Female Avpr1a-/- mice showed strong familiar odor bias, regardless of the training condition. This finding led us to test the ability of AVP to diminish odor bias in females. Central application of AVP eliminated odor bias in Avpr1a+/+, but not Avpr1a-/- female mice. Together, these data indicate that AVP acting at V1aR eliminates the expression of familiar odor bias in neonatal mice. This suggests a developmental role for AVP on familiarity bias, which has implications for species-typical life history trajectories of social learning and natal dispersal. PMID:23261858

Hammock, Elizabeth A.D.; Law, Caitlin S.; Levitt, Pat

2014-01-01

407

Recollection, familiarity, and content-sensitivity in lateral parietal cortex: a high-resolution fMRI study  

PubMed Central

Numerous studies have identified brain regions where activity is consistently correlated with the retrieval (recollection) of qualitative episodic information. This ‘core recollection network’ can be contrasted with regions where activity differs according to the contents of retrieval. The present study used high-resolution fMRI to investigate whether these putatively-distinct retrieval processes engage common versus dissociable regions. Subjects studied words with two encoding tasks and then performed a memory test in which they distinguished between recollection and different levels of recognition confidence. The fMRI data from study and test revealed several overlapping regions where activity differed according to encoding task, suggesting that content was selectively reinstated during retrieval. The majority of recollection-related regions, though, did not exhibit reinstatement effects, providing support for a core recollection network. Importantly, lateral parietal cortex demonstrated a clear dissociation, whereby recollection effects were localized to angular gyrus and confidence effects were restricted to intraparietal sulcus. Moreover, the latter region exhibited a non-monotonic pattern, consistent with a neural signal reflecting item familiarity rather than a generic form of memory strength. Together, the findings show that episodic retrieval relies on both content-sensitive and core recollective processes, and these can be differentiated from familiarity-based recognition memory. PMID:23734122

Johnson, Jeffrey D.; Suzuki, Maki; Rugg, Michael D.

2013-01-01

408

Resident physicians' clinical training and error rate: the roles of autonomy, consultation, and familiarity with the literature.  

PubMed

Resident physicians' clinical training poses unique challenges for the delivery of safe patient care. Residents face special risks of involvement in medical errors since they have tremendous responsibility for patient care, yet they are novice practitioners in the process of learning and mastering their profession. The present study explores the relationships between residents' error rates and three clinical training methods (1) progressive independence or level of autonomy, (2) consulting the physician on call, and (3) familiarity with up-to-date medical literature, and whether these relationships vary among the specialties of surgery and internal medicine and between novice and experienced residents. 142 Residents in 22 medical departments from two hospitals participated in the study. Results of hierarchical linear model analysis indicated that lower levels of autonomy, higher levels of consultation with the physician on call, and higher levels of familiarity with up-to-date medical literature were associated with lower levels of resident's error rates. The associations varied between internal and surgery specializations and novice and experienced residents. In conclusion, the study results suggested that the implicit curriculum that residents should be afforded autonomy and progressive independence with nominal supervision in accordance with their relevant skills and experience must be applied cautiously depending on specialization and experience. In addition, it is necessary to create a supportive and judgment free climate within the department that may reduce a resident's hesitation to consult the attending physician. PMID:24728954

Naveh, Eitan; Katz-Navon, Tal; Stern, Zvi

2015-03-01

409

Estudio del CH interestelar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

El objetivo principal de este proyecto consiste en el estudio de la distribución y abundancia del CH en nubes interestelares a través de la observación de las líneas hiperfinas del CH en 3,3 GHz. El CH es una molécula de amplia distribución en el espacio interestelar y una de las pocas especies que han sido observadas tanto con técnicas de radio como ópticas. Desde el punto de vista tecnológico se ha desarrollado un cabezal de receptor que permitirá la realización de observaciones polarimétricas en la frecuencia de 3,3 GHz, con una temperatura del sistema de 60 K y un ancho de banda de 140 MHz, y que será instalado en el foco primario de la antena parabólica del IAR. El cabezal del receptor es capaz de detectar señales polarizadas, separando las componentes de polarización circular derecha e izquierda. Para tal fin el cabezal consta de dos ramas receptoras que amplificarán la señal y la trasladarán a una frecuencia más baja (frecuencia intermedia), permitiendo de esa forma un mejor transporte de la señal a la sala de control para su posterior procesamiento. El receptor además de tener características polarimétricas, podrá ser usado en el continuo y en la línea, utilizando las ventajas observacionales y de procesamiento de señal que actualmente posee el IAR.

Olano, C.; Lemarchand, G.; Sanz, A. J.; Bava, J. A.

410

User Evaluation of the Effects of a Text Simplification Algorithm Using Term Familiarity on Perception, Understanding, Learning, and Information Retention  

PubMed Central

Background Adequate health literacy is important for people to maintain good health and manage diseases and injuries. Educational text, either retrieved from the Internet or provided by a doctor’s office, is a popular method to communicate health-related information. Unfortunately, it is difficult to write text that is easy to understand, and existing approaches, mostly the application of readability formulas, have not convincingly been shown to reduce the difficulty of text. Objective To develop an evidence-based writer support tool to improve perceived and actual text difficulty. To this end, we are developing and testing algorithms that automatically identify difficult sections in text and provide appropriate, easier alternatives; algorithms that effectively reduce text difficulty will be included in the support tool. This work describes the user evaluation with an independent writer of an automated simplification algorithm using term familiarity. Methods Term familiarity indicates how easy words are for readers and is estimated using term frequencies in the Google Web Corpus. Unfamiliar words are algorithmically identified and tagged for potential replacement. Easier alternatives consisting of synonyms, hypernyms, definitions, and semantic types are extracted from WordNet, the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS), and Wiktionary and ranked for a writer to choose from to simplify the text. We conducted a controlled user study with a representative writer who used our simplification algorithm to simplify texts. We tested the impact with representative consumers. The key independent variable of our study is lexical simplification, and we measured its effect on both perceived and actual text difficulty. Participants were recruited from Amazon’s Mechanical Turk website. Perceived difficulty was measured with 1 metric, a 5-point Likert scale. Actual difficulty was measured with 3 metrics: 5 multiple-choice questions alongside each text to measure understanding, 7 multiple-choice questions without the text for learning, and 2 free recall questions for information retention. Results Ninety-nine participants completed the study. We found strong beneficial effects on both perceived and actual difficulty. After simplification, the text was perceived as simpler (P<.001) with simplified text scoring 2.3 and original text 3.2 on the 5-point Likert scale (score 1: easiest). It also led to better understanding of the text (P<.001) with 11% more correct answers with simplified text (63% correct) compared to the original (52% correct). There was more learning with 18% more correct answers after reading simplified text compared to 9% more correct answers after reading the original text (P=.003). There was no significant effect on free recall. Conclusions Term familiarity is a valuable feature in simplifying text. Although the topic of the text influences the effect size, the results were convincing and consistent. PMID:23903235

2013-01-01

411

Instantánea del cáncer de esófago  

Cancer.gov

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de esófago; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

412

Instantánea del cáncer de próstata  

Cancer.gov

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de próstata; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

413

Instantánea del cáncer de vejiga  

Cancer.gov

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de vejiga; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

414

Instantánea del sarcoma de Kaposi  

Cancer.gov

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el sarcoma de Kaposi; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

415

Instantánea del cáncer de pulmón  

Cancer.gov

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de pulmón; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

416

Instantánea del cáncer de endometrio  

Cancer.gov

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de endometrio; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

417

Instantánea del cáncer de páncreas  

Cancer.gov

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de páncreas; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

418

Fisiología del crecimiento  

Microsoft Academic Search

ExtractoEl crecimiento humano es un proceso dinámico y complejo que comienza con la fertilización del óvulo y se completa con la fusión de las epífisis y las metáfisis de los huesos largos, que caracteriza la terminación de la adolescencia. El crecimiento ocurre en fases, con características distintivas en términos de influencias dominantes derivadas de factores y patrones genéticos, ambientales\\/nutricionales y

Arlan L. Rosenbloom

2007-01-01

419

La crisis del neoliberalismo  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este artículo se analiza la actual crisis en relación al modelo de gestión neoliberal de las economías capitalistas durante los treinta últimos años. En primer lugar se caracterizan los rasgos básicos de la regulación neoliberal. En segundo lugar se analiza la crisis actual en relación a estos rasgos, en concreto se considera el papel del sector financiero, el funcionamiento

Albert Recio Andreu

2009-01-01

420

Familiarity-connected or stress-based contagious yawning in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris)? Some additional data.  

PubMed

The present short note aimed at further exploring data from a recent study showing socially modulated auditory contagious yawning in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). Two independent observers further extended the analysis of all video recordings made in the previous study and coded both the number of yawns performed by the dogs and the frequencies or durations of stress-related behaviors exhibited throughout the presentation of familiar and unfamiliar yawns. By showing no significant difference between conditions in the frequencies or durations of the coded behaviors, nor any association between the number of yawns and the frequencies or durations of stress-related behaviors, results raised doubt on the stress-induced yawn hypothesis, thus supporting social modulation. The exact mechanism underlying contagious yawning, however, needs further research. PMID:23982621

Silva, Karine; Bessa, Joana; de Sousa, Liliana

2013-11-01

421

Less is often more, but not always: additional evidence that familiarity breeds contempt and a call for future research.  

PubMed

Ullrich, Krueger, Brod, and Groschupf (2013)-using a replication of the trait paradigm from Norton, Frost, and Ariely (2007)-suggest that less information does not always equal greater liking. We first ground the current debate in a larger historical debate in social psychology regarding the merits of configural versus algebraic models of person perception. We next review (a) related research that has suggested that more information can in some cases lead to more liking and (b) a large body of "real world" data-from friendships, daters, married couples, employment, celebrities, and politics-that suggests that more information often leads to less liking. We then provide an additional replication of our "less is more" effect, using a slight variation of the trait-list paradigm. The existing data suggest a need for further integrative explorations of when familiarity leads to contempt or liking or has no effect. PMID:24295381

Norton, Michael I; Frost, Jeana H; Ariely, Dan

2013-12-01

422

The role familiarity with science and medicine plays in parents' decision making about enrolling a child in vaccine research.  

PubMed

Parental consent to children's participation in vaccine research has resulted in the licensure of essential vaccines. Recruitment to this type of research is typically difficult, however, and many parents decline. In this study, the authors interviewed parents about their decision for or against enrolling their child in a vaccine study. The data analysis suggests that parents' ability to evaluate a vaccine study depends on how attuned they are with science and medicine, either professionally or as consumers of health services. Familiarity does not predispose parents to enrolling their child in research; rather, it is a predictor of parents' confidence in their decision making. Many parents were motivated by altruism and trust, which, if uninformed, can leave the parents prone to exploitation. It is vital to ensure that parents are confident in their judgment of a study and its potential benefit to their child and society. PMID:17301340

Chantler, Tracey E A; Lees, Amanda; Moxon, E Richard; Mant, David; Pollard, Andrew J; Fiztpatrick, Ray

2007-03-01

423

Electrophysiological evidence for the effect of interactive imagery on episodic memory: encouraging familiarity for non-unitized stimuli during associative recognition.  

PubMed

Episodic memory depends upon multiple processes, including familiarity and recollection. Although associative recognition tasks are traditionally viewed as requiring recollection, recent research suggests a role for familiarity if to-be-remembered stimuli are perceived as unitized. Here we use event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the relationship between stimulus properties and encoding strategy on the engagement of familiarity during associative recognition. Participants studied word pairs containing an association (e.g. traffic-jam) or an unassociated semantic relationship (e.g. violin-guitar), using either item or interactive imagery. At test, participants were required to recognize if word pairs were presented in the same pairing as study, were rearranged, or new. We hypothesized that adopting a strategy of interactive imagery during encoding (i.e. encouraging unitization) would enhance familiarity for unassociated word pairs but would have no effect on association pairs because they are already perceived as unitized. As expected, overall recognition performance was better for word pairs encoded with interactive imagery, and for association than semantic word pairs. ERPs recorded at test revealed an interaction between encoding strategy and stimulus properties. Association word pairs elicited similar bilateral frontal (familiarity) and left parietal (recollection) old/new effects following item and interactive imagery. By contrast, for semantic word pairs, the left parietal effect was equivalent across conditions, but the bilateral frontal effect was enhanced for the interactive imagery condition. The ERP results suggest that an encoding strategy of interactive imagery can enhance familiarity during associative recognition, but this effect is ultimately dependent on the properties of the stimuli to-be-remembered and the nature of the representations that underlie them. PMID:17950624

Rhodes, Sinéad M; Donaldson, David I

2008-01-15

424

Primary care physicians’ familiarity, beliefs, and perceived barriers to practice guidelines in non-diabetic CKD: a survey study  

PubMed Central

Background Most non-dialysis dependent chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are cared for by their primary care physicians (PCPs). Studies suggest many CKD patients receive suboptimal care. Recently, CKD clinical practice guidelines were updated with additional emphasis on albuminuria. Methods We performed an internet-based, cross-sectional survey of active PCPs in the United States using the American Medical Association Physician Masterfile. We explored CKD guideline familiarity, self-reported practice behaviors, and attitudinal and external barriers to implementing guideline recommendations, including albuminuria testing. Results Of 12,034 PCPs targeted, 848 opened a study email, 165 (19.5%) responded. Most respondents (88%) spent ?50% of their time in clinical care. Respondents were generally in private practice (46%). Most PCPs (96%) felt that eGFR values were helpful. Approximately, 75% and 91% of PCPs reported testing for albuminuria in non-diabetic hypertensive patients with an eGFR?>?60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and?familiarity with CKD guidelines, overcome barriers to albuminuria testing and, assist PCPs in targeting ACEi/ARBs to the patients most likely to benefit. PMID:24755164

2014-01-01

425

Pheromones from males of different familiarity exert divergent effects on adult neurogenesis in the female accessory olfactory bulb.  

PubMed

Pheromones from urine of unfamiliar conspecific male animals can reinitiate a female's estrus cycle to cause pregnancy block through the vomeronasal organ (VNO)-accessory olfactory bulb (AOB)-hypothalamic pathway. This phenomenon is called the Bruce effect. Pheromones from the mate of the female, however, do not trigger re-entrance of the estrus cycle because an olfactory memory toward its mate is formed. The activity of the VNO-AOB-hypothalamic pathway is negatively modulated by GABAergic granule cells in the AOB. Since these cells are constantly replenished by neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle throughout adulthood and adult neurogenesis is required for mate recognition and fertility, we tested the hypothesis that pheromones from familiar and unfamiliar males may have different effects on adult AOB neurogenesis in female mice. When female mice were exposed to bedding used by a male or lived with one, cell proliferation and neuroblast production in the SVZ were increased. Furthermore, survival of newly generated cells in the AOB was enhanced. This survival effect was transient and mediated by norepinephrine. Interestingly, male bedding-induced newborn cell survival in the AOB but not cell proliferation in the SVZ was attenuated when females were subjected to bedding from an unfamiliar male. Our results indicate that male pheromones from familiar and unfamiliar males exert different effects on neurogenesis in the adult female AOB. Given that adult neurogenesis is required for reproductive behaviors, these divergent pheromonal effects may provide a mechanism for the Bruce effect. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 73: 632-645, 2013. PMID:23696538

Wu, Jyun-Han; Han, Yueh-Ting; Yu, Jenn-Yah; Wang, Tsu-Wei

2013-08-01

426

-DERECHO PBLICO DEL ESTADO AUTONMICO La implantacin del Mster universitario en Derecho Pblico del Estado Autonmico  

E-print Network

- DERECHO P�BLICO DEL ESTADO AUTON�MICO La implantación del Máster universitario en Derecho Público del Estado Autonómico extinguirá el Máster Oficial en Derecho Autonómico y Local. Por esta razón se materias del Máster Oficial en Derecho Autonómico y Local. Los estudiantes que comenzaron el Máster Oficial

Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad

427

The Del Rio ataxite, Texas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Basic data are presented on the Del Rio, Nordheim, and Monahans ataxites found in Texas. Results are reported for bulk-chemistry analysis, metallographic observations, and electron-microprobe analysis of the Del Rio meteorite. It is shown that Del Rio is distinctly different from the other two ataxites in terms of nickel, phosphorous, and carbon content, and is composed of at least three coarse grains in different crystallographic orientations. All the kamacite in Del Rio is found to have transformation structures that are probable shock products, and minor inclusions of daubreelite, schreibersite, and troilite are observed. It is concluded that Del Rio was apparently mildly shocked prior to its fall.

Henderson, E. P.; King, E. A.

1977-01-01

428

Nevado del Huila, Columbia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nevado del Huila Volcano in Colombia is actually a volcanic chain running north to south, capped by a glacier. With peaks ranging in height from 2,600 to 5,780 meters (8,530 to 18,960 feet), Nevado del Huila is a stratovolcano composed of alternating layers of hardened lava, solidified ash, and volcanic rocks. Its first recorded eruption occurred in the mid-sixteenth century. The long-dormant volcano erupted again in mid-April 2007. A few months before the eruption, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of Nevado del Huila, on February 23, 2007. In this image, the bright white area just east of the central summit is ice. Immediately west of the summit are bare rocks, appearing as blue-gray. West of those rocks, white reappears, but this patch of white results from clouds hovering in the nearby valley. In the east, the colors turn to brown (indicating bare rock) and bright green (indicating vegetation). ASTER photographed Nevado del Huila near the end of a long phase of quietude. On April 17, 2007, local authorities recorded seismic activity associated with rock fracturing on the volcano's central summit, according to the ReliefWeb Website. Activity intensified the following day with an eruption and mudflows, forcing thousands of nearby residents to evacuate. As the Associated Press reported, the eruption caused avalanches and floods that wiped away both houses and bridges. It marked the volcano's first recorded eruption since the Spanish colonized the area five centuries earlier. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

2007-01-01

429

Transfer-of-Learning Effect With the Tactual Performance Test Using Familiar and Unfamiliar Shapes With American, Lao, and Senegalese Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tactual Performance Test (TPT) and a version of the TPT with unfamiliar geometric designs were presented to American, Lao, and Senegalese children. The nonstandard TPT was designed to evaluate the importance of familiarity of forms in improved performance between successive TPT learning trials. The nonstandard board was more difficult for all the groups, with poorer time-per-block performance across learning

Michael J. Boivin; Kelly A. Ryan; Kelly A. Aldridge; Bruno Giordani

2011-01-01

430

The Relationship between the Shape of the Mental Number Line and Familiarity with Numbers in 5- to 9-Year Old Children: Evidence for a Segmented Linear Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment aimed to expand previous findings on the development of mental number representation. We tested the hypothesis that children's familiarity with numbers is directly reflected by the shape of their mental number line. This mental number line was expected to be linear as long as numbers lay within the range of numbers children were…

Ebersbach, Mirjam; Luwel, Koen; Frick, Andrea; Onghena, Patrick; Verschaffel, Lieven

2008-01-01

431

ACADEMIC HONESTY All students are expected to be familiar with the Williams College Honor Code and to reaffirm their commitment to the Statement of Academic  

E-print Network

18 ACADEMIC HONESTY All students are expected to be familiar with the Williams College Honor Code Honesty As an institution fundamentally concerned with the free exchange of ideas, Williams College has, the students and faculty of Williams recognize the necessity and accept the responsibility for academ- ic

Cox, Rónadh

432

Brain Regions Involved in the Retrieval of Spatial and Episodic Details Associated with a Familiar Environment: An fMRI Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to compare brain activity during the retrieval of coarse- and fine-grained spatial details and episodic details associated with a familiar environment. Long-time Toronto residents compared pairs of landmarks based on their absolute geographic locations (requiring either coarse or fine…

Hirshhorn, Marnie; Grady, Cheryl; Rosenbaum, R. Shayna; Winocur, Gordon; Moscovitch, Morris

2012-01-01

433

More Misgivings about the Matching Familiar Figures Test as a Measure of Reflection-Impulsivity: Absence of Construct Validity in Preadolescence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a longitudinal study, Matching Familiar Figures Test (MFFT) performance was assessed at age 11 and related to California Child Q-Sort evaluations obtained both concurrently and at age 14. Offers evidence for a "competence" interpretation rather than a "conceptual tempo" interpretation of the MFFT and strongly questions using the MFFT as…

Block, Jack; And Others

1986-01-01

434

Many people are aware that Florida is a major producer of farm raised hard clams. What they may be less familiar with is that  

E-print Network

Many people are aware that Florida is a major producer of farm raised hard clams. What they may be less familiar with is that some of those clams are raised right here in southwest Florida (Hard clams and a new aquaculture product--Sunray Venus clams). We have about thirty aquaculuralists involved in some

Jawitz, James W.

435

During the course of the Medical Genetics residency training program, each trainee must acquire an understanding of basic genetic principles and familiarity with all of the major  

E-print Network

During the course of the Medical Genetics residency training program, each trainee must acquire an understanding of basic genetic principles and familiarity with all of the major sub disciplines of the field. This will include (1) detailed knowledge regarding the basic science of genetics in general and human genetics

Stephens, Matthew

436

Department of Computer Science University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill March 2005 The visual complexity of ice is familiar to anyone who has  

E-print Network

The visual complexity of ice is familiar to anyone who has ever studied a snowflake or seen the crystal snowflake-like patterns. The Challenge The visual appeal of patterns in ice has not been lost on the visual interactive rates that allow for real-time aesthetic design of ice crystals. A snowflake grown with our

Whitton, Mary C.

437

Using the Logic Model to Enhance Diversity in the Health Sciences People attending this session will become familiar with the `Logic Model' as a planning and  

E-print Network

Using the Logic Model to Enhance Diversity in the Health Sciences People attending this session will become familiar with the `Logic Model' as a planning and implementation tool and its application and refining their logic model by way of our experience and example. The logic model is a tool that will assist

Boone, Randall B.

438

Math 250: Pythagorean Triples We all are familiar with the Pythagorean Theorem, which states that the lengths a and b of the legs  

E-print Network

Math 250: Pythagorean Triples We all are familiar with the Pythagorean Theorem, which states the Pythagorean Theorem. A Pythagorean triple is primitive iff a, b, and c have no common integer divisor except 1 that the converse of the Pythagorean Theorem is also true. Throughout the discussion below, we need to specify

Anderson, Douglas R.

439

Diseño y optimización del procesamiento térmico de alimentos envasados.  

E-print Network

??Contiene: Introducción; Objetivos; Diseño del procesamiento térmico: antecedentes; Diseño del procesamiento térmico: materiales y métodos; Diseño del procesamiento térmico: resultados y discusión; Optimización del procesamiento… (more)

Ansorena, María Roberta

2009-01-01

440

Visual Lateralization in Wild Striped Dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) in Response to Stimuli with Different Degrees of Familiarity  

PubMed Central

Background Apart from findings on both functional and motor asymmetries in captive aquatic mammals, only few studies have focused on lateralized behaviour of these species in the wild. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we focused on lateralized visual behaviour by presenting wild striped dolphins with objects of different degrees of familiarity (fish, ball, toy). Surveys were conducted in the Gulf of Taranto, the northern Ionian Sea portion delimited by the Italian regions of Calabria, Basilicata and Apulia. After sighting striped dolphins from a research vessel, different stimuli were presented in a random order by a telescopic bar connected to the prow of the boat. The preferential use of the right/left monocular viewing during inspection of the stimuli was analysed. Conclusion Results clearly showed a monocular viewing preference with respect to the type of the stimulus employed. Due to the complete decussation of the optical nerves in dolphin brain our results reflected a different specialization of brain hemispheres for visual scanning processes confirming that in this species different stimuli evoked different patterns of eye use. A preferential use of the right eye (left hemisphere) during visual inspection of unfamiliar targets was observed supporting the hypothesis that, in dolphins, the organization of the functional neural structures which reflected cerebral asymmetries for visual object recognition could have been subjected to a deviation from the evolutionary line of most terrestrial vertebrates. PMID:22253855

Siniscalchi, Marcello; Dimatteo, Salvatore; Pepe, Anna Maria; Sasso, Raffaella; Quaranta, Angelo

2012-01-01

441

Induced Gamma Oscillations Differentiate Familiar and Novel Voices in Children With MECP2 Duplication and Rett Syndromes.  

PubMed

Normal levels of the methyl CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) are critical to neurologic functioning, and slight alterations result in intellectual disability and autistic features. It was hypothesized that children with MECP2 duplication (overexpression of MeCP2) and Rett syndrome (underexpression of MeCP2) would exhibit distinct electroencephalographic (EEG) indices of auditory stimulus discrimination. In this study, gamma-band oscillatory responses to familiar and novel voices were examined and related to social functioning in 17 children (3-11 years old) with MECP2 duplication (n = 12) and Rett syndrome (n = 5). Relative to the stranger's voice, gamma activity in response to the mother's voice was increased in MECP2 duplication but decreased in Rett syndrome. In MECP2 duplication, greater mother versus stranger differences in gamma activity were associated with higher social functioning. For the first time, brain responses in a passive voice discrimination paradigm show that overexpression and underexpression of MeCP2 have differential effects on cortical information processing. PMID:24776956

Peters, Sarika U; Gordon, Reyna L; Key, Alexandra P

2015-02-01

442

Mondegreens and Soramimi as a Method to Induce Misperceptions of Speech Content – Influence of Familiarity, Wittiness, and Language Competence  

PubMed Central

Expectations and prior knowledge can strongly influence our perception. In vision research, such top-down modulation of perceptual processing has been extensively studied using ambiguous stimuli, such as reversible figures. Here, we propose a novel method to address this issue in the auditory modality during speech perception by means of Mondgreens and Soramimi which represent song lyrics with the potential for misperception within one or across two languages, respectively. We demonstrate that such phenomena can be induced by visual presentation of the alternative percept and occur with a sufficient probability to exploit them in neuroscientific experiments. Song familiarity did not influence the occurrence of such altered perception indicating that this tool can be employed irrespective of the participants’ knowledge of music. On the other hand, previous knowledge of the alternative percept had a strong impact on the strength of altered perception which is in line with frequent reports that these phenomena can have long-lasting effects. Finally, we demonstrate that the strength of changes in perception correlated with the extent to which they were experienced as amusing as well as the vocabulary of the participants as source of potential interpretations. These findings suggest that such perceptional phenomena might be linked to the pleasant experience of resolving ambiguity which is in line with the long-existing theory of Hermann von Helmholtz that perception and problem-solving recruit similar processes. PMID:24416261

Beck, Claudia; Kardatzki, Bernd; Ethofer, Thomas

2014-01-01

443

Longer visits on familiar plants?: testing a regular visitor's tendency to probe more flowers than occasional visitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An individual pollinator may tend to consecutively probe more flowers on a plant to which it returns at shorter intervals than other plants. In a large net cage, I let individually marked bumble bees forage on flowering heads of red clovers arranged in 37 bottles (plants), each of which was monitored by an observer to record every visit and probe for 2.5 h on each of 3 days. The data of collective visits by marked individuals revealed that the bees had their own foraging areas, in which they visited a set of plants frequently and others less often, i.e., the same individual bee repeatedly returned to certain plants as a regular visitor while sampling others as an occasional visitor. I further found that as a regular visitor, an individual bee tended to probe more flowering heads on familiar plants while probing fewer on unfamiliar plants as an occasional visitor. The mean number of consecutive probes by a bee was also positively correlated with its activity (the total number of plant visits made during the observation period). The fact that each bee behaves differently on different plants indicates that the same individual pollinator can exert different influence on the reproductive success of each plant: apparently, a pollinator likely reduces the potential for geitonogamous self-pollination when foraging as an occasional visitor. Attracting occasional visitors therefore may be beneficial for plants to avoid geitonogamy. This study thus emphasizes the importance of paying attention to pollinator individuality in pollination ecology.

Makino, Takashi T.

2013-07-01

444

Un estudio de los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud indica que dos dosis de vacuna contra los VPH pueden proteger tanto como el tratamiento completo  

Cancer.gov

Dos dosis de Cervarix, la vacuna contra virus del papiloma humano (VPH), fueron tan efectivas como la pauta normal actual de tres dosis después de cuatro años de seguimiento. El estudio de vacuna en Costa Rica, patrocinado por el NCI, fue diseñado para evaluar la eficacia de Cervarix en una población determinada.

445

‘Familiarity’ as a key factor influencing rural family carers’ experience of the nursing home placement of an older relative: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Admission to a nursing home is generally regarded as a stressful time for older people and their carers. Although the choice of home is significant in facilitating a more positive transition, few studies have explored this issue in detail, particularly in the context of rural communities. With a worldwide ageing population and an increasing demand for long-term care facilities, it is important to highlight the factors that can improve the experience of entry to long-term care and the role of nursing home staff in facilitating a more positive transition for older people and their families. Methods The overall aim of this qualitative study was to explore rural family carers’ experience of the nursing home placement of an older relative. Semi structured interviews were conducted with 29 relatives of nursing home residents. Participants were selected from a large health and social care trust in the United Kingdom. Data were analysed using grounded theory principles and procedures and NVivo software. Results Rural family carers had a strong sense of familiarity with the nursing homes in their area and this appeared to permeate all aspects of their experience. Carers who reported a high degree of familiarity appeared to experience a more positive transition than others. This familiarity was influenced by the high degree of social capital that was present in the rural community where the study was conducted. This familiarity, in turn, influenced the choice of nursing home and the responses of family carers. The theory that emerged suggests that familiarity was the key factor influencing rural family carers’ experience of the nursing home placement of an older relative. Conclusions The population of the world is ageing and nursing homes are increasingly providing care to older people with multiple and complex needs. This study makes an important contribution to the ways in which the move to long term care can be managed more effectively by increasing awareness of the importance of familiarity, stability and social capital in the lives of older people and their carers. PMID:23822872

2013-01-01

446

EL ORIGEN BIOLÓGICO DEL DERECHO  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este trabajo se aborda el posible origen evolutivo del derecho como una consecuencia del desarrollo social de nuestra especie. Otras especies con sistemas sociales similares presentan varias reglas para la convivencia en grupo. Algunas de estas reglas son comunes en todas las especies con comportamiento social. El desarrollo de la sociobiología en las últimas décadas es una herramienta importante

Axel P. Retana-Salazar

447

Space Shuttle Familiarization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation visualizes the NASA space center and research facility sites, as well as the geography, launching sites, launching pads, rocket launching, pre-flight activities, and space shuttle ground operations located at NASA Kennedy Space Center. Additionally, highlights the international involvement behind the International Space Station and the space station mobile servicing system. Extraterrestrial landings, surface habitats and habitation systems, outposts, extravehicular activity, and spacecraft rendezvous with the Earth return vehicle are also covered.

Mellett, Kevin

2006-01-01

448

Vietnamese Familiarization Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This course provides an introduction to Vietnamese as spoken in South Vietnam. The most basic structural patterns of the language have been introduced along with vocabulary that is considered to be useful for Americans in Vietnam. The course, designed for classroom use, is suitable for self-instructional use with the use of accompanying tape…

Quang, Nguyen-Hy; Jorden, Eleanor H.

449

Mineralogy and instrumental neutron activation analysis of seven National Bureau of Standards and three Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas clay reference samples  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The concentrations of 3 oxides and 29 elements in 7 National Bureau of Standards (NBS) and 3 Instituto de Pesquisas Techno16gicas (IPT) reference clay samples were etermined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The analytical work was designed to test the homogeneity of constituents in three new NBS reference clays, NBS-97b, NBS-98b, and NBS-679. The analyses of variance of 276 sets of data for these three standards show that the constituents are distributed homogeneously among bottles of samples for 94 percent of the sets of data. Three of the reference samples (NBS-97, NBS-97a, and NBS-97b) are flint clays; four of the samples (NBS-98, NBS-98a, NBS-98b, and IPT-32) are plastic clays, and three of the samples (NBS-679, IPT-28, and IPT-42) are miscellaneous clays (both sedimentary and residual). Seven clays are predominantly kaolinite; the other three clays contain illite and kaolinite in the approximate ratio 3:2. Seven clays contain quartz as the major nonclay mineral. The mineralogy of the flint and plastic clays from Missouri (NBS-97a and NBS-98a) differs markedly from that of the flint and plastic clays from Pennsylvania (NBS-97, NBS-97b, NBS-98, and NBS-98b). The flint clay NBS-97 has higher average chromium, hafnium, lithium, and zirconium contents than its replacement, reference sample NBS-97b. The differences between the plastic clay NBS-98 and its replacement, NBS-98b, are not as pronounced. The trace element contents of the flint and plastic clays from Missouri, NBS-97a and NBS-98a, differ significantly from those of the clays from Pennsylvania, especially the average rare earth element (REE) contents. The trace element contents of clay sample IPT-32 differ from those of the other plastic clays. IPT-28 and IPT-42 have some average trace element contents that differ not only between these two samples but also from all the other clays. IPT-28 has the highest summation of the average REE contents of the 10 samples. The uranium content of NBS-98a, 46 parts per million, is very much higher than that of the other clays. Plots of average REE contents of the flint and plastic clays, normalized to chondritic abundances, show that the clays from Missouri differ from the same types of clay from Pennsylvania. The plot of REE contents for the miscellaneous clays shows that the normalized means for the elements lanthanum through samarium for IPT-28 are much greater than those for the other miscellaneous clays. The means for the elements europium through lutetium are similar for all three miscellaneous clays.

Hosterman, John W.; Flanagan, F.J.; Bragg, Anne; Doughten, M.W.; Filby, R.H.; Grimm, Catherine; Mee, J.S.; Potts, P.J.; Rogers, N.W.

1987-01-01

450

Differences in methylphenidate dose response between periadolescent and adult rats in the familiar arena-novel alcove task.  

PubMed

Methylphenidate is a psychostimulant widely used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. In this study, the effects of two nonstereotypy-inducing doses of methylphenidate (2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg s.c.) were examined in periadolescent [postnatal days (P) 35 and 42] and young adult (P70), male Long-Evans rats using a three-period locomotor activity paradigm that affords inferences about exploration, habituation, and attention to a novel stimulus (an "alcove") in a familiar environment in a single test session. In the first test period, P35 and P42 rats were more active than P70 rats, and methylphenidate increased locomotion in a dose-related manner. The introduction of a novel spatial stimulus in the third test period revealed a significant interaction of dose and age such that P70 rats exhibited dose-related increases in distance traveled, but P35 rats did not. Furthermore, methylphenidate dose-relatedly disrupted the rats' tendency to spend increasing amounts of time in the alcove across the test period at P70 but not at P35. Brain and serum methylphenidate concentrations were significantly lower at P35 than at P70, with intermediate levels at P42. Developmental differences in dopaminergic neurochemistry were also observed, including increased dopamine content in the caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, and frontal cortex and decreased densities of D(1)-like receptors in the frontal cortex in P70 than in P42 rats. These results raise the possibility that children and adults may respond differently when treated with this drug, particularly in situations involving response to novelty and that these effects involve developmental differences in pharmacokinetics and dopaminergic neurochemistry. PMID:21205916

Levant, Beth; Zarcone, Troy J; Davis, Paul F; Ozias, Marlies K; Fowler, Stephen C

2011-04-01

451

Cost-effectiveness analysis for joint pain treatment in patients with osteoarthritis treated at the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS): Comparison of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) vs. cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the main causes of disability worldwide, especially in persons >55 years of age. Currently, controversy remains about the best therapeutic alternative for this disease when evaluated from a cost-effectiveness viewpoint. For Social Security Institutions in developing countries, it is very important to assess what drugs may decrease the subsequent use of medical care resources,

Iris Contreras-Hernández; Joaquín F Mould-Quevedo; Rubén Torres-González; María Victoria Goycochea-Robles; Reyna L Pacheco-Dominguez; Sergio Sánchez-García; Juan Manuel Mejía-Aranguré; Juan Garduño-Espinosa

2008-01-01

452

Vistazos Intimos De Puebla; Una Compilacion De Informes Individuales Preparados Por Los Participantes Del Instituto De Verano (NDEA) (Close-ups on Puebla; A Compilation of Individual Reports Prepared by the Participants of the NDEA Summer Institute).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The individual and committee reports on the sociology of Puebla, Mexico, which are collected here, were written by participants in an NDEA Summer Institute program of the University of Wichita, Kansas. The underlying motives of the program, described in the preface, were to provide participants with real language experience and a chance to…

Wichita State Univ., KS.

453

60 A O S D E L A CO LECCIN NACIONAL DE MAMFEROS DEL INSTITUTO DE BIOLOGA, UNAM. APORTACIONES AL CONOCIMIENTO Y CONSERVACIN DE LOS MAMFEROS MEXICANOS 301 Abstract. Pocket gophers reach their highest diversity  

E-print Network

AL CONOCIMIENTO Y CONSERVACI�N DE LOS MAMÍFEROS MEXICANOS ·301 Abstract. Pocket gophers reach Geomyidae. Recent systematic investigations of pocket gophers, based largely on specimens deposited grandis. Six Mexican pocket gophers (Geomys tropicalis, O. cuniculus, O. lanius, P. bulleri alcorni

454

A new set of 272 pictures for psycholinguistic studies: Persian norms for name agreement, image agreement, conceptual familiarity, visual complexity, and age of acquisition.  

PubMed

Pictures are often used in studies on memory, perception, and language; normative data are thus needed for such visual stimuli. In the present study, we aimed to obtain normative data for a set of 272 black-and-white pictures from middle-aged and elderly Persian speakers. A total of 206 volunteers were divided into two groups: a middle-aged (40-59 years old) group and an elderly (60 years old and over) group. The groups had similar characteristics in terms of education. Norms for every picture were developed to provide measures of name agreement, image agreement, conceptual familiarity, age of acquisition, and visual complexity. The results revealed that all of these measures vary with age, except for conceptual familiarity. PMID:25425392

Ghasisin, Leila; Yadegari, Fariba; Rahgozar, Mehdi; Nazari, Ali; Rastegarianzade, Niloufar

2014-11-26

455

Un estudio financiado por los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud (NIH) muestra reducción en la mortalidad entre hombres con cáncer de próstata en grado intermedio:  

Cancer.gov

Terapia hormonal por corto tiempo administrada en combinación con radioterapia a hombres con cáncer de próstata en estadio inicial aumentó sus posibilidades de vivir más en comparación con tratamiento de radioterapia sola, según un estudio clínico patrocinado por el NCI. Los beneficios del tratamiento combinado se limitaron principalmente a pacientes con enfermedad de riesgo intermedio y no se observaron en hombres con cáncer de próstata de riesgo bajo, indican los investigadores.

456

Copyrights Reserved by the University of Hong Kong under the Knowledge Exchange Project Tutorial 1: Familiar with iPhone App Development  

E-print Network

1: Familiar with iPhone App Development Overview 1. Introduction 2. Creating a New iPhone App Project 2.1 Creating a New iPhone App Project using Xcode 2.2 Changing Various iPhone App Settings 3 an iPhone app from scratch. You will be able to learn: a. How to create a new iPhone app project b. How

Tam, Vincent W. L.

457

The Fabra-ROA Baker-Nunn Camera at Observatori Astronòmic del Montsec: A Wide-field Imaging Facility for Exoplanet Transit Detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of Baker-Nunn Camera (BNC) were manufactured by Smithsonian Institution during the 60’s as optical tracking systems for artificial satellites with optimal optical and mechanical specifications. One of them was installed at the Real Instituto y Observatorio de la Armada (ROA). We have conducted a profound refurbishment project of the telescope to be installed at Observatori Astronòmic del Montsec (OAdM) (Fors 2009). As a result, the BNC offers the largest combination of a huge FOV (4.4°×4.4°) and aperture (leading to a limiting magnitude of V˜20). These specifications, together with their remote and robotic natures, allows this instrument to face an observational program of exoplanets detection by means of transit technique with high signal-to-noise ratio in the appropiate magnitude range.

Fors, O.; Núñez, J.; Muiños, J. L.; Montojo, F. J.; Baena, R.; Merino, M.; Morcillo, R.; Blanco, V.

2010-10-01

458

Yeast DEL assay detects clastogens.  

PubMed

Chromosomal rearrangements, including DNA deletions are involved in carcinogenesis. The deletion (DEL) assay scoring for DNA deletions in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to detect a wide range of carcinogens. Among approximately 60 compounds of known carcinogenic activity, the DEL assay detected 86% correctly whereas the Ames Salmonella assay detected only 30% correctly [R.J. Brennan, R.H. Schiestl, Detecting carcinogens with the yeast DEL assay, Methods Mol. Biol. 262 (2004) 111-124]. Since the DEL assay is highly inducible by DNA double strand breaks, this study examined the utility of the DEL assay for detecting clastogens. Ten model compounds, with varied mechanisms of genotoxicity, were examined for their effect on the frequency of DNA deletions with the DEL assay. The compounds tested were: actinomycin D, camptothecin, methotrexate and 5-fluorodeoxyuridine, which are anticancer agents, noscapine and furosemide are therapeutics, acridine, methyl acrylate and resorcinol are industrial chemicals and diazinon is an insecticide. The in vitro micronucleus assay (IVMN) in CHO cells, a commonly used tool for detection of clastogens, was performed on the same compounds and the results of the two assays were compared. The results of our study show that there is 70% concordance in the presence of metabolic activation (rat liver S9) and 80% concordance in the absence of metabolic activation between the DEL assay and the standard in vitro micronucleus assay. The lack of cytotoxicity observed for four of the ten compounds examined indicates limited diffusion of lipophilic compounds across the yeast cell wall. Thus, the development of a more permeable yeast tester strain is expected to greatly improve concordance of the DEL assay with the IVMN assay. The yeast DEL assay is inexpensive, amenable to automation and requires less expertise to perform than the IVMN. Thus, it has a strong potential as a robust, fast and economical screen for detecting clastogens in vitro. PMID:15781217

Kirpnick, Zhanna; Homiski, Michael; Rubitski, Elizabeth; Repnevskaya, Marina; Howlett, Niall; Aubrecht, Jiri; Schiestl, Robert H

2005-04-01

459

Housing familiar male wildtype rats together reduces the long-term adverse behavioural and physiological effects of social defeat.  

PubMed

Social stress in rats is known to induce long-lasting, adverse changes in behaviour and physiology, which seem to resemble certain human psychopathologies, such as depression and anxiety. The present experiment was designed to assess the influence of individual or group housing on the vulnerability of male Wildtype rats to long-term effects of inescapable social defeat. Group-housed rats were individually exposed to an aggressive, unfamiliar male conspecific, resulting in a social defeat. Defeated rats were then either individually housed or returned to their group. The changes in their behaviour and physiology were then studied for 3 weeks. Results showed that individually housed rats developed long-lasting, adverse behavioural and physiological changes after social defeat. Their body growth was significantly retarded (p < .05) between 7 and 14 days after defeat. When individually and group-housed rats were exposed to a mild stressor (sudden silence) 2 days after defeat, both groups became highly immobile. However, when exposure was repeated at day 21, individually housed rats were still highly immobile compared to group-housed rats which regained their normal mobility after only 7 days. In an open field test, also regularly repeated, individually housed rats took significantly longer to leave their home base and were also significantly less mobile than group-housed rats over the entire 3-week test period as well as at specific timepoints. When the rats were placed in an elevated plus-maze 14 days after defeat, those that were individually housed were significantly more anxious than those that were group-housed. When tested at 21 days after defeat in a combined dexamethasone (DEX)/corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) test, results showed that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) activity in individually housed rats was higher. This was evidenced in the latter animals by the fact that DEX was significantly less able to suppress the secretion of ACTH and corticosterone, and by a significantly higher release of ACTH after administration of CRF. Although the weights of the spleen and testes of the two groups did not differ, the adrenals of individually housed rats were larger and the thymus and seminal vesicles were smaller. We conclude that when rats are isolated after defeat, they show long-lasting, adverse behavioural and physiological changes that resemble symptoms of stress-related disorders. In contrast, when familiar rats are housed together these effects of a social defeat are greatly reduced. These findings show that housing conditions importantly influence the probability of long-term adverse behavioural and physiological effects of social defeat in male Wildtype rats. PMID:10101734

Ruis, M A; te Brake, J H; Buwalda, B; De Boer, S F; Meerlo, P; Korte, S M; Blokhuis, H J; Koolhaas, J M

1999-04-01

460

Impactos del Huracn Isaac en la calidad del agua en Luisiana con MODIS 250m  

E-print Network

lluvias. Por tal razón se quiere estudiar la calidad del agua en el delta del río Mississippi antes1 Impactos del Huracán Isaac en la calidad del agua en Luisiana con MODIS 250m Thais J. Alicea imágenes en ENVI. Palabras clave: Calidad del agua, ENVI, Isaac, Luisiana, MODIS

Gilbes, Fernando

461

VERBALE DEL CONSIGLIO DEL CORSO DI STUDIO INFORMATICA E TECNOLOGIE PER LA PRODUZIONE DEL del 14 Maggio 2008  

E-print Network

relative agli anni precedenti 4. Manifesti degli Studi 5. Elezione Presidenti Corsi di Studio: adempimenti ingiustificati. PROFESSORI ORDINARI, STRAORDINARI ED ASSOCIATI 1. V. ALBINO SOFTWARE del 21 Febbraio 2008 3. P. BUONO....................... .................. 4. V. CAPRIATI

Malerba, Donato

462

Historia del IAC PRIMERAS EXPEDICIONES  

E-print Network

Astrofísica de Canarias - el Observatorio del Teide, en Tenerife,y el Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos a esta conclusión después de observar a diversos niveles en Tenerife, desde el mar hasta la montaña de Tenerife que propuso la creación de un observatorio internacional en la Montaña de Guajara. #12;ECLIPSE DE

463

Red de Bibliotecas del CSIC. Estadsticas. Revistas 2010 http://bibliotecas.csic.es 1  

E-print Network

Inteligencia Artificial 107 41 38,30 B-IMB-CNM Instituto de Microelectrónica de Barcelona 104 32 30,70 B-IMAFF Centro de Física "Miguel A. Catalán". 944 67 7,00 M-IMM-CNM Instituto de Microelectrónica de Madrid 28 8

464

Radical SAM, A Novel Protein Superfamily Linking Unresolved Steps in Familiar Biosynthetic Pathways with Radical Mechanisms: Functional Characterization Using New Analysis and Information Visualization Methods  

SciTech Connect

A large protein superfamily with over 500 members has been discovered and analyzed using powerful new bioinformatics and information visualization methods. Evidence exists that these proteins generate a 5?-deoxyadenosyl radical by reductive cleavage of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) through an unusual Fe-S center. Radical SAM superfamily proteins function in DNA precursor, vitamin, cofactor, antibiotic, and herbicide biosynthesis in a collection of basic and familiar pathways. One of the members is interferon-inducible and is considered a candidate drug target for osteoporosis. The identification of this superfamily suggests that radical-based catalysis is important in a number of previously well-studied but unresolved biochemical pathways.

Sofia, Heidi J.; Chen, Guang; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Reyes Spindola, Jorge F.; Miller, Nancy E.

2001-03-01

465

Comunicación en la atención del cáncer (PDQ®)  

Cancer.gov

Resumen de la información revisada por expertos acerca de la comunicación con el paciente de cáncer y sus familiares, que incluye los aspectos distintivos de la comunicación con pacientes de cáncer, los factores que afectan la comunicación y la capacitación en aptitudes para la comunicación.

466

Seguridad del paciente en los estudios clínicos  

Cancer.gov

Información para pacientes, sus familiares y amigos, y el público en general, sobre cómo se protegen los derechos y la seguridad de las personas que participan en estudios clínicos. Conozca sobre el consentimiento formal, los consejos institucionales de revisión (IRB) y cómo se realiza la vigilancia continua de los estudios.

467

The effect of audio and video modeling on beginning guitar students' ability to accurately sing and accompany a familiar melody on guitar by ear.  

PubMed

The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of audio and visual modeling on music and nonmusic majors' ability to accurately sing and accompany a familiar melody on guitar by ear. Two studies were run to investigate the impact of musical training on the ability to play by ear. All participants were student volunteers enrolled in sections of a beginning class guitar course and were randomly assigned to one of three groups: control, audio modeling only, or audio and visual modeling. All participants were asked to sing the same familiar song in the same key and accompany on guitar. Study 1 compared music majors with nonmusic majors and showed no significant difference between treatment conditions, however, there was a significant difference between music majors and nonmusic majors across all conditions. There was no significant interaction between groups and treatment conditions. Study 2 investigated the operational definition of "musically trained" and compared musically trained with nonmusically trained participants across the same three conditions. Results of Study 2 showed no significant difference between musically trained and nonmusically trained participants; however, there was a significant difference between treatment conditions with the audio-visual group completing the task in the shortest amount of time. There was no significant interaction between groups and treatment conditions. Results of these analyses support the use of instructor modeling for beginning guitar students and suggest that previous musical knowledge does not play a role in guitar skills acquisition at the beginning level. PMID:21141772

Wlodarczyk, Natalie

2010-01-01

468

Gestin del agua en producciones  

E-print Network

160 cm 220cm PER 240cm Gestión del agua en producciones de secano #12;#12;Sitio Prof. cm pH CE mmoh 31 oct s/napa soja Maíz Girasol Uso del agua - PER ­ sección control- relación con precipitaciones: Escenario lluvia alta -180,0 -160,0 -140,0 -120,0 -100,0 -80,0 -60,0 -40,0 -20,0 0,0 20/07/2012 19

Nacional de San Luis, Universidad

469

SUPUESTOS IMPLÍCITOS EN LA UTILIZACIÓN DEL CAPITAL ASSETS PRICING MODEL – CAPM PARA EL CÁLCULO DEL COSTO DEL CAPITAL PROPIO – EQUITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

El artículo evidencia los supuestos y problemas que implica la utilización del Capital Assets Pricing Model– CAPM en el cálculo del costo del capital propio de las empresas – Equity, haciendo énfasis en la diferencia que existe entre la forma como toman sus decisiones de inversión quienes lo hacen en el mercado de valores y quienes lo hacen en una

Carlos Arturo Gómez Restrepo; Mario García Molina

2011-01-01

470

Instantánea del cáncer de seno (mama)  

Cancer.gov

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de seno (mama); así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

471

Instantánea del cáncer de cuello uterino  

Cancer.gov

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de cuello uterino; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

472

Rafael Molina Bases del filtro de Kalman 1 Bases del filtro de Kalman  

E-print Network

Rafael Molina Bases del filtro de Kalman 1 Bases del filtro de Kalman Rafael Molina Soriano Depto Ciencias de la Computación e IA Universidad de Granada #12;Rafael Molina Bases del filtro de Kalman 2 Contenidos ! Introducción. ! El filtro de Kalman " Modelo del sistema " Modelo de medida " Formulación de la

Granada, Universidad de

473

Reglament d'organitzaci i funcionament del departament de Teoria del Senyal i Comunicacions  

E-print Network

Reglament d'organització i funcionament del departament de Teoria del Senyal i Comunicacions Acord departament de Teoria del Senyal i Comunicacions · Document proposta informat favorablement per la Comissió de/07/2014 Secretaria general 21 de juliol de 2014 #12;REGLAMENT D'ORGANITZACI� I FUNCIONAMENT DEL DEPARTAMENT DE TEORIA

Yannuzzi Sanchez, Marcelo

474

La evolución de la geografía y del trabajo del geógrafo en Rusia  

Microsoft Academic Search

La geografía rusa se fomentó, desde finales del siglo XIX, como una ciencia práctica en relación directa con el desarrollo económico del país. El trabajo del geógrafo, que evolucionó bajo la influencia de los avatares políticos, económicos y sociales, se centra sobre los estudios naturalistas y utilitaristas del espacio geográfico en el caso de la geografía física –área dominante en

Marina Frolova

2007-01-01

475

SERVICIO DE DEPORTES NORMATIVA DE USO DEL  

E-print Network

SERVICIO DE DEPORTES NORMATIVA DE USO DEL SERVICIO DE FISIOTERAPIA #12;ÍNDICE EXPOSICI�N DE MOTIVOS..................................................................................... 4 #12;NORMATIVA DE USO DEL SERVICIO DE FISIOTERAPIA VICERRECTORADO DE CULTURA, DEPORTES Y POLÍTICA datos del Servicio de Deportes y que formen parte de los siguientes programas: a) Jugadores/as de los

Escolano, Francisco

476

REFLEXIONES ÉTICAS A PARTIR DEL PROYECTO UNASUR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este artículo pretende identificar los principios éticos del proyecto UNASUR tomando como punto de partida el discurso pronunciado por Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva en mayo del 2008 en Brasilia y entrevistas realizadas por representantes de Prensa Latina. Se analiza este documento por ser Lula uno de los fundadores del proyecto de La Unión de Naciones Suramericanas (UNASUR), demostrando la

Cintia Beatriz Pérez Lanza; Ana Maria Infante Aguilar

2011-01-01

477

EVOLUZIONE-WEB -1 -Evoluzione del Web  

E-print Network

EVOLUZIONE-WEB - 1 - Evoluzione del Web (fonte prof. Polillo) #12;- 2 - L'evoluzione del web EVOLUZIONE-WEB · Dal primo sito Web (1991) il Web è in continua crescita, e in continua evoluzione tecnologia, il mercato, i comportamenti delle persone · Le fasi della storia del Web: Web 1.0, Web 2.0, il

De Antonellis, Valeria

478

Tratamiento actual del estreñimiento infantil  

Microsoft Academic Search

ResumenEl estreñimiento infantil es un problema mundial. Es una de las molestias más comunes que tienen que afrontar tanto los pediatras generales como los gastroenterólogos pediátricos. El tratamiento del estreñimiento crónico es problemático, a menudo exige un seguimiento a largo plazo y el uso de medicamentos. A pesar de su elevada frecuencia, se han realizado pocos ensayos aleatorizados para investigar

Olivia Liem; Carlo Di Lorenzo; Jan A. J. M Taminiau; Hayat M. Mousa; Marc A. Benninga

2007-01-01

479

La Universidad de Alicante organiza una observacin del eclipse de Luna del mircoles  

E-print Network

La Universidad de Alicante organiza una observación del eclipse de Luna del miércoles La Universidad de Alicante ha preparado una observación del eclipse total de Luna que se producirá la noche del astronómica así como su instrumental con el fin de explicar el desarrollo del eclipse. Previo a la observación

Escolano, Francisco

480

The Feasibility of Achieving Low-Sodium Intake in Diets That Are Also Nutritious, Low-Cost, and Have Familiar Meal Components  

PubMed Central

Objective Given the importance of high sodium diets as a risk factor for disease burden (ranked 11th in importance in the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010), we aimed to determine the feasibility of low-sodium diets that were also low-cost, nutritious and (for some scenarios) included familiar meals. Methods The mathematical technique of “linear programming” was used to model eight optimized daily diets (some with uncertainty), including some diets that contained “familiar meals” for New Zealanders or were Mediterranean-, Asian- and Pacific-style diets. Data inputs included nutrients in foods, food prices and food wastage. Findings Using nutrient recommendations for men and a cost constraint of familiar meals. Policy makers could consider ways to promote such optimized diets and foods, including regulations on maximum salt levels in processed foods, and taxes on alternative foods that are high in salt, sugar and saturated fat. PMID:23505532

Wilson, Nick; Nghiem, Nhung; Foster, Rachel H.

2013-01-01

481

Estudio de Salud Agrícola  

Cancer.gov

Hoja informativa sobre el Estudio de Salud Agrícola que se inició en 1993 por científicos del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer, el Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Ambientales y la Agencia de Protección Ambiental de Estados Unidos.

482

A standardized set of 260 pictures for Turkish: norms of name and image agreement, age of acquisition, visual complexity, and conceptual familiarity.  

PubMed

In the present study, normative data in Turkish are presented for the 260 color versions of the original Snodgrass and Vanderwart (1980) picture set for the first time. Norms are reported for name and image agreement, age of acquisition (AoA), visual complexity, and conceptual familiarity, together with written word frequency, and numbers of letters and syllables. We collected data from 277 native Turkish adults in a variety of tasks. The results indicated that, whilst several measures displayed language-specific variation, we also reported what seem to be language-independent-that is, universal-measures that show a systematic relationship across several languages. The implications of the reported measures in the domain of psycholinguistic research in Turkish and for wider cross-linguistic comparisons are discussed. PMID:23943583

Raman, Ilhan; Raman, Evren; Mertan, Biran

2014-06-01

483

Characterization of attenuated food motivation in high-fat diet-induced obesity: Critical roles for time on diet and reinforcer familiarity.  

PubMed

Prior work using animal models to study the effects of obesogenic diets on food motivation have generated inconsistent results, with some reporting increases and others reporting decreases in responding on food-reinforced tasks. Here, we identified two specific variables that may account for these discrepant outcomes - the length of time on the obesigenic diet and the familiarity of the food reinforcer - and examined the independent roles of these factors. Time on diet was found to be inversely related to food motivation, as rats consuming a 40% high-fat diet (HFD) for only 3weeks did not differ from chow-fed rats when responding for a sucrose reinforcer on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule, but responding was suppressed after 6weeks of ad lib HFD consumption. Explicitly manipulating experience with the sucrose reinforcer by pre-exposing half the rats prior to 10weeks of HFD consumption attenuated the motivational deficit seen in the absence of this familiarity, resulting in obese rats performing at the same level as lean rats. Finally, after 8weeks on a HFD, rats did not express a conditioned place preference for sucrose, indicating a decrement in reward value independent of motivation. These findings are consistent with prior literature showing an increase in food motivation for rats with a shorter time consuming the obesigenic diet, and for those with more prior experience with the reinforcer. This account also helps reconcile these findings with increased food motivation in obese humans due to extensive experience with palatable food and suggests that researchers engaging in non-human animal studies of obesity would better model the conditions under which human obesity develops by using a varied, cafeteria-style diet to increase the breadth of food experiences. PMID:25582517

Tracy, Andrea L; Wee, Colin J M; Hazeltine, Grace E; Carter, Rebecca A

2015-03-15

484

Action and familiarity effects on self and other expert musicians' Laban effort-shape analyses of expressive bodily behaviors in instrumental music performance: a case study approach.  

PubMed

Self-reflective performance review and expert evaluation are features of Western music performance practice. While music is usually the focus, visual information provided by performing musicians' expressive bodily behavior