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Sample records for family medicine research

  1. Future of Research in Family Medicine: Where To From Here?

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Carol P.

    2004-01-01

    Desired research outcomes in family medicine vary according to the developmental stage of the discipline and the context of practice. Several milestones in the evolution of family practice research worldwide have been achieved. Now family medicine researchers face the challenge of discovering how evidence-based primary health care can be delivered in a sustainable way to individuals within communities. To advance family medicine research, we must ensure that trainees have a positive research attitude, develop academic clinician-researchers, lobby for primary care research funding, support practitioners who wish to do research in their own practices, sustain practice-based research networks, and study important questions. PMID:15655092

  2. 40 years of biannual family medicine research meetings – The European General Practice Research Network (EGPRN)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To document family medicine research in the 25 EGPRN member countries in 2010. Design Semi-structured survey with open-ended questions. Setting Academic family medicine in 23 European countries, Israel, and Turkey. Subjects 25 EGPRN national representatives. Main outcome measures Demographics of the general population and family medicine. Assessments, opinions, and suggestions. Results EGPRN has represented family medicine for almost half a billion people and > 300 000 general practitioners (GPs). Turkey had the largest number of family medicine departments and highest density of GPs, 2.1/1000 people, Belgium had 1.7, Austria 1.6, and France 1.5. Lowest GP density was reported from Israel 0.17, Greece 0.18, and Slovenia 0.4 GPs per 1000 people. Family medicine research networks were reported by 22 of 25 and undergraduate family medicine research education in 20 of the 25 member countries, and in 10 countries students were required to do research projects. Postgraduate family medicine research was reported by 18 of the member countries. Open-ended responses showed that EGPRN meetings promoted stimulating and interesting research questions such as comparative studies of chronic pain management, sleep disorders, elderly care, healthy lifestyle promotion, mental health, clinical competence, and appropriateness of specialist referrals. Many respondents reported a lack of interest in family medicine research related to poor incentives and low family medicine status in general and among medical students in particular. It was suggested that EGPRN exert political lobbying for family medicine research. Conclusion Since 1974, EGPRN organizes biannual conferences that unite and promote primary care practice, clinical research and academic family medicine in 25 member countries. PMID:24191874

  3. Interdisciplinary, interinstitutional and international collaboration of family medicine researchers in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yi-Hsuan; Tseng, Yen-Han; Chang, Hsiao-Ting; Lin, Ming-Hwai; Tseng, Yen-Chiang; Hwang, Shinn-Jang

    2015-01-01

    The family medicine researches flourished worldwide in the past decade. However, the collaborative patterns of family medicine publications had not been reported. Our study analyzed the collaborative activity of family medicine researchers in Taiwan. We focused on the types of collaboration among disciplines, institutions and countries. We searched “family medicine” AND “Taiwan” in address field from Web of Science and documented the disciplines, institutions and countries of all authors. We analyzed the collaborative patterns of family medicine researchers in Taiwan from 2010 to 2014. The journal’s impact factor of each article in the same publication year was also retrieved. Among 1,217 articles from 2010 to 2014, interdisciplinary collaboration existed in 1,185 (97.3%) articles, interinstitutional in 1,012 (83.2%) and international in 142 (11.7%). Public health was the most common collaborative discipline. All international researches were also interdisciplinary and interinstitutional. The United States (75 articles), the United Kingdom (21) and the People’s Republic of China (20) were the top three countries with which family medicine researchers in Taiwan had collaborated. We found a high degree of interdisciplinary and interinstitutional collaboration of family medicine researches in Taiwan. However, the collaboration of family medicine researchers in Taiwan with family medicine colleagues of other domestic or foreign institutions was insufficient. The future direction of family medicine studies could focus on the promotion of communication among family medicine researchers. PMID:26500827

  4. Why does teaching research skills to family medicine trainees make sense?

    PubMed

    Kersnik, Janko; Ungan, Mehmet; Klemenc-Ketis, Zalika

    2015-01-01

    There are only a few countries in Europe that have incorporated research skills training in specialty training programmes. In the eyes of most practising family physicians, research traditionally is a field reserved for colleagues with academic ambitions; an activity that often is not associated with the clinical practice of family medicine. However, residents became aware that research is essential to improving healthcare provision. Research in family medicine has a long tradition. Performing or taking part in research projects opens new horizons to present and future family physicians and provides support to increase their self-esteem. Consequently, this could foster future family medicine development. The authors urge the whole family physician community to raise the awareness every single family physician towards teaching and learning research skills in specialty training and basic medical education as a generic subject. PMID:26414382

  5. Improving Health Care Globally: A Critical Review of the Necessity of Family Medicine Research and Recommendations to Build Research Capacity

    PubMed Central

    van Weel, Chris; Rosser, Walter W.

    2004-01-01

    An invitational conference led by the World Organization of Family Doctors (Wonca) involving selected delegates from 34 countries was held in Kingston, Ontario, Canada, March 8 to12, 2003. The conference theme was “Improving Health Globally: The Necessity of Family Medicine Research.” Guiding conference discussions was the value that to improve health care worldwide, strong, evidence-based primary care is indispensable. Eight papers reviewed before the meeting formed the basic material from which the conference developed 9 recommendations. Wonca, as an international body of family medicine, was regarded as particularly suited to pursue these conference recommendations: Research achievements in family medicine should be displayed to policy makers, health (insurance) authorities, and academic leaders in a systematic way. In all countries, sentinel practice systems should be developed to provide surveillance reports on illness and diseases that have the greatest impact on the population’s health and wellness in the community. A clearinghouse should be organized to provide a central repository of knowledge about family medicine research expertise, training, and mentoring. National research institutes and university departments of family medicine with a research mission should be developed. Practice-based research networks should be developed around the world. Family medicine research journals, conferences, and Web sites should be strengthened to disseminate research findings internationally, and their use coordinated. Improved representation of family medicine research journals in databases, such as Index Medicus, should be pursued. Funding of international collaborative research in family medicine should be facilitated. International ethical guidelines, with an international ethical review process, should be developed in particular for participatory (action) research, where researchers work in partnership with communities. When implementing these recommendations

  6. Proposed roadmap to stepwise integration of genetics in family medicine and clinical research

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We propose A step-by-step roadmap to integrate genetics in the Electronic Patient Record in Family Medicine and clinical research. This could make urgent operationalization of readily available genetic knowledge feasible in clinical research and consequently improved medical care. Improving genomic literacy by training and education is needed first. The second step is the improvement of the possibilities to register the family history in such a way that queries can identify patients at risk. Adding codes to the ICPC chapters “A21 Personal/family history of malignancy” and “A99 Disease carrier not described further” is proposed. Multidisciplinary guidelines for referral must be unambiguous. Electronical patient records need possibilities to add (new) family history information, including links between individuals who are family members. Automatic alerts should help general practitioners to recognize patients at risk who satisfy referral criteria. We present a familial breast cancer case with a BRCA1 mutation as an example. PMID:23415259

  7. Federal Research Funding for Family Medicine: Highly Concentrated, with Decreasing New Investigator Awards.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Brianna J; Bazemore, Andrew W; Morley, Christopher P

    2016-01-01

    A small proportion of National Institutes of Health and other federal research funding is received by university departments of family medicine, the largest primary care specialty. That limited funding is also concentrated, with roughly a quarter of all National Institutes of Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality funding awarded to 3 departments, almost half of that funding coming from 3 agencies, and a recent trend away from funding for new investigators. PMID:27613785

  8. Lost in Translation: NIH Funding for Family Medicine Research Remains Limited.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Brianna J; Bazemore, Andrew W; Morley, Christopher P

    2016-01-01

    Departments of Family Medicine (DFMs) in the United States consistently received around 0.2% of total research funding dollars and 0.3% of all awards awarded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) across the years 2002 to 2014. We used the NIH Reporter tool to quantify the amount of funding and the number of grants received by DFMs from the NIH from 2002 to 2014, using criteria similar to those applied by previous researchers. NIH funding to DFMs as remained fairly consistent across the time period, at roughly 0.2% of total NIH funding and 0.3% of total grants awarded. Changing these proportions will likely require considerable effort to build research capacity within DFMs and their frontline practice research networks, and to shift policymaker and funder perceptions of the value of the FM research enterprise. PMID:27613784

  9. [The flexibility of family medicine].

    PubMed

    Minguet, C; Aubrege, A; Aubart, M; Cornuz, J; di Patrizio, P; Du Boullay, D; Farghadani, H; Flammang, M; Haas, N; Kacenelenbogen, N; Kopp, M; Leners, J C; Levêque, M; Mbengue, M; Paur, H; Paur, I; Raphaël, F; Rausch, S; Shetgen, M; Stein R; Tabouring, P; Thomas, J M; Vignon, G

    2015-01-01

    We are a European academic group of family doctors and we propose a definition of flexibility in family medicine. A review of the literature shows that flexibility and complexity are emerging concepts in the field of family practice. The outcomes of a workshop at the WONCA-Europe congress in 2014 are discussed. The flexibility is a capability of the general practitioner to deal with complex clinical situations in a biomedical and societal changing world. Flexibility is framed by ethics. It could improve the quality of care, be useful against burnout and used in medical research. In conclusion, family medicine should adopt a specific definition of the flexibility describing its specificity, a useful and teachable capacity. PMID:26946851

  10. The role of family therapists in veterinary medicine: opportunities for clinical services, education, and research.

    PubMed

    Hafen, McArthur; Rush, Bonnie R; Reisbig, Allison M J; McDaniel, Kara Z; White, Mark B

    2007-04-01

    Marriage and family therapists (MFTs) are applying their specific skill set in a variety of arenas. A new area for collaboration is veterinary medicine. The veterinary medical profession is emphasizing the importance of non-biomedical skills such as communication skills, acknowledging that human clientele are likely to view their pets as family members, and discussing veterinarian personal well-being. Each of these trends has clear application for intervention by MFTs. A discussion of how MFTs may be uniquely positioned to assist veterinary medicine is presented. An example of collaboration between MFT and veterinary medicine at Kansas State University is highlighted. Recommendations are made for development of effective educational relationships and possible private sector collaborations. PMID:17437457

  11. Family Medicine Education in Canada, 1983

    PubMed Central

    Hennen, Brian K. E.

    1983-01-01

    We now have good information about family medicine in terms of content, principles, and practice load. Undergraduate, residency and continuing education are improving, but some family medicine programs still have limited support from their university's faculty and governments. Residency in-training assessment and the certification process are better developed than is evaluation of new family doctors' practice performance. Research in the family medicine base is expanding, and residents are increasingly involved in projects. Family medicine teachers are now on a par with other clinical faculty, because they must meet tougher criteria for appointment and promotion. The political leadership of family medicine education, shared by the College of Family Physicians of Canada and academic departments, requires strong consensus and persistent activity. PMID:20469408

  12. Family Medicine's Waltz with Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    Family Medicine first formally confronted systems thinking with the adoption of the biopsychosocial model for understanding disease in a holistic manner; this is a description of a natural system. More recently, Family Medicine has been consciously engaged in developing itself as a system for delivering health care, an artificial system. We make…

  13. Eight Years of Building Community Partnerships and Trust: The UCLA Family Medicine Community-Based Participatory Research Experience

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Gerardo; Rodríguez, Michael A.; Lopez, Glenn A.; Bholat, Michelle A.; Dowling, Patrick T.

    2014-01-01

    Acknowledging the growing disparities in health and health care that exist among immigrant families and minority populations in large urban communities, the UCLA Department of Family Medicine (DFM) sought a leadership role in the development of family medicine training and community-based participatory research (CBPR). Performing CBPR requires that academic medicine departments build sustainable and long-term community partnerships. The authors describe the eight-year (2000–2008) process of building sustainable community partnerships and trust between the UCLA DFM and the Sun Valley community, located in Los Angeles County. The authors used case studies of three research areas of concentration (asthma, diabetes prevention, and establishing access to primary care) to describe how they established community trust and sustained long-term community research partnerships. In preparing each case study, they used an iterative process to review qualitative data. Many lessons were common across their research concentration areas. They included the importance of (1) having clear and concrete community benefits, (2) supporting an academic–community champion, (3) political advocacy, (4) partnering with diverse organizations, (5) long-term academic commitment, and (6) medical student involvement. The authors found that establishing a long-term relationship and trust was a prerequisite to successfully initiate CBPR activities that included an asthma school-based screening program, community walking groups, and one of the largest school-based primary care clinics in the United States. Their eight-year experience in the Sun Valley community underscores how academic–community research partnerships can result in benefits of high value to communities and academic departments. PMID:19881437

  14. Eight years of building community partnerships and trust: the UCLA family medicine community-based participatory research experience.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Gerardo; Rodríguez, Michael A; Lopez, Glenn A; Bholat, Michelle A; Dowling, Patrick T

    2009-10-01

    Acknowledging the growing disparities in health and health care that exist among immigrant families and minority populations in large urban communities, the UCLA Department of Family Medicine (DFM) sought a leadership role in the development of family medicine training and community-based participatory research (CBPR). Performing CBPR requires that academic medicine departments build sustainable and long-term community partnerships. The authors describe the eight-year (2000-2008) process of building sustainable community partnerships and trust between the UCLA DFM and the Sun Valley community, located in Los Angeles County.The authors used case studies of three research areas of concentration (asthma, diabetes prevention, and establishing access to primary care) to describe how they established community trust and sustained long-term community research partnerships. In preparing each case study, they used an iterative process to review qualitative data.Many lessons were common across their research concentration areas. They included the importance of (1) having clear and concrete community benefits, (2) supporting an academic-community champion, (3) political advocacy, (4) partnering with diverse organizations, (5) long-term academic commitment, and (6) medical student involvement. The authors found that establishing a long-term relationship and trust was a prerequisite to successfully initiate CBPR activities that included an asthma school-based screening program, community walking groups, and one of the largest school-based primary care clinics in the United States.Their eight-year experience in the Sun Valley community underscores how academic-community research partnerships can result in benefits of high value to communities and academic departments. PMID:19881437

  15. Holistic Medicine in Family Practice

    PubMed Central

    Borins, Mel

    1984-01-01

    During the twentieth century there have been great advances in medicine in the area of science and technology. At the same time, there has been a trend back to a more natural, humanistic approach to counteract patients' feelings of alienation. Holistic medicine approaches the physical, emotional, spiritual, and social aspects of a person as they relate to health and disease. It emphasizes prevention; concern for the environment and the food we eat; patient responsibility; using illness as a creative force to teach people to change; the `physician, heal thyself' philosophy; and appropriate alternatives to orthodox medicine. Family medicine faces the challenge of integrating these humanistic concepts with science. PMID:21283496

  16. Family medicine as a model of transition from academic medicine to academic health care: Estonia's experience.

    PubMed

    Maaroos, Heidi-Ingrid

    2004-10-01

    This paper presents the development of academic family medicine in an environment of traditional academic medicine at the Tartu University, Estonia. The introduction of university family medicine teachers to everyday practice and practitioners to academic teaching and research helps bridge the gap between theory and practice, and it shows changed approach to academic medicine. PMID:15495281

  17. [Multimorbidity in family medicine].

    PubMed

    Excoffier, Sophie; Paschoud, Anca; Haller, Dagmar M; Herzig, Lilli

    2016-05-11

    Multimorbidity, or co-occurrence of several chronic diseases, is of increasing importance for health professionals and the organization of the health care system. It is important for patients, particularly in relation to quality of life and functional status, for family practitioners in relation to support and coordination skills and for the health system in relation to costs and organization. In this article we introduce the concepts of chronic conditions, multimorbidity and its impact (burden) on the patient and the family practitioner, the importance of a prioritization of care and of the patient's health skills (health literacy), the consequences of polypharmacy and the importance of a network of health professionals. These themes will be developed throughout this issue. PMID:27352585

  18. Rural family medicine training site

    PubMed Central

    Liskowich, Sarah; Walker, Kathryn; Beatty, Nicolas; Kapusta, Peter; McKay, Shari; Ramsden, Vivian R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To develop a framework for a successful rural family medicine training program and to assess the potential for a rural family medicine residency training program using the Weyburn and Estevan areas of Saskatchewan as test sites. Design A mixed-method design was used; however, the focus of this article was on the qualitative data collected. Questions formulated for the semistructured interviews evolved from the literature. Setting Rural Saskatchewan. Participants Community physicians and representatives from the Sun Country Regional Health Authority, the Saskatchewan Ministry of Health, and the University of Saskatchewan. Methods The data were documented during the interviews using a laptop computer, and the responses were reviewed with participants at the end of their interviews to ensure accuracy. The qualitative data collected were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Main findings Through the analysis of the data several themes emerged related to implementing a rural family medicine residency training program. Key predictors of success were physical resources, physician champions, physician teachers, educational support, administrative support, and other specialist support. Barriers to the development of a rural family medicine training site were differing priorities, lack of human resources, and lack of physical resources. Conclusion A project of this magnitude requires many people at different levels collaborating to be successful. PMID:26380856

  19. Decision making in family medicine

    PubMed Central

    Labrecque, Michel; Ratté, Stéphane; Frémont, Pierre; Cauchon, Michel; Ouellet, Jérôme; Hogg, William; McGowan, Jessie; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Njoya, Merlin; Légaré, France

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To compare the ability of users of 2 medical search engines, InfoClinique and the Trip database, to provide correct answers to clinical questions and to explore the perceived effects of the tools on the clinical decision-making process. Design Randomized trial. Setting Three family medicine units of the family medicine program of the Faculty of Medicine at Laval University in Quebec city, Que. Participants Fifteen second-year family medicine residents. Intervention Residents generated 30 structured questions about therapy or preventive treatment (2 questions per resident) based on clinical encounters. Using an Internet platform designed for the trial, each resident answered 20 of these questions (their own 2, plus 18 of the questions formulated by other residents, selected randomly) before and after searching for information with 1 of the 2 search engines. For each question, 5 residents were randomly assigned to begin their search with InfoClinique and 5 with the Trip database. Main outcome measures The ability of residents to provide correct answers to clinical questions using the search engines, as determined by third-party evaluation. After answering each question, participants completed a questionnaire to assess their perception of the engine’s effect on the decision-making process in clinical practice. Results Of 300 possible pairs of answers (1 answer before and 1 after the initial search), 254 (85%) were produced by 14 residents. Of these, 132 (52%) and 122 (48%) pairs of answers concerned questions that had been assigned an initial search with InfoClinique and the Trip database, respectively. Both engines produced an important and similar absolute increase in the proportion of correct answers after searching (26% to 62% for InfoClinique, for an increase of 36%; 24% to 63% for the Trip database, for an increase of 39%; P = .68). For all 30 clinical questions, at least 1 resident produced the correct answer after searching with either

  20. Family medicine residents’ practice intentions

    PubMed Central

    Grierson, Lawrence E.M.; Fowler, Nancy; Kwan, Matthew Y.W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess residents’ practice intentions since the introduction of the College of Family Physicians of Canada’s Triple C curriculum, which focuses on graduating family physicians who will provide comprehensive care within traditional and newer models of family practice. Design A survey based on Ajzen’s theory of planned behaviour was administered on 2 occasions. Setting McMaster University in Hamilton, Ont. Participants Residents (n = 135) who were enrolled in the Department of Family Medicine Postgraduate Residency Program at McMaster University in July 2012 and July 2013; 54 of the 60 first-year residents who completed the survey in 2012 completed it again in 2013. Main outcome measures The survey was modeled so as to measure the respondents’ intentions to practise with a comprehensive scope; determine the degree to which their attitudes, subjective norms, and perceptions of control about comprehensive practice influence those intentions; and investigate how these relationships change as residents progress through the curriculum. The survey also queried the respondents about their intentions with respect to particular medical services that underpin comprehensive practice. Results The responses indicate that the factors modeled by the theory of planned behaviour survey account for 60% of the variance in the residents’ intentions to adopt a comprehensive scope of practice upon graduation, that there is room for curricular improvement with respect to encouraging residents to practise comprehensive care, and that targeting subjective norms about comprehensive practice might have the greatest influence on improving resident intentions. Conclusion The theory of planned behaviour presents an effective approach to assessing curricular effects on resident practice intentions while also providing meaningful information for guiding further program evaluation efforts in the Department of Family Medicine at McMaster University. PMID:26889508

  1. [Research in tropical medicine].

    PubMed

    Dumas, Michel; Preux, Pierre-Marie

    2013-10-01

    In France, research in tropical medicine is carried out by the Institute for Research and Development (IRD), university-affiliated institutes, and other research organizations such as INSERM, CNRS and the Pasteur Institute. Currently, this research is highly fragmented and therefore inefficient. As a result, despite significant financial means, French research in this field is not sufficiently competitive. This research activity should be coordinated by creating a "federation ", that would 1) facilitate the sharing of material and human resources, thereby improving efficiency and resulting in cost savings; 2) valorize French research in tropical medicine and its expert know-how, thus favoring the nomination of French experts in large international research programs (French experts in tropical medicine are currently under-recognized); 3) attract young researchers from France and elsewhere; and 4) adapt to the ongoing demographic and economic evolution of tropical countries. The creation of a Federation of French researchers would also make research in tropical medicine more visible. The objectives to which it leads already must include 1) a better understanding of the priorities of countries in the southern hemisphere, taking into account the social, cultural and economic contexts and ensuring the consistency of current and future projects ; 2) strengthening of research networks in close and equal partnership with researchers in the southern hemisphere, with pooling of resources (scientific, human and material) to reach the critical mass required for major projects ; 3) promoting the emergence of centers of excellence for health research in tropical countries ; and 4) contributing more effectively to training, because there can be no training without research, and no research without training This consolidation will help to empower research in tropical medicine, as in other Western countries, and will allow France to recover the place it deserves. The specific

  2. Rural family medicine training in Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Rourke, J. T.; Rourke, L. L.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the status of postgraduate family medicine training that occurs in rural family practice settings in Canada and to identify problems and how they are addressed. DESIGN: A retrospective questionnaire sent to all 18 Canadian family medicine training programs followed by a focus group discussion of results. SETTING: Canadian university family medicine training programs. PARTICIPANTS: Chairs or program directors of all 18 Canadian family medicine training programs and people attending a workshop at the Section of Teachers of Family Medicine annual meeting. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Extent of training offered, educational models used, common problems for residents and teachers. RESULTS: Nine of 18 programs offer some family medicine training in a rural practice setting to some or all of their first-year family medicine residents, and 99 of 684 first-year family medicine residents did some training in a rural practice. All programs offer some training in a rural practice to some or all of the second-year residents, and 567 of 702 second-year residents did some training in a rural setting. In 12 of 18 programs, a rural family medicine block is compulsory. Education models for training for rural family practice vary widely. Isolation, accommodation, and supervision are common problems for rural family medicine residents. Isolation and faculty development are common problems for rural physician-teachers. Programs use various approaches to address these problems. CONCLUSIONS: The variety of postgraduate training models for rural family practice used in the 18 training programs reflects different regional health care needs and resources. There is no common rural family medicine curriculum. Networking through a rural physician-teachers group or a faculty of rural medicine could further the development of education for rural family practice. PMID:7780331

  3. Family medicine 360°: Global exchanges in family medicine

    PubMed Central

    Barata, Ana N.; Rigon, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The global world of the 21st century has created communities and cultures that are interconnected, thanks to the development both in the field of transportation and technology. In this global intercultural community, future physicians, and even more so future general practitioners (GPs)/family physicians (FPs), need to be clinically competent and culturally sensitive and flexible in order to adapt to different social settings while delivering holistic care in multiethnic teams and environments with professionalism. As such, exchange programs are exceptional opportunities for international collaboration and the development of personal and professional competencies of these health care professionals. Materials and Methods: This article presents a review of the literature on the value of exchanges as well as the results of exchange programs with educational content that are aimed at junior GPs/FPs. Results: Exchange programs have been growing in popularity, especially among junior GPs/FPs. Since its launch in 2013, The “Family Medicine 360° (FM360°) program has been receiving up to 163 inquires till date, promoting global cooperation among the World Organization of family Doctors (WONCA)'s Young Doctors’ Movementd (YDMs). Conclusions: By participating in an exchange program, future GPs/FPs are given the chance to experience intercultural communication and peer collaboration. They also develop personal and professional skills and thus, actively contribute to the growth and development of primary care all over the world. PMID:26288763

  4. Family Medicine Residency Program Directors Attitudes and Knowledge of Family Medicine CAM Competencies

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Paula; Filippelli, Amanda C.; Lebensohn, Patricia; Bonakdar, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Context Little is known about the incorporation of integrative medicine (IM) and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) into family medicine residency programs. Objective The Society for Teachers of Family Medicine (STFM) approved a set of CAM/IM competencies for family medicine residencies. We hope to evaluate with an online survey tool, whether residency programs are implementing such competencies into their curriculum. We also hope to assess the knowledge and attitudes of Residency Directors (RDs) on the CAM/IM competencies. Design A survey was distributed by the CAFM (Council of Academic Family Medicine) Educational Research Alliance to RDs via email. The survey was distributed to 431 RDs. Of those who received it, 212 responded for a response rate of 49.1%. Questions assessed the knowledge and attitudes of CAM/IM competencies and incorporation of CAM/IM into residency curriculum. Results Forty-five percent of RDs were aware of the competencies. In term of RD attitudes, 58% reported that CAM/IM is an important component of residents' curriculum yet, 60% report not having specific learning objectives for CAM/IM in their residency curriculum. Among all programs, barriers to CAM/IM implementation included: time in residents' schedules (77%); faculty training (75%); access to CAM experts (43%); lack of reimbursement (43%), and financial resources (29%). Conclusions While many RDs are aware of the STFM CAM/IM competencies and acknowledge their role in residence education, there are many barriers preventing residencies to implementing the STFM CAM/IM competencies. PMID:24021471

  5. Health Is Primary: Family Medicine for America’s Health

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Robert L.; Pugno, Perry A.; Saultz, John W.; Tuggy, Michael L.; Borkan, Jeffrey M.; Hoekzema, Grant S.; DeVoe, Jennifer E.; Weida, Jane A.; Peterson, Lars E.; Hughes, Lauren S.; Kruse, Jerry E.; Puffer, James C.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE More than a decade ago the American Academy of Family Physicians, American Academy of Family Physicians Foundation, American Board of Family Medicine, Association of Departments of Family Medicine, Association of Family Practice Residency Directors, North American Primary Care Research Group, and Society of Teachers of Family Medicine came together in the Future of Family Medicine (FFM) to launch a series of strategic efforts to “renew the specialty to meet the needs of people and society,” some of which bore important fruit. Family Medicine for America’s Health was launched in 2013 to revisit the role of family medicine in view of these changes and to position family medicine with new strategic and communication plans to create better health, better health care, and lower cost for patients and communities (the Triple Aim). METHODS Family Medicine for America’s Health was preceded and guided by the development of a family physician role definition. A consulting group facilitated systematic strategic plan development over 9 months that included key informant interviews, formal stakeholder surveys, future scenario testing, a retreat for family medicine organizations and stakeholder representatives to review strategy options, further strategy refinement, and finally a formal strategic plan with draft tactics and design for an implementation plan. A second communications consulting group surveyed diverse stakeholders in coordination with strategic planning to develop a communication plan. The American College of Osteopathic Family Physicians joined the effort, and students, residents, and young physicians were included. RESULTS The core strategies identified include working to ensure broad access to sustained, primary care relationships; accountability for increasing primary care value in terms of cost and quality; a commitment to helping reduce health care disparities; moving to comprehensive payment and away from fee-for-service; transformation of

  6. Training experts in family medicine teaching.

    PubMed

    Švab, Igor; Allen, Justin; Žebiene, Egle; Petek Šter, Marija; Windak, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Family medicine teachers require specific educational skills. A framework for their professional development is essential for future development of the discipline in Europe. EURACT developed a framework on educational expertise, and subsequently applied it in a curriculum of teaching-skills courses of various levels. The aim of this article is to describe the development of the teaching framework, and of an international three-level course programme for 'teaching-the-teachers'. Furthermore, we describe our experiences and lessons learned, in particular with regard to the level-three programme for proficient teachers, which was new. We conclude that it is possible to develop a theoretical framework of family medicine teaching expertise and to apply it in an international high-level educational programme for future experts in family medicine education. Research evidence of the usefulness of this approach is needed, and the threats for its further development into a sustainable activity are its high teacher/student ratio associated with relatively high costs and difficulties in recruiting suitable participants. PMID:26800044

  7. Gender and Power in Family Medicine Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burge, S. K.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses several articles in this issue that demonstrate the influence of gender and power on family medicine education. These articles show that both clinical and learning environments are influenced by gender and power. Recommends the study of gender and power as an overt component in the family medicine curriculum. (SLD)

  8. The Future of Family Medicine: A Collaborative Project of the Family Medicine Community

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND Recognizing fundamental flaws in the fragmented US health care systems and the potential of an integrative, generalist approach, the leadership of 7 national family medicine organizations initiated the Future of Family Medicine (FFM) project in 2002. The goal of the project was to develop a strategy to transform and renew the discipline of family medicine to meet the needs of patients in a changing health care environment. METHODS A national research study was conducted by independent research firms. Interviews and focus groups identified key issues for diverse constituencies, including patients, payers, residents, students, family physicians, and other clinicians. Subsequently, interviews were conducted with nationally representative samples of 9 key constituencies. Based in part on these data, 5 task forces addressed key issues to meet the project goal. A Project Leadership Committee synthesized the task force reports into the report presented here. RESULTS The project identified core values, a New Model of practice, and a process for development, research, education, partnership, and change with great potential to transform the ability of family medicine to improve the health and health care of the nation. The proposed New Model of practice has the following characteristics: a patient-centered team approach; elimination of barriers to access; advanced information systems, including an electronic health record; redesigned, more functional offices; a focus on quality and outcomes; and enhanced practice finance. A unified communications strategy will be developed to promote the New Model of family medicine to multiple audiences. The study concluded that the discipline needs to oversee the training of family physicians who are committed to excellence, steeped in the core values of the discipline, competent to provide family medicine’s basket of services within the New Model, and capable of adapting to varying patient needs and changing care technologies

  9. Behavioral Medicine and University Departments of Family Practice

    PubMed Central

    Grantham, Peter

    1983-01-01

    Behavioral medicine brings knowledge and skills from the social sciences to the practice of medicine. Modifying behavior which causes a health problem, disease prevention and health promotion, improving the relationship between patients and health professionals, understanding cultural and ethical issues, and the effect of illness on behavior are all aspects of behavioral medicine. Such `whole person' medicine fits well into family practice. However, careful consideration of the risks, challenges, opportunities and responsibilities of behavioral medicine is necessary. Academic family physicians must conduct research and help develop educational programs that will prepare graduates to deal with frustrating health problems which are affected by behavior. A division of behavioral medicine eventually may be established in the University of British Columbia's Department of Family Practice. PMID:20469407

  10. Global Health in Family Medicine Summer Primer

    PubMed Central

    Rouleau, Katherine; Janakiram, Praseedha; Nicolle, Eileen; Godoy-Ruiz, Paula; Pakes, Barry N.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Problem addressed Despite the rapid emergence of global health training across North American universities, there remains a gap in educational programs focusing on the unique role of family medicine and primary care in global health. Objective of program The objective of the Global Health in Family Medicine Summer Primer, developed in 2013 by the Department of Family and Community Medicine at the University of Toronto in Ontario, is to strengthen global health competencies among family medicine residents and faculty. Program description The course covers the meaning of global health; global health ethics; the place of family medicine, primary care, and primary health care in the global health context; epidemiology; infectious diseases; the social determinants of health; and care of vulnerable populations locally and globally. The course is delivered in an intensive 5-day format with didactic lectures, group discussions, interactive workshops, and lived-experience panels. Conclusion The Global Health in Family Medicine Summer Primer has proven to be a successful educational initiative and provides valuable lessons learned for other academic science centres in developing global health training programs for family medicine residents and faculty. PMID:26380854

  11. Revolutionary leadership and family medicine education.

    PubMed

    Saultz, John W

    2008-04-01

    Reform of the payment and delivery systems in American health care is now being discussed at the highest levels of business and government. Family medicine educators, researchers, and program leaders have an opportunity to provide substantial leadership to this process in their own communities and nationally. To do so, they must reconsider the assumptions made in creating our current systems of practice and education, and this will require new leadership skills that focus on innovation and adaptability. It will also require a more aggressive willingness to test new ideas and a new scientific method to prove or disprove their value. This essay outlines essential elements of such leadership for those responsible for the education of future generations of family physicians. PMID:18382841

  12. What shall we do for family medicine?

    PubMed

    Grainge Biggs, John Sydney

    2016-06-01

    In November 2014 the Pakistan Medical and Dental Council directed that Family Medicine should be taught to final year medical students. Family Medicine will be strengthened as a result. This paper considers some implications of the decision, identifying first the need for more information on primary care services, especially in the private sector, to enable planning of the curriculum and attachments to public and private units. The challenges to medical colleges in providing what will be largely experiential learning are described and the importance of training practitioners is emphasised. The urgent need to overcome the virtual absence in Pakistan of postgraduate training in Family Medicine described, and the quality standards of primary care are explored and the need for attention in the face of student learning is described. Recommendations are offered, including an advisory board on Family Medicine to audit its introduction and performance. PMID:27339579

  13. Family Medicine Mandatory Assessment of Progress

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Fok-Han; Herold, Jodi; Iglar, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To report the results of a pilot in-training progress test, the Family Medicine Mandatory Assessment of Progress, taken by first- and second-year postgraduate family medicine trainees. Design Assessment of resident performance on a key-features approach multiple-choice progress test. Test questions were developed by competency content area experts. Setting University of Toronto in Ontario. Participants First- and second-year family medicine residents. Main outcome measures Construct validity was assessed based on performance on the test by first- and second-year residents, Canadian and international medical graduates, and residents with more or less than 1 month of relevant clinical experience. Results Pilot progress testing of family medicine residents (N = 255) at the University of Toronto revealed a significant 1.6% difference (P < .01) in mean scores between first- and second-year postgraduate family medicine trainees and achieved construct validity across many parameters studied. The agreement coefficients for residents being identified as the poorest performers ranged from 0.88 to 0.90 depending on the domain of practice assessed. Conclusion Competency-based progress testing using the key-features model is a valid means of assessing the progress of family medicine residents.

  14. Access to palliative medicine training for Canadian family medicine residents.

    PubMed

    Oneschuk, D; Bruera, E

    1998-01-01

    The authors conducted a nine-item mail questionnaire of the 16 Canadian family medicine teaching programme directors to determine the accessibility and operation of palliative care education for their respective family medicine residents. All 16 faculties of medicine responded (100%). The survey revealed that while all universities offer elective time in palliative care only five out of 16 (31%) have a mandatory rotation. The median durations of the mandatory and elective rotations are limited to two and three-and-a-half weeks, respectively. The majority of the universities offer formal lectures in palliative care (12/16, 75%) and educational reading material (13/16, 81%), with the main format in 14/16 (87%) of the sites being case-based learning. The two most common sites for teaching to occur for the residents are the community/outpatient environment and an acute palliative care unit. Fifty-six per cent (9/16) of the universities have designated faculty positions for palliative medicine with a median number of two positions per site. Only one centre offers a specific palliative medicine examination during the rotation. Feedback from the residents regarding their respective palliative medicine programmes were positive overall. Findings from our survey indicate an ongoing need for improved education in palliative medicine at the postgraduate level. PMID:9616456

  15. State of family medicine practice in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Helou, Mariana; Rizk, Grace Abi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many difficulties are encountered in family medicine practice and were subject to multinational studies. To date, no study was conducted in Lebanon to assess the challenges that family physicians face. This study aims to evaluate the family medicine practice in Lebanon stressing on the difficulties encountered by Lebanese family physicians. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was sent to all 96 family medicine physicians practicing in Lebanon. Participants answered questions about characteristics of family medicine practice, evaluation of the quality of work, identification of obstacles, and their effect on the medical practice. Results: The response rate was 59%, and the average number of years of practice was 10.7 years. Physicians complain mainly of heavy load at work, too many bureaucratic tasks, demanding patients, and being undervalued by the specialists. Most physicians are able to adapt between their professional and private life. Conclusion: Despite all the obstacles encountered, Lebanese family physicians have a moderate satisfaction toward their practice. They remain positive and enthusiastic about their profession. Until the ministry of public health revises its current health system, the primary care profession in Lebanon will remain fragile as a profession. PMID:27453843

  16. Do Family Medicine Residents and Their Teachers Have Common Goals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Richard L.; Green, Larry A.

    1977-01-01

    Opinions were obtained from residents, family medicine faculty, and attending physicians familiar with an established family medicine residency program regarding the tasks that family doctors should and should not perform. (LBH)

  17. [Family medicine in Mexico: Present and future].

    PubMed

    Varela-Rueda, Carlos E; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia; Albavera-Hernández, Cidronio; Ochoa-Díaz-López, Héctor; Gómez-Dantés, Héctor; García-Peña, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Analyzing the challenges and the future scenario of Family Medicine is a priority to address challenges such as the reduction of benefits granted by social security; to adapt their practice to the changing health profile; and to curb demand for specialized services and contain the high costs of care in the second and third level. The program is aimed at three professional roles: medical care, research, and education. It is imperative review these in the light of changing demographic conditions, the type of health needs arising from new social determinants, the public expectations for greater participation in their care, and the evolution of the health system itself with the advancement of technology and a variety of organizational options with frequently limited resources. For primary care, as the core of a health system that covers principles of equity, solidarity, universality, participation, decentralization, and intra- and inter-sectorial coordination, it is necessary to put at the center of the primary care team the family doctor and not an administrator, who plays an important role in supporting the care team, but can not take the lead. PMID:26927655

  18. Learning by contract in family medicine training.

    PubMed

    Ogborne, W L; Killer, D V

    1984-06-01

    The Family Medicine Programme (FMP) of the Royal Australian College of General Practitioners is a national programme of vocational training for general/family practice. In 1981 the decision was made to adopt 'learning by contract' as an educational method leading to the certification of training. This paper describes the educational philosophy of the FMP and its importance in this decision. The experience of the authors in the implementation of learning by contract is also described. PMID:6530068

  19. Family medicine: a specialty for all ages.

    PubMed

    Calman, Neil S; Hauser, Diane; Leanza, Francesco; Schiller, Robert

    2012-01-01

    After a diminishing of its ranks following the post-World War II explosion of growth in medical discoveries, advanced medical technology, and the concomitant specialization of the physician workforce, family medicine is re-establishing itself as a leading medical specialty that has garnered growing interest among recent medical-school graduates. Family physicians provide care for patients of all ages, from newborns to the elderly. In addition to its wide scope of practice, family medicine is characterized by its emphasis on understanding of the whole person, its partnership approach with patients over many years, and its command of medical complexity. Family physicians are trained both to use community resources to assist individual patients in meeting medical or social needs and to identify and address community-wide needs. The specialty of family medicine is uniquely positioned to provide a leadership role in health-reform efforts that are accelerating across the country. Health care models that are gaining traction, such as the patient-centered medical home model, health homes, and accountable care organizations, share the characteristics of providing comprehensive, coordinated patient care with an emphasis on disease prevention and health promotion. This model of care, provided in the context of family and community, has been the hallmark of family medicine since its creation as a distinct medical specialty more than 40 years ago. In addition, family physicians' ability to care for patients of all ages make them particularly cost-effective as the new models of care move to improve access to care through expanded hours and locations. PMID:22976366

  20. Series: The research agenda for general practice/family medicine and primary health care in Europe. Part 4. Results: specific problem solving skills.

    PubMed

    Hummers-Pradier, Eva; Beyer, Martin; Chevallier, Patrick; Eilat-Tsanani, Sophia; Lionis, Christos; Peremans, Lieve; Petek, Davorina; Rurik, Imre; Soler, Jean Karl; Stoffers, Henri Ejh; Topsever, Pinar; Ungan, Mehmet; van Royen, Paul

    2010-09-01

    The 'Research Agenda for General Practice/Family Medicine and Primary Health Care in Europe' summarizes the evidence relating to the core competencies and characteristics of the Wonca Europe definition of GP/FM, and its implications for general practitioners/family doctors, researchers and policy makers. The European Journal of General Practice publishes a series of articles based on this document. The previous articles presented background, objectives, and methodology, as well results on 'primary care management' and 'community orientation' and the person-related core competencies of GP/FM. This article reflects on the general practitioner's 'specific problem solving skills'. These include decision making on diagnosis and therapy of specific diseases, accounting for the properties of primary care, but also research questions related to quality management and resource use, shared decision making, or professional education and development. Clinical research covers most specific diseases, but often lacks pragmatism and primary care relevance. Quality management is a stronghold of GP/FM research. Educational interventions can be effective when well designed for a specific setting and situation. However, their message that 'usual care' by general practitioners is insufficient may be problematic. GP and their patients need more research into diagnostic reasoning with a step-wise approach to increase predictive values in a setting characterized by uncertainty and low prevalence of specific diseases. Pragmatic comparative effectiveness studies of new and established drugs or non-pharmaceutical therapy are needed. Multi-morbidity and complexity should be addressed. Studies on therapy, communication strategies and educational interventions should consider impact on health and sustainability of effects. PMID:20825274

  1. Family Medicine Curriculum Guide to Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liepman, Michael R., Ed.; And Others

    This curriculum guide on substance abuse is intended for teachers of family medicine. Comments, learning objectives, teaching hints, and evaluations of knowledge are provided for each area in all chapters. Chapter 1 focuses on the pharmacology of commonly abused drugs including depressants, opioids, stimulants, hallucinogens, inhalants, and…

  2. Educational contracts in family medicine residency training.

    PubMed Central

    Mahood, S.; Rojas, R.; Andres, D.; Zagozeski, C.; White, G.; Bradel, T.

    1994-01-01

    An educational contract for family medicine residency training and evaluation addresses many of the difficulties and challenges of current postgraduate medical education. This article identifies important principles for developing a contractual approach; describes the contract used in one program and its implementation; and discusses its theory, advantages, and limitations. Images p550-a PMID:8199512

  3. Generation to Generation: The Heart of Family Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Robin O.

    2012-01-01

    According to the American Board of Family Medicine, "The scope of family medicine encompasses all ages, both sexes, each organ system and every disease entity." What makes the seemingly daunting task of practicing family medicine possible is that family physicians learn to utilize similar clinical reasoning for all of their patients regardless of…

  4. Attractiveness of family medicine for medical students

    PubMed Central

    Vanasse, Alain; Orzanco, Maria Gabriela; Courteau, Josiane; Scott, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine the association between students’ personal characteristics, backgrounds, and medical schools and their intention to enter a family medicine (FM) specialty. Design Descriptive study using data from the 2007 National Physician Survey. Setting Canada. Participants Clinical (n = 1109) and preclinical (n = 829) medical student respondents to the 2007 National Physician Survey. Main outcome measures The main variable was hoping to enter an FM specialty, and 40 independent variables were included in regression and classification-tree models. Results Fewer than 1 medical student in 3 (30.2% at the preclinical level and 31.4% at the clinical level) hoped to enter into an FM career. Those who did were more likely to be female, were slightly older, were more frequently married or living with partners, were typically born in Canada, and were more likely to have previous exposure to non-urban environments. The most important predictor for both populations was the debt related to medical studies, which acted in the opposite direction of whether or not students were interested in research. Students interested in research were attracted by specialties with high earning potential, while those not interested in research looked for short residency programs, such as FM, so they could begin to pay off debt sooner. Therefore, the interest in research appears to be inversely related to the choice of FM. Conclusion Less than one-third of medical students were looking for residencies in FM in Canada. This is far below the goals of 45% set at the national level and 50% set by some provinces like Quebec. Debt and interest in research have strong influences on the choice of residency by medical students. PMID:21673198

  5. Family medicine training--the international experience.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Richard G; Hunt, Vincent R; Kulie, Teresa I; Schmidt, Wesley; Schirmer, Julie M; Villanueva, Tiago; Wilson, C Ruth

    2011-06-01

    Family medicine is undergoing dramatic transformation around the world. Its organisation, delivery, and funding are changing in profound ways. While the specifics of primary care reform vary, a common emerging strategy involves establishment of primary health care teams that provide improved access, use electronic records, are networked with other teams, and are paid using blended payment schemes. More family doctors are needed in all countries. New approaches beyond the traditional apprenticeships or residency programs will be required to meet global demand. Training of family doctors must change to prepare tomorrow's family physician for a different practice reality. Curricula are more competency-oriented, rather than time-focused. Today's trainees can anticipate a career that includes periodic reassessment of their knowledge base and competency. This article explores these trends and offers some strategies that have proved effective in various parts of the world for training increased numbers of qualified family doctors. PMID:21644860

  6. Teaching the Principles of Family Medicine

    PubMed Central

    McWhinney, I. R.

    1981-01-01

    Nine principles of family medicine can be described: an open-ended commitment to patients; an understanding of the context of illness; the use of all visits for preventive purposes; the view of the practice as a population at risk; the use of a community-wide network of supports; the sharing with patients of the same habitat; the care of patients in office, home and hospital; a recognition of the subjective aspects of medicine; and an awareness of the need to manage resources. PMID:21289732

  7. The European General Practice Research Network Presents the Translations of Its Comprehensive Definition of Multimorbidity in Family Medicine in Ten European Languages

    PubMed Central

    Le Reste, Jean Yves; Nabbe, Patrice; Rivet, Charles; Lygidakis, Charilaos; Doerr, Christa; Czachowski, Slawomir; Lingner, Heidrun; Argyriadou, Stella; Lazic, Djurdjica; Assenova, Radost; Hasaganic, Melida; Munoz, Miquel Angel; Thulesius, Hans; Le Floch, Bernard; Derriennic, Jeremy; Sowinska, Agnieska; Van Marwijk, Harm; Lietard, Claire; Van Royen, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background Multimorbidity, according to the World Health Organization, exists when there are two or more chronic conditions in one patient. This definition seems inaccurate for the holistic approach to Family Medicine (FM) and long-term care. To avoid this pitfall the European General Practitioners Research Network (EGPRN) designed a comprehensive definition of multimorbidity using a systematic literature review. Objective To translate that English definition into European languages and to validate the semantic, conceptual and cultural homogeneity of the translations for further research. Method Forward translation of the EGPRN’s definition of multimorbidity followed by a Delphi consensus procedure assessment, a backward translation and a cultural check with all teams to ensure the homogeneity of the translations in their national context. Consensus was defined as 70% of the scores being higher than 6. Delphi rounds were repeated in each country until a consensus was reached Results 229 European medical expert FPs participated in the study. Ten consensual translations of the EGPRN comprehensive definition of multimorbidity were achieved. Conclusion A comprehensive definition of multimorbidity is now available in English and ten European languages for further collaborative research in FM and long-term care. PMID:25607642

  8. Herbal Medicine Research in Taiwan*

    PubMed Central

    Kaphle, Krishna; Wu, Leang-Shin; Yang, Nai-Yen Jack; Lin, Jen-Hsou

    2006-01-01

    Of all the countries in the world, why did you choose Taiwan to pursue your study? It is a question that I (comments of the first author) have answered a thousand times. My first visit to a laboratory at National Taiwan University opened my eyes to the possibilities of herbal medicine research, especially in the area of veterinary medicine. It became my ambition to link the knowledge of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Ayurveda from the Indian subcontinent and their integration with other systems of medicine, including Western medicine (WM), to achieve the concept of Sustainable Medicine, firstly for animals and then for humans. The Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA) has implemented a technology development program to quickly establish the key technologies, and this is a moment of opportunity for Taiwan's traditional herbal medicine industry to upgrade and transform itself. This paper, initially intended to be a student's narration, has evolved into a multi-author treatise on the present state and likely future scenario of herbal medicine research in Taiwan. PMID:16550238

  9. [Family and community medicine and the university. SESPAS report 2010].

    PubMed

    Casado Vicente, Verónica; Bonal Pitz, Pablo; Cucalón Arenal, José Manuel; Serrano Ferrández, Elena; Suárez Gonzalez, Félix

    2012-03-01

    Family and community medicine is an academic subject, a medical specialty and a health profession with distinct dimensions: healthcare, teaching, research and management. In this discipline, the object of knowledge is the person, understood as a whole. Family medicine, as an academic subject, and primary care, as a health education setting, should be incorporated into the core graduate and postgraduate curricula. The absence of these elements leads to training bias and has major repercussions on quality, coordination and patient safety. The development of the Health Professions Act and the construction of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) have created a favorable climate for the presence of this discipline in the university. Since the 1960s, family medicine has been consolidated as an academic subject with its own departments in almost all European universities, and a significant number of family physicians are teachers. A balance has been achieved between the hospital-based system (based on theory, disease, and the biological model) and the patient-centred model (based on problem solving, community-oriented and the bio-psycho-social model). The introduction of family and community medicine as a specific subject, and as a transverse subject and as an option in practicals, represents the adaptation of the educational system to social needs. This adaptation also represents a convergence with other European countries and the various legal requirements protecting this convergence. However, this new situation requires a new structure (departments) and faculty (professors and associate and assistant professors). PMID:22055214

  10. Faculty development in family medicine. A reassessment.

    PubMed Central

    Steinert, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The 16 Canadian departments of family medicine were surveyed to ascertain the availability and content of faculty development activities. The results suggest numerous changes since 1985 and a strong commitment to faculty development. With the consolidation of many faculty development activities to date, departments should now consider other methods of faculty development, broaden their activities beyond the current emphasis on "teaching skills," examine the possibility of integrating faculty development with faculty evaluation, and conduct more systematic program evaluations. PMID:8219840

  11. Screening for Depression Patients in Family Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Alic, Alma; Pranjic, Nurka; Selmanovic, Senada; Alibasic, Esad; Alic, Fahrudin; Ramic, Enisa; Spahic-Sarajlic, Selvedina

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Goal: The aims are to establish the prevalence of newfound, unidentified cases of depressive disorder by screening with the Becks Depression scale; To establish a comparative relationship with self-identified cases of depression in the patients in the family medicine; To assess the significance of the BDI in screening practice of family medicine. Patients and methods: A prospective study was conducted anonymously by Beck's Depression scale (Beck Depression Questionnaire org.-BDI) and specially created short questionnaire. The study included 250 randomly selected patients (20-60 years), users of services in family medicine in “Dom Zdravlja” Zenica, and the final number of respondents with included in the study was 126 (51 male, 75 female; response or response rate 50.4%). Exclusion factor was previously diagnosed and treated mental disorder. Participation was voluntary and respondents acknowledge the validity of completing the questionnaire. BDI consists of 21 items. Answers to questions about symptoms were ranked according to the Likert type scale responses from 0-4 (from irrelevant to very much). Respondents expressed themselves on personal perception of depression, whether are or not depressed. Results: Depression was observed in 48% of patients compared to 31% in self estimate depression analyzed the questionnaires. The negative trend in the misrecognition of depression is -17% (48:31). Depression was significantly more frequent in unemployed compared to employed respondents (p=0.001). The leading symptom in both sexes is the perception of lost hope (59% of cases). Conclusion: All respondents in family medicine care in Zenica showed a high percentage of newly detected (17%) patients with previously unrecognized depression. BDI is a really simple and effective screening tool for the detection and identification of persons with symptoms of depression. PMID:24783910

  12. E-Learning Readiness in Medicine: Turkish Family Medicine (FM) Physicians Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parlakkiliç, Alaattin

    2015-01-01

    This research investigates e-learning readiness level of family medicine physicians (FM) in Turkey. The study measures the level of e-learning readiness of Turkish FM physicians by an online e-learning readiness survey. According to results five areas are ready at Turkish FM physicians but need a few improvements:…

  13. The FIMP Medicines for Children Research Network

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The European Paediatric Regulation (EUPR) calls for the fostering of high quality ethical research and medicinal products to be used in children. The EUPR provides the background, goals, and requirements for paediatric clinical trials. Paediatric clinical trials in children are mandatory to generate data on new drugs as well as on drugs used off-label or for unlicensed indications. The Family Paediatricians Medicines for Children Research Network (FIMP-MCRN) was established in 2003 with the aim of developing competence, infrastructure, networking and education for paediatric clinical trials. The network, consisting of twenty Paediatric Regional Networks has progressed very well and has achieved valuable improvements concerning the conduct of paediatric clinical trials. Furthermore, ad hoc training programs have incremented knowledge about clinical trials in Family Paediatrician Investigators (FPI) and have made medical professionals as well as the public aware of the need and advantages of trials in children. PMID:20591168

  14. A nationwide postal survey on the perception of Malaysian public healthcare providers on family medicine specialists' (PERMFAMS) clinical performance, professional attitudes and research visibility.

    PubMed

    Chew, Boon-How; Yasin, Mazapuspavina Md; Cheong, Ai-Theng; Rashid, Mohd-Radzniwan A; Hamzah, Zuhra; Ismail, Mastura; Ali, Norsiah; Bashah, Baizury; Mohd-Salleh, Noridah

    2015-01-01

    Perception of healthcare providers who worked with family medicine specialists (FMSs) could translate into the effectiveness of primary healthcare delivery in daily practices. This study examined perceptions of public healthcare providers/professionals (PHCPs) on FMSs at public health clinics throughout Malaysia. This was a cross-sectional study in 2012-2013 using postal method targeting PHCPs from three categories of health facilities, namely health clinics, health offices and hospitals. A structured questionnaire was developed to assess PHCP's perception of FMS's clinical competency, safety practice, ethical and professional values, and research involvement. It consists of 37 items with Likert scale of strongly disagree (a score of 1) to strongly agree (a score of 5). Interaction and independent effect of the independent variables were tested and adjusted means score were reported. The participants' response rate was 58.0% (780/1345) with almost equal proportion from each of the three public healthcare facilities. There were more positive perceptions than negative among the PHCPs. FMSs were perceived to provide effective and safe treatment to their patients equally disregards of patient's social background. However, there were some concerns of FMSs not doing home visits, not seeing walk-in patients, had long appointment time, not active in scientific research, writing and publication. There were significant differences in perception based on a respondent's health care facility (p < 0.0001) and frequency of encounter (p < 0.0001). PHCPs had overall positive perceptions on FMSs across all the domains investigated. PHCPs from different health care facilities and frequency of encounter with FMSs had different perception. Practicing FMSs could improve on the critical service areas that were perceived to be important but lacking. FMSs might need further support in conducting research and writing for publication. PMID:25992310

  15. Length of training debate in family medicine: idealism versus realism?

    PubMed

    Orientale, Eugene

    2013-06-01

    How long a resident must train to achieve competency is an ongoing debate in medicine. For family medicine, there is an Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)-approved proposal to examine the benefits of lengthening family medicine training from 3 to 4 years. The rationale for adding another year of residency in family medicine has included the following: (1) overcoming the effect of the duty hour limits in further reducing educational opportunities, (2) reversing the growing number of first-time takers of the American Board of Family Medicine primary board who fail to pass the exam, (3) enhancing the family medicine training experience by "decompressing" the ever-growing number of Residency Review Committee requirements to maintain accreditation, and (4) improving the overall quality of family medicine graduates. PMID:24404258

  16. Length of Training Debate in Family Medicine: Idealism Versus Realism?

    PubMed Central

    Orientale, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    How long a resident must train to achieve competency is an ongoing debate in medicine. For family medicine, there is an Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)–approved proposal to examine the benefits of lengthening family medicine training from 3 to 4 years. The rationale for adding another year of residency in family medicine has included the following: (1) overcoming the effect of the duty hour limits in further reducing educational opportunities, (2) reversing the growing number of first-time takers of the American Board of Family Medicine primary board who fail to pass the exam, (3) enhancing the family medicine training experience by “decompressing” the ever-growing number of Residency Review Committee requirements to maintain accreditation, and (4) improving the overall quality of family medicine graduates. PMID:24404258

  17. Development and Modification of a Required Family Medicine Clerkship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michener, J. Lloyd; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A new required clinical clerkship in family medicine at Duke University School of Medicine is described in terms of planning, implementation, and modification in response to students' evaluations. The data demonstrate that family medicine can be taught effectively as a core clinical rotation. (Author/MLW)

  18. The Glass Is Half Full: Geriatric Precepting Encounters in Family Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollins, Lisa K.; Martirosian, Tovia; Gazewood, John D.

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 19% to 20% of all family medicine office visits involve care to patients older than age 65, yet limited research addresses family medicine geriatric education in the outpatient setting. This study explored how geriatric content is incorporated into resident/attending precepting encounters, using direct observation. An observer…

  19. Dinosaurs, hospital ecosystems, and the future of family medicine.

    PubMed

    Glazner, Cherie

    2008-01-01

    The continued presence of the family physician within hospital systems is key to family medicine remaining an attractive, viable specialty in the ever-evolving world of medicine. One physician muses about her place in this complex ecosystem and believes that family physicians lose their voice and thus risk their own extinction when they opt out of hospital practice. PMID:18626038

  20. Remediation plans in family medicine residency

    PubMed Central

    Audétat, Marie-Claude; Voirol, Christian; Béland, Normand; Fernandez, Nicolas; Sanche, Gilbert

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess use of the remediation instrument that has been implemented in training sites at the University of Montreal in Quebec to support faculty in diagnosing and remediating resident academic difficulties, to examine whether and how this particular remediation instrument improves the remediation process, and to determine its effects on the residents’ subsequent rotation assessments. Design A multimethods approach in which data were collected from different sources: remediation plans developed by faculty, program statistics for the corresponding academic years, and students’ academic records and rotation assessment results. Setting Family medicine residency program at the University of Montreal. Participants Family medicine residents in academic difficulty. Main outcome measures Assessment of the content, process, and quality of remediation plans, and students’ academic and rotation assessment results (successful, below expectations, or failure) both before and after the remediation period. Results The framework that was developed for assessing remediation plans was used to analyze 23 plans produced by 10 teaching sites for 21 residents. All plans documented cognitive problems and implemented numerous remediation measures. Although only 48% of the plans were of good quality, implementation of a remediation plan was positively associated with the resident’s success in rotations following the remediation period. Conclusion The use of remediation plans is well embedded in training sites at the University of Montreal. The residents’ difficulties were mainly cognitive in nature, but this generally related to deficits in clinical reasoning rather than knowledge gaps. The reflection and analysis required to produce a remediation plan helps to correct many academic difficulties and normalize the academic career of most residents in difficulty. Further effort is still needed to improve the quality of plans and to support teachers.

  1. Development and Validation of Search Filters to Identify Articles on Family Medicine in Online Medical Databases.

    PubMed

    Pols, David H J; Bramer, Wichor M; Bindels, Patrick J E; van de Laar, Floris A; Bohnen, Arthur M

    2015-01-01

    Physicians and researchers in the field of family medicine often need to find relevant articles in online medical databases for a variety of reasons. Because a search filter may help improve the efficiency and quality of such searches, we aimed to develop and validate search filters to identify research studies of relevance to family medicine. Using a new and objective method for search filter development, we developed and validated 2 search filters for family medicine. The sensitive filter had a sensitivity of 96.8% and a specificity of 74.9%. The specific filter had a specificity of 97.4% and a sensitivity of 90.3%. Our new filters should aid literature searches in the family medicine field. The sensitive filter may help researchers conducting systematic reviews, whereas the specific filter may help family physicians find answers to clinical questions at the point of care when time is limited. PMID:26195683

  2. Education and training in family medicine: progress and a proposed national vision for 2030

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Lee Gan; Ong, Chooi Peng

    2014-01-01

    This review provides an update of education and training in family medicine in Singapore and worldwide. Family medicine has progressed much since 1969 when it was recognised as the 20th medical discipline in the United States. Three salient changes in the local healthcare landscape have been noted over time, which are of defining relevance to family medicine in Singapore, namely the rise of noncommunicable chronic diseases, the care needs of an expanding elderly population, and the care of a larger projected population in 2030. The change in the vision of family medicine into the future refers to a new paradigm of one discipline in many settings, and not limited to the community. Family medicine needs to provide a patient-centred medical home, and the discipline’s education and training need to be realigned. The near-term training objectives are to address the service, training and research needs of a changing and challenging healthcare landscape. PMID:24664375

  3. Theoretical Issues in Family Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krauss, Marty Wyngaarden

    This presentation describes research on families with mentally retarded children, focusing on trends since 1983, the year that family research issues were reconceptualized in a paper titled "A Model of Stress, Coping, and Family Ecology" by Keith Crnic and others. The trend analysis concentrates on four issues: (1) the magnitude of the impact of…

  4. Crowdfunding for Personalized Medicine Research

    PubMed Central

    Fumagalli, Danielle C.; Gouw, Arvin M.

    2015-01-01

    Given the current funding situation of the National Institutes of Health, getting funding for rare disease research is extremely difficult. In light of the enormous potential for research in the rare diseases and the scarcity of research funding, we provide a case study of a novel successful crowdfunding approach at a non-profit organization called Rare Genomics Institute. We partner with biotechnology companies willing to donate their products, such as mouse models, gene editing software, and sequencing services, for which researchers can apply. First, we find that personal stories can be powerful tools to seek funding from sympathetic donors who do not have the same rational considerations of impact and profit. Second, for foundations facing funding restrictions, company donations can be a valuable tool in addition to crowdfunding. Third, rare disease research is particularly rewarding for scientists as they proceed to be pioneers in the field during their academic careers. Overall, by connecting donors, foundations, researchers, and patients, crowdfunding has become a powerful alternative funding mechanism for personalized medicine. PMID:26604866

  5. Crowdfunding for Personalized Medicine Research.

    PubMed

    Fumagalli, Danielle C; Gouw, Arvin M

    2015-12-01

    Given the current funding situation of the National Institutes of Health, getting funding for rare disease research is extremely difficult. In light of the enormous potential for research in the rare diseases and the scarcity of research funding, we provide a case study of a novel successful crowdfunding approach at a non-profit organization called Rare Genomics Institute. We partner with biotechnology companies willing to donate their products, such as mouse models, gene editing software, and sequencing services, for which researchers can apply. First, we find that personal stories can be powerful tools to seek funding from sympathetic donors who do not have the same rational considerations of impact and profit. Second, for foundations facing funding restrictions, company donations can be a valuable tool in addition to crowdfunding. Third, rare disease research is particularly rewarding for scientists as they proceed to be pioneers in the field during their academic careers. Overall, by connecting donors, foundations, researchers, and patients, crowdfunding has become a powerful alternative funding mechanism for personalized medicine. PMID:26604866

  6. Family medicine education in India: A panoramic view

    PubMed Central

    Pati, Sanghamitra; Sharma, Anjali; Pati, Sandipana; Zodpey, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In the recent years, there has been renewed interest in strengthening primary care for improved health services delivery. Family medicine with its holistic principles is an effective approach for building primary care workforce in resource constraint settings. Even though this discipline is well established and mainstreamed in Western countries, the same is yet to occur in low- and middle-income nations. India with its paradigm shift for universal health coverage is strategically poised to embrace family medicine as a core component of its health system. However, till date, a clear picture of family medicine teaching across the country is yet to be available. Methods: This paper makes an attempt to assess the landscape of family medicine teaching in India with an aim to contribute to a framework for bolstering its teaching and practice in coming years. The objective was to obtain relevant information through a detailed scan of the health professional curricula as well as mapping independent academic programs. Specific areas of interest included course content, structure, eligibility criteria, and accreditation. Results: Our findings indicate that teaching of family medicine is still in infancy in India and yet to be mainstreamed in health professional education. There are variations in family medicine teaching across academic programs. Conclusion: It is suggested that both medical and nursing colleges should develop dedicated Departments of Family Medicine for both undergraduate and postgraduate teaching. Further, more number of standalone diploma courses adopting blended learning methods should be made available for in-service practitioners. PMID:26985405

  7. Hospital grand rounds in family medicine. Content and educational structure.

    PubMed Central

    Lewkonia, R.; Sosnowski, M.; Murray, F.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate hospital grand rounds in family medicine, to examine their content and organization, and to recommend improved educational structures for these ubiquitous continuing medical education events. DATA SELECTION: Retrospective analysis of titles and content of 358 family medicine grand rounds offered in the department of family medicine of a large urban hospital from mid-1983 to the end of 1994. FINDINGS: Only 10% of family medicine grand rounds were presented by family physicians. Most grand rounds were in the form of specialists exhibiting their own interests in a lecture format. Analysis of grand rounds titles showed no consistent pattern of topics but an emphasis on practical aspects of medical care. Patient-based presentations were uncommon, as were grand rounds with more than one speaker. CONCLUSIONS: The content and mix of topics appeared appropriate, but in the absence of a curricular structure, or evaluation of learning gain, it is difficult to assess the value of grand rounds. PMID:9222579

  8. Establishing the first family medicine program in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Wilson, C L

    1993-05-01

    The first family medicine residency program in Ecuador was founded in 1987 by a private evangelical mission hospital under the auspices of the Catholic University of Cuenca. Currently, general medicine is an empiric and poorly respected profession, and medical care is fragmented among multiple specialties and competing systems. This paper reviews the basic principles that guided the development of the program and some of the major challenges and difficulties it has faced. The most important principle of this program is the development of family physician role models who work among other health care professionals and contextualize the basic principles of family medicine to fit Ecuadorian society and its medical needs. PMID:8514006

  9. Satisfaction and Difficulties of Korean Family Medicine Resident Training Faculty

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung-Ha; Kim, Ju Young; Kwon, Kil Young; Lee, Chul-Min; Hyun, Seung Soo

    2013-01-01

    Background Practitioners of family medicine are essential to primary care practices in Korea. Resident training staffs in Korean family medicine departments have a crucial role in producing well-trained family physicians. This study assesses the aspects of satisfaction and difficulties of Korean family medicine resident training staffs. Methods We surveyed the resident training staffs of various Korean family medicine departments using an online survey tool. The survey used in this study was modified from previously used questionnaires. Respondents rated items using a five-point Likert scale and a 0-10 visual analogue scale. Results The response rate was 43.9% (122/278). The mean satisfaction score with regard to current family medicine residency programs was 7.59 out of 10. Resident training staffs found the administrative aspects of their role to be the most difficult. There were considerable differences in the reported difficulties of resident training according to the differing characteristics of each staff member, including age, sex, type of hospital, number of staff members, role as chief, and duration of staff. Most respondents (91.9%) cited a need for faculty development programs. Conclusion Korean family medicine resident training staffs need faculty development programs for the improvement of resident training. For the strengthening of core competencies among resident training staffs, faculty development programs or courses should be designed and implemented in Korea. PMID:24106588

  10. Teaching prenatal ultrasound to family medicine residents.

    PubMed

    Dresang, Lee T; Rodney, William MacMillan; Dees, Jason

    2004-02-01

    Prenatal ultrasound is a powerful diagnostic tool, but there has been little research on how to teach ultrasound to family physicians. The available evidence supports teaching through didactics followed by supervised scanning. Didactic topics include physics and machine usage, indications, fetal biometry, anatomic survey, practice management, ethical issues, and resources. Supervised scanning reinforces the didactic components of training. A "hand-on-hand" supervised scanning technique is recommended for the transmission of psychomotor skills in these sessions. Curricula for teaching ultrasound should include information on which residents will be taught prenatal ultrasound, who will teach them, how to create time for learning ultrasound skills, and how to test for competency. The literature suggests that competency can be achieved within 25-50 supervised scans. Measures of competency include examination and qualitative analysis of scanning. Competency-based testing needs further development because no uniform standards have been established. PMID:14872356

  11. [Research progress of Mongolian medicine digeda].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun-Hong; Chensuyile; Zhang, Na; Long, Ping; Li, Zhen-Hua; Zhu, Hong; Wang, Zhen-Wang; Li, Min-Hui

    2013-12-01

    Traditional Mongolian medicine Digeda processes a significant importance in clinical therapy with notably actions of heat-clear and detoxication effects. This paper intends to provide comprehensive insight into the species textual research, chemical constituents, qualitative identification, pharmacology and clinical application of Mongolian medicine Digeda to provide valuable data for further studies and the development of clinical applications of these medicinal plants. PMID:24791546

  12. Complementary and Alternative Medicine: Core Competencies for Family Nurse Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burman, Mary E.

    2003-01-01

    Directors of family nurse practitioner education programs (n=141) reported inclusion of some complementary/alternative medicine content (CAM), most commonly interviewing patients about CAM, critical thinking, evidence-based medicine, laws, ethics, and spiritual/cultural beliefs. Definition of CAM was medically, not holistically based. More faculty…

  13. Implementation of a Videoconferencing System between Multiple Family Medicine Departments

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kee Hyuck; Kim, Ju Young; Lee, Kiheon; Cho, Belong; Yang, Jeong Hee; Goh, Eurah

    2011-01-01

    Attending conferences is important for doctors and residents in family medicine. Nevertheless, departments of family medicine at many hospitals find it difficult to hold regular conferences. Holding joint videoconferences between Family Medicine Departments of several hospitals through a videoconferencing system could solve this problem. Therefore, Family Medicine Departments of Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, and Kangwon National University Hospital decided to hold regular joint videoconferences via a videoconferencing system. Eighty-one joint videoconferences were held from April 1 to October 29, 2010. PowerPoint slideshows were transferred to the other two locations in the same resolution as presenter's monitor. Image and voice of the speaker were transferred in real time and in acceptable quality. Joint videoconferences are feasible, satisfactory and useful for medical education, especially when individual family medicine departments are small and lack resources to hold face-to-face conferences. We expect that more family medicine departments will choose to participate in implementing similar joint videoconferencing systems in the future. PMID:22745869

  14. [Family medicine and practice in the Mexican Social Security Institute].

    PubMed

    Casas Patiño, Donovan; Jarillo Soto, Edgar; Rodríguez Torres, Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    The central ideas of this research paper are related to the practice of family medicine as a specialty. It focuses in its origins, problems, unique characteristics, limitations, scope, management, and processes within the context of primary care of the Mexican Social Security System. This approach was based on a qualitative, hermeneutical study closely related to the Structural Functionalism Theory. Within this framework, medical practice is seen as an equation: Meaning = action + function/structure. This offers an approach to the understanding of reality through surveys and observations in five categories: identity, activity, purpose, values/norms, and power/relationship. The practice of family medicine is defined as a medical act in the Mexican Social Security Institute. This act is limited to a brief encounter and a prescription, which makes it a short, fleeting, medicalized interaction. The result is a negative social imaginary of the physician, the patient and the whole of society. Thus, individuals and society host a negative social imaginary bestowed on doctors and users of the health system. PMID:25375148

  15. Clinical Evaluation in a Family Medicine Residency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, James M.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A study assessed (1) the validity of the Bowman Gray School of Medicine evaluation instrument regarding the occurrence of halo effects and (2) possible relationships between the faculty's evaluations of the residents and the residents' cognitive knowledge and productivity. (MLW)

  16. Research Methodology of Family-Oriented Care

    PubMed Central

    Ransom, Donald C.

    1991-01-01

    Family practice and family-centered primary care have a special role in studying the family. A framework for conceptualizing research on families and health, illness, and care is presented. The author discusses ways in which families can influence the health of their members, current controversies about what family means, the logic of family research measurements, whether family research is warranted, and the question of variable-versus case- (person- versus family-) centered research design and analysis. PMID:21229057

  17. Family medicine residency training and burnout: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Rutherford, Kimberly; Oda, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Background Almost three-quarters of family practice residents in British Columbia (BC) meet criteria for burnout. We sought to understand how burnout is perceived and experienced by family medicine residents, and to identify both contributory and protective factors for resident burnout. Method Two semi-structured focus groups were conducted with ten family practice residents from five distinct University of British Columbia training sites. Participants completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). The data were analyzed using a thematic analysis approach. Results Seventy percent of the focus group participants met criteria for burnout using the MBI. The experience of burnout was described as physical and emotional exhaustion, loss of motivation, isolation from loved ones, and disillusionment with the medical profession. Contributory factors included high workload, burned-out colleagues, perceived undervaluing of family medicine, lack of autonomy, and inability to achieve work-life balance. Protective factors included strong role models in medicine, feeling that one’s work is valued and rotations in family medicine. Conclusions The high level of burnout in family medicine residents in BC is a multifactorial and complex phenomenon. Training programs and faculty should be aware of burnout risk factors and strive to implement changes to reduce burnout, including allowing residents increased control over scheduling, access to counseling services and training for resident mentors. PMID:26451218

  18. Defining competency-based evaluation objectives in family medicine

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Tim; Brailovsky, Carlos; Rainsberry, Paul; Lawrence, Katherine; Crichton, Tom; Carpentier, Marie-Pierre; Visser, Shaun

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To develop a definition of competence in family medicine sufficient to guide a review of Certification examinations by the Board of Examiners of the College of Family Physicians of Canada. Design Delphi analysis of responses to a 4-question postal survey. Setting Canadian family practice. Participants A total of 302 family physicians who have served as examiners for the College of Family Physicians of Canada’s Certification examination. Methods A survey comprising 4 short-answer questions was mailed to the 302 participating family physicians asking them to list elements that define competence in family medicine among newly certified family physicians beginning independent practice. Two expert groups used a modified Delphi consensus process to analyze responses and generate 2 basic components of this definition of competence: first, the problems that a newly practising family physician should be competent to handle; second, the qualities, behaviour, and skills that characterize competence at the start of independent practice. Main findings Response rate was 54%; total number of elements among all responses was 5077, for an average 31 per respondent. Of the elements, 2676 were topics or clinical situations to be dealt with; the other 2401 were skills, behaviour patterns, or qualities, without reference to a specific clinical problem. The expert groups identified 6 essential skills, the phases of the clinical encounter, and 99 priority topics as the descriptors used by the respondents. More than 20% of respondents cited 30 of the topics. Conclusion Family physicians define the domain of competence in family medicine in terms of 6 essential skills, the phases of the clinical encounter, and priority topics. This survey represents the first level of definition of evaluation objectives in family medicine. Definition of the interactions among these elements will permit these objectives to become detailed enough to effectively guide assessment. PMID

  19. Funding strategies for emergency medicine research.

    PubMed

    Carden, D L; Dronen, S C; Gehrig, G; Zalenski, R J

    1998-02-01

    The importance of adequate funding for sustaining research efforts cannot be overemphasized. This article addresses funding strategies for emergency physicians including the necessity of establishing a research track record, developing a well-written grant proposal, and anticipating the grant review process. Funding sources are reviewed with an emphasis on federal institute support and private foundations (including the Emergency Medicine Foundation) in the United States. Sources of current grant support information available from the Internet are provided. Recommendations for enhancing research funding in emergency medicine are made, including enhancement of formal research training, promotion of emergency medicine research and investigators, federal study section membership, and collaboration with established investigators. PMID:9472178

  20. Rehabilitation Medicine Summit: Building Research Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frontera, Walter R.; Fuhrer, Marcus J.; Jette, Alan M.; Chan, Leighton; Cooper, Rory A.; Duncan, Pamela W.; Kemp, John D.; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J.; Peckham, P. Hunter; Roth, Elliot J.; Tate, Denise G.

    2006-01-01

    The general objective of the "Rehabilitation Medicine Summit: Building Research Capacity" was to advance and promote research in medical rehabilitation by making recommendations to expand research capacity. The 5 elements of research capacity that guided the discussions were (a) researchers; (b) research culture, environment, and infrastructure;…

  1. Teaching Humanities in Medicine: The University of Massachusetts Family Medicine Residency Program Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silk, Hugh; Shields, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Humanities in medicine (HIM) is an important aspect of medical education intended to help preserve humanism and a focus on patients. At the University of Massachusetts Family Medicine Residency Program, we have been expanding our HIM curriculum for our residents including orientation, home visit reflective writing, didactics and a department-wide…

  2. [Importance of chaos research for psychosomatic medicine].

    PubMed

    Wyss, D

    1993-01-01

    After a critical review of the many unsettled questions in psychosomatic medicine the author emphasizes the importance of the results of the so-called-research in mathematics, physics, biology and internal medicine. He developed various models for a deeper understanding not only of health and sickness but specially of the body/soul-problem and demonstrates the importance and fertility of the chaos-investigation for the psychosomatic medicine. PMID:8212774

  3. Space medicine research publications: 1984-1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Janice S.

    1988-01-01

    A list is given of the publications of investigators supported by the Biomedical Research and Clinical Medicine Programs of the Space Medicine and Biology Branch, Life Sciences Division, Office of Space Science and Applications. It includes publications entered into the Life Sciences Bibliographic Database by the George Washington University as of December 31, 1986. Publications are organized into the following subject areas: Clinical Medicine, Space Human Factors, Musculoskeletal, Radiation and Environmental Health, Regulatory Physiology, Neuroscience, and Cardiopulmonary.

  4. Sexual Health Care in Family Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Gerald; Cohen, May

    1985-01-01

    Although patients frequently present with sexual concerns, family doctors generally do not handle them well. Sexual issues may present in many ways: as specific concerns; as a component of non-sexual complaints or as a factor in relationship or marital problems. The family doctor must include sexual enquiry and counselling as part of overall health care, and in the management of illnesses. In order to be effective counsellors, physicians must examine their own attitudes, and become knowledgeable about sexuality and myths influencing sexual behavior, and skillful at interviewing and sexual history-taking. The family doctor can become adept at giving patients permission to discuss their sexuality, and at providing information and strategies to enhance sensual enjoyment and communication with partners. Small group training sessions incorporating discussion and role-playing effectively teach physicians skills and strategies in sexual counselling. PMID:21274058

  5. Defining competency-based evaluation objectives in family medicine

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Kathrine; Allen, Tim; Brailovsky, Carlos; Crichton, Tom; Bethune, Cheri; Donoff, Michel; Laughlin, Tom; Wetmore, Stephen; Carpentier, Marie-Pierre; Visser, Shaun

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To develop key features for priority topics previously identified by the College of Family Physicians of Canada that, together with skill dimensions and phases of the clinical encounter, broadly describe competence in family medicine. Design Modified nominal group methodology, which was used to develop key features for each priority topic through an iterative process. Setting The College of Family Physicians of Canada. Participants An expert group of 7 family physicians and 1 educational consultant, all of whom had experience in assessing competence in family medicine. Group members represented the Canadian family medicine context with respect to region, sex, language, community type, and experience. Methods The group used a modified Delphi process to derive a detailed operational definition of competence, using multiple iterations until consensus was achieved for the items under discussion. The group met 3 to 4 times a year from 2000 to 2007. Main findings The group analyzed 99 topics and generated 773 key features. There were 2 to 20 (average 7.8) key features per topic; 63% of the key features focused on the diagnostic phase of the clinical encounter. Conclusion This project expands previous descriptions of the process of generating key features for assessment, and removes this process from the context of written examinations. A key-features analysis of topics focuses on higher-order cognitive processes of clinical competence. The project did not define all the skill dimensions of competence to the same degree, but it clearly identified those requiring further definition. This work generates part of a discipline-specific, competency-based definition of family medicine for assessment purposes. It limits the domain for assessment purposes, which is an advantage for the teaching and assessment of learners. A validation study on the content of this work would ensure that it truly reflects competence in family medicine. PMID:21998245

  6. [#1 Word for Family Medicine: ideas beyond words].

    PubMed

    Hoedebecke, Kyle; Celotto, Stefano; Demurtas, Jacopo

    2015-06-01

    Social media has proven to be a powerful method in which ideas can be formed and shared publicly. Within the global family medicine community, the #1 Word for Family Medicine project has gained widespread popularity with participation in over 30 countries on 5 continents. With over 3000 responses - and counting - this idea has crossed the globe to engage both the general public and medical community at an exponential rate. Further exploration into the use of social media for the benefit of our profession should continue as patients and physicians become increasing connected to the internet. PMID:26076418

  7. Mediation Analysis in Psychosomatic Medicine Research

    PubMed Central

    Lockhart, Ginger; MacKinnon, David P.; Ohlrich, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an overview of statistical mediation analysis and its application to psychosomatic medicine research. The article begins with a description of the major approaches to mediation analysis and an evaluation of the strengths and limits of each. Emphasis is placed on longitudinal mediation models, and an application using latent growth modeling is presented. The article concludes with a description of recent developments in mediation analysis and suggestions for the use of mediation for future work in psychosomatic medicine research. PMID:21148809

  8. Frequently asked questions about family medicine in India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Raman

    2016-01-01

    Family medicine (FM) is an independent and distinct medical specialty in the developed countries such as USA, UK, Australia, and Canada since 1960s. FM teaching is imparted at undergraduate and postgraduate levels in countries such as Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Family practice is the practicing vocation of the majority doctors in India. The practitioners of FM include general practitioners, family physicians, FM specialists, and medical officers in the public sector. Medical students are largely unaware about FM career as this concept is not introduced at MBBS level. Faculty and senior doctors from other disciplines are also not able to answer the queries related to FM as they themselves also have gone through the same education system for last three decades, largely unexposed to the concept of academic family medicine. This article is a compilation of frequently asked questions, and their appropriate responses, presented here to dispel myths and misinformation about FM specialty. The answers are deliberated upon by Dr. Raman Kumar the founder president of the Academy of Family Physicians of India and the chief editor of the Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care. This article was originally published as an interview in Docplexus, a popular online network and website for medical doctors in November 2015. PMID:27453835

  9. Frequently asked questions about family medicine in India

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Raman

    2016-01-01

    Family medicine (FM) is an independent and distinct medical specialty in the developed countries such as USA, UK, Australia, and Canada since 1960s. FM teaching is imparted at undergraduate and postgraduate levels in countries such as Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Family practice is the practicing vocation of the majority doctors in India. The practitioners of FM include general practitioners, family physicians, FM specialists, and medical officers in the public sector. Medical students are largely unaware about FM career as this concept is not introduced at MBBS level. Faculty and senior doctors from other disciplines are also not able to answer the queries related to FM as they themselves also have gone through the same education system for last three decades, largely unexposed to the concept of academic family medicine. This article is a compilation of frequently asked questions, and their appropriate responses, presented here to dispel myths and misinformation about FM specialty. The answers are deliberated upon by Dr. Raman Kumar the founder president of the Academy of Family Physicians of India and the chief editor of the Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care. This article was originally published as an interview in Docplexus, a popular online network and website for medical doctors in November 2015. PMID:27453835

  10. Language and medicine in the Zamenhof family.

    PubMed

    Wincewicz, Andrzej; Lebard Zamenhof, Pierre; Zaleski-Zamenhof, Maryse Wanda; Zaleski-Zamenhof, Ludwik Krzysztof; Lieberman, James; Zamenhof, Robert; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Sulkowska, Mariola; Sulkowski, Stanislaw

    2010-01-01

    The Zamenhof family is famous for Dr Ludwik Lejzer Zamenhof (1859-1917), who created the artificial language Esperanto and who initiated a social movement for peace and against any sort of discrimination. Ludwik was an ophthalmologist. Adam, Leon, Alexander, and Julian Zamenhof were medical doctors and noted surgeons, while Sophia Zamenhof was a paediatrician. Ludwik Zamenhof often referred to the biblical story of the Tower of Babel, in which diversity of languages was the punishment for builders who were arrogant and uncaring. With the help of Esperanto, the Zamenhofs metaphorically wanted to overcome the curse of Babel and restore the sense of human unity. PMID:21192117

  11. Finding, keeping, and revitalizing the meaning in family medicine.

    PubMed

    Van Dyke, Anne; Seger, Amy M

    2013-01-01

    The culture of medicine is undergoing revolutionary change. Physicians are pulled in many directions involving the practice of medicine, the business of medicine, and the technology of medicine. Financial incentives and career promotions may be dependent upon such things as patient satisfaction scores, as well as adherence to guidelines for admissions and diagnostic testing. Of course, these metrics are monitored closely by hospitals, insurance companies, and the federal government. The resultant seemingly endless paperwork, deadlines, and multiple demands may result in a sense of time famine for physicians. Unfortunately, these expectations and demands can subsequently diminish the passion for medicine. Moreover, physicians are at high risk for significant physical and emotional exhaustion, often leading to a sense of demoralization. Physicians can ultimately lose sight of their reasons for choosing the field of medicine. Indeed, they can lose the inspiration and "meaning" derived from work in medicine all together. How, then, does one buffer oneself against such perils, and maintain the original passion and meaning in a chosen career of service to others? This article will describe one program's approach to promoting resilience and maintaining meaning during the residency training years through the establishment of a Meaning in Family Medicine Group. The conceptual background, approach to curriculum development, goals and objectives, resident feedback, and suggestions about how to carry this curriculum beyond the residency training years will be discussed. PMID:24261266

  12. Funding strategies for emergency medicine research.

    PubMed

    Carden, D L; Dronen, S C; Gehrig, G; Zalenski, R J

    1998-02-01

    The importance of adequate funding for sustaining research efforts cannot be overemphasized. This article addresses funding strategies for emergency physicians, including the necessity of establishing a research track record, developing a well-written grant proposal, and anticipating the grant review process. Funding sources are reviewed with an emphasis on federal institute support and private foundations (including the Emergency Medicine Foundation) in the United States. Sources of current grant support information available from the Internet are provided. Recommendations for enhancing research funding in emergency medicine (EM) are made, including enhancement of formal research training, promotion of EM research and investigators, federal study section membership, and collaboration with established investigators. PMID:9492141

  13. Development of Family Medicine training in Botswana: Views of key stakeholders in Ngamiland

    PubMed Central

    Mash, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Background Family Medicine training commenced in Botswana in 2011, and Maun was one of the two sites chosen as a training complex. If it is to be successful there has to be investment in the training programme by all stakeholders in healthcare delivery in the district. Aim The aim of the study was to explore the attitudes of stakeholders to initiation of Family Medicine training and their perspectives on the future roles of family physicians in Ngami district, Botswana. Setting Maun and the surrounding Ngami subdistrict of Botswana. Methods Thirteen in-depth interviews were conducted with purposively selected key stakeholders in the district health services. Data were recorded, transcribed and analysed using the framework method. Results Participants welcomed the development of Family Medicine training in Maun and expect that this will result in improved quality of primary care. Participants expect the registrars and family physicians to provide holistic health care that is of higher quality and expertise than currently experienced, relevant research into the health needs of the community, and reduced need for referrals. Inadequate personal welfare facilities, erratic ancillary support services and an inadequate complement of mentors and supervisors for the programme were some of the gaps and challenges highlighted by participants. Conclusion Family Medicine training is welcomed by stakeholders in Ngamiland. With proper planning introduction of the family physician in the district is expected to result in improvement of primary care.

  14. Understanding the Careers of Physician Educators in Family Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Deborah E.; Rediske, Virginia A.; Beecher, Ann; Bower, Douglas; Meurer, Linda; Lawrence, Steven; Wolkomir, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Interviewed physician educators in family medicine to discover variables that draw them into education and sustain their vitality, and challenges that can support or derail their careers. Found that career decisions emanate from values associated with "making the world better"; that they seek challenging positions consistent with these values; and…

  15. Morning Report in Family Medicine Residency Programs: A Descriptive Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuncharapu, Indumathi; Cass, Alvah R.; Carlson, Carol A.; Scott, Jack R.

    Morning Report (MR) is a frequently held case conference in most Family Medicine (FM) residency programs among medical learners who discuss recent inpatient admissions before the day's care of patients. This study conducted a national survey of FM residency program directors to describe the roles of faculty and residents in facilitating MR.…

  16. Family Medicine Educators' Perceptions of the Future of Faculty Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quirk, Mark; Lasser, Daniel; Domino, Frank; Chuman, Alan; Devaney-O'Neil, Sarah

    2002-01-01

    Family medicine faculty participated in focus groups to gather their perceptions about faculty development. They emphasized that faculty development methods must be proven effective, woven into the fabric of clinical practice, and deal with increasing time and financial pressures. Much discussion was related to the need for national and regional…

  17. Web-based Education in Family Medicine Predoctoral Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Shou Ling; Baldwin, Constance D.; Usatine, Richard P.; Adelman, Alan M.; Gjerde, Craig L.

    2000-01-01

    Surveyed directors of predoctoral family medicine programs (n=78; response rate of 61%) about the inclusion of Web-based educational methods in their programs, the level of interest in such programs, and barriers to program development. Results show nearly universal use of e-mail and Web pages. Identified faculty time and funding as common…

  18. ENT Experience in a Family Medicine Clerkship: Is There Enough?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hara, Brenda S.; Saywell, Robert M., Jr.; Zollinger, Terrell W.; Smith, Christopher P.; Burba, Jennifer L.; Stopperich, David M.

    2000-01-01

    Used patient encounter records completed by 445 medical students to determine whether a family medicine clerkship offered enough experience in ear, nose, and throat (ENT) conditions. Results, which were used for curriculum development, suggest that these students were receiving sufficient opportunities for some areas of ENT practice, but not for…

  19. Depression and burnout symptoms among Air Force family medicine providers.

    PubMed

    Varner, Derrick F; Foutch, Brian K

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of depression and burnout symptoms among family medicine providers on active duty in the US Air Force. Results demonstrated that 84% of those surveyed scored positive for degrees of depression symptoms; only sex differences were significant. PMID:24758978

  20. Family Medicine in Iran: Facing the Health System Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeili, Reza; Hadian, Mohammad; Rashidian, Arash; Shariati, Mohammad; Ghaderi, Hossien

    2015-01-01

    Background: In response to the current fragmented context of health systems, it is essential to support the revitalization of primary health care in order to provide a stronger sense of direction and integrity. Around the world, family medicine recognized as a core discipline for strengthening primary health care setting. Objective: This study aimed to understand the perspectives of policy makers and decision makers of Iran’s health system about the implementation of family medicine in Iran urban areas. Materials/Patients and Methods: This study is a qualitative study with framework analysis. Purposive semi-structured interviews were conducted with Policy and decision makers in the five main organizations of Iran health care system. The codes were extracted using inductive and deductive methods. Results: According to 27 semi-structured interviews were conducted with Policy and decision makers, three main themes and 8 subthemes extracted, including: The development of referral system, better access to health care and the management of chronic diseases. Conclusion: Family medicine is a viable means for a series of crucial reforms in the face of the current challenges of health system. Implementation of family medicine can strengthen the PHC model in Iran urban areas. Attempting to create a general consensus among various stakeholders is essential for effective implementation of the project. PMID:25948450

  1. The development of academic family medicine in central and eastern Europe since 1990

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Since the early 1990s former communist countries have been reforming their health care systems, emphasizing the key role of primary care and recognizing family medicine as a specialty and an academic discipline. This study assesses the level of academic development of the discipline characterised by education and research in central and eastern European (CEE) countries. Methods A key informants study, using a questionnaire developed on the basis of a systematic literature review and panel discussions, conducted in 11 central and eastern European countries and Russia. Results Family medicine in CEE countries is now formally recognized as a medical specialty and successfully introduced into medical training at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. Almost all universities have FM/GP departments, but only a few of them are led by general practitioners. The specialist training programmes in all countries except Russia fulfil the recommendations of the European Parliament. Structured support for research in FM/GP is not always available. However specific scientific organisations function in almost all countries except Russia. Scientific conferences are regularly organised in all the countries, but peer-reviewed journals are published in only half of them. Conclusions Family medicine has a relatively strong position in medical education in central and eastern Europe, but research in family practice is less developed. Although the position of the discipline at the universities is not very strong, most of the CEE countries can serve as an example of successful academic development for countries southern Europe, where family medicine is still not fully recognised. PMID:23510461

  2. Shaping the Future of Academic Health Centers: The Potential Contributions of Departments of Family Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Warren P.; DuBard, C. Annette

    2006-01-01

    Academic health centers (AHCs) must change dramatically to meet the changing needs of patients and society, but how to do this remains unclear. The purpose of this supplement is to describe ways in which departments of family medicine can play leadership roles in helping AHCs evolve. This overview provides background for case studies and commentaries about the contribution of departments of family medicine in 5 areas: (1) ambulatory and primary care, (2) indigent care, (3) education in community and international settings, (4) workforce policy and practice, and (5) translational research. The common theme is a revitalization of the relationship between AHCs and the communities they serve across all missions. Family medicine leadership can provide dramatic organizational improvement in primary and ambulatory care networks and foster opportunities for leadership by AHCs in improving the health of the population. Departments of family medicine can also play a leading role in developing new partnerships with community-based organizations, managing the care of the indigent, and developing new curricula in community and international settings. Finally, family medicine departments and their faculty have a central role in helping AHCs respond to workforce needs and in developing translational research that emphasizes the health of the population and effectiveness of care. AHCs are a public good that must now evolve substantially to meet the needs of patients and society. By pushing for substantial change, by helping to reinvigorate the relationship between AHCs and the communities they serve, and by emphasizing fundamental innovation in clinical care, teaching, and research, family medicine can help lead the renewal of the AHC. PMID:17003157

  3. The Ethics of Sports Medicine Research.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Robert J; Reider, Bruce

    2016-04-01

    This article explores the background and foundations of ethics in research. Some important documents and codes are mentioned, such as The Belmont Report and the International Conference of Harmonisation. Some influential historical events involving research ethics are recounted. The article provides a detailed discussion of the Declaration of Helsinki, which is considered the international standard for guidelines in medical research ethics. The most salient features of the Declaration are described and related to orthopaedic surgery and sports medicine. Some of the most controversial aspects of the Declaration are discussed, which helps examine contentious areas of research in sports medicine. PMID:26832979

  4. ETHICS IN GERIATRIC MEDICINE RESEARCH

    PubMed Central

    İlgili, Önder; Arda, Berna; Munir, Kerim

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to evaluate the research process in geriatrics from the ethical point of view. The elderly population is increasing rapidly, but there is no parallel in the amount of research concerning this demographic. On the other hand, in the light of research ethics, this group mainly represents vulnerable people and requires more sensitivity. Taking into account all these features, fundamental principles in research ethics are first considered: the soundness of the scientific project, qualifications of the investigators, ethics committee approval, informed consent, confidentiality and privacy, beneficence/nonmaleficence, and justice are evaluated. Special ethical issues in geriatric research such as ageism and research inclusion, paucity of research involving elderly people, vulnerability of elderly subjects, and cognitive impairments are discussed separately. PMID:25489272

  5. Acting as Standardized Patients Enhances Family Medicine Residents' Self-Reported Skills in Palliative Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sittikariyakul, Pat; Jaturapatporn, Darin; Kirshen, A. J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent publications have confirmed the use of standardized patients (SPs) in improving clinical skills and enhancing competency. Little research has studied the benefits residents may themselves gain in palliative care playing the role of SPs. Nineteen Family Medicine residents were recruited as standardized patients (FMR-SPs) for a mandatory…

  6. Female and Underrepresented Minority Faculty in Academic Departments of Family Medicine: Are Women and Minorities Better Off in Family Medicine?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis-Stevenson, Sherri; Hueston, William J.; Mainous, Arch G., III; Bazell, Carol; Ye, Xiaobu

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed departments of family medicine to determine workforce composition and rank of women and minority faculty. Found that while faculty were more likely to be female or minority than in other medical disciplines, women and minorities were less likely to be associate or full professors. Found no institutional or departmental characteristics…

  7. Conducting Precision Medicine Research with African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Halbert, Chanita Hughes; McDonald, Jasmine; Vadaparampil, Susan; Rice, LaShanta; Jefferson, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Importance Precision medicine is an approach to detecting, treating, and managing disease that is based on individual variation in genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Precision medicine is expected to reduce health disparities, but this will be possible only if studies have adequate representation of racial minorities. Objective It is critical to anticipate the rates at which individuals from diverse populations are likely to participate in precision medicine studies as research initiatives are being developed. We evaluated the likelihood of participating in a clinical study for precision medicine. Design, Setting, Participants Observational study conducted between October 2010 and February 2011 in a national sample of African Americans. Main Outcome Measure Intentions to participate in a government sponsored study that involves providing a biospecimen and generates data that could be shared with other researchers to conduct future studies. Results One third of respondents would participate in a clinical study for precision medicine. Only gender had a significant independent association with participation intentions. Men had a 1.86 (95% CI = 1.11, 3.12, p = 0.02) increased likelihood of participating in a precision medicine study compared to women in the model that included overall barriers and facilitators. In the model with specific participation barriers, distrust was associated with a reduced likelihood of participating in the research described in the vignette (OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.34, 0.96, p = 0.04). Conclusion and Relevance African Americans may have low enrollment in PMI research. As PMI research is implemented, extensive efforts will be needed to ensure adequate representation. Additional research is needed to identify optimal ways of ethically describing precision medicine studies to ensure sufficient recruitment of racial minorities. PMID:27441706

  8. Folk medicinal uses of Verbenaceae family plants in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahmatullah, Mohammed; Jahan, Rownak; Azam, F M Safiul; Hossan, S; Mollik, M A H; Rahman, Taufiq

    2011-01-01

    Folk medicinal practitioners form the first tier of primary health-care providers to most of the rural population of Bangladesh. They are known locally as Kavirajes and rely almost solely on oral or topical administration of whole plants or plant parts for treatment of various ailments. Also about 2% of the total population of Bangladesh are scattered among more than twenty tribes residing within the country's borders. The various tribes have their own tribal practitioners, who use medicinal plants for treatment of diseases. The objective of the present survey was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey among the Kavirajes and tribal practitioners to determine which species of plants belonging to the Verbenaceae family are used by the practitioners. The Verbenaceae family plants are well known for constituents having important bio-active properties. The present survey indicated that 13 species belonging to 8 genera are used by the folk and tribal medicinal practitioners of Bangladesh. A comparison of their folk medicinal uses along with published reports in the scientific literature suggests that the Verbenaceae family plants used in Bangladesh can potentially be important sources of lead compounds or novel drugs for treatment of difficult to cure debilitating diseases like malaria and rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:22754058

  9. Participatory Action Research as a Model for Conducting Family Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, Ann P.; Friesen, Barbara J.; Ramirez, Carmen

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses a participatory action research (PAR) approach to conducting family research. It proposes a model of PAR implementation level including the options of family members as research leaders and researchers as ongoing advisors, researchers and family members as coresearchers, and researches as leaders, and family members as…

  10. The admissibility of research in emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Wnukiewicz-Kozłowska, Agata

    2007-09-01

    The main goal in this paper is to present the legal rules connected with medical experiment on human beings in emergency medicine and to explain the scope, significance, and meaning of these rules, especially with regard to their interpretation. As the provisions about medical experiments truly make sense only if they can be observed by the whole "civilised" international community, they are presented in the context of international law with reference to Polish law. By considering the appropriate regulations of research contained in legal documents, it is possible to formulate a catalogue of doctors' duties and patients' rights. This general catalogue refers to all kinds of medical research involving human beings. In the field of emergency medicine, general provisions are sometimes involved, and they are sometimes limited. The main and most important conclusion is that a medical experiment in emergency medicine is admissible only if previously indicated conditions based on general rules of conducting research are fulfilled. PMID:18210226

  11. Space medicine research publications: 1987-1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A list of publications of investigators supported by the Biomedical Research and Clinical Programs of the Life Sciences Division, Office of Space Science and Applications is given. Included are publications entered into the Life Sciences Bibliographic Database by the George Washington University as of 31 December 1988. Principal Investigators whose research tasks resulted in publication are identified by asterisk. Publications are organized into the following subject areas: space physiology and countermeasures (cardiopulmonary, musculoskeletal, neuroscience, and regulatory physiology), space human factors, environmental health, radiation health, clinical medicine, and general space medicine.

  12. Family Medicine Training in the Care of Older Adults--Has the Retreat Been Sounded?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouton, Charles P.; Parker, Robert W.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the trend away from geriatrics training in family medicine residency despite the growing need in society. Asserts that family medicine is failing to seize an opportunity to advance the care of older adults and discusses what would constitute acceptable training in geriatrics and how it should fit into the family medicine curriculum. (EV)

  13. Occupational medicine programs for animal research facilities.

    PubMed

    Wald, Peter H; Stave, Gregg M

    2003-01-01

    Occupational medicine is a key component of a comprehensive occupational health and safety program in support of laboratory animal research and production facilities. The mission of the department is to maximize employee health and productivity utilizing a population health management approach, which includes measurement and analysis of health benefits utilization. The department works in close cooperation with other institutional health and safety professionals to identify potential risks from exposure to physical, chemical, and biological hazards in the workplace. As soon as exposures are identified, the department is responsible for formulating and providing appropriate medical surveillance programs. Occupational medicine is also responsible for targeted delivery of preventive and wellness services; management of injury, disease, and disability; maintenance of medical information; and other clinic services required by the institution. Recommendations are provided for the organization and content of occupational medicine programs for animal research facilities. PMID:12473831

  14. Queensland Emergency Medicine Research Foundation: special report.

    PubMed

    FitzGerald, Gerry; Codd, Catrina; Aitken, Peter; Sinnott, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Development of any new profession is dependent on the development of a special body of knowledge that is the domain of the profession. Key to this is research. Following sustained lobbying, the Queensland Government agreed to establish an emergency medicine research fund as part of an Enterprise Bargaining Agreement in 2006. That fund is managed by the Queensland Emergency Medicine Research Foundation. The present article describes the strategic approaches of the Foundation in its first 3 years, the application of research funds, and foreshadows an evaluative framework for determining the strategic value of this investment. The Foundation has developed a range of personnel and project support funding programmes, and competition for funding has increased. Ongoing evaluation will seek to determine the effectiveness of the current funding strategy on improving the effectiveness of research performance. It will also evaluate the clinical and organizational outcomes. PMID:22313558

  15. NIH Precision Medicine Initiative: Implications for Diabetes Research.

    PubMed

    Fradkin, Judith E; Hanlon, Mary C; Rodgers, Griffin P

    2016-07-01

    In his January 2015 State of the Union address, President Barack Obama announced a new Precision Medicine Initiative (PMI) to personalize approaches toward improving health and treating disease (www.whitehouse.gov/precision-medicine). He stated that the goal of such an initiative was "to bring us closer to curing diseases like cancer and diabetes, and to give all of us access to the personalized information we need to keep ourselves and our families healthier." Since that time, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has taken a leadership role in implementing the President's vision related to biomedical research (www.nih.gov/precisionmedicine). Here, we discuss the NIH component of the PMI, related ongoing diabetes research, and near-term research that could position the diabetes field to take full advantage of the opportunities that stem from the PMI. PMID:27289128

  16. A Third-Year Family Medicine Clerkship Based in an Academic Family Practice Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Robert B; And Others

    1984-01-01

    A 5-week family medicine clerkship is described that uses several innovative techniques: problem-based learning focusing on patient management tutorials; consultation with specialists; supervised patient care and a nursing home inpatient teaching service; and workshops on topics such as office-surgical techniques, practice management, and…

  17. Traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine: Focusing on research into traditional Tibetan medicine in China.

    PubMed

    Song, Peipei; Xia, Jufeng; Rezeng, Caidan; Tong, Li; Tang, Wei

    2016-07-19

    As a form of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine (TCAM), traditional Tibetan medicine has developed into a mainstay of medical care in Tibet and has spread from there to China and then to the rest of the world. Thus far, research on traditional Tibetan medicine has focused on the study of the plant and animal sources of traditional medicines, study of the histology of those plants and animals, chemical analysis of traditional medicines, pharmacological study of those medicines, and evaluation of the clinical efficacy of those medicines. A number of papers on traditional Tibetan medicines have been published, providing some evidence of the efficacy of traditional Tibetan medicine. However, many traditional Tibetan medicines have unknown active ingredients, hampering the establishment of drug quality standards, the development of new medicines, commercial production of medicines, and market availability of those medicines. Traditional Tibetan medicine must take several steps to modernize and spread to the rest of the world: the pharmacodynamics of traditional Tibetan medicines need to be determined, the clinical efficacy of those medicines needs to be verified, criteria to evaluate the efficacy of those medicines need to be established in order to guide their clinical use, and efficacious medicines need to be acknowledged by the pharmaceutical market. The components of traditional Tibetan medicine should be studied, traditional Tibetan medicines should be screened for their active ingredients, and techniques should be devised to prepare and manufacture those medicines. PMID:27301588

  18. Why Family Medicine is a Good Career Choice for Indian Medical Graduates?

    PubMed

    Kumar, Raman

    2014-01-01

    Internationally family medicine has evolved as an independent academic discipline of medical science and speciality vocational training for community based primary care physicians. India has a long tradition of family practice however due to various regulatory barriers family medicine did not optimally develop in mainstream medical education system for many decades. Recently, there is growing interest in this concept in India and family medicine is emerging as a viable career option for medical graduates in India. PMID:24791226

  19. Obstetrics anyone? How family medicine residents' interests changed.

    PubMed Central

    Ruderman, J.; Holzapfel, S. G.; Carroll, J. C.; Cummings, S.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine family medicine residents' attitudes and plans about practising obstetrics when they enter and when they graduate from their residency programs. DESIGN: Residents in each of 4 consecutive years, starting July 1991, were surveyed by questionnaire when they entered the program and again when they graduated (ending in June 1996). Only paired questionnaires were used for analysis. SETTING: Family medicine residency programs at the University of Toronto in Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: Of 358 family medicine residents who completed the University of Toronto program, 215 (60%) completed questionnaires at entry and exit. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Changes in attitudes and plans during the residency program as ascertained from responses to entry and exit questionnaires. RESULTS: Analysis was based on 215 paired questionnaires. Women residents had more interest in obstetric practice at entry: 58% of women, but only 31% of men were interested. At graduation, fewer women (49%) and men (22%) were interested in practising obstetrics. The intent to undertake rural practice was strongly associated with the intent to practise obstetrics. By graduation, residents perceived lifestyle factors and compensation as very important negative factors in relation to obstetric practice. Initial interest and the eventual decision to practise obstetrics were strongly associated. CONCLUSIONS: Intent to practise obstetrics after graduation was most closely linked to being a woman, intending to practise in a rural area, and having an interest in obstetrics prior to residency. Building on the interest in obstetrics that residents already have could be a better strategy for producing more physicians willing to practise obstetrics than trying to change the minds of those uninterested in such practice. PMID:10099803

  20. A Comparison of Students' Clinical Experience in Family Medicine and Traditional Clerkships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkerson, George R., Jr.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Experience on the traditional internal medicine, surgery, pediatrics, obstetrics-gynecology, and psychiatry clerkships was compared with the experience on a family medicine clerkship. The family medicine clerkship offered the most experience with circulatory, respiratory, digestive, neurological, musculoskeletal, and skin problems and with…

  1. The Transplant Patient and Transplant Medicine in Family Practice

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Lloyd D.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades in particular there has been a remarkable increase in the number of solid organ transplants being performed worldwide alongside improvements in long-term survival rates. However, the infrastructure at transplant centres has been unable to keep pace with the current volume of the transplant patient work load. These pressures on transplant specialist centres has led to calls for an increased role of the general practitioner (GP) managing particular aspects of transplant patients’ medical care. Indeed, many aspects of follow-up care such as screening for malignancies, preventing infection through immunisation programmes, and managing cardiovascular risk factors are already important aspects of family practice medicine. This paper aims to review some of the aspects of transplant patient care that is important for healthcare workers in family practice to manage. PMID:25657941

  2. Key informants’ perspectives on development of family medicine training programs in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Gossa, Weyinshet; Wondimagegn, Dawit; Mekonnen, Demeke; Eshetu, Wondwossen; Abebe, Zerihun; Fetters, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    As a very low-income country, Ethiopia faces significant development challenges, though there is great aspiration to dramatically improve health care in the country. Family medicine has recently been recognized through national policy as one potential contributor in addressing Ethiopia’s health care challenges. Family medicine is a new specialty in Ethiopia emerging in the context of family medicine development in Sub-Saharan Africa. The Addis Ababa University family medicine residency program started in 2013 and is the first and the only family medicine program in the country as of March 2016. Stakeholders on the ground feel that family medicine is off to a good start and have great enthusiasm and optimism for its success. While the Ministry of Health has a vision for the development of family medicine and a plan for rapid upscaling of family medicine across the country, significant challenges remain. Continuing discussion about the potential roles of family medicine specialists in Ethiopia and policy-level strategic planning to place family medicine at the core of primary health care delivery in the country is needed. In addition, the health care-tier system needs to be restructured to include the family medicine specialists along with appropriately equipped health care facilities for training and practice. Key stakeholders are optimistic that family medicine expansion can be successful in Ethiopia through a coordinated effort by the Ministry of Health and collaboration between institutions within the country, other Sub-Saharan African countries, and international partners supportive of establishing family medicine in Ethiopia. PMID:27175100

  3. [PUBLIC MEDICINE AND RESEARCH-- IMPORTANT AND CHALLENGING].

    PubMed

    Pillar, Giora; Shapira, Chen

    2015-06-01

    Fellows who travel to the US are familiar with the American concept of combining clinical medicine and research. Research activity enforces reading, being updated, thinking creatively initiating, opening horizons, and being in contact with researchers all over the world. Thus, performing research is advantageous not only for research itself, the public, the patients and the knowledge, but also for the development of the researcher, the hospital, and the academic institute with which the hospital is affiliated. However, given the huge clinical workload and obligations, along with the shortage of physicians, the time consuming nature of research activity and the difficulties in obtaining research funds, it is certainly not obvious that clinicians can manage to conduct research and publish it. Decision makers, policy determinants and the individual drive to academic progress, encourage research activity by physicians, albeit the external support is commonly theoretical and moral, and is not commonly combined with time or appropriate resource allocation. In the current issue of "Harefuah", physicians from the Lady Davis Carmel Medical Center publish their own research and review articles. The hospital is the second largest in the Haifa region, providing services to a population of over a million people. The manuscripts reflect only a small sample of the research and clinical activities of the hospital. PMID:26281075

  4. Women’s impressions of their inpatient birth care as provided by family physicians in the Shizuoka Family Medicine Training Program in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Even though Japan faces serious challenges in women’s health care such as a rapidly aging population, attrition of obstetrical providers, and a harsh legal climate, few family medicine residency training programs in Japan include training in obstetrics, and the literature lacks research on women’s views of intra-partum pregnancy care by family physicians. Findings In this exploratory study, we conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with five women who received their admission, intrapartum, delivery and discharge care from family medicine residents in the obstetrics ward of a community training hospital. Four women had vaginal births, and one had a Cesarean section. Three were primiparous, and two multiparous. Their ages ranged from 22–33. They found value in family physician medical knowledge and easy communication style, though despite explanation, some had trouble understanding the family physician’s scope of work. These women identified negative aspects of the hospital environment, and wanted more anticipatory guidance about what to expect physically after birth, but were enthusiastic about seeing a family doctor after discharge. Conclusions These results demonstrate the feasibility of family medicine residents providing inpatient birth care in a community hospital, and that patients are receptive to family physicians providing that care as well after discharge. Women’s primary concerns relate mostly to hospital environment issues, and better understanding the care family physicians provide. This illustrates-areas for family physicians to work for improvements. PMID:23698036

  5. (Coordinated research programs in nuclear medicine)

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1990-10-03

    The traveler visited the Clinic for Nuclear Medicine at the University of Bonn, West Germany, to review, organize, and plan collaborative studies. He also met with the editorial board of the journal NucCompact -- European/American Communications in Nuclear Medicine, on which he serves as US editor. He also visited colleagues at the Cyclotron Research Center (CRC) at the University of Liege, Belgium, to coordinate clinical applications of the ultrashort-lived iridium-191m radionuclide obtained from the osmium-190/iridium-191m generator system. The traveler planned and coordinated continuing collaboration with colleagues at the CRC for further applications of this generator system. He also visited the University of Metz, Metz, France, to organize a three-center project for the synthesis and evaluation of various receptor-specific cerebral imaging agents, involving the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), CRC, and the University of Metz.

  6. Multilevel modeling in psychosomatic medicine research.

    PubMed

    Myers, Nicholas D; Brincks, Ahnalee M; Ames, Allison J; Prado, Guillermo J; Penedo, Frank J; Benedict, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to provide an overview of multilevel modeling for Psychosomatic Medicine readers and contributors. The article begins with a general introduction to multilevel modeling. Multilevel regression modeling at two levels is emphasized because of its prevalence in psychosomatic medicine research. Simulated data sets based on some core ideas from the Familias Unidas effectiveness study are used to illustrate key concepts including communication of model specification, parameter interpretation, sample size and power, and missing data. Input and key output files from Mplus and SAS are provided. A cluster randomized trial with repeated measures (i.e., three-level regression model) is then briefly presented with simulated data based on some core ideas from a cognitive-behavioral stress management intervention in prostate cancer. PMID:23107843

  7. Multilevel Modeling in Psychosomatic Medicine Research

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Nicholas D.; Brincks, Ahnalee M.; Ames, Allison J.; Prado, Guillermo J.; Penedo, Frank J.; Benedict, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of this manuscript is to provide an overview of multilevel modeling for Psychosomatic Medicine readers and contributors. The manuscript begins with a general introduction to multilevel modeling. Multilevel regression modeling at two-levels is emphasized because of its prevalence in psychosomatic medicine research. Simulated datasets based on some core ideas from the Familias Unidas effectiveness study are used to illustrate key concepts including: communication of model specification, parameter interpretation, sample size and power, and missing data. Input and key output files from Mplus and SAS are provided. A cluster randomized trial with repeated measures (i.e., three-level regression model) is then briefly presented with simulated data based on some core ideas from a cognitive behavioral stress management intervention in prostate cancer. PMID:23107843

  8. Interprofessional primary care in academic family medicine clinics

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, Neil; Abbott, Karen; Williamson, Tyler; Somji, Behnaz

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore the status and processes of interprofessional work environments and the implications for interprofessional education in a sample of family medicine teaching clinics. Design Focus group interviews using a purposive sampling procedure. Setting Four academic family medicine clinics in Alberta. Participants Seven family physicians, 9 registered nurses, 5 licensed practical nurses, 2 residents, 1 psychologist, 1 informatics specialist, 1 pharmacist, 1 dietitian, 1 nurse practitioner, 1 receptionist, and 1 respiratory therapist. Methods Assessment of clinic status and performance in relation to established principles of interprofessional work and education was explored using semistructured focus group interviews. Main findings Our data supported the D’Amour and Oandasan model of successful interprofessional collaborative practice in terms of the model’s main “factors” (ie, shared goals and vision, sense of belonging, governance, and the structuring of clinical care) and their constituent “elements.” It is reasonable to conclude that the extent to which these factors and elements are both present and positively oriented in academic clinic settings is an important contributory factor to the establishment of interprofessional collaborative practice in primary care. Using this model, 2 of the 4 clinics were rated as expressing substantial progress in relation to interprofessional work, while the other 2 clinics were rated as less successful on that dimension. None of the clinics was identified as having a clear and explicit focus on providing interprofessional education. Conclusion The key factor in relation to the implementation of interprofessional work in primary care appears to be the existence of clear and explicit leadership in that direction. Substantial scope exists for improvement in the organization, conduct, and promotion of interprofessional education for Canadian primary care. PMID:22893347

  9. Family medicine in post-communist Europe needs a boost. Exploring the position of family medicine in healthcare systems of Central and Eastern Europe and Russia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The countries of Central and Eastern Europe have experienced a lot of changes at the end of the 20th century, including changes in the health care systems and especially in primary care. The aim of this paper is to systematically assess the position of family medicine in these countries, using the same methodology within all the countries. Methods A key informants survey in 11 Central and Eastern European countries and Russia using a questionnaire developed on the basis of systematic literature review. Results Formally, family medicine is accepted as a specialty in all the countries, although the levels of its implementation vary across the countries and the differences are important. In most countries, solo practice is the most predominant organisational form of family medicine. Family medicine is just one of many medical specialties (e.g. paediatrics and gynaecology) in primary health care. Full introduction of family medicine was successful only in Estonia. Conclusions Some of the unification of the systems may have been the result of the EU request for adequate training that has pushed the policies towards higher standards of training for family medicine. The initial enthusiasm of implementing family medicine has decreased because there was no initiative that would support this movement. Internal and external stimuli might be needed to continue transition process. PMID:22409775

  10. Graduate primary care training: a collaborative alternative for family practice, internal medicine, and pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Strelnick, A H; Bateman, W B; Jones, C; Shepherd, S D; Massad, R J; Townsend, J M; Grossman, R; Korin, E; Schorow, M

    1988-08-15

    The Residency Program in Social Medicine at Montefiore Medical Center is a collaborative, integrated training program for primary care pediatricians, internists, and family physicians within one interdisciplinary organization. Since 1970 we have trained more than 200 physicians, prepared them for board certification in their specialty, emphasized the psychosocial aspects and social determinants of health and illness, and shared a faculty, curriculum, and commitment to provide medical care for inner-city, underserved populations. We discuss the program's history and curriculum, administrative and academic structure, shared "cross-track" faculty units (psychosocial; social medicine; and research, education, and evaluation), and graduates' practice outcomes. The interdisciplinary character of the Residency Program in Social Medicine helps physicians successfully serve the underserved and exemplifies that interdisciplinary medical education succeeds when interdisciplinary health care teams are organized for optimal patient care. Only the federal government has the perspective and power to foster more interdisciplinary collaboration and strengthen primary care education in a period of shrinking resources. PMID:3395040

  11. New Findings on Children, Families, and Economic Self-Sufficiency: Summary of a Research Briefing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Deborah, Ed.; Bridgman, Anne, Ed.

    This report is a summary of a December, 1994 research briefing presented by the Board on Children and Families of the National Research Council and the Institute of Medicine, and the Family and Child Well-Being Research Network of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. This…

  12. Are family medicine residents adequately trained to deliver palliative care?

    PubMed Central

    Mahtani, Ramona; Kurahashi, Allison M.; Buchman, Sandy; Webster, Fiona; Husain, Amna; Goldman, Russell

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore educational factors that influence family medicine residents’ (FMRs’) intentions to offer palliative care and palliative care home visits to patients. Design Qualitative descriptive study. Setting A Canadian, urban, specialized palliative care centre. Participants First-year (n = 9) and second-year (n = 6) FMRs. Methods Semistructured interviews were conducted with FMRs following a 4-week palliative care rotation. Questions focused on participant experiences during the rotation and perceptions about their roles as family physicians in the delivery of palliative care and home visits. Participant responses were analyzed to summarize and interpret patterns related to their educational experience during their rotation. Main findings Four interrelated themes were identified that described this experience: foundational skill development owing to training in a specialized setting; additional need for education and support; unaddressed gaps in pragmatic skills; and uncertainty about family physicians’ role in palliative care. Conclusion Residents described experiences that both supported and inadvertently discouraged them from considering future engagement in palliative care. Reassuringly, residents were also able to underscore opportunities for improvement in palliative care education. PMID:27035008

  13. Integrating family medicine residents into a rural practice.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, L.

    1997-01-01

    PROBLEM: Integrating residents into community family practices can be challenging for busy doctors, especially when new preceptors have no formal preparation or teaching experience. OBJECTIVE OF PROGRAM: To develop an organized and practical approach to teaching residents in our busy rural group practice. Our seven northern Ontario family doctors have been training elective residents and clerks for 15 years. Recently, we have gone from hosting elective residents and students to teaching core family medicine residents. Our precepting plan allows us to dedicate a reasonable time to teaching while fulfilling our primary care duties. MAIN COMPONENTS: The program involves contracting, teaching, monitoring, feedback, and evaluation. CONCLUSION: We think we have developed a sustainable, workable set of teaching parameters that is applicable by various preceptors in different settings. It has simplified our teaching role and lessened our anxieties. Residents have benefited from the consistent protocol, which can be flexible enough to adapt to individual residents and preceptors, and have valued this teaching approach. Images p278-a p280-a PMID:9040915

  14. Family Research in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parke, Ross D.

    Theories about, methods of studying, and definitions of family have undergone profound shifts over the last several decades, and change continues to characterize developmental research on family functioning. In the 1990s, researchers have recognized the need for more descriptive studies as well as more process-oriented work. Research is beginning…

  15. Current Research of Family Literacy Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Sharon; Wuelser, Ann

    This paper investigates existing research about the strengths and weakness of current family literacy programs and presents a 98-item list of family literacy activities across the curricula for adult educators to promote intergenerational literacy. Educational experts feel that family literacy programs need more evaluation, and that the…

  16. Pioneer Research on Strong, Healthy Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Elizabeth A.

    Interest in the family is pervasive throughout American culture today. The problematic relationship between the family and modern society is recognized by those of diverse political persuasions. Contemporary interest in the family is not entirely problem-oriented, however. Within the past 2 decades a quiet undercurrent of research focusing on…

  17. Extending the boundaries of family medicine to perform manual procedures.

    PubMed

    Bitterman, Haim; Vinker, Shlomo

    2014-01-01

    A recent survey by Menahem and colleagues revealed that 65% of the surveyed primary care physicians reported that they performed any minor surgical procedures, and 46% reported performance of any musculoskeletal injections. Lack of allocated time and lack of training were the main reported barriers confronting higher performance rates. Healthcare systems are shifting large chunks of traditional hospital-centered activities to competent and comprehensive community-based structures. These changes are very well aligned with key trends in modern consumerism that prefer a close to home availability of medical services. Minor surgical procedures and musculoskeletal injections are good examples of medical activities that had been performed mainly by hospital and community based specialists. The syllabus of specialty training in Family Medicine in Israel includes these skills and trainees should acquire them during the residency program. We estimate that hundreds of family physicians obtain different levels of such training. Yet, only few family physicians have allocated protected time for performance of the procedures. For the skilled physician, performance of such relatively simple procedures extends his professional boundaries and the comprehensiveness of his service. For the healthcare system the "extra effort" and investment needed for performance of minor surgical procedures in primary care clinics is small. The results of the present study reflect on wider issues of care delivery. This study highlights the need for formalized and documented training of family physicians together with allocation of managerial and technical requirements needed to encourage these and similar medically and economically justified endeavors that seem to be perfectly aligned with the wishes of healthcare consumers. PMID:25383180

  18. Effect of family medicine residents on use of diagnostic investigations

    PubMed Central

    Seong, Augene; Osmun, W.E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the effect of the presence of family medicine residents on the use of laboratory and imaging investigations in a rural emergency department (ED). Design A retrospective cross-sectional electronic chart audit was completed. Background characteristics, as well as type and number of ordered investigations, were compared between study groups. Setting Strathroy Middlesex General Hospital in Strathroy, Ont, a rural community hospital that sees approximately 20 000 ED visits per year. Participants A total of 2000 sequential ED visits, including adult and pediatric patients. The test group consisted of patients seen while a resident was present in the ED. The control group consisted of patients seen while no residents were present in the ED. Main outcome measures Twenty-two distinct categories of common ED investigations were studied. Results There was no statistically significant difference between study groups for 19 of the 22 categories of investigations. There were significant differences in 3 categories: an increased number of D-dimer assays for patients seen while there were no residents in the ED (1.7% of patients vs 0.5% of patients, P = .03) and increased computed tomography and ultrasound imaging for patients seen while a resident was in the ED (4.8% vs 1.8%, P = .0012, and 5.3% and 1.7%, P < .001, respectively). These differences are likely not owing to resident involvement but are explained by a difference in test availability between groups. Conclusion The study was underpowered for most categories of studied investigations. However, the trends demonstrated in this study suggest that the presence of family medicine residents in a rural community ED does not substantially affect the overall use of diagnostic investigations. PMID:25217692

  19. Test ordering for preventive health care among family medicine residents

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Daisy; Schabort, Inge; MacLean, Catherine A.; Asrar, Farhan M.; Khory, Ayesha; Vandermeer, Ben; Allan, G. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine which screening tests family medicine residents order as part of preventive health care. Design A cross-sectional survey. Setting Alberta and Ontario. Participants First- and second-year family medicine residents at the University of Alberta in Edmonton, the University of Calgary in Alberta, and McMaster University in Hamilton, Ont, during the 2011 to 2012 academic year. Main outcome measures Demographic information, Likert scale ratings assessing ordering attitudes, and selections from a list of 38 possible tests that could be ordered for preventive health care for sample 38-year-old and 55-year-old female and male patients. Descriptive and comparative statistics were calculated. Results A total of 318 of 482 residents (66%) completed the survey. Recommended or appropriate tests were ordered by 82% (for cervical cytology) to 95% (for fasting glucose measurement) of residents. Across the different sample patients, residents ordered an average of 3.3 to 5.7 inappropriate tests per patient, with 58% to 92% ordering at least 1 inappropriate test per patient. The estimated average excess costs varied from $38.39 for the 38-year-old man to $106.46 for the 55-year-old woman. More regular use of a periodic health examination screening template did not improve ordering (P = .88). Conclusion In general, residents ordered appropriate preventive health tests reasonably well but also ordered an average of 3.3 to 5.7 inappropriate tests for each patient. Training programs need to provide better education for trainees around inappropriate screening and work hard to establish good ordering behaviour in preparation for entering practice. PMID:25767171

  20. Systems Medicine in Pharmaceutical Research and Development.

    PubMed

    Kuepfer, Lars; Schuppert, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The development of new drug therapies requires substantial and ever increasing investments from the pharmaceutical company. Ten years ago, the average time from early target identification and optimization until initial market authorization of a new drug compound took more than 10 years and involved costs in the order of one billion US dollars. Recent studies indicate even a significant growth of costs in the meanwhile, mainly driven by the increasing complexity of diseases addressed by pharmaceutical research.Modeling and simulation are proven approaches to handle highly complex systems; hence, systems medicine is expected to control the spiral of complexity of diseases and increasing costs. Today, the main focus of systems medicine applications in industry is on mechanistic modeling. Biological mechanisms are represented by explicit equations enabling insight into the cooperation of all relevant mechanisms. Mechanistic modeling is widely accepted in pharmacokinetics, but prediction from cell behavior to patients is rarely possible due to lacks in our understanding of the controlling mechanisms. Data-driven modeling aims to compensate these lacks by the use of advanced statistical and machine learning methods. Future progress in pharmaceutical research and development will require integrated hybrid modeling technologies allowing realization of the benefits of both mechanistic and data-driven modeling. In this chapter, we sketch typical industrial application areas for both modeling techniques and derive the requirements for future technology development. PMID:26677181

  1. New conceptual model of EMR implementation in interprofessional academic family medicine clinics

    PubMed Central

    Halas, Gayle; Singer, Alexander; Styles, Carol; Katz, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To capture users’ experiences with a newly implemented electronic medical record (EMR) in family medicine academic teaching clinics and to explore their perceptions of its use in clinical and teaching processes. Design Qualitative study using focus group discussions guided by semistructured questions. Setting Three family medicine academic teaching clinics in Winnipeg, Man. Participants Faculty, residents, and support staff. Methods Focus group discussions were audiorecorded and transcribed. Data were analyzed by open coding, followed by development of consensus on a final coding strategy. We used this to independently code the data and analyze them to identify salient events and emergent themes. Main findings We developed a conceptual model to reflect and summarize key themes that we identified from participant comments regarding EMR implementation and use in an academic setting. These included training and support, system design, information management, work flow, communication, and continuity. Conclusion This is the first specific analysis of user experience with a newly implemented EMR in urban family medicine teaching clinics in Canada. The experiences of our participants with EMR implementation were similar to those reported in earlier investigations, but highlight organizational influences and integration strategies. Learning how to use and transitioning to EMRs has implications for clinical learners. This points to the need for further research to gain a more in-depth understanding of the effects of EMRs on the learning environment. PMID:26167563

  2. Interprofessional education in academic family medicine teaching units

    PubMed Central

    Price, David; Howard, Michelle; Hilts, Linda; Dolovich, Lisa; McCarthy, Lisa; Walsh, Allyn E.; Dykeman, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT PROBLEM ADDRESSED The new family health teams (FHTs) in Ontario were designed to enable interprofessional collaborative practice in primary care; however, many health professionals have not been trained in an interprofessional environment. OBJECTIVE OF PROGRAM To provide health professional learners with an interprofessional practice experience in primary care that models teamwork and collaborative practice skills. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The 2 academic teaching units of the FHT at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ont, employ 6 types of health professionals and provide learning environments for family medicine residents and students in a variety of health care professions. Learners engage in formal interprofessional education activities and mixed professional and learner clinical consultations. They are immersed in an established interprofessional practice environment, where all team members are valued and contribute collaboratively to patient care and clinic administration. Other contributors to the success of the program include the physical layout of the clinics, the electronic medical record communications system, and support from leadership for the additional clinical time commitment of delivering interprofessional education. CONCLUSION This academic FHT has developed a program of interprofessional education based partly on planned activities and logistic enablers, and largely on immersing learners in a culture of long-standing interprofessional collaboration. PMID:19752260

  3. Evaluation of a Dementia Education Program for Family Medicine Residents

    PubMed Central

    Prorok, Jeanette C.; Stolee, Paul; Cooke, Martin; McAiney, Carrie A.; Lee, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Background Dementia diagnosis and management is increasing in importance in the training of future family physicians. This study evaluated the impact of a dementia education program for family medicine residents (FMR) on residents’ knowledge, attitudes, and confidence with respect to dementia assessment and management. A three-part questionnaire was developed and validated for these purposes. Methods A mixed methods study design was employed. The questionnaire’s internal consistency and test–retest reliability was determined and content validity was assessed. Twelve FMR participated in questionnaire validation. Program participants completed the validated questionnaire at baseline, at interim, and following program completion. Twenty-seven FMR completed the questionnaire as part of the program evaluation. Willing residents also participated in program feedback interviews. Differences in questionnaire scores between program participants and the comparison group were examined. Results Each questionnaire component demonstrated high internal consistency (Cronbach’s α: 0.83–0.91) and test–retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients: 0.74–0.91). Program participants (n = 15) scored significantly higher than the comparison group (n = 12) on the knowledge component and also reported greater confidence in several areas. Qualitative data indicated that residents felt the program focused on important topic areas and appreciated the opportunity to work in an interprofessional team. Conclusion Evaluation results indicate that the program improved FMRs’ knowledge on dementia assessment and management, as well as increased the residents’ confidence levels. PMID:26180561

  4. Need to teach family medicine concepts even before establishing such practice in a country

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The practice of family medicine is not well established in many developing countries including Sri Lanka. The Sri Lankan Government funds and runs the health facilities which cater to the health needs of a majority of the population. Services of a first contact doctor delivered by full time, vocationally trained, Family Physicians is generally overshadowed by outpatient departments of the government hospitals and after hours private practice by the government sector doctors and specialists. This process has changed the concept of the provision of comprehensive primary and continuing care for entire families, which in an ideal situation, should addresses psychosocial problems as well and deliver coordinated health care services in a society. Therefore there is a compelling need to teach Family Medicine concepts to undergraduates in all medical faculties. Discussion A similar situation prevails in many countries in the region. Faculty of Medicine Peradeniya embarked on teaching family medicine concepts even before a department of Family Medicine was established. The faculty has recognized CanMed Family Medicine concepts as the guiding principles where being an expert, communicator, collaborator, advocate, manager and professional is considered as core competencies of a doctor. These concepts created the basis to evaluate the existing family medicine curriculum , and the adequacy of teaching knowledge and skills, related to family medicine has been confirmed. However inadequacies of teaching related to communication, collaboration, management, advocacy and professionalism were recognized. Importance of inculcating patient centred attitudes and empathy in patient care was highlighted. Adopting evaluation tools like Patient Practitioner Orientation Scale and Jefferson’s Scale of Empathy was established. Consensus has been developed among all the departments to improve their teaching programmes in order to establish a system of teaching family medicine

  5. The p-medicine portal—a collaboration platform for research in personalised medicine

    PubMed Central

    Schera, Fatima; Weiler, Gabriele; Neri, Elias; Kiefer, Stephan; Graf, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    The European project p-medicine creates an information technology infrastructure that facilitates the development from current medical practice to personalised medicine. The main access point to this infrastructure is the p-medicine portal that provides clinicians, patients, and researchers a platform to collaborate, share data and expertise, and use tools and services to improve personalised treatments of patients. In this document, we describe the community-based structure of the p-medicine portal and provide information about the p-medicine security framework implemented in the portal. Finally, we show the user interface and describe the p-medicine tools and services integrated in the portal. PMID:24567755

  6. Exploring Gaps of Family History Documentation in EHR for Precision Medicine -A Case Study of Familial Hypercholesterolemia Ascertainment

    PubMed Central

    Mehrabi, Saeed; Wang, Yanshan; Ihrke, Donna; Liu, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    In the era of precision medicine, accurately identifying familial conditions is crucial for providing target treatment. However, it is challenging to identify familial conditions without detailed family history information. In this work, we studied the documentation of family history of premature cardiovascular disease and hypercholesterolemia. The information on patients’ family history of stroke within the Patient-provided information (PPI) forms was compared with the information gathered by clinicians in clinical notes. The agreement between PPI and clinical notes on absence of family history information in PPI was substantially higher compared to presence of family history. PMID:27570664

  7. 50 years of radiation research: medicine.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Theodore L

    2002-10-01

    The advances brought about by research in radiation medicine over the past 50 years are presented. The era began with the atomic explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the establishment of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission to understand what damage was caused by exposure of a large population to radiation. A better understanding of the effects of whole-body exposure led to the development of whole-body radiation treatment techniques and to bone marrow transplantation in the treatment of leukemias. The field of diagnostic imaging was revolutionized by a series of inventions that included angiography, mammography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and ultrasound imaging. The field of nuclear medicine came of age through new man-made radionuclides and the invention of scanning and imaging techniques including positron emission tomography. Radiotherapy, a minor sideline of radiology, developed into radiation oncology, an extremely important component of modern cancer therapy. The advances in clinical radiotherapy were made possible by discoveries and inventions in physics and engineering and by insights and discoveries in radiobiology. The result of the last 50 years of progress is a very powerful set of clinical tools. PMID:12236808

  8. Researches on regenerative medicine-current state and prospect.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng-Guo; Xiao, Kai

    2012-01-01

    Since 1980s, the rapid development of tissue engineering and stem cell research has pushed regenerative medicine to a new fastigium, and regenerative medicine has become a noticeable research field in the international biology and medicine. In China, about 100 million patients need repair and regeneration treatment every year, while the number is much larger in the world. Regenerative medicine could provide effective salvation for these patients. Both Chinese Academy of Sciences and Chinese Academy of Engineering have made roadmaps of 2010-2050 and 2011-2030 for regenerative medicine. The final goal of the two roadmaps is to make China go up to leading position in most research aspects of regenerative medicine. In accord with this strategy, the government and some enterprises have invested 3-5 billion RMB (0.5-0.8 billion USD) for the research on regenerative medicine. In order to push the translation of regenerative medicine forward-from bench to bedside, a strategic alliance has been established, and it includes 27 top-level research institutes, medical institutes, colleges, universities and enterprises in the field of stem cell and regeneration medicine. Recently the journal, Science, has published a special issue-Regenerative Medicine in China, consisting of 35 papers dealing with stem cell and regeneration, tissue engineering and regeneration, trauma and regeneration and bases for tissue repair and regenerative medicine. It is predicated that a greater breakthrough in theory and practice of regenerative medicine will be achieved in the near future (20 to 30 years). PMID:23069095

  9. [Construction of Research-Oriented State Key Clinical Department by Highlighting the Characteris- tics and Advantages of Chinese Medicine].

    PubMed

    Ma, Shi-yu; Guo, Li-heng; Han, Yun; Li, Jian; Zhang, Min-zhou

    2016-04-01

    As the largest research-oriented specialty department in national traditional Chinese medicine hospitals, the Department of Critical Care Medicine in Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine insists on the development mode combined with clinical medicine and scientific research. By taking clinical and basic researches for integrative medicine preventing and treating acute myocardial in-farction and sepsis as a breakthrough, authors explored key problems of Chinese medicine in improving the prognosis related diseases and patients' quality of life. In recent 3 years our department has successively become the principal unit of the national key specialties cooperative group of critical care medicine (awarded by State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine), the key clinical specialties (awarded by National Health and Family Planning Commission), and Guangzhou key laboratory construction unit, and achieved overall lap in clinical medical treatment, personnel training, scientific research, and social service. PMID:27323605

  10. Research on constitution of Chinese medicine and implementation of translational medicine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji; Wang, Ting; Li, Ying-shuai; Zheng, Yan-fei; Li, Ling-ru; Wang, Qi

    2015-05-01

    Translational medicine is a new concept presented in recent decades, the core of which is to build a bridge between basic medical research and clinical application. From the beginning of constitution of Chinese medicine, clinical application has been given priority. Therefore, the idea of translational medicine is fully demonstrated in the research into the three key scientific problems of "classification of constitution of Chinese medicine", "relationship between constitution and disease" and "adjustment of constitution". Under its guidance, not only was the systematic theory of constitution of Chinese medicine established, but also the Constitution of Chinese Medicine Scale and the Standards of Classification and determination of Constitution of Chinese Medicine were developed, which translates methods of classifying the nine constitutional types into guidance for prevention of disease, management of health and clinical application. The research findings of constitution of Chinese medicine have been applied in clinical practice and public health, establishing the diagnosis and treatment model of constitution-disease-syndrome differentiation. The nationwide application of constitution differentiation has shown good effect. In the future, constitution of Chinese medicine should strengthen the evidence-based research and multi-disciplinary cooperation, and establish a research team on comprehensive constitution of Chinese medicine and translational medicine, to translate the findings into clinical practice and public health more accurately and quickly. PMID:25519443

  11. Ethical issues in couple and family research.

    PubMed

    Margolin, Gayla; Chien, Deborah; Duman, Sarah E; Fauchier, Angèle; Gordis, Elana B; Oliver, Pamella H; Ramos, Michelle C; Vickerman, Katrina A

    2005-03-01

    Federal regulations, ethical standards, and state laws governing ethics do not adequately address important issues in couple and family research. Including multiple family members, particularly dependent minors, in research requires the special application of fundamental ethical issues, such as confidentiality, privacy, and informed consent. The sensitive, commingled nature of couple and family information necessitates clear policies about data ownership and disclosure. Researchers need to have respect for the family as a unit and to evaluate benefits versus harms for the family as well as for individuals. This article highlights areas of potential concern and ambiguity related to abuse reporting and Certificates of Confidentiality and also addresses ethical issues with observational data, intervention studies, longitudinal designs, and computer-assisted research. PMID:15796661

  12. How can we help family carers manage pain medicines for patients with advanced cancer? A systematic review of intervention studies

    PubMed Central

    Latter, Sue; Hopkinson, Jane B; Richardson, Alison; Hughes, Jane A; Lowson, Elizabeth; Edwards, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Background Family carers play a significant role in managing pain and associated medicines for people with advanced cancer. Research indicates that carers often feel inadequately prepared for the tasks involved, which may impact on carers’ and patients’ emotional state as well as the achievement of optimal pain control. However, little is known about effective methods of supporting family carers with cancer pain medicines. Aims To systematically identify and review studies of interventions to help carers manage medicines for pain in advanced cancer. To identify implications for practice and research. Method A systematic literature search of databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and AMED) was carried out to identify studies of pain medication management interventions that involved family carers of patients with advanced cancer, and reported specific outcomes for family carers. Patient pain outcomes were also sought. Studies were quality appraised; key aspects of study design, interventions and outcomes were compared and a narrative synthesis of findings developed. Results 8 studies were included; all had significant methodological limitations. The majority reported improvements in family carer knowledge and/or self-efficacy for managing pain medicines; no effect on patient pain outcomes; and no adverse effects. It was not possible to discern any association between particular intervention characteristics and family carer outcomes. Conclusions Current evidence is limited, but overall suggests face-to-face educational interventions supported by written and/or other resources have potential to improve carers’ knowledge and self-efficacy for pain management. Further research is needed to identify how best to help family carers manage pain medicines for patients with advanced cancer. PMID:27150294

  13. Communicating bioastronautics research to students, families and the nation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLeish, Marlene Y.; Moreno, Nancy P.; Thomson, William A.; Newman, Dava J.; Gannon, Patrick J.; Smith, Roland B.; Denton, Jon J.; James, Robert K.; Wilson, Craig; Sognier, Marguerite; Illman, Deborah L.

    2005-05-01

    The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) is supporting the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) education mission through a comprehensive Education and Public Outreach Program (EPOP) that communicates the excitement and significance of space biology to schools, families, and lay audiences. The EPOP is comprised of eight academic institutions: Baylor College of Medicine, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Morehouse School of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Texas A&M University, University of Texas Medical Branch Galveston, Rice University, and the University of Washington. This paper describes the programs and products created by the EPOP to promote space life science education in schools and among the general public. To date, these activities have reached thousands of teachers and students around the US and have been rated very highly.

  14. Master's and doctoral theses in family medicine and their publication output, Suez Canal University, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Nour-Eldein, Hebatallah; Mansour, Nadia M.; Abdulmajeed, Abdulmajeed A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The completion of a thesis is a significant requirement for both a Master's and a doctorate degree in general practice/family medicine (GP/FM). A postgraduate thesis is a well-planned, time-intensive activity carried out over several years. The quality of the theses can be judged by the proportion of published papers. Objective: This study aimed to describe Master's and doctoral theses in family medicine and their publications between 1982 and 2014. Materials and Methods: GP/FM degree theses were reviewed at the Faculty of Medicine and central Suez Canal libraries. Several characteristics were extracted from each thesis relating to the main researcher, supervisors, themes, and study methods according to predefined criteria. Publications from the theses were described. Results: Over 33 years, 208 theses were completed by 173 GP/FM researchers. The majority of the theses were for Master's degrees (84.1%). Regarding the study design, most of the degree theses were cross-sectional studies (76.9%). The adult population was targeted in 33.7% of research theses. Nonprobability sampling was used in 51%. Rural communities were the setting of research in 43.8%, and primary health center (PHC)-based studies in 59.1%. The “Patient” category exceeded the other categories (28.4%). Publication from theses started in the second decade of research production. Of the degree theses, 21.6% original articles were published. Only 13.3% of articles from theses were published in PubMed-indexed journals. The researcher was first author in 62.2% of published articles. Conclusion: The production of GP/FM theses and their publications are going to increase. Continuous assessment and planning for GP/FM studies are recommended. PMID:25949959

  15. Osteoporosis guideline implementation in family medicine using electronic medical records

    PubMed Central

    Pritchard, Janet; Karampatos, Sarah; Ioannidis, George; Adachi, Jonathan; Thabane, Lehana; Nash, Lynn; Mehan, Upe; Kozak, Joseph; Feldman, Sid; Hirsch, Steve; Jovaisas, Algis V.; Cheung, Angela; Lohfeld, Lynne; Papaioannou, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To identify family physicians’ learning needs related to osteoporosis care; determine family physicians’ preferred modes of learning; and identify barriers to using electronic medical records (EMRs) to implement osteoporosis guidelines in practice. Design Web-based survey. Setting Ontario. Participants Family physicians. Main outcome measures Quantitative and qualitative data about learning needs related to osteoporosis diagnosis and management; preferred mode of learning about guidelines; and barriers to using EMRs to implement guidelines. Results Of the 12 332 family physicians invited to participate in the survey, 8.5% and 7.0% provided partial or fully completed surveys, respectively. More than 80% of respondents agreed that the priority areas for education were as follows: selecting laboratory tests for secondary osteoporosis and interpreting the test results; interpreting bone mineral density results; determining appropriate circumstances for ordering anterior-posterior lumbar spine x-ray scans; and understanding duration, types, and adverse effects of pharmacotherapy. Qualitative analysis revealed that managing moderate-risk patients was a learning need. Continuing medical education was the preferred mode of learning. Approximately 80% of respondents agreed that the scarcity of EMR tools to aid in guideline implementation was a barrier to using guidelines, and 50% of respondents agreed that if EMR-embedded tools were available, time would limit their ability to use them. Conclusion This survey identified key diagnostic- and treatment-related topics in osteoporosis care that should be the focus of future continuing professional development for family physicians. Developers of EMR tools, physicians, and researchers aiming to implement guidelines to improve osteoporosis care should consider the potential barriers indicated in this study.

  16. Challenges in conducting research after family presence during resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Leske, Jane S; McAndrew, Natalie S; Evans, Crystal-Rae Dawn; Garcia, Annette E; Brasel, Karen J

    2012-01-01

    Family presence during resuscitation (FPDR) is an option occurring in clinical practice. National clinical guidelines on providing the option of FPDR are available from the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses, American Heart Association, Emergency Nurses Association, and Society of Critical Care Medicine. The FPDR option currently remains controversial, underutilized, and not the usual practice with trauma patients. This article is based on the methodological and practical research challenges associated with an ongoing study to examine the effects of the FPDR option on family outcomes in patients experiencing critical injury after motor vehicle crashes and gunshot wounds. The primary aim of this study was to examine the effects of the FPDR option on family outcomes of anxiety, stress, well-being, and satisfaction and compare those outcomes in families who participate in FPDR to those families who do not participate in FPDR. Examples of real clinical challenges faced by the researchers are described throughout this article. Research challenges include design, sampling, inclusion/exclusion criteria, human subjects, and procedures. Recruitment of family members who participated in the FPDR option is a complex process, especially after admission to the critical care unit. PMID:22955717

  17. Five Key Leadership Actions Needed to Redesign Family Medicine Residencies

    PubMed Central

    Kozakowski, Stanley M.; Eiff, M. Patrice; Green, Larry A.; Pugno, Perry A.; Waller, Elaine; Jones, Samuel M.; Fetter, Gerald; Carney, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Background New skills are needed to properly prepare the next generation of physicians and health professionals to practice in medical homes. Transforming residency training to address these new skills requires strong leadership. Objective We sought to increase the understanding of leadership skills useful in residency programs that plan to undertake meaningful change. Methods The Preparing the Personal Physician for Practice (P4) project (2007–2014) was a comparative case study of 14 family medicine residencies that engaged in innovative training redesign, including altering the scope, content, sequence, length, and location of training to align resident education with requirements of the patient-centered medical home. In 2012, each P4 residency team submitted a final summary report of innovations implemented, overall insights, and dissemination activities during the study. Six investigators conducted independent narrative analyses of these reports. A consensus meeting held in September 2012 was used to identify key leadership actions associated with successful educational redesign. Results Five leadership actions were associated with successful implementation of innovations and residency transformation: (1) manage change; (2) develop financial acumen; (3) adapt best evidence educational strategies to the local environment; (4) create and sustain a vision that engages stakeholders; and (5) demonstrate courage and resilience. Conclusions Residency programs are expected to change to better prepare their graduates for a changing delivery system. Insights about effective leadership skills can provide guidance for faculty to develop the skills needed to face practical realities while guiding transformation. PMID:26221432

  18. Teaching adaptive leadership to family medicine residents: what? why? how?

    PubMed

    Eubank, Daniel; Geffken, Dominic; Orzano, John; Ricci, Rocco

    2012-09-01

    Health care reform calls for patient-centered medical homes built around whole person care and healing relationships. Efforts to transform primary care practices and deliver these qualities have been challenging. This study describes one Family Medicine residency's efforts to develop an adaptive leadership curriculum and use coaching as a teaching method to address this challenge. We review literature that describes a parallel between the skills underlying such care and those required for adaptive leadership. We address two questions: What is leadership? Why focus on adaptive leadership? We then present a synthesis of leadership theories as a set of process skills that lead to organization learning through effective work relationships and adaptive leadership. Four models of the learning process needed to acquire such skills are explored. Coaching is proposed as a teaching method useful for going beyond information transfer to create the experiential learning necessary to acquire the process skills. Evaluations of our efforts to date are summarized. We discuss key challenges to implementing such a curriculum and propose that teaching adaptive leadership is feasible but difficult in the current medical education and practice contexts. PMID:22906156

  19. The economic impacts of Oklahoma's Family Medicine residency programs.

    PubMed

    Lapolla, Michael; Brandt, Edward N; Barker, Andréa; Ryan, Lori

    2004-06-01

    The enactment of Medicare and Medicaid created a new demand for medical services in Oklahoma, particularly in rural areas. The state of Oklahoma responded by creating The Oklahoma Physician Manpower Training Commission in 1975. The overall purpose of the Commission was to increase the number of primary care physicians and influence distribution into non-metro areas. This analysis concerns the public policy value of this ongoing program. The PMTC has provided resident stipend funding to each of Oklahoma's publicly funded Family Medicine residency programs. Since 1975, the PMTC has provided over 139 million dollars in resident stipend funding and support; and there have been 749 program graduates with 431 practicing in Oklahoma. This model calculates that the Oklahoma-based physicians have created a cumulative 3.7 billion dollars of economic impact on the state; and conservatively estimates that only 10% of the practice decisions/locations were influenced by the PMTC. This creates an estimated return of 370 million dollars on an "investment" of 139 million dollars. Additionally the model demonstrates that the current cohort of physicians is annually responsible for 15,530 jobs and an associated payroll of 428 million dollars. PMID:15346805

  20. Where should family medicine papers be published - following the impact factor?

    PubMed

    Peleg, Roni; Shvartzman, Pesach

    2006-01-01

    Academic institutions weigh the research contribution of family physicians and take this factor into account when determining eligibility for the candidates' promotion. Among other parameters, these institutions consider the journals in which family physicians publish. In this respect, the impact factor (IF) has gained a foothold as one of the most accepted means to measure this contribution. The IF may be a measure of the main importance of a scientific journal. IF has a huge, but controversial, influence on the perception and evaluation of published scientific research. It is important for family physicians to understand and be aware of the importance of the IF and the way it is calculated. The IF is one consideration in the decision-making process of a researcher as to where to publish because the IF of most family medicine journals is less than 2.0. Thus publication in these journals might not yield the proper "score" for academic promotion in many institutions. On the other hand, publication in journals with higher IF that are not necessarily widely read by primary care physicians could result in a small impact of their findings on direct patient care. PMID:17090797

  1. Social Constructionist Family Systems Research: Conceptual Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puig, Ana; Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka; Echevarria-Doan, Silvia

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to illustrate how theory and particularly the theoretical perspective of social constructionism can influence the ways in which scholars conduct qualitative research studies in the area of family systems. The authors argue for the importance of theory in qualitative research projects and promote researchers' clear…

  2. Public Health Aspects of the Family Medicine Concepts in South Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet; Hadziahmetovic, Miran; Donev, Doncho; Pollhozani, Azis; Ramadani, Naser; Skopljak, Amira; Pasagic, Almir; Roshi, Enver; Zunic, Lejla; Zildzic, Muharem

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Family medicine as a part of the primary health care is devoted to provide continuous and comprehensive health care to the individuals and families regardless of age, gender, types of diseases and affected system or part of the body. Special emphasis in such holistic approach is given to the prevention of diseases and health promotion. Family Medicine is the first step/link between doctors and patients within patients care as well as regular inspections/examinations and follow-up of the health status of healthy people. Most countries aspire to join the European Union and therefore adopting new regulations that are applied in the European Union. Aim: The aim of this study is to present the role and importance of family medicine, or where family medicine is today in 21 Century from the beginning of development in these countries. The study is designed as a descriptive epidemiological study with data from 10 countries of the former Communist bloc, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Kosovo, Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary, just about half of them are members of the EU. We examined the following variables: socio-organizational indicators, health and educational indicators and health indicators. The data used refer to 2002 and as a source of data are used official data from reference WebPages of family medicine doctors associations, WONCA website (EURACT, EQuiP, EGPRN), WebPages of Bureau of Statistics of the countries where the research was conducted as well as the Ministries of Health. Results: Results indicates that the failures and shortcomings of health care organizations in Southeast Europe. Lack of money hinders the implementation of health care reform in all mentioned countries, the most of them that is more oriented to Bismarck financing system. Problems in the political, legal and economic levels are obstacles for efficient a problem reconstructing health care system toward

  3. Historical Evolution and Present Status of Family Medicine in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Ramanayake, R. P. J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Sri Lankan health system consists of Allopathic, Ayurvedic, Unani, and several other systems of medicine and allopathic medicine is catering to the majority of the health needs of the people. As in many other countries, Sri Lankan health system consists of both the state and the private sector General practitioners, MOs in OPDs of hospitals and MOs of central dispensaries, provide primary medical care in Sri Lanka. Most of the general practices are solo practices. One does not need postgraduate qualification or training in general practice to start a general practice. There is no registered population for any particular health care institution in the state sector or in the private sector and there is no strict referral procedure from primary care to secondary or tertiary care. Family doctors have been practicing in Sri Lanka for well over 150 years. The first national organization of general practitioners was Independent Medical Practitioner (IMPA)'s organization which was founded in 1929 and the College of General Practitioners of Sri Lanka was founded in 1974. College conducts its own Membership Course and Examination (MCGP) since 1999. Family Medicine was introduced to undergraduate curriculum in Sri Lanka in early 1980s and now almost all the medical faculties in the country have included Family Medicine in their curricula. In 1979, General Practice/Family Medicine was recognized as a specialty in Sri Lanka by the postgraduate institute of Medicine. Diploma in Family Medicine (DFM) and MD Family Medicine are the pathways for postgraduate training in Sri Lanka. At present 50 to 60 doctors enroll for DFM every year and the country has about 20 specialists (with MD) in Family Medicine. The author's vision for the future is that all the primary care doctors to have a postgraduate qualification in Family Medicine either DFM, MD, or MCGP which is a far cry from the present status. PMID:24479065

  4. Violence against health workers in Family Medicine Centers

    PubMed Central

    Al-Turki, Nouf; Afify, Ayman AM; AlAteeq, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Background Health care violence is a significant worldwide problem with negative consequences on both the safety and well-being of health care workers as well as workplace activities. Reports examining health care violence in Saudi Arabia are limited and the results are conflicting. Objective To estimate the prevalence and determine the demographic and occupational characteristics associated with workplace violence in primary care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods A cross-sectional study included 270 health care workers in 12 family medicine centers in Riyadh during November and December 2014. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used to estimate the frequency, timing, causes, reactions, and consequences of workplace violence plus participants’ demographic and occupational data. Results A total 123 health care workers (45.6%) experienced some kind of violence over 12 months prior to the study. These included physical (6.5%) and nonphysical violence (99.2%), including verbal violence (94.3%) and intimidation (22.0%). Offenders were patients (71.5%) in the majority of cases, companions (20.3%), or both (3.3%). Almost half (48.0%) of health care workers who experienced violence did nothing, 38.2% actively reported the event, and 13.8% consulted a colleague. A significant association of workplace violence was found with working multiple shifts, evening or night shift, and lack of an encouraging environment to report violence. Conclusion Workplace violence is still a significant problem in primary care centers. The high frequency of violence together with underreporting may indicate the inefficiency of the current safety program. More safety programs and training activities for health care workers, efficient reporting system, and zero tolerance policies need to be implemented to minimize workplace violence against health workers. PMID:27330300

  5. Acting as standardized patients enhances family medicine residents' self-reported skills in palliative care.

    PubMed

    Sittikariyakul, Pat; Jaturapatporn, Darin; Kirshen, A J

    2015-08-01

    Recent publications have confirmed the use of standardized patients (SPs) in improving clinical skills and enhancing competency. Little research has studied the benefits residents may themselves gain in palliative care playing the role of SPs. Nineteen Family Medicine residents were recruited as standardized patients (FMR-SPs) for a mandatory palliative care workshop in communication for incoming, first-year trainees. Four months later, FMR-SPs reflected upon their own experiences. Two independent researchers performed thematic analysis of these interviews. Most of the residents were satisfied with their roles. Twelve reported improved understanding of self, their patients, the doctor-patient relationship, and the underlying philosophy of palliative care. They also described improved verbal and non-verbal communication skills. Eleven of 14 residents reflected upon behavioral changes in problem coping styles. All residents indicated an intention to apply the learning in their future work. Encouraging Thai Family Medicine residents, in years one through three, to portray SPs in palliative care appears to be a valuable learning experience for the resident. Future studies to validate whether this learning has been applied in subsequent practice are planned. PMID:25256636

  6. Personalised medicine in Canada: a survey of adoption and practice in oncology, cardiology and family medicine

    PubMed Central

    Bonter, Katherine; Currier, Nathan; Pun, Jason; Ashbury, Fredrick D

    2011-01-01

    Introduction In order to provide baseline data on genetic testing as a key element of personalised medicine (PM), Canadian physicians were surveyed to determine roles, perceptions and experiences in this area. The survey measured attitudes, practice, observed benefits and impacts, and barriers to adoption. Methods A self-administered survey was provided to Canadian oncologists, cardiologists and family physicians and responses were obtained online, by mail or by fax. The survey was designed to be exploratory. Data were compared across specialties and geography. Results The overall response rate was 8.3%. Of the respondents, 43%, 30% and 27% were family physicians, cardiologists and oncologists, respectively. A strong majority of respondents agreed that genetic testing and PM can have a positive impact on their practice; however, only 51% agreed that there is sufficient evidence to order such tests. A low percentage of respondents felt that they were sufficiently informed and confident practicing in this area, although many reported that genetic tests they have ordered have benefited their patients. Half of the respondents agreed that genetic tests that would be useful in their practice are not readily available. A lack of practice guidelines, limited provider knowledge and lack of evidence-based clinical information were cited as the main barriers to practice. Differences across provinces were observed for measures relating to access to testing and the state of practice. Differences across specialties were observed for the state of practice, reported benefits and access to testing. Conclusions Canadian physicians recognise the benefits of genetic testing and PM; however, they lack the education, information and support needed to practice effectively in this area. Variability in practice and access to testing across specialties and across Canada was observed. These results support a need for national strategies and resources to facilitate physician knowledge

  7. Space medicine research publications: 1983-1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solberg, J. L.; Pleasant, L. G.

    1984-01-01

    A list of publications supported by the Space Medicine Program, Office of Space Science and Applications is given. Included are publications entered into the Life Sciences Bibliographic Database by The George Washington University as of October 1, 1984.

  8. Advancements in medicine from aerospace research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooten, F. T.

    1971-01-01

    A program designed to find ways of transferring space technology to non-space medicine is discussed. The methodology used to attack the problem and several illustrative examples of the results are given.

  9. [Methods and possibilities of research in medicine in ancient Egypt].

    PubMed

    Quack, Joachim Friedrich

    2003-01-01

    A recent monograph on Ancient Egyptian medicine provided the occasion for this article. Apart from highlighting the monograph's shortcomings, this article discusses some crucial problems of research and possible avenues for future investigations in this field. Much additional information can be expected from hitherto unpublished sources. Also the already known source materials permit further insights. Relevant aspects are, among others, the order of recipes and the structure of texts, the relationship of magic to medicine, and the secret names for ingredients. Intensified research on the late period data will further clarify the issue of contacts to Greek medicine and of influences on Coptic medicine. PMID:14509232

  10. Geriatric Core Competencies for Family Medicine Curriculum and Enhanced Skills: Care of Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Lesley; Triscott, Jean A.C.; Dobbs, Bonnie M.; McKay, Rhianne

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a growing mandate for Family Medicine residency programs to directly assess residents’ clinical competence in Care of the Elderly (COE). The objectives of this paper are to describe the development and implementation of incremental core competencies for Postgraduate Year (PGY)-I Integrated Geriatrics Family Medicine, PGY-II Geriatrics Rotation Family Medicine, and PGY-III Enhanced Skills COE for COE Diploma residents at a Canadian University. Methods Iterative expert panel process for the development of the core competencies, with a pre-defined process for implementation of the core competencies. Results Eighty-five core competencies were selected overall by the Working Group, with 57 core competencies selected for the PGY-I/II Family Medicine residents and an additional 28 selected for the PGY-III COE residents. The core competencies follow the CanMEDS Family Medicine roles. Both sets of core competencies are based on consensus. Conclusions Due to demographic changes, it is essential that Family Physicians have the required skills and knowledge to care for the frail elderly. The core competencies described were developed for PGY-I/II Family Medicine residents and PGY-III Enhanced Skills COE, with a focus on the development of geriatric expertise for those patients that would most benefit. PMID:24883163

  11. Task Force 1. Report of the Task Force on Patient Expectations, Core Values, Reintegration, and the New Model of Family Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Green, Larry A.; Graham, Robert; Bagley, Bruce; Kilo, Charles M.; Spann, Stephen J.; Bogdewic, Stephen P.; Swanson, John

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND To lay the groundwork for the development of a comprehensive strategy to transform and renew the specialty of family medicine, this Future of Family Medicine task force was charged with identifying the core values of family medicine, developing proposals to reform family medicine to meet consumer expectations, and determining systems of care to be delivered by family medicine in the future. METHODS A diverse, multidisciplinary task force representing a broad spectrum of perspectives and expertise analyzed and discussed published literature; findings from surveys, interviews, and focus groups compiled by research firms contracted to the Future of Family Medicine project; and analyses from The Robert Graham Center, professional societies in the United States and abroad, and others. Through meetings, conference calls, and writing, and revision of a series of subcommittee reports, the entire task force reached consensus on its conclusions and recommendations. These were reviewed by an external panel of experts and revisions were made accordingly. MAJOR FINDINGS After delivering on its promise to reverse the decline of general practice in the United States, family medicine and the nation face additional challenges to assure all people receive care that is safe, effective, patient-centered, timely, efficient, and equitable. Challenges the discipline needs to address to improve family physicians’ ability to make important further contributions include developing a broader, more accurate understanding of the specialty among the public and other health professionals, addressing the wide scope and variance in practice types within family medicine, winning respect for the specialty in academic circles, making family medicine a more attractive career option, and dealing with the perception that family medicine is not solidly grounded in science and technology. The task force set forth a proposed identity statement for family medicine, a basket of services that

  12. [Progress on space oral medicine research under microgravity environment].

    PubMed

    Jing, Chen; Xingqun, Cheng; Xin, Xu; Xuedong, Zhou; Yuqing, Li

    2016-02-01

    As an interdisciplinary of stomatology and space medicine, space oral medicine focuses mainly on oral diseases happened under space environment. With the manned space technology stepping into the new era, space oral medicine has been put under the spotlight. This article will review the historical events on this subject, summarize the newly progress especially on craniomaxillofacial bone, tooth-derived stem cell and oral microbiology researches and still put forward future prospect. PMID:27266206

  13. Integrating Prevention Education into the Medical School Curriculum: The Role of Departments of Family Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stine, Curtis; Kohrs, Francis P.; Little, David N.; Kaprielian, Victoria; Gatipon, Betty B.; Haq, Cynthia

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the role of departments of family medicine in teaching preventive medicine through required clinical experiences, required nonclinical courses, electives, collaborative interdisciplinary clerkships, and interdisciplinary nonclinical courses. Offers examples of innovative programs at the Universities of Michigan, Wisconsin, Vermont,…

  14. Medicine and the market: a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Callahan, D

    1999-06-01

    One of the most important developments in international medicine over the past two decades has been a turn to the market as a way of coping with rising costs and responding to calls for more freedom from government control. A full moral evaluation of the relationship of medicine and the market requires asking a wide range of questions bearing on the meaning and impact of market strategies on the economics of health care and on the clinical and public health outcomes of those strategies. A number of the leading questions are presented and some provisional answers offered. PMID:10472813

  15. Learning to See Beneath the Surface: A Qualitative Analysis of Family Medicine Residents' Reflections About Communication.

    PubMed

    Duggan, Ashley P; Vicini, Andrea; Allen, Lucas; Shaughnessy, Allen F

    2015-01-01

    Patients share straightforward statements with physicians such as describing their fears about their diagnosis. Physicians need to also understanding implicit, indirect, subtle communication cues that give broader context to patients' illness experiences. This project examines physicians' written reflections that offer insight into their interpretation of both the stated and the tacit aspects of their observations about communication, their resulting responses, and their intended actions. Tufts University Family Medicine residents (N = 33) of the Tufts Family Medicine Cambridge Health Alliance completed three reflective exercises each week over the course of 1 year (756 reflective entries). An interdisciplinary research team identified communication-related concepts within the reflections. Identified themes include (a) physicians recognizing and discovering mutual interplay of their communication with and patient disclosure, (b) physicians paying attention to subtleties of patient behavior as indicative of a fuller picture of patients' lives and their coping with illness, and (c) physician images of growth and awareness about communication indicative of their potential for growth and improvement. The project extends the literature in communication and medical education by examining explicit and tacit points of reflection about communication. The project (a) allows for unpacking the multifaceted aspects of reflection and (b) bridges reflective theory and medical education with communication foundations. PMID:26147857

  16. Multilevel Research and the Challenges of Implementing Genomic Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Coates, Ralph J.; Fennell, Mary L.; Glasgow, Russell E.; Scheuner, Maren T.; Schully, Sheri D.; Williams, Marc S.; Clauser, Steven B.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in genomics and related fields promise a new era of personalized medicine in the cancer care continuum. Nevertheless, there are fundamental challenges in integrating genomic medicine into cancer practice. We explore how multilevel research can contribute to implementation of genomic medicine. We first review the rapidly developing scientific discoveries in this field and the paucity of current applications that are ready for implementation in clinical and public health programs. We then define a multidisciplinary translational research agenda for successful integration of genomic medicine into policy and practice and consider challenges for successful implementation. We illustrate the agenda using the example of Lynch syndrome testing in newly diagnosed cases of colorectal cancer and cascade testing in relatives. We synthesize existing information in a framework for future multilevel research for integrating genomic medicine into the cancer care continuum. PMID:22623603

  17. Precision Medicine and the Changing Landscape of Research Ethics.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Marilyn J

    2016-03-01

    President Barack Obama announced the launch of the National Institutes of Health Precision Medicine Initiative® (PMI) in January 2015. Precision medicine includes the concept of individualized or personalized medicine at a more exact level through advances in science and technology, such as genetics and genomics sequencing. Although many disease processes will be investigated through the precision medicine lens for greater understanding and improved treatment responses, oncology research and translation to practice is leading the initiative's debut, referred to as the near-term focus. PMID:26906126

  18. [Textual research for Tibetan medicine Qumazi].

    PubMed

    Luo, Wu-zheng; Li, Qi-en; Chen, Jing; Dor, Jerenchen; Tao, Si-yu; Shi Jin-bo; Xu, Ying-zhou; Yan, Xing-li

    2015-05-01

    Qumazi is a commonly used Tibetan medicine. With a long history, it can be found in the Four Medical Tantras written by gYu-thog rNying-ma Yon-tan mGon-po since the 8th century AD. Qumazi grows in mudflats and fields, including species growing in highlands, lowlands, mountains and farmlands. According to records in Crystal Beads Materia Medica, it features green sword-shaped leaves, thin stems with red veins, inserted panicles, white chicken-like flowers and copper needle row-like roots. However, there are many inconsistent morphological descriptions for Qumazi plants in many Chinese versions of Tibetan medicine books. In this article, after studying ancient and modern Tibetan medicine books, consulting experts and conducting surveys, the authors confirmed that Qumazi belongs to Rheum of Polygonaceae, including Rheum nobile Hook. f. et. Thoms, R. globulosum Gage, R. alexandrae Hook. f. et. Thoms, R. pumilum Maxim and R. delavayi Franch. In some regions, Qumazi is substituted by R. spiciforme Royle and R. przewalskyi Losinsk. After the Chinese version of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Drug Illustrations was published in 1972, Qumazi has been miswritten as P. sibiricum Laxm in many Chinese versions of Tibetan medicine books, perhaps because P. sibiricum Laxm has many similar features with Qumazi as described in Crystal Beads Materia Medica and then is mistranslated from Tibetan to Chinese versions. According to records, Qumazi can reduce edema and is mainly applied to treat the minamata disease in clinic. PMID:26390671

  19. Cognition research and constitutional classification in Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji; Li, Yingshuai; Ni, Cheng; Zhang, Huimin; Li, Lingru; Wang, Qi

    2011-01-01

    In the Western medicine system, scholars have explained individual differences in terms of behaviour and thinking, leading to the emergence of various classification theories on individual differences. Traditional Chinese medicine has long observed human constitutions. Modern Chinese medicine studies have also involved study of human constitutions; however, differences exist in the ways traditional and modern Chinese medicine explore individual constitutions. In the late 1970s, the constitutional theory of Chinese medicine was proposed. This theory takes a global and dynamic view of human differences (e.g., the shape of the human body, function, psychology, and other characteristics) based on arguments from traditional Chinese medicine. The establishment of a standard for classifying constitutions into nine modules was critical for clinical application of this theory. In this review, we describe the history and recent research progress of this theory, and compare it with related studies in the western medicine system. Several research methods, including philology, informatics, epidemiology, and molecular biology, in classifying constitutions used in the constitutional theory of Chinese medicine were discussed. In summary, this constitutional theory of Chinese medicine can be used in clinical practice and would contribute to health control of patients. PMID:21721146

  20. Primary Care Reform: Can Quebec's Family Medicine Group Model Benefit from the Experience of Ontario's Family Health Teams?

    PubMed Central

    Breton, Mylaine; Lévesque, Jean-Frédéric; Pineault, Raynald; Hogg, William

    2011-01-01

    Canadian politicians, decision-makers, clinicians and researchers have come to agree that reforming primary care services is a key strategy for improving healthcare system performance. However, it is only more recently that real transformative initiatives have been undertaken in different Canadian provinces. One model that offers promise for improving primary care service delivery is the family medicine group (FMG) model developed in Quebec. A FMG is a group of physicians working closely with nurses in the provision of services to enrolled patients on a non-geographic basis. The objectives of this paper are to analyze the FMG's potential as a lever for improving healthcare system performance and to discuss how it could be improved. First, we briefly review the history of primary care in Quebec. Then we present the FMG model in relation to the four key healthcare system functions identified by the World Health Organization: (a) funding, (b) generating human and technological resources, (c) providing services to individuals and communities and (d) governance. Next, we discuss possible ways of advancing primary care reform, looking particularly at the family health team (FHT) model implemented in the province of Ontario. We conclude with recommendations to inspire other initiatives aimed at transforming primary care. PMID:23115575

  1. Primary Care, Ambulatory Care, and Family Medicine: Overlapping But Not Synonymous

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Robert E.

    1975-01-01

    Defines and depicts graphically the relationships between primary, secondary, and tertiary care functions (from least to most intensified phases of medical care); ambulatory care (care of sick or well people not confined to bed); and family medicine (an emerging medical discipline focusing on complete and longterm care of the family). (JT)

  2. Assessing the Viability of External Searchable Resources on the American Board of Family Medicine's Certification Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Thomas R.; Peabody, Michael R.; Stelter, Keith L.; Hagen, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    (Purpose) The purpose of our study was to assess the need for an external searchable resource to be used in conjunction with the American Board of Family Medicine's (ABFM) Maintenance of Certification for Family Physicians (MC-FP) Examination, discuss the philosophical question of whether an ESR should be allowed on the examination, and outline…

  3. Family Caregiver Research and the HIPAA Factor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Steven M.; Levine, Carol

    2005-01-01

    Research in family caregiving recently has become more challenging because of the strict protection of privacy mandated in the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996. We ask when should Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) follow HIPAA rules to the letter and when might they use the waiver option? What is the appropriate…

  4. Promoting participatory research by family physicians.

    PubMed

    Macaulay, Ann C

    2007-01-01

    In the past, researchers have inadvertently caused stigmatization of various populations, first by not involving community members and then through publishing negative findings. In contrast, participatory research, which is based on a partnership between researchers and those affected by the issue being studied, promotes the voice of those being researched. This essay highlights key principles, processes, complexities, and challenges of participatory research and outlines when participatory research is not appropriate. It also reflects on the training and skills of family physicians that make them especially suited to participatory research. Family physicians have established clinical partnerships with their patients and sometimes entire communities, are trained in patient-centered care-a good basis for community centered research-and are accustomed to working with uncertainty. In addition, they are frequently pragmatic, interested in questions arising from their patients and communities, and likely to respond well to community requests. The main challenges to participatory research are lack of funding, expertise, and time, which may improve as more funding agencies and universities support this approach to research. PMID:18025494

  5. Sexual medicine in family practice. Part 1: How to help.

    PubMed Central

    Holzapfel, S.

    1993-01-01

    Family physicians are in a unique position to help patients with sexual problems. They know their patients over a long time and often have both partners as patients. Most problems require minimal intervention, usually by providing information. Family physicians are sometimes the only professionals who are trusted enough to be told of abusive or incestuous situations. PMID:8471906

  6. Preparing the personal physician for practice: changing family medicine residency training to enable new model practice.

    PubMed

    Green, Larry A; Jones, Samuel M; Fetter, Gerald; Pugno, Perry A

    2007-12-01

    After two years of intensive study, in 2004 the Future of Family Medicine report concluded that the current U.S. health care system is inadequate and unsustainable, and called for changes within the specialty of family medicine to ensure the future health of the American public. With guidance and encouragement from many disciplines and health experts, a set of 10 recommendations was established to accomplish a transformative change in how family physicians serve their patients and how the essential function of primary care is achieved. From these recommendations came a period of innovation and experimentation in the training of family physicians, entitled Preparing the Personal Physician for Practice (P4). The P4 project is a carefully designed and evaluated initiative led by the American Board of Family Medicine and the Association of Family Medicine Residency Directors and administered by TransforMED, a practice redesign initiative of the American Academy of Family Physicians. Fourteen family medicine programs were chosen to participate and will put their innovations into practice from 2007 to 2012, during which time regular evaluation will be conducted. The purpose of P4 is to learn how to improve the graduate medical education of family physicians such that they are prepared to be outstanding personal physicians and to work in the new models of practice now emerging. The innovations tested by P4 residencies are expected to inspire substantial changes in the content, structure, and locations of training of family physicians and to guide future revisions in accreditation and certification requirements. PMID:18046133

  7. [Experience and problems of implementation of family medicine in post-socialist countries].

    PubMed

    Chopey, I V

    2014-01-01

    The experience of medical-insurance organisations that provide medical services basing on family medicine principles (HMO-type organizations) shows huge potential opportunities for optimization of health care systems through family physicians operating as fundholders. The experience of training of health care specialists, in particular, family physicians at the Department of Post-Graduate Training calls for further improvement of the training in applied issues of legal, financial and economic nature that provide work of family medicine specialists under the conditions of market economy development and health insurance, in particular. In this article shows huge opportunities for optimization of financial and economic provisions of the system, as well as medical and report facility structure and network that are included in the plans of establishment of medical-insurance organizations working on the principles of family medicine and organized by family physicians. ln this regard, it is very important to provide personnel of such medical-insurance organizations with appropriate training in legal, financial and economic issues. Special attention should be paid to the training of facility administrators and managers of family medicine subunits in legal and economic issues. As this is one of the milestones of their work. PMID:25796812

  8. Knowledge and Perceptions of Family Leave Policies Among Female Faculty in Academic Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Freund, Karen M.; Kaplan, Samantha A.; Raj, Anita; Carr, Phyllis L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this research was to examine the knowledge and perceptions of family leave policies and practices among senior leaders including American Association of Medical College members of the Group on Women in Medicine and Science (GWIMS) to identify perceived barriers to career success and satisfaction among female faculty. Methods In 2011–2012 GWIMS representatives and senior leaders at 24 medical schools were invited to participate in an interview about faculty perceptions of gender equity and overall institutional climate. An inductive thematic analysis of the qualitative data was conducted to identify themes represented in participant responses. The research team read and reviewed institutional family leave policies for concordance with key informant descriptions. Findings 22 GWIMS representatives and senior leaders comprised the final sample. Participants were female, 18 (82%) were full professors with the remainder being associate professors. Compared with publicly available policies at each institution, the knowledge of nine participants was consistent with policies, was discrepant for six, with the remaining seven acknowledging a lack of knowledge of policies. Four major themes were identified from the interview data: 1) Framing family leave as a personal issue undermines its effect on female faculty success; 2) Poor communication of policies impairs access and affects organizational climate; 3) Discrepancies in leave implementation disadvantage certain faculty in terms of time and pay; 4) Leave policies are valued and directly related to academic productivity. Conclusions Family leave policies are an important aspect of faculty satisfaction and academic success, yet policy awareness by senior leaders is lacking. Further organizational support is needed to promote equitable policy creation and implementation to support women in medical academia. PMID:24533979

  9. Advancements in medicine from aerospace research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooten, F. T.

    1971-01-01

    NASA has taken the lead in implementing the concept of technology utilization, and the Technology Utilization Program is the first vital step in the goal of a technological society to insure maximum benefit from the costs of technology. Experience has shown that the active approach to technology transfer is unique and is well received in the medical profession when appropriate problems are tackled. The problem solving approach is a useful one at the precise time when medicine is recognizing the need for new technology.

  10. The Diversity of Providers on the Family Medicine Team.

    PubMed

    Bazemore, Andrew; Wingrove, Peter; Peterson, Lars; Petterson, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Family physicians are increasingly incorporating other health care providers into their practice teams to better meet the needs of increasingly complex and comorbid patients. While a majority of family physicians report working with a nurse practitioner, only 21% work with a behavioral health specialist. A better understanding of optimal team composition and function in primary care is essential to realizing the promise of a patient-centered medical home and achieving the triple aim. PMID:26769871

  11. Comparing the Performance of Allopathically and Osteopathically Trained Physicians on the American Board of Family Medicine's Certification Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Thomas R.; Royal, Kenneth D.; Schulte, Bradley M.; Leigh, Terrence

    2009-01-01

    Background: Two medical specialty boards offer certification in family medicine: the American Board of Family Medicine (ABFM) and the American Osteopathic Board of Family Physicians (AOBFP). The AOBFP certification is offered only to graduates of osteopathic colleges; however, graduates of both osteopathic and allopathic medical schools who have…

  12. Medicinal herbs in the United States: research needs.

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, H B; Lucier, G W; Fisher, K D

    1999-01-01

    Virtually all cultures have, throughout history, used a variety of plants or materials derived from plants for the prevention and treatment of disease. Evidence of the beneficial therapeutic effects of these medicinal herbs is seen in their continued use. Additionally, the development of modern chemistry permitted the isolation of chemicals from medicinal herbs that have served as drugs or starting materials for the synthesis of many important drugs used today. Many more modern drugs have been synthesized as a result of knowledge gained from studies of mechanisms of actions of chemicals first isolated from medicinal herbs. Thus, medicinal herbs have played a major role in the development of modern medicine and continue to be widely used in their original form. Whereas it is generally agreed that most medicinal herbs are safe under the conditions used, some are toxic and should be avoided even though they are readily available, and others have significant adverse side effects when misused. Also, little has been done to investigate potential adverse effects that may be associated with extended or high-dose use of medicinal herbs. Thus, concern has been expressed that the lack of quality control used in the preparation of medicinal herbs, plus their unregulated sale and uninformed use, pose potential adverse health effects for consumers. There is also concern regarding potential herb/herb or herb/drug interactions and possible untoward health effects of medicinal herbs in sensitive subpopulations such as the young and the elderly and certain genetically predisposed individuals. In this paper, we discuss these concerns at some length and make recommendations for additional research and education discussed in the recent International Workshop to Evaluate Research Needs on the Use and Safety of Medicinal Herbs. PMID:10504141

  13. Family-Focused Autism Spectrum Disorder Research: A Review of the Utility of Family Systems Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cridland, Elizabeth K.; Jones, Sandra C.; Magee, Christopher A.; Caputi, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A family member with an autism spectrum disorder presents pervasive and bidirectional influences on the entire family system, suggesting a need for family-focused autism spectrum disorder research. While there has been increasing interest in this research area, family-focused autism spectrum disorder research can still be considered relatively…

  14. [USE OF COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE AMONG FAMILY MEDICINE PATIENTS--EXAMPLE OF THE TOWN OF ČAKOVEC].

    PubMed

    Vitale, Ksenija; Munđar, Roko; Sović, Slavica; Bergman-Marković, Biserka; Janev Holcer, Nataša

    2014-12-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is widespread around the world including Croatia. The number of studies that investigate both quantitative and qualitative use of CAM in Croatia is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of CAM among family medicine patients in the town of Čakovec and the rate they report it to their family doctor. This was a cross-sectional study in a sample of 300 patients that visited primary health center for any reason. We used anonymous questionnaire already employed in a previous investigation (Čižmešija et al. 2008), which describes socioeconomic characteristics, modalities of CAM use, and reasons for use. We also added questions on the type of herbs used and use of over-the-counter vitamin and mineral supplements. On data analysis we used descriptive statistics, χ2-test and Fisher's exact test, while the level of statistical significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. The response rate was 76%. Out of the total number of patients, 82% used some modality of CAM. Women, patients with secondary school education, employed and retired persons used CAM more often. Students and pupils reported least use of CAM. The most commonly used were herbs (87%), bioenergy (29%), diet therapy (28%), chiropractics (22%), and homeopathy and acupuncture (11% each). Vitamin and mineral supplements were used by 77% of study subjects. CAM was most frequently used for respiratory, urinary and musculoskeletal problems, as well as to improve overall health condition. Of the respondents that reported CAM use, 55% believed it would help them, 43% used it because they wanted to try something new, while only 2% indicated dissatisfaction with their physician as the reason for using CAM. Statistically, there were more subjects that used CAM and did not notify their family doctor about it, which could indicate poor communication between family doctors and health care users. Our results are consistent with a previous quantitative study

  15. Who Is Driving Continuing Medical Education for Family Medicine?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Douglas; Allan, G. Michael; Manca, Donna; Sargeant, Joan; Barnett, Carly

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Considerable time and money are invested in continuing medical education (CME) for family physicians (FPs) but the effectiveness is uncertain. The participation of FPs as coordinators and teachers is not well known. The goal of this project was to describe the role of FPs in organizing and teaching CME events that are accredited for…

  16. A Problem-Solving Oral Examination for Family Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Wart, Arthur D.

    1974-01-01

    The College of Family Physicians of Canada has used in its certification examination a new type of structured problem-solving examination called the Formal Oral. A series of preselected problem areas such as the complaint, relevant data base, investigation, and treatment are scored by two examiners. (Editor/PG)

  17. Sexual medicine in family practice. Part 2: Treating sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed Central

    Holzapfel, S.

    1993-01-01

    Sexual problems can be caused by organic or psychological factors, or a combination of the two. Deciding which leads to an appropriate management plan. This paper describes the current status of treatments for common sexual dysfunctions seen in family practice. PMID:8471907

  18. Cancer Risk Assessment by Rural and Appalachian Family Medicine Physicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Kimberly M.; Love, Margaret M.; Pearce, Kevin A.; Porter, Kyle; Barron, Mary A.; Andrykowski, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Context: Challenges to the identification of hereditary cancer in primary care may be more pronounced in rural Appalachia, a medically underserved region. Purpose: To examine primary care physicians' identification of hereditary cancers. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was mailed to family physicians in the midwestern and southeastern United…

  19. Knowledge of medical-legal issues. Survey of Ontario family medicine residents.

    PubMed Central

    Saltstone, S. P.; Saltstone, R.; Rowe, B. H.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To ascertain how much family medicine residents know about medical-legal issues and what their attitudes toward medical-legal training are. DESIGN: Survey using multiple-choice questions to assess knowledge of typical legal scenarios and attitudes to training. Responses to questions were assessed using a Likert scale. SETTING: University of Ottawa's Family Medicine Program, including the Northeastern Ontario Family Medicine Program and the Melrose and Elizabeth Bruyere Family Medicine Centres. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-five family medicine residents in the University of Ottawa's Family Medicine Program. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Demographic information and answers to questions assessing respondents' knowledge of and attitudes toward medical-legal issues. RESULTS: Mean score for correct responses was 8.6 out of 16 possible correct responses. Resident's knowledge about certain issues was excellent, such as knowing that comments can be constructed as sexual abuse and that they should report patients whose medical conditions make it dangerous for them to operate motor vehicles. On other issues, such as how to treat incompetent individuals and how to treat minors when parents refuse consent for treatment, residents' knowledge seemed poor. Although residents thought knowledge of medical-legal issues was important for providing good-quality care to patients and avoiding litigation, they felt inadequately trained in and uncomfortable about dealing with these issues. CONCLUSIONS: Residents are somewhat confused about medical-legal issues. They seem very interested in learning medical-legal principles. These findings should encourage educators to provide opportunity for residents to gain knowledge in these areas. PMID:9111983

  20. The Challenges of Clinical Researches in Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM)

    PubMed Central

    Tabarrai, Malihe; Qaraaty, Marzie; Aliasl, Jale

    2016-01-01

    Background: Traditional medicine is one of the medical schools, which has been considered in recent years. Achieving reliable and valid research in ITM is very important to introduce this line of medicine into the healthcare organizations. The aim of this study was to investigate clinical research issues in ITM. Methods: This study is a qualitative research. We formed an expert panel and, after identifying the content, the study findings were divided into two main categories. Results: Challenges of clinical research studies are divided into two major categories in ITM, the problems of clinical trial processes and the difficulties in publishing research results. Lack of standard data collection instruments and questionnaires, limited sample size, lack of study models designed for distemperament treatment, unawareness, and non-compliance of ethics committees in facilities approved by WHO for clinical research of TM, and even rigidity beyond conventional medicine studies are some of the previously mentioned issues. Some difficulties in the publication of research results include lack of specialized journals especially at high academic levels, lack of familiarity with editorial board and difficulty in publishing the results of studies that are designed with combined products. A few proposals for these problems include: Conducting codification questionnaire workshops (approved by a thesis assistant with a subject of research tools)Introducing appropriate methods of multi-intervention research in ITMCreating the database of similarly performed research available for researchersDesigning multicenter researchCollaborations between academic centersLinking two or more thesis assistants or research projects in the form of a joint proposal with larger sample sizesEstablishing joint meeting between researchers, the heads of TM research centers and ethics committeesDedicated TM journal Conclusion: Considering a history of several thousand years, the Iranian traditional medicine

  1. Argentine folk medicine: genotoxic effects of Chenopodiaceae family.

    PubMed

    Gadano, A B; Gurni, A A; Carballo, M A

    2006-01-16

    Chenopodium ambrosioides L. and Chenopodium multifidum L. (Chenopodiaceae), common name: Paico, are medicinal plants. They are aromatic shrubs growing in South America. For centuries, they have been used due to its medicinal properties. However, there are few reports in literature about the genotoxic effects of these plants. There for, the aim of these work is the evaluation of genetic damage induced by decoction and infusion of this plants which were assayed in different concentrations (1, 10, 100, 1,000 microL extract/mL culture), by addition of the extract to human lymphocyte cell cultures, negative controls were included. The endpoints evaluated were chromosomal aberrations (CA), sister chromatid exchanges (SCE), cell proliferation kinetics (CPK) and mitotic index (MI). The repeated measure analysis of variance was used for statistic evaluation of the results. The results showed: (a) statistical increase in the percentage of cells with CA and in the frequency of SCE when cultures were exposed to both aromatic plants, (b) a decrease in MI of both Paicos assayed, although no modification in the CPK values was observed, (c) no effect was noticed in the analysis of Chenopodium album L., which was used as negative control of the essential oil. These results suggest a cyto and genotoxic effect of Chenopodium ambrosioides and Chenopodium multifidum aqueous extracts related to the essential oil of the plant (as Chenopodium album did not perform). PMID:16219440

  2. Innovative educational practices in a required family medicine clerkship.

    PubMed

    Quinby, P M

    1993-01-01

    This paper traces the 7-year evolution of a required clerkship in Family Practice from the time of initial grant application to the current academic year. Results of experience in areas of student placement, preceptor recruitment, curriculum development, test construction, grading schema and course evaluation are described. Emphasis on streamlining administrative systems to decrease paperwork of course director is a major focus. Changing needs of department, medical school and student are reflected in the adaptations of the clerkship to these needs. PMID:8326845

  3. Longitudinal Outcomes from the Family Development Research Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2004-01-01

    The Family Development Research Program (FDRP) was begun as an omnibus effort to serve low-income, low-education families by providing education, nutrition, health, safety, and human service resources for the 108 families initially recruited. Very deprived families were recruited early in the last trimester of pregnancy. All the families had an…

  4. Australian Family Research Conference Proceedings (Canberra, Australia, November 23-25, 1983). Volume VI: Family Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of Family Studies, Melbourne (Australia).

    Family life is the focus of this sixth volume in a series containing the proceedings of the 1983 Australian Family Research Conference. The papers are organized under two major sections: Children and Families and Family Environments. Papers and authors included are: "Family Conflict and Child Competence" (Gay Ochiltree and Paul Amato), "Me in My…

  5. Stem cells have the potential to rejuvenate regenerative medicine research.

    PubMed

    Eve, David J; Fillmore, Randolph; Borlongan, Cesar V; Sanberg, Paul R

    2010-10-01

    The increasing number of publications featuring the use of stem cells in regenerative processes supports the idea that they are revolutionizing regenerative medicine research. In an analysis of the articles published in the journal Cell Transplantation - The Regenerative Medicine Journal between 2008 and 2009, which reveals the topics and categories that are on the cutting edge of regenerative medicine research, stem cells are becoming increasingly relevant as the "runner-up" category to "neuroscience" related articles. The high volume of stem cell research casts a bright light on the hope for stem cells and their role in regenerative medicine as a number of reports deal with research using stem cells entering, or seeking approval for, clinical trials. The "methods and new technologies" and "tissue engineering" sections were almost equally as popular, and in part, reflect attempts to maximize the potential of stem cells and other treatments for the repair of damaged tissue. Transplantation studies were again more popular than non-transplantation, and the contribution of stem cell-related transplants was greater than other types of transplants. The non-transplantation articles were predominantly related to new methods for the preparation, isolation and manipulation of materials for transplant by specific culture media, gene therapy, medicines, dietary supplements, and co-culturing with other cells and further elucidation of disease mechanisms. A sizeable proportion of the transplantation articles reported on how previously new methods may have aided the ability of the cells or tissue to exert beneficial effects following transplantation. PMID:20885363

  6. Emerging translational research on magnetic nanoparticles for regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yu; Lim, Jing; Teoh, Swee-Hin; Xu, Chenjie

    2015-10-01

    Regenerative medicine, which replaces or regenerates human cells, tissues or organs, to restore or establish normal function, is one of the fastest-evolving interdisciplinary fields in healthcare. Over 200 regenerative medicine products, including cell-based therapies, tissue-engineered biomaterials, scaffolds and implantable devices, have been used in clinical development for diseases such as diabetes and inflammatory and immune diseases. To facilitate the translation of regenerative medicine from research to clinic, nanotechnology, especially magnetic nanoparticles have attracted extensive attention due to their unique optical, electrical, and magnetic properties and specific dimensions. In this review paper, we intend to summarize current advances, challenges, and future opportunities of magnetic nanoparticles for regenerative medicine. PMID:26505058

  7. Assisting people with dementia with their medicines: experiences of family carers

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Felicity; Grijseels, Madelon S; Ryan, Patricia; Tobiansky, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Many family carers provide assistance with medicines that is vital for optimal clinical outcomes. Medicines-related tasks are known to contribute to carer burden and stress. This study examined the experiences of family carers when providing medicines-related assistance for a person with dementia, to indicate how services could become more responsive to the specific needs of this group of carers. Methods Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with family carers and care-recipients identified though a memory clinic in north London and a local Alzheimer's Society. The interview guide, comprising open questions, was informed by previous studies and consultation with stakeholders. Qualitative procedures involving a framework approach were employed in the analysis. Key findings Fourteen interviews with carers and five with care-recipients were conducted. These highlighted the burden and challenges, surrounding medicines-management activities. As well as practical aspects that could be complex, carers were commonly making judgements about the need for and appropriateness of medicines. Although experiences were varied, carers reported difficulties in maintaining supplies, ensuring adherence to regimens and accessing health professionals; and they made some recommendations for service improvements. Carers’ difficulty in obtaining information and advice about medicines was compounded by their desire to allow the care-recipient to retain autonomy over their medicines as long as possible. Conclusion This study highlights the distinct needs and problems with regard to medicines-management when caring for a person with dementia. As the prevalence of dementia rises, interventions designed to address these specific aspects of reduce carer-burden should be a priority for health professionals. PMID:25351043

  8. Ultrasound imaging in research and clinical medicine.

    PubMed

    Schellpfeffer, Michael A

    2013-06-01

    The use of ultrasound imaging in clinical obstetrics continues to grow at an almost exponential rate. Ultrasound imaging in developmental biology has only begun to be used to enhance the traditional methodologies to study the developing embryo/fetus. The various modalities of ultrasound imaging are reviewed as they apply to current uses in clinical obstetrics and developmental biologic research. New modalities are also discussed in both clinical obstetrics and developmental biologic research as well as the current limitations of ultrasound imaging faced in both of these fields. PMID:23897593

  9. Postmodern Influence in Family Therapy Research: Reflections of Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertlein, Katherine M.; Lambert-Shute, Jennifer; Benson, Kristen

    2004-01-01

    Postmodernism has influenced family therapy in significant ways, from clinical work to family therapy research. Little has been written, however, on how to conduct postmodern research in a manner reflecting marriage and family therapy inquiries. The present study seeks to investigate doctoral students understanding of postmodern family therapy…

  10. Family medicine in Denmark: Are there lessons for Botswana and Africa?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Family medicine is a new specialty in Botswana and many African countries and its definition and scope are still evolving. In this region, healthcare is constrained by resource limitation and inefficiencies in resource utilisation. Experiences in countries with good health indicators can help inform discussions on the future of family medicine in Africa. Observations made during a visit to family physicians (FPs) in Denmark showed that the training of FPs, the practice of family medicine and the role of support staff in a family practice were often different and sometimes unimaginable by African standards. Danish family practices were friendly and enmeshed in an egalitarian and efficient health system, which is supported by an effective information technology network. There was a lot of task shifting and nurses and clerical staff attended to simple or uncomplicated aspects of patient care whilst FPs attended to more complicated patient problems. Higher taxation and higher health expenditure seemed to undergird the effective health system. An egalitarian relationship amongst patients and healthcare workers (HCW) may help improve patient care in Botswana. Task shifting should be formalised, and all sectors of primary healthcare should have fast and effective information technology systems. HCW training and roles should be revised. Higher health expenditure is necessary to achieve good health indicators. PMID:27247159

  11. Knowledge mapping of Chinese medicine interdisciplinary research field.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hao; Pu, Wen-yuan; Qian, Ai-bing; Zhu, Xue-fang

    2015-02-01

    Based on 248 core biomedical journals indexed in the General Contents of Chinese Core Journals (2011 edition) released by Peking University,we established a Chinese Medicine Sciences Citation Index (CMSCI) database; in addition, based on the Chinese Library Classification (4(th) edition), we identified 13 259 articles concerning Chinese medicine interdisciplinary research. The knowledge mapping was performed for keywords co-occurence, total cites of articles, and total cites of authors using the CiteSpace3 software, with an attempt to reveal the research priorities,knowledge sources, and highly influential authors PMID:25676277

  12. Mental Illness in the Family. Families Today: A Research Sampler on Families and Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corfman, Eunice, Ed.

    Science Monographs, published by the National Institute of Mental Health, are book-length, integrative state-of-the-art reviews, critical evaluations of findings, or program assessments of current research on topics related to the NIMH mandate. This set of articles concentrate on mental illness in the family. "Depression and Low-Income,…

  13. Amphibians as research models for regenerative medicine

    PubMed Central

    Song, Fengyu; Li, Bingbing

    2010-01-01

    The ability to regenerate bone across a critical size defect would be a marked clinical advance over current methods for dealing with such structural gaps. Here, we briefly review the development of limb bones and the mandible, the regeneration of urodele limbs after amputation, and present evidence that urodele and anuran amphibians represent a valuable research model for the study of segment defect regeneration in both limb bones and mandible. PMID:21197215

  14. [An exploration of the issues involved in family related research].

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsiu-Li; Dai, Yu-Tzu; Yeh, Mei Chang; Weng, Li-Chueh

    2007-06-01

    Nowadays, health care delivery systems are changing from hospital-based services to more family-oriented or community-oriented care. The development of family nursing and family research is the focus of more attention than ever before. A family is composed of individuals. It combines the characteristics of individuals and collective groups, which makes family research more complex than studies of individuals. Consequently, research into family-oriented areas presents additional challenges concerning conceptual methodological issues. This article focuses on the issues of family research concepts, research designs, definitions of family, sampling, study tools, and data analysis. In order to promote high-quality family research outcomes, we propose below suggestions to serve as a guide to conducting family research: (1) identify the definition of family involved in a particular research question and choose a suitable methodology; (2) determine the number of family members and un its of analysis on theoretical bases; (3) select high-validity, high-reliability research tools in answering research questions; (4) analysis methods must match the concept of family and the characteristics of the units of analysis; (5) ethical issues must be respected in the recruitment of family members. PMID:17554671

  15. What Do Family Medicine Patients Think about Medical Students' Participation in Their Health Care?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devera-Sales, Amelia; Paden, Carrie; Vinson, Daniel C.

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 575 family-medicine patients in academic and community settings found most willing to have a medical student involved in their health care. One-third reported that students did at least part of the physical examination. Many patients said they would appreciate a medical student's attention. Almost half perceived that student…

  16. Perceptions and Practices of Graduates of Combined Family Medicine-Psychiatry Residency Programs: A Nationwide Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Christopher H.; Morganstein, Joshua; Rachal, James; Lacy, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors evaluate the current practices and perceptions of graduates of combined family medicine-psychiatry residency programs in the following areas: preparation for practice, boundary formation, and integration of skills sets. Method: The authors conducted an electronic cross-sectional survey of all nationwide combined family…

  17. Monetary Value of a Prescription Assistance Program Service in a Rural Family Medicine Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitley, Heather P.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the monetary value of medications provided to rural Alabamians through provision of pharmaceutical manufacturer-sponsored prescription assistance programs (PAPs) provided by a clinical pharmacist in a private Black Belt family medicine clinic during 2007 and 2008. Methods: Patients struggling to afford prescription medications…

  18. Clinical Poems and Clinical Conversations: Some Thoughts on Working with Family Medicine Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Howard F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes an experiment in which Family Medicine residents composed, read, and discussed their poems as a way of bringing to life their often complex relationships with patients. It argues that this approach mobilizes the physicians' own creativity in the service of reflective practice and improved doctor-patient relationships. This…

  19. Family medicine residents’ risk of adverse motor vehicle events: a comparison between rural and urban placements

    PubMed Central

    Janke, Fred; Dobbs, Bonnie; McKay, Rhianne; Linsdell, Meghan; Babenko, Oksana

    2013-01-01

    Background Sleep deprivation and fatigue are associated with long and irregular work hours. These work patterns are common to medical residents. Motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) are a leading cause of injury related deaths in Canada, with MVC fatality rates in rural areas up to three times higher than in urban areas. Objectives To: 1) examine the number of adverse motor vehicle events (AMVEs) in family medicine residents in Canada; 2) assess whether residents with rural placements are at greater risk of experiencing AMVEs than urban residents; and 3) determine if family medicine residency programs across Canada have travel policies in place. Methodology A prospective, cross-sectional study, using a national survey of second-year family medicine residents. Results A higher percentage of rural residents reported AMVEs than urban residents. The trend was for rural residents to be involved in more MVCs during residency, while urban residents were more likely to be involved in close calls. The majority of Canadian medical schools do not have resident travel policies in place. Conclusion AMVEs are common in family medicine residents, with a trend for the number of MVCs to be greater for rural residents. These data support the need for development and incorporation of travel policies by medical schools. PMID:26451211

  20. Back to the future: reflections on the history of the future of family medicine.

    PubMed

    Doohan, Noemi C; Endres, Jill; Koehn, Nerissa; Miller, John; Scherger, Joseph E; Martin, James; Devoe, Jennifer E

    2014-01-01

    These are historic times for family medicine. The profession is moving beyond the visionary blueprint of the Future of Family Medicine (FFM) report while working to harness the momentum created by the FFM movement. Preparing for, and leading through, the next transformative wave of change (FFM version 2.0) will require the engagement of multigenerational and multidisciplinary visionaries who bring wisdom from diverse experiences. Active group reflection on the past will potentiate the collective work being done to best chart the future. Historical competency is critically important for family medicine's future. This article describes the historical context of the development and launch of the FFM report, emphasizing the professional activism that preceded and followed it. This article is intended to spark intergenerational dialog by providing a multigenerational reflection on the history of FFM and the evolution that has occurred in family medicine over the past decade. Such intergenerational conversations enable our elders to share wisdom with our youth, while allowing our discipline to visualize history through the eyes of future generations. PMID:25381082

  1. Development of a Competency Framework for Quality Improvement in Family Medicine: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czabanowska, Katarzyna; Klemenc-Ketis, Zalika; Potter, Amanda; Rochfort, Andree; Tomasik, Tomasz; Csiszar, Judit; Van den Bussche, Piet

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive framework of quality improvement competencies for use in continuing professional development (CPD) and continuing medical education (CME) for European general practice/family medicine physicians (GPs/FDs). Methods: The study was carried out in three phases: literature review,…

  2. Health Literacy Teaching in U.S. Family Medicine Residency Programs: A National Survey.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Clifford A; Nguyen, Nancy T; Garvin, Roger; Sou, Channbunmorl; Carney, Patricia A

    2016-01-01

    Health care providers, including medical residents, often lack adequate knowledge and skills to work effectively with patients who have limited health literacy. Little is known about the degree to which medical residents are trained to communicate effectively with people who have limited health literacy. This study aimed to assess the status of health literacy training for physicians in U.S. family medicine residency programs. We conducted an online survey of residency directors at 444 U.S. family medicine residencies. Among 138 respondents (31% response rate), 58 programs (42%) reported teaching residents about health literacy as part of the required curriculum. Most instruction occurred during the 1st year of training. Hours of instruction ranged from 2 to 5 during Years 1 through 3. Skills-based training (e.g., plain language techniques) was taught by most programs. Not having access to a faculty authority on health literacy was strongly associated with lack of a required health literacy curriculum. Respondents overwhelmingly agreed that increasing health literacy training for medical students and residents would help improve residents' clinical skills. This study provides a baseline snapshot of health literacy curricula in U.S. family medicine residencies and likely overestimates the prevalence of such curricula. Additional studies are needed to determine the quality of health literacy instruction in U.S. family medicine residencies and the most effective methods for teaching residents about health literacy. PMID:27043758

  3. Multi-Source Evaluation of Interpersonal and Communication Skills of Family Medicine Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Kai-Kuen; Wang, Wei-Dan; Chen, Yen-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    There is a lack of information on the use of multi-source evaluation to assess trainees' interpersonal and communication skills in Oriental settings. This study is conducted to assess the reliability and applicability of assessing the interpersonal and communication skills of family medicine residents by patients, peer residents, nurses, and…

  4. A Conceptual Framework for Teaching Geriatrics in a Family Medicine Residency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, James T.; Bobula, James A.

    1980-01-01

    A competency-based curriculum model for teaching geriatrics in a family medicine residency is described that divides competencies under four major goals: understanding principles, obtaining and interpreting data, managing geriatric patients, and working in a health care team. Sample objectives, instructional methods, and student evaluation are…

  5. Research Methodology: Endocrinologic Measurements in Exercise Science and Sports Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Hackney, Anthony C; Viru, Atko

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To provide background information on methodologic factors that influence and add variance to endocrine outcome measurements. Our intent is to aid and improve the quality of exercise science and sports medicine research endeavors of investigators inexperienced in endocrinology. Background: Numerous methodologic factors influence human endocrine (hormonal) measurements and, consequently, can dramatically compromise the accuracy and validity of exercise and sports medicine research. These factors can be categorized into those that are biologic and those that are procedural-analytic in nature. Recommendations: Researchers should design their studies to monitor, control, and adjust for the biologic and procedural-analytic factors discussed within this paper. By doing so, they will find less variance in their hormonal outcomes and thereby will increase the validity of their physiologic data. These actions can assist the researcher in the interpretation and understanding of endocrine data and, in turn, make their research more scientifically sound. PMID:19030142

  6. Multicenter pediatric emergency medicine research and Rhode Island.

    PubMed

    Chun, Thomas H

    2014-01-01

    Multicenter clinical research studies are often needed to address issues of generalizability, conditions with low incidence, adequate statistical power, and potential study bias. While pediatric research networks began work in the 1950s, and Rhode Island physicians have contributed to many of these studies, pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) collaboratives are relative newcomers. Since the mid-1990s, Rhode Island pediatricians have contributed to multicenter studies of diabetic ketoacidosis, bronchiolitis, asthma, quality of PEM care, meningitis, brief interventions for substance use disorders, point-of-care ultrasound, and pre-hospital triage protocols. In 2011, Rhode Island Hospital joined the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network, the first federally funded pediatric emergency medicine network of its kind. Its mission is to perform high quality, high impact PEM research. Since joining the network, Rhode Island Hospital has quickly become a productive and valued member of the network, portending a bright future for multicenter PEM research in the Ocean State. PMID:24400311

  7. Angel of human health: current research updates in toad medicine

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qian; Zhou, Xuanxuan; Zhang, Meng; Bi, Linlin; Miao, Shan; Cao, Wei; Xie, Yanhua; Sun, Jiyuan; Tang, Haifeng; Li, Ying; Miao, Qing; Wang, Siwang

    2015-01-01

    There are currently 34 genera and 410 species of toads in the world. The medicinal parts of toads mainly include their venom, skin, and clothing. The toad’s venom and skin possess the same chemical components, mainly the toad venom lactone class, and their pharmacological effects primarily include the maintenance of strong heart, antitumor, antivirus, anti-infection, and analgesic effects. So far, the produces from the medicinal raw materials of the toad are widely used clinically around the world, especially in China, Japan, and South Korea. About 50 varieties of medicines are used in the clinical treatment of various complicated diseases in China, such as “Liushen pills” which was popular in the whole world. Toads are mainly used in treating malignant tumors (e.g., liver cancer, gastric cancer, esophageal cancer, colon cancer, cervical cancer, among others), and some major diseases such as hepatitis B. Despite the therapeutic effects of toad-derived medicines on human health, there is insufficient research and development of toad-derived medicines by leading drug companies. In order to harness the beneficial effects of the resources of the toad species, it is the responsibility of global pharmaceutical researchers to develop and generate economically feasible toad-derived therapeutic products, while promoting maximum protection to the resources of the toad species. PMID:25755824

  8. Harnessing the crowd to accelerate molecular medicine research.

    PubMed

    Smith, Robert J; Merchant, Raina M

    2015-07-01

    Crowdsourcing presents a novel approach to solving complex problems within molecular medicine. By leveraging the expertise of fellow scientists across the globe, broadcasting to and engaging the public for idea generation, harnessing a scalable workforce for quick data management, and fundraising for research endeavors, crowdsourcing creates novel opportunities for accelerating scientific progress. PMID:26141797

  9. Capacity for Clinical Research on Herbal Medicines in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Siegfried, Nandi; Johnson, Quinton

    2012-01-01

    Abstract An electronic survey was used to assess the training needs of clinical and public health researchers who have been involved, and/or plan to become involved, in clinical trials of herbal medicines in Africa. Over 90 researchers were contacted through pre-existing networks, of whom 58 (64%) responded, from 35 institutions in 14 African countries. Over half (57%) had already been involved in a clinical trial of an herbal medicine, and gave information about a total of 23 trials that have already been completed. Of these, only five had been published, and only one had resulted in a licensed product. Fifty-four (54) of the researchers were planning to conduct a clinical trial of an herbal medicine in the future, and gave information about 54 possible trials. Respondents outlined the following most commonly encountered difficulties when conducting clinical trials: resource constraints (including lack of funding, equipment, staff, and infrastructure); social acceptance of the clinical trial (including difficulty recruiting enough patients, poor rapport with traditional healers, and willingness of biomedical staff to be involved); herbal medicine supply (including insufficient cultivation, production, and quality control); lack of trained staff; and logistical issues in conducting trials. The topics in which researchers were least confident were Intellectual Property Rights issues, statistical issues, and issues related to Good Clinical Practice guidelines. PMID:22784350

  10. The practice of travel medicine by family practitioners.

    PubMed

    Ross, M; Pinto, I; Sparks, B

    1995-06-01

    This study sought to determine the prevalence of family practitioners (FPs) in Johannesburg, South Africa, who are consulted by travelers. The study quantified the extent of medical activity of FPs and determined sources of physicians' updating information. Data were obtained from a random sample of 180 of the 576 nonspecialists listed as private medical practitioners in 1992-93 in the Johannesburg telephone directory. Interviews were obtained from 109 practitioners, of whom 105 were consulted by travelers. The average rate of consultations was an estimated 30/FP. Over 90% of FPs were asked about malaria prevention and/or immunization. 98% provided advice on malaria, and over 80% administered immunizations. The most common vaccine was Hepatitis B (63%), followed by gamma globulin for Hepatitis A (58%), and tetanus toxoid (50%). It was common for FPs to recommend antidiarrheal medications. Clients did not generally ask about diarrhea prevention. 47% gave preventive advice alone on diarrhea or recommendations for medication. FPs kept up to date on medical affairs by reading professional journals and following local experts or colleagues. In 1992, an estimated 100,000 travelers visited FPs in Johannesburg. PMID:12178510

  11. [Breast cancer research in the era of precision medicine].

    PubMed

    Yang, H Y; Jiang, Y Z; Shao, Z M

    2016-06-23

    Precision medicine is an emerging medical strategy that takes into account individual molecular variations of disease to guide accurate prevention and treatment.Tumor molecular markers closely related to aggressive behavior and treatment response will be identified by integrating clinical information and multiple-omics, and will be verified in well-designed clinical trials. Breast cancer is a highly heterogeneous disease. Its treatment based on molecular subtyping has achieved initial success. However, drug resistance and tumor heterogeneity are still major challenges. This review will focus on the recent progress and future prospects of clinical research on breast cancer in the era of precision medicine. PMID:27346395

  12. [Effects of ingredient study in traditional Chinese medicine research].

    PubMed

    Guo, Lili; Wang, Jie

    2009-03-01

    Effective ingredients are the material base for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to treat disease, also are the powerful method to explain the science of TCM theory. But to only emphasis the effective ingredient and to neglect the feature "based on symptoms to take effect" of TCM, it will falled into imitating the methods of western medicine, so there is little contribution to TCM development. To correctly comprehend the principal of TCM, draw assistance from advanced modern biology technology, scientific analysis the valid cases of TCM, explore the mechanism of action of TCM, to search the material curing disease are the necessary paths of TCM research. PMID:19526770

  13. [Diet as a cardiovascular risk factor in family medicine].

    PubMed

    Bergman Marković, Biserka; Katić, Milica; Vrdoljak, Davorka; Kranjcević, Ksenija; Jasna, Vucak; Ivezić Lalić, Dragica

    2010-05-01

    Although Mediterranean country by its geographic position, according to cardiovascular mortality (CVM) rate, Croatia belongs to Central-East European countries with high CV mortality. Prevention by changing nutritional habits is population (public health programmes) or individually targeted. General practitioner (GP) provides care for whole person in its environment and GP's team plays a key role in achieving lifestyle changes. GPs intervention is individually/group/family targeted by counselling or using printed leaflets (individual manner, organized programmes). Adherence to lifestyle changes is not an easy task; it is higher when recommendations are simple and part of individually tailored programme with follow- ups included. Motivation is essential, but obstacles to implementation (by patient and GPs) are also important. Nutritional intervention influences most important CV risk factors: cholesterol level, blood pressure (BP), diabetes. Restriction in total energy intake with additional nutritional interventions is recommended. Lower animal fat intake causes CVM reduction by 12%, taking additional serving of fruit/day by 7% and vegetables by 4%. Restriction of dietary salt intake (3 g/day) lowers BP by 2-8 mm Hg, CVM by 16%. Nutritional intervention gains CHD and stroke redact in healthy adults (12%, 11% respectively). Respecting individual lifestyle and nutrition, GP should suggest both home cooking and careful food declaration reading and discourage salt adding. Recommended daily salt intake is < or =6 g. In BP lowering, salt intake restriction (10-12 to 5-6 g/day) is as efficient as taking one antihypertensive drug. Lifestyle intervention targeting nutritional habits and pharmacotherapy is the most efficient combination in CV risk factors control. PMID:20649077

  14. The Future of Family Medicine version 2.0: reflections from Pisacano scholars.

    PubMed

    Doohan, Noemi C; Duane, Marguerite; Harrison, Bridget; Lesko, Sarah; DeVoe, Jennifer E

    2014-01-01

    The Future of Family Medicine (FFM) project has helped shape and direct the evolution of primary care medicine over the past decade. Pisacano Scholars, a group of leaders in family medicine supported by the American Board of Family Medicine, gathered for a 2-day symposium in April 2013 to explore the history of the FFM project and outline a vision for the next phase of this work-FFM version 2.0 (v2.0). After learning about the original FFM project (FFM v1.0), the group held interactive discussions using the World Café approach to conversational leadership. This commentary summarizes the discussions and highlights major themes relevant to FFM v2.0 identified by the group. The group endorsed the FFM v1.0 recommendations as still relevant and marvelled at the progress made toward achieving many of those goals. Most elements of FFM v1.0 have moved forward, and some have been incorporated into policy blueprints for reform. Now is the time to refocus attention on facets of FFM v1.0 not yet realized and to identify key aspects missing from FFM v1.0. The Pisacano Scholars are committed to moving the FFM goals forward and hope that this expression of the group's vision will help to do so. PMID:24390896

  15. Immigrant Families over the Life Course: Research Directions and Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Rebecca L.; Glick, Jennifer E.; Bures, Regina M.

    2009-01-01

    Family researchers and policy makers are giving increasing attention to the consequences of immigration for families. Immigration affects the lives of family members who migrate as well as those who remain behind and has important consequences for family formation, kinship ties, living arrangements, and children's outcomes. We present a selective…

  16. [Research progress on current pharmacokinetic evaluation of Chinese herbal medicines].

    PubMed

    Li, Guofu; Zhao, Haoru; Yang, Jin

    2011-03-01

    In order to prove safety and efficacy, herbal medicines must undergo the rigorous scientific researches such as pharmacokinetic and bioavailability, before they are put on the market in the foreign countries. Botanical Drug Products promulgated by the US FDA could guide industry sponsors to develop herbal drugs, which was also an important reference for investigating Chinese herbal medicines. This paper reviews and discusses novel approaches for how to assess systemic exposure and pharmacokinetic of Chinese herbal medicines, which were in line with FDA guidance. This mainly focus on identifying pharmacokinetic markers of botanical products, integral pharmacokinetic study of multiple components, Biopharmaceutics drug disposition classification system, and population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic study in herb-drug interaction. PMID:21657088

  17. Outer Space Medicine and Relevant Ongoing Biomedical Research

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, William R.

    1979-01-01

    An update of outer space medicine is given emphasizing main areas such as cardiopulmonary responses, vestibular functions, physiology, weightlessness, ecosystems, and radiation. A prospective view is also presented on the medical problems resulting from various hazards of outer space and planetary missions. Although an outgrowth of aviation and environmental medicine, this relatively new, special branch of medicine is currently undergoing an unprecedented rise as a vital modern specialty. The aims of the United States, Russia, and the nations of Europe in space research are shown to be in accord in learning how to live and work in space when confronted with the unique factors of zero gravity, cosmic radiation, and magnetic variations. PMID:439154

  18. Australian Family Research Conference Proceedings (Canberra, Australia, November 23-25, 1983). Volume II: Family Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of Family Studies, Melbourne (Australia).

    Second in a series of seven volumes containing the proceedings of the 1983 Australian Family Research Conference, this publication deals with family law. Papers and authors included are: "Attitudes of Divorced Men and Women to the Family" (Margaret Harrison), "Dispute Resolution in Australian Family Law" (Henry Finlay), "Descriptive Analysis,…

  19. African leaders’ views on critical human resource issues for the implementation of family medicine in Africa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The World Health Organisation has advocated for comprehensive primary care teams, which include family physicians. However, despite (or because of) severe doctor shortages in Africa, there is insufficient clarity on the role of the family physician in the primary health care team. Instead there is a trend towards task shifting without thought for teamwork, which runs the risk of dangerous oversimplification. It is not clear how African leaders understand the challenges of implementing family medicine, especially in human resource terms. This study, therefore, sought to explore the views of academic and government leaders on critical human resource issues for implementation of family medicine in Africa. Method In this qualitative study, key academic and government leaders were purposively selected from sixteen African countries. In-depth interviews were conducted using an interview guide. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed. Results There were 27 interviews conducted with 16 government and 11 academic leaders in nine Sub-Saharan African countries: Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa and Uganda. Respondents spoke about: educating doctors in family medicine suited to Africa, including procedural skills and holistic care, to address the difficulty of recruiting and retaining doctors in rural and underserved areas; planning for primary health care teams, including family physicians; new supervisory models in primary health care; and general human resource management issues. Conclusions Important milestones in African health care fail to specifically address the human resource issues of integrated primary health care teamwork that includes family physicians. Leaders interviewed in this study, however, proposed organising the district health system with a strong embrace of family medicine in Africa, especially with regard to providing clinical leadership in team

  20. Profile of Diseases Prevalent in a Tribal Locality in Jharkhand, India: A Family Medicine Practitioner's Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    Background: Majority of Indian population is dependent on general practitioners (GPs) for medical services at primary care level in India. They are most preferred and considered to be first contact person for medical services at primary care level. But advances in medical science has put more emphasis on specialist culture and average Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) graduates who are working as general physician are gradually feeling themselves less competent because they are less exposed to latest advances in treatment of diseases. Amidst such scenario, Christian Medical College (CMC) has come up with an idea: “The refer less and resolve more initiative”. It has started a decentralized 2-year family medicine distance diploma course (Postgraduate Diploma in Family Medicine (PGDFM)) now accredited by Dr. MGR Medical University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, that trains the GPs to become family medicine specialist. Materials and Methods: As component of PGDFM course, this study was conducted to provide better understanding of prevalent ailments and common treatment provided by the GPs in the community at present giving key insight of current practice in rural area by a registered family medicine practitioner. Results: As part of study, among 500 patients evaluated, three most common diagnosis were upper respiratory infections (URIs; 18%), acute gastroenteritis including water-borne diseases (15.8%), and anemia (10.4%). Treatment given to these patients comprised of mostly of antipyretic, analgesic, and antimicrobial agents. Most common drug prescribed was paracetamol for fever. Other common drugs prescribed were amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, chloroquine, artemisin derivative, doxycycline, co-trimoxazole, miltefosine, cephalexin, ceftriaxone sodium, cefixime, oral rehydration salts, ranitidine, omeprazole, pantoprazole, metronidazole, albendazole, ondansetron, diclofenac sodium, piroxicam, ibuprofen, diphenhydramine, codeine-sulfate, amlodipine, ramipril

  1. Effective Research Strategies for Trainees in Internal Medicine Residency Programs

    PubMed Central

    Wiederman, Michael W.; Sawyer, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    For most training programs, the development of research endeavors among trainees is an ongoing challenge. In this article, we review various considerations when attempting to undertake research activities within an internal medicine residency training program, including availability of institutional resources (eg, dedicated research time for trainees and faculty, available faculty mentors, accessible adjunctive personnel), engagement of residents into research, classic project quagmires in training programs, the institutional review board, publication options (eg, letters to the editor, case reports, literature reviews, original research reports), and journal submission strategies. Given that research entails multiple components and distinct skills, the overall program goal should be to make research an educationally understandable process for trainees. Research can be a rewarding activity when nurtured in a facilitating educational environment. PMID:26137359

  2. Native Americans' choice of species for medicinal use is dependent on plant family: confirmation with meta-significance analysis.

    PubMed

    Moerman, Daniel E; Estabrook, George F

    2003-07-01

    We test the hypothesis that the choice by traditional people of species of plants for medicinal use does or does not depend on the families to which those species belong. Our geographic context is continental North America north of the Rio Grande River. Our plant context is flowering plants. Our ethnological context is Native American traditions. Our null hypothesis is that the probability of any species being medicinal is the fraction of all species that are medicinal, no matter the family to which that species may belong. Classical statistical techniques and the experience of ethnobiologists had already made it clear that among very large plant families, most have either very many or very few medicinal species. Here we use intense computation to simulate thousands of data sets to create predictions to compare with the observed data for medium and small families. Our results clearly show that a surprising number of medium and small families also have very many or very few medicinal species. Recent molecular, fossil and cytological studies have confirmed the evolutionary naturalness of most plant families. This suggests that species in the same family may have inherited from common ancestors similar ecological adaptations, such as ways to protect themselves from herbivores, pathogens or decomposers. Some of these adaptations affect the physiology of the attacking organisms, suggesting an explanation for the clear preferences of Native American traditions to choose medicinal species from some families much more than from others, regardless of the size of those families. PMID:12787954

  3. Impact of family medicine clerkships in undergraduate medical education: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Turkeshi, Eralda; Michels, Nele R; Hendrickx, Kristin; Remmen, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Objective Synthesise evidence about the impact of family medicine/general practice (FM) clerkships on undergraduate medical students, teaching general/family practitioners (FPs) and/or their patients. Data sources Medline, ERIC, PsycINFO, EMBASE and Web of Knowledge searched from 21 November to 17 December 2013. Primary, empirical, quantitative or qualitative studies, since 1990, with abstracts included. No country restrictions. Full text languages: English, French, Spanish, German, Dutch or Italian. Review methods Independent selection and data extraction by two authors using predefined data extraction fields, including Kirkpatrick’s levels for educational intervention outcomes, study quality indicators and Best Evidence Medical Education (BEME) strength of findings’ grades. Descriptive narrative synthesis applied. Results Sixty-four included articles: impact on students (48), teaching FPs (12) and patients (8). Sample sizes: 16-1095 students, 3-146 FPs and 94-2550 patients. Twenty-six studies evaluated at Kirkpatrick level 1, 26 at level 2 and 6 at level 3. Only one study achieved BEME’s grade 5. The majority was assessed as grade 4 (27) and 3 (33). Students reported satisfaction with content and process of teaching as well as learning in FM clerkships. They enhanced previous learning, and provided unique learning on dealing with common acute and chronic conditions, health maintenance, disease prevention, communication and problem-solving skills. Students’ attitudes towards FM were improved, but new or enhanced interest in FM careers did not persist without change after graduation. Teaching FPs reported increased job satisfaction and stimulation for professional development, but also increased workload and less productivity, depending on the setting. Overall, student’s presence and participation did not have a negative impact on patients. Conclusions Research quality on the impact of FM clerkships is still limited, yet across different settings and

  4. Integration of Complementary and Alternative Medicine into Family Practices in Germany: Results of a National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Joos, Stefanie; Musselmann, Berthold; Szecsenyi, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    More than two-thirds of patients in Germany use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) provided either by physicians or non-medical practitioners (“Heilpraktiker”). There is little information about the number of family physicians (FPs) providing CAM. Given the widespread public interest in the use of CAM, this study aimed to ascertain the use of and attitude toward CAM among FPs in Germany. A postal questionnaire developed based on qualitatively derived data was sent to 3000 randomly selected FPs in Germany. A reminder letter including a postcard (containing a single question about CAM use in practice and reasons for non-particpation in the survey) was sent to all FPs who had not returned the questionnaire. Of the 3000 FPs, 1027 (34%) returned the questionnaire and 444 (15%) returned the postcard. Altogether, 886 of the 1471 responding FPs (60%) reported using CAM in their practice. A positive attitude toward CAM was indicated by 503 FPs (55%), a rather negative attitude by 127 FPs (14%). Chirotherapy, relaxation and neural therapy were rated as most beneficial CAM therapies by FPs, whereas neural therapy, phytotherapy and acupuncture were the most commonly used therapies in German family practices. This survey clearly demonstrates that CAM is highly valued by many FPs and is already making a substantial contribution to first-contact primary care in Germany. Therefore, education and research about CAM should be increased. Furthermore, with the provision of CAM by FPs, the role of non-medical CAM practitioners within the German healthcare system is to be questioned. PMID:19293252

  5. The Families of Lesbian and Gay Men: A New Frontier in Family Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Katherine R.; Demo, David H.

    1995-01-01

    A review of 8,000 articles in family research journals revealed that research on lesbian and gay families is limited and that studies that do exist have been problematized and their diversity has been overlooked. Challenges the neglect of this population in family studies, and discusses theoretical implications. (JPS)

  6. Characteristics of ambulatory care visits to family medicine specialists in Taiwan: a nationwide analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lynn, An-Min; Shih, Tzu-Chien; Hung, Cheng-Hao; Hwang, Shinn-Jang; Chen, Tzeng-Ji

    2015-01-01

    Although family medicine (FM) is the most commonly practiced specialty among all the medical specialties, its practice patterns have seldom been analyzed. Looking at data from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database, the current study analyzed ambulatory visits to FM specialists nationwide. From a sample dataset that randomly sampled one out of every 500 cases among a total of 309,880,000 visits in 2012, it was found that 18.8% (n = 116, 551) of the 619,760 visits in the dataset were made to FM specialists. Most of the FM services were performed by male FM physicians. Elderly patients above 80 years of age accounted for only 7.1% of FM visits. The most frequent diagnoses (22.8%) were associated acute upper respiratory infections (including ICD 460, 465 and 466). Anti-histamine agents were prescribed in 25.6% of FM visits. Hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia were the causes of 20.7% of the ambulatory visits made to FM specialists of all types, while those conditions accounted for only 10.6% of visits to FM clinics. The study demonstrated the relatively low proportion of chronic diseases that was managed in FM clinics in Taiwan, and our detailed results could contribute to evidence-based discussions on healthcare policymaking and residency training. PMID:26290798

  7. Persian Medicine in the World of Research; Review of Articles on Iranian Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Moeini, Reihaneh; Gorji, Narjes

    2016-01-01

    Background: Due to negligence, Persian (Iranian) traditional medicine has had a weak presence in the world of research for a long time. However, in recent years, a variety of activates by research and faculty centers have created awareness and a platform to introduce and promote Persian medicine to the world. The aim of this study is to present and analyze scientific achievements of Persian medicine in the world of research. Methods: Articles were collected from PubMed database using keywords such as “Persian medicine”, “Persian traditional medicine”, “Iranian medicine”, and “Iranian traditional medicine”. All data were classified based on the type of research (review, intervention, case reports, etc.), the field of study (neurology, cardiovascular, metabolic, historical studies, etc.), publication year, and journal type. Results: A total of 501 articles were identified until the end of 2015, comprising of 222 reviews and 219 interventional (108 animal, 57 clinical and 54 cellular). Most studies were on neurology (20.1%), gastroenterology (14.5%), and cardiovascular diseases (10.4%). The publications in 2015 and 2014 had the highest hit rate with 139 and 132 articles, respectively, with 1:2 publication ratio between foreign and Iranian journals. The most published articles, both foreign and Iranian, were in “Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine” and “Iranian Red Crescent Medicine” journals. The contribution of foreign authors was 5%. The primary focus of the articles was on “Basic concepts of Persian medicine”, “Healthy lifestyle according to Persian medicine”, and “Historical aspects”, by 3.1%, 2.9%, and 6.7%, respectively. Conclusion: During the last 2 years, the number of articles published in Persian (Iranian) medicine, particularly clinical studies had significant growth in comparison with the years before. The tendency of foreign researchers to use the keywords “Iranian” or “Persian” medicine is

  8. Research Issues concerning the Puerto Rican Child and Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogler, Lloyd H.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    This journal issue is a collection of papers describing research on Hispanic families conducted at the Hispanic Research Center, Fordham University, New York. The first article, "Research Issues concerning the Puerto Rican Child and Family," by Lloyd H. Rogler, reviews two research projects on health conditions and the plight of Puerto Rican…

  9. Golden Helix Institute of Biomedical Research: Interdisciplinary research and educational activities in pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine

    PubMed Central

    Mitropoulos, Konstantinos; Innocenti, Federico; van Schaik, Ron H.; Lezhava, Alexander; Tzimas, Giannis; Kollia, Panagoula; Macek, Milan; Fortina, Paolo; Patrinos, George P.

    2013-01-01

    The Golden Helix Institute of Biomedical Research is an international non-profit scientific organization with interdisciplinary research and educational activities in the field of genome medicine in Europe, Asia and Latin America. These activities are supervised by an international scientific advisory council, consisting of world leaders in the field of genomics and translational medicine. Research activities include the regional coordination of the Pharmacogenomics for Every Nation Initiative in Europe, in an effort to integrate pharmacogenomics in developing countries, the development of several National/Ethnic Genetic databases and related web services and the critical assessment of the impact of genetics and genomic medicine to society in various countries. Also, educational activities include the organization of the Golden Helix Symposia®, which are high profile scientific research symposia in the field of personalized medicine, and the Golden Helix Pharmacogenomics Days, an international educational activity focused on pharmacogenomics, as part of its international pharmacogenomics education and outreach efforts. PMID:22379996

  10. Educating physicians about women's health. Survey of Canadian family medicine residency programs.

    PubMed Central

    McCall, M. A.; Sorbie, J.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify which women's health issues are taught in the 2-year core curriculum of Canadian family medicine residency programs and whether educators think their current teaching of women's health is adequate. DESIGN: Mailed survey using a questionnaire. PARTICIPANTS: All program and unit directors of the 16 Canadian family medicine residency training programs were surveyed. Replies were received from 63% (10 of 16) of program directors and 79% (55 of 70) of unit directors. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Percentage of programs teaching specific women's health topics from a list of 21 possible topics; percentage offering educational opportunities with sexual assault teams and women's shelters; participants' assessment of the adequacy of current teaching in each training program; plans to increase women's health education. RESULTS: Topics such as violence against women and medical conditions more common among women were taught in more than 80% of programs, but poverty and the health care concerns of Native and immigrant women were included in fewer than 40% of programs. Half of the program directors indicated that residents were given educational opportunities with sexual assault teams or women's shelters. Unit directors gave a lower estimate. Most (90%) program directors thought their current teaching of women's health issues was inadequate and had plans to increase it, as did 64% of unit directors. CONCLUSION: Violence against women and the traditional medical topics of osteoporosis, weight disorders, and reproductive and breast cancer are frequently taught in family medicine training programs. However, the social and cultural aspects of health are addressed less often. It is encouraging that many family medicine programs plan to increase their teaching of women's health. PMID:8038635

  11. Space Exploration: Challenges in Medicine, Research, and Ethics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the challenges that space exploration faces in terms of medicine, research and ethics. The topics include: 1) Effects of Microgravity on Human Physiology; 2) Radiation; 3) Bone; 4) Behavior and Performance; 5) Muscle; 6) Cardiovascular; 7) Neurovestibular; 8) Food and Nutrition; 9) Immunology and Hematology; 10) Environment; 11) Exploration; 12) Building Block Approach; 13) Exploration Issues; 14) Life Sciences Contributions; 15) Health Care; and 17) Habitability.

  12. Social Justice as the Moral Core of Family Medicine: A Perspective from the Keystone IV Conference.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    A recurring conference theme was the essential place of social justice within family medicine, especially the need to focus on denominator populations, exalt the personal and caring qualities of doctoring, and address social determinants of health. Many expressed solidarity with "community," but it is not always easy to define community in our large and diverse nation. Exhortations for health advocacy were frequently voiced, but putting these into meaningful action agendas is a challenge. There was general agreement that medicine is in flux and that the many expressions of "commodity-centered consumerism" have altered organization and financing. The increasing demands by "consumers", who want low cost, instant availability, and shared decision-making, and yet change doctors when health plans alter coverage also differentially impact high-volume, low-margin specialties such as family medicine. Additional challenges were the electronic health record and calibrating an appropriate work/life balance. Five action steps are recommended: 1) speak out on the important social and moral issues; 2) be the experts on personal care; 3) make common cause with potential allies; 4) help institutions perceive the value of generalism; and 5) help find ways to enrich generalist disciplines to increase the joy of medicine and decrease the threat of burn out. PMID:27387169

  13. Translational research: precision medicine, personalized medicine, targeted therapies: marketing or science?

    PubMed

    Marquet, Pierre; Longeray, Pierre-Henry; Barlesi, Fabrice; Ameye, Véronique; Augé, Pascale; Cazeneuve, Béatrice; Chatelut, Etienne; Diaz, Isabelle; Diviné, Marine; Froguel, Philippe; Goni, Sylvia; Gueyffier, François; Hoog-Labouret, Natalie; Mourah, Samia; Morin-Surroca, Michèle; Perche, Olivier; Perin-Dureau, Florent; Pigeon, Martine; Tisseau, Anne; Verstuyft, Céline

    2015-01-01

    Personalized medicine is based on: 1) improved clinical or non-clinical methods (including biomarkers) for a more discriminating and precise diagnosis of diseases; 2) targeted therapies of the choice or the best drug for each patient among those available; 3) dose adjustment methods to optimize the benefit-risk ratio of the drugs chosen; 4) biomarkers of efficacy, toxicity, treatment discontinuation, relapse, etc. Unfortunately, it is still too often a theoretical concept because of the lack of convenient diagnostic methods or treatments, particularly of drugs corresponding to each subtype of pathology, hence to each patient. Stratified medicine is a component of personalized medicine employing biomarkers and companion diagnostics to target the patients likely to present the best benefit-risk balance for a given active compound. The concept of targeted therapy, mostly used in cancer treatment, relies on the existence of a defined molecular target, involved or not in the pathological process, and/or on the existence of a biomarker able to identify the target population, which should logically be small as compared to the population presenting the disease considered. Targeted therapies and biomarkers represent important stakes for the pharmaceutical industry, in terms of market access, of return on investment and of image among the prescribers. At the same time, they probably represent only the first generation of products resulting from the combination of clinical, pathophysiological and molecular research, i.e. of translational research. PMID:25679189

  14. Refining the Enrolment Process in Emergency Medicine Research

    PubMed Central

    Sahan, Kate M; Channon, Keith M; Choudhury, Robin P; Kharbanda, Rajesh K; Lee, Regent; Sheehan, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Research in the emergency setting involving patients with acute clinical conditions is needed if there are to be advances in diagnosis and treatment. But research in these areas poses ethical and practical challenges. One of these is the general inability to obtain informed consent due to the patient’s lack of mental capacity and insufficient time to contact legal representatives. Regulatory frameworks which allow this research to proceed with a consent ‘waiver’, provided patients lack mental capacity, miss important ethical subtleties. One of these is the varying nature of mental capacity among emergency medicine patients. Not only is their capacity variable and often unclear, but some patients are also likely to be able to engage with the researcher and the context to varying degrees. In this paper we describe the key elements of a novel enrolment process for emergency medicine research that refines the consent waiver and fully engages with the ethical rationale for consent and, in this context, its waiver. The process is verbal but independently documented during the ‘emergent’ stages of the research. It provides appropriate engagement with the patient, is context-sensitive and better addresses ethical subtleties. In line with regulation, full written consent for on-going participation in the research is obtained once the emergency is passed. PMID:27499840

  15. Training Physician Investigators in Medicine and Public Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Jay, Melanie R.; Goldfrank, Lewis R.; Mendelsohn, Alan L.; Dreyer, Benard P.; Foltin, George L.; Lipkin, Mack; Schwartz, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We have described and evaluated the impact of a unique fellowship program designed to train postdoctoral, physician fellows in research at the interface of medicine and public health. Methods. We developed a rigorous curriculum in public health content and research methods and fostered linkages with research mentors and local public health agencies. Didactic training provided the foundation for fellows’ mentored research initiatives, which addressed real-world challenges in advancing the health status of vulnerable urban populations. Results. Two multidisciplinary cohorts (6 per cohort) completed this 2-year degree-granting program and engaged in diverse public health research initiatives on topics such as improving pediatric care outcomes through health literacy interventions, reducing hospital readmission rates among urban poor with multiple comorbidities, increasing cancer screening uptake, and broadening the reach of addiction screening and intervention. The majority of fellows (10/12) published their fellowship work and currently have a career focused in public health–related research or practice (9/12). Conclusions. A fellowship training program can prepare physician investigators for research careers that bridge the divide between medicine and public health. PMID:22594745

  16. [Research in general medicine, role of the medical thesis].

    PubMed

    Levasseur, G; Schweyer, F X

    2003-06-01

    General practice doctors are naturally presented as being actors on the front lines of public health. The ability of general practitioners to be aware of and deal with public health questions largely depends upon their training. Perhaps one could consider the general practitioner's thesis as a preparatory analytical work within the area of their future field of practice. Do these theses serve to provide food for thought on general practice and its contribution to public health, and if not, could they? An analysis conducted within four medical schools in western France demonstrates that the work produced for general medicine identified as such only constitutes a fraction of the overall number of medical (non-university) theses (approximately 5%). Two possible explanations may be put forward. First, on the one hand, the theses highly depend on the context of the training and the work produced is a direct result of this. Second, on the other hand, the current methods of indexing notes in the university databases does not enable general medicine to be clearly seen and visibly recognised as an academic discipline. Two questions then remain: Can medical theses be considered as research? Should research in general medicine be carried out solely by general practitioners? It is vital that resources from outside the medical field be raised and mobilised for general practice research, whose themes are multi-disciplinary and not only clinical. PMID:12891817

  17. New family medicine residency training programme: Residents’ perspectives from the University of Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Tshitenge, Stephane; Setlhare, Vincent; Tsima, Billy; Adewale, Ganiyu; Parsons, Luise

    2016-01-01

    Background Family Medicine (FM) training is new in Botswana. No previous evaluation of the experiences and opinions of residents of the University of Botswana (UB) Family Medicine training programme has been reported. Aims This study explored and assessed residents’ experiences and satisfaction with the FM training programme at the UB and solicited potential strategies for improvement from the residents. Methods A descriptive survey using a self-administered questionnaire based on a Likert-type scale and open-ended questions was used to collect data from FM residents at the UB. Results Eight out the 14 eligible residents participated to this study. Generally, residents were not satisfied with the FM training programme. Staff shortage, inadequate supervision and poor programme organisation by the faculty were the main reasons for this. However, the residents were satisfied with weekly training schedules and the diversity of patients in the current training sites. Residents’ potential solutions included an increase in staff, the acquisition of equipment at teaching sites and emphasis on FM core topics teachings. They had different views regarding how certain future career paths will be. Conclusions Despite the general dissatisfaction among residents because of challenges faced by the training programme, we have learnt that residents are capable of valuable inputs for improvement of their programme when engaged. There is need for the Department of Family Medicine to work with the Ministry of Health to set a clear career pathway for future graduates and to reflect on residents’ input for possible implementation.

  18. A Blueprint for Increasing the Relevance of Family Therapy Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Lee M.

    1991-01-01

    Notes that family therapy research and psychotherapy research in general have been criticized for their lack of relevance to clinical practice. Presents five-stage model, based on marketing and developmental perspective, that family therapy researchers can follow to increase relevance of their work for clinicians and other consumers of family…

  19. Critical Approach to Family Research: An Illustration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watters, Margaret E.

    1985-01-01

    Jurgen Habermas' theory relating to systems of action is used in an attempt to analyze the dynamic focus of home economics--the family--as a means of exploring the potential of the theory to promote understanding of family activities. (Author/CT)

  20. Grounded Theory Methods and Qualitative Family Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaRossa, Ralph

    2005-01-01

    Among the different qualitative approaches that may be relied upon in family theorizing, grounded theory methods (GTM), developed by Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss, are the most popular. Despite their centrality to family studies and to other fields, however, GTM can be opaque and confusing. Believing that simplifying GTM would allow them to be…

  1. Strengthening Fragile Families through Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bembry, James X.

    2011-01-01

    Almost one third of all children in the United States are born to unmarried parents. This figure is even higher among poor and minority populations. Because of their heightened risk for economic and social problems and family dissolution, disadvantaged, unmarried parents have been called "fragile families." In 2002 the Bush administration…

  2. [Research about re-evaluation of screening of traditonal Chinese medicine symptoms item of post-marketing medicine Xuezhikang].

    PubMed

    He, Wei; Xie, Yanming; Wang, Yongyan

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of post-marketing Chinese medicine re-evaluation is to identify Chinese medicine clinical indications, while designing scientific and rational of Chinese medicine symptoms items are important to the result of symptoms re-evaluation. This study give screening of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) symptoms item of post-marketing medicine Xuezhikang re-evaluation as example that reference to principle dyslipidemia clinical research, academic dissertations, Xuezhikang directions, clinical expert practice experience etc. while standardization those symptom names and screening 41 dyslipidemia common symptoms. Furthermore, this paper discuss about the accoerdance and announcements when screening symptoms item, so as to providing a research thread to manufacture PRO chart for post-marketing medicine re-evaluation. PMID:22292395

  3. Family Strengthening Research: FY2014. OPRE Report 2015-22

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration for Children & Families, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This report provides detailed summaries of major research investments by OPRE's Division of Family Strengthening (DFS) along with brief overviews of past projects. The featured projects cover topics that include strengthening relationships within families, supporting fatherhood, nurturing children through their families, reducing teen pregnancy,…

  4. Some Methodological Considerations in Researching the Family Career.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, James

    Methodological issues which confront researchers using the concept of the family career include the selection of appropriate dependent variables; the efficacy of historical versus immediate effects; and scaling the family career (a proposed replacement for the "family life cycle"). The issue of which dependent variables should be explained by the…

  5. Longitudinal Outcomes from the Family Development Research Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    The Family Development Research Program (FDRP) was an omnibus effort to serve low-income, low education families by providing education, nutrition, health, safety, and human service resources for the 108 families initially recruited. This paper describes the program and summarizes findings from the longitudinal evaluation. Home visitors provided…

  6. Thai family demography: a review and research prospects.

    PubMed

    Richter, K; Podhisita, C

    "This paper attempts to give an overview of demographic knowledge on the Thai family and to suggest directions for future research." Aspects considered include marriage, marital disruption, household size and structure, headship, flexibility of Thai family structure, the family life cycle and inheritance patterns, and the impact of social change. (SUMMARY IN THA) PMID:12233490

  7. Families Today: A Research Sampler on Families and Children. Volume 1. NIMH Science Monographs 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corfman, Eunice, Ed.

    The first of two volumes, this book consists of 17 studies of children and families. Selections are intended to provide a representative sample of current research, including case studies and less formal reports. Volume I is divided into four sections. Part One considers the family as an enduring social unit. Families in hard times, Chicano…

  8. The Efficacy of Family Camp Experience for Families Who Have Children with Visual Impairments. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Janice Neibaur; Kleinschmidt, Julia

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to address the paucity of research on the efficacy of camps for children with visual impairments and their families. The study evaluated the performance of a two-day camp for families with young visually impaired children at the Utah Schools for the Deaf and the Blind whose program was based on perceived family needs and…

  9. Emergence of family medicine in ethiopia: an international collaborative education model.

    PubMed

    Franey, Cara; Evensen, Ann; Bethune, Cheri; Zemenfes, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    Family Medicine (FM) is a new specialty in Ethiopia. The first seven family physicians graduated in February 2016 from the inaugural residency programme at Addis Ababa University. Cooperation amongst Ethiopian and expatriate decision-makers and physicians was needed to begin the programme. Intentional replacement of expatriates with Ethiopian family physicians has begun. Barriers include lack of understanding of FM and the human and financial resources needed for scaling up the programme. Regular programme review with resident physician involvement has allowed the FM training programme to adapt and fit the Ethiopian context. Further successes will result from ongoing support and advocacy from the Federal Ministry of Health and other Ethiopian, African, and international primary care organisations. PMID:27254792

  10. Space medicine research: Needs for the 21st century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepper, L. J.

    1992-01-01

    Space medicine research in the 21st century will continue to focus on the four major areas including: (1) expansion of the current incomplete knowledge base of clinical and subclinical physiological changes due to microgravity; (2) development of countermeasures to extend the capabilities of the human performance envelope in extended duration flights; (3) development of novel methods for delivering all aspects of a comprehensive health care system in extreme remote conditions: and (4) further research and application of systems for biological materials processing. New space transportation vehicles will place unique physiologic and human factors demands on the human system, while providing better access to platforms for materials processing. Success in meeting the demands in each of the noted research areas will require an extensive, interactive team approach. Personnel from the medical research,operational, developmental, and basic science communities will be essential to success.

  11. Research implications of the Institute of Medicine Report, Epilepsy Across the Spectrum: Promoting Health and Understanding

    PubMed Central

    Hesdorffer, Dale C.; Beck, Vicki; Begley, Charles E.; Bishop, Malachy L.; Cushner-Weinstein, Sandra; Holmes, Gregory L.; Shafer, Patricia O.; Sirven, Joseph I.; Austin, Joan K.

    2012-01-01

    In March 2012 the Institute of Medicine (IOM) released the report, Epilepsy Across The Spectrum: Promoting Health And Understanding. This report examined the public health dimensions of the epilepsies with a focus on four areas: public health surveillance and data collection and integration; population and public health research; health policy, health care, and human services; and education for providers, people with epilepsy and their families, and the public. The report provided recommendations and research priorities for future work in the field of epilepsy that relate to: increasing the power of data on epilepsy; prevention of epilepsy; improving health care for people with epilepsy; improving health professional education about epilepsy; improving quality of life for people with epilepsy; improving education about epilepsy for people with epilepsy and families; and raising public awareness about epilepsy. For this article, the authors selected one research priority from each of the major chapter themes in the IOM report: expanding and improving the quality of epidemiological surveillance in epilepsy; developing improved interventions for people with epilepsy and depression; expanding early identification/screening for learning impairments in children with epilepsy; evaluating and promoting effective innovative teaching strategies; accelerating research on the identification of risk factors and interventions that increase employment and improve quality of life for people with epilepsy and their families; assessing the information needs of people with epilepsy and their families associated with epilepsy-related risks, specifically sudden unexpected death in epilepsy; and developing and conducting surveys to capture trends in knowledge, awareness, attitudes, and beliefs about epilepsy over time and in specific population subgroups. For each research priority selected, examples of research are provided that will advance the field of epilepsy and improve the lives

  12. [Complementary medicine and scientific pluralism--from governmental research funding to the dialogue forum of pluralism in medicine].

    PubMed

    Matthiessen, Peter F

    2013-01-01

    Medicine is based on a pluralism of different ways of thinking and practical approaches. Given this assumption, the history and experiences of the 2 German governmental research funding programs 'Unconventional Methods of Cancer' (UMK) and 'Unconventional Medicine Directions' (UMR) are described from the perspective of the project supporter of 2 working groups that were based at the University of Witten/Herdecke, Germany, on behalf of the federal government. The results of a nationwide inventory analysis conducted under my direction in the years 1989–1992 showed a distinct lack of human and infrastructural resources for competitive research for complementary medicine at that time. The field of complementary medicine was found to be very heterogeneous and was divided into procedures without any visible research interest, but also contained approaches nourishing mainstream medicine by its different paradigm. The representatives of complementary medicine were and still are recognizably interested in evaluative, empirical research. The following contains our funding recommendations made for the relevant ministries, the advertised funding issues, and the research activities carried out. Although this governmental research funding was limited, a signal function can be awarded, retrospectively. For the subsequent period, there has been a significant improvement in infrastructural, staff, and research conditions. This development led to a significant increase in the level of quality and the acceptability of research results. As a result of an increased willingness for cooperations, the foundations, concerns, and activities of the 'dialogue forum pluralism in medicine' set up in 2000 are presented and compared with the situation at the time of research funding by government. 'Integrative Medicine' is currently being favored and welcomed as a sign of better mutual acceptance. Nevertheless, complementary medicine is still seen as being creative, enriching medical and health

  13. AB017. Basic research progress in microenergy medicine

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Zhongcheng

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, the convergence of life sciences, physical sciences, and engineering has brought a host of opportunities and innovations for biomedical informatics and health care in microenergy medicine, and it is called the third revolution in the field of life science research. Low-energy shock wave therapy (LESWT), a form of physical therapy in energy medicine, was shown to markedly improve erectile function in patients with organic ED, as well as in diabetic rats. In addition, LESWT has been demonstrated to facilitate elongation of myelinated axons, with consequent neurologic functional recovery in a rat model. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) is a form of ultrasound that delivered at a much lower intensity than traditional ultrasound energy and output in the mode of pulse wave. LIPUS have been demonstrated to have a rage of biological effects on tissues, including promoting bone-fracture healing, accelerating soft-tissue regeneration, inhibiting inflammatory responses and so on. Recent studies showed that biological effects of LIPUS in healing morbid body tissues may be mainly associated with the upregulation of cell proliferation and promoting multilineage differentiation of mesenchyme stem/progenitor cell lines. Therapeutic magnetic field, a good paradigm of convergence medicine, has been demonstrated to have beneficial results in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), human breast carcinoma, peripheral nerve regeneration, hand osteoarthritis, osteonecrosis, and nucleic acid delivery. Magnetic field has been proven to be a safe, non-invasive method for numerous cell and tissue modifications, especially in musculoskeletal system.

  14. Delimiting family in syntheses of research on childhood chronic conditions and family life.

    PubMed

    Knafl, Kathleen; Leeman, Jennifer; Havill, Nancy; Crandell, Jamie; Sandelowski, Margarete

    2015-03-01

    Synthesis of family research presents unique challenges to investigators who must delimit what will be included as a family study in the proposed review. In this paper, the authors discuss the conceptual and pragmatic challenges of conducting systematic reviews of the literature on the intersection between family life and childhood chronic conditions. A proposed framework for delimiting the family domain of interest is presented. The framework addresses both topical salience and level of relevance and provides direction to future researchers, with the goal of supporting the overall quality of family research synthesis efforts. For users of synthesis studies, knowledge of how investigators conceptualize the boundaries of family research is important contextual information for understanding the limits and applicability of the results. PMID:25264114

  15. Clinical research of traditional Chinese medicine in big data era.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junhua; Zhang, Boli

    2014-09-01

    With the advent of big data era, our thinking, technology and methodology are being transformed. Data-intensive scientific discovery based on big data, named "The Fourth Paradigm," has become a new paradigm of scientific research. Along with the development and application of the Internet information technology in the field of healthcare, individual health records, clinical data of diagnosis and treatment, and genomic data have been accumulated dramatically, which generates big data in medical field for clinical research and assessment. With the support of big data, the defects and weakness may be overcome in the methodology of the conventional clinical evaluation based on sampling. Our research target shifts from the "causality inference" to "correlativity analysis." This not only facilitates the evaluation of individualized treatment, disease prediction, prevention and prognosis, but also is suitable for the practice of preventive healthcare and symptom pattern differentiation for treatment in terms of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and for the post-marketing evaluation of Chinese patent medicines. To conduct clinical studies involved in big data in TCM domain, top level design is needed and should be performed orderly. The fundamental construction and innovation studies should be strengthened in the sections of data platform creation, data analysis technology and big-data professionals fostering and training. PMID:25217972

  16. Occupational Medicine and Hygiene: applied research in Italy.

    PubMed

    Copello, F; Garbarino, S; Messineo, A; Campagna, M; Durando, P

    2015-01-01

    The goal of Occupational Medicine and Hygiene is that of ensuring safety, health and well-being at workplaces, mainly assessing and preventing existing occupational risks. Scientific research in this field can provide useful arguments and further evidence upon which effective, efficient and sustainable policies and preventive measures have to be chosen and applied by the occupational physician in work-life. This paper summarizes four original studies, conducted in different professional settings across Italy, focusing on critical items, such as stress and violence, biological risks and sleep hygiene. The knowledge obtained can be useful to orientate proper preventive programs aimed at improving workplace health. PMID:26789987

  17. Connecting Complex Processes: A Decade of Research on Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, Jennifer E.

    2010-01-01

    This review examines research on immigrant families in the United States from the past decade from multiple disciplinary perspectives. This work has used variations on assimilation and acculturation perspectives. In the case of the assimilation perspectives, the focus has largely been on family formation, whereas research using acculturation…

  18. Marriage and the Black Family: What Research Says.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogletree, Earl J.; Jackson, Lillian

    This report reviews sociological research pertaining to marriage and family relations among blacks. Mate selection, economics in marriage, sexual relations, and the importance of children are among the topics examined. Observations and hypotheses about black social status are applied to research findings on family life in general, and contrasts…

  19. Research on the Black Family: Mainstream and Dissenting Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, William G.

    1979-01-01

    Mainstream research has looked traditionally at the Black family to explain its overall difficulty in society, while dissenting studies have emphasized the effects of societal factors on the Black conjugal unit's function and structure. The dualistic nature of Black family research captures society's divergent impression of the Afro-American…

  20. Bridging Research and Practice in the Family and Human Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Stephen A.

    2005-01-01

    Over the past decade there has been a growing concern over the gap between research and practice in family and other human sciences. Family scientists have been troubled that the scientific knowledge base is not frequently used by practitioners, whereas practitioners have complained that the research base is often not very useful for issues faced…

  1. Postgraduate family medicine training in Singapore--a new way forward.

    PubMed

    Wong, Teck Yee; Chong, Phui Nah; Chng, Shih Kiat; Tay, Ee Guan

    2012-05-01

    Postgraduate Family Medicine (FM) training is important to train future primary care doctors to provide accessible and cost effective healthcare. In Singapore, a structured postgraduate FM training programme has been available for 20 years. This programme is characterised by involvement of both FM and non-FM doctors, well written modules and a rigorous assessment process. However, challenges faced by both the current healthcare system and training structure underlie the need to review the training structure to ensure its relevancy for future Family Physicians (FPs) to manage the needs of their patients. A workgroup was formed to review the current FM postgraduate programme and to explore the possibility of using the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) framework to enhance our current system. The workgroup felt that broad-based training and comprehensive coverage of topics are areas that are important to retain in any new FM residency programme. Weaknesses identified included a lack of early FM exposure and the need to strengthen formative assessments. New organisational structures such as Family Medicine Centres (FMC) need to be established and the involvement of the private sector in any FM residency progammes could be enhanced. The implementation of the FM Residency Programme in 2011 presented a unique opportunity to realign FM postgraduate education in line with the national objectives and to equip FPs with the necessary knowledge and skills for managing the future healthcare needs of Singaporeans. PMID:22760720

  2. Echocardiography as a Research and Clinical Tool in Veterinary Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Allen, D. G.

    1982-01-01

    Echocardiography is the accepted term for the study of cardiac ultrasound. Although a relatively new tool for the study of the heart in man it has already found wide acceptance in the area of cardiac research and in the study of clinical cardiac disease. Animals had often been used in the early experiments with cardiac ultrasound, but only recently has echocardiography been used as a research and clinical tool in veterinary medicine. In this report echocardiography is used in the research of anesthetic effects on ventricular function and clinically in the diagnosis of congestive cardiomyopathy in a cat, ventricular septal defect in a calf, and pericardial effusion in a dog. Echocardiography is now an important adjunct to the field of veterinary cardiology. ImagesFigure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10. PMID:17422196

  3. Incorporating Research Findings into Standards and Requirements for Space Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, J. Michael

    2006-01-01

    The Vision for Exploration has been the catalyst for NASA to refocus its life sciences research. In the future, life sciences research funded by NASA will be focused on answering questions that directly impact setting physiological standards and developing effective countermeasures to the undesirable physiological and psychological effects of spaceflight for maintaining the health of the human system. This, in turn, will contribute to the success of exploration class missions. We will show how research will impact setting physiologic standards, such as exposure limits, outcome limits, and accepted performance ranges. We will give examples of how a physiologic standard can eventually be translated into an operational requirement, then a functional requirement, and eventually spaceflight hardware or procedures. This knowledge will be important to the space medicine community as well as to vehicle contractors who, for the first time, must now consider the human system in developing and constructing a vehicle that can achieve the goal of success.

  4. The views of key leaders in South Africa on implementation of family medicine: critical role in the district health system

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Integrated team-based primary care is an international imperative. This is required more so in Africa, where fragmented verticalised care dominates. South Africa is trying to address this with health reforms, including Primary Health Care Re-engineering. Family physicians are already contributing to primary care despite family medicine being only fully registered as a full specialty in South Africa in 2008. However the views of leaders on family medicine and the role of family physicians is not clear, especially with recent health reforms. The aim of this study was to understand the views of key government and academic leaders in South Africa on family medicine, roles of family physicians and human resource issues. Methods This was a qualitative study with academic and government leaders across South Africa. In-depth interviews were conducted with sixteen purposively selected leaders using an interview guide. Thematic content analysis was based on the framework method. Results Whilst family physicians were seen as critical to the district health system there was ambivalence on their leadership role and ‘specialist’ status. National health reforms were creating both threats and opportunities for family medicine. Three key roles for family physicians emerged: supporting referrals; clinical governance/quality improvement; and providing support to community-oriented care. Respondents’ urged family physicians to consolidate the development and training of family physicians, and shape human resource policy to include family physicians. Conclusions Family physicians were seen as critical to the district health system in South Africa despite difficulties around their precise role. Whilst their role was dominated by filling gaps at district hospitals to reduce referrals it extended to clinical governance and developing community-oriented primary care - a tall order, requiring strong teamwork. Innovative team-based service delivery is possible despite human

  5. Learning from e-Family History: A Model of Online Family Historian Research Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friday, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reports on doctoral research which investigated the online research behaviour of family historians, from the overall perspective of local studies collections and developing online services for family historians. Method: A hybrid (primarily ethnographic) study was employed using qualitative diaries and shadowing, to examine…

  6. United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine: Warfighter Research Focusing on the Past 25 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandolf, Kent B.; Francesconi, Ralph; Sawka, Michael N.; Cymerman, Allen; Hoyt, Reed W.; Young, Andrew J.; Zambraski, Edward J.

    2011-01-01

    The United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM) celebrated its 50th anniversary on July 1, 2011. This article reviews its history, evolution, and transition of its research programs as well as its scientific and military accomplishments, emphasizing the past 25 yr. During the 1990s, USARIEM published a series of…

  7. The Family Medicine Residency Training Initiative in Miscarriage Management: Impact on Practice in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Darney, Blair G.; Weaver, Marcia R.; Stevens, Nancy; Kimball, Jeana; Prager, Sarah W.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Non-complicated spontaneous abortion cases should be counseled about the full range of management approaches, including uterine evacuation using manual vacuum aspiration (MVA). The Residency Training Initiative in Miscarriage Management (RTI-MM) is an intensive, multidimensional intervention designed to facilitate implementation of office-based management of spontaneous abortion using MVA in family medicine residency settings. The purpose of this study was to test the impact of the RTI-MM on self-reported use of MVA for management of spontaneous abortion. METHODS We used a pretest/posttest one group study design and a web-based, anonymous survey to collect data on knowledge, attitudes, perceived barriers, and practice of office-based management of spontaneous abortion. We used multivariable models to estimate incident relative risks and accounted for data clustering at the residency site level. RESULTS Our sample included 441 residents and faculty from 10 family medicine residency sites. Our findings show a positive association between the RTI-MM and self-reported use of MVA for management of spontaneous abortion (adjusted RR=9.11 [CI=4.20-19.78]) and were robust to model specification. Male gender, doing any type of management of spontaneous abortion (eg, expectant, medication), other on-site reproductive health training interventions, and support staff knowledge scores were also significant correlates of physician practice of MVA. CONCLUSIONS Our findings suggest that the RTI-MM was successful in influencing the practice of management of spontaneous abortion using MVA in this population and that support staff knowledge may impact physician practice. Integrating MVA into family medicine settings would potentially improve access to evidence-based, comprehensive care for women. PMID:23378077

  8. Going global: considerations for introducing global health into family medicine training programs.

    PubMed

    Evert, Jessica; Bazemore, Andrew; Hixon, Allen; Withy, Kelley

    2007-10-01

    Medical students and residents have shown increasing interest in international health experiences. Before attempting to establish a global health training program in a family medicine residency, program faculty must consider the goals of the international program, whether there are champions to support the program, the resources available, and the specific type of program that best fits with the residency. The program itself should include didactics, peer education, experiential learning in international and domestic settings, and methods for preparing learners and evaluating program outcomes. Several hurdles can be anticipated in developing global health programs, including finances, meeting curricular and supervision requirements, and issues related to employment law, liability, and sustainability. PMID:17932801

  9. Variation of free phenolic acids in medicinal plants belonging to the Lamiaceae family.

    PubMed

    Zgórka, G; Głowniak, K

    2001-08-01

    Ten species belonging to the family Lamiaceae and representing the most popular medicinal plants used in Polish phytotherapy were examined for the content of free phenolic acids (PhAs). Two depsides, rosmarinic and chlorogenic acids, as well as eight simple PhAs, protocatechuic, gentisic, p-hydroxybenzoic, caffeic, vanillic, syringic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids, in different qualitative and quantitative proportions depending on the plant examined were determined by the rapid, selective and accurate method combining solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography. PMID:11451645

  10. Level of control among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus attending diabetic clinic under family medicine compared to diabetic clinic under endocrinology

    PubMed Central

    AlHabdan, Mohammed A; AlAteeq, Mohammed A; AlJurbou, Fiasal I

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess and compare level of control among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus attending diabetic clinic under family medicine service and patients attending diabetic clinics under endocrinology service, and to explore the effect of different variables on the level of control in both groups. Methods Retrospective cross-sectional study by reviewing medical records of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and laboratory studies from Hospital Information System at King Abdul-Aziz Medical City, National Guard, Riyadh – Saudi Arabia using predesigned sheet for data collection. Results Among 352 patients enrolled in the study, 176 (50%) patients were from the family medicine setting and 176 (50%) patients were from the hospital setting. The mean glycosylated hemoglobin for the whole study population was 8.97±1.87. There was no significant difference between the two groups in regard to level of control (9.01±1.75 in the family medicine setting compared to 8.93±1.98 in the hospital setting). No significant correlation was found between level of control and age, duration of disease and number of follow-up visits in both settings. Conclusion Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in this study were found to be poorly controlled in both the settings, diabetic clinic under family medicine and diabetic clinic under endocrinology. More research should be done to explore quality of care in a family medicine setting for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, as such a setting is expected to be more accessible, more convenient, and more cost effective to patients. PMID:27143944

  11. Nontraditional Family Forms: A Decade of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macklin, Eleanor D.

    1980-01-01

    Nontraditional forms which have shown the largest increase in the 70s are those resulting from divorce, dual-work and dual-career families, single-person households, and couples living together. Lifestyles reflect acceptance of nonmarital sexuality, growing freedom from traditional roles and expectations, and greater equality between men and…

  12. [Laboratory Medicine Learned Through Research on the Pathogenesis of Hypertension].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hakuo

    2015-05-01

    Laboratory tests used in clinical practice to assess hypertension include a differential diagnosis, the assessment of complications, and detection of adverse events with medication, which cover a variety of fields of laboratory medicine. I learned laboratory medicine through basic and clinical studies on the pathogenesis of hypertension, and summarized those findings and my interpretations. Basic research using animal models points to a causal role of the central nervous system in essential hypertension; however, since clinical research is technically difficult to perform, this connection has not been confirmed in humans. Recently, renal nerve ablation in humans proved to continuously decrease the blood pressure in the presence of resistant hypertension. Furthermore, when electrical stimulation was continuously applied to the carotid baroreceptor nerve of human adults, their blood pressure lowered. These findings promoted the concept that the central nervous system may actually be involved in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension, which is closely associated with excess sodium intake. We demonstrated that endogenous digitalis plays a key role in hypertension associated with excess sodium intake via sympathetic activation in rats. An increased sodium concentration inside the brain activates epithelial sodium channels and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in the brain. Aldosterone releases ouabain from neurons in the paraventricular nucleus in the hypothalamus. Angiotensin II and aldosterone of peripheral origin reach the brain to augment sympathetic outflow. Collectively essential hypertension associated with excess sodium intake and obesity, renovascular hypertension, and primary aldosteronism and pseudoaldosteronism are all suggested to have a common cause originating from the central nervous system. PMID:26524901

  13. [Progress in research of traditional Chinese medicine Citrus aurantium].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-xiao; Li, Zheng-yong; Ma, Yu-ling; Ma, Shuang-cheng

    2015-01-01

    Citrus aurantium is one of the most common traditional Chinese medicines. In this paper, the chemical components, content determination and pharmacological actions of C. aurantium were summarized for the comprehensive utilization of its resources. Because of the complicated resources of C. aurantium, only one single component as index couldn't reflect the quality and effects and comprehensive evaluation which concluding multiple components should be established in the future quality control. In recent years, the pharmacological effects research of C. aurantium has made tremendous progress, and it is important to explore new drugs from the development and utilization of the active ingredient of C. aurantium. In recent years, the pharmacological effects research of C. aurantium has made tremendous progress, and it is important to explore new drugs from the development and utilization of the active ingredient of C. aurantium. PMID:26080542

  14. Recent research on bioactive xanthones from natural medicine: Garcinia hanburyi.

    PubMed

    Jia, Buyun; Li, Shanshan; Hu, Xuerui; Zhu, Guangyu; Chen, Weidong

    2015-08-01

    Garcinia hanburyi, a tropical plant found in south Asia, has a special long history in the development of both medicine and art. This review mainly focuses on the pharmacy research of the bioactive compounds from the plant in recent years. Preparative and analysis separation methods were introduced. Moreover, the chemical structure of the isolated compounds was included. The studies of biological activities of the caged xanthones from the plant, including antitumor, anti-HIV-1, antibacterial, and neurotrophic activities, were reviewed in detail. Furthermore, the mechanisms of its antitumor activity were also reviewed. As mentioned above, some of the xanthones from G. hanburyi can be promising drug candidates, which is worth studying. However, we still need much evidence to prove their efficacy and safety. So, further research is critical for the future application of xanthones from G. hanburyi. PMID:26152816

  15. Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive tracers? ... funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that uses ...

  16. [Research progress of genetic engineering on medicinal plants].

    PubMed

    Teng, Zhong-qiu; Shen, Ye

    2015-02-01

    The application of genetic engineering technology in modern agriculture shows its outstanding role in dealing with food shortage. Traditional medicinal plant cultivation and collection have also faced with challenges, such as lack of resources, deterioration of environment, germplasm of recession and a series of problems. Genetic engineering can be used to improve the disease resistance, insect resistance, herbicides resistant ability of medicinal plant, also can improve the medicinal plant yield and increase the content of active substances in medicinal plants. Thus, the potent biotechnology can play an important role in protection and large area planting of medicinal plants. In the development of medicinal plant genetic engineering, the safety of transgenic medicinal plants should also be paid attention to. A set of scientific safety evaluation and judgment standard which is suitable for transgenic medicinal plants should be established based on the recognition of the particularity of medicinal plants. PMID:26137675

  17. Improving Family Medicine Residents’ Written Communication Using a Self-assessment Process

    PubMed Central

    François, José

    2012-01-01

    Background Although competency in written communication is a core skill, written communication is seldom the focus of formal instruction in medical education. The objective of this intervention was to implement a self-assessment strategy to assist learners in improving their letter writing skills and then to evaluate its feasibility, reliability and potential educational value. Methods Eight first-year family medicine residents from two teaching sites completing a six month family medicine rotation used a self-assessment process which included a self-study module and an assessment tool for letters. Each resident applied the self-assessment tool to eight to ten consecutive consult/referral request letters. Participants submitted initial and redrafted letters for independent rating. Results Analysis of the content, style and global ratings of the initial 77 draft letters showed multiple deficiencies in the content of their letters. It was confirmed that by using the self-assessment tool, residents were able to reliably assess the quality of their letters. Residents’ assessments and those of the expert closely correlated (Pearson correlation 0.861, p < 0.0001). Over the course of the study the residents’ overall performance improved and the difference in total scores between the initial drafts and the rewritten letters narrowed. Conclusion A self-assessment process of written communication significantly improves the quality and completeness of routine consult/referral request letters. PMID:26451174

  18. Assessing medical student empathy in a family medicine clinical test: validity of the CARE measure

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Julie Y.; Chin, Weng Y.; Fung, Colman S. C.; Wong, Carlos K. H.; Tsang, Joyce P. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The Consultation and Relational Empathy (CARE) measure developed and validated in primary care settings and used for general practitioner appraisal is a 10-item instrument used by patients to assess doctors’ empathy. The aim of this study is to investigate the validity of the CARE measure in assessing medical students’ empathy during a formative family medicine clinical test. Method All 158 final-year medical students were assessed by trained simulated patients (SPs) – who completed the CARE measure, the Jefferson Scale of Patient Perceptions of Physician Empathy (JSPPPE), and a global rating score to assess students’ empathy and history-taking ability. Results Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis identified a unidimensional structure. The CARE measure strongly correlated with both convergent measures: global rating (ρ=0.79 and <0.001) and JSPPPE (ρ=0.77 and <0.001) and weakly correlated with the divergent measure: history-taking score (ρ=0.28 and <0.001). Internal consistency was excellent (Cronbach’s α=0.94). Conclusion The CARE measure had strong construct and internal reliability in a formative, undergraduate family medicine examination. Its role in higher stakes examinations and other educational settings should be explored. PMID:26154863

  19. Patient empowerment, an additional characteristic of the European definitions of general practice/family medicine.

    PubMed

    Mola, Ernesto

    2013-06-01

    Growing evidence supports the inclusion of patient empowerment as a key ingredient of care for patients with chronic conditions. In recent years, several studies based on patient empowerment, have been carried out in different European countries in the context of general practice and primary care to improve management of chronic diseases. These studies have shown good results of the care model, increasing patient and health professionals' satisfaction, adherence to guidelines and to treatment, and improving clinical outcomes. In 2011, the Wonca European Council included as the twelfth characteristic of the European definitions of general practice/family medicine: 'promote patient empowerment'. The aim of this paper is to clarify the meaning of 'patient empowerment' and to explain why family medicine should be considered the most suitable setting to promote it. The inclusion of patient empowerment as one of the essential characteristics of general practice fills a conceptual gap and clearly suggests to the European health care systems a tested model to face chronic diseases: involving and empowering patients in managing their own conditions to improve health and well-being. PMID:23336328

  20. Impact of a family medicine resident wellness curriculum: a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Runyan, Christine; Savageau, Judith A.; Potts, Stacy; Weinreb, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Background Up to 60% of practicing physicians report symptoms of burnout, which often peak during residency. Residency is also a relevant time for habits of self-care and resiliency to be emphasized. A growing literature underscores the importance of this; however, evidence about effective burnout prevention curriculum during residency remains limited. Objectives The purpose of this project is to evaluate the impact of a new, 1-month wellness curriculum for 12 second-year family medicine residents on burnout, empathy, stress, and self-compassion. Methods The pilot program, introduced during a new rotation emphasizing competencies around leadership, focused on teaching skills to cultivate mindfulness and self-compassion in order to enhance empathy and reduce stress. Pre-assessments and 3-month follow-up assessments on measures of burnout, empathy, self-compassion, and perceived stress were collected to evaluate the impact of the curriculum. It was hypothesized that this curriculum would enhance empathy and self-compassion as well as reduce stress and burnout among family medicine residents. Results Descriptive statistics revealed positive trends on the mean scores of all the measures, particularly the Mindfulness Scale of the Self-Compassion Inventory and the Jefferson Empathy Scale. However, the small sample size and lack of sufficient power to detect meaningful differences limited the use of inferential statistics. Conclusions This feasibility study demonstrates how a residency wellness curriculum can be developed, implemented, and evaluated with promising results, including high participant satisfaction. PMID:27282276

  1. Ethnobotany and research on medicinal plants in India.

    PubMed

    Jain, S K

    1994-01-01

    Vast ethnobotanical knowledge exists in India from ancient time. Since the 1950s the study of ethnobotany has intensified; 10 books and 300 papers have been published. Our work over four decades, both in the field and literary studies, has resulted in a dictionary of Indian folk-medicine and ethnobotany that includes 2532 plants. India has about 45,000 plant species; medicinal properties have been assigned to several thousand. About 2000 figure frequently in the literature; indigenous systems commonly employ 500. Despite early (4500-1500 BC) origins and a long history of usage, in the last two centuries Ayurveda has received little official support and hence less attention from good medical practitioners and researchers. Much work is now being done on the botany, pharmacognosy, chemistry, pharmacology and biotechnology of herbal drugs. The value of ethnomedicine has been realized; work is being done on psychoactive plants, household remedies and plants sold by street drug vendors. Statistical methods are being used to assess the credibility of claims. Some recent work in drug development relates to species of Commiphora (used as a hypolipidaemic agent), Picrorhiza (which is hepatoprotective), Bacopa (used as a brain tonic), Curcuma (antiinflammatory) and Asclepias (cardiotonic). A scrutiny of folk claims found 203 plants for evaluation. Less well known ethnomedicines have been identified that are used to treat intestinal, joint, liver and skin diseases. PMID:7736852

  2. The Translational Genomics Core at Partners Personalized Medicine: Facilitating the Transition of Research towards Personalized Medicine.

    PubMed

    Blau, Ashley; Brown, Alison; Mahanta, Lisa; Amr, Sami S

    2016-01-01

    The Translational Genomics Core (TGC) at Partners Personalized Medicine (PPM) serves as a fee-for-service core laboratory for Partners Healthcare researchers, providing access to technology platforms and analysis pipelines for genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenomic research projects. The interaction of the TGC with various components of PPM provides it with a unique infrastructure that allows for greater IT and bioinformatics opportunities, such as sample tracking and data analysis. The following article describes some of the unique opportunities available to an academic research core operating within PPM, such the ability to develop analysis pipelines with a dedicated bioinformatics team and maintain a flexible Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) with the support of an internal IT team, as well as the operational challenges encountered to respond to emerging technologies, diverse investigator needs, and high staff turnover. In addition, the implementation and operational role of the TGC in the Partners Biobank genotyping project of over 25,000 samples is presented as an example of core activities working with other components of PPM. PMID:26927185

  3. The Translational Genomics Core at Partners Personalized Medicine: Facilitating the Transition of Research towards Personalized Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Blau, Ashley; Brown, Alison; Mahanta, Lisa; Amr, Sami S.

    2016-01-01

    The Translational Genomics Core (TGC) at Partners Personalized Medicine (PPM) serves as a fee-for-service core laboratory for Partners Healthcare researchers, providing access to technology platforms and analysis pipelines for genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenomic research projects. The interaction of the TGC with various components of PPM provides it with a unique infrastructure that allows for greater IT and bioinformatics opportunities, such as sample tracking and data analysis. The following article describes some of the unique opportunities available to an academic research core operating within PPM, such the ability to develop analysis pipelines with a dedicated bioinformatics team and maintain a flexible Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) with the support of an internal IT team, as well as the operational challenges encountered to respond to emerging technologies, diverse investigator needs, and high staff turnover. In addition, the implementation and operational role of the TGC in the Partners Biobank genotyping project of over 25,000 samples is presented as an example of core activities working with other components of PPM. PMID:26927185

  4. Evaluation of Four Commonly Used DNA Barcoding Loci for Chinese Medicinal Plants of the Family Schisandraceae

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ruozhu; Fan, Jianhua; Chen, Zhiduan

    2015-01-01

    Many species of Schisandraceae are used in traditional Chinese medicine and are faced with contamination and substitution risks due to inaccurate identification. Here, we investigated the discriminatory power of four commonly used DNA barcoding loci (ITS, trnH-psbA, matK, and rbcL) and corresponding multi-locus combinations for 135 individuals from 33 species of Schisandraceae, using distance-, tree-, similarity-, and character-based methods, at both the family level and the genus level. Our results showed that the two spacer regions (ITS and trnH-psbA) possess higher species-resolving power than the two coding regions (matK and rbcL). The degree of species resolution increased with most of the multi-locus combinations. Furthermore, our results implied that the best DNA barcode for the species discrimination at the family level might not always be the most suitable one at the genus level. Here we propose the combination of ITS+trnH-psbA+matK+rbcL as the most ideal DNA barcode for discriminating the medicinal plants of Schisandra and Kadsura, and the combination of ITS+trnH-psbA as the most suitable barcode for Illicium species. In addition, the closely related species Schisandra rubriflora Rehder & E. H. Wilson and Schisandra grandiflora Hook.f. & Thomson, were paraphyletic with each other on phylogenetic trees, suggesting that they should not be distinct species. Furthermore, the samples of these two species from the southern Hengduan Mountains region formed a distinct cluster that was separated from the samples of other regions, implying the presence of cryptic diversity. The feasibility of DNA barcodes for identification of geographical authenticity was also verified here. The database and paradigm that we provide in this study could be used as reference for the authentication of traditional Chinese medicinal plants utilizing DNA barcoding. PMID:25938480

  5. Geriatric Medicine Training for Family Practice Residents in the 21st Century: A Report from the Residency Assistance Program/Hartford Geriatrics Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warshaw, Gregg; Murphy, John; Buehler, James; Singleton, Stacy

    2003-01-01

    Summarizes the initial results of the regional geriatric medicine curriculum retreats for family practice residency directors provided as part of the American Academy of Family Physicians multi-part project to improve the amount and quality of geriatric medicine education received by family practice residents. (EV)

  6. Family Literacy Research: A Review of Five Journal Articles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rights, Mollie

    This paper reviews 5 articles published in 1995 on family literacy research. The articles reviewed are: (1) a study on literacy in Iceland by Ronald Taylor which examined how Icelandic families share language and reading related activities; (2) an article by Barbara Moss and Gay Fawcett which describes and comments on different home literacy…

  7. Impacts of Family Support in Early Childhood Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friend, Anna C.; Summers, Jean Ann; Turnbull, Ann P.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review intervention research to determine the types of family support that are reported and evaluated in early childhood. This review includes 26 articles evaluating (a) parent training programs; (b) general family-centered practice models which offer comprehensive supports; (c) peer support; (d) two-generation…

  8. Measures for Studying Poverty in Family and Child Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roosa, Mark W.; Deng, Shiying; Nair, Rajni L.; Lockhart Burrell, Ginger

    2005-01-01

    Most family scholars take the concept of poverty for granted. The variety of ways people have chosen to define and measure this concept, however, often makes it difficult to interpret or compare research results. We review and critique the ways that poverty has been measured in the family and child literatures as well as the measures that have…

  9. Workaholism: Bridging the Gap between Workplace, Sociocultural, and Family Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Bryan E.

    2000-01-01

    Article attempts to narrow the gap between studies of workaholism and human relations/organizational development, and workaholism and cross-cultural research and family counseling. Counselors are encouraged to be aware of implications of workaholism for clients, including burnout and family disintegration, and screen for it just as they would for…

  10. Family-Centered Residential Treatment: Knowledge, Research, and Values Converge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Uta M.; Petr, Christopher G.

    2008-01-01

    Although the evidence base for the effectiveness of residential treatment is still very limited, a review of the literature reveals family-centered residential care as an emerging best practice. Synthesizing knowledge from research, families, youth, professionals, as well as values put forth in the standards by accrediting organizations, this…

  11. Trends and Directions in Family Research in the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berardo, Felix M.

    1990-01-01

    Introduces special journal issue devoted to a review of research on marriage and the family over the past decade. Provides overview of marital issues, feminism, parent-child relationships, day care, divorce, remarriage, stepfamilies, adolescence, later life families, religion, Blacks, Hispanics, adolescent childbearing, health, employment,…

  12. Gua sha research and the language of integrative medicine.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Arya

    2009-01-01

    This article is based on research findings published by Nielsen et al. [2007a. The effect of 'Gua sha' treatment on the microcirculation of surface tissue: a pilot study in healthy subjects. EXPLORE: The Journal of Science and Healing 3, 456-466]. The abstract was accepted for poster session at the conference on fascia (www.fascia2007.com) and appears in the conference text Fascia Research [Nielsen, A., Knoblauch, N., Dobos, G., Michalsen, A., Kaptchuk, T., 2007b. The effect of 'Gua sha' treatment on the microcirculation of surface tissue: a pilot study in healthy subjects. In: Findley, T.W., Schleip, R. (Eds.), Fascia Research: Basic Science and Implications for Conventional and Complementary Health Care. Elsevier, Munich, Germany, pp. 249-250]. Our Gua sha perfusion study, the abstract of which is reprinted in Box 1, was the first investigation into the physiology of Gua sha, a technique of traditional East Asian medicine used to treat conditions that have features of blood stasis, pain, and/or inflammation. Issues raised by our study are discussed here such as the significance of the terms used in Western medical literature to describe traditional indigenous therapies like Gua sha and the implication of our findings not only for future research but toward a shift in how the integrative medical community signifies its work. PMID:19118794

  13. Personalized medicine for ARDS: the 2035 research agenda.

    PubMed

    Beitler, Jeremy R; Goligher, Ewan C; Schmidt, Matthieu; Spieth, Peter M; Zanella, Alberto; Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Calfee, Carolyn S; Cavalcanti, Alexandre B

    2016-05-01

    In the last 20 years, survival among patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has increased substantially with advances in lung-protective ventilation and resuscitation. Building on this success, personalizing mechanical ventilation to patient-specific physiology for enhanced lung protection will be a top research priority for the years ahead. However, the ARDS research agenda must be broader in scope. Further understanding of the heterogeneous biology, from molecular to mechanical, underlying early ARDS pathogenesis is essential to inform therapeutic discovery and tailor treatment and prevention strategies to the individual patient. The ARDSne(x)t research agenda for the next 20 years calls for bringing personalized medicine to ARDS, asking simultaneously both whether a treatment affords clinically meaningful benefit and for whom. This expanded scope necessitates standard acquisition of highly granular biological, physiological, and clinical data across studies to identify biologically distinct subgroups that may respond differently to a given intervention. Clinical trials will need to consider enrichment strategies and incorporate long-term functional outcomes. Tremendous investment in research infrastructure and global collaboration will be vital to fulfilling this agenda. PMID:27040103

  14. Families Today: A Research Sampler on Families and Children. Volume II. NIMH Science Monographs 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corfman, Eunice, Ed.

    The second of two volumes, this book contains 21 studies of children and families. Selections, grouped into three sections, are intended to provide a representative sample of current research, including case studies and less formal reports. The first section reports on families in distress. Articles focus on adults who were antisocial children,…

  15. Family, Self, and Society: Toward a New Agenda for Family Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Philip A., Ed.; And Others

    This book contains 21 essays by a diverse group of scholars who examine the current state of family theory and research and look ahead to challenging issues likely to be raised in the future. Part one contains seven essays on the rethinking of conceptual models, including "Bringing the Institution Back In,""Changes of Heart: Family Dynamics in…

  16. Building a resident research program in emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Nocera, Romy; Ramoska, Edward Anthony; Hamilton, Richard Joseph

    2016-03-01

    Residency training programs requirements state, "Residents should participate in scholarly activity." However, there is little consensus regarding how best to achieve these requirements. The objective of this study is to implement a resident research program that emphasizes resident participation in quantitative or qualitative empirical work. A three-step program "Think, Do, Write" roughly follows the 3 years of the residency. During the first phase, the resident chooses a topic, formulates a hypothesis, and completes standard research certifications. Phase 2 involves obtaining Institutional Review Board approval, and conducting the study. The final phase entails analyzing and interpreting the data, and writing an abstract to present during an annual research day. Residents are encouraged to submit their projects for presentation at scientific conferences and for publication. Multiple departmental resources are available, including a Resident Research Fund, and full support of the faculty. Prior to the new program, most scholarly activity consisted of case reports, book chapters, review articles, or other miscellaneous projects; only 27 % represented empirical studies. Starting in 2012, the new program was fully implemented, resulting in notable growth in original empirical works among residents. Currently there is almost 100 % participation in studies, and numerous residents have presented at national conferences, and have peer-reviewed publications. With a comprehensive and supported program in place, emergency medicine residents proved capable of conducting high-quality empirical research within their relatively limited time. Overall, residents developed valuable skills in research design and statistical analysis, and greatly increased their productivity as academic and clinical researchers. PMID:26597875

  17. The Application of Entrustable Professional Activities to Inform Competency Decisions in a Family Medicine Residency Program.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Karen; Griffiths, Jane; Lacasse, Miriam

    2015-07-01

    Assessing entrustable professional activities (EPAs), or carefully chosen units of work that define a profession and are entrusted to a resident to complete unsupervised once she or he has obtained adequate competence, is a novel and innovative approach to competency-based assessment (CBA). What is currently not well described in the literature is the application of EPAs within a CBA system. In this article, the authors describe the development of 35 EPAs for a Canadian family medicine residency program, including the work by an expert panel of family physician and medical education experts from four universities in three Canadian provinces to identify the relevant EPAs for family medicine in nine curriculum domains. The authors outline how they used these EPAs and the corresponding templates that describe competence at different levels of supervision to create electronic EPA field notes, which has allowed educators to use the EPAs as a formative tool to structure day-to-day assessment and feedback and a summative tool to ground competency declarations about residents. They then describe the system to compile, collate, and use the EPA field notes to make competency declarations and how this system aligns with van der Vleuten's utility index for assessment (valid, reliable, of educational value, acceptable, cost-effective). Early outcomes indicate that preceptors are using the EPA field notes more often than they used the generic field notes. EPAs enable educators to evaluate multiple objectives and important but unwieldy competencies by providing practical, manageable, measurable activities that can be used to assess competency development. PMID:25719674

  18. The ClinSeq Project: Piloting large-scale genome sequencing for research in genomic medicine

    PubMed Central

    Biesecker, Leslie G.; Mullikin, James C.; Facio, Flavia M.; Turner, Clesson; Cherukuri, Praveen F.; Blakesley, Robert W.; Bouffard, Gerard G.; Chines, Peter S.; Cruz, Pedro; Hansen, Nancy F.; Teer, Jamie K.; Maskeri, Baishali; Young, Alice C.; Manolio, Teri A.; Wilson, Alexander F.; Finkel, Toren; Hwang, Paul; Arai, Andrew; Remaley, Alan T.; Sachdev, Vandana; Shamburek, Robert; Cannon, Richard O.; Green, Eric D.

    2009-01-01

    ClinSeq is a pilot project to investigate the use of whole-genome sequencing as a tool for clinical research. By piloting the acquisition of large amounts of DNA sequence data from individual human subjects, we are fostering the development of hypothesis-generating approaches for performing research in genomic medicine, including the exploration of issues related to the genetic architecture of disease, implementation of genomic technology, informed consent, disclosure of genetic information, and archiving, analyzing, and displaying sequence data. In the initial phase of ClinSeq, we are enrolling roughly 1000 participants; the evaluation of each includes obtaining a detailed family and medical history, as well as a clinical evaluation. The participants are being consented broadly for research on many traits and for whole-genome sequencing. Initially, Sanger-based sequencing of 300–400 genes thought to be relevant to atherosclerosis is being performed, with the resulting data analyzed for rare, high-penetrance variants associated with specific clinical traits. The participants are also being consented to allow the contact of family members for additional studies of sequence variants to explore their potential association with specific phenotypes. Here, we present the general considerations in designing ClinSeq, preliminary results based on the generation of an initial 826 Mb of sequence data, the findings for several genes that serve as positive controls for the project, and our views about the potential implications of ClinSeq. The early experiences with ClinSeq illustrate how large-scale medical sequencing can be a practical, productive, and critical component of research in genomic medicine. PMID:19602640

  19. Research Connections Canada: Supporting Children and Families, Number 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Elaine, Ed.

    Serving as a vehicle for raising the profile of and thereby gaining recognition for the important research and development work being conducted in Canada in support of children and families, the "Research Connections Canada" series compiles research and/or development papers as well as background papers, analytical literature reviews, and essays.…

  20. Research Connections Canada: Supporting Children and Families, Number 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Elaine, Ed.

    Serving as a vehicle for raising the profile of and thereby gaining recognition for the important research and development work being conducted in Canada in support of children and families, the "Research Connections Canada" series compiles research and/or development papers as well as background papers, analytical literature reviews, and essays.…

  1. Research Connections Canada: Supporting Children and Families, Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Judith, Ed.

    Serving as a vehicle for raising the profile of and thereby gaining recognition for the important research and development work being conducted in Canada in support of children and families, the "Research Connections Canada" series compiles research and/or development papers as well as background papers, analytical literature reviews, and essays.…

  2. Research Connections Canada: Supporting Children and Families, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Susan, Ed.; Bose, Kathy, Ed.; Levesque, Lise, Ed.

    Serving as a vehicle for raising the profile of and thereby gaining recognition for the important research and development work being conducted in Canada in support of children and families, the "Research Connections Canada" series compiles research and/or development papers as well as background papers, analytical literature reviews, and essays.…

  3. Research Connections Canada: Supporting Children and Families, Number 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Elaine, Ed.

    Serving as a vehicle for raising the profile of and thereby gaining recognition for the important research and development work being conducted in Canada in support of children and families, the "Research Connections Canada" series compiles research and/or development papers as well as background papers, analytical literature reviews, and essays.…

  4. Research Connections Canada: Supporting Children and Families, Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Judith, Ed.

    Serving as a vehicle for raising the profile of and thereby gaining recognition for the important research and development work being conducted in Canada in support of children and families, the "Research Connections Canada" series compiles research and/or development papers as well as background papers, analytical literature reviews, and essays.…

  5. Research Connections Canada: Supporting Children and Families, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Susan, Ed.; Bose, Kathy, Ed.; Levesque, Lise, Ed.

    Serving as a vehicle for raising the profile of and thereby gaining recognition for the important research and development work being conducted in Canada in support of children and families, the "Research Connections Canada" series compiles research and/or development papers as well as background papers, analytical literature reviews, and essays.…

  6. Research Connections Canada: Supporting Children and Families, Number 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Elaine, Ed.

    Serving as a vehicle for raising the profile of and thereby gaining recognition for the important research and development work being conducted in Canada in support of children and families, the "Research Connections Canada" series compiles research and/or development papers as well as background papers, analytical literature reviews, and essays.…

  7. A research agenda to promote affordable and quality assured medicines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Promoting generic medicines to increase access to essential medicines is relevant to achieve the Millennium Development Goal (MDGs) and post 2015 goals. There are several barriers to encouraging wider use of generic medicines in health systems, e.g. the widely-held perception that low price equals low quality and misalignment of provider and consumer incentives. Overcoming the complex barriers and other challenges can be re-formulated as a ‘generic medicine evidence-based policy agenda’: (1) What policy and strategies can increase consumer trust in the quality of all medicines granted market authority including generic products? (2) Are there differences in prices between branded and unbranded generics? (3) What are synergies between policies that can enhance promoting of generic medicines effectively? Evaluating the policies promoting generic medicines will be critical to create evidence that countries can use to implement policies in their local settings. PMID:25848542

  8. Hemoglobin research and the origins of molecular medicine

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Much of our understanding of human physiology, and of many aspects of pathology, has its antecedents in laboratory and clinical studies of hemoglobin. Over the last century, knowledge of the genetics, functions, and diseases of the hemoglobin proteins has been refined to the molecular level by analyses of their crystallographic structures and by cloning and sequencing of their genes and surrounding DNA. In the last few decades, research has opened up new paradigms for hemoglobin related to processes such as its role in the transport of nitric oxide and the complex developmental control of the α-like and β-like globin gene clusters. It is noteworthy that this recent work has had implications for understanding and treating the prevalent diseases of hemoglobin, especially the use of hydroxyurea to elevate fetal hemoglobin in sickle cell disease. It is likely that current research will also have significant clinical implications, as well as lessons for other aspects of molecular medicine, the origin of which can be largely traced to this research tradition. PMID:18988877

  9. Dyadic research in marriage and family therapy: methodological considerations.

    PubMed

    Wittenborn, Andrea K; Dolbin-MacNab, Megan L; Keiley, Margaret K

    2013-01-01

    With training that emphasizes relationship systems, marriage and family therapists are uniquely attuned to interpersonal dynamics, interdependence, and the influence of relationships on individuals' perceptions, beliefs, and attitudes. While recent statistical advances have contributed to a proliferation of resources designed to introduce researchers to dyadic data analysis, guidelines related to the methodological aspects of dyadic research design have received less attention. Given the potential advantages of dyadic designs for examining couple and family relational and therapeutic processes, the purpose of this article is to introduce marriage and family therapy researchers to dyadic research methodology. Using examples from our own research, we discuss methodological considerations and lessons learned related to sampling, measurement, data collection, and ethics. Recommendations for future dyadic research are provided. PMID:25073839

  10. Career advising in family medicine: a theoretical framework for structuring the medical student/faculty advisor interview

    PubMed Central

    Bradner, Melissa; Crossman, Steven H.; Vanderbilt, Allison A.; Gary, Judy; Munson, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background There are unique challenges to recruiting students into the specialty of family medicine within academic medical centers. Methods At Virginia Commonwealth University, we developed an advising framework to help students address institutional and personal obstacles to choosing family medicine as a career. Results The role of a faculty advisor is not to direct the student to a career choice but rather to foster a mentor relationship and help the student come to his or her own realizations regarding career choice. The faculty advisor/medical student interview is conceptualized as five discussion topics: self-knowledge, perception, organizational voice, cognitive dissonance, and anticipatory counseling. Conclusion This framework is intended to assist faculty in their efforts to encourage students to consider a career in family medicine. PMID:23948497

  11. Family Literacy: A Research Agenda to Build the Future. Report from Penn State's Goodling Institute for Research in Family Literacy Think Tank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askov, Eunice N.

    A think tank on researching family literacy was held to brainstorm a national research agenda for family literacy. The think tank brought together 12 researchers, policymakers, and practitioners involved in family literacy. Key themes emerging during the think tank were as follows: (1) family literacy is difficult to research because it is…

  12. STRUCTURAL BIOLOGY AND MOLECULAR MEDICINE RESEARCH PROGRAM (LSBMM)

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenberg, David S.

    2008-07-15

    The UCLA-DOE Institute of Genomics and Proteomics is an organized research unit of the University of California, sponsored by the Department of Energy through the mechanism of a Cooperative Agreement. Today the Institute consists of 10 Principal Investigators and 7 Associate Members, developing and applying technologies to promote the biological and environmental missions of the Department of Energy, and 5 Core Technology Centers to sustain this work. The focus is on understanding genomes, pathways and molecular machines in organisms of interest to DOE, with special emphasis on developing enabling technologies. Since it was founded in 1947, the UCLA-DOE Institute has adapted its mission to the research needs of DOE and its progenitor agencies as these research needs have changed. The Institute started as the AEC Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine, directed by Stafford Warren, who later became the founding Dean of the UCLA School of Medicine. In this sense, the entire UCLA medical center grew out of the precursor of our Institute. In 1963, the mission of the Institute was expanded into environmental studies by Director Ray Lunt. I became the third director in 1993, and in close consultation with David Galas and John Wooley of DOE, shifted the mission of the Institute towards genomics and proteomics. Since 1993, the Principal Investigators and Core Technology Centers are entirely new, and the Institute has separated from its former division concerned with PET imaging. The UCLA-DOE Institute shares the space of Boyer Hall with the Molecular Biology Institute, and assumes responsibility for the operation of the main core facilities. Fig. 1 gives the organizational chart of the Institute. Some of the benefits to the public of research carried out at the UCLA-DOE Institute include the following: The development of publicly accessible, web-based databases, including the Database of Protein Interactions, and the ProLinks database of genomicly inferred protein function linkages

  13. Academic Promotion and Tenure in U.S. Family Medicine Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, Richard L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    A national survey of representatives of medical college family practice units concerning their perceptions of the unit's and the institution's values on research, teaching, patient care, and administrative duties found consistent disparity between the units' and institutions' value structures, but also a trend toward faculty promotion and tenure…

  14. Relevance of Hypersexual Disorder to Family Medicine and Primary Care as a Complex Multidimensional Chronic Disease Construct

    PubMed Central

    Vrijhoef, Bert; De Maeseneer, Jan; Vansintejan, Johan; Devroey, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Hypersexual disorder (HD) is not defined in a uniform way in the psychiatric literature. In the absence of solid evidence on prevalence, causes, empirically validated diagnostic criteria, instruments for diagnosis, consistent guidelines on treatment options, medical and psychosocial consequences, and type of caregivers that need to be involved, HD remains a controversial and relatively poorly understood chronic disease construct. The role of family medicine in the detection, treatment, and followup of HD is not well studied. The purpose of this paper is to describe the complexity of HD as a multidimensional chronic disease construct and its relevance to family medicine and primary care. PMID:24066230

  15. Karma, reincarnation, and medicine: Hindu perspectives on biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Janis Faye; Sharp, Richard

    2008-12-01

    Prior to the completion of the Human Genome Project, bioethicists and other academics debated the impact of this new genetic information on medicine, health care, group identification, and peoples' lives. A major issue is the potential for unintended and intended adverse consequences to groups and individuals. When conducting research in, for instance, American Indian and Alaskan native (AI/AN) populations, political, cultural, religious and historical issues must be considered. Among African Americans, the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment is a reminder of racism and discrimination in this country. The goal of the current study is to understand reasons for participating, or not, in genetic research such as the HapMap project and other genetic/medical research from the perspective of the Indian American community in Houston, Texas. In this article, we report on a topic central to this discussion among Indian Americans: karma and reincarnation. Both concepts are important beliefs when considering the body and what should happen to it. Karma and reincarnation are also important considerations in participation in medical and genetic research because, according to karma, what is done to the body can affect future existences and the health of future descendants. Such views of genetic and medical research are culturally mediated. Spiritual beliefs about the body, tissue, and fluids and what happens to them when separated from the body can influence ideas about the utility and acceptability of genetic research and thereby affect the recruitment process. Within this community it is understood that genetic and environmental factors contribute to complex diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, and cancer; and acknowledgment of the significance of environmental stressors in the production of disease. A commitment to service, i.e. "betterment of humanity," karmic beliefs, and targeting environmental stressors could be prominent avenues for public health campaigns in this

  16. Assessing research impact in academic clinical medicine: a study using Research Excellence Framework pilot impact indicators

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Funders of medical research the world over are increasingly seeking, in research assessment, to complement traditional output measures of scientific publications with more outcome-based indicators of societal and economic impact. In the United Kingdom, the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) developed proposals for the Research Excellence Framework (REF) to allocate public research funding to higher education institutions, inter alia, on the basis of the social and economic impact of their research. In 2010, it conducted a pilot exercise to test these proposals and refine impact indicators and criteria. Methods The impact indicators proposed in the 2010 REF impact pilot exercise are critically reviewed and appraised using insights from the relevant literature and empirical data collected for the University of Oxford’s REF pilot submission in clinical medicine. The empirical data were gathered from existing administrative sources and an online administrative survey carried out by the university’s Medical Sciences Division among 289 clinical medicine faculty members (48.1% response rate). Results The feasibility and scope of measuring research impact in clinical medicine in a given university are assessed. Twenty impact indicators from seven categories proposed by HEFCE are presented; their strengths and limitations are discussed using insights from the relevant biomedical and research policy literature. Conclusions While the 2010 pilot exercise has confirmed that the majority of the proposed indicators have some validity, there are significant challenges in operationalising and measuring these indicators reliably, as well as in comparing evidence of research impact across different cases in a standardised manner. It is suggested that the public funding agencies, medical research charities, universities, and the wider medical research community work together to develop more robust methodologies for capturing and describing impact

  17. [Complementary and alternative medicine--time for research and regulation].

    PubMed

    Halevy, Jonathan

    2011-08-01

    The usage of complementary and alternative medicine [CAM] is increasing in popularity in the modern world. In this issue of Harefuah, seven articles relate to various aspects of CAM: the use of various modalities of CAM in four community clinics in Northern Israel, an assessment of the needs and expectations of patients on chemotherapy from the integration of CAM in palliative oncological care, a description of a series of quality research studies relating to CAM in hemato-oncological disorders and autoimmune diseases and a discussion of ethical dilemmas and issues relating to Jewish law. Other authors review the history of clinical studies with an emphasis on mind-body connection and the placebo effect. The conclusion that may be derived about CAM from this compilation of articles is that, despite the ltack of scientific evidence to support the paradigm underlying most CAM modalities and the scarcity of evidence to support its efficacy, the increasing popularity of CAM should lead us to expand research into CAM and to teach our medical students about CAM. We should do so for the sake of proper doctor-patient relationships and to prevent improper use of CAM by the general public. The diversity of CAM modalities and the heterogeneity of training patterns among those who practice CAM call for the prompt regulation of training and licensing of all CAM practitioners. PMID:21939117

  18. A systems medicine research approach for studying alcohol addiction.

    PubMed

    Spanagel, Rainer; Durstewitz, Daniel; Hansson, Anita; Heinz, Andreas; Kiefer, Falk; Köhr, Georg; Matthäus, Franziska; Nöthen, Markus M; Noori, Hamid R; Obermayer, Klaus; Rietschel, Marcella; Schloss, Patrick; Scholz, Henrike; Schumann, Gunter; Smolka, Michael; Sommer, Wolfgang; Vengeliene, Valentina; Walter, Henrik; Wurst, Wolfgang; Zimmermann, Uli S; Stringer, Sven; Smits, Yannick; Derks, Eske M

    2013-11-01

    According to the World Health Organization, about 2 billion people drink alcohol. Excessive alcohol consumption can result in alcohol addiction, which is one of the most prevalent neuropsychiatric diseases afflicting our society today. Prevention and intervention of alcohol binging in adolescents and treatment of alcoholism are major unmet challenges affecting our health-care system and society alike. Our newly formed German SysMedAlcoholism consortium is using a new systems medicine approach and intends (1) to define individual neurobehavioral risk profiles in adolescents that are predictive of alcohol use disorders later in life and (2) to identify new pharmacological targets and molecules for the treatment of alcoholism. To achieve these goals, we will use omics-information from epigenomics, genetics transcriptomics, neurodynamics, global neurochemical connectomes and neuroimaging (IMAGEN; Schumann et al. ) to feed mathematical prediction modules provided by two Bernstein Centers for Computational Neurosciences (Berlin and Heidelberg/Mannheim), the results of which will subsequently be functionally validated in independent clinical samples and appropriate animal models. This approach will lead to new early intervention strategies and identify innovative molecules for relapse prevention that will be tested in experimental human studies. This research program will ultimately help in consolidating addiction research clusters in Germany that can effectively conduct large clinical trials, implement early intervention strategies and impact political and healthcare decision makers. PMID:24283978

  19. Family medicine model in Turkey: a qualitative assessment from the perspectives of primary care workers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A person-list-based family medicine model was introduced in Turkey during health care reforms. This study aimed to explore from primary care workers’ perspectives whether this model could achieve the cardinal functions of primary care and have an integrative position in the health care system. Methods Four groups of primary care workers were included in this exploratory-descriptive study. The first two groups were family physicians (FP) (n = 51) and their ancillary personnel (n = 22). The other two groups were physicians (n = 44) and midwives/nurses (n = 11) working in community health centres. Participants were selected for maximum variation and 102 in-depth interviews and six focus groups were conducted using a semi-structured form. Results Data analysis yielded five themes: accessibility, first-contact care, longitudinality, comprehensiveness, and coordination. Most participants stated that many people are not registered with any FP and that the majority of these belong to the most disadvantaged groups in society. FPs reported that 40-60% of patients on their lists have never received a service from them and the majority of those who use their services do not use FPs as the first point of contact. According to most participants, the list-based system improved the longitudinality of the relationship between FPs and patients. However, based on other statements, this improvement only applies to one quarter of the population. Whereas there was an improvement limited to a quantitative increase in services (immunisation, monitoring of pregnant women and infants) included in the performance-based contracting system, participants stated that services not among the performance targets, such as family planning, postpartum follow-ups, and chronic disease management, could be neglected. FPs admitted not being able to keep informed of services their patients had received at other health institutions. Half of the participants stated that the list

  20. Qualitative Evaluation of Cardiovascular Diseases Management in Family Medicine Team in One Year Level

    PubMed Central

    Beganlic, Azijada; Pavljasevic, Suzana; Kreitmayer, Sanda; Zildzic, Muharem; Softic, Albina; Selmanovic, Senada; Becarevic, Munevera

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading death cause in modern world and are the most public health problem. WHO program for CVD contains: prevention, command and follow up of CVD in global level. Aim: Investigate CVD frequency in family medicine team in 2012.year (one year period of time) and qualitative management prevention and clinical services management quality of CVD together with recommended standards. Patients and methods: clinical revision of clinical standard practice patients with CVD was provided in Family medicine team in Public Health Centre Tuzla for the period of time from January 01 2012 - December 31 2012. For quality of realized services, AKAZ standards were based for: chapter 2. Health promotion and diseases prevention 2.5. preventive clinical services; chapter 3. Clinical services, standard 3.1. Coronary diseases and standard 3.2. TIA and Stroke. From CVD register next parameters had been used: age, gender, disease diagnose, therapy, blood pressure values, total cholesterol values, ß blockers therapy, anticoagulant therapy prescription, smoker status, stop smoking recommendation and influenza vaccination recommendation. Statistical approach: All results were taken in Excel program and statistically analyzed. Descriptive standard tests were taken with measurement of central tendency and dispersion. For significant differentials achieved with χ² chances relation was taken (Odds Ratio-OR) with 95% relevant security. All tests were leveled in statistical significant from 95% (p<0,05). Results: Considering total registered habitants number 1448 (males 624 females 824) total diseases of usually CVD in Team 1 family medicine 531 (36,67%). The most frequent disease was hypertension which was presented in 30,31% of registered patients but in total CVD illness was present in 82,67%. In relation with total patients number (531), female prevalence from CVD 345:186 males vs. 65%:35%; P=0,001 and was statistically significantly higher

  1. From general practice to primary care: the industrialisation of family medicine in Britain.

    PubMed

    Iliffe, Steve

    2002-01-01

    Health services are multi-unit enterprises providing multi-component services, and organisationally are equivalent to very large, diversified companies. Although public health services like Britain's National Health service (NHS) are not for-profit enterprises, they may share characteristics of such enterprises, particularly where these characteristics offer methods of cost-containment. Since all health services, however organised, face the same problem of resources being insufficient to meet demand for health care, they exhibit an underlying tendency towards solving problems in health care using mechanisms borrowed from other industries. This paper attempts to answer the question: to what extent has general practice (family medicine) in Britain's NHS adopted industrial modes of organisation from productive (for-profit) industries? PMID:12013714

  2. Medical students’ perceptions and attitudes about family practice: a qualitative research synthesis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background During the last decade medical students from most Western countries have shown little interest in family practice. Understanding the factors that influence medical students to choose family medicine is crucial. Objective To systematically review and synthesize published evidence about medical students’ attitudes and perceptions towards family practice. Methods A qualitative systematic review. The literature search was undertaken in July 2010 in PubMed, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Social Science Citation Index (SSCI), and ProQuest Dissertations & Theses. Two authors independently selected the studies for their inclusion and assessed their quality. The selected studies were thoroughly read. Key themes and categories were identified. A matrix was created for allowing the comparison of each theme across studies. Results Ten studies were finally included. Seven broad themes were identified across them: 1) Scope and context of practice was a broad theme comprising linked sub-themes: perception of a varied specialty, broad practice, holistic perspective and flexibility that allows having a family; 2) Lower interest or intellectually less challenging: treating common disease, repetitive, quasi administrative job; 3) Influence of role models, either positive and negative, and society: negative comments from other professionals, peers and family; 4) Lower prestige; 5) Poor remuneration; 6) Medical school influences, being important both the length and quality of the exposure; 7) Post graduate training, where the shorter duration and the lower intensity were perceived as positive aspects. After identifying these seven key themes, were also looked into patterns in the distribution of these themes among studies. Conclusions Our qualitative review provides a comprehensive picture of medical students’ attitudes towards family practice in the available literature. In general, although some students find family medicine

  3. Participation of immigrant women family caregivers in qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, A; Harrison, M J; Hughes, K D; Spitzer, D; Stewart, M J

    2001-10-01

    The recruitment of articulate, expressive participants is an essential part of methodology in qualitative research. This article presents the authors' experience in the recruitment of immigrant women of Chinese and South Asian origin in an ethnographic study. The study included women caring for an adult or child family member who had a chronic health problem. Knowledge of women family caregivers' health is restricted by the failure to include diverse groups of women in research. In this article, the authors discuss issues related to recruitment and participation of immigrant women in research, including establishing access to diverse groups of women, benefits for immigrant women, and placing the researcher and research process on the same level. Practical research strategies to address these issues and engage the women in research that portrays their perspectives are presented. The authors' discussion concludes with reflection on their experience and that of other researchers. PMID:11569331

  4. Establishing the need for family medicine training in intimate partner violence screening.

    PubMed

    Pagels, Patti; Kindratt, Tiffany B; Reyna, Guadalupe; Lam, Kenrick; Silver, Mandy; Gimpel, Nora E

    2015-06-01

    In 2012, the USPSTF updated its guidelines and now recommends that all women of childbearing age be screened for IPV and services provided for women who screen positive. Based on these recommendations, objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate IPV knowledge, attitudes, and practices of physicians from different specialties and (2) determine significant differences by medical specialty. We recruited (n = 183) Internal Medicine, Emergency Medicine, Family Medicine (FM) and Obstetrics/Gynecology (OB/GYN) residents and attending physicians to complete a 15-question online survey assessing knowledge, attitudes and current IPV screening practices. We evaluated associations between medical specialty and knowledge, attitudes and practice measures before and after controlling for covariates. Knowledge of how often IPV occurs in society, community resources, and screening tools were significantly different by specialty (all p's < 0.05). A majority of FM physicians (88%) reported that it is a physician's responsibility to find and treat IPV and 97% reported that IPV should be included in their training. Compared to OB/GYN physicians in multivariate analyses, FM physicians were less likely to report they were comfortable discussing IPV with their patients in crude (OR = 0.35; 95% CI = 0.13, 0.94) and adjusted models (OR = 0.20; 95% CI = 0.06, 0.60). FM physicians were also less likely to report screening female patients for IPV before (OR = 0.25; 95% CI = 0.08, 0.86) and after adjusting for confounders (OR = 0.11; 95% CI = 0.03, 0.47). Our results indicate that FM physicians have positive attitudes towards finding and treating IPV yet need enhanced training to improve their comfort level with screening for and discussing IPV with their patients. PMID:25352415

  5. [Application of molecular pharmacognosy in research of Mongolian medicine].

    PubMed

    Li, Qianquan; Zhou, Lishe; Guo, Lanping; Li, Minhui; Zhang, Na; Yuan, Qingjun; Yuan, Yuan

    2011-10-01

    Molecular pharmacognosy has developed as a new borderline discipline. Using the method and technology of molecular pharmacognosy, a wide range of challenging problems were resolved, such as the identification of Mongolian medicinal raw materials, etiology of endangerment and protection of endangered Mongolian medicinal plants and animals, biosynthesis and bioregulation of active components in Mongolian medicinal plants, and characteristics and the molecular bases of Dao-di Herbs. So molecular pharmacognosy will provide the new methods and insights for modernization of Mongolian medicine. PMID:22242416

  6. Outcome of the first Medicines Utilization Research in Africa group meeting to promote sustainable and rational medicine use in Africa.

    PubMed

    Massele, Amos; Burger, Johanita; Katende-Kyenda, Norah L; Kalemeera, Francis; Kenaope, Thatoyaone; Kibuule, Dan; Mbachu, Ogochukwu; Mubita, Mwangana; Oluka, Margaret; Olusanya, Adedunni; Paramadhas, Bene D Anand; van Zyl, Paulina; Godman, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The first Medicines Utilization Research in Africa group workshop and symposium brought researchers together from across Africa to improve their knowledge on drug utilization methodologies as well as exchange ideas. As a result, progress was made on drug utilization research and formulating future strategies to enhance the rational use of medicines in Africa. Anti-infectives were the principal theme for the 1-day symposium following the workshops. This included presentations on the inappropriate use of antibiotics as well as ways to address this. Concerns with adverse drug reactions and adherence to anti-retroviral medicines were also discussed, with poor adherence remaining a challenge. There were also concerns with the underutilization of generics. These discussions resulted in a number of agreed activities before the next conference in 2016. PMID:26367814

  7. Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... better. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration is in charge of assuring the safety ... prescription and over-the-counter medicines. Even safe drugs can cause unwanted side effects or interactions with ...

  8. Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... you get better. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration is in charge of assuring ... can cause unwanted side effects or interactions with food or other medicines you may be taking. They ...

  9. Australian Family Research Conference Proceedings (Canberra, Australia, November 23-25, 1983). Volume I: Family Formation, Structure, Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of Family Studies, Melbourne (Australia).

    First in a series of seven volumes containing the proceedings of the 1983 Australian Family Research Conference, this publication deals with the formation, structure, and values of family life in Australia. Papers and authors included are: "Priorities in Family Research and Family Law" (Gareth Evans), "The Baby Boom Generation as Reproducers:…

  10. Research on Couple/Family Counselor Training: A Search for Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleist, David M.

    2003-01-01

    The initial goals of IAMFC included conducting and fostering programs of education in the field of family counseling, and promoting and conducting programs of research in the field of marriage and family counseling (International Association of Marriage and Family Counselors, 1990). The goal of fostering program development shows signs of success,…

  11. Intervention Development and Cultural Adaptation Research With Diverse Families

    PubMed Central

    BERNAL, GUILLERMO

    2006-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the special issue on intervention development and cultural adaptation research with diverse families. The need for research on intervention development and on cultural adaptation of interventions is presented, followed by a discussion of frameworks on treatment development. Seven articles included in this special issue serve as examples of the stages of treatment and intervention development, and of the procedures employed in the cultural adaptation with diverse families. An overview of the seven articles is provided to illustrate the treatment development process and the use of pluralistic research methods. We conclude with a call to the field for creative and innovative intervention development research with diverse families to contribute to the body of evidence-based practice with these populations. PMID:16768015

  12. Drug sample management in University of Montreal family medicine teaching units

    PubMed Central

    Lussier, Marie-Thérèse; Vanier, Marie-Claude; Authier, Marie; Diallo, Fatoumata Binta; Gagnon, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe the management and distribution of drug samples in family medicine teaching units (FMUs). Design Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting All 16 FMUs affiliated with the Department of Family Medicine and Emergency Medicine at the University of Montreal in Quebec. Participants Health care professionals (physicians, residents, pharmacists, and nurses) who manage (n = 22) and dispense (n = 294) drug samples in the FMUs. Methods Data were collected between February and March 2013 using 2 self-administered questionnaires completed by health care professionals who manage or dispense drug samples. The data were subjected to descriptive and bivariate analyses. Results The participation rate was 100.0% for staff who manage drug samples and 72.5% for those who dispense them. Of the 16 participating FMUs, 12 have drug sample cabinets. Eight of the FMUs have a written institutional policy governing the management of drug samples. Of the 76.2% of respondents who said they distributed samples, more than half did not know whether their institution had a policy. In 7 of 12 FMUs with drug sample cabinets, access to samples is not restricted to those authorized to prescribe medications. Cabinets are most often managed by nurses (9 of 12 FMUs). Only 4 of 12 FMUs take regular inventory of cabinet contents. The main reasons cited for dispensing samples were to help a patient financially and to test for tolerance and efficacy when initiating or modifying a treatment for a patient. Three-quarters (78.2%) of dispensers reported that sometimes they were unable to find the drug they wanted in the cabinet; half of those consequently gave patients drugs that were not their first choice. More than half the dispensers reported they never or only occasionally referred patients to their community pharmacists. Conclusion A portrait of drug sample management and dispensation in the academic FMUs emerged from this study. This study provides insight into current

  13. Family Caregiving and the Elderly: Policy Recommendations and Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Office for the Aging, Albany.

    This report is designed to assist in the formulation of public policy as it relates to older people and their families by setting forth a comprehensive research-based framework to guide future public action in this area. It is intended for use by public officials, agency administrators, researchers, and academicians, as well as members of the…

  14. Integrating Research into an Undergraduate Family Sciences Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khelifa, Maher; Sonleitner, Nancy; Wooldridge, Deborah; Mayers, Gloysis

    2004-01-01

    The authors report the outcomes of introducing undergraduate research to family science majors at Zayed University, United Arab Emirates. The program has enriched students' educational experiences and has had tangible benefits. In addition to acquiring research skills, students improved in critical analysis, originality, independent learning,…

  15. An Ethical Frame for Research with Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Jacqueline; Hernández, María G.; Saetermoe, Carrie L.; Suárez-Orozco, Carola

    2013-01-01

    In this introduction, the editors give an overview of the ways the volume addresses the growing individual and institutional calls for increased clarity and rigor in methodological, ethical, and practical research policies and guidelines for conducting research with immigrant individuals, families, and communities. In addition to summarizing the…

  16. Assessing family medicine trainees – what can we learn from the European neighbours?

    PubMed Central

    Flum, Elisabeth; Maagaard, Roar; Godycki-Cwirko, Maciek; Scarborough, Nigel; Scherpbier, Nynke; Ledig, Thomas; Roos, Marco; Steinhäuser, Jost

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although demands on family physicians (FP) are to a large extent similar in the European Union, uniform assessment standards for family medicine (FM) specialty training and assessment do not exist. Aim of this pilot study was to elicit and compare the different modalities and assessment methods of FM specialty training in five European countries. Methods: A semi structured survey was undertaken based on a convenient sample in five European countries (Denmark, Germany, Poland, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom). The respondents were asked to respond to ten items about aspects of FM specialty training and assessment methods in their respective countries. If available, this data was completed with information from official websites of the countries involved. Results: FM specialty training is performed heterogeneously in the surveyed countries. Training time periods range from three to five years, in some countries requiring a foundation program of up to two years. Most countries perform longitudinal assessment during FM specialty training using a combination of competence-based approach with additional formative and summative assessment. There is some evidence on the assessments methods used, however the assessment method used and costs of assessment differs remarkably between the participating countries. Conclusions: Longitudinal and competence-based assessment is the presently preferred approach for FM specialty training. Countries which use less multifaceted methods for assessment could learn from best practice. Potential changes have significant cost implications. PMID:26038686

  17. Evaluation of the educational environment of the Saudi family medicine residency training program

    PubMed Central

    Khoja, Abdullah T.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The study was conducted to evaluate the educational environment (EE) in Family Medicine Training Programs. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey, The Postgraduate Hospital Educational Environment Measure (PHEEM), was distributed to all residents at the four training centers in the central region. Cronbach's alpha was used to test the reliability. The mean and standard deviation (SD) for each item, the overall score and the three domains were calculated. A multiple linear regression model was developed with PHEEM scores as an outcome. The Mann–Whitney–Wilcoxon test was used to compare each item based on the selected factors. Results: The overall score was 67.1/160 (SD: 20.1). The PHEEM's domains scores: 24.2/56 (SD: 7.13) for perception of role autonomy; 25.3/60 (SD: 8.88), for perception of teaching; and 17/44 (SD: 5.6), for perception of social support. Training center and Level of training were the significant outcome predictors. Centre 1 (Joint Program) significantly had better scores than Centre 2. The instrument showed great reliability with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.92. Conclusions: There are many problems in the training program. Urgent actions are needed to improve the residents' learning experience particularly during rotations. Also, the curriculum should be restructured, and effective training methods introduced using the Best Evidence in Medical Education to meet the expectations and learning needs of family physicians. PMID:25657612

  18. “Negotiorum Gestio” in Family Medicine, Informed Consent Obtainment, and Disciplinary Responsibility

    PubMed Central

    Birkeland, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Negotiorum gestio (NG) denotes an action where a person well intendedly acts on behalf of another without obtaining the latter's prior consent. In broad terms, NG-like actions have played a considerable role in health care provision. In some settings, health care delivery with only little or presumed patients' consent has been the rule rather than the exception. However, bioethical principles regarding patient autonomy and obtainment of the patient's informed consent (IC) before intervention are now increasingly materialized in the law of many countries. Aim. To study legal consequences of NG in family medicine and IC handling options. Methods. Case law examination. Results. A disciplinary board case is described concerning a family doctor conducting unlawful NG by not coming up to legal IC requirements. Discussion and Conclusion. The practical and legal implications of IC and possible role of novel Shared Decision-Making approaches in coming up to regulation and bioethical demands are discussed. It is concluded that a doctor may run an unnecessary legal risk when conducting NG in decision-competent patients and furthermore it is suggested that novel Shared Decision-Making approaches could help in obtaining a rightful and practicable IC. PMID:27110401

  19. Establishment of research-oriented hospital: an important way for translational medicine development in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Meina; Zhang, Lulu

    2015-01-01

    Globally, one of the major trends is the development of translational medicine. The traditional hospital structure could not meet the demands of translational medicine development any longer and to explore a novel hospital structure is imperative. Following the times, China proposed and implemented a development strategy for a first-class modern research-oriented hospital. To establish a research-oriented hospital has become an important strategy to guide the scientific development of high-quality medical institutions and to advance translational medicine development. To facilitate translational medicine by developing research-oriented hospital, the Chinese Research Hospital Association (CRHA) has been established, which provides service of medicine, talents cultivation, scientific research and clinical teaching and covers areas of theoretical research, academic exchange, translational medicine, talents training and practice guiding. On the whole, research-oriented hospital facilitated translational medicine by developing interdisciplinary platform, training core competencies in clinical and translational research, providing financial support of translational research, and hosting journals on translational medicine, etc. PMID:25860972

  20. Contributions of charge-density research to medicinal chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Dittrich, Birger; Matta, Chérif F.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews efforts in accurate experimental charge-density studies with relevance to medicinal chemistry. Initially, classical charge-density studies that measure electron density distribution via least-squares refinement of aspherical-atom population parameters are summarized. Next, interaction density is discussed as an idealized situation resembling drug–receptor interactions. Scattering-factor databases play an increasing role in charge-density research, and they can be applied both to small-molecule and macromolecular structures in refinement and analysis; software development facilitates their use. Therefore combining both of these complementary branches of X-ray crystallography is recommended, and examples are given where such a combination already proved useful. On the side of the experiment, new pixel detectors are allowing rapid measurements, thereby enabling both high-throughput small-molecule studies and macromolecular structure determination to higher resolutions. Currently, the most ambitious studies compute intermolecular interaction energies of drug–receptor complexes, and it is recommended that future studies benefit from recent method developments. Selected new developments in theoretical charge-density studies are discussed with emphasis on its symbiotic relation to crystallography. PMID:25485126

  1. The role of chemical engineering in medicinal research including Alzheimer's.

    PubMed

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios M

    2015-01-01

    Various disciplines of chemical engineering, especially thermodynamics and kinetics, play an important role in medicinal research and this has been particularly recognized during the last 10-15 years (von Stockar and van der Wielen, J Biotechnol 59:25, 1997; Prausnitz, Fluid Phase Equilib 53:439, 1989; Prausnitz, Pure Appl Chem 79:1435, 2007; Dey and Prausnitz, Ind Eng Chem Res 50:3, 2011; Prausnitz, J Chem Thermodynamics 35:21, 2003; Tsivintzelis et al. AIChE J 55:756, 2009). It is expected that during the twenty-first century chemical engineering and especially thermodynamics can contribute as significantly to the life sciences development as it has been done with the oil and gas and chemical sectors in the twentieth century. Moreover, it has during the recent years recognized that thermodynamics can help in understanding diseases like human cataract, sickle-cell anemia, Creuzfeldt-Jacob ("mad cow" disease), and Alzheimer's which are connected to "protein aggregation." Several articles in the Perspectives section of prominent chemical engineering journals have addressed this issue (Hall, AIChE J 54:1956, 2008; Vekilov, AIChE J 54:2508, 2008). This work reviews recent applications of thermodynamics (and other areas of chemical engineering) first in drug development and then in the understanding of the mechanism of Alzheimer's and similar diseases. PMID:25416110

  2. Ethics in family violence research: cross-cultural issues.

    PubMed

    Fontes, L A

    1998-01-01

    This article examines ethical issues in cross-cultural research on family violence. It suggests ways for researchers to increase understanding and avoid abuses of power. Special attention to informed consent, definition of the sample, composition of the research team, research methods, and potential harm and benefit are considered key to designing ethical cross-cultural research. The discussion is illustrated with examples from the literature and from the author's experiences conducting research on sexual abuse in a shanty town in Chile and with Puerto Ricans in the U.S. PMID:14627049

  3. Cancer Research Center Indiana University School of Medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to authorize the Indiana School of Medicine to proceed with the detailed design, construction and equipping of the proposed Cancer Research Center (CRC). A grant was executed with the University on April 21, 1992. A four-story building with basement would be constructed on the proposed site over a 24-month period. The proposed project would bring together, in one building, three existing hematology/oncology basic research programs, with improved cost-effectiveness through the sharing of common resources. The proposed site is currently covered with asphaltic pavement and is used as a campus parking lot. The surrounding area is developed campus, characterized by buildings, walkways, with minimal lawns and plantings. The proposed site has no history of prior structures and no evidence of potential sources of prior contamination of the soil. Environmental impacts of construction would be limited to minor increases in traffic, and the typical noises associated with standard building construction. The proposed CRC project operation would involve the use radionuclides and various hazardous materials in conducting clinical studies. Storage, removal and disposal of hazardous wastes would be managed under existing University programs that comply with federal and state requirements. Radiological safety programs would be governed by Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) license and applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations. There are no other NEPA reviews currently active which are in relationship to this proposed site. The proposed project is part of a Medical Campus master plan and is consistent with applicable local zoning and land use requirements.

  4. Two Programs for Primary Care Practitioners: Family Medicine Training in an Affiliated University Hospital Program and Primary Care Graduate Training in an Urban Private Medical Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farley, Eugene S.; Piemme, Thomas E.

    1975-01-01

    Eugene Farley describes the University of Rochester and Highland Hospital Family Medicine Program for teaching of primary care internists, primary care pediatricians, and family doctors. Thomas Piemme presents the George Washington University School of Medicine alternative, a 2-year program in an ambulatory setting leading to broad eligibility in…

  5. Lessons from the Field: Participatory Action Research in a Family Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robison, Dorothy; Krauss, Marty Wyngaarden

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes development of a study that includes participatory action research, specifically the establishment of a family advisory committee. The study involved a survey of Massachusetts families of children with disabilities. Suggestions for establishing and integrating the committee into the research enterprise are offered, as are…

  6. Development of a portfolio of learning for postgraduate family medicine training in South Africa: a Delphi study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Within the 52 health districts in South Africa, the family physician is seen as the clinical leader within a multi-professional district health team. Family physicians must be competent to meet 90% of the health needs of the communities in their districts. The eight university departments of Family Medicine have identified five unit standards, broken down into 85 training outcomes, for postgraduate training. The family medicine registrar must prove at the end of training that all the required training outcomes have been attained. District health managers must be assured that the family physician is competent to deliver the expected service. The Colleges of Medicine of South Africa (CMSA) require a portfolio to be submitted as part of the uniform assessment of all registrars applying to write the national fellowship examinations. This study aimed to achieve a consensus on the contents and principles of the first national portfolio for use in family medicine training in South Africa. Methods A workshop held at the WONCA Africa Regional Conference in 2009 explored the purpose and broad contents of the portfolio. The 85 training outcomes, ideas from the WONCA workshop, the literature, and existing portfolios in the various universities were used to develop a questionnaire that was tested for content validity by a panel of 31 experts in family medicine in South Africa, via the Delphi technique in four rounds. Eighty five content items (national learning outcomes) and 27 principles were tested. Consensus was defined as 70% agreement. For those items that the panel thought should be included, they were also asked how to provide evidence for the specific item in the portfolio, and how to assess that evidence. Results Consensus was reached on 61 of the 85 national learning outcomes. The panel recommended that 50 be assessed by the portfolio and 11 should not be. No consensus could be reached on the remaining 24 outcomes and these were also omitted from the

  7. Recruitment of Yoruba families from Nigeria for genetic research: experience from a multisite keloid study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background More involvement of sub-Saharan African countries in biomedical studies, specifically in genetic research, is needed to advance individualized medicine that will benefit non-European populations. Missing infrastructure, cultural and religious beliefs as well as lack of understanding of research benefits can pose a challenge to recruitment. Here we describe recruitment efforts for a large genetic study requiring three-generation pedigrees within the Yoruba homelands of Nigeria. The aim of the study was to identify genes responsible for keloids, a wound healing disorder. We also discuss ethical and logistical considerations that we encountered in preparation for this research endeavor. Methods Protocols for this bi-national intercultural study were approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) in the US and the ethics committees of the Nigerian institutions for consideration of cultural differences. Principles of community based participatory research were employed throughout the recruitment process. Keloid patients (patient advisors), community leaders, kings/chiefs and medical directors were engaged to assist the research teams with recruitment strategies. Community meetings, church forums, and media outlets (study flyers, radio and TV announcements) were utilized to promote the study in Nigeria. Recruitment of research participants was conducted by trained staff from the local communities. Pedigree structures were re-analyzed on a regular basis as new family members were recruited and recruitment challenges were documented. Results Total recruitment surpassed 4200 study participants over a 7-year period including 79 families with complete three-generation pedigrees. In 9 families more than 20 family members participated, however, in 5 of these families, we encountered issues with pedigree structure as members from different branches presented inconsistent family histories. These issues were due to the traditional open family structure amongst the

  8. Close relationships research: a resource for couple and family therapists.

    PubMed

    Hendrick, Susan S

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the relatively new field of close relationships research, offering a representative list of topics studied by relationship researchers. Some of the common interests shared by both close relationships researchers and couple and family therapists are described, with the shared emphasis on relationships as an anchor for both fields. Some representative love theories are discussed, and Love Styles theory and research are presented in considerable detail. A clinical case example indicates how love styles research may be employed to advantage by couple therapists, and the utility of other close relationships theories and measures for therapy is briefly discussed. PMID:14763206

  9. Family-Friendly Policies and the Research University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Kate; Lange, Sheila Edwards; Olswang, Steven G.

    2004-01-01

    Institutions of higher education nationwide have been adopting policies to help faculty members with primary caregiving roles to attain tenure, and much research has been devoted to their effectiveness. The range of policies and programs has expanded dramatically since the 1970s. Among the options now available are family leave, elder-care…

  10. Family Contexts, Norms and Young People's Orientations: Researching Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents an analysis of young people's orientations, and expectations for the future, as they relate to family context and socio-economic background. It draws on data from both the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England and from "Young Lives and Times", part of the ESRC National Centre for Research Methods. The latter study has…

  11. Crafting Qualitative Research Articles on Marriages and Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Sarah H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims to assist those who do qualitative research in the field of marriage and family to reduce the number of rejections received in response to article submissions. Recurring shortcomings identified by reviewers and suggestions made to authors about revising papers are organized using headings traditionally used in a research…

  12. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use and Adherence to Asthma Medications among Latino and Non-Latino White Families

    PubMed Central

    McQuaid, Elizabeth L.; Fedele, David A.; Adams, Sue K.; Koinis-Mitchell, Daphne; Mitchell, Jessica; Kopel, Sheryl J.; Seifer, Ronald; Jandasek, Barbara; Fritz, Gregory K.; Canino, Glorisa

    2013-01-01

    Objective The current study sought to evaluate patterns of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use in a sample of Latino and Non-Latino white (NLW) children with asthma, to determine whether parental beliefs about conventional medications and barriers to obtaining these medications were related to CAM use, and to assess whether CAM use was associated with decreased adherence to controller medications. Methods Participants included 574 families of children with asthma from Non-Latino White, Puerto Rican, and Dominican backgrounds from RI and from Island Puerto Rico. All parents completed a brief checklist of barriers to medication use and an assessment of CAM approaches. A subsample of 259 families had controller medication use monitored objectively for approximately one month by MDILog (fluticasone propionate), TrackCap (montelukast), or dosage counter (fluticasone/salmeterol combination). Results Prevalence of CAM use was high among Latino families. Perceived barriers to obtaining medication were related to increased CAM use in Puerto Rican families from RI. Elevated medication concerns were positively associated with CAM use among NLW and Island PR families. CAM use was positively related to objective adherence within NLW families, and unrelated in other groups. Conclusions CAM use is common among Latino families with asthma. Among some families, CAM use may be initiated as a way to cope with barriers to obtaining medication or when parents have concerns about conventional medications. Families who report CAM use do not appear to be substituting CAM for conventional asthma medication. PMID:24602583

  13. Win/win: creating collaborative training opportunities for behavioral health providers within family medicine residency programs.

    PubMed

    Ruddy, Nancy Breen; Borresen, Dorothy; Myerholtz, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Integrating behavioral health into primary healthcare offers multiple advantages for patients and health professionals. This model requires a new skill set for all healthcare professionals that is not emphasized in current educational models. The new skills include interprofessional team-based care competencies and expanded patient care competencies. Health professionals must learn new ways to efficiently and effectively address health behavior change, and manage behavioral health issues such as depression and anxiety. Learning environments that co-train mental health and primary care professionals facilitate acquisition of both teamwork and patient care competencies for mental health and primary care professional trainees. Family Medicine Residency programs provide an excellent opportunity for co-training. This article serves as a "how to" guide for residency programs interested in developing a co-training program. Necessary steps to establish and maintain a program are reviewed, as well as goals and objectives for a co-training curriculum and strategies to overcome barriers and challenges in co-training models. PMID:24261270

  14. [Research progress of Chinese herbal medicine raw materials in cosmetics].

    PubMed

    Xie, Yan-jun; Kong, Wei-jun; Yang, Mei-hua; Yang, Shi-hai

    2015-10-01

    Advocating green, nature, environmental protection, safety and the pursuit of efficacy are the trends of cosmetics in the world. In recent years, more and more Chinese herbal extracts with mild, high safety and small irritation are applied to cosmetics as the natural additives. This has become a new hot spot. The recent application advances of Chinese medicine raw materials in cosmetics are overviewed according to their main functions. This review will provide useful references for the future development and application of Chinese medicinal herbs cosmetics. PMID:27062803

  15. [Analyses on positive influence of harmonous development of traditional Chinese medicine compounds' researchs and patent protection].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xujie; Xiao, Shiying; Guo, Zan; Wang, Zhimin; You, Yun

    2012-01-01

    Current patent protection of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) compounds is far from being satisfactory with increasing research and development achievements. As patent protection of traditional Chinese medicine compounds is closely related with many fields such as research and development of new TCM drugs, industrial development and TCM internationalization, the development of research and harmonious development of TCM compounds and their patent protection is bound to have a far-reaching influence on domestic and even international societies. PMID:22741453

  16. Barriers to Screening and Possibilities for Active Detection of Family Medicine Attendees Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    KOPČAVAR GUČEK, Nena; PETEK, Davorina; ŠVAB, Igor; SELIČ, Polona

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In 1996 the World Health Organization declared intimate partner violence (IPV) the most important public health problem. Meta-analyses in 2013 showed every third female globally had been a victim of violence. Experts find screening controversial; family medicine is the preferred environment for identifying victims of violence, but barriers on both sides prevent patients from discussing it with doctors. Methods In July 2014, a qualitative study was performed through semi-structured interviews with ten family doctors of different ages and gender, working in rural or urban environments. Sound recordings of the interviews were transcribed, and the record verified. The data were interpreted using content analysis. A coding scheme was developed and later verified and analysed by two independent researchers. The text of the interviews was analysed according to the coding scheme. Results Two coding schemes were developed: one for screening, and the other for the active detection of IPV. The main themes emerging as barriers to screening were lack of time, staff turnover, inadequate finance, ignorance of a clear definition, poor commitment to screening, obligatory follow-up, risk of deterioration of the doctor-patient relationship, and insincerity on the part of the patient. Additionally, cultural aspects of violence, uncertainty/ helplessness, fear, lack of competence and qualifications, autonomy/negative experience, and passive role/stigma/ fear on the part of the patients were barriers to active detection. Conclusion All the participating doctors had had previous experience with active detection of IPV and were aware of its importance. Due to several barriers to screening for violence they preferred active detection.

  17. The role of mass spectrometry in medicinal plant research.

    PubMed

    Héthelyi, E; Tétényi, P; Dabi, E; Dános, B

    1987-11-01

    In phytochemical and chemotaxonomic research work mass spectrometry plays an outstandingly important role. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) we established the chemotaxa of Tanacetum vulgare L. Chemotypes with essential oils containing 60-90% of artemisia ketone, carveol, dihydrocarvone, myrtenol, umbellulone, terpinen-4-ol, davanone, and Tagetes species containing various essential oils can be clearly distinguished by their spectra; we examined many variations of Tagetes erecta, T. lucida, T. minuta, T. patula and T. tenuifolia. We have identified alpha-beta-pinene-, 1,8-cineol-, linalool-, camphor-, nerol-, geraniol- and gamma-gurjonene as components of Achillea distans L. Injecting the essential oil direct from the oil-secreting organs of T. minuta plants we identified using GC/MS 6-10 and 16% eugenol from the involucral bract and hypsophyll, respectively, as well as beta-ocimene, dihydrotagetone, tagetone, Z- and E-ocimenones. In the course of studies on essential fatty acids Borago officinalis and Lappula squarrosa were selected from 70 species of the family Boraginaceae to obtain seed oil as a source of gamma-linolenic acid, and for the PG synthesis we isolated several grams of gamma-linolenic acid, as well as C18:4, i.e. octadecatetraenic acid, from L. squarrosa on the basis of the mass spectra. From the seed oil of Aquilegia vulgaris C18:3 (5) from the oil of Limnanthes dougloasii C20:1 (5) and from the seed oils of Delphinium consolida and of Tropaeolum species (T. majus, T. minus, T. peregrinum) C20:1 (11) fatty acids were identified on the basis of spectra. PMID:2962668

  18. The research rotation: competency-based structured and novel approach to research training of internal medicine residents

    PubMed Central

    Kanna, Balavenkatesh; Deng, Changchun; Erickson, Savil N; Valerio, Jose A; Dimitrov, Vihren; Soni, Anita

    2006-01-01

    Background In the United States, the Accreditation Council of graduate medical education (ACGME) requires all accredited Internal medicine residency training programs to facilitate resident scholarly activities. However, clinical experience and medical education still remain the main focus of graduate medical education in many Internal Medicine (IM) residency-training programs. Left to design the structure, process and outcome evaluation of the ACGME research requirement, residency-training programs are faced with numerous barriers. Many residency programs report having been cited by the ACGME residency review committee in IM for lack of scholarly activity by residents. Methods We would like to share our experience at Lincoln Hospital, an affiliate of Weill Medical College Cornell University New York, in designing and implementing a successful structured research curriculum based on ACGME competencies taught during a dedicated "research rotation". Results Since the inception of the research rotation in 2004, participation of our residents among scholarly activities has substantially increased. Our residents increasingly believe and appreciate that research is an integral component of residency training and essential for practice of medicine. Conclusion Internal medicine residents' outlook in research can be significantly improved using a research curriculum offered through a structured and dedicated research rotation. This is exemplified by the improvement noted in resident satisfaction, their participation in scholarly activities and resident research outcomes since the inception of the research rotation in our internal medicine training program. PMID:17044924

  19. Relevance of chronic lyme disease to family medicine as a complex multidimensional chronic disease construct: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Borgermans, Liesbeth; Goderis, Geert; Vandevoorde, Jan; Devroey, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Lyme disease has become a global public health problem and a prototype of an emerging infection. Both treatment-refractory infection and symptoms that are related to Borrelia burgdorferi infection remain subject to controversy. Because of the absence of solid evidence on prevalence, causes, diagnostic criteria, tools and treatment options, the role of autoimmunity to residual or persisting antigens, and the role of a toxin or other bacterial-associated products that are responsible for the symptoms and signs, chronic Lyme disease (CLD) remains a relatively poorly understood chronic disease construct. The role and performance of family medicine in the detection, integrative treatment, and follow-up of CLD are not well studied either. The purpose of this paper is to describe insights into the complexity of CLD as a multidimensional chronic disease construct and its relevance to family medicine by means of a systematic literature review. PMID:25506429

  20. Relevance of Chronic Lyme Disease to Family Medicine as a Complex Multidimensional Chronic Disease Construct: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Goderis, Geert

    2014-01-01

    Lyme disease has become a global public health problem and a prototype of an emerging infection. Both treatment-refractory infection and symptoms that are related to Borrelia burgdorferi infection remain subject to controversy. Because of the absence of solid evidence on prevalence, causes, diagnostic criteria, tools and treatment options, the role of autoimmunity to residual or persisting antigens, and the role of a toxin or other bacterial-associated products that are responsible for the symptoms and signs, chronic Lyme disease (CLD) remains a relatively poorly understood chronic disease construct. The role and performance of family medicine in the detection, integrative treatment, and follow-up of CLD are not well studied either. The purpose of this paper is to describe insights into the complexity of CLD as a multidimensional chronic disease construct and its relevance to family medicine by means of a systematic literature review. PMID:25506429

  1. Patient-centered medicine and patient-oriented research: improving health outcomes for individual patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patient-centered medicine is developing alongside the concepts of personalized medicine and tailored therapeutics. The main objective of patient-centered medicine is to improve health outcomes of individual patients in everyday clinical practice, taking into account the patient’s objectives, preferences, values as well as the available economic resources. Discussion Patient-centered medicine implies a paradigm shift in the relationship between doctors and patients, but also requires the development of patient-oriented research. Patient-oriented research should not be based on the evaluation of medical interventions in the average patient, but on the identification of the best intervention for every individual patient, the study of heterogeneity and the assignment of greater value to observations and exceptions. The development of information-based technologies can help to close the gap between clinical research and clinical practice, a fundamental step for any advance in this field. Summary Evidence-based medicine and patient centered medicine are not contradictory but complementary movements. It is not possible to practice patient-centered medicine that is not based on evidence, nor is it possible to practice evidence-based medicine at a distance from the individual patient. PMID:23294526

  2. Managing Osteoarthritis Pain with Medicines: A Review of the Research for Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... a> Consumer Summary – Feb. 15, 2012 Managing Osteoarthritis Pain With Medicines: A Review of the Research for ... or have injured a joint. Why manage the pain of osteoarthritis? Osteoarthritis can be very painful and ...

  3. Split-Session Focus Group Interviews in the Naturalistic Setting of Family Medicine Offices

    PubMed Central

    Fetters, Michael D.; Guetterman, Timothy C.; Power, Debra; Nease, Donald E.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE When recruiting health care professionals to focus group interviews, investigators encounter challenges such as busy clinic schedules, recruitment, and a desire to get candid responses from diverse participants. We sought to overcome these challenges using an innovative, office-based, split-session focus group procedure in a project that elicited feedback from family medicine practices regarding a new preventive services model. This procedure entails allocating a portion of time to the entire group and the remaining time to individual subgroups. We discuss the methodologic procedure and the implications of using this approach for data collection. METHODS We conducted split-session focus groups with physicians and staff in 4 primary care practices. The procedure entailed 3 sessions, each lasting 30 minutes: the moderator interviewed physicians and staff together, physicians alone, and staff alone. As part of the focus group interview, we elicited and analyzed participant comments about the split-session format and collected observational field notes. RESULTS The split-session focus group interviews leveraged the naturalistic setting of the office for context-relevant discussion. We tested alternate formats that began in the morning and at lunchtime, to parallel each practice’s workflow. The split-session approach facilitated discussion of topics primarily relevant to staff among staff, topics primarily relevant to physicians among physicians, and topics common to all among all. Qualitative feedback on this approach was uniformly positive. CONCLUSION A split-session focus group interview provides an efficient, effective way to elicit candid qualitative information from all members of a primary care practice in the naturalistic setting where they work. PMID:26755786

  4. Training Standards Statements of Family Medicine Postgraduate Training – A Review of Existing Documents Worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Sarah; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Marquard, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Introduction For the effective and safe management of complex care needs for patients in community settings, high quality family medicine (FM) training programmes are needed. In less primary care oriented countries, training standards statements for FM postgraduate training are less commonly found. The aim of this study was to review international training standards statements in FM postgraduate training and to catalogue these statements to be used as a best practice standard guide for FM training programs in Germany. Materials and Methods A structured three-tiered search was performed: a systematic literature search in MEDLINE®; a search of international indicator databases; and a search in grey literature, consisting of a survey of international experts and a search in “Google (Scholar)”. From all identified documents, training standards statements were extracted, translated and summarized into categories referring to the same quality aspect. Results The search strategy revealed 25 relevant documents (MEDLINE® n = 15, databases n = 2, experts n = 7, “Google” n = 1), containing 337 training standards statements. These were summarized into 80 statements. They covered structure quality (n = 35); process quality (n = 43); and two training standards statements referred to outcome quality (n = 2). Conclusion A broad range of internationally sourced training standards statements for FM postgraduate training could be identified from countries with well-established primary care systems. Only few statements internationally referred to outcome quality, expressing the difficulty in assessing outcome. The resulting inventory of training standards statements for FM postgraduate training can serve as a resource for institutions seeking to formalise and systematise FM training at regional or national levels. PMID:27459714

  5. Medical student attitudes towards family medicine in Spain: a statewide analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Family and community medicine (FM) became a recognized specialty in Spain in 1978; however, most medical schools in Spain still lack mandatory core courses in FM. In order to explore the perceptions, expectations and level of information amongst medical students in Spain in relation to FM and PC, and the training in these areas in the curriculum of the Medical Schools, a survey was developed to be administered in medical schools every two years. This article presents data from the first questionnaire administration. Methods The study population was all first-, third-, and fifth-year students (2009–2010) in 22 participating medical schools in Spain (of 27 total). The 83-item survey had three sections: personal data, FM training, professional practice expectations, and preferences). Chi-squared test or analyses of variance were used, as appropriate. Results We had a 41.8% response rate (n = 5299/12924); 89.8% considered the social role of FM to be essential, while only 20% believed the specialty was well respected within the medical profession. The appeal of FM increased with years of study, independent of student characteristics or medical school attended. Among third and fifth-year students, 54.6% said their specialty preferences had changed during medical school; 73.6% felt that FM specialists should teach FM courses, and 83.3% thought that FM rotations in primary care centres were useful. Conclusions Students valued the social role of FM more highly than its scientific standing. The vast majority believe that FM training should be mandatory. Only 25% of first-year students have clear preferences for a specialization. Interest in FM increases moderately over their years of study. Working conditions in FM have decisive influence in choosing a specialty. PMID:22642617

  6. Telemedicine and E-Learning in a Primary Care Setting in Sudan: The Experience of the Gezira Family Medicine Project.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, K G; Hunskaar, S; Abdelrahman, S H; Malik, E M

    2015-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) is progressively used in the health sector (e-health), to provide health care in a distance (telemedicine), facilitate medical education (e-learning), and manage patients' information (electronic medical records, EMRs). Gezira Family Medicine Project (GFMP) in Sudan provides a 2-year master's degree in family medicine, with ICT fully integrated in the project. This cross-sectional study describes ICT implementation and utilization at the GFMP for the years 2011-2012. Administrative data was used to describe ICT implementation, while questionnaire-based data was used to assess candidates' perceptions and satisfaction. In the period from April 2011 to December 2012, 3808 telemedicine online consultations were recorded and over 165000 new patients' EMRs were established by the study subjects (125 candidates enrolled in the program). Almost all respondents confirmed the importance of telemedicine. The majority appreciated also the importance of using EMRs. Online lectures were highly rated by candidates in spite of the few challenges encountered by combining service provision with learning activity. Physicians highlighted some patients' concerns about the use of telemedicine and EMRs during clinical consultations. Results from this study confirmed the suitability of ICT use in postgraduate training in family medicine and in service provision. PMID:26839704

  7. Telemedicine and E-Learning in a Primary Care Setting in Sudan: The Experience of the Gezira Family Medicine Project

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, K. G.; Hunskaar, S.; Abdelrahman, S. H.; Malik, E. M.

    2015-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) is progressively used in the health sector (e-health), to provide health care in a distance (telemedicine), facilitate medical education (e-learning), and manage patients' information (electronic medical records, EMRs). Gezira Family Medicine Project (GFMP) in Sudan provides a 2-year master's degree in family medicine, with ICT fully integrated in the project. This cross-sectional study describes ICT implementation and utilization at the GFMP for the years 2011-2012. Administrative data was used to describe ICT implementation, while questionnaire-based data was used to assess candidates' perceptions and satisfaction. In the period from April 2011 to December 2012, 3808 telemedicine online consultations were recorded and over 165000 new patients' EMRs were established by the study subjects (125 candidates enrolled in the program). Almost all respondents confirmed the importance of telemedicine. The majority appreciated also the importance of using EMRs. Online lectures were highly rated by candidates in spite of the few challenges encountered by combining service provision with learning activity. Physicians highlighted some patients' concerns about the use of telemedicine and EMRs during clinical consultations. Results from this study confirmed the suitability of ICT use in postgraduate training in family medicine and in service provision. PMID:26839704

  8. Guiding the development of family medicine training in Africa through collaboration with the Medical Education Partnership Initiative.

    PubMed

    Mash, Robert J; de Villiers, Marietjie R; Moodley, Kalay; Nachega, Jean B

    2014-08-01

    Africa's health care challenges include a high burden of disease, low life expectancy, health workforce shortages, and varying degrees of commitment to primary health care on the part of policy makers and government officials. One overarching goal of the Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) is to develop models of medical education in Sub-Saharan Africa. To do this, MEPI has created a network of universities and other institutions that, among other things, recognizes the importance of supporting training programs in family medicine. This article provides a framework for assessing the stage of the development of family medicine training in Africa, including the challenges that were encountered and how educational organizations can help to address them. A modified "stages of change" model (precontemplation, contemplation, action, maintenance, and relapse) was used as a conceptual framework to understand the various phases that countries go through in developing family medicine in the public sector and to determine the type of assistance that is useful at each phase. PMID:25072584

  9. Placing Families in Context: Challenges for Cross-National Family Research

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wei-hsin

    2015-01-01

    Cross-national comparisons constitute a valuable strategy to assess how broader cultural, political, and institutional contexts shape family outcomes. One typical approach of cross-national family research is to use comparable data from a limited number of countries, fit similar regression models for each country, and compare results across country-specific models. Increasingly, researchers are adopting a second approach, which requires merging data from many more societies and testing multilevel models using the pooled sample. Although the second approach has the advantage of allowing direct estimates of the effects of nation-level characteristics, it is more likely to suffer from the problems of omitted-variable bias, influential cases, and measurement and construct nonequivalence. I discuss ways to improve the first approach's ability to infer macrolevel influences, as well as how to deal with challenges associated with the second one. I also suggest choosing analytical strategies according to whether the data meet multilevel models’ assumptions. PMID:25999603

  10. Changing the Face of Veterinary Medicine: Research and Clinical Developments at AAVMC Institutions.

    PubMed

    Smith, Donald F; Hagstrom, Melena R

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a 50-year overview of research and clinical advances in AAVMC member colleges in four representative fields of veterinary medicine: oncology, vaccine development, production medicine, and public health. Though emphasis is on the progress since the mid-1960s, the salient background and associated personnel in each field are also identified to the extent that their description informs more recent events. Advances in board certification and post-graduate clinical and research educational opportunities are also described. PMID:26673211

  11. United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine: Warfighter research focusing on the past 25 years.

    PubMed

    Pandolf, Kent B; Francesconi, Ralph; Sawka, Michael N; Cymerman, Allen; Hoyt, Reed W; Young, Andrew J; Zambraski, Edward J

    2011-12-01

    The United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM) celebrated its 50th anniversary on July 1, 2011. This article reviews its history, evolution, and transition of its research programs as well as its scientific and military accomplishments, emphasizing the past 25 yr. During the 1990s, USARIEM published a series of pocket guides providing guidance for sustaining Warfighter health and performance in Southwest Asia, Somalia, the former Republic of Yugoslavia, Rwanda, and Haiti. Issues identified during Operation Desert Storm elicited research that improved nutritional guidelines for protracted desert operations; safer use of nuclear, chemical, and biological protective clothing; equipment, development, and fielding of efficient microclimate cooling systems; and effective evaluation of pharmaceuticals to protect soldiers from chemical and biological threats. During the first decade of the 21st century, USARIEM and the Department of the Army published official medical/performance doctrines for operations in the heat and cold and at high altitude. The current Global War on Terrorism focused research to improve doctrines for hot, cold, and high-altitude operations, reduce musculoskeletal training injuries, provide improved field nutrition, more efficient planning for operational water requirements, and improve both military clothing and materiel. This article also describes the critically important interactions and communications between USARIEM and deployed units and the benefits to Warfighters from this association. This report presents USARIEM's unique and world-class facilities, organizational changes, scientific and support personnel, and major research accomplishments, including the publication of 2,200 scientific papers over the past 25 yr. PMID:22139770

  12. Australian Family Research Conference Proceedings (Canberra, Australia, November 23-25, 1983). Volume IV: Policies and Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of Family Studies, Melbourne (Australia).

    Fourth in a series of volumes containing the proceedings of the 1983 Australian Family Research Conference, this publication deals with policies and families in Australia. Papers and authors included are: "Improving Social Security Programs: Some Options and Barriers" (Andrew Burbidge), "Single Parent Families and Social Policies: Australia and…

  13. Evidence-based Research in Complementary and Alternative Medicine I: History

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Contemporary Western medicine has witnessed a fragmentation of our conceptualization of the medical endeavor into ‘traditional medicine’ and ‘non-traditional medicine’. The former is meant to refer to the Western medical tradition, the latter encompasses both ‘complementary’ and ‘alternative’ medical practices. Complementary medicine complements conventional medical treatments, and alternative modes of medical interventions are meant to replace traditional Western medicine. Evidence-based research must be directed at establishing the best available evidence in complementary and alternative medicine. This paper is the first of a set of four ‘lectures’ that reviews the process of evidence-based research, and discusses its implications and applications for the early decades of the 21st century. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the series by examining some of the historical and philosophical foundations of this research endeavor. PMID:16322801

  14. The International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC): new applications in research and computer-based patient records in family practice.

    PubMed

    Hofmans-Okkes, I M; Lamberts, H

    1996-06-01

    The international Classification of Primary Care (ICPC) has now been available to the family medicine community for a decade as the main ordering principle of its domain. Research data and practical experiences with ICPC, as well as the development of new concepts in family medicine, have resulted in new applications. The structure of episodes of care to be included in a computer-based patient record has been further developed and refined. ICPC as the ordering principle of patient data is now available in 19 languages. Its conversion structure with the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) allows the highest possible level of specificity in a patient's problem list necessary in patient care, while the compatibility of the ICPC drug codes with the Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical Classification Index allows the systematic inclusion of data on prescription. PMID:8671139

  15. Research Training Fellowship Program (Formerly Military Medicine and Allied Sciences Course).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter Reed Army Hospital, Washington, DC.

    This document provides an outline of the Research Training Fellowship Program at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. Emphasizing the scientific foundations of military medicine, the course aims at preparing medical corps officers for careers in laboratory research or clinical investigation and teaching. The intent is to give officers who…

  16. Influential Research in Behavioral Medicine and Health Psychology: A Study of Citation Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Timothy R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Identified authors, publications, and sources of research cited frequently in the first three volumes of "Health Psychology" and volumes five through seven of the "Journal of Behavioral Medicine." Results revealed commonalities and differences between published research in these areas. Materials useful for research, practice, and training were…

  17. Access to Essential Medicines in Pakistan: Policy and Health Systems Research Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, Shehla; Bigdeli, Maryam; Aleem, Noureen; Rashidian, Arash

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Inadequate access to essential medicines is a common issue within developing countries. Policy response is constrained, amongst other factors, by a dearth of in-depth country level evidence. We share here i) gaps related to access to essential medicine in Pakistan; and ii) prioritization of emerging policy and research concerns. Methods An exploratory research was carried out using a health systems perspective and applying the WHO Framework for Equitable Access to Essential Medicine. Methods involved key informant interviews with policy makers, providers, industry, NGOs, experts and development partners, review of published and grey literature, and consultative prioritization in stakeholder’s Roundtable. Findings A synthesis of evidence found major gaps in essential medicine access in Pakistan driven by weaknesses in the health care system as well as weak pharmaceutical regulation. 7 major policy concerns and 11 emerging research concerns were identified through consultative Roundtable. These related to weaknesses in medicine registration and quality assurance systems, unclear and counterproductive pricing policies, irrational prescribing and sub-optimal drug availability. Available research, both locally and globally, fails to target most of the identified policy concerns, tending to concentrate on irrational prescriptions. It overlooks trans-disciplinary areas of policy effectiveness surveillance, consumer behavior, operational pilots and pricing interventions review. Conclusion Experience from Pakistan shows that policy concerns related to essential medicine access need integrated responses across various components of the health systems, are poorly addressed by existing evidence, and require an expanded health systems research agenda. PMID:23717442

  18. Research studies on patients' illness experience using the Narrative Medicine approach: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Fioretti, Chiara; Mazzocco, Ketti; Oliveri, Serena; Masiero, Marianna; Pravettoni, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Objective Since its birth about 30 years ago, Narrative Medicine approach has increased in popularity in the medical context as well as in other disciplines. This paper aims to review Narrative Medicine research studies on patients' and their caregivers' illness experience. Setting and participants MEDLINE, Psycinfo, EBSCO Psychological and Behavioural Science, The Cochrane Library and CINAHL databases were searched to identify all the research studies which focused on the Narrative Medicine approach reported in the title, in the abstract and in the keywords the words ‘Narrative Medicine’ or ‘Narrative-based Medicine’. Primary and secondary outcome measures: number of participants, type of disease, race and age of participants, type of study, dependent variables, intervention methods, assessment. Results Of the 325 titles screened, we identified 10 research articles fitting the inclusion criteria. Our systematic review showed that research on Narrative Medicine has no common specific methodology: narrative in Medicine is used as an intervention protocol as well as an assessment tool. Patients' characteristics, types of disease and data analysis procedures differ among the screened studies. Conclusions Narrative Medicine research in medical practice needs to find clear and specific protocols to deepen the impact of narrative on medical practice and on patients' lives. PMID:27417197

  19. [German medicine of the age of romanticism (1797-1848) as research problem].

    PubMed

    Płonka-Syroka, B

    1997-01-01

    In the period between 1797 and 1848, German medicine was considerably influenced by philosophy. It absorbed ideas deriving from neo-Platonism and vitalism, as well as the modern philosophy of nature (Naturphilosophie), especially the ideas of Schelling. The article presents the main tendencies in the German medicine of that period: the distinct character of German medical thought as compared to the rest of Europe, the deductive character of medical theories, the grounding of medical thought in non-materialist philosophy and its close ties with the Protestant religion. The author's aim is investigate how German medicine of the period evolved away from European standards set by the model of medicine as an empirical science, based on the inductive method of research. The article presents the state of German medicine of the first half of the nineteenth century against the background of socio-cultural factors and relates German medical theory of the period to the social awareness of that time. PMID:11625090

  20. Development and implementation of a geriatric care/case management program in a military community-based family medicine residency.

    PubMed

    Williams, C M; Petrelli, J; Murphy, M

    2000-11-01

    This article discusses how the development of a longitudinal geriatric assessment form facilitated a case management program in identifying high-risk frail elders within a military family practice clinic. A careful review of geriatric assessment tools was performed. From this review, a model geriatric assessment form was developed. A "SWOT" (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis of the family medicine department was completed to determine if the environment was ready for case management. Analysis of the SWOT data revealed that the environment was favorable for a population-based approach to case management. Results of this initial study are encouraging. The new longitudinal geriatric assessment form has assisted family practice residents in organizing problems and data while seeing elderly patients. As a direct result, higher-risk frail elders have been identified for closer evaluation and follow-up. Future goals are to measure outcomes-based data and to refine the geriatric assessment process. PMID:11143424

  1. Family variables as moderators between beliefs towards medicines and adherence to self-care behaviors and medication in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Pereira, M Graça; Pedras, Susana; Machado, José Cunha

    2014-06-01

    This study analyzed whether family variables such as marital adjustment, partner support, family coping, and family stress moderated the relationship between negative beliefs about medicines and adherence to self-care behaviors (diet, glucose monitoring, exercise, foot care, and medication), in Type 2 diabetes patients. The sample was composed of 387 individuals with Type 2 diabetes, diagnosed in the past 12 months. Patients were assessed on self-care behaviors in diabetes, medication adherence, beliefs about medicines, family coping, family stress, marital adjustment, and partner support. The results showed marital adjustment, family coping, partner support, and family stress as moderators in the relationship between negative beliefs and adherence. Patients with negative beliefs regarding medicines, but who reported good marital adjustment and family coping were more likely to test their blood glucose; and if they reported low support from their partners were less likely to adhere to their prescribed diet. Finally, patients with negative beliefs about medicines, but who reported high family stress, were less likely to take their medication. The results emphasize the importance of family variables on adherence to self-care behaviors and medication. This study revealed the importance of including partners on interventions regarding Type 2 diabetes because they seem to play an important role in patient's adherence. PMID:24707825

  2. Promoting Interdisciplinary Research in Departments of Medicine: Results from Two Models at Boston University School of Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, David L.; Spira, Avrum; Ravid, Katya

    2013-01-01

    We have sought to broaden our department's research capacity using two different interdisciplinary approaches. First, we created the Evans Center for Interdisciplinary Biomedical Research (ECIBR) — a virtual center that promotes and funds Affinity Research Collaboratives (ARCs) initiated by faculty from within and outside Boston University (BU). Of the 11 funded ARCs, the 4 ARCs in existence for a minimum of 3 years have a total of 37 participants, 93 co-authored publications, and 33 new grants. Second, the Department of Medicine (DOM) created a Section of Computational Biomedicine in 2009 to enhance analytical and computational expertise in the DOM. After 3 years, the section is comprised of 10 faculty members and 21 trainees. The faculty members have collaborated with 20 faculty members in other sections or departments and secured 12 extramural grants (totaling ∼$20 million in direct costs). The ECIBR and the Section of Computational Biomedicine represent new organizational approaches to stimulating innovation in research in a DOM. PMID:23874035

  3. Residents’ and preceptors’ perceptions of the use of the iPad for clinical teaching in a family medicine residency program

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background As Family Medicine programs across Canada are transitioning into a competency-based curriculum, medical students and clinical teachers are increasingly incorporating tablet computers in their work and educational activities. The purpose of this pilot study was to identify how preceptors and residents use tablet computers to implement and adopt a new family medicine curriculum and to evaluate how they access applications (apps) through their tablet in an effort to support and enhance effective teaching and learning. Methods Residents and preceptors (n = 25) from the Family Medicine program working at the Pembroke Regional Hospital in Ontario, Canada, were given iPads and training on how to use the device in clinical teaching and learning activities and how to access the online curriculum. Data regarding the use and perceived contribution of the iPads were collected through surveys and focus groups. This mixed methods research used analysis of survey responses to support the selection of questions for focus groups. Results Reported results were categorized into: curriculum and assessment; ease of use; portability; apps and resources; and perceptions about the use of the iPad in teaching/learning setting. Most participants agreed on the importance of accessing curriculum resources through the iPad but recognized that these required enhancements to facilitate use. The iPad was considered to be more useful for activities involving output of information than for input. Participants’ responses regarding the ease of use of mobile technology were heterogeneous due to the diversity of computer proficiency across users. Residents had a slightly more favorable opinion regarding the iPad’s contribution to teaching/learning compared to preceptors. Conclusions iPad’s interface should be fully enhanced to allow easy access to online curriculum and its built-in resources. The differences in computer proficiency level among users should be reduced by sharing

  4. A nationwide survey on the expectation of public healthcare providers on family medicine specialists in Malaysia—a qualitative analysis of 623 written comments

    PubMed Central

    Chew, Boon-How; Cheong, Ai-Theng; Ismail, Mastura; Hamzah, Zuhra; A-Rashid, Mohd-Radzniwan; Md-Yasin, Mazapuspavina; Ali, Norsiah

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the expectation of public healthcare providers/professionals (PHCPs) who are working closely with family medicine specialists (FMSs) at public health clinics. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting This study is part of a larger national study on the perception of the Malaysian public healthcare professionals on FMSs. Participants PHCPs from three categories of health facilities, namely hospitals, health clinics and health offices. Main outcome measures Qualitative analysis of written comments of respondents’ expectation of FMSs. Results The participants’ response rate was 58% (780/1345) with an almost equal proportion from each public healthcare facility. We identified 21 subthemes for the 623 expectation comments. The six emerging themes are (1) need for more FMSs, (2) clinical roles and functions of FMSs, (3) administrative roles of FMSs, (4) contribution to community and public health, (5) attributes improvement and (6) research and audits. FMSs were expected to give attention to clinical duty. Delivering this responsibility with competence included having the latest medical knowledge in their own and others’ medical disciplines, practising evidence-based medicine in prehospital and posthospital care, better supervision of staff and doctors under their care, fostering effective teamwork, communicating more often with hospital specialists and making appropriate referral. Expectations ranged from definite and strong for more FMSs at the health clinics to low expectation for FMSs’ involvement in research; to mal-expectation on FMSs’ involvement in community and public health programmes. Conclusions There were some remarkable differences in expectations on FMSs from the three different PHCPs. These ranged from being clinically competent and administratively available for patients and staff at the health clinics, to mal-expectations on FMSs to engage in public health affairs. Relevant parties, including FMSs themselves, could take

  5. Recruitment and retention of Latino immigrant families in prevention research.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Charles R; McClure, Heather H; Eddy, J Mark; Ruth, Betsy; Hyers, Melanie J

    2012-02-01

    The development and testing of culturally competent interventions relies on the recruitment and retention of ethnic minority populations. Minority immigrants are a population of keen interest given their widespread growth, needs, and contributions to communities in which they settle, and particularly recent immigrants from Mexico and Central and South American countries. However, recruitment and retention strategies for entirely immigrant samples are rarely discussed in the literature. The current article describes lessons learned from two family-focused longitudinal prevention research studies of Latino immigrants in Oregon-the Adolescent Latino Acculturation Study (ALAS) and the Latino Youth and Family Empowerment Project-II (LYFE-II). Social, legal, economic, and political contexts are considered that shape Latino immigrants' experiences in their home countries as well as in the United States. The implications of these contexts for effective recruitment and retention strategies are discussed. PMID:21818583

  6. Experience with using second life for medical education in a family and community medicine education unit

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The application of new technologies to the education of health professionals is both a challenge and a necessity. Virtual worlds are increasingly being explored as a support for education. Aim: The aim of this work is to study the suitability of Second Life (SL) as an educational tool for primary healthcare professionals. Methods Design: Qualitative study of accredited clinical sessions in SL included in a continuing professional development (CPD) programme for primary healthcare professionals. Location: Zaragoza I Zone Family and Community Medicine Education Unit (EU) and 9 health centres operated by the Aragonese Health Service, Aragon, Spain. Method: The EU held two training workshops in SL for 16 healthcare professionals from 9 health centres by means of two workshops, and requested them to facilitate clinical sessions in SL. Attendance was open to all personnel from the EU and the 9 health centres. After a trail period of clinical sessions held at 5 health centres between May and November 2010, the CPD-accredited clinical sessions were held at 9 health centres between February and April 2011. Participants: 76 healthcare professionals attended the CPD-accredited clinical sessions in SL. Main measurements: Questionnaire on completion of the clinical sessions. Results Response rate: 42-100%. Questionnaire completed by each health centre on completion of the CPD-accredited clinical sessions: Access to SL: 2 centres were unable to gain access. Sound problems: 0% (0/9). Image problems: 0% (0/9). Voice/text chat: used in 100% (10/9); 0 incidents. Questionnaire completed by participants in the CPD-accredited clinical sessions: Preference for SL as a tool: 100% (76/76). Strengths of this method: 74% (56/76) considered it eliminated the need to travel; 68% (52/76) believed it made more effective use of educational resources; and 47% (36/76) considered it improved accessibility. Weaknesses: 91% (69/76) experienced technical problems, while; 9% (7/76) thought

  7. Current application of chemometrics in traditional Chinese herbal medicine research.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yipeng; Wu, Zhenwei; Su, Rihui; Ruan, Guihua; Du, Fuyou; Li, Gongke

    2016-07-15

    Traditional Chinese herbal medicines (TCHMs) are promising approach for the treatment of various diseases which have attracted increasing attention all over the world. Chemometrics in quality control of TCHMs are great useful tools that harnessing mathematics, statistics and other methods to acquire information maximally from the data obtained from various analytical approaches. This feature article focuses on the recent studies which evaluating the pharmacological efficacy and quality of TCHMs by determining, identifying and discriminating the bioactive or marker components in different samples with the help of chemometric techniques. In this work, the application of chemometric techniques in the classification of TCHMs based on their efficacy and usage was introduced. The recent advances of chemometrics applied in the chemical analysis of TCHMs were reviewed in detail. PMID:26795190

  8. Mössbauer research of magnetic particles in medicinal ointments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykov, A. V.; Nikolaev, V. I.; Ruiz, E. Reguera; Kharitonov, Yu. Ya.; Cherkasova, O. G.; Shulgin, V. I.

    1991-11-01

    Stability of the properties of magnetite particles in novel medicinal magnetic ointments of multipurpose application was studied using Mössbauer spectroscopy. Comparative analysis of the results obtained by model fitting of57Fe nuclei spectra with those known for the system Fe3O4-γ-Fe2O3 allowed to identify the phase composition of the particles. This composition, as well as that of the initial pure component in the form of a highly dispersed fraction (˜100 Å), differs noticeably from the stoichiometric one. Despite their small sizes, the particles exhibit no superparamagnetism (in the temperature range from 95 to 300 K). Radiative sterilization of the ointments has no effect on the magnetic component composition.

  9. Overview of the quality standard research of traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Gao, Huimin; Wang, Zhimin; Li, Yujuan; Qian, Zhongzhi

    2011-06-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely used for the prevention and treatment of various diseases for a long time in China. Due to its proven efficacy, wide applications, and low side effect, TCM has increasingly attracted worldwide attention. However, one of the biggest challenges facing the clinical practice of TCM is the uncontrollable quality. In this review, the progress of the development and the current status of quality standard as well as new quality control techniques introduced in Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010 edition), such as liquid chromatography hyphenated mass spectrometry (LC-MS), fingerprint, quantitative analysis of multicomponents by single-marker (QAMS), thin layer chromatography bio-autographic assay (TLC-BAA), and DNA molecular marker technique, are briefly overviewed. PMID:21695625

  10. Review of the regulations for clinical research in herbal medicines in USA.

    PubMed

    Tang, Tony Yuqi; Li, Fang-Zhou; Afseth, Janyne

    2014-12-01

    In 2012, USA Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved 39 new drugs, however, there are only two botanical drugs (one topical and one oral) approved by FDA since the publication of the FDA's industry guidelines for the botanical drug product in June 2004. The approval shows the Western guideline can be used for herbal medicines, authors investigate current regulation on herbal medicine clinical research, identify challenges conducting clinical trials, and seek to produce some guidance for potential investigators and sponsors considering a clinical trial in this area. Key words were formulated for searching on Medline and FDA website to locate relevant regulations for clinical research in herbal medicines to understand current environment for herbal medicine usage and examine the barriers affecting herbal medicine in clinical trials. Authors critically explore case study of the 1st FDA approved botanical drugs, Veregen (sinecatechins), green tea leaves extract, a topical cream for perianal and genital condyloma. In consideration of current regulation environment in USA, based on the findings and analysis through the literature review and Veregen case study, authors produce and propose a Checklist for New Drug Application of Herbal Medicines for potential investigators and sponsors considering in a herbal medicine clinical trial. PMID:25428336

  11. Research, evidence, and ethics: new technology or grey medicine.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Haoran; Zhong, Wenzhao; Wu, Yilong

    2015-02-01

    Major pioneering advances of medicine in history tend to manifest in two directions that seem divergent but actually unified with dialectics: one is the important biological principle revealed by in-depth studies from the clinic to the laboratory based on individual cases; the other is the colonial generality displayed by epidemiologic data from large-scale samples. Although advances predominated, we human beings were paying dearly for it due to serious incidents of endangering ourselves and defects of restrictions of laws and ethics. Subsequently, the Nuremberg Code, Declaration of Helsinki and Belmont Report came into light and constrained human experiments and clinical trials. However, the development of such laws and regulations in China is lagging behind and renders China as a breeding ground for gray medicine. There are three lessons we can learn from painful histories and apply to individualized treatment of lung cancer. Firstly, the abuse of Avastin beyond its indications reflected the similar situation of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in lung cancer due to different molecular types and stages of tumors; secondly, the black market of stem cell therapy in China reminds us how to identify the boundaries of clinical trials and clinical treatment, in similar to the cellular immunotherapy of tumors; thirdly, the theory of Xiao's Reflex Arc emerged us to rethink the level of the validity of clinical evidences, which can provide hints related to video-assisted thoracoscopic surgeries (VATSs). In conclusion, clinical applications of new techniques and treatment regimens should follow three points: identify indications and contraindications clearly, obtain informed consent and permission of patients and supervise effectively according to laws and ethics. PMID:25738135

  12. Research, evidence, and ethics: new technology or grey medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Haoran; Wu, Yilong

    2015-01-01

    Major pioneering advances of medicine in history tend to manifest in two directions that seem divergent but actually unified with dialectics: one is the important biological principle revealed by in-depth studies from the clinic to the laboratory based on individual cases; the other is the colonial generality displayed by epidemiologic data from large-scale samples. Although advances predominated, we human beings were paying dearly for it due to serious incidents of endangering ourselves and defects of restrictions of laws and ethics. Subsequently, the Nuremberg Code, Declaration of Helsinki and Belmont Report came into light and constrained human experiments and clinical trials. However, the development of such laws and regulations in China is lagging behind and renders China as a breeding ground for gray medicine. There are three lessons we can learn from painful histories and apply to individualized treatment of lung cancer. Firstly, the abuse of Avastin beyond its indications reflected the similar situation of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in lung cancer due to different molecular types and stages of tumors; secondly, the black market of stem cell therapy in China reminds us how to identify the boundaries of clinical trials and clinical treatment, in similar to the cellular immunotherapy of tumors; thirdly, the theory of Xiao’s Reflex Arc emerged us to rethink the level of the validity of clinical evidences, which can provide hints related to video-assisted thoracoscopic surgeries (VATSs). In conclusion, clinical applications of new techniques and treatment regimens should follow three points: identify indications and contraindications clearly, obtain informed consent and permission of patients and supervise effectively according to laws and ethics. PMID:25738135

  13. Developing and successfully implementing a competency-based portfolio assessment system in a postgraduate family medicine residency program.

    PubMed

    McEwen, Laura A; Griffiths, Jane; Schultz, Karen

    2015-11-01

    The use of portfolios in postgraduate medical residency education to support competency development is increasing; however, the processes by which these assessment systems are designed, implemented, and maintained are emergent. The authors describe the needs assessment, development, implementation, and continuing quality improvement processes that have shaped the Portfolio Assessment Support System (PASS) used by the postgraduate family medicine program at Queen's University since 2009. Their description includes the impetus for change and contextual realities that guided the effort, plus the processes used for selecting assessment components and developing strategic supports. The authors discuss the identification of impact measures at the individual, programmatic, and institutional levels and the ways the department uses these to monitor how PASS supports competency development, scaffolds residents' self-regulated learning skills, and promotes professional identity formation. They describe the "academic advisor" role and provide an appendix covering the portfolio elements. Reflection elements include learning plans, clinical question logs, confidence surveys, and reflections about continuity of care and significant incidents. Learning module elements cover the required, online bioethics, global health, and consult-request modules. Assessment elements cover each resident's research project, clinical audits, presentations, objective structured clinical exam and simulated office oral exam results, field notes, entrustable professional activities, multisource feedback, and in-training evaluation reports. Document elements are the resident's continuing medical education activities including procedures log, attendance log, and patient demographic summaries.The authors wish to support others who are engaged in the systematic portfolio-design process or who may adapt aspects of PASS for their local programs. PMID:25993277

  14. Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingelfinger, Franz J.

    1980-01-01

    Selected for discussion are certain advances in basic research and technologic innovation which shape the past, present, and future of medical care. Included are infectious diseases, especially hepatitis, immunology, clinical disorders of the immune system and the histocompatability system. (Author/SA)

  15. Evidence-Based Research in Complementary and Alternative Medicine III: Treatment of Patients with Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chiappelli, Francesco; Navarro, Audrey M.; Moradi, David R.; Manfrini, Ercolano; Prolo, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the novel domain of evidence-based research (EBR) in the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) from the perspective of traditional medicine and of complementary and alternative medicine. In earlier lectures we have described the process of evidence-based medicine as a methodological approach to clinical practice that is directed to aid clinical decision-making. Here, we present a practical example of this approach with respect to traditional pharmacological interventions and to complementary and alternative treatments for patients with AD. PMID:17173104

  16. Herbal Medicines for Asthmatic Inflammation: From Basic Researches to Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Xuan, Nan-Xia; Ying, Song-Min; Li, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is one of the most common chronic inflammatory disorders, associated with reversible airflow obstruction, airway hyperresponsiveness, and airway remodeling. This disease has a significant impact on individuals, their families, and society. Standardized therapeutics such as inhaled corticosteroid in combination with long acting β2 agonist have been applied for asthma control; however, complementary and alternative medicines, especially herbal medicines, are still widely used all over the world. A growing body of literature suggests that various herbals or related products might be effective in inhibiting asthmatic inflammation. In this review, we summarize recent advances about the mechanistic studies of herbal medicines on allergic airway inflammation in animal models and their potential application into clinic for asthma control. PMID:27478309

  17. Detection and characterization of translational research in cancer and cardiovascular medicine

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Scientists and experts in science policy have become increasingly interested in strengthening translational research. Efforts to understand the nature of translational research and monitor policy interventions face an obstacle: how can translational research be defined in order to facilitate analysis of it? We describe methods of scientometric analysis that can do this. Methods We downloaded bibliographic and citation data from all articles published in 2009 in the 75 leading journals in cancer and in cardiovascular medicine (roughly 15,000 articles for each field). We calculated citation relationships between journals and between articles and we extracted the most prevalent natural language concepts. Results Network analysis and mapping revealed polarization between basic and clinical research, but with translational links between these poles. The structure of the translational research in cancer and cardiac medicine is, however, quite different. In the cancer literature the translational interface is composed of different techniques (e.g., gene expression analysis) that are used across the various subspecialties (e.g., specific tumor types) within cancer research and medicine. In the cardiac literature, the clinical problems are more disparate (i.e., from congenital anomalies to coronary artery disease); although no distinctive translational interface links these fields, translational research does occur in certain subdomains, especially in research on atherosclerosis and hypertension. Conclusions These techniques can be used to monitor the continuing evolution of translational research in medicine and the impact of interventions designed to enhance it. PMID:21569299

  18. [Trends in research on the history of medicine in Korea before the modern era].

    PubMed

    Shin, Dongwon

    2010-06-30

    Research on the history of medicine in Korea in the form of modern scholarship began with the publication in 1930 of Yi Neunghwa's "A History of the Development of Medicine in Korea." The purpose of the present study lies in surveying studies on the history of medicine in Korea in the past 80 years since the publication of Yi's paper. In terms of periodization, research on the history of medicine in Korea is bifurcated by the publication of two comprehensive histories-i. e., Miki Sakae's A History of Medicine and Disease in Korea (1963) and Kim Du-jong's The Complete History of Medicine in Korea (1966). Indeed, all earlier studies converged in these two books. Because Miki and Kim both had majored in Western medicine and conducted research based on similar perspectives, data, and methods, the two works overlap considerably, and Kim's book, as the later of the two, unfortunately lost the initiative to the former to a considerable extent. As a result of these two scholars' research, it became possible to trace the overall flow of the history of medicine in Korea. Following the publication of works by Miki and Kim and with the advent of the 1980's, research on the history of medicine in premodern Korea was renovated with the emergence of no fewer than some dozen new doctoral degree holders in the field. In fact, these young scholars went beyond surveying trends in each era to expand the scope of specific discussions and topics per era, to delve into the actual contents, and to elucidate the function of medicine in society. The fruits of studies conducted in the past 80 years on the history of medicine in premodern Korea can be summarized as follows. 1) before the 5th century AD: the existence of a comprehensive medical practice in regions inhabited by those considered to be the ancestors of the Korean people; and information on medication including ginseng. 2) 5th-10th centuries: the existence of professional medical posts; the management of medicine by the royal

  19. Family-friendly research and workplace initiative announced

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-10-01

    A new U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) initiative aims to increase the participation of women and girls in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) over the next 10 years by providing more flexible research policies, promoting flexible workplace options, and supporting STEM careers for women, Obama administration officials announced on 26 September. Currently, women earn about 41% of STEM doctoral degrees awarded by U.S. educational institutions but make up only about 28% of tenure-track faculty in U.S. colleges and universities, the officials said. "Unfortunately, too many young women drop out of promising careers in science, engineering, and math because of conflicts between their desire to start families and the need to rapidly ramp up their careers," said John Holdren, director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP). "The way to help women stay in the STEM jobs pipeline is to create and support more flexible workplace policies that allow a women's career—or a man's, for that matter, but as we know, it's more common for women to give up STEM careers for family reasons—to thrive even as time is allowed for important family responsibilities."

  20. Chinese herbal medicine and depression: the research evidence.

    PubMed

    Butler, Lee; Pilkington, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Background. Alternative approaches for managing depression are often sought and herbal mixtures are widely used in China. The aim of this paper was to provide an overall picture of the current evidence by analysing published systematic reviews and presenting a supplementary systematic review of trials in Western databases. Methods. Searches were conducted using AMED, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE/PubMed, PsycINFO, and trial registers. Results were screened and selected trials were evaluated by two reviewers working independently. Systematic reviews were identified and assessed using key criteria. Results. Five systematic reviews were located addressing the Chinese literature, adjunctive use of Chinese herbs, and the formulae Chaihu-Shugan-San, Xiao Yao San, and Free and Easy Wanderer Plus. The supplementary review located 8 trials, 3 of which were not included in previous reviews. Positive results were reported: no significant differences from medication, greater effect than medication or placebo, reduced adverse event rates when combined or compared with antidepressants. However, limitations in methodology and reporting were revealed. Conclusions. Despite promising results, particularly for Xiao Yao San and its modifications, the effectiveness of Chinese herbal medicine in depression could not be fully substantiated based on current evidence. Further well-designed, well-reported trials that reflect practice may be worth pursuing. PMID:23476701

  1. Chinese Herbal Medicine and Depression: The Research Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Lee; Pilkington, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Background. Alternative approaches for managing depression are often sought and herbal mixtures are widely used in China. The aim of this paper was to provide an overall picture of the current evidence by analysing published systematic reviews and presenting a supplementary systematic review of trials in Western databases. Methods. Searches were conducted using AMED, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE/PubMed, PsycINFO, and trial registers. Results were screened and selected trials were evaluated by two reviewers working independently. Systematic reviews were identified and assessed using key criteria. Results. Five systematic reviews were located addressing the Chinese literature, adjunctive use of Chinese herbs, and the formulae Chaihu-Shugan-San, Xiao Yao San, and Free and Easy Wanderer Plus. The supplementary review located 8 trials, 3 of which were not included in previous reviews. Positive results were reported: no significant differences from medication, greater effect than medication or placebo, reduced adverse event rates when combined or compared with antidepressants. However, limitations in methodology and reporting were revealed. Conclusions. Despite promising results, particularly for Xiao Yao San and its modifications, the effectiveness of Chinese herbal medicine in depression could not be fully substantiated based on current evidence. Further well-designed, well-reported trials that reflect practice may be worth pursuing. PMID:23476701

  2. THE SCHOOL OF DENTAL MEDICINE NEW RESEARCH AND TEACHING BUILDING FOR THE UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia.

    IN PLANNING A NEW RESEARCH AND TEACHING BUILDING FOR THE SCHOOL OF DENTAL MEDICINE, A PROGRAM WAS DEVELOPED OUTLINING THE DESIGN NEEDS AND THE SPACE AND FACILITY REQUIREMENTS. MAJOR AREAS OF THE PROGRAM WERE--(1) GENERAL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION COMPONENTS, (2) THE RESEARCH COMPONENT, AND (3) THE BASIC SCIENCE TEACHING COMPONENTS. SPACE…

  3. Comparing Research Activities of Women and Men Faculty in Departments of Internal Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levey, Barbara A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The study compared research activities of men and women from data obtained in a 1982-83 survey of 7,947 medical school faculty in departments of internal medicine. Among findings were that women researchers had significantly fewer National Institutes of Health grants as well as reduced laboratory space. (Author/DB)

  4. [First scientific research and publications on occupational medicine in Russia].

    PubMed

    Shigan, E E

    2016-01-01

    The article covers data on first in Russian Empire research works and publications on workers' health, occupation-related diseases occurrence, prevention and treatment of such diseases, prophylactic methods. PMID:27164753

  5. Admission Factors Predicting Family Medicine Specialty Choice: A Literature Review and Exploratory Study among Students in the Rural Medical Scholars Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Daniel M., Jr.; Wheat, John R.; Leeper, James D.; McKnight, Jerry T.; Ballard, Brent G.; Chen, Jia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The Rural Medical Scholars Program (RMSP) was created to increase production of rural family physicians in Alabama. Literature review reveals reasons medical students choose careers in family medicine, and these reasons can be categorized into domains that medical schools can address through admission, curriculum, and structural…

  6. [Establish research model of post-marketing clinical safety evaluation for Chinese patent medicine].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wen-ke; Liu, Zhi; Lei, Xiang; Tian, Ran; Zheng, Rui; Li, Nan; Ren, Jing-tian; Du, Xiao-xi; Shang, Hong-cai

    2015-09-01

    The safety of Chinese patent medicine has become a focus of social. It is necessary to carry out work on post-marketing clinical safety evaluation for Chinese patent medicine. However, there have no criterions to guide the related research, it is urgent to set up a model and method to guide the practice for related research. According to a series of clinical research, we put forward some views, which contained clear and definite the objective and content of clinical safety evaluation, the work flow should be determined, make a list of items for safety evaluation project, and put forward the three level classification of risk control. We set up a model of post-marketing clinical safety evaluation for Chinese patent medicine. Based this model, the list of items can be used for ranking medicine risks, and then take steps for different risks, aims to lower the app:ds:risksrisk level. At last, the medicine can be managed by five steps in sequence. The five steps are, collect risk signal, risk recognition, risk assessment, risk management, and aftereffect assessment. We hope to provide new ideas for the future research. PMID:26983223

  7. Ethics and Policy Issues for Stem Cell Research and Pulmonary Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Lowenthal, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell research and related initiatives in regenerative medicine, cell-based therapy, and tissue engineering have generated considerable scientific and public interest. Researchers are applying stem cell technologies to chest medicine in a variety of ways: using stem cells as models for drug discovery, testing stem cell-based therapies for conditions as diverse as COPD and cystic fibrosis, and producing functional lung and tracheal tissue for physiologic modeling and potential transplantation. Although significant scientific obstacles remain, it is likely that stem cell-based regenerative medicine will have a significant clinical impact in chest medicine. However, stem cell research has also generated substantial controversy, posing a variety of ethical and regulatory challenges for research and clinical practice. Some of the most prominent ethical questions related to the use of stem cell technologies in chest medicine include (1) implications for donors, (2) scientific prerequisites for clinical testing and use, (3) stem cell tourism, (4) innovation and clinical use of emerging stem cell-based interventions, (5) responsible translation of stem cell-based therapies to clinical use, and (6) appropriate and equitable access to emerging therapies. Having a sense of these issues should help to put emerging scientific advances into appropriate context and to ensure the responsible clinical translation of promising therapeutics. PMID:25732448

  8. Ethics and policy issues for stem cell research and pulmonary medicine.

    PubMed

    Lowenthal, Justin; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2015-03-01

    Stem cell research and related initiatives in regenerative medicine, cell-based therapy, and tissue engineering have generated considerable scientific and public interest. Researchers are applying stem cell technologies to chest medicine in a variety of ways: using stem cells as models for drug discovery, testing stem cell-based therapies for conditions as diverse as COPD and cystic fibrosis, and producing functional lung and tracheal tissue for physiologic modeling and potential transplantation. Although significant scientific obstacles remain, it is likely that stem cell-based regenerative medicine will have a significant clinical impact in chest medicine. However, stem cell research has also generated substantial controversy, posing a variety of ethical and regulatory challenges for research and clinical practice. Some of the most prominent ethical questions related to the use of stem cell technologies in chest medicine include (1) implications for donors, (2) scientific prerequisites for clinical testing and use, (3) stem cell tourism, (4) innovation and clinical use of emerging stem cell-based interventions, (5) responsible translation of stem cell-based therapies to clinical use, and (6) appropriate and equitable access to emerging therapies. Having a sense of these issues should help to put emerging scientific advances into appropriate context and to ensure the responsible clinical translation of promising therapeutics. PMID:25732448

  9. A global research agenda for family planning: results of an exercise for setting research priorities

    PubMed Central

    Seuc, Armando; Rahimi, Asma; Festin, Mario; Temmerman, Marleen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To develop a global research agenda that will guide investment in effective interventions to satisfy the large unmet need for modern methods of family planning. Methods In a global survey, experts on contraception were invited to identify and rank the types of research that would be needed – and the knowledge gaps that would have to be filled – to reduce the unmet need for family planning in the next decade. The experts were then asked to score the research on a given topic in terms of the likelihood of its leading to an intervention that would: (i) be deliverable, affordable and sustainable; (ii) substantially reduce the unmet need for contraceptives; (iii) be effective and efficient in improving health systems; (iv) be ethically implemented; and (v) improve equity in the target population. The overall scores were then ranked. Findings Most of the topics that received the 15 highest scores fell into three categories: implementation of policies in family planning; the integration of services to address barriers to contraceptive use; and interventions targeted at underserved groups, such as adolescents. Conclusion Experts on contraception gave top priority ranking to research on improving the implementation and integration of health services and on strengthening the health systems supporting family planning services. The results of the exercise may help decision-makers, researchers and funding agencies to develop a clear and focused approach to satisfying the global need for family planning and reach the target set by the Family Planning 2020 initiative. PMID:24623902

  10. Where are all the female participants in Sports and Exercise Medicine research?

    PubMed

    Costello, Joseph T; Bieuzen, Francois; Bleakley, Chris M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate the ratio of male and female participants in Sports and Exercise Medicine research. Original research articles published in three major Sports and Exercise Medicine journals (Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, British Journal of Sports Medicine and American Journal of Sports Medicine) over a three-year period were examined. Each article was screened to determine the following: total number of participants, the number of female participants and the number of male participants. The percentage of females and males per article in each of the journals was also calculated. Cross tabulations and Chi-square analysis were used to compare the gender representation of participants within each of the journals. Data were extracted from 1382 articles involving a total of 6,076,580 participants. A total of 2,366,968 (39%) participants were female and 3,709,612 (61%) were male. The average percentage of female participants per article across the journals ranged from 35% to 37%. Females were significantly under-represented across all of the journals (χ(2) = 23,566, df = 2, p < 0.00001). In conclusion, Sports and Exercise Medicine practitioners should be cognisant of sexual dimorphism and gender disparity in the current literature. PMID:24766579

  11. [Advances in researches on mechanism of anti-Toxoplasma Chinese herbal medicine].

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhao-Yun; Zhang, Bao-de; Ning, Jun-ya; Wang, Yuan-yuan; Yuan, Wen-ying

    2015-10-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunity cellular parasite, related to the infection of various animals and human beings and severely impairing agriculture and human health. Because of the complexity of T. gondii life cycle, its different biological characteristics, and multifarious pathogenesis, there are no specific treatment and preventive medicines at present. Chinese herbal medicine can balance "yin-yang" and regulate the immunity and its side-effect is slight. Now, it has been a hot topic of the research on effective and secure medicines in anti-toxoplasmosis. This paper summarizes and analyzes the curative effect and mechanism of anti-Toxoplasma Chinese herbal medicine, such as Scutellaria baicalensis, Inontus obliquus polysaccharide, Radix glycyrrhizae, pumpkin seeds, and Semen arecae. PMID:26930953

  12. The content of family practice: a family medicine resident's 2 1/2-year experience with the E-book.

    PubMed

    Shank, J C

    1977-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the content of office family practice problems seen over a 2 1/2-year residency period and to afford comparison with the well-known Virginia Study. It illustrates the usefulness of the diagnostic E-Book, with which all the data were collected and preserved. Over a 2 1/2-year period, the author cared for 592 patients in the family practice office. The ratio of one physician to 592 patients compares to the Virginia Study's one physician to approximately 745 patients. A total of 1,640 problems were coded in the E-Book. In this study 55 problems/physician/month were seen, whereas in the Virginia Study approximately 177 problems/physician/month were noted. Respiratory illnesses were the most common diagnostic category in both studies. Among specific problems, obesity ranked first at Hershey, with afebrile colds second, hypertension and Beta streptococcal pharyngitis third, and smoking fourth. Obesity and smoking were ranked considerably lower in the Virginia Study, whereas "health maintenance examinations" were ranked number one. Finally, for age-sex practice profiles, the present data revealed two peak age groups for both sexes, whereas the Virginia work noted only one peak age range. PMID:903750

  13. Research on heat sensing effect along meridian of Chinese medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yun-xiang; Li, Li-jun; Chen, Gui-zhen

    2012-03-01

    Photonics is a science which research light quantum as the carrier for energy and information. Photonic technology in the meridian and acupoints research has shown the unique advantages, by which the microcosmic material basis and macroscopic phenomena research can be integrated to interpret the occurrence of propagated sensation along meridian and its underling mechanism. This paper focuses on the investigation on heat sensing action along the meridian by photonic technology. The four items of heat sensing action were discussed, i.e. thermo-effects, heat sensing capability, laser induced heat effect, underling mechanism on heat sensing effect along the meridian. The authors point out that photonic technology, e.g. photonic imaging, and infrared spectrum analysis, biological photons detection and laser Doppler application, can achieve purpose of in vivo, dynamic, and multiple comparable studies. Thereby the effect of heat sensing along meridian can be detected and illustrated by the use of natural science. Heat information can be investigated to analyze the relationship between zang-fu organs, meridians, and the functional characteristics of the meridian. Hence, the effect of heat sensing along the meridian is the break point of the research of photonics in the meridian which is beneficial to further study the meridian optics.

  14. Research on heat sensing effect along meridian of Chinese medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yun-xiang; Li, Li-jun; Chen, Gui-zhen

    2011-11-01

    Photonics is a science which research light quantum as the carrier for energy and information. Photonic technology in the meridian and acupoints research has shown the unique advantages, by which the microcosmic material basis and macroscopic phenomena research can be integrated to interpret the occurrence of propagated sensation along meridian and its underling mechanism. This paper focuses on the investigation on heat sensing action along the meridian by photonic technology. The four items of heat sensing action were discussed, i.e. thermo-effects, heat sensing capability, laser induced heat effect, underling mechanism on heat sensing effect along the meridian. The authors point out that photonic technology, e.g. photonic imaging, and infrared spectrum analysis, biological photons detection and laser Doppler application, can achieve purpose of in vivo, dynamic, and multiple comparable studies. Thereby the effect of heat sensing along meridian can be detected and illustrated by the use of natural science. Heat information can be investigated to analyze the relationship between zang-fu organs, meridians, and the functional characteristics of the meridian. Hence, the effect of heat sensing along the meridian is the break point of the research of photonics in the meridian which is beneficial to further study the meridian optics.

  15. Accelerating Momentum Toward Improved Health for Patients and Populations: Family Medicine as a Disruptive Innovation-A Perspective from the Keystone IV Conference.

    PubMed

    Stream, Glen; DeVoe, Jennifer E; Hughes, Lauren S; Phillips, Robert L

    2016-01-01

    This paper was prepared in follow up to the G. Gayle Stephens Keystone IV Conference by authors who attended the conference and are also members of the Family Medicine for America's Health board of directors (FMAHealth.org). It connects the aspirations of the current strategic and communications efforts of FMAHealth with the ideas developed at the conference. The FMAHealth project is sponsored by 8 national family medicine organizations and seeks to build on the work of the original Future of Family Medicine project. Among its objectives are a robust family physician workforce practicing in a continually improving medical home model, supported by a comprehensive payment model sufficient to sustain the medical home and enable the personal physician relationship with patients. PMID:27387167

  16. Future of the American Family: A Comparative Analysis of Public Policy Research Definitions of the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Catherine

    This paper presents a review of commonly used family models which illustrate the wide range of differences in definition of the American family. Its purpose is to help assure that national family policy is based on a definition of family made in the broadest possible context. The major part of the paper discusses five commonly used models. The…

  17. Going MAD: development of a "matrix academic division" to facilitate translating research to personalized medicine.

    PubMed

    Whitcomb, David C

    2011-11-01

    Personalized medicine integrates an individual's genetic and other information for the prevention or treatment of complex disorders, and translational research seeks to identify those data most important to disease processes based on observations at the bench and the bedside. To understand complex disorders such as chronic pancreatitis, inflammatory bowel disease, liver cirrhosis, and other idiopathic chronic inflammatory diseases, physician-scientists must systematically collect data on relevant risks, clinical status, biomarkers, and outcomes. The author describes a "matrix academic division" (MAD), a highly effective academic program created at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center using translational research to rapidly develop personalized medicine for digestive diseases. MAD is designed to capture patient-specific data and biologic samples for analysis of steps in a complex process (reverse engineering), reconstructing the system conceptually and mathematically (disease modeling), and deciphering disease mechanism in individual patients to predict the effects of interventions (personalized medicine). MAD draws on the expertise of the medical school's and medical center's physician-scientists to translate essential disease information between the bed and the bench and to communicate with researchers from multiple domains, including epidemiology, genetics, cell biology, immunology, regenerative medicine, neuroscience, and oncology. The author illustrates this approach by describing its successful application to the reverse engineering of chronic pancreatitis. PMID:21952059

  18. Systems Biology - A Pivotal Research Methodology for Understanding the Mechanisms of Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soojin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Systems biology is a novel subject in the field of life science that aims at a systems’ level understanding of biological systems. Because of the significant progress in high-throughput technologies and molecular biology, systems biology occupies an important place in research during the post-genome era. Methods: The characteristics of systems biology and its applicability to traditional medicine research have been discussed from three points of view: data and databases, network analysis and inference, and modeling and systems prediction. Results: The existing databases are mostly associated with medicinal herbs and their activities, but new databases reflecting clinical situations and platforms to extract, visualize and analyze data easily need to be constructed. Network pharmacology is a key element of systems biology, so addressing the multi-component, multi-target aspect of pharmacology is important. Studies of network pharmacology highlight the drug target network and network target. Mathematical modeling and simulation are just in their infancy, but mathematical modeling of dynamic biological processes is a central aspect of systems biology. Computational simulations allow structured systems and their functional properties to be understood and the effects of herbal medicines in clinical situations to be predicted. Conclusion: Systems biology based on a holistic approach is a pivotal research methodology for understanding the mechanisms of traditional medicine. If systems biology is to be incorporated into traditional medicine, computational technologies and holistic insights need to be integrated. PMID:26388998

  19. [Research advance in medicinal plants from genus Coreopsis].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Mourboul, Ablise; Li, Zhi-Yuan

    2013-08-01

    There are about 100 species in the genus Coreopsis which distributed in the America, south of Africa and Hawaiian Islands, and 7 species are distributed in China. The inflorescences of Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. is the Uigur herb 'Snow chrysanthemum' which is named 'Shemuju' with the effects of heat-cleaning, detoxicating, dampness-dissipating and dysentery-curing in the Xinhua Herbal Scheme. The chemical constituents from Coreopsis plants mainly contain flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, sesquiterpenes, and sterols, which show anti-inflammatory activities in modern pharmaceutical research. This article presents an overview of the chemical constituents and pharmaceutical activities, prospects of development and exploitation of Coreopsis plants, hopefully to provide a basis for further research and development of Coreopsis plants. PMID:24228578

  20. Commercial Sample Identification and Characterization Challenges in Medicinal Mushroom Research.

    PubMed

    Chilton, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    A recent study published in this journal demonstrates the pitfalls faced by researchers who utilize commercial products as their test samples without proper characterization. Labeling of commercial mushroom products is often incorrect, which can lead to erroneous interpretations and conclusions. Nine of the 10 samples of commercially branded products used in the study and identified as ground mushrooms were actually grain spawn: mycelium propagated on grain. PMID:27481153

  1. An Evaluation on Medical Education, Research and Development of AYUSH Systems of Medicine through Five Year Plans of India

    PubMed Central

    Dehury, Ranjit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Indian system of medicine has its origin in India. The system is currently renamed as AYUSH, an acronym for Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Sidha and Homeopathy. These are the six Indian systems of medicine prevalent and practiced in India and in few neighboring Asian countries. Objective The primary objective of this review was to gain insight in to the prior and existing initiatives which would enable reflection and assist in the identification of future change. Materials and Methods A review was carried out based on the five year plan documents, obtained from the planning commission web portal of Govt. of India, on medical education, research and development of AYUSH systems of medicine. Results Post independence, the process of five year planning took its birth with the initiation of long term planning in India. The planning process embraced all the social and technology sectors in it. Since the beginning of five year planning, health and family welfare planning became imperative as a social sector planning. Planning regarding Indian Systems of Medicine became a part of health and family welfare planning since then. During the entire planning process a progressive path of development could be observed as per this evaluation. A relatively sluggish process of development was observed up to seventh plan however post eighth plan the growth took its pace. Eighth plan onwards several innovative development processes could be noticed. Despite the relative developments and growth of Indian systems of medicine these systems have to face lot of criticism and appraisal owing to their various characteristic features. In the beginning the system thrived with great degree of uncertainty, as described in 1st five year plan, however progressed ahead with a vision to be a globally accepted system, as envisaged in 11th five year plan. Conclusion A very strong optimistic approach in spreading India’s own medical heritage is the need of the hour. The efforts

  2. The Family Development Research Program: A Program for Prenatal, Infant and Early Childhood Enrichment. Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lally, J. Ronald

    This progress report on the Family Development Research Program for 108 low-income families, conducted at Syracuse University Children's Center, provides information on a longitudinal comparison instituted when the program children reached 36 months of age. The families of the children were matched to control families on a number of variables.…

  3. Federal Support for Research on the Family: An American Political Quandary. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.

    The purpose of this paper is to indicate how the ambivalent posture of the government toward families has affected federal support of research on the family and studies of the family as educator. After an introductory section providing background information about American public policy, families, and education, the discussion centers on the…

  4. Recent progress of research on medicinal mushrooms, foods, and other herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan L; Yang, Xiaoming; Huang, Rong; Zhou, Ting; Wu, Shou-Fang; Shi, Qian; Itokawa, Hideji

    2012-04-01

    This article will review selected herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine, including medicinal mushrooms ( bā xī mó gū; Agaricus blazei, yún zhī; Coriolus versicolor, líng zhī; Ganoderma lucidum, xiāng xùn; shiitake, Lentinus edodes, niú zhāng zhī; Taiwanofungus camphoratus), Cordyceps ( dōng chóng xià cǎo), pomegranate ( shí liú; Granati Fructus), green tea ( lǜ chá; Theae Folium Non Fermentatum), garlic ( dà suàn; Allii Sativi Bulbus), turmeric ( jiāng huáng; Curcumae Longae Rhizoma), and Artemisiae Annuae Herba ( qīng hāo; sweet wormwood). Many of the discussed herbal products have gained popularity in their uses as dietary supplements for health benefits. The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011. PMID:24716120

  5. NON-COMMUNICABLE CHRONIC DISEASES RISK PREVALENCE OF FAMILY MEDICINE PATIENTS IN THE FEDERATION OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

    PubMed Central

    Hrabac, Boris; Spasojevic, Nada

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to represent the prevalence of non-communicable diseases risks among patients of family medicine practices in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Risks prevalence was obtained from an organized massive screening being performed by 100 family medicine teams in four cities of the Federation of B&H during 2013. Material and Methods: Our concept of “preventive treatment of a patient” included detecting and monitoring the following chronic non-communicable diseases risk factors: (a) hypertension; (b) obesity; (c) smoking; (d) physical inactivity; and (e) dyslipidemia; (f) diabetes mellitus. Our sample of examined patients was 46.638. Results: Highest risk prevalence within entire F B&H is observed for dyslipidemia (90.3%) and physical inactivity (64.7%). Lowest prevalence was found for blood sugar and hypertension at 19.2% and 21.6%, respectively. Smoking prevalence of the examined patients was 28.4%. Prevalence of the obesity as health risk (ITM > 30) was 25.5 %. It is of interest that statistically significant differences of individual risk prevalence among cities are evident. Risk distribution among cities ranked from highest to lowest prevalence, shows clearly that Sarajevo is leading in four risks compared to the other cities, while Zenica is ranked lowest for four risk factors. The examined population of the four cities can be ranked from lowest to highest prevalence of the examined risk factors as follows: Sarajevo, Mostar, Tuzla, and Zenica. PMID:27047259

  6. Multiple Mini-Interviews (MMI) and Semistructured Interviews for the Selection of Family Medicine Residents: A Comparative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bhanji, Seema

    2014-01-01

    Background. Family Medicine Residency Program at the Aga Khan University has applicants for the residency position in excess of the positions offered resulting in formulation of certain selection criteria. The objective of this study was to compare MMI versus semistructured interviews for assessing noncognitive domains in the selection of residents. The secondary objectives were to determine perceptions of the interviewers and candidates for the acceptability and feasibility of MMI as a selection tool. Methods. The candidates underwent semistructured interviews along with MMI and identical attributes were tested in both. The attributes tested were safe doctor, communication skills, professionalism, problem solving, team approach, ethical issues, reasons for selecting family medicine, and commitment to the program. Descriptive statistics were calculated and comparison between ratings for MMI and interview was performed by Wilcoxon sign rank test. Results. Total number of candidates was 14. On comparison between interview and MMI, the scores were not statistically different for all attributes except ethics (mean interview scores: 3.04, mean MMI scores: 2.5, and P value 0.046). Conclusion. The study showed no difference between MMI and semistructured interviews. However, it needs to be replicated in order to determine the predictive validity and feasibility of MMI over time.

  7. Training Family Medicine Residents in Effective Communication Skills While Utilizing Promotoras as Standardized Patients in OSCEs: A Health Literacy Curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Pagels, Patti; Kindratt, Tiffany; Arnold, Danielle; Brandt, Jeffrey; Woodfin, Grant; Gimpel, Nora

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Future health care providers need to be trained in the knowledge and skills to effectively communicate with their patients with limited health literacy. The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate a curriculum designed to increase residents' health literacy knowledge, improve communication skills, and work with an interpreter. Materials and Methods. Family Medicine residents (N = 25) participated in a health literacy training which included didactic lectures and an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Community promotoras acted as standardized patients and evaluated the residents' ability to measure their patients' health literacy, communicate effectively using the teach-back and Ask Me 3 methods, and appropriately use an interpreter. Pre- and postknowledge, attitudes, and postdidactic feedback were obtained. We compared OSCE scores from the group that received training (didactic group) and previous graduates. Residents reported the skills they used in practice three months later. Results. Family Medicine residents showed an increase in health literacy knowledge (p = 0.001) and scored in the adequately to expertly performed range in the OSCE. Residents reported using the teach-back method (77.8%) and a translator more effectively (77.8%) three months later. Conclusions. Our innovative health literacy OSCE can be replicated for medical learners at all levels of training. PMID:26491565

  8. The Relationship of Family Support to Family Outcomes: A Synthesis of Key Findings from Research on Severe Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyzar, Kathleen B.; Turnbull, Ann P.; Summers, Jean Ann; Gomez, Viviana Aya

    2012-01-01

    There has been a gradual shift from a deficit to a support model for understanding disability over the last two decades. Although more attention is focused on supports at the individual level, policy has provided for the provision of family support. Despite this policy, families' needs for support are on the rise; and research suggests that…

  9. A bibliographic review of medicine and science research in dancesport.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Teri R; Wyon, Matthew; Ambegaonkar, Jatin P; Redding, Emma

    2013-06-01

    DanceSport is the competitive form of ballroom dancing, and even though it has more participants worldwide than ballet and modern dance, there is less peer-reviewed research. A review was conducted to identify all relevant literature to help researchers and clinicians gain an enhanced understanding of dancesport. Eight databases were searched, with 34 articles found in topics including participation motives, psychology, exercise physiology, fitness training, injuries and injury prevention, biomechanics, menstrual dysfunction, and substance use. Our results indicate that researchers have been inconsistently recording and reporting anthropometric and dancesport data; for example, 31 studies separated participants by gender, 21 included the competition classification of dancers, 19 reported which style of dancesport participants competed in, and 13 described the participants as a dance couple. Common injuries affected the neck, shoulder, spine, knee, lower leg, and foot. Dancesport is in the very heavy to extremely heavy category in energy expenditure (mean heart rate: male 175.2 ± 10.7, female 178.6 ± 8.6 bpm) and utilizes both aerobic and anaerobic energy systems. Alpha-beta and heart rate variability intervention techniques are reported to successfully enhance performance in dancers. Dancesport participants also appear less likely to smoke cigarettes, but have little knowledge about anti-doping rules. During events, professionals danced farther (30 m) and faster (0.3 m/sec) than junior dancers. Female competitors were more likely to be eumenorrheic. Dancesport is a physically and mentally demanding competitive sport, but there is a need to standardize measurements in future studies to allow comparison. PMID:23752280

  10. Development of a Student Mentored Research Program between a Complementary and Alternative Medicine University and a Traditional, Research Intensive University

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Barbara M.; Furner, Sylvia E.; Cramer, Gregory D.

    2014-01-01

    The global need to develop clinician-scientists capable of using research in clinical practice, translating research knowledge into practice, and carrying out research that affects the quality, efficacy, and efficiency of health care is well-documented. The complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) professions embrace the call to develop physician-researchers to carry out translational and applied research for CAM modalities. CAM universities face unique challenges when implementing research training compared to traditional, research intensive (TRI) universities and medical centers where the majority of medical research is carried out. The authors present the development and outcomes of a mentored research program (MRP) between a CAM and a TRI institution, the National University of Health Sciences and the University of Illinois at Chicago School of Public Health, between 2006 and 2012. CAM pre-doctoral students engaged in a full-immersion semester at the TRI, including didactic courses and active research with a TRI faculty research mentor. Half of the participating doctor of chiropractic (DC) students continued on to PhD programs and half established integrative medicine, primary care clinical careers. Establishing rigorous criteria for mentors and mentees, communicating expectations, developing solid relationships between the mentor, mentee, and home school advisor, responding quickly to impediments, and providing adequate support from CAM and TRI investigators were key to the MRP success. To sustain research opportunities, coordinated degree programs for the DC and master of public health (DC/MPH) and master of clinical and translational research (DC/MS CTS) were established. PMID:24988423

  11. A Countercultural Heritage: Rediscovering the Relationship-Centered and Social Justice Roots of Family Medicine-A Perspective from the Keystone IV Conference.

    PubMed

    Waters, Richard C; Stoltenberg, Mark; Hughes, Lauren S

    2016-01-01

    The 2015 G. Gayle Stephens Keystone conference convened a cohort of primary care professionals to discuss what promises personal physicians will make to their patients going forward. New physicians were prompted to rediscover the foundational values of and historic context for family medicine. At the heart of this rediscovery was learning of the writings and teachings of Dr. G. Gayle Stephens, a founder of family medicine who emphasized the essentiality of relationship-centered care and social justice to the new specialty. Dr. Stephens viewed family medicine as being in a countercultural relationship to mainstream medicine, as family medicine fought for justice and equity in an inequitable and fragmented health care system. Here we argue that by reaffirming and renewing this countercultural heritage the new generation of family physicians will have better clarity in approaching the many challenges in health care today. Particularly for trainees and new physicians, the historic lens offered by Dr. Stephens's writing and other foundational documents allows us to better see ourselves in a trajectory of ongoing health care reform. PMID:27387164

  12. Quality of Life from the Point of View of Latin American Families: A Participative Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aznar, A. S.; Castanon, D. G.

    2005-01-01

    Background: To date, little research has focused on what factors constitute a quality of life (QOL) among Latin American families with a member who is intellectually disabled. Method: Total 180 Latin American families cooperated in a participative research project. During 18 months, the families and a team exchanged information about their QOL by…

  13. Phytomedicine 101: plant taxonomy for preclinical and clinical medicinal plant researchers.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Bradley C; Balick, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    Plants are the primary source of medicine for most of the world. The most fundamental step in the scientific study of medicinal plants is establishing their botanical identity. Many studies lack voucher specimens, which serve as permanent records of scientific investigations. This omission makes positive identification impossible and hinders reproducibility. Even when vouchers are cited, scientific names are often mishandled. A random survey of titles and abstracts of 100 publications revealed 20 with taxonomic errors. Mistakes included a lack of author citations, misspellings, and use of older synonyms instead of currently accepted names. A seemingly minor orthographic error makes it impossible to search electronic databases for information about a species. Medicinal plant manuscripts and National Institutes of Health proposals commonly lack scientific rigor in dealing with botanical names and documentation. This article examines common taxonomic problems relevant to medicinal plant research and provides a basic guide to plant taxonomy for medicinal plant researchers. Voucher specimens and their preparation, plant identification, and botanical nomenclature are discussed. References and other resources to assist investigators are cited. PMID:19134447

  14. Postgraduate and research programmes in Medicine and Public Health in Rwanda: an exciting experience about training of human resources for health in a limited resources country.

    PubMed

    Kakoma, Jean Baptiste

    2016-01-01

    The area of Human Resources for Health (HRH) is the most critical challenge for the achievement of health related development goals in countries with limited resources. This is even exacerbated in a post conflict environment like Rwanda. The aim of this commentary is to report and share the genesis and outcomes of an exciting experience about training of qualified health workers in medicine and public health as well as setting - up of a research culture for the last nine years (2006 - 2014) in Rwanda. Many initiatives have been taken and concerned among others training of qualified health workers in medicine and public health. From 2006 to 2014, achievements were as follows: launching and organization of 8 Master of Medicine programmes (anesthesiology, family and community medicine, internal medicine, obstetrics & gynecology, otorhinolaryngology, pediatrics, psychiatry and surgery) and 4 Master programmes in public health (MPH, MSc Epidemiology, MSc Field Epidemiology & Laboratory Management, and Master in Hospital and Healthcare Administration); training to completion of more than 120 specialists in medicine, and 200 MPH, MSc Epidemiology, and MSc Field Epidemiology holders; revival of the Rwanda Medical Journal; organization of graduate research training (MPhil and PhD); 3 Master programmes in the pipeline (Global Health, Health Financing, and Supply Chain Management); partnerships with research institutions of great renown, which contributed to the reinforcement of the institutional research capacity and visibility towards excellence in leadership, accountability, and self sustainability. Even though there is still more to be achieved, the Rwanda experience about postgraduate and research programmes is inspiring through close interactions between main stakeholders. This is a must and could allow Rwanda to become one of the rare examples to other more well-to-do Sub - Saharan countries, should Rwanda carry on doing that. PMID:27303587

  15. Postgraduate and research programmes in Medicine and Public Health in Rwanda: an exciting experience about training of human resources for health in a limited resources country

    PubMed Central

    Kakoma, Jean Baptiste

    2016-01-01

    The area of Human Resources for Health (HRH) is the most critical challenge for the achievement of health related development goals in countries with limited resources. This is even exacerbated in a post conflict environment like Rwanda. The aim of this commentary is to report and share the genesis and outcomes of an exciting experience about training of qualified health workers in medicine and public health as well as setting - up of a research culture for the last nine years (2006 - 2014) in Rwanda. Many initiatives have been taken and concerned among others training of qualified health workers in medicine and public health. From 2006 to 2014, achievements were as follows: launching and organization of 8 Master of Medicine programmes (anesthesiology, family and community medicine, internal medicine, obstetrics & gynecology, otorhinolaryngology, pediatrics, psychiatry and surgery) and 4 Master programmes in public health (MPH, MSc Epidemiology, MSc Field Epidemiology & Laboratory Management, and Master in Hospital and Healthcare Administration); training to completion of more than 120 specialists in medicine, and 200 MPH, MSc Epidemiology, and MSc Field Epidemiology holders; revival of the Rwanda Medical Journal; organization of graduate research training (MPhil and PhD); 3 Master programmes in the pipeline (Global Health, Health Financing, and Supply Chain Management); partnerships with research institutions of great renown, which contributed to the reinforcement of the institutional research capacity and visibility towards excellence in leadership, accountability, and self sustainability. Even though there is still more to be achieved, the Rwanda experience about postgraduate and research programmes is inspiring through close interactions between main stakeholders. This is a must and could allow Rwanda to become one of the rare examples to other more well-to-do Sub - Saharan countries, should Rwanda carry on doing that. PMID:27303587

  16. Developing an Organizational Understanding of Faculty Mentoring Programs in Academic Medicine in Major American Research Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer Zellers, Darlene

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the organizational and contextual factors associated with faculty mentoring programs in academic medicine within major research institutions in the United States, and explores the usefulness of organizational behavior theory in understanding these relationships. To date, many formal faculty mentoring programs are in operation…

  17. Nuclear medicine and imaging research (quantitative studies in radiopharmaceutical science)

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, M.D.; Beck, R.N.

    1990-09-01

    This is a report of progress in Year Two (January 1, 1990--December 31, 1990) of Grant FG02-86ER60438, Quantitative Studies in Radiopharmaceutical Science,'' awarded for the three-year period January 1, 1989--December 31, 1991 as a competitive renewal following site visit in the fall of 1988. This program addresses the problems involving the basic science and technology underlying the physical and conceptual tools of radioactive tracer methodology as they relate to the measurement of structural and functional parameters of physiologic importance in health and disease. The principal tool is quantitative radionuclide imaging. The overall objective of this program is to further the development and transfer of radiotracer methodology from basic theory to routine clinical practice in order that individual patients and society as a whole will receive the maximum net benefit from the new knowledge gained. The focus of the research is on the development of new instruments and radiopharmaceuticals, and the evaluation of these through the phase of clinical feasibility. 25 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Family Strengths: Often Overlooked, but Real. Child Trends Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kristin Anderson; Chalk, Rosemary; Scarpa, Juliet; Vandivere, Sharon

    Often obscured by the multiple problems that plague some American families is the compelling evidence that many families have inner strengths that enable them to do a good job of raising their children and supporting one another. Because family strengths are not easily measured, they tend to be overlooked, resulting in a significant gap in the…

  19. What They Don't Teach in Graduate School: Family Systems Research in the Real World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipe, James W.; Doherty, William J.

    1993-01-01

    Maintains that traditional training in research methods overlooks power of interactional dynamics in research process, preparing students inadequately for understanding obstacles to conducting research in community settings. Uses family systems theory to present and analyze ecological dynamics of research study of families and health conducted in…

  20. Proceedings of the Conference on Family Research (Washington, D.C., March 4-5, 1974).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertz, Thomas W., Ed.; Hertz, Susan, H., Ed.

    This document is the product of the Conference of Family Research, a group convened by the Interagency Panel on Early Childhood Research and Development to provide an opportunity for researchers to meet with representatives of funding agencies in order to develop new commitments, interests and directions for family research. The document contains…

  1. An informatics research agenda to support precision medicine: seven key areas.

    PubMed

    Tenenbaum, Jessica D; Avillach, Paul; Benham-Hutchins, Marge; Breitenstein, Matthew K; Crowgey, Erin L; Hoffman, Mark A; Jiang, Xia; Madhavan, Subha; Mattison, John E; Nagarajan, Radhakrishnan; Ray, Bisakha; Shin, Dmitriy; Visweswaran, Shyam; Zhao, Zhongming; Freimuth, Robert R

    2016-07-01

    The recent announcement of the Precision Medicine Initiative by President Obama has brought precision medicine (PM) to the forefront for healthcare providers, researchers, regulators, innovators, and funders alike. As technologies continue to evolve and datasets grow in magnitude, a strong computational infrastructure will be essential to realize PM's vision of improved healthcare derived from personal data. In addition, informatics research and innovation affords a tremendous opportunity to drive the science underlying PM. The informatics community must lead the development of technologies and methodologies that will increase the discovery and application of biomedical knowledge through close collaboration between researchers, clinicians, and patients. This perspective highlights seven key areas that are in need of further informatics research and innovation to support the realization of PM. PMID:27107452

  2. Clinical outcome research in complementary and alternative medicine: an overview of experimental design and analysis.

    PubMed

    Gatchel, R J; Maddrey, A M

    1998-09-01

    This article serves as a primer for those beginning clinical research in complementary and alternative medicine. The authors provide a basic overview of important experimental design and statistical issues, of which clinical researchers in the area of complementary and alternative medicine must be aware when attempting to demonstrate the effectiveness of particular treatment modalities. As the article suggests, science is an inferential process, and experimental investigations can vary greatly in methodological integrity. Key concepts in clinical outcome research such as internal validity, statistical conclusion validity, and the appropriate measurement and operational definitions of outcomes are discussed. New scientific approaches that are evolving because of paradigm shifts in science (e.g., chaos theory) are also reviewed. Suggestions are provided to further develop an understanding of clinical outcome research methodology. PMID:9737030

  3. [Study on path of transforming traditional Chinese medicine research achievement into guideline].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen; Xie, Yan-Ming; Yuwen, Ya

    2014-09-01

    At present, a number of scientific research achievements has been formed. Scientific achievement is the crystallization of great efforts from scientific workers, and it's also the valuable treasure of human civilization. Standardization is an important way to promote the international communication of Chinese medicine, and it's significant in boosting China's scientific and technological progress, improving market competitiveness and promoting international trade. Transformation of scientific research to the guideline is not only beneficial to improving the technology content of the standard, but also to the conversion from scientific research achievements into productivity. Therefore, only by absorbing the advanced scientific and technological achievements, reproducing the theory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and medical technology in standard form, can make TCM keep pace with the times. This study preliminarily explores for the method to transform scientific research achievements into guideline, in order to provide reference for the future technical specifications, thus to further the development of TCM. PMID:25532407

  4. Real-world research and its importance in respiratory medicine

    PubMed Central

    Brusselle, Guy; Roche, Nicolas; Freeman, Daryl; Chisholm, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Educational Aims To improve understanding of: The relative benefits and limitations of evidence derived from different study designs and the role that real-life asthma studies can play in addressing limitations in the classical randomised controlled trial (cRCT) evidence base.The importance of guideline recommendations being modified to fit the populations studied and the model of care provided in their reference studies. Key points Classical randomised controlled trials (cRCTs) show results from a narrow patient group with a constrained ecology of care. Patients with “real-life” co-morbidities and lifestyle factors receiving usual care often have different responses to medication which will not be captured by cRCTs if they are excluded by strict selection criteria. Meta-analyses, used to direct guidelines, contain an inherent meta-bias based on patient selection and artificial patient care. Guideline recommendations should clarify where they related to cRCT ideals (in terms of patient populations, medical resources and care received) and could be enhanced through inclusion of evidence from studies designed to better model the populations and care approaches present in routine care. Summary Clinical practice requires a complex interplay between experience and training, research, guidelines and judgement, and must not only draw on data from traditional or classical randomised controlled trials (cRCTs), but also from pragmatically designed studies that better reflect real-life clinical practice. To minimise extraneous variables and to optimise their internal validity, cRCTs exclude patients, clinical characteristics and variations in care that could potentially confound outcomes. The result is that respiratory cRCTs often enrol a small, non-representative subset of patients and overlook the important interplay and interactions between patients and the real world, which can effect treatment outcomes. Evidence from real-life studies (e.g. naturalistic or pragmatic

  5. Researching Reflexively With Patients and Families: Two Studies Using Video-Reflexive Ethnography to Collaborate With Patients and Families in Patient Safety Research.

    PubMed

    Collier, Aileen; Wyer, Mary

    2016-06-01

    Patient safety research has to date offered few opportunities for patients and families to be actively involved in the research process. This article describes our collaboration with patients and families in two separate studies, involving end-of-life care and infection control in acute care. We used the collaborative methodology of video-reflexive ethnography, which has been primarily used with clinicians, to involve patients and families as active participants and collaborators in our research. The purpose of this article is to share our experiences and findings that iterative researcher reflexivity in the field was critical to the progress and success of each study. We present and analyze the complexities of reflexivity-in-the-field through a framework of multilayered reflexivity. We share our lessons here for other researchers seeking to actively involve patients and families in patient safety research using collaborative visual methods. PMID:26658233

  6. Pain Research in Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Australia: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Charlie C.L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Sixty percent (60%) to 80% of patients who visit chiropractic, osteopathic, or Chinese medicine practitioners are seeking pain relief. Objectives This article aimed to identify the amount, quality, and type of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) pain research in Australia by systematically and critically reviewing the literature. Methods PubMed, Scopus, Australasian Medical Index, and Cochrane library were searched from their inception to July 2009. Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trial Registration and National Health and Medical Research Council databases were searched for human studies yet to be completed. Predefined search terms and selection criteria were used for data identification. Results Of 204 studies selected, 54% were on chiropractic, 27% on Chinese medicine, 15% about multitherapy, and 4% on osteopathy. Chronic spinal pain was the most studied condition, with visceral pain being the least studied. Half of the articles in Chinese medicine or multitherapy were systematic reviews or randomized control trials. In comparison, only 5% of chiropractic and none of osteopathy studies were in these categories. Government funding was rare, and most studies were self-funded or internally funded. All chiropractic, osteopathic, and Chinese herbal medicine studies were conducted by the researchers of the professions. In contrast, half of the acupuncture studies and all t'ai chi studies were conducted by medical doctors or physiotherapists. Multidisciplinary collaboration was uncommon. Conclusions The quantity and the quality of CAM pain research in Australia are inconsistent with the high utilization of the relevant CAM therapies by Australians. A substantial increase in government funding is required. Collaborative research examining the multimodality or multidisciplinary approach is needed. PMID:22891634

  7. [Possibility of applying nanotechnology to research on the basic theory of traditional Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Gao, Ye-Tao; Shi, Shan-Quan; Pan, Hui-Wei

    2005-11-01

    The ancient theory and technology which are related to preventive treatment of disease by dietetic regulation and coordinating meridian according to 25 tones have been developed in the early 21st century. It is proved in sonocytology by nanotechnology that cells are able to produce noise, and the noise will change at first when the cells have any disorders. This theory is in accordance with the one in Huangdi Neijing. The nanotechnology can be introduced into the basic research of traditional Chinese medicine and may contribute to the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:16282048

  8. [Research progress on medicinal resources of Mylabris and close origin species].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianhui; Chen, Jianwei; Li, Xiang

    2009-03-01

    The paper summarizes the research progress on the medicinal resources of Mylabris and close origin species in recent years. Besides the 45 species in 7 genus within Meloidae insects which contain cantharidin, there are also more 9 species in 7 close origin genus containing cantharidin which include Zanna, Fulgora and Lycorma within Fulgoridae of Homoptera, Oxocopis, Heliocis Xanthochroa and Oedemera within Oedemeridae of Coleoptera. New medicinal resources of cantharidin are redundant, there are biological relationships in the biosynthesis of cantharidin, the emerge of cantharidin is related to ecology and there is more attention on the new methods of utilizing Mylabris resources such as living body extraction. PMID:19623996

  9. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine in applied research: a year in review of 2014.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xunxun; Huang, Jia; Shi, Yuan; Liu, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) remains to be one of the fastest growing fields, which covers a wide scope of topics of both basic and applied biological researches. This overview article summarized the advancements in applied researches of TERM area, including stem cell-mediated tissue regeneration, material science, and TERM clinical trial. These achievements demonstrated the great potential of clinical regenerative therapy of tissue/organ disease or defect through stem cells and tissue engineering approaches. PMID:25588683

  10. A National Survey on the Current Status of Family Practice Residency Education in Geriatric Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Ina; Arenson, Christine; Warshaw, Gregg; Bragg, Elizabeth; Shaull, Ruth; Counsell, Steven R.

    2003-01-01

    A survey of family practice residency directors found that 92 percent have a required geriatrics curriculum; nursing homes, assisted living facilities, and home care are the predominant training sites; the mean number of geriatrics faculty is 2.6 per program; and conflicting time demands with other curricula was ranked as the most significant…

  11. [93 YEARS OF CLINICAL EMPATHY, STATE-OF-THE-ART MEDICINE AND RESEARCH EXCELLENCE].

    PubMed

    Kessel, Aharon; Odeh, Majed; Rofe, Amnon

    2015-12-01

    This issue of Harefuah is devoted to articles and reviews written by the medical staff of Bnai Zion Medical Center in Haifa. Celebrating 93 years since its inception, Bnai Zion Medical Center is home to the oldest public hospital in Haifa, and a founding affiliate of the Technion's Faculty of Medicine. Known for its centers of excellence and the impactful clinical and basic research developed, the hospital has a reputation for state-of-the-art medicine, both conventional and complementary. Bnai Zion prides itself as an innovation leader in medical and nursing education, with its staff's empathetic and personalized approach to patient care, and the center's dedication to applying emotional intelligence to medicine. PMID:26897773

  12. Quality Assessment of Research Articles in Nuclear Medicine Using STARD and QUADAS-2 Tools

    PubMed Central

    Roysri, Krisana; Chotipanich, Chanisa; Laopaiboon, Vallop; Khiewyoo, Jiraporn

    2014-01-01

    research methodology so that the reader can assess the quality of research articles. Conclusion: Five nuclear medicine journals with the highest impact factor were comparable in terms of STARD score, although they all showed lack of clarity regarding index test, reference standard, and time interval, according to QUADAS-2. The current data were too limited to determine the journal with the lowest bias. Thus, a comprehensive overview of the research methodology of each article is of paramount importance to enable the reader to assess the quality of articles.

  13. [AVIATION MEDICINE: THEORETICAL CONCEPTS AND FOCAL FUNDAMENTAL AND PRACTICAL ISSUES (for the 80th anniversary of the Research Test Center of Aerospace Medicine and Military Ergonomics)].

    PubMed

    Zhdanko, I M; Pisarev, A A; Vorona, A A; Lapa, V V; Khomenko, M N

    2015-01-01

    The article discloses postulates of theoretical concepts that make the methodological basis for addressing the real-world aviation medicine challenges of humanizing aviator's environment, labor content and means, and health and performance maintenance. Under consideration are focal fundamental and practical issues arising with the technological progress in aviation and dealt with at the AF CRI Research Test Center of Aerospace Medicine and Military Ergonomics. PMID:26087580

  14. Recent Advance in Applications of Proteomics Technologies on Traditional Chinese Medicine Research

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Qing; Zhu, Fangshi; Liu, Xuan; Li, Qi; Su, Shi-bing

    2015-01-01

    Proteomics technology, a major component of system biology, has gained comprehensive attention in the area of medical diagnosis, drug development, and mechanism research. On the holistic and systemic theory, proteomics has a convergence with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). In this review, we discussed the applications of proteomic technologies in diseases-TCM syndrome combination researches. We also introduced the proteomic studies on the in vivo and in vitro effects and underlying mechanisms of TCM treatments using Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), Chinese herbal formula (CHF), and acupuncture. Furthermore, the combined studies of proteomics with other “-omics” technologies in TCM were also discussed. In summary, this report presents an overview of the recent advances in the application of proteomic technologies in TCM studies and sheds a light on the future global and further research on TCM. PMID:26557869

  15. [Learning concepts of diagnosis in family medicine: the "mark robinson sign" - the traces that should not be there].

    PubMed

    Turabián, José Luis; Samarín-Ocampos, Elena; Minier, Luis; Pérez-Franco, Benjamín

    2015-11-01

    We review the mechanisms of the mental operation to identify the disease in family medicine, using five cases where the diagnosis process began in "the trace that should not be there" or "Robinson sign" as happened to Robinson Crusoe when he saw a human footprint on the beach of the "desert island". How could it be there?; It was a mystery, and based on metaphors, we framed the mechanism of "the trace that should not be there" mainly in the first phase of clinical or intuitive reasoning, but this intuition of the doctor should be accompanied by the diagnostic process, like the "basso continuo" of Baroque music, allowing improvisation and personal style, and in this way, eventually observing the footprint "that should not have been there" that may arise in the analytical, as well as in the verification phase of the assumptions made. PMID:25959290

  16. Attitudes and perceptions of medical students about family medicine in Spain: protocol for a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Villa, Josep Jiménez; Hijar, Antonio Monreal; Tuduri, Xavier Mundet; Puime, Ángel Otero

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite the fact that family medicine (FM) has become established as a specialty in the past 25 years, this has not been reflected in the inclusion of the specialty in the majority of medical schools in Spain. Almost 40% of the students will work in primary care but, in spite of this, most universities do not have an assessed placement as such. There are only specific practice periods in health centres or some student-selected components with little weight in the overall curricula. Objectives To evaluate the attitudes and perceptions of medical students about FM in the health system and their perception about the need for specific training in FM at the undergraduate level. To explore change over time of these attitudes and perceptions and to examine potential predictive factors for change. Finally, we will review what teaching activity in FM is offered across the Spanish schools of medicine. Methods Descriptive cross-sectional survey. Each one of the different analyses will consist of two surveys: one for all the students in the first, third and fifth year of medical school in all the Spanish schools of medicine asking about their knowledge, perceptions and attitudes in relation to primary care and FM. There will be an additional survey for the coordinating faculty of the study in each university about the educational activities related to FM that are carried out in their centres. The repetition of the study every 2 years will allow for an analysis of the evolution of the cohort of students until they receive their degree and the potential predictive factors. Discussion This study will provide useful information for strategic planning decisions, content and educational methodology in medical schools in Spain and elsewhere. It will also help to evaluate the influence of the ongoing changes in FM, locally and at the European level, on the attitudes and perceptions of the students towards FM in Spain. PMID:22189348

  17. Drug Testing Incoming Residents and Medical Students in Family Medicine Training: A Survey of Program Policies and Practices

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Paul F.; Semelka, Michael W.; Bigdeli, Laleh

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite well-established negative consequences, high rates of substance use and related disorders continue to be reported. Physicians in training are not immune from this, or the associated risks to their health and careers, while impaired physicians are a threat to patient safety. Objective We surveyed family medicine residency programs' practices relating to drug testing of medical students and incoming residents. The survey asked about the extent to which residency programs are confronted with trainees testing positive for prohibited substances, and how they respond. Methods The survey was sent to the directors of family medicine residency programs. A total of 205 directors (47.2%) completed the survey. Results A majority of the responding programs required drug testing for incoming residents (143, 68.9%). Most programs did not require testing of medical students (161, 81.7%). Few programs reported positive drug tests among incoming residents (9, 6.5%), and there was only 1 reported instance of a positive result among medical students (1, 3.3%). Respondents reported a range of responses to positive results, with few reporting that they would keep open training spots or offer supportive services for a medical student who tested positive. Conclusions Changing laws legalizing certain drugs may require corresponding changes in the focus on drug testing and associated issues in medical training; however, many residency program directors were not aware of their institution's current policies. Programs will need to reexamine drug testing policies as new generations of physicians, growing up under altered legal circumstances concerning drug use, progress to clinical training. PMID:26217424

  18. Bending the cost curve and increasing revenue: a family medicine model that works!

    PubMed

    Katz, Bernard J; Needham, Mark R

    2012-12-01

    This article attempts to illustrate ways in which family physician practices are able to demonstrate high value, enhanced quality, and streamlined costs, essential components of practice sustainability. Specific examples are provided to assist practices to consider questions and information that allow for skillful engagement during contract negotiations, consider increasing practice revenues by adopting practice enhancements that make sense for the location of the practice and community needs, develop workflow analyses, and review opportunities for expense reduction. PMID:23148960

  19. Suicidal Ideation in a Population-Based Sample of Adolescents: Implications for Family Medicine Practice

    PubMed Central

    Hamelin, Gail P.; Granger, Stephen J. R.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. This study investigated the relationship between suicidal ideation and demographic characteristics, health conditions, depression, and health care utilization patterns among adolescents. Methods. Secondary analysis of the regionally representative Canadian Community Health Survey conducted in 2000/2001 (response rate 85%). Adolescents aged 15 to 19 who reported suicidal ideation in the previous year (n = 260) were compared with their peers who did not (n = 5528). The association between suicidal ideation and socio-demographic and health characteristics were investigated. Findings. Almost three-quarters (73%) of suicidal adolescents had not spoken with any health professional about mental health issues in the preceding year. Despite the fact that 80% of suicidal adolescents had regular contact with their family doctor, only 5% had consulted with them about mental health issues. In addition to the well-known risk factors of depression and stress, suicidal ideation was highly elevated in adolescents with two or more chronic health conditions, self-reported poor health, migraines, and back pain and those whose activities were prevented by pain (P < .05). Other characteristics significantly correlated with suicidal ideation included smoking, living in single parent families, and having lower levels of social support. Conclusions. Family physicians should regularly screen for suicidal thoughts in their adolescent patients with these characteristics. PMID:24967322

  20. Can Credit Systems Help in Family Medicine Training in Developing Countries? An Innovative Concept

    PubMed Central

    Raji, J. Beulah; Velavan, Jachin; Anbarasi, Sahaya; Grant, Liz

    2014-01-01

    There is irrefutable evidence that health systems perform best when supported by a Family Physician network. Training a critical mass of highly skilled Family Physicians can help developing countries to reach their Millennium Development Goals and deliver comprehensive patient-centered health care to their population. The challenge in developing countries is the need to rapidly train these Family Physicians in large numbers, while also ensuring the quality of the learning, and assuring the quality of training. The experience of Christian Medical College (CMC), Vellore, India and other global examples confirm the fact that training large numbers is possible through well-designed blended learning programs. The question then arises as to how these programs can be standardized. Globally, the concept of the “credit system” has become the watch-word for many training programs seeking standardization. This article explores the possibility of introducing incremental academic certifications using credit systems as a method to standardize these blended learning programs, gives a glimpse at the innovation that CMC, Vellore is piloting in this regard partnering with the University of Edinburgh and analyses the possible benefits and pitfalls of such an approach. PMID:25374849

  1. A bibliometric study of publication patterns in access to medicines research in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Ritz, Lindsay Sarah; Adam, Taghreed; Laing, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Developing countries face considerable problems in both accessing and properly utilizing essential medicines. One challenge to achieving these goals in resource-poor settings is a limited knowledge base as to what works to improve the selection, access and use of essential medicines including; ways to ensure affordable prices, increase sustainable financing, and strengthen reliable supply systems that are relevant to these settings. The objective of this study was to search the existing evidence base on access to medicine issues in developing countries and to assess publication patterns regarding the nature of topics studied, areas where gaps of information exist and the general trends in publications in this area. Methods: A PubMed search was conducted to retrieve publications on access to medicines in developing countries between 1999-2008. Our search strategy builds and expands on a search strategy developed for a Cochrane review to include a wider range of topics related to access to medicines and pharmaceutical policy. Retrieved articles were categorized by research topics, year of publication, study area, and country of residence of corresponding author to establish patterns in publications with respect to these categories over the past 10 years. Results: Medicine selection, intellectual property rights, and monitoring and quality assurance were among the top topics studied over the last 10 years. Corresponding authors residing in high-income countries represented around 50% of all publications relative to low-income (18%) and middle-income countries (32%). Although an increasing trend in the number of publications per year was found, the increase was relatively small and variable over a 10-year period. Conclusions: There are few peer-reviewed publications on access to medicines in developing countries with an average of only 76 publications per year over the past 10 years. Increasing the local evidence base as to what works to improve access to

  2. A Family-Oriented Decision-Making Model for Human Research in Mainland China.

    PubMed

    Rui, Deng

    2015-08-01

    This essay argues that individual-oriented informed consent is inadequate to protect human research subjects in mainland China. The practice of family-oriented decision-making is better suited to guide moral research conduct. The family's role in medical decision-making originates from the mutual benevolence that exists among family members, and is in accordance with family harmony, which is the aim of Confucian society. I argue that the practice of informed consent for medical research on human subjects ought to remain family-oriented in mainland China. This essay explores the main features of this model of informed consent and demonstrates the proper authority of the family. The family's participation in decision-making as a whole does not negate or deny the importance of the individual who is the subject of the choice, but rather acts more fully to protect research subjects. PMID:26142439

  3. TarNet: An Evidence-Based Database for Natural Medicine Research

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Guomin; Sun, Guibo; Sun, Xiaobo

    2016-01-01

    Background Complex diseases seriously threaten human health. Drug discovery approaches based on “single genes, single drugs, and single targets” are limited in targeting complex diseases. The development of new multicomponent drugs for complex diseases is imperative, and the establishment of a suitable solution for drug group-target protein network analysis is a key scientific problem that must be addressed. Herbal medicines have formed the basis of sophisticated systems of traditional medicine and have given rise to some key drugs that remain in use today. The search for new molecules is currently taking a different route, whereby scientific principles of ethnobotany and ethnopharmacognosy are being used by chemists in the discovery of different sources and classes of compounds. Results In this study, we developed TarNet, a manually curated database and platform of traditional medicinal plants with natural compounds that includes potential bio-target information. We gathered information on proteins that are related to or affected by medicinal plant ingredients and data on protein–protein interactions (PPIs). TarNet includes in-depth information on both plant–compound–protein relationships and PPIs. Additionally, TarNet can provide researchers with network construction analyses of biological pathways and protein–protein interactions (PPIs) associated with specific diseases. Researchers can upload a gene or protein list mapped to our PPI database that has been manually curated to generate relevant networks. Multiple functions are accessible for network topological calculations, subnetwork analyses, pathway analyses, and compound–protein relationships. Conclusions TarNet will serve as a useful analytical tool that will provide information on medicinal plant compound-affected proteins (potential targets) and system-level analyses for systems biology and network pharmacology researchers. TarNet is freely available at http://www.herbbol.org:8001/tarnet

  4. Advances in Families and Health Research in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Deborah; Springer, Kristen W.

    2010-01-01

    We review research on families and health published between 2000 and 2009 and highlight key themes and findings from innovative, methodologically rigorous studies. Whereas research in prior decades focused primarily on whether family structure affects child and adult health, contemporary research examines the contextual and processual factors that…

  5. Housing, Equipment, and Design Research and Scholarship: A Family and Consumer Sciences Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beamish, Julia O.; Ahn, Mira; Seiling, Sharon

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of research on housing, equipment, and design (n=333) in the Journal of Home Economics/Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences (1985-2000), Home Economics Research Journal/Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal (1985- 2000), and Housing and Society (1985-1999) found that articles declined by more than 50% and behavior theories were…

  6. Using Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) to Target Health Disparities in Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berge, Jerica M.; Mendenhall, Tai J.; Doherty, William J.

    2009-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an action research approach that emphasizes collaborative partnerships between community members, community organizations, health care providers, and researchers to generate knowledge and solve local problems. Although relatively new to the field of family social science, family and health…

  7. A Short Course in Family Therapy: Translating Research Into Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert

    2005-01-01

    This article outlines a graduate-level, one-time-only family therapy course that prepares counseling trainees to be competent at entry-level family therapy in the United States. The approach outlined addresses the training concerns of programs that significantly emphasize individual-focused paradigms and that have limited time to train counseling…

  8. Theorizing in Family Gerontology: New Opportunities for Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberto, Karen A.; Blieszner, Rosemary; Allen, Katherine R.

    2006-01-01

    We examine the extent to which theory has been used in empirical studies of families in later life, identify prevalent types of theoretical frameworks, and assess connections between theory and both focal topics and analytic methods in the family gerontology literature. The paper is based on content and methodological analysis of 838 empirical…

  9. Comparative effectiveness research in cancer genomics and precision medicine: current landscape and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Simonds, Naoko I; Khoury, Muin J; Schully, Sheri D; Armstrong, Katrina; Cohn, Wendy F; Fenstermacher, David A; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S; Goddard, Katrina A B; Knaus, William A; Lyman, Gary H; Ramsey, Scott D; Xu, Jianfeng; Freedman, Andrew N

    2013-07-01

    A major promise of genomic research is information that can transform health care and public health through earlier diagnosis, more effective prevention and treatment of disease, and avoidance of drug side effects. Although there is interest in the early adoption of emerging genomic applications in cancer prevention and treatment, there are substantial evidence gaps that are further compounded by the difficulties of designing adequately powered studies to generate this evidence, thus limiting the uptake of these tools into clinical practice. Comparative effectiveness research (CER) is intended to generate evidence on the "real-world" effectiveness compared with existing standards of care so informed decisions can be made to improve health care. Capitalizing on funding opportunities from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, the National Cancer Institute funded seven research teams to conduct CER in genomic and precision medicine and sponsored a workshop on CER on May 30, 2012, in Bethesda, Maryland. This report highlights research findings from those research teams, challenges to conducting CER, the barriers to implementation in clinical practice, and research priorities and opportunities in CER in genomic and precision medicine. Workshop participants strongly emphasized the need for conducting CER for promising molecularly targeted therapies, developing and supporting an integrated clinical network for open-access resources, supporting bioinformatics and computer science research, providing training and education programs in CER, and conducting research in economic and decision modeling. PMID:23661804

  10. Exploration of Children's Health and Self-Care Behavior within a Family Context through Qualitative Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blecke, Janalou

    1990-01-01

    Explored family context for children's health-related learning through qualitative research. Gathered data from one dual-career, middle-class, two-parent family with school-age children. Identified core conceptual category, maintenance of structure and order in family life. Claims relationships are evident between and among this category,…

  11. Afterword: New Directions in Research with Immigrant Families and Their Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez-Orozco, Carola; Carhill, Avary

    2008-01-01

    Although migration is fundamentally a family affair, the family, as a unit of analysis, has been understudied both by scholars of migration and by developmental psychologists. Researchers have often struggled to conceptualize immigrant children, adolescents, and their families, all too often giving way to pathologizing them, ignoring generational…

  12. Family Day Care: Out of the Shadows and into the Limelight. Research Monograph, Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kontos, Susan

    Because of the increased attention to family day care resulting from several state and national initiatives to improve quality, there is a need for a solid knowledge base about family day care. This book examines recent research on family day care. The book is divided into six chapters according to focus. Chapter 1 examines the ecology of family…

  13. Early Signs of Atherogenesis in Adolescents in a Havana Family Medicine Catchment Area.

    PubMed

    Valdés, Wendy; Díaz-Perera, Georgia; Espinosa, Tania M

    2015-10-01

    INTRODUCTION Atherosclerosis is the common underlying cause of cardiovascular diseases; the leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. It is a major contributor to disability and poorer quality of life and is costly to health systems, individuals, families and society. Early signs of atherogenesis are manifestations of atherosclerosis and known atherogenic risk factors occurring at young ages and detectable by health professionals. Early detection of such signs in children and adolescents enables actions to prevent short- and long-term complications. OBJECTIVE Detect early signs of atherogenesis in adolescents in Family Doctor-and-Nurse Office No. 13 of the Raúl Gómez García Polyclinic in Havana's 10 de Octubre Municipality. METHODS An observational, cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted: the universe consisted of 110 adolescents and, once exclusion criteria were applied, the sample was made up of 96 adolescents in the office's geographical catchment area. Variables included sociodemographic data; measurements from physical and anthropometric examinations (weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, presence of acanthosis nigricans); maternal history of diabetes mellitus and hypertension, smoking during pregnancy; birth weight and duration of exclusive breastfeeding; lifestyle (physical activity, dietary habits by frequency of consumption of fruits and vegetables, salt intake, and smoking); and a history of atherogenic risk factors and atherosclerotic diseases (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral arterial disease and chronic kidney disease) in adolescents and their families. The number of early signs of atherogenesis was determined. Descriptive statistics and a chi-square test, with significance threshold set at p = 0.05, were used to examine differences by sex and age. RESULTS A total of 62.5% of participating adolescents were female and the same percent of the total

  14. Patient and Family Member-Led Research in the Intensive Care Unit: A Novel Approach to Patient-Centered Research

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Marlyn; Bagshaw, Sean M.; McKenzie, Emily; Oxland, Peter; Oswell, Donna; Boulton, Debbie; Niven, Daniel J.; Potestio, Melissa L.; Shklarov, Svetlana; Marlett, Nancy; Stelfox, Henry T.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Engaging patients and family members as partners in research increases the relevance of study results and enhances patient-centered care; how to best engage patients and families in research is unknown. Methods We tested a novel research approach that engages and trains patients and family members as researchers to see if we could understand and describe the experiences of patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and their families. Former patients and family members conducted focus groups and interviews with patients (n = 11) and families of surviving (n = 14) and deceased (n = 7) patients from 13 ICUs in Alberta Canada, and analyzed data using conventional content analysis. Separate blinded qualitative researchers conducted an independent analysis. Results Participants described three phases in the patient/family “ICU journey”; admission to ICU, daily care in ICU, and post-ICU experience. Admission to ICU was characterized by family shock and disorientation with families needing the presence and support of a provider. Participants described five important elements of daily care: honoring the patient’s voice, the need to know, decision-making, medical care, and culture in ICU. The post-ICU experience was characterized by the challenges of the transition from ICU to a hospital ward and long-term effects of critical illness. These “ICU journey” experiences were described as integral to appropriate interactions with the care team and comfort and trust in the ICU, which were perceived as essential for a community of caring. Participants provided suggestions for improvement: 1) provide a dedicated family navigator, 2) increase provider awareness of the fragility of family trust, 3) improve provider communication skills, 4) improve the transition from ICU to hospital ward, and 5) inform patients about the long-term effects of critical illness. Analyses by independent qualitative researchers identified similar themes. Conclusions Patient

  15. [Translational/regulatory science researches of NIHS for regenerative medicine and cellular therapy products].

    PubMed

    Sato, Yoji

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, the Japanese Diet passed the Regenerative Medicine Promotion Act and the revisions to the Pharmaceutical Affairs Act, which was also renamed as the Therapeutic Products Act (TPA). One of the aims of the new/revised Acts is to promote the development and translation of and access to regenerative/cellular therapies. In the TPA, a product derived from processing cells is categorized as a subgroup of "regenerative medicine, cellular therapy and gene therapy products" (RCGPs), products distinct from pharmaceuticals and medical devices, allowing RCGPs to obtain a conditional and time- limited marketing authorization much earlier than that under the conventional system. To foster not only RCGPs, but also innovative pharmaceuticals and medical devices, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare recently launched Translational Research Program for Innovative Pharmaceuticals, Medical Devices and RCGPs. This mini-review introduces contributions of the National Institute of Health Sciences (NIHS) to research projects on RCGPs in the Program. PMID:25707195

  16. [Research progress of Chinese medicine treatment of HAART-related hyperlipidemia].

    PubMed

    Xian, Qing-Fei; Liu, Ying; Zou, Wen; Wang, Jian

    2013-08-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for the treatment of HIV infection had a revolutionary impact, with the universal application of the anti-retroviral drugs, HAART-related adverse reactions have attracted more and more attention. HAART-related hyperlipidemia is one of the common adverse reactions with more and more scholars study the pathogenesis and therapy of hyperlipidemia in recent years. This article elaborated the latest research of Chinese medicine treatment of HAART-related hyperlipidemia. PMID:24228554

  17. High use of complementary and alternative medicine among a large cohort of women with a family history of breast cancer: the Sister Study.

    PubMed

    Greenlee, Heather; Sardo Molmenti, Christine L; Falci, Laura; Ulmer, Ross; Deming-Halverson, Sandra; DeRoo, Lisa A; Sandler, Dale P

    2016-04-01

    Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is high among U.S. women, yet information is limited on use among women at increased breast cancer risk. We analyzed CAM use among women with a family history of breast cancer. CAM use was analyzed among women enrolled 2003-2009 in the Sister Study cohort. Eligible women were aged 35-74, U.S. or Puerto Rican residents, no personal history of breast cancer, and had ≥1 sister with breast cancer. Baseline data on CAM use in the past year were available for 49,734 women. Logistic regression models examined the association between CAM use and Gail Model breast cancer risk score. Results were compared to female participants in the 2007 National Health Interview Survey (n = 7965). Among Sister Study participants, there was high use of vitamin/mineral supplements (79 %), mind-body practices (41 %), manipulative/body-based practices (32 %), and botanicals (23 %). Overall use was higher than the U.S. female population. No association was observed between familial breast cancer risk and CAM use. Black women were more likely to use spirituality/meditation-based CAM modalities, while non-Hispanic white and Asian women were high users of dietary supplements. In a cohort of women with increased breast cancer risk due to family history, CAM use is higher than women in the general U.S. population and is associated with race/ethnicity. Use was not associated with breast cancer risk. Given the high prevalence of CAM use among women at risk for breast caner, research on the effectiveness of CAM use for disease prevention is needed. PMID:27017506

  18. The economics of medicines optimization: policy developments, remaining challenges and research priorities

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Rita; Barbieri, Marco; Light, Kate; Elliott, Rachel A.; Sculpher, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Background This review scopes the evidence on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of interventions to improve suboptimal use of medicines in order to determine the evidence gaps and help inform research priorities. Sources of data Systematic searches of the National Health Service (NHS) Economic Evaluation Database, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects. Areas of agreement The majority of the studies evaluated interventions to improve adherence, inappropriate prescribing and prescribing errors. Areas of controversy Interventions tend to be specific to a particular stage of the pathway and/or to a particular disease and have mostly been evaluated for their effect on intermediate or process outcomes. Growing points Medicines optimization offers an opportunity to improve health outcomes and efficiency of healthcare. Areas timely for developing research The available evidence is insufficient to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of interventions to address suboptimal medicine use in the UK NHS. Decision modelling, evidence synthesis and elicitation have the potential to address the evidence gaps and help prioritize research. PMID:25190760

  19. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS FROM LAMIACEAE FAMILY.

    PubMed

    Kozłowska, Mariola; Laudy, Agnieszka E; Przybył, Jarosław; Ziarno, Małgorzata; Majewska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of aqueous (ethanolic and methanolic) extracts from herbs often used in Polish cuisine and traditional herbal medicine including thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) and sage (Salvia officinalis L.) were compared. The aqueous ethanolic extracts contained slightly higher levels of phenolics compared to the aqueous methanolic extracts. In turn, GC-MS analysis showed that the aqueous methanolic extracts of thyme, rosemary and sage contained several additional compounds such as eugenol or ledol. The present studies also indicated that the bacterial species applied in the experiment exhibited different sensitivities towards tested extracts. Staphylococcus aureus strains were found to be the most sensitive bacteria to aqueous (ethanolic and methanolic) rosemary and sage extracts and aqueous methanolic thyme extract. Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 13883 and Proteus vulgaris NCTC 4635 were more susceptible to the aqueous methanolic thyme extract. However, Listeria monocytogenes 1043S was the most sensitive to the aqueous ethanolic rosemary extract. Gram-positive bacteria were generally more sensitive to the tested extracts than Gram-negative ones. PMID:26647633

  20. Why is Research on Herbal Medicinal Products Important and How Can We Improve Its Quality?

    PubMed Central

    Pelkonen, Olavi; Xu, Qihe; Fan, Tai-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Research on herbal medicinal products is increasingly published in “Western” scientific journals dedicated primarily to conventional medicines. Publications are concerned mainly not only on the issues of safety and interactions, but also on efficacy. In reviews, a recurring complaint has been a lack of quality studies. In this opinion article, we present the case of Chinese herbal medicines as an example, as they have been extensively used in the global market and increasingly studied worldwide. We analyze the potential reasons for problems and propose some ways forward. As in the case of any drug, clinical trials for safety, efficacy, and/or effectiveness are the ultimate demonstration of therapeutic usefulness of herbal products. These will only make scientific sense when the tested herbal products are authentic, standardized, and quality controlled, if good practice guidelines of evidence-based medicine are followed, and if relevant controls and outcome measures are scientifically defined. Herbal products are complex mixtures, and for such complexity, an obvious approach for mechanistic studies is network pharmacology based on omic tools and approaches, which has already begun to revolutionize the study of conventional drugs, emphasizing networks, interactions, and polypharmacological features behind the action of many drugs. PMID:24872927